Carless, J.; Dow, B.; Farivari, R.; O'Connor, J.; Fox, T.; Tunstall, D.; Mentzingen, M.
The clear value of economic data and analysis to decisionmakers has motivated them to mandate the creation of extensive global economic data sets. This chapter contains a set of these basic economic data, which provides the context for understanding the causes and the consequences of many of the decisions that affect the world's resources. Many traditional economic indicators fail to account for the depletion or deterioration of natural resources, the long-term consequences of such depletion, the equitable distribution of income within a country, or the sustainability of current economic practices. The type of measurement shown here, however, is still useful in showing the great differences between the wealthiest and the poorest countries. Tables are given on the following: Gross national product and official development assistance 1969-89; External debt indicators 1979-89; Central government expenditures; and World commodity indexes and prices 1975-89
DEFENCE I ECONOMIC INDICATORS SELECTED COUNTRIES DECEMBER QUARTER 1987 . ’-H ISSUED BY MANPOWER POLICY & STRATEGIES BRANCH " "’ :.S S ’,1l f ,am -m mW...100 Sour:e: Main Economic Indicators (OECD) Manufactured Basic Metal Year Goods Chemicals Metals Products 1980 100 100 100 100 1981 110 117 102 107...Earnings of all 1982 1986 7.4 Male Employees (a) Aug 1986 Aug 1987 4.8 Hourly Wace Rates 3 1979 1987 lt.2 Garden Island 1983 1987 6.7 Dockyards Dec
This monthly publication, based on the most up-to-date techniques of tabular and graphical presentation, is designed to provide at a glance a picture of the most recent changes in the economies of the OECD countries, and a collection of international statistics on the economic developments which have affected the OECD area in the past few years. The indicators selected cover national accounts, industrial production, business surveys, deliveries, stocks and orders, construction, internal trade, labour, wages, prices, domestic and foreign finance, interest rates, trade and payments. (author)
Full Text Available There are a lot of economic efficiency indicators in theory. It is necessary to choice some of them for concrete purposes. ROA, ROE and C/I play important role due to last experience of polish banks.Cost to Income Ratio plays very important role affecting not only efficiency monitoring process in the banks but also becoming a very important target in strategy or finance plan. There are several methodological approaches to construct this index in detail. Results are differing due to implementing methodology. This article describes trends C/I concerning both polish and foreign banks. It is difficult to compare banks in emerging country and real giants in finance mature economies.
Czarnitzki, Dirk; Hussinger, Katrin; Schneider, Cédric
We investigate whether standard indicators can distinguish between “wacky” patents and a control group. Forward citations are good predictors of importance. However, “wacky” patents have higher originality, generality and citation lags, suggesting that these indicators should be interpreted...
This quarterly publication complements the OECD Main Economic Indicators. It presents a wide range of monthly, quarterly, and annual economic indicators covering such topics as industrial production, business surveys, construction, employment, earnings, prices, domestic and foreign finance, interest rates and domestic and foreign trade for the following 21 transition countries: Bulgaria, Poland, Azerbaijan, Russian Federation, Czech Republic, Republic of Slovenia, Belarus, Estonia, Romania, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Hungary, Slovak Republic, Kyrgyz Republic, Turkmenistan, Latvia, Republic of Moldova, Ukraine, Lithuania, Armenia, Uzbekistan. (author)
This paper, which also appears as an Appendix to the final Working Group 4 report, forms part of the overall economic assessment of reprocessing. The indicative national position and illustrative ''phase diagram'' for the Federal Republic of Germany is presented. Advantages to be gained from the recycling of plutonium in thermal reactors are identified and it is concluded that many of these are not explicitly taken into account in the ''phase diagram''. Under the conditions pertaining in the Federal Republic of Germany thermal recycle will be economic under present day uranium prices. On the other hand the fast breeder reactor might become commercially economic around the year 2000
This paper, which also appears as an Appendix to the final Working Group 4 report, forms part of the overall economic assessment of reprocessing. The indicative national position and illustrative ''phase diagram'' for the United Kingdom is presented. Under conditions pertaining in the United Kingdom the diagram suggests that: if uranium prices rise rapidly the fast reactor would become economic in the decade 1990-2000, if uranium prices rise more slowly, the fast reactor would become economic in the decade 2000-2010
This paper, which also appears as an Appendix to the final Working Group 4 report, forms part of the overall economic assessment of reprocessing. The indicative national position and illustrative ''phase diagram'' for the United States is presented. The prospective costs of nuclear power are given for four equilibrium modes of LWR operation: once-through, 15% and 25% improved once-through and thermal recycle. For a particular representative choice of fuel cycle parameters the economic cross over at which thermal recycle becomes economic relative to a 15% improved once-through cycle is above 100/lb U 3 O 8 . Thus the US believes that for the next several decades there is no economic incentive for thermal recycle. As a planning guide the US considers that the fast reactor will not become commercialised in the US before the year 2020
This paper, which also appears as an Appendix to the final Working Group 4 report, forms part of the overall economic evaluation of reprocessing. The indicative national position and illustrative ''phase diagram'' for Belgium is presented. Other factors which influence the Belgian viewpoint and which are not included on the phase diagram are given
The paper, which also appears as an Appendix to the final Working Group 4 report, forms part of the overall economic evaluation of reprocessing. The indicative national position and illustrative ''phase diagram'' for the Netherlands is presented. Two alternative scenarios have been assumed for the variation of uranium price in the future; a 2% per annum price rise and a 5% per annum price rise
This paper, which also appears as an Appendix to the final Working Group 4 report, forms part of the overall economic evaluation of reprocessing. The indicative national position and illustrative ''phase diagram'' for Canada is presented. Three fuel cycles are considered. (1) CANDU operating on the natural uranium, once-through fuel cycle. (2) CANDU operating with low enrichment (1.2%) once-through fuel cycle. (3) CANDU operating with recycle of plutonium and depleted uranium which has been extracted from spent CANDU natural uranium fuel. The diagrams show that reprocessing and recycle of fuel can be used to reduce further the sensitivity of CANDU fuelling costs to increasing uranium ore price
Full Text Available This paper aims to examine briefly some elements of macroeconomic aspects that could explain - at least partly - a number of causes of the current economic crisis in Greece. Using data provided by competent bodies, is intended as a more accurate outlining the differences between Greece and the other countries of the European Union member show widespread Greek State as an outlier among the countries that make up the current "U.E. 28 ". The analysis is based on three indicators relevant to the case – unemployment, government debt and nonperforming loans.
Rosenblatt, J.; Martinás, K.
Money has a material counterpart, such as banknotes or coins, and an ideal expression, monetary units. In the latter case, it is boson-like: individual incomes have no a priori limit, and their units are not distinguishable from each other in economic processes. Individuals, on the other hand, usually occupy one job at a time which makes them akin to fermions. We apply to individual incomes down-to-earth statistical calculations, similar to those for quantum particles, and obtain expressions for the cumulative distribution function, probability density and Lorenz function resulting from the simultaneous use of both statistics. They provide extremely good fits to corresponding data on French income distributions. On this basis, we propose a new entropic inequality indicator.
The better relative cost benefit (18.88%), economic efficiency and relative economic efficiency of 0.35 and 194.44%, respectively indicated the optimal level and economic benefit of LLPC inclusion at 10% (representing 2.40g/100g in the gross feed composition) replacement level for soybean meal in rabbit diets. Keywords: ...
Huguet Ferran, Pau; Heijungs, Reinout; Vogtländer, Joost G.
The application of environmental strategies requires scoring and evaluation methods that provide an integrated vision of the economic and environmental performance of systems. The vector optimisation, ratio and weighted addition of indicators are the three most prevalent techniques for addressing
Sherstennykov Yurii V.
Full Text Available The article develops an economic and mathematical model of dynamics of main economic indicators of an enterprise, reflected in six book-keeping accounts with consideration of logistics and interrelation with current market characteristics and needs of products consumers. It applies this model for a quantitative study of influence of an advertising campaign and seasonality upon quantitative indicators of economic activity of the enterprise. The enterprise operation programme includes internal financial and economic procedures, which ensure the production process, and also connection with suppliers and buyers (customers. When setting different initial conditions, it is possible to trace transitional processes and enterprise entering (under favourable conditions the stationary mode of operation or its laying-off (in case of insufficiency of circulating funds. The developed model contains many parameters, which allow not only study of dependence of enterprise operation on alteration of one of them but also optimisation of economic conditions of functioning.
Full Text Available Country risk, sustainability an economic safety are becoming more important in the contemporary economic world. The aim of this paper is to present the importance of comparison formalisation of country risk, sustainability, and economic safety indices for strategic alignment. The work provides an analysis on the relationship between country risk, sustainability an economic safety in EU countries, based on statistical data. Investigations and calculations of rankings provided by Euromoney Country Risk Index, European Economic Sustainability Index as well as for Economic Security Index were made and the results of EU country ranking based on three criteria were provided. Furthermore, the data for the Baltic States was summarised and the corresponding index of consistency for random judgments was evaluated.
Carlos Chaverri Morales
Full Text Available This paper presents the results of estimating three leading indicators for the turning points of the economic activity in Costa Rica. This was done following the methodology proposed by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD. The Monthly Economic Activity Index (IMAE in Spanish was selected as the reference variable. A total of 270 data series were analyzed including monetary, real and job market variables, as well as price indices, external sector indicators and fiscal sector variables. The real sector information was disaggregated into three levels, which included the classification of data at an industrial level using the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC with two digits, information from the agricultural sector based on the Central Product Classification (CPC and information from the manufacturing sector. A leading indicator was developed for each level of aggregation, resulting in average leads of 7 to 12 months compared to the reference variable.
Full Text Available Numerous small recycling units of plastic wastes have been currently constructed heedless to study of economic indices in Iran. Pay attention to the prominent performance of the industrial sector for economic development and its priority for fortifying other sectors to implement job opportunities, survey of the economic indices beckon the stakeholders and industries owners. The main objective of this study was a survey of economic indices in small recycling unit of plastic wastes. Therefore, the practice of computing the economic indices was performed using empirical equations, professional experiences and observations in site of the industry in terms of sustainability performance. Current study had shown the indices values such as value-added percent, profit, annual income, breakeven point, value-added, output value, data value, variable cost of good unit and production costs were found 62%, $ 366558, $ 364292.6, $ 100.34, $ 423451.25, $ 255335.75, $ 678787, $ 389.65 and $ 314494.4 respectively. The breakeven point about 15.93%, the time of return on investment about 1.12 (13.7 months were represented that this industry slightly needs long time to afford the employed capital and starts making a profit.
Full Text Available It is wide the discussion involving the importance of production adjustment activities in general, to the concept of sustainable development. Among the agricultural activities, the agroforestry systems have been considered sustainable, coming as alternatives to the intensive systems of agricultural production. To monitor the sustainability of agricultural activities, includings AF, the literature emphasizes the biophysical indicators, in detriment of the socio-economical ones. Seeking to define a list of socio-economical indicators that can be adapted to the several models recommendations of AF a study was developed, supported by specialists and technicians and wide literature review. The conclusions were: the categories related to the operation of the systems had the largest number of indicators in the socioeconômic component, with larger concentration in the endogenous operations of the system, followed by the endogenous and exogenous resources; the largest number of indicators suggested in the category operation of the system was in the descriptors health and nutrition, employment, habitation and sanity and economic analysis; in the category operation of exogenous systems, there were certain larger number of indicators for the descriptors commercialization and rural infrastructure; practically there was no difference among the number of indicators obtained for the agroforestry systems with and without the animal component.
Anastasia V. Sheveleva
This article analyzes the basic ecological-economic indicators of oil and gas companies, in particular the various volumes of oil, the number of spills per year of CO2 emissions, the costs of environmental protection. In the process of exploration, development and exploitation of oil and gas fields, production, refining, transportation and storage companies have a negative impact on the environment. Occur accidents involving oil spills, emissions and discharges of pollutants into the environm...
Full Text Available This essay introduces the reader to an entirely new set of measures that are urgently needed by policymakers and business leaders to foster personal, business, and national economic success. Social Wealth Economic Indicators are measures suggested by a partnership model of society, and they inform us that care work matters tremendously but is grossly undervalued. In our contemporary knowledge-service economy, the essential ingredient for social and economic progress is high-quality human capital, and the way to build such human capital is to support the work of caring and caregiving, traditionally considered “women’s work.” The data presented in this essay clearly show that early childhood care and education, family-friendly workplace practices, and the status of women are key determinants of economic success. But they are also necessary for healthy, creative, and cohesive societies in which members work in partnership with each other and with the natural environment to improve living conditions for all. This is the true meaning of social wealth.
N. A. Serebryakova
Full Text Available In modern conditions of trade in the Russian Federation became the most important type of entrepreneurship. It is, in a number of objective and subjective reasons, is the most rapidly developing sector of the national economy, affecting the interests of all subjects of market relations: population, manufacturers of commercial products, government and trade. Currently in the internal trade of the Russian Federation there have been significant changes occurring under the influence of growing tensions on the international market, in the economy of our country and within the trading industry. But despite the deteriorating economic situation in the world and strained relations between the Russian Federation and its European and American partners, the latest statistics indicate the translational dynamics of retail trade turnover in the whole country, and in the Voronezh region. Retail trade turnover is among the most important indicators of economic and social development of the Voronezh region and the country as a whole. Its structure and volume characterize the level of consumption of goods population, the increase or decrease of welfare of the people. Through retail sales is a constant influence on the development of the volume and structure of production of consumer goods. This article assessed the relationship between the economic development of the Voronezh region as one of average of region of our country, its trade and standard of living of Voronezh.
Rudyk Nataliia V.
Full Text Available The aim of the article is to study the effectiveness of the set strategic objectives of the state and the fact of their implementation. On the basis of the analysis and systematization of the existing practical and theoretical framework the place and the importance of macrofinancial indicators in the public finance management system has been determined. The definition of MFI in the broad and narrow sense is suggested. In the broad sense it is a quantitative measure assessing the condition of public finances at the moment of decision-making and reflecting the results of its impact on achieving the objectives of the state financial policy. The narrow sense reduces it to understanding the indicator as the one adapted for the purposes of specific analysis. The experience of previous strategies of the administrative apparatus is studied. On the basis of analyzing the priority macrofinancial indicators the assessment of current practices of implementing the state economic strategy has been carried out. The study found a discrepancy between the objectives set by the Strategy for Sustainable Development “Ukraine – 2020” with the real situation in the country’s economy. It is noted that the use of macrofinancial indicators aimed at achieving a particular limit only within a single reporting period negatively affects the system character of management.
Full Text Available The paper deals with the study of scientific works on the issue of formation and development of organizational and methodological regulations of accounting and analytical support of the economic activity of an enterprise in emergencies, which led to the conclusion about the complex character of the study of theory, methodology and economic analysis of enterprises in various sectors of national economy. The author studies the approaches to the nature and methods of economic analysis that resulted in the presentation of instructional techniques to the economic structure. In assessing the consequences of emergencies, it is necessary to determine their impact on the indices of economic analysis; so, there was the need to define areas resulting index changes as a result of emergency situations by identifying its components which may affect emergencies. After analyzing the data, it was found that the consequences of emergency situations affecting the indices of business analysis and can lead to changes in management decisions of internal and external users.
Full Text Available Global economic crisis has, following financial crisis, hit real sector, and as after effect, large number, mostly developed countries in the world are in recession. Serbian industry is also influenced by global economic crisis. Outer debt is significantly and constantly increasing since beginning of transition process. Main cause to it is rather large disproportion between import and export. Trends in structure of outer debt indicate on notable decrease of national debt on account to private one, during whole transition period. On short term there is no significant risk for country on account of outer debt, but for long term elimination of this risk, it is necessary to considerably increase total export. Former policies should be linked to unconventional employment initiatives, as for new labour, as for redundant ones from restructuring economy branches. State has prominent role in transition process, by helping market exhibit its functions through physical and institutional infrastructure, as well trough public sector, removing most of the market obstacles, and stimulating technical-technological development and education.
Sabadie, Jesus Alquezar; Johansen, Jens
"Economic competitiveness" is at the top of national, regional and global political and economic agendas. Several countries in all regions of the world have established policies and institutions devoted to economic competitiveness, including in developing and transition countries. This leads to the question of how to define national economic…
Turrell, Gavin; Hewitt, Belinda; Patterson, Carla; Oldenburg, Brian
To examine the association between socio-economic position (SEP) and diet, by assessing the unadjusted and simultaneously adjusted (independent) contributions of education, occupation and household income to food purchasing behaviour. The sample was randomly selected using a stratified two-stage cluster design, and the response rate was 66.4%. Data were collected by face-to-face interview. Food purchasing was examined on the basis of three composite indices that reflected a household's choice of grocery items (including meat and chicken), fruit and vegetables. Brisbane City, Australia, 2000. : Non-institutionalised residents of private dwellings located in 50 small areas (Census Collectors Districts). When shopping, respondents in lower socio-economic groups were less likely to purchase grocery foods that were high in fibre and low in fat, salt and sugar. Disadvantaged groups purchased fewer types of fresh fruits and vegetables, and less often, than their counterparts from more advantaged backgrounds. When the relationship between SEP and food purchasing was examined using each indicator separately, education and household income made an unadjusted contribution to purchasing behaviour for all three food indices; however, occupation was significantly related only with the purchase of grocery foods. When education and occupation were simultaneously adjusted for each other, the socio-economic patterning with food purchase remained largely unchanged, although the strength of the associations was attenuated. When household income was introduced into the analysis, the association between education, occupation and food purchasing behaviour was diminished or became non-significant; income, however, showed a strong, graded association with food choice. The food purchasing behaviours of socio-economically disadvantaged groups were least in accord with dietary guideline recommendations, and hence are more consistent with greater risk for the development of diet
Anastasia V. Sheveleva
Full Text Available This article analyzes the basic ecological-economic indicators of oil and gas companies, in particular the various volumes of oil, the number of spills per year of CO2 emissions, the costs of environmental protection. In the process of exploration, development and exploitation of oil and gas fields, production, refining, transportation and storage companies have a negative impact on the environment. Occur accidents involving oil spills, emissions and discharges of pollutants into the environment. As a result contaminates water resources, soil and atmosphere, animals dying, birds and fish, but also transformed the structure of the subsurface and changes the landscape, reduced strategic reserves of fuel and energy resources are formed objects of accumulated environmental damage. The need for construction of environmental protection facilities; the protection, rational use and rehabilitation of lands; protection of water resources and atmospheric air; monitoring the environment and industrial facilities; the prevention and elimination of consequences of accidents on pipelines; disposal and recycling of waste; environmental education; conducting scientific research requires oil and gas companies to undertake large expenditures. A positive trend of modern development of oil and gas companies is the introduction of mechanisms for environmental management in practice their activities, which leads to a gradual reduction of the negative impact of their activities on the environment.
The objective of this study was therefore to use data reported by the United Nations to assess the relationships among national socio-economic statistics on education, economic performance, health care, nutrition, agriculture and demography, and infant and child mortality rates, from 129 countries. The methods used in the ...
Loredana Mihaela LAPADUSI
Full Text Available Economic risk can be assessed from many points of view, but generally speaking it means the firm's inability to match workload with cost structure. Expansion of production capacity, adaptation to new technologies, diversification of products are only a few factors influencing risk. These, along with financial risk and bankruptcy risk constitute the most important category of risk which presents a great interest for the banks, shareholders, managers, business partners, etc. The purpose of this article is to provide a brief overview of tje oscillation of your company's activity from the point of view of economic risk. The main objective of this research lies in economic risk assessment by means of the margin of safety, the safety index and critical time point.
The study observed the poor use of hybrid sorghum cultivars by subsistence farmers. The project sought to establish which, if any, socio-economic factors influence the adoption of hybrid sorghum cultivars by this sector of the farming community. The focus was on Makhuduthamaga Municipality in Sekhukhune District of ...
Economic Research Service (USDA), Washington, DC.
This report contains 121 tables that estimate the costs of production of various commodities on United States farms in 1986. The report first assesses costs and returns on a per-unit basis, such as one acre or one animal, under three sections of a budget: cash receipts, cash expenses, and economic costs. The budgets are based on national…
Daniel W. McCollum; Louis E. Swanson; John A. Tanaka; Mark W. Brunson; Aaron J. Harp; L. Allen Torell; H. Theodore Heintz
Social and economic systems provide the context and rationale for rangeland management. Sustaining rangeland ecosystems requires attention to the social and economic conditions that accompany the functioning of those systems. We present and discuss economic and social indicators for rangeland sustainability. A brief conceptual basis for each indicator is offered,...
The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS) freight Transportation Services Index (TSI) showed a decline a full year and a half prior to the start of the current recession. This downturn suggests the TSI may prove particularly useful as an indic...
Full Text Available Each company must achieve the objectives to reach performance in order to survive on the market. The paper aims to present the concept of performance as is seen in economic literature, to discuss the relevance of the main performances indicators on economic and financial diagnosis, to answer the question what are the main indicators which reflect economic or financial performances: profit, profitability ratios, economic added value, investments return, liquidity, cash-flows, resources efficiency, productivity, others.
in international markets. The proxy is a coincidental and pro-cyclic indicator, with a correlation of 0.86. Key similarities exist between the economy and the profitability of hardware stores, although the proxy is not as accurate as the volume of sales in hardware stores. The correlation is measured at 0.85. The profitability of the ...
Full Text Available The paper focuses on the indicators of economic agents’ perceptions in the Czech Republic. We assume that these information are provided by economic sentiment indicator surveys based on the Joint Harmonised EU Programme. The aim of this paper is to offer the alternate methodology of qualitative data transformation (balance statistic data in relation with the macroeconomic quantitative indicators. In the empirical analysis we distinguished between the indicators of confidence in industry, construction, retail and consumer confidence indicator. We found link between the aggregate economic sentiment indicator and economic activity. Especially, aggregate economic sentiment indicator copies the development of the GDP. However, partial indicators does not follow changes in the specific sectors of the economy. We also found that economic agents underestimate the intensity of the economic recession after the year 2007.Finally, we cannot recommend the economic sentiment indicator as the leading indicator of the future economic activity in the Czech Republic. Our methodological contribution is in quantifying of the consumer survey results by standardization.
Full Text Available Despite of being affected by the economic crisis, the Netherlands managed to minimize its effects. This situation is highlighted in a comparison with Romania and the European Union, between the levels of the most important economic indicators. Moreover, when other countries registered negative trends in their economic growth, the Dutch economy succeeded in this matter.
Mikhailov, V. G.; Kiseleva, T. V.
In the paper the features of the analysis of the environmental and economic indicators of the industrial enterprise are considered. The purpose of the study is to improve the system of environmental and economic analysis at the enterprise for more accurate forecasting of its main environmental and economic indicators. The study of the main approaches to the implementation of environmental and economic analysis based on the corresponding systems of indicators with identification of the most significant factors was carried out. The main result of the study is the choice of a system for analyzing the environmental and economic indicators, maximally oriented to a specific enterprise, taking into account its production specific features. The practical significance of the study consists in the selection of an adequate system of indicators at enterprises to improve the effectiveness from preparation of an environmentally safe management decision.
Van den Bergh, C.J.M. [Tinbergen Institute, Labor, Region and Environment, Amsterdam/Rotterdam (Netherlands); Van Veen-Groot, D.B. [Department of Spatial Economics, Faculty of Economics and Econometrics, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands)
The application of aggregate indicators in environmental-economic research has received little attention so far. An important reason is the incompleteness of environmental data. This article presents a systematic approach to construct indicators of environment and economy on a macro level. It includes a distinction into the following categories: the volume of economic activities as an indicator of potential environmental pressure; actual environmental pressure; environmental quality; and environmental policy. In each category aggregate indicators are calculated for 12 OECD countries. Subsequently, the correlation between these indicators is examined. Significant correlation is found between the economic activity indicators (or 'potential' environmental pressure), actual environmental pressure and environmental quality, whereas a very weak correlation exists with these indicators and two types of aggregate indicators of environmental policy. Due to some arbitrary choices, which are inevitable, the results are to be judged with caution. Several suggestions are offered to improve the calculation and comparison of aggregate indicators. 20 refs.
Van den Bergh, C.J.M.; Van Veen-Groot, D.B.
The application of aggregate indicators in environmental-economic research has received little attention so far. An important reason is the incompleteness of environmental data. This article presents a systematic approach to construct indicators of environment and economy on a macro level. It includes a distinction into the following categories: the volume of economic activities as an indicator of potential environmental pressure; actual environmental pressure; environmental quality; and environmental policy. In each category aggregate indicators are calculated for 12 OECD countries. Subsequently, the correlation between these indicators is examined. Significant correlation is found between the economic activity indicators (or 'potential' environmental pressure), actual environmental pressure and environmental quality, whereas a very weak correlation exists with these indicators and two types of aggregate indicators of environmental policy. Due to some arbitrary choices, which are inevitable, the results are to be judged with caution. Several suggestions are offered to improve the calculation and comparison of aggregate indicators. 20 refs
Full Text Available Developments in technology and communication in the 21st century have led to increased expectations from individuals. One of these expectation areas is literacy. As a requirement of the information age, it can be said that the economic literacy is one of the most important areas of literacy. Economic literacy can be defined in terms of ability to revise the alternatives for interpreting economic problems and finding solutions to these problems, to define the cost and profits, to investigate the effects of changes in economic conditions and in public policies, to gather and organize economy-related data and to balance the profits and costs. One of the tools that affect the life can be said economic literacy but it is a neglected area in most higher education programs. In this study, Computer Education and Instructional Technology program courses were examined within the framework of economic literacy indicators
Wu Huagen; Peng Xueyuan; Xing Ziwen; Shu Pengcheng
This paper presents the experimental investigation on the effects of the superfeed pressure together with economizer type on the performance of the twin-screw refrigeration compressor by means of the indicator diagram. With a pressure sensor embedded into the groove at the root of the female rotor on the discharge side, the pressure within the working chamber of a semi-hermetic twin-screw compressor with an economizer is recorded and then transformed into the indicator diagram. The results thus obtained are utilized to investigate the thermodynamic process of the compressor. It is shown that the compressor with an economizer has higher pressure during almost the whole compression process than without an economizer, resulting in the increase in the indicated power. Under different superfeed pressures, the pressure within the compression experiences different changes. This results in an optimal superfeed pressure for maximized compressor efficiency, which can be identified from the calculated compressor efficiency based on the indicator diagrams. It is also found that the pressure has a rapid increase at the beginning of superfeed process, and then a slow rise even a slight drop at the end of superfeed process, which is caused by the dynamic effect during superfeed process. Furthermore, if the superfeed pressure keeps the same, the pressure during compression in the compressor with the heat exchanger economizer is slightly higher than with the flash tank economizer, due to the higher temperature of superfeed refrigerant gas in the former case
van Eijck, Janske; Faaij, André
Socio-economic indicators are not fully developed and operational while this is an important aspect of sustainability. Seven case studies were analyzed within the Global-Bio-Pact project covering seven countries and five feedstock types. The 100 indicators that are identified are analyzed and
Metin Ozaslan; Bulent Dincer; Huseyin Ozgur
This aim of this article is to examine the problem of regional disparities in Turkey applying to the economic and social development indicators. One of the main problems encountered in the field of regional development in Turkey is the difficulties in having access to qualified data as is the case in other countries. Therefore, it is of great importance to improve the information gathering and evaluation systems in Turkey. Social and economic development index (SEDI) rankings have contributed...
Broyaka Antonina А.
Full Text Available The article deals with studying the most important macroeconomic indicators characterizing the trends in the social and economic development of Ukraine for the period 2010–2017. Particular attention is paid to the index of nominal and real gross domestic product (GDP, including per capita, and to the factors that restrain its growth. An analysis of inflation processes using the dynamics of price indices (GDP Deflator, Consumer Price Index is carried out. Furthermore, the problem of unemployment and employment, their impact on GDP dynamics are highlighted. Some aspects of Ukraine’s financial and economic stability are assessed on the basis of analysis of the performance of government debt obligations, balance of payments, and investments. As a result of the conducted research, it is revealed that during the last 2016-2017 there observed a partial stabilization of the socio-economic state of the national economy and its transition to the phase of recovery (in particular, the real GDP growth was 2.5 %, inflation — only 1.3 %, and unemployment — only 0.2 %. However, the analyzed indicators testify to the still relatively low rates of economic recovery caused by the previous loss of production capacities, interbranch and logistics links in the interregional and foreign economic space, restriction of access to energy raw materials, devaluation of the national currency, and growth of investment risks. As a result, the directions of addressing the main unsolved problems for the transition to sustainable economic growth are outlined.
Barik, Debasis; Desai, Sonalde; Vanneman, Reeve
Research on economic status and adult mortality is often stymied by the reciprocity of this relationship and lack of clarity on which aspect of economic status matters. While financial resources increase access to healthcare and nutrition and reduce mortality, sickness also reduces labor force participation, thereby reducing income. Without longitudinal data, it is difficult to study the linkage between economic status and mortality. Using data from a national sample of 132,116 Indian adults aged 15 years and above, this paper examines their likelihood of death between wave 1 of the India Human Development Survey (IHDS), conducted in 2004-2005 and wave 2, conducted in 2011-2012. The results show that mortality between the two waves is strongly linked to the economic status of the household at wave 1 regardless of the choice of indicator for economic status. However, negative relationship between economic status and mortality for individuals already suffering from cardiovascular and metabolic conditions varies between three markers of economic status - income, consumption and ownership of consumer durables - varies, reflecting two-way relationship between short and long term markers of economic status and morbidity.
Siyal, Shahid Hussain; Mentis, Dimitris; Howells, Mark
Highlights: • We spatially quantified and visualized the economic indicators of onshore wind energy in Sweden. • Possible land use constraints to wind energy were taken into account. • Economic indicators were estimated on the basis of two wind turbines. • We used a GIS-based methodology for this analysis and found it very useful. • Results suggest that Sweden holds economic feasible wind energy resource, specially in the southern and central regions. - Abstract: Due to modern advancements in renewable energy systems and increasing prices of fossil fuels wind energy is getting a lot of attention all over the world. In this regard, Sweden also fixed motivated targets to get energy supply from local renewable energy resources. So, local wind power could help the country in achieving the targets. In this study, economic indicators of wind energy were spatially estimated for Sweden by using ArcGIS tool. In order to do this, as input data one-year high resolution modeled annual average wind data was processed by means of Rayleigh distribution, wind turbine power curve, land use constraints, technical constraints and economic parameters. Based on the input data, it was concluded that Sweden possesses economically feasible wind energy resource. The results of the study indicate that southern and central regions could produce economically viable wind electricity in all aspects as compared to the northern region of the country. Lastly, it was recommended to speed up wind energy penetration in Sweden, communal awareness and acceptance regarding the resource should be increased to avoid possible misunderstanding. Additionally, the capability of the national electric grid should be enhanced to take up the large scale unpredictable wind energy resource.
Cleston Alexandre dos Santos
Full Text Available Brazilian soccer teams are required to present good results inside and outside the field. The main demand is about winning titles, to present continuous and increasing profits, and, consequently, to reach economic-financial stability. The present study aims at analyzing the relationship between the ranking formed by the Brazilian Soccer Confederation (CBF and the economic-financial indicators of the Brazilian soccer teams. The sample consisted of 36 Brazilian soccer teams that belong to the series A, B and C. Such teams are linked to CBF and published their financial statements of 2014. For data analysis, we used multi-criteria decision making method VIKOR that was applied along with Kendall rank correlation. Results revealed that the majority of Brazilian soccer teams have insufficient economical liquidity; they cannot bear their own expenses; they dependent of third-party resources; and they present negative profitability. Results also showed, through VIKOR technique, that the soccer teams studied occupy different positions in CBF ranking and in the economical-financial indicators, except for Botafogo club. Kendall rank correlation revealed no correlation and no significance between the rankings. Findings seem to support the idea that there is no relationship between CBF rankings and the economical-financial indicators of Brazilian soccer teams.
Paga, Enrique; Birol, Fatih
In recent years, much attention has been focused upon the Asian Pacific countries as constituting an economic 'miracle' over the last two decades. Economic growth in the Pacific Rim has been higher than in any other area of the world. The rapid industrialization process and its impact on the economies of these countries, at both macro and micro levels, are discussed widely in the economic literature. Of particular interest are the fundamental structural changes these countries have experienced in their transition to industrialized economies. This instalment of the annual 'Energy indicators' series concentrates on Pacific Rim countries, namely Hong Kong, the Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan and Thailand. Similar to other experiences, rapid economic growth in these countries has been accompanied by 'spectacular' growth in demand for energy. Therefore, this year's paper not only underlines certain trends in these six energy markets but also attempts to test the phenomenon 'threshold country', i.e., shifting from the developing to the industrialized world by using common indicators and methodologies. The analysis starts with a comparison of energy intensities. Section 2 provides an overview of the socio-economic and energy indicators of the Pacific Rim countries. Section 3 introduces a standard econometric model on the most dynamic consuming sector, namely transport. Section 4 presents the projections of consumption in this sector and discusses policy issues. Some concluding remarks in Section 6 complete the paper. (author)
Faber Frandsen, Tove; Nicolaisen, Jeppe
The paper adds a category to the list of possible negative steering effects of bibliometric indicators with a category for changes in credit assignment. The results of a longitudinal study of credit assignment practices in the fields of economics and information science are presented. The practice...... of alphabetization of authorship is demonstrated to vary significantly between the two fields. A slight increase is demonstrated to have taken place in economics during the last 30 years (1978-2007). A substantial decrease is demonstrated to have taken place in information science during the same period. A possible...... explanation for the demonstrated difference could be that information scientists have been much more aware of the bibliometric consequences of being first author compared to their colleagues in comparable fields (e.g., economics). This and other possible reactive tendencies of bibliometric indicators...
Full Text Available Quantifying the economic and financial performance in public universities represents a current, very interesting and quite a controversial matter of debate given that the accounting information realm is not sufficient explored through the financial analysis. The paper focuses on the ways of measuring the economic and financial performance in public universities in Romania, having as main purpose to provide a set of assessing indicators, by adapting the financial analysis paradigm existing for the private sector, to the public sector particularities. The specific objectives refer to the rentability, self-financing capacity, efficiency of the university expenditures and risk analysis, and the research approach is developed in the context in which either the national law or the international one do not regulate specific indicators for the economic and financial performance analysis within the public sector institutions
Cabrera-León, Andrés; Daponte Codina, Antonio; Mateo, Inmaculada; Arroyo-Borrell, Elena; Bartoll, Xavier; Bravo, María José; Domínguez-Berjón, María Felicitas; Renart, Gemma; Álvarez-Dardet, Carlos; Marí-Dell'Olmo, Marc; Bolívar Muñoz, Julia; Saez, Marc; Escribà-Agüir, Vicenta; Palència, Laia; López, María José; Saurina, Carme; Puig, Vanessa; Martín, Unai; Gotsens, Mercè; Borrell, Carme; Serra Saurina, Laura; Sordo, Luis; Bacigalupe, Amaia; Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica; Pérez, Glòria; Espelt, Albert; Ruiz, Miguel; Bernal, Mariola
To provide indicators to assess the impact on health, its social determinants and health inequalities from a social context and the recent economic recession in Spain and its autonomous regions. Based on the Spanish conceptual framework for determinants of social inequalities in health, we identified indicators sequentially from key documents, Web of Science, and organisations with official statistics. The information collected resulted in a large directory of indicators which was reviewed by an expert panel. We then selected a set of these indicators according to geographical (availability of data according to autonomous regions) and temporal (from at least 2006 to 2012) criteria. We identified 203 contextual indicators related to social determinants of health and selected 96 (47%) based on the above criteria; 16% of the identified indicators did not satisfy the geographical criteria and 35% did not satisfy the temporal criteria. At least 80% of the indicators related to dependence and healthcare services were excluded. The final selection of indicators covered all areas for social determinants of health, and 62% of these were not available on the Internet. Around 40% of the indicators were extracted from sources related to the Spanish Statistics Institute. We have provided an extensive directory of contextual indicators on social determinants of health and a database to facilitate assessment of the impact of the economic recession on health and health inequalities in Spain and its autonomous regions. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Soezen, Adnan; Arcaklioglu, Erol
The most important theme in this study is to obtain equations based on economic indicators (gross national product-GNP and gross domestic product-GDP) and population increase to predict the net energy consumption of Turkey using artificial neural networks (ANNs) in order to determine future level of the energy consumption and make correct investments in Turkey. In this study, three different models were used in order to train the ANN. In one of them (Model 1), energy indicators such as installed capacity, generation, energy import and energy export, in second (Model 2), GNP was used and in the third (Model 3), GDP was used as the input layer of the network. The net energy consumption (NEC) is in the output layer for all models. In order to train the neural network, economic and energy data for last 37 years (1968-2005) are used in network for all models. The aim of used different models is to demonstrate the effect of economic indicators on the estimation of NEC. The maximum mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) was found to be 2.322732, 1.110525 and 1.122048 for Models 1, 2 and 3, respectively. R 2 values were obtained as 0.999444, 0.999903 and 0.999903 for training data of Models 1, 2 and 3, respectively. The ANN approach shows greater accuracy for evaluating NEC based on economic indicators. Based on the outputs of the study, the ANN model can be used to estimate the NEC from the country's population and economic indicators with high confidence for planing future projections
Laktionova Aleksandra A.
Full Text Available The article offers a system of indicators of the level of costs of financing economic subjects, in the basis of which there is a function of formation of recommendations or identification of directions and priorities in the part of selection of one or another source of financing, its urgency and specific features of attraction of resources, on the basis of information on the level of agent’s costs, information asymmetry costs, financial instability, transaction and market indicators of cost of financial resources. The article pays a special attention to a significant structure forming factor of the ownership structure, which identifies the volume and logic of interconnection of all costs of financing and determining incentives and risks in the system of management of financial activity of an economic subject from the point of view of all participants. It exerts especially big influence upon formation of such implicit costs of financing as agent’s costs and information asymmetry costs. The system of factors of stimulants and de-stimulants of costs of financing includes factors of external environment (macro-economic and market indicators of cost and institutional provision and internal environment (ownership structure, characteristic of investment activity and financing an economic subject, organisation of business and corporate management.
Full Text Available Right measurement is a powerful instrument for social progress; wrong or imprecise measurement a source of hazard and even havoc. The essential purpose of economic activity is the promotion of human development, welfare and well-being in a sustainable manner, and not growth for growth’s sake, yet we lack effective measures to monitor progress toward these objectives. Advances in understanding, theory and measurement must necessarily proceed hand in hand. A companion article in this publication sets forth the urgent need for new theory in economics. This article sets forth the complementary need for new measures. The stakes are high and the choice is ours. On one side, rising social tensions, recurring financial crises and ecological disaster; on the other, the progressive unfolding and development of human capacity in harmony with Nature. The deficiencies of GDP as a measure are well-documented by leading economists Kuznets, Tobin, Tinbergen and many others; but, unfortunately, decision-making still remains largely based on GDP, valid during 1930-70 perhaps, but certainly inappropriate today. The challenge is to derive more appropriate indicators to reflect real, sustainable economic welfare, social development and human wellbeing. The attributes that have made GDP so successful are often overlooked — it provides clear objectives for policy and decision-making. We propose new composite indicator, HEWI, which can be used to guide decision-making, which retains the strengths associated with GDP, while substantially enhancing its value as a measure of human economic development. HEWI monitors progress on factors that contribute prominently to present economic welfare — household consumption, government welfare-related expenditure, income inequality and unemployment — as well as factors that have the potential to significantly enhance long term sustainability — education, fossil fuel energy efficiency and net household savings. The index
Dielini Maryna M.
Full Text Available The aim of the article is to determine the main indicators that can be used for assessing the socio-economic responsibility of Ukrainian enterprises, and group these indicators by categories of stakeholders. There presented main recipients towards which the socio-economic responsibility of entrepreneurship is directed, namely, enterprise employees; owners (shareholders; consumers of products; suppliers and competitors; society and state. Forms and instruments for realizing the socio-economic responsibility of enterprises (SERE are presented, and on this basis a system of indicators is developed that can be used in the assessment of the SERE. The indicators have both quantitative and qualitative representation and also provide an opportunity to cover the full scale of the manifestation of the SERE regarding the interest groups. Much attention is paid to the ensuring of profitability of an enterprise (as the main objective of corporate social responsibility, according to A. Carroll, as well as deductions for the development of personnel, both professional and recreational, and for the development of society, welfare of the population in the form of spending on social investment, socially responsible marketing, monetary grants for research, charitable activities, and other tools of the SEPE manifestation.
Eidsvig, U.; McLean, A.; Vangelsten, B. V.; Kalsnes, B.; Ciurean, R. L.; Argyroudis, S.; Winter, M.; Corominas, J.; Mavrouli, O. C.; Fotopoulou, S.; Pitilakis, K.; Baills, A.; Malet, J. P.
Vulnerability assessment, with respect to natural hazards, is a complex process that must consider multiple dimensions of vulnerability, including both physical and social factors. Physical vulnerability refers to conditions of physical assets, and may be modeled by the intensity and magnitude of the hazard, the degree of physical protection provided by the natural and built environment, and the physical robustness of the exposed elements. Social vulnerability refers to the underlying factors leading to the inability of people, organizations, and societies to withstand impacts from the natural hazards. Social vulnerability models can be used in combination with physical vulnerability models to estimate both direct losses, i.e. losses that occur during and immediately after the impact, as well as indirect losses, i.e. long-term effects of the event. Direct impact of a landslide typically includes casualties and damages to buildings and infrastructure while indirect losses may e.g. include business closures or limitations in public services. The direct losses are often assessed using physical vulnerability indicators (e.g. construction material, height of buildings), while indirect losses are mainly assessed using social indicators (e.g. economical resources, demographic conditions). Within the EC-FP7 SafeLand research project, an indicator-based method was proposed to assess relative socio-economic vulnerability to landslides. The indicators represent the underlying factors which influence a community's ability to prepare for, deal with, and recover from the damage associated with landslides. The proposed model includes indicators representing demographic, economic and social characteristics as well as indicators representing the degree of preparedness and recovery capacity. Although the model focuses primarily on the indirect losses, it could easily be extended to include more physical indicators which account for the direct losses. Each indicator is individually
Lim, Kah Boon; Sek, Siok Kun
The impact of oil price on global economy is evident from many studies and research findings. In this study, we extend the research on examining the impact of oil price changes on economic indicators in terms of economic growth and inflation by comparing different groups of economies (high income versus low income countries and oil importing versus oil exporting countries). Our main objective is to reveal if such impact varies across country income level/ development and oil dependency. In addition, we also seek to compare the impacts of oil price relative to the other factors indicators (money supply, foreign direct investment, exchange rate, government expenditure, inflation and gross domestic product) on economy. For the purpose of this study, the co-integration regression (DOLS and FMOLS) techniques are applied to the panel dataset of four groups of economies which contain 10 countries in each panel dataset. The analysis results show that oil price is not the main determinant although it can have a significant impact on inflation and economic growth across all groups of economies. The three main determinants of economic growth are exchange rate, aggregate demand and government expenditure while the determinants of inflation are aggregate supply and exchange rate. Furthermore, our result also concludes that oil price has a positive impact in oil exporting economies but it shows a negative impact in oil importing economies due to the oil dependency factor.
Víctor Fernando Figueroa Arcila
Full Text Available This paper defends the use of convergence models to study the temporary evolution of the Chilean communes socioeconomic development. To do so, we will use an indicator made up of using multivariate analysis techniques. By means of regression models of transversal section and models of distributional dynamics we will outline, on the basis of the historic function of communal economies, the behaviour expected for those economies in future and, therefore, the tendencial evolution of Chilean territorial economic model.
Skidmore, Jessica R; Murphy, James G; Martens, Matthew P
The aims of the current study were to examine the associations among behavioral economic measures of alcohol value derived from 3 distinct measurement approaches, and to evaluate their respective relations with traditional indicators of alcohol problem severity in college drinkers. Five behavioral economic metrics were derived from hypothetical demand curves that quantify reward value by plotting consumption and expenditures as a function of price, another metric measured proportional behavioral allocation and enjoyment related to alcohol versus other activities, and a final metric measured relative discretionary expenditures on alcohol (RDEA). The sample included 207 heavy-drinking college students (53% female) who were recruited through an on-campus health center or university courses. Factor analysis revealed that the alcohol valuation construct comprises 2 factors: 1 factor that reflects participants' levels of alcohol price sensitivity (demand persistence), and a second factor that reflects participants' maximum consumption and monetary and behavioral allocation toward alcohol (amplitude of demand). The demand persistence and behavioral allocation metrics demonstrated the strongest and most consistent multivariate relations with alcohol-related problems, even when controlling for other well-established predictors. The results suggest that behavioral economic indices of reward value show meaningful relations with alcohol problem severity in young adults. Despite the presence of some gender differences, these measures appear to be useful problem indicators for men and women. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Khan, Syed Abdul Rehman; Qianli, Dong
The aim of this study is to examine the association between national economic and environmental indicators with green logistics performance in a time series data of UK since 1981 to 2016. The research used autoregressive distributed lag method to understand the long-run and short-run relationships of national scale economic (foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows, per capita income) and environmental indicators (total greenhouse gases, fossil fuel, and renewable energy) on green logistics. In the short run, the research findings indicate that the green logistics and renewable energy have positive relationship, while fossil fuel is negatively correlated with green logistics operations. On the other hand, in the long run, the results show that FDI inflows, renewable energy sources, and per capita income have statistically significant and positive association with green logistics activities, while foreign investments attracted by environmental friendly policies and practices adopted in global logistics operations, which not only increase the environmental sustainability but also enhance economic activities with greater export opportunities in the region.
Full Text Available The object of the work is study of methods for analyzing the current financial and economic performance of a company as well as the usage of existing methods for the assessment of the company in the current and future periods. Analysis of financial and economic performance provides not only assessment of the current situation of a company, but a projection of its future behavior. Thus, the results can be used for planning and prediction. Different ways of handling of economic information are currently used in activity analysis to study the factors influencing the performance of a company and to account its reserves. An objective assessment of the financial and economic situation of the modern enterprise is the crucial part of justified decision-making. It forms the basis for determining the development strategy and acts as one of the key indicators for investors and creditors. Tracking and evaluating the effectiveness of a company requires above all comprehensive assessment of its financial and economic activities, monitoring the implementation of decisions, and identification of reserves for improvement. The process of activity analysis requires generalization of models which allow using their results both as a guide for future development of the economic system as well as a base for comparison and evaluation of the present state of the company. This enables justified decision making in particular situations and clarifies usage of existing methods for assessment of the company in the current and future periods. Results. Financial and economic activities of a company require comprehensive analysis, which may be carried out in the following steps: formulating and analyzing business objectives of the company, forming the information basis, constructing a comparison table, analyzing the data, producing a comprehensive rating score of the financial and economic situation of the company. Comprehensive rating score should take into account all
Full Text Available The financial theory developed different categories of indicators - traditional and modern - in order to evaluate the firm’s value creation. The shareholders are directly interested by the value added in the company. The value creation is a complex process that implies correct decisions, common responsibility (managers and shareholders and actions towards an efficient and profitable activity. The traditional indicators of performance are not teoritically correlated with the the value creation and in these circumstances, should be used appropriate financial indicators in order to reflect the value of the company. Therefore, the modern indicators used in the value based management framework offer a greater flexibility and efficiency and represent a good alternative for companies. Such performance indicators used to measure the financial results correlated with shareholder wealth are the Economic Value Added (EVA, as a measure of internal performance and the Market Value Added (MVA as a measure of external performance of the company. Starting from the main deficiencies of the accounting indicators, the objective of this this study is to present the relationship between EVA and MVA and their implications on firms’valuation. Thus, the presentation and analysis of these indicators – EVA and MVA - will underline the main features, their correlations, and influence factors but also the main advantage and disadvantage of each indicator, which will enable the managers to make the correct choice and subsequently the best decision regarding the performance measures.
Korytárová, J.; Vaňková, L.
Paper builds on previous research of the authors into the evaluation of economic efficiency of transport infrastructure projects evaluated by the economic efficiency ratio - NPV, IRR and BCR. Values of indicators and subsequent outputs of the sensitivity analysis show extremely favourable values in some cases. The authors dealt with the analysis of these indicators down to the level of the input variables and examined which inputs have a larger share of these extreme values. NCF for the calculation of above mentioned ratios is created by benefits that arise as the difference between zero and investment options of the project (savings in travel and operating costs, savings in travel time costs, reduction in accident costs and savings in exogenous costs) as well as total agency costs. Savings in travel time costs which contribute to the overall utility of projects by more than 70% appear to be the most important benefits in the long term horizon. This is the reason why this benefit emphasized. The outcome of the article has resulted how the particular basic variables contributed to the total robustness of economic efficiency of these project.
Salvati, L. [Piazza F. Morosini 12, Rome (Italy); Zitti, M.; Ceccarelli, T. [Ufficio Centrale di Ecologia Agraria, Rome (Italy)
Desertification is a complex phenomenon which reduces the soil fertility involving ecological and economic processes that characterize the environment at different geographic scales. The most widely accepted definition of desertification is the one given by the United Nations Convention. It defines desertification as 'land degradation in arid, semi-arid and dry sub-humid areas resulting from various factors, including climatic variations and human actities'.Desertification involves many countries featuring different ecological, economic, and social conditions. In Mediterranean Europe, high human pressure, economic development, and climatic changes combine to produce land consumption, soil erosion, salinization, and fire risk, all considered as key factors to start desertification processes. For many years the term desertification has been strictly associated to geo-physical conditions, but in very complex ecosystems the study of the interaction of physical patterns with population and social characteristics is necessary to better delineate areas at risk. The aims of this paper are therefore (i) to review recent findings in term of desertification processes and risk assessment in the Mediterranean basin, (ii) to illustrate a simplified model in which social and economic variables may significantly accelerate land degradation leading to desertification, (iii) to suggest a set of demographic, economic, and institutional indicators suitable to contribute to the assessment of desertification risk in the Mediterranean basin, (iv) to built a synthetic index based on a multivariate approach and, finally, (v) to compare such index with a standard index of desertification risk only referring to geo-physical conditions. As a conclusion, new findings to be achieved in the context of human impact on environment as an original contribution to the study of desertification were delineated.
The structure of the US electric power industry comprises a combination of traditional electric utilities and less traditional electricity producing companies. The electric utilities include investor owned, publicly owned, federal and cooperative firms. Approximately three quarters of the electricity generated by utilities is generated by investor owned companies. These utilities are, for the most part, franchised monopolies that have an obligation to provide electricity to all customers within a service area. Most provide for the generation, transmission and distribution of electricity, although the distinctions between these services are breaking down as the electricity industry becomes more deregulated. The shares are publicly traded and their areas of business operation are expanding into new ones, sometimes unrelated to the provision of electricity or even energy. Under deregulation and open market pricing of electricity, the business and financial success of operating nuclear plants must be considered to a much greater extent along with the successful achievement of safety and reliability objectives. In developing strategic and operational goals, nuclear plant managers are required to embrace clear and measurable business objectives and goals that not only assure the achievement of safety and reliability but, in addition, eliminate unnecessary costs and identify investment opportunities. These goals must balance operating and safety risk while optimizing plant revenues and earnings and ultimately ensure the profitability of electricity generating facilities. In doing so, it is essential that plant managers articulate goal achievement through the application of effective, measurable, economic performance indicators. Individual nuclear plants will sell their output competing on electricity price, ultimately to ensure the safe, reliable and economic dispatch of their generation either onto open spot markets or by competitive bidding for bilateral contracts. In
Kozlov Vladislav I.
Full Text Available The article is devoted to identification of common and distinctive regularities of development of banking systems with different levels of development of economy through study of the most important macro-economic and financial indicators. The article uses instruments of the applied statistics. The study is based on comparison of mean values of indicators in two groups of countries (countries with a high level of income and countries with a medium level of income, each of which is divided into two sub-groups based on whether there was banking crisis in 2008 or not. In the result of the study the article shows that there are both common and distinctive features of development of banking systems of countries with different levels of economic development. Thus, a typical scenario, characteristic for countries with developed economy that had banking crisis in 2008, includes availability of a relatively large-scale crediting of the economy under conditions of relatively low rates of economic growth and close connections of the national banking systems with banking systems of other countries. Development of banking systems of developing countries during the pre-crisis period is characterised with the following specific features: relatively high rates of growth of scales of crediting of the economy and high rates of economic growth under conditions of use of significant volumes of resources, borrowed in financial markets, and close connection of the national banking systems with banking systems of other countries. The study allows a more efficient use of experience of states with developed economy, since the described results give a possibility to adjust experience of other states, taking into account characteristic features of banking systems of developing countries. Also the study identified states, experience of which should be studied. The conducted analysis of interrelations of indicators could be used for building models of assessment of
Schröder, Thomas, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Kuckshinrichs, Wilhelm [Institute of Energy and Climate Research – Systems Analysis and Technology Evaluation (IEK-STE), Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Jülich (Germany)
Security of electricity supply has become a fundamental requirement for well-functioning modern societies. Because of its central position in all sections of society, the present paper considers the economic consequences of a power supply interruption. The value of lost load (VoLL) is a monetary indicator expressing the costs associated with an interruption of electricity supply. This paper reviews different methods for calculating VoLL, provides an overview of recently published studies, and presents suggestions to increase the explanatory power and international comparability of VoLL.
Full Text Available Activity companies, regardless of sector, aims to both keep a favorable position in the market and creating financial resources to respond favorably people interact undertaking. These considerations are actually provided by the existence and sustainability of any business activity. Through this paper we follow not only the level of profitability of businesses related to food industry sector in Dolj, Romania, but also the correlation between the indicators of profitability and management of assets. The period of analysis is given by the range of 2012 - 2013, and of data analysis in terms of economic and mathematical being done using SPSS statistical and mathematical software.
Full Text Available The advent of publishing anonymized call detail records opens the door for temporal and spatial human dynamics studies. Such studies, besides being useful for creating universal models for mobility patterns, could be also used for creating new socio-economic proxy indicators that will not rely only on the local or state institutions. In this paper, from the frequency of calls at different times of the day, in different small regional units (sub-prefectures in Côte d'Ivoire, we infer users' home and work sub-prefectures. This division of users enables us to analyze different mobility and calling patterns for the different regions. We then compare how those patterns correlate to the data from other sources, such as: news for particular events in the given period, census data, economic activity, poverty index, power plants and energy grid data. Our results show high correlation in many of the cases revealing the diversity of socio-economic insights that can be inferred using only mobile phone call data. The methods and the results may be particularly relevant to policy-makers engaged in poverty reduction initiatives as they can provide an affordable tool in the context of resource-constrained developing economies, such as Côte d'Ivoire's.
Hayes Michael V
Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the past several decades researchers have produced substantial evidence of a social gradient in a variety of health outcomes, rising from systematic differences in income, education, employment conditions, and family dynamics within the population. Social gradients in health are measured using deprivation indices, which are typically constructed from aggregated socio-economic data taken from the national census – a technique which dates back at least until the early 1970's. The primary method of index construction over the last decade has been a Principal Component Analysis. Seldom are the indices constructed from survey-based data sources due to the inherent difficulty in validating the subjectivity of the response scores. We argue that this very subjectivity can uncover spatial distributions of local health outcomes. Moreover, indication of neighbourhood socio-economic status may go underrepresented when weighted without expert opinion. In this paper we propose the use of geographic information science (GIS for constructing the index. We employ a GIS-based Order Weighted Average (OWA Multicriteria Analysis (MCA as a technique to validate deprivation indices that are constructed using more qualitative data sources. Both OWA and traditional MCA are well known and used methodologies in spatial analysis but have had little application in social epidemiology. Results A survey of British Columbia's Medical Health Officers (MHOs was used to populate the MCA-based index. Seven variables were selected and weighted based on the survey results. OWA variable weights assign both local and global weights to the index variables using a sliding scale, producing a range of variable scenarios. The local weights also provide leverage for controlling the level of uncertainty in the MHO response scores. This is distinct from traditional deprivation indices in that the weighting is simultaneously dictated by the original respondent scores
Full Text Available This paper analyses indicators to study the sustainability of tourism in inland Istria, which comprises 24 municipalities and towns belonging to Istria County. Taking into account the criteria of availability, reliability, predictability, clarity and feasibility, the following quantitative indicators were used: the Indicator of Tourist Operation (ITO, the Modified Importance Index of major tourism centres (Im, the Specific Overnights Threshold (SOT, tourism-related taxes in the budgets of municipalities and towns, company investments into tourism and hospitality, and the number of employees in tourism and hospitality. According to the ITO indicator, Predominant Tourism Activity was recorded only in Oprtalj Municipality. Being a measure of the spatial distribution of a specific economic activity, the Modified Importance Index established that in all municipalities and towns of inland Istria tourism is either poorly developed or in its incipient stage. The SOT indicator suggests that tourism has no negative effects on local economies and that tourism-related taxes make a minor contribution to the revenue side of municipal and town budgets. Company investment in tourism and hospitality and the number of employees in these industries are indicators that reveal that inland Istria is only beginning to develop into a tourism region. The quantitative indicators were confirmed by the results of qualitative indicators obtained through problem-focused interviews with the representatives of municipalities, towns and local tourist boards. The singular conclusion derived from the interviews was that tourism is a desirable activity, is in its initial stage of development, and is not a threat to local economies. The results of the study confirm the hypothesis that inland Istria is a region of sustainable tourism currently in the involvement stage of the destination lifecycle.
Edom de Avila Fabricio
Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluate various financial indicators, estimated deterministically (considering historical quotes twelve consecutive years - 2003 to 2014, on the economic feasibility of finishing steers commercialized with different weights, using the simulation technique. Performance data steers were simulated with average initial weight of 350kg, fed in feedlot and slaughtered with 410, 440, 470, 500, 530, 560 and 590kg. The feeding period varies from 46 to 185 days, respectively. Based in various economic indicators, the viability of the investment decreased linearly according to the increase in slaughter weight. The coefficient of simple linear regression and means from lowest to highest slaughter weight were, respectively: net present value (-0.538 and R$ 67.37, R$ 65.28, R$ 32.14, R$ -7.34, R$ 8.01, R$ -12.38, R$ -23.41; index benefit: cost (-0.0003 and R$ 1.042, R$ 1.039, R$ 1.014, R$ 1.006, R$ 1.003, R$ 0.995, R$ 0.991; additional return on investment (-0.009 and 1.38, 1.29, 0.35, 0.11, 0.05, -0.08, -0.13% per month; internal rate of return (-0.009 and 2.21, 2.10, 1.28, 0.80, 0.93, 0.78, 0.73% per month. Feedlot use as termination option to obtain the direct benefits of this technology is an alternative investment with low economic return.
Full Text Available It is shown that the modern society pays much attention to the issue of environmental security. On the basis of literary sources it is noted that there is a trend to strengthening the role of environmentally oriented management methods, guidelines for the modernization of production, implementation of environmental management systems and environmental certification. Environmental certification helps the company to properly allocate resources for environmental protection and provides the state with the accurate data and the receipt of payments in budgets of all levels for negative impact on the environment. The structural changes are based on the requirements of the environmental legislation, new requirements to ecological regulation. The authors confirm the need for transition to the Best available techniques (BAT, which significantly improve environmental and economic performance of the enterprise. Implementation of BAT requires the effective replacement of obsolete resource-intensive production and modern technology. Such transitions affect the size of payments for negative impact on the environment and the volume of economic incentives from the state. It is noted that Russia applies the European experience as a basis of creating guidebooks on the best available techniques. The definition of technology as the best available techniques is determined by the resolution of the Government of the Russian Federation. Indicators and information generated in the BREF are also required in carrying out the environmental monitoring and control. Changes in these indicators reflect the quality of the technology used. Implementation of BAT requires significant investments, the priority should be conservation projects that eliminate the most acute environmental problems and maximize environmental benefits. The increased interest of enterprises in the application of environmental technologies is not only based on obtaining favorable conditions for state
María José García
Full Text Available Purpose: Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR in companies is widely accepted within today’s business community. However, the intangibility of this concept and the dispersion of related standards and regulations has created a context characterized by lack of homogeneity in the publishing of CSR results. The present study aims to determine the extent to which Global Reporting Initiative (GRI indicators are used by Spanish listed companies. Design/methodology/approach: An empirical analysis has been performed to asses and evaluate the 2011 CSR reports published by the companies listed on the IBEX-35, the Spanish stock exchange index which includes the most important listed companies. The analysis is centered exclusively on the economic indicators established by the GRI. The methodology used to interpret the results is based on the procedures of multivariate analysis, namely principal components analysis, correlation matrix, and hierarchical clustering. Findings: The results of the study show that although the GRI tool is used extensively within the IBEX-35, the level of performance regarding the parameters established by the GRI varies depending on the studied company and indicator. Research limitations: This study focuses on the biggest Spanish listed companies; thus, the conclusions may differ in other geographic locations, as well as for smaller businesses. Practical implications: This line of research helps to know more about the social reporting policies of big Spanish listed companies. Social implications: The evidence provided by this study helps to know more about the Corporate Social Responsibility policies and sustainability reports and declarations of social and environmental values governing their organizations. Originality/value: This study is the first using principal component analysis in Spanish listed companies focusing in the economic indicators of the GRI.
Full Text Available Abstract Background There is evidence of higher prevalence of asthma in populations of lower socio-economic status in affluent societies, and the prevalence of asthma is also very high in some Latin American countries, where societies are characterized by a marked inequality in wealth. This study aimed to examine the relationship between estimates of asthma prevalence based on surveys conducted in children in Brazilian cities and health and socioeconomic indicators measured at the population level in the same cities. Methods We searched the literature in the medical databases and in the annals of scientific meeting, retrieving population-based surveys of asthma that were conducted in Brazil using the methodology defined by the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood. We performed separate analyses for the age groups 6–7 years and 13–14 years. We examined the association between asthma prevalence rates and eleven health and socio-economic indicators by visual inspection and using linear regression models weighed by the inverse of the variance of each survey. Results Six health and socioeconomic variables showed a clear pattern of association with asthma. The prevalence of asthma increased with poorer sanitation and with higher infant mortality at birth and at survey year, GINI index and external mortality. In contrast, asthma prevalence decreased with higher illiteracy rates. Conclusion The prevalence of asthma in urban areas of Brazil, a middle income country, appears to be higher in cities with more marked poverty or inequality.
Janke, Emily M.
In May 2012, University of North Carolina (UNC) President Tom Ross simultaneously commissioned two task forces to develop indicators that all UNC campuses could use to measure "progress in community engagement and economic development." The charge to the Community Engagement Task Force and the Economic Development Task Force was to…
Pérez, Glòria; Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica; Domínguez-Berjón, Felicitas; Cabeza, Elena; Borrell, Carme
The economic crisis has adverse effects on determinants of health and health inequalities. The aim of this article was to present a set of indicators of health and its determinants to monitor the effects of the crisis in Spain. On the basis of the conceptual framework proposed by the Commission for the Reduction of Social Health Inequalities in Spain, we searched for indicators of social, economic, and political (structural and intermediate) determinants of health, as well as for health indicators, bearing in mind the axes of social inequality (gender, age, socioeconomic status, and country of origin). The indicators were mainly obtained from official data sources published on the internet. The selected indicators are periodically updated and are comparable over time and among territories (among autonomous communities and in some cases among European Union countries), and are available for age groups, gender, socio-economic status, and country of origin. However, many of these indicators are not sufficiently reactive to rapid change, which occurs in the economic crisis, and consequently require monitoring over time. Another limitation is the lack of availability of indicators for the various axes of social inequality. In conclusion, the proposed indicators allow for progress in monitoring the effects of the economic crisis on health and health inequalities in Spain. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Chuvashova, M. N.; Avramchikova, N. T.; Zelenkov, P. V.; Petrosyan, M. O.
Economic peculiarity of Russian resource-oriented territories are based on a focal type of industrial complex, differentiation of economies within a principle of mining and processing of natural resources. To improve the economic condition and integrate into the world innovative process is essential to solve the problem of eliminating the prevalence of resourse focus in the industrial economic structure that could ensure the overcoming of the existing spa- cial dissociation and market mechanisms development in innovative promotion. The monitoring system, involving the integral indicator of socioeconomic and territorial potential assessment, has suggested by the authors. The integral indicator could guarantee the objective evaluation of economic condition within a territory that is vital for the governmental authorities to design strategies providing the economic development of administrative territories.
Full Text Available With the evolution of time changes, grows and improves, construction, form, rationality and argumentation usefulness of various types of footwear, namely machines. In the present paper analyzes a number of sewing machines, bound for achieving moccasin shoes. With sewing machines can perform a wide variety of stitches, they create an aesthetically pleasing, but all at once enable product diversification with minimum expenses. Sewing machines moccasins are distinguished by technological parameters, number of stitches, design and affordability. Sewing operation carried out in these machines is carried out within 72 seconds to manual operation - 22 minutes. A flow diagram mechanical requires a reduced number of workers (e.g., 3 workers, to a manual flow diagram - 38 workers. Labour productivity in the use of sewing machines increase by 10 times, and operation cost decreases from 3,7 to 5,7 lei. Regardless of the sewing moccasins construction company helps to increase productivity, quality completion of the operation, ie products, reducing the time required to manufacture the products, shortening manufacturing cycle. Among the cars analyzed, the most recommended sewing machine as OS 7700 P Global company because it represents the best technical features. Sewing machines for manufacturing footwear moccasin were implemented in Moldova in 2010, at the "Cristina Mold Rom Simpex" in Chisinau. Because, company management understood beneficial role of sewing moccasins on quality operation, but also on other economic indicators. Currently the majority of footwear enterprises in Moldova sewing moccasins are done manually. One problem is the high price of sewing machines moccasins.
Full Text Available Analysis of epidemiological and health-economic indicators on ocular trauma involving children is important for developing targeted managerial, medical and educational strategies of health care providers and patients in order to reduce incidence and severity of pediatric ocular trauma. We analysed data collected from 29 children with ocular trauma from Emergency Hospital of Sibiu, between 2008-2016. For this children with closed globe injury it took an average of 7 days of hospitalization (IQR: (5; 9.5, with a cost per day of hospitalization on average of 127 RON (IQR: (103; 136, respectively a total hospitalization cost on average 856 RON (IQR: (529; 998, with no significant gender or area differences. It took a slightly larger number of hospitalization days in the following situations: (1 in the case of mixed trauma compared to lamellar lacerations or contusions; (2 if the affected area was zone III compared to the other two areas (zone I and zone II; (3 where the visual acuity at admission was less than 1/6(0.16 compared to cases with visual acuity greater than 1/6(0.16; (4 in patients with hypertension at admission compared to those with normal tension or hypotension.
S.I. Bergh (Sylvia)
textabstractDrawing on elements of a political economy framework, this paper addresses two inter-related questions with regard to economic growth and public expenditure patterns in Morocco. The main factors that help explain Morocco’s relatively slow economic growth for the last few decades have to
Full Text Available The experiment was conducted in order to evaluate of competitive and economic indices in canola and pea intercropping at different rates of nitrogen fertilizer at Shahrekord University research farm during 1390 - 1391. Intercropping and sole cropping treatments (100% canola; 66% canola + 33% pea, 50% canola + 50% pea; 33% canola + 66% pea; 100% pea were evaluated as the first factor and nitrogen rates (100% need; 75% need and 50% need as the second factor in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The calculated competitive indices were included land equivalent ratio (LER, relative crowding coefficient (K, aggressively (A, the system production index (SPI, actual yield loss (AYL, competitive ratio (CR and economy indices included monetary advantage index (MAI, and the intercropping advantage (IA. Results showed that all the competitive and economic indices had the highest amount in 50 and 75% of nitrogen requirement. The amounts of AYLt and SPI and economic indices (MAI and IA were positive for all intercropping ratios. Also, LERt and Kt for all intercropping ratio were greater than one, that indicating the superiority of intercropping over sole cropping any of the two plants. The positive values aggressively index and the greater than one values competitive ratio for canola, indicated canola was superior competitor in compared to pea. In conclusion, the evaluation of competitive and economic indices appropriately describes intercropping advantage of canola with pea in reduced nitrogen fertilizer conditions.
Second annual report on the state of Canada's forests, including national and provincial profiles of the forests; environmental, economic and social indicators; public opinions about forestry issues; competition in forest products in world markets; forestry research and development; and performance indicators. A glossary is included.
Murray, Christopher; Doren, Bonnie; Gau, Jeff M.; Zvoch, Keith; Seeley, John R.
The purpose of the current study was to develop a multi-indicator construct of economic hardship among adolescents with disabilities (N = 9,230) participating in the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2, the largest, most comprehensive investigation of adolescents with disabilities ever conducted. Five theoretically relevant indicators (i.e.,…
Full Text Available This paper elaborates the importance of the economic set of indicators relevant for assessing natural gas supply options, as a part of the multi criteria decision making (MCDM method. Such an approach is a useful tool for decision makers. Thus, the paper is not only dealing with economic indicators arising from investment and other types of costs, but it mostly focuses on macroeconomic environment and macroeconomic preconditions strongly related to energy infrastructure. MCDM is firstly utilized to calculate the indicator’s weighting factors, and further, regression analyses are performed in terms of identifying interdependencies among the indicators.
Schlienz, Nicolas J.; Hawk, Larry W.; Tiffany, Stephen T.; O'Connor, Richard J.; Mahoney, Martin C.
Background Varenicline was developed to aid smoking cessation by reducing smoking reinforcement. The present study tests this reinforcement-reduction hypothesis among smokers preparing to quit. Method After a one-week baseline, treatment-seeking smokers were randomized to receive three weeks of varenicline or placebo (Weeks 2-4). During each of the four weeks of the study, smokers completed a hypothetical cigarette purchase task (CPT) via handheld device in their natural environment. Behavioral economic measures of simulated smoking if cigarettes were free (demand intensity), sensitivity of consumption to increasing price (elasticity), and price at which purchases would drop to 0 (breakpoint) were estimated. Results Exponential demand equations fit the purchase task data well across subjects and time. As predicted, demand intensity decreased and sensitivity to price (elasticity) increased over time. However, changes in demand intensity did not differ by treatment group. Contrary to our hypothesis that varenicline would increase sensitivity to price, the placebo group tended to become more elastic in their purchases during Weeks 2 and 3; the groups did not differ in elasticity at Week 4. Breakpoint did not vary by group, time, or their interaction. Conclusion Simulated smoking demand can be validly assessed in the natural environment of treatment-seeking smokers. Simulated demand indices of smoking reinforcement diminished as smokers approached their target quit date. However, there was no evidence that varenicline facilitated these changes over a three week period, leaving open the mechanisms by which varenicline reduces smoking rate prior to cessation and improves long-term abstinence. PMID:24949949
Gannon, Brenda; Jones, Cheryl; McCabe, Aileen; O'Sullivan, Ronan; Wakai, Abel
High quality data is fundamental to using key performance indicators (KPIs) for performance monitoring. However, the resources required to collect high quality data are often significant and should usually be targeted at high priority areas. As part of a study of 11 emergency department (ED) KPIs in Ireland, the primary objective of this study was to estimate the relative cost of collecting the additional minimum data set (MDS) elements for those 11 KPIs. An economic cost analysis focused on 12 EDs in the Republic of Ireland. The resource use data were obtained using two separate focus group interviews. The number of available MDS elements was obtained from a sample of 100 patient records per KPI per participating ED. Unit costs for all resource use were taken at the midpoint of the relevant staff salary scales. An ED would need to spend an estimated additional &OV0556;3561 per month on average to capture all the MDS elements relevant to the 11 KPIs investigated. The additional cost ranges from 14.8 to 39.2%; this range is 13.9-32.3% for small EDs, whereas the range for medium EDs is 11.7-40%. Regional EDs have a higher additional estimated cost to capture all the relevant MDS elements (&OV0556;3907), compared with urban EDs (&OV0556;3353). The additional cost of data collection, contingent on that already collected, required to capture all the relevant MDS elements for the KPIs examined, ranges from 14.8 to 39.2% per KPI, with variation identified between regional and urban hospitals.
Full Text Available Currently companies have to think about its management system to meet not only their economic interests but also their social interests aiming at the activities’ sustainability and longevity. In this research, the goal is to identify the Nash equilibrium point in the bi-matrix game of economic and social indicators of the companies of Public Utilities sector listed on the BM & FBovespa. The research was conducted with a sample of 26 companies. To evaluate the economic performance it was used the profitability and market indicators; for evaluating the social performance, it was used the indicators derived from the VAD (Value Added Statement. In the estimation of earnings among indicators, it was used the standard parameters of the multiple linear regression. The obtained results highlighted the existence of at least one point of equilibrium for the years analyzed and, especially in the models, two points of equilibrium were proposed for 2009 and 2011 and three for 2010. It is noteworthy that, in the proposed model it was confirmed the hypothesis of the existence of at least one point of equilibrium. Thus, it was possible to meet the research objective, namely, that it is possible to meet both economic aspects and the social aspects of the companies when the indicators are taken as basic information.
Rivard, Cheryl; Lipsher, Julian; Hyland, Andrew
Opponents of Hawai‘i's smoke-free law argued that such a law would lead to a decrease in tourism. The purpose of this study is to determine if there is evidence of an adverse impact of Hawai‘i's smoke-free law on tourism utilizing data obtained from Hawai‘i's Department of Business, Economic Development & Tourism website for tourists from the United States. Descriptive statistics were reported before and after the law and linear regression was used to assess the relationship between the implementation of the law and changes in indicators of tourism while adjusting for underlying economic factors. The most pronounced fluctuations observed with all tourism indicators occurred around the time the US entered the recession (December 2007), with steady increases following the end of the US recession. While controlling for economic and seasonal trends, the presence of the smoke-free law was associated with an increase in arrivals (β= 42847.9; 95% CI: 16303.3, 69392.5), accommodation employees (β= 969.0; 95% CI: 351.1, 1586.8) and food services & beverage places employees (β=3390.8; 95% CI: 2326.9, 4454.7). Fluctuations in tourism indicators are likely to be associated with greater economic forces, such as decreasing GDP and consumer confidence in the United States and greater global economic trends, rather than the smoke-free law. PMID:24167770
Dobson Amato, Katharine A; Rivard, Cheryl; Lipsher, Julian; Hyland, Andrew
Opponents of Hawai'i's smoke-free law argued that such a law would lead to a decrease in tourism. The purpose of this study is to determine if there is evidence of an adverse impact of Hawai'i's smoke-free law on tourism utilizing data obtained from Hawai'i's Department of Business, Economic Development & Tourism website for tourists from the United States. Descriptive statistics were reported before and after the law and linear regression was used to assess the relationship between the implementation of the law and changes in indicators of tourism while adjusting for underlying economic factors. The most pronounced fluctuations observed with all tourism indicators occurred around the time the US entered the recession (December 2007), with steady increases following the end of the US recession. While controlling for economic and seasonal trends, the presence of the smoke-free law was associated with an increase in arrivals (β= 42847.9; 95% CI: 16303.3, 69392.5), accommodation employees (β= 969.0; 95% CI: 351.1, 1586.8) and food services & beverage places employees (β=3390.8; 95% CI: 2326.9, 4454.7). Fluctuations in tourism indicators are likely to be associated with greater economic forces, such as decreasing GDP and consumer confidence in the United States and greater global economic trends, rather than the smoke-free law.
Andersen, Mikael Skou; Levin, Gregor; Odgaard, Mette Vestergaard
We explore with impact pathway methodology the economic benefits of reducing nitrogen leaching to transitional surface waters, as expected for a proportionality test under the EU’s Water Framework Directive article 4. Ten different catchments is analyzed for a policy scenario where downstream dis...
Isaacs, Julia B.
Children throughout the United States continue to be negatively impacted by the lingering effects of the Great Recession, with children in some states more hard hit than others. The impact of the recession on children can be hard to see. Some economic statistics ignore children, while others come out with a long time delay. This updated issue…
Houweling, Tanja A. J.; Kunst, Anton E.; Mackenbach, Johan P.
BACKGROUND: Currently, poor-rich inequalities in health in developing countries receive a lot of attention from both researchers and policy makers. Since measuring economic status in developing countries is often problematic, different indicators of wealth are used in different studies. Until now,
Marina V. Kolomeiko
Full Text Available In the article analyzed and identiﬁ ed the main factors affecting the level of poverty of the population in Astrakhan region made a multi-dimensional classiﬁ cation of municipal districts of the Astrakhan region on socio-economic indicators characterizing the poverty of the population on thebasis of the cluster analysis.
In recent times, environmental, energy and climate policies have gained tremendously in importance. Not least, this is due to the latest research findings related to climate change and the resulting growing environmental awareness among people. However, policy approaches to combat environmental pollution and climate change differ both in their intention and in their economic impacts. For instance, command-and-control instruments such as performance or technology standards have different implications than market-based mechanisms such as permit trading of greenhouse gas emissions. Furthermore, sectoral and regional characteristics play an important role when implementing and assessing policy measures. This applies both to the attainability of the targets and to the available instruments. The present doctoral thesis addresses this point and analyzes in several essays different policy instruments and their economic effects from global, regional and sectoral perspectives. In this respect, it deals with various, often very heterogeneous question: How are specific policy types implemented in different countries? What is the CO2 abatement potential in specific regions and sectors? What policy measures can be plausibly used to exploit this potential? How can technological developments and technology-directed policy interventions contribute to improve energy efficiency? Does the promotion of certain energy sources necessarily create positive production and employment effects? To answer these and further questions, different economic methods are applied that accommodate the particular problem, where special emphasis is put on computable general equilibrium modeling. The aim of this work is to contribute to the academic and political debate on measures to combat environmental and climate problems.
In recent times, environmental, energy and climate policies have gained tremendously in importance. Not least, this is due to the latest research findings related to climate change and the resulting growing environmental awareness among people. However, policy approaches to combat environmental pollution and climate change differ both in their intention and in their economic impacts. For instance, command-and-control instruments such as performance or technology standards have different implications than market-based mechanisms such as permit trading of greenhouse gas emissions. Furthermore, sectoral and regional characteristics play an important role when implementing and assessing policy measures. This applies both to the attainability of the targets and to the available instruments. The present doctoral thesis addresses this point and analyzes in several essays different policy instruments and their economic effects from global, regional and sectoral perspectives. In this respect, it deals with various, often very heterogeneous question: How are specific policy types implemented in different countries? What is the CO2 abatement potential in specific regions and sectors? What policy measures can be plausibly used to exploit this potential? How can technological developments and technology-directed policy interventions contribute to improve energy efficiency? Does the promotion of certain energy sources necessarily create positive production and employment effects? To answer these and further questions, different economic methods are applied that accommodate the particular problem, where special emphasis is put on computable general equilibrium modeling. The aim of this work is to contribute to the academic and political debate on measures to combat environmental and climate problems.
João Victor Issler
Full Text Available This paper has three main contributions. The first is to propose an individual coincident indicator for the following Latin American countries: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia and Mexico. In order to obtain similar series to those traditionally used in business-cycle research in constructing coincident indices (output, sales, income and employment we were forced to back-cast several individual country series which were not available in a long time-series span. The second contribution is to establish a chronology of recessions for these countries, covering the period from 1980 to 2012 on a monthly basis. Based on this chronology, the countries are compared in several respects. The final contribution is to propose an aggregate coincident indicator for the Latin American economy, which weights individual-country composite indices. Finally, this indicator is compared with the coincident indicator (The Conference Board - TCB of the U.S. economy. We find that the U.S. indicator Granger-causes the Latin American indicator in statistical tests
Full Text Available The paper discusses the basic economic and production results of important fruit species (apple, pear, peach, sour cherry and plum on agricultural farms of Vojvodina. The aim of the research is to evaluate the most important parameters of cost-effectiveness of these productions, and propose measures to improve the existing situation. Comparative analysis clearly shows that the most cost-effective is pears production, followed by apple, cherry, peach and plum. Pear production gives the largest coverage margin per unit capacity (1,261,786 din /ha, which is 16.5% better than in apple production (1,083,160 din /ha, or about 7.8 times better in relation to plums production (161,796 din /ha. The highest coefficient of economy (3.19 is, also, recorded in the production of pear (for apples 2.94, cherry 2.27, peach 2.17 and plum 1.44. Further development of fruit production in Vojvodina involves raising intensive farms with quality fruit varieties, firmer vertical linking of producers and processors, ensurement of economic safety of producers in the long run, making of fruit producing regions, etc.
Full Text Available Lithuania is one of the EU Member States, where the rate of energy consumption is comparatively low but consumption of electricity has been gradually increasing over the last few years. Despite this trend, households in only three EU Member States consume less electricity than Lithuanian households. The purpose of this research is to analyse the impact of socio-economic factors on the domestic electricity consumption in Lithuania, i.e., to establish whether electricity consumption is determined by socio-economic conditions or population’s awareness to save energy. Cointegration analysis, causality test and error-correction model were used for the analysis. The results reveal that there is a long run equilibrium relationship between residential electricity consumption per capita and GDP at current prices as well as the ratio of the registered unemployed to the working-age population. In consequence, the results of the research propose that improvement of living standards for Lithuanian community calls for the necessity to pay particular attention to the promotion of sustainable electricity consumption by providing consumers with appropriate information and feedback in order to seek new energy-related consumption practices.
Jaffe, Klaus; Caicedo, Mario; Manzanares, Marcos; Gil, Mario; Rios, Alfredo; Florez, Astrid; Montoreano, Claudia; Davila, Vicente
Scientific productivity of middle income countries correlates stronger with present and future wealth than indices reflecting its financial, social, economic or technological sophistication. We identify the contribution of the relative productivity of different scientific disciplines in predicting the future economic growth of a nation. Results show that rich and poor countries differ in the relative proportion of their scientific output in the different disciplines: countries with higher relative productivity in basic sciences such as physics and chemistry had the highest economic growth in the following five years compared to countries with a higher relative productivity in applied sciences such as medicine and pharmacy. Results suggest that the economies of middle income countries that focus their academic efforts in selected areas of applied knowledge grow slower than countries which invest in general basic sciences.
Full Text Available Scientific productivity of middle income countries correlates stronger with present and future wealth than indices reflecting its financial, social, economic or technological sophistication. We identify the contribution of the relative productivity of different scientific disciplines in predicting the future economic growth of a nation. Results show that rich and poor countries differ in the relative proportion of their scientific output in the different disciplines: countries with higher relative productivity in basic sciences such as physics and chemistry had the highest economic growth in the following five years compared to countries with a higher relative productivity in applied sciences such as medicine and pharmacy. Results suggest that the economies of middle income countries that focus their academic efforts in selected areas of applied knowledge grow slower than countries which invest in general basic sciences.
Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine green logistic activities by three axes (financial economic, social and environment activities and how these activities affect on sustainable monetary expansion indicators as an evidence of Sultanate of Oman. Design/methodology/approach: This study began by definition elements of logistic green and how evolution of this concept in recent years. This concept analyzed after survey of previous studies on green logistic. The independent variables of green logistic are includes of three components of financial economic , social and environment and applies these components to clarify the impact on expansionary monetary policy indicators ( broad , narrow and reserve money as a important signals in determining a country's economy. This study used data published in statistical annual report of central bank of Oman as representative of country economic of sultanate of Oman from the period 2008 to 2015. Findings: The results found two variables of government support to electricity sector (GSE and subsidy on soft loans to private sector and housing (SSLPH based on environment activities are statistical significant 1% and 5%. Only one variable of transport and communication (TC in financial economic activates is statistical significant at 1% and 5% , but all variables community, social and personal (CSP , cultural and religious affairs (CRA and social security and welfare (SSW in social activities are statistical significant at 1% 5% and 10% , finally , also the multiple regression test run of all variables of green logistics activities and each monetary expansion indicators and found there are a statistical significant at 1% and 5%, .The study recommends that should be attention with financial economic activities as a quantitative standard contributes to build the green logistic by diagnosed the priorities and existing economic and financial system that contributes of sustainable development system in
Peimer, Alex W.; Krzywicka, Adrianna E.; Cohen, Dora B.; Van den Bosch, Kyle; Buxton, Valerie L.; Stevenson, Natalie A.; Matthews, Jeffrey W.
Growing recognition of the importance of wetlands to human and ecosystem well-being has led countries worldwide to implement wetland protection policies. Different countries have taken different approaches to wetland protection by implementing various policies, including territorial exclusion, market-based offsetting, and incentive programs for land users. Our objective was to describe the relationship between components of national-level wetland protection policies and national characteristics, including natural resource, economic, social, and political factors. We compiled data on the wetland policies of all 193 countries recognized by the U.N. and described the relationships among wetland policy goals and wetland protection mechanisms using non-metric multidimensional scaling. The first non-metric multidimensional scaling axis strongly correlated with whether a country had a wetland-specific environmental policy in place. Adoption of a comprehensive, wetland-specific policy was positively associated with degree of democracy and a commitment to establishing protected areas. The second non-metric multidimensional scaling axis defined a continuum of policy goals and mechanisms by which wetlands are protected, with goals to protect wetland ecosystem services on one end of the spectrum and goals to protect biodiversity on the other. Goals for protecting ecosystem services were frequently cited in policy documents of countries with agriculture-based economies, whereas goals associated with wetland biodiversity tended to be associated with tourism-based economies. We argue that the components of a country's wetland policies reflect national-level resource and economic characteristics. Understanding the relationship between the type of wetland policy countries adopt and national-level characteristics is critical for international efforts to protect wetlands.
Carlos Muñoz Izquierdo
Full Text Available Based on the information published by the Economic Commission for Latin America (CEPAL, the authors have followed the growth of the region’s educational systems, mainly during the last decades of the 20th century. The patterns of distribution of educational opportunities among the various economic levels and sexes have also been examined. On the other hand, they have analyzed some impact indicators related to the expansion of educational opportunities within the working fields where graduates of those school systems are, and indicators of the probability of those individuals earning higher wages than those considered as the minimum in many countries to outdo poverty. Finally, some obstacles which have hindered the equal distribution of education have been identified, and some political features necessary to overcome them have been sketched.
D’Amico, Guglielmo; Petroni, Filippo; Prattico, Flavio
Highlights: • We propose a new and different wind energy production indicator. • We compute financial profitability of potential wind power sites. • The wind speed process is modeled as an indexed semi-Markov chain. • We check if the wind energy is a good investment with and without incentives. - Abstract: We propose the computation of different wind energy production indicators and financial profitability of potential wind power sites. The computation is performed by modeling the wind speed process as an indexed semi-Markov chain to predict and simulate the wind speed dynamics. We demonstrate that the indexed semi-Markov chain approach enables reproducing the indicators calculated on real data. Two different time horizons of 15 and 30 years are analyzed. In the first case we consider the government incentives on the energy price now present in Italy, while in the second case the incentives have not been taken into account
João Victor Issler
Full Text Available This paper has three main contributions. The first is to propose an individual coincident indicator for the following Latin American countries: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia and Mexico. In order to obtain similar series to those traditionally used in business-cycle research in constructing coincident indices (output, sales, income and employment we were forced to back-cast several individual country series which were not available in a long time-series span. The second contribution is to establish a chronology of recessions for these countries, covering the period from 1980 to 2012 on a monthly basis. Based on this chronology, the countries are compared in several respects. The final contribution is to propose an aggregate coincident indicator for the Latin American economy, which weights individual-country composite indices. Finally, this indicator is compared with the coincident indicator (The Conference Board - TCB of the U.S. economy. We find that the U.S. indicator Granger-causes the Latin American indicator in statistical testsEsse artigo tem 3 contribuições à literatura de ciclos de negócios. A primeira é a de construir indicadores coincidentes de atividade econômica para Argentina, Brasil, Chile, Colômbia e México, usando pesos idênticos para as séries de Emprego, Produção, Renda, e Vendas. Para tal, tivemos que fazer o back-cast de algumas séries chave para poder construir esses indicadores. A segunda é a de estabelecer uma cronologia de recessões para esses países no período 1980-2012 em bases mensais. Com base na última, fazemos comparações em várias dimensões. Finalmente, nossa última contribuição é propor um índice coincidente agregado para a América Latina, que é comparado ao índice agregado dos EUA. Esta comparação indica que o índice coincidente dos EUA Granger-causa o da América Latina, mas a recíproca não é verdadeira
Marukhyan, V.Z.; Elbakyan, S.H.
Taking into account the input of carbon dioxide as a greenhouse gas in the global warming process, the technological solutions of its capturing, and the implementation possibilities in environmentally safe thermal power plants are considered. In power plants equipped with effective systems for cleaning the fuel gas and the coal gasification, the influence of the CO 2 reduction and realization of quotes on the indices of economic efficiency is estimated
Gustavo Piva GUAZZELLI
Full Text Available The pursuit of happiness is a desire that everyone has in life. The behavioral economics can help to identify constraints to achieve the true happiness. This study made an attempt to identify some possible determinants to explain the happiness of university professors in higher education institutions in the city of Passo Fundo/RS. Data were collected through questionnaires and analyzed using multiple regression models in seven different groups, classified into happiness by sex; happiness by marital status; happiness by age; happiness and money; happiness, sports and health; happiness, friendship, love relationships and sex life; and happiness, creativity and organization. The results show that money is not one of the major constraints to achieve happiness in this analysis group, that love relationships significantly increase the happiness of this study group, once sexual relationships don’t represent happiness increasing. It was also found that emotional / mental health of the participants has significance to turn them happier as creative tasks and planning actions to the future to reach the dreams and goals demonstrate to increase the happiness of this sample of university teachers.
Sustainability and Indicators Overview from Ecological Economics and Environmental Economics Perspective; Panoramica General de la Sostenibilidad y sus Indicadores desde la Perspectiva de la Economia Ecologica y Economia Ambiental
From the emergence of the concept of sustainable development (1987) social sciences have trying to resolve the difficult balance between economy, environment and society and how to measure it with indicators. There are several approaches to sustainability of the economic doctrine which provide different points of view on this issue. The purpose of this article is multiple, firstly we analyze the historical evolution of the relationship between the economic thought and the natural environment. Second, we study the two main economic approaches which study sustainability concerns: the environmental economics and ecological economics. Finally, we examine some of the main economic and environmental indicators. (Author) 40 refs.
Michel Yurevich Dolomatov
Full Text Available The article is devoted to the urgent problem related to the development of the region, namely, the creation of tools for the assessment of the level of social dissatisfaction in the region. The assessment of the level of social dissatisfaction is one of the most important tasks of state organizations in political and social spheres. The article considers the concept of "social dissatisfaction" and associated terms, it substantiates the author's position on the content of this notion. The authors have investigated the existing national and international approaches to the assessing of social tensions of the population. The system of socio-economic development indicators doesn’t contain indicators allowing to assess the level of social dissatisfaction without the results of public polls. We propose two models in the article. In the first model, the assessment is basedon the single factor (the index of social dissatisfaction based on income differentiation. The second complex model takes into account a number of factors (the index of social dissatisfaction based on complex assessment. For the calculation of the proposed indicators, the authors use the statistical data of the Federal State Statistics Service. The methodological research tools include the mathematical methods of statistical data processing. We have evaluated the methodological tools on the example of the Republic of Ingushetia. The assessment has showed the dynamics of a decline in the level of social-economic dissatisfaction in the region (1995–2011. The models of social dissatisfaction constitute a tool for rapid and up-to-date assessment of socio-economic system sustainability, and of the willingness of the population to participate in protests. The application of the results of this study is the support of decision-making regions and state structures in working out plans of the socio-economic development of the regions.
Full Text Available The use of tools to measure the degree of sustainability of cities is the approach that receives the most attention in developed countries. However, studies of evaluation tools at the neighborhood level reveal that there are many weaknesses in the most widely-used evaluation systems (LEED-ND, BREEAM Communities, CASBEE-UD. There are ambiguities and gaps in weighting and in scoring and in most cases, there is no mechanism for local adaptability and participation. The purpose of this study is to provide an overview of the current situation by highlighting the strengths and weaknesses of these evaluation tools in order to integrate social and economic aspects for the improvement of the CASBEE-UD (neighborhood level evaluation tool. The selection of socio-economic aspects was made through the use of a multi criteria Analysis Hierarchical Process (AHP and a Geographic Integration System (GIS. The results of this case study indicate that most evaluation tools need to be revised because most do not include socio-economic aspects. We have demonstrated that applying the CASBEE-UD assessment tool integrated with socio-economic aspects to four boroughs in the City of Montreal can measure success by addressing the objectives of sustainable development.
Full Text Available Organic and integrated farming practices contribute to protecting biodiversity, reducing environmental pollution, improving soil quality, and providing high-quality raw material for food industry. The objective of the article is to establish the methodology and evaluate the system of indicators, which enables answering the question which farming practice has more advantages: organic or integrated? Multi-criteria analysis methods were used to achieve this objective. When being compared with between conventional and integrated farming practices, organic farming practice achieves higher profitability and greater energy efficiency. Organic farming reveals to be either superior, or similar to integrated farming practices in environmental terms. Potatoes, fruits and berries under both conventional and integrated farming practices have obtained the same rank (1–2 according to the selected criterions (yield, share of sold product, expenses on plant protection, production cost, price and labour input. Organic farming practice has shown worse rank. Organic farming practice has appeared to be the most suitable for vegetables.
BABIJ I. N. Cand. Sc. (Tech., Associate Professor,
Full Text Available Summary. Raising of problem. The article dedicated to the solution important problems of choosing rational technical and economic indicators of the duration and cost the process heat insulation facades of buildings by means of experimental and statistical modeling organizational and technological solutions. For this we used the results of numerical experiment, theory a shorthand experiment planning and contemporary computer programs. Purpose. We used experimentally-statistical modeling to establish the impact of organizational and technological solutions for heat insulation of facades by hinged ventilated systems on technical and economic parameters of the project, such as duration and cost. Conclusion. We investigated depending duration assembly jobs and manufacturing cost on the value and combination of variable factors experimental and statistical modeling of construction processes and results patterns of change in studied parameters.
Full Text Available he specifically multidisciplinary approach employed in the present paper is motivated by the validity of Engel’s sociological laws, the usefulness of the elasticity of the population’s food products demand according to income, the statistical association between the contraction of the share of expenditures for these goods and the expansion of economy development, and the consistent assessment of the trends in population well-being, in keeping with the research of family budgets, focusing on the case of Romania in the last century. The introduction is devoted to the statistical, economic and sociological tools for assessing economic development and the trends in well-being. The first section describes the weighting coefficients in the universe of interpret indexes, and the second presents the methodology relating to a secular instrument of assessing the degree of economic development and the synthetic evaluation of the trends of well-being in Romania, in parallel to a number of maximum and minimum (European and international trends. The results presented, and the discussion caused by the statistical confrontation of that statistical, economic and sociological information, embrace, with the conclusions, the attempt made by the whole of the paper, to round up, by means of this tool, a necessary set of secular or Schumpeterian indicators, harmonized and comparable, of the GDP/capita type, or such as cost of life index, consumer price index, public and external debt, etc.; such already constructed indicators contribute to delineating the historical and macro-behavioural specificity of such an economy in Eastern Europe as that of Romania.
Palley, Paul D; Parcero, Miriam E
A review of literature in the calendar year 2015 dedicated to environmental policies and sustainable development, and economic policies. This review is divided into these sections: sustainable development, irrigation, ecosystems and water management, climate change and disaster risk management, economic growth, water supply policies, water consumption, water price regulation, and water price valuation.
Kimberly M Fornace
Full Text Available Small-scale commercial poultry production is emerging as an important form of livestock production in Africa, providing sources of income and animal protein to many poor households, yet the occurrence and impact of coccidiosis on this relatively new production system remains unknown. The primary objective of this study was to examine Eimeria parasite occurrence on small-scale commercial poultry farms in Ghana, Tanzania and Zambia. Additionally, farm economic viability was measured by calculating the farm gross margin and enterprise budget. Using these economic measures as global assessments of farm productivity, encompassing the diversity present in regional husbandry systems with a measure of fundamental local relevance, we investigated the detection of specific Eimeria species as indicators of farm profitability. Faecal samples and data on production parameters were collected from small-scale (less than 2,000 birds per batch intensive broiler and layer farms in peri-urban Ghana, Tanzania and Zambia. All seven Eimeria species recognised to infect the chicken were detected in each country. Furthermore, two of the three genetic variants (operational taxonomic units identified previously in Australia have been described outside of Australia for the first time. Detection of the most pathogenic Eimeria species associated with decreased farm profitability and may be considered as an indicator of likely farm performance. While a causal link remains to be demonstrated, the presence of highly pathogenic enteric parasites may pose a threat to profitable, sustainable small-scale poultry enterprises in Africa.
Fornace, Kimberly M.; Clark, Emily L.; Macdonald, Sarah E.; Namangala, Boniface; Karimuribo, Esron; Awuni, Joseph A.; Thieme, Olaf; Blake, Damer P.; Rushton, Jonathan
Small-scale commercial poultry production is emerging as an important form of livestock production in Africa, providing sources of income and animal protein to many poor households, yet the occurrence and impact of coccidiosis on this relatively new production system remains unknown. The primary objective of this study was to examine Eimeria parasite occurrence on small-scale commercial poultry farms in Ghana, Tanzania and Zambia. Additionally, farm economic viability was measured by calculating the farm gross margin and enterprise budget. Using these economic measures as global assessments of farm productivity, encompassing the diversity present in regional husbandry systems with a measure of fundamental local relevance, we investigated the detection of specific Eimeria species as indicators of farm profitability. Faecal samples and data on production parameters were collected from small-scale (less than 2,000 birds per batch) intensive broiler and layer farms in peri-urban Ghana, Tanzania and Zambia. All seven Eimeria species recognised to infect the chicken were detected in each country. Furthermore, two of the three genetic variants (operational taxonomic units) identified previously in Australia have been described outside of Australia for the first time. Detection of the most pathogenic Eimeria species associated with decreased farm profitability and may be considered as an indicator of likely farm performance. While a causal link remains to be demonstrated, the presence of highly pathogenic enteric parasites may pose a threat to profitable, sustainable small-scale poultry enterprises in Africa. PMID:24391923
Fornace, Kimberly M; Clark, Emily L; Macdonald, Sarah E; Namangala, Boniface; Karimuribo, Esron; Awuni, Joseph A; Thieme, Olaf; Blake, Damer P; Rushton, Jonathan
Small-scale commercial poultry production is emerging as an important form of livestock production in Africa, providing sources of income and animal protein to many poor households, yet the occurrence and impact of coccidiosis on this relatively new production system remains unknown. The primary objective of this study was to examine Eimeria parasite occurrence on small-scale commercial poultry farms in Ghana, Tanzania and Zambia. Additionally, farm economic viability was measured by calculating the farm gross margin and enterprise budget. Using these economic measures as global assessments of farm productivity, encompassing the diversity present in regional husbandry systems with a measure of fundamental local relevance, we investigated the detection of specific Eimeria species as indicators of farm profitability. Faecal samples and data on production parameters were collected from small-scale (less than 2,000 birds per batch) intensive broiler and layer farms in peri-urban Ghana, Tanzania and Zambia. All seven Eimeria species recognised to infect the chicken were detected in each country. Furthermore, two of the three genetic variants (operational taxonomic units) identified previously in Australia have been described outside of Australia for the first time. Detection of the most pathogenic Eimeria species associated with decreased farm profitability and may be considered as an indicator of likely farm performance. While a causal link remains to be demonstrated, the presence of highly pathogenic enteric parasites may pose a threat to profitable, sustainable small-scale poultry enterprises in Africa.
Full Text Available Modern society is characterised not only by a fascination with scientific technology as a means of solving all problems, especially those that stand in the way of material progress (technicism, but also by an obsessive interest in everything that has to do with money (economism or mammonism. The article discusses the relationship between technicism and economism, on the basis of their relationship to utilitarian thinking: the quest for the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people. Recent major studies of neo-liberalism (seen as an intensification of utilitarianism by Laval and Dardot are used as reference to the development of utilitarianism. It is suggested that the western view of the world, as expressed in economism and technicism, with a utilitarian ethics, features three absolutisations: those of theoretical thinking, technology and economics. In a second part, the article draws on the framework of reformational philosophy to suggest an approach that, in principle, is not marred by such absolutisations.
Mutter, J. C.; Deraniyagala, S.; Mara, V.; Marinova, S.
The study of the socio-economic impacts of natural disasters is still in its infancy. Social scientists have historically regarded natural disasters as exogenous or essentially random perturbations. More recent scholarship treats disaster shocks as endogenous, with pre-existing social, economic and political conditions determining the form and magnitude of disaster impacts. One apparently robust conclusion is that direct economic losses from natural disasters, similar to human losses, are larger (in relative terms) the poorer a country is, yet cross-country regressions show that disasters may accrue economic benefits due to new investments in productive infrastructure, especially if the investment is funded by externally provided capital (Work Bank assistance, private donations, etc) and do not deplete national savings or acquire a debt burden. Some econometric studies also show that the quality of a country's institutions can mitigate the mortality effects of a disaster. The effects on income inequality are such that the poor suffer greater 'asset shocks' and may never recover from a disaster leading to a widening of existing disparities. Natural disasters affect women more adversely than men in terms of life expectancy at birth. On average they kill more women than men or kill women at a younger age than men, and the more so the stronger the disaster. The extent to which women are more likely to die than men or to die at a younger age from the immediate disaster impact or from post-disaster events depends not only on disaster strength itself but also on the socioeconomic status of women in the affected country. Existing research on the economic effects of disasters focus almost exclusively on the impact on economic growth - the growth rate of GDP. GDP however is only a partial indicator of welfare, especially for countries that are in the lower ranks of development status. Very poor communities are typically involved in subsistence level activities or in the
De Stefano, Lucia; Petersen-Perlman, Jacob; Sproles, Eric; Eynard, James; Wolf, Aaron T.
Globally 286 river basins extend across international borders, covering over 61.9 million km2 of the earth's surface and hosting a total of approximately 2.7 billion people. In these basins, transboundary water resources support an interdependent web of environmental, political, and economic systems that can enhance or destabilize a region. We present an integrated global-scale assessment of transboundary watersheds to identify regions more likely to experience hydro-political tensions over the next decade and beyond based upon environmental, political, and economic indicators. We combine NASA's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) measurements of changes in terrestrial water storage with metrics of projected climate change impacts on water variability, the institutional capacity of countries to manage shared water resources, the development of new water infrastructure, per capita gross national income, domestic and international armed conflicts, and recent history of disputes over transboundary waters. The construction of new water-related infrastructure is on-going or planned in many basins worldwide. New water infrastructure is foreseen also in areas where instruments of international cooperation are still absent or limited in scope, e.g. in Southeast Asia, South Asia, Central America, the northern part of the South American continent, and the southern Balkans as well as in different parts of Africa. Moreover, in Central and Eastern Africa, the Middle East, and Central, South and South-East Asia there is a concomitance of several political, environmental and socioeconomic factors that could exacerbate hydropolitical tensions. Our analysis integrates political, economic and environmental metrics and is part of the United Nation's Transboundary Waters Assessment Programme to provide the first global-scale assessment of its type.
Boris Vadimovich Digas
economic development of Russia and the indicators of their ecological efficiency. Calculations show that Russia has reserves allowing its participation in the nature protection initiatives consisting in the non-exceedance of the emissions levels of 1990 by 2020−2025. At the same time, a goal of increasing the ecological efficiency of the Russian gross domestic product is relevant and demands to address this matter urgently. We suppose that modelling results may be in demand by the competent bodies taking managerial decisions.
Boris Vadimovich Digas
Full Text Available One of the most relevant issues of the day is the forecasting problem of climatic changes and mitigation of their consequences. The official point of view reflected in the Climate doctrine of the Russian Federation consists in the recognition of the need of the development of the state approach to the climatic problems and related issues on the basis of the comprehensive scientific analysis of ecological, economic and social factors. For this purpose, the integrated estimation models of interdisciplinary character are attracted. Their functionality is characterized by the possibility of construction and testing of various dynamic scenarios of complex systems. The main purposes of the computing experiments described in the article are a review of the consequences of hypothetical participation of Russia in initiatives for greenhouse gas reduction as the Kyoto Protocol and approbation of one of the calculation methods of the green GDP representing the efficiency of environmental management in the modelling. To implement the given goals, the MERGE optimization model is used, its classical version is intended for the quantitative estimation of the application results of nature protection strategies. The components of the model are the eco-power module, climatic module and the module of loss estimates. In the work, the main attention is paid to the adaptation of the MERGE model to a current state of the world economy in the conditions of a complicated geopolitical situation and introduction of a new component to the model, realizing a simplified method for calculation the green GDP. The Project of scenario conditions and the key macroeconomic forecast parameters of the socio-economic development of Russia for 2016 and the schedule date of 2017−2018 made by the Ministry of Economic Development of the Russian Federation are used as a basic source of entrance data for the analysis of possible trajectories of the economic development of Russia and the
Theou, Olga; Brothers, Thomas D.; Rockwood, Michael R.; Haardt, David; Mitnitski, Arnold; Rockwood, Kenneth
Background: on an individual level, lower-income has been associated with disability, morbidity and death. On a population level, the relationship of economic indicators with health is unclear. Objective: the purpose of this study was to evaluate relative fitness and frailty in relation to national income and healthcare spending, and their relationship with mortality. Design and setting: secondary analysis of data from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE); a longitudinal population-based survey which began in 2004. Subjects: a total of 36,306 community-dwelling people aged 50 and older (16,467 men; 19,839 women) from the 15 countries which participated in the SHARE comprised the study sample. A frailty index was constructed as the proportion of deficits present in relation to the 70 deficits available in SHARE. The characteristics of the frailty index examined were mean, prevalence of frailty and proportion of the fittest group. Results: the mean value of the frailty index was lower in higher-income countries (0.16 ± 0.12) than in lower-income countries (0.20 ± 0.14); the overall mean frailty index was negatively correlated with both gross domestic product (r = −0.79; P < 0.01) and health expenditure (r = −0.63; P < 0.05). Survival in non-frail participants at 24 months was not associated with national income (P = 0.19), whereas survival in frail people was greater in higher-income countries (P < 0.05). Conclusions: a country's level of frailty and fitness in adults aged 50+ years is strongly correlated with national economic indicators. In higher-income countries, not only is the prevalence of frailty lower, but frail people also live longer. PMID:23443511
Willemen, L.; Scheldeman, X.; Soto Cabellos, V.; Salazar, S.R.; Guarino, L.
This study evaluates quantitatively the suitability of the use of site-specific socio-economic and environmental data as indicators to rapidly assess patterns of diversity and genetic erosion risk in cassava. Socio-economic data as well as farmers¿ estimation of genetic erosion were collected in the
The effect of information processing technology on its economic indicators in the oil industry. O vliyanii tekhnologii obrabotki informatsii na yeye ekonomicheskiye pokazateli v usloviyakh neftyanoy promyshlennosti
Obidnov, B I; Maksimova, T N
The issues of the dependence of the economic indicators of information acquisition in the oil industry on its processing technology are examined. Different variants in a technology for processing information are examined and the characteristics for increasing the cost of information within an oil extracting enterprise are analyzed in detail. The economic indicators of information providing it is processed in a computer center are also disclosed.
Huertas, Stella M; van Eerdenburg, Frank; Gil, Andrés; Piaggio, José
The objective of this work was to characterize bruises in bovine carcasses in Uruguay and to evaluate the economic impact. Thirteen abattoirs were visited during 2 years and bruises were identified, classified, and quantified by zone and degree (depth and size). One hundred carcasses were separated and bruises were cut out and weighed separately. From a total of 15 157 carcasses observed, 60.0% had at least one bruise; 42.0% of these had bruises on both sides. The expensive butt zone was the most damaged, followed by rib, shoulder and loin, respectively. The mean weight and standard error of the condemned trimmed meat was 1602 ± 212 g. It suppose a loss of 899 g per animal slaugtered in Uruguay. In a country sending 2.5 million heads of cattle to be slaughter yearly, this indicates an important financial loss. Improving transport conditions and personnel skills will probably result in a better welfare for the animals as well as better financial profit.
Råberg, Marte; Kumar, Bernadette; Holmboe-Ottesen, Gerd; Wandel, Margareta
To investigate how socio-economic position, demographic factors, degree of integration and dietary indicators are related to BMI/waist:hip ratio (WHR) and to weight dissatisfaction and slimming among South Asians in Oslo, Norway. Cross-sectional study consisting of a health check including anthropometric measures and two self-administered questionnaires. Oslo, Norway. Pakistanis and Sri Lankans (n 629), aged 30-60 years, residing in Oslo. BMI was positively associated with female gender (P = 0.004) and Pakistani origin (P integration (measured by a composite index, independent of duration of residence; P = 0.017). One-third of those with normal weight and most of those obese were dissatisfied with their weight. Among these, about 40 % had attempted to slim during the past year. Dissatisfaction with weight was positively associated with education in women (P = 0.006) and with integration in men (P = 0.026), and inversely associated with physical activity (P = 0.044) in men. Women who had made slimming attempts had breakfast and other meals less frequently than others (P < 0.05). Weight dissatisfaction exists among South Asian immigrants. More research is needed regarding bodily dissatisfaction and the relationship between perception of weight and weight-change attempts among immigrants in Norway, in order to prevent and treat both obesity and eating disorders.
Firk, Frank W K
It is shown that the R-matrix theory of nuclear reactions is a viable mathematical theory for the description of the fine, intermediate and gross structure observed in the time-dependence of economic indices in general, and the daily Dow Jones Industrial Average in particular. A Lorentzian approximation to R-matrix theory is used to analyze the complex structures observed in the Dow Jones Industrial Average on a typical trading day. Resonant structures in excited nuclei are characterized by the values of their fundamental strength function, (average total width of the states)/(average spacing between adjacent states). Here, values of the ratios (average lifetime of individual states of a given component of the daily Dow Jones Industrial Average)/(average interval between the adjacent states) are determined. The ratios for the observed fine and intermediate structure of the index are found to be essentially constant throughout the trading day. These quantitative findings are characteristic of the highly statistical nature of many-body, strongly interacting systems, typified by daily trading. It is therefore proposed that the values of these ratios, determined in the first hour-or-so of trading, be used to provide valuable information concerning the likely performance of the fine and intermediate components of the index for the remainder of the trading day
Neves, Fabio Rodrigues; Schiozer, Denis J. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Engenharia de Petroleo; Suslick, Saul B. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias
The decision of a firm to make investments on petroleum fields depends on the expected economic performance and on the firm economics context and on country economic and regulatory constraints. Traditionally, the Net Present Value (NPV) has being used for decision criterion as a measure of profitability of investments. The other indicators are used to help investment decision, because, according to the priorities established by the firm, only one indicator may not be sufficient. On this paper we will show production strategies considering a set of economic indicators: NPV, actualized Np, Return on investment (ROI), Equivalent Present Value (EPV), Cost Benefit, and NPV/Np ratio. The use of different economic indicators permits capture different aspects from in a decision process, i.e., each indicator or a set of economic measures may result in a different perspective, that will influence the decision manager. It is important to emphasize the use of more than one indicators may been advantageous, mainly on oil reservoirs that present high level of uncertainties. The presented application is related to the choice of the production strategy of a petroleum field. The indicators are used to evaluate the performance of the field and of the production and injection wells. A sensitivity analysis was performed in order to show the use of indicators on uncertain scenarios (oil prices, taxes, etc). The results show that the use of various indicators proportionate a decision taking with a lesser risk, as well as makes possible to capture other project characteristics which not always can be represented by the traditional use of NPV. (author)
Polshkov Yulian M.
Full Text Available The article considers data on the gross domestic product, consumer expenditures, gross investments and volume of foreign trade for the national economy. It is assumed that time is a discrete variable with one year iteration. The article uses finite-difference equations. It considers models with a high degree of the regulatory function of the state with respect to the consumer market. The econometric component is based on the hypothesis that each of the above said macro-economic indicators for this year depends on the gross domestic product for the previous time periods. Such an assumption gives a possibility to engage the least-squares method for building up linear models of the pair regression. The article obtains the time series model, which allows building point and interval forecasts for the gross domestic product for the next year based on the values of the gross domestic product for the current and previous years. The article draws a conclusion that such forecasts could be considered justified at least in the short-term prospect. From the mathematical point of view the built model is a heterogeneous finite-difference equation of the second order with constant ratios. The article describes specific features of such equations. It illustrates graphically the analytical view of solutions of the finite-difference equation. This gives grounds to differentiate national economies as sustainable growth economies, one-sided, weak or being in the stage of successful re-formation. The article conducts comparison of the listed types with specific economies of modern states.
The experiences and lessons taken from the global economic crisis should serve as a basis for changing the current economic model with a new one in order the economy of the country to catch a connection with the intense changes that are expected to occur in the coming period. It is expected that creating new economic model in Republic of Macedonia will result in multiple positive effects that primarily manifested in the increasing number of newly small and medium enterprises, domestic investments, industrial production, GDP, number of new employees and total exports as well as in reduction of the trade deficit in maintaining macroeconomic stability of the country.
Social and economic vulnerability indicators for oil exporting countries: methodology and comparison analysis; Indicadores de vulnerabilidade socioeconomica para paises exportadores de petroleo: metodologia e analise comparativa
Jesus, Fernanda Delgado de
The oil exporting countries can be vulnerable to this row-material as the oil importing ones, due to their social economic dependence of the revenues generated by the oil and gas sector. So, it is also important for those countries the analysis of their social economic vulnerability in order to contribute for the comprehension of their real actions related to their production strategies, aiming to affect oil price and market-share. Due to that, this thesis proposes a methodology based on social economic indicators of oil exporting countries, which will enclose the following aspects: physical, productive, commercial, macro economic, fiscal and social. These indicators will be applied to the OPEC members, Norway and Mexico, and orientated through a normalized scale as in a multicriteria methodology (AHP - Analytic Hierarchy Process). The analyzed results will drive the social economic implications, and the studied countries will be classified in a scale that goes from very favorable to very unfavorable. The results point the main social economic fragilities of the oil exporting countries, designing pathways to Brazil and their possible exporting ambitions. The most important considerations that became from the vulnerable oil export countries experiences refers to the necessity to straight and increases their macro economic foundations, industrial diversification incentives and the creation of an stabilization fund (based on oil revenues) for the future generations, or to severe oil prices oscillations periods in the international market (author)
Claire Donovan; Linda Butler
Applying ‘standard’ publication and citation measures to the social sciences is fast becoming an outmoded practice, yet we have still to develop credible quantitative alternatives to inform research evaluation exercises. This paper reports the outcomes of a comparative pilot study of five Australian economics departments which tested data produced using novel bibliometric, esteem, and ‘user engagement’ measures. The results were presented to a group of expert peers drawn from the economics gr...
Full Text Available The European economic crisis has brought economic hardship and prolonged instability to many countries in the European Union. While economies are struggling to recover, citizens have opted to become more vocal unconventionally. Mass protest, public occupations and demonstrations have dominated Europe. Yet, numbers of people choosing to protest need to be assessed to verify whether the economic recession is indeed responsible for a surge in protest activism on the continent. With the use of multiple rounds from the European Social Survey (2006-2012, this article tests the hypothesis linking unconventional political behavior in Europe to the economy. Findings suggest that overall European protest levels are not higher after the crisis, although confrontational activism has spiked in few countries. Economic variables retain instead an important role in the explanation of protest in the post-recession era, with both objective and subjective economic measures supporting a grievance theory explanation of why Europeans protest. Economic decline matters in the selection of protest as a mode of political participation.
Huertas, S.M.; van Eerdenburg, F.J.C.M.; Gil, A.; Piaggio, J.M.
The objective of this work was to characterize bruises in bovine carcasses in Uruguay and to evaluate the economic impact. Thirteen abattoirs were visited during 2 years and bruises were identified, classified, and quantified by zone and degree (depth and size). One hundred carcasses were separated
The U.S. Human Well-being Index (HWBI) is a composite measure that incorporates economic, environmental, and societal well-being elements through the eight domains of connection to nature, cultural fulfillment, education, health, leisure time, living standards, safety and securit...
Dymond, John R.; Davie, Tim J. A.; Fenemor, Andrew D.; Ekanayake, Jagath C.; Knight, Ben R.; Cole, Anthony O.; de Oca Munguia, Oscar Montes; Allen, Will J.; Young, Roger G.; Basher, Les R.; Dresser, Marc; Batstone, Chris J.
Can we develop land use policy that balances the conflicting views of stakeholders in a catchment while moving toward long term sustainability? Adaptive management provides a strategy for this whereby measures of catchment performance are compared against performance goals in order to progressively improve policy. However, the feedback loop of adaptive management is often slow and irreversible impacts may result before policy has been adapted. In contrast, integrated modelling of future land use policy provides rapid feedback and potentially improves the chance of avoiding unwanted collapse events. Replacing measures of catchment performance with modelled catchment performance has usually required the dynamic linking of many models, both biophysical and socio-economic—and this requires much effort in software development. As an alternative, we propose the use of variable environmental intensity (defined as the ratio of environmental impact over economic output) in a loose coupling of models to provide a sufficient level of integration while avoiding significant effort required for software development. This model construct was applied to the Motueka Catchment of New Zealand where several biophysical (riverine water quantity, sediment, E. coli faecal bacteria, trout numbers, nitrogen transport, marine productivity) models, a socio-economic (gross output, gross margin, job numbers) model, and an agent-based model were linked. An extreme set of land use scenarios (historic, present, and intensive) were applied to this modelling framework. Results suggest that the catchment is presently in a near optimal land use configuration that is unlikely to benefit from further intensification. This would quickly put stress on water quantity (at low flow) and water quality ( E. coli). To date, this model evaluation is based on a theoretical test that explores the logical implications of intensification at an unlikely extreme in order to assess the implications of likely growth
Li, Jing; Huang, Lu; Yan, Li Jiao
Three economic patterns, i.e., Zhujiang Model, Wenzhou Model and Sunan Model, were all generated in the developed areas of China. Sustainability assessment of those areas plays an important role in guiding future development of the economy of China. Genuine progress indicator (GPI) was adopted in this study to evaluate the sustainability of 6 typical cities (Guangzhou, Shenzhen, Wenzhou, Suzhou, Wuxi, and Changzhou) of the three economic patterns from 1995 to 2012. During the study period, the values of GDP for the six cities had experienced exponential growth, while the values of GPI started to increase since 2005 after a relatively constant period between 1995 and 2005. The gap between GPI and GDP had been widening from a historical perspective. Zhujiang Model made great progress in economic growth, however, the economic, social, and environmental costs were evident. It should tackle income inequality, traffic jam, and environmental pollution to reach sustainability. The development of Wenzhou Model slowed down in the late pe-riod, with inadequate potential to develop. Its income inequality was tough, social and economic development was slow, and the economic development pattern needed to be urgently changed. Sunan Model had a higher value of GPI and the potential to reach sustainability, with remarkable growth of economy, median level of the GPI costs, and steady improvement of social development, although its natural resources were depleted. Three economic patterns should focus on the three dimensions of sustainability (economy, environment, and society), and Zhujiang Model and Wenzhou Model needed to be more active to search for transition of their development.
Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the effects of macro-economic factors on the performance of stocks listed on Tehran Stock Exchange (TSE. The proposed study considers the effects of money supply, inflation rate, oil price, unforeseen changes in the course structure of interest rates as well as unanticipated changes in industrial production on stock price. Using seasonal information of stock price over the period 1997-2007 as well as regression analysis, the study has determined that risk premium of unforeseen changes in the course structure of interest rates, money supply, inflation rate and unanticipated changes in industrial production are meaningful when the level of significance is five percent. In other words, Arbitrage pricing theory model describing the expected return per share is reasonable and macro-level variables explain systematic risk on TSE.
Roberts, Derek J; Das, Debanjana; Mercado, Michelle; Vis, Christine; Kortbeek, John B; Kirkpatrick, Andrew W; Ball, Chad G
Injury epidemiology fluctuates with economic activity in many countries. These relationships remain unclear in Canada. The annual risk of admission for major injury (Injury Severity Score ≥12) to a high-volume, level-1 Canadian trauma center was compared with indicators of economic activity over a 16-year period using linear regression. An increased risk of injured patient admissions was associated with rising mean gross domestic product (GDP [millions of chained 2002 dollars]) (.36 person increase per 100,000 population/$1,000 increase in GDP; P = .001) and annual gasoline prices (.47 person increase per 100,000 population/cent increase in gasoline price; P = .001). Recreation-related vehicle injuries were also associated with economic affluence. The risk of trauma patient mortality with increasing mean annual GDP (P = .72) and gasoline prices (P = .32) remained unchanged. Hospital admissions for major injury, but not trauma patient mortality, were associated with economic activity in a large Canadian health care region. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Neupane, Subas; Bray, Freddie; Auvinen, Anssi
Macroeconomic indicators are likely associated with prostate cancer (PCa) incidence and mortality globally, but have rarely been assessed. Data on PCa incidence in 2003-2007 for 49 countries with either nationwide cancer registry or at least two regional registries were obtained from Cancer Incidence in Five Continents Vol X and national PCa mortality for 2012 from GLOBOCAN 2012. We compared PCa incidence and mortality rates with various population-level indicators of health, economy and development in 2000. Poisson and linear regression methods were used to quantify the associations. PCa incidence varied more than 15-fold, being highest in high-income countries. PCa mortality exhibited less variation, with higher rates in many low- and middle-income countries. Healthcare expenditure (rate ratio, RR 1.46, 95 % CI 1.45-1.47) and population growth (RR 1.15, 95 % CI 1.14-1.16), as well as computer and mobile phone density, were associated with a higher PCa incidence, while gross domestic product, GDP (RR 0.94, 95 % CI 0.93-0.95) and overall mortality (RR 0.72, 95 % CI 0.71-0.73) were associated with a low incidence. GDP (RR 0.55, 95 % CI 0.46-0.66) was also associated with a low PCa mortality, while life expectancy (RR 3.93, 95 % CI 3.22-4.79) and healthcare expenditure (RR 1.20, 95 % CI 1.09-1.32) were associated with an elevated mortality. Our results show that healthcare expenditure and, thus, the availability of medical resources are an important contributor to the patterns of international variation in PCa incidence. This suggests that there is an iatrogenic component in the current global epidemic of PCa. On the other hand, higher healthcare expenditure is associated with lower PCa death rates.
Ravagnani, Ana Teresa Gaspar; Munoz Mazo, Eduin; Schiozer, Denis [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Petroleo. Lab. de Simulacao de Fluxo em Meios Porosos (UNISIM)
This work presents a case study consisting of a synthetic offshore field in deep water and 28 deg API oil representing a gas solution model with water injection without gas cap. Several alternatives of strategies are proposed, regarding different configurations and number of wells, besides different limits of injection and production rates, as well as, completion layers. The objective is to show that different strategies can be obtained according to the indicator chosen by the decision maker. Even when the Net Present Value (NPV) is a very used indicator in the investment analysis, with the utilization of other technical-economical indicators, other investment alternatives different from those proposed when just VPL is utilized, can become feasible. Additionally, other aspects are analyzed, such as the possibility of changes in the production capacity with other oil prices levels. It is also proposed the production strategy optimization in this work, changing the time of production and the injection/production rate limits. (author)
Full Text Available To solve the problem of oil deficit and reduce emissions of harmful substances from exhaust gases of vehicles alternative motor fuels, including biodiesel may by used. Most of wheel tractors are used as technological transport in agriculture, industry and municipal services. The article aims to clarify the mathematical model to determine the effect of the type of fuel used wheeled tractors on its performance. The mathematical model of the system "operator-wheel tractor-road" for the design research impact type of fuel on harmful emissions and fuel consumption wheeled tractor, is used as technological transport during its movement for driving cycle. Driving cycle showed main modes of motion there are acceleration, motion with constant speed and deceleration. The mathematical model allows to accurately consider peculiarities of the wheel tractor as the vehicle and engine describing its characteristics by polinomial dependencies. In mathematical models specified polynomial dependences that describe the fuel supply cycle indicated torque, fuel consumption and concentrations of main harmful substances in the exhaust gases of diesel during operation on diesel and biodiesel.
Pope, Ronald; Wu, Jianguo
In the United States, air pollution is primarily measured by Air Quality Monitoring Networks (AQMN). These AQMNs have multiple objectives, including characterizing pollution patterns, protecting the public health, and determining compliance with air quality standards. In 2006, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency issued a directive that air pollution agencies assess the performance of their AQMNs. Although various methods to design and assess AQMNs exist, here we demonstrate a geographic information system (GIS)-based approach that combines environmental, economic, and social indicators through the assessment of the ozone (O3) and particulate matter (PM10) networks in Maricopa County, Arizona. The assessment was conducted in three phases: (1) to evaluate the performance of the existing networks, (2) to identify areas that would benefit from the addition of new monitoring stations, and (3) to recommend changes to the AQMN. A comprehensive set of indicators was created for evaluating differing aspects of the AQMNs' objectives, and weights were applied to emphasize important indicators. Indicators were also classified according to their sustainable development goal. Our results showed that O3 was well represented in the county with some redundancy in terms of the urban monitors. The addition of weights to the indicators only had a minimal effect on the results. For O3, urban monitors had greater social scores, while rural monitors had greater environmental scores. The results did not suggest a need for adding more O3 monitoring sites. For PM10, clustered urban monitors were redundant, and weights also had a minimal effect on the results. The clustered urban monitors had overall low scores; sites near point sources had high environmental scores. Several areas were identified as needing additional PM10 monitors. This study demonstrates the usefulness of a multi-indicator approach to assess AQMNs. Network managers and planners may use this method to assess the
Neubert, Nicole; Bruder, Ralph; Toledo, Begoña
The importance of ergonomic workplace design has been rising incredibly. The knowledge of the interaction with a view to many indicators (e.g. operators' health, quality, productivity etc.) in the automotive assembly shop pushed into another thinking of ergonomics and an increasing awareness of economic possibilities relating to benefits and cost savings aligned with ergonomics. The paper discusses exemplary the various indicators and factors which could be influenced by ergonomic workplace design. These factors are linked each other and support the statement of ergonomic efficiency. Thus, the aim of this paper is to present a model which describes that investments in ergonomic work placement acts with preventive measurements, minimization of losses (refinishing operations, compensation money etc.) and extensive economies on the whole company.
The research focuses on the monitoring of trace metals and pharmaceuticals as potential anthropogenic indicators of industrial and urban influences on surface water in poorly gauged transboundary Ukraine/Russia region. This study includes analysis of tracers use for the indication of water pollution events, including controlled and emerging discharges, and discussion of the detection method of these chemicals. The following criteria were proposed for the evaluation of indicators: specificity (physical chemical properties), variability (spatial and temporal) and practicality (capacity of the sampling and analytical techniques). The combination of grab and passive water sampling (i.e. DGT and POCIS) procedure was applied for the determination of dissolved and labile trace metals (Ag, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) and pharmaceuticals (carbamazepine, diazepam, paracetamol, caffeine, diclofenac and ketoprofen). Samples were analysed using ICP - MS (trace metals) and LC-MS/MS ESI +/- (pharmaceuticals). Our results demonstrate the distinctive spatial and temporal patterns of trace elements distribution along an urban watercourse. Accordingly, two general groups of trace metals have been discriminated: 'stable' (Cd and Cr) and 'time-varying' (Cu, Zn, Ni and Pb). The relationship Cd >> Cu > Ag > Cr ≥ Zn was proposed as an anthropogenic signature of the industrial and urban activities pressuring the environment from point sources (municipal wastewaters) and the group Pb - Ni was discussed as a relevant fingerprint of the economic activity (industry and transport) mainly from non-point sources (run-off, atmospheric depositions, etc.). Pharmaceuticals with contrasting hydro-chemical properties of molecules (water solubility, bioaccumulation, persistence during wastewater treatment processes) were discriminated on conservative, labile and with combined properties in order to provide information on wastewater treatment plant efficiency, punctual events (e.g. accidents on sewage
Meier, Frederick A; Badrick, Tony C; Sikaris, Kenneth A
For 50 years, structure, process, and outcomes measures have assessed health care quality. For clinical laboratories, structural quality has generally been assessed by inspection. For assessing process, quality indicators (QIs), statistical monitors of steps in the clinical laboratory total testing, have proliferated across the globe. Connections between structural and process laboratory measures and patient outcomes, however, have rarely been demonstrated. To inform further development of clinical laboratory quality systems, we conducted a selective but worldwide review of publications on clinical laboratory quality assessment. Some QIs, like seven generic College of American Pathologists Q-Tracks monitors, have demonstrated significant process improvement; other measures have uncovered critical opportunities to improve test selection and result management. The College of Pathologists of Australasia Key Indicator Monitoring and Management System has deployed risk calculations, introduced from failure mode effects analysis, as surrogate measures for outcomes. Showing economic value from clinical laboratory testing quality is a challenge. Clinical laboratories should converge on fewer (7-14) rather than more (21-35) process monitors; monitors should cover all steps of the testing process under laboratory control and include especially high-risk specimen-quality QIs. Clinical laboratory stewardship, the combination of education interventions among clinician test orderers and report consumers with revision of test order formats and result reporting schemes, improves test ordering, but improving result reception is more difficult. Risk calculation reorders the importance of quality monitors by balancing three probabilities: defect frequency, weight of potential harm, and detection difficulty. The triple approach of (1) a more focused suite of generic consensus quality indicators, (2) more active clinical laboratory testing stewardship, and (3) integration of formal
Mohanty, M. P.; Karmakar, S.; Ghosh, S.
Many countries across the Globe are victims of floods. To monitor them, various sophisticated algorithms and flood models are used by the scientific community. However, there still lies a gap to efficiently mapping flood risk. The limitations being: (i) scarcity of extensive data inputs required for precise flood modeling, (ii) fizzling performance of models in large and complex terrains (iii) high computational cost and time, and (iv) inexpertise in handling model simulations by civic bodies. These factors trigger the necessity of incorporating uncomplicated and inexpensive, yet precise approaches to identify areas at different levels of flood risk. The present study addresses this issue by utilizing various easily available, low cost data in a GIS environment for a large flood prone and data poor region. A set of geomorphic indicators of Digital Elevation Model (DEM) are analysed through linear binary classification, and are used to identify the flood hazard. The performance of these indicators is then investigated using receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve, whereas the calibration and validation of the derived flood maps are accomplished through a comparison with dynamically coupled 1-D 2-D flood model outputs. A high degree of similarity on flood inundation proves the reliability of the proposed approach in identifying flood hazard. On the other hand, an extensive list of socio-economic indicators is selected to represent the flood vulnerability at a very finer forward sortation level using multivariate Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). A set of bivariate flood risk maps is derived combining the flood hazard and socio-economic vulnerability maps. Given the acute problem of floods in developing countries, the proposed methodology which may be characterized by low computational cost, lesser data requirement and limited flood modeling complexity may facilitate local authorities and planners for deriving effective flood management strategies.
Yu. A. Zenovich-Leshkevich-Olpinskiy
Full Text Available The method of calculation of economic efficiency that can be universal and is suitable for feasibility study of modernization of irrigation and water distribution system of cooling towers has been developed. The method takes into account the effect of lower pressure exhaust steam in the condenser by lowering the temperature of the cooling water outlet of a cooling tower that aims at improvement of technical and economic indicators of heat power plants. The practical results of the modernization of irrigation and water distribution system of a cooling tower are presented. As a result, the application of new irrigation and water distribution systems of cooling towers will make it possible to increase the cooling efficiency by more than 4 оС and, therefore, to obtain the fuel savings by improving the vacuum in the turbine condensers. In addition, the available capacity of CHP in the summer period is increased. The results of the work, the experience of modernization of irrigation and water distribution systems of the Gomel CHP-2 cooling towers system, as well as the and methods of calculating of its efficiency can be disseminated for upgrading similar facilities at the power plants of the Belarusian energy system. Some measures are prosed to improve recycling systems, cooling towers and their structures; such measures might significantly improve the reliability and efficiency of technical water supply systems of heat power plants.
Łukowicz, Henryk; Mroncz, Marcin
This paper presents an analysis of the thermal cycle of a supercritical 900 MW_e condensing power plant which meets the “capture ready” requirements. The CO_2 separation method selected for the analysis is chemical absorption using MEA (monoethanolamine) or ammonia as sorbent. The indispensable scope of the turbine system upgrade necessitated by the incorporation of the carbon dioxide separation installation is proposed. The change in indices of the power unit operation after integration with the capture installation is presented for different variants of the retrofit. If MEA is used for carbon dioxide separation, the smallest drop in electric power can be observed in the case of hard coal for added stages at the intermediate pressure part outlet. In the case of lignite, the most favourable upgrade solution in terms of the smallest drop in electric power is elimination of one low pressure part and a backpressure turbine is added at the same time. If ammonia is used as sorbent, the best upgrade solution in terms of the smallest drop in electric power is the variant with more stages added at the IP part outlet, regardless of the type of fuel. An economic analysis is conducted for the proposed variants. - Highlights: • Impact of steam extraction on the turbine operation. • Adding more stages at the intermediate pressure part outlet. • Installing a backpressure turbine. • Eliminating one of the operating low pressure parts. • Economic assessment of proposed variants.
Spandre, Pierre; François, Hugues; Morin, Samuel; George-Marcelpoil, Emmanuelle; Lafaysse, Matthieu
Investigations of the capacity of ski resorts to anticipate, cope with and recover from the impact of natural snow scarcity through snow management (grooming, snowmaking) have been realized in most of the major regions in terms of international ski offer although not in the French Alps hitherto. The present work therefore introduces an innovative approach for the investigation of socio economic implications of changes in snow conditions for the French Alps ski resorts based on a panel of 129 resorts representing 96% of the total French Alps ski lifts infrastructures. We integrated detailed spatial representations of ski resorts (including priority areas for snowmaking equipment) along with physically based snowpack modelling (including the physical impact of grooming and snowmaking). The viability of ski resorts was further adressed thanks to a commonly used rule based on the snow season duration at the village and ski lifts average elevations along with the development of original viability indicators of snow conditions in the French Alps ski resorts based on the specific periods for the economic success of winter sports: Christmas and February school holidays. Such indicators were correlated to the number of ski lifts tickets sales over the 2001 - 2014 period and proved to be relevant to investigate and predict the evolutions of ski lifts tickets sales under the current ski market conditions in the French Alps. Our results outlined the contrast of snow conditions between French Alps ski resorts, even when accounting for snow management, particularly regarding the geographical location of resorts (Southern versus Northern Alps), the size and related elevation range of ski resorts. Our physically based approach also allowed to compute the water and energy requirements for the production of Machine Made snow since the start of the development of snowguns in the French Alps. Our computations proved to be strongly correlated to the observed amounts of water from the
Krishnan, Venkat; Das, Trishna
This paper presents a framework for optimally allocating storage technologies in a power system. This decision support tool helps in quantitatively answering the questions on “where to and how much to install” considering the profits from arbitrage opportunities in a co-optimized electricity market. The developed framework is illustrated on a modified IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) 24 bus RTS (Reliability Test System), and the framework finds the optimal allocation solution and the revenues storage earns at each of these locations. Bulk energy storage, CAES (compressed air energy storage) is used as the representative storage technology, and the benefits of optimally allocated storage integration onto the grid are compared with transmission expansion solution. The paper also discusses about system-level indicators to identify candidate locations for economical storage ventures, which are derived based on the optimal storage allocation solution; and applies the market price based storage venture indicators on MISO (Mid-continental Independent System Operator) and PJM (Pennsylvania-New Jersey-Maryland Interconnection) electricity markets. - Highlights: • Storage optimal allocation framework based on high-fidelity storage dispatch model. • Storage with transmission addresses energy and ancillary issues under high renewables. • Bulk storage earns higher revenues from co-optimization (∼10× energy only market). • Grid offers distributed opportunities for investing in a strategic mix of storage. • Storage opportunities depend on cross-arbitrage, as seen from MISO (Mid-continental Independent System Operator) and PJM (Pennsylvania-New Jersey-Maryland Interconnection) markets
A new Irish government came to power in March 2011 with the most radical proposals for health system reform in the history of the state, including improving access to healthcare, free GP care for all by 2015 and the introduction of Universal Health Insurance after 2016. All this was to be achieved amidst the most severe economic crisis experienced by Ireland since the 1930s. The authors assess how well the system coped with a downsizing of resources by an analysis of coverage and health system activity indicators. These show a health system that managed \\'to do more with less\\' from 2008 to 2012. They also demonstrate a system that was \\'doing more with less\\' by transferring the cost of care onto people and by significant resource cuts. From 2013, the indicators show a system that has no choice but \\'to do less with less\\' with diminishing returns from crude cuts. This is evident in declining numbers with free care, of hospital cases and home care hours, alongside increased wait-times and expensive agency staffing. The results suggest a limited window of benefit from austerity beyond which cuts and rationing prevail which is costly, in both human and financial terms.
Alwee, Razana; Shamsuddin, Siti Mariyam Hj; Sallehuddin, Roselina
Crimes forecasting is an important area in the field of criminology. Linear models, such as regression and econometric models, are commonly applied in crime forecasting. However, in real crimes data, it is common that the data consists of both linear and nonlinear components. A single model may not be sufficient to identify all the characteristics of the data. The purpose of this study is to introduce a hybrid model that combines support vector regression (SVR) and autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) to be applied in crime rates forecasting. SVR is very robust with small training data and high-dimensional problem. Meanwhile, ARIMA has the ability to model several types of time series. However, the accuracy of the SVR model depends on values of its parameters, while ARIMA is not robust to be applied to small data sets. Therefore, to overcome this problem, particle swarm optimization is used to estimate the parameters of the SVR and ARIMA models. The proposed hybrid model is used to forecast the property crime rates of the United State based on economic indicators. The experimental results show that the proposed hybrid model is able to produce more accurate forecasting results as compared to the individual models.
Full Text Available Crimes forecasting is an important area in the field of criminology. Linear models, such as regression and econometric models, are commonly applied in crime forecasting. However, in real crimes data, it is common that the data consists of both linear and nonlinear components. A single model may not be sufficient to identify all the characteristics of the data. The purpose of this study is to introduce a hybrid model that combines support vector regression (SVR and autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA to be applied in crime rates forecasting. SVR is very robust with small training data and high-dimensional problem. Meanwhile, ARIMA has the ability to model several types of time series. However, the accuracy of the SVR model depends on values of its parameters, while ARIMA is not robust to be applied to small data sets. Therefore, to overcome this problem, particle swarm optimization is used to estimate the parameters of the SVR and ARIMA models. The proposed hybrid model is used to forecast the property crime rates of the United State based on economic indicators. The experimental results show that the proposed hybrid model is able to produce more accurate forecasting results as compared to the individual models.
Full Text Available Este artigo tem como objetivo principal proporcionar o conhecimento para a compreensão do impacto da indústria química na economia brasileira. Para tanto, utiliza-se como uma das ferramentas essenciais o Sistema de Contas Nacionais (SCN do IBGE (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística, órgão federal produtor de estatísticas oficiais. Este sistema, através das suas Tabelas de Recursos e Usos, possibilita a geração de informações importantes para tomadas de decisões de empresas, governo e universidades/centros de pesquisa, através de uma visão econômica de produtos e atividades que fazem parte do sistema produtivo do país. No caso deste artigo, utiliza-se como exemplo o grupo das resinas, procurando-se demonstrar, seja pela ótica da oferta ou da demanda, o impacto destas na economia brasileira, através de alguns indicadores econômicos tais como: produção, consumo intermediário e importação.This article is aimed at analysing the impact of chemical industries on the Brazilian economy. One of essential tools for doing that in the Sistema de Contas Nacionais (System of National Accounts -- SCN of the Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística -- IBGE, the official federal statistics agency. The Input and Out-Put Tables in this system make it possible to generate information that can support the decision-making processes of companies, governments and universities/research centers, through providing an economic view of products and activities that comprise the country's production system. In this article, RESINS are the subject of analysis. Their impact on the Brazilian economy will be demonstrated, both from a supply and demand viewpoint, using a number of economic indicators, such as production, intermediate consumption and imports.
Kharabadze, M; Khetsuriani, R; Betaneli, M; Mekokishvili, L; Chkuaseli, N
The research has been held in the city and its villages among schoolgirls and schoolboys out of them are city (n=613) and village (n=241) residents. The body height and mass, was calculated according to standard methods. Also research based on questionnaires has been held .This research determines social-economic statement, physical activities and diets of students. Statistical processing of data was done with the help of statistic method ANOVA. Data compared to WHO child grows standard percentage-charts, and to percentile diagram made for georgian children and adolescents in 2001-2003. Concerning the height indexes stunting was noticed among the village resident girls at the age 9-14 (8,9%) and 9-11 year old boys (3,8%) and it also prevails among girls that require further researches to reveal reasons. Also the amount of law height index among girls and boys is high in the cities as well as villages although it prevails in the villages, mostly among boys (30, 8%). Comparing with village residents high height index prevails among the city resident boys (18,7%) and among girls (11, 9%), and higher than 97 percentile indexes is revealed among 4,9% of boys living in the city. Mass deficiency was reveled among the city girls 2,4 % and the village resident girls 5,1%; accordingly it is prevailed among girls living in the villages. Mass deficiency among the boys was only revealed among the city residents and it was 3,9 %. According to our data, decrease of the body mass average index is fixed among girls but among the boys it increase. and among 2,4% of girls. So village resident girls are shorter and thinner, but boys are short and overweight, comparing with the city residents. Research based on questionnaires showed that city resident school children food ration, whose social-economic condition is better, is rich with proteins, when majority of village residents food ration lack proteins and mostly consist of those products which are rich of carbohydrates. According to
Full Text Available This work presents the evolution for the main economic and financial indicators and the risk of bankruptcy for a company who is the most modern maritime - river port on the Danube, in the period 2009-2013. The evolution of the main economic and financial indicators in the last years 2009- 2013 is very dramatic, because Net profit margin (% decreased from 65.76% in 2009 at 9.93% in 2013 and after tax ROE (Return on Equity decreased from 6.69% in 2009 at 2.93% in 2013, so less than half. Bankruptcy risk has always been very important both for investors, for company managers, and for banking institutions and if this intensifies then it becomes a warning for them. Regression models can be used to explain relationships among economic and financial indicators.
Arnautov, O V
In accordance with the Treaty on the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU) to ensure the sanitary and epidemiological welfare of the population within the Union, a coordinated policy in agreed policy in the sphere of application of sanitary measures is carried out. Sanitary measures are the obligatory requirements and procedures, including requirements for the final product, processing methods, production, transportation, storage and disposal, sampling procedures, methods of research (tests), risk assessment, the state registration, requirements for packaging directly aimed at ensuring the safety of products (goods) in order to protect human welfare, and they should be applied on the basis having a scientific explanation, and only to the extent that is necessary to protect human welfare. Sanitary measures applied within the Union should be based on international and regional standards, guidelines and (or) the recommendations, except when they based on appropriate scientific studies and explanations. In this case sanitary measures which could provide a higher level of sanitary protection are introduced. At present, the mechanism of the development, justification and approval of common sanitary and epidemiological requirements (ESR) and procedures of the Eurasian Economic Commission (the Commission) is not installed. The absence of a clear mechanism for the development, approval and implementation of the ESR to the products (goods) on the basis having a scientific explanation on the one hand could lead to the creation of unjustified barriers to foreign and mutual trade, on the other--to weaken the level of safety for human life and health of products (goods) placed on markets of the Union. In order to bring the regulatory legal acts of the Customs Union in accordance with the Treaty on the Eurasian Economic Union the Commission in cooperation with the competent authorities of the Member States in the field of sanitary and epidemiological welfare developed the project of
Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to highlight the role of EVA – an indicator measuring the financial performance of a hotel company from the Romanian seaside. EVA is one of the most appreciated indicators in terms of achieving performance that involve all used resources; this indicator can be adopted for the decentralization of management decisions. In order to highlight the importance of the EVA assessment method, we performed a case study on a representative hotel company that gets positive financial results pursuant to conventional methods, aiming to outline the correlation between EVA and the traditional methods for performance assessment
Bellassen , Valentin; Giraud , Georges; Hilal , Mohamed; Arfini , Filippo; Barczak , Aleksandra; Bodini , Antonio; Brennan , Mary; DRUT , Marion; Duboys de Labarre , Matthieu; Gorton , Matthew; Hartmann , Monika; Majewski , Edward; Muller , Paul; Monier-Dilhan , Sylvette; Poméon , Thomas
The present methodological handbook provides the methodologies which will be applied in each work package of the Strength2Food project. In particular, it contains a list of indicators on how to assess sustainability in food and agro-food supply chains. This methodological handbook aims at facilitating the task for field studies, both proposing several prioritizations (indicator, variable, value chain level), detailing how we will combine relatively common variables (eg., number of animals per...
Background Physician prescribing is the most frequent medical intervention with a highest impact on healthcare costs and outcomes. Therefore improving and promoting rational drug use is a great interest. We aimed to assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of two forms of conducting prescribing audit and feedback interventions and a printed educational material intervention in improving physician prescribing. Method/design A four-arm randomized trial with economic evaluation will be conducted in Tehran. Three interventions (routine feedback, revised feedback, and printed educational material) and a no intervention control arm will be compared. Physicians working in outpatient practices are randomly allocated to one of the four arms using stratified randomized sampling. The interventions are developed based on a review of literature, physician interviews, current experiences in Iran and with theoretical insights from the Theory of Planned Behavior. Effects of the interventions on improving antibiotics and corticosteroids prescribing will be assessed in regression analyses. Cost data will be assessed from a health care provider’s perspective and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios will be calculated. Discussion This study will determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of three interventions and allow us to determine the most effective interventions in improving prescribing pattern. If the interventions are cost-effective, they will likely be applied nationwide. Trial registration Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials Registration Number: IRCT201106086740N1Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center of TUMS Ethics Committee Registration Number: 90-02-27-07 PMID:23351564
Full Text Available Currently world faces the dilemma – ecological economy or economic(al ecology. The researchers produce hundreds of surveys on the topic. However the analyses of recent most cited simulations had shown the diversity of results. Thus, for some states the Kuznets environmental curve has place, for others – no. Same could be said about different years for the same state. It provokes the necessity of drawing new group analyses to reveal the tendencies and relationships between economic and environmental factors. Most flexible and mirror factor of environmental sustainability is the volume of CO2 emissions. The econometric analysis was used for detecting the economic impact on this indicator at the global level and in the spectra of group of states depending on their income. The hypothesis of the existence of environmental Kuznets curve for the analysed data is rejected. Real GDP per capita impact on carbon dioxide emissions is considered only at the global level. The impact of openness of the economy is weak. Rejection happened also to the hypothesis that for the developed countries there is a reverse dependence between the environmental pollution and economic openness. Indicator “energy consumption per capita” impacts on greenhouse gas emissions only in countries with high income. Whereby it should be noted that the more developed a country is, the more elastic is this influence. These results have a potential usage for environmental policy regulation and climate strategy.
Full Text Available The economic dimension of copyright-based industries sector in Romania is becoming of higher interest, on the one hand, for policy-makers taking into consideration its increasing contribution to GDP, employment, foreign trade and investment and, on the other hand, as a multidimensional vector for social inclusion, increasing self-confidence, supporting better education in a globalised and multicultural world.The opening of the Romanian economy and society has contributed to higher employment in the creative activities. The new jobs - “high-knowledge jobs” in creative activities or in “non-creative industries” – have several features that could support higher performance. We underline the size and features of employment in the copyright-based industry sector and in core activities in Romania and some performance of labour force. On one hand, press freedom, the increase in the role of civil society, the elimination of censorship represented positive influence factors for new jobs creation in the cultural industries. In this way, the copyright-based industries have become a factor of tension reduction and increased flexibility on the labour market. On the other hand, there are big differences regarding the value of the operational profit per employee and its evolution in time among the core component industries. The analysis of the core copyright industries with respect to the size and evolution of the operational profit per employee, both in the overall sector and the component industries, led us to an interesting and useful classification of the core industries which could be helpful for better decision-making and copyright industries policies.
Mahanta, Lipi B; Choudhury, Manisha; Devi, Arundhuti; Bhattacharya, Arunima
Women, particularly pregnant women, are the most vulnerable population of the society and their health status is one of the major indicators of development. There were enough studies on pre pregnancy body mass index (IPBMI) and inadequate weight gain during pregnancy (IWGP) of women in other part of the world and India, but none in Assam. In Assam a large number of population are in the category of low socio-economic group, a group most vulnerable to under nutrition. Thus this study was framed with the said indicators to throw light on the factors affecting the health status of pregnant women to accordingly address the situation. A cross sectional study using multistage sampling design with probability proportional to size was made comprising of 461 pregnant women belonging to low socio-economic status. Responses regarding their socio-economic, socio-cultural, health, diet and environmental background were collected and coded. The study revealed that although IPBMI (34.06%) was slightly lower than the reported state, national and global percentage the revealed IWGP (82%) was an astounding figure. The blood samples analyzed showed a high degree of inadequacy in almost all micronutrients (iron 63.1%, calcium 49.5% and copper 39.9%) studied in our survey.
Mulhern, B; Rowen, D; Brazier, J; Smith, S; Romeo, R; Tait, R; Watchurst, C; Chua, K-C; Loftus, V; Young, T; Lamping, D; Knapp, M; Howard, R; Banerjee, S
Dementia is one of the most common and serious disorders in later life and the economic and personal cost of caring for people with dementia is immense. There is a need to be able to evaluate interventions in dementia using cost-effectiveness analyses, but the generic preference-based measures typically used to measure effectiveness do not work well in dementia. Existing dementia-specific measures can effectively measure health-related quality of life but in their current form cannot be used directly to inform cost-effectiveness analysis using quality-adjusted life-years as the measure of effectiveness. The aim was to develop two brief health-state classifications, one from DEMQOL and one from DEMQOL-Proxy, to generate health states amenable to valuation. These classification systems consisted of items taken from DEMQOL and DEMQOL-Proxy so they can be derived from any study that has used these instruments. In the first stage of the study we used a large, clinically representative sample aggregated from two sources: a sample of patients and carers attending a memory service in south London and a sample of patients and carers from other community services in south London. This included 644 people with a diagnosis of mild/moderate dementia and 689 carers of those with mild/moderate dementia. For the valuation study, the general population sample of 600 respondents was drawn to be representative of the UK general population. Households were sampled in urban and rural areas in northern England and balanced to the UK population according to geodemographic profiles. In the patient/carer valuation study we interviewed a sample of 71 people with mild dementia and 71 family carers drawn from a memory service in south London. Finally, the instruments derived were applied to data from the HTA-SADD (Study of Antidepressants for Depression in Dementia) trial. This was a complex multiphase study with four linked phases: phase 1 - derivation of the health-state classification
The subject is covered in sections: introduction (indicating the importance of 'back end' operations in the economics of nuclear power production); irradiated fuel transport costs in the UK (the Sizewell PWR; existing UK reactors); economic appraisal; past nuclear economics; future nuclear economics; (electricity demand; technological maturity; social and political factors; competition to nuclear power). (U.K.)
Gabriela Cristina FLOREA
Full Text Available Economic and Financial indicators are very important tools in the assessment of the economic entity's well-being. They Provide permanent monitoring of the significance of the issues related to the economic activity's deployment. The main Objectives tracked by the process of managing the company with the help of Economic and Financial indicators is the activity's continuity, ensuring liquidity and Achieving positive results.
Morrison, Wayne M
.... The Chinese government has indicated that it intends, over time, to create a "harmonious society" that would promote more balanced economic growth and address a number of economic and social issues...
Economic forecasts were produced and past trends were examined. Information was presented as a series of figures only, without accompanying text. Information provided included current exchange rates, economic growth, interest rates, housing starts, unemployment rates, personal savings rates and other economic indicators. 40 figs
B.M. Balk (Bert)
textabstractThe empirical measurement of productivity change (or difference) by means of indices and indicators starts with the ex post profit/loss accounts of a production unit. Key concepts are profit, leading to indicators, and profitability, leading to indices. The main task for the productivity
Optimising design and cost-effective implementation of future pan-African dietary studies: a review of existing economic integration and nutritional indicators for scenario-based profiling and clustering of countries.
Aglago, Elom K; Landais, Edwige; Zotor, Francis; Nicolas, Genevieve; Gunter, Marc J; Amuna, Paul; Slimani, Nadia
Most of the African countries are undergoing a complex nutrition and epidemiologic transition associated with a rapid increase in the prevalence of diverse non-communicable diseases. Despite this alarming situation, the still limited and fragmented resources available in Africa impede the implementation of effective action plans to tackle the current and projected diet-disease burden. In order to address these common needs and challenges, the African Union is increasingly supporting continental approaches and strategies as reflected in the launching of the Agenda 2063 and the African regional nutrition strategy 2015-2025, among others. To assure the successful implementation of pan-African nutritional and health initiatives, cost-effective approaches considering similarities/disparities in economy, regional integration, development and nutritional aspects between countries are needed. In the absence of pre-existing models, we reviewed regional economic integration and nutritional indicators (n 13) available in international organisations databases or governmental agencies websites, for fifty-two African countries. These indicators were used to map the countries according to common languages (e.g. Arabic, English, French, Portuguese), development status (e.g. human development index), malnutrition status (e.g. obesity) and diet (e.g. staples predominantly based on either cereals or tubers). The review of the indicators showed that there exist similarities between African countries that can be exploited to benefit the continent with cross-national experiences in order to avoid duplication of efforts in the implementation of future pan-African health studies. In addition, including present and future nutrition surveillance programmes in Africa into national statistical systems might be cost-effective and sustainable in the longer term.
Dall, O.; Lassen, C.; Hansen, E. [Cowi A/S, Lyngby (Denmark)
The Waste Indicator Project focuses on methods to evaluate the efficiency of waste management. The project proposes the use of three indicators for resource consumption, primary energy and landfill requirements, based on the life-cycle principles applied in the EDIP Project. Trial runs are made With the indicators on paper, glass packaging and aluminium, and two models are identified for mapping the Danish waste management, of which the least extensive focuses on real and potential savings. (au)
Dall, O.; Lassen, C.; Hansen, E.
The Waste Indicator Project focuses on methods to evaluate the efficiency of waste management. The project proposes the use of three indicators for resource consumption, primary energy and landfill requirements, based on the life-cycle principles applied in the EDIP Project. Trial runs are made With the indicators on paper, glass packaging and aluminium, and two models are identified for mapping the Danish waste management, of which the least extensive focuses on real and potential savings. (au)
In recent literature it has been suggested that consumers need have no knowledge of product quality as a number of quality indicators (or signals) may be used as substitutes. Very little attention has been paid to the empirical verification of these studies. The present paper is devoted...... to the issue of how well these indicators perform, using market data provided by consumer magazines from 3 countries. The results strongly indicate that price is a poor quality indicator. The paper also presents some evidence which suggests that seller reputation and easily observable characteristics are also...
This document summarizes the main 2002 energy indicators for France. A first table lists the evolution of general indicators between 1973 and 2002: energy bill, price of imported crude oil, energy independence, primary and final energy consumption. The main 2002 results are detailed separately for natural gas, petroleum and coal (consumption, imports, exports, production, stocks, prices). (J.S.)
武藤, 宣道; Nobumichi, MUTOH
This paper examines the new field of community economics with respect to Japan. A number of studies in community economics have already been produced in OECD countries including the United States. Although these are of great interest, each country has its own historical, socioeconomic context and must therefore develop its own approach to community economics. Community-oriented economics is neither macro-nor micro-economics in the standard economics textbook sense. Most community economics st...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...
Full Text Available The indicators, precisely describing the linkages between tourism and the environment, social and cultural base, are not easily available. How ever, some relevant organizations (WTO, EU, OECD, etc., institutions and experts, have been hardly working to create the indicators of sustainable tourism. Whereas the economic objectives are easily defined by the use of the traditional indicators used in national and business economics, it is very difficult to identify widely applicable environmental, social and cultural indicators. In order to stimulate and alleviate the process of sustainable tourism development, EU created the list of comparative indicators of sustainable tourism. In preparing this list, special attention is paid to identification of valid indicators of real tourism impacts on the social and cultural environment (the entire set of traditions, customs, history, hospitality and culture that characterize a given area, that is a very complex task. Assuming the fact that the related indicators have been analyzed in many European countries, this paper is focused on applying the related indicators in research of tourism development in villages of the Kosjerić community. .
The chapter presents the operational indicators related to budget, travel costs and tickets, the evolution of the annual program for regulatory inspection, the scientific production, requested patents and the numbers related to the production of the services offered by the Institution
Full Text Available The globalization is breaking-down the idea of national state, which was the base for the development of economic theory which is dominant today. Global economic crisis puts emphasis on limited possibilities of national governments in solving economic problems and general problems of society. Does it also mean that globalization and global economic crisis points out the need to think about new economic theory and new understanding of economics? In this paper I will argue that globalization reveals the need to change dominant economic paradigm - from traditional economic theory (mainstream with macroeconomic stability as the goal of economic policy, to the “quantum economics“, which is based on “economic quantum” and immanent to the increase of wealth (material and non-material of every individual in society and promoting set of values immanent to the wealth increase as the goal of economic policy. Practically the question is how we can use global market for our development!
Full Text Available This paper deals with the evaluation of selected available indicators of living standards, divided into three groups, namely economic, environmental, and social. We have selected six countries of the European Union for analysis: Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Luxembourg, France, and Great Britain. The aim of this paper is to evaluate indicators measuring living standards and suggest the most important factors which should be included in the final measurement. We have tried to determine what factors influence each indicator and what factors affect living standards. We have chosen regression analysis as our main method. From the study of factors, we can deduce their impact on living standards, and thus the value of indicators of living standards. Indicators with a high degree of reliability include the following factors: size and density of population, health care and spending on education. Emissions of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere also have a certain lower degree of reliability.
The article is examines the impact of macroeconomic indicators, in particular: human capital, government spending, innovation, political and social stability, on economic growth. In total 12 different indicators describing the economical, political and social conditions are taken into account. The study considers 102 countries between years 1960 and 2012 and two methods of estimation are performed: generalized method of moments (GMM) and fixed effects (FE). The results show the positive impac...
Companies use standard financial indicators to determine their business success and optimize their business opportunities. However, sustainable development demands for an integrated approach to economic, environmental and social indicators. Although a lot of indicator initiatives are under
Dmitry Evgenievich Sorokin
Full Text Available This paper analyzes the opposition between the «liberals» and «statists» in the Russian political and economic thought. It demonstrates that the economic liberalization is an absolute prerequisite for the transition to sustainable socio-economic development. Such development must rely on investment activities of the state, which in the current circumstances is a necessary but not sufficient measure for reversing the negative trends. The negative developments can be prevented only through implementation, along with the institutional changes in the economic area that form a strata of economically independent entrepreneurs-innovators, of no less profound transformation in political institutions aimed at democratization of public life
Henten, Anders; Skouby, Knud Erik; Øst, Alexander Gorm
A paper on the economics of the Internet with respect to end user pricing and pricing og interconnect.......A paper on the economics of the Internet with respect to end user pricing and pricing og interconnect....
Recruitment Events Community Commitment Giving Campaigns, Drives Economic Development Employee Funded : Environmental Documents, Reports LANL Home Calendar Search Contacts Community Â» Economic Development LANL 75th logo Economic Development Los Alamos National Laboratory is committed to investing and partnering in
Haan, Jakob de; Sturm, Jan-Egbert
Often it is maintained that economic freedom may further high levels of economic growth. This paper compares various indicators for economic freedom. It is concluded that although these measures differ somewhat in their coverage, they show similar rankings for the countries covered. Some elements in
A. V. Kholopov
Full Text Available The establishment of the School of Economic Science at MGIMO was due to the necessity of the world economy research, and the need to prepare highly skilled specialists in international economics. The school is developing a number of areas, which reflect the Faculty structure. - Economic theory is one of the most important research areas, a kind of foundation of the School of Economic Science at MGIMO. Economic theory studies are carried out at the chair of Economic theory. "The course of economic theory" textbook was published in 1991, and later it was reprinted seven times. Over the past few years other textbooks and manuals have been published, including "Economics for Managers" by Professor S.N. Ivashkovskaya, which survived through five editions; "International Economics" - four editions and "History of Economic Thought" - three editions. - International Economic Relations are carried out by the Department of International Economic Relations and Foreign Economic Activity. Its establishment is associated with the prominent economist N.N. Lyubimov. In 1957 he with his colleagues published the first textbook on the subject which went through multiple republications. The editorial team of the textbook subsequently formed the pride of Soviet economic science - S.M. Menshikov, E.P. Pletnev, V.D. Schetinin. Since 2007, the chair of Foreign Economic Activities led by Doctor of Economics, Professor I. Platonova has been investigating the problems of improving the architecture of foreign economic network and the international competitiveness of Russia; - The history of the study of problems of the world economy at MGIMO begins in 1958 at the chair baring the same name. Since 1998, the department has been headed by Professor A. Bulatov; - The study of international monetary relations is based on the chair of International Finance, and is focused on addressing the fundamental scientific and practical problems; - The chair "Banks, monetary circulation
This is the second edition of a database developed by the Canadian Centre for Health Information (CCHI). It features 49 health indicators, under one cover containing the most recent data available from a variety of national surveys. This information may be used to establish health goals for the population and to offer objective measures of their success. The database can be accessed through CANSIM, Statistics Canada's socio-economic electronic database and retrieval system, or through a personal computer package which enables the user to retrieve and analyze the 1.2 million data points in the system.
Rita Barradas Barata
in Brazil result from homicides. Violence has traditionally been related to larger social problems, such as poverty. Recently, however, a positive correlation has been observed between higher incomes and an increase in the homicide rate, so that some researchers have begun to consider inequality, rather than poverty, as an explanation for the epidemic of violence. The objective of this study was to investigate the correlation between urbanization, poverty, and economic inequality and homicide rates in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, in 1996. Information regarding population size, average monthly income of household heads, income distribution, and Gini index was obtained for each municipality, based on the demographic census. Homicide rates were calculated based on official data. Data were analyzed in terms of correlation and relative risk with 95% confidence intervals. Homicide rates rose in direct proportion to city population and ranged from 6.96 (per 100 000 inhabitants in municipalities with a population smaller than 10 000 inhabitants, to 55.54 in municipalities with more than 1 million inhabitants. Relative risk ranged from 1.35 to 7.98. A significant correlation with population size was found only for incomes above 3.11 times the minimum wage and a Gini index greater than 0.50. There was a strong, direct, and significant correlation between homicide rates and the income ratio between the ninetieth and the twentieth percentiles of the population. It is necessary to probe more deeply into the macrosocial determinants of homicide rates in order to identify indicators of inequality that can generate meaningful data for developing public health strategies.
Sloth, Birgitte; Whitta-Jacobsen, Hans Jørgen
We define an evolutionary process of "economic Darwinism" for playing the field, symmetric games. The process captures two forces. One is "economic selection": if current behavior leads to payoff differences, behavior yielding lowest payoff has strictly positive probability of being replaced...... in the literature. Using this result, we demonstrate that generally under positive (negative) externalities, economic Darwinism implies even more under- (over-)activity than does Nash equilibrium....
Sloth, Birgitte; Whitta-Jacobsen, Hans Jørgen
We define an evolutionary process of “economic Darwinism” for playing-the-field, symmetric games. The process captures two forces. One is “economic selection”: if current behavior leads to payoff differences, behavior yielding lowest payoff has strictly positive probability of being replaced...... in the literature. Using this result, we demonstrate that generally under positive (negative) externalities, economic Darwinism implies even more under- (over-) activity than does Nash equilibrium...
Fast, Michael; Clark, Woodrow
the everyday economic life is the central issue and is discussed from the perspective of interactionism. It is a perspective developed from the Lifeworld philosophical traditions, such as symbolic interactionism and phenomenology, seeking to develop the thinking of economics. The argument is that economics...... and the process of thinking, e.g. the ontology and the epistemology. Keywords: qualitative, interaction, process, organizing, thinking, perspective, epistemology....
Fast, Michael; Clark II, Woodrow W
This book is about science -- specifically, the science of economics. Or lack thereof is more accurate. The building of any science, let alone economics, is grounded in the understanding of what is beneath the "surface" of economics. Science, and hence economics, should...... be concerned with formulating ideas that express theories which produce descriptions of how to understand phenomenon and real world experiences. Economics must become a science, because the essence of economics in terms of human actions, group interactions and communities are in need...... of scientific inquiry. Academics and scholars need a scientific perspective that can hypothesize, theorize document, understand and analyze human dynamics from the individual to more societal interactions. And that is what qualitative economics does; it can make economics into becoming a science. The economic...
Whenever we shop, the products we consider buying are labelled with the economical price we have to pay if we want to purchase them - an important parameter in our decisions as purchasers. The increrasing awareness for environmental limits and backlashes of human activities also in the building...... sector have fostered the wish to define 'the ecological price' of a building as a help for environmental conscious decision-making. In a social constructivist approach this Ph.D. thesis looks across and beyond the manifold existing approaches for environmental indicators for buildings. It acknowledges...... in the Netherlands. It identifies lines of conflict and areas of consent betweeen the relevant actors and elaborates scenarios for a possible closure of ongoing debate about environmental indicators for buildings....
Published by Palgrave Macmillan This chapter reviews the literature on finance and economic development. It starts with a description of the roles of finance, a definition of financial efficiency, and a discussion of whether countries may have financial sectors that are ‘too large’ compared to the size of the domestic economy. Next, the author describes several indicators of financial development and reviews the literature on the relationship between financial development and economic growth....
Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller
The United States, the United Kingdom and Denmark have all enjoyed a long period of high stable growth and low inflation in the 1990s. Attempts to determine the implications of this have led to the so-called "New Economics", whose advocates claim that the relationship between economic growth...
The 132 selected indicators of the sustainable development are described. They are grouped into: (1) The social indicators of the sustainable development; (2) The economic indicators of the sustainable development; (3) The environmental indicators of the sustainable development. (4) The institutional indicators of the sustainable development
Evolution of the economic importance of the oil and gas industrial sector in Brazil: impacts on macroeconomic indicators; Evolucao da importancia economica da industria de petroleo e gas natural no Brasil: contribuicao a variaveis macroeconomicas
Canelas, Andre Luis de Souza
This thesis analyzes the evolution of the macroeconomic importance of the oil and gas sector in Brazil, in the recent years, which is represented by its contribution to the macroeconomic indicators, which are: GDP, Investment, Foreign Direct Investment, Trade Balance, Tax Revenue, Jobs, Wages and Inflation. The results found indicate that the oil and gas sector has a relevant contribution to the values of the Brazilian GDP, total amount of investment, total amount of foreign direct investment, tax revenue, inflation and trade balance, whereas this sector has a less relevant impact for the creation of jobs and wages in Brazil. (author)
Andrezza da Silva Machado Neto
Full Text Available Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo determinar, mediante o cálculo do valor presente líquido (VPL, da taxa interna de retorno (TIR e do Payback Econômico (PBE, a viabilidade econômica da produção de Alpinia purpurata, Etlingera elatior e Anthurium andraeanum, no Estado do Rio de Janeiro, bem como identificar e verificar, por meio da análise de sensibilidade, a influência de alguns fatores do sistema produtivo sobre a rentabilidade da atividade nas principais regiões produtoras. Os resultados mostram que a produção das espécies tropicais consideradas é uma atividade lucrativa e promissora para os agricultores no Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Porém, trata-se de um mercado em construção, cujos itens de maior impacto sobre a rentabilidade e o tempo de retorno do investimento (PBE são o preço de venda do produto e o percentual de perdas da produção. Assim, a agregação de valor e o planejamento estratégico da produção são importantes medidas mercadológicas para a consolidação deste setor.The purpose of this study was to determine, through the calculation of the net present value (VPL, the internal return rate (TIR and of the Economic Payback (PBE, the economic viability of the production of Alpinia purpurata, Etlingera elatior and Anthurium andraeanum in the Rio de Janeiro State, as well as to identify and to verify by means of sensitivity analysis the influence of some factors of the production system on the profitability of the activity in the main producing regions. The results showed that the production of the tropical species is a profitable and promising activity for the farmers in the State of Rio de Janeiro. However, it is a developing market, whose factors of greatest impact on the profitability and investment return time (PBE are the selling price of the product and the percentage of production losses. Thus, the aggregation of value and strategic planning of the production are important market measures for the
Victor, Peter A
Boulding's 1966 paper on the economics of spaceship Earth established the framework for ecological economics and an understanding of economic growth. In ecological economics, economies are conceptualized as open subsystems of the closed biosphere and are subject to biophysical laws and constraints. Economic growth measured as an increase in real gross domestic product (GDP) has generally been associated with increases in the use of energy and materials and the generation of wastes. Scale, composition, and technology are the proximate determinants of environmental impacts. They are often reduced to two: scale (GDP) and intensity (impact per unit GDP). New work described in this paper defines "green" growth as intensity that declines faster than scale increases. Similarly, "brown" growth occurs when intensity declines more slowly than increases in scale, and "black" growth happens when both scale and intensity increase. These concepts are then related to the environmental Kuznets curve, which can be understood as a transition from brown to green growth. Ecological economics provides a macroperspective on economic growth. It offers broad policy principles, and it challenges the primacy of economic growth as a policy objective, but many important questions remain.
This paper discusses term development economics which refers to the economic evaluation of investment opportunities that occur after the discovery well is drilled and completed. with specific regard to the techniques used and the economic yardsticks available for investment decisions. Three potential situations are considered in this paper: the incorporation of development wells into the outcomes of the original exploration project, mutually exclusive or alternative investment opportunities, and the installation of improved or enhanced recovery projects during or at the end of the primary producing life of a property
Based on the Regulation for the Green Design of Civil Buildings, ofter learning relevant norms, the paper introduces the methods to have the techno-economical condition analysis by the solar energy photovoltaic generation, and points out the solar energy photovoltaic generation ＇ system can be the supplement of the power energy in buildings, so as to exert the role of the solar energy photovoltaic generation system.%依据《民用建筑绿色设计规范》，在学习了该规范中有关条文后，介绍了一种对太阳能光伏发电进行技术经济条件分析的方法，并提出了在建筑中作为补充电力能源时太阳能光伏发电系统宜采用的形式，以期更好地发挥太阳能光伏发电系统的作用。
David Glover, Bhim Adhikari and Isabelle Proulx
Economy and Environment Program for Southeast Asia. ERF. Economic ... economists can contribute to this work by estimating the monetary value of such environment-related benefits ... One of the few safe places to put money has been land, ...
Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller
The United States, the United Kingdom and Denmark have all enjoyed a long period of high stable growth and low inflation in the 1990s. Attempts to determine the implications of this have led to the so-called "New Economics", whose advocates claim that the relationship between economic growth and ...... and inflation has fundamentally changes. The following article tests this thesis against current data for the USA.......The United States, the United Kingdom and Denmark have all enjoyed a long period of high stable growth and low inflation in the 1990s. Attempts to determine the implications of this have led to the so-called "New Economics", whose advocates claim that the relationship between economic growth...
This paper deals with determining the economic viability of the play or prospect. At the outset, one point is important. Preexploration economists are important because they enable geologists to see if their assumptions will prove profitable. Their assumptions must consider the full range of possible outcomes, even if only some portion of that range may contain prospects or plays that are estimated to be profitable. Play economics are preferable to prospect economics because, being the sum of several prospects, they give a broader view of the investment opportunity. Finally, remember that play and prospect economics are always slightly optimistic. They seldom include all of the exploration and overhead changes that must ultimately be borne by the successful prospects
Sendhil Mullainathan; Richard H. Thaler
Behavioral Economics is the combination of psychology and economics that investigates what happens in markets in which some of the agents display human limitations and complications. We begin with a preliminary question about relevance. Does some combination of market forces, learning and evolution render these human qualities irrelevant? No. Because of limits of arbitrage less than perfect agents survive and influence market outcomes. We then discuss three important ways in which humans devi...
Publikationen er på engelsk. Den omfatter alle indlæg på det fjerde internationale symposium om byggeøkonomi, der blev arrangeret af SBI for det internationale byggeforskningsråd CIB. De fem bind omhandler: Methods of Economic Evaluation, Design Optimization, Ressource Utilization, The Building...... Market og Economics and Technological Forecasting in Construction. Et indledende bind bringer statusrapporter for de fem forskningsområder, og det sidste bind sammenfatter debatten på symposiet....
Camerer, Colin F.
Economics, like behavioral psychology, is a science of behavior, albeit highly organized human behavior. The value of economic concepts for behavioral psychology rests on (1) their empirical validity when tested in the laboratory with individual subjects and (2) their uniqueness when compared to established behavioral concepts. Several fundamental concepts are introduced and illustrated by reference to experimental data: open and closed economies, elastic and inelastic demand, and substitutio...
Full Text Available The indicator of information society describe the infrastructure of information and communication technology ; as well as it’s use and it’s production in different estate of society. The importance economic and social of tic is crescent in modern society. and the presentation of tendency inform above the situation of information society . in this article we want to describe the indicator of tic in Algeria according to librarian’s vision in Mentouri university
Kristian F. Braekkan
Full Text Available This study develops and tests a model that proposes economic necessity moderates the relationship between psychological contract violations (PCVs and organizational commitment and trust in the employing organization among non-unionized manufacturing workers (N = 226. Moderated regression analyses revealed that there was a significant interaction between PCV and economic necessity in predicting both outcomes. Specifically, the findings indicated that individuals experiencing high PCV and high economic necessity did not decrease their organizational commitment like their counterparts who endorsed lower economic necessity. They did, however, experience significantly decreased trust in their employer. The findings suggest that individuals who are forced to sell their labor power and obtain what they need through the market are more likely to continue to be exploited by their employer, as they have no other options than to continue the relationship. The importance of the findings is discussed, and recommendations for future research are provided.
Briones Alonso, Elena
This dissertation collects three essays that aim to contribute to the field of cultural economics. There is growing recognition among economists and policy makers that culture matters for economic development, but in many cases this trend has not resulted in a thorough understanding of the role of culture, or a proper integration of existing knowledge in policy. This is particularly true for the area of food security. The second chapter addresses this issue by reviewing existing cross-discipl...
María Felícitas Domínguez-Berjón
Full Text Available Objetivo: Valorar si dos indicadores socioeconómicos (uno simple y otro compuesto elaborados en el ámbito de sección censal permiten detectar desigualdades sociales en salud. Métodos: De la Encuesta de Salud de Barcelona de 1992 (ESB92 se han considerado el estado de salud percibido, la presencia de trastornos crónicos, el consumo de tabaco y la realización de una citología cervical preventiva, así como el nivel de estudios y la clase social. A partir del censo de 1991, como indicadores socioeconómicos de área se han calculado el porcentaje de desempleo y un índice de privación en las secciones censales. Se analiza la asociación entre las medidas socioeconómicas de área e individuales y la asociación de ambas con las variables de salud. Resultados: Existe una clara asociación positiva entre las medidas socioeconómicas de área pequeña y las individuales y, en general, con ambas se han observado similares efectos en diversos aspectos relacionados con la salud, tanto en varones como en mujeres. Con la mayoría de las variables analizadas, las diferencias son superiores con el índice de privación que con el desempleo. Así, en los varones la odds ratio ajustada por edad (ORa de tener un estado de salud regular, malo o muy malo es de 2,0 (intervalo de confianza [IC] del 95%, 1,4-2,9 en el cuartil más desfavorable de desempleo; en relación con el menos desfavorable y con el índice de privación, la ORa es de 2,7 (IC del 95%, 1,9-3,9, y en las mujeres las ORa son, respectivamente, de 1,8 (IC del 95%, 1,4-2,4 y 2,4 (IC del 95%, 1,8-3,2. Conclusiones: La clasificación por la situación socioeconómica del área de residencia, como la que permite el censo español, se puede aplicar a todos los miembros de una población y es útil para detectar las desigualdades sociales en salud.Objective: To assess whether 2 area-level socioeconomic indicators (one single and the other composite are able to detect social inequalities in health
I had the good fortune to grow up in a wonderful area of Jerusalem, surrounded by a diverse range of people: Rabbi Meizel, the communist Sala Marcel, my widowed Aunt Hannah, and the intellectual Yaacovson. As far as I'm concerned, the opinion of such people is just as authoritative for making social and economic decisions as the opinion of an expert using a model. Part memoir, part crash-course in economic theory, this deeply engaging book by one of the world's foremost economists looks at ...
ustainable transport has become a major policy concern in recent years. The term suggests a need to consider transport in a comprehensive perspective including the well-being of both present and future generations, and taking environmental, social and economic issues into account. Indicators...... in forecasting and tracking the performance of transport systems increasingly guide sustainable transport policy making. This review explores the implications of the "sustainable transport" concept and how it can be made operational with indicators. A number of indicator systems are reviewed, and some strengths...... and weaknesses are highlighted with regard to the support they provide for sustainable transport development....
Sustainable transport has become a major policy concern in recent years. The term suggests a need to consider transport in a comprehensive perspective including the well-being of both present and future generations, and taking environmental, social and economic issues into account. Indicators...... in forecasting and tracking the performance of transport systems increasingly guide sustainable transport policy making. This review explores the implications of the sustainable transport concept and how it can be made operational with indicators. A number of indicator systems are reviewed, and some strengths...
Burns, W.A. Jr.
A brief qualitative comparison of the technical differences between liquid membranes and three other technologies: biological treatment, ion exchange and solvent extraction is presented. It is shown how the differences can result in substantial economic advantages. For uranium recovery from phosphoric acid a lower organic loss is achieved by the liquid membrane than by the solvent extraction process. (U.K.)
Hansen, Henning Otte
and issues and such as food security, quality, obesity and health are ever important factors. This book describes the link between food markets and food companies from a theoretical and a business economics perspective. The relationships, trends and impacts on the international food market are presented...
Full Text Available The world envisioned by Economics resembles the Garden of Eden, where everything came from God, the pre-primordial sin people having nothing else to do but wait for the natural rhythms, set by the invisible hand, which is moved by the will and the power of the Creator.
Technology Transfer Department
In federal fiscal year 2000 (FY00), Berkeley Lab had 4,347 full- and part-time employees. In addition, at any given time of the year, there were more than 1,000 Laboratory guests. These guests, who also reside locally, have an important economic impact on the nine-county Bay Area. However, Berkeley Lab's total economic impact transcends the direct effects of payroll and purchasing. The direct dollars paid to the Lab's employees in the form of wages, salaries, and benefits, and payments made to contractors for goods and services, are respent by employees and contractors again and again in the local and greater economy. Further, while Berkeley Lab has a strong reputation for basic scientific research, many of the Lab's scientific discoveries and inventions have had direct application in industry, spawning new businesses and creating new opportunities for existing firms. This analysis updates the Economic Impact Analysis done in 1996, and its purpose is to describe the economic and geographic impact of Laboratory expenditures and to provide a qualitative understanding of how Berkeley Lab impacts and supports the local community. It is intended as a guide for state, local, and national policy makers as well as local community members. Unless otherwise noted, this analysis uses data from FY00, the most recent year for which full data are available.
This study suggests that the development process of a less-developed country can be divided into two stages, which demonstrate significantly different properties in areas such as structural endowments, production modes, income distribution, and the forces that drive economic growth. The two stages of economic development have been indicated in the growth theory of macroeconomics and in the various "turning point" theories in development economics, including Lewis's dual economy theory, Kuznet...
Clow, John E.
Discusses the need for entrepreneurs to understand basic economics principles. Indicates that business education has a role in preparing entrepreneurs in marketing, management, and accounting. Lists key economic generalizations that individuals should understand before assuming the role of entrepreneur. (JOW)
The analysis showed, among others, that after a marked deterioration in the small and medium-sized enterprises sector in 2009 there was a gradual improvement of the financial situation and development of companies. Also, last year the level of optimism of entrepreneurs in the perception of the economic situation increased significantly.
Nuno Carlos LEITÃO
The purpose of this article is to investigate the relationship between economic growth, globalization and trade. The manuscript uses the assumptions of the economic growth exogenous and endogenous models. It introduces new proxies for explain the economic growth as in intra-industry trade, foreign direct investment and globalization index. The results indicate that economic growth is a dynamic process. The intra-industry has a positive impact on economic growth. This paper confirms relevan...
Željko Lovrin?evi?; Davor Mikuli?
This report, Regional Development and Social Indicators in Croatia, provides a comprehensive profile of social and economic characteristics of Croatia's regions as well as profiling the Government s social transfers to households. Demographic and economic structure of Croatian economy is analyzed, as well as the process of secondary distribution of income in Croatia on the regional level. ...
Owen, P.S.; Parker, M.B.; Omberg, R.P.
The methodology used to arrive at the conclusions in the U.S. papers WG 5A-19 and WG 5A-22 with respect to the economics of fast breeders relative to LWR's is developed in detail in this contribution. In addition, sample calculations of the total levelized power cost of a standard LWR at $40/pound for U 3 O 8 and an FBR at a capital cost of 1.5 times that of an LWR are included. The respective total levalized power costs of the above two examples are 21.29 mills/kwh for the standard LWR and 28.48 mills/kwh for the FBR. It should be noted that the economic data used in these analyses are contained in the U.S. contribution, WG 5A-41
Ingebrigtsen, Stig; Jakobsen, Ove
Purpose - This paper is an attempt to advance the critical discussion regarding environmental and societal responsibility in economics and business. Design/methodology/approach - The paper presents and discusses as a holistic, organic perspective enabling innovative solutions to challenges...... concerning the responsible and efficient use of natural resources and the constructive interplay with culture. To reach the goal of sustainable development, the paper argues that it is necessary to make changes in several dimensions in mainstream economics. This change of perspective is called a turn towards...... sustainability. To illustrate the theoretical discussion, the paper gives some practical examples from the reprocessing industry in Norway. Findings - The paper finds, first, effective and efficient use of natural resources is necessary to implement circular value chains. Second, sustainable development...
This article offers ideas for evaluating integrated solid waste management systems through the use of a conceptual cost overview. The topics of the article include the integrated solid waste management system; making assumptions about community characteristics, waste generation rates, waste collection responsibility, integrated system components, sizing and economic life of system facilities, system implementation schedule, facility ownership, and system administration; integrated system costs; integrated system revenues; system financing; cost projections; and making decisions
Utilización de las variables comerciales propias de los concesionarios de automóviles como indicadores predictores de crisis económicas posteriores = Use of commercial variables of car de alers as predictive indicators of later economic crises
Óscar Gutiérrez Aragón
Full Text Available Este artículo lleva a cabo un estudio profundo de la evolución de varios indicadores comerciales vinculados a la actividad propia de un concesionario de automóviles, así como las cifras de ventas de las siete principales marcas generalistas del sector (Renault, Citroën, Peugeot, Seat, Ford, Opel y Volkswagen en un mercado o territorio económicamente deprimido durante el periodo comprendido entre los años 2005 y 2008 en los ejercicios previos a la crisis económica y financiera, con el fin de poner de manifiesto la existencia de un deterioro de las cifras de estas variables anterior a la misma. En consecuencia, y como conclusión, la observación y el análisis de estos datos de un modo sistemático y reflexivo deberían ayudar en gran medida a poder adelantar o pronosticar la llegada de una crisis económica que afectará a más sectores económicos y a territorios geográficos más favorecidos. In the present research we study the evolution of several commercial indicators linked to the activity of a vehicle dealer and the sales figures of the seven major generalist brands in the industry (Renault, Citroen, Peugeot, Seat, Ford, Opel and Volkswagen in an economically depressed area during the period between 2005 and 2008, the previous exercises to the economic and financial crisis, in order to highlight the existence of a decline in these variables before crisis. Consequently, the observation and analysis of these data from a systematic and thoughtful point of view could help to a large extent to predict the coming of an economic crisis that will affect to other economic sectors and more favoured geographical areas.
The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA) mandated that minimum energy efficiency standards be established for classes of refrigerators and refrigerator-freezers, freezers, clothes dryers, water heaters, room air conditioners, home heating equipment, kitchen ranges and ovens, central air conditioners, and furnaces. EPCA requires that standards be designed to achieve the maximum improvement in energy efficiency that is technologically feasible and economically justified. Following the introductory chapter, Chapter Two describes the methodology used in the economic analysis and its relationship to legislative criteria for consumer product efficiency assessment; details how the CPES Value Model systematically compared and evaluated the economic impacts of regulation on the consumer, manufacturer and Nation. Chapter Three briefly displays the results of the analysis and lists the proposed performance standards by product class. Chapter Four describes the reasons for developing a baseline forecast, characterizes the baseline scenario from which regulatory impacts were calculated and summarizes the primary models, data sources and assumptions used in the baseline formulations. Chapter Five summarizes the methodology used to calculate regulatory impacts; describes the impacts of energy performance standards relative to the baseline discussed in Chapter Four. Also discussed are regional standards and other program alternatives to performance standards. Chapter Six describes the procedure for balancing consumer, manufacturer, and national impacts to select standard levels. Details of models and data bases used in the analysis are included in Appendices A through K.
An economic analysis on oil or gas property is generally accompanied by a reservoir analysis which predicts the reserves and the performance of the reservoir, recommends the optimum economic method with which to recover the reserves, and through a performance prediction indicates a time schedule for future investments and income. The requirements for a reservoir evaluation are as follows: (1) good reservoir data; (2) oil in place; (3) reservoir energy, both primary and secondary; and (4) reserve calculation and performance predictions for giving both production schedule and selection of secondary recovery mechanisms. Given the above reservoir evaluation parameters, the following are requirements for a complete economic analysis: (1) lease exploration and purchase costs; (2) capital investments schedule dependent upon a reservoir performance prediction; and (3) factors affecting net income such as anticipated selling price of oil and gas and the availability of a market, operating costs and working interest, royalty schedule, depreciation methods, depletion methods and tax schedule. (71 refs.)
Full Text Available The impact of the economic and financial crisis is still being felt. It started as an acute crisis of the banking system, but then quickly affected the real economy, causing a substantial slump in business investment, household demand and output. The current economic crisis has affected almost all European countries but the countries of the European south and the former eastern socialist republics have suffered the most. The objective in this paper is to quantify economic disparities as expressed by several growth indicators, such as GDP per capita, employment/unemployment rates, labour productivity rates and use them to compare the economic performances before and after the crisis. EU took several measures to recover from the economic crisis. Nevertheless, its ability to adjust to widely diverse national and local contexts that have been impacted differently by the effects of the crisis, and to support the different patterns of economic growth that will result from it, is yet to be seen.
Vera, Ivan; Langlois, Lucille
Energy is an essential factor in overall efforts to achieve sustainable development. Countries striving to this end are seeking to reassess their energy systems with a view toward planning energy programmes and strategies in line with sustainable development goals and objectives. This paper summarizes the outcome of an international partnership initiative on indicators for sustainable energy development that aims to provide an analytical tool for assessing current energy production and use patterns at a national level. The proposed set of energy indicators represents a first step of a consensus reached on this subject by five international agencies-two from the United Nations system (the Department of Economic and Social Affairs and the International Atomic Energy Agency), two from the European Union (Eurostat and the European Environment Agency) and one from the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (the International Energy Agency). Energy and environmental experts including statisticians, analysts, policy makers and academics have started to implement general guidelines and methodologies in the development of national energy indicators for use in their efforts to monitor the effects of energy policies on the social, economic and environmental dimensions of sustainable development
for Researchers · for Journals · for Authors · for Policy Makers · about Open Access · Journal Quality. 521 African Journals. Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free To Read Titles This Journal is Open Access. Featuring journals from 32 Countries: Algeria (5); Benin (2); Botswana ...
Chowdhury, Harun; Alam, Firoz
Developing nations including Bangladesh are significantly lagging behind the millennium development target due to the lack of science, technology and engineering education. Bangladesh as a least developing country has only 44 engineers per million people. Its technological education and gross domestic product growth are not collinear. Although limited progress was made in humanities, basic sciences, agriculture and medical sciences, a vast gap is left in technical and engineering education. This paper describes the present condition of engineering education in the country and explores ways to improve engineering education in order to meet the national as well as global skills demand.
Chowdhury, Harun; Alam, Firoz
Developing nations including Bangladesh are significantly lagging behind the millennium development target due to the lack of science, technology and engineering education. Bangladesh as a least developing country has only 44 engineers per million people. Its technological education and gross domestic product growth are not collinear. Although…
Economic Research Service (USDA), Washington, DC.
Farm production rose 6 percent in 1985 due to record high yields in corn, soybeans, cotton, and several other crops. While United States consumption increased slightly, exports of farm products fell 23 percent in value and 19 percent in volume. Net cash income increased 12 percent due to increased output, lower cash expenses, and unusually high…
This report provides the results of a study of methods of economic analysis applied to the evaluation of fusion research. The study recognizes that a hierarchy of economic analyses of research programs exists: standard benefit-cost analysis, expected value of R and D information, and expected utility analysis. It is shown that standard benefit-cost analysis, as commonly applied to research programs, is inadequate for the evaluation of a high technology research effort such as fusion research. A methodology for performing an expected value analysis is developed and demonstrated and an overview of an approach to perform an expected utility analysis of fusion research is presented. In addition, a potential benefit of fusion research, not previously identified, is discussed and rough estimates of its magnitude are presented. This benefit deals with the effect of a fusion research program on optimal fossil fuel consumption patterns. The results of this study indicate that it is both appropriate and possible to perform an expected value analysis of fusion research in order to assess the economics of a fusion research program. The results indicate further that the major area of benefits of fusion research is likely due to the impact of a fusion research program on optimal fossil fuel consumption patterns and it is recommended that this benefit be included in future assessments of fusion research economics
This report provides the results of a study of methods of economic analysis applied to the evaluation of fusion research. The study recognizes that a hierarchy of economic analyses of research programs exists: standard benefit-cost analysis, expected value of R and D information, and expected utility analysis. It is shown that standard benefit-cost analysis, as commonly applied to research programs, is inadequate for the evaluation of a high technology research effort such as fusion research. A methodology for performing an expected value analysis is developed and demonstrated and an overview of an approach to perform an expected utility analysis of fusion research is presented. In addition, a potential benefit of fusion research, not previously identified, is discussed and rough estimates of its magnitude are presented. This benefit deals with the effect of a fusion research program on optimal fossil fuel consumption patterns. The results of this study indicate that it is both appropriate and possible to perform an expected value analysis of fusion research in order to assess the economics of a fusion research program. The results indicate further that the major area of benefits of fusion research is likely due to the impact of a fusion research program on optimal fossil fuel consumption patterns and it is recommended that this benefit be included in future assessments of fusion research economics.
Sturm, JE; De Haan, J
Using various indicators for economic freedom, it is shown that increases in economic freedom are robustly related to economic growth. This conclusion holds even if the impact of outlying observations is taken into account. The level of economic freedom is not related to growth.
Full Text Available Published by Palgrave MacmillanThis chapter reviews the literature on finance and economic development. It starts with a description of the roles of finance, a definition of financial efficiency, and a discussion of whether countries may have financial sectors that are ‘too large’ compared to the size of the domestic economy. Next, the author describes several indicators of financial development and reviews the literature on the relationship between financial development and economic growth. In the literature review, he discusses in detail some recent evidence indicating that the marginal contribution of financial development to gross domestic product (GDP growth becomes negative when credit to the private sector reaches 110 per cent of GDP. The chapter concludes with some policy conclusions targeted to developing countries.
Moreau; Sylvain; Bottin, Anne; Bovar, Odile; Nirascou, Francoise; Albecker, Marie-Fleur; Bardou, Magali; Barret, Christophe; Berger, Emmanuel; Blanc, Christophe; Bovar, Odile; Briquel, Vincent; Chery, Jean-Pierre; Deshayes, Michel; Firdion, Laetitia; Fluxa, Christine; Girault, Maurice; Guerrero, David; Hassaine, Zahida; Hilal, Mohamed; Imbert, Frederic; Kerouanton, Marie-Helene; Lacroix, Steve; Magnier, Celine; Moreau, Jacques; Nirascou, Francoise; Pageaud, Dorothee; Schaeffer, Yves; Thienard, Helene; Vinet, Loic; Wemelbeke, Guillaume; Wichmann, Martine; Boitard, Corinne; Bird, Geoffrey
For different themes (Sustainable consumption and production, Knowledge and social and economic development society, governance, climate change and energy management, sustainable transport and modality, conservation and sustainable management of biodiversity and natural resources, public health, risk prevention and management, social and territorial cohesion), this study proposes a set of axis, and several indicators for each axis. Indicators correspond to different geographical scale and are determined from different sources. These indicators are for example: production of aggregates, proportion of organic agriculture in usable agricultural area, evolution in quantity of household waste collected per inhabitant, employment rate, research spending in relation to GDP, coverage of population by local Agenda 21, and so on. Thus, each indicator is discussed, commented and analysed
Indicators are more and more drawn on for policy making and assessment. This is also true for energy policy. However, while numerous different energy price figures are available, subordinate energy cost indicators are lacking. This paper lays out a general concept for such indicator sets and presents a flexible framework for representative and consistent energy cost indicators with an underlying weighting principle based on consumption shares. Their application would provide interesting new insights into the relationship between energy cost burdens of different sectors and countries. It would allow for more rigorous analysis in the field of energy economics and policy, particularly with regard to market monitoring and impact assessment as well as ex-post-policy analysis.
Applied Evolutionary Economics and Economic Geography" aims to further advance empirical methodologies in evolutionary economics, with a special emphasis on geography and firm location. It does so by bringing together a select group of leading scholars including economists, geographers and
Full Text Available This article aims to highlight the quality of life that depends on necessary, harmonious and simultaneous satisfying of all human needs, instead of „one at a time”, health and economic insecurity being at the very foundation of it. A society that is focused on quality of life will be a society centered on the individual, their needs and aspirations. It needs to offer alternatives and choices of the individual and not to impose models. Coercion of society over the individual is an objective and necessary phenomenon. Its deepening is not, however, as required. Social environment based on quality of life must be characterized by the maximum possible degree of permissiveness in which the individual is educated in its contribution to social awareness.
Delene, J.G.; Fuller, L.C.; Hudson, C.R.
The Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) has the potential to extend the economic life of the nuclear option and of reducing the number of high level waste repositories which will eventually be needed in an expanding nuclear economy. This paper reports on an analysis which models and evaluates the economics of the use of ALMRs as a component of this country's future electricity generation mix. The ALMR concept has the ability to utilize as fuel the fissile material contained in previously irradiated nuclear fuel (i.e., spent fuel) or from surplus weapons grade material. While not a requirement for the successful deployment of ALMR power plant technology, the reprocessing of spent fuel from light water reactors (LWR) is necessary for any rapid introduction of ALMR power plants. In addition, the reprocessing of LWR spent fuel may reduce the number of high level waste repositories needed in the future by burning the long-lived actinides produced in the fission process. With this study, the relative economics of a number of potential scenarios related to these issues are evaluated. While not encompassing the full range of all possibilities, the cases reported here provide an indication of the potential costs, timings, and relative economic attractiveness of ALMR deployment
Hoag, Dana L.; Ascough, James C.; Keske-Handley, C.; Koontz, Lynne; Burk, A.R.
Since Ott's seminal book on environmental indices (1978), the use of indices has expanded into several natural resource disciplines, including ecological studies, environmental policymaking, and agricultural economics. However, despite their increasing use in natural resource disciplines, researchers and public decision makers continue to express concern about validity of these instruments to capture and communicate multidimensional, and sometimes disparate, characteristics of research data and stakeholder interests. Our purpose is to demonstrate how useful indices can be for communicating environmental information to decision makers. We discuss how environmental indices have evolved over four stages: 1) simple; 2) compound multicriteria; 3) the impact matrix and 4) disparate stakeholder management. We provide examples of simple and compound indices that were used by policy decision makers. We then build a framework, called an Impact Matrix (IM), that comprehensively accounts for multiple indices but lets the user decide how to integrate them. The IM was shaped from the concept of a financial risk payoff matrix and applied to ecosystem risk. While the IM offers flexibility, it does not address stakeholder preferences about which index to use. Therefore, the last phase in our evolutionary ladder includes stakeholder indices to specifically address disparate stakeholder preferences. Finally, we assert that an environmental index has the potential to increase resource efficiency, since the number of decision making resources may be reduced, and hence improve upon resource productivity
Liu, Jin-Hu; Wang, Jun; Shao, Junming; Zhou, Tao
To characterize economic development and diagnose the economic health condition, several popular indices such as gross domestic product (GDP), industrial structure and income growth are widely applied. However, computing these indices based on traditional economic census is usually costly and resources consuming, and more importantly, following a long time delay. In this paper, we analyzed nearly 200 million users' activities for four consecutive years in the largest social network (Sina Microblog) in China, aiming at exploring latent relationships between the online social activities and local economic status. Results indicate that online social activity has a strong correlation with local economic development and industrial structure, and more interestingly, allows revealing the macro-economic structure instantaneously with nearly no cost. Beyond, this work also provides a new venue to identify risky signal in local economic structure.
Economic growth is a perennial national goal. Perpetual economic growth and wilderness preservation are mutually exclusive. Wilderness scholarship has not addressed this conflict. The economics profession is unlikely to contribute to resolution, because the neoclassical paradigm holds that there is no limit to economic growth. A corollary of the paradigm is that...
Chambers, David W
It is human nature to overestimate how rational we are, both in general and even when we are trying to be. Such irrationality is not random, and the search for and explanation of patterns of fuzzy thinking is the basis for a new academic discipline known as behavioral economics. Examples are given of some of the best understood of our foibles, including prospect theory, framing, anchoring, salience, confirmation bias, superstition, and ownership. Humans have two cognitive systems: one conscious, deliberate, slow, and rational; the other fast, pattern-based, emotionally tinged, and intuitive. Each is subject to its own kind of error. In the case of rational thought, we tend to exaggerate our capacity; for intuition, we fail to train it or recognize contexts where it is inappropriate. Humans are especially poor at estimating probabilities, or even understanding what they are. It is a common human failing to reason backwards from random outcomes that are favorable to beliefs about our power to predict the future. Five suggestions are offered for thinking within our means.
foundation of markets and of money may be an occasion for economic sociology to focus even more on elaborating on the institutional void created by traditional economic theory. A second point is that economic sociology could benefit from the perspective of a plurality of forms of coordination involved......The French Economics of convention tradition has developed to be an influential research tradition situated in the area between economics and sociology. The aim of the paper is to explore some of the themes that may be common to economics of conventions and economic sociology by looking more...... closely into three recent texts from the economics of convention tradition discussing, in slightly different ways, differences and similarities between economics of convention and economic sociology. It is argued that André Orléan’s point that a common aim could be to ‘denaturalise’ the institutional...
The aim of the article is to explore potential common themes in economic sociology and economics of conventions. The article explores two issues raised by economics of conventions that may be of particular importance to economic sociology. First, the explicit exploration of the consequences...... of a plurality of forms of justification, as elaborated in économie de la grandeur. This perspective was recently taken up in economic sociology by David Stark's introduction of the notion ‘sociology of worth'. The second issue, recently suggested by André Orléan, is the need to denaturalize economic theory...... and economic action to demonstrate the social constructed nature of economic action. It is argued that these two issues demonstrate that a fruitful dialogue is indeed possible between economic sociology and economics of convention and should be encouraged....
Full Text Available Poverty represents a life aspect which is focusing the attention of both the macroeconomic analysis and the international comparisons. In order to measure the level being recorded by this phenomenon, there is a system of indicators which are used in order to underline, in a correlated manner, a number of aspects which are characterizing, quality and quantity wise, the evolution of the poverty in a specific country or, to a larger extent, through comparative surveys, at international level. Despite the fact that they are not the only instrument being used within the process of comparison of the stages of social and economic development at the international level, however the poverty indicators are providing a clear significance to the worked out surveys. In fact, the very purpose of the economic activity consists of increasing welfare and, as much as possible, at least reducing, if not eradicating, the poverty. The present work is broadly presenting the methodology as well as, both theoretical and practical, the way of computing the poverty, making a synthesis of the specific used indicators.
Gao, Jian; Zhou, Tao
China has experienced an outstanding economic expansion during the past decades, however, literature on non-monetary metrics that reveal the status of China's regional economic development are still lacking. In this paper, we fill this gap by quantifying the economic complexity of China's provinces through analyzing 25 years' firm data. First, we estimate the regional economic complexity index (ECI), and show that the overall time evolution of provinces' ECI is relatively stable and slow. Then, after linking ECI to the economic development and the income inequality, we find that the explanatory power of ECI is positive for the former but negative for the latter. Next, we compare different measures of economic diversity and explore their relationships with monetary macroeconomic indicators. Results show that the ECI index and the non-linear iteration based Fitness index are comparative, and they both have stronger explanatory power than other benchmark measures. Further multivariate regressions suggest the robustness of our results after controlling other socioeconomic factors. Our work moves forward a step towards better understanding China's regional economic development and non-monetary macroeconomic indicators.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Geomagnetic Indices Bulletin is a one page sheet containing the magnetic indices Kp, Ap, Cp, An, As, Am and the provisional aa indices. The bulletin is published...
This paper chooses a Malaysian state in Borneo Island, Sarawak, as the case study to examine the relationship between population growth and economic development. The findings imply that there is no statistically significant long-run relationship, but a causal relationship between population growth and economic development in Sarawak. In other words, the empirical findings indicate that population can have neither positive nor negative impact on economic development. The findings also indicate...
Aplicação da análise fatorial para identificação dos principais indicadores de desempenho econômico-financeiro em instituições financeiras bancárias = Application of factor analysis to identify the main indicators of economic and financial performance in banking financial institutions
Júlia Alves e Souza
Full Text Available Este estudo tem como objetivo identificar, por meio da análise fatorial, os indicadores econômico-financeiros mais relevantes para a avaliação do desempenho das instituições financeiras bancárias. São englobadas 118 instituições financeiras bancárias com atividades no Brasil, ao longo dos anos de 2011 a 2014. Realiza-se um estudo quantitativo e descritivo. Para a análise dos dados, utiliza-se a técnica estatística de análise fatorial. No processo de aplicação da técnica, verificou-se a adequação geral do modelo e de cada uma das variáveis, de forma a identificar os principais indicadores que deverão compor as avaliações de instituições bancárias. O estudo foi desenvolvido a partir de um conjunto inicial de 17 indicadores, utilizados para analisar o desempenho econômico-financeiro de tais instituições. Seguindo os critérios das técnicas de análise fatorial, foram selecionados os indicadores que explicam o máximo de variância a partir do menor número possível de variáveis. Os resultados mostram que os indicadores mais relevantes para a avaliação do desempenho dessas instituições são: Retorno sobre o Investimento Total, Margem Líquida, Retorno sobre o Patrimônio Líquido, Relação Capital/Depositantes, Índice Empréstimos/Depósitos, Liquidez Imediata, Encaixe Voluntário e Índice de Sensibilidade de Juros. Esses 8 indicadores podem, ainda, ser substituídos por 3 fatores, os quais explicam aproximadamente 89,23% da variância total dos dados. Os fatores "Rentabilidade e Lucratividade", "Capital e Liquidez" e "Encaixe e Sensibilidade aos Juros" permitem classificar e comparar o desempenho das instituições financeiras bancárias. This study aims at identifying the most relevant economic and financial indicators for evaluating the performance of banking financial institutions by using the factor analysis. A total of 118 banking financial institutions with activities in Brazil over the years 2011 to
Full Text Available Sustainable development requires better quality of life for present and future generations. Additional data is required to measure lasting progress, that tracks economic growth. The objectives that take these aspects into consideration should be accompanied by economic, social, environmental and demographic indicators. Thus, sustainable development indicators satisfy these requirements. The articles makes an analysis of the main indicators of sustainable development. Even though it is important to observe them at a macro, European level, it is necessary to take into consideration the specific situation existing at a local and regional level, as well. Equally important is the integration of objectives aimed at sustainable development into the national policies. Economic improvement can be achieved through jobs and sustainable consumption.
Delene, J.G.; Fuller, L.C.; Hudson, C.R.
This analysis seeks to model and evaluate the economics of the use of Advanced Liquid Metal Reactors (ALMR) as a component of this country's future electricity generation mix. The ALMR concept has the ability to utilize as fuel the fissile material contained in previously irradiated nuclear fuel (i.e., spent fuel). While not a requirement for the successful deployment of ALMR power plant technology, the reprocessing of spent fuel from light water reactors (LWR) is necessary for any rapid introduction of ALMR power plants. In addition, the reprocessing of LWR spent fuel may reduce the number of high level waste repositories needed in the future by burning the long-lived actinides produced in the fission process. With this study, the relative economics of a number of potential scenarios related to these issues are evaluated. While not encompassing the full range of all possibilities, the cases reported here provide an indication of the potential costs, timings, and relative economic attractiveness of ALMR deployment
This paper is part of a larger exploration of the French Economics of Convention tradition. The aim of the paper is to explore potential themes of common interest to economic sociology and Economics of Conventions. The paper is in two parts. First, I summarise the main theoretical features of EC...... the institutional framework of social action. Second, I explore two issues raised by economics of conventions that may be particularly important to consider for economic sociology. The first issue is the explicit exploration of the consequences of a plurality of forms of justification suggested by Luc Boltanski...... and Laurent Thévenot in ‘économie de la grandeur’. This perspective has already been taken up in economic sociology in David Stark’s notion of a ‘Sociology of Worth’. The second issue, recently suggested by André Orléan, is the need to denaturalise economic theory and economic action to demonstrate the social...
Students in Technical and Agricultural faculties spend only a limited amount of time on general economics, environmental economics and resource economics. However, while their knowledge of economics may be limited, they often have adequate mathematical skills. The objective of The Economic
The Ethiopian Economic Journal of Economics is a publication of the Ethiopian Economic Association. It is a bi annual publication devoted to the advancement of economics as a scientific discipline in Ethiopia. However, contributions of articles by non-Ethiopian and on economic experience of other countries are ...
Cebula, Richard; Ekstrom, Marcus
This exploratory study examines the impact of various forms of economic freedom and various dimensions of governance, as well as a number of economic factors, on economic growth among OECD nations. Empirical estimation finds that the natural log of per capita purchasing-power-parity adjusted real GDP in OECD nations is positively impacted by business freedom, monetary freedom, trade freedom, and property rights security. Economic growth is found to be negatively affected by perceived governme...
Applied Evolutionary Economics and Economic Geography aims to further advance empirical methodologies in evolutionary economics, with a special emphasis on geography and firm location. It does so by bringing together a select group of leading scholars including economists, geographers and sociologists, all of whom share an interest in explaining the uneven distribution of economic activities in space and the historical processes that have produced these patterns.
Gudmundsson, Henrik; Joumard, Robert; Aschemann, Ralf
indicators? How can several indicators be jointly considered? And how can indicators be used in planning and decision making? Firstly we provide definition of 'indicator of environmental sustainability in transport'. The functions, strengths and weaknesses of indicators as measurement tools, and as decision...... for indicators and assessments. As the decision making context influences the perceived and actual needs for indicators and methods, we also analysed the dimensions and context of decision making. We derived criteria and methods for the assessment and selection of indicators of environmental sustainability......This report is the final report of the action COST 356 'EST - Towards the definition of a measurable environmentally sustainable transport'. It tries to answer the following questions: How can environmental impacts of transport be measured? How can measurements be transformed into operational...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The geomagnetic aa indices are the continuation of the series beginning in the year 1868. A full description of these indices is given in the International...
Mat Rasol Awang; Hassan Hamdani Mutaat
The economics of a processing technology depends on its cost. Two types of costs commonly used in the estimation are a fixed cost and the other is variable cost. The cost structure that included in the fixed cost, mainly, the cost of land, building and machineries, and the variable cost covers raw materials, salary / wages, utilities, irradiation charge, other miscellaneous expenses and contingencies. The assessment were made by treating the economic data using discounted cash flow projection method to deduce the economic indicators: Net Present Value (NPV), Internal Rate of Return (IRR), Benefit to Cost (B/C) ratio, that would suggest the project feasibility, either feasible or otherwise. The NPV, IRR, B/C deduced from Sterifeed Process showed the economic of this technology was infeasible due high cost incurred in transportation, labour as well as the cost of machinery. This is accomplished by sensitivity test performed on these cost components. However, cost structure derived from Sterifeed Plant serves as a model cost structure for economic assessment in production of Sterifeed, a fermented ruminant feed, and to work further on the economic of the project. This paper discuss economic evaluation of Sterifeed process in different scenarios that carried out in the Sterifeed process operations and deduction were made to derive a model production unit for commercialisation. (Author)
Full Text Available Property evaluation for tax purposes has traditionally relied on urban and building criteria, mostly resulting from concepts driven by the commercial attractiveness of the property under evaluation, its building and the site itself. Due to the world climate and ecological crisis, awareness has risen about the need for other indicators, which can evaluate the quality of a property, even referring to its potential environmental impact. Technical standards for the evaluation of buildings’ environmental sustainability, which have been developed since the first years of this century, both nationally and internationally, take into account the impact of the building and its relevance for the life-cycle of materials and elements, with reference to the three sectors of sustainability: environmental, economic and social. The social sector includes indicators referring to the user’s health and comfort, which also interact with the morphological and spatial characteristics of the building. However, there is a lack of methodological tools for the evaluation of said indicators and existing ones are mainly of a qualitative type. This paper suggests a methodological approach for the quantitative evaluation of sustainability indicators, relying on the accessibility of a site’s climate resources by the property, as a criterion to evaluate the potential for the reduction of negative environmental impact, as well as a criterion to improve users’ life quality.
.... This report from China contains the topics: NATIONAL POLICY AND ISSUES, PROVINCIAL AFFAIRS, ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ZONES, ECONOMIC PLANNING, ECONOMIC MANAGEMENT, FINANCE AND BANKING, INDUSTRY, SMALL- SCALE ENTERPRISES, CONSTRUCTION, DOMESTIC...
This article reviews recent advances in economic theories of dictatorships and their lessons for the political stability and economic performance of dictatorships. It reflects on the general usefulness of economic theories of dictatorship, with an application to foreign relations.
Coles, Flournoy A., Jr.
This article discusses some of the more important economic problems of minorities in the United States, identifying the economics of minorities with the economics of poverty, discrimination, exploitation, urban life, and alienation. (JM)
Full Text Available The mankind progress is built on economic growth.Yet, the high rates of economic growth must be properly used and correlated with other macroeconomic indicators in order to get the aimed effects.At the Romanian economic level, there is an inverse ratio connection between the gross domestic product and the unemployed number, a connection of low intensity.The correlation of these two indicators was established using parametric and nonparametric methods of analyzing the statistic connection using the informatic soft. Setting the recession function allows us to calculate the unemployed number depending on the forecasting of the economic growth in Romania.
Pryor, Frederic L.
The new comparative economics has focused on individual institutions, rather than the economic system as a whole. This essay argues that economic systems should be defined in terms of clusters of complementary or covarying institutions. A cluster analysis of OECD countries using data on forty different economic institutions shows that four economic systems characterize these nations. Further, these systems have no significant impact on economic growth or inflation, but they do have an importa...
The performance indicator development work of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) interoffice task group involved several major activities that included selection of candidate indicators for a trial program, data collection and review, validation of the trial indicators, display method development, interactions with the industry, and selection of an optimum set of indicators for the program. After evaluating 27 potential indicators against certain ideal attributes, the task group selected 17 for the trial program. The pertinent data for these indicators were then collected from 50 plants at 30 sites. The validation of the indicators consisted of two primary processes: logical validity and statistical analysis. The six indicators currently in the program are scrams, safety system actuations, significant events, safety system failures, forced outage rate, and equipment forced outages per 100 critical hours. A report containing data on the six performance indicators and some supplemental information is issued on a quarterly basis. The NRC staff is also working on refinements of existing indicators and development of additional indicators as directed by the commission
In 2004, the Canadian government committed to reporting annual national indicators of air quality, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and freshwater quality in order to provide Canadians with more regular and consistent information on the state of the environment and how it is linked with human activities. The national air quality indicators in this report focused on human exposure to ground-level ozone and fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ). The report showed that from 1990 to 2004, the ozone indicator showed year-to-year variability, with an averaged increase of 0.9 per cent per year. Stations in southern Ontario reported the highest levels of ozone and PM 2.5 in the country in 2004. There was no discernible upward or downward trend in PM 2.5 levels at the national level for the 2000 to 2004 period, and GHG emissions rose 27 per cent from 1990 to 2004. In 2004, emissions were 35 per cent above the target to which Canada committed under the Kyoto Protocol. However, while total emissions rose, emissions per unit of gross domestic product (GDP) fell by 14 per cent from 1990 to 2004. GHG emissions also grew faster than the Canadian population, resulting in a 10 per cent rise in emissions per person. The freshwater quality indicator presented in this report covered the period from 2002 to 2004, and focused on the ability of Canada's surface waters to support aquatic life. For the 340 sites selected across southern Canada, water quality was rated as good or excellent at 44 per cent of sites, fair at 34 per cent of sites, and marginal or poor at 22 per cent of sites. The report included a chapter which attempted to integrate the indicators with other environmental impacts, measures of economic performance, and indices of social progress to improve the ability of the report to influence decision-making that fully accounts for environmental sustainability. 63 refs., 18 figs
.... This report contains articles from China dealing with Economic Affairs. The Topics include National Affairs and Policy, Foreign Trade and Investment, Economic Zones, Finance and Banking, and Agriculture.
Ding Xiaoming; Li Lin; Zhao Shiping
Nuclear power economic database (NPEDB), based on ORACLE V6.0, consists of three parts, i.e., economic data base of nuclear power station, economic data base of nuclear fuel cycle and economic database of nuclear power planning and nuclear environment. Economic database of nuclear power station includes data of general economics, technique, capital cost and benefit, etc. Economic database of nuclear fuel cycle includes data of technique and nuclear fuel price. Economic database of nuclear power planning and nuclear environment includes data of energy history, forecast, energy balance, electric power and energy facilities
Klomp, Jeroen; de Haan, Jakob
We examine the effect of political 'institutions' on economic growth volatility, using data from more than 100 countries over the period 1960 to 2005, taking into account various control variables as suggested in previous studies. Our indicator of volatility is the relative standard deviation of the
HYPPÖNEN, Hannele; AMMENWERTH, Elske; Nøhr, Christian
eHealth indicators are needed to measure defined aspects of national eHealth implementations. However, until now, eHealth indicators are ambiguous or unclear. Therefore, an expert workshop "Towards an International Minimum Dataset for Monitoring National Health Information System Implementations......" was organized. The objective was to develop ideas for a minimum eHealth indicator set. The proposed ideas for indicators were classified based on EUnetHTA and De-Lone & McClean, and classification was compared with health IT evaluation criteria classification by Ammenwerth & Keizer. Analysis of the workshop...... results emphasized the need for a common methodological framework for defining and classifying eHealth indicators. It also showed the importance of setting the indicators into context. The results will benefit policy makers, developers and researchers in pursuit of provision and use of evidence...
Grishchuk, M.Kh.; Laptev, A.G.; Pashkov, V.A.
Specially developed level indicator is suggested with differential to-transformer converter of the float motion, operating in line with a movable electronic block, intended for indicating the level of the dissociating nitrogen tetroxide liquid phase. On the basis of the indicator elements the device is realized to measure the time of calibrated volume fillino. in by liquid nitrogen tetroxide in steady state operation of the experimental bench-marks [ru
Presents information, charts and graphs showing measured climate changes across 40 indicators related to greenhouse gases, weather and climate, oceans, snow and ice, heath and society, and ecosystems.
Hardt, Daniel; Asher, Nicholas; Hunter, Julie
This paper compares two views on the status of indices in syntactic and logical representations. On a structural view, indices are syntactic formants on a par with node labels and phrase bracketings, and are thus a part of the logical forms that are derived from syntactic representations. On the ......This paper compares two views on the status of indices in syntactic and logical representations. On a structural view, indices are syntactic formants on a par with node labels and phrase bracketings, and are thus a part of the logical forms that are derived from syntactic representations...
Sukhanova, Elena I.; Shirnaeva, Svetlana Y.; Mokronosov, Aleksandr G.
The urgency of the research topic was stipulated by the necessity to carry out an effective controlled process by the economic system which can hardly be imagined without indices forecasting characteristic of this system. An econometric model is a safe tool of forecasting which makes it possible to take into consideration the trend of indices…
Sheinbaum-Pardo, Claudia; Ruiz-Mendoza, Belizza Janet; Rodríguez-Padilla, Víctor
The authors analyze the Mexican energy policy taking as reference the methodological framework for sustainable energy development proposed by the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean. This methodology takes eight related indicators to the social, environmental and economic dimensions in order to calculate a general sustainability indicator for the energy sector. In this methodology, the weight of each dimension is different; namely, the social and environmental issues have less relevance than the economic issues. The authors use this methodology because government institutions as the Department of Energy and the Department of Environment and Natural Resources have used some indicators from such a methodology to propose plans, programs, projects and bills. Authors know of the existence of other methodologies about sustainability. Nonetheless, opting for the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean's methodology is convenient because this organization is a respectable authority for civil servants from the Mexican institutions. Our objective is just to contrast the sustainability grade of the energy sector between 1990 and 2008 for Mexico whose government started reforms in the 1990s. It concludes that those reforms did not bring about a higher sustainability level for the energy sector. - Highlights: ► We used the OLADE, CEPAL and GTZ's methodology to calculate sustainability indicators for the Mexican energy sector. ► We studied the Mexican energy policy from 1990 to date and presented it. ► Currently, the Mexican energy sector is less sustainable than in 1990.
Carneiro, Fernando Ferreira; Franco Netto, Guilherme; Corvalan, Carlos; de Freitas, Carlos Machado; Sales, Luiz Belino Ferreira
Despite its progress in terms of socio-economic indicators, Brazil is still unequal, which is due to an unequal and exclusionary historical process. In this paper we selected the Human Development Index - HDI and other social, economic, environmental and health indicators to exemplify this situation. We selected the municipalities that had the lowest HDI in the country in 2000 comparing their evolution over time between 2000 and 2010 by means of indicators linked to the economic, environmental and social pillars of sustainable development. These municipalities have an HDI classified as low (sustainable development with quality of life, the improvement of sanitation and education indicators should be a priority for Brazil.
This document presents the different taxes imposed to petroleum products in France: domestic tax on petroleum products (TIPP) and added value tax (TVA). A comparison is made with the fiscality into effect in other European countries for some petroleum products. Then, the fiscality is detailed for the different petroleum products and automotive fuels with its regional modulations. Finally, the fiscal measures adopted in 2007 are detailed. They concern the transposition of the European directive 2003-96/CE into French right and some fiscal regime changes given to some economical sectors particularly penalized by the rise of petroleum energy prices in 2007. (J.S.)
Cionini, Luca; Gardani, Gianstefano; Gabriele, Pietro; Magri, Secondo; Morosini, Pier Luigi; Rosi, Antonella; Viti, Vincenza
Background and purpose: There is a widespread and increasing tendency to develop hospital performance indicators in the field of accreditation/certification systems and quality benchmarking. A study has been undertaken to develop a set of performance indicators for a typical radiotherapy Centre and to evaluate their ability to provide a continuous quality improvement. Materials and methods: A working group consisting of radiation oncologists, medical physicists and radiation technologists under the coordination of experts in health technology assessment has elaborated a set of general indicators able to monitor performances and the quality level of a typical radiotherapy Centre. The work has been carried out through four steps: a preliminary set of indicators was selected; data on these indicators were collected in a number of Italian radiotherapy Centres and medical physics Services; problems in collection and analysis of data were discussed; a final set of indicators was developed. Results: A final set of 13 indicators is here presented. They concern general structural and/or operational features, health physics activities and accuracy and technical complexity of the treatment. Conclusions: The indicators tested in a few Italian Centres of radiotherapy and medical physics Services are now ready to be utilized by a larger community
This paper addresses how organisations can use OSH performance indicators. This is an important way to mainstream OSH into business management. Key performance indicators (KPIs) should provide objective data on the OSH situation. It is often said that ‘what gets measured gets managed’. Without
Dong, Yan; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky
. In this study, we reviewed indicators applied in life cycle assessment (LCA), planetary boundary framework (PB), and Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) developed under United Nation. The aim is to 1) identify their applications and relevant decision context; 2) Review their indicators and categorize them...
Gajwani, Kiran; Miron, Jeffrey
Siegfried and Stock (2007) explore the undergraduate training of PhD economists. Their findings show that among U.S. undergraduate economics programs, the Harvard University Economics Department produces many eventual economics PhD recipients. In this article, the authors discuss Harvard's undergraduate economics program and highlight some key…
The NESG Economic and Policy Review (EPR) is a quarterly publication of the Nigerian Economic Summit Group (NESG), established to serve as an avenue for constructive analysis of economic policies and their impacts on different aspects of the business and economic environment. The EPR aims to provide unbiased, ...
Economics is a social science, so is economic design as a field. This short article discusses, in particular, the future of economic design, and of economic theory in general. By suggesting some examples, I hope to convince the readers that the recent technological advances in science and technology
Onstad, David W; Knolhoff, Lisa M
To recommend new pest management tactics and strategies to farmers and policy makers, economic entomologists must evaluate the economics of biologically reasonable approaches. We collected data to determine how frequently these economic evaluations occur. We discovered from our survey of entomological journals representing the discipline of economic entomology that papers published since 1972 include economic evaluations of pest management tactics. At least 85% of these analyses were performed by entomologists and not economists. Much of the research on economic evaluations is performed without special funds granted by agencies separate from the authors' institutions. In the United States, USDA competitive grants supported 20% of the economic evaluations published since 2000. However, only approximately 12% of the projects funded since 2000 by three sections of the USDA (Crops at Risk, Risk Avoidance and Mitigation Program, and Pest Management Alternatives Program) resulted in publications concerning economic evaluations. If the purpose of economic entomology is to ultimately determine the value of different kinds of tactics, the discipline may need to take steps to enhance the research that supports these evaluations.
City sustainable development indicators and indices have become a hot issue in academic research and practical application, alongside the high-speed worldwide urbanization and driven by the actual managing demand. This article is aimed at a clear understanding of the progress in relevant research and practice. This is done by collecting common indicators and indices for city sustainable development and making comparison of the assessment process and contents, so as to find out main obstacles for the development of this research field and explore the direction for efforts to be made next step. The article divides these indicators and indices into two categories: ① indicators serving as single index which can provide an explicit description on the relationship between economic activities and environmental carrying capacity, but have a narrow scope of assessment and use complicated methods to collect and calculate data; ② indices based on indicator systems which can represent multiple processes, could reflect the view of strong sustainability and are easy to use, but can hardly depict the responding relationship between social, environmental and economic changes for city sustainable development or assure the scientific rigor of weight setting. Practices on indicators and indices for city sustainable development was summarized, and its problems were reviewed with China being representative of transitioning countries. According to the review, great progress has been achieved in the research and practice of indicators and indices for city sustainable development, but consistency of theories, rationality of indicators and scientific rigor of methodology are to be improved significantly.
The purpose of this document is to show a method for the fast recalculation of the PSA. To avoid the information loose, it is necessary to simplify the PSA models, or at least reorganize them. The method, introduced in this document, require that preparation, so we try to show, how to do that. This document is an introduction. This is the starting point of the work related to the development of the risk indicators. In the future, with the application of this method, we are going to show an everyday use of the PSA results to produce the indicators of the core damage risk. There are two different indicators of the plant safety performance, related to the core damage risk. The first is the core damage frequency indicator (CDFI), and the second is the core damage probability indicator (CDPI). Of course, we cannot describe all of the possible ways to use these indicators, rather we will try to introduce the requirements to establish such an indicator system and the calculation process
Fisker, Peter Simonsen
This study explores the economic consequences of earthquakes. In particular, it is investigated how exposure to earthquakes affects economic growth both across and within countries. The key result of the empirical analysis is that while there are no observable effects at the country level, earthquake exposure significantly decreases 5-year economic growth at the local level. Areas at lower stages of economic development suffer harder in terms of economic growth than richer areas. In addition,...
Vidal, Patricia G.
In 1997 the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) initiated a program to define and implement a Safety Performance Indicators System for the two operating nuclear power plants, Atucha I and Embalse. The objective of the program was to incorporate a set of safety performance indicators to be used as a new regulatory tool providing an additional view of the operational performance of the nuclear power plants, improving the ability to detect degradation on safety related areas. A set of twenty-four safety performance indicators was developed and improved throughout pilot implementation initiated in July 1998. This paper summarises the program development, the main criteria applied in each stage and the results obtained. (author)
Mr. Reichle feels that the economic advantages of pursuing nuclear power should prompt Congress and the administration to seek ways of eliminating undue delays and enabling industry to proceed with the design, construction, and management of nuclear plants and facilities. Abundant, low-cost energy, which can only be supplied by coal and nuclear, is vital to growth in our gross national product, he states. While conservation efforts are commendable, we must have more energy if we are to maintain our standard of living. Current energy resources projections into the next century indicate an energy gap of 42 quads with a 3 percent growth and 72 quads with a 4 percent growth. Comparisons of fuel prices, plant capital investment, and electric generation costs are developed for both coal and nuclear energy; these show that nuclear energy has a clear advantage economically as long as light water reactors are supplemented by breeder reactor development and the nuclear industry can demonstrate that these reactors are safe, reliable, and compatible with the environment. Mr. Reichle says excessive regulation and legal challenges combined with public apathy toward developing nuclear energy are delaying decisions and actions that should be taken now
This paper presents a study of the economic performance of Fission/Fusion Hybrid devices. This work takes fusion breeder cost estimates and applies methodology and cost factors used in the fission reactor programs to compare fusion breeders with Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBR). The results of the analysis indicate that the Hybrid will be in the same competitive range as proposed LMFBRs and have the potential to provide economically competitive power in a future of rising uranium prices. The sensitivity of the results to variations in key parameters is included
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Data for School year-end 1994 through year-end 2016. State oral health surveys are the data sources for these indicators. States periodically conduct independent...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2012-2014 (even years). Data from BRFSS for indicators of adult oral health for even years from 2012 through 2014. National estimates are represented by the median...
Environmental Indicators for Buildings are studied using two different perspectives: with a technological, environmental scientific departing point and with a social scientific departing point. Different relevant groups in the building sector are identified and analysed, using the Social...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Solar Indices Bulletin is a prompt monthly information product that is distributed within two weeks after the observation month closes. For the month just ended,...
Gao, Jingjing; Kørnøv, Lone; Christensen, Per
Abstract: Indicators are widely used in SEA to measure, communicate and monitor impacts from a proposed policy, plan or programme, and can improve the effectiveness for the SEA by simplifying the complexity of both assessment and presentation. Indicators can be seen as part of the implementation...... and if the information requirement for different target groups is not addressed. Indicators are widely used in SEA to measure, communicate and monitor impacts from a proposed policy, plan or programme, and can improve the effectiveness for the SEA by simplifying the complexity of both assessment and presentation...... process helping to understand, communicate and, integrate important environmental issues in planning and decision-making. On the other hand, use of indicators can also limit SEA effectiveness, if the ones chosen are biased or limited, if the aggregation gives incorrect interpretation...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Performance indicators for landings, effort, revenue and distribution of revenue are collected for various fisheries nation-wide. The fisheries include catch and...
Sediment enzymes are proteins that are produced by microorganisms living in the sediment or soil. They are indicators of key ecosystem processes and can help determine which nutrients are affecting the biological community of a waterbody.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Data for School year-end 1994 through year-end 2017. State oral health surveys are the data sources for these indicators. States periodically conduct independent...
there is something wrong with economic development in Africa. ... indicators, and predictions – findings which have substantial implications for judging whether there is .... Rosenstein-Rodan's steps, although recaliberating his thesis of economic ...... 'International regime governance and apparel labour upgrading in export.
The Macroeconomic model (Macromod) is a computer assisted instruction simulation model designed for introductory economics courses. An evaluation of its utilization at a community college indicates that it yielded a 10 percent to 13 percent greater economic comprehension than lecture classes and that it met with high student approval. (DC)
Rao, C. A.
This report provides a brief description of economic education in Malaysia and indicates interest, on the part of various Asian countries, i.e., Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, Thailand, and the Philippines, in the establishment of economic education programs. (Editor/RK)
H. 1990. Strategy for monitoring the effects of land use change on atmospheric CO2 concentrations . In Proceedings of “Global Natural Resource...Working Group in Santiago , Chile , February 1995, ten nations agreed to a comprehensive set of criteria and indicators for forest conservation and...chemistry variables, the concentrations of total and inorganic suspended sediments during baseflow and storm periods were excellent indicators of
Full Text Available The changes in the Polish socio-economic system, initiated at the turn of 1989 and 1990, led to a systematic increase in the liberalization of economy and thereby the rise of the level of economic freedom. The aim of this paper is to examine the impact of the economic transition on the development of economic freedom in Poland. The analysis, carried out in the period 1995-2015, was conducted on the basis of the chain-linked Economic Freedom Index by the Fraser Institute and the Index of Economic Freedom of the Heritage Foundation and the Wall Street Journal. The analysis indicates that: (1 Poland cannot be considered as a country that is fully free economically, but the transition of its economic system has resulted in a rapid growth of economic freedom. (2 The impact of transition varies for different areas (sub-indices of the economy. (3 The European economic integration stimulated the increase of EFI, but the economic crisis did not decrease the level of economic freedom.
Herbert E. Scarf
The paper, prepared for a Roundtable on Major Economic Problems in the U.S. and the U.S.S.R., discusses some aspects of price theory ñ in particular, the theory of general equilibrium -ñ which may offer some theoretical insights about the economic problems to be encountered during the transition from Socialism to private markets in the Soviet Union.
Clench-Aas, Jocelyn; Guerreiro, Cristina; Bartonova, Alena
This report proposes and describes in detail several air quality indicators that may be used to describe population exposure. The suggested indicators account for temporal and spatial patterns of pollution and movements of individuals between different micro-environments. The Air Quality Indicator /AQI) should represent both the spatial and temporal aspects of pollution exposure that may have important effects on health. Two indicators are needed, the Population Air Quality Indicator and the Individual Air Quality Indicator. Mean concentrations, 98th percentile and maximum values are the traditional indicators for estimating exposure. the temporal variability of PM-10 and NO 2 , however, is here described by means of: 1) The rate of change of pollution as the difference between two consecutive hourly values and of 2) episodes, described in terms of number, duration and winter episode period, maximum concentration in the episode and integrated episode exposure (episode AOT50/100). The spatial variation of AQIs can be described in several ways, e.g.: 1) Concentrations in neighbouring grid squares can be compared as an indication of spatial variation and 2) point estimates can be compared to grid values for a description of variation within a grid. Both methods are presented here. A test of the representativity of static point estimates for pollution exposure is to compare them to an estimate of air pollution exposure accounting for movements between different locations, obtained using diaries. The ultimate aim of AQIs is to describe the population exposure to ambient pollution. This is done by estimating the number of people exposed using different characteristics of AQIs. The data used to describe these indicators originates from dispersion modelling of short-term air pollution concentrations in Oslo. Two series of data are used. One represents hour-for hour concentrations in the 1 km 2 grid system covering the city of Oslo, winter 1994/95, calculated by the grid
Di Vaio, Gianfranco; Weisdorf, Jacob Louis
This study ranks-for the first time-12 international academic journals that have economic history as their main topic. The ranking is based on data collected for the year 2007. Journals are ranked using standard citation analysis where we adjust for age, size and self-citation of journals. We also...... compare the leading economic history journals with the leading journals in economics in order to measure the influence on economics of economic history, and vice versa. With a few exceptions, our results confirm the general idea about what economic history journals are the most influential for economic...... history, and that, although economic history is quite independent from economics as a whole, knowledge exchange between the two fields is indeed going on....
Di Vaio, Gianfranco; Weisdorf, Jacob Louis
This study ranks - for the first time - 12 international academic journals that have economic history as their main topic. The ranking is based on data collected for the year 2007. Journals are ranked using standard citation analysis where we adjust for age, size and self-citation of journals. We...... also compare the leading economic history journals with the leading journals in economics in order to measure the influence on economics of economic history, and vice versa. With a few exceptions, our results confirm the general idea about what economic history journals are the most influential...... for economic history, and that, although economic history is quite independent from economics as a whole, knowledge exchange between the two fields is indeed going on....
Full Text Available This study aims at assessing to what extent institutional environment is responsible for worldwide differences in economic growth and economic development. To answer this question, we use an innovative approach based on a new concept of the institutions-augmented Solow model which is then estimated empirically using regression equations. The analysis covers 180 countries during the 1993-2012 period. The empirical analysis confirms a large positive impact of the quality of institutional environment on the level of economic development. The positive link has been evidenced for all five institutional indicators: two indices of economic freedom (Heritage Foundation and Fraser Institute, the governance indicator (World Bank, the democracy index (Freedom House, and the EBRD transition indicator for post-socialist countries. Differences in physical capital, human capital, and institutional environment explain about 70-75% of the worldwide differences in economic development. The institutions-augmented Solow model, however, performs slightly poorer in explaining differences in the rates of economic growth: only one institutional variable (index of economic freedom has a statistically significant impact on economic growth. In terms of originality, this paper extends the theoretical analysis of the Solow model by including institutions, on the one hand, and shows a comprehensive empirical analysis of the impact of various institutional indicators on both the level of development and the pace of economic growth, on the other. The results bring important policy implications.
Ambient air quality, surface water quality and near-shore water quality from Shanghai are used as environmental indicators and per capita GDP is used as the economic indicator. We found four types of economy-environment relationships in the studied period in Shanghai. The results also show that surface water indicator ...
efficiency greater than one which indicated profitability of the enterprise and further showed the potential of fish marketing contribution to women's economic empowerment. The regression results showed that the variables which positively and.
Economic Viability and Marketing Strategies of Periwinkle Tympanotonus Fuscatus in Rivers State, Nigeria. ... The results indicated that marketing strategies are enroute, through harvesters (collectors), ... EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT
Kruyt, Bert; Van Vuuren, D.P.; De Vries, H.J.M.; Groenenberg, H.
The concept of energy security is widely used, yet there is no consensus on its precise interpretation. In this research, we have provided an overview of available indicators for long-term security of supply (SOS). We distinguished four dimensions of energy security that relate to the availability, accessibility, affordability and acceptability of energy and classified indicators for energy security according to this taxonomy. There is no one ideal indicator, as the notion of energy security is highly context dependent. Rather, applying multiple indicators leads to a broader understanding. Incorporating these indicators in model-based scenario analysis showed accelerated depletion of currently known fossil resources due to increasing global demand. Coupled with increasing spatial discrepancy between consumption and production, international trade in energy carriers is projected to have increased by 142% in 2050 compared to 2008. Oil production is projected to become increasingly concentrated in a few countries up to 2030, after which production from other regions diversifies the market. Under stringent climate policies, this diversification may not occur due to reduced demand for oil. Possible benefits of climate policy include increased fuel diversity and slower depletion of fossil resources. (author)
Frandsen, Anne Kathrine; Bertelsen, Niels Haldor; Haugbølle, Kim
During the past two years the Nordic Baltic research project CREDIT (Construction and Real Estate – Developing Indicators for Transparency) has worked with the aim to improve transparency of value creation in building and real estate. One of the central deliverables of the CREDIT project was a fr......During the past two years the Nordic Baltic research project CREDIT (Construction and Real Estate – Developing Indicators for Transparency) has worked with the aim to improve transparency of value creation in building and real estate. One of the central deliverables of the CREDIT project...... was a framework of indicators relevant in building and real estate and applicable in the Nordic and Baltic countries as well as a proposal for a set of key indicators. The study resulting in CREDIT Performance Indicator Framework has been based on 28 case studies of evaluation practises in the building and real...... estate sector each addressing three interlinked levels: building/ projects level, company or enterprise level and benchmarking system level. Additionally it has been based on dialogue with researchers and professional organisation, international research and standardisation work and national building...
Elleby, Anita; Ingwersen, Peter
; the Cumulated Publication Point Indicator (CPPI), which graphically illustrates the cumulated gain of obtained vs. ideal points, both seen as vectors; and the normalized Cumulated Publication Point Index (nCPPI) that represents the cumulated gain of publication success as index values, either graphically......The paper presents comparative analyses of two publication point systems, The Norwegian and the in-house system from the interdisciplinary Danish Institute of International Studies (DIIS), used as case in the study for publications published 2006, and compares central citation-based indicators...... with novel publication point indicators (PPIs) that are formalized and exemplified. Two diachronic citation windows are applied: 2006-07 and 2006-08. Web of Science (WoS) as well as Google Scholar (GS) are applied to observe the cite delay and citedness for the different document types published by DIIS...
A viable safeguards system includes among other things the development and use of indices which trigger various courses of action. The usual limit of error calculation provides such an index. The classical approach is one of constructing tests which, under certain assumptions, make the likelihood of a false alarm small. Of concern also is the test's failure to indicate a loss (diversion) when in fact one has occurred. Since false alarms are usually costly and losses both costly and of extreme strategic sinificance, there remains the task of balancing the probability of false alarm and its consequences against the probability of undetected loss and its consequences. The application of other than classical hypothesis testing procedures are considered in this paper. Using various consequence models, trigger indices are derived which have certain optimum properties. Application of the techniques would enhance the material control function
Angus, J.P.; Salt, D.
A temperature indicating device comprises a plurality of planar elements some undergoing a reversible change in appearance at a given temperature the remainder undergoing an irreversible change in appearance at a given temperature. The device is useful in indicating the temperature which an object has achieved as well as its actual temperature. The reversible change is produced by liquid crystal devices. The irreversible change is produced by an absorbent surface carrying substances e.g. waxes which melt at predetermined temperatures and are absorbed by the surface; alternatively paints may be used. The device is used for monitoring processes of encapsulation of radio active waste. (author)
Chernyshev, G.I.; Luk' yanov, E.P.; Pruslin, Y.A.; Zabrodin, P.I.
The injector can be used with remote introduction of indicators into a borehole for study in an oil well of the parameters of movement of fluid currents, control of the state of the equipment, and study of the properties of the rocks. Proposed is a method of increasing the reliability of operation of the injector by stabilizing the rate of its dispersing. Introduced to the injector of a solid indicator are auxiliary brackets and a cathode made from nonmetallic electrical conducting material and reinforced at the end by an elastic bracket. The auxillary cathode is attached to the end surface of the anode and cathode.
Kaltenbach, M.; Vallbracht, C.
Today selective coronary angiography, introduced by Sones in 1957, is used as clinical routine for diagnosing morphological changes in the coronary arteries. Hitherto, more recent techniques such as digital subtraction angiography cannot provide comparable information. Strict criteria for its indication depending on possible therapeutic consequences, have to be applied, although the risk is low with a letality of 0.01 to 0.05 percent. Radionuclear investigations can be used as additional tool in selected cases. The careful indication for coronary angiography usually implies the possible need for coronary bypass graft surgery of balloon angioplasty. (orig./MG) [de
Full Text Available The budget deficit can not be analyzed autarchically, as it affects all the macroeconomic processes and, is itself influenced by all other macroeconomic indicators. Most analyses and studies on public finance and budget balance measure the impact that budgetary deficits accumulation has on economy. Therefore, the present paper aims at following and analyzing the mutual impact between budget deficit and another economic macro indicator, namely the economic growth.
There is a growing volume of literature on health economic evaluation, with this form of analysis becoming increasingly influential at the decision-making level worldwide. The purpose of this study was to review the current state of health economic evaluation in Greece, with a view to uncovering reasons why its use in this country is limited. A search of the NHS Economic Evaluation Database was undertaken. The search included cost, cost-of-illness, cost-minimization, cost-effectiveness, cost-consequences, cost-utility, and cost-benefit analyses and was narrowed only to Greek authors undertaking solo or joint health economic evaluation in Greece. The search revealed that, in Greece, very little health economic evaluation has been undertaken. The main reason for the lack of interest is that the current chaotic healthcare system structure and financing does not provide the appropriate incentives to stimulate a powerful interest in this type of research. This condition is a result of the lack of a long-term national health policy and the hesitation of the present and past Greek governments to date to proceed to large-scale reforms because of political considerations. The Greek governments have also been content with the good health indicators being achieved. Even if it is accepted that good health prevails in Greece, slower economic growth rates, an ageing population, and the continuous immigration will place increasing pressure on healthcare resources and will necessitate a more rational use of these resources. Health economic evaluation, by weighing benefits against costs, therefore, has an important role to play.
Mália, Miguel; de Brito, Jorge; Pinheiro, Manuel Duarte; Bravo, Miguel
The construction industry is one of the biggest and most active sectors of the European Union (EU), consuming more raw materials and energy than any other economic activity. Furthermore, construction waste is the commonest waste produced in the EU. Current EU legislation sets out to implement construction and demolition waste (CDW) prevention and recycling measures. However it lacks tools to accelerate the development of a sector as bound by tradition as the building industry. The main objective of the present study was to determine indicators to estimate the amount of CDW generated on site both globally and by waste stream. CDW generation was estimated for six specific sectors: new residential construction, new non-residential construction, residential demolition, non-residential demolition, residential refurbishment, and non-residential refurbishment. The data needed to develop the indicators was collected through an exhaustive survey of previous international studies. The indicators determined suggest that the average composition of waste generated on site is mostly concrete and ceramic materials. Specifically for new residential and new non-residential construction the production of concrete waste in buildings with a reinforced concrete structure lies between 17.8 and 32.9 kg m(-2) and between 18.3 and 40.1 kg m(-2), respectively. For the residential and non-residential demolition sectors the production of this waste stream in buildings with a reinforced concrete structure varies from 492 to 840 kg m(-2) and from 401 to 768 kg/m(-2), respectively. For the residential and non-residential refurbishment sectors the production of concrete waste in buildings lies between 18.9 and 45.9 kg/m(-2) and between 18.9 and 191.2 kg/m(-2), respectively.
Friedrich, Tobias; Bringmann, Karl; Voß, Thomas
It was recently proven that sets of points maximizing the hypervolume indicator do not give a good multiplicative approximation of the Pareto front. We introduce a new “logarithmic hypervolume indicator” and prove that it achieves a close-to-optimal multiplicative approximation ratio. This is exp...
Dullin, H R; Robbins, J M; Waalkens, H; Creagh, S C; Tanner, G
We prove that for a Hamiltonian system on a cotangent bundle that is Liouville-integrable and has monodromy the vector of Maslov indices is an eigenvector of the monodromy matrix with eigenvalue 1. As a corollary, the resulting restrictions on the monodromy matrix are derived. (letter to the editor)
Paul L. Patterson; Susan Will-Wolf; Marie T. Trest
Lichens are very responsive to environmental stressors in forests, including changes in forest structure, air quality, and climate. Each lichen species on a plot is an indicator of how lichen communities respond to ecological conditions. Individual lichen species occur erratically and even common species are often absent from plots with suitable habitat. The combined...
Full Text Available The present turning point, accentuated by the crisis, has revitalized the interdisciplinary study of economics and determined the reconsideration of its fundamental bases as a social science. The economists have abandoned the traditional neoclassical sphere and have directed towards understanding the behaviour resorting to psychology and developing in this manner a new field - behavioural economics. This article examines whether this economic sub-discipline is a viable research direction and the extent to which it may increase the explanatory power of science by providing a realistic database for analysis, taking into account the complexity of the human factor.
The Botswana Journal of Economics is a professional journal established for the dissemination of contemporary economic issues–theoretical, methodological, and ... of both the immediate environment and the wider international community.
Full Text Available Economic globalization is nothing, really, that the universality of capitalism. Not globalized culture, and economic participation, and human rights, ... has only globalized market. We must react by substituting those materialistic values with cooperative economy.
L. I. Podderegina
Full Text Available The paper considers and analyzes scientific approaches of economists to the essence and contents of the economic mechanism. Proposals for methodological formation of economic mechanism structure are substantiated in the paper.
Paine, Carolyn; Arnold, Anne Jurmu
A teaching unit on economics discusses basic background information, suggests classroom activities, and lists sources of instructional resources. Reproducible masters for two instructional levels are included and introduce economics law and basic financial management. (FG)
Nasseroddin Kazemi Haghighi
Full Text Available As a new concept in the literature, the authors discuss the conception of “Economic Creativ-ity” (EC. The authors explain psychological characteristics of “Economic Creativity”: atti-tudes, motivation, personality traits, and abili-ties. They propose a design based on Emotion of Thought Theory (Kazemi, 2007 for Economic Creativity Development (ECD. This theory is an affective-cognitive approach that tries to ex-plain creativity. Emotion of Thought involves “Poyaei” and “Bitabi” (in Persian meaning Dy-namism and Restlessness. According to this theory, ECD relates to connections between emotion and thought. The ECD includes pro-moting individual readiness, utilization of eco-nomic resources, attitude towards economic af-fairs development, enhancing the utilization of economic experiences, conducting economic ac-tivity education, development of economic thinking and development of emotion of thought.
The series is designed to bring together those mathematicians who are seriously interested in getting new challenging stimuli from economic theories with those economists who are seeking effective mathematical tools for their research. A lot of economic problems can be formulated as constrained optimizations and equilibration of their solutions. Various mathematical theories have been supplying economists with indispensable machineries for these problems arising in economic theory. Conversely, mathematicians have been stimulated by various mathematical difficulties raised by economic theories.
A lot of economic problems can be formulated as constrained optimizations and equilibration of their solutions. Various mathematical theories have been supplying economists with indispensable machineries for these problems arising in economic theory. Conversely, mathematicians have been stimulated by various mathematical difficulties raised by economic theories. The series is designed to bring together those mathematicians who are seriously interested in getting new challenging stimuli from economic theories with those economists who are seeking effective mathematical tools for their research.
A lot of economic problems can formulated as constrained optimizations and equilibration of their solutions. Various mathematical theories have been supplying economists with indispensable machineries for these problems arising in economic theory. Conversely, mathematicians have been stimulated by various mathematical difficulties raised by economic theories. The series is designed to bring together those mathematicians who were seriously interested in getting new challenging stimuli from economic theories with those economists who are seeking for effective mathematical tools for their researchers.
This paper aims at decrypting the manner in which the foundations of Economics as a science and the meanings of the relevant explanatory formulas are being shaped. My analytical endeavor focuses on understanding the peculiarities of what is referred to as the object of study of the science known as Economics, an academic synthesis of concept-related breakthroughs regarding economicity. The explicit purpose of this analysis is to identify perennial benchmarks in economic c...
A lot of economic problems can formulated as constrained optimizations and equilibration of their solutions.Various mathematical theories have been supplying economists with indispensable machineries for these problems arising in economic theory. Conversely, mathematicians have been stimulated by various mathematical difficulties raised by economic theories. The series is designed to bring together those mathematicians who were seriously interested in getting new challenging stimuli from economic theories with those economists who are seeking for effective mathematical tools for their researchers.
Sørensen, Olav Jull
The literature on business networks is often oversocialized. The economic side of business is implicitly assumed. This paper analyses the economics of network behavior by loking at each of the key concepts in the Network Theory.......The literature on business networks is often oversocialized. The economic side of business is implicitly assumed. This paper analyses the economics of network behavior by loking at each of the key concepts in the Network Theory....
The series is designed to bring together those mathematicians who are seriously interested in getting new challenging stimuli from economic theories with those economists who are seeking effective mathematical tools for their research. A lot of economic problems can be formulated as constrained optimizations and equilibration of their solutions. Various mathematical theories have been supplying economists with indispensable machineries for these problems arising in economic theory. Conversely, mathematicians have been stimulated by various mathematical difficulties raised by economic theories.
The series is designed to bring together those mathematicians who are seriously interested in getting new challenging stimuli from economic theories with those economists who are seeking effective mathematical tools for their research. A lot of economic problems can be formulated as constrained optimizations and equilibration of their solutions. Various mathematical theories have been supplying economists with indispensable machineries for these problems arising in economic theory. Conversely, mathematicians have been stimulated by various mathematical difficulties raised by economic theories.
Groot, de E.A. (Bert)
Schumpeter’s line of thought of multiple economic cycles is further investigated. The existence of multiple cycles in economic variables is demonstrated. In basic innovations five different cycles are found. Multiple cycle structures are shown in various macro-economic variables from the United
Klijs, Jeroen; Heijman, Wim J.M.; Peerlings, Jack H.M.; Rouwendal, Jan; Schipper, Rob A.
The subject area Regional Economics has become topical. This means that in economic analyses the production factor 'space' is of increasing importance. This study book aims to integrate space in the area of General Economics in an analytical way. Models and their applications play a major role in
This document is a text for teaching economics. The book is divided into seven units. Unit 1 is called "What is Economics?" Its seven chapters discuss economics and scarcity, money, the role of the consumer, the role of the producer, capitalism and the free enterprise system, and the circular flow of the economy. The second unit is "How the United…
Lee, Norman, Ed.
The purpose of this book is to review the place of economics education in the curriculum and to investigate the significance of developments in educational theory and practice for the teaching of economics. It consists of a collection of studies on different aspects of economics education, prepared by 24 contributors from British and North…
Wolken, Lawrence C.
Defines the predominate classifications of economic systems: traditional, command, market, capitalism, socialism, and communism. Considers property rights, role of government, economic freedom, incentives, market structure, economic goals and means of achieving those goals for each classification. Identifies 26 print and audio-visual sources for…
Corden, Anne; Hirst, Michael
This article investigates the nature, context, and impact of economic stressors associated with loss, drawing on a mixed-methods study of changes in financial circumstances and economic roles following death of a life partner. Findings show how economic changes, and the practicalities of dealing with such transitions, shaped individual responses…
Reisch, Lucia A.; Sunstein, Cass R.
Behavioral economics explores why people sometimes fail to make rational decisions, and how their behavior departs from the predictions of standard economic models. Insights gained from studies in behavioral economics are used in consumer research and consumer policy to understand and improve ind...
; Sponsored Work Regional Economic Development Technology Opportunities User Facilities About Us Metrics In the News Publications Policies Feynman Center Â» Deploying Innovation Â» Regional Economic Development Regional Economic Development Supporting companies in every stage of development through access to
This has been accompanied by a narrowing of the gender gap in education. ... in which economic growth can affect women's access to, and control over, resources. ... In partnership with UNESCO's Organization for Women in Science for the ...
Full Text Available I am grateful to the Afrika-Seminaar of the Potchefstroom University for inviting me to give a talk on the European Economic Community and the Association of the Overseas Countries and Territories.
This paper documents Fluor Hanford's use of Leading Indicators, management leadership, and statistical methodology in order to improve safe performance of work. By applying these methods, Fluor Hanford achieved a significant reduction in injury rates in 2003 and 2004, and the improvement continues today. The integration of data, leadership, and teamwork pays off with improved safety performance and credibility with the customer. The use of Statistical Process Control, Pareto Charts, and Systems Thinking and their effect on management decisions and employee involvement are discussed. Included are practical examples of choosing leading indicators. A statistically based color coded dashboard presentation system methodology is provided. These tools, management theories and methods, coupled with involved leadership and employee efforts, directly led to significant improvements in worker safety and health, and environmental protection and restoration at one of the nation's largest nuclear cleanup sites
Nolan, John E; Schottel, Patrick C; Endres, Nathan K
Trochlear dysplasia is a well-described risk factor for patellar instability. Trochleoplasty has emerged as a procedure within the surgical armamentarium for patellar instability, yet its role is unclear. A variety of trochleoplasty procedures have emerged. The purpose of this review is to clarify indications for trochleoplasty, outline the technical steps involved in performing common trochleoplasties and report the published outcomes and potential complications of these procedures. Patellar instability with severe trochlear dysplasia is the main indication for trochleoplasty. Three types of trochleoplasty have emerged: (1) lateral facet elevation; (2) sulcus deepening; and (3) recession wedge. Deepening and recession wedge trochleoplasties are the most commonly performed. Trochleoplasty is a surgical option for addressing patellar instability in patients with severe trochlear dysplasia. Deepening and recession wedge trochleoplasties that address Dejour B and D dysplastic trochleas are the most studied, with both short- and midterm outcomes reported. Long-term outcomes are lacking and comparative studies are needed.
This publication discusses the use of lichens as biological indicators. Perennial growth, long life, efficient take-up of mineral nutrients from air and rain and small loss of nutrition are properties that make lichens suitable as biological indicators. In surveys and monitoring, species diversity and coverage by organisms that live as epiphytes on tree trunks have been the most commonly used parameters. A decline in the occurrence of this type of lichen is often related to the content of sulphur compounds in the air and it has been demonstrated that many species are sensitive to sulphur dioxide. It is also known that the growth of many types of lichens increases with a moderate increase in available nitrogen. In South Norway, pollution sensitive species such as Bryoria spp. have advanced strongly, which is probably due to less sulphur in the rain and a higher content of nutrition in the form of nitrate and ammonium
Elleby, Anita; Ingwersen, Peter
The paper presents comparative analyses of two publication point systems, The Norwegian and the in-house system from the interdiscplinary Danish Institute for International Studies (DIIS), used as case in the study for publications published 2006, and compares central citation-based indicators...... with novel publication point indicators (PPIs) that are formalized and exemplified. Two diachronic citation windows are applied: 2006-07 and 2006-08. Web of Science (WoS) as well as Google Scholar (GS) are applied to observe the cite delay and citedness for the different document types published by DIIS...... for all document types. Statistical significant correlations were only found between WoS and GS and the two publication point systems in between, respectively. The study demonstrates how the nCPPI can be applied to institutions as evaluation tools supplementary to JCI in various combinations...
Babecký, J.; Havránek, T.; Matějů, Jakub; Rusnák, M.; Šmídková, K.; Vašíček, B.
Roč. 35, June (2013), s. 1-19 ISSN 0261-5606 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) SVV 267801/2013 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : early warning indicators * Bayesian model averaging * economic crises Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.090, year: 2013
Full Text Available In this study, the relationships between financial development, environmental quality and economic growth are studied based on data from 102 countries over the period 1980–2010 using the generalized method of moments (GMM estimation. The econometric results show the following three basic conclusions: First, both financial development and environmental quality have a significant impact on economic growth and should be included in the production function of the economic growth model as important variables. Second, there is a significant and robust “inverted U-shaped” relationship between financial development and economic growth; with the improvement of the level of financial development, economic growth would first increase and then decrease, which is consistent with the results of previous studies. Third, there is also a significant and robust “inverted U-shaped” relationship between economic growth and carbon emissions, indicating that there exists a “critical point” at which achieving economic growth comes at the expense of environmental quality, and after passing the critical point, the deterioration of environmental quality will lead to a significant slowdown in economic growth. In addition, the econometric analysis in this paper also shows that there was a mutually promoting and strengthening relationship between financial development and environmental quality. Specifically, the degree of financial development can further strengthen the promoting effect of environmental quality on economic growth; meanwhile, an improvement in environmental quality can also strengthen the promoting effect of financial development on economic growth. Financial development and environmental quality could influence economic growth through strengthening the marginal product effects of capital and labor, which further indicates the that both financial and environmental factors play an important role in modern economic development.
Methods for determination of motorization index in small hydroelectric power plants, considering the financial economic risk as function of the hydrological risk; Metodologia para determinacao do indice de motorizacao em PCH`S considerando o risco economico financeiro em funcao do risco hidrologico
Saliba, Aloysio Portugal Maia; Martinez, Carlos Barreira; Versiani, Bruno Rabelo [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Hidraulica e Recursos Hidricos
The present paper reports economical feasibility analysis of small hydroelectric plants based on hydrological studies and on the new concept of flow rate isolines. Electric energy is an essential component of economical integration of the regions in a country. The operation of an isolated electric system do not admit the adequate rearrangement of the energy flux, mainly in the rush time, which takes to deficit situations in some economical sectors, accentuated by generation options that are not totally compatible with the local reality. The paper presents the evolution of the study devoted to obtain financial risks associated to small capacity of electric power generation systems through determination of hydrological risks connected to their working band and installed capacity. (author) 10 refs., 2 figs.
Castiblanco R, Carmenza
Ecological Economics arise as a scientific discipline aimed to integrate concepts of economics, ecology, thermodynamics, ethic and other natural and social sciences in order to incorporate a biophysical and integrated perspective of the inter dependences between economies and environment, from a plural conception and a methodology beyond disciplines. Ecological Economics studies the black box of economic processes usually excluded of the traditional economics: thermodynamics and ecology. Although it is relatively a new field of study, it has been strengthening its theoretical framework with scientific basis and analytic principles that lead to its identification as a new discipline that show a whole new paradigm. The scope of this article is to show the conceptual and methodological bases, the main founders, approaches and central debates of this new discipline. This brief introduction is a preamble to the papers of the meeting Ecological Economics: a perspective for Colombia included in this number, that took place on September 22 - 27 of 2007, at the National University of Colombia at Bogota. During tree days national and international experts, professors, researchers, workers of environmental sector and people interested on environmental issues joined together to know the conceptual and methodological achievements reached of this discipline; as well as to analyse and evaluate the environmental problems of the country, from the systemic, interdisciplinary and general perspective that it promotes
Davidsdottir, B.; Fisher, M.
Historical time trends indicate that both carbon and energy intensity have declined in the United States over the last several decades, while economic performance, as measured by per capita GSP, has improved. This observation indicates that it may be possible to reduce carbon intensity without a reduction in economic performance. This paper assesses using panel analysis, the empirical relationship between carbon emissions intensity and economic performance, and examines the direction of causality between the two variables. Data for the analysis covered 48 states, excluding Hawaii, Alaska, and Washington DC, from 1980 to 2000. The results indicate significant bi-directional relationship between carbon emissions intensity and state economic performance, both using an aggregate indicator for carbon emissions intensity, decomposed using Laspeyres indexes and disaggregated by sector. This implies that it should be possible to implement statewide and sector-specific policies to reduce energy and carbon intensity and at the same time improve economic performance. - Highlights: → The empirical relationship between carbon emissions intensity and economic performance is assessed → The direction of causality between the two variables is examined. → Results indicate significant relationship between carbon emissions intensity and state economic performance. → Relationship is bi-directional, and holds for both aggregate analysis and by sector. → It is possible to implement policies to reduce carbon intensity and improve economic performance.
Kukubajska, Marija Emilija; Koceva, Sonja
Economic disadvantage in less developed regions of the world is expected to result into higher illiteracy rate, among children in particular. Some developed countries do not follow this pattern. A paradox indicates: they pay special attention to nutrition and dietetics, yet record surprising illiteracy. Poor regions welcome new concepts of healthy nutrition and healthy education, while they also integrate existing traditional nutrition, just as developed societies promote health agricultural ...
Meyer, Niels I; Nørgaard, Jørgen; Hvelplund, Frede
sources (RES) in the supply sector and energy efficiency in the demand sector. Much less attention has been given to potential changes in life style and to alternative economic and social systems. This chapter will focus on non-technological strategies for mitigation of global warming including...... such questions as national and international equity, “limits to growth”, alternative employment policies, military and security policy and alternatives to traditional GDP as the dominant indicator of welfare and of sound development....
Yuniaristanto, Sutopo, W.; Widiyanto, A.; Putri, A. S.
This research aims to build a concept of Economic Readiness Level (ERL) assessment for incubation center. ERL concept is arranged by considering both market and business aspects. Every aspect is divided into four phases and each of them consists of some indicators. Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) is used to develop the ERL in calculating the weight of every single aspect and indicator. Interval scale between 0 and 4 is also applied in indicator assessment. In order to calculate ERL, score in every indicator and the weight of both the aspect and indicator are considered. ERL value is able to show in detail the innovative product readiness level from economic sight, market and business aspect. There are four levels in Economic Readiness Level scheme which are investigation, feasibility, planning and introduction.
Full Text Available In the course of transition, former socialistic countries moved from planned to market economy. This journey typically started with sharp falls in economic activity in all transition countries, accompanied by deterioration of various social indicators. Hence, their main objective was the recovery of economic activity, i.e. increasing the economic growth rate, which in addition was supposed to enable catching up with the European developed economies. This growth movement is usually described by famous U-curve of transition. However, in spite of the efforts and reforms, all transition economies recorded various paces of recovery. This study discusses that difference, through various GDP indicators, - real GDP path, GDP growth rates path, the height of the GDP index achieved and the volatility of growth rates. Analysed in concert, these indicators suggest several other variations of the transition Ucurve, such as: the rapid-J group, the wide-U group and the L-curve group. Namely, almost three decades after the start of the transition, the differences persist, suggesting that some transition economies has not moved significantly towards catching up with the successful transition countries, or with the developed economies.
David M. Paproski; Julian R. Walker
Development of the first-approximation-urban-air-quality indicator was reported by the Economic Council of Canada. The indicator takes account of ambient concentrations of five pollutants: sulfur dioxide, particulate matter, oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, and total oxidants. Epidemiological evidence indicating the potential impact of these pollutants on human...
Fedderke, Johannes; Garlick, Julia
This paper constructs a new set of institutional indicators for Malawi. We develop indicators of political rights, of freehold, traditional (communitarian) and intellectual property rights, based on the Malawian legislative framework. In exploring the association between our rights measures and a range of indicators of socio-economic development,…
unprepared to analyze certain complex, ambiguous issues and craft informed decisions. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Behavioral Economics, Public Choice Theory ...COUNT: 7,668 PAGES: 38 KEY TERMS: Behavioral Economics, Public Choice Theory , Army Profession CLASSIFICATION: Unclassified Military senior...various economic fields, including Identity Economics, Neoclassical Economics, Behavioral Economics, and Public Choice Economics. Finally, it
The book comprises data obtained by the laboratory of radiobiology (Uzbek Research Veterinary Institute) for 15 years and sums up data of domestic and foreign scientists; it discusses problems of the utilization of radioactive isotopes of sulphur, cadmium, phosphorus and other chemical elements by microorganisms; indicates the specificity of the utilization of radioisotopes in microbiology. The influence is considered of external factors on the inclusion of radioisotopes into microorganisms, methods are discussed of obtaining labelled microorganisms and their antigens, radioactivity of bacteria is considered as affected by the consistency and composition of the nutritive medium and other problems
Larsen, Christian Albrekt
The article supplements the traditional economic line of reasoning with an economic sociological account of the transition from unemployment to employment. The lack of full information is recognised by economic theory while the focus on network within the tradition of economic sociology has...... not been adopted. The article argues that the importance of network actually might be very well understood within recent economic theories that emphasise the lack of full information. The empirical evidence for the importance of network both for employed and unemployed is provided by analysing a best case...... might be an important part of the vicious circles of unemployment. Finally, the article analyse the importance of network versus the importance of economic incentives. The result supports the thesis that economic sociology provides a better account of the transition from unemployment to employment than...
This book concentrates upon how economic rationalities have been embedded into particular historical practices, cultures, and moral systems. Through multiple case-studies, situated in different historical contexts of the modern West, the book shows that the development of economic rationalities...... takes place in the meeting with other regimes of thought, values, and moral discourses. The book offers new and refreshing insights, ranging from the development of early economic thinking to economic aspects and concepts in the works of classical thinkers such as Thomas Hobbes, John Locke and Karl Marx......, to the role of economic reasoning in contemporary policies of art and health care. With economic rationalities as the read thread, the reader is offered a unique chance of historical self-awareness and recollection of how economic rationality became the powerful ideological and moral force that it is today....
Full Text Available Monitoring and predicting economic cycles have returned to the awareness of economists with the impact of the economic crisis in 2007/2008. To determine the current and future state of the country’s economic cycle, Composite Leading Indicators (CLI can be used. Their structure is being dealt with by institutions at the national and international level (OECD, Eurostat. Correct predictions of public finance development and the entrepreneurship sphere are very important for competitiveness of the country. The aim of the paper is to propose a new Composite Leading Indicator (CLI to monitor and predict the German economy. The analysis of 140 quantitative and qualitative indicators of industry, services, retail, construction, foreign trade, labor market, money aggregates, stock indices, confidence indicators, consumer expectations was performed for the needs of the indicator. As the reference series represents the German economic cycle, the GDP indicator is selected at constant prices for 2010. All selected quarterly time series are applied with seasonal index methods, the Hodrick-Prescott filter (HP filter in the R program, cross-correlation with time shifts, methods selection and scoring, data standardization, identification of the same and different data and the subsequent construction of the CLI of the German economic cycle. The generated CLI can predict the German economy cycle two quarters ahead with a cross-correlation value of 0.867. The forecasting capabilities of the assembled indicator were better than the prediction capabilities of OECD, Eurostat and IFO indicator.
The present study of regional economic growth in Mexico is based on the new economic geography, where distance plays an important role in explaining urban regional economic growth. The results show that distance to the northern border of Mexico and labor migration between states of Mexico, after the passage of NAFTA are important factors that explain the regional state growth and agglomerations in Mexico between 1994 and 2000. The results also indicate that job growth and FDI are not signific...
A. A. Tkachenko
Full Text Available The article specifies the correlation between economic demography and the economy of population as the most important scientific areas of modern research. It is concluded that the Russian scientific community lags in the development of these sciences from the world scientific thought. Special attention is paid to the works and ideas of S. Kuznets and Amartya Sen as outstanding researchers of the interrelationships between the population and the economy. It is emphasized that their contribution was not only theoretical but also of practical importance. The importance of G. Myrdal’s works for modern studies of the consequences of population aging is considered. The article examines foreign training courses on “Population Economics”, presented at the Universities of Wisconsin and McMaster, their analysis led to the conclusion that the preparation of textbooks on courses is less productive than the use of scientific articles in journals, containing more recent ideas and achievements of science. The author considers the system, proposed in the course Michel Grignon and Byron G. Spencer «The Economics of Population» more preferable. The article substantiates the opinion that the economic theory of well-being should be the core of the population economy. It is concluded that the differences between economic demography and the economy of population are not just differences between the micro- and macro levels, as some authors write, but the transition to large scales and entropy.The author identifies three most important areas of demo-economic research, which include research in the field of human capital, international economic migration, especially remittance, analysis of the stratification of the population and society by the income in the global and national economies. One can single out the general area of interests of the population economy and economic demography in which these sciences are almost impossible to divide and in which only
Fellchenfeld, M.M.; Connors, G.R.
This patent describes a position indicating device for producing an indication of the position of a displaceable structure comprising: a position representing member mounted for movement in response to displacement of the structure; sensing elements spaced apart along the defined path such that each element is associated with a respective location along the defined path; means operatively coupling the elements into respective pairs of elements, having, for each pair of elements, an output producing a signal only when a single element of its respective pair is responding to the presence of the member; signal producing members each operative for producing a signal representing a predetermined logic state in response to a predetermined input signal, the number of the signal producing members being smaller than the number of the sensing elements; and circuit means operatively connecting the outputs to the signal producing members for causing a signal at each output to produce a predetermined input signal at a corresponding signal producing member and for causing a predetermined input signal to be produced at least one the signal producing member whenever a signal is present at either one of at least two of the outputs
Baumann, M.J.; Bartberger, J.C.; Welch, T.D.
Protecting sensitive items from undetected tampering in an unattended environment is crucial to the success of non-proliferation efforts relying on the verification of critical activities. Tamper Indicating Packaging (TIP) technologies are applied to containers, packages, and equipment that require an indication of a tamper attempt. Examples include: the transportation and storage of nuclear material, the operation and shipment of surveillance equipment and monitoring sensors, and the retail storage of medicine and food products. The spectrum of adversarial tampering ranges from attempted concealment of a pin-hole sized penetration to the complete container replacement, which would involve counterfeiting efforts of various degrees. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has developed a technology base for advanced TIP materials, sensors, designs, and processes which can be adapted to various future monitoring systems. The purpose of this technology base is to investigate potential new technologies, and to perform basic research of advanced technologies. This paper will describe the theory of TIP technologies and recent investigations of TIP technologies at SNL
D` Angelo, E; Perrella, G [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dip. Energia; Bianco, R
This report is aimed at presenting the results of the energy efficiency evolution in Italy for the 1970-1992 period Results come from the data-base developed under the SAVE/EnR project on `Cross countries comparison on energy efficiency indicators`. In order to be comparable among countries, efforts have been made to harmonize the data collection as well as the definition and the calculation of energy efficiency indicators. Selected indicators are considered in order to illustrate the potentiality of the project (around 200 different energy efficiency indicators can be calculated and presented). Emphasis is put on the interpretation of the so-called `techno-economic indicators` as well as explanatory indicators both for the economic and techno-economic approaches. Industry, transport, tertiary, residential and transformation sectors have been analyzed.
HALİL İBRAHİM AYDIN
Full Text Available In this research, the effects of the economic freedoms on the economic growth for EU and COMCEC countries at different development/income level are econometrically analyzed via panel data analysis for the period of 1996- 2014 by being considered the improvement of economic growth theories for the key determinants of economic growth. From this aspect, it is aimed at this research that to evaluate the effects of the economic freedoms on the long termed economic growth performances and income level differences of EU and COMCEC countries which have different statuses in terms of economic freedoms and income level indicators. It is determined at the end of the study that the economic freedoms have a positive and statistically significant effect on the economic growth of EU countries in investigation period, on the other hand, these freedoms have not any effect on the economic growth of COMCEC countries. Moreover, the existence of a one-way causality relation operates from economic freedoms to the economic growth in EU countries is specified while there is any causality link found between these freedoms and the economic growth for the countries in COMCEC group. All these results indicate that also the economic freedoms besides the physical human capital accumulation, in other words, whether the EU and COMCEC countries have a market economy adopts outward-oriented liberal fiscal policies plays a major role in differentiating the income levels or the economic growth performances.
Pangaribowo, Evita Hanie; Gerber, Nicolas; Torero, Maximo
As the problems of food and nutrition insecurity are currently more complex, identifying and choosing relevant indicators is crucial. This paper identifies the need to go beyond the state-of-the-art because current FNS indicators do not account for the short-term economic shocks which have been identified as key factors for food and nutrition security. As the nature of food and nutrition security status is different between short- term and long-term causes, there is a need to differentiate be...
Garcia, Anthony R.; Johnston, Roger G.
The present invention provides an apparatus and method whereby the reliability and tamper-resistance of tamper indicators can be improved. A flexible connector may be routed through a latch for an enclosure such as a door or container, and the free ends of the flexible connector may be passed through a first locking member and firmly attached to an insert through the use of one or more attachment members such as set screws. A second locking member may then be assembled in interlocking relation with the first locking member to form an interlocked assembly around the insert. The insert may have one or more sharp projections extending toward the first or second locking member so that any compressive force applied in an attempt to disassemble the interlocked assembly results in permanent, visible damage to the first or second locking member.
A plurality of magnetically operated switches are spaced equally in the hollow tube of a control rod actuating mechanism. One side of each switch is connected, via a low resistance, to a corresponding tap of a low resistance voltage divider network consisting of an equivalent number of low resistance sections with the opposite side of each switch connected to a common conducting wire A. To both ends of the voltage dividing network are connected, respectively, conducting wires B and C. Wires A, B, and C are further coupled to a fuel rod position indicator comprising a voltmeter and power source external to the control rod actuating member. The control rod actuating member is adapted to slide in the hollow tube so that switches passing a position facing a magnet secured to the lower end of the actuating member are rendered closed. Hence, the position of the control rod may be read by reading the voltage off the meter.
Although lichens are generally considered to be of little use to man, their sensitivity to air pollution makes them good biological indicators. The author describes how this feature can help to establish relative degrees of air pollution. He notes areas where lichens are reduced in number and vigor, and some in which they have disappeared altogether. He challenges the idea that dryness is responsible, since they have also disappeared from damp woodland areas. Experimental work supports the view that sulfur dioxide is the major factor rather than smoke, although there is no definitive proof. Lichen damage correlates best with mean winter levels of air pollution by SO/sub 2/. 16 references, 1 figure.
Fliedner, T.M.; Nothdurft, W.
It is the aim of this paper, intended more as a general outline than a comprehensive review, to elucidate the most prominent events in the sequence of radiation induced cytological changes in the hemopoietic system taking its functional organisation and the cytokinetics of blood cell production into consideration. As could be shown, there are about ten different categories of quantitative and qualitative parameters based on methods ranging from stem cell determinations to tests for mature blood cell function that in principle are available for assessment of radiation damage to the bone marrow and that have been applied to men exposed to ionizing radiation. Some of these indicator systems have proven for a long period of time to be of essential value and to be quite feasible in practice under routine conditions. Considerable methodological progress, however, is needed for others before decisions about their practical applicability can be made. (orig.)
Rossi, E. Jr.
Data are tabulated and graphically represented on international energy indicators. The following are presented: world crude oil production, 1974 to October 1981; OPEC crude oil productive capacity; world crude oil and refined product inventory levels, 1975 to October, 1981; oil consumption in OECD countries, 1975 to October 1981; USSR crude oil production and exports, 1975 to October, 1981; free world and US nuclear electricity generation, 1973 to December, 1981 and current capacity. Specific US data presented are: US domestic oil supply, 1977 to June, 1981; US gross imports of crude oil and products, 1973 to October, 1981; landed cost of Saudi crude current and 1974 dollars; US coal trade, 1975 to September, 1981; US natural gas trade, 1975 to October, 1981; summary of US merchandise trade, 1977 to October, 1981; and energy/GNP ratio
This paper introduces a new index to classify flammable refrigerants. A question on flammability indices that ASHRAE employs arose from combustion test results of R152a and ammonia. Conventional methods of not only ASHRAE but also ISO and Japanese High-pressure gas safety law to classify the flammability of refrigerants are evaluated to show why these methods conflict with the test results. The key finding of this paper is that the ratio of stoichiometric concentration to LFL concentration (R factor) represents the test results most precisely. In addition, it has excellent correlation with other flammability parameters such as flame speed and pressure rise coefficient. Classification according to this index gives reasonable flammability order of substances including ammonia, R152a and carbon monoxide. Theoretical background why this index gives good correlation is also discussed as well as the insufficient part of this method.
Marilyn Lee Cheng
Full Text Available Osteoporosis is a condition of impaired bone strength that results in an increased risk of fracture. The current and most popular pharmacological options for the treatment of osteoporosis include antiresorptive therapy, in particular, oral bisphosphonates (alendronate, risedronate, ibandronate. Anabolic agents like teriparatide have widened our therapeutic options. They act by directly stimulating bone formation and improving bone mass quantity and quality. Two forms of recombinant human parathyroid hormone (PTH are available : full-length PTH (PTH 1-84; approved in the EU only and the 1-34 N-terminal active fragment of PTH (teriparatide, US FDA approved. This review aims to discuss the benefits of teriparatide beyond the currently licensed indications like fracture healing, dental stability, osteonecrosis of jaw, hypoparathyroidism, and hypocalcemia.
Melih Atahan Güven
Full Text Available Congenital heart diseases are encountered in 0.8% of live births and are among the most frequently diagnosed malformations. At least half of these anomalies end up with death or require surgical interventions and are responsible for 30% of the perinatal mortality. Fetal echocardiography is the sum of knowledge, skill and orientation rather than knowing the embryologic details of the fetal heart. The purpose of fetal echocardiography is to document the presence of normal fetal cardiac anatomy and rhythm in high risk group and to define the anomaly and arrhythmia if present. A certain sequence should be followed during the evaluation of fetal heart. Sequential segmental analysis (SSA and basic definition terminology made it possible to determine a lot of complex cardiac anomalies during prenatal period. By the end of 1970’s, Shinebourne started using sequential segmental analysis for fetal cardiac evaluation and today, prenatal diagnosis of congenital heart disease is possible without any confusion. In this manner, whole fetal heart can be evaluated as the relation of three segments (atria, ventricles and the great arteries with each other, irrelevant of complexity of a possible cardiac anomaly. Presence of increased nuchal thickness during early gestation and abnormal four-chamber-view during ultrasonography by the obstetrician presents a clear indication for fetal echocardiography,however, one should keep in mind that 80-90% of the babies born with a congenital heart disease do not have a familial or maternal risk factor. In addition, it should be remembered that expectant mothers with diabetes mellitus pose an indication for fetal echocardiography.
Baldwin, J. Norman; McCracken, William A., III
As the U.S. continues to embrace a comprehensive plan for economic recovery, this article investigates the validity of the claim that investing in higher education will help restore state economic growth and prosperity. It presents the findings from a study that indicates that the most consistent predictors of state economic growth related to…
Full Text Available The approach of economic growth involves understanding the concept and growth factors, respectively, analysing the growth theories, their trend in the context of the development of economic and social life. The economic growth signifies a process aimed at increasing activities in the national economy, expressed by macroeconomic indicators, respectively, the dynamics of the overall Gross Domestic Product or per inhabitant. It can appreciate that, in the short term, this process signifies phases of economic prosperity and on the long-term, expresses an upward trend, a consequence of the succession of increases and decreases. The study presents some elements which outlines the concept of economic growth, that is, definitions, meanings and the main characteristics of the theories of growth, as well as some of its determinant factors. Also, it gives a brief overview of the main theories of economic growth, as they have evolved over time, in line with the economic reality dynamics and the development of the instruments of economic analysis, starting from the classical theories to the new theories and models of economic growth of the modern age.
Full Text Available A microeconomic, agent based framework to dynamic economics is formulated in a materialist approach. An axiomatic foundation of a non-equilibrium microeconomics is outlined. Economic activity is modelled as transformation and transport of commodities (materials owned by the agents. Rate of transformations (production intensity, and the rate of transport (trade are defined by the agents. Economic decision rules are derived from the observed economic behaviour. The non-linear equations are solved numerically for a model economy. Numerical solutions for simple model economies suggest that the some of the results of general equilibrium economics are consequences only of the equilibrium hypothesis. We show that perfect competition of selfish agents does not guarantee the stability of economic equilibrium, but cooperativity is needed, too.
Full Text Available Economic growth and sustainable development are important issues for social prosperity. Sustainable development strives for moderate and responsible use within the economic activity of the limited resources of our planet, whereas economic growth does not limit the resource exploitation and energy, being mainly focused on productivity increase. From this perspective, both conceptual and operational contradictions occur between the two pillars of prosperity. This paper looks to these contradictions and proposes some streams of intervention such as economic growth and environmental sustainability to operate in harmony. A structured framework for innovative problem solving is considered in this respect. Results of this research show that it is possible to induce smart measures in the economic system for directing businesses towards new paradigms where economic growth is possible without negative effects on environmental sustainability.
An almost primordial trend in the conversion and use of energy is an increased complexity and cost of conversion systems designed to utilize cheaper and more-abundant fuels; this trend is exemplified by the progression fossil fission → fusion. The present projections of the latter indicate that capital costs of the fusion ''burner'' far exceed any commensurate savings associated with the cheapest and most-abundant of fuels. These projections suggest competitive fusion power only if internal costs associate with the use of fossil or fission fuels emerge to make them either uneconomic, unacceptable, or both with respect to expensive fusion systems. This ''implementation-by-default'' plan for fusion is re-examined by identifying in general terms fusion power-plant embodiments that might compete favorably under conditions where internal costs (both economic and environmental) of fossil and/or fission are not as great as is needed to justify the contemporary vision for fusion power. Competitive fusion power in this context will require a significant broadening of an overly focused program to explore the physics and simbiotic technologies leading to more compact, simplified, and efficient plasma-confinement configurations that reside at the heart of an attractive fusion power plant
Mihaela Tania SANDU
Full Text Available Recognizing the importance of infl uence exerted by human capital oneconomic growth of a country, to base decisions regarding the need to invest in such type of capital there are conducted studies and used different models for analysis related to a series of macroeconomic and demographic indicators.We present the main indicators and dynamics of human capital, placedin the economic context of Romania, with reference, in bringing out statistics data, to an average period of time (between 1994-2008 characterized at macroeconomic level, both by recession and economic growth periods. There were also highlighted indicators and dynamics, both at national and individual level.
Lusk, J L
This paper elucidates the challenges surrounding the economics of some popular obesity-related policy proposals. Solid economic justifications for anti-obesity policies are often lacking, and evidence suggests policies like fat and soda taxes or restrictions on food stamp spending are unlikely to substantively affect obesity prevalence. In short, many of the same factors that make obesity such a complicated and multifaceted issue extend to the economic analysis of public health policies.
David Laibson; John A. List
Behavioral economics has become an important and integrated component of modern economics. Behavioral economists embrace the core principles of economics—optimization and equilibrium—and seek to develop and extend those ideas to make them more empirically accurate. Behavioral models assume that economic actors try to pick the best feasible option and those actors sometimes make mistakes. Behavioral ideas should be incorporated throughout the first-year undergraduate course. Instructors should...
Adrian Ioana; Tiberiu Socaciu
The article presents specific aspects of management and models for economic analysis. Thus, we present the main types of economic analysis: statistical analysis, dynamic analysis, static analysis, mathematical analysis, psychological analysis. Also we present the main object of the analysis: the technological activity analysis of a company, the analysis of the production costs, the economic activity analysis of a company, the analysis of equipment, the analysis of labor productivity, the anal...
In contrast to sciences such as physics, chemistry and psychology, using experimental methods in economics has encountered significant resistance reaching as far back as Mill. The basic reason for the resistance is the widely accepted view that experiment is not suited to analyzing complex human activity including economic behaviors. However, experimental studies, which started to test economics theories from the 1940s, have now reached an important point. The purpose of this study is to show...
Bradley, M.E.; Wood, A.R.O.
This paper presents a general method for forecasting oilfield economic performance that integrates cost data with operational, reservoir, and financial information. Practices are developed for determining economic limits for an oil field and its components. The economic limits of marginal wells and the role of underground competition receive special attention. Also examined is the influence of oil prices on operating costs. Examples illustrate application of these concepts. Categorization of costs for historical tracking and projections is recommended
Todorova, Tamara; Ramachandran, Bharath
We wish to examine critically the viewpoint that: a) economists take too narrow a view of rationality and do not recognize the role of emotions as a component of rationality and b) do not address the question of whether preferences are rational or not, and instead take them as just given. We trace the relationship between economics and emotions showing some economic dimensions of emotional states. We illustrate them with examples of economic behavior based on emotional reactions.
Beck, V; Quinn, M; Dunn, A; Edmunds Otter, M; Hammer, N; Pitchforth, E
Health economics has, in recent years, become a major area of research in economics. This important collection presents a careful selection of the best articles and is classified according to eight fields within health economics. It thus provides a comprehensive cross-section of the large and disparate literature on the subject. It forms, in a real sense, a book which will be invaluable for teachers and researchers who wish to have these frequently cited articles easily to hand. It will be es...
The following article draws on the discussion of the iuéd Colloquium on Gender and Economic Globalization. The Colloquium aimed to draw out the impact of economic globalization on gender relations, with a particular focus on poor women in developing countries. Globalization – for or against women? In order to look at the impact of economic globalization on gender relations, and more particularly on poor women’s lives, we are confronted with a complex set of interlinked dynamics. Inequitable g...
L.D. Godsey; D. Evan Mercer; Robert K. Grala; Stephen C. Grado; Janaki R.R. Alavalapati
Essentially every living thing on Earth has applied the basic concepts of economics. That is, every living thing has had to use a limited set of resources to meet a minimum set of needs or wants. Although the study of economics is often confused with the study of markets or finance, economics is simply a social science that studies the choices people make. As a social...
Gonzalez Eiras, Martin; Niepelt, Dirk
Traditional "economic equivalence'' results, like the Ricardian equivalence proposition, define equivalence classes over exogenous policies. We derive "politico-economic equivalence" conditions that apply in environments where policy is endogenous and chosen sequentially. A policy regime and a st......Traditional "economic equivalence'' results, like the Ricardian equivalence proposition, define equivalence classes over exogenous policies. We derive "politico-economic equivalence" conditions that apply in environments where policy is endogenous and chosen sequentially. A policy regime...... their use in the context of several applications, relating to social security reform, tax-smoothing policies and measures to correct externalities....
Foss, Nicolai Juul; Møllgaard, Peter
Based on diverse research methods, we trace and map industrial economics research in Denmark, Norway and Sweden in the periode of 1880 to 1908. After describing this research in terms of key contributors, we argue that industrial economics developed rather unevenly in the Scandinavian countries....... Danish research was mainly theoretical and strongly oriented towards the international context, whereas Norwegian research was largely industry analysis with a strong leaning towards managerial economics. Swedish research in industrial economics is very scant until the end of the 1960s.JEL Code: B1, B2...
This paper employs the Schumpeterian approach to the development of economies in order to identify the core building blocks of a theory of endogenous economic change. Borders and insights are widened by combining concepts and findings from behavioral economics, from evolutionary economics, and from...... complexity economics. Actor heterogeneity, on the one hand, and mechanisms of actors’ interaction, on the other, are suggested to be fundamental elements of that theory. Theoretical analyses and empirical accounts are presented, achievements are discussed, and further avenues of research are suggested....
This paper employs a panel data set to estimate the effect of globalization on four measures of economic freedom. Contrary to previous studies, the paper distinguishes between three separate types of globalization: economic, social and political. It also separates effects for poor and rich...... countries, and autocracies and democracies. The results show that economic globalization is negatively associated with government size and positively with regulatory freedom in rich countries; social globalization is positively associated with legal quality in autocracies and with the access to sound money...... in democracies. Political globalization is not associated with economic freedom...
Department of Housing and Urban Development — CDBG activity related to economic development, including commercial or industrial rehab, commercial or industrial land acquisition, commercial or industrial...
Park, Chan S
Contemporary Engineering Economics, 5/e, is intended for undergraduate engineering students taking introductory engineering economics while appealing to the full range of engineering disciplines for which this course is often required: industrial, civil, mechanical, electrical, computer, aerospace, chemical, and manufacturing engineering, as well as engineering technology. This edition has been thoroughly revised and updated while continuing to adopt a contemporary approach to the subject, and teaching, of engineering economics. This text aims not only to build a sound and comprehensive coverage of engineering economics, but also to address key educational challenges, such as student difficulty in developing the analytical skills required to make informed financial decisions.
van Engelen, A. F. V.; Ynsen, F.; Buisman, J.; van der Schrier, G.
Since 1995, KNMI published a series of books(1), presenting an annual reconstruction of weather and climate in the Low Countries, covering the period AD 763-present, or roughly, the last millennium. The reconstructions are based on the interpretation of documentary sources predominantly and comparison with other proxies and instrumental observations. The series also comprises a number of classifications. Amongst them annual classifications for winter and summer temperature and for winter and summer dryness-wetness. The classification of temperature have been reworked into peer reviewed (2) series (AD 1000-present) of seasonal temperatures and temperature indices, the so called LCT (Low Countries Temperature) series, now incorporated in the Millennium databases. Recently we started a study to convert the dryness-wetness classifications into a series of precipitation; the so called LCP (Low Countries Precipitation) series. A brief outline is given here of the applied methodology and preliminary results. The WMO definition for meteorological drought has been followed being that a period is called wet respectively dry when the amount of precipitation is considerable more respectively less than usual (normal). To gain a more quantitative insight for four locations, geographically spread over the Low Countries area (De Bilt, Vlissingen, Maastricht and Uccle), we analysed the statistics of daily precipitation series, covering the period 1900-present. This brought us to the following definition, valid for the Low Countries: A period is considered as (very) dry respectively (very) wet if over a continuous period of at least 60 days (~two months) cq 90 days (~three months) on at least two out of the four locations 50% less resp. 50% more than the normal amount for the location (based on the 1961-1990 normal period) has been measured. This results into the following classification into five drought classes hat could be applied to non instrumental observations: Very wet period
The economics literature presents a growing number of studies focusing on risky health behaviors such as tobacco use or cannabis use. One of the most important characteristics of these risky health behaviors is that they harm the users and the people around the users, causing great social and
Ambargis, Zoë; Mead, Charles Ian; Rzeznik, Stanislaw J.; Swenson, David; Weisenberger, Janet
The Association of Public and Land-grant Universities' (APLU's) Commission on Innovation, Competitiveness, and Economic Prosperity (CICEP) views university contributions to the economy across a spectrum of activity--from educating students and creating the talent necessary for the 21st century workforce to developing innovation ecosystems and…
Full Text Available Our paper is centered around the formation of theory of institutional modelling that includes principles and ideas reflecting the laws of societal development within the framework of institutional economic theory. We scrutinize and discuss the scientific principles of this institutional modelling that are increasingly postulated by the classics of institutional theory and find their way into the basics of the institutional economics. We propose scientific ideas concerning the new innovative approaches to institutional modelling. These ideas have been devised and developed on the basis of the results of our own original design, as well as on the formalisation and measurements of economic institutions, their functioning and evolution. Moreover, we consider the applied aspects of the institutional theory of modelling and employ them in our research for formalizing our results and maximising the practical outcome of our paper. Our results and findings might be useful for the researchers and stakeholders searching for the systematic and comprehensive description of institutional level modelling, the principles involved in this process and the main provisions of the institutional theory of economic modelling.
The premise of this article is that ethical moral formation or 'covenanting for justice' leads to action. The covenanting church itself, in conjunction with other movements, works for justice in all areas of life. The article uses the six aspects of ethical moral formation of Heinz Tödt to analyse some aspects of economic ...
Stanitski, D.; Druckenmiller, M.; Fetterer, F. M.; Gerst, M.; Intrieri, J. M.; Kenney, M. A.; Meier, W.; Overland, J. E.; Stroeve, J.; Trainor, S.
The Arctic is an interconnected and environmentally sensitive system of ice, ocean, land, atmosphere, ecosystems, and people. From local to pan-Arctic scales, the area has already undergone major changes in physical and societal systems and will continue at a pace that is greater than twice the global average. Key Arctic indicators can quantify these changes. Indicators serve as the bridge between complex information and policy makers, stakeholders, and the general public, revealing trends and information people need to make important socioeconomic decisions. This presentation evaluates and compiles more than 70 physical, biological, societal and economic indicators into an approachable summary that defines the changing Arctic. We divided indicators into "existing," "in development," "possible," and "aspirational". In preparing a paper on Arctic Indicators for a special issue of the journal Climatic Change, our group established a set of selection criteria to identify indicators to specifically guide decision-makers in their responses to climate change. A goal of the analysis is to select a manageable composite list of recommended indicators based on sustained, reliable data sources with known user communities. The selected list is also based on the development of a conceptual model that identifies components and processes critical to our understanding of the Arctic region. This list of key indicators is designed to inform the plans and priorities of multiple groups such as the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP), Interagency Arctic Research Policy Committee (IARPC), and the Arctic Council.
Full Text Available This paper aims at decrypting the manner in which the foundations of Economics as a science and the meanings of the relevant explanatory formulas are being shaped. My analytical endeavor focuses on understanding the peculiarities of what is referred to as the object of study of the science known as Economics, an academic synthesis of concept-related breakthroughs regarding economicity. The explicit purpose of this analysis is to identify perennial benchmarks in economic cognition whereby this ensures its consistency. The implicit purpose is to shape a cognitive model in line with the specifics of the conceptual universe of Economics, as well as with the sources of the economic realities that are subject to a sui-generis relativism. The primary benefit of this endeavor consists in systemizing the conceptual prospects with an antithetic nature that allow for the explanations of the state of economic rationality and generate the understanding of what the source of economicity is and how it behaves. As such, the conclusions are marked by the stringent need of more precisely defining economic knowledge in order to match the changing nature of economic reality, as an expression that embraces the meeting point of two ontological vistas that are methodologically separated by some theories: human nature and human condition. Economics as a science thus features, apart from a conceptual substrate that needs to be spotted, an ontological background that needs to be revealed. The role played by this background appears to be most frequently ignored. The joint identification of both direct and contextual determinants for a sensitive area of humankind, i.e. the economy, is a direction to be followed by the royal path of rational knowledge.
This thesis constitutes a study on renewable resource economics. Chapter 2 presents two types of extracting behaviour in two optimal control models, continuous and impulse control. Chapter 3 analyses stock dependent instruments and shows their advantages. Chapter 4 compares the two types of extracting behaviour and demonstrates that the impulse control generates higher gains, whereas fiscal revenues and stocks are not always higher. Chapter 5 establishes a dynamic game and shows that the scope for cooperation between heterogeneous agents is greatest for intermediary levels of heterogeneity. Chapter 6 studies forest exploitation and fiscal- and regulatory systems of the forest sector in the Democratic Republic of Congo and in France. Finally, chapter 7 presents a study on forest biodiversity and indicates the economic criteria and cutting strategies that are beneficial for biodiversity preservation. (author)
Siew-Peng Lee; Yan-Ling Ng
Public debt in the Malaysia increased because of fiscal expansions. This study examines whether public debt contributed to the economic growth in Malaysia over the period 1991 to 2013. It also examines whether other indicators of debt burden, such as budget deficit, budget expenditure, and external debt service and government consumption, have an impact on economic growth. The results of this study are consistent with the existing literature that found a negative association between diet and ...
Ștefan-Dragoș CÎRSTEA; Andreea CÎRSTEA
Tourism is a sector with a significant share in the economies of many countries. There are nations whose GDP consists of 40% of the total contribution of tourism to this indicator. One such segment requires permanent research of its economic, social and sustainability dimensions and their importance. This study outlines an overview of the main aspects related to economic and social importance of tourism and how tourism relates to the concept of sustainable development. The total contribution ...
Rahmah Ismaila and Doris Padmini Selvaratnamb
Human capital is vital for the development of a country. Investment in human capital ranges from basic needs expenditure to education and health provision. Economic growth is often used to measure the progress and development of a country. Today other indicators are used to emphasize physical quality of life, for example, education, health and basic needs provision. Using a simultaneous equation model, this paper estimates the relationship between economic growth and human capital variables i...
OHTAKE Fumio; OKUDAIRA Hiroko
In this paper we set out the economic grounds for restrictions on long working hours and conduct an empirical analysis using surveys from the perspective of behavioral economics. The results of the analysis indicate that, on a year-on-year basis, if state of health improves, the probability of working more than 60 hours per week increases significantly, but that even when state of health deteriorates there is no decrease in the probability of working long hours. Moreover, among male managemen...
In this article, the author provides motivation and a template for integrating and teaching writing in a variety of economics courses: core theory or introductory courses, topic courses, and economic writing/research courses. For each assignment, pedagogical reasoning and syllabus integration are discussed. Additionally, the author shows that…
Bates, Benjamin J.
Focusing on access to audience through broadcast time, this paper examines the status of research into the economics of broadcasting. The paper first discusses the status of theory in the study of broadcast economics, both as described directly and as it exists in the statement of the basic assumptions generated by prior work and general…
Economics in Detention is a University of Maryland Extension program that teaches inmates essential principles of economics as a foundation to a spectrum of decision making. Also, the program includes an emphasis on starting a small business after incarceration. The idea of this program emanates from an invitation by the Baltimore City Detention…
D. Evan Mercer; Frederick W. Cubbage; Gregory E. Frey
This chapter provides principles, literature and a case study about the economics of agroforestry. We examine necessary conditions for achieving efficiency in agroforestry system design and economic analysis tools for assessing efficiency and adoptability of agroforestry. The tools presented here (capital budgeting, linear progranuning, production frontier analysis...
Hansen, Morten Balle
. A reform enforcing compulsory competitive tendering in homecare for elderly people in Denmark is analysed and its relation to measures of economic performance is explored. Two competing models of marketization are contrasted in the analysis: a problem solving model inspired by public choice ideology...... little impact on economic performance is found, which lends support to an institutional interpretation of the findings....
Steverson O. Moffat; John L. Greene
Economic conditions and tax policies affect land use decisions everywhere, but their effects on the rate of change in land use are particularly large in the wildland-urban interface. We begin this chapter with a brief economic history of the South and a description of the macroeconomic trends and conditions that affect microeconomics at the wildlandurban interface....
Academic departmentalization has limited the dimensionality and thus the richness of analysis in the social sciences. The author examines the case of a modern economics as an example. He reviews the ideas of Williamson (2000), who cites the limits of scope in the New Institutional Economics; Buchanan, who lays bare the ethical foundations of…
Competition law - or antitrust law, as it is called in the United States - is a field of law to which economic concepts, such as "restriction of competition" and "anti-competitive effect", are of central importance. This thesis analyses a number of such concepts, both from an economic and a legal
Stephen Marglin examines how the culture of economics has impacted on Third World cultures. He argues that economics is possessed by its own theory of culture based on the market as the organizing principle of life, one that we need to go beyond.
Dellink, R.B.; Bennis, M.; Verbruggen, H.
The paper introduces four scenarios for sustainable economic structures in the Netherlands for 2030. The aim of this paper is to provide possible answers to what a sustainable future might look like in terms of alternative economic structures. To this end, an empirical economy-ecology model is
edts.): Internet Economics IV Technical Report No. 2004-04, August 2004 Information Systems Laboratory IIS, Departement of Computer Science University of...level agreements (SLA), Information technology (IT), Internet address, Internet service provider 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 18... technology and its economic impacts in the Internet world today. The second talk addresses the area of AAA protocol, summarizing authentication
Koch, Alexander Karl; Nafziger, Julia; Nielsen, Helena Skyt
-dimensional rather than one-dimensional. Explicitly accounting for soft skills often implies departing from the standard economic model by integrating concepts studied in behavioral and experimental economics, such as self-control, willingness to compete, intrinsic motivation, and self-confidence. We review how...
The economical comparison of nuclear power plants with coal-fired plants in some countries or areas are analyzed. It is not difficult to show that nuclear power will have a significant and expanding role to play in providing economic electricity in the coming decades. (Liu)
Fagerberg, J.; Srholec, Martin
Roč. 41, č. 3 (2017), s. 905-926 ISSN 0309-166X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP402/10/2310 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : national innovation systems * growth * technology Subject RIV: AH - Economics OBOR OECD: Applied Economics, Econometrics Impact factor: 1.338, year: 2016
Fagerberg, J.; Srholec, Martin
Roč. 41, č. 3 (2017), s. 905-926 ISSN 0309-166X Institutional support: Progres-Q24 Keywords : national innovation systems * growth * technology Subject RIV: AH - Economics OBOR OECD: Applied Economics, Econometrics Impact factor: 1.338, year: 2016
STECF’s Expert Working Group 11-03 convened in Athens (28th March – 1st April, 2011) to discuss and seek agreement on the content, indicators, methodologies and format of the 2011 Annual Economic Reports (AER) on the EU fishing fleet, the fish processing and the aquaculture sectors. Proposals...... for improved contents and the overall structure were discussed. Templates for the national and EU overview chapters for the EU the fish processing and the aquaculture sectors were produced. Indicators for the EU fishing fleet and fish processing reports were reviewed; new indicators for the fish processing...... and the aquaculture sector reports were proposed. And topics of special interest were proposed for all three reports....
Mori, Koichiro; Christodoulou, Aris
The purpose of this paper is to discuss conceptual requirements for a City Sustainability Index (CSI) and to review existing major sustainability indices/indicators in terms of the requirements. The following indices are reviewed: Ecological Footprint (EF), Environmental Sustainability Index (ESI), Dashboard of Sustainability (DS), Welfare Index, Genuine Progress Indicator (GPI), Index of Sustainable Economic Welfare, City Development Index, emergy/exergy, Human Development Index (HDI), Environmental Vulnerability Index (EVI), Environmental Policy Index (EPI), Living Planet Index (LPI), Environmentally-adjusted Domestic Product (EDP), Genuine Saving (GS), and some applications of composite indices or/and multivariate indicators to local or regional context as case studies. The key conceptual requirements for an adequate CSI are: (i) to consider environmental, economic and social aspects (the triple bottom line of sustainability) from the viewpoint of strong sustainability; (ii) to capture external impacts (leakage effects) of city on other areas beyond the city boundaries particularly in terms of environmental aspects; (iii) to create indices/indicators originally for the purpose of assessing city sustainability; and (iv) to be able to assess world cities in both developed and developing countries using common axes of evaluation. Based on the review, we conclude that it is necessary to create a new CSI that enables us to assess and compare cities' sustainability performance in order to understand the global impact of cities on the environment and human life as compared with their economic contribution. In the future, the CSI will be able to provide local authorities with guidance toward sustainable paths. - Highlights: ► We derive the four key requirements for a new City Sustainability Index (CSI) system. ► First, the triple bottom line must be considered in terms of strong sustainability. ► Second, environmental leakage effects beyond city boundaries should
Chadderton, Ronald A
This textbook/course supplement stands as a unique and highly original complement to the traditional engineering economics curriculum. Its primarily narrative approach conveys the essence of an “Austrian" economic perspective on cash flow analysis and decision making in engineering, without extensive tables and graphs, and requires very little mathematics. The book’s objective is to add a new perspective to the usual study of cash flow analysis and solely econometric engineering decision making. The author draws on the methodology of the Austrian Economists—a school of economic thought that bases its study of economic phenomena on the interpretation and analysis of the purposeful actions of individuals. The book includes an array of illustrative case studies examined in detail by the author and emphasizes the importance of market processes and price signals to coordinate engineering plans. Purposeful Engineering Economics is an ideal resource for students, teaching faculty, and practicing professional ...
Baumgaertner, Stefan [Department of Sustainability Sciences, Leuphana University of Lueneburg (Germany); Department of Economics, Leuphana University of Lueneburg (Germany); Quaas, Martin [Department of Economics, University of Kiel (Germany)
While economists have been contributing to the discussion of various aspects of sustainability for decades, it is just recently that the term 'sustainability economics' was used explicitly in the ecological, environmental, and resource economics community. Yet, the contributions that use the term 'sustainability economics' do not refer to any explicit definition of the term, and are not obviously joined by common or unifying characteristics, such as subject focus, methodology, or institutional background. The question thus arises: what is 'sustainability economics'? In this essay, we systematically define and delineate 'sustainability economics' in terms of its normative foundation, aims, subject matter, ontology, and genuine research agenda. (author)
Krol, Marieke; Brouwer, Werner
Given its societal importance, unpaid work should be included in economic evaluations of health care technology aiming to take a societal perspective. However, in practice this does not often appear to be the case. This paper provides an overview of the current place of unpaid work in economic evaluations in theory and in practice. It does so first by summarizing recommendations regarding the inclusion of unpaid labor reported in health economic textbooks and national guidelines for economic evaluations. In total, three prominent health economic text-books were studied and 28 national health economic guidelines. The paper, moreover, provides an overview of the instruments available to measure lost unpaid labor and reports on a review of the place of unpaid labor in applied economic evaluations in the area of rheumatoid arthritis. The review was conducted by examining methodology of evaluations published between 1 March 2008 and 1 March 2013. The results of this study show that little guidance is offered regarding the inclusion of unpaid labor in economic evaluations in textbooks and guidelines. The review identified five productivity costs instruments including questions about unpaid work and 33 economic evaluations of treatments for rheumatoid arthritis of which only one included unpaid work. The results indicate that unpaid work is rarely included in applied economic evaluations of treatments for rheumatoid arthritis, despite this disease expecting to be associated with lost unpaid work. Given the strong effects of certain diseases and treatments on the ability to perform unpaid work, unpaid work currently receives less attention in economic evaluations than it deserves. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Currently, power plants in Poland have to work in a very uncomfortable situation. Unstable market conditions and frequent changes in the law may have serious adverse consequences for their economic security. Power plants play a very important role in the economy. The effectiveness of their performance affects the activity of all other businesses. Therefore, it is very important to provide a definition of economic security for the power plants’ sector and the factors determining its level. Maintaining economic security will allow energy generation companies to grow in a sustainable way as well as limit operational risk. A precise definition can also be used to create analytical tools for economic security measurement and monitoring. Proper usage of such tools can help energy generation companies sustain their economic security and properly plan their capital expenditures. The article focuses on the definition of economic security in the “micro” context of a separate business unit (enterprise. We also present an analytical model that measures economic security of a company engaged in the production of energy - a company of strategic importance for the national economy. The model uses macroeconomic variables, variables describing prices of raw material and legal / political stability in the country, as well as selected financial indicators. The appliance of conclusions resulting from the model’s implementation will help provide economic security for companies generating energy.
Full Text Available This paper examines the link between health indicators, environmental variables and economic development, and th e consequences of this relationship on economic convergence for a large sample of rich and poor countries. While in economic literature income and environment are seen to have an inverted-U shaped relationship (Environment Kuznets Curve hypothesis, it is also well established that an improvement in environmental quality is positively related to health. Our study focuses on the implications of this relationship for economic convergence. In the early stage of economic development, the gain from income growth could be cancelled or mitigated by environmental degradation through populations' health (and other channels and create a vicious circle in economic activity unlike in developed countries. This in turn could slow down economic convergence. To empirically assess these issues, we proceeded to an econometric analysis through three equations: a growth equation, a health equation and an environment equation. We found that health is a channel through which environment impacts economic growth. When we take into account the effect of environment quality on economic growth, the speed of convergence tends to increase slightly. This shows that environmental quality could be considered as a constraint for economic convergence.
Full Text Available This paper reports the performance of global competitiveness and higher education competitiveness between two groups of countries. The first group is formed by four Asian countries; the second one by four Latin American countries. Indicators from the World Economic Forum 2007-2015 are compared. The indicators with the nearest proximity were found in the management quality of the universities, where there was only a five-point difference in favor of the Asian group. The indicator with the widest gap came from the quality of math and sciences education where we found a difference of 104 points. This is congruent with the results of PISA 2012, which showed a difference of 152 points in math.
Park Jong Min
Full Text Available Purpose: the aim of the article is to analyze the Korean economic strategy from the beginning of its development until modern stage. Examination of how this strategy has changed depending on changes within domestic and international economic environment, assumptions, set goals, their effectiveness and significance of all the taken measures. It will demonstrate waypoints for the future economic development and will become a trigger towards recognition of the successful development of the Korean economy by other countries. Methods: the methodological bases of this article are the economic and statistical methods of analysis of the Korean economys, graphical methods displaying economic indicators. Results: economic history of South Korea over the past century shows the positive and negative factors of the development from an economically weak country into a developing country. The history of the Japanese occupation of Korea, lasting from 1910 to 1945, showed that for a country which has lost its national sovereignty, expropriated the state's economy has no effect after the restoration of independence, and that the economy cannot develop in conditions of chaos within the political, economic and social spheres. Even after the establishment of a military dictatorship, it is possible to note that despite limitations of citizens’ rights, the economy can still grow if the people want it. In addition to the development of internal political system, unstable factors in the process of promotion of social reforms and hastily adopted policy of "open doors" in order to enhance the international status are unreasonable political, economic and social changes. In turn, the inability to control currency exchange in Asian countries, which is a policy of economic development, has shown the existence of a risk of national bankruptcy. Moreover, the adoption of policies of excessive decrease of interest rates in order to revive the recession may be counterproductive
Argumosa, A; Herranz, J L
The economic magnitude of epilepsy is determined by its effect on the employment status of the patients, the cost of drug treatment for them and the healthcare system and the repercussion worldwide. Studies of the cost of the disease show that it has economic importance due to the sum of the direct and indirect costs caused by it. In the case of epilepsy, the results of studies in various countries led to the creation of a Commission on Economic Aspects of Epilepsy. The lack of epidemiological studies regarding epilepsy in Spain may explain the lack of publications on this subject in our country. The percentage of the total cost due to antiepileptic drugs is considerable and will probably increase in the future. The pharmaco-economic evaluation made by cost-benefit, cost-effectiveness, cost-usefulness analysis and studies to minimize costs should serve to use healthcare resources in the most effective manner and justify the rational use of the new antiepileptic drugs. The economic impact of epilepsy is added to the repercussion of the disease itself on the patient and his family. The different distribution of costs in children and adults with epilepsy suggest the need for intervention at an early age to try to reduce the long term economic and personal repercussions. The pharmaco-economic evaluation of the new antiepileptic drugs will make it clear whether their considerable cost is worth paying for their greater effectivity.
The paper deals with research methodology of non-economic determinants of economic development. The author considers various theoretical approaches to definition of economic growth factors. Considerable attention is given to studying possible influence of non-economic determinants on quality of economic development.
Full Text Available The purpose of present paper is to present some recent developments in constructing composite innovation (or even, science and technology S&T indicators on a national level. Measuring innovation at the national level is crucial in developing appropriate long term strategies for economic growth, because it is widely believed technological innovation is one of the main drivers of sustained economic-social welfare, if not the single most important driver of economic growth. Our purpose is to present a mapping exercise of metrics – based on composite indicators - found in the STI literature, pointing out those used in practice, with a view to corresponding values in the case of Romania. It has become standard practice to combine several indicators for science, technology, and innovation to form composite numbers. Composite indicators are increasingly being used to make cross-national comparisons of country performance in specified areas such as competitiveness, globalisation, innovation, etc.
Bandura, Alexander V. [Kiev Technical Univ., Dept. of Marketing and Management, Kiev (Ukraine); Brodiansky, Victor M. [Moscow Energy Inst., Dept. of Cryogen Machines, Moscow (Russian Federation)
In this paper we consider the use of exergy in economic valuation and its correlation with money. Exergy-based determination of production expenses provides a new base for 'natural' price determination. A new macroeconomic dynamics approach based on this correlation is proposed. This method is relatively general because it is not restricted by certain assumptions used in traditional economic analysis. The exergy model of macroeconomic dynamics was tested by utilizing data from the US economy. This test, covering a period of about 25 years, confirms this approach and opens new potentials in economic analysis. (Author)
This discussion paper first identifies the main factors which influence the economic assessment of reprocessing. It proposes the use of a diagram - the so-called ''phase diagram'' - which plots the fast reactor premium against the price of uranium. The diagram delineates areas where the once-through fuel cycle, thermal recycle and fast reactor will be the preferred choice from micro-economic considerations. The paper then goes on to consider the circumstances under which a country may or may not wish to introduce thermal recycle or fast reactors. Finally, a procedure for further discussion on economic considerations with WG4 is proposed
principles of variation, continuity and selection, it is argued that economic selection theory should mimic the causal structure of neo-Darwinian theory. Two of the most influential explanations of economic evolution, Alchian's and Nelson and Winter's, are used to illustrate how this could be achieved.......The present article provides a minimal description of the causal structure of economic selection theory and outlines how the internal selection dynamics of business organisations can be reconciled with selection in competitive markets. In addition to generic similarity in terms of the Darwinian...
Gocht, W.R.; Eggert, R.G.
International Mineral Economics provides an integrated overview of the important concepts. The treatment is interdisciplinary, drawing on the fields of economics, geology, business, and mining engineering. Part I examines the technical concepts important for understanding the geology of ore deposits, the methods of exploration and deposit evaluation, and the activities of mining and mineral processing. Part II focuses on the economic and related concepts important for understanding mineral development, the evaluation of exploration and mining projects, and mineral markets and market models. Finally, Part III reviews and traces the historical development of the policies of international organizations, the industrialized countries, and the developing countries. (orig.)
Bujac, Andreea Ioana; Corado Cretu, Emanuel
Conducting a systematic literature review on the topic of FDI and Economic Growth and investigating this relationship, along with the determinants of an economy that attract FDI and the externalities resulting from Foreign activities, it is found that FDI does have a positive effect on a host...... country’s economic growth but only with the preexistence of certain determinants which facilitate the absorption capacity of the host country on reaping the spillover effects (externalities) of FDI. Lastly, a framework was built to illustrate the interaction between FDI, Determinants and condition...... of the host economy, barriers to growth, economic growth and externalities....
I. S. Franceva
Full Text Available Economic French at MGIMO-University is based on the teaching methods developed by talented Methodist practitioner assistant professor L.L. Potushanskoy. She and her colleagues G.M. Kotova, N. Kolesnikova, I.A. Yudina created well-known in our country methodical complex of three textbooks. This complex is built on clear guidelines to facilitate the natural development of language skills "from simple to complex" and represents the effective approach to language learning: Currently, the department is constantly expanding its boundaries of school teaching economic and business of the French language in accordance with the emerging new special courses on the economics faculties.
When it is intended to install a new nuclear power station, the usual procedure is to invite for tenders. In due course, bids will be received from various manufacturers, out of which the most favourable one is then to be selected. Appraisal is concluded in the Economic Bid Evaluation, the purpose of which is to define the economically most favourable bid by comparing overall costs and benefits of the various alternatives. Thus, Economic Bid Evaluation is a most important instrument for deciding on award of contract. (orig.) [de
This section of the book, Part I, consists of four chapters (1--4). Chapter 1, Energy and the Economic Future, covers the following subjects: general economics of energy; predicting energy demand; a model of energy and the economy; and interpretations. Chapter 2, Uranium and Fossil Fuel Supplies, covers the following subjects: uranium resources; oil and gas supplies; coal resources. Chapter 3, Economics of Nuclear Power, covers information on sources of uncertainty; cost of nuclear power; cost of coal-generated electricity. Chapter 4, Alternative Energy Sources, sums information on solar energy, geothermal energy, fusion power, conservation, and transmission
The presentation discusses the following issues: The objectives of the risk-based indicator programme. The characteristics of the risk-based indicators. The objectives of risk-based safety indicators - in monitoring safety; in PSA applications. What indicators? How to produce the risk based indicators? PSA requirements
Canadians' health and their social and economic well-being are fundamentally linked to the quality of their environment. Recognizing this, in 2004 the Government of Canada committed to establishing national indicators of freshwater quality, air quality and greenhouse gas emissions. The goal of these new indicators is to provide Canadians with more regular and reliable information on the state of their environment and how it is linked with human activity. Canadians need clearly defined environmental indicators - measuring sticks that can track the results that have been achieved through the efforts of governments, industries and individuals to protect and improve the environment. Environment Canada, Statistics Canada and Health Canada are working together to further develop and communicate these indicators. Reflecting the joint responsibility for environmental management in Canada, this effort has benefited from the cooperation and input of the provinces and territories. The indicators are: air quality; greenhouse gas emissions; and, freshwater quality. Air quality tracks Canadians' exposure to ground-level ozone - a key component of smog. The indicator measures one of the most common, harmful air pollutants to which people are exposed. The use of the seasonal average of ozone concentrations reflects the potential for long-term health effects. Greenhouse gas emissions tracks the annual releases of the six greenhouse gases that are the major contributors to climate change. The indicator comes directly from the greenhouse gas inventory report prepared by Environment Canada for the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the Kyoto Protocol. The data are widely used to report on progress toward Canada's Kyoto target for reduced emissions. Freshwater quality reports the status of surface water quality at selected monitoring sites across the country. For this first report, the focus of the indicator is on the protection of aquatic life, such as
Bondarevska Olha M.
Full Text Available The status of economic security of Poltava region in 2012–2016 was analyzed, the analysis was conducted using the developed methodology for assessing economic security of region, which is based on the joint use of indicative and functional methods. In order to assess the status of economic security of region, a system of indicators, divided by economic security components, has been formed using functional approach. The information-analytical provision of assessment has been formed using statistical information on the socio-economic development of the region. The influence of factors of destabilizing and destimulative nature on the status of economic security of the region has been researched. It has been concluded that the economic security of Poltava region is unsatisfactory, despite the existence of some positive tendencies, which at present are not sustainable.
I. I. Rekun
Full Text Available Purpose. Security is an important component of economic security and the guaranteeing of appropriate national interests in the state. All these things are closely related to the economic efficiency of operations of economic entities, with economic independence, stability and security of a society. In addition, economic security is a part of national security, its foundation and material basis. The problem of economic security in modern conditions at the micro and macro levels requires determining the main directions of its formation. Methodology. To achieve this goal, basic directions of a security mechanism of the economic system, in particular on the macro level were grounded. Findings. Economic security is such state of the state economy operation in which the order of equilibrium occurred in certain organizational and legal norms on the basis of social life. These regulations are created be the state, principles of coexistence, which are transmitted from generation to generation. The current state of economic security guaranteeing at the macro and micro levels was analyzed. The system of indicators that can be used in the assessment of the security system was determined. Originality. Propositions concerning necessary changes in the policy of economic security in a state were formulated. The system of indicators which can be used in the assessment of the security system was offered. Practical value. Using of the proposed system of economic security indicators will expand the list of important factors affecting on its status and allow us determining the main directions of its formation.
Lallukka, T; Laaksonen, M; Rahkonen, O; Roos, E; Lahelma, E
To examine associations between seven indicators of socio-economic circumstances and healthy food habits, while taking into account assumed temporal order between these socio-economic indicators. Data were derived from cross-sectional postal questionnaires in 2000-2002. Socio-economic circumstances were assessed by parental education, childhood economic difficulties, own education, occupational class, household income, home ownership and current economic difficulties. Healthy food habits were measured by an index consisting of consumption of fresh vegetables, fruit or berries, rye bread, fish and choosing vegetable fats on bread and oil in cooking. Sequential logistic regression models were used, adjusting for age and marital status. Employees of the City of Helsinki, Finland (n=8960, aged 40-60 years). Healthy food habits were reported by 28% of women and by 17% of men. Own education, occupational class, household income, home ownership and current economic difficulties were associated with healthy food habits. These associations were attenuated but mainly remained after mutual adjustments for the socio-economic indicators. Among women, a pathway was found suggesting that part of the effects of education on food habits were mediated through occupational class. Employees in higher and lower socio-economic positions differ in their food habits, and those in lower positions and economically disadvantaged are less likely to report healthy food habits. Health promotion programmes and food policies should encourage healthier food choices among those in lower socio-economic positions and among those with economic difficulties in particular.
The densities, energy consumption, and economic development of the increasing population exacerbate environmental degradation. Air and water pollution is a major environmental problem affecting life and health, outdoor recreation, household soiling, vegetation, materials, and production. The literature review indicated that numerous studies have assessed the physical and monetary damage to populations at risk from excessive concentrations of major air and water pollutants-sulfur dioxide, total suspended particulate matter, oxidants, and carbon monoxide in air; and nutrients, oil, pesticides, and toxic metals and others in water. The measurement of the damages was one of the most controversial issues in pollution abatement. The methods that have been used to estimate the societal value of pollution abatement are: (1) chain of effects, (2) market approaches, and (3) surveys. National gross damages of air pollution of $20.2 billion and of water pollution of $11.1 billion for 1973 are substantial. These best estimates, updated for the economic and demographic conditions, could provide acceptable control totals for estimating and predicting benefits and costs of abating air and water pollution emissions. The major issues to be resolved are: (1) lack of available noneconomic data, (2) theoretical and empirical difficulties of placing a value on human life and health and on benefits such as aesthetics, and (3) lack of available demographic and economic data.
Oana Camelia Iacob
Full Text Available The world economy is becoming increasingly integrated. Integrating emerging economies of Asia, such as China and India increase competition on the world stage, putting pressure on the "actors" already existing. These developments have raised questions about the effectiveness of European development model, which focuses on a high level of equity, insurance and social protection. According to analysts, the world today faces three models of economic development with significant weight in the world: the European, American and Asian. This study will focus on analyzing European development model, and a brief comparison with the United States. In addition, this study aims to highlight the relationship between efficiency and social equity that occurs in each submodel in part of the European model, given that social and economic performance in the EU are not homogeneous. To achieve this, it is necessary to analyze different indicators related to social equity and efficiency respectively, to observe the performance of each submodel individually. The article analyzes data to determine submodel performance according to social equity and economic efficiency.
Florina Oana Virlanuta
Full Text Available Investments play a key part within the goods and services industry, consumerism and community as well. The effects generated by any investment project substantiate this statement, regardless the sector of activity in which they are implemented. In the current market economy, economic efficiency indicators are playing an important role in assessing and analyzing an investment project since due to these indicators, the investor can become aware of the most important aspects they need to respond promptly. In this respect, we conducted a market analysis of real estate investments in Romania, highlighting economic and social efficiency of property investments.
Ruperto P. Alonzo
The economic freedom index (EFI) is one of several cross-country yardsticks that incorporate dimensions of progress and well-being that go beyond what conventional economic indicators tell us. It is a composite of 21 indicators that include “personal choice, protection of private property, and freedom of exchange.” It is one of the few measures where the Philippines ranks higher than most of its neighbors; the Philippines was in fact 29th among 123 countries rated for 1999, while neighboring ...
Full Text Available Abstract Tourism climate indices (TCI are commonly used to describe the climate conditions suitable for tourism activities, from the planning, investment or daily operations perspectives. A substantial amount of research has been carried out, in particular with respect to new indices formulae adapted to specific tourism products, and parameters and their weighting, taking into account surveys on the stated preferences of tourists, especially in terms of comfort. This paper illustrates another field of research, which seeks to better understand the different sources of uncertainty associated with indices. Indeed, slight differences in formula thresholds, variations in computation methods, and also the use of multimodel ensembles create nuances that affect the ways in which indices projections are usually presented. Firstly, we assess the impact of differences in preference surveys on the definition of indices thresholds, in particular for thermal comfort. Secondly, we compare computation methods for France, showing the need to better specify detailed data sources and their use to ensure the comparability of results. Thirdly, using multimodel ensembles for the Mediterranean basin, we assess the uncertainty inherent in long-term projections, which are used in modelling the economic impact of climate change. This paper argues in favour of a more cautious use of tourism comfort indices, with more consideration given to the robustness of data (validation, debiasing, uncertainty assessment, etc. and users’ needs, from the climate services perspective.
Loeschel, Andreas; Moslener, Ulf; Ruebbelke, Dirk T.G.
Energy security has become a popular catch phrase, both in the scientific arena as well as in the political discussion. Yet, in general the applied concepts of energy security are rather vague. This paper sheds some light on concepts and indicators of energy security. First, we conceptually discuss the issue of energy supply security and explain why it is not to handle by one science alone and what economics may contribute in order to structure the topic. After providing a brief survey of existing attempts to define or measure energy security we suggest an additional dimension along which indicators of energy security may be classified: ex-post and ex-ante indicators. Finally, we illustrate our concept on the basis of several simplified indicators. While ex-post indicators are mostly based on price developments, ex-ante indicators are to a greater extent aimed at illustrating potential problems. Our illustration suggests that it is worthwhile to take into account the market structure along with the political stability of exporting countries. (author)
Calo-Blanco, Aitor; Kovářík, Jaromír; Mengel, Friederike; Romero, José Gabriel
Do adversarial environmental conditions create social cohesion? We provide new answers to this question by exploiting spatial and temporal variation in exposure to earthquakes across Chile. Using a variety of methods and controlling for a number of socio-economic variables, we find that exposure to earthquakes has a positive effect on several indicators of social cohesion. Social cohesion increases after a big earthquake and slowly erodes in periods where environmental conditions are less adverse. Our results contribute to the current debate on whether and how environmental conditions shape formal and informal institutions.
Effects of an intensified production adjustment to the biomass production in the operational sequence of agricultural enterprises on ecological and economic indices. Results of modellings in practical operations; Auswirkungen einer verstaerkten Produktionsausrichtung zur Biomasseerzeugung im Betriebsablauf landwirtschaftlicher Unternehmen auf oekologische und oekonomische Kennziffern. Ergebnisse von Modellierungen in Praxisbetrieben
Wagner, Bernhard; Reinicke, Frank
The supply of biomass for the power generated is the centre of the contribution under consideration. Authoritative is the sustainable organization of the production in the cultivation of the energy crops and in the entire operating system. At first, the actual situation in selected operating systems is described due to the data of the last three years. From this, scenarios are derived in which the crop rotations are accomplished application specific and with consideration of the natural local conditions on an intensified production of bio sources of energy. Likewise, aspects of specifically changed nutrient flows and energy flows are pointed out such as the intensities in plant protection, the erosion danger and effects on the bio diversity. Only on basis of application specific analyses, the sustainability of production can be improved. Regional cultivation concentrations for energy crops are conceivable. However the borders of the cultivation of energy plant primarily depend on the economic characteristic numbers of individual companies.
Kettle, Keri L; Salerno, Anthony
Research suggests that certain facets of people's political ideals can be motivated by different goals. Although it is widely accepted that emotions motivate goal-directed behavior, less is known about how emotion-specific goals may influence different facets of ideology. In this research, we examine how anger affects political ideology and through what mechanisms such effects occur. Drawing on the dual-process motivational model of ideology and the functionalist perspective of emotion, we propose that anger leads people to support conservative economic ideals, which promote economic independence and discourage societal resource sharing. Four studies support our hypothesis that anger can enhance support for an election candidate espousing conservative economic ideals. We find that anger shifts people toward economic conservatism by orienting them toward competition for resources. Implications and future research on the relationship between emotions and political ideology are discussed.
variables of population, health centres, employment and capital water projects were ... reorganization and reorientation of entire economic and social systems. In addition, to ... inequality and eradication of poverty (Todaro and Smith 2006).
Morrison, Wayne M
... (the fastest annual growth since 1994). While China is expected to continue to enjoy rapid economic growth in the years ahead and could become the world's largest economy within a decade or so, it faces a number of challenges, including...
A lot of economic problems can be formulated as constrained optimizations and equilibration of their solutions. Various mathematical theories have been supplying economists with indispensable machineries for these problems arising in economic theory. Conversely, mathematicians have been stimulated by various mathematical difficulties raised by economic theories. The series is designed to bring together those mathematicians who are seriously interested in getting new challenging stimuli from economic theories with those economists who are seeking effective mathematical tools for their research. The editorial board of this series comprises the following prominent economists and mathematicians: Managing Editors: S. Kusuoka (Univ. Tokyo), T. Maruyama (Keio Univ.). Editors: R. Anderson (U.C. Berkeley), C. Castaing (Univ. Montpellier), F.H. Clarke (Univ. Lyon I), G. Debreu (U.C. Berkeley), E. Dierker (Univ. Vienna), D. Duffie (Stanford Univ.), L.C. Evans (U.C. Berkeley), T. Fujimoto (Okayama Univ.), J.-M. Grandmont...
Stephan, Paula E
.... At a time when science is seen as an engine of economic growth, Paula Stephan brings a keen understanding of the ongoing cost-benefit calculations made by individuals and institutions as they compete...
Huston, James A.
Recounts the history and problems of European Economic Integration from the first post World War II organization, the OEEC, to the EEC (Common Market) and the EFTA. Suggestions for further reading are included. (JB)
Morrison, Wayne M
.... China is expected to continue to enjoy rapid economic growth over the next several years, provided that it continues to implement needed reforms, particularly in regard to its inefficient state-owned...
Brox, Trine; Williams-Oerberg, Elizabeth Lane
This chapter takes the relationship that Buddhists have historically had with economic practices as a starting point for discussing contemporary entanglements of Buddhism and economy. Based on a literary review of previous studies on Buddhism and business and building upon our own research, we...... analyze the diverse range of influences that have impacted the manner in which Buddhism and business have been entwined, taking a look at historical as well as regional, national, and global impacts on the formulation of Buddhism within encounters with global market economies. Our review spans lay......-monk exchange relations, Buddhist economic ethics, monastic businesses, spiritual consumerism, globalized Buddhism, secularized Buddhist technologies in the corporate world, and Buddhist branding, all of which testify to the diverse modalities of Buddhism and economic relations, illuminating also the economic...
Rose, Adam; Folmer, Henk; Nijkamp, Peter
This article summarizes Walter Isard's important contributions to environmental economics and ecological economics. The former is the traditional field that incorporates some limited aspects of the environment into neoclassical economic theory, while the latter is a more comprehensive integration of
This thesis analyzes the relationship between environmental regulation as well as energy market developments on the one hand, and economic performance on the other. Due to its economic effects environmental regulation is controversially disputed. The thesis shows, however, that the economic impacts of the recently adopted climate policy in Europe, namely of the implementation of the European Union Emission Trading Scheme, have been modest at most. Consistent with economic theory, the low stringency of this regulatory measure that is aimed at combating man-made climate change is identified as one important driver of this result. Moreover, results presented in this thesis also indicate the important role which the political economy plays for the design of environmental regulation in general. These mechanisms are shown to be a driver of the low stringency and, consequently, of the small economic effects during the first phase of the European Union Emission Trading Scheme. The thesis highlights the role of investment stimulation if the goal of environmental regulation is not only the protection of the environment, but also the compatibility with economic goals. This thesis also provides new insights into the role of energy market developments for the economy. In this respect, the relevance of the EU carbon market for the financial market performance of European electricity generators is shown. Besides, this thesis particularly demonstrates the paramount importance of oil market developments for the economy as a whole. It suggests that amongst all natural resources, oil is the most relevant one to the pricing of Eurozone energy stocks. It is also shown that besides oil prices, oil volatility plays an important role for stock market development. Finally, the thesis highlights the relevance of oil market developments to the overall economy, in showing that unemployment in Germany is strongly affected by oil price shocks. In this respect, it also opposes claims that the
The Heritage Foundation and the Fraser Institute measure economic freedom in nations using indices with ten and five indicators respectively. Eight of the Heritage indicators and four of the Fraser-indicators are about specific types of institutional quality, like rule of law, the protection of property, and the provision of sound money. More of these is considered to denote more economic freedom. Both indices also involve indicators of 'big government', or levels of government activities. More of that is seen to denote less economic freedom. Yet, levels of government spending, consumption, and transfers and subsidies appear to correlate positively with the other indicators related to institutional quality, while this correlation is close to zero for the level of taxation as a percentage of GDP. Using government spending, consumption transfers and subsidies as positive indicators is no alternative, because these levels stand for very different government activities, liberal or less liberal. This means that levels of government activities can better be left out as negative or positive indicators. Thus shortened variants of the indices create a better convergent validity in the measurement of economic freedom, and create higher correlations between economic freedom and alternative types of freedom, and between economic freedom and happiness. The higher correlations indicate a better predictive validity, since they are predictable in view of the findings of previous research and theoretical considerations about the relations between types of freedom, and between freedom and happiness.
Luo Dongkun; Dai Youjin
Roaring natural gas demand, energy security and environment protection concerns coupled with stringent emission reduction requirement have made China's abundant coalbed methane (CBM) resource an increasingly valuable energy source. However, not all of China's CBM resource is economic to develop under current technological condition and economic situation. In order to locate the CBM resource with economic viability to develop in China, economic evaluation of CBM production is conducted by applying net present value (NPV) method. The results indicate that more than half of CBM resource in China is economic to develop. It shows that CBM price, production rate and operating costs are the three major factors with most impact on the economic viability of the CBM development in target areas in China. The result also demonstrates that the economic limit production is roughly 1200 cubic meters per day. These economic evaluation results provide important information for both CBM companies and China government.
The first chapter of the dissertation examines the learning process that economic agents use to update their expectation of an uncertain and infrequently observed event. The standard Bayesian updating model is restrictive in that it reflects the strong neo-classical assumption that economic agents efficiently incorporate new information with all available information when updating beliefs. I consider the case of flooding and estimate the effect of first-hand experience on flood insurance ta...
Stahl, Rune Møller
Stahl investigates the role of liberal economics in the formulation of the disastrous famine policy of the British colonial administration in nineteenth-century India, where millions of Indians starved to death in a series of famines. The chapter examines the influential debates around the Great....... The hegemonic position of free trade ideas and economic liberalism allowed for proponents of a hard laissez-faire line to mobilize considerable intellectual resources, from Adam Smith to Ricardo, to overcome humanitarian critiques....
R. Preston McAfee
This book presents introductory economics ("principles") material using standard mathematical tools, including calculus. It is designed for a relatively sophisticated undergraduate who has not taken a basic university course in economics. It also contains the standard intermediate microeconomics material and some material that ought to be standard but is not. The book can easily serve as an intermediate microeconomics text. The focus of this book is on the conceptual tools and not on fluff. M...