WorldWideScience

Sample records for economic efficiency equity

  1. The Economics of Independent Living: Efficiency, Equity and Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, E.; Kennelly, B.

    1996-01-01

    This article explores the meaning of efficiency and equity in the context of independent living programs for people with disabilities. Conflicts in costs and trade-offs in various scenarios of the efficiency/equity equation are examined in terms of theories of utilitarianism, contractarianism, justice and mutual advantage, and justice as…

  2. The Economics of Ecosystems: Efficiency, Sustainability and Equity in Ecosystem Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hein, L.G.

    2010-01-01

    The Economics of Ecosystems demonstrates how the concepts of economic efficiency, sustainability and equity can be applied in ecosystem management. The book presents an overview of these three key concepts, a framework for their analysis and modelling and three case studies. Specific attention is

  3. Health economics, equity, and efficiency: are we almost there?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz, Marcos Bosi

    2015-01-01

    Health care is a highly complex, dynamic, and creative sector of the economy. While health economics has to continue its efforts to improve its methods and tools to better inform decisions, the application needs to be aligned with the insights and models of other social sciences disciplines. Decisions may be guided by four concept models based on ethical and distributive justice: libertarian, communitarian, egalitarian, and utilitarian. The societal agreement on one model or a defined mix of models is critical to avoid inequity and unfair decisions in a public and/or private insurance-based health care system. The excess use of methods and tools without fully defining the basic goals and philosophical principles of the health care system and without evaluating the fitness of these measures to reaching these goals may not contribute to an efficient improvement of population health.

  4. Health economics, equity, and efficiency: are we almost there?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferraz MB

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Marcos Bosi Ferraz1,21Department of Medicine, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; 2São Paulo Center for Health Economics (GRIDES, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil Abstract: Health care is a highly complex, dynamic, and creative sector of the economy. While health economics has to continue its efforts to improve its methods and tools to better inform decisions, the application needs to be aligned with the insights and models of other social sciences disciplines. Decisions may be guided by four concept models based on ethical and distributive justice: libertarian, communitarian, egalitarian, and utilitarian. The societal agreement on one model or a defined mix of models is critical to avoid inequity and unfair decisions in a public and/or private insurance-based health care system. The excess use of methods and tools without fully defining the basic goals and philosophical principles of the health care system and without evaluating the fitness of these measures to reaching these goals may not contribute to an efficient improvement of population health. Keywords: health care, health care system, population health

  5. Equity, Economic Growth and Lifestyle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Niels I; Nørgaard, Jørgen; Hvelplund, Frede

    2011-01-01

    sources (RES) in the supply sector and energy efficiency in the demand sector. Much less attention has been given to potential changes in life style and to alternative economic and social systems. This chapter will focus on non-technological strategies for mitigation of global warming including...... such questions as national and international equity, “limits to growth”, alternative employment policies, military and security policy and alternatives to traditional GDP as the dominant indicator of welfare and of sound development....

  6. Efficiency, equity or disagreement? The economics of international carbon abatement negotiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mabey, N.; Smith, C.

    1995-01-01

    The current international effort to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, as embodied in the Framework Convention on Climate Change, is often criticized as inefficient by economists because it uses uniform targets instead of more theoretically efficient instruments such as international taxes. However, the effectiveness of any international treaty in producing environmental benefits is not wholly dependent on its economic efficiency but also on its political stability and the ability to accurately monitor and enforce its conditions. Stability depends on the magnitude and distribution of costs and benefits between countries which have heterogeneous economies, environmental damages, trading partners and abatement costs. The distribution of costs between countries will also depend on the type of policy instrument used to coordinate international abatement efforts. This paper analyses trade-offs that must be made when negotiating international agreements in order to balance the need for administrative convenience and economic efficiency with the realization that any agreement is better than no agreement

  7. European Integration between Equity, Efficiency and Welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Marchis

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Throughout this article I tried to highlight the path for improving the Europeans standards ofliving. Poverty, inequality and efficiency are the key concepts of the welfare economic. Similar to many otherarticles about equity, efficiency and welfare, this article offers an account of the challenges facing theEuropean Union welfare in a context of global economy assessing the ability of different components of thewelfare governance to respond to these challenges. The welfare of European Union is analyzed under themultidimensional aspects of integration, such as: internal versus external integration and multilevelintegration. Aging, changes in the labor market, increased mobility are particular aspects that characterize EUand under the fundamental reform of Europe 2020 Strategy, welfare economic becomes a priority even if thepolitical integration comes first to the economic one. As Europe grows more diverse, the welfare economictranslates from desire to necessity.

  8. Legal solutions to the conflict between equity of income redistribution and economic efficiency of taxation in relation to personal income tax law in Thailand and the United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Rodjun, Jirasak

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to examine and compare Thai and UK income tax laws to establish how they cause conflict between equity of income redistribution and efficiency of taxation. This thesis also aims to validate theories that optimal tax structures and efficient tax legislation and administration can resolve the conflict. There are six chapters: Chapter One reviews concepts of equity and efficiency. Research in the components of income tax Jaw to establish optimal tax structures (...

  9. Accessibility, equity and efficiency. Part 1: Introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurs, Karst Teunis; Dentinho, T.; Patuelli, R.; Geurs, K.T.; Patuelli, R.; Dentinho, T.

    2016-01-01

    The tension between efficiency and equity has been the focus of major debate since equity aspects started to be considered as part of project evaluation procedures (Thomopoulos et al. 2009). In this book, we contribute to the debate by focusing on the links and trade-offs between accessibility,

  10. Performance Evaluation of Public-Private Partnership Projects from the Perspective of Efficiency, Economic, Effectiveness, and Equity: A Study of Residential Renovation Projects in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuhui Cong

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The performance evaluation index system was established on the basis of 4E (Efficiency, Economic, Effectiveness, Equity theory to improve performance evaluation of Public-Private Partnership Projects for Residential Renovation (4P2R. Moreover, the index weighting model was demonstrated based on Ordered Weighted Averaging (OWA. Finally, the cloud model was used for performance evaluation, through the cloud uncertainty reasoning to determine the quantitative performance evaluation index value, the positive reverse cloud to calculate the qualitative performance evaluation index value, and the normal cloud to measure the project performance. The proof-of-concept application shows that the performance evaluation index system and evaluation model can better identify the deficiencies in the project, and provide targeted improvement measures for similar projects in the future.

  11. Equity, Economic Growth and Lifestyle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Niels I; Nørgaard, Jørgen; Hvelplund, Frede

    2011-01-01

    Consequences of global warming are appearing much faster than assumed just a few years ago and irreversible ”tipping points” are few years ahead [IPCC, James Hansen]. So far, strategies for mitigation of global warming have mostly been focusing on technological solutions e.g. renewable energy...... such questions as national and international equity, “limits to growth”, alternative employment policies, military and security policy and alternatives to traditional GDP as the dominant indicator of welfare and of sound development....

  12. Equity Criteria as Instrument to Ensure Sustainability of Pareto or Kaldor-Hicks Efficiency: A Correlation Hidden by Sources of Confounding as Key for Sorting Out the Global Economic Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Benazzo, Piero

    2010-01-01

    The hypothesis is that Pareto and Kaldor-Hicks Efficiency have an aspect of sustainability in relation to inequality. The analysis finds efficient situations reached increasing inequality as diminishing in the long term effective demand in a larger measure than counterbalancing increases thanks to total factor productivity growth. Equity and efficiency in welfare economics, rather than being quite contrasting objectives, are as such related and mutually necessary. As such countries are called...

  13. Efficiency of economic development models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Camelia Iacob

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The world economy is becoming increasingly integrated. Integrating emerging economies of Asia, such as China and India increase competition on the world stage, putting pressure on the "actors" already existing. These developments have raised questions about the effectiveness of European development model, which focuses on a high level of equity, insurance and social protection. According to analysts, the world today faces three models of economic development with significant weight in the world: the European, American and Asian. This study will focus on analyzing European development model, and a brief comparison with the United States. In addition, this study aims to highlight the relationship between efficiency and social equity that occurs in each submodel in part of the European model, given that social and economic performance in the EU are not homogeneous. To achieve this, it is necessary to analyze different indicators related to social equity and efficiency respectively, to observe the performance of each submodel individually. The article analyzes data to determine submodel performance according to social equity and economic efficiency.

  14. Tracking Gender Equity under Economic Reforms: Continuity and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Tracking Gender Equity under Economic Reforms: Continuity and Change in South ... She has a master's degree in economics from the Delhi School of Economics ... An IDRC delegation will join international delegates and city representatives ...

  15. A comparison of carbon allocation schemes: On the equity-efficiency tradeoff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Xunzhang; Teng, Fei; Wang, Gehua

    2014-01-01

    In the long-term stabilization targets of greenhouse gases concentrations, various carbon emission rights allocation schemes have been proposed. To compare and evaluate them, the most essential is the equity-efficiency tradeoff. This paper measures the equity and the efficiency in the global rather than the narrower national perspective. Specifically, the equity of the first allocation is quantified by the carbon Gini coefficient defined by per capita cumulative emission, and the economic efficiency to accomplish obligations is described with the discounted global abatement costs. Under 20 key allocation schemes, the numerical comparison on the equity-efficiency tradeoff side is carried out through the Equitable Access to Sustainable Development model. Our studies indicate that the equity and the efficiency of future emission space allocation approximately show a three-stage relationship. - Highlights: • The equity-efficiency tradeoff among 20 key allocation schemes is carried out. • Both the equity and the efficiency are measured in the global perspective. • The Equitable Access to Sustainable Development model is adopted as the study tool. • A practical trade framework is indispensable to efficiently address climate change. • The equity and the efficiency generally show a three-stage tradeoff relationship

  16. Ecology, equity and economics: reframing dryland policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hesse, Ced

    2011-11-15

    Drylands are among the world's most variable and unpredictable environments. But people here have long learnt how to live with and harness this variability to support sustainable and productive economies, societies and ecosystems. Policymakers have for too long ignored this wealth of experience and expertise with dire consequences. Attempts to replace traditional land use practices with modern techniques have simply exacerbated poverty, degradation and conflict. In the face of climate change and increasing uncertainty in the drylands, the need to reframe policy and practice has never been greater. The future must be built on sound scientific information, local knowledge, informed participation and the wisdom of customary institutions that emphasise social equity, ecological integrity and economic development.

  17. Energy efficiency and social equity in South Africa: seeking convergence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Horen, C.; Simmonds, G. [University of Cape Town, Rondebosch (South Africa). Energy and Development Research Centre

    1998-09-01

    A key challenge facing post-apartheid South Africa is to achieve a balance between equity and efficiency goals. On the one hand, the democratic government wishes to improve the quality of life of the majority of the population, whilst on the other, the country needs an efficient and internationally competitive economy. At the more specific level of household energy policy, this efficiency-equity linkage represents a key challenge for policy-making and implementation: it is essential that convergence is sought between household energy strategies aimed at improving energy efficiency, and those strategies which improve the living conditions of the poor. This paper begins by reviewing developments in South Africa`s household energy sector in the early-1990s, most notably the national electrification plan which was launched in 1991. A second development, in 1994, was the establishment of the National Electricity Regulator. Despite the attention given to energy efficiency in the government`s new energy policy, energy efficiency considerations have not yet emerged as a major force in the energy sector. Electricity prices underestimated the environmental and other impacts of coal and nuclear-generated electricity. A range of economic and institutional reasons for this are identified and considered. Finally, two interventions on which some progress has been made, are described: these include insulation and thermal performance projects in new lost-cost houses, and a compact fluorescent lighting programme. 37 refs., 4 figs.

  18. Pure global externalities. International efficiency and equity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musgrave, P.B.

    1995-01-01

    The argument for a carbon tax to reduce CO 2 emissions to the global arena is extended and the distribution as well as efficiency issues posed by a global agreement on carbon taxation are examined. The author distinguishes four alternative international arrangements in addition to the 'no cooperation' case. The arrangements allow for various equity rules to reflect what are considered to be equitable changes from the baseline position. Although the results of Musgrave's exercise lay no strong claims to validity as empirical findings, the relative patterns that emerge, nonetheless, contribute to an understanding of the issues that must be faced in arriving at acceptable international forms of cooperation. 1 fig., 6 tabs., 10 refs

  19. Efficiency and Equity Performance of a Coordinated Ramp Metering Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duo Li

    2016-10-01

    software AIMSUN. Simulation results revealed that the equity of the motorway system can be improved significantly by using the proposed strategy without compromising much on the efficiency of the system.

  20. Equity effects of economic instruments for greenhouse gas abatement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, D. Jr.

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses the equity effects of using economic instruments--such as a carbon tax or carbon emissions trading program--to regulate greenhouse gas emissions. Determining these equity effects is more complicated than assessing overall costs and benefits, although some of the same issues arise. Among the key issues are the following: (1) benchmark for evaluating impacts of economic instruments (status quo or regulatory program that achieves the same emission reductions); (2) use of any government revenues collected, which are transfers overall but affect gains and losses; (3) time period (long-term or transitional impacts); and (4) groupings (income groups, sectors or regions). Empirical studies suggest that a national tax is regressive in the US but may be less so in other countries. The equity impacts of an international carbon tax or emissions trading program differ greatly depending upon the specific elements. The paper considers options to compensate or mitigate adverse effects to income groups, sectors, or regions of the world. Although impossible to avoid all losses to every group, it would be possible to avoid major equity effects if carbon taxes or carbon trading programs were used to control global warming

  1. COMPULSORY EDUCATION IN ROMANIA BETWEEN EQUITY AND EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asandului Laura

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at investigating the two main characteristics of a modern system of compulsory education with a focus on Romania. It assumes that the equity of the education sector and the efficiency of resource use are strongly correlated, both supporting

  2. Global equity allocation with index of economic freedom—A Black-Litterman equilibrium approach

    OpenAIRE

    Mohanty, Subhransu Sekhar

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to examine the impact of Index of Economic Freedom (IEF) in strategic equity allocation process, in ternis of riskreturn efficiency, across 49 countries using the Black-Litterman's Absolute View approach. We have attempted to carry an ex-post comparative risk-return performance analysis of traditional CAPM, the Black-Litterman Equilibrium model and our view based strategy based on Black-Litterman's Absolute View approach to analyse whether our view-based st...

  3. Emerging equity market and economic development: Bangladesh perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Mohajan, Haradhan; Datta, Rajib; Das, Arjun

    2011-01-01

    Bangladesh capital market is one of the smallest market in Asia but the third largest in the South Asian region. A stock market or equity market is a public entity for the trading of company stock and derivatives at an agreed price. These are securities listed on a stock exchange as well as those only traded privately. Economic development is a term that generally refers to the sustained, concerted effort of policymakers and community to promote the standard of living and economic health in a...

  4. The Impact of Uruguay’s 2007 Tax Reform on Equity and Efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno Martorano

    2012-01-01

    In 2007, the Uruguayan government implemented a new tax reform which introduced a new progressive labour income tax, a flat capital income tax, and reduced some indirect taxes, with the objective of improving fiscal balance, income distribution and economic growth. This paper presents an evaluation of the impact of such tax reform on equity and efficiency on the basis of data derived from the Encuesta Continua de Hogares (ECH) for the years 2006 and 2009. Using a Difference-in-Differences tec...

  5. Essays on equity-efficiency trade offs in energy and climate policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sesmero, Juan P.

    Economic efficiency and societal equity are two important goals of public policy. Energy and climate policies have the potential to affect both. Efficiency is increased by substituting low-carbon energy for fossil energy (mitigating an externality) while equity is served if such substitution enhances consumption opportunities of unfavored groups (low income households or future generations). However policies that are effective in reducing pollution may not be so effective in redistributing consumption and vice-versa. This dissertation explores potential trade-offs between equity and efficiency arising in energy and climate policies. Chapter 1 yields two important results. First, while effective in reducing pollution, energy efficiency policies may fall short in protecting future generations from resource depletion. Second, deployment of technologies that increase the ease with which capital can substitute for energy may enhance the ability of societies to sustain consumption and achieve intertemporal equity. Results in Chapter 1 imply that technologies more intensive in capital and materials and less intensive in carbon such as corn ethanol may be effective in enhancing intertemporal equity. However the effectiveness of corn ethanol (relative to other technologies) in reducing emissions will depend upon the environmental performance of the industry. Chapter 2 measures environmental efficiency of ethanol plants, identifies ways to enhance performance, and calculates the cost of such improvements based on a survey of ethanol plants in the US. Results show that plants may be able to increase profits and reduce emissions simultaneously rendering the ethanol industry more effective in tackling efficiency. Finally while cap and trade proposals are designed to correcting a market failure by reducing pollution, allocation of emission allowances may affect income distribution and, hence, intra-temporal equity. Chapter 3 proves that under plausible conditions on preferences

  6. Strategy Implementation Style and Public Service Effectiveness, Efficiency, and Equity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhys Andrews

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Strategic decision-making theories suggest that organizations that combine rational and incremental strategy implementation styles are likely to perform better than those that emphasize a single style. To assess whether these arguments apply to the public sector; we explore the strategy implementation style and perceived service effectiveness, efficiency and equity of Turkish municipal government departments. Using fuzzy cluster analysis, we identify four distinctive though inter-related styles of strategy implementation in our sample organizations: logical-incremental; mostly rational; mostly incremental; and no clear approach. A logical-incremental and mostly rational style of implementation are associated with better effectiveness, efficiency and equity; with the absence of an implementation style associated with worse performance. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  7. The efficiency and equity of marketable permits for CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, A.; Stevens, B.

    1993-01-01

    This paper examines the efficiency and equity implications of alternative assignments of marketable permits for carbon dioxide. A non-linear programming model is used to estimate the net welfare changes of permit allocations based on Sovereignty and Rawlsian equity criteria for 8 countries/regions covering the spectrum of economic development levels. The net welfare gains associated with an overall 20% reduction in CO 2 emissions are estimated to be nearly 20 billion dollars, an increase of several billion dollars over a system of inflexible emission quotas requiring 20% abatement in each country. Also, although the welfare changes implied by alternative permit assignments may vary greatly between countries before trading, the trading process significantly reduces the disparities. This result stems from the Coase Theorem, which implies a uniquely efficient outcome. That is, individual country abatement levels and, hence, costs, are the same under all permit assignments after trading, and net welfare for a given nation differs only by the amount of permit revenues/expenditures associated with the application of alternative equity criteria. Foremost among the paper's policy implications is that although equity criteria may differ significantly in principle, their welfare implications in practice may be very similar for various subsets of these criteria. This should reduce tensions at the bargaining table and facilitate the negotiation of greenhouse gas agreements. 52 refs., 3 figs., 8 tabs

  8. Private Equity for Retail Investors : How to efficiently involve Finnish retail investors in private equity

    OpenAIRE

    Moita, Angelo

    2017-01-01

    Private equity has been the best performing asset class for institutional investors. Meanwhile, retail investors have been left out from the asset class for several reasons, such as legislation and wealth profiling. This study aims at assessing the types of private equity vehicles that could be the most appropriate for Finnish retail investors. The study solely focuses on the investment opportunities, hence it does not cover investment behaviour. Private equity should not be a primary as...

  9. The fight against the greenhouse effect. Equity and efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallee, A.

    2003-01-01

    The author discusses the definition of an equitable division rule of the global effort of greenhouse gases emissions decrease, the research of the economic efficiency, the flexibility mechanisms and the emissions trading. (A.L.B.)

  10. Global climate change and the equity-efficiency puzzle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manne, Alan S.; Stephan, Gunter

    2005-01-01

    There is a broad consensus that the costs of abatement of global climate change can be reduced efficiently through the assignment of quota rights and through international trade in these rights. There is, however, no consensus on whether the initial assignment of emissions permits can affect the Pareto-optimal global level of abatement. This paper provides some insight into the equity-efficiency puzzle. Qualitative results are obtained from a small-scale model; then quantitative evidence of separability is obtained from MERGE, a multiregion integrated assessment model. It is shown that if all the costs of climate change can be expressed in terms of GDP losses, Pareto-efficient abatement strategies are independent of the initial allocation of emissions rights. This is the case sometimes described as 'market damages'. If, however, different regions assign different values to nonmarket damages such as species losses, different sharing rules may affect the Pareto-optimal level of greenhouse gas abatement. Separability may then be demonstrated only in specific cases (e.g. identical welfare functions or quasi-linearity of preferences or small shares of wealth devoted to abatement)

  11. Economics of appliance efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiedemann, K.H.

    2009-01-01

    Several significant developments occurred in 2001 that affect the impact of market transformation programs. This paper presented and applied an econometric approach to the identification and estimation of market models for refrigerators, clothes washers, dishwashers and room air conditioners. The purpose of the paper was to understand the impact of energy conservation policy developments on sales of energy efficient appliances. The paper discussed the approach with particular reference to building a database of sales and drivers of sales using publicly available information; estimation of the determinants of sales using econometric models; and estimation of the individual impacts of prices, gross domestic product (GDP) and energy conservation policies on sales using regression results. Market and policy developments were also presented, such as change a light, save the world promotion; the California energy crisis; and the Pacific Northwest drought induced hydro power shortage. It was concluded that an increase in GDP increased the sales of both more efficient and less efficient refrigerators, clothes washers, dishwashers, and room air conditioners. An increase in electricity price increased sales of Energy Star refrigerators, clothes washers, dishwashers, and room air conditioners. 4 refs., 8 tabs.

  12. Virtual Water and Water Footprints: Overreaching Into the Discourse on Sustainability, Efficiency, and Equity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Wichelns

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The notions of virtual water and water footprints were introduced originally to bring attention to the large amounts of water required to produce crops and livestock. Recently, several authors have begun applying those notions in efforts to describe efficiency, equity, and the sustainability of resources and production activities. In this paper, I describe why the notions of virtual water and water footprints are not appropriate for analysing issues pertaining to those topics. Both notions lack a supporting conceptual framework and they contain too little information to enhance understanding of important policy issues. Neither notion accounts for the opportunity cost or scarcity value of water in any setting, or the impacts of water availability and use on livelihoods. In addition, countries trade in goods and services – not in crop and livestock water requirements. Thus, the notions of virtual water and water footprints cannot provide helpful insight regarding the sustainability of water use, economic efficiency, or social equity. Gaining such insight requires the application of legitimate conceptual frameworks, representing a broad range of perspectives from the physical and social sciences, with due consideration of dynamics, uncertainty, and the impacts of policy choices on livelihoods and natural resources.

  13. Evaluating Value Chain Development Programs: Assessing Effectiveness, Efficiency, and Equity Effects of Contract Choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruben, R.

    2015-01-01

    Provides insights regarding the possible procedures for assessing welfare, efficiency, and equity effects of value chain development (VCD) programs, taking advantage of available analytical tools derived from impact analysis, transaction cost theory, and contract choice approaches and briefly

  14. [Social and population policy. Considerations on efficiency and equity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez De Leon Cruces, J

    1991-01-01

    It is generally accepted that modern governments have a series of obligations and responsibilities to their citizens, and that the modern state should institutionalize its responses to social demands of its citizens in its social policy. Social policy should assure the production of public goods, defined as goods available to all society and distributed equally to all members, whose consumption does not deprive any other individual of similar consumption. Private goods by contrast are those whose benefits are consumed by an individual without providing any benefit to others. Many goods fall between the 2 categories and share characteristics of each. The state should finance and subsidize goods that generate social benefits and should establish rules of operation for the private sector. 2 goals of government participation are that it be efficient and just. Efficiency means that it is clearly oriented to production of public goods, or to the public component of goods that are a mixture of public and private, and that it does not interfere with the "social efficiency" that results from the free development of private institutions. Justice implies equity and equality of opportunities for citizens to promote their personal goals. The specific cases of education and health care demonstrate that efficiency and redistribution may conflict. Although primary and secondary education are recognized as a social good that produces greater social benefits than university education, investment in higher education is frequently greater than that in primary and secondary education, with severe distributive biases. Following the focus of the classic theory of welfare, health expenditures should be concentrated on preventive interventions, increasing the availability of potable water and sanitary facilities, providing basic health services to the least favored groups, and similar actions. But institutionalized medicine in Mexico strongly favors curative services, typically devoting 2

  15. Differentiation, international equity and efficiency in the fight against the global climatic change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, O.; Criqui, P.; Viguier, L.; Trommetter, M.

    1998-05-01

    The first difficulty to get over in the international negotiation on the climatic change, has been and still remain the distribution of the efforts and the research of the equity in the objective determination. This paper analyzes the possible consequences of the negotiable emission licenses in terms of efficiency and equity. The first part is a review of the different charts of the objectives differentiation discussed or proposed in the international negotiation process on the greenhouse effect. It aims to find a bond between the the charts and the equity. The second part deals with the programs cost and their relative efficiency, taking into account the marginal cost curves. (A.L.B.)

  16. Spatial heterogeneity in utilities, equity and collective efficiency: the case of rural electrification and demand side management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadaud, F.

    2005-11-01

    This thesis has for object the evolution of the economic optimum in the electric industry under spatial equity constraint that present a strong spatial heterogeneity of its supply conditions. One analyses the evolution of the rural electrification regime in France both in terms of economic and social efficiency. We examine the rationality of extending the sectoral optimization under equity constraint to the rationalization of electricity end-uses in the heterogeneous space of rural electricity supply. To this question are given two responses. The firsts pertains to modify the incentives in the institutional regime of rural electrification so the MDE may be integrated in the strategies of rural electrification syndicates. One inspire from incentives mechanisms of the anglo-saxon DSM practice. The second is statistical zoning method of demand and distribution grid whose object is to localize action basins for large scale MDE projects. (author)

  17. Balancing equity and efficiency in the Dutch basic benefits package using the principle of proportional shortfall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Wetering, E J; Stolk, E A; van Exel, N J A; Brouwer, W B F

    2013-02-01

    Economic evaluations are increasingly used to inform decisions regarding the allocation of scarce health care resources. To systematically incorporate societal preferences into these evaluations, quality-adjusted life year gains could be weighted according to some equity principle, the most suitable of which is a matter of frequent debate. While many countries still struggle with equity concerns for priority setting in health care, the Netherlands has reached a broad consensus to use the concept of proportional shortfall. Our study evaluates the concept and its support in the Dutch health care context. We discuss arguments in the Netherlands for using proportional shortfall and difficulties in transitioning from principle to practice. In doing so, we address universal issues leading to a systematic consideration of equity concerns for priority setting in health care. The article thus has relevance to all countries struggling with the formalization of equity concerns for priority setting.

  18. The equity imperative in tertiary education: Promoting fairness and efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmi, Jamil; Bassett, Roberta Malee

    2014-06-01

    While the share of the tertiary education age cohort (19-25) which is being given the opportunity to study has increased worldwide over the past two decades, this does not in fact translate into reduced inequality. For many young people, especially in the developing world, major obstacles such as disparities in terms of gender, minority population membership or disabilities as well as academic and financial barriers are still standing in their way. The authors of this article propose a conceptual framework to analyse equity issues in tertiary education and document the scope, significance and consequences of disparities in tertiary education opportunities. They throw some light on the main determinants of these inequalities and offer suggestions about effective equity promotion policies directed towards widening participation and improving the chances of success of underprivileged youths in order to create societies which uphold humanistic values.

  19. Gender Equity Issues in CTE and STEM Education: Economic and Social Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toglia, Thomas V.

    2013-01-01

    Title IX of the Educational Amendments of 1972 has significant implications for gender equity in career and technical education (CTE) and science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) programs--and the relatively low number of women and girls pursuing nontraditional careers has significant economic and social implications. From an…

  20. Increased water charges improve efficiency and equity in an irrigation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Reid. Bell

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Conventional wisdom in many agricultural systems across the world is that farmers cannot, will not, or should not pay the full costs associated with surface water delivery. Across Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD countries, only a handful can claim complete recovery of operation, maintenance, and capital costs; across Central and South Asia, fees are lower still, with farmers in Nepal, India, and Kazakhstan paying fractions of a U.S. penny for a cubic meter of water. In Pakistan, fees amount to roughly USD 1-2 per acre per season. However, farmers in Pakistan spend orders of magnitude more for diesel fuel to pump groundwater each season, suggesting a latent willingness to spend for water that, under the right conditions, could potentially be directed toward water-use fees for surface water supply. Although overall performance could be expected to improve with greater cost recovery, asymmetric access to water in canal irrigation systems leaves the question open as to whether those benefits would be equitably shared among all farmers in the system. We develop an agent-based model (ABM of a small irrigation command to examine efficiency and equity outcomes across a range of different cost structures for the maintenance of the system, levels of market development, and assessed water charges. We find that, robust to a range of different cost and structural conditions, increased water charges lead to gains in both efficiency and concomitant improvements in equity as investments in canal infrastructure and system maintenance improve the conveyance of water resources further down watercourses. This suggests that, under conditions in which (1 farmers are currently spending money to pump groundwater to compensate for a failing surface water system, and (2 there is the possibility that through initial investment to provide perceptibly better water supply, genuine win-win solutions can be attained through higher water-use fees to

  1. Urban liveability versus economic efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farné Fratini, Chiara; Jensen, Jens Stissing

    2013-01-01

    development. Against this agenda a national strategy is currently being enforced which addresses water as a context-independent functional sector. This agenda operates with a narrow definition of economic efficiency in service provision through a benchmarking system focusing only on technical performances...... addresses the infrastructure as a discrete system - thus pushing for one-way influence of the infrastructure to the cityscape - the place based innovation agenda has traditionally been more inclusive towards the context specific priorities of urban planners. In this paper we apply the arena of development...

  2. Selected Banks Economic Efficiency Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Szafarczyk

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available There are a lot of economic efficiency indicators in theory. It is necessary to choice some of them for concrete purposes. ROA, ROE and C/I play important role due to last experience of polish banks.Cost to Income Ratio plays very important role affecting not only efficiency monitoring process in the banks but also becoming a very important target in strategy or finance plan. There are several methodological approaches to construct this index in detail. Results are differing due to implementing methodology. This article describes trends C/I concerning both polish and foreign banks. It is difficult to compare banks in emerging country and real giants in finance mature economies.

  3. Additional Indicators to Promote Social Sustainability within Government Programs: Equity and Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Acevedo Tirado

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Social programs are crucial to reduce poverty and inequity in developing countries. The operation of social programs, however, cannot be improved with traditional engineering tools since these tools are designed to maximize profits: in social programs maximizing profits is not the objective, social sustainability is. Field research was conducted and it was found that the operation of social programs is considered more socially sustainable if it meets two criteria: Efficiency and Equity; in other words, if the program can help more people who need it the most. This paper proposes a methodology centered in the development of mathematical formulas for the concepts of Efficiency and Equity, so that, by being able to measure them, government programs operation can be enhanced with engineering tools. The methodology is illustrated with a case study, a subsidized milk distribution program in Mexico, called Liconsa. Once the formulas were developed and used in a simulation model for Liconsa, different policies were tested and their results regarding Efficiency and Equity were compared. Results showed the best policies for Liconsa are the balanced ones: where help is increased for beneficiaries, while cost reduction commitments are obtained. In the discussion it is argued how the developed Equity and Efficiency indicators help to understand the tradeoffs between the objectives in opposition: instead of analyzing dozens of indicators, some of them improving and others worsening, the two formulas allow to capture all effects into two objectives and evaluate decisions based on their integral impact. Conclusions show that the mathematical definition of Equity and Efficiency supports better and more informed decision making towards improving the social sustainability of the programs operation. The mathematical definition of Equity and Efficiency and its use in engineering models helps balance the opposing objectives of social programs operation and promotes

  4. Advanced Placement Economics Improves Both Merit and Equity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meek, Sally; Morton, John

    2009-01-01

    In 1989, microeconomics and macroeconomics examinations debuted on the Advanced Placement (AP) scene. At that time, many professors of economics were skeptical that college freshmen had the skills and maturity to understand the concepts in principles of economics courses. They thought teaching these concepts to high school students was even more…

  5. Balancing efficiency, equity and feasibility of HIV treatment in South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baltussen, Rob; Mikkelsen, Evelinn; Tromp, Noor

    2013-01-01

    , and multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) to construct an evidence-base on the feasibility, efficiency, and equity of programme options including trade-offs. The approach provides programmatic guidance on the choice of treatment strategies at various decisions levels based on a sound conceptual framework......, it is now facing major concerns regarding (i) efficiency: alternative treatment policies may save more lives for the same budget; (ii) equity: there are large inequalities in who receives treatment; (iii) feasibility: still only 52% of the eligible population receives treatment.Hence, decisions...

  6. Economizing justice: Turning equity claims into lower energy tariffs in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvial-Palavicino, Carla; Ureta, Sebastián

    2017-01-01

    This paper considers the issue of how energy justice is economized; how political and ethical claims about particular energy (in)justices are turned into economic valuations. Drawing on science and technology studies, we present a conceptual framework that understands economization as emerging from three interrelated processes: problematization, framing and overflowing. Applying this framework to the drafting of new energy legislation in Chile, we trace how perceived shortcomings in equity and distributional justice were turned into “market failures,” able to be resolved by market-based mechanisms. This case highlights the dangers implicit in the uncritical economization of energy justice claims, in which ethical considerations regarding the distribution of risks and benefits of energy production and provision are reduced to a redistribution of payments among consumers – something that limits the possibilities for structural reform. - Highlights: • The implementation of an electricity equity tariff is discussed. • A process of economization transforms equity demands into market devices. • Energy justice, as mobilized in the policy process, includes multiple forms of justice. • Competition between these multiple forms fails to deliver a complete form of justice.

  7. Tax Efficiency vs. Tax Equity – Points of View regarding Tax Optimum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stela Aurelia Toader

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Starting from the idea that tax equity requirements, administration costs and the tendency towards tax evasion determine the design of tax systems, it is important to identify a satisfactory efficiency/equity deal in order to build a tax system as close to optimum requirements as possible. Prior Work Previous studies proved that an optimum tax system is that through which it will be collected a level of tax revenues which will satisfy budgetary demands, while losing only a minimum ‘amount’ of welfare. In what degree the Romanian tax system meets these requirements? Approach We envisage analyzing the possibilities of improving Romanian tax system as to come nearest to optimum requirements. Results We can conclude fiscal system can uphold important improvements in what assuring tax equity is concerned, resulting in raising the degree of free conformation in the field of tax payment and, implicitly, the degree of tax efficiency. Implications Knowing to what extent it can be acted upon in the direction of finding that satisfactory efficiency/equity deal may allow oneself to identify the blueprint of a tax system in which the loss of welfare is kept down to minimum. Value For the Romanian institutions empowered to impose taxes, the knowledge of the possibilities of making the tax system more efficient can be important while aiming at reducing the level of evasion phenomenon.

  8. Efficiency and Equity within European Education Systems and School Choice Policy: Bridging Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poder, Kaire; Kerem, Kaie; Lauri, Triin

    2013-01-01

    We seek out the good institutional features of the European choice policies that can enhance both equity and efficiency at the system level. For causality analysis we construct the typology of 28 European educational systems by using fuzzy-set analysis. We combine five independent variables to indicate institutional features of school choice…

  9. Social and Economic Policies Matter for Health Equity: Conclusions of the SOPHIE Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmusi, Davide; Muntaner, Carles; Borrell, Carme

    2018-01-01

    Since 2011, the SOPHIE project has accumulated evidence regarding the influence of social and economic policies on population health levels, as well as on health inequalities according to socioeconomic position, gender, and immigrant status. Through comparative analyses and evaluation case studies across Europe, SOPHIE has shown how these health inequalities vary according to contexts in macroeconomics, social protection, labor market, built environment, housing, gender equity, and immigrant integration and may be reduced by equity-oriented policies in these fields. These studies can help public health and social justice advocates to build a strong case for fairer social and economic policies that will lead to the reduction of health inequalities that most governments have included among their policy goals. In this article, we summarize the main findings and policy implications of the SOPHIE project and the lessons learned on civil society participation in research and results communication.

  10. Labour Market Programmes and the Equity-Efficiency Trade-off

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filges, Trine; Kennes, John; Larsen, Birthe

    This paper studies labour market policy in a society where differently gifted individuals can invest in training to further increase their labour market productivity and where the government seeks both effiency and equity. Frictions in the matching process create unemployment and differently...... skilled workers face different unemployment risks. We show that in such an environment, training programmes that are targeted to the unemployed complement passive transfers (UI benefits), unlike a general training subsidy. Combining passive subsidies with a training subsidy conditioned on the individual...... being unemployed (for a while) - the typical Active Labour Market Programme - implies a favorable trade-off between equity and efficiency which encourages high spending on training....

  11. Labour Market Programmes and the Equity-Efficiency Trade-off

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kennes, John; Larsen, Birthe; Tranæs, Torben

    2005-01-01

    This paper studies labour market policy in a society where differently gifted individuals can invest in training to further increase their labour market productivity and where the government seeks both effiency and equity. Frictions in the matching process create unemployment and differently...... skilled workers face different unemployment risks. We show that in such an environment, training programmes that are targeted to the unemployed complement passive transfers (UI benefits), unlike a general training subsidy. Combining passive subsidies with a training subsidy conditioned on the individual...... being unemployed (for a while) - the typical Active Labour Market Programme - implies a favorable trade-off between equity and efficiency which encourages high spending on training....

  12. Governance, technology, and equity: An integrated policy framework for energy efficient housing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golubchikov, Oleg; Deda, Paola

    2012-01-01

    Transforming the housing stock to a low energy performance is a key priority in the context of sustainable development and a post-carbon transition. However, in terms of its practical implementation it, firstly, faces a number of complex institutional barriers, while, secondly, involves a risk of being dominated by a narrow technocratic agenda for energy/carbon reduction that may overtake the socially progressive pursuits of housing policy. Energy efficiency strategies for the residential sector must, therefore, be multidimensional, fully synergised with housing policy, and incorporating the principles of equity, access and a balanced geographical development. This paper discusses a strategic policy framework, which was designed by the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) to address those important needs in international policy. The document – Action Plan for Energy-efficient Housing in the UNECE Region – outlines a number of goals, targets and actions structured at three dimensions: (i) governance and finance, (ii) technological advancement, and (iii) access and affordability. The Action Plan provides a comprehensive and integrated framework, based on which governments can shape their own pathways towards a sustainable low-energy residential sector. - Highlights: ► Residential sector has a large potential for energy and carbon reduction. ► Energy efficiency for housing must be reconciled with socially oriented housing policy. ► Action Plan for Energy-efficient Housing in the UNECE region is presented. ► The Plan offers an integrated framework for sustainable transition to low-energy housing. ► Governance, technology, and equitable access are three key elements of the framework.

  13. Precautionary principle, economic and energy systems and social equity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Joaquim Francisco de; Mercedes, Sonia Seger P.; Sauer, Ildo L.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper the precautionary principle is reviewed alongside the process of international implementation. Adoption of the precautionary principle is advocated to deal with energy choices as a mechanism to account for potential climate change impacts, notwithstanding the debate on scientific uncertainty on the links between solar activity, greenhouse gas concentration and climate. However, it is also recognized that the widespread application of the precautionary principle to energy choices does not seem to be taking place in the real world. Relevant concrete barriers are identified stemming from the intrinsic logic governing the hegemonic economic system, driving the energy choices by economic surplus and rent generation potential, the existence of social asymmetries inside and among societies as well as by the absence of democratic global governance mechanisms, capable of dealing with climate change issues. Such perception seems to have been reinforced by the outcome of the United Nations Climate Change Conference, held in Copenhagen in December 2009.

  14. The impact of federalism on the healthcare system in terms of efficiency, equity, and cost containment: the case of Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crivelli, Luca; Salari, Paola

    2014-01-01

    According to the economic theory of federalism (Oates 1999), a decentralized decision to collectively fund and supply the quantity and quality of public services will increase economic welfare as long as three conditions are fulfilled: preferences and production costs of the different local constituencies are heterogeneous; local governments are better informed than the central agency because of their proximity to the citizens; and the competition between local governments exerts a significant impact on the performance of the local administration and on the ability of public agencies to implement policy innovation. Federalism also presents some negative aspects, including the opportunity costs of decentralization, which materialize in terms of unexploited economies of scale; the emergence of spillover effects among jurisdictions; and the risk of cost-shifting exercises from one layer of the government to the other. Finally, competition between fiscal regimes can affect the level of equity. The literature considers fiscal federalism as a mechanism for controlling the size of the public sector and for constraining the development of redistributive measures. The present paper reviews the impact that federalism has on the efficiency, equity, and cost containment of the healthcare system in Switzerland, a country with a strongly decentralized political system that is based on federalism and the institutions of direct democracy, a liberal economic culture, and a well-developed tradition of mutualism and social security (generous social expenditure and welfare system). By analyzing the empirical evidence available for Switzerland, we expect to draw some general policy lessons that might also be useful for other countries.

  15. Equity during an economic crisis: financing of the Argentine health system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavagnero, Eleonora; Bilger, Marcel

    2010-07-01

    This article analyses the redistributive effect caused by health financing and the distribution of healthcare utilization in Argentina before and during the severe 2001/2002 economic crisis. Both dramatically changed during this period: the redistributive effect became much more positive and utilization shifted from pro-poor to pro-rich. This clearly demonstrates that when utilization is contingent on financing, changes can occur rapidly; and that an integrated approach is required when monitoring equity. From a policy perspective, the Argentine health system appears vulnerable to economic downturns mainly due to high reliance on out-of-pocket payments and the strong link between health insurance and employment.

  16. Accessibility, equity and efficiency. Challenges for Transport and Public Services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurs, Karst Teunis; Patuelli, Roberto; Dentinho, T.

    2016-01-01

    In this book, leading researchers from around the world show the importance of accessibility in contemporary issues such as rural depopulation, investments in public services and public transport, and transport infrastructure investments in Europe. The trade-offs between accessibility, economic

  17. Lifelong Learning in Europe: Equity and Efficiency in the Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddell, Sheila, Ed.; Markowitsch, Jorg, Ed.; Weedon, Elisabet, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    The ongoing economic crisis in Europe raises fundamental questions about the European Union's ability to harmonize educational policy across its member states. With evidence that European unity is clearly faltering, many educational goals, including lifelong learning, are in trouble. In this book, the contributors work toward a greater…

  18. Efficiency and cross-correlation in equity market during global financial crisis: Evidence from China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Pengcheng; Li, Daye; Li, Shuo

    2016-02-01

    Using one minute high-frequency data of the Shanghai Composite Index (SHCI) and the Shenzhen Composite Index (SZCI) (2007-2008), we employ the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) and the detrended cross correlation analysis (DCCA) with rolling window approach to observe the evolution of market efficiency and cross-correlation in pre-crisis and crisis period. Considering the fat-tail distribution of return time series, statistical test based on shuffling method is conducted to verify the null hypothesis of no long-term dependence. Our empirical research displays three main findings. First Shanghai equity market efficiency deteriorated while Shenzhen equity market efficiency improved with the advent of financial crisis. Second the highly positive dependence between SHCI and SZCI varies with time scale. Third financial crisis saw a significant increase of dependence between SHCI and SZCI at shorter time scales but a lack of significant change at longer time scales, providing evidence of contagion and absence of interdependence during crisis.

  19. Testing the Weak Form Efficiency in Pakistan’s Equity, Badla and Money Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Rashid, Abdul; Husain, Fazal

    2009-01-01

    The paper test the weak form market efficient hypothesis for Pakistan’s equity, badla and money markets with an aim to investigate which one of them is most efficient in the weak form sense. The analysis provides evidence, under the assumption of heteroscedasticity, that the KSE is weak-form efficient over the full-length sample period. Nevertheless, the analysis reports that over the same period the other two markets viz. badla and money are not weak form efficient. The badla market was effi...

  20. Sports sponsorship effectiveness : investigating awareness, sponsor equity and efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walraven, Merel

    2013-01-01

    Een sporter en een commerciële organisatie hebben diverse eigenschappen gemeen: dynamiek, resultaatgerichtheid en het doel om zo efficiënt en effectief mogelijk te presteren. Het komt dan ook steeds vaker voor dat een bedrijf investeert in de associatie met een bekend en geliefd sportobject, zoals

  1. A microeconomic perspective on the role of efficiency and equity criteria in designing natural resource policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoff Kaine

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Deliberating on policy design to manage natural resources with clarity and precision is a difficult task, even for professional and highly experienced policy practitioners. These difficulties are exacerbated by confounding the crafting of policy instruments to change resource use (a behavioral matter related to resource management with the consequential issue of who bears the cost of changing resource use (an equity matter. The confounding of behavioral and equity issues is not surprising because equity is commonly suggested as a criterion in the literature on policy instrument choice, and inequity in access to resources may also be one of the initial drivers of policy intervention. Here, we restate the microeconomic analysis of "open access" resources and highlight the fundamental difference between efficiency (including allocative inefficiency and equity that emerges from that analysis. We then discuss the implications of this difference for the choice of policy instruments to resolve problems in natural resource management, at least for instruments that entail changing the behavior of primary producers. This discussion is centered on three key decisions for formulating policy: (1 choosing the preferred portfolio of uses for a natural resource, (2 choosing a policy instrument to change that portfolio, and (3 choosing a mechanism to distribute the costs of change fairly. To illustrate how these decisions may play out in a real-world example, we apply the decisions to a freshwater policy process in New Zealand. By articulating the distinction, microeconomics draws distinctions between efficiency and equity as policy objectives. Linking that distinction with the Tinbergen's principle regarding the matching of instruments to objectives, we aim to reduce the conflation of the decision-making criteria employed in policy formulation decisions. In doing so, we hope to assist policy makers to avoid policy failure by reducing the potential for the

  2. Economic policy uncertainty, equity premium and dependence between their quantiles: Evidence from quantile-on-quantile approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raza, Syed Ali; Zaighum, Isma; Shah, Nida

    2018-02-01

    This paper examines the relationship between economic policy uncertainty and equity premium in G7 countries over a period of the monthly data from January 1989 to December 2015 using a novel technique namely QQ regression proposed by Sim and Zhou (2015). Based on QQ approach, we estimate how the quantiles of the economic policy uncertainty affect the quantiles of the equity premium. Thus, it provides a comprehensive insight into the overall dependence structure between the equity premium and economic policy uncertainty as compared to traditional techniques like OLS or quantile regression. Overall, our empirical evidence suggests the existence of a negative association between equity premium and EPU predominately in all G7 countries, especially in the extreme low and extreme high tails. However, differences exist among countries and across different quantiles of EPU and the equity premium within each country. The existence of this heterogeneity among countries is due to the differences in terms of dependency on economic policy, other stock markets, and the linkages with other country's equity market.

  3. Labour Market Programmes and the Equity-Efficiency Trade-Off

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filges, Trine; Kennes, John; Larsen, Birthe

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies optimal labour market policy in a society where differently gifted individuals can invest in training to further increase their labour market productivity and where the government seeks both efficiency and equity. Frictions in the matching process create unemployment...... and differently skilled workers face different levels of risk of unemployment. We show that in such an environment, training programmes that are targeted at the disadvantaged workers complement passive transfers (UI benefits), unlike general training subsidies. Combining passive subsidies with a training subsidy...... conditioned on the individual being unemployed (for a period) – the typical Active Labour Market Programme – creates a favourable trade-off between equity and efficiency and this encourages high spending on training...

  4. Effects of Iranian Economic Reforms on Equity in Social and Healthcare Financing: A Segmented Regression Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayati, Mohsen

    2018-01-01

    Objectives One of the main objectives of the Targeted Subsidies Law (TSL) in Iran was to improve equity in healthcare financing. This study aimed at measuring the effects of the TSL, which was implemented in Iran in 2010, on equity in healthcare financing. Methods Segmented regression analysis was applied to assess the effects of TSL implementation on the Gini and Kakwani indices of outcome variables in Iranian households. Data for the years 1977-2014 were retrieved from formal databases. Changes in the levels and trends of the outcome variables before and after TSL implementation were assessed using Stata version 13. Results In the 33 years before the implementation of the TSL, the Gini index decreased from 0.401 to 0.381. The Gini index and its intercept significantly decreased to 0.362 (p<0.001) 5 years after the implementation of the TSL. There was no statistically significant change in the gross domestic product or inflation rate after TSL implementation. The Kakwani index significantly increased from -0.020 to 0.007 (p<0.001) before the implementation of the TSL, while we observed no statistically significant change (p=0.81) in the Kakwani index after TSL implementation. Conclusions The TSL reform, which was introduced as part of an economic development plan in Iran in 2010, led to a significant reduction in households’ income inequality. However, the TSL did not significantly affect equity in healthcare financing. Hence, while measuring the long-term impact of TSL is paramount, healthcare decision-makers need to consider the efficacy of the TSL in order to develop plans for achieving the desired equity in healthcare financing. PMID:29631352

  5. Organizing Equity Exchanges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaper, Torsten

    In the last years equity exchanges have diversified their operations into business areas such as derivatives trading, post-trading services, and software sales. Securities trading and post-trading are subject to economies of scale and scope. The integration of these functions into one institution ensures efficiency by economizing on transactions costs.

  6. Gender equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiva, M

    1999-01-01

    This paper focuses on gender equity. Gender equity is difficult to achieve when there is no economic, social, or political equity. The Gender Development Index evidenced this. There were a lot of instances where women are psychologically traumatized, whether it is through domestic rape, purchased sexual services in the red light area, and seduction or violation of neighbors, relatives, daughter or child. The economic changes linked with globalization and media's influence have worsened women's position. The policy for empowerment of women is an attempt toward ensuring equity. Furthermore, many women and women's organizations are trying to address these inequities; wherein they fight for strong acceptance of women's rights, social, economic, and political rights, as well as equities between gender and within gender.

  7. Frontiers in the economics of energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miguel, Carlos de; Labandeira, Xavier; Löschel, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Energy efficiency has become an essential instrument to obtain effective greenhouse gas mitigation and reduced energy dependence. This introductory article contextualizes the contributions of the supplemental issue by showing the new setting for energy efficiency economics and policy; discussing the role of price instruments to promote energy savings; presenting new approaches for energy efficiency policies; and placing energy efficiency within a wider energy and environmental framework.

  8. Quantum entanglement helps in improving economic efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Jiangfeng; Ju Chenyong; Li Hui

    2005-01-01

    We propose an economic regulation approach based on quantum game theory for the government to reduce the abuses of oligopolistic competition. Theoretical analysis shows that this approach can help government improve the economic efficiency of the oligopolistic market, and help prevent monopoly due to incorrect information. These advantages are completely attributed to the quantum entanglement, a unique quantum mechanical character

  9. Quantum entanglement helps in improving economic efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jiangfeng; Ju, Chenyong; Li, Hui

    2005-02-01

    We propose an economic regulation approach based on quantum game theory for the government to reduce the abuses of oligopolistic competition. Theoretical analysis shows that this approach can help government improve the economic efficiency of the oligopolistic market, and help prevent monopoly due to incorrect information. These advantages are completely attributed to the quantum entanglement, a unique quantum mechanical character.

  10. Measuring effectiveness, efficiency and equity in an experimental Payments for Ecosystem Services trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Adrian; Gross-Camp, Nicole; Kebede, Bereket; McGuire, Shawn

    2014-09-01

    There is currently a considerable effort to evaluate the performance of Payments for Ecosystem Services as an environmental management tool. The research presented here contributes to this work by using an experimental design to evaluate Payments for Ecosystem Services as a tool for supporting biodiversity conservation in the context of an African protected area. The trial employed a 'before and after' and 'with and without' design. We present the results of social and ecological surveys to investigate the impacts of the trial in terms of its effectiveness, efficiency and equity. We find the scheme to be effective at bringing about additional conservation outcomes. However, we also found that increased monitoring is similarly effective in the short term, at lower cost. The major difference - and arguably the significant contribution of the Payments for Ecosystem Services - was that it changed the motives for protecting the park and improved local perceptions both of the park and its authority. We discuss the implications of these results for conservation efficiency, arguing that efficiency should not be defined in terms of short-term cost-effectiveness, but also in terms of the sustainability of behavioral motives in the long term. This insight helps us to resolve the apparent trade-off between goals of equity and efficiency in Payments for Ecosystem Services.

  11. Is a larger equity market more information efficient? Evidence from intervalling effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KiHoon Hong

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the impact of equity return autocorrelation on financial market efficiency via intervalling effect. A simple model is proposed to show that the degree of intervalling effect is related to the security return autocorrelation. A more general version of Levy and Levhari hypothesis is proposed to find that the degree of the autocorrelations of the security and the market returns determines the existence and the direction of the intervalling effect and the size of the intervalling effect are dependent on the degree of the security autocorrelations. Empirical evidence of the latter is presented

  12. Study on Equity and Efficiency of Health Resources and Services Based on Key Indicators in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyu Zhang

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the dialectical relationship between equity and efficiency of health resource allocation and health service utilization in China.We analyzed the inequity of health resource allocation and health service utilization based on concentration index (CI and Gini coefficient. Data envelopment analysis (DEA was used to evaluate the inefficiency of resource allocation and service utilization. Factor Analysis (FA was used to determine input/output indicators.The CI of Health Institutions, Beds in Health Institutions, Health Professionals and Outpatient Visits were -0.116, -0.012, 0.038, and 0.111, respectively. Gini coefficient for the 31 provinces varied between 0.05 and 0.43; out of these 23 (742% were observed to be technically efficient constituting the "best practice frontier". The other 8 (25.8% provinces were technically inefficient.Health professionals and outpatient services are focused on higher income levels, while the Health Institutions and Beds in Health Institutions were concentrated on lower income levels. In China, a few provinces attained a basic balance in both equity and efficiency in terms of current health resource and service utilization, thus serving as a reference standard for other provinces.

  13. SUSTAINABLE ECONOMIC GROWTH AND ECO-EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana\tLUPAN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The current economic and social contexts have brought forth the issues regarding growth and sustainability. The concept of growth has always been linked to an increase in consumption levels, and this inevitably led to pressures on the environment and on the resources that support human activity. Given these circumstances, the question whether we can avoid an environmental disaster while maintaining economic growth, has become more stringent. We chose to approach this aspect by examining the concept of eco-efficiency, a concept that embodies aspects of both economic efficiency and environmental efficiency. Eco-efficiency can be regarded as the effectiveness with which resources are used in order to create products and services that satisfy human needs. Based on this idea, the last decade has produced an increasing number of studies on eco-efficiency and how it can be measured and implemented in the production of goods and services, but also in the field regarding demand patterns. An analysis regarding the aspects of eco-efficiency at the macro level of the Romanian economy is in line with the current environmental concerns, thus I have chosen to cover these questions, as well as the evolution of the locale economy towards a more sustainable development. The outcome of the examined aspects shows that, in spite of an increase in eco-efficiency levels, energy and material consumption and emissions have increased. This raises the question if measuring economic and environmental efficiency by reporting to the GDP value is becoming obsolete and if there is a need to revaluate eco-efficiency indicators in order to measure the transition to a greener and more sustainable development from different points of view.

  14. ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY - DETERMINED ELEMENT IN INVESTMENT DECISION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia MUNGIU-PUPAZAN

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Economic activity of a country are conducted by industry, under branches and production sectors, each with special characteristics and conditions of work, which, of course, put their imprint on the organization manner of the production process By an analysis of the concept of economic efficiency of investment is found that this is an amount of qualitative factors, which gives the latter a complex character, aimed to improving activity in the area where are taking place to the putting into service of such investment, which can be modernization, bringing new equipments, reconstruction and development. Study the economic efficiency of investment involves, as a base, an analysis of causal factors that determine the decision in the afferent medium of risk. Corresponding to peculiarities of the production process, it requires a proper methodology of assessment the economic efficiency of investment, with specification to maintain the general principles for calculating the economic efficiency indicators and specific indicators come only to complete the picture of indicators of general, basic and supplementary already calculated in order to provide additional clues, afferent to branch, under-branch or sector of activity.

  15. ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL EFFICIENCY OF PROPERTY INVESTMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florina Oana Virlanuta

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Investments play a key part within the goods and services industry, consumerism and community as well. The effects generated by any investment project substantiate this statement, regardless the sector of activity in which they are implemented. In the current market economy, economic efficiency indicators are playing an important role in assessing and analyzing an investment project since due to these indicators, the investor can become aware of the most important aspects they need to respond promptly. In this respect, we conducted a market analysis of real estate investments in Romania, highlighting economic and social efficiency of property investments.

  16. A Mixed Methods Approach to Equity and Justice Research: Insights from Research on Children's Reasoning About Economic Inequality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistry, Rashmita S; White, Elizabeth S; Chow, Kirby A; Griffin, Katherine M; Nenadal, Lindsey

    2016-01-01

    Mixed methods research approaches are gaining traction across various social science disciplines, including among developmental scientists. In this chapter, we discuss the utility of a mixed methods research approach in examining issues related to equity and justice. We incorporate a brief overview of quantitative and qualitative monomethod research approaches in our larger discussion of the advantages, procedures, and considerations of employing a mixed methods design to advance developmental science from an equity and justice perspective. To better illustrate the theoretical and practical significance of a mixed methods research approach, we include examples of research conducted on children and adolescents' conceptions of economic inequality as one example of developmental science research with an equity and justice frame. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. An Economics-Based Second Law Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John H. Lienhard

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Second Law efficiency is a useful parameter for characterizing the energy requirements of a system in relation to the limits of performance prescribed by the Laws of Thermodynamics. However, since energy costs typically represent less than 50% of the overall cost of product for many large-scale plants (and, in particular, for desalination plants, it is useful to have a parameter that can characterize both energetic and economic effects. In this paper, an economics-based Second Law efficiency is defined by analogy to the exergetic Second Law efficiency and is applied to several desalination systems. It is defined as the ratio of the minimum cost of producing a product divided by the actual cost of production. The minimum cost of producing the product is equal to the cost of the primary source of energy times the minimum amount of energy required, as governed by the Second Law. The analogy is used to show that thermodynamic irreversibilities can be assigned costs and compared directly to non-energetic costs, such as capital expenses, labor and other operating costs. The economics-based Second Law efficiency identifies costly sources of irreversibility and places these irreversibilities in context with the overall system costs. These principles are illustrated through three case studies. First, a simple analysis of multistage flash and multiple effect distillation systems is performed using available data. Second, a complete energetic and economic model of a reverse osmosis plant is developed to show how economic costs are influenced by energetics. Third, a complete energetic and economic model of a solar powered direct contact membrane distillation system is developed to illustrate the true costs associated with so-called free energy sources.

  18. Equity and efficiency in policies to reduce carbon emissions in the domestic sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barker, T.; Johnstone, N.

    1993-01-01

    It is frequently asserted that the distribution effects of a carbon/energy tax - such as that proposed by the Commission of the European Communities - will be largely regressive: that the burden of the tax will fall disproportionately on lower income households. Such an assertion, although valid within the confines of the respective analyses, is based upon an unduly limited treatment of the fiscal implications of such a tax as well as a simplification of the demand for energy services in the domestic sector. It will be argued that such analyses, by implicitly assuming that efficiency objectives (reducing carbon emissions at lowest cost) and equity objectives (ensuring that lower-income households do not suffer welfare losses) are to be separately achieved, overstate the cost of reducing emissions in terms of both objectives. (Author)

  19. Public preferences over efficiency, equity and autonomy in vaccination policy: an empirical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyten, Jeroen; Dorgali, Veronica; Hens, Niel; Beutels, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Vaccination programs increasingly have to comply with standards of evidence-based decision making. However, such a framework tends to ignore social and ethical sensitivities, risking policy choices that lack crucial public support. Research is needed under which circumstances and to which extent equity and autonomy should prevail over effectiveness and cost-effectiveness in matters of infectious disease prevention. We report on a study investigating public preferences over various vaccination policy options, based on a population survey held in Flanders, Belgium (N = 1049) between March and July 2011. We found (1) that public support varied considerably between policies that were equally efficient in preventing disease but differed according to target group or incentives to improve uptake and (2) that preferences over the use of legal compulsion, financial accountability or the offering of rewards appear to be driven by individuals' social orientation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Costs, equity, efficiency and feasibility of identifying the poor in Ghana's National Health Insurance Scheme: empirical analysis of various strategies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aryeetey, G.C.N.O.; Jehu-Appiah, C.; Spaan, E.; Agyepong, I.; Baltussen, R.M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To analyse the costs and evaluate the equity, efficiency and feasibility of four strategies to identify poor households for premium exemptions in Ghana's National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS): means testing (MT), proxy means testing (PMT), participatory wealth ranking (PWR) and

  1. Economic efficiency of application of solar window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapoval, Stepan

    2017-12-01

    Priority and qualitatively new direction in the fuel and energy sector is renewable energy. This paper describes a feasibility study of using solar window in the system of solar heat supply. The article presents literature data about the effectiveness of the use of solar systems in other countries. The results confirm a sufficient efficiency of solar heat supply with using solar Windows. Insights based on practical experience and mathematical calculations, which are aimed at a detailed explanation of economic efficiency of the proposed construction.

  2. ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL OPERATIONAL EFFICIENCY OF MARKET DISTRIBUTION OF INCOME: APPROACHES TO EVALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Halushka

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a comparison between scientific approaches to understanding the economic and social efficiency of market income distribution. Based on multidisciplinary approaches the essence of the concepts of fairness and efficiency in the distribution; explored approaches to combining efficiency and equity used in policy income distribution at different levels of management; the possible social and economic consequences of ineffective regulation of income in today’s economy. The analysis is based on comparing the four concepts of justice that are considered socially efficient. Considered: utilitarian, formulated by J. Bentham; egalitarian, which provides for equal distribution; market (liberal approach – to polar egalitarian and roulzianskyy that treats justice as fairness, approaches. Based on the generalization of existing approaches analyzed method of estimating social justice in the distribution and the possibility of its application. The structure of the article includes the following sections: 1.Views on terms of efficiency and equity in the distribution of resources and income; 2. Classical and modern approaches to combining efficiency and equity in the distribution; 3. Conflicts combination of the principles of fairness and efficiency in the distribution of incomes policy. The authors also noted that the uneven distribution of income acts as an objective reality, and the question is to prevent dangerous indicators of this unevenness. Market income distribution does not guarantee every person an acceptable level of income. The causes of irregularity are: differences in abilities, mental as well as physical; differences in possession of the property, in the educational level and group reasons associated with luck, chance, surprise win more. This is a definite social injustice market. State, taking a significant share of responsibility for maintaining a basic human right to a dignified life, organizes redistribution.

  3. Interacting Psycho-economic Expectations Ratios with Equity/debt Realities Suggests a Crisis Warning Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry Thornton

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The recent April 2011 meeting of the G20 countries considered possible development of a global early warning system to avoid any future financial crisis. Psycho-economic factors are strong drivers of greed, fear and non-rational behavior and experience shows that they should not be excluded from such a project. Rational, logical behavior for attitude and actions has been an assumption in most financial models prior to the advent of the 2008 crisis. In recent years there has been an increasing interest in relating financial activity to phenomena in physics, turbulence, neurology and recent fMRI experiments show that cortical interactions for decisions are affected by previous experience. We use an extension of two Lotka-Volterra (LV interactive equations used in a model for the 2008 crisis but now with fluctuation theory from chemical physics to interact the two previously used heterogenous interacting agents, the psycho-economic ratio CE of investor expectations (favourable/unfavourable and the reality ratio of equity/debt. The model provides a variable, M, for uncertainties in CE arising from the ability of the economy to affect the financial sector. A condition obtained for keeping rates of change in M small to avoid divergence of spontaneous fluctuations, provides a quantifiable time dependent entity which can act as a warning of impending crisis. The conditional expression appears to be related to an extension of Ohm's law as in a recently discovered "chip" and memory; the memristor. The possible role of subthreshold legacies in CE from the previous crisis appears to be possible and related to recent neurological findings.

  4. The economic impacts of energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jean, R.

    1990-01-01

    Energy efficiency programs add to the costs incurred by electricity users in the short term and generate significant economic benefits in the medium and long term. Using the example of programs in development at Hydro-Quebec, it is shown that the net economic benefits surpass, in present value terms, the sums invested by the electric utility and the customer, corresponding to yields of over 100%. This benefit is the principal impact of energy conservation programs which also provide employment, for every dollar invested, of the same order as that provided by hydroelectric production (i.e. costs associated with construction of generating plants, transmission lines, and distribution facilities). This evaluation takes account of the structure of purchases of goods and services brought about by energy efficiency programs and their large import component. This result may be surprising since the hydroelectric industry is strongly integrated into the Quebec economy, but it is understandable when one takes into account the importance of distribution costs to small-scale users, which causes significant local activity even when imported products are involved, and the very intensive labor requirement for certain energy efficiency measures. In addition, the employment generated by energy efficiency investments is very diversified in terms of the range of skills used and its geographic dispersion. 2 figs., 4 tabs

  5. The economic impacts of energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jean, R.

    1990-01-01

    Hydro Quebec's energy efficiency initiatives are reviewed and the economic benefits it expects to garner from such programs are described. Energy efficiency programs affect the cost of supplying electricity, and rates usually rise during the early years and are subsequently offset by the benefits the program generates. Energy efficiency programs should allow Hydro Quebec to avoid $6 billion in expenditures for electricity supply, while entailing contributions of $1.4 billion for the efficiency measures. Evaluation of the potential for efficiency has allowed Hydro Quebec to set a target of 12.9 TWh/y in 1999 on a potential estimated at 18% of regular sales in Quebec in 1989, namely 23.3 TWh. Customers, who contribute $1.4 billion of their own funds to efficiency programs will realize savings of $3.2 billion. Hydro Quebec programs insist strongly on replacement of appliances and motors of all sorts, and in the residential sector, purchases of slightly less than $0.5 billion will consist of electric lamps (3%), water heaters (2.4%), insulation products (32%), hardware (2.5%), and various electric appliances (33%). In the commercial sector, expenditures will be higher, reaching ca $650 million. These are allocated to purchases of electric lamps (18%), heating equipment (12%), insulation products (24%), street lighting (4%), and various electric devices such as controls (39%). 2 figs., 4 tabs

  6. Energy efficiency, sustainability and economic growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayres, Robert U.; Turton, Hal; Casten, Tom

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores two linked theses related to the role energy in economic development, and potential sources of increased energy efficiency for continued growth with reduced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The first thesis is that, while reduced GHG emissions are essential for long-term global sustainability, the usual policy recommendation of increasing energy costs by introducing a carbon tax may be relatively ineffective under current market structures and have an unnecessarily adverse impact on economic growth. Our second thesis is that there exists a practical near-term strategy for reducing GHG emissions while simultaneously encouraging continued technology-driven economic growth. Moreover, this strategy does not require radical new technologies, but rather improved regulation or-more precisely-better deregulation of the electric power sector. In respect to the first of our two theses, this paper addresses a deficiency in neoclassical economic growth theory, in which growth is assumed to be automatic, inevitable and cost-free. We challenge both the assumption that growth will continue in the future at essentially the same rate ('the trend') as it has in the past, and the corollary that our children's children will inevitably be richer and better able to afford the cost of repairing the environmental damages caused by current generations [Simon et al., The state of humanity. Cambridge MA: Blackwell Publishers Ltd.; 1995

  7. Efficiency and economics of hydrogen delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Y.; Bharadwaj, R.; Balan, C.; Garces, L.; Smith, D.

    2003-01-01

    The viability and penetration of fuel cell based electricity production will be mainly determined by the efficient, cost effective production and delivery of hydrogen. This study focuses on the transportation efficiency and cost of hydrogen delivery for both centrally produced hydrogen as well as electricity scenarios. The efficiency and economics of energy delivery depend on the quantity of energy to be transported and transportation distance. Energy delivery models were developed for Hydrogen delivery as compressed gas or cryogenic liquid using truck or pipeline. For comparison, models were also developed for high voltage AC electricity transmission. Major parameters that influence the performance of the energy transmission systems under normal operating conditions were modeled. The models use energy transported and delivery distance as independent variables. The results were validated against similar reports, government surveys and other publications. Energy delivery efficiency and costs were used to compare and evaluate the different delivery options. Effect of uncertainty and sensitivity of parameters on modeling results were also studied. The systems were compared on an equivalent basis. The analysis also identifies the trade-offs for electricity transmission and electrolysis application at the point of use for Hydrogen delivery. These results provide a consistent framework for evaluation of delivery options on energy efficiency basis. (author)

  8. The Economic Efficiency of Financial Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yougui

    In this paper, we investigate the economic efficiency of markets and specify its applicability to financial markets. The statistical expressions of supply and demand of a market are formulated in terms of willingness prices. By introducing probability of realized exchange, we also formulate the realized market surplus. It can be proved that only when the market is in equilibrium the realized surplus can reach its maximum value. The market efficiency can be measured by the ratio of realized surplus to its maximum value. For a financial market, the market participants are composed of two groups: producers and speculators. The former brings the surplus into the market and the latter provides liquidity to make them realized.

  9. How to Design a Targeted Agricultural Subsidy System: Efficiency or Equity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cong, Ronggang; Brady, Mark

    2012-01-01

    for environmental protection, social cohesion, etc. Based on a simplified economic model, we prove that there is “reverse redistribution” in the current tax-subsidy system, which cannot be avoided. To find a possible way to distribute subsidies more efficiently and equitably, several alternative subsidy systems...... (the pure loan, the harvest tax and the income contingent loan) are presented and examined....

  10. ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY IN TOMATOES PRODUCTION IN GREENHOUSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A POPESCU

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to appreciate the evolution of economic efficiency in tomatoes production in greenhouses within a private firm situated next to the capital. The firm owns 4 ha greenhouses and the weight of tomatoes crop in the cultivated area is just 38.75 %. In fact, during the last three years, the tomatoes cultivated surface has been diminished in favour of flowers production which, like tomatoes production is an important income source for any producer. The reduction of the tomatoes cultivated area was compensated by the increase of intensification grade using new high performance hybrids and modern technologies. Thus, the scientific production management has been looking for maintaining the total production at the same level from a year to another by an increased average tomatoes yield by 53.33 % . The continuous increase of farm input price has doubled the cost per surface unit and increased the cost per tomatoes kilogram by 33 %. The increase of tomatoes demand and of market price by 31 % have had a positive influence on the farm incomes which has doubled during the last three years. In the year 2000, the company has obtained USD 41,818 income/ha of which subtracting the related production cost we can easily get USD 4,815 profit/ha. The average profit rate recorded by the firm is 13 % in the period 2000-2002, when the study was made. As a conclusion, tomatoes production in greenhouses is a good deal. To keep a high economic efficiency, under the diminishing of the cultivated area, the producers have to increase average tomatoes production by using high performance technology based on high economic value hybrids.

  11. Health professional mobility in the European Union: Exploring the equity and efficiency of free movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glinos, Irene A

    2015-12-01

    The WHO Global Code of Practice on the International Recruitment of Health Personnel is a landmark in the health workforce migration debate. Yet its principles apply only partly within the European Union (EU) where freedom of movement prevails. The purpose of this article is to explore whether free mobility of health professionals contributes to "equitably strengthen health systems" in the EU. The article proposes an analytical tool (matrix), which looks at the effects of health professional mobility in terms of efficiency and equity implications at three levels: for the EU, for destination countries and for source countries. The findings show that destinations as well as sources experience positive and negative effects, and that the effects of mobility are complex because they change, overlap and are hard to pin down. The analysis suggests that there is a risk that free health workforce mobility disproportionally benefits wealthier Member States at the expense of less advantaged EU Member States, and that mobility may feed disparities as flows redistribute resources from poorer to wealthier EU countries. The article argues that the principles put forward by the WHO Code appear to be as relevant within the EU as they are globally. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  12. Economic Analysis of Factors Affecting Technical Efficiency of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Economic Analysis of Factors Affecting Technical Efficiency of Smallholders ... socio-economic characteristics which influence technical efficiency in maize production. ... Ministry of Agriculture and livestock, records, books, reports and internet.

  13. Nuclear liability, nuclear safety, and economic efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, W.C.

    1980-01-01

    This dissertation applies the methods of economic analysis to nuclear liability and Price-Anderson. First the legislative history is reviewed; in that history the economic role of liability in affecting safety and allocating risk was virtually ignored. Succeeding chapters reformulate issues from the policy debate and subject them to economic analysis. A persistent issue is whether nuclear utilities respond to their limited liability by allowing a higher probability of serious accident. Comparative-static analysis shows that limited liability does lead to a higher chance of accidents, though the effect may be small. The analysis also shows that safety is achieved in a more capital-intensive manner than is cost-minimizing and that limited liability causes reactor owners to favor more heavily populated sites for plants. Therefore, the siting decision makes potential loss greater even if there is no change in the probability of an accident. Citizens' preferences on nuclear liability are examined next, starting with the nature of coverage that would be just in the sense of contraction theories such as John Rawls' Theory of Justice. Citizens behind Rawls' veil of ignorance, forced to be fair because of their ignorance of whether they will be harmed, unanimously choose a high level of coverage. The just level of coverage is greater than the existing $560 million. Second, the nature of economically efficient liability coverage is determined and contrasted with coverage that would emerge from a democratic system of public choice. Population and expected damage profiles indicate that majorities could easily be formed among groups of citizens expecting to suffer little of the damage of a nuclear accident. Thus, majority voting on liability arrangements is likely to produce an inefficiently low level of coverage

  14. ANALYSIS OF ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY IN BROILERS FATTENING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. SABAU

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper aimed to analyze economic efficiency in broilers fattening . In this purpose , the study was carried out at Breading Prod Commercial Company, Giarmata, Timis County . The economic and financial results of two series of broilers fattening have been comparatively analyzed based on the following specific indicators variable costs ( one day chicken supply , medicines, disinfectants , veterinary services , straw bed, feeding, fuels, electricity , watering , labor force , fixed costs ( rent, interest, fixed assets depreciation , communication and other taxes , total production costs , cost per marketed broiler, cost per square meter , cost per kg live weight , gross margin , incomes ( incomes coming from marketed broilers and subsidies , profit, profit rate , profit per marketed broiler, profit per square meter, profit per kg live weight , costs to 1,000 incomes and incomes to 1,000 costs. This comparison proved that the higher the chickens series size , the higher costs and incomes . The both fatenning series have profitable but the series S2 registered lower financial performances .

  15. Institutional investor activism : Hedge funds and private equity, economics and regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mc Cahery, Joseph; Bratton, W.

    2015-01-01

    The increase in institutional ownership of recent decades has been accompanied by an enhanced role played by institutions in monitoring companies’ corporate governance behaviour. Activist hedge funds and private equity firms have achieved a degree of success in actively shaping the business plans of

  16. Is Municipal Solid Waste Recycling Economically Efficient?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavee, Doron

    2007-12-01

    It has traditionally been argued that recycling municipal solid waste (MSW) is usually not economically viable and that only when externalities, long-term dynamic considerations, and/or the entire product life cycle are taken into account, recycling becomes worthwhile from a social point of view. This article explores the results of a wide study conducted in Israel in the years 2000 2004. Our results reveal that recycling is optimal more often than usually claimed, even when externality considerations are ignored. The study is unique in the tools it uses to explore the efficiency of recycling: a computer-based simulation applied to an extensive database. We developed a simulation for assessing the costs of handling and treating MSW under different waste-management systems and used this simulation to explore possible cost reductions obtained by designating some of the waste (otherwise sent to landfill) to recycling. We ran the simulation on data from 79 municipalities in Israel that produce over 60% of MSW in Israel. For each municipality, we were able to arrive at an optimal method of waste management and compare the costs associated with 100% landfilling to the costs born by the municipality when some of the waste is recycled. Our results indicate that for 51% of the municipalities, it would be efficient to adopt recycling, even without accounting for externality costs. We found that by adopting recycling, municipalities would be able to reduce direct costs by an average of 11%. Through interviews conducted with representatives of municipalities, we were also able to identify obstacles to the utilization of recycling, answering in part the question of why actual recycling levels in Israel are lower than our model predicts they should be.

  17. Economic efficiency, independent power producers and wheeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fytche, E.L.

    1991-01-01

    Traditionally, electric utilities have sought to decrease the cost of production by such means as merit order running of machines, by improving equipment efficiency, by fuel mix, by interconnection and exchange of cheap energy, and by unit participation and firm purchase and sale contracts for long term savings. In the ''new look'', it was suggested that financial and technical competition is not enough, and that economic gains could be achieved through fostering independent power producers, i.e., non-utility generators (NUG's), greater exchanges of economy energy, unrestricted access to the transmission network for moving cheap energy through facilities of third parties, and by bidding to supply energy to non-generators, etc. Naturally, the proposals to change the comfortable and time-hallowed practices by which utility business had been carried out in the past has created an ongoing debate both pro and con, much of it acrimonious, and, unfortunately, some of it ill-informed. The turmoil in the political context impacts on a utility's technical and financial planners, and on their managements, all of whom contribute to justifying and maintaining the flow of capital to the industry and energy to the customer. They must now seek new ways to implement both short- and long-term planning of power supply. Some of the factors that were neglected in the past will demand more attention in the future. This paper discusses some of the costs that, under the anticipated modus operandi, must be integrated into the planning process while meeting the new challenges. The costs are those relating to third-parties, costs of transmission constraints, and costs of wheeling. The opinion is ventured that much of the efficiency improvement anticipated during the debate has already been achieved by conscientious utility managements. (author)

  18. Effects of Iranian Economic Reforms on Equity in Social and Healthcare Financing: A Segmented Regression Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandian, Hamed; Takian, Amirhossein; Rashidian, Arash; Bayati, Mohsen; Zahirian Moghadam, Telma; Rezaei, Satar; Olyaeemanesh, Alireza

    2018-03-01

    One of the main objectives of the Targeted Subsidies Law (TSL) in Iran was to improve equity in healthcare financing. This study aimed at measuring the effects of the TSL, which was implemented in Iran in 2010, on equity in healthcare financing. Segmented regression analysis was applied to assess the effects of TSL implementation on the Gini and Kakwani indices of outcome variables in Iranian households. Data for the years 1977-2014 were retrieved from formal databases. Changes in the levels and trends of the outcome variables before and after TSL implementation were assessed using Stata version 13. In the 33 years before the implementation of the TSL, the Gini index decreased from 0.401 to 0.381. The Gini index and its intercept significantly decreased to 0.362 (pfinancing. Hence, while measuring the long-term impact of TSL is paramount, healthcare decision-makers need to consider the efficacy of the TSL in order to develop plans for achieving the desired equity in healthcare financing.

  19. How to design a targeted agricultural subsidy system: efficiency or equity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Rong-Gang; Brady, Mark

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we appraise current agricultural subsidy policy in the EU. Several sources of its inefficiency are identified: it is inefficient for supporting farmers' incomes or guaranteeing food security, and irrational transfer payments decoupled from actual performance that may be negative for environmental protection, social cohesion, etc. Based on a simplified economic model, we prove that there is "reverse redistribution" in the current tax-subsidy system, which cannot be avoided. To find a possible way to distribute subsidies more efficiently and equitably, several alternative subsidy systems (the pure loan, the harvest tax and the income contingent loan) are presented and examined.

  20. How to design a targeted agricultural subsidy system: efficiency or equity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong-Gang Cong

    Full Text Available In this paper we appraise current agricultural subsidy policy in the EU. Several sources of its inefficiency are identified: it is inefficient for supporting farmers' incomes or guaranteeing food security, and irrational transfer payments decoupled from actual performance that may be negative for environmental protection, social cohesion, etc. Based on a simplified economic model, we prove that there is "reverse redistribution" in the current tax-subsidy system, which cannot be avoided. To find a possible way to distribute subsidies more efficiently and equitably, several alternative subsidy systems (the pure loan, the harvest tax and the income contingent loan are presented and examined.

  1. Life cycle and economic efficiency analysis: durable pavement markings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    This project examined the life cycle and economic efficiency of two pavement marking : materials inlaid tape and thermoplastic to find the most economical product for specific : traffic and weather conditions. Six locations in the state of Ma...

  2. The Measurement and Determinants of Economic Efficiency of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Measurement and Determinants of Economic Efficiency of Microfinance Institutions ... players in socio-economic development especially in developing countries. ... savings products to improve on portfolio quality and ensure sustainability; ...

  3. ECONOMIC THEORY OF LOBBYING: EVALUATION OF ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Павел Александрович Толстых

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article the author continues to analyze lobbying with regards to economic paradigm. [The author has started discussing lobbying in terms of economic theory in the article Politico-economic theory of lobbying / / Historical, philosophical, political and legal sciences, culture and art. Theory and practice. Tambov: Gramota, 2013. No 1. Part 2. p. 177-189.] Researcher evaluates the cost effectiveness of the lobbying function. Lobbying is understood as activity of specifically authorized employees of corporations and lobbying firms representing their interests, trade associations. This activity is aimed at improving the profitability of integrated and sustainable business development by representing  long-term, comfortable, predictable system of relationships with the relevant field-specific political stakeholders of the federal and regional levels. The article presents an in-depth analysis of economic concepts of lobbying function.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-1-3

  4. ECONOMIC THEORY OF LOBBYING: EVALUATION OF ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolstyh Pavel Aleksandrovich

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the author continues to analyze lobbying with regards to economic paradigm. [The author has started discussing lobbying in terms of economic theory in the article Politico-economic theory of lobbying / / Historical, philosophical, political and legal sciences, culture and art. Theory and practice. Tambov: Gramota, 2013. No 1. Part 2. p. 177-189.] Researcher evaluates the cost effectiveness of the lobbying function. Lobbying is understood as activity of specifically authorized employees of corporations and lobbying firms representing their interests, trade associations. This activity is aimed at improving the profitability of integrated and sustainable business development by representing long-term, comfortable, predictable system of relationships with the relevant field-specific political stakeholders of the federal and regional levels. The article presents an in-depth analysis of economic concepts of lobbying function.

  5. After Kyoto: equity stakes and efficiency in the negotiation on the climatic change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, O.; Criqui, P.; Viguier, L.; Trommetter, M.

    2000-01-01

    The first difficulty to get over in the international negotiation on the climatic change, has been and still remain the distribution of the efforts and the research of the equity in the objective determination. This paper aims to show that facing the different interests of each countries, a single rule of differentiation is not possible. The first part is a review of the different charts of the objectives differentiation discussed or proposed in the international negotiation process on the greenhouse effect. It aims to find a bond between the the charts and the equity. The second part proposes the quantification of a scenario of the emission licenses attribution for 2030 for all the world countries. (A.L.B.)

  6. Economic efficiency analysis of electron accelerator for irradiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Huidong; Chen Ronghui

    2003-01-01

    The fixed assets, running cost and economic efficiency were discussed in this paper. For building electron accelerator of 10 MeV and 3 kW, the running cost is one time higher than building cobalt source at 2.22 x 10 15 Bq, but economic efficiency of building a electron accelerator is much higher than building a cobalt source

  7. Equity and Efficiency of Minnesota Educational Expenditures with a Focus on English Learners, 2003-2011: A Retrospective Look in a Time of Accountability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Nicola A.; Jang, Sung Tae

    2017-01-01

    Policymakers and practitioners often must balance distributing resources equitably and efficiently while being accountable for high student achievement. This paper focuses on these concepts as they relate to English learners and examines equity and efficiency in Minnesota's educational funding from 2003 through 2011, the years spanning…

  8. Measuring the distribution of equity in terms of energy, environmental, and economic costs in the fuel cycles of alternative fuel vehicles with hydrogen pathway scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Patrick E.

    Numerous analyses exist which examine the energy, environmental, and economic tradeoffs between conventional gasoline vehicles and hydrogen fuel cell vehicles powered by hydrogen produced from a variety of sources. These analyses are commonly referred to as "E3" analyses because of their inclusion of Energy, Environmental, and Economic indicators. Recent research as sought a means to incorporate social Equity into E3 analyses, thus producing an "E4" analysis. However, E4 analyses in the realm of energy policy are uncommon, and in the realm of alternative transportation fuels, E4 analyses are extremely rare. This dissertation discusses the creation of a novel E4 simulation tool usable to weigh energy, environmental, economic, and equity trade-offs between conventional gasoline vehicles and alternative fuel vehicles, with specific application to hydrogen fuel cell vehicles. The model, dubbed the F uel Life-cycle Analysis of Solar Hydrogen -- Energy, Environment, Economic & Equity model, or FLASH-E4, is a total fuel-cycle model that combines energy, environmental, and economic analysis methodologies with the addition of an equity analysis component. The model is capable of providing results regarding total fuel-cycle energy consumption, emissions production, energy and environmental cost, and level of social equity within a population in which low-income drivers use CGV technology and high-income drivers use a number of advanced hydrogen FCV technologies. Using theories of equity and social indicators conceptually embodied in the Lorenz Curve and Gini Index, the equity of the distribution of societal energy and environmental costs are measured for a population in which some drivers use CGVs and other drivers use FCVs. It is found, based on baseline input data representative of the United States (US), that the distribution of energy and environmental costs in a population in which some drivers use CGVs and other drivers use natural gas-based hydrogen FCVs can be

  9. Intergenerational equity and conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otoole, R. P.; Walton, A. L.

    1980-01-01

    The issue of integenerational equity in the use of natural resources is discussed in the context of coal mining conversion. An attempt to determine if there is a clear-cut benefit to future generations in setting minimum coal extraction efficiency standards in mining is made. It is demonstrated that preserving fossil fuels beyond the economically efficient level is not necessarily beneficial to future generations even in terms of their own preferences. Setting fossil fuel conservation targets for intermediate products (i.e. energy) may increase the quantities of fossil fuels available to future generations and hence lower the costs, but there may be serious disadvantages to future generations as well. The use of relatively inexpensive fossil fuels in this generation may result in more infrastructure development and more knowledge production available to future generations. The value of fossil fuels versus these other endowments in the future depends on many factors which cannot possibly be evaluated at present. Since there is no idea of whether future generations are being helped or harmed, it is recommended that integenerational equity not be used as a factor in setting coal mine extraction efficiency standards, or in establishing requirements.

  10. Energy efficiency and economic fallacies: a reply; and reply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brookes, L.G.; Grubb, M.

    1992-01-01

    The claim that a programme of energy efficiency improvements has nothing to offer to the solution of any problem of global warming is discussed. Some very important points not previously conceded by supporters of energy efficiency solutions to economic and environmental problems are considered, namely: first that when energy supply/price is the constraint on the level of economic activity, using energy more efficiently does not help to reduce total energy demand; and, second, that it has in practice been true that when energy supply/price is not the macroeconomic constraint, once again demand for energy is not reduced by more efficient use. (author)

  11. The economic efficiency of allowing longer combination vehicles in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    This paper shows the economic efficiency of allowing longer combination vehicles in Texas. First, an : overview of the truck size and weight policies is explained, with an emphasis on those that affect : Texas. Next, LCV operations in other countries...

  12. Economic efficiency of brownfield regeneration: study of South Moravian projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Korytárová

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of brownfield regeneration is to increase the attractiveness and value of individual sites to a level where they can compete directly with the construction of a greenfi eld project. The aim of this paper is to examine the economic efficiency of brownfield regeneration. By using CBA outputs, the contribution of socio-economic efficiency to the total efficiency of individual projects based on EBCR was investigated on the basis of a sample of 14 projects located in the South Moravian Region. Furthermore, the expected value of EBCR was simulated by using the Monte Carlo method. The results reveal that socio-economic efficiency contributes significantly to the overall efficiency of these projects and therefore cannot be neglected during their evaluation. At the end of the paper, future research directions in this area are outlined.

  13. Air conditioning with methane: Efficiency and economics optimization parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mastrullo, R.; Sasso, M.; Sibilio, S.; Vanoli, R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents an efficiency and economics evaluation method for methane fired cooling systems. Focus is on direct flame two staged absorption systems and alternative engine driven compressor sets. Comparisons are made with conventional vapour compression plants powered by electricity supplied by the national grid. A first and second law based thermodynamics analysis is made in which fuel use coefficients and exergy yields are determined. The economics analysis establishes annual energy savings, unit cooling energy production costs, payback periods and economics/efficiency optimization curves useful for preliminary feasibility studies

  14. School Finance: Achieving High Standards with Equity and Efficiency. Third Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Richard A.; Swanson, Austin D.; Sweetland, Scott R.

    This third edition of this book explores traditional economic and political models and contemporary issues that affect the social, political, and economic state of schools. Like the previous two editions, this edition takes a balanced approach to understanding school finance issues by using paradigms of both the economist and the political…

  15. The relationship between economic factors and equity markets in Central Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hanousek, Jan; Filer, R.

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 3 (2000), s. 623-638 ISSN 0967-0750 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK3028601 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM 116200001 Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.418, year: 2000 http://search. ebscohost .com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=4336202&site=ehost-live

  16. The Role of Water Policy in Mexico : Sustainability, Equity, and Economic Growth Considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Musa Asad; Ariel Dinar

    2006-01-01

    With water in Mexico becoming very scarce spatially and over time, it is now a factor that limits economic activity and social well-being in several regions. The identification of priorities and trade-offs in relation to water allocation requires careful and timely attention to address an ever-growing range of complications arising from the impact of various interlinked considerations, suc...

  17. Economic efficiency among small scale poultry farmers in Imo State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... household size and extension, were found to be the significant factors that account for the observed variation in efficiency among the small scale poultry farmers. Keywords: economic efficiency, small scale poultry farmers, stochastic frontier production model. International Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development Vol.

  18. The Essence and Efficiency Criteria of the Contemporary Economic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demydiuk Olga O

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The article generalizes and systematizes the basic scientific approaches to the definition of the category of «economic system». The author’s own definition of the contemporary economic systems as highly complex dynamic structures, characterized by the organizational heterogeneous integrity, ability to selforganization and self-development, which occur under the influence of both external and internal factors, has been proposed. The basic efficiency criteria of functioning and development of the contemporary economic systems were generalized and systematized. Some practical recommendations for improving efficiency of the economic system of Ukraine have been elaborated. In particular, the emphasis was made on the need to pay special attention to countering corruption, the illegal economic manifestations of the shadow economy, overcoming resistance by the special interest groups, which are not interested in any radical market-oriented transformations, since they lose their quasi-rent received as a result of activities of the inefficient institutions.

  19. Economic Efficiency of Selected Financial System Institutions of Local Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urszula Rabiej

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Functioning of local government units, as for as the economic sphere is concerned, is based on the financial law regulations. Those regulations aim at solving economic and social problems. The analysis of economic efficiency concerning implemented regulations is of particular importance for changing the EU’s attitude towards the influence, which EU has on functioning of the local governments. Implementing the local budgets, based on regulations which economic efficiency hasn’t been evaluated on the stage of legislation, may have a negative impact on local community and the economic situation of the country. Frequent changes of financial law cause actions, which financial effects cannot be predicted. What is more, those unstable regulations make it impossible to plan essential parts of a budget in a right way. That has a great importance in terms of correctness of long-term financial perspectives of the local government units.

  20. Developing markets for forest environmental services: an opportunity for promoting equity while securing efficiency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landell-Mills, Natasha

    2002-08-15

    Market-based approaches to environmental management are all the rage. Claims that market mechanisms can encourage environmental protection and promote greater economic efficiency while saving taxpayers' money are tantalizing. In the forestry sector, policy makers are widely heeding this advice and shrinking command-and-control systems in favour of incentive mechanisms that seek to align private enthusiasm with the public good. In some cases, governments are even promoting the creation of markets where none existed before. In others, markets are evolving of their own accord. In such times of change, it is difficult to stand back and take stock. Yet, it is during such times that guidance is most needed. In the rush to introduce market-based solutions to environmental problems, a particular concern is how markets are impacting on the poor. In this paper an effort is made to draw on a recent review of markets for four forest environmental services (biodiversity conservation, carbon sequestration, watershed protection and landscape beauty) to draw out preliminary insights into how markets are performing with respect to their impacts on the poor. The evidence suggests a need for caution. While the potential benefits are significant, the poor face an uphill battle in realizing them. Key constraints facing the poor include a lack of property rights over forest resources and their environmental services; inadequate skills and education; poor market information; lack of market contacts; inadequate communication infrastructure; inappropriate contract design; and lack of access to financial resources. To tackle these, four potential ways forward are highlighted: (1) assign property rights to forest assets and their related environmental services in ways that respect customary arrangements and poor people's tenure; (2) strengthen capacity for market participation, e.g. through training and education; (3) invest in the provision of market information, advice and, essentially, a

  1. Vacuum boilers developed heating surfaces technic and economic efficiency evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slobodina, E. N.; Mikhailov, A. G.; Semenov, B. A.

    2018-01-01

    The vacuum boilers as manufacturing proto types application analysis was carried out, the possible directions for the heating surfaces development are identified with a view to improving the energy efficiency. Economic characteristics to evaluate the vacuum boilers application efficiency (Net Discounted Income (NDI), Internal Rate of Return (IRR), Profitability Index (PI) and Payback Period) are represented. The given type boilers application technic and economic efficiency criteria were established. NDI changing curves depending on the finning coefficient and operating pressure were obtained as a result of the conducted calculation studies.

  2. The equity of the initial allocation of the greenhouse gases releases permits to firms: an approach of the public choice by the moral philosophy and the economic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leseur, A.

    2004-10-01

    In order to fight against the climatic change, the European directive 87/2003 provides for 2005 the adoption of a European market of negotiable releases permits but entrusts each state with choosing the method of permits allocation to the concerned domestic firms. Underwriting the reaching of the aim of pollution abatement in minimizing the global costs developed, the permits market is an economical tool of environmental policy chose for this double efficiency. But on which criteria determine the initial allocation? One of the most pertinent referents is the equity. What are the requirements for this in this situation? Seizing on this question, the thesis considers the contribution that can bring the moral and political philosophy, in particular the theories of the distributive justice, taking into account of two important aspects of the problem: 1)the property to distribute has particular characteristics, particularly the negotiability; 2)the attributing agents are firms and not the physical persons. In the first part, the thesis reveals, via the economical analysis, the operation of a permit competitive market and identifies the stakes, both at the pollution decision level than of the firms production in various contexts of market, and at those of the input or output decisions. In the second part, this work deals with the justice theories. The approach consists at first to establish their relevance showing that a firm can be considered as a moral entity, and be subject of duties and rights. Then, the question is to adapt the theories argumentation to this entity. This work emphasizes particularly the idea of a right to the chances equality for the competitiveness. It is then in the tension between this right and the duty to comply with the environmental policy that is found the equitable allocation. (O.M.)

  3. [Grounding public health policies in ethics and economic efficiency. SESPAS report 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramiro Avilés, Miguel A; Lobo, Félix

    2010-12-01

    In recent times, various voices in Spain have questioned public health policies as an assault to personal freedom. The present article aims to respond to these voices with ethical and economic arguments. The scope and characteristics of this current of opinion are described. Then, starting with John Stuart Mill, the ethical principles of non-maleficence, beneficence, personal autonomy and justice, as well as related concepts taken from economic efficiency, such as externalities, monopoly, incomplete and asymmetric information, agency relationship, public goods and adverse selection, are discussed. A short mention is made of equity in economics, the welfare state and public health systems. The justification for paternalist actions by the state, as well as limits to these actions, are briefly discussed. Respect for individual freedom does not exclude the implementation of public health actions but rather demands the adoption of such policies. If these actions comply with certain conditions, they do not limit individual freedom but rather serve to protect it. Copyright © 2010 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. Energy technologies and energy efficiency in economic modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik

    1998-01-01

    This paper discusses different approaches to incorporating energy technologies and technological development in energy-economic models. Technological development is a very important issue in long-term energy demand projections and in environmental analyses. Different assumptions on technological ...... of renewable energy and especially wind power will increase the rate of efficiency improvement. A technologically based model in this case indirectly makes the energy efficiency endogenous in the aggregate energy-economy model....... technological development. This paper examines the effect on aggregate energy efficiency of using technological models to describe a number of specific technologies and of incorporating these models in an economic model. Different effects from the technology representation are illustrated. Vintage effects...... illustrates the dependence of average efficiencies and productivity on capacity utilisation rates. In the long run regulation induced by environmental policies are also very important for the improvement of aggregate energy efficiency in the energy supply sector. A Danish policy to increase the share...

  5. Economic and environmental efficiency using a social accounting matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morilla, Carmen Rodriguez; Diaz-Salazar, Gaspar Llanes; Cardenete, M. Alejandro

    2007-01-01

    This paper aims to show the utility of the so-called Social Accounting Matrix and Environmental Accounts (SAMEA) for economic and environmental efficiency analysis. The article uses the SAMEA for Spain in 2000, applied to water resources and greenhouse gas emissions. This matrix is used as a central core of a multisectorial model of economic and environmental performance, and it calculates the denominated 'domestics SAMEA multipliers' and their decomposition into characteristic, direct, indirect and induced effects. These multipliers show some evaluation of economic and environmental efficiency. Also, we present an application of these multipliers that demonstrates that there is no causal interrelation between those sectors with higher economic backward linkages and those with higher environmental deterioration backward linkages. (author)

  6. Measurement of energy efficiency based on economic foundations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippini, Massimo; Hunt, Lester C.

    2015-01-01

    Energy efficiency policy is seen as a very important activity by almost all policy makers. In practical energy policy analysis, the typical indicator used as a proxy for energy efficiency is energy intensity. However, this simple indicator is not necessarily an accurate measure given changes in energy intensity are a function of changes in several factors as well as ‘true’ energy efficiency; hence, it is difficult to make conclusions for energy policy based upon simple energy intensity measures. Related to this, some published academic papers over the last few years have attempted to use empirical methods to measure the efficient use of energy based on the economic theory of production. However, these studies do not generally provide a systematic discussion of the theoretical basis nor the possible parametric empirical approaches that are available for estimating the level of energy efficiency. The objective of this paper, therefore, is to sketch out and explain from an economic perspective the theoretical framework as well as the empirical methods for measuring the level of energy efficiency. Additionally, in the second part of the paper, some of the empirical studies that have attempted to measure energy efficiency using such an economics approach are summarized and discussed.

  7. DYNAMIC ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY IN THE SOUTH-WEST OLTENIA REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Mariana Cismaş

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The structure of an economy is not and has never been permanent, it does not have a static character, but only a moment of stability of a system whose internal organization is, is therefore a dynamic process. In this sense, the ultimate goal of the analysis of structural changes is to highlight the phenomenon of economic efficiency in the complex process of economic growth during the cross in our country since 1990.Lisbon agenda have targeted the European Union to become the most competitive region until 2010.Ulterior this target strategy was complemented by growth and job creation, becoming the main way of creating a European competitiveness . In this context, public policy challenges identified in the national economies have become energy market liberalization, efficiency and diversification, regulation of the economic environment, innovation and technology transfer policies that contribute to a strategy of market leadership.Besides gross value added, labor productivity is also the medium of efficient use of labor.Growth achieved both national and regional level, may be related, in terms of human resource, or increase the number of employees, or a better use of existing employees work. That aecest aspect of a better use of existing staff employee makes labor productivity is a key element in the expression efficiency of economic performance. Understanding the forces governing labor productivity, and especially the accumulation of fixed capital, improving the institutional infrastructure to generate new technologies, is objectively necessary for the formulation of policies for economic growth.

  8. Measuring energy efficiency in economics: Shadow value approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khademvatani, Asgar

    For decades, academic scholars and policy makers have commonly applied a simple average measure, energy intensity, for studying energy efficiency. In contrast, we introduce a distinctive marginal measure called energy shadow value (SV) for modeling energy efficiency drawn on economic theory. This thesis demonstrates energy SV advantages, conceptually and empirically, over the average measure recognizing marginal technical energy efficiency and unveiling allocative energy efficiency (energy SV to energy price). Using a dual profit function, the study illustrates how treating energy as quasi-fixed factor called quasi-fixed approach offers modeling advantages and is appropriate in developing an explicit model for energy efficiency. We address fallacies and misleading results using average measure and demonstrate energy SV advantage in inter- and intra-country energy efficiency comparison. Energy efficiency dynamics and determination of efficient allocation of energy use are shown through factors impacting energy SV: capital, technology, and environmental obligations. To validate the energy SV, we applied a dual restricted cost model using KLEM dataset for the 35 US sectors stretching from 1958 to 2000 and selected a sample of the four sectors. Following the empirical results, predicted wedges between energy price and the SV growth indicate a misallocation of energy use in stone, clay and glass (SCG) and communications (Com) sectors with more evidence in the SCG compared to the Com sector, showing overshoot in energy use relative to optimal paths and cost increases from sub-optimal energy use. The results show that energy productivity is a measure of technical efficiency and is void of information on the economic efficiency of energy use. Decomposing energy SV reveals that energy, capital and technology played key roles in energy SV increases helping to consider and analyze policy implications of energy efficiency improvement. Applying the marginal measure, we also

  9. Resource values in analyzing fire management programs for economic efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irene A. Althaus; Thomas J. Mills

    1982-01-01

    In analyzing fire management programs for their economic efficiency, it is necessary to assign monetary values to the changes in resource outputs caused by, fire. The derivation of resource values is complicated by imperfect or nonexistent commercial market structures. The valuation concept recommended for fire program analyses is willingness-to-pay because it permits...

  10. Analysis of economic efficiency in cocoa production in Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main purpose of this study was to analyze the economic efficiency of resource utilization in cocoa production of the cocoa farmers in Ghana to provide information for effective application and management of farm inputs on cocoa farms and policy recommendation. A random sample of 300 farmers in the Eastern, Ashanti ...

  11. Gender and Relative Economic Efficiency in Sweet Potato Farms of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study employed the stochastic frontier cost function to measure the level of economic efficiency and its determinants in small-scale sweet potato production in Imo State, Nigeria on gender basis. A multi-stage random sampling technique was used to select 120 sweet potato farmers (64 females and 56 males) in the ...

  12. Government expenditure, efficiency and economic growth: a panel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Finally Generalized Methods of Moments (GMM) is applied to answer the two research questions. The results demonstrate that increasing government expenditure accelerates economic growth of low income countries in Sub Saharan Africa. However, when government expenditure is interacted with government efficiency ...

  13. Economic Reforms and Cost Efficiency of Coffee Farmers in Central ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We, therefore, conclude that small-holder-based agricultural development policy is still relevant and an efficient mode of organising production in Kenya, even after the major institutional and economic changes brought about market liberalisation. The pursuit of small-holder-based agricultural development, however, calls ...

  14. Economic efficiency of cocoa production in Ghana | Aneani | Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main purpose of this study was to analyze the economic efficiency of resource utilization in cocoa production among cocoa farmers in Ghana to provide information for effective application and management of farm input on cocoa farms. A random sample of 300 farmers was selected in six cocoa growing districts in ...

  15. Assessment of systems for paying health care providers in Vietnam: implications for equity, efficiency and expanding effective health coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuong, Nguyen Khanh; Oanh, Tran Thi Mai; Phuong, Hoang Thi; Tien, Tran Van; Cashin, Cheryl

    2015-01-01

    Provider payment arrangements are currently a core concern for Vietnam's health sector and a key lever for expanding effective coverage and improving the efficiency and equity of the health system. This study describes how different provider payment systems are designed and implemented in practice across a sample of provinces and districts in Vietnam. Key informant interviews were conducted with over 100 health policy-makers, purchasers and providers using a structured interview guide. The results of the different payment methods were scored by respondents and assessed against a set of health system performance criteria. Overall, the public health insurance agency, Vietnam Social Security (VSS), is focused on managing expenditures through a complicated set of reimbursement policies and caps, but the incentives for providers are unclear and do not consistently support Vietnam's health system objectives. The results of this study are being used by the Ministry of Health and VSS to reform the provider payment systems to be more consistent with international definitions and good practices and to better support Vietnam's health system objectives.

  16. Inside the mediation room - efficiency, voice and equity in workplace mediation

    OpenAIRE

    Saundry, R; Bennett, T; Wibberley, G

    2016-01-01

    Existing research into workplace mediation in the UK has tended to focus on managerial perceptions. Consequently, there has been a unitarist emphasis on the business case for mediation, revolving around its alleged superior efficiency properties compared to conventional rights-based procedures. This paper develops the research agenda in two respects: first, it foregrounds the experiences of participants in mediation through 25 interviews with individuals drawn from a variety of contexts. Seco...

  17. Economic Efficiency and Investment Implementation in Energy Saving Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venelin Terziev

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Investment in building thermoinsulation is a subject to appraisal for efficiency from the position of discounted cash flows taken specifically by energy saving. The appraisal of investment as optimal is attended by achieving the shortest term for investment implementation, the lowest investment outlays, the maximum total net value of energy savings, the shortest investment payback period. The complex application of the dynamic methods for appraising economic efficiency of an investment – net present value, internal rate of return, profitability index and discounted payback period, involves drawing of particular values which comparison definitely will show if this kind of investment is practically “attractive”. However, the question for significance weight of each of these indicators above in decision making for implementation a particular real investment still remains unsolved. This requires working out a system of criteria, priorities that can determine which of the indicators for economic efficiency of specific investment project will have the highest significance.

  18. Economic-efficiency considerations in restructuring electric markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, L.J.

    1996-12-01

    In response to the Energy Policy Act of 1992 and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission`s subsequent rulemaking on transmission access, many states are exploring options to restructure their electric industries. In their deliberations on restructuring, policymakers should consider (1) the reliability of the electric system; (2) income-distribution effects on ratepayers and utilities; (3) social consequences such as effects on energy conservation, renewable energy, and the environment; and (4) economic efficiency. We address economic-efficiency considerations in this study. Economic efficiency is important because it is one of the primary reasons that policymakers should consider restructuring in the first place: improving the electric-industry`s efficiency lowers costs and, hence, electric prices. In this study, we look at the sources of (in)efficiency in existing and proposed electric markets with the objective of guiding policymakers to design efficient electric markets. The advantages of a competitive market are well known: it leads to lower costs for the utility, lower prices for consumers, more product choices, better customer service, and often the need for less regulation by federal and state agencies. In the short run, firms who cannot produce at the market-clearing price are forced to leave the industry, ensuring that customers have the lowest price possible. In the long run, competition promotes innovation and lower costs. The physical and institutional characteristics of the U.S. electric industry, however, could be impediments to attaining efficiently run, competitive markets. Because of these characteristics, there are multiple sources of efficiencies and inefficiencies in existing electric markets, and there will be multiple sources in restructured ones. The objective of policymakers should not be to trade one set of inefficiencies in existing electric markets for another set in restructured markets.

  19. Economic-efficiency considerations in restructuring electric markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, L.J.

    1996-12-01

    In response to the Energy Policy Act of 1992 and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's subsequent rulemaking on transmission access, many states are exploring options to restructure their electric industries. In their deliberations on restructuring, policymakers should consider (1) the reliability of the electric system; (2) income-distribution effects on ratepayers and utilities; (3) social consequences such as effects on energy conservation, renewable energy, and the environment; and (4) economic efficiency. We address economic-efficiency considerations in this study. Economic efficiency is important because it is one of the primary reasons that policymakers should consider restructuring in the first place: improving the electric-industry's efficiency lowers costs and, hence, electric prices. In this study, we look at the sources of (in)efficiency in existing and proposed electric markets with the objective of guiding policymakers to design efficient electric markets. The advantages of a competitive market are well known: it leads to lower costs for the utility, lower prices for consumers, more product choices, better customer service, and often the need for less regulation by federal and state agencies. In the short run, firms who cannot produce at the market-clearing price are forced to leave the industry, ensuring that customers have the lowest price possible. In the long run, competition promotes innovation and lower costs. The physical and institutional characteristics of the U.S. electric industry, however, could be impediments to attaining efficiently run, competitive markets. Because of these characteristics, there are multiple sources of efficiencies and inefficiencies in existing electric markets, and there will be multiple sources in restructured ones. The objective of policymakers should not be to trade one set of inefficiencies in existing electric markets for another set in restructured markets

  20. Influences of economic development in the Brazilian energy efficiency projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Cárcel Carrasco

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This work has as main goal to present some of the issues regarding the effects of the Brazilian economy in the effectiveness of national energy efficiency projects in order to provide some guidelines for optimizing the energy saving actions. The replacement of traditional electric motors with high efficiency motors has been considered, or that brings innovation and increases the need to search for new technologies for Brazilian industries. We must consider whether this new paradigm requires a strong federal government's investment in Brazil in order to allow the implementation of energy efficiency programs, mainly in small and medium industries. This document is divided into three main parts. The first part deals with some aspects of the economic crisis. The second presents the most important data of the National Electricity Conservation (PROCEL and Energy Efficiency Program of the ANEEL (National Electric Energy Agency. The third shows data on Small and Medium Industries and how their energy efficiency programs were affected.

  1. Efficiency, Equity and Effect: Virtual Water Consumption Characters and Sustainable Consumption on Diet

    OpenAIRE

    Shang Hai-Yang

    2015-01-01

    The scarcity of water is the key factor which restricted the growth of social-economy. The virtual water theory provides a new way to solve the problem of water scarcity. In this thesis, we have calculated the virtual water consumption of each household grouped by income in the cities of Gansu in 1992-2005 after introduced the virtual water theory and calculations briefly. Then we advanced the indicator of virtual water per unit of consumption expenditure to analyze the efficiency of virtual ...

  2. ON THE ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY OF ORGANIZATIONS: TOWARD A SOLUTION OF THE EFFICIENT GOVERNMENT ENTERPRISE PARADOX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert E. Wright

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The modern widely-held joint-stock corporation appears to epitomize the economically efficient large-scale organization. Some scholars observe, however, that other types of organizations, including government-owned enterprises, have also achieved high degrees of efficiency and that some joint stock corporations have been inefficient. It is here argued that the economic efficiency of organizations is largely a function of two major variables—markets tructure and incentives within the organization—and not organizational form or ownership structure per se. Case studies of two business firms: a mutual life insurer and a family-controlled publisher, and two industries: higher education and custom construction, demonstrate the importance of internal incentives and market structures to organizational economic efficiency.

  3. ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY OF DIFFERENT PROTECTION TREATMENTS IN APPLE PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Tomaš

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Apple is the most represented fruit species in Croatia. Codling moth, Cydia pomonella L, is one of the most important apple pests whose population is growing from year to year. The aim of this study was to determine the economic effectiveness of four treatments against codling moth (1 - based on baculovirus; 2 - based on the group of synthetic pyrethroid; 3 - based on kaolin, 4 - control treatment, on the three apple varieties. The experiment was performed at the Agricultural Institute Osijek, Croatia, during three years (2012-2014. In order to analyze the results of apple production it was necessary to calculate production efficiency, labor productivity, and profitability of production. The results of the research of economic efficiency according to market prices treatment 1 and treatment 2 had economic coefficient above 1 with tendency of significant growth, while treatment 3 and 4 were uneconomical. The treatment 1showed advantage over the treatment 2 because of its positive effects on human health and biodiversity, as well as satisfactory economic efficiency.

  4. Economic analysis of Brazilian policies for energy efficient electric motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Cássio Tersandro de Castro; Pontes, Ricardo Silva Thé

    2017-01-01

    Brazil is leading several energy efficiency initiatives and has ambitious goals for 2030, according to the Brazilian National Energy Plan 2030. One of the main initiatives is the minimum efficiency performance standards (MEPS) program for energy-driven equipment and the electric motors appear as the most significant one (49% share of the total electricity consumption). The MEPS levels set new grades for efficiency, and then manufacturers and consumers have to conform to the new products and costs. Policy makers have to economically assess the effects of these MEPS in order to maintain the market stability. Since the benefits of this program come from future energy savings, this cost-effective analysis has to consider the parameters uncertainty and the results should reinforce the market players’ confidence. Thus, the goal of this work is, first, to analyze the economic viability of the MEPS transitions in Brazil considering the uncertainty of the parameters involved and then, to estimate the effects of this program on the energy savings goals for 2030. At the end, we also verify whether this investment in energy efficiency is competitive with other forms of investments in energy. - Highlights: • A cost-effectiveness method with uncertainty for efficiency program is presented. • Savings from electric motors MEPS program makes the 2030 Brazilian goals possible. • Electric motors MEPS program cost-effectiveness in Brazil is confirmed. • Saved energy cost from efficiency improvement is a competitive energy investment.

  5. Equity, autonomy, and efficiency: what health care system should we have?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzel, Paul T

    1992-02-01

    The U.S. has a wide range of options in choosing a health care system. Rational choice of a system depends on analysis and prioritization of the basic moral goals of equitable access to all citizens, the just sharing of financial costs between well and ill, respect for the values and choices of subscribers and patients, and efficiency in the delivery of costworthy care. These moral goals themselves, however, tell us little about what health care system the United States should have. Equitable access does not demand a level and scope of care for the poor equal to that rationally chosen by the middle class, and there are ways within mixed systems, though not easy ways, to achieve a fair distribution of costs between well and ill. Despite pluralistic systems' apparent advantage in allowing subscribers to choose their own forms of rationing, problems in translating serious long-term subscriber choices into actual medical practice may be greater in pluralistic than in unitary systems. Final choice of a system hinges primarily on peculiar historical facts about U.S. political culture, not on moral principle.

  6. Energy efficiency: Key to solving economic, environmental problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flanigan, T.

    1991-01-01

    Energy efficiency can boost economic development and competitiveness, maximize capital productivity, improve environmental quality, and guarantee lasting energy security. Each of these benefits is reason enough, but collectively they form an imperative for action. The energy future must be based on cultural development, not the wanton growth that has served as an indicator of success in the past. Energy efficiency provides not only technical fixes, regulatory innovation, and a host of new financing methods, it also provides a template - a model - for a resource-efficiency ethic congruent with the notion of respecting the rights of future citizens. The good news is that the authors now know how to check environmental despoliation caused by an unquenchable thirst for energy resources. Existing energy-efficiency opportunities allow them to redefine the national energy strategy and take account of the environment and the future

  7. Economic efficiency of extensive livestock production in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nastić Lana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Various types of extensive livestock production are present worldwide, primarily in regions where natural resources such as pastures and meadows could be used. Extensive livestock production is common in the EU, as well. Therefore the goal of this research was to establish economic efficiency of extensive livestock production types and to compare their efficiency with some intensive livestock production types. In order to achieve that goal FADN (Farm Accountancy Data Network methodology was used. Source of information was FADN database as well as appropriate sector analysis and publications of European commission. It has been determined that sheep and goat production is competitive with intensive production types (dairy and granivores - pigs and poultry. Cattle production (other than dairy production proved to be economically inefficient due to low output level.

  8. Analysis of remote working practice AND CALCULATION OF ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Ermakov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to description of working from home practice at Allianz Insurance UK и Ernst & Young, UK & Ireland. It fulfilled the analysis of the best practices in the use of new forms of social and labor relations - remote work. The characteristics of using types of distance work, the policy of implementation and realization of such work in the company, the criteria for the transfer of employees to work remotely, the possibility of a flexible approach to workflow are given. The calculation of the economic efficiency of technology telecommuting at an aviation company of the Russian Federation is done. The method of calculating the cost-effectiveness based on several factors, such as costs for the organization and content of the workplace, change in labor productivity and others, was proposed by the authors. The calculation of economic efficiency by using the number of working hours, the impact on capital inputs and the impact on quit rates is considered.

  9. Efficiency or equity? Simulating the impact of high-risk and population intervention strategies for the prevention of disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan M. Platt

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Maximizing both efficiency and equity are core considerations for population health. These considerations can result in tension in population health science as we seek to improve overall population health while achieving equitable health distributions within populations. Limited work has explored empirically the consequences of different population health intervention strategies on the burden of disease and on within- and between-group differences in disease. To address this gap, we compared the impact of four simulated interventions using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. In particular, we focus on assessing how population and high-risk primary prevention and population and high-risk secondary interventions efforts to reduce smoking behavior influence systolic blood pressure (SBP and hypertension, and how such strategies influence inequalities in SBP by income. The greatest reductions in SBP mean and standard deviation resulted from the population secondary prevention. High-risk primary and secondary prevention and population secondary prevention programs all yielded substantial reductions in hypertension prevalence. The effect of population primary prevention did little to decrease population SBP mean and standard deviation, as well as hypertension prevalence. Both high-risk strategies had a larger impact in the low-income population, leading to the greatest narrowing the income-related gap in disease. The population prevention strategies had a larger impact in the high-income population. Population health approaches must consider the potential impact on both the whole population and also on those with different levels of risk for disease within a population, including those in under-represented or under-served groups.

  10. Spatial heterogeneity in utilities, equity and collective efficiency: the case of rural electrification and demand side management; Heterogeneite spatiale d'un service de reseau, equite et efficacite collective: la distribution rurale d'electricite et la maitrise de la demande

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadaud, F

    2005-11-15

    This thesis has for object the evolution of the economic optimum in the electric industry under spatial equity constraint that present a strong spatial heterogeneity of its supply conditions. One analyses the evolution of the rural electrification regime in France both in terms of economic and social efficiency. We examine the rationality of extending the sectoral optimization under equity constraint to the rationalization of electricity end-uses in the heterogeneous space of rural electricity supply. To this question are given two responses. The firsts pertains to modify the incentives in the institutional regime of rural electrification so the MDE may be integrated in the strategies of rural electrification syndicates. One inspire from incentives mechanisms of the anglo-saxon DSM practice. The second is statistical zoning method of demand and distribution grid whose object is to localize action basins for large scale MDE projects. (author)

  11. Global Equity and Resource Sustainability: the Central Roles of Conservation and Enhanced Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, W. G.

    2002-05-01

    The terrestrial biosphere arose at approximately 3.5 Ga, and since the early Archean, evolving life has maintained a dynamic equilibrium with solar energy and resources derived from the lithosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere. This well-integrated system persisted after the emergence of Homo sapiens while we remained in a hunter/gatherer mode. Beginning about 10,000 years ago, settled agriculture allowed for division of labor, and the rise of civilization. World population now exceeds six billion individuals, and is growing at about ninety million annually. By about 2050, demographic estimates put our numbers at 9-10 billion. Approximately 85 percent of humanity now reside in the Developing Nations. Most people desire the increased standard of living now confined to the Industrialized Nations (due largely to exploitation of the planet). The present distribution of wealth is grossly inequitable and politically destabilizing. But can all people be afforded reasonably comfortable lives without destroying planetary habitability? Of the Earth's net primary biological production, humans control about a third, and our share is increasing. The impact on the environment is largely adverse, resulting in heightened air and water pollution, accelerated loss of biodiversity, ecosystem services, topsoil, fisheries, tropical rain forests, and in global warming + sea-level rise. Implications for human welfare and for viability of the web of life are ominous. Modern societies are sustained by the extraction of energy, water, and other Earth materials far beyond renewal rates, limiting future global carrying capacity. Island communities (e. g., Easter Island, Haiti, Madagascar) provide sobering examples of the fate of cultures that overexploit their environments. The biological carrying capacity of the planet is unknown but finite, hence humanity eventually must reach a managed steady state involving efficient, universal resource recovery and world-wide conservation, while

  12. Economic efficiency of solar hot water policy in New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillingham, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    New Zealand has recently followed the path of several other countries in promoting solar hot water (SHW) systems in the effort to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, yet the economic efficiency of large-scale policies to encourage SHW remains a pressing question for policymakers. This paper develops an economic framework to examine policies to promote SHW in New Zealand, including the current information, training, and subsidy policy. The economic framework points to environmental, energy security, and average-cost electricity retail pricing market failures as motivation for SHW policy, with the global climate change externality the most important of these. The results indicate that domestic SHW systems are close to being financially attractive from a consumer perspective, but a more substantial subsidy policy would be necessary for SHW to appeal to a wider audience. Such a policy is far more likely to have positive net benefits than a policy of mandating SHW on all homes or all new homes in New Zealand, and could be justified on economic efficiency grounds under reasonable assumptions. However, this result reverses under an economy-wide carbon trading system that internalizes the environmental externality.

  13. On the economics of technology diffusion and energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulder, P.

    2003-01-01

    Energy is an essential factor that fuels economic growth and serves human well-being. World energy use has grown enormously since the middle of the 19th century. This increase in the scale of energy demand comes at a certain price, including environmental externalities, such as the enhanced greenhouse effect. Notwithstanding the need for renewable energy sources, these environmental problems also necessitate further improvements in energy efficiency. Technological change plays a crucial role in realizing energy efficiency improvements and, hence, in ameliorating the conflict between economic growth and environmental quality. At the same time, it is known that not only innovation, but also diffusion of new technologies is a costly and lengthy process, and that many firms do not invest in best-practice technologies. This study aims to contribute to a better understanding of the inter. play between economic growth, energy use and technological change, with much emphasis on the adoption and diffusion of energy-saving technologies. The thesis presents a mix of theoretical and empirical analyses inspired by recent developments in economic theorizing on technological change that stress the role of accumulation and distribution of knowledge (learning), uncertainty, path dependency and irreversibility. The theoretical part of the study examines how several characteristics of technological change as well as environmental policy affect the dynamics of technology choice. The empirical part of the study explores long-run trends in energy- and labour productivity performance across a range of OECD countries at a detailed sectoral level

  14. Interaction between Financial Intermediation Efficiency and Economic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milka Grbic

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Financial intermediaries have the key role in making a connection between savings and investments. Given the fact that an efficient transfer of savings into investments is made more difficult by transaction and information costs, financial intermediaries are specialized in minimizing the said costs per unit of invested capital. They are also trained to identify productive and innovative investment endeavors which contribute to the growth of real output. Real output growth is the basis for increasing the financial potential, which creates the basis for the development of financial intermediaries. In connection with that, apart from the analysis of the relevant factors making the process of the mobilization and transfer of savings more difficult, the theoretical models that put an emphasis on the relationship between the efficiency of financial intermediation and economic growth are discussed in the paper. The research results are indicative of the fact that the improvement in financial intermediaries’ business doing enables faster economic growth. Simultaneously, the growth of the economic activity increases the scope of the business operations conducted by financial intermediaries. Thanks to the effects of the economies of scale that contribute to a reduction in transaction and information costs, the efficiency of financial intermediations grows.

  15. Theoretical Grounds of Formation of the Efficient State Economic Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semyrak Oksana S.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article conducts historical and analytical analysis of views on the role of state administration in the sphere of economic relations by various economic directions in order to allocate traditional and newest essential reference points of the modern theory of state regulation of economy. It identifies specific features of modern models of economic policy that envisage setting goals by the state, selection of relevant efficient tools and mathematic function, which would describe dependencies between them. It considers the concept of the basic theory of economic policy of Jan Tinbergen, its advantages and shortcomings. It studies prerequisites and conducts analysis of the modern concept of the role of state in economy as a subject of the market. It considers the modern concept of economic socio-dynamics, pursuant to which the main task of the state is maximisation of social usefulness and permanent improvement of the Pareto-optimal. It considers the “socio-dynamic multiplicator” notion, which envisages availability of three main components: social effect from activity of the state, yearning of individuals for creation of something new and availability of formal and informal institutions that united first two elements.

  16. Equity yields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrugt, E.; van Binsbergen, J.H.; Koijen, R.S.J.; Hueskes, W.

    2013-01-01

    We study a new data set of dividend futures with maturities up to ten years across three world regions: the US, Europe, and Japan. We use these asset prices to construct equity yields, analogous to bond yields. We decompose the equity yields to obtain a term structure of expected dividend growth

  17. EFFICIENCY OF CREDIT PORTFOLIO MANAGEMENT IN CONDITIONS OF ECONOMIC INSTABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koshel H.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The active development of integration processes causes the necessity of applying high-level approaches to management of the banking system, which is an essential part of the financial sector. Due to the importance of credit operations in the portfolio of banking assets, development of efficient and flexible credit management system is the basis for financial and market stability of banks. Purpose. Analyze the condition of the credit portfolio of banking institutions under the influence of economic processes and make conclusions and recommendations about the effectiveness of managing the bank’s credit portfolio and generalize ways of improving the structure and quality of the bank’s credit portfolio. Results. Over the last six years, the quality of the credit portfolio has become worse because of the bad debts growing and, as a result, decreasing in revenues. The calculated coefficient of management efficiency of a credit portfolio shows the dependence of this indicator on the value of risk and yield. In order to confirm the dependence and determine the degree of influence of these indicators on the efficiency of management of a loan portfolio, an economic-mathematical model was constructed on the example of both individual banks and the banking system as a whole. Detected dependence of factors is quite logical, therefore, the model can be recommended for practical use. Conclusion. Using this method of determining the management efficiency of a credit portfolio will allow the management of the bank to make reasonable decisions. It will allow the possibility of forming a more justified credit portfolio, taking into account not only the profitability, but also the real level of risk of credit operations.

  18. Efficiency improvement for a sustainable agriculture : the integration of agronomic and farm economics approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koeijer, de T.J.

    2002-01-01

    Keywords: Sustainable farming systems, Agronomic efficiency, Economic efficiency, Environmental efficiency, Sustainability index, Interdisciplinary analysis.

    The objective of the research described in this thesis was to determine what role improved agronomic efficiency can play in

  19. ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY OF VARIOUS QUEEN BEES MAINTENANCE SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A POPESCU

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The modern queens maintenance systems are based on the use of artificial insemination, queens’ maintenance in the so called „queens bank” , in this way assuring an increased economic efficiency in beekeeping. This study aimed to compare the economic efficiency of the implementation of A.I. to various queen bees maintenance systems. Three alternatives have been taken into account: V1-a queen bee in a cage together with her bees, V2- a queen bank system and V3 – a queen bee in a nucleus. For each queen bee maintenance alternative have been evaluated the most important indicators such as: expenses, incomes, profit, number of marketable inseminated and selected queen bees, honey production, cost/queen, revenue/queen, profit/queen, profit rate. The most effective alternative was the queen bank system assuring 2,400 marketable queen bees and 20 kg honey delivered yearly, USD 12,442 incomes, USD 3,400 expenses, USD 9,042 profit, that is USD 3.77/queen bee and 265.72 % profit rate under the condition as A.I. costs are just USD 1,058, representing 31.1 % of total queen bees maintenance costs.

  20. Economic efficiency of environmental management system operation in industrial companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukmasova, N.; Ershova, I.; Plastinina, I.; Boyarinov, A.

    2017-06-01

    The article examines the issue of the efficiency of the environmental management system (EMS) implementation in the Russian machine-building companies. The analysis showed that Russia clearly lags behind other developed and developing countries in terms of the number of ISO 14001 certified companies. According to the authors, the main cause of weak system implementation activity is attributed to the lack of interest in ISO 14001 certification on the Russian market. Five-year primary (field) research aimed at the analysis of the environmental priorities of the civilians suggests that the image component of the economic benefits ensures the increase in economic and financial performance of the company due to the increase in customers’ loyalty to the products of the EMS adopter. To quantify economic benefits obtained from EMS implementation, a methodological approach with regard to the image component and the decrease in semi-fixed costs due to the increase in the production scale has been developed. This approach has been tested in a machine-building electrical equipment manufacturer in Ekaterinburg. This approach applied to data processing yields the conclusion that EMS gives a good additional competitive advantage to its adopters.

  1. Thorny roses: The motivations and economic consequences of holding equity stakes in financial institutions for China’s listed nonfinancial firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping Xu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The reforms of China’s financial system have significantly changed the country’s financial sector. One noteworthy phenomenon is that many nonfinancial firms have obtained equity stakes in financial institutions. This study investigates the motivations behind and economic consequences of this recent proliferation of investments in financial institutions by nonfinancial listed firms. We find that the motivations for holding equity stakes in financial institutions include alleviating the pressure of industry competition, reducing transaction costs, and diversification to reduce risk. These investments, however, have double-edged effects on the performance of the investing firms. While their investment income increases, their operating income and overall return on assets decrease, as the investment income cannot compensate for the decrease in other operating income. The investing firms’ cost of debt also increases, their cash-holding decreases, and stock price performance does not improve after investing in financial institutions. These effects contrast with the enthusiasm nonfinancial listed firms have for investing in financial institutions. The empirical findings in this study can inform financial industry regulators and decision-makers in listed firms. We advise nonfinancial firms to be cautious when considering investing in financial institutions.

  2. Discounting human lives: Uranium and global equity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, B.A.

    1993-01-01

    Long-term, global environmental health risks complicate efforts to evaluate the efficiency and equity of economic activities from a public welfare perspective. This study sets out a practical framework based on the theory of neoclassical welfare economics for evaluating whether an economic activity yields such inefficient or inequitable net effects to justify government intervention from a variety of decision-making perspectives. It applies this empirical approach to the case of public policies that encouraged uranium production (the mining, milling, and refining of uranium ore) near Elliot Lake and Blind River in Northern Ontario. The analysis tests the two-fold hypothesis that if future negative externalities of production are considered along with past net effects, the these policies result in (1) an inefficient allocation of economic resources according to the potential Pareto criterion, and (2) an inequitable distribution of impacts according to Rawls' maximin criterion. The analytical framework to test these hypotheses has three parts: Risk-cost-benefit analysis, distributions analysis, and efficiency and equity analysis. Quantitative impacts are derived from empirical estimates of cost and benefit streams during 1956 to 1990, and modelled future cancer death costs. Net effects are aggregated to nine observations across three dimensions: Geographic, intergenerational, and social. Qualitative observations are provided about the boom-and-bust uranium economy, environmental burdens, and other unquantifiable impacts. The results illustrate how underlying normative assumptions overwhelm other aspects of efficiency and equity analyses of long-term, global environmental changes. These assumptions appear in discounting equations that ultimately derive from a priori allocations of rights to natural assets and corollary duties to protect such rights. More than two-thirds of the discounting scenarios yield inefficient outcomes and over ninety percent are inequitable

  3. Evaluation of efficiency, effectiveness and social equity of the property tax in the municipality of Sogamoso, based on the last cadastral update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Sebastián Izaquita-Orduz

    2013-12-01

    equity of the tax collection process on property in the city of Sogamoso, based on the last cadastral update. Basically, it was established the amount caused by this tax before the last cadastral update and was compared with the actual amount in the same period, as well as the resources used to achieve the collection of each fiscal year. The result of this comparison broadly determined that the level of effectiveness is satisfactory in terms of money but it was not in terms of number of properties, and that the efficiency of the collection process was greatly encouraging. In terms of meters built since last cadastral update, it was established its evolution between each cadastral update. In addition, it was analyzed the social equity component which involves the collection of property tax, and which was an important element in determining the degree of efficiency and effectiveness that was intended to establish. Besides showing the evolution of the collection, this project presents results that will be decisive in action and budget execution plans for the current tax administration in general and for property tax in particular.

  4. TRENDS IN TAX DEVELOPMENT - EFFICIENCY AND ECONOMIC GROWTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanya Todorova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The discussion on the role of the state and the amount of public revenue to maintain a balance between economic stability and social justice lasts for decades. The need for active state participation in the economy and the use of public revenue as a fiscal instrument is tangible. Delayed economic growth rates on global, regional and national level are a challenge to budget stability. In this article, the object of research is taxation, the subject - the trends and challenges to its effectiveness. The aim is to clarify whether there is a clear strategy on the marginal and implicit tax rate on the income of the population by comparing Bulgaria and other newly admitted countries in the EU (Cyprus, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Slovakia, Slovenia and Romania. The main task is to justify the need to build a long-term strategy to increase the efficiency of labor taxation in order to achieve optimal distribution and redistribution of income.

  5. Economic Efficiency of Innovative Materials for Sectors of Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroshnikova Tatyana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes an approach to the assessment of the economic efficiency of innovative anti-corrosion coatings for sectors of the national economy of the Russia on the basis of a synthesis of strategic sectoral and cost analysis. According to the authors, a comparative analysis of composite polymeric anticorrosion protecting coatings with similar products, estimating of direct and indirect economic effect and prognosis of implementation, forms a deeper understanding of the role of innovative technologies in the Russian state development of import substitution, the investment attractiveness of Russian industries in the new part technologies, applied research activities of private companies. Metal consumption sectors of the economy were chosen as an object of research, as they are characterized by the use of the following products: industrial construction and reconstruction, nuclear and thermal power, chemical, oil and gas, utilities, food processing, automotive, shipbuilding, aviation and rocket science, other industry. Basic modeling of implementation of anticorrosion protecting coatings in industrial enterprises was carried out on the basis of generating energy enterprises as one of the main end-users of anti-corrosive materials that also issue accurate statements.

  6. Reviewing the economic efficiency of disaster risk management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechler, Reinhard

    2013-04-01

    There is a lot of rhetoric suggesting that disaster risk management (DRM) pays, yet surprisingly little in the way of hard facts. Cost-benefit analysis (CBA) is one major tool that can provide quantitative information about the prioritization of disaster risk management (DRM) (and climate adaptation) based on economic principles. Yet, on a global scale, there has been surprisingly little robust evidence on the economic efficiency and benefits of risk management measures. This review shows that for the limited evidence reported the economic case for DRM across a range of hazards is strong and that the benefits of investing in DRM outweigh the costs of doing so, on average, by about four times the cost in terms of avoided and reduced losses. Most studies using a CBA approach focus on structural DRM and most information has been made available on physical flood prevention. There have been some limited studies on preparedness and risk financing. The global evidence base is limited and estimates appear not very solid, and overall, in line with the conclusion of the recent IPCC SREX report, there is limited evidence and medium agreement across the literature. Some of the factors behind the limited robustness are inherent to CBA more widely: these challenges comprise the inability to price intangibles, evaluating strategies rather than single projects, difficulties in assessing softer rather than infrastructure-related options, choices regarding a proper discount rate, lack of accounting for the distribution of benefits and costs and difficulties with assessing nonmarket values such as those related to health, the environment, or public goods. Although techniques exist to address some of these challenges, they are not very likely to easily go away. Other challenges associated specifically with DRM, such as the need and difficulty to undertake risk -based analysis can be overcome, and there have been manuals and reports providing a way forward. In an age of austerity, cost

  7. OPTICAL FIBER SENSOR TECHNOLOGIES FOR EFFICIENT AND ECONOMICAL OIL RECOVERY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Wang; H. Xiao; R. May

    1999-10-29

    Efficient and complete recovery of petroleum reserves from existing oil wells has proven difficult due to a lack of robust instrumentation that can monitor processes in the downhole environment. Commercially available sensors for measurement of pressure, temperature, and fluid flow exhibit shortened lifetimes in the harsh downhole conditions, which are characterized by high pressures (up to 20 kpsi), temperatures up to 250 C, and exposure to chemically reactive fluids. Development of robust sensors that deliver continuous, real-time data on reservoir performance and petroleum flow pathways will facilitate application of advanced recovery technologies, including horizontal and multi-lateral wells. The main objective of the research program is to develop cost-effective, reliable fiber sensor instrumentation for real-time monitoring and /or control of various key parameters crucial to efficient and economical oil production. This report presents the detailed research work and technical progress from October 1, 1998 to September 30, 1999. The research performed over the first year of the program has followed the schedule as proposed, and solid research progress has been made in specification of the technical requirements, design and fabrication of the SCIIB sensor probes, development of the sensor systems, development of DSP-based signal processing techniques, and construction of the test systems. These technical achievements will significantly help to advance continued research on sensor tests and evaluation during the second year of the program.

  8. OPTICAL FIBER SENSOR TECHNOLOGIES FOR EFFICIENT AND ECONOMICAL OIL RECOVERY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anbo Wang; Kristie L. Cooper; Gary R. Pickrell

    2003-06-01

    Efficient recovery of petroleum reserves from existing oil wells has been proven to be difficult due to the lack of robust instrumentation that can accurately and reliably monitor processes in the downhole environment. Commercially available sensors for measurement of pressure, temperature, and fluid flow exhibit shortened lifetimes in the harsh downhole conditions, which are characterized by high pressures (up to 20 kpsi), temperatures up to 250 C, and exposure to chemically reactive fluids. Development of robust sensors that deliver continuous, real-time data on reservoir performance and petroleum flow pathways will facilitate application of advanced recovery technologies, including horizontal and multilateral wells. This is the final report for the four-year program ''Optical Fiber Sensor Technologies for Efficient and Economical Oil Recovery'', funded by the National Petroleum Technology Office of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech from October 1, 1999 to March 31, 2003. The main objective of this research program was to develop cost-effective, reliable optical fiber sensor instrumentation for real-time monitoring of various key parameters crucial to efficient and economical oil production. During the program, optical fiber sensors were demonstrated for the measurement of temperature, pressure, flow, and acoustic waves, including three successful field tests in the Chevron/Texaco oil fields in Coalinga, California, and at the world-class oil flow simulation facilities in Tulsa, Oklahoma. Research efforts included the design and fabrication of sensor probes, development of signal processing algorithms, construction of test systems, development and testing of strategies for the protection of optical fibers and sensors in the downhole environment, development of remote monitoring capabilities allowing real

  9. Build, renovate and invest economically - Efficiency and economic viability in harmony

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, R.; Beck, M.; Previdoli, P.

    2002-01-01

    This book presents 13 papers that provide the latest know-how on energy economics in the building area. The authors show the importance of information and knowledge transfer when using new energy technologies. The topics covered include the role of the Swiss research programme on energy economy fundamentals, indicator systems for sustainability factors and energy characteristics of buildings. Also a discussion of the question 'rebuild or renovate', as well a series of articles about low-flow mechanical ventilation and the marketing of low-energy consumption building concepts are presented. Further articles cover the marketing of thermal solar systems as well as technology dissemination and monitoring. Also, the marginal costs of energy efficiency measures and the potential for energy savings and environmental management in trade and industry are discussed. Finally, two papers deal with the application of Swiss SIA building standards as well as technical developments and energy efficiency in the building and renovation areas

  10. A dynamic optimization on economic energy efficiency in development: A numerical case of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Dong

    2014-01-01

    This paper is based on dynamic optimization methodology to investigate the economic energy efficiency issues in developing countries. The paper introduces some definitions about energy efficiency both in economics and physics, and establishes a quantitative way for measuring the economic energy efficiency. The linkage between economic energy efficiency, energy consumption and other macroeconomic variables is demonstrated primarily. Using the methodology of dynamic optimization, a maximum problem of economic energy efficiency over time, which is subjected to the extended Solow growth model and instantaneous investment rate, is modelled. In this model, the energy consumption is set as a control variable and the capital is regarded as a state variable. The analytic solutions can be derived and the diagrammatic analysis provides saddle-point equilibrium. A numerical simulation based on China is also presented; meanwhile, the optimal paths of investment and energy consumption can be drawn. The dynamic optimization encourages governments in developing countries to pursue higher economic energy efficiency by controlling the energy consumption and regulating the investment state as it can conserve energy without influencing the achievement of steady state in terms of Solow model. If that, a sustainable development will be achieved. - Highlights: • A new definition on economic energy efficiency is proposed mathematically. • A dynamic optimization modelling links economic energy efficiency with other macroeconomic variables in long run. • Economic energy efficiency is determined by capital stock level and energy consumption. • Energy saving is a key solution for improving economic energy efficiency

  11. The fight against the greenhouse effect. Equity and efficiency; La lutte contre l'effet de serre. Equite et efficacite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallee, A. [Paris-12 Univ., 94 - Creteil (France)

    2003-07-01

    The author discusses the definition of an equitable division rule of the global effort of greenhouse gases emissions decrease, the research of the economic efficiency, the flexibility mechanisms and the emissions trading. (A.L.B.)

  12. Economic Efficiency of Maize Production in Yola North Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    should include the basic nutrients necessary to meet the needs of the ... economic production and home production, often have damaging ..... economic citizens in Nigeria (Ankroyd and. Doughty, 1984). ... Nutritional Guide. University of.

  13. Commentary: linking health equity with economic development: insights from my year as Chairman of the Board of the Chamber of Commerce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, Gerard P

    2012-12-01

    Many urban areas struggle with significant health disparities. In Tulsa, Oklahoma, there is a 14-year difference in life expectancy between the predominantly African American population in north Tulsa and the predominantly Caucasian population in south Tulsa. The roots of Tulsa's health disparities can be linked, in part, to a long history of racial mistrust stemming from the 1921 Tulsa Race Riot, arguably one of the worst race riots in U.S. history. In 2011, the author served as both a university campus president and chairman of the board of the Tulsa region's chamber of commerce. Through his work with the chamber, he discovered the business community's substantial resources and advocacy abilities. He also found that regional business leaders strongly supported health equity, diversity, and inclusion initiatives, both as moral obligations and regional economic development imperatives. After sharing the lessons he learned from working closely with business leaders, the author encourages other academic health centers (AHCs) to reach out to their business communities, which are likely willing and able to help them undertake similar initiatives. In doing so, AHCs and businesses can work together to improve the economic vitality of their regions.

  14. Efficiency improvement for a sustainable agriculture : the integration of agronomic and farm economics approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Koeijer, de, T.J.

    2002-01-01

    Keywords: Sustainable farming systems, Agronomic efficiency, Economic efficiency, Environmental efficiency, Sustainability index, Interdisciplinary analysis.

    The objective of the research described in this thesis was to determine what role improved agronomic efficiency can play in the transition towards more sustainable production systems. Agronomic efficiency measures the technical performance. If it could be improved, environmental damage could be reduced while, at the sam...

  15. Equity Impacts of Environmental Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio M. Bento

    2013-01-01

    This article surveys recent literature on the equity impacts of environmental policy. We focus on studies that look at the distribution of costs and benefits of alternative environmental policies. We also examine potentially important trade-offs between efficiency and equity that arise in the context of environmental policy, as well as transition effects. In many of the applications surveyed here, environmental policies can be regressive. Strategies are discussed to reduce this regressivity t...

  16. Influence of forest and rangeland management on anadromous fish habitat in Western North America: economic considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    William R. tech. ed. Meehan

    1985-01-01

    Although many effects of forest and rangeland management on anadromous fisheries are difficult to measure, economic methods for the evaluation of costs and benefits can be helpful. Such methods can be used to address questions of equity as well as efficiency. Evaluations of equity can show who bears the costs and who captures the benefits of management actions, but...

  17. Methodical Approach to Diagnostics of Efficiency of Production Economic Activity of an Enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhukov Andrii V.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article offers developments of a methodical approach to diagnostics of efficiency of production economic activity of an enterprise, which, unlike the existing ones, is realised through the following stages: analysis of the enterprise external environment; analysis of the enterprise internal environment; identification of components of efficiency of production economic activity for carrying out complex diagnostics by the following directions: efficiency of subsystems of the enterprise production economic activity, efficiency of use of separate types of resources and socio-economic efficiency; scorecard formation; study of tendencies of change of indicators; identification of cause-effect dependencies between the main components of efficiency for diagnosing reasons of its level; diagnosing deviations of indicator values from their optimal values; development of a managerial decision on preserving and increasing efficiency of production economic activity of the enterprise.

  18. An efficient technique to solve combined economic and emission ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... Economic load dispatch is one of the vital purposes in electrical power system operation, management and planning. Economic dispatch problem is one of the most important problems in electric power system operation. In large scale system, the problem is more complex and difficult to find out optimal ...

  19. Equity Valuation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Ove; Feltham, Gerald A.

    , interest rates, expected equity returns, and inflation rates are all stochastic. We explicitly characterize the risk-adjustments to the fundamentals in an equilibrium setting. We show how the term structure of risk-adjustments depends on both the time-series properties of the free cash flows......-coupon interest rates. We show that standard estimates of the cost of capital, based on historical stock returns, are likely to be a significantly biased measure of the firm’s cost of capital, but also that the bias is almost impossible to quantify empirically. The new approach recognizes that, in practice......We review and critically examine the standard approach to equity valuation using a constant risk-adjusted cost of capital, and we develop a new valuation approach discounting risk-adjusted fundamentals, such as expected free cash flows and residual operating income, using nominal zero...

  20. The economic value of corporate eco-efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guenster, N.; Bauer, R.; Derwall, J.M.M.; Koedijk, C.G.

    2011-01-01

    This study adds new insights to the long-running corporate environmental-financial performance debate by focusing on the concept of eco-efficiency. Using a new database of eco-efficiency scores, we analyse the relation between eco-efficiency and financial performance from 1997 to 2004. We report

  1. Brand equity

    OpenAIRE

    Hildebrandt, Lutz; Tischer, Sven

    2012-01-01

    To explore how occurring critical incidents affect customer-brand relations, this study measures the impact on the basis of an online experiment. For this purpose, 1,122 usable responses are gathered considering the smartphone brands of Apple and Nokia as well as different scenarios. The respective reactions to these negative incidents are evaluated using the concept of customer-based brand equity. More precisely, a structure equation model is specified and differences in latent factor means ...

  2. Rising equity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burr, M.T.

    1992-01-01

    This article reports on the results of a financial rankings survey of the independent energy industry indicating that lenders and investors provided more than five billion dollars in capital for new, private power projects during the first six months of 1992. The topics of the article include rising equity requirements, corporate finance, mergers and acquisitions, project finance investors, revenue bonds, project finance lenders for new projects, project finance lenders for restructurings, and project finance advisors

  3. Evaluation of economic efficiency of process improvement in food packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Hron

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In general, we make gains in process by the three fundamental ways. First, we define or redefine our process in a strategic sense. Second, once defined or redefined, we commence process operations and use process control methods to target and stabilize our process. Third, we use process improvement methods, as described in this paper, along with process control to fully exploit our process management and/or technology. Process improvement is focused primarily in our subprocesses and sub-subprocesses. Process leverage is the key to process improvement initiatives. This means that small improvements of the basic manufacturing operations can have (with the assumption of mass repetition of the operation a big impact on the functioning of the whole production unit. The complexity within even small organizations, in people, products, and processes, creates significant challenges in effectively and efficiently using these initiatives tools. In this paper we are going to place process purposes in the foreground and initiatives and tools in the background as facilitator to help accomplish process purpose. Initiatives and tools are not the ends we are seeking; result/outcomes in physical, economics, timeliness, and customer service performance matter. In the paper process boundaries (in a generic sense are set by our process purpose and our process definition. Process improvement is initiated within our existing process boundaries. For example, in a fast-food restaurant, if we define our cooking process around a frying technology, then we provide process improvements within our frying technology. On the other hand, if we are considering changing to a broiling technology, then we are likely faced with extensive change, impacting our external customers, and a process redefinition may be required. The result / aim of the paper are based on the example of the process improving of a food packaging quality. Specifically, the integration of two approaches

  4. Analisis Pengaruh Economic Value Added, Price Earning Ratio, Debt to Equity Ratio, Price Book Value, Pertumbuhan Penjualan Terhadap Harga Saham dengan Dividend Per Share sebagai Variabel Moderating pada Perusahaan Manufaktur yang Terdaftar di BEI Tahun 2010-2013

    OpenAIRE

    Matondang, Puteri Utami

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of Economic Value Added (EVA), Price Earning Ratio (PER), Debt to Equity Ratio (DER), Price Book Value (PBV), and Sales Growth to the stock price with Dividend Per Share (DPS) as moderating variable onmanufacturing company listed on Indonesian Stock Exchange from 2010 -2013. The population of this study was 124 manufacturing companies registered in the Indonesian Stock Exchange from 2010-2013 and 20 companies were selected to be the sample...

  5. An economy-ralated equity analysis of health service utilization by women in economically underdeveloped regions of western China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yuyan; Zhou, Zhongliang; Yan, Ju'e; Gao, Jianmin; Wang, Yuping; Yang, Xiaowei; Xu, Yongjian; Li, Yanli

    2017-10-27

    The Chinese government has long been committed to eliminating the inequality in the utilization of health services; however, it still lacks an analysis or measurement of the economy-related inequality in the utilization of women's health services. The economy-related utilization of health services in women aged 15 years and above was assessed by the horizontal inequity index of a two-week outpatient rate and annual inpatient rate from the 5th National Health Service Survey of Shaanxi Province. The concentration index of each factor was decomposed into the contribution of each factor to the economic-related inequality of health service utilization based on the Probit regression model. The horizontal inequity indexes of the two-week outpatient rate was 0.0493, and the horizontal inequity indexes of the annual impatient rate was 0.0869. The contributions of economic status to the two indexes were 190.71% and 115.80%, respectively. Economic status, age, basic medical insurance, educational status, marital status, urban/rural area, and self-rated health were the main impact factors that affected the inequality in women's health services utilization in Shaanxi. Health service utilization was different between women with different social demographic characteristics, and unequal health service utilization is evident among women in Shaanxi.

  6. An efficient technique to solve combined economic and emission ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Sadhana; Volume 38; Issue 4 ... Combined economic emission dispatch (CEED); optimization algorithms; power demand; Ant ... and at the same time the necessary equality and inequality constraints should also be fulfilled.

  7. Government Expenditure, Efficiency and Economic Growth: A Panel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Choong Chee Keong. 6 and Lau Lin Sea. 7 ... Corresponding Author, Department of Economics, Faculty of Business and Finance, UTAR, Malaysia. .... the taxation system and assert that if country's government expenditure is greater than.

  8. An efficient technique to solve combined economic and emission ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    GPSO was a derivative of the Standard Particle Swarm Optimization (SPSO) and .... ing path which makes it more attractive for future ants to follow. ..... algorithm applied to power economic dispatch of generators with multiple fuel options.

  9. Energy efficiency and economic value in affordable housing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chegut, Andrea; Eichholtz, Piet; Holtermans, Rogier

    2016-01-01

    Strong rental protection in the affordable housing market often prohibits landlords from charging rental premiums for energy-efficient dwellings. This may impede (re)development of energy efficient affordable housing. In the Netherlands, affordable housing institutions regularly sell dwellings from their housing stock to individual households. If they can sell energy efficient dwellings at a premium, this may stimulate investments in the environmental performance of homes. We analyze the value effects of energy efficiency in the affordable housing market, by using a sample of 17,835 homes sold by Dutch affordable housing institutions in the period between 2008 and 2013. We use Energy Performance Certificates to determine the value of energy efficiency in these transactions. We document that dwellings with high energy efficiency sell for 2.0–6.3% more compared to otherwise similar dwellings with low energy efficiency. This implies a premium of some EUR 3,000 to EUR 9,700 for highly energy efficient affordable housing. - Highlights: • Dutch affordable housing suppliers recoup sustainability investment by selling dwellings. • Energy-efficient affordable dwellings sell at a premium. • A-labeled dwellings are 6.3% – 9,300 euros – more valuable than C-labeled ones. • The combined value effect of refurbishing an affordable housing dwelling, including improving the energy efficiency, of 20% would more than pay for the retrofit.

  10. Power Versus Bandwidth Efficiency in Wireless Communication: The Economic Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Akhtman, Jos; Hanzo, Lajos

    2009-01-01

    We carry out a comprehensive analysis of a range of wireless network efficiency considerations. Firstly, we explore the properties and the implications of the power- versus bandwidth-efficiency criteria. Secondly, we perform a detailed top-down analysis of a typical commercial wireless network, which emphasizes the inherent differences between the aforementioned two efficiency metrics, while demonstrating that the appropriate choice of the network optimization criterion can have a profound ef...

  11. The economic crisis and the energy efficiency programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naturesa, Jim Silva; Mariotoni, Carlos Alberto

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents some data from the Brazilian economy (2009 and 2010) and their impact on energy efficiency programs. It is also shown the main results of the National Electricity Conservation Program (PROCEL) and PROCEL INFO, which aims to gather and make available information on the rational and efficient use of energy. At the end, we present information showing that MSMEs (Micro, Small and Medium Companies) should be the main focus of the technological innovation programs aimed to energy efficiency. (author)

  12. Withstanding austerity: Equity in health services utilisation in the first stage of the economic recession in Southern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córdoba-Doña, Juan Antonio; Escolar-Pujolar, Antonio; San Sebastián, Miguel; Gustafsson, Per E

    2018-01-01

    Scant research is available on the impact of the current economic crisis and austerity policies on inequality in health services utilisation in Europe. This study aimed to describe the trends in horizontal inequity in the use of health services in Andalusia, Spain, during the early years of the Great Recession, and the contribution of demographic, economic and social factors. Consultation with a general practitioner (GP) and specialist, hospitalisation and emergency care were studied through the Andalusian Health Survey 2007 (pre-crisis) and 2011-2012 (crisis), using a composite income index as socioeconomic status (SES) indicator. Horizontal inequity indices (HII) were calculated to take differential healthcare needs into account, and a decomposition analysis of change in inequality between periods was performed. Results showed that before the crisis, the HII was positive (greater access for people with higher SES) for specialist visits but negative (greater access for people with lower SES) in the other three utilisation models. During the crisis no change was observed in inequalities in GP visits, but a pro-poor development was seen for the other types of utilisation, with hospital and emergency care showing significant inequality in favour of low income groups. Overall, the main contributors to pro-poor changes in utilisation were socio-economic variables and poor mental health, due to changes in their elasticities. Our findings show that inequalities in healthcare utilisation largely remained in favour of the less well-off, despite the cuts in welfare benefits and health services provision during the early years of the recession in Andalusia. Further research is needed to monitor the potential impact of such measures in subsequent years.

  13. ECONOMIC AND ACCOUNTING INFORMATION AND STOCK MARKET EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona – Florina SĂLIȘTEANU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to explore and to analyse the relations between financial accounting information and stock market efficiency. As we know, accounting contributes to the efficiency of the stock market by producing primordial information for the investors. On the other side, an efficient market facilitates the role of accounting by providing a reliable estimate of the value of many assets that needs to be evaluated. This article examines the importance of the financial accounting information for the efficiency of stock market, and also analyses whether and how the structure, the characteristics and publication of the information, impacts the prices and transactions volumes.

  14. The Institutional Component of the Efficient Economic Policy of the State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykytas Viktoriia V

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article substantiates the necessity of institutional accompanying the economic policy of the State, establishing an efficient system of institutions. Challenges of the contemporary globalization require changes in the State influence on economy, redefining quality parameters and principles of an efficient economic policy. Complexity of the State policy in a global environment is determined not only by importance of the tasks of establishing an efficient market against the background of increasing influences of exogenous uncertainty, but also by seeking ways of entering the global space, thus implementing the best interests of national economic development. The article deduces parameters of the concept of «efficient institution». The author believes that institutions precisely should act as the link through which social and economic development would become unseparated in order to form a stable efficient socio-economic development

  15. The Economic Value of Corporate Eco-Efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenster, N.; Derwall, J.; Bauer, R.; Koedijk, K.

    2006-08-01

    This study adds new insights to the long-running corporate environmental-financial performance debate by focusing on the concept of eco-efficiency. Using a new database of eco-efficiency ratings, we analyze the relation between eco-efficiency and financial performance from 1997 to 2004. We report that eco-efficiency relates positively to operating performance and market value. Moreover, our results suggest that the market's valuation of environmental performance has been time variant, which may indicate that the market incorporates environmental information with a drift. Although environmental leaders initially did not sell at a premium relative to laggards, the valuation differential increased significantly over time. Our results have implications for company managers, who evidently do not have to overcome a tradeoff between eco-efficiency and financial performance, and for investors, who can exploit environmental information for investment decisions

  16. The Efficiency of Improvement of the Economic Security System of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klunko Nataliya S.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of approaches to the formation of efficiency of ensuring economic security was carried out. The essence of economic security has been defined and its material base has been described. Threats to the economic security of Ukraine have been systematized and their structure analyzed. Both internal and external measures to prevent threats to the economic security of Ukraine have been allocated. Dynamics of the factors on which the economic security of Ukraine depends has been considered. It has been determined that the socio-economic development strategy formulated makes the country’s economic security system efficient. Two approaches to the strategic development of the Ukrainian economy have been allocated: enhancing competitiveness and integration into the international economic associations.

  17. Are Equity and Efficiency Irreconcilable Goals in Education? A General Equilibrium Analysis of Basic Education Finance in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Weili; Lu, Ming

    2007-01-01

    Lacking guidance of general equilibrium (GE) theories in public economics and the corresponding proper mechanisms, China has not surprisingly witnessed an inequality in educational expenditures across regions as well as insufficiency of funds for education in poor areas. It is wrongly thought that what happens is due to the decentralized financing…

  18. Economic Efficiency of Establishing Domestic Production of Synthetic Liquid Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyzym Mykola O.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article notes a stable tendency to increasing the oil dependence of Ukraine, which creates a threat to the national economic security, and proves an expediency of establishing domestic production of synthetic liquid fuel. The technical, organizational and economic features of establishing synthetic liquid fuel production in Ukraine are presented. There proved a hypothesis on the expediency of organizing the production of synthetic liquid fuels based on steam-plasma coal gasification technology. The forecast resource cycle of the country until 2020 under conditions of developing this technology is modeled.

  19. Equity Valuation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Ove; Feltham, Gerald A.

    -coupon interest rates. We show that standard estimates of the cost of capital, based on historical stock returns, are likely to be a significantly biased measure of the firm’s cost of capital, but also that the bias is almost impossible to quantify empirically. The new approach recognizes that, in practice......We review and critically examine the standard approach to equity valuation using a constant risk-adjusted cost of capital, and we develop a new valuation approach discounting risk-adjusted fundamentals, such as expected free cash flows and residual operating income, using nominal zero...

  20. Equity Valuation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Ove; Feltham, Gerald A.

    -coupon interest rates. We show that standard estimates of the cost of capital, based on historical stock returns, are likely to be a significantly biased measure of the firm’s cost of capital, but also that the bias is almost impossible to quantify empirically. The new approach recognizes that, in practice......, interest rates, expected equity returns, and inflation rates are all stochastic. We explicitly characterize the risk-adjustments to the fundamentals in an equilibrium setting. We show how the term structure of risk-adjustments depends on both the time-series properties of the free cash flows...

  1. THE MAIN APPROACHES TO THE DEFINITION OF ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY OF ENTERPRISES OF CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Dolgova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of ambiguous interpretation of the category of "efficiency". Taking into account the fact that economic efficiency is quite complex and multifaceted category, coupled with the economic laws and applies to all activities of the enterprise this figure is one of the essential characteristics of the processes occurring in industrial organizations. The lack of a generally accepted view among domestic and foreign economists regarding the essential part of the index of efficiency of activity of the industrial enterprise leads to the impossibility of its use for the management of processes. In the conditions of market economy, the task of economic evaluation res ults of the economic entity remains an important element of the research aspects of the company. Each new refinement of recorded knowledge acts as a stimulus for the development of fundamental knowledge categories. One of the Central in the system of economic categories, in our opinion, is indicated for the effective functioning of the enterprise." Precise formulation of the conceptual framework, criteria-based composition have important theoretical value to justify the subject of any research conducted in the conditions of modern economic development of the global space. The definition of criteria and performance indicators, as well as developing sound economic policies of improving the economic mechanism of enterprise depend on a comprehensive study of the essence of economic efficiency of industrial enterprises of the industry. The article examines the main approaches to the definition of economic efficiency, as well as identify the degree of relation of the category of "efficiency" with other economic categories. The author suggested that the characteristics of the essence of economic efficiency, adequate to the task of functioning and development of enterprises in the construction industry.

  2. Production efficiency and economic potential of different soil fertility ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper provides the economic evaluation of different soil fertility replenishing technologies (use of inorganic fertilizers, organic manure, and rhizobium inoculant) that were tested during field studies and recommended to groundnut farmers. Data on soil fertility technologies used by households, groundnut yields, and ...

  3. Computational Efficiency of Economic MPC for Power Systems Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Standardi, Laura; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad; Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we propose an Economic Model Predictive Control (MPC) strategy to operate power systems that consist of independent power units. The controller balances the power supply and demand, minimizing production costs. The control problem is formulated as a linear program that is solved...

  4. The Efficiency Opportunity Impact of Information Systems in an Organizational Economics Framework of Informatics

    OpenAIRE

    Kühn Pedersen, Mogens; Holm Larsen, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Information systems (IS) have a record of raising efficiency and effectiveness in business operations. In the modern economy, ongoing efficiency improvements through innovation play a decisive role. A new theory of distributed relations refocuses innovations comptence from core to distributed competence, raising new efficiency opportunities. The paper suggest an economic model of the efficiency op-portunities of information processing revealing the efficiency form of distributed relations, a ...

  5. A critique of non-parametric efficiency analysis in energy economics studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Chien-Ming

    2013-01-01

    The paper reexamines non-additive environmental efficiency models with weakly-disposable undesirable outputs appeared in the literature of energy economics. These efficiency models are used in numerous studies published in this journal and other energy-related outlets. Recent studies, however, have found key limitations of the weak-disposability assumption in its application to environmental efficiency analysis. It is found that efficiency scores obtained from non-additive efficiency models can be non-monotonic in pollution quantities under the weak-disposability assumption — which is against common intuition and the principle of environmental economics. In this paper, I present taxonomy of efficiency models found in the energy economics literature and illustrate the above limitations and discuss implications of monotonicity from a practical viewpoint. Finally, I review the formulations for a variable returns-to-scale technology with weakly-disposable undesirable outputs, which has been misused in a number of papers in the energy economics literature. An application to evaluating the energy efficiencies of 23 European Union states is presented to illustrate the problem. - Highlights: • Review different environmental efficiency model used in energy economics studies • Highlight limitations of these environmental efficiency models • These limitations have not been recognized in the existing energy economics literature. • Data from 23 European Union states are used to illustrate the methodological consequences

  6. Energy efficiency and economic feasibility of CCHP driven by stirling engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, X.Q.; Wang, R.Z.; Huang, X.H.

    2004-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of energy efficiency evaluation and economic feasibility analysis of a small scale trigeneration system for combined cooling, heating and power generation (CCHP) with an available Stirling engine. Trigeneration systems have a large potential of energy saving and economical efficiency. The decisive values for energetic efficiency evaluation of such systems are the primary energy rate and comparative primary energy saving (Δq), while the economic feasibility analysis of such systems relates the avoided cost, the total annual saving and payback period. The investigation calculates and compares the energy saving and economic efficiency of trigeneration system with Stirling engine against contemporary conventional independent cooling, heating and power, showing that a CCHP system saves fuel resources and has the assurance of economic benefits

  7. Efficient energy management measures in steel industry for economic utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurinderbir Singh Grewal

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The application of energy efficient Induction Machines (IM is explained in reference to power consumption savings. In energy efficient IM, losses for various Horse Power (HP ratings are summarized for bringing effective changes in design. Emphasis is laid on how load factor, speed & power quality affect machine’s efficiency. Replacement of conventional IM of higher power rating is done with required energy efficient Doubly Fed Induction Machine (DFIM to enhance the performance at variable speeds near rated power outputs. Results of the proposed approach will give substantial savings in energy & loss reduction. The field data of Jindal Steel Rolling Mill (JSRM at Hisar, Haryana (India is taken into consideration. This paper proposes a non-intrusive air gap torque method for efficiency estimation of in-service IMs. This approach gives results considering stray-load and friction-windage loss according to IEC standard and IEEE112-B standard. The proposed method is validated experimentally whose effectiveness is witnessed using MATLAB/SIMULINK.

  8. Social Responsibility and Economic Efficiency: aspects of estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Filippova, Irina

    2014-01-01

    The article discusses the concept of social responsibility of state and business in terms of effectiveness of social production system. In this perspective the traditional approaches to determining the effectiveness of the economic system were critically reviewed. Not only new approach to assessing the effectiveness being proposed in this paper, but also the link between effectiveness of public production system and social responsibility of core subjects is substantiated. Conventional approac...

  9. CONTRIBUTIONS OF MICROFINANCE INSTITUTIONS TO ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY OF CASSAVA FARMERS IN ABIA STATE, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kingsley Chukwuemeka OBIKE

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The study examined contributions of microfinance institutions to economic efficiency of cassava farmers in Abia state, Nigeria. A multistage random sampling technique was adopted in collecting cross sectional data on a sample size of 240 respondents (120 MFI beneficiaries and 120 non beneficiaries. Primary Data was collected by administering questionnaire on cassava farmers. The result showed that economic efficiency of MFI beneficiaries was influenced by wage rate, price of fertilizer and adjusted Y (output, while wage rate, price of fertilizer and price of cassava cutting s are variables that influenced economic efficiency of non beneficiaries. The t – test analysis confirmed that MFI beneficiaries had higher economic efficiency advantage compared with non beneficiaries. It is recommended that government agricultural policy should take positive steps to reduce interest rate to encourage MFI efforts in providing the necessary platform to encourage higher efficiency in cassava production in Abia state, Nigeria.

  10. Increasing the Economical Efficiency and Sustainability of Indoor Fish Farming by Means of Aquaponics - Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavius Blidariu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses on increasing economical efficiency and sustainability of indoor fish farming. Aspects like sustainability and economical efficiency were reviewed. In order to improve man`s health we must reconsider the agricultural sciences, by this we understand that we must develop technologies friendly for the environment. Sustainable indoor fish farming is the farming of the new millennium. Combining aquaculture with hydroponics we obtain a new innovation named aquaponics which respects principles of sustainable agriculture (wastewater biofiltration by plants and gives us the possibility to increase economical efficiency with an additional production (organic vegetables.

  11. Economic efficiency of maize production in Yola North Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Similarly, the efficiency ratio computed showed that land, seed and fertilizer had MVP/MFC ratio greater than unity implying that the inputs were underutilized and output could be increased by increasing the levels of their utilization. The elasticity of production was greater than 1.00 which implied increasing return to scale.

  12. Assessing the Economic Efficiency of Maize Production in Northern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-05-01

    May 1, 2017 ... successes of the green revolution in Asia brought to the fore agriculture's ... Maize is a very important staple food in Ghana accounting for more than 50% of total .... The cost efficiency function is specified by changing the error from the to ..... A Guide to Frontier Version 4.1: A computer program for Frontier.

  13. Private Equity Waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.T.J. Smit (Han); W.A. van den Berg (Ward)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThis study presents a dynamic model for the private equity market in which information revelation and uncertainty rationally explain the cyclical pattern of investment flows into private equity. The net benefit of private equity over public equity is i) uncertain and ii) agents have

  14. Economic and health efficiency of education funding policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtin, T R; Nelson, E A

    1999-06-01

    Public spending programmes to reduce poverty, expand primary education and improve the economic status of women are recommended priorities of aid agencies and are now gradually being reflected in third world governments' policies, in response to aid conditions imposed by the World Bank and OECD countries. However outcomes fall short of aspiration. This paper shows that donors' lending policies, especially those restricting public spending on education to the primary level, (1) perpetuate poverty, (2) minimise socio-economic impact of public health programmes and (3) prevent significant improvement in the economic status of women. These effects are the result of fundamental flaws in donors' education policy model. Evidence is presented to show that health status in developing countries will be significantly enhanced by increasing the proportion of the population which has at least post-primary education. Heads of households with just primary education have much the same probability of experiencing poverty and high mortality of their children as those with no education at all. Aid donors' policies, which require governments of developing countries to limit public funding of education to the primary level, have their roots in what is contended here to be an erroneous interpretation of human capital theory. This interpretation focuses only on the declining marginal internal rates of return on public investments in successive levels of schooling and ignores the opposite message of the increasing marginal net present values of those investments. Cars do not travel fastest in their lowest gear despite its fastest acceleration, life's long journey is not most comfortable for those with only primary schooling.

  15. The Equity Share in New Issues and Aggregate Stock Returns

    OpenAIRE

    Malcolm Baker; Jeffrey Wurgler

    1999-01-01

    The share of equity issues in total new equity and debt issues is a strong predictor of U.S. stock market returns between 1928 and 1997. In particular, firms issue relatively more equity than debt just before periods of low market returns. The equity share in new issues has stable predictive power in both halves of the sample period, and after controlling for other known predictors. We do not find support for efficient market ex

  16. Economic and environmental efficiency of district heating plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agrell, Per J.; Bogetoft, Peter

    2005-01-01

    heat, have arbitrary valuation.This study concerns the most developed European district heating and cogeneration system, the Danish.By assessing environmental and economic ef¿ciency, the impact of governmental, market and managerial imperfections are estimated.The principal methodological base......District heating, the conversion of primary energy into distributed thermal energy and possible electric energy, is a challenge to regulate.In addition to the ever present asymmetric information in any suf¿ciently complex activity, some of the inputs for district heating, such as excess process...

  17. Investing in Early Human Development: Timing and Economic Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Orla; Harmon, Colm P.; Heckman, James J.; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2010-01-01

    Policy discussions to ameliorate socioeconomic (SES) inequalities are increasingly focused on investments in early childhood. Yet such interventions are costly to implement, and clear evidence on the optimal time to intervene to yield a high economic and social return in the future is meagre. The majority of successful early childhood interventions start in the preschool years. However socioeconomic gradients in cognitive skills, socio-emotional functioning and health can be observed by age three, suggesting that preventative programmes starting earlier in childhood may be even more effective. We discuss the optimal timing of early childhood intervention with reference to recent research in developmental neuroscience. We motivate the need for early intervention by providing an overview of the impact of adverse risk factors during the antenatal and early childhood periods on outcomes later in life. We provide a brief review of the economic rationale for investing early in life and propose the “antenatal investment hypothesis”. We conclude by discussing a suite of new European interventions that will inform this optimal timing debate. PMID:19213617

  18. Rebuilding Romania. Energy, efficiency and the economic transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patterson, W [Royal Inst. of International Affairs, London (United Kingdom)

    1994-12-31

    Energy will be a crucial factor in the successful recreation of a democratic society based on a market economy in Romania, following the overthrow in 1989 of the Ceausescu dictatorship. This study focuses on energy efficiency and end-use, rather than the supply of fuels and electricity, and is written by a team of senior Romanian energy specialists, who describe the country`s existing energy systems, and their potential for improved use, including international cooperation for mutual benefit. (UK)

  19. Mobilizing Intercultural Education for Equity and Social Justice. Time to React against the Intolerable: A Proposal from Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguado-Odina, Teresa; Mata-Benito, Patricia; Gil-Jaurena, Inés

    2017-01-01

    Education is suffering from the consequences of strengthening neoliberal policies, which impose an education model that serves the interests of the hegemonic economic system. The market rationale is being implemented in schools, moving the interests from equity to efficiency, from equal opportunities to performance. Starting from setting out a…

  20. Flexible and Cost Efficient Power Consumption using Economic MPC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovgaard, Tobias Gybel; Larsen, Lars F.S.; Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    2011-01-01

    the formulation of a new cost function for our proposed power management. Hereby the refrigeration system is enabled to contribute with ancillary services to the balancing power market. Since significant amounts of regulating power is needed for a higher penetration of intermittent renewable energy sources...... such as wind turbines this feature is in high demand in a future intelligent power grid (Smart Grid). Our perspective is seen from the refrigeration system but as it is demonstrated the involvement in the balancing market can be economically beneficial for the system itself while delivering crucial services...... that reduces operation costs by utilizing the thermal storage capabilities. In the study we specifically address advantages coming from daily variations in outdoor temperature and electricity prices but other aims such as peak load reduction are also considered. An important contribution of this paper is also...

  1. Equity, tariffing, regulation: analysis of the cost allocation policies of an electric utility industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezzina, J.

    1998-01-01

    In this work, an analysis in terms of equity of policies of tariffing regulation and cost allocation of a multi-products electric company (organized as a natural monopoly) is proposed. The goal is double. In a standard point of view, the first goal is to show that today's literature in the domains of public economy, industrial organization and regulation (traditionally based on efficiency considerations) is able to supply reading keys for the analysis of moral philosophy problems. In a positive point of view, the second goal is to demonstrate that the equity criterion is operational enough to judge tariffing management practices in a particular industrial environment and can be used as a regulatory instrument by an ethics-concerned authority. The document is organized in two parts. An ethical and economical analysis of the equity concepts between allocation efficiency, production efficiency and tariffing practices of companies is proposed first. A particular equity concept is considered which is ready to be implemented for the regulation of a public utility, and the ins and outs expected with an equity theory of tariffing practices are evoked. In a second part, an analysis of goal conflicts between the authority and the regulated company is made in a point of view of equity regulation and cost allocation. An improved equity criterion is defined first, from which a measure is built and becomes a tool for the regulatory authority. Then, its use by a regulatory authority fully informed or encountering information asymmetry problems are analyzed in order to show its stakes on the cost allocation and tariffing policies of the company. (J.S.)

  2. The assessment of risk management system’s economic efficiency in retail banking

    OpenAIRE

    Cvilikas, Aurelijus; Paužuolis, Vaidas

    2014-01-01

    The banking risk management is always a relevant topic in financial sector’s academic literature, but the detailed analysis of current studies showed that there is a lack of studies in risk management’s economic efficiency assessment in retail banking, where the risk management system’s administration cost may be a significant part of total credit institution’s cost. The scientific problem of this article is: how the economic efficiency of retail banking risk management system could be ...

  3. Service- and population-based exemptions: are these the way forward for equity and efficiency in health financing in low-income countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witter, Sophie

    2009-01-01

    The first wave of experiences of exemptions policies suggested that poverty-based exemptions, using individual targeting, were not effective, for practical and political economic reasons. In response, many countries have changed their approach in recent years--while maintaining user fees as a necessary source of revenue for facilities, they have been switching to categorical targeting, offering exemptions based on high-priority services or population groups. This chapter aims to examine the impact and conditions for effectiveness of this recent health finance modality. The chapter is based on a literature review and on data from two complex evaluations of national fee exemption policies for delivery care in West Africa (Ghana and Senegal). A conceptual framework for analysing the impact of exemption policies is developed and used. Although the analysis focuses on exemption for deliveries, the framework and findings are likely to be generalisable to other service- or population-based exemptions. The chapter presents background information on the nature of delivery exemptions, the drivers for their use, their scale and common modalities in low-income countries. It then looks at evidence of their impact, on utilisation, quality of care and equity and investigates their cost-effectiveness. The final section presents lessons on implementation and implications for policy-makers, including the acceptability and sustainability of exemptions and how they compare to other possible mechanisms. The chapter concludes that funded service- or group-based exemptions offer a simple, potentially effective route to mitigating inequity and inefficiency in the health systems of low-income countries. However, there are a number of key constraints. One is the fungibility of resources at health facility level. The second is the difficulty of sustaining a separate funding stream over the medium to long term. The third is the arbitrary basis for selecting high-priority services for

  4. Measuring industrial energy efficiency: Physical volume versus economic value

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, S.L.; Niefer, M.J.; Roop, J.M.

    1996-12-01

    This report examines several different measures of industrial output for use in constructing estimates of industrial energy efficiency and discusses some reasons for differences between the measures. Estimates of volume-based measures of output, as well as 3 value-based measures of output (value of production, value of shipments, and value added), are evaluated for 15 separate 4-digit industries. Volatility, simple growth rate, and trend growth rate estimates are made for each industry and each measure of output. Correlations are made between the volume- and value-based measures of output. Historical energy use data are collected for 5 of the industries for making energy- intensity estimates. Growth rates in energy use, energy intensity, and correlations between volume- and value-based measures of energy intensity are computed. There is large variability in growth trend estimates both long term and from year to year. While there is a high correlation between volume- and value-based measures of output for a few industries, typically the correlation is low, and this is exacerbated for estimates of energy intensity. Analysis revealed reasons for these low correlations. It appears that substantial work must be done before reliable measures of trends in the energy efficiency of industry can be accurately characterized.

  5. Policies and measures for economic efficiency, energy security and environment protection in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkaiah, M.; Kaushik, S.C.; Dewangan, M.L.

    2007-01-01

    India needs to sustain 8-10% economic growth to meet energy needs of people below poverty line. India would, at least, need to grow its primary energy supply (3-4 times) of present consumption to deliver a sustained growth of 8% by 2031. This paper discusses India's policies and measures for economic efficiency, environment protection and energy security (3-E). (author)

  6. How to measure the economic impacts of changes in growth, feed efficiency and survival in aquaculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kankainen, M.; Setala, J.; Berrill, I.K.; Ruohonen, K.; Noble, C.; Schneider, O.

    2012-01-01

    In this article we introduce a variety of bio-economic models that can be used to calculate the economic benefits associated with improved productivity in aquaculture. In the aquaculture industry, three important biological productivity factors are growth, survival and feed efficiency. The

  7. Economic and environmental impacts of community-based residential building energy efficiency investment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jun-Ki; Morrison, Drew; Hallinan, Kevin P.; Brecha, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    A systematic framework for evaluating the local economic and environmental impacts of investment in building energy efficiency is developed. Historical residential building energy data, community-wide economic input–output data, and emission intensity data are utilized. The aim of this study is to show the comprehensive insights and connection among achieving variable target reductions for a residential building energy use, economic and environmental impacts. Central to this approach for the building energy reduction goal is the creation of individual energy models for each building based upon historical energy data and available building data. From these models, savings estimates and cost implications can be estimated for various conservation measures. A ‘worst to first’ (WF) energy efficient investment strategy is adopted to optimize the level of various direct, indirect, and induced economic impacts on the local community. This evaluation helps to illumine opportunities to establish specific energy reduction targets having greatest economic impact in the community. From an environmental perspective, short term economy-wide CO 2 emissions increase because of the increased community-wide economic activities spurred by the production and installation of energy efficiency measures, however the resulting energy savings provide continuous CO 2 reduction for various target savings. - Highlights: • WF energy efficient strategy helps to optimize various level of economic impacts. • Greatest community benefits are achieved from specific energy reduction targets. • Community-wide economic impacts vary for different energy conservation measures

  8. Life cycle and economic efficiency analysis phase II : durable pavement markings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    This report details the Phase II analysis of the life cycle and economic efficiency of inlaid tape : and thermoplastic. Waterborne paint was included as a non-durable for comparison purposes : only. In order to find the most economical product for sp...

  9. CH2 Energy Harvesting Systems: Economic Use and Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Cheung

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at the City of Melbourne's new office development CH2 as a case study of world class energy performance. In particular, the integrated design of conventionally independent systems has led to the potential to deliver significant savings to the Council and to deliver better environmental conditions to building occupants that in turn may contribute to satisfaction, well-being and productivity. It is concluded that this project has the potential to be an iconic example of effective implementation of ESD (environmental sustainable design principles and therefore act as a demonstration project to others. Energy efficiency of more than 50% of current benchmarks for Melbourne is effected. Energy harvesting is defined as arising from squander, waste and nature, which is a new concept introduced in this paper to better describe the design decision process.

  10. Estimation of Economic Efficiency of Regional Touristic Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurchenkov Vladimir Viktorovich

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the features of the development of the regional touristic complex in modern conditions and determines the direction of realizing the potential of the regional market of tourist services. The authors reveal the multiplicative interrelation for analyzing the interaction of the primary and secondary sectors of the regional market of tourist services. The key indicators of efficiency are outlined, the extent of their relevance for assessing the potential of international tourism in the region is revealed. The authors calculate the relative indicators reflecting the dynamics of incomes from inbound, outbound and domestic tourism in relation to the total income from tourism activities in the region during the reporting period, usually for one calendar year. On the basis of these parameters, the classification of the regions of the Southern Federal District in terms of tourist attraction is carried out. The authors determine the reasons of the low tourist attractiveness of the Volgograd region in comparison with other regions of the Southern Federal District. It is substantiated that the potential of expanding tourism activity is not fully realized today in the Volgograd region. The technique of analysis and evaluation of the effectiveness of regional touristic complex on the basis of cluster approach is suggested. For analyzing the effectiveness of regional tourism cluster the authors propose to use indicators that reflect the overall performance of the regional tourism cluster, characterizing the impact of cluster development of the area, or the regional market, as well as evaluating the performance of each of the companies cooperating in the framework of the cluster. The article contains recommendations to the regional authorities on improving the efficiency of regional touristic complex in the short- and long-term prospects.

  11. Economic innovation and efficiency gains as the driving force for accelerating carbon dioxide emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, T. J.

    2012-12-01

    It is normally assumed that gains in energy efficiency are one of the best routes that society has available to it for stabilizing future carbon dioxide emissions. For a given degree of economic productivity less energy is consumed and a smaller quantity of fossil fuels is required. While certainly this observation is true in the instant, it ignores feedbacks in the economic system such that efficiency gains ultimately lead to greater energy consumption: taken as a global whole, they permit civilization to accelerate its expansion into the energy reserves that sustain it. Here this argument is formalized from a general thermodynamic perspective. The core result is that there exists a fixed, time-independent link between a very general representation of global inflation-adjusted economic wealth (units currency) and civilization's total capacity to consume power (units energy per time). Based on 40 years of available statistics covering more than a tripling of global GDP and a doubling of wealth, this constant has a value of 7.1 +/- 0.01 Watts per one thousand 2005 US dollars. Essentially, wealth is power. Civilization grows by dissipating power in order to sustain all its current activities and to incorporate more raw material into its existing structure. Growth of its structure is related to economic production, so more energy efficient economic production facilitates growth. Growth is into the reserves that sustain civilization, in which case there is a positive feedback in the economic system whereby energy efficiency gains ultimately "backfire" if their intended purpose is to reduce energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions. The analogy that can be made is to a growing child: a healthy child who efficiently incorporates food into her structure grows quickly and is able to consume more in following years. Economically, an argument is made that, for a range of reasons, there are good reasons to refer to efficiency gains as economic "innovation", both for

  12. Panacea or Perestroika: A Socio-Economic Analysis of the Equity and Efficiency Effects of Choice in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    better educational resources. Schools cannot be expected to win The War on Poverty, to defeat drugs, racism and sexism , when the school is but a...Equal Education Opportunity, Human Capital Theory 19 Ah$TPACT Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by block number) This paper looks at the ...attainments at the primary and secondary level is obvious. The measures used by the National Center for Education Statistics to deter- mine the efficacy

  13. Modelling of Efficiency Change as a Source of Economic Growth in Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bezat-Jarzębowska Agnieszka

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, the subject of economic growth in agriculture was raised. One of the determinants of this process, namely an efficiency change was under the assessment. The aim of the paper was to evaluate the changes of efficiency in the Polish agriculture. In the study, a stochastic parametric production function was used.

  14. Economic efficiency and risk character of fire management programs, Northern Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas J. Mills; Frederick W. Bratten

    1988-01-01

    Economic efficiency and risk have long been considered during the selection of fire management programs and the design of fire management polices. The risk considerations was largely subjective, however, and efficiency has only recently been calculated for selected portions of the fire management program. The highly stochastic behavior of the fire system and the high...

  15. The Economic Efficiency of European Football Clubs--Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyatunin, Aleksey V.; Vishnyakova, Angelina B.; Sherstneva, Natalia L.; Mironova, Svetlana P.; Dneprov, Sergey A.; Grabozdin, Yuriy P.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of this paper lies in the fact that football business has grown significantly in the past 20 years and football clubs have become large companies, which in an effort to be profitable and successful on the field need to improve the efficiency of their business. The aim of this article is to measure economic efficiency of 48 big…

  16. Defining the economic essence of definition «providing efficiency»

    OpenAIRE

    Kovalchyk, Olena Arnoldivna

    2011-01-01

    In paper the main approaches to defining the economic essence of the category of «efficiency» is analyzed. The existing conceptual approach to the term «providing» is investigated. The own point of view on the interpretation of definition «providing efficiency» is given.

  17. Discussion on Boiler Efficiency Correction Method with Low Temperature Economizer-Air Heater System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Liu; Xing-sen, Yang; Fan-jun, Hou; Zhi-hong, Hu

    2017-05-01

    This paper pointed out that it is wrong to take the outlet flue gas temperature of low temperature economizer as exhaust gas temperature in boiler efficiency calculation based on GB10184-1988. What’s more, this paper proposed a new correction method, which decomposed low temperature economizer-air heater system into two hypothetical parts of air preheater and pre condensed water heater and take the outlet equivalent gas temperature of air preheater as exhaust gas temperature in boiler efficiency calculation. This method makes the boiler efficiency calculation more concise, with no air heater correction. It has a positive reference value to deal with this kind of problem correctly.

  18. Unitary assessment of economical efficiency of the energy resources for electricity production in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luca, Gheorghe

    2004-01-01

    In our country, within the studies, on which the development strategies of power output are based on, the assessment of the economical efficiency of the use of two main energetic resources, the fuel used in cogeneration thermal power plants and the water used in hydropower plants respectively, was made in compliance with non-unitary specific norms. In contradiction with the degree of utilization of hydroelectric resources, realized all over the world in the developed countries (80-90%) resulted that in our country, where the degree of utilization is only 40%, the use of hydroelectric potential is not yet justified from technical-economical point of view. This anomaly was determined by the cause of non-unitary assessment of the economic efficiency for the cogeneration thermo-power plants and hydropower plants. This paper presents comparatively the elements, which were to the basis of the assessment of the economic efficiency for two types of electrical power plants, and one presents a proposal in the aim to perform a unitary assessment of the economical efficiency by applying efficiently the laws in force. (author)

  19. Economic efficiency in fish farming: hope for agro-allied industries in Niagara

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kareem, R. O.; Dipeolu, A. O.; Aromolaran, A. B.; Williams, S. B.

    2008-02-01

    The challenge to increase the efficiency in food production level in Nigeria appears to be more urgent now than it has ever been in the history of the country. This is in view of the rapidly increasing population, the imminent decline in international economic and food aid and the need to conserve foreign exchange earnings through the production of raw materials to feed the growing industrial sector calls for urgent attention. The study was carried out in Ogun State. The descriptive statistics was used to determine the socio-economic characteristics of the respondents. The stochastic frontiers production analysis was applied to estimate the technical, allocative efficiency and economic efficiency among the fish farmers in the state. The results of economic efficiency revealed that fish farming is economically efficient with a range of between 55% and 84% efficiency level suggesting a favourable hope for the agro-allied industry such as poultry and cottage industries etc in the state. The result of hypothesis of inefficiency sources models showed that years of experience of fish farmers is significant at 1% probability level indicating the factor contributing to the fish farming experience in the state. Thus, the efficiency is due to the fact that farmers are experienced and fairly educated. On the basis of findings, policy is suggested to be directed towards the encouragement of entrepreneurs in fish farming in the state by providing enabling environment like credit facilities, public enlightenment programme and provision of social amenities like feeder roads, pipe-born water etc and given the fact that an increase in the level of formal education variable leads to less inefficiency, government policy should be focused on adopting the best technology (e.g. fast growing species and equipment) so as to improve the level of efficiency and investment which shall eventually lead to growth in output of fish farming and a lead to the establishment of agro

  20. Practical Validation of Economic Efficiency Modelling Method for Multi-Boiler Heating System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksejs Jurenoks

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In up-to-date conditions information technology is frequently associated with the modelling process, using computer technology as well as information networks. Statistical modelling is one of the most widespread methods of research of economic systems. The selection of methods of modelling of the economic systems depends on a great number of conditions of the researched system. Modelling is frequently associated with the factor of uncertainty (or risk, who’s description goes outside the confines of the traditional statistical modelling, which, in its turn, complicates the modelling which, in its turn, complicates the modelling process. This article describes the modelling process of assessing the economic efficiency of a multi-boiler adaptive heating system in real-time systems which allows for dynamic change in the operation scenarios of system service installations while enhancing the economic efficiency of the system in consideration.

  1. Customer Equity von KMUs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemel, Friedhelm W.; Henseler, Jörg; Meyer, Jorn-Axel

    2003-01-01

    Customer relationships are most important assets of many SMEs. Customer Equity is the sum of the values of all customer relationships. Customer Equity will not be found in any balance sheet, nevertheless it has strategic importance. Even if companies do not want to publish their Customer Equity for

  2. Economic Efficiency, Allen / Uzama and Morishima Elasticities of Smallholder Agriculture In Dedza District, Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assa MAGANGA

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to measure the economic efficiency of Dedza smallholder Irish potato (Solanum tuberosum farmers in Malawi using a translog cost frontier, inefficiency effect model and input Elasticities from Seeming Unrelated Regression Model for asystem of cost share equations for labour, fertilizer, seed and land. A sample of 200 farmers has been considered from Dedza district in Malawi. Results indicate that the mean economic efficiency of Irish potato production in Dedza District is 0.61 with scores ranging between 0.12 and 0.94. The economic efficiency differences are significantly explained by non-farm employment, education, credit access, farm experience, degree of specialization, household size and frequency of weeding. The highest input substitution existed between labour and fertilizer, followed by seedfertilizer.

  3. Equity and efficiency of medical service systems at the provincial level of China's mainland: a comparative study from 2009 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jingmei; Hu, Xuejun; Zhang, Xianzhi; Shang, Lei; Yu, Min; Chen, Huoliang

    2018-02-05

    The astonishing economic achievements of China in the past few decades have remarkably increased not only the quantity and quality of medical services but also the inequalities in health resources allocation across regions and inefficiency of the medical service delivery. A descriptive analysis was used to compare the inequities in inputs and outputs of the provincial medical service systems, a non-radial super-efficiency data envelopment analysis model was then used to estimate the efficiency, and a regression analysis of the panel data was used to explore the determinants. The inputs and outputs of most provincial medical service systems increased gradually from 2009 to 2014. Overall, the eastern region allocated more human and capital resources than the other two regions, and produced more than 50% of the total outpatient and emergency room visits, whereas the western region produced more inpatient services (about 30% of the total volume of inpatient services) according to the distribution of the population. The average efficiency scores of the provincial medical systems in China's mainland were 0.895, 0.927, 0.929, 0.963, 0.977 and 0.968 from 2009 to 2014, with a slight average improvement of 1.60%. The efficiency score of each provincial medical service system varied greatly from one another: Tibet (1.475 ± 0.057) performed extremely well, whereas several others including Heilongjiang (0.579 ± 0.001) performed poorly. Furthermore, the proportion of high-class medical facilities was negatively associated with efficiency, whereas the proportion of the vulnerable population, the per capita Gross Domestic Product, the proportion of the illiterate population and the improvement of primary health care had positive effects on efficiency. Inequity in health resources allocation and service provision existed across the regions, but not all the gaps have begun to narrow since 2009. The difference of efficiency was great among provincial medical service systems

  4. Water Market-scale Agricultural Planning: Promoting Competing Water Resource Use Efficiency Through Agro-Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delorit, J. D.; Block, P. J.

    2017-12-01

    Where strong water rights law and corresponding markets exist as a coupled econo-legal mechanism, water rights holders are permitted to trade allocations to promote economic water resource use efficiency. In locations where hydrologic uncertainty drives the assignment of annual per-water right allocation values by water resource managers, collaborative water resource decision making by water rights holders, specifically those involved in agricultural production, can result in both resource and economic Pareto efficiency. Such is the case in semi-arid North Chile, where interactions between representative farmer groups, treated as competitive bilateral monopolies, and modeled at water market-scale, can provide both price and water right allocation distribution signals for unregulated, temporary water right leasing markets. For the range of feasible per-water right allocation values, a coupled agricultural-economic model is developed to describe the equilibrium distribution of water, the corresponding market price of water rights and the net surplus generated by collaboration between competing agricultural uses. Further, this research describes a per-water right inflection point for allocations where economic efficiency is not possible, and where price negotiation among competing agricultural uses is required. An investigation of the effects of water right supply and demand inequality at the market-scale is completed to characterize optimal market performance under existing water rights law. The broader insights of this research suggest that water rights holders engaged in agriculture can achieve economic benefits from forming crop-type cooperatives and by accurately assessing the economic value of allocation.

  5. Energy efficiency, human behavior, and economic growth: Challenges to cutting energy demand to sustainable levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santarius, Tilman

    2015-03-01

    Increasing energy efficiency in households, transportation, industries, and services is an important strategy to reduce energy service demand to levels that allow the steep reduction of greenhouse gases, and a full fledged switch of energy systems to a renewable basis. Yet, technological efficiency improvements may generate so-called rebound effects, which may `eat up' parts of the technical savings potential. This article provides a comprehensive review of existing research on these effects, raises critiques, and points out open questions. It introduces micro-economic rebound effect and suggests extending consumer-side analysis to incorporate potential `psychological rebound effects.' It then discusses meso-economic rebound effects, i.e. producer-side and market-level rebounds, which so far have achieved little attention in the literature. Finally, the article critically reviews evidence for macro-economic rebound effects as energy efficiency-induced economic growth impacts. For all three categories, the article summarizes assessments of their potential quantitative scope, while pointing out remaining methodological weaknesses and open questions. As a rough "rule of thumb", in the long term and on gross average, only half the technical savings potential of across-the-board efficiency improvements may actually be achieved in the real world. Policies that aim at cutting energy service demand to sustainable levels are well advised to take due note of detrimental behavioral and economic growth impacts, and should foster policies and measures that can contain them.

  6. Energy efficiency, human behavior, and economic growth: Challenges to cutting energy demand to sustainable levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santarius, Tilman, E-mail: tilman@santarius.de [Visiting Scholar, Institute of European Studies and Energy and Resources Group, University of California, Berkeley, 310 Barrows Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720-3050 (United States)

    2015-03-30

    Increasing energy efficiency in households, transportation, industries, and services is an important strategy to reduce energy service demand to levels that allow the steep reduction of greenhouse gases, and a full fledged switch of energy systems to a renewable basis. Yet, technological efficiency improvements may generate so-called rebound effects, which may ‘eat up’ parts of the technical savings potential. This article provides a comprehensive review of existing research on these effects, raises critiques, and points out open questions. It introduces micro-economic rebound effect and suggests extending consumer-side analysis to incorporate potential ‘psychological rebound effects.’ It then discusses meso-economic rebound effects, i.e. producer-side and market-level rebounds, which so far have achieved little attention in the literature. Finally, the article critically reviews evidence for macro-economic rebound effects as energy efficiency-induced economic growth impacts. For all three categories, the article summarizes assessments of their potential quantitative scope, while pointing out remaining methodological weaknesses and open questions. As a rough “rule of thumb”, in the long term and on gross average, only half the technical savings potential of across-the-board efficiency improvements may actually be achieved in the real world. Policies that aim at cutting energy service demand to sustainable levels are well advised to take due note of detrimental behavioral and economic growth impacts, and should foster policies and measures that can contain them.

  7. Studies Concerning the Economic Efficiency and Quality of the Vegetal Sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu Dan Salagean

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of performed research aimed to establish the influence of protein supplements on the quality and economic efficiency in the processing of a certain semi-smoked sausage assortment using two experimental processing technologies: with 3% soy protein derivatives as supplements and 100% soy protein derivatives as vegetal raw materials. The results revealed that, from an economical point of view, the vegetal processing technology (with exclusively vegetal raw materials was more efficiently than the supplemented processing technology (with protein derivatives as supplements and from qualitatively point of view, the obtained values have been in accordance with the in force STAS-es.

  8. Technical Efficiency and Port Competition: Revisiting the Bohai Economic Rim, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Wang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Bohai Economic Rim plays an important role in supporting China’s economic growth. For this research, we selected nine main ports in the region to study whether intra-port competition or corporatization would improve efficiency. Using a panel fixed effect model and stochastic frontier model, we found that the technical efficiency of selected ports is significantly influenced by the time of the initial public offering than by regional competition. The results are supportive and encouraging for policy makers to move toward the decentralized port governance in China.

  9. Economic efficiency of application of innovative materials and structures in high-rise construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golov, Roman; Dikareva, Varvara; Gorshkov, Roman; Agarkov, Anatoly

    2018-03-01

    The article is devoted to the analysis of technical and economic efficiency of application of tube confined concrete structures in high-rise construction. The study of comparative costs of materials with the use of different supporting columns was carried out. The main design, operational, technological and economic advantages of the tube confined concrete technology were evaluated, conclusions were drawn about the high strength and deformation properties of axial compression of steel tubes filled with high-strength concrete. The efficiency of the tube confined concrete use is substantiated, which depends mainly on the scale factor and percentage of reinforcement affecting its load-bearing capacity.

  10. EVALUATION OF ECOLOGICAL AND ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY OF STEEL-MAKING SLAG IN ROAD CONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Коstenkо

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides an estimation of ecological and economic efficiency of utilization of the electric steel-melting slag of the Belarussian Steel Works in the road construction. The obtained results  give us a reason to consider that involvement of this type of industrial waste into economic turnover is an economically expedient and ecologically justified measure that will allow road-construction enterprises to reduce the cost of installation and construction works and enlarge their resource potential as well as to help the producer of wastes to release funds for innovation development and solve the problem of waste accumulation in the near future.

  11. The Waldo County project: A partnership for energy efficient economic development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baston, D.C.

    1990-01-01

    In April 1988, the state of Maine designated four economically disadvantaged areas as Job Opportunity Zones. An interministerial initiative was put into place to improve the economic situation of these regions and to attract high quality jobs. One of these, Waldo County, formed part of the service territory of Central Maine Power. In May 1988, that utility asked the Alliance to Save Energy to recommend means for aligning its energy efficiency program with the state's economic improvement program in order to bring about effective economic growth in Waldo County. The utility is in the process of adopting all of the energy efficiency measures recommended by the Alliance. The utility's program in this respect is focused on support for existing small businesses in the county. In most of these businesses, the largest component of their electric bill is for lighting. A pilot program to retrofit modern energy-efficient lighting will install state-of-the-art equipment such as electronic ballasts and compact fluorescents without cost to the customer. This program will provide substantial savings to existing businesses and provide efficiency savings to the utility. Marketing of commercial and residential energy management programs is also being intensified. Energy management assistance is also given to new businesses; this assistance includes financial incentives to install energy efficient equipment

  12. Is REDD+ effective, efficient, and equitable?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nathan, Iben; Pasgaard, Maya

    2017-01-01

    economic (efficiency), environmental (effectiveness), and social (equity) concerns at the same time by drawing on own field results from a REDD+ project in Cambodia. The paper follows three tracks. The first is to develop and explain the conceptual and analytical framework for our empirical investigations...

  13. The economics of energy efficiency for the poor--a South African case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spalding-Fecher, Randall; Clark, Alix; Davis, Mark; Simmonds, Gillian

    2002-01-01

    South Africa's Reconstruction and Development Programme set ambitious goals for providing basic services to all, including housing and electrification. More efficient use of energy has the potential to socially and politically support these goals, particularly when it is targeted at low-income communities lacking adequate energy services. This paper examines the economics of energy efficiency for the urban poor from the perspective of society, utilities and poor consumers, using five example programmes. While the five energy efficiency programmes generally have significant economic and environmental benefits from a social perspective, they may not be as attractive to utilities and consumers. Also examined are the policy options for overcoming the significant barriers to energy efficiency, and ways government can bridge the gap between what is good for society and what is good for the electricity industry

  14. Is the Economic andTesting the Efficient Markets Hypothesis on the Romanian Capital Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragoș Mînjină

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Informational efficiency of capital markets has been the subject of numerous empirical studies. Intensive research of the field is justified by the important implications of the knowledge of the of informational efficiency level in the financial practice. Empirical studies that have tested the efficient markets hypothesis on the Romanian capital market revealed mostly that this market is not characterised by the weak form of the efficient markets hypothesis. However, recent empirical studies have obtained results for the weak form of the efficient markets hypothesis. The present decline period of the Romanian capital market, recorded on the background of adverse economic developments internally and externally, will be an important test for the continuation of recent positive developments, manifested the level of informational efficiency too.

  15. The technical and economic efficiency in the mineral processing for lead-zinc and copper ores by Microsoft excel

    OpenAIRE

    Krstev, Aleksandar; Krstev, Boris; Krstev, Dejan; Vuckovski, Zoran

    2012-01-01

    The comparisons between economical and technical efficiency for lead flotation indicators, zinc flotation indicators in Sasa mine, Toranica and Zletovo mine. The comparisons for economic and technical efficiency for copper flotation indicators in Bucim mine. The possibility of equaled between both efficiencies for flotation indicators from mentioned mines using Microsoft Excel 2010.

  16. Sustainability Efficiency Factor: Measuring Sustainability in Advanced Energy Systems through Exergy, Exergoeconomic, Life Cycle, and Economic Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldon, Lauren

    The Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems defines sustainability or industrial ecology as "the wise use of resources through critical attention to policy, social, economic, technological, and ecological management of natural and human engineered capital so as to promote innovations that assure a higher degree of human needs fulfilment, or life support, across all regions of the world, while at the same time ensuring intergenerational equity" (Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems 1998). Developing and integrating sustainable energy systems to meet growing energy demands is a daunting task. Although the technology to utilize renewable energies is well understood, there are limited locations which are ideally suited for renewable energy development. Even in areas with significant wind or solar availability, backup or redundant energy supplies are still required during periods of low renewable generation. This is precisely why it would be difficult to make the switch directly from fossil fuel to renewable energy generation. A transition period in which a base-load generation supports renewables is required, and nuclear energy suits this need well with its limited life cycle emissions and fuel price stability. Sustainability is achieved by balancing environmental, economic, and social considerations, such that energy is produced without detriment to future generations through loss of resources, harm to the environment, etcetera. In essence, the goal is to provide future generations with the same opportunities to produce energy that the current generation has. This research explores sustainability metrics as they apply to a small modular reactor (SMR)-hydrogen production plant coupled with wind energy and storage technologies to develop a new quantitative sustainability metric, the Sustainability Efficiency Factor (SEF), for comparison of energy systems. The SEF incorporates the three fundamental aspects of sustainability and provides SMR or nuclear hybrid energy system

  17. EVALUATION OF ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY PERTAINING TO USAGE OF AUTOMOTIVE TRANSPORT FACILITIES WHILE EXECUTING INTERNATIONAL CARGO TRANSPORTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. B. Ivut

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a methodology for evaluation of economic efficiency pertaining to usage of automotive transport facilities while executing international cargo transportation on the basis of average internal norm calculation of automotive operational profitability of a specific model under conditions which are typical for the given market by an average carrier.

  18. Economic rationalism and the cost efficiency of hospital chaplaincy: an Australian study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, C; Carey, L B

    2000-01-01

    Health care reform is also occurring in Australia and effects hospital chaplaincy programs. "Economic rationalism" is the philosophic foundation of this effort and its contrast with the values inherit in hospital chaplaincy are highlighted. Selected research results from the Australian system are described and the authors offer a perspective on the cost efficiency of hospital chaplaincy.

  19. Economic efficiency of the use of the bush vegetation from slopes of the ameliorative canals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titov, V.N.

    2009-01-01

    The results of calculations of the economic efficiency of the use of the bush vegetation from slopes of the ameliorative canals for fuel and energy purposes has been presented. The two variants of disposal of bushes are considered burning and conversion into fuel chips. (authors)

  20. Does energy efficiency improve technological change and economic growth in developing countries?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantore, Nicola; Calì, Massimiliano; Velde, Dirk Willem te

    2016-01-01

    Does a trade-off exist between energy efficiency and economic growth? This question underlies some of the tensions between economic and environmental policies, especially in developing countries that often need to expand their industrial base to grow. This paper contributes to the debate by analyzing the relationship between energy efficiency and economic performance at the micro- (total factor productivity) and macro-level (countries' economic growth). It uses data on a large sample of manufacturing firms across 29 developing countries to find that lower levels of energy intensity are associated with higher total factor productivity for the majority of these countries. The results are robust to a variety of checks. Suggestive cross-country evidence points towards the same relation measured at the macro-level as well. - Highlights: •Total factor productivity is an accurate proxy of technological change. •Energy efficiency triggers total factor productivity especially in manufacturing. •Technological change via energy efficiency in manufacturing is an engine of growth.

  1. Production System of Peranakan Etawah Goat under Application of Feed Technology: Productivity and Economic Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhmad Sodiq

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Feed resources are the major constraint in increasing goat production in the village. The main constraints to goat raising are related to feeds (i the high cost of transport of crop residues and grass to the homesteads, (ii the low nutritive value of feeds used, particularly in the dry period. This research was design to evaluate goat productivity and economic efficiency of goat farming under application of feed technology production system in Peranakan Etawah goat farmer group of Gumelar Banyumas Central Java. All farmers were taken as respondents using census methods. On farm research with participative focused group discussion, indepth interview, and farm observation. Descriptive analysis and independent t test methods were used to analyze the data. Results of this study showed that there was a significant improvement goat productivity on production system with the application of feed technology. Body weight at weaning, survival rate till weaning, and doe productivity were increased 7%, 2% and 5%, respectively. There was no evidence of significant different of farmers income and economic efficiency before and after the applied feed technology (P>0.05. The calculation was based on cash flow. Before application, farmers income per year and economic efficiency were Rp14.404.520,00 and 1.21, then insignificantly improve into Rp16.487.100,00 and 1.27, respectively. (Animal Production 11(3: 202-208 (2009 Key Words: Livestock production system, Peranakan Etawah goat, feed technology aplication, productivity and economic efficiency

  2. Estimation of the economical and ecological efficiency of the solar heat supply in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchenko, O.V.; Solomin, S.V.

    2001-01-01

    One carried out numerical study of application efficiency of solar heat supply systems in the climatic conditions of Russia with regard to their economical competitiveness with organic fuel heat conventional sources and role in reduction of greenhouse gas releases. One defined the regions where (under certain conditions) application of solar energy to generate low-potential heat may be reasonable [ru

  3. Methodological approach to simulation and choice of ecologically efficient and energetically economic wind turbines (WT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bespalov, Vadim; Udina, Natalya; Samarskaya, Natalya

    2017-10-01

    Use of wind energy is related to one of the prospective directions among renewed energy sources. A methodological approach is reviewed in the article to simulation and choice of ecologically efficient and energetically economic wind turbines on the designing stage taking into account characteristics of natural-territorial complex and peculiarities of anthropogenic load in the territory of WT location.

  4. Finance-economical indexes of efficiency of development of railway transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Chekhovska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Because of formation of public joint-stock company of railway transport of the common use, by an author it is suggested to carry out the analysis of efficiency of subsequent development of railway transport, leaning against indexes which represent the finance-economical constituent of results of activity of corporate enterprises.

  5. Energy efficiency / economic in agroecosystems; Eficiencia energetica/economica em agroecossistemas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Luis Carlos Ferreira de; Bueno, Osmar de Carvalho; Esperancini, Maura Seiko Tsutui [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas

    2010-07-01

    The energy and economic evaluation of agroecosystems is important in the sense of appraise as maintainable these can be so much of the point of view energy as economic. The objective of the present paper was to show, starting from a case study, the construction of an indicator of energy/economic efficiency, whose results for four existent systems of corn production in the study area presented indexes that varied between 22.4 and 31.6. Of the reading of those values was possible to evaluate that all of the appraised systems show sustainability of long and short term. The proposed indicator if it shows solid in the agroecosystems appreciation concerning the analysis of your energy/economic sustainability. (author)

  6. Determining Factors for Economic Efficiency in the Organic Olive Oil Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Bernal Jurado

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Spain looms large worldwide in organic olive oil production. However, this productive potential contrasts with the low internal consumption of the product. This situation makes Spain a world leader in its export. Companies in this sector have clear deficiencies, which must be corrected to ensure their survival over time. In this context, the aim of this study is to analyse the level of efficiency, in economic terms, of organic olive oil producers and to identify the factors explaining the best organizational practices. To do so, Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA and Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA have been used. The results reveal low levels of economic efficiency and the variables determining said efficiency.

  7. Generalized financial ratios to predict the equity premium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Algaba, Andres; Boudt, Kris

    2017-01-01

    Empirical evidence for the price-dividend ratio to be a predictor of the equity premium is weak. We argue that changes in the economic conditions and market composition lead to a time-varying relationship between prices, dividends and the equity premium. Exploiting the information in the rolling

  8. Industrial policy, production efficiency improvement and the Chinese county economic growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Zhenhua

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at analyzing the difference in the level of economic development between China’s counties from the two perspectives of industrial policy and production efficiency. Based on panel data of 1830 Chinese counties, this study employs the new classical economic growth theory framework to analyze the counties’ economic growth by the perpetual inventory method, Malmquist index, among others. The results show that the economy of the counties exhibits δ convergence since 2004, and the absolute differences in the different counties are expanding. Industrial policy ensures the additional deepening of the level of capital in the county. Additionally, a substantial difference was observed between the agricultural sector and the non-agricultural sector, whereby the total factor productivity and the technical efficiency are on the rise, resulting in the phenomenon of dual paths of technological progress. In summary, the capital deepening difference between the sectors, production efficiency, and dual paths of technological progress owing to the counties’ industrial policy are the basic reasons for the regional differences in the level of economic development in China.

  9. Economic feasibility of an energy efficiency project for a steam distribution system in a chemical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Melo Menezes

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The burning of fossil fuels majorly contributes to the increase in global warming, and it represents 93% of greenhouse gases emissions in the chemical industry. Most of the energy demand in this sector is associated with steam systems, where 1/3 of the energy efficiency opportunities are located in its distribution system. However, most of the literature focuses on the design of new systems. Those that deal with existing systems, not always use simple and available methods. Furthermore, they address energy losses of steam systems only due to thermal insulation, ignoring those due to leakages of traps. Given this context, the purpose of this paper is to determine the economic feasibility of an energy efficiency project for a steam distribution system in a chemical industry, located in the metropolitan region of Salvador, Brazil. First, the energy lost in the steam distribution system through heat insulation and steam traps was estimated by applying thermodynamic principles, and technic consulting, respectively. Then, investments were estimated using commercial prices for new thermal insulation and steam traps. Finally, an economic evaluation of the improvement project was made, through the construction of a cash flow, and calculation of economic indicators: payback time, net present value (NPV, and internal rate of return (IRR. Economic indicators showed that the project is economically viable. The NPV and IRR reached approximately 5 million reais, and 66% per year, respectively. Additionally, this project also had social and environmental benefits, such as a reduction in greenhouse gases emissions, and increased local water availability.

  10. Influence of cable losses on the economic analysis of efficient and sustainable electrical equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobão, J.A.; Devezas, T.; Catalão, J.P.S.

    2014-01-01

    Increasing energy needs are accompanied by environmental responsibilities, since nowadays electricity companies operate in a competitive and sustainable energy framework. In this context, any proposal for action on energy efficiency becomes important for consumers to minimize operational costs. In electrical installations, electricity consumption can be decreased by reducing losses in the cables, associated with the overall efficiency of the equipment, allowing a better use of the installed power. The losses must be analysed in conjunction with all loads that contribute to the currents in the sections of an electrical installation. When replacing equipment in output distribution boxes with more efficient ones, the current in those sections is reduced in association with the decrease in power losses. This decrease, often forgotten, is taken into account in this work for the economic analysis of efficiency and sustainable electrical equipment. This paper presents a new software application that compares and chooses the best investment in the acquisition of electrical equipment. Simulation results obtained with the new software application are provided and are then validated with experimental results from a real electrical installation. - Highlights: • Any proposal for action on energy efficiency is important for consumers. • Electricity consumption can be decreased by reducing losses in the cables. • A new software application that compares and chooses the best investment is provided. • The economic analysis of efficiency and sustainable electrical equipment is carried out. • Simulation results are validated with experimental results from a real electrical installation

  11. Marketing assets: relating brand equity and customer equity

    OpenAIRE

    Romero, Jaime; Yagüe, María J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Brand equity and customer equity are inextricably linked. Some authors propose that marketing activities build these intangible assets simultaneously. In contrast, others suggest that brand equity is an antecedent of customer equity. In this research, we aim to shed light about the relationship between brand equity and customer equity, by empirically testing these two alternative explanations. Design/methodology/approach: We propose four research models that reflect these two alte...

  12. On the complex analysis of the reliability, safety, and economic efficiency of atomic electric power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emel'yanov, I.Ya.; Klemin, A.I.; Polyakov, E.F.

    1977-01-01

    The problem is posed of effectively increasing the engineering performance of nuclear electric power stations (APS). The principal components of the engineering performance of modern large APS are considered: economic efficiency, radiation safety, reliability, and their interrelationship. A nomenclature is proposed for the quantitative indices which most completely characterize the enumerated properties and are convenient for the analysis of the engineering performance. The urgent problem of developing a methodology for the complex analysis and optimization of the principal performance components is considered; this methodology is designed to increase the efficiency of the work on high-performance competitive APS. The principle of complex optimization of the reliability, safety, and economic-efficiency indices is formulated; specific recommendations are made for the practical realization of this principle. The structure of the complex quantiative analysis of the enumerated performance components is given. The urgency and promise of the complex approach to solving the problem of APS optimization is demonstrated, i.e., the solution of the problem of creating optimally reliable, fairly safe, and maximally economically efficient stations

  13. Ecological and economical efficiency of monitoring systems for oil and gas production on the shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurakin, A. L.; Lobkovsky, L. I.

    2014-02-01

    Requirements for signals' reliability of monitoring systems (with respect to the errors of the 1st and 2nd kinds, i.e., false alarms and skipping of danger) are deduced from the ratio of expenditures of different kinds (of exploitation expenses and losses due to accidents). The expressions obtained in the research may be used for economic foundations (and optimization) of specifications for monitoring systems. In cases when optimal parameters are not available, the sufficient condition of monitoring systems economical efficiency is presented.

  14. Efficient Use of Terrestrial Economic Services: A Case Study in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, T. T.; Tenhunen, J.; Hoang, V. N.; Koellner, T.; Shin, H.; Pham, V. D.; Seo, B.

    2012-04-01

    Understanding the linkages between social and ecological systems is crucial for managing potential responses to global change. Agricultural production requires resources, is determined by ecological processes, and results in economic goods and services for society. However, production leads at the same time to both positive and negative externalities. The externalities can be enhanced or mitigated by human behavior in management, which is mainly driven by expectations related to economic gains and losses. Ecological and economic processes are interrelated, and continuously interact in a complex manner. Therefore, understanding potential economic gains and losses in response to global change is a fundamental consideration in order to carry out well-informed decision-making. The International Research and Training Group TERRECO at the University of Bayreuth has intensively investigated ecological systems and processes in forested and agricultural landscapes as well as at regional scale in South Korea. These ongoing efforts provide a unique opportunity to examine the economic gains, losses and trade-offs that may occur with future climate and land-use change. Within this framework, we first investigated the environmental and economic efficiency of rice farms in Kangwon Province of South Korea, since rice is the most important food crop in this country. We then expanded our analysis to include dry farm highland vegetable crops in an intensively farmed region of the country, Haean Catchment. Our main objectives are (1) to categorize different types of farms, (2) determine their economic and environmental efficiency, and (3) to determine the trade-offs that occur in economic and environmental efficiencies under alternative management schemes and alternative climate regimes. Our preliminary analysis for rice farms yielded several important findings. First, both the production cost and environmental pollution by rice farms could be reduced significantly. Improvements in

  15. Improving the ecohydrological and economic efficiency of Small Hydropower Plants with water diversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razurel, Pierre; Gorla, Lorenzo; Tron, Stefania; Niayifar, Amin; Crouzy, Benoît; Perona, Paolo

    2018-03-01

    Water exploitation for energy production from Small Hydropower Plant (SHP) is increasing despite human pressure on freshwater already being very intense in several countries. Preserving natural rivers thus requires deeper understanding of the global (i.e., ecological and economic) efficiency of flow-diversion practice. In this work, we show that the global efficiency of SHP river intakes can be improved by non-proportional flow-redistribution policies. This innovative dynamic water allocation defines the fraction of water released to the river as a nonlinear function of river runoff. Three swiss SHP case studies are considered to systematically test the global performance of such policies, under both present and future hydroclimatic regimes. The environmental efficiency is plotted versus the economic efficiency showing that efficient solutions align along a (Pareto) frontier, which is entirely formed by non-proportional policies. On the contrary, other commonly used distribution policies generally lie below the Pareto frontier. This confirms the existence of better policies based on non-proportional redistribution, which should be considered in relation to implementation and operational costs. Our results recommend abandoning static (e.g., constant-minimal-flow) policies in favour of non-proportional dynamic ones towards a more sustainable use of the water resource, also considering changing hydroclimatic scenarios.

  16. Efficiency and economic benefits of skipjack pole and line (huhate) in central Moluccas, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siahainenia, Stevanus M.; Hiariey, Johanis; Baskoro, Mulyono S.; Waeleruny, Wellem

    2017-10-01

    Excess fishing capacity is a crucial problem in marine capture fisheries. This phenomenon needed to be investigated regarding sustainability and development of the fishery. This research was aimed at analyzing technical efficiency (TE) and computing financial aspects of the skipjack pole and line. Primary data were collected from the owners of the fishing units at the different size of gross boat tonnage (GT), while secondary data were gathered from official publications relating to this research. Data envelopment analysis (DEA) approach was applied to estimate technical efficiency whereas a selected financial analysis was utilized to calculate economic benefits of the skipjack pole and line business. The fishing units with a size of 26-30 GT provided a higher TE value, and also achieved larger economic benefit values than that of the other fishing units. The empirical results indicate that skipjack pole and line in the size of 26-30 GT is a good fishing gear for the business development in central Moluccas.

  17. Standardization and Green Economic Change - the Case of Energy Efficiency in Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Maj Munch; Faria, Lourenco

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the role of standardization for green economic change using energy efficiency in buildings as a case. Innovation research on standards tends to focus on the competition between competing emerging standards as well as the economic impacts of these. The idea pursued here...... energy efficiency becomes an issue in standardization work using buildings as a case. The paper seeks more specifically to investigate the rise of building related standards generally over time as well as in different technical areas and geographic regions. The hypothesis pursued in this paper...... is that the rise of the green economy can only take place accompanied by considerable institution formation in the form of standards. In this sense, the presence of standards may be seen as an important indicator on the maturity of the greening of the economy. The paper presents early empirical work...

  18. THE ROLE OF ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY OF ACCOMMODATION UNITS IN DETERMINATION OF PURCHASE INTENTIONS OF TOURIST SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Cristina Martin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The indicators of demand distribution for various types of accommodation provide information regarding changing tourist preferences for different ways of tourist accommodation. Appreciation of economic efficiency for hotels activity is done through quantitative results obtained in accommodation units. For this purpose it uses, currently, a partial or synthetic indicators system. Taking into account the fact that, in appreciation of hotel business, it must start from the premise that it may not be fully reflected only in terms of economic results, but also through social results, appear obvious the need to maintain costs at a level that satisfies both requirements at the same time. Achieving superior social-financial indicators, remains one of the main goals also in hotel activities, but do not be overlooked the fact that it is necessary that these indicators must be obtained by ensuring a higher level of satisfaction of consumers requirements. Only simultaneous achievement of these two objectives can provide raising efficiency in accommodation sector.

  19. Political and Economic Decisions and Competition – What is the Efficient Antimonopoly Policy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irakli Lekvinadze

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the influence of economic decisions which affect the antitrust and competition support policies. Many countries provide governmental initiatives for improving antirust legislation. There is an effort to develop efficient legislation, to define market boundaries, to identify dominating companies, and to prevent cartel development. A review of the literature has shown that refined legislation does not work. Qualified and non-politicized economic decisions are required to provide fair and equitable competition in the marketplace. The discussions of various researchers are profiled on the economic issues. This article analyzes The Republic of Georgia’s 20 year unique market experiences in Eastern Europe. Recommendations have been proposed to increase the effectiveness of an anti-monopoly policy. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4

  20. India's economic growth and energy consumption: scope for efficiency and conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadav, S.S.

    2000-01-01

    Like all developing countries in general, India has very low per capita consumption of energy. But the consumption pattern per unit of economic output is high. There is a need to make efforts and evolve mechanism so that energy consumption growth rate decelerates while the desired economic growth takes place. In case of India, large imports of petroleum products impact very adversely on trade balance and consequently on economic growth itself. This paper enumerates various ways - legal, financial and technological - that should be adopted to increase energy efficiency and conservation effort. No single method or tool in isolation may be effective but an integrated approach involving several tools and mechanisms is sure to yield desired results. (author)

  1. Emission Trading and the Kyoto protocol: Are they efficient economic instruments?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibanez Londono, Ana Maria

    1998-02-01

    The Kyoto Protocol establishes a tradeable permits market for green house gases -GHG- emissions to reduce the costs of meeting the Protocol obligations. Economic theory provides the arguments to support the creation of GHG tradeable permits. Several economic researches have shown that vis-a-vis command and control regulations, tradeable permits induce economic agents to achieve environmental goals at a minimum cost. However, the conditions to minimize costs through tradeable permits are stringent. Tradeable permits require well functioning markets, e.g. perfect competition and perfect information. The tradeable permits market created by the Kyoto Protocol hardly meet these necessary conditions. Some countries like Japan, Great Britain and the United Stated are large emitters and thus may exert market power. Price manipulation may have implications over the static and dynamic efficiency of the permits. This paper takes a first look to the consequences of imperfect markets on the tradeable permit system of the Kyoto Protocol

  2. On the economic analysis of problems in energy efficiency: Market barriers, market failures, and policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanstad, A.H.; Koomey, J.G.; Levine, M.D.

    1993-01-01

    In his recent paper in The Energy Journal, Ronald Sutherland argues that several so-called ''market barriers'' to energy efficiency frequently cited in the literature are not market failures in the conventional sense and are thus irrelevant for energy policy. We argue that Sutherland has inadequately analyzed the idea of market barrier and misrepresented the policy implications of microeconomics. We find that economic theory, correctly interpreted, does not provide for the categorical dismissal of market barriers. We explore important methodological issues underlying the debate over market barriers, and discuss the importance of reconciling the findings of non-economic social sciences with the economic analysis of energy demand and consumer decision-making. We also scrutinize Sutherland's attempt to apply finance theory to rationalize high implicit discount rates observed in energy-related choices, and find this use of finance theory to be inappropriate

  3. On the economic analysis of problems in energy efficiency: Market barriers, market failures, and policy implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanstad, A.H.; Koomey, J.G.; Levine, M.D.

    1993-01-01

    In his recent paper in The Energy Journal, Ronald Sutherland argues that several so-called ``market barriers`` to energy efficiency frequently cited in the literature are not market failures in the conventional sense and are thus irrelevant for energy policy. We argue that Sutherland has inadequately analyzed the idea of market barrier and misrepresented the policy implications of microeconomics. We find that economic theory, correctly interpreted, does not provide for the categorical dismissal of market barriers. We explore important methodological issues underlying the debate over market barriers, and discuss the importance of reconciling the findings of non-economic social sciences with the economic analysis of energy demand and consumer decision-making. We also scrutinize Sutherland`s attempt to apply finance theory to rationalize high implicit discount rates observed in energy-related choices, and find this use of finance theory to be inappropriate.

  4. On the economic analysis of problems in energy efficiency: Market barriers, market failures, and policy implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanstad, A.H.; Koomey, J.G.; Levine, M.D.

    1993-01-01

    In his recent paper in The Energy Journal, Ronald Sutherland argues that several so-called market barriers'' to energy efficiency frequently cited in the literature are not market failures in the conventional sense and are thus irrelevant for energy policy. We argue that Sutherland has inadequately analyzed the idea of market barrier and misrepresented the policy implications of microeconomics. We find that economic theory, correctly interpreted, does not provide for the categorical dismissal of market barriers. We explore important methodological issues underlying the debate over market barriers, and discuss the importance of reconciling the findings of non-economic social sciences with the economic analysis of energy demand and consumer decision-making. We also scrutinize Sutherland's attempt to apply finance theory to rationalize high implicit discount rates observed in energy-related choices, and find this use of finance theory to be inappropriate.

  5. Breaking out of the economic box: energy efficiency, social rationality and non-economic drivers of behavioral change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehrhardt-Martinez, Karen; Laitner, John A. ' Skip' (ACEEE, American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy, Washington, D.C. (United States))

    2009-07-01

    Energy concerns are increasingly on people's minds. According to a recent Gallup poll, nearly 30 percent of American's reported that energy prices were the most important financial problem facing their families today. But are these new concerns likely to translate into long-term behavioral changes and more energy-efficient behavior? Research suggests that it will take more than high prices to achieve maximum energy savings. People may like to think of themselves as rational economic actors, but a variety of studies by social-psychologists and behavioral economists reveal that people often act in ways that may be better described as 'socially-rational' and 'predictably irrational'. Despite these findings, many residential energy programs and most policy assessments continue to model potential energy savings as a function of existing technologies and the cost of those energy resources. This paper explores the ways in which individual behavior is shaped by the social context within which people operate and presents an alternative framework for modeling efficiency behavior. The alternative model recognizes that while individuals may not always behave in economically-rational ways, their behavior may be entirely rational from other vantage points. In fact, individuals often behave as rational social actors, determining what is and isn't 'appropriate' behavior by gleaning information from their own observations, from their peers, and from interactions within their sphere of social influence. As such, this paper explores the ways in which social rules, resources and context shape individual patterns of energy consumption. This alternative approach has important implications for program designs and policy recommendations.

  6. International Comparison of Water Resources Utilization Efficiency in the Silk Road Economic Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Long; Ma, Jing; Deng, Wei; Wang, Yong

    2018-03-01

    In order to get knowledge of the standard of water utilization of the Silk Road Economic Belt from international point of view, the paper analyzes the annual variation of water resources utilization in the Silk Road Economic Belt, and compares with other typical countries. The study shows that Water resources utilization efficiency has been greatly improved in recent 20 years and the water consumption per USD 10000 of GDP has been declined 87.97%. the improvement of industrial water consumption efficiency is the key driving factors for substantial decrease in water consumption.The comparison of water utilization and human development shows that the higher HDI the country is, the more efficient water utilization the country has. water consumption per USD 10000 of GDP in country with HDI>0.9 is 194m³, being 8.5% of that in country with HDI from 0.5 to 0.6. On the premise of maintaining the stable economic and social development of the Silk Road Economic Belt, the realization of the control target of total water consumption must depend on the strict control over the disorderly expansion of irrigated area, the change in the mode of economic growth, the implementation of the development strategy for new industrialization and urbanization, vigorous development of the processing industry with low water consumption as well as the high-tech and high value-added industry. Only in this way, the control target of total water consumption can be realized in the process of completing the industrialization task.

  7. A Methodology for the Estimation of the Wind Generator Economic Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaleskis, G.

    2017-12-01

    Integration of renewable energy sources and the improvement of the technological base may not only reduce the consumption of fossil fuel and environmental load, but also ensure the power supply in regions with difficult fuel delivery or power failures. The main goal of the research is to develop the methodology of evaluation of the wind turbine economic efficiency. The research has demonstrated that the electricity produced from renewable sources may be much more expensive than the electricity purchased from the conventional grid.

  8. After-installation service, a contribution to enhanced economic efficiency of reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilger, H.

    1996-01-01

    After-installation service agreements are concluded in general for the following plant systems or tasks: power operation, inspection and repair during outages, plant enhancements (retrofitting), instrumentation and control (software). The paper gives various examples selected from power plant practice in Germany, showing that service contracts are a major factor contributing to maintaining economic efficiency, or enhancing it. Examples of nuclear power plant management abroad relying on service contracts are also given (USA, France, Japan). (orig./HP) [de

  9. Economic efficiency substantiation of information products practical online promotion on the mechanical engineering plants

    OpenAIRE

    Roman Oksentyuk

    2015-01-01

    The profitability ratio ROI and its adaptation to calculate the economic efficiency of online advertising campaign has been analyzed. Investment profitability factor enables to estimate to what extent the advertising costs in the global network are justified and profitable for your business. The ratio use on the Ternopil mechanical engineering plants websites as a case study has been investigated by the author of the article. Such indices as the number...

  10. Industrial energy efficiency: Interdisciplinary perspectives on the thermodynamic, technical and economic constraints

    OpenAIRE

    McKenna, Russell

    2009-01-01

    Overreliance on energy from fossil fuels is unsustainable because of their regional depletion and associated environmental impacts. The British industrial sector accounts for around one fifth of final energy demand and one third of carbon emissions nationally. This thesis attempts to quantify the potential for industrial energy efficiency from the current baseline, by adopting thermodynamic and economic perspectives. The methodology involves a top-down analysis of energy trends within the man...

  11. Efficiency Assessment of Economic International Cooperation in Development of Arctic Offshore Oil and Gas Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polina V. Beresneva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The research is focused on efficiency assessment of economic cooperation in development of Arctic offshore oil and gas resources. The author developed an economic model based on cost-benefit analysis (CBA. CBA is used in some countries (EU, USA, Australia as an analytic tool to make public policy decisions. CBA is based on the method of discounting cash flows associated with costs and benefits of public policy. It is assumed that all public goals are equally important inter alia, hence public bodies should opt for those initiatives that maximize public benefits for every dollar spent from the state budget. There are five stages of economic modeling: 1 the definition of public benefits and costs associated with the public initiative; 2 monetary valuation of costs and benefits; 3 the definition of discounting period and discounting rate; 4 the calculation of net present value of cash flows; 5 the comparison of initiatives' net present values. The model is built with a number of hypotheses assumed. It allows making evaluation of investments into the technology to decrease the cost of Arctic offshore oil and gas development. Moreover, the model has two scenarios describing a public policy to support technology development with international economic cooperation and without it. Under given hypotheses both scenarios return positive net present value of policies which proves that governmental initiative to support Arctic technology development is economically justified. Also the model sows that the scenario with international cooperation is more efficient from economic point of view. It is explained by two factors: the higher speed of technology transfer (due W international cooperation and the opportunity to use financial leverage (attracting the funds from foreign partners. The model allows closing the existing scientific gap between the theory of CBA method and its practical use in public decision making.

  12. Analysis of extreme values of the economic efficiency indicators of transport infrastructure projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korytárová, J.; Vaňková, L.

    2017-10-01

    Paper builds on previous research of the authors into the evaluation of economic efficiency of transport infrastructure projects evaluated by the economic efficiency ratio - NPV, IRR and BCR. Values of indicators and subsequent outputs of the sensitivity analysis show extremely favourable values in some cases. The authors dealt with the analysis of these indicators down to the level of the input variables and examined which inputs have a larger share of these extreme values. NCF for the calculation of above mentioned ratios is created by benefits that arise as the difference between zero and investment options of the project (savings in travel and operating costs, savings in travel time costs, reduction in accident costs and savings in exogenous costs) as well as total agency costs. Savings in travel time costs which contribute to the overall utility of projects by more than 70% appear to be the most important benefits in the long term horizon. This is the reason why this benefit emphasized. The outcome of the article has resulted how the particular basic variables contributed to the total robustness of economic efficiency of these project.

  13. Operational safety performance and economical efficiency evaluation for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yachun; Zou Shuliang

    2012-01-01

    The economical efficiency of nuclear power includes a series of environmental parameters, for example, cleanliness. Nuclear security is the precondition and guarantee for its economy, and both are the direct embodiment of the social benefits of nuclear power. Through analyzing the supervision and management system on the effective operation of nuclear power plants, which has been put forward by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the World Association of Nuclear Operators (WANO), the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and other organizations, a set of indexs on the safety performance and economical efficiency of nuclear power are explored and established; Based on data envelopment analysis, a DEA approach is employed to evaluate the efficiency of the operation performance of several nuclear power plants, Some primary conclusion are achieved on the basis of analyzing the threshold parameter's sensitivity and relativity which affected operational performance. To address the conflicts between certain security and economical indicators, a multi-objective programming model is established, where top priority is given to nuclear safety, and the investment behavior of nuclear power plant is thereby optimized. (authors)

  14. Economic efficiency of e-learning in higher education: An industrial approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Vilaseca

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Little work has been yet done to analyse if e-learning is an efficiency way in economic terms to produce higher education, especially because there are not available data in official statistics. Despite of these important constrains, this paper aims to contribute to the study of economic efficiency of e-learning through the analysis of a sample of e-learning universities during a period of time (1997-2002. We have wanted to obtain some empirical evidence to understand if e-learning is a feasible model of providing education for universities and which are the variables that allow for feasibility attainment. The main findings are: 1 that the rise of the number of students enrolled is consistent with increasing labour productivity rates; 2 that cost labour savings are explained by the improvement of universities’ economic efficiency (or total factor productivity; and 3 that improvement of total factor productivity in e-learning production is due to the attainment of scale economies, but also to two organisational innovations: outsourcing processes that leads to the increase of variable costs consistent with decreasing marginal costs, and the sharing of assets’ control and use that allow for a rise in assets rotation.

  15. Problems of Development and Increase of Economic Efficiency of Sugar Beet Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomashevska Olga A.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is the studying of the trends of development and economic efficiency of sugar beet production (using the example of agricultural enterprises of Rokytne district of Kyiv region and an attempt to outline the directions for improvement of the situation in the sugar beet industry. As a result of the research, the dynamics of development and economic efficiency of sugar beet production at farms of Rokytne district of Kyiv region is analyzed, and the break-even volume of sugar beet production by agrarian enterprises of Kiev region and an individual enterprise of Rokytne district is determined. Particular attention is paid to the dynamics of profitability of sugar beet production in the period from 2011 to 2015. The main problems hindering the development of sugar beet production are identified, namely, the lack of sales channels and high production costs. Prospects for further research in this area are to increase the economic efficiency of sugar beet production and find ways to develop this sector, provided that the production is properly organized, the manufacturing process is followed, the fertilizers are properly used, the seeds are chosen correctly, advanced technologies and high-performance equipment are applied, etc.

  16. Economic values for health and feed efficiency traits of dual-purpose cattle in marginal areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupová, Z; Krupa, E; Michaličková, M; Wolfová, M; Kasarda, R

    2016-01-01

    Economic values of clinical mastitis, claw disease, and feed efficiency traits along with 16 additional production and functional traits were estimated for the dairy population of the Slovak Pinzgau breed using a bioeconomic approach. In the cow-calf population (suckler cow population) of the same breed, the economic values of feed efficiency traits along with 15 further production and functional traits were calculated. The marginal economic values of clinical mastitis and claw disease incidence in the dairy system were -€ 70.65 and -€ 26.73 per case per cow and year, respectively. The marginal economic values for residual feed intake were -€ 55.15 and -€ 54.64/kg of dry matter per day for cows and breeding heifers in the dairy system and -€ 20.45, -€ 11.30, and -€ 6.04/kg of dry matter per day for cows, breeding heifers, and fattened animals in the cow-calf system, respectively, all expressed per cow and year. The sums of the relative economic values for the 2 new health traits in the dairy system and for residual feed intake across all cattle categories in both systems were 1.4 and 8%, respectively. Within the dairy production system, the highest relative economic values were for milk yield (20%), daily gain of calves (20%), productive lifetime (10%), and cow conception rate (8%). In the cow-calf system, the most important traits were weight gain of calves from 120 to 210 d and from birth to 120 d (19 and 14%, respectively), productive lifetime (17%), and cow conception rate (13%). Based on the calculation of economic values for traits in the dual-purpose Pinzgau breed, milk production and growth traits remain highly important in the breeding goal, but their relative importance should be adapted to new production and economic conditions. The economic importance of functional traits (especially of cow productive lifetime and fertility) was sufficiently high to make the inclusion of these traits into the breeding goal necessary. An increased interest

  17. Modeling Equity for Alternative Water Rate Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, R.; Mjelde, J.

    2011-12-01

    The rising popularity of increasing block rates for urban water runs counter to mainstream economic recommendations, yet decision makers in rate design forums are attracted to the notion of higher prices for larger users. Among economists, it is widely appreciated that uniform rates have stronger efficiency properties than increasing block rates, especially when volumetric prices incorporate intrinsic water value. Yet, except for regions where water market purchases have forced urban authorities to include water value in water rates, economic arguments have weakly penetrated policy. In this presentation, recent evidence will be reviewed regarding long term trends in urban rate structures while observing economic principles pertaining to these choices. The main objective is to investigate the equity of increasing block rates as contrasted to uniform rates for a representative city. Using data from four Texas cities, household water demand is established as a function of marginal price, income, weather, number of residents, and property characteristics. Two alternative rate proposals are designed on the basis of recent experiences for both water and wastewater rates. After specifying a reasonable number (~200) of diverse households populating the city and parameterizing each household's characteristics, every household's consumption selections are simulated for twelve months. This procedure is repeated for both rate systems. Monthly water and wastewater bills are also computed for each household. Most importantly, while balancing the budget of the city utility we compute the effect of switching rate structures on the welfares of households of differing types. Some of the empirical findings are as follows. Under conditions of absent water scarcity, households of opposing characters such as low versus high income do not have strong preferences regarding rate structure selection. This changes as water scarcity rises and as water's opportunity costs are allowed to

  18. A data envelope analysis to assess factors affecting technical and economic efficiency of individual broiler breeder hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, L F; Zuidhof, M J; Jeffrey, S R; Naeima, A; Renema, R A; Robinson, F E

    2010-08-01

    This study evaluated the effect of feed allocation and energetic efficiency on technical and economic efficiency of broiler breeder hens using the data envelope analysis methodology and quantified the effect of variables affecting technical efficiency. A total of 288 Ross 708 pullets were placed in individual cages at 16 wk of age and assigned to 1 of 4 feed allocation groups. Three of them had feed allocated on a group basis with divergent BW targets: standard, high (standard x 1.1), and low (standard x 0.9). The fourth group had feed allocated on an individual bird basis following the standard BW target. Birds were classified in 3 energetic efficiency categories: low, average, and high, based on estimated maintenance requirements. Technical efficiency considered saleable chicks as output and cumulative ME intake and time as inputs. Economic efficiency of feed allocation treatments was analyzed under different cost scenarios. Birds with low feed allocation exhibited a lower technical efficiency (69.4%) than standard (72.1%), which reflected a reduced egg production rate. Feed allocation of the high treatment could have been reduced by 10% with the same chick production as the standard treatment. The low treatment exhibited reduced economic efficiency at greater capital costs, whereas high had reduced economic efficiency at greater feed costs. The average energetic efficiency hens had a lower technical efficiency in the low compared with the standard feed allocation. A 1% increment in estimated maintenance requirement changed technical efficiency by -0.23%, whereas a 1% increment in ME intake had a -0.47% effect. The negative relationship between technical efficiency and ME intake was counterbalanced by a positive correlation of ME intake and egg production. The negative relationship of technical efficiency and maintenance requirements was synergized by a negative correlation of hen maintenance and egg production. Economic efficiency methodologies are effective

  19. Primary Healthcare Spending: Striving for Equity under Fiscal ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-04-01

    Apr 1, 2010 ... Book cover Primary Healthcare Spending: Striving for Equity under Fiscal Federalism ... Primary Healthcare Spending is an important reference for ... field of health policy and health economics, agencies involved in providing ...

  20. The equity impact of the universal coverage policy: lessons from Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakongsai, Phusit; Limwattananon, Supon; Tangcharoensathien, Viroj

    2009-01-01

    This chapter assesses health equity achievements of the Thai health system before and after the introduction of the universal coverage (UC) policy. It examines five dimensions of equity: equity in financial contributions, the incidence of catastrophic health expenditure, the degree of impoverishment as a result of household out-of-pocket payments for health, equity in health service use and the incidence of public subsidies for health. The standard methods proposed by O'Donnell, van Doorslaer, and Wagstaff (2008b) were used to measure equity in financial contribution, healthcare utilization and public subsidies, and in assessing the incidence of catastrophic health expenditure and impoverishment. Two major national representative household survey datasets were used: Socio-Economic Surveys and Health and Welfare Surveys. General tax was the most progressive source of finance in Thailand. Because this source dominates total financing, the overall outcome was progressive, with the rich contributing a greater share of their income than the poor. The low incidence of catastrophic health expenditure and impoverishment before UC was further reduced after UC. Use of healthcare and the distribution of government subsidies were both pro-poor: in particular, the functioning of primary healthcare (PHC) at the district level serves as a "pro-poor hub" in translating policy into practice and equity outcomes. The Thai health financing reforms have been accompanied by nationwide extension of PHC coverage, mandatory rural health service by new graduates and systems redesign, especially the introduction of a contracting model and closed-ended provider payment methods. Together, these changes have led to a more equitable and more efficient health system. Institutional capacity to generate evidence and to translate it into policy decisions, effective implementation and comprehensive monitoring and evaluation are essential to successful system-level reforms.

  1. Opinion Health equity from the African perspective

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MESKE

    will not be able to realize meaningful poverty alleviation despite the creditable record of relatively high economic ... Poverty reduction is the MDG goal most crucial to health equity. Anyangwe et.al characterize poverty as both .... disaster, the Horn of Africa recently experienced drought-caused famine and a similar threat is ...

  2. ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY ANALYSIS OF ORGANIC CROP AND ANIMAL FARMS IN ROMANIA. COMPARATIVE EVOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra MUSCĂNESCU

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The organic sector in our country, although as shown in continuous development, faces a multitude of problems: the climatic conditions of our country, characterized by periods of drought in many parts of the country, high input prices, the majority of which are imported; difficulties in identifying markets for products, reduced subsidies, standardized conditions difficult to meet, etc. The problems the sector is facing reflect in the organization of the production activity and hence the economic performance of farm production. Accordingly, the aim of this paper was to analyze on the basis of annual financial and accounting information collected in the two vegetable farms and the two animal breeding farms, their efficiency / inefficiency, and the results were compared to identify the causes of the differences obtained in the efficiency at a farm level. The results obtained reveal a higher level of return on integrated vegetable farm in a joint recovery and a high efficiency for chain integrated animal farms.

  3. Essays in economics of energy efficiency in residential buildings - An empirical analysis[Dissertation 17157

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakob, M.

    2007-07-01

    Energy efficiency in the building sector is a key element of cost-effective climate change and energy policies in most countries throughout the world. (...) However, a gap between the cost-effectiveness of energy efficiency measures, their benefits, the necessities from a societal point of view on the one hand and the actual investments in the building stock - particularly in the moment of re-investment and refurbishing - on the other hand became more and more evident. The research questions that arose against this background were whether this gap and the low energy efficiency levels and rates could be confirmed empirically and if yes, how the gap could be explained and how it could be overcome by adequate policy measures. To address these questions, the multi-functional character of buildings (i.e. well conditioned and quiet living rooms and working space) had to be considered. Associated benefits arise on the societal level (ancillary benefits) and on the private level (co-benefits), the latter being increasingly addressed by different building labels such as 'Minergie', 'Passive House', and others. It was assumed that these co-benefits are of economic relevance, but empirical evidence regarding their economic value was missing. Thus, putting these benefits into an appropriate economic appraisal framework was at stake to make use of them in market information and policy instruments, preventing uninformed and biased cost benefit analyses and decisions on the private and on the societal level. The research presented in this PhD thesis had the goal to provide a sound empirical basis about costs and benefits of energy efficiency investments in residential buildings, with a special emphasis on the economic valuation of their co-benefits from a building user perspective (owner-occupiers, purchasers and tenants). In view of long time-horizons in the building sector, the techno-economic dynamics should also be addressed. The results should be useful

  4. EFFICIENCY OF EDUCATIONAL INNOVATIVE TECHNIQUES IN TEACHING FINANCIAL AND ECONOMIC DISCIPLINES (BASED ON SOCIAL RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Konstantinovna Bitkina

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Importance of the presented study consists in need of the introduction innovation educational technology when teaching in high educational institutions. Objectivity specified need you-is the Russian system of the higher education called by turning on standards within the framework of Bolognaagreement. Existing in persisting time scientific studies and practical developments in incomplete measure touch in-ask, concerning using educational innovation technology in the field of teaching social-humanitarian sciences, including coursesfinancial-economic profile. Considering aforesaid, purpose persisting studies is a development of the methodical approach to estimation of efficiency of the using educational innovation and proving of the directions on improvement of their use in high school thrifty persons of the profile when learning student discipline to specialization. In the course of undertaking the study were used methods of the collection and processing statistical and sociological information, summeries and groups got data, quantitative estimation to efficiency applicable technology. The Results of the study touch the methodical questions of the estimation to efficiency educational innovation in high school financial-economic profile and practical aspects of their use when teaching of discipline to specialization beside student.Purpose: development methodical approach educational innovation estimation and proving ways of improving using educational innovation in the economical universities.Methodology: statistical summary, statistical grouping, sociological questioning, effectivity estimation, comparative analyses.Results:1 ways of effectivity estimation educational innovation using were revealed;2 the practical recommendation for improving using educational innovation  were proved.Practical implications: educational activity in the socio-economical higher institutions.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-8-37

  5. Global health equity and climate stabilisation: a common agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friel, Sharon; Marmot, Michael; McMichael, Anthony J; Kjellstrom, Tord; Vågerö, Denny

    2008-11-08

    Although health has improved for many people, the extent of health inequities between and within countries is growing. Meanwhile, humankind is disrupting the global climate and other life-supporting environmental systems, thereby creating serious risks for health and wellbeing, especially in vulnerable populations but ultimately for everybody. Underlying determinants of health inequity and environmental change overlap substantially; they are signs of an economic system predicated on asymmetric growth and competition, shaped by market forces that mostly disregard health and environmental consequences rather than by values of fairness and support. A shift is needed in priorities in economic development towards healthy forms of urbanisation, more efficient and renewable energy sources, and a sustainable and fairer food system. Global interconnectedness and interdependence enable the social and environmental determinants of health to be addressed in ways that will increase health equity, reduce poverty, and build societies that live within environmental limits.

  6. Economic efficiency versus social equality? The U.S. liberal model versus the European social model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Vicente; Schmitt, John

    2005-01-01

    This article begins by challenging the widely held view in neoliberal discourse that there is a necessary trade-off between higher efficiency and lower reduction of inequalities: the article empirically shows that the liberal, U.S. model has been less efficient economically (slower economic growth, higher unemployment) than the social model in existence in the European Union and in the majority of its member states. Based on the data presented, the authors criticize the adoption of features of the liberal model (such as deregulation of their labor markets, reduction of public social expenditures) by some European governments. The second section analyzes the causes for the slowdown of economic growth and the increase of unemployment in the European Union--that is, the application of monetarist and neoliberal policies in the institutional frame of the European Union, including the Stability Pact, the objectives and modus operandi of the European Central Bank, and the very limited resources available to the European Commission for stimulating and distributive functions. The third section details the reasons for these developments, including (besides historical considerations) the enormous influence of financial capital in the E.U. institutions and the very limited democracy. Proposals for change are included.

  7. The economical efficiency of private investments in higher education in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Maksyutina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the economical efficiency of investments in higher education in modern conditions of Russia. The beginning of the article includes a characteristic of the existing empiric research concerning the efficiency of investments in human capital assets. Further the author of the article introduces the results of pay off calculation of private investments in higher education. The result of the research was that in modern conditions of Russia investments in higher education are exceedingly advantageous. High norms of higher education feedback and short period of pay off of these investments explain the reasons of continuously growing demand for it on the part of the population, especially young people. The article proves that the level of population education in Russia is quite high, however accumulated human capital asset is used insufficiently effective. Many people with higher education are forced to take jobs not requiring higher education.  Sharp shift in educational behavior of Russian people raises new demands to labor market. Graduates of higher educational institutions, appearing on a labor market, form qualitatively different demands towards it. But tempo of Russian economics development today can not provide job positions for all graduates of higher educational institutions. That is why structural change of economics is needed.

  8. ANALYSIS OF INFLUENCE FACTORS OF ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY ON THE ECONOMY OF THE INTEGRATED STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. P. Bogomolova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently in Russia, special attention is paid to the food industry, providing a key influence on the state's economy and food security of the country. The food industry not only creates substantial part of the gross domestic product, which is one of the main sources of fillings budgets of all levels, and contributes to the strengthening of the state in world markets. These circum-stances make it necessary to increase the efficiency of industrial structures by mobilizing factors affecting the economy of enterprises, including by shifting emphasis on the integration of food industry enterprises in General competitiveness of the goods produced, the stability of the entire industry, its leading industries and organizations. The article substantiates the expediency of application of integrated structures, discusses the methods and tools of analysis of influence factors of economic efficiency on the economy of inte-grated structures. Evaluation is recommended in two key areas: assessment of the financial condition and evaluation of training and development of staff, taking into account the strategic objectives of integrated structures. The analysis makes it possible to correctly allocate financial resources and to achieve balanced economic performance management through more effective use of credit re-sources, the rational management of economic parameters optimization of the number of employees and production capacity.

  9. Economic Efficiency Assessment of Autonomous Wind/Diesel/Hydrogen Systems in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Marchenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The economic efficiency of harnessing wind energy in the autonomous power systems of Russia is analyzed. Wind turbines are shown to be competitive for many considered variants (groups of consumers, placement areas, and climatic and meteorological conditions. The authors study the possibility of storing energy in the form of hydrogen in the autonomous wind/diesel/hydrogen power systems that include wind turbines, diesel generator, electrolyzer, hydrogen tank, and fuel cells. The paper presents the zones of economic efficiency of the system (set of parameters that provide its competitiveness depending on load, fuel price, and long-term average annual wind speed. At low wind speed and low price of fuel, it is reasonable to use only diesel generator to supply power to consumers. When the fuel price and wind speed increase, first it becomes more economical to use a wind-diesel system and then wind turbines with a hydrogen system. In the latter case, according to the optimization results, diesel generator is excluded from the system.

  10. EXPRESSION OF THE TRANSPORT SECTOR OPERATIONAL EFFICIENCY EVALUATION METHODOLOGY (TRENDS AT DIFFERENT STAGES OF THE ECONOMIC CYCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deimena KIYAK

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available It is important to evaluate the impact of economic fluctuations on the transport sector operational efficiency, since such an analysis is a source of economic information which contributes to the identification of the sector's potential and advantages, the establishment of the risky areas of activity, and the exploration of the opportunities to increase its effectiveness. The aim of the study was to apply mathematical evaluation methods to the exploration of the operational efficiency of the Lithuanian transport sector companies and, based on the outcomes, to validate the opportunity of predicting a potential change of the economic cycle. The operational efficiency of the Lithuanian transport sector was analysed in the context of the cyclical national economy, and not in individual economic boom or recession periods, as that allowed for more detailed evaluation of the specific activities of the sector and its impact on Lithuanian economy. To achieve the aim, three different stages of the economic cycle in Lithuania were identified, and calculations were made during them. Based on the aggregate financial data, four different economic efficiency indicators were developed that reflected the efficiency level of the entire transport sector, and the sensitivity of the transport sector to economic fluctuations was identified. The comparison of the changes in the transport sector and in Lithuanian economy made it obvious that the level of the sector's operational efficiency could be regarded as a leading indicator of the economic cycle.

  11. The economic efficiency of conservation measures for amphibians in organic farming--results from bio-economic modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler, Johannes; Sattler, Claudia; Helmecke, Angela; Zander, Peter; Uthes, Sandra; Bachinger, Johann; Stein-Bachinger, Karin

    2013-01-15

    This paper presents a whole farm bio-economic modelling approach for the assessment and optimisation of amphibian conservation conditions applied at the example of a large scale organic farm in North-Eastern Germany. The assessment focuses mainly on the habitat quality as affected by conservation measures such as through specific adapted crop production activities (CPA) and in-field buffer strips for the European tree frog (Hyla arborea), considering also interrelations with other amphibian species (i.e. common spadefoot toad (Pelobates fuscus), fire-bellied toad (Bombina bombina)). The aim of the approach is to understand, analyse and optimize the relationships between the ecological and economic performance of an organic farming system, based on the expectation that amphibians are differently impacted by different CPAs. The modelling system consists of a set of different sub-models that generate a farm model on the basis of environmentally evaluated CPAs. A crop-rotation sub-model provides a set of agronomically sustainable crop rotations that ensures overall sufficient nitrogen supply and controls weed, pest and disease infestations. An economic sub-model calculates the gross margins for each possible CPA including costs of inputs such as labour and machinery. The conservation effects of the CPAs are assessed with an ecological sub-model evaluates the potential negative or positive effect that each work step of a CPA has on amphibians. A mathematical programming sub-model calculates the optimal farm organization taking into account the limited factors of the farm (e.g. labour, land) as well as ecological improvements. In sequential model runs, the habitat quality is to be improved by the model, while the highest possible gross margin is still to be achieved. The results indicate that the model can be used to show the scope of action that a farmer has to improve habitat quality by reducing damage to amphibian population on its land during agricultural activities

  12. Economic effects of energy efficiency improvements in the Finnish building stock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuominen, Pekka; Forsström, Juha; Honkatukia, Juha

    2013-01-01

    This study estimates the economic effects of investing in energy efficiency in buildings on a national level. First conservation potentials in space heating for two different scenarios with different levels of investment in energy efficiency are quantified. This was done relying on statistical data and future projections of the development of the building stock. Then economic modeling was used to estimate the effects on energy sector and the economy at large. The results show that a rather modest increase resulting in a few percent rise in annual construction and renovation investments can decrease total primary energy consumption 3.8–5.3% by 2020 and 4.7–6.8% by 2050 compared to a baseline scenario. On the short term a slight decrease in the level of GDP and employment is expected. On the medium to long term, however, the effects on both would be positive. Furthermore, a significant drop in harmful emissions and hence external costs is anticipated. Overall, a clear net benefit is expected from improving energy efficiency. - Highlights: ► The possible cut in energy consumption: 3.8–5.3% by 2020 and 4.7–6.8% by 2050. ► Short term negative effects to GDP and long term positive effects are expected. ► A significant drop in harmful emissions and hence external costs is anticipated.

  13. The Rethinking of the Economic Activity Based on Principles of Eco-Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela VÎRJAN

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Drought, floods, damaging storms, heat waves, acid rain, climate changes are but a few of the consequences of human action upon the environment. Can we possibly live against the environment? The answer is NO, and as such we must run an economy which respects the principles of eco-efficiency because only so can economic progress go on. Green economy is a great opportunity for all of the world’s countries, and is a real economy which keeps the resource-needs and environment relation in balance, aims towards quality and not quantity, lays emphasis on regeneration, recycling, reuse and creativity. Eco-efficiency implies both innovation towards a high degree of product dematerialization, services and systems, alongside with greatly changing current production and consumption practices. If we produce based on the principle of eco-efficiency we can reduce the effects of the profound economic, ecological, socio-political and cultural-spiritual crisis which marks our planet and countries.

  14. Factors that are influencing the economical efficiency of the CHP plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruieneanu, Liviu; Ion, Mircea

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents some factors that might influence the economical efficiency of a cogeneration plant. These factors are: the understanding of the fuel economy at consumers; - the influence of the electricity production efficiency; - the influence of exergy losses. The statistical data for different countries of Europe show that under the conditions of a deregulated liberalized market of energy the cogeneration plants have numerous financial difficulties. Even if the use of cogeneration ensures a fuel saving, if this economy it is not obvious for the consumers, those consumers might prefer for the production of heat the use of a heat only generating plant. This trend might spread rapidly if the increase of the electricity will not be present immediately in the bill of the consumers that renounce to the heat produced by the CHP plant. The method used for cost allocation on both types of energy has also a great importance, because it might facilitate the rehabilitation measures and doing so it might allow lower prices for both types of energy. Perhaps the most important factor for the economical efficiency of the plant are the exergy losses. The analysis presented above shows two things, namely: - that the electricity production has a very high price, and this cost might be lowered down by some rehabilitation measures (for example repowering); - and that the heat only plants (boilers) are not affected by the exergy losses and that's why if we analyse only the heat production, the use of cogeneration might seem inappropriate

  15. The effect of economic factors and energy efficiency programs on residential electricity consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Mihoko

    Many countries have implemented policies to correct market and behavioral failures that lead to inefficient energy use. It is important to know what factors and policies can effectively overcome such failures and improve energy efficiency; however, a comprehensive analysis has been difficult because of data limitations. Using state scores compiled by American organizations recently, and adopting fixed-effects regression models, I analyze the joint impacts of relevant factors and policy programs on residential electricity consumption in each U.S. state. The empirical results reveal that increases in electricity price have small and negative effects, and increases in personal income have positive effects on residential electricity sales per capita (a measure of energy efficiency). The results suggest that it may take time for economic factors to affect electricity sales. The effects of personal income suggest the difficulty of controlling residential electricity consumption; however, they also imply that there is some room in households to reduce electricity use. The study also finds that programs and budgets of several policies seem to be associated with electricity sales. The estimates from a model including interaction terms suggest the importance of including multiple policies when analyzing and designing policies to address electricity efficiency. The results also imply the possibility of rebound effects of some policies, whereby improvements in energy efficiency lead to increases in energy consumption due to the associated lower per unit cost. Future studies should analyze both short-term and long-term effects of economic factors and policies, based on improved and accumulated time series and panel data, in order to design more effective policies for improving residential electricity efficiency.

  16. EVALUATION OF ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY OF INVESTMENT IN THE INDUSTRIAL LOGISTICS PARK OF THE NOVOSIBIRSK REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kogan A. B.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The author describes a method for estimation the economic efficiency, based on the input-output model. The proposed method develops the author of well-known methods of cost-benefits analysis. The method is used to assess the effectiveness of budget financing the establishment of Industrial logistics Park (PLP in the Novosibirsk region (NSO. The estimation is based on the input-output model developed for the NSO. Economic benefits are assessed on the basis of growth in gross value added (GVA. This takes into account a number of losses GVA, for example, losses due to the displacement of existing producers, losses due to the purchase of imported resources, etc. Economiccosts is estimated as a fulloutput of the economy, necessary for the establishment and operation of the investment project.

  17. Technical and economic assessment of design efficiency of information and measuring systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurov, V. M.; Eremin, E. N.; Baisagov, Ya Zh; Arkhipov, V. V.

    2018-01-01

    A thermodynamic approach to the analysis of information-measuring systems (IMS) is developed in the work. Expressions for efficiency of IMS are obtained. The connection between the amount of processor memory and the amount of incoming information and the accuracy of the IMS is obtained. It is shown that the probability of information loss in IMS decreases with the increase in the amount of information from the object. Using the analogy method, economic aspects of IMS design are considered. The innate ability of IMS and Moore’s law are considered. The proposed approach and the resulting formulas will be useful in the design of new IMS.

  18. Governing health equity in Scandinavian municipalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheele, Christian Elling; Little, Ingvild; Diderichsen, Finn

    2018-01-01

    AIMS: Local governments in the Scandinavian countries are increasingly committed to reduce health inequity through 'health equity in all policies' (HEiAP) governance. There exists, however, only very sporadic implementation evidence concerning municipal HEiAP governance, which is the focus...... of this study. METHODS: Data are based on qualitative thematic network analysis of 20 interviews conducted from 2014 to 2015 with Scandinavian political and administrative practitioners. RESULTS: We identify 24 factors located within three categories; political processes, where insufficient political commitment...... to health equity goals outside of the health sector and inadequate economic prioritization budget curbs implementation. Concerning evidence, there is a lack of epidemiological data, detailed evidence of health equity interventions as well as indicators relevant for monitoring implementation. Concerted...

  19. The economic and environmental consequences of implementing nitrogen-efficient technologies and management practices in agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Mauzerall, Denise L; Davidson, Eric A; Kanter, David R; Cai, Ruohong

    2015-03-01

    Technologies and management practices (TMPs) that reduce the application of nitrogen (N) fertilizer while maintaining crop yields can improve N use efficiency (NUE) and are important tools for meeting the dual challenges of increasing food production and reducing N pollution. However, because farmers operate to maximize their profits, incentives to implement TMPs are limited, and TMP implementation will not always reduce N pollution. Therefore, we have developed the NUE Economic and Environmental impact analytical framework (NUE) to examine the economic and environmental consequences of implementing TMPs in agriculture, with a specific focus on farmer profits, N fertilizer consumption, N losses, and cropland demand. Our analytical analyses show that impact of TMPs on farmers' economic decision-making and the environment is affected by how TMPs change the yield ceiling and the N fertilization rate at the ceiling and by how the prices of TMPs, fertilizer, and crops vary. Technologies and management practices that increase the yield ceiling appear to create a greater economic incentive for farmers than TMPs that do not but may result in higher N application rates and excess N losses. Nevertheless, the negative environmental impacts of certain TMPs could be avoided if their price stays within a range determined by TMP yield response, fertilizer price, and crop price. We use a case study on corn production in the midwestern United States to demonstrate how NUE can be applied to farmers' economic decision-making and policy analysis. Our NUE framework provides an important tool for policymakers to understand how combinations of fertilizer, crop, and TMP prices affect the possibility of achieving win-win outcomes for farmers and the environment. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  20. Rock Equity Holdings, LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA is providing notice of an Administrative Penalty Assessment in the form of an Expedited Storm Water Settlement Agreement against Rock Equity Holdings, LLC, for alleged violations at The Cove at Kettlestone/98th Street Reconstruction located at 3015

  1. The efficiency frontier approach to economic evaluation of health-care interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caro, J Jaime; Nord, Erik; Siebert, Uwe; McGuire, Alistair; McGregor, Maurice; Henry, David; de Pouvourville, Gérard; Atella, Vincenzo; Kolominsky-Rabas, Peter

    2010-10-01

    IQWiG commissioned an international panel of experts to develop methods for the assessment of the relation of benefits to costs in the German statutory health-care system. The panel recommended that IQWiG inform German decision makers of the net costs and value of additional benefits of an intervention in the context of relevant other interventions in that indication. To facilitate guidance regarding maximum reimbursement, this information is presented in an efficiency plot with costs on the horizontal axis and value of benefits on the vertical. The efficiency frontier links the interventions that are not dominated and provides guidance. A technology that places on the frontier or to the left is reasonably efficient, while one falling to the right requires further justification for reimbursement at that price. This information does not automatically give the maximum reimbursement, as other considerations may be relevant. Given that the estimates are for a specific indication, they do not address priority setting across the health-care system. This approach informs decision makers about efficiency of interventions, conforms to the mandate and is consistent with basic economic principles. Empirical testing of its feasibility and usefulness is required.

  2. Brands and Brand Equity

    OpenAIRE

    Brunello Adrian

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays brands have become significant drivers for product purchasing and usage decisions. Thus, they constitute a substantial intangible asset for most companies. In order to gain customers and make them become loyal, firms have to establish the equity of the brand and present it in a clear and visible way to their target market. Therefore the topic of brand equity plays a major role in the creation and development of product and company brand strategy. The paper focuses on some general inf...

  3. Accuracy, precision, and economic efficiency for three methods of thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) population density assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Andrew M; Parrella, Michael P

    2011-08-01

    Western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), is a major horticultural pest and an important vector of plant viruses in many parts of the world. Methods for assessing thrips population density for pest management decision support are often inaccurate or imprecise due to thrips' positive thigmotaxis, small size, and naturally aggregated populations. Two established methods, flower tapping and an alcohol wash, were compared with a novel method, plant desiccation coupled with passive trapping, using accuracy, precision and economic efficiency as comparative variables. Observed accuracy was statistically similar and low (37.8-53.6%) for all three methods. Flower tapping was the least expensive method, in terms of person-hours, whereas the alcohol wash method was the most expensive. Precision, expressed by relative variation, depended on location within the greenhouse, location on greenhouse benches, and the sampling week, but it was generally highest for the flower tapping and desiccation methods. Economic efficiency, expressed by relative net precision, was highest for the flower tapping method and lowest for the alcohol wash method. Advantages and disadvantages are discussed for all three methods used. If relative density assessment methods such as these can all be assumed to accurately estimate a constant proportion of absolute density, then high precision becomes the methodological goal in terms of measuring insect population density, decision making for pest management, and pesticide efficacy assessments.

  4. Optimization model for school transportation design based on economic and social efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heddebaut, O.; Ciommo, F. di

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to design a model that allows to suggest new planning proposals on school transport, so that greater efficiency operational will be achieved. It is a multi-objective optimization problem including the minimization of the cost of busing and minimizes the total travel time of all students. The foundation of the model is the planning routes made by bus due to changes in the starting time in schools, so the buses are able to perform more than one route. The methodology is based on the School Bus Routing Problem, so that routes from different schools within a given time window are connected, and within the restrictions of the problem, the system costs are minimized. The proposed model is programmed to be applied in any generic case. This is a multi-objective problem, in which there will be several possible solutions, depending on the weight to be assigned to each of the variables involved, economic point of view versus social point of view. Therefore, the proposed model is helpful for policy planning school transportation, supporting the decision making under conditions of economic and social efficiency. The model has been applied in some schools located in an area of Cantabria (Spain), resulting in 71 possible optimal options that minimize the cost of school transport between 2,7% and 35,1% regarding to the current routes of school transport, with different school start time and minimum travel time for students. (Author)

  5. Towards a more efficient environmental policy. A socio-economic analysis of four persistent environmental problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-11-01

    For the benefit of the National Environmental Policy Plan that will be published in 2001, the Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis analysed four persistent environmental problems. These problems are the environmental effects of the manure surplus in the agricultural sector; the climate problem; the acidification by traffic and the air traffic noise around the airport Schiphol. This study not only looks ahead, but also looks back on 30 years of environmental policy. From a welfare economic perspective an analysis is made of the efficiency and effectiveness of that policy. Several questions are answered,e.g.: how could the manure problem of such a small sector as the livestock breeding persist for so many years?; how effective were the agreements with the industry and other sectors on energy efficiency improvement?; what made the acidification policy directed on traffic so successful?; why is the noise production of air traffic still a problem whereas the number of seriously bothered houses is decreased? The answers on these questions provide information which can be useful for the formulation of the future environmental policy. This information refers to the conditions for formulating adequate policy goals, the relation between those goals and policy instruments and the differences between direct versus indirect steering. This report also gives some points of interest for tackling complex international environmental problems. refs

  6. Modelling efficient innovative work: integration of economic and social psychological approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babanova Yulia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the relevance of integration of economic and social psychological approaches to the solution of enhancing the efficiency of innovation management. The content, features and specifics of the modelling methods within each of approaches are unfolded and options of integration are considered. The economic approach lies in the generation of the integrated matrix concept of management of innovative development of an enterprise in line with the stages of innovative work and the use of the integrated vector method for the evaluation of the innovative enterprise development level. The social psychological approach lies in the development of a system of psychodiagnostic indexes of activity resources within the scope of psychological innovative audit of enterprise management and development of modelling methods for the balance of activity trends. Modelling the activity resources is based on the system of equations accounting for the interaction type of psychodiagnostic indexes. Integration of two approaches includes a methodological level, a level of empirical studies and modelling methods. There are suggested options of integrating the economic and psychological approaches to analyze available material and non-material resources of the enterprises’ innovative work and to forecast an optimal option of development based on the implemented modelling methods.

  7. The Economic Aspects of Improving the Efficiency of Activities of Ukrainian Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naboka Serhii O.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The only possibility to ensure a high rate of growth of economic efficiency of production is a result of transition to a predominantly intensive type of development, especially for domestic enterprises in current conditions. The article considers, which concrete factors of the external environment of enterprise impact its activity in the present time and on the territory of Ukraine, and also substantiates the necessity of transition to the mode of «intensification». Scientific novelty consists in approbation of the method of research of the degree of intensification of activity on the example of one of the enterprises of Kharkiv, carrying out foreign economic activity. The system of the scientific and special methods was used: system approach; methods of analysis and synthesis of grouping; economic-mathematical method – the method of analysis of production intensification – to determine the degree of intensity/extensiveness of production at the researched enterprise. The calculations allowed to determine that the relative saving of the aggregate resources at the researched enterprise, using this method, amounted to more than 16 million UAH. Thus, it is possible to speak about expediency of use of the presented method in practice, especially in view of the current condition of enterprises of Ukraine.

  8. Triple Helix Model as an Efficient Mechanism of Food Security Provision in Regional Economic Entities and the Economic System as a Whole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihail N. Dudin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The leading countries of the world consider food security the important condition of internal political and social-economic stability of the state and its external independence. The topic of the article is crucial due to the fact that the problem of food security is rather complicated and multilevel and should be considered at different interrelated hierarchical levels. In this context the efficient model of food security is the result of the permanent dialogue between the representatives of the state government, business entities, social organizations and scientific institutions. The article justifies the fact that the model of innovation development, known as ‘the triple helix model’ should be applied at the modern stage of economic development as an efficient tool for the food security provision, which can be implemented in the activity of regional economic entities and the whole economic system of the Russian Federation.

  9. Efficient STEP (solar thermal electrochemical photo) production of hydrogen - an economic assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Licht, Stuart [Department of Chemistry, George Washington University, Ashburn, VA 20147 (United States); Solar Institute, George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); Chitayat, Olivia; Bergmann, Harry; Dick, Andrew; Ayub, Hina [Solar Institute, George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); Ghosh, Susanta [Department of Chemistry, George Washington University, Ashburn, VA 20147 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Visva-Bharati, Santiniketan (India)

    2010-10-15

    A consideration of the economic viability of hydrogen fuel production is important in the STEP (Solar Thermal Electrochemical Photo) production of hydrogen fuel. STEP is an innovative way to decrease costs and increase the efficiency of hydrogen fuel production, which is a synergistic process that can use concentrating photovoltaics (CPV) and solar thermal energy to drive a high temperature, low voltage, electrolysis (water-splitting), resulting in H{sub 2} at decreased energy and higher solar efficiency. This study provides evidence that the STEP system is an economically viable solution for the production of hydrogen. STEP occurs at both higher electrolysis and solar conversion efficiencies than conventional room temperature photovoltaic (PV) generation of hydrogen. This paper probes the economic viability of this process, by comparing four different systems: (1) 10% or (2) 14% flat plate PV driven aqueous alkaline electrolysis H{sub 2} production, (3) 25% CPV driven molten electrolysis H{sub 2} production, and (4) 35% CPV driven solid oxide electrolysis H{sub 2} production. The molten and solid oxide electrolysers are high temperature systems that can make use of light, normally discarded, for heating. This significantly increases system efficiency. Using levelized cost analysis, this study shows significant cost reduction using the STEP system. The total price per kg of hydrogen is shown to decrease from 5.74 to 4.96 to 3.01 to 2.61 with the four alternative systems. The advanced STEP plant requires less than one seventh of the land area of the 10% flat cell plant. To generate the 216 million kg H{sub 2}/year required by 1 million fuel cell vehicles, the 35% CPV driven solid oxide electrolysis requires a plant only 9.6 mi{sup 2} in area. While PV and electrolysis components dominate the cost of conventional PV generated hydrogen, they do not dominate the cost of the STEP-generated hydrogen. The lower cost of STEP hydrogen is driven by residual distribution and

  10. Macro economic model in agriculture domain for the analysis of the climatic change impact and policies effects in term of efficiency and equity. Short version of the final report at the GICC, february 2002; Modele macro-economique a dominante agricole pour l'analyse de l'impact du changement climatique et des effets des politiques en terme d'efficacite et d'equite. Version abregee du rapport de fin d'etude au GICC, fevrier 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerard, F.; Piketty, M.G.; Boussard, J.M

    2002-02-15

    The aim of the study is the determination of a detailed model of the world economy, allowing the simulation of the effect of numerous economic policies, especially those which are involved at a world scale to avoid the greenhouse effect gases emissions. This model is based on the previous model, as the GTAP from which the data are used. (A.L.B.)

  11. Implementing energy efficient pavements: A socio-economic analysis of the development and implementation of energy efficient pavements with low rolling resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axelsen, Christian; Pettinari, Matteo; Schmidt, Bjarne

    2017-01-01

    for the transportation sector is to make road networks more energy efficient by implementing pavements with low rolling resistance, leading to lower fuel consumption. Through a series of projects focusing on reducing rolling resistance conducted since 2010, the Danish Road Directorate (DRD) has developed a durable......, energy-efficient asphalt pavement. Socio-economic analyses conducted to quantify the benefit to society associated with implementing these asphalt pavements have demonstrated very high benefits. The demonstrated results in terms of durability, energy efficiency and socio-economics have resulted...... in substantial government funding being provided for demonstration trials on 50 kilometers of energy-efficient pavement in 2018. The implementation of energy-efficient pavements will enable Denmark to contribute to the out-of-quota 2030-emission cuts in line with EU regulations....

  12. A manual for the economic evaluation of energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Short, W.; Packey, D.J.; Holt, T.

    1995-03-01

    This manual is a guide for analyzing the economics of energy efficiency and renewable energy (EE) technologies and projects. It is intended (1) to help analysts determine the appropriate approach or type of analysis and the appropriate level of detail and (2) to assist EE analysts in completing consistent analyses using standard assumptions and bases, when appropriate. Included are analytical techniques that are commonly required for the economic analysis of EE technologies and projects. The manual consists of six sections: Introduction, Fundamentals, Selection Criteria Guide, Economic Measures, Special Considerations for Conservation and Renewable Energy Systems, and References. A glossary and eight appendices are also included. Each section has a brief introductory statement, a presentation of necessary formulae, a discussion, and when appropriate, examples and descriptions of data and data availability. The objective of an economic analysis is to provide the information needed to make a judgment or a decision. The most complete analysis of an investment in a technology or a project requires the analysis of each year of the life of the investment, taking into account relevant direct costs, indirect and overhead costs, taxes, and returns on investment, plus any externalities, such as environmental impacts, that are relevant to the decision to be made. However, it is important to consider the purpose and scope of a particular analysis at the outset because this will prescribe the course to follow. The perspective of the analysis is important, often dictating the approach to be used. Also, the ultimate use of the results of an analysis will influence the level of detail undertaken. The decision-making criteria of the potential investor must also be considered.

  13. Impact of energy efficiency measures on the economic value of buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popescu, Daniela; Bienert, Sven; Schuetzenhofer, Christian; Boazu, Rodica

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: → Market driven reasons can strengthen implementation of energy policies in buildings. → Methods that quantify the added value due to energy performance are developed. → Recommendations on how they can be incorporated in the financial analysis are presented. → Case studies on some existing condominiums from Romania are analyzed. → The market sensitivity to energy efficiency measures is also in the focus. -- Abstract: A main objective of energy policies is to make all levels of the society, from governments to citizen, interested in increasing the energy efficiency of buildings. One of the most important barriers in implementation of energy policies is that the cost of potential energy savings, typically considered being the only financial benefit, does not sufficiently motivate investments. The target is therefore to identify further possible drivers pushing positive reaction according to energy saving action. The paper discusses whether a market-based instrument, capturing the increase of the economic value of energy efficient buildings, can be also used. Methods that quantify the added value due to energy performance, including recommendations on how they can be incorporated in the financial analysis of investments in weatherization, are developed. By applying the proposed methods, the payback period of investments in energy efficiency measures depends on two factors: potential energy savings and the added value to the property. Case studies on some existing condominiums from Romania are analyzed and provide evidence to the research question. The market sensitivity to energy efficiency measures, the possibility of an intangible added value as well as the impact to financial investment decisions is subsequently in the focus.

  14. Technical efficiency of economic systems of EU-15 countries based on energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bampatsou, Christina; Papadopoulos, Savas; Zervas, Efthimios

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, Data Envelopment Analysis is used to determine the Technical Efficiency index of EU-15 countries from 1980 to 2008, using cross-country comparison. Technical Efficiency index represents the capacity of an economy to produce a higher level of Gross Domestic Product for a given level of total energy input. The level of the Technical Efficiency index is determined from the energy mix (fossil fuels, non-fossil fuels, nuclear energy) of each country and depends on the maximization level of the production of the Gross Domestic Product of the economic system, without waste of energy resources. The current study is applied in the case of the EU15 countries. Its scope is to highlight the differentiations of country classifications before and after the integration of nuclear energy in the energy mix of each country. The main result is that the integration of nuclear energy as an additional input in the energy mixture affects negatively the Technical Efficiency of countries. Also, when an economy achieves a decrease of the energy consumption produced from fossil fuels, and a better exploitation of renewable energy sources, clearly improves its capacity to produce more output with the given levels of inputs. - Highlights: ► Technical efficiency index of EU-15 countries is determined through the DEA method. ► Level of the TE index is determined from the energy mix used in each country. ► TE level depends on the maximization level of GDP without waste of energy resources. ► Capacity of an economy to produce more GDP for a given energy input is determined. ► TE differentiation before and after the integration of nuclear energy is performed

  15. Negotiating equity for management of DOE wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnes, S.A.

    1994-01-01

    One important factor frustrating optimal management of Department of Energy (DOE)-complex wastes is the inability to use licensed and permitted facilities systematically. Achieving the goal of optimal use of DOE's waste management facilities is politically problematic for two reasons. First, no locale wants to bear a disproportionate burden from DOE wastes. Second, the burden imposed by additional wastes transported from one site to another is difficult to characterize. To develop a viable framework for equitably distributing these burdens while achieving efficient use of all DOE waste management facilities, several implementation and equity issues must be addressed and resolved. This paper discusses stakeholder and equity issues and proposes a framework for joint research and action that could facilitate equity negotiations among stakeholder and move toward a more optimal use of DOE's waste management capabilities

  16. Negotiating equity for management of DOE wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnes, S.A.

    1993-01-01

    One important factor frustrating optimal management of DOE-complex wastes is inability to use licensed and permitted facilities systematically. Achieving the goal of optimal use of DOE's waste management facilities is politically problematic for two reasons. First, no locale wants to bear a disproportionate burden from DOE wastes. Second, the burden imposed by additional wastes transported from one site to another is difficult to characterize. To develop a viable framework for equitably distributing these burdens while achieving efficient use of all DOE waste management facilities, several implementation and equity issues must be addressed and resolved. This paper discusses stakeholders and equity issues and proposes a framework for joint research and action that could facilitate equity negotiations among stakeholders and move toward a more optimal use of DOE's waste management capabilities

  17. Negotiating equity for management of DOE wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnes, S.A.

    1994-01-01

    One important factor frustrating optimal management of Department of Energy (DOE)-complex wastes is the inability to use licensed and permitted facilities systematically. Achieving the goal of optimal use of DOE's waste management facilities is politically problematic for two reasons. First, no locale wants to bear a disproportionate burden from DOE wastes. Second, the burden imposed by additional wastes transported from one site to another is difficult to characterize. To develop a viable framework for equitably distributing these burdens while achieving efficient use of all DOE waste management facilities, several implementation and equity issues must be addressed and resolved. This paper discusses stakeholders and equity issues and proposes a framework for joint research and action that could facilitate equity negotiations among stakeholders and move toward a more optimal use of DOE's waste management capabilities

  18. Health Equity Talk: Understandings of Health Equity among Health Leaders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadette M. Pauly

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Reducing health inequities is a stated goal of health systems worldwide. There is widespread commitment to health equity among public health leaders and calls for reorientation of health systems towards health equity. As part of the Equity Lens in Public Health (ELPH program of research, public health decision makers and researchers in British Columbia collaborated to study the application of a health equity lens in a time of health system renewal. We drew on intersectionality, complexity and critical social justice theories to understand how participants construct health equity and apply a health equity lens as part of public health renewal. Methods: 15 focus groups and 16 individual semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 55 health system leaders. Data were analyzed using constant comparative analysis to explore how health equity was constructed in relation to understandings and actions. Results: Four main themes were identified in terms of how health care leaders construct health equity and actions to reduce health inequities: (1 population health, (2 determinants of health, and (3 accessibility and (4 challenges of health equity talk. The first three aspects of health equity talk reflect different understandings of health equity rooted in vulnerability (individual versus structural, determinants of health (material versus social determinants, and appropriate health system responses (targeted versus universal responses. Participants identified that talking about health equity in the health care system, either inside or outside of public health, is a ‘challenging conversation’ because health equity is understood in diverse ways and there is little guidance available to apply a health equity lens. Conclusions: These findings reflect the importance of creating a shared understanding of health equity within public health systems, and providing guidance and clarity as to the meaning and application of a health

  19. Can market oriented economic reforms contribute to energy efficiency improvement? Evidence from China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Ying; Liao Hua; Wei Yiming

    2007-01-01

    Since China accelerated its market oriented economic reforms at the end of 1992, its energy intensity has declined 3.6% annually over 1993-2005. However, its energy intensity declined 4.2% annually during its first reform period 1979-1992. Therefore, can we conclude that the accelerated marketization since the end of 1992 has made no contribution to its energy efficiency improvement? In order to answer this challenging question, we examine the changes of energy own-price elasticity, as well as the elasticities of substitution between energy and non-energy (capital and labor) in China during the periods of 1979-1992 and 1993-2003. Generally, in transition or developing economies, holding the technology and output level fixed, if the energy own-price elasticity (algebraic value) declines or the substitution elasticity between factors rises, they will contribute to energy efficiency improvement. Our empirical study finds that: (1) during 1979-1992, the energy own-price elasticity is positive (0.285), and capital-energy, labor-energy are both Morishima complementary; which indicates a distorted energy price and inefficient allocation; and (2) during 1993-2003, the own-price elasticity for energy is negative (-1.236), and capital-energy and labor-energy are both Morishima substitute. All factor demands become more elastic, and all elasticities of substitution increase. The implication is that the accelerated marketization contributes substantially to energy efficiency improvement since 1993

  20. Dividing wall column: Improving thermal efficiency, energy savings and economic performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurangzeb, Md; Jana, Amiya K.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A rigorous model is developed for a dividing wall column. • Heat transfer model for metal wall is proposed. • Performance improvement is quantified for a ternary system. • Thermal efficiency, energy savings and cost are three used indices. - Abstract: This work aims at investigating the performance improvement of a dividing wall column (DWC) for the separation of a ternary system. It is true that for fractionating a ternary mixture, at least a sequence of two conventional distillation columns is required. To improve energetic and economic potential, and reduce space requirement, two columns are proposed to merge into one shell with a dividing wall. For developing the mathematical model of a distillation column, we consider the effect of heat transfer through the metal wall placed at an intermediated position inside the cylindrical column. The simulated DWC model is verified using the Aspen Plus flowsheet simulator with a wide variety of phase equilibrium models. The superiority of this proposed heat integrated configuration is shown for a ternary hydrocarbon system over a conventional distillation sequence (CDS) in terms of mainly three performance indexes, namely thermal efficiency, energy savings and total annual cost (TAC). It is investigated that the dividing wall distillation scheme can secure a 37.5% energy efficiency, and a 22.6% savings in energy consumption and 23.23% in TAC. The promising performance can also be quantified in terms of a reasonably low payback period of 2.11 years.

  1. ERWIN2: User's manual for a computer model to calculate the economic efficiency of wind energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Wees, F.G.H.

    1992-01-01

    During the last few years the Business Unit ESC-Energy Studies of the Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN) developed calculation programs to determine the economic efficiency of energy technologies, which programs support several studies for the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs. All these programs form the so-called BRET programs. One of these programs is ERWIN (Economische Rentabiliteit WINdenergiesystemen or in English: Economic Efficiency of Wind Energy Systems) of which an updated manual (ERWIN2) is presented in this report. An outline is given of the possibilities and limitations to carry out calculations with the model

  2. Delayed and differential effects of the economic crisis in Sweden in the 1990s on health-related exclusion from the labour market: A health equity assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Burstrom, Bo; Nylen, Lotta; Barr, Ben; Clayton, Stephen; Holland, Paula; Whitehead, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    Abstract\\ud \\ud Many OECD countries are currently experiencing economic crisis and introducing counter-measures with unknown effects. To learn from previous experience, we explored whether there were delayed or differential effects of the Swedish recession in the 1990s and the government's response to it for people with limiting longstanding illness or disability (LLSI) from different socioeconomic groups (SEGs), by policy analysis and secondary data analysis of the Swedish Survey of Living C...

  3. Expansion of environmental impact assessment for eco-efficiency evaluation of China's economic sectors: An economic input-output based frontier approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Zhencheng; Wang, Jigan; Zhang, Jie

    2018-09-01

    Due to the increasing environmental burdens caused by dramatic economic expansion, eco-efficiency indicating how efficient the economic activity is with respect to its environmental impacts has become a topic of considerable interest in China. In this context, Economic Input-output Life Cycle Assessment (EIO-LCA) and Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) are combined to assess the environmental impacts and eco-efficiency of China's 26 economic sectors. The EIO-LCA results indicate that Electricity Production and Supply sector is the largest net exporter in energy usage, CO 2 emission and exhaust emission categories, while Construction sector is the largest net importer for five impact categories except for water withdrawal. Moreover, Construction sector is found to be the destination of the largest sector-to-sector environmental impact flows for the five impact categories and make the most contributions to the total environmental impacts. Another key finding is that Agriculture sector is both the largest net exporter and the greatest contributor for water withdrawal category. DEA results indicate that seven sectors are eco-efficient while over 70% of China's economic sectors are inefficient and require significant improvements. The average target improvements range between 23.30% and 35.06% depending on the impact category. Further sensitivity analysis reveals that the average sensitivity ratios vary from 7.7% to 15.7% among the six impact categories, which are found to be negatively correlated with their improvement potentials. Finally, several policy recommendations are made to mitigate environmental impacts of China's economic sectors and improve their eco-efficiency levels. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The influence of population on the economic efficiency of the metropolitan governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuriy V. Pavlov

    2017-01-01

    the expected value when implementing different metropolitan governance model. If the comparison showed the non-optimality of the implemented model for some index of the economic growth, then the values of the economic growth in the metropolitan area and the national average were compared. As a result, a recommendationwas given for the metropolitan area on the degree of need for the management reform and an optimal metropolitan governance model was selected.Results. Based on the revealed regularities, we have created a methodical approach to choose the optimal model of metropolitan governance according to the population size. It can be used as a tool to justify metropolitan governance reform. The advantage of the approach is the use of real quantitative data that reduces the degree of subjectivity in decision-making Conclusion. The methodical approach is tested on the example of eightmetropolitan areas (Lublin, Palermo, Krakow, Paris, Stuttgart, Madrid, Geneva, and Linz. It was revealed that there is no metropolitan governance model, which is always more efficient for all objects. As the result of the analysis for Geneva, the degree of need for management reforms was described as “high” with a recommendation for a transition to a decentralized metropolitan governance model. For Linz, Stuttgart and Madrid, the degree of need for reform is characterized as “low” with a recommendation for a transition to decentralization (Stuttgart and centralization (Linz and Madrid. The rest of the metropolitan areas of the sample do not need reforms.

  5. METHODS OF EVALUATING THE ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY OF FORMATION OF CORPORATE ENTITIES IN THE FOOD INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Grishchenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary: One of the most important issues of improving the management of corporate entities in the food industry is a unified methodological approach to the assessment of economic efficiency. To further improve this methodology approaches evaluation of the efficiency of the creation and development of organizational systems, as well as experience the calculations of estimated figures. Evaluation of the effectiveness of the formation of corporate entities in the food industry should be carried out depending on the stage of the formation of corporate education, which leads to the allocation of the following stages: preliminary calculations, allowing to obtain projections at the stage of idea generation, validation and design of corporate education; calculation of performance indicators corporate education; clarifying the calculations performed on the stage of functioning of corporate education, allowing to take into account not only the main directions of effect due to the formation of corporate structures, but also new sources of savings associated with the possibility of obtaining a formed structure of the system benefits; determination the effectiveness of the organization management corporate education; calculating the integral of the coefficient of efficiency of corporate education. The technique of an estimation of efficiency of formation of corporate entities, subject to practical implementation for analytical purposes, a different set of metrics and indicators calculated differentially depending on the phase (phase corporate improvement that allows you to get an objective view of the intermediate output and outcome effectiveness of the formation of corporate entities in the food industry. The purpose of this technique is to identify the internal resources of improving the formation of corporate education and management. Users of this technique can be leaders and specialists of the corporate entities interested in an objective assessment of

  6. Economic efficiency of Nuclear Cell Mars with reference to different regions with the account cogenerating production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseev, P. N.; Kucharkin, N. E.; Udjanskiy, Y. N.; Schepetina, T. D.; Subbotin, S. A.

    2004-01-01

    The popular belief in a low economic efficiency NPP with nuclear reactors of small capacity (SNPP) is stipulated by the stereotyped approach to their role as a power source (PS) and absence of a system approach to an estimation of their role and place in economy of regions. Actually, the specific expenses of installed capacity for SNPP can be some times higher than those for ones with high-power reactors. As a rule, pay back of the SNPP projects is justified proceeding from only the income of sale produced electric power and heat. Poor economic efficiency of such variant of use forces the developers to consider variants cogeneration of useful production, for example, power-desalination complexes. But thus it is not taken into account, that only nuclear power source (NPS), due to quality of long-term autonomy can ensure in hard-to-reach regions ecologically safe, practically unbounded on time, reliable energy provision of unique production manufacture, which can be yielded only in a sectional place and due to presence of reliable and ecologically acceptable power supply. Examples of such exclusive symbiosis of technologies can be enough, especially taking into account the factor of an ecological acceptability, which acquires the increasing weight at definition of competitiveness of the projects. The factor of uniqueness at technologies combination in a sectional context does not contradict the strategy of seriality small capacity NPS application, as they are irreplaceable for long-time and reliable power supply of the independent removed or hard-to-reach consumers. In this their special applicability and their specific energy niche, which not busy while by any another PS. On land their role is similar nuclear submarines, which thanking NPS have got completely other quality of autonomy in the discharge of underwater kettles.The territory of Russia on the area both variety of resources and manufactures allows to implement different variants and combinations of

  7. On economic efficiency of nuclear power unit life extension using steam-gas topping plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, Y.N.; Lisitsa, F.D.; Smirnov, V.G.

    2001-01-01

    The different options for life extension of the operating nuclear power units have been analyzed in the report with regard for their economic efficiency. A particular attention is given to the option envisaging the reduction of reactor power output and its subsequent compensation with a steam-gas topping plant. Steam generated at its heat-recovery boilers is proposed to be used for the additional loading of the nuclear plant turbine so as to reach its nominal output. It would be demonstrated that the implementation of this option allows to reduce total costs in the period of power plant life extension by 24-29% as compared with the alternative use of the replacing steam-gas unit and the saved resources could be directed, for instance, for decommissioning of a reactor facility. (authors)

  8. Costs and economic efficiency of the drying of sewage sludges; Kosten und Wirtschaftlichkeit der Klaerschlammtrocknung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, Ulrich [Haarslev Industries A/S, Herlev (Denmark). Marketing and Business Development

    2013-03-01

    New methods of the thermal utilization have to be created due to the fact that agricultural utilisation of sewage sludge and the use in the reclamation due to stringent limit values and enhanced quality criteria are available restricted in future. The incineration of mechanically dewatered and dried sewage sludge is performed in mono-combustion plants as well as in coal-fired power plants. The author of the contribution under consideration reports on the costs and economic efficiency of the drying of sewage sludge. The drying of sewage sludge may perform an important and reasonable contribution to the utilization of municipal sewage sludge. The selection of a suitable drying process should ever depend on the local realities. Proved and suitable technologies are available for every application. Before the decision for a certain provider, one should examine reference plants and consider specific experiences of the operator among the decision-making.

  9. Positioning matrix of economic efficiency and complexity: a case study in a university hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ippolito, Adelaide; Viggiani, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    At the end of 2010, the Federico II University Hospital in Naples, Italy, initiated a series of discussions aimed at designing and applying a positioning matrix to its departments. This analysis was developed to create a tool able to extract meaningful information both to increase knowledge about individual departments and to inform the choices of general management during strategic planning. The name given to this tool was the positioning matrix of economic efficiency and complexity. In the matrix, the x-axis measures the ratio between revenues and costs, whereas the y-axis measures the index of complexity, thus showing "profitability" while bearing in mind the complexity of activities. By using the positioning matrix, it was possible to conduct a critical analysis of the characteristics of the Federico II University Hospital and to extract useful information for general management to use during strategic planning at the end of 2010 when defining medium-term objectives. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Power grid operation in a market environment economic efficiency and risk mitigation

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book examines both system operation and market operation perspectives, focusing on the interaction between the two. It incorporates up-to-date field experiences, presents challenges, and summarizes the latest theoretic advancements to address those challenges. The book is divided into four parts. The first part deals with the fundamentals of integrated system and market operations, including market power mitigation, market efficiency evaluation, and the implications of operation practices in energy markets. The second part discusses developing technologies to strengthen the use of the grid in energy markets. System volatility and economic impact introduced by the intermittency of wind and solar generation are also addressed. The third part focuses on stochastic applications, exploring new approaches of handling uncerta nty in Security Constrained Unit Commitment (SCUC) as well as the reserves needed for power system operation. The fourth part provides ongoing efforts of utilizing transmission facilities ...

  11. Efficient stocks administration in the frame of the present economic crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Deju

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The economic-financial crisis made its presence felt through more or less shy signals. All companies from the international and national market started to feel the crisis’s negative effects, several declaring bankruptcy, or diminishing temporary their activity. The consequences are multiples: the unemployment’s rate increase, the decreasing of the purchase power and reducing the goods demand from the luxury ones up to the one for consumption etc. Under these circumstances, companies have to avoid the immobilization of financial resources in products stocks that cannot be sold in the near future period, because otherwise would attract the danger of costs increasing, cashing decrease and generation of loses that may endanger the companies capacity of surpassing the present crisis. Therefore, all companies, no matter their size, should find during this period means of efficient stocks administration.

  12. The financial burden of national road infrastructure and the equity thereof: A South African perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Brits

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Economic activities in South Africa during the past decade have caused, inter alia, road traffic congestion to accelerate annually and road infrastructure to deteriorate rapidly. Motor vehicle sales, correlated with economic trends and the economic empowerment of citizens, have and still are increasing at a faster rate than the supply of necessary infrastructure. As such, congestion, especially in the Gauteng area, has reached unacceptable levels during peak hours, necessitating the upgrading and continual maintenance of these roads and other national roads. The financial burden of upgrading and maintaining road infrastructure is enormous and, although the South African government makes contributions, an income from the road infrastructure is necessary to sustain quality infrastructure. However, a road-user paying approach, especially the structure thereof, should be acceptable to society in terms of economic efficiency and various means of equity. This article reviews the relevance of a road-user paying approach as applied in South Africa.

  13. Economic Burden of Community-Acquired Pneumonia among Adults in the Philippines: Its Equity and Policy Implications in the Case Rate Payments of the Philippine Health Insurance Corporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumanan-Mendoza, Bernadette A; Mendoza, Victor L; Punzalan, Felix Eduardo R; Reganit, Paul Ferdinand M; Bacolcol, Silverose Ann A

    2015-05-01

    To determine 1) the cost of hospitalization, the 1-week postdischarge cost, the total cost, and the economic burden of community-acquired pneumonia among patients aged 19 years or older in the Philippines and 2) the difference between the estimated costs and the Philippine Health Insurance Corporation (PhilHealth) pneumonia case rate payments. The study involved two tertiary private hospitals in the Philippines. Using the societal perspective, both health care and non-health care costs were determined. A base-case analysis and sensitivity analyses were performed, and the economic burden of pneumonia was determined using PhilHealth claims. The estimated cost of hospitalization for community-acquired pneumonia-moderate risk (CAP-MR) ranged from Philippine peso (PHP) 36,153 to 113,633 (US $852-2678) and its 1-week postdischarge cost ranged from PHP1450 to 8800 (US $34-207). The cost of hospitalization for community-acquired pneumonia-high risk (CAP-HR) ranged from PHP104,544 to 249,695 (US $2464-5885) and PHP101,248 to 243, 495 (US $2386-5739) using invasive and noninvasive ventilation, respectively. The postdischarge cost for CAP-HR ranged from PHP1716 to 10,529 (US $40-248). If only health care cost was considered, the cost ranged from PHP24,403 to 89,433 for CAP-MR and PHP92,848 to 213,395 for CAP-HR. The present PhilHealth case rate payments are PHP15,000 (US $354) and PHP32,000 (US $754) for CAP-MR and CAP-HR, respectively. Based on the number of PhilHealth claims for 2012 and the estimated health care cost, the economic burden of pneumonia in 2012 was PHP8.48 billion for CAP-MR and PHP643.76 million for CAP-HR. The estimated health care cost of hospitalization is markedly higher than the PhilHealth case rate payments. As per the study results, the economic burden of pneumonia is, thus, significantly higher than PhilHealth estimates. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  14. Fast breeder reactor expected to soon overtake LWRs in terms of economic efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eitz, A.W.; Theisen, G.; Wolff, U.; Riethmueller, R.

    1986-01-01

    On the basis of current knowledge, the authors try to comparatively assess the fuel cycle costs of the SNR and the LWR, and to establish a prognosis of the competibility of the SNR in terms of fuel expenditure. The result is that already today, the fast breeder would achieve the economic efficiency of the LWR-type reactor, and in future would offer clear advantages. For their assessments, the authors made a few cost estimates, as e.g. with regard to the fuel reprocessing plant, which deserve close attention, and power discussion. As to the next project to follow, a large-scale European fast breeder reactor power plant, the authors state that the fuel cycle cost will not present a special economic risk, if an option for interim fuel storage is ensured. Determination of the right and adequate time to start construction of a commercial fuel reprocessing plant is no point in current discussions, and should anyhow be made with great care and the least time pressure possible. Cooperation among European states, however, is indispensable for this project. (orig.) [de

  15. Economic efficiency of high-rise construction in the Moscow program of renovation of housing stock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misailovov, Andrey

    2018-03-01

    The article considers a new initiative of the regional authorities of updating the housing stock designated as the renovation of housing. Its main aspects are analyzed, including the nature of program, economic efficiency of its implementation due to high-rise construction and the regulatory and legislative framework, the procedure for implementing the program, and the time frame for its implementation. The role of the program for regions in which high depreciation of the housing stock is combined with a limited number of sites for a new housing construction is disclosed. The high-rise construction in the renovation program is presented as a variant of a successful solution not only of the tasks of renovating the housing stock, but also of filling the regional budget. The social and economic orientation of the high-rise construction and the involvement of residents in the process of making town-planning decisions in the field of high-rise construction at all stages of implementing the program are shown.

  16. Low-capacity wind power systems. Technology, legal aspects, economic efficiency; Kleine Windenergieanlagen. Technik - Recht - Wirtschaftlichkeit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggersgluess, Walter [Landwirtschaftskammer Schleswig-Holstein, Rendsburg (Germany); Eckel, Henning; Hartmann, Stefan [Kuratorium fuer Technik und Bauwesen in der Landwirtschaft e.V. (KTBL), Darmstadt (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    In what conditions will investments in a low-capacity wind power plant be profitable? This leaflet intends to provide a decision aid for farmers and other land owners interested in thes subject. It outlines the technology of low-capacity wind power systems, goes into site selection, expected yields and legal boundary conditions. The most important economic data are defined, and the economic efficiency of wind power plants of 7.5 to 25 kW is discussed. The text is supplemented by useful internet links. [German] Unter welchen Bedingungen rechnet sich die Investition in eine kleine Windenergieanlage? Das Heft hilft Landwirten sowie allen anderen investitionswilligen Grundstueckseigentuemern fuer sich Antworten auf diese Fragen zu finden und die richtigen Entscheidungen zu treffen. Es gibt einen Ueberblick ueber die Technik kleiner Windenergieanlagen, beschreibt was den richtigen Standort auszeichnet, mit welchen Energieertraegen gerechnet werden kann und welchen rechtlichen Rahmenbedingungen Bau und Betrieb der Anlagen unterliegen. Die wichtigsten wirtschaftlichen Kenngroessen werden definiert und die Wirtschaftlichkeit kleiner Windenergieanlagen anhand von Beispielanlagen im Leistungsbereich von 7,5 bis 25 kW diskutiert. Nuetzliche Internetadressen zum Thema Windenergie runden das Informationsangebot ab.

  17. How experiential learning in an informal setting promotes class equity and social and economic justice for children from "communities at promise": An Australian perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyngier, David

    2017-02-01

    Educational research often portrays culturally, linguistically and economically disenfranchised (CLED) children's disengagement from school learning as individual behaviour, ignoring the contribution of race, gender, socio-cultural, ethnic and social class factors. This paper analyses a specific community engagement programme in Australia which uses experiential learning in an informal setting. The programme, which has been running for seven years, partners pre-service teachers, volunteer high school students and volunteers from a national bank with primary schools where many pupils are experiencing learning difficulties and school engagement problems as a result of their socio-economic status, their poverty, and their ethnic and cultural diversity. Drawing on the perspectives of the children and volunteers participating in the pilot study, and privileging their voices, this paper illustrates how community partnerships may be developed and sustained. The programme's conceptual framework of Connecting-Owning-Responding-Empowering (CORE) pedagogy is explored for its potential to enhance student engagement, achievement and empowerment through focused community involvement. The findings show that when students feel connected to and involved in their community, all participants are empowered in their learning and teaching.

  18. Gender, equity, and job satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-02-01

    Although equity theory has served as a theoretical framework applying to most individuals in most situations, empirical research suggests that gender may affect the utility of equity theory in explaining organizational behaviors. Studies have indicat...

  19. Economical Efficiency of Combined Cooling Heating and Power Systems Based on an Enthalpy Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Xu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available As the living standards of Chinese people have been improving, the energy demand for cooling and heating, mainly in the form of electricity, has also expanded. Since an integrated cooling, heating and power supply system (CCHP will serve this demand better, the government is now attaching more importance to the application of CCHP energy systems. Based on the characteristics of the combined cooling heating and power supply system, and the method of levelized cost of energy, two calculation methods for the evaluation of the economical efficiency of the system are employed when the energy production in the system is dealt with from the perspective of exergy. According to the first method, fuel costs account for about 75% of the total cost. In the second method, the profits from heating and cooling are converted to fuel costs, resulting in a significant reduction of fuel costs, accounting for 60% of the total cost. Then the heating and cooling parameters of gas turbine exhaust, heat recovery boiler, lithium-bromide heat-cooler and commercial tariff of provincial capitals were set as benchmark based on geographic differences among provinces, and the economical efficiency of combined cooling heating and power systems in each province were evaluated. The results shows that the combined cooling heating and power system is economical in the developed areas of central and eastern China, especially in Hubei and Zhejiang provinces, while in other regions it is not. The sensitivity analysis was also made on related influencing factors of fuel cost, demand intensity in heating and cooling energy, and bank loans ratio. The analysis shows that the levelized cost of energy of combined cooling heating and power systems is very sensitive to exergy consumption and fuel costs. When the consumption of heating and cooling energy increases, the unit cost decreases by 0.1 yuan/kWh, and when the on-grid power ratio decreases by 20%, the cost may increase by 0.1 yuan

  20. How equity markets view heavy oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janisch, M. L. [Nesbitt Burns Research, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    Factors that influence the equity market in investment decisions vis-a-vis the oil sands/heavy oil industry were reviewed. The importance of financing methods (debt, royalty trusts, common equity), liquidity of investments, absolute vs. relative performance, comparative economics vis-a-vis conventional oil producers, oil prices, operating cost drivers (technology, natural gas costs, cost/availability of diluent), transportation and refining capacity, were summarized. In the final analysis, consistent economic success on a large scale, combined with an assessment of available alternatives, were considered to be the most likely motivators for portfolio managers. As a cautionary note, it was noted that traditionally, oil and gas investors have not been known to be in the forefront to invest in research and development.

  1. How equity markets view heavy oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janisch, M. L.

    1996-01-01

    Factors that influence the equity market in investment decisions vis-a-vis the oil sands/heavy oil industry were reviewed. The importance of financing methods (debt, royalty trusts, common equity), liquidity of investments, absolute vs. relative performance, comparative economics vis-a-vis conventional oil producers, oil prices, operating cost drivers (technology, natural gas costs, cost/availability of diluent), transportation and refining capacity, were summarized. In the final analysis, consistent economic success on a large scale, combined with an assessment of available alternatives, were considered to be the most likely motivators for portfolio managers. As a cautionary note, it was noted that traditionally, oil and gas investors have not been known to be in the forefront to invest in research and development

  2. Economic incentives for evidence generation: promoting an efficient path to personalized medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towse, Adrian; Garrison, Louis P

    2013-01-01

    The preceding articles in this volume have identified and discussed a wide range of methodological and practical issues in the development of personalized medicine. This concluding article uses the resulting insights to identify implications for the economic incentives for evidence generation. It argues that promoting an efficient path to personalized medicine is going to require appropriate incentives for evidence generation including: 1) a greater willingness on the part of payers to accept prices that reflect value; 2) consideration of some form of intellectual property protection (e.g., data exclusivity) for diagnostics to incentivize generation of evidence of clinical utility; 3) realistic expectations around the standards for evidence; and 4) public investment in evidence collection to complement the efforts of payers and manufacturers. It concludes that such incentives could build and maintain a balance among: 1) realistic thresholds for evidence and the need for payers to have confidence in the clinical utility of the drugs and tests they use; 2) payment for value, with prices that ensure cost-effectiveness for health systems; and 3) levels of intellectual property protection for evidence generation that provide a return for those financing research and development, while encouraging competition to produce both better and more efficient tests. Copyright © 2013, International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. The economic efficiency of forest energy wood chip production in regional use – A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalibor Šafařík

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This regional project case study deals with the limiting factors of economic efficiency in the production of forest energy wood chips. The evaluation of production efficiency made use of data obtained from the Lesy města Brna, a.s. (Forest of the City of Brno, Corp., which were subjected to two static methods of investment evaluation: an analysis of the tipping point and determination of the limit of variable costs and a dynamic modified tipping point analysis using cash flow (i.e. cash break even analysis. The results have confirmed an established hypothesis, namely that the decisive factor in the profitability of the production of forest energy wood chips hinges on the costs incurred in the gathering of raw material and the distribution of the produced chips. The results include a further limiting factor: transportation costs to the final consumption location. The output of the study is a recommendation that the concentration of residual forest materials not exceed a distance of 250 m from the place of production to the point of disintegration and that the transport distance of energy chips not exceed 50 km from the place of disintegration to the final consumption point. These limiting values help quantify the full internal costs per cost unit, full internal cost profitability, total revenue profitability and annual profitability expressed in terms of fixed assets depreciation without factoring in financial aid.

  4. An Efficient Meta Heuristic Algorithm to Solve Economic Load Dispatch Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Subramanian

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Economic Load Dispatch (ELD problems in power generation systems are to reduce the fuel cost by reducing the total cost for the generation of electric power. This paper presents an efficient Modified Firefly Algorithm (MFA, for solving ELD Problem. The main objective of the problems is to minimize the total fuel cost of the generating units having quadratic cost functions subjected to limits on generator true power output and transmission losses. The MFA is a stochastic, Meta heuristic approach based on the idealized behaviour of the flashing characteristics of fireflies. This paper presents an application of MFA to ELD for six generator test case system. MFA is applied to ELD problem and compared its solution quality and computation efficiency to Genetic algorithm (GA, Differential Evolution (DE, Particle swarm optimization (PSO, Artificial Bee Colony optimization (ABC, Biogeography-Based Optimization (BBO, Bacterial Foraging optimization (BFO, Firefly Algorithm (FA techniques. The simulation result shows that the proposed algorithm outperforms previous optimization methods.

  5. Effect of pea intercropping on biological efficiencies and economics of some non-legume winter vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qasim, S.A.; Anjum, M.A.; Hussain, S.; Ahmad, S.

    2013-01-01

    Intercropping with legumes makes effective use of land and other resources and results in reduced cost of production. Increased agricultural production through intercropping with minimal cost is need of time to feed increasing population. The reported work evaluates the biological efficiencies and economics of pea, garlic, turnip and cauliflower grown as sole crops and when pea intercropped in garlic, turnip and cauliflower during 2010-12. All the vegetables generally yielded more when grown as single crop compared with when pea was intercropped in these vegetables. In peas in garlic intercropping, pea yield was not significantly affected; however, garlic yield was significantly reduced (65.8%). Pea intercropping in turnip or cauliflower resulted in significantly lower yields of both crops (29.1 and 28.0%, respectively) as compared with their sole cropping. All other characteristics (plant growth and yield components) of all the four crops which indicate biological efficiency generally were greater when grown as single crops and decreased in intercropping combinations. Analysis of intercropping treatments revealed that pea intercropping in turnip resulted in the highest marginal rate of return (8,875%), followed by pea intercropping in cauliflower (6,977%), due to lower input costs incurred per hectare. However, net benefit to the growers was higher (Rs. 327,925) in case of pea intercropping in cauliflower, followed by pea intercropping in garlic (Rs. 213,425). (author)

  6. METHOD OF DETERMINING ECONOMICAL EFFICIENCY OF HOUSING STOCK RECONSTRUCTION IN A CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petreneva Ol’ga Vladimirovna

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available RECONSTRUCTION IN A CITY The demand in comfortable housing has always been very high. The building density is not the same in different regions and sometimes there is no land for new housing construction, especially in the central regions of cities. Moreover, in many cities cultural and historical centers remain, which create the historical appearance of the city, that’s why new construction is impossible in these regions. Though taking into account the depreciation and obsolescence, the operation life of many buildings come to an end, they fall into disrepair. In these cases there arises a question on the reconstruction of the existing residential, public and industrial buildings. The aim of the reconstruction is bringing the existing worn-out building stock into correspondence with technical, social and sanitary requirements and living standards and conditions. The authors consider the currency and reasons for reconstruction of residential buildings. They attempt to answer the question, what is more economical efficient: new construction or reconstruction of residential buildings. The article offers a method to calculate the efficiency of residential buildings reconstruction.

  7. RESEARCHES CONCERNING THE ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY ACHIEVED SUCCESSIVE TO THE APPLICATION OF BIOLOGICALLY-ACTIVE PRODUCTS IN SMOOTH BROME CROP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELENA PEł

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Within any branch of material production, the supervision of the economic effects caused by the applied technologies is an essential requirement. Not only related to the productive activity, but also related to scientific research, designing and other fields of activity, the final goal is represented by the achievement of immediate or far off economic effects. The introduction and generalization into production of the newest technologies of forage production must rely upon calculations of economic efficiency, too. The objective of these calculations is to offer to any producer the possibility to choose among the optimal technologic variants, with great productions per surface unit, of high quality and low costs. The calculations of economic efficiency were carried out during the three years of experimentation. The economic efficiency obtained after the application of biostimulants in smooth brome during the first year of production is expressed through the achievement of a profit per surface unit of 75.85 – 127.00 €/ha. Successive to the calculations of economic efficiency, during the second year of production, the profit per surface unit recorded values between 79.10 – 153.10 €/ha depending upon the applied biostimulant, and during the third year of production the profit obtained per surface unit was 211.05 – 270.70 €/ha.

  8. Marketing assets: Relating brand equity and customer equity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Romero

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Brand equity and customer equity are inextricably linked. Some authors propose that marketing activities build these intangible assets simultaneously. In contrast, others suggest that brand equity is an antecedent of customer equity. In this research, we aim to shed light about the relationship between brand equity and customer equity, by empirically testing these two alternative explanations. Design/methodology/approach: We propose four research models that reflect these two alternatives explanations regarding the link between brand equity and customer equity. In order to estimate these models we employ Structural Equations Modelling. We measure model variables using data collected through a survey to marketing managers of services companies that operate in Spain. We compare these four research models in terms of explanatory power and goodness of fit. Findings: Our results indicate that the models that correspond to the simultaneity approach have a higher explanatory power and goodness of fit than the models that suggest that brand equity is an antecedent of customer equity, thus supporting that these intangible assets are built by marketing activities at the same time. Research limitations/implications: Our results recommend caution when interpreting previous research about the effects of brand (customer equity, as they might indeed correspond to customer (brand management. Similarly, future research focusing on customer and brand management need to take into account both managerial areas in their studies. Practical implications: From a practitioners’ point of view, our findings suggest adopting a brand-customer portfolio approach to enhance company profitability. Similarly, we derive implications for firm valuation processes, which incorporate brand equity and customer equity in their calculations. Originality/value: We empirically study the relationship between brand equity and customer equity, while previous research has analyzed

  9. Evaluating the Economic Performance of High-Technology Industry and Energy Efficiency: A Case Study of Science Parks in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Ren Yan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available High-technology industries provide opportunities for economic growth, but also raise concerns because of their energy-demanding nature. This paper provides an integrated evaluation of both economic benefits and energy efficiency of high-technology industries based on the real data from one of the globally recognized high-technology industrial clusters, the national science parks in Taiwan. A nation-wide industrial Input-Output Analysis is conducted to demonstrate the positive effects of science parks on national economic developments and industrial upgrades. The concept of energy intensity and an energy-efficient economy index are applied to an integrated assessment of the relationship between economic growth and energy consumption. The proposed case study suggests that economic and energy efficiency objectives can be simultaneously achieved by the development of high-technology industries, while three energy policy implications are considered. First, a nation-wide macro viewpoint is needed and high-technology industries should be considered as parts of the national/regional economies by governmental agencies. Second, a proper industrial clustering mechanism and the shared environmental facilities supported by the government, such as planned land and road usage, electricity and water supply, telecommunications system, sewerage system and wastewater treatments, can improve energy efficiency of high-technology industries. Third, the governmental policies on the taxing and management system in science parks would also direct energy-efficient economy of high-technology industries.

  10. Globalisation and schooling: equity and access issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajda, Joseph

    2011-03-01

    This review essay focuses on the prominence given to globalisation and discourses of globalisation in education reforms and pedagogy, as well as the way conceptual thinking in this area has changed and developed, due to competing ideologies, forces of globalisation and political, economic and cultural transformations. It analyses and evaluates the shifts in methodological approaches to globalisation and its effects on education policy and pedagogy. It focuses on forces of globalisation, ideology, social inequality and implications for equity and access to quality education.

  11. The Equity-Equality Conflict

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, Steen

    2013-01-01

    -for-performance systems) perceived as fair and when are they not? When can differences in contribution (equity) overrule the social norm of equality? Which contingent reward structure should be applied for teamwork members, if any? Which structure to motivate employees to a continuous search for smarter working......This article investigatesthe factors that determine workplace actors’ appeal to social norms of fairness in some situations and what ‘fairness’ is perceived as consisting of. When is a pay level considered as relativity fair, and when is it not? When are contingent pay systems (i.e. pay...... procedures and solutions? These are central concerns of motivation theory, where rational choice decisions are counterbalanced by endowment effectsor other fairness concerns. Management is placed in a dilemma between what is, e.g., an economically rational structure of incentives, on the one hand, and what...

  12. Analysis of the influence of external factors on efficiency of use of resource potential and economic growth of the region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Vasiliev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article are described and analyzed the influence of factors of external and internal environments on maintaining the planned economic growth, efficient use of the resource potential of the regional economic complex. Are provided methods of analysis and comprehensive measures to maintain the planned pace of economic growth of the region, expansion of competitive advantages. Enlargement and generalization determine the impact of economic environmental factors, in accordance with the duration of optimization and changes in the business cycle, provide a high level of confidence in the estimates of the impact of the macro environment on the process of achieving economic success, efficient use of the resource potential of the regional economic complex. Analysis of the internal conditions of region is carried out by management on the basis of establishing the optimal values of the distribution of the resource potential for high-priority, economically viable, and socially important areas of efficient use of logistical, labor, information, and natural resources, analysis of the current or having a tendency to the formation of informal communities in the sectoral components of economic activities, industrial complexes and social services. The possibilities of the availability and abilities of the region to influence the structural components in achieving the economic and financial goals of the activity are considered, including ensuring sustainable dynamics in increasing the efficiency of regional production, providing competitive advantages in the use of consumed resources. The factors proposed for consideration, different management of the regional economy, contribute to the creation of both formal and informal organizational and economic communities, taking into account the interests of all its participants. In addition, mechanisms and tools are proposed that facilitate the creation of favorable conditions for participants in informal clusters

  13. Closing the Gaps: Health Equity Research Initiative in India | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    India's rapid economic progress has its costs. There has been a significant increase in social and economic inequalities by class, caste, ethnicity, gender, and location. ... Most of the studies fail to examine the combination of factors, pathways, and frameworks that influence how health equity issues are conceptualized, ...

  14. 'Economic' and 'Political' cooperation in various climate policy scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamaide, Bertrand

    2003-01-01

    Cooperation in the economic sense considers efficiency issues. Cooperation in the political sense, like the Kyoto Protocol, considers other issues like equity and historical responsibility. The environmental and economic impacts of the Kyoto Protocol and other scenarios are thus examined. The US pullout may then be viewed, among others, as the result of not untying 'economic' and 'political' cooperation; and since the Protocol will be much less effective without the US, it is shown that an external economic stimulus should and may theoretically be found for retaining their participation

  15. Economic efficiency of legume-cereal intercrops in conditions of organic farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Jánský

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents economic analysis of growing of legume-cereal intercropping in conditions of organic farming. Results of the analysis are based on data monitoring in chosen organic farms that grow LCI. In the paper there is also compared economic efficiency of LCI grown in organic and conventional farming system. Methodological solution results from costingness and earnings monitoring of LCI production in five chosen organic farms in the period 2007–2008.When evaluating costs existing in individual variants of LCI growing it is necessary to say that the selection of individual machines and machine aggregations represents the most important factor of influencing direct costs, namely with regard to the size of organic farms and to the area of individual field blocks. Under conditions of organic farms, the LCI production is also significantly influenced also by agrotechnical (tillage operations. As compared with conventional farms, the final yield of both green fodder and grain is lower by 14–38%. Total direct costs per hectare of harvested LCI acreage ranged in case of fodder production from 9.249 CZK to 11.620 CZK per hectare. In case of grain production, the corresponding costs ranged from 8.848 to 9.970 CZK per hectare. In case of LCI, the direct costs of organic farms per unit of production of both fodder and grain consist mainly of material costs, which represent 63–76% and 61–68% of total expenses associated with production of fodder and grain, respectively. These direct costs are influenced also by higher prices of inputs.

  16. CANDU fuel cycle economic efficiency assessments using the IAEA-MESSAGE-V code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prodea, Iosif; Margeanu, Cristina Alice; Aioanei, Corina; Prisecaru, Ilie; Danila, Nicolae

    2007-01-01

    The main goal of the paper is to evaluate different electricity generation costs in a CANDU Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) using different nuclear fuel cycles. The IAEA-MESSAGE code (Model for Energy Supply Strategy Alternatives and their General Environmental Impacts) will be used to accomplish these assessments. This complex tool was supplied by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in 2002 at 'IAEA-Regional Training Course on Development and Evaluation of Alternative Energy Strategies in Support of Sustainable Development' held in Institute for Nuclear Research Pitesti. It is worthy to remind that the sustainable development requires satisfying the energy demand of present generations without compromising the possibility of future generations to meet their own needs. Based on the latest public information in the next 10-15 years four CANDU-6 based NPP could be in operation in Romania. Two of them will have some enhancements not clearly specified, yet. Therefore we consider being necessary to investigate possibility to enhance the economic efficiency of existing in-service CANDU-6 power reactors. The MESSAGE program can satisfy these requirements if appropriate input models will be built. As it is mentioned in the dedicated issues, a major inherent feature of CANDU is its fuel cycle flexibility. Keeping this in mind, some proposed CANDU fuel cycles will be analyzed in the paper: Natural Uranium (NU), Slightly Enriched Uranium (SEU), Recovered Uranium (RU) with and without reprocessing. Finally, based on optimization of the MESSAGE objective function an economic hierarchy of CANDU fuel cycles will be proposed. The authors used mainly public information on different costs required by analysis. (authors)

  17. Economic feasibility of a novel energy efficient middle vessel batch distillation to reduce energy use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babu, G. Uday Bhaskar; Aditya, R.; Jana, Amiya K.

    2012-01-01

    It has long been recognized that the highly irreversible operation of batch distillation involves more wastage of energy compared to continuous flow distillation. For boosting its energy efficiency, the middle vessel batch distillation (MVBD) column has been invented. In this paper, a rigorous model for an MVBD process for the separation of a ternary hydrocarbon system is developed to simulate its transient behavior. In order to obtain the products at their maximum achievable purities, we device the two operating policies for the representative configuration. This contribution introduces a heat pumping system in the MVBD aiming to further improve its energetic and economic potentials. This novel heat integration technique is operated with a variable speed compressor for pressurizing the overhead vapor before thermally coupling it with the reboiler liquid. Interestingly, along with the compression ratio (CR), the other two manipulated variables are the inflow rate of overhead vapor to the compressor and that of an external medium (here, steam) that provides makeup heat to the reboiler. The operation of this adaptive heat pump assisted column originally involves the simultaneous adaptation of two variables throughout the entire batch processing. The simulation results show that a cost savings predicted in the heat integrated MVBD scheme can be achieved along with a substantial reduction in energy consumption. -- Highlights: ► The two operating policies have been derived for middle vessel batch distillation operation. ► This contribution introduces an adaptive heat pumping system for the middle vessel column. ► The heat integrated column shows better energetic and economic potentials over its conventional counterpart.

  18. Environmental policy and economic efficiency: tradable permits versus regulatory instrument to control air pollution: a comparative approach USA/France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cros, Ch.

    1998-12-01

    The key issue of the thesis paradox of the weak implementation of economic instruments whereas 1) they are theoretically and also empirically considered as efficient; 2) the market imposes itself as the central reference to modem economies; and 3) economic efficiency is nowadays a legitimacy measure of public policies. Two different answers can be given: either theoretical analysis does not enable to explain the real economic efficiency of a political instrument, or environmental policies do not have economic efficiency as their main objective. The analysis take place in a context of a limited rationality and an inter-temporal consistency of public policies. The purpose is to understand the role of economic efficiency criteria during the adoption, building, and evolution of an environmental policy with an analytical point of view, and not a normative one. The institutional analysis of the American and the French pollution control policies, representative of the implementation of a trading permit system for the first, and of a regulatory instrument for the second, prove that the theoretical analysis of an instrument can not explain a real coordination, but only one organizational form among others. An institutional trajectory is the interpretation of policy instruments of policy instruments from 5 fundamental elements: the nature of the legitimacy of the policy; the nature of the regulator hypothesis on the information; the nature of the decision-making basis; the nature of the collective action. A coordination changes when the occurrence of an event moves one of the fundamental elements, and disorganizes the satisfying equilibrium of the agents. Then, the economic efficiency becomes a negotiation point. A political instrument is adopted for its own ability to solve a dysfunction without disrupting the coordination. (author)

  19. Gender Equity Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington State Higher Education Coordinating Board, Olympia.

    Under a legislative mandate from the state of Washington, this report provides updated information on gender equity at each of the public institutions of higher education in Washington and at the community and technical colleges, as applicable. A look at student support and services shows that pay scales in student employment are not…

  20. Equity Literacy for All

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorski, Paul C.; Swalwell, Katy

    2015-01-01

    If the authors have learned anything working with schools across the United States, they've learned this: When it comes to educational equity, the trouble is not a lack of multicultural programs or diversity initiatives in schools. Nor is it a lack of educators who appreciate and even champion diversity. The trouble lies in how so many diversity…

  1. GRADE Equity Guidelines 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welch, Vivian A; Akl, Elie A; Pottie, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper is to describe a conceptual framework for how to consider health equity in the GRADE (Grading Recommendations Assessment and Development Evidence) guideline development process. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Consensus-based guidance developed by the GRADE working grou...

  2. Chapter 4. Economic Considerations: Cost-Effective and Efficient Climate Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilian Auffhammer

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this chapter we discuss the economics of climate change. We begin with a discussion of economic considerations that are important to take into account when designing and evaluating climate policy, including cost effectiveness and efficiency. We then discuss specific policies at the state, national, and international level in light of these economic considerations.  We have several recommendations for the path forward for climate policy. First, the goal of climate policy should be to reduce the damages caused by greenhouse gases. In addition to mitigation policy to reduce greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere, one can also reduce the damages causes by greenhouse gases by adaptation measures that reduce our vulnerability to climate change impacts.  Second, policy-makers should use incentive- (or market- based instruments as opposed to command and control policies (including quantity-based mandates whenever possible. Whenever unpriced emissions are the sole market failure, incentive-based instruments such as a carbon tax or cap and trade program are more likely to achieve the social optimum and maximize social net benefits [1, 2]. Lin and Prince [3] calculate that the optimal gasoline tax for the state of California is $1.37 per gallon.  Our third recommendation is to address the risk of emissions leakage, which arises when only one jurisdiction (e.g., California imposes climate policy, but not the entire world. One way to reduce emissions leakage is to use the strategic distribution of emissions allowances to local producers. This method, known as “output-based allocation” or benchmarking, effectively subsidizes local producers and at least partially offsets the increase in their costs caused by an emissions cap [4]. Importantly, only local production is eligible for an allocation of valuable allowances, providing a counterweight to the incentive for emission leakage. Our fourth recommendation is that if they are used instead

  3. Final Technical Report on Development of an Economic and Efficient Biodiesel production Process (NC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tirla, Cornelia [Univ. of North Carolina, Pembroke, NC (United States); Dooling, Thomas A. [Univ. of North Carolina, Pembroke, NC (United States); Smith, Rachel B. [Univ. of North Carolina, Pembroke, NC (United States); Shi, Xinyan [Univ. of North Carolina, Pembroke, NC (United States); Shahbazi, Abolghasem [North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State Univ., Greensboro, NC (United States)

    2014-03-19

    The Biofuels Team at The University of North Carolina at Pembroke and North Carolina A&T State University carried out a joint research project aimed at developing an efficient process to produce biodiesel. In this project, the team developed and tested various types of homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts which could replace the conventionally used soluble potassium hydroxide catalyst which, traditionally, must be separated and disposed of at the end of the process. As a result of this screening, the homogeneous catalyst choline hydroxide was identified as a potential replacement for the traditional catalyst used in this process, potassium hydroxide, due to its decreased corrosiveness and toxicity. A large number of heterogeneous catalysts were produced and tested in order to determine the scaffold, ion type and ion concentration which would produce optimum yield of biodiesel. The catalyst with 12% calcium on Zeolite β was identified as being highly effective and optimal reaction conditions were identified. Furthermore, a packed bed reactor utilizing this type of catalyst was designed, constructed and tested in order to further optimize the process. An economic analysis of the viability of the project showed that the cost of an independent farmer to produce the fuelstock required to produce biodiesel exceeds the cost of petroleum diesel under current conditions and that therefore without incentives, farmers would not be able to benefit economically from producing their own fuel. An educational website on biodiesel production and analysis was produced and a laboratory experiment demonstrating the production of biodiesel was developed and implemented into the Organic Chemistry II laboratory curriculum at UNCP. Five workshops for local farmers and agricultural agents were held in order to inform the broader community about the various fuelstock available, their cultivation and the process and advantages of biodiesel use and production. This project fits both

  4. The equity price channel in a New-Keynesian DSGE model with financial frictions and banking

    OpenAIRE

    Hylton Hollander; Guangling Liu

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the role of the equity price channel in business cycle fluctuations, and highlights the equity price channel as a different aspect to general equilibrium models with financial frictions and, as a result, emphasizes the systemic influence of financial markets on the real economy. We develop a canonical New-Keynesian DSGE model with a tractable role for the equity market in banking, entrepreneur and household economic activities. The model is estimated with Bayesian technique...

  5. Technical efficiency and economic viability of different cattle identification methods allowed by the Brazilian traceability system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Aurelio Lopes

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to evaluate the technical efficiency and economic viability of the implementation and use of four cattle identification methods allowed by the Brazilian traceability system. The study was conducted in a beef cattle production system located in the State of Mato Grosso, from January to June 2012. Four identification methods (treatments were compared: T1: ear tag in one ear and ear button in the other ear (eabu; T2: ear tag and iron brand on the right leg (eaib; T3: ear tag in one ear and tattoo on the other ear (eata; and T4: ear tag in one ear and electronic ear tag (eael on the other. Each treatment was applied to 60 Nelore animals, totaling 240 animals, divided equally into three life stages (calves, young cattle, adult cattle. The study had two phases: implementation (phase 1 and reading and transfer of identification numbers to an electronic database (phase 2. All operating expenses related to the two phases of the study were determined. The database was constructed, and the statistical analyses were performed using SPSS® 17.0 software. Regarding the time spent on implementation (phase 1, conventional ear tags and electronic ear tags produced similar results, which were lower than those of hot iron and tattoo methods, which differed from each other. Regarding the time required for reading the numbers on animals and their transcription into a database (phase 2, electronic ear-tagging was the fastest method, followed by conventional ear tag, hot iron and tattoo. Among the methods analyzed, the electronic ear tag had the highest technical efficiency because it required less time to implement identifiers and to complete the process of reading and transcription to an electronic database and because it did not exhibit any errors. However, the cost of using the electronic ear-tagging method was higher primarily due to the cost of the device.

  6. Evaluation of economic and technical efficiency of diesel engines operation on the basis of volume combustion rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    І. О. Берестовой

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with a new approach to evaluation of complex efficiency of diesel engines. Traditionally, cylinder’s capacity, rotation frequency, average efficient pressure inside cylinder, piston’s stroke, average piston’s velocity, fuel specific consumption and other indices are used as generalizing criteria, characterizing diesel engine’s efficiency, but they do not reflect interrelation between engine’s complex efficiency and a set of economic, mass-dimensional, operational and ecological efficiency. The approach applied in the article makes it possible to reveal the existing and modify the existing methods of solving the problem of improving diesel engine’s efficiency with due regard to interrelation of the parameters, characterizing efficiency of their operation. Statistic analyses were carried out, on the basis of which an assumption regarding the existence of interrelation between specific fuel consumption and the analyzed engine’s parameters was made. Processing of statistical data for various analyzed functions of diesel engines helped offer a function, illustrating the link between volume combustion rate, piston’s area and nominal theoretical specific fuel consumption. Interrelation between volume combustion rate, nominal parameters of diesel operation and efficiency indices, obtained by processing statistical data of more than 500 models of diesels of different series was evaluated, the main feature of it being a mathematical trend. The analysis of the obtained function makes it possible to establish an interrelation between economic efficiency of a diesel, its main index being specific fuel consumption and volume combustion rate and design peculiarities

  7. Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palley, Paul D; Parcero, Miriam E

    2016-10-01

    A review of literature in the calendar year 2015 dedicated to environmental policies and sustainable development, and economic policies. This review is divided into these sections: sustainable development, irrigation, ecosystems and water management, climate change and disaster risk management, economic growth, water supply policies, water consumption, water price regulation, and water price valuation.

  8. Marketing mix effects on private labels brand equity

    OpenAIRE

    Abril, Carmen; Rodriguez-Cánovas, Belén

    2017-01-01

    The present study explores some marketing mix effects on private labels brand equity creation. The research aims to study the effect of some elements under retailer's direct control such as in-store communications, in-store promotions and distribution intensity as well as other general marketing mix levers such as advertising, perceived price, and monetary promotions. The results indicate that the most efficient marketing mix tools for private label brand equity creation are private labels in...

  9. Efficient production and economics of the clean fuel hydrogen. Paper no. IGEC-1-Keynote-Elnashaie

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elnashaie, S.

    2005-01-01

    This paper/plenary lecture to this green energy conference briefly discusses six main issues: 1) The future of hydrogen economy; 2) Thermo-chemistry of hydrogen production for different techniques of autothermic operation using different feedstocks; 3) Improvement of the hydrogen yield and minimization of reformer size through combining fast fluidization with hydrogen and oxygen membranes together with CO 2 sequestration; 4) Efficient production of hydrogen using novel Autothermal Circulating Fluidized Bed Membrane Reformer (ACFBMR); 5) Economics of hydrogen production; and, 6) Novel gasification process for hydrogen production from biomass. It is shown that hydrogen economy is not a Myth as some people advocate, and that with well-directed research it will represent a bright future for humanity utilizing such a clean, everlasting fuel, which is also free of deadly conflicts for the control of energy sources. It is shown that autothermic production of hydrogen using novel reformers configurations and wide range of feedstocks is a very promising route towards achieving a successful hydrogen economy. A novel process for the production of hydrogen from different renewable biomass sources is presented and discussed. The process combines the principles of pyrolysis with the simultaneous use of catalyst, membranes and CO 2 sequestration to produce pure hydrogen directly from the unit. Some of the novel processes presented are essential components of modern bio-refineries. (author)

  10. Design of an economically efficient feed-in tariff structure for renewable energy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesser, Jonathan A.; Su Xuejuan

    2008-01-01

    Evidence suggests, albeit tentatively, that feed-in tariffs (FITs) are more effective than alternative support schemes in promoting renewable energy technologies (RETs). FITs provide long-term financial stability for investors in RETs, which, at the prevailing market price of electricity, are not currently cost-efficient enough to compete with traditional fossil fuel technologies. On the other hand, if not properly designed, FITs can be economically inefficient, as is widely regarded to have been the case under the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 (PURPA). Under PURPA, too high a guaranteed price led to the creation of so-called 'PURPA machines'-poorly performing generating units that could survive financially only because of heavy subsidies that came at the expense of retail customers. Similarly, because of their adverse impacts on retail electricity rates, German FITs have been subject to increasing political pressure from utilities and customers. In this paper, we propose an innovative two-part FIT, consisting of both a capacity payment and a market-based energy payment, which can be used to meet the renewables policy goals of regulators. Our two-part tariff design draws on the strengths of traditional FITs, relies on market mechanisms, is easy to implement, and avoids the problems caused by distorting wholesale energy markets through above-market energy payments. The approach is modeled on forward capacity market designs that have been recently implemented by several regional transmission organizations in the USA to address needs for new generating capacity to ensure system reliability

  11. Applicability and economic efficiency of earthquake retrofit measures on existing buildings in Bucharest, Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostenaru, M.

    2009-04-01

    The research discussed in this contribution contains two aspects: on one side the economic efficiency of seismic retrofit measures, and on the other their applicability. The research was limited to housing buildings. Bucharest, the capital of Romania, was the object of the research. Strong earthquakes affect Bucharest about three times in a century, the damaging earthquakes of the 20th century being in 1940 and 1977. Other strong earthquakes occurred in 1986 and 1990. Since it is a broad topic, first the building type was determined, which should serve further research. For this scope the building types of the 20th century, which are common in Bucharest, Romania, were investigated. For each building type reports have been written, which comprised the earthquake resilient features, the seismic defficiencies, the damage patterns and the retrofit measures. Each of these features was listed for elements of the building. A first result of the research was an integrated system in order to include latter aspects in the planning in the first steps. So already at the building survey attention has to be paid on how a building is subdivided in order to be able to determine the economic efficiency of the planned action. So were defined the `retrofit elements`. In a first step the characteristics were defined, through which these retrofit elements (for example column, wall part between two windows) can be recognised in the building survey. In a further one, which retrofit measures can be connected to these. Diagrams were built, in order to visualise these findings. For each retrofit element and the corresponding measure the costs were calculated. Also, these retrofit elements and the measures connected to them were modelled for the simulation with the structural software, so that the benefit of the measures could be determined. In the part which regarded the economic efficiency, benefits and costs of retrofit measures had to be compared, so the improvement in the rigidity

  12. Stagnating energy efficiency in the Swedish building sector-Economic and organisational explanations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naessen, Jonas; Sprei, Frances; Holmberg, John

    2008-01-01

    The development towards higher energy efficiency in the Swedish building sector stagnated in the late 1980s and 1990s. In new buildings the average specific energy use for heating is twice as high as in the best performing buildings 20 years ago. By combining econometric studies and interviews with actors in the building sector we analyse the underlying economic and organisational causes for this development. In the stock of buildings, specific energy use for heating (kWh/m 2 /yr) has a high correlation with increasing energy prices and price elasticities have not changed markedly over time. This implies that the stagnation to a large extent can be explained by energy price trends. On the contrary, in new buildings the correlation between energy prices and specific energy use is much weaker. One important cause of low sensitivity to price changes is that information about the life cycle cost (LCC) of different investment alternatives is often not available to the involved actors. The most common investment criterion is instead the requirements of the national building energy standard which has developed into a norm rather than a minimum for energy performance. In this paper we also discuss potential improvements in the learning processes within the sector

  13. Assesment criteria improvement for operational economical efficiency of NPP with WWER typr reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abagyan, A.A.; Matveev, A.A.; Ignatenko, E.I.; Pshechenkova, T.V.

    1983-01-01

    A new technique for calculating fuel component of the cost of NPP electric power generation is suggested. To calculate the variable part of fuel component it is suggested to consider the acquisition cost of fuel assemblies, unloaded from the reactor on fuel cycle completion instead of acquisition cost of fresh fuel assemblies, loaded into the reactor for organization of this cycle; it is also suggested to include the acquisition cost of fuel assemblies, remaining in reactop core on completion of the last fuel cycle+ in constant fuel expenses. The fuel component of the cost of WWER-440 reactor electric power generation for desigh operating conditions with 700 full power days period of steady-state fuel cycle was calculated. The suggested technique enables to reveal the deviation of the real fuel cycling conditions from the standard ones and calculate the value of this deviation, establish the reasons, disturbing the economical conditions of reactor operation, to approximate the real conditions of fuel cycling to the optimal ones by influencing on technological process, resulting in the change of factors, determining the fuel cycling efficiency during electric power generation and refueling in considered cycle

  14. Fixing Saskatchewan’s Potash Royalty Mess: A New Approach for Economic Efficiency and Simplicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duanjie Chen

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available For a government’s fiscal program to best serve the public interest, while also ensuring sufficient public revenue collection, it has to meet three criteria: efficiency, simplicity and fairness. Unfortunately, the royalty and tax system currently in place for Saskatchewan’s robust potash-mining industry is none of these three things; it has actually reached the point of incoherence and absurdity, or a mess. Under the current royalty and tax regime for potash producers, the tangled thicket of royalties, taxes and credits can differ between commencement dates for production, projects of different sizes, or even projects of similar size but with different profitability; it also has potash producers generally enjoying a much lighter tax burden on marginal investments than that borne by the oil and gas industry and most other non-resource industries. The result is distortions and inefficiencies, resulting in subpar investment activity, which can only stand in the way of Saskatchewan reaching its full economic potential. That needs to change. The Saskatchewan government can implement a simpler and properly structured rent-based tax and a revenue-based royalty as minimum payment (where the royalty can be credited against the rent tax, each with a single rate and an identical tax base for all tax and royalty payers. Such a properly structured royalty and tax system can deliver improved productivity, without reducing investment incentives, resulting in a better partnership for both Saskatchewan’s industry and government in the long run.

  15. Implementation of energy efficiency standards of household refrigerator/freezer in China: Potential environmental and economic impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao, Jing; Yu, Suiran

    2011-01-01

    Due to the rapid economic development, living standards in China are improving fast. Chinese families are having more household electrical appliances, among which refrigerators are indispensable. Energy consumption of refrigerators is huge in China and causes environmental concerns. China has issued the national energy efficiency standards of household refrigerators, GB12021.2-2003 and GB12021.2-2008 to promote high-efficiency refrigerator production and use. This study evaluated the impacts of the standards on the environment, manufacturers and consumers over a long-term period of 2003-2023. It first evaluated the potential electricity conservation and GHG emission reduction resulting from energy efficiency improvements driven by the standards. Next, manufacturers' technological and economic concerns about complying with the standards were discussed. Some efficiency improving design options were considered and the resulting increases in manufacturing cost and retail price were estimated. The return of consumers from invest in efficiency was analyzed based on lifecycle cost saving of the improved models. The economical viability of the standards was then evaluated by national consumer costs and benefits. Results showed that the considered efficiency standards will potentially save a cumulative total of 588-1180 TWh electricity, and reduce emission of 629-1260 million tons of CO 2 , 4.00-8.04 million tons of SO x and 2.37-4.76 million tons of NO x by 2023, depending on sale share of models by efficiency. In a more environmentally optimal case (75% sale share of high-efficiency models), the national consumer benefits are 121 billion RMB (discounted), with the benefit/cost ratio of consumer's expenditure being 1.45:1. However, the preference to high-efficiency models is substantial influenced by consumer's expectation on return from the additional cost on efficiency.

  16. State policy as a driver of innovation to support economic growth: California energy-efficiency policy (1975-2005)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klementich, Eloisa Y.

    2011-12-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this research was to identify whether a relationship exists between state energy-efficiency policy and innovation in the State of California and to shed light on the impact that energy-efficiency policy can have on supporting statewide economic development goals. Theoretical Framework. The theoretical framework drew from foundations in neoclassical economic theory, technology change theory, and new growth theory. Together these theories formed the basis to describe the impacts caused by the innovations within the market economy. Under this framework, policy-generated innovations are viewed to be translated into efficiency and productivity that propel economic benefits. Methodological Considerations. This study examined various economic indices and efficiency attainment indices affecting four home appliances regulated under Title 20's energy-efficiency standard established by the California Energy Commission, Warren Alquist Act. The multiple regression analysis performed provided an understanding of the relationship between the products regulated, the regulation standard, and the policy as it relates to energy-efficiency regulation. Findings. There is enough evidence to show that strategies embedded in the Warren Alquist Act, Title 20 do drive innovation. Three of the four product categories tested showed statistical significance in the policy standard resulting in an industry efficiency improvement. Conclusively, the consumption of electricity per capita in California has positively diverged over a 35-year period from national trends, even though California had mirrored the nation in income and family size during the same period, the only clear case of divergence is the state's action toward a different energy policy. Conclusions and Recommendations. California's regulations propelled manufacturers to reach higher efficiency levels not otherwise pursued by market forces. The California effort included alliances all working together to make

  17. Economism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Simons

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Modern society is characterised not only by a fascination with scientific technology as a means of solving all problems, especially those that stand in the way of material progress (technicism, but also by an obsessive interest in everything that has to do with money (economism or mammonism. The article discusses the relationship between technicism and economism, on the basis of their relationship to utilitarian thinking: the quest for the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people. Recent major studies of neo-liberalism (seen as an intensification of utilitarianism by Laval and Dardot are used as reference to the development of utilitarianism. It is suggested that the western view of the world, as expressed in economism and technicism, with a utilitarian ethics, features three absolutisations: those of theoretical thinking, technology and economics. In a second part, the article draws on the framework of reformational philosophy to suggest an approach that, in principle, is not marred by such absolutisations.

  18. Performance and economic analysis of a plug and play regenerative brake for improving energy efficiency for traction elevators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeraputra, Chuttchaval; Tiptipakorn, Supun

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents performance and economic analysis of a plug and play regenerative brake for improving energy efficiency for traction elevators. The proposed regenerative brake recycles the energy loss of a dynamic brake and feeds into the grid while an elevator inverter is operating in the braking mode. According to field measurement of energy consumption, it reveals that the efficiency can be improved as much as 18%. The prototype of a regenerative brake 12 kW, 400V, 3ϕ is developed and tested on an elevator simulator. It is shown that it can transfer energy out of a DC capacitor before the dynamic brake kicks in. Further, an economic analysis is provided to carry out the payback period and the present worth equivalent to confirm economic feasibility.

  19. Economic potentials of CHP connected to district heat systems in Germany. Implementation of the EU Efficiency Directive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eikmeier, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    The EU Efficiency Directive (2012/27/EU) is requiring all member states to carry out an evaluation of the potential for highly efficient CHP and the efficient use of district heating and cooling by December 2015. The German Federal Ministry of Economic Affairs and Energy appointed this task to the Fraunhofer Institute for Manufacturing and Advanced Materials, division for Energy Systems Analysis (formerly Bremer Energie Institut) in conjunction with other partners. The results for the sector district- and communal heating with CHP, sub-sectors private households, trade and services industry, are presented in this article.

  20. How technological potentials are undermined by economic and behavioural responses. The treatment effect of endogenous energy efficiency measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, Helena; Tode, Christian; Koeln Univ.

    2015-01-01

    Governments worldwide spend increasing amounts of money on policy schemes to reduce energy consumption and related carbon emissions. We investigate the actual treatment effect of energy efficiency measures and therein compare actual demand responses to technological potentials. Based on a demand system analysis of household data and by approximating unobserved energy awareness, we find economic and behavioural responses that counteract expected savings from energy efficiency. Results show strong rebound and even back ring effects but also suggest heterogeneity of the effectiveness driven by behavioural concepts, such as sunk cost fallacy or habit formation. Understanding these can contribute to target-oriented policy designs and increased effectiveness and efficiency of policies.

  1. How technological potentials are undermined by economic and behavioural responses. The treatment effect of endogenous energy efficiency measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, Helena; Tode, Christian [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Energiewirtschaftliches Inst.; Koeln Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Economics

    2015-06-15

    Governments worldwide spend increasing amounts of money on policy schemes to reduce energy consumption and related carbon emissions. We investigate the actual treatment effect of energy efficiency measures and therein compare actual demand responses to technological potentials. Based on a demand system analysis of household data and by approximating unobserved energy awareness, we find economic and behavioural responses that counteract expected savings from energy efficiency. Results show strong rebound and even back ring effects but also suggest heterogeneity of the effectiveness driven by behavioural concepts, such as sunk cost fallacy or habit formation. Understanding these can contribute to target-oriented policy designs and increased effectiveness and efficiency of policies.

  2. Efficient, equitable and sustainable energy policy in a small open economy: Concepts and assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Youngho; Fang, Zheng

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to develop three broadly defined concepts of designing and evaluating energy policy of a small open economy, namely, efficiency, equity, and sustainability which are applied to Singapore. By analysing the historical energy and economic data and examining energy policies and programs implemented, this study finds that (1) energy intensity improves over time and three strategies employed to improve energy efficiency - tariffs, deregulation and setting energy standards - are found to have some positive effects. (2) A utility rebate programme is implemented and revised continuously to achieve equity in energy consumption across Singapore households. (3) By the weak concept of sustainability, Singapore is considered marginally sustainable. Institutional, technological and market-based approaches are being implemented to increase energy efficiency, improve energy equity and secure sustainability. - Highlights: • Three concepts of designing and evaluating energy policy are developed. • Efficiency, equity and sustainability are the three concepts. • Three strategies are identified in improving energy efficiency. • A utility rebate programme is to achieve equity in energy consumption across households. • Institutional and market-based approaches are to secure sustainable energy supply.

  3. Margin Requirements and Equity Option Returns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hitzemann, Steffen; Hofmann, Michael; Uhrig-Homburg, Marliese

    In equity option markets, traders face margin requirements both for the options themselves and for hedging-related positions in the underlying stock market. We show that these requirements carry a significant margin premium in the cross-section of equity option returns. The sign of the margin...... premium depends on demand pressure: If end-users are on the long side of the market, option returns decrease with margins, while they increase otherwise. Our results are statistically and economically significant and robust to different margin specifications and various control variables. We explain our...... findings by a model of funding-constrained derivatives dealers that require compensation for satisfying end-users’ option demand....

  4. Margin Requirements and Equity Option Returns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hitzemann, Steffen; Hofmann, Michael; Uhrig-Homburg, Marliese

    In equity option markets, traders face margin requirements both for the options themselves and for hedging-related positions in the underlying stock market. We show that these requirements carry a significant "margin premium" in the cross-section of equity option returns. The sign of the margin...... premium depends on demand pressure: If end-users are on the long side of the market, option returns decrease with margins, while they increase otherwise. Our results are statistically and economically significant and robust to different margin specifications and various control variables. We explain our...... findings by a model of funding-constrained derivatives dealers that require compensation for satisfying end-users’ option demand....

  5. Illiquidity Premia in the Equity Options Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Goyenko, Ruslan; Jacobs, Kris

    Illiquidity is well-known to be a significant determinant of stock and bond returns. We report on illiquidity premia in the equity options market. An increase in option illiquidity decreases the current option price and implies higher expected option returns. This effect is statistically and econ......Illiquidity is well-known to be a significant determinant of stock and bond returns. We report on illiquidity premia in the equity options market. An increase in option illiquidity decreases the current option price and implies higher expected option returns. This effect is statistically...... and economically signifi…cant. It is robust across different empirical approaches and when including various control variables. The illiquidity of the underlying stock affects the option return negatively, consistent with a hedging argument: When stock market illiquidity increases, the cost of replicating...

  6. Securing energy equity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimsby, Lars Kare, E-mail: lars.grimsby@umb.no [Department of International Environment and Development Studies, Noragric, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, P.O. Box 5003, 1432 Aas (Norway)

    2011-11-15

    Addressing energy poverty rather than energy equity conveniently evades the problem of the gap in energy consumption per capita in the developed and developing world. For energy security policies to adequately address energy poverty it requires a widening of scope from national to global. This is a comment to the forthcoming presentation of IEA's proposition for a new architecture for financing universal modern energy access to be presented at the conference 'Energy for all-Financing access for the poor' held in Oslo in October 2011. - Highlights: > Addressing energy poverty may elude the disparity in energy consumption between rich and poor. > A minimum threshold of energy for the poor does not itself address inequity in energy consumption. > Energy equity may be secured by widening scope from national to global, from the poorest to us all.

  7. Securing energy equity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimsby, Lars Kare

    2011-01-01

    Addressing energy poverty rather than energy equity conveniently evades the problem of the gap in energy consumption per capita in the developed and developing world. For energy security policies to adequately address energy poverty it requires a widening of scope from national to global. This is a comment to the forthcoming presentation of IEA's proposition for a new architecture for financing universal modern energy access to be presented at the conference 'Energy for all-Financing access for the poor' held in Oslo in October 2011. - Highlights: → Addressing energy poverty may elude the disparity in energy consumption between rich and poor. → A minimum threshold of energy for the poor does not itself address inequity in energy consumption. → Energy equity may be secured by widening scope from national to global, from the poorest to us all.

  8. Valuing Private Equity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Morten; Wang, Neng; Yang, Jinqiang

    2014-01-01

    We investigate whether the performance of private equity (PE) investments is sufficient to compensate investors (LPs) for risk, long-term illiquidity, management, and incentive fees charged by the general partner (GP).We analyze the LPs’ portfolio-choice problem and find that management fees, car....... On average, LPs may just break even, net of management fees, carry, risk, and costs of illiquidity.......We investigate whether the performance of private equity (PE) investments is sufficient to compensate investors (LPs) for risk, long-term illiquidity, management, and incentive fees charged by the general partner (GP).We analyze the LPs’ portfolio-choice problem and find that management fees......, carried interest, and illiquidity are costly, and GPs must generate substantial alpha to compensate LPs for bearing these costs. Debt is cheap and reduces these costs, potentially explaining the high leverage of buyout transactions. Conventional interpretations of PE performance measures appear optimistic...

  9. Toward Ensuring Health Equity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petkovic, Jennifer; Epstein, Jonathan; Buchbinder, Rachelle

    2015-01-01

    , the Evaluative Linguistic Framework for Questionnaires, developed to assess text quality of questionnaires. We also considered a study assessing cross-cultural adaptation with/without back-translation and/or expert committee. The results of this preconference work were presented to the equity working group......OBJECTIVE: The goal of the Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) 12 (2014) equity working group was to determine whether and how comprehensibility of patient-reported outcome measures (PROM) should be assessed, to ensure suitability for people with low literacy and differing cultures. METHODS......: The English, Dutch, French, and Turkish Health Assessment Questionnaires and English and French Osteoarthritis Knee and Hip Quality of Life questionnaires were evaluated by applying 3 readability formulas: Flesch Reading Ease, Flesch-Kincaid grade level, and Simple Measure of Gobbledygook; and a new tool...

  10. The impact of economic growth on environmental efficiency of the electricity sector: A hybrid window DEA methodology for the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halkos, George E; Polemis, Michael L

    2018-04-01

    This paper estimates the efficiency of the power generation sector in the USA by using Window Data Envelopment Analysis (W-DEA). We integrate radial and non-radial efficiency measurements in DEA using the hybrid measure while we extend the proposed model by considering good and undesirable outputs as separable and non separable. Then in the second stage, we perform parametric and non-parametric econometric techniques in order to model the relationship between the calculated environmental efficiencies and economic growth in attaining sustainability. Our empirical findings indicate a stable N-shape relationship between environmental efficiency and regional economic growth in the case of global and total pollutants but an inverted N-shape in the case of local pollutants. This implies that attention is required when considering local and global pollutants and the extracted environmental efficiency scores. A clear message to policy makers and government officials is that climate change which calls for economic, environmental and social concern should be analyzed according to its dispersion and regional dimension. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. HE CONVERSION OF THE EFFICIENCY OF LABOR, RESPECTIVELY OF LABOR PRODUCTIVITY IN THE ECONOMIC AND COMMERCIAL RATE OF RETURN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin CĂRUNTU

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Generally, an activity is considered to be efficient if the production implies low costs or if the revenues from selling the products on the market outweigh the expenditures that were made to achieve them. Labor productivity as an efficiency indicator of a production process represents an expression of the relationship between effect (products, services and effort (work means, labor force, work items. Through the labor productivity conversion in rates of return (economic and commercial is determined an evolution and an influence on these rates, driving the company’s own efforts to innovate, produce and harness goods, works and services with maximum utility, efficiency and competitiveness services. The aim of this paper is to highlight the work efficiency, respectively the labor productivity detached from the factorial context in the trade and economic rates of return. The introduction presents some general aspects referring to labor productivity, then it will be presented and discussed the analytical methods used in the process of reflecting the labor productivity in the rates of return, the results analysis, and at the end of this paper it will be presented some conclusions based on the study case. The expected results consist in identifying the mechanisms by which labor efficiency is converted into the company’s economic and financial performance.

  12. Designing Modern Equity Portfolios

    OpenAIRE

    Ronald Jean Degen

    2011-01-01

    This aim of this paper is to describe possible ways of investing in equity; choosing the right stocks(among small-cap, large-cap, value, growth, and foreign) using fundamental analysis, defining their appropriate mix in the portfolios according to the desired return-risk profiles based on Markowitz?s modern portfolio theory, and using technical analysis to buy and sell them.

  13. Keynes, population, and equity prices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarascio, V J

    1985-01-01

    Keynes in 1937 examined the phenomenon of the Great Depression from a longrun perspective in contradiction to the "General Theory," where the focus was on the shortrun. "Some Economic Consequences of a Declining Population," Keynes' article, reveals the context in which the "General Theory" was written. In the "General Theory," the focus is on short-term fluctuations, i.e., business cycles, but Keynes fails to provide any theoretical explanation as to why the depression of the 1930s was so severe and intractable. In the 1937 article, the depression is seen as the result of the combined effects of a decline in longrun growth due to population growth decline and a shortrun cyclical decline, together producing severe economic consequences. What is important for the purposes of this discussion is the implication, within the context of the 1937 article, that not only was the stock market crash of 1929 related to population change (with its accompanying collapse in expectations) but that, in general, changes in the rate of growth of population are accompanied by stock price movements in the same direction. The remainder of the discussion is devoted to a simple empirical test of this relationship. The data used are population size (POP), defined as the total residential population in the US from 1870-1979, and the Standard and Poor 500 Stock index (SP) for the corresponding 109-year period. In addition, a 3rd series was constructed, a price deflated Standard and Poor index (RSP) with a base period of 1870, to account for possible inflationary distortion of the index. The empirical results do not invalidate the hypothesis that population growth rates affect equity markets. In fact, there seems to be strong evidence that they are related in a manner suggestive of Keynes' intutition, namely, that the stock market crash of 1929 was due to factors more fundamental than those often perceived from a shortrun perspective. According to Keynes (1937), population is the most

  14. ROLE OF TRANSPORT INFRASTRUCTURE IN EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT OF SPATIAL SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF THE REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina C. Chimitdorzhieva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The problems of spatial socio-economic development of the region are considered in this article. Special attention is given to transport infrastructure. The authors propose methodical instruments for evaluating the influence of transport infrastructure on spatial development of region based on research of theoretic-methodical aspects of economic growth theory, location of economic activity and development concepts of infrastructural provision.

  15. Relationship among performance, carcass, and feed efficiency characteristics, and their ability to predict economic value in the feedlot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retallick, K M; Faulkner, D B; Rodriguez-Zas, S L; Nkrumah, J D; Shike, D W

    2013-12-01

    A 4-yr study was conducted using 736 steers of known Angus, Simmental, or Simmental × Angus genetics to determine performance, carcass, and feed efficiency factors that explained variation in economic performance. Steers were pen fed and individual DMI was recorded using a GrowSafe automated feeding system (GrowSafe Systems Ltd., Airdrie, Alberta, Canada). Steers consumed a similar diet and received similar management each year. The objectives of this study were to: 1) determine current economic value of feed efficiency and 2) identify performance, carcass, and feed efficiency characteristics that predict: carcass value, profit, cost of gain, and feed costs. Economic data used were from 2011 values. Feed efficiency values investigated were: feed conversion ratio (FCR; feed to gain), residual feed intake (RFI), residual BW gain (RG), and residual intake and BW gain (RIG). Dependent variables were carcass value ($/steer), profit ($/steer), feed costs ($/steer • d(-1)), and cost of gain ($/kg). Independent variables were year, DMI, ADG, HCW, LM area, marbling, yield grade, dam breed, and sire breed. A 10% improvement in RG (P Profit increased with a 10% improvement in feed efficiency (P profit. Eighty-five percent of the variation in cost of gain was explained by ADG, DMI, HCW, and year. Prediction equations were developed that excluded ADG and DMI, and included feed efficiency values. Using these equations, cost of gain was explained primarily by FCR (R(2) = 0.71). Seventy-three percent of profitability was explained, with 55% being accounted for by RG and marbling. These prediction equations represent the relative importance of factors contributing to economic success in feedlot cattle based on current prices.

  16. Customer equity of Pakistani fast food restaurant: A study of attitudinal customer equity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubair

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Customer Equity is true representative of relationship marketing. There are two major approach-es to measure Customer Equity: Transaction/sales based approach and Attitudinal Approach. This research is an effort to check customer equity of fast food restaurants of Pakistan by using attitudinal approach. Transactional customer equity is treated as criterion for attitudinal customer equity. Three drivers of Customer Equity are Value Equity, Brand equity and Relationship equity are taken as independent variables in this research. Convenient sampling technique was used and sample size was 393 respondents. The results show that attitudinal customer equity had strong association with transactional equity. Brand equity, value equity and relationship equity show positive associations with attitudinal customer equity.

  17. Private Equity and Industry Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernstein, Shai; Lerner, Josh; Sørensen, Morten

    2017-01-01

    The growth of the private equity industry has spurred concerns about its impact on the economy. This analysis looks across nations and industries to assess the impact of private equity on industry performance. We find that industries where private equity funds invest grow more quickly in terms...... of total production and employment and appear less exposed to aggregate shocks. Our robustness tests provide some evidence that is consistent with our effects being driven by our preferred channel....

  18. Energy, economy and equity interactions in a CGE [Computable General Equilibrium] model for Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naqvi, Farzana

    1997-01-01

    In the last three decades, Computable General Equilibrium modelling has emerged as an established field of applied economics. This book presents a CGE model developed for Pakistan with the hope that it will lay down a foundation for application of general equilibrium modelling for policy formation in Pakistan. As the country is being driven swiftly to become an open market economy, it becomes vital to found out the policy measures that can foster the objectives of economic planning, such as social equity, with the minimum loss of the efficiency gains from the open market resource allocations. It is not possible to build a model for practical use that can do justice to all sectors of the economy in modelling of their peculiar features. The CGE model developed in this book focuses on the energy sector. Energy is considered as one of the basic needs and an essential input to economic growth. Hence, energy policy has multiple criteria to meet. In this book, a case study has been carried out to analyse energy pricing policy in Pakistan using this CGE model of energy, economy and equity interactions. Hence, the book also demonstrates how researchers can model the fine details of one sector given the core structure of a CGE model. (UK)

  19. Green Taxation in Question: Politics and Economic Efficiency in Environmental Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Carsten; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    these policy recommendations are second best in strict economic terms, they are the best economic designs given that they must be politically feasible. Understanding the politics of green taxation is the prerequisite for the development of effective green taxation models which have a chance of being...

  20. Efficiency of Emission Control Measures on Particulate Matter-Related Health Impacts and Economic Cost during the 2014 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Meeting in Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qichen Liu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC meeting was held from 5 November to 11 November 2014 in Beijing, and comprehensive emission control measures were implemented. The efficiency of these measures on particulate matter-related health impacts and economic cost need to be evaluated. Methods: The influences of emission control measures during APEC on particulate matter were evaluated, and health economic effects were assessed. Results: Average concentrations of PM2.5 and PM10 during APEC were reduced by 57.0%, and 50.6% respectively, compared with pre-APEC period. However, the concentrations of particulate matter rebounded after APEC. Compared with the pre-APEC and post-APEC periods, the estimated number of deaths caused by non-accidental, cardiovascular and respiratory diseases that could be attributed to PM2.5 and PM10 during the APEC were the lowest. The economic cost associated with mortality caused by PM2.5 and PM10 during the APEC were reduced by (61.3% and 66.6% and (50.3% and 60.8% respectively, compared with pre-APEC and post-APEC. Conclusions: The emission control measures were effective in improving short term air quality and reducing health risks and medical expenses during 2014 APEC, but more efforts is needed for long term and continuous air quality improvement and health protection.

  1. Efficiency of Emission Control Measures on Particulate Matter-Related Health Impacts and Economic Cost during the 2014 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Meeting in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qichen; Huang, Jing; Guo, Bin; Guo, Xinbiao

    2016-12-28

    Background : The Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) meeting was held from 5 November to 11 November 2014 in Beijing, and comprehensive emission control measures were implemented. The efficiency of these measures on particulate matter-related health impacts and economic cost need to be evaluated. Methods : The influences of emission control measures during APEC on particulate matter were evaluated, and health economic effects were assessed. Results : Average concentrations of PM 2.5 and PM 10 during APEC were reduced by 57.0%, and 50.6% respectively, compared with pre-APEC period. However, the concentrations of particulate matter rebounded after APEC. Compared with the pre-APEC and post-APEC periods, the estimated number of deaths caused by non-accidental, cardiovascular and respiratory diseases that could be attributed to PM 2.5 and PM 10 during the APEC were the lowest. The economic cost associated with mortality caused by PM 2.5 and PM 10 during the APEC were reduced by (61.3% and 66.6%) and (50.3% and 60.8%) respectively, compared with pre-APEC and post-APEC. Conclusions : The emission control measures were effective in improving short term air quality and reducing health risks and medical expenses during 2014 APEC, but more efforts is needed for long term and continuous air quality improvement and health protection.

  2. Investigating water productivity and economic efficiency of wheat-crop under different sowing methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirani, A.A.; Dahri, Z.H.

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted at PARC's research station Kala Shah Kaku, Lahore, in order to calculate the water productivity and economic efficiency of wheat-crop under different sowing methods in a combined harvested paddy filed. The sowing methods were direct drilling with FMI Seeder, Zero tillage and conventional method. Data were collected during 2008-09. Wheat-yield was 2750 kg/ha, 2665 kg/ha and 2610 kg/ha for direct drilling with F MI Seeder, Zero tillage and conventional method, respectively. The direct drilling in heavy residue gave 5.4 % more yield than the conventional method and 3.2 % more yield than zero tillage. The zero tillage ensured 2.1% more yield than the conventional method. The net water applied as 323, 354, and 380 mm for direct drilling with FMI seeder, zero tillage and conventional methods respectively against the potential crop evapotranspiration of 383 mm. This indicates that the direct drilling of wheat-crop in heave rice stubbles saves 15% irrigation water as compared to conventional method and 8.8% over zero tillage. The zero tillage method saves 6.8 % of irrigation water over the conventional method. The water productivity was found to be 0.851 kg/m3. 0.753 kg/m/sup 3/ and 0.687 kg/m/sup 3/ for direct drilling with FMI Seeder, Zero tillage and conventional method respectively. This indicates that the direct drilling ensures 23.9% increase in water productivity over conventional method and 13.01% over zero tillage. The zero tillage gave 9.6% more water productivity than the conventional method. The costs of production for the three sowing methods were Rs. 39123/ha, Rs.43737/ha and Rs. 53047/ha for direct drilling, zero tillage and conventional method respectively. This indicates an overall saving of Rs. 13924/ha (26.2 %) by the direct drilling method as compared to the conventional method and Rs. 4613/ha (10.5%) over zero tillage method. The zero tillage saves Rs. 9319/ha (17.6 %) over the conventional method. Thus, the resource

  3. THE ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY OF THE INTEGRATED SYSTEM OF PROTECTION OF WHITE CABBAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. U. Misrieva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The climatic conditions of the Derbent district of the Republic of Dagestan are favorable for seed-growing cabbage of white-cabbage and other varieties by a nonstop method. In the complex of measures to increase the efficiency of production of cabbage seeds, pest and disease control  plays an important  role. The article proves the application of a new approach to the protection system of testes of white cabbage. On the basis of long-term phytosanitary   monitoring   and   biocenotic   principles, which  allow differentiating  the use of  protective  equipment in each specific case, an integrated system of protection of testes of cabbage from the main pests in the conditions  of the south of Russia has been developed. New progressive methods in the implementation of basic technological  processes are economically justified.  The introduction of the system ensured a significant increase in the yield of testes of white cabbage and the profitability of  seed production.  For each ruble of  expenses for crop protection, 8.1 rubles of additional income was received. Applied in FIC VNIIR AES testicles of cabbage allowed  to  harvest 190 kg of  additional  yield of  hybrid seeds from each hectare. The amount of realization of the additional harvest was 114,000 rubles. The recoupment of  costs  in  terms  of  the  ruble  costs  is  29.5  rubles. Reducing the  pesticide  load on  agrocenosis, yielded a yield with good quality characteristics. The difference in germination was 5-6% higher when using satellites. The fulfillment of the seeds also depended on the protection system. Thus, the mass of 1000 seeds when using the AES of testes of cabbage in the F1 Hybrid Extra was 4.68 g, while the schedule of treatment was 3.83 g.

  4. Methodology of economic efficiency assessment and its application to radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petr, J.

    1988-01-01

    The share of the radioactive waste treatment process in the total economic balance of nuclear power plants is assessed. Only liquid wastes are considered for simplification. The amount, specific activity and concentration are the basic parameters significant from the economic point of view. The solution of problems associated with the radioactive waste formation (its minimization, e.g., by improving leakproofness, limiting the number of rinsings, optimization of chemical operation regimens) and sorting exhibits an economic effect several times higher (as much as an order of magnitude) than it is theoretically attainable by improving the disposal process. (M.D.). 2 figs

  5. Maximizing transportation efficiencies and economic impact of the Southwest Missouri foreign-trade zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Overview of Foreign-Trade Zones (FTZ or Zone) and their impact on economic development, goods : movement jobs creation and retention. Zones provide a competitive advantage for multi-national : manufacturing and distribution firms resulting in the ret...

  6. Equity Gains in Bangladesh Primary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, A. Mushtaque R.; Nath, Samir R.; Choudhury, Rasheda K.

    2003-11-01

    Although equity is a desirable objective of any form of development intervention, including education, not many studies dwell upon this important area. Information on related trends is even more rare. This essay uses field-level data from Bangladesh to examine equity levels and trends in primary education, including enrolment and quality of learning, focusing on equity for different gender, urban or rural, economic and ethnic groups. The study shows that while some disparity between girls and boys has been eliminated, girls are still far behind boys in terms of learning achievement. Children belonging to poorer families and ethnic minority groups lag behind the respective dominant groups in terms of both enrolment and learning achievement. At the same time, there have been some improvements for hitherto excluded groups such as rural girls and children of the poor. These changes are attributed mainly to 'positive discriminatory' steps taken by the government and non-governmental organizations in favour of such groups. If this trend continues, Bangladesh can look forward to establishing itself as a more equitable society than it is now.

  7. Strategies for carbon dioxide emissions reductions: Residential natural gas efficiency, economic, and ancillary health impacts in Maryland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruth, Matthias; Blohm, Andrew; Mauer, Joanna; Gabriel, Steven A.; Kesana, Vijay G.; Chen Yihsu; Hobbs, Benjamin F.; Irani, Daraius

    2010-01-01

    As part of its commitments to the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI), the State of Maryland, USA, auctions emission permits to electric utilities, creating revenue that can be used to benefit consumers and the environment. This paper explores the CO 2 emissions reductions that may be possible by allocating some of that revenue to foster efficiency improvements in the residential sector's use of natural gas. Since these improvements will require changes to the capital stock of houses and end use equipment, efficiency improvements may be accompanied by economic and ancillary health impacts, both of which are quantified in this paper.

  8. Economic efficiency of brown coal mine ''Konin'' in market economy conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeruzel, M.

    1995-01-01

    The economic situation of ''Konin'' brown coal mine located in Central Poland is analysed. The main problem of the mine is the coal price which is still regulated despite market economy. It causes many difficulties and therefore a change of energy policy is postulated. The basic economic results for 1993 as well as prognosis of investment costs up to 2020 are given. The changes of management system and the strategy planning training are also described. 2 ills, 1 tab

  9. Loads of green washing—can behavioural economics increase willingness-to-pay for efficient washing machines in the UK?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bull, Joe

    2012-01-01

    The EU energy efficiency labelling scheme has successfully increased demand for efficient appliances by providing a prominent letter rating to consumers during their product search. Behavioural economics (BE) suggests the adoption of efficient appliances could be accelerated further by: (i) monetising efficiency, (ii) directly communicating the link between efficiency and carbon emissions, (iii) communicating the long-term (e.g., operational life) financial and environmental impact of product choices, and, (iv) framing the information as avoided losses (‘extra’) rather than gains (‘savings’). This study tested these hypotheses via an online, stated preference survey of 465 UK residents using actual market pricing and efficiency data for washing machines. The provision of information about either running costs or running emissions did encourage selection of more expensive and efficient products (strongly correlated variables in the choice set and actual market) (p<.001, r=.30–.41) with no statistically significant difference between their impact. Providing lifetime running cost information also nudged respondents towards more expensive, efficient products than annual information (p=.006–.027, r=.15–.18). Finally, loss-framed running emissions information encouraged selection of more expensive, efficient products than gain-framed information (p<.05, r=.13–.16). The EU label is an impracticable means of communication, but digital communication channels (e.g., price comparison websites) may offer potential for inexpensive localisation and personalisation of the information. The results suggest that successful communication could benefit the private sector whilst making a contribution to reducing carbon emissions. - Highlights: ► 465 UK residents made a hypothetical washing machine purchase via an online survey. ► Respondents were exposed to either running cost or running emissions information. ► Running cost information increased willingness

  10. Unilever Group : equity valuation

    OpenAIRE

    Pires, Susana Sofia Castelo

    2014-01-01

    The following dissertation has the purpose to value the Unilever Group, but more specifically Unilever N.V. being publicly traded in the Amsterdam Exchange Index. Unilever is seen as a global player and one of most successful and competitive fast-moving consumer goods companies. In order to valuate Unilever’s equity, a Discounted Cash Flow (DCF) approach is first carried out, since it is believed to be the most reliable methodology. The value estimated was €36.39, advising one to buy its s...

  11. History of Pay Equity Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbezat, Debra A.

    2002-01-01

    Traces the evolution of salary-equity studies over time, and how the findings have changed with regard to pay differences by gender and race/ethnicity. Reviews the literature on salary equity for both faculty and nonfaculty academic employees. (EV)

  12. Product Placement and Brand Equity

    OpenAIRE

    Corniani, Margherita

    2003-01-01

    Product placement is the planned insertion of a brand within a movie, a fiction, etc. It can be used with other communication tools (i.e. advertising, sales promotions, etc.) in order to disseminate brand awareness and characterize brand image, developing brand equity. In global markets, product placement is particularly useful for improving brand equity of brands with a well established brand awareness.

  13. Corporate Governance and Equity Returns

    OpenAIRE

    Uchida, Shigeru

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the relationship between corporate governance and equity returns from the small investors view point. A primary survey has been conducted to gather the data required to examine the link. Preliminary result of the study shows that the four elements of governance: board structure, transparency, fairness and responsibility are positively related with equity returns.

  14. Is Nordic Private Equity Different?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spliid, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Most research on private equity is based on American theory, tested on American empirical data. Nevertheless, the private equity concept has gained a solid foothold in the Nordic region, especially in Sweden. This article analyzes whether American-biased assumptions prevail in the Nordic countries...

  15. The Economic Problem: Can Islam Play an Effective Role in Solving it Efficiently as well as Equitably?

    OpenAIRE

    Chapra, M. Umer

    2015-01-01

    The generally recognized economic problem of mankind is how best to satisfy the basic needs of all people around the world in spite of the prevailing scarcity of resources. Since this is not happening, the paper argues that the primary reason is the secular worldview which has weakened the social and ethical foundations of human life and placed primary reliance on the market mechanism to ensure efficiency as well as justice in the use of resources. This has inadvertently ended up providing sa...

  16. Evaluating the impact of the carbon dioxide capturing process on the indices of economic efficiency in thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marukhyan, V.Z.; Elbakyan, S.H.

    2017-01-01

    Taking into account the input of carbon dioxide as a greenhouse gas in the global warming process, the technological solutions of its capturing, and the implementation possibilities in environmentally safe thermal power plants are considered. In power plants equipped with effective systems for cleaning the fuel gas and the coal gasification, the influence of the CO 2 reduction and realization of quotes on the indices of economic efficiency is estimated

  17. Research on the Sensorial Quality and Economic Efficiency in Obtaining of a certain Raw Meat Product - Mici Paste

    OpenAIRE

    Claudiu-Dan Salagean; Dorin Tibulca; Radu Marin

    2013-01-01

    Research aimed the sensorial quality connected with the economic efficiency to obtain a certain raw meat product (mici paste) in 4 experimental variants: 1 and 3 variants, with animal raw materials (meat + bacon) and mix of natural spices - fine grinding variant (1) and coarse grinding variant (3) - chopping at the volf through the sieve of 3-4 mm; 2 and 4 variants, with animal raw materials (meat + bacon) + vegetable protein supplements (textured soy protein) + binder (protein + fiber) + add...

  18. Determining the Players’ Efficiency in NBA: Some Economic and Managerial Results

    OpenAIRE

    Ensar Yesilyurt

    2014-01-01

    Player efficiency is estimated by using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) and data of 401 players in NBA at 2006 in this study. Three approaches are generally used when measuring the efficiency of basketball players. In the first, which is frequently used in the literature, a variety of payments and fees are used as inputs. The second is used by basketball associations that correspond closely to the theoretical definition of efficiency because it tries to measure players’ contribution to their ...

  19. Study on degrading graphene oxide in wastewater under different conditions for developing an efficient and economical degradation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ting; Zhang, Chao-Zhi; Gu, Chengyue

    2017-12-01

    With popular application of graphene and graphene oxide (GO), they have been discharged into water. Graphene and GO harm organisms. However, an efficient and economical method for removing graphene and GO in wastewater has seldom been reported. Graphene can be oxidized by hydrogen peroxide to give GO; therefore, degradation of graphene oxide is an important step in the procedure of removal of graphene from water. In this paper, GO degradation via photo-Fenton reaction under different conditions was carried out. Experimental results suggested that GO in wastewater can be efficiently and economically degraded into carbon dioxide and H 2 O when pH value is 3, concentration of H 2 O 2 and FeCl 3 are 35 mM and 5 ppm, respectively. Degradation mechanism of GO was suggested based on UV-vis absorption spectra, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and liquid chromatography-mass spectra data of degradation intermediates. This paper suggests an efficient and economical degradation way of GO in wastewater.

  20. Evaluation method of economic efficiency of industrial scale research based on an example of coking blend pre-drying technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Żarczyński Piotr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The research on new and innovative solutions, technologies and products carried out on an industrial scale is the most reliable method of verifying the validity of their implementation. The results obtained in this research method give almost one hundred percent certainty although, at the same time, the research on an industrial scale requires the expenditure of the highest amount of money. Therefore, this method is not commonly applied in the industrial practices. In the case of the decision to implement new and innovative technologies, it is reasonable to carry out industrial research, both because of the cognitive values and its economic efficiency. Research on an industrial scale may prevent investment failure as well as lead to an improvement of technologies, which is the source of economic efficiency. In this paper, an evaluation model of economic efficiency of the industrial scale research has been presented. This model is based on the discount method and the decision tree model. A practical application of this proposed evaluation model has been presented based on an example of the coal charge pre-drying technology before coke making in a coke oven battery, which may be preceded by industrial scale research on a new type of coal charge dryer.

  1. Higher energy efficiency in administrative and office buildings. Optimisation of primary energy consumption and economic efficiency; Energieeffiziente Buero- und Verwaltungsgebaeude. Hinweise zur primaerenergetischen und wirtschaftlichen Optimierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knissel, J.

    1999-12-15

    The study investigates measures to reduce primary energy consumption in administrative and office buildings and their effects in terms of economic efficiency. An exemplary office building is modernised step by step while recording the changes in the primary energy consumption coefficient. [German] In der vorliegenden Studie wird untersucht, wie weit und mit welchen Massnahmen der Primaerenergiebedarf von Buero- und Verwaltungsgebaeuden gesenkt werden kann und welche Auswirkungen dies auf die Wirtschaftlichkeit hat. Hierzu wird die energetische Ausfuehrungsqualitaet eines einfachen Beispielgebaeudes schrittweise verbessert und die Veraenderung des Primaerenergiekennwertes ermittelt. (orig.)

  2. Equity and efficiency in Italian health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paci, P; Wagstaff, A

    1993-04-01

    Health care finance and provision in Italy is unusual by international standards: public financing relies heavily on both general taxation and social insurance, and although the vast majority of expenditure is publicly financed, the majority of care is provided by the private sector. The system suffers, however, from a chronic failure to control expenditures and its record on perinatal and infant mortality is poor. Hospitals in Italy have a low bed-occupancy rate by international standards and the per diem system of reimbursing private hospitals encourages unduly long stays. Costs per inpatient day are high by international standards, but costs per admission are close to the OECD average. Ambulatory care costs are extremely low, but this appears to be due to the fact that GPs see so many patients that their role is inevitably mainly administrative. Consumption of medicines is extremely high, but because the cost per item is low, expenditure per capita is not unduly high. Despite the emphasis on social insurance, the financing system appears to be progressive. There is evidence of inequalities in health in Italy, and some evidence that health care is not provided equally to those in the same degree of need.

  3. Relationship between cost of equity capital and voluntary corporate disclosures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petrova, E.; Georgakopoulos, G.; Sotiropoulos, I.; Vasileiou, K.Z.

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between disclosure and cost of equity capital has always been interesting not only for managers, but for investors as well. Economic theory suggests that by increasing the level of corporate reporting firms not only increase their stock market liquidity, but they also decrease the

  4. Do Firms Issue More Equity When Markets Become More Liquid?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Hanselaar (Rogier); R.M. Schulz (René); M.A. van Dijk (Mathijs)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractUsing quarterly data on IPOs and SEOs in 38 countries over the period 1995-2014, we show that changes in equity issuance are significantly and positively related to lagged changes in aggregate local market liquidity. This relation is at least as economically significant as the well-known

  5. The Equity Challenge in China's Higher Education Finance Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fengshou; Barrientos, Armando

    2009-01-01

    Sustaining China's rapid economic growth in the future will come to depend in large part on the quantity and quality of the human resources it can mobilize. The paper considers the prospects for higher education financing, and highlights the importance of improving equity in access to higher education as a precondition for a sustainable expansion…

  6. Access and Equity in Financing Higher Education: The Case of Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bougroum, Mohammed; Ibourk, Aomar

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the higher education financing policy in Morocco in light of the central issue of equity. First, it surveys the current situation, using a critical approach to the present financing policy, and looking at the three dimensions of adequacy, efficiency, and equity. Second, it describes the principal policy challenges in financing…

  7. Econometric analysis of economic and environmental efficiency of Dutch dairy farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinhard, S.

    1999-01-01

    The Dutch government aims for competitive and sustainable farms, that use marketable inputs efficiently as well as apply environmentally detrimental variables efficiently in the production process. The objective of this research is to define, to estimate and to evaluate environmental

  8. Economic Reforms and Cost Efficiency of Coffee Farmers in Central Kenya: A Stochastic-Translog Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karanja, A.M.; Kuyvenhoven, A.; Moll, H.A.J.

    2007-01-01

    Work reported in this paper analyses the cost efficiency levels of small-holder coffee farmers in four districts in Central Province, Kenya. The level of efficiency is analysed using a stochastic cost frontier model based on household cross-sectional data collected in 1999 and 2000. The 200 surveyed

  9. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL EFFICIENCY. CUSTOMIZE ON HEALTHCARE SECTOR

    OpenAIRE

    CLAUDIU CICEA

    2011-01-01

    Efficiency in health service sector is very important because the health sector is a major consumer of resources (especially financial). In this paper the author aims to analyze the efficiency in a social sector (healthcare system) based on cost-benefit analysis.

  10. The use of efficiency frontiers to evaluate the optimal land cover and irrigation practices for economic returns and ecosystem services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Kent; West, Grant; Xu, Ying

    2017-04-01

    Efficiency frontiers are a useful tool for governmental agencies that balance the protection of ecosystem services with the economic returns from an agricultural landscape because the tool illustrates that a compromise of objectives generates greater value to society than optimizing a sole objective. Policy makers facing the problem of groundwater overdraft on an agricultural landscape want to know if regulations or irrigation technology adoption will enhance both economic and ecosystem service benefits. Conjunctive water management with on-farm reservoirs and tail water recovery system is frequently suggested to alleviate groundwater and surface water quality problems in the Lower Mississippi River Basin of the United States, and this study evaluates the consequence of the adoption of this technology for the balance of ecosystem service and economic objectives. A compromise of objectives that maximizes the value to society provides 76% more value to society without reservoirs and 66% more value to society with reservoirs than the sole objective of economic returns. The reservoirs help an agricultural landscape maximizing economic returns to align more closely with a landscape maximizing the value to society, although there are still significant gains possible from finding a landscape that directly compromises on the objectives.

  11. The efficiency of emerging Europe’s banking sector before and after the recent economic crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Anayiotos

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides estimates for the relative efficiency of banks in emerging Europe before the recent boom, just before the crisis, and right after the crisis, using a Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA. The results suggest that DEA efficiency scores before the recent crisis were strongly linked to the host country’s level of development; were higher for foreign-owned banks; but did not stand out for bank groups with a presence in more than one country. The results also suggest that bank efficiency increased during the precrisis boom, but fell during the crisis. Finally, foreign-owned banks in emerging Europe seem to be less efficient than their mother banks, suggesting that although they may bring some efficiency benefits to their host country, they are highly affected by the local business and operational environment.

  12. Slum Upgrading and Health Equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corburn, Jason; Sverdlik, Alice

    2017-03-24

    Informal settlement upgrading is widely recognized for enhancing shelter and promoting economic development, yet its potential to improve health equity is usually overlooked. Almost one in seven people on the planet are expected to reside in urban informal settlements, or slums, by 2030. Slum upgrading is the process of delivering place-based environmental and social improvements to the urban poor, including land tenure, housing, infrastructure, employment, health services and political and social inclusion. The processes and products of slum upgrading can address multiple environmental determinants of health. This paper reviewed urban slum upgrading evaluations from cities across Asia, Africa and Latin America and found that few captured the multiple health benefits of upgrading. With the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) focused on improving well-being for billions of city-dwellers, slum upgrading should be viewed as a key strategy to promote health, equitable development and reduce climate change vulnerabilities. We conclude with suggestions for how slum upgrading might more explicitly capture its health benefits, such as through the use of health impact assessment (HIA) and adopting an urban health in all policies (HiAP) framework. Urban slum upgrading must be more explicitly designed, implemented and evaluated to capture its multiple global environmental health benefits.

  13. Efficiency assessment of wastewater treatment plants: A data envelopment analysis approach integrating technical, economic, and environmental issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellet, Lledó; Molinos-Senante, María

    2016-02-01

    The assessment of the efficiency of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is essential to compare their performance and consequently to identify the best operational practices that can contribute to the reduction of operational costs. Previous studies have evaluated the efficiency of WWTPs using conventional data envelopment analysis (DEA) models. Most of these studies have considered the operational costs of the WWTPs as inputs, while the pollutants removed from wastewater are treated as outputs. However, they have ignored the fact that each pollutant removed by a WWTP involves a different environmental impact. To overcome this limitation, this paper evaluates for the first time the efficiency of a sample of WWTPs by applying the weighted slacks-based measure model. It is a non-radial DEA model which allows assigning weights to the inputs and outputs according their importance. Thus, the assessment carried out integrates environmental issues with the traditional "techno-economic" efficiency assessment of WWTPs. Moreover, the potential economic savings for each cost item have been quantified at a plant level. It is illustrated that the WWTPs analyzed have significant room to save staff and energy costs. Several managerial implications to help WWTPs' operators make informed decisions were drawn from the methodology and empirical application carried out. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Energy efficiency : an economic stimulator; Efficacite energetique : un moteur economique vert

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contant, A.

    2009-04-01

    In an effort to meet Quebec's energy requirements projected for 2015, Hydro-Quebec along with its partners and clients will invest $3 billion in energy efficiency. Quebec's Energy Efficiency Agency, Canada's Office of Energy Efficiency and the Federation of Canadian Municipalities (FCM) green municipal fund have all contributed to energy efficiency projects to stimulate the economy. These measures are expected to create nearly 4000 jobs in Quebec for electricians, heating contractors, plumbers and building professionals. This investment will also benefit the suppliers and distributors of electrical materials as well as the forestry industry, cement manufacturers, and specialized engineers. Since the benefits of energy efficiency upgrades are already well established, projects can get underway without further studies. The proposed energy efficiency projects can be applied anywhere in the province of Quebec and are not intended for any specific region. To name a few, the projects have included energy upgrades in an arena in Riviere du Loup, the Montreal Health Institute's head office building, and traffic light upgrades in Levis, Quebec. The article noted that energy efficiency upgrades made in the office buildings of Alcan, IBM, Molson and Bombardier have all resulted in at least a 5 per cent reduction in electricity use. All these changes have been good for the environment, even though Quebec's electricity is generated almost entirely from renewable energy sources. 6 figs.

  15. Development of an economic solar heating system with cost efficient flat plate collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eder-Milchgeisser, W.; Burkart, R.

    1980-10-01

    Mass produced flat plate solar collectors were worked into the design of a system for heating a swimming pool and/or providing domestic hot water. The collector characteristics, including physical and mechanical data as well as theoretical energy conversion efficiency, are presented. The collector was tested and service life efficiency was determined. The mounting of the collector, depending on roof type, is explained. Both in service and laboratory test results demonstrate the cost effectiveness of the system. Further improvement of efficiency is envisaged with automatic flow control in the solar collector and hot water circuits.

  16. Agroforestry versus farm mosaic systems - Comparing land-use efficiency, economic returns and risks under climate change effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Carola; Weber, Michael; Knoke, Thomas

    2017-06-01

    Increasing land-use conflicts call for the development of land-use systems that reconcile agricultural production with the provisioning of multiple ecosystem services, including climate change mitigation. Agroforestry has been suggested as a global solution to increase land-use efficiency, while reducing environmental impacts and economic risks for farmers. Past research has often focused on comparing tree-crop combinations with agricultural monocultures, but agroforestry has seldom been systematically compared to other forms of land-use diversification, including a farm mosaic. This form of diversification mixes separate parcels of different land uses within the farm. The objective of this study was to develop a modelling approach to compare the performance of the agroforestry and farm mosaic diversification strategies, accounting for tree-crop interaction effects and economic and climate uncertainty. For this purpose, Modern Portfolio Theory and risk simulation were coupled with the process-based biophysical simulation model WaNuLCAS 4.0. For an example application, we used data from a field trial in Panama. The results show that the simulated agroforestry systems (Taungya, alley cropping and border planting) could outperform a farm mosaic approach in terms of cumulative production and return. Considering market and climate uncertainty, agroforestry showed an up to 21% higher economic return at the same risk level (i.e. standard deviation of economic returns). Farm compositions with large shares of land allocated to maize cultivation were also more severely affected by an increasing drought frequency in terms of both risks and returns. Our study demonstrates that agroforestry can be an economically efficient diversification strategy, but only if the design allows for economies of scope, beneficial interactions between trees and crops and higher income diversification compared to a farm mosaic. The modelling approach can make an important contribution to support

  17. THE PRACTICE OF EVALUATING THE ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY OF THE INNOVATIVE PROJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Vorobiev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available At the present stage of development of the society of scientific and technical activities is the most important factor in the intensification of production and the growth of its economic performance. It is therefore important now gets to determine the effectiveness of research and development activities, improving the measurement methods of economic evaluation of innovative projects and innovation. For informed decision-making requires a deep study and objective assessment of the real situation. This is due to changes in economic relations between the producers and consumers of scientific and technical products. Earlier in this activity involved only state scientific institution and the enterprise, then now they are gradually joining financial institutions, commercial and non-profit organizations. The adoption of innovative solutions should be preceded by thorough and comprehensive analysis of the economic feasibility of the innovative project. In this paper we propose to consider how business is costing innovative projects and determine their effectiveness for the enterprise business hotel.

  18. Economical efficiency estimation of the power system with an accelerator breeder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rublev, O.V.; Komin, A.V.

    1990-01-01

    The review deals with economical indices of nuclear power system with an accelerator breeder producing secondary nuclear fuel. Electric power cost was estimated by the method of discounted cost. Power system with accelerator breeder compares unfavourably with traditional nuclear power systems with respect to its capitalized cost

  19. SMART-KKS. Chances and economic efficiency; SMART-KKS. Chancen und Wirtschaftlichkeit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deiss, Rainer [EnBW Regional AG, Stuttgart (Germany); Buechler, Markus [Schweizerische Gesellschaft fuer Korrosionsschutz, Zuerich (Switzerland); Naleppa, Stefan [RBS wave GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Future demands on KKS cannot be met by the current remote monitoring technology. New remote monitoring concepts and smart protective current concepts will be required to make KKS more economical and more reliable. The contribution presents new findings on AC corrosion in order to show how future KKS technology may be designed.

  20. 78 FR 18374 - Promoting Economic Efficiency in Spectrum Use: WSRD SSG Workshop IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    ... AGENCY: The National Coordination Office (NCO) for Networking and Information Technology Research and... industry, and academia will identify economic and policy R&D that will promote progress toward more... the National Coordination Office for the Networking and Information Technology Research and...

  1. Does Eco-efficency Reduce the Cost of Equity Capital? Empirical Evidence From Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Alviani, Lisa; Sholihin, Mahfud

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the effect of eco-efficiency on the cost of equity capital. The study hypothesizes that the implementation of eco-efficiency reduces the cost of equity capital. Using manufacturing companies listed on the Indonesian Stock Exchange for the period 2010-2012 as data, and controlling for beta, company size, Book to Market ratio, and leverage; the study finds that the implementation of eco-efficiency may reduce the cost of equity capital. The findings sugg...

  2. DOES ECO-EFFICENCY REDUCE THE COST OF EQUITY CAPITAL? EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM INDONESIA

    OpenAIRE

    Lisa Alviani; Mahfud Sholihin

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the effect of eco-efficiency on the cost of equity capital. The study hypothesizes that the implementation of eco-efficiency reduces the cost of equity capital. Using manufacturing companies listed on the Indonesian Stock Exchange for the period 2010-2012 as data, and controlling for beta, company size, Book to Market ratio, and leverage; the study finds that the implementation of eco-efficiency may reduce the cost of equity capital. The findings sugg...

  3. DOES ECO-EFFICENCY REDUCE THE COST OF EQUITY CAPITAL? EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Alviani

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to examine the effect of eco-efficiency on the cost of equity capital. The study hypothesizes that the implementation of eco-efficiency reduces the cost of equity capital. Using manufacturing companies listed on the Indonesian Stock Exchange for the period 2010-2012 as data, and controlling for beta, company size, Book to Market ratio, and leverage; the study finds that the implementation of eco-efficiency may reduce the cost of equity capital. The findings suggest that companies should implement eco-efficency.

  4. Energy-efficient buildings are environmentally friendly, architecturally attractive and economically compelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wafa, Latifa Mohamed

    2006-01-01

    Standard building construction is wasteful, toxic, and is destroying the environment. It produced buildings that operate independently of its natural surrounding and depended heavily on mechanical systems that run with fossil fuel to create comfortable indoor environment. These buildings caused a wide range of health and environmental problems. The concern about the consequences of standard building construction have prompted countless experiments and design improvements to make built environment more energy efficient, less reliant on potentially limited fossil fuels and more reliant on renewable energy resources. The application of energy efficient technologies can make significant contribution to meeting the building and construction sector's energy demand, while at the same time providing better built environment, offering more comfortable living and working conditions for the users, cleaner and healthier in-outdoor environment, and cost no more to build. The proposes of the paper are to: 1-Promote the implementation of Energy-Efficient buildings through vigorous efforts, by engaging government agencies, design professions, engineers, and construction industry in the task of radically improving the performance of our buildings, neighborhoods, and cities. 2-Educate the general public (the consumers) that Energy-Efficient Building is good for their well-being, to their pocket and to the environment.3-Demonstrate that Energy-efficient Building are with highest standards of architecture design, the highest quality living and working environment and within a reasonable budget. The paper describes the technological options available for dealing sensibly with energy and focuses on the important areas of new building constructions and building refurbishment together with its specific energy requirements. The approach presented in this paper is just one of many methods of planning energy efficient buildings.This paper is part of the effort to promote Energy-efficient

  5. Technical and Economic Efficiency of Palm Oil Marketing in the Niger Delta Region of Southern Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Nkasiobi Silas Oguzor

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the structural performance and productive efficiency of palm oil marketing in some selected States in Southern Nigeria. Eighty districts were selected in the Niger Delta Area and data were collected from 1000 palm oil sellers randomly selected in these towns. The tools of analysis were marketing margin, Lorenz curve and Gini coefficient to measure the structural performance while the productive efficiency was measured with the use of the production function analysis using ...

  6. Economic efficiency or self-sufficiency: alternative strategies for oil consumers?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heal, D.W.

    1992-01-01

    The ideal energy source is low cost (efficient) and reliable (secure). The high price and perceived political unreliability of Middle East oil supplies prompted a nearly worldwide trend towards energy self-sufficiency. Gains in energy efficiency, which have been most marked in the OECD, are permanent and, prompted by environmental concern, probably progressive. But the opportunity that is still available to low cost oil suppliers to regain lost markets will only be realized if those supplies are demonstrably reliable. (author)

  7. IMPROVED METHOD OF DETERMINATION OF ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY OF CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATION OF HIGH SPEED MAINLINE IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YU. S. Barash

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To develop an advanced methodology and formulate the measures concerning the definition of economic efficiency of high-speed movement organization taking into account the operating experience of rapid transportations in Ukraine, travel time, number of stops on the route, schedule and the demand for these transportations. Methodology. The economic feasibility for appropriateness of high-speed movement organization in Ukraine is an investment project, which involves step-by-step money investment to the construction. To solve such problems one uses net present value, which UZ or newly created companies can get during the project realization and after its completion. Findings. On the basis of obtained studies one can state that the methodology of complex determination of construction efficiency and high-speed passenger trains operation taking into account the cost of infrastructure, rolling stock, impact of environmental factors, etc. was developed in the article. Originality. We propose a scientific approach to determine the economic efficiency of the construction and high-speed main lines operation. This approach, unlike the existing one, includes the improved principles of determining the passenger traffic, the cost of high-speed mainline construction, the number of rolling stock; optimizes income and expenditure calculations in the context of competitive advantages and impact of the external factors on the company. For the first time it was taken into account the transit flow of passengers departing from CIS countries to the vacation in the Crimea, the Carpathians, Odessa and Lviv regions. The account of these factors increases the feasibility of administrative decisions concerning ensuring the efficiency of high-speed traffic functioning. Practical value. The proposed methodology and the research results allowed determining the construction reasonability of high-speed mainline for the passenger trains with a speed at least250 km/h in

  8. Economic and Environmental Assessment of a 1 MW Grid Connected Rooftop Solar PV System for Energy Efficient Building in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Sanjib; Hosain, Rubayet; Rahman, Toufiqur; Rabbi, Ahmead Fazle

    This paper evaluates the potentiality of a 1 MW grid connected rooftop solar PV system for an Energy Efficient Building in Bangladesh, which was estimated by utilizing NASA SSE solar radiation data, PVsyst simulation software and RETScreen simulation software. Economic and environmental viability for a ten-storied building with roof area of 6,500 m2 in the Capital City of Bangladesh, Dhaka was assessed by using the RETScreen simulation software. The yearly electricity production of the proposed system was 1,581 MWh estimated by PVsyst where the technical prospective of gird-connected solar PV in Bangladesh was calculated as about 50,174 MW. The economic assessments were determined the simple payback in such a way that the generated electricity first fulfills the demand of the building, and then the rest of the energy is supplied to the grid. The result indicates that the roof top solar PV system for an Energy efficient building in Dhaka city has a favorable condition for development both in economic and environmental point of view.

  9. The equity of the initial allocation of the greenhouse gases releases permits to firms: an approach of the public choice by the moral philosophy and the economic analysis; L'equite de l'allocation initiale de permis d'emission negociables de gaz a effet de serre a des entreprises: un eclairage du choix public par la philosophie morale et l'analyse economique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leseur, A

    2004-10-15

    In order to fight against the climatic change, the European directive 87/2003 provides for 2005 the adoption of a European market of negotiable releases permits but entrusts each state with choosing the method of permits allocation to the concerned domestic firms. Underwriting the reaching of the aim of pollution abatement in minimizing the global costs developed, the permits market is an economical tool of environmental policy chose for this double efficiency. But on which criteria determine the initial allocation? One of the most pertinent referents is the equity. What are the requirements for this in this situation? Seizing on this question, the thesis considers the contribution that can bring the moral and political philosophy, in particular the theories of the distributive justice, taking into account of two important aspects of the problem: 1)the property to distribute has particular characteristics, particularly the negotiability; 2)the attributing agents are firms and not the physical persons. In the first part, the thesis reveals, via the economical analysis, the operation of a permit competitive market and identifies the stakes, both at the pollution decision level than of the firms production in various contexts of market, and at those of the input or output decisions. In the second part, this work deals with the justice theories. The approach consists at first to establish their relevance showing that a firm can be considered as a moral entity, and be subject of duties and rights. Then, the question is to adapt the theories argumentation to this entity. This work emphasizes particularly the idea of a right to the chances equality for the competitiveness. It is then in the tension between this right and the duty to comply with the environmental policy that is found the equitable allocation. (O.M.)

  10. The equity of the initial allocation of the greenhouse gases releases permits to firms: an approach of the public choice by the moral philosophy and the economic analysis; L'equite de l'allocation initiale de permis d'emission negociables de gaz a effet de serre a des entreprises: un eclairage du choix public par la philosophie morale et l'analyse economique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leseur, A

    2004-10-15

    In order to fight against the climatic change, the European directive 87/2003 provides for 2005 the adoption of a European market of negotiable releases permits but entrusts each state with choosing the method of permits allocation to the concerned domestic firms. Underwriting the reaching of the aim of pollution abatement in minimizing the global costs developed, the permits market is an economical tool of environmental policy chose for this double efficiency. But on which criteria determine the initial allocation? One of the most pertinent referents is the equity. What are the requirements for this in this situation? Seizing on this question, the thesis considers the contribution that can bring the moral and political philosophy, in particular the theories of the distributive justice, taking into account of two important aspects of the problem: 1)the property to distribute has particular characteristics, particularly the negotiability; 2)the attributing agents are firms and not the physical persons. In the first part, the thesis reveals, via the economical analysis, the operation of a permit competitive market and identifies the stakes, both at the pollution decision level than of the firms production in various contexts of market, and at those of the input or output decisions. In the second part, this work deals with the justice theories. The approach consists at first to establish their relevance showing that a firm can be considered as a moral entity, and be subject of duties and rights. Then, the question is to adapt the theories argumentation to this entity. This work emphasizes particularly the idea of a right to the chances equality for the competitiveness. It is then in the tension between this right and the duty to comply with the environmental policy that is found the equitable allocation. (O.M.)

  11. Brand equity and willingness to pay for condoms in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, W Douglas; Taruberekera, Noah; Longfield, Kim; Snider, Jeremy

    2011-10-26

    Zimbabwe suffers from one of the greatest burdens of HIV/AIDS in the world that has been compounded by social and economic instability in the past decade. However, from 2001 to 2009 HIV prevalence among 15-49 year olds declined from 26% to approximately 14%. Behavior change and condom use may in part explain this decline.PSI-Zimbabwe socially markets the Protector Plus (P+) branded line of condoms. When Zimbabwe converted to a dollar-based economy in 2009, the price of condoms was greatly increased and new marketing efforts were undertaken. This paper evaluates the role of condom marketing, a multi-dimensional scale of brand peceptions (brand equity), and price in condom use behavior. We randomly sampled sexually active men age 15-49 from 3 groups - current P+ users, former users, and free condom users. We compared their brand equity and willingness to pay based on survey results. We estimated multivariable logistic regression models to compare the 3 groups. We found that the brand equity scale was positive correlated with willingness to pay and with condom use. Former users also indicated a high willingness to pay for condoms. We found differences in brand equity between the 3 groups, with current P+ users having the highest P+ brand equity. As observed in previous studies, higher brand equity was associated with more of the targeted health behavior, in this case and more consistent condom use. Zimbabwe men have highly positive brand perceptions of P+. There is an opportunity to grow the total condom market in Zimbabwe by increasing brand equity across user groups. Some former users may resume using condoms through more effective marketing. Some free users may be willing to pay for condoms. Achieving these objectives will expand the total condom market and reduce HIV risk behaviors.

  12. Procedures for Efficient and Economic Recovery of Heat for Reuse in Batch Processes for Cleaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvale, Einar Bjørn

    2005-01-01

    The expenditure of primary energy can be reduced and the economics of process plants in the food industry can be improved by intelligent application of Process Integration (PI). Since a greater part of the products in the food industry is processed in batches, the use of Thermal- Energy Storage...... are often encountered in the food industry. However, the extent to which PI is utilized is much smaller than the number of potential applications. The present paper will address this topic, give some reasons for the underuse of PI, and indicate some principles, methods, and directions that, when applied......, could increase the use and usefulness of PI by incorporating TES, thus fulfilling PI’s promises of improved operation, reduced energy consumption, reduced environmental impact, and improved economics. The application of these procedures is illustrated through the description of two cases. Keywords: Heat...

  13. Challenges of Ensuring Equity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pasgaard, Maya

    and on a conceptual framework to examine equity in REDD+. Qualitative research with a case study in Cambodia provides the empirical foundation for the thesis, supplemented with a quantitative analysis of climate change research to address the fourth research question. Together, these articles and approaches...... these challenges, specific recomm ndations are summarized in the thesis, namely: better integration of qualitative methods in social assessments, greater emphasis on local inclusion and representativeness in relation to resource access and decision-making, more field research and cross...... social assessments in REDD+ are inadequate due to a dominant positivistic approach to methods and indicators for social assessment, which contrasts the complexities and context of REDD+ projects; 2) The distribution of costs and benefits within communities in Oddar Meanchey is uneven, as the costs...

  14. Economic structure and environmental quality and their impact on changing land use efficiency in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chong; Xiao, Hao; Liu, Yu; Zhang, Jingjing

    2017-06-01

    Extensive urban land expansion and heavy industrialization have increased energy consumption and caused environmental problems, both of which present serious threats to humans. Consequently, improved land use efficiency and realization of green development are imperative. Based on a detailed analysis of spatialtemporal evolution of urban land use efficiency, this paper analyzes the synergistic effect of industrial structure and city size, as well as the effect of environmental quality, by using panel data from 283 cities at or above prefecturelevel in China from 2003 to 2012. It was concluded that 1) environmental quality has an obvious "crowding out effect" on urban land use efficiency and 2) urban land use efficiency shows a significant spatial auto-correlation. The effect of industrial structure is dependent on population size of the city. It has been found that a threshold population size of more than 108.45 (10,000 persons) is needed for an optimized benefit from industrial linkages. The urban population size presents an inverted-U shape against the urban land use efficiency, and the marginal benefit of urban size increases when the industrial structure shifts from secondary industry to tertiary industry. Additionally we found that the actual urban size of 98.2% is less than the cities' optimal sizes.

  15. Technical and Economic Aspects of Designing an Efficient Room Air-Conditioner Program in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abhyankar, Nikit [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Div.; Shah, Nihar [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Div.; Phadke, Amol [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Div.; Park, Won Young [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Div.

    2017-09-05

    Several studies have projected a massive increase in the demand for air conditioners (ACs) over the next two decades in India. By 2030, room ACs could add 140 GW to the peak load, equivalent to over 30% of the total projected peak load. Therefore, there is significant interest among policymakers, regulators, and utilities in managing room AC demand by enhancing energy efficiency. Building on the historical success of the Indian Bureau of Energy Efficiency’s star-labeling program, Energy Efficiency Services Limited recently announced a program to accelerate the sale of efficient room ACs using bulk procurement, similar to their successful UJALA light-emitting diode (LED) bulk procurement program. This report discusses some of the key considerations in designing a bulk procurement or financial incentive program for enhancing room AC efficiency in India. We draw upon our previous research to demonstrate the overall technical potential and price impact of room AC efficiency improvement and its technical feasibility in India. We also discuss the importance of using low global warming potential (GWP) refrigerants and smart AC equipment that is demand response (DR) ready.

  16. Dissemination of statistical information for purposes of efficiency management of socio-economic development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerasimenko S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The questions connected with the facilitation of the access of the people to the information about the living standard are considered. In particular it is suggested to use the information of the System of National Accounts and statistic methods. It is stressed that the information about living standard should be amplified with the characteristics of the effectiveness of the management of the social-economic development.

  17. Social Security and the Equity Premium Puzzle

    OpenAIRE

    Olovsson, Conny

    2004-01-01

    This paper shows that social security may be an important factor in explaining the equity premium puzzle. In the absence of shortselling constraints, the young shortsell bonds to the middle-aged and buy equity. Social security reduces the bond demand of the middle-aged, thereby restricting the possibilities of the young to finance their equity purchases. Their equity demand increases as does the average return to equity. Social security also increases the covariance between future consumption...

  18. Energy researchers - 1. Energy efficiency: Energy efficiency is driving innovation; No economic crisis for energy efficiency; How can we change our energy habits?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minster, Jean-Francois; Appert, Olivier; Moisan, Francois; Salha, Bernard; Tardieu, Bernard; Ghidaglia, Jean-Michel; Viterbo, Jerome

    2011-01-01

    A first article comments how the race to achieve energy efficiency is driving the emergence of new technologies in transportation and construction (hybrid cars, phase change material, digital mock-ups, and so on). The example of the AGV is evoked, a new version of the TGV developed by Alstom which will run faster and consume less energy. A second article outlines that, due to the support from public authorities and to an increased awareness of energy costs and environmental challenges, the energy savings market is booming. Then, in an interview, a sociologist of the ADEME comments the difficulty of changing habits in terms of energy savings

  19. Equity Versus Non-Equity International Strategic Alliances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Globerman, Steven; Nielsen, Bo Bernhard

    A substantial literature has evolved focusing on the ownership structure of international strategic alliances (ISAs). Most of the relevant studies are theoretical in nature and concentrate on the conceptual factors that influence the choice between equity and non-equity structures. A smaller numb...... involving Danish firms. Our study documents how the determinants of governance mode choice vary in importance depending upon the "quality" of the governance infrastructure of the host country....

  20. Essays on executive equity-based compensation and equity ownership

    OpenAIRE

    Elsilä, A. (Anna)

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A major proposition of the agency theory is that the conflict of interests between an agent and a principal is reduced when the agent’s wealth and compensation are tied to the performance of the firm. Apart from the direct predicted relation to corporate performance, compensating managers with equity instruments has implications for corporate risk-taking and payout policy choices. Additionally, equity-based compensation practices are to a large extent shaped by institutional facto...

  1. Assessing Cross-disciplinary Efficiency of Soil Amendments for Agro-biologically, Economically, and Ecologically Integrated Soil Health Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Preventive and/or manipulative practices will be needed to maintain soil's biological, physiochemical, nutritional, and structural health in natural, managed, and disturbed ecosystems as a foundation for food security and global ecosystem sustainability. While there is a substantial body of interdisciplinary science on understanding function and structure of soil ecosystems, key gaps must be bridged in assessing integrated agro-biological, ecological, economical, and environmental efficiency of soil manipulation practices in time and space across ecosystems. This presentation discusses the application of a fertilizer use efficiency (FUE) model for assessing agronomic, economic, ecological, environmental, and nematode (pest) management efficiency of soil amendments. FUE is defined as increase in host productivity and/or decrease in plant-parasitic nematode population density in response to a given fertilizer treatment. Using the effects of nutrient amendment on Heterodera glycines population density and normalized difference vegetative index (indicator of physiological activities) of a soybean cultivar ‘CX 252’, how the FUE model recognizes variable responses and separates nutrient deficiency and toxicity from nematode parasitism as well as suitability of treatments designed to achieve desired biological and physiochemical soil health conditions is demonstrated. As part of bridging gaps between agricultural and ecological approaches to integrated understanding and management of soil health, modifications of the FUE model for analyzing the relationships amongst nematode community structure, soil parameters (eg. pH, nutrients, %OM), and plant response to soil amendment is discussed. PMID:22736840

  2. Assessment of gender differentials in economic and technical efficiency of poultry egg, a case study in Lagos State, Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafis Odunlami

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Gender has been seen as an important factor in the distribution and utilization of productive resources worldwide. In the agricultural sector, gender differential could influence the sourcing and efficient utilization of factors of production, particularly in the livestock sub-sector of the economy. This study assessed the gender differentials in economic and technical efficiency of poultry eggs production in Lagos State, Nigeria. Multistage sampling technique was used to select respondent poultry farmers. The first and second stages were the purposive selection of five Local Government Areas (LGAs reputed for poultry production and farm settlements in the state. The third stage involved a simple random sampling of 150 poultry farms consisting of 75 farms each managed by a male and a female Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA. The SFA revealed that for male management of poultry egg farms, labour input (p<0.01 and cost of medications (p<0.05 increased the poultry egg output. On the other hand, for female management, stock of birds (p<0.01, labour input (p<0.01 and feed cost (p<0.01 were the factors that increased poultry eggs output. The inefficiency model revealed that male farmers were more technically efficient (p<0.01 than female counterparts. Female managed poultry farms had less productivity (0.90 compared to males(1.22. However, 88.1% of male farms compared to 86.7% of female farms had economic efficiency ratios between 0.29 and 0.79. The study concluded that gender had impact on poultry farmers’ efficiency in the study area. The study therefore recommended that training should be organised for female managed farms while male managed farms should utilize less of cost intensive capital input.

  3. CO2 taxes as economic tool for energy efficiency analysis of CO2 tax impact on energy efficiency projects in Latvia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumberga, D.; Blumberga, M.; Veidenbergs, I.

    2005-01-01

    The intended purpose of the carbon tax is to reduce CO 2 emissions. This tax can play a significant role in the implementation of energy saving projects. The paper evaluates three market mechanisms for reducing greenhouse gas emissions: joint implementation, emissions trading and CO 2 taxes. The first market mechanism - pilot phase of joint implementation (Activities Implemented Jointly) opened the minds of specialists to the GHG emission reduction potential of energy efficiency projects. The second mechanism was implemented after Latvia had accepted the National Allocation Plan to start emission trading. The third mechanism is based on the introduction of a carbon tax, which will come into force in Latvia in July 2005. This paper describes the potential impact of this tax that could promote development of energy efficiency projects. The authors worked out an evaluation methodology to calculate the impact of CO 2 taxes on emissions levels and the potential value of such taxes. The proposed methodology is applicable to district heating companies and governmental institutions, defining links between the energy efficiency and CO 2 taxes and showing ways of justifying these taxes both economically and environmentally. (authors)

  4. ECONOMIC AND POWER EFFICIENCY OF CULTIVATION OF DIFFERENT GRADES AND GIBRIDOV CORN SUGAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Didukh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of study of the variety structure of sugar corn in the Left-bank Forest'steppe of Ukraine are presented in the article. In the group of early-maturing varieties, the hybrid Spirit was found to be the most productive (5,4 t/hectare and profitable (113,0 % with energy efficiency ratio 2,9. The mild'ripening hybrids Bold F1 and Bonus F1 showed the productivity – 4,8-5,7 t/hectare, the profitability – 101,8-124,9 %, and the energy efficiency ratio – 2,60-3,06, respectively.

  5. Technical-and-Economic Efficiency of Draft Enriched with Oxygen in Small-Capacity Heating Boilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ratnikov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Data on complex experimental and theoretical investigations pertaining to efficiency of oxygen-enriched draft in the small-capacity heating boilers as exemplified by the plant HEIZA (HW-S-10/K have been presented in the paper. The paper provides a calculation model of heating processes in heat generator burner (as exemplified by HEIZA plant. Simulation of heating processes in the operational zone has been executed in paper. The experimental data have proved model adequacy. The calculation scheme of the plant will be used in future for determination of power and ecological efficiency of draft enrichment with oxygen.

  6. A Rapid, Highly Efficient and Economical Method of Agrobacterium-Mediated In planta Transient Transformation in Living Onion Epidermis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kedong; Huang, Xiaohui; Wu, Manman; Wang, Yan; Chang, Yunxia; Liu, Kun; Zhang, Ju; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Fuli; Yi, Liming; Li, Tingting; Wang, Ruiyue; Tan, Guangxuan; Li, Chengwei

    2014-01-01

    Transient transformation is simpler, more efficient and economical in analyzing protein subcellular localization than stable transformation. Fluorescent fusion proteins were often used in transient transformation to follow the in vivo behavior of proteins. Onion epidermis, which has large, living and transparent cells in a monolayer, is suitable to visualize fluorescent fusion proteins. The often used transient transformation methods included particle bombardment, protoplast transfection and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Particle bombardment in onion epidermis was successfully established, however, it was expensive, biolistic equipment dependent and with low transformation efficiency. We developed a highly efficient in planta transient transformation method in onion epidermis by using a special agroinfiltration method, which could be fulfilled within 5 days from the pretreatment of onion bulb to the best time-point for analyzing gene expression. The transformation conditions were optimized to achieve 43.87% transformation efficiency in living onion epidermis. The developed method has advantages in cost, time-consuming, equipment dependency and transformation efficiency in contrast with those methods of particle bombardment in onion epidermal cells, protoplast transfection and Agrobacterium-mediated transient transformation in leaf epidermal cells of other plants. It will facilitate the analysis of protein subcellular localization on a large scale. PMID:24416168

  7. Analysis of Economic Efficiency of Production of Low-Concentrated Sodium Hypochlorite by Direct Electrolysis of Natural Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fesenko, L. N.; Pchelnikov, I. V.; Fedotov, R. V.

    2017-11-01

    The study presents the economic efficiency of direct electrolysis of natural waters in comparison with the waters artificially prepared by electrolysis of the 3% sodium salt solution. The study used sea water (Black sea water); mineral water (underground water of the Melikhovskaya station, “Ognennaya” hole); brackish water (underground water from the Grushevskaya station of the Aksai district); 3% solution of sodium salt. As a result, the dependences characterizing the direct electrolysis of natural waters with different mineralization, economic, and energy parties are shown. The rational area of the electrolysis for each of the investigated solution is determined. The cost of a kilogram of active chlorine obtained by the direct water electrolysis: Black sea from 17.2 to 18.3 RUB/kg; the Melikhovskaya station “Ognennaya” hole - 14.3 to 15.0 Rubles/kg; 3% solution of NaCl - 30 Rubles./kg; Grushevskogo St. - 63,0-73,0 Rubles/kg.

  8. CHARACTERISTICS OF MANAGEMENT AND LEADERSHIP IN ORDER TO EFFICIENTLY ACHIEVE THE ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGES PRODUCED BY THE ECONOMIC CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliana Talmaciu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Change has become the watchword of the present times. The dynamism of economic, social and political life is becoming more pronounced and it determines numerous organizational changes. In times of crisis and during the following periods, companies face major challenges, changes becoming even harder to anticipate and plan. The economic difficulties encountered by the business environment can be a decisive test for the leaders of companies. The main purpose of this article is to analyze the leadership characteristics which are necessary to efficiently manage and implement organizational changes during crisis. The research method used in this paper was based on the content analysis of works by both Romanian and foreign authors and on some studies conducted by different specialized companies. This paper is structured as follows: introduction, aspects regarding managers' role in change management, characteristics needed by the leaders involved in the change process, conclusions and biography.

  9. A demonstration of the improved efficiency of the canonical coordinates method using nonlinear combined heat and power economic dispatch problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hung-Chieh; Lin, Pei-Chun

    2014-02-01

    Economic dispatch is the short-term determination of the optimal output from a number of electricity generation facilities to meet the system load while providing power. As such, it represents one of the main optimization problems in the operation of electrical power systems. This article presents techniques to substantially improve the efficiency of the canonical coordinates method (CCM) algorithm when applied to nonlinear combined heat and power economic dispatch (CHPED) problems. The improvement is to eliminate the need to solve a system of nonlinear differential equations, which appears in the line search process in the CCM algorithm. The modified algorithm was tested and the analytical solution was verified using nonlinear CHPED optimization problems, thereby demonstrating the effectiveness of the algorithm. The CCM methods proved numerically stable and, in the case of nonlinear programs, produced solutions with unprecedented accuracy within a reasonable time.

  10. After Kyoto: equity stakes and efficiency in the negotiation on the climatic change; Au-dela de Kyoto: enjeux d'equite et d'efficacite dans la negociation sur le changement climatique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchard, O.; Criqui, P.; Viguier, L. [Institut d' Economie et de Politique de l' Energie - IEPE-CNRS/ Universite Pierre Mendes-France, 38 - Grenoble (France); Trommetter, M. [Institut National de Recherches Agronomiques (INRA), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    2000-07-01

    The first difficulty to get over in the international negotiation on the climatic change, has been and still remain the distribution of the efforts and the research of the equity in the objective determination. This paper aims to show that facing the different interests of each countries, a single rule of differentiation is not possible. The first part is a review of the different charts of the objectives differentiation discussed or proposed in the international negotiation process on the greenhouse effect. It aims to find a bond between the the charts and the equity. The second part proposes the quantification of a scenario of the emission licenses attribution for 2030 for all the world countries. (A.L.B.)

  11. Equity markets : what a difference a year makes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tims, M.J.

    1999-01-01

    An overview of the investment climate in the oil and gas industry at this juncture of extremely low oil prices and weak capital spending was presented. This paper focused on the economics of equity markets, examining (1) the NYMEX near-month averages WTI identifying six periods of significant oil price declines, (2) spot crude oil price fluctuations since 1973, (3) fluctuations in the PE 100 Energy Index and blended commodity prices, (4) oil and gas equity financing, (5) total oil and gas equity offerings from 1991 to 1998, and (6) Canadian gas export capacities. Overall, a major pullback in equity markets has occured and the investment climate is not favorable. Oil and gas stocks are down almost 45 per cent from the highs of 1997, oilfield service company stocks suffered losses of 69 per cent from the 1997 highs. New equity Issues are much more difficult to complete than previously. Institutions are reducing energy sector weightings, as do mutual funds. Lower industry cash flows are leading to lower capital spending. Increased relative debt levels are constraining many companies. Finding and development costs are generally disappointing, particularly when seen in relation to current commodity prices. No improvement in cash flow is expected in 1999 as oil prices are likely to remain depressed. The outlook in gas is somewhat better; it could be good, depending on the remainder of winter, possible supply shortfall, pipeline-related factors, natural gas drilling activity and the influence of gas storage

  12. Social innovation for the promotion of health equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Chris; Barraket, Jo; Friel, Sharon; O'Rourke, Kerryn; Stenta, Christian-Paul

    2015-09-01

    The role of social innovations in transforming the lives of individuals and communities has been a source of popular attention in recent years. This article systematically reviews the available evidence of the relationship between social innovation and its promotion of health equity. Guided by Fair Foundations: The VicHealth framework for health equity and examining four types of social innovation--social movements, service-related social innovations, social enterprise and digital social innovations--we find a growing literature on social innovation activities, but inconsistent evaluative evidence of their impacts on health equities, particularly at the socio-economic, political and cultural level of the framework. Distinctive characteristics of social innovations related to the promotion of health equity include the mobilization of latent or unrealised value through new combinations of (social, cultural and material) resources; growing bridging social capital and purposeful approaches to linking individual knowledge and experience to institutional change. These have implications for health promotion practice and for research about social innovation and health equity. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles: Economic efficiency and market chances of different business models; Plug-in Hybridfahrzeuge: Wirtschaftlichkeit und Marktchancen verschiedener Geschaeftsmodelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackbarth, Andre; Schuermann, Gregor [RWTH Aachen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Wirtschaftswissenschaften insb. Energieoekonomik,; RWTH Aachen (DE). E.ON Energy Research Center, Institut fuer Future Energy Consumer Needs and Behavior (FCN); Madlener, Reinhard [Technische Hochschule Aachen (DE). Lehrstuhl fuer Verbrennungskraftmaschinen (VKA)

    2009-07-15

    The German traffic sector is strongly dependent on fossil fuels. Electric vehicles could reduce this dependence and also help to keep CO2 emissions low. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) are a technology option that may facilitate the transition to electromobility. The authors investigate the economic efficiencies and amortisation periods of PHEV on the basis of two different business models, i.e. passenger cars (compact and medium-sized) and light vans. It is shown that under the assumed boundary conditions PHEV are not economically efficient at present. The influence of various parameters on economic efficiency and amortisation period is investigated by means of a sensitivity analysis. (orig.)

  14. Shifting the balance: equity and sustainable consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vermeulen, Sonja; Garside, Ben; De Morais, Gabriela Weber

    2009-01-15

    On our finite planet, the dictates of ecology and technology limit growth. Yet a key element of this issue – consumption – has until recently hardly figured on policy agendas. Now there is growing recognition that transformation towards a low-carbon, resource-efficient economy means tackling consumption as well as production. Governments and businesses are beginning to make concerted, if uncoordinated, efforts to reduce energy and resource use. Rethinking consumption could, however, drive an even bigger wedge between rich and poor. Any new agenda for consumption needs to factor in equity as well as environmental benefit.

  15. Evolution of farm management, nitrogen efficiency and economic performance on Dutch dairy farms reducing external inputs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, J.C.J.; Rossing, W.A.H.; Lantinga, E.A.

    2006-01-01

    The implementation of the statutory Mineral Accounting System (MINAS) in the Netherlands in the period 1998¿2003 required large reductions in nutrient inputs of dairy farms. Patterns in farm management adjustments throughout 6 years and their effectiveness in terms of nitrogen use efficiency (NUE)

  16. Economic evaluation of current conditions of competition and efficiency of automotive and rail systems in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasco Correa, Carlos Andrés

    2012-01-01

    This study uses microeconomic data from the transportation systems of land cargo in Colombia: rail and trucking, to determine their degree of allocative efficiency through the non-parametric method Data Envelopment Analysis DEA. The average overall efficiency found was 74.4% for trains and 20.56% for trucks. These figures indicate that rail is more efficient in the allocation of resources. This means that trains in Colombia use their input better than trucks to maximize their production, given the costs and technological characteristics of each system. This is a signal for the design of a public policy for investment in transportation infrastructure that seeks to raise the competitiveness of Colombian exports, investing not only in roads but in complementary systems such as railways too. - Highlights: ► Colombia is currently undergoing a backlog of transport infrastructure and high export costs. ► We perform a microeconomic study of transportation systems in Colombia: rail and trucking. ► As a result we found that the rail is much more efficient than the automotive system. ► As policy recommendation the government should consider the investment in railways. ► It is necessary to take into account the strategic value that investment in railways would bring.

  17. White certificates for energy efficiency improvement with energy taxes : A theoretical economic model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oikonomou, V.; Jepma, C.J.; Becchis, F.; Russolillo, D.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we analyze interactions of two energy policy instruments, namely a White Certificates (WhC) scheme as an innovative policy instrument for energy efficiency improvement and energy taxation. These policy instruments differ in terms of objectives and final impacts on the price of

  18. Eco-efficiency Among Dairy Farmers: The Importance of Socio-economic Characteristics and Farmer Attitudes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perez Urdiales, M.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Wall, A.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to assess the eco-efficiency of dairy farms in Spain. To do so, we use data from a survey carried out in 2010 for the specific purpose of analysing the environmental performance of 50 dairy farms in the Spanish region of Asturias. The survey contains information on nutrients

  19. Economic efficiency of underground natural gas storage: The case of Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charette, Y.

    1990-01-01

    The paper describes the current situation of natural gas storage in Canada and attempts to provide valuable information and analytical tools so that the key players, including government and industry, will be in a better position to make enlightened choices for future investments in natural gas storage. Central to the analysis of the efficiency of storage is the notion of efficient peak-load pricing. It is usually recognized that storage may be efficient or welfare increasing because, with fixed consumption, it may allow the substitution of cheaper off-peak production for more costly production. The theoretical conclusions are used of a number of static peak-load pricing models, as well as investment decision models, to analyze the various costs and benefits of storage. The main conclusion is made that, when storage is possible, the welfare maximizing peak/off-peak price differential can be reduced, and therefore, storage can increase the efficiency of the gas transmission system. 10 refs, 2 figs, 5 tabs

  20. Efficient ecologic and economic operational rules for dammed systems by means of nondominated sorting genetic algorithm II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niayifar, A.; Perona, P.

    2015-12-01

    River impoundment by dams is known to strongly affect the natural flow regime and in turn the river attributes and the related ecosystem biodiversity. Making hydropower sustainable implies to seek for innovative operational policies able to generate dynamic environmental flows while maintaining economic efficiency. For dammed systems, we build the ecological and economical efficiency plot for non-proportional flow redistribution operational rules compared to minimal flow operational. As for the case of small hydropower plants (e.g., see the companion paper by Gorla et al., this session), we use a four parameters Fermi-Dirac statistical distribution to mathematically formulate non-proportional redistribution rules. These rules allocate a fraction of water to the riverine environment depending on current reservoir inflows and storage. Riverine ecological benefits associated to dynamic environmental flows are computed by integrating the Weighted Usable Area (WUA) for fishes with Richter's hydrological indicators. Then, we apply nondominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II) to an ensemble of non-proportional and minimal flow redistribution rules in order to generate the Pareto frontier showing the system performances in the ecologic and economic space. This fast and elitist multiobjective optimization method is eventually applied to a case study. It is found that non-proportional dynamic flow releases ensure maximal power production on the one hand, while conciliating ecological sustainability on the other hand. Much of the improvement in the environmental indicator is seen to arise from a better use of the reservoir storage dynamics, which allows to capture, and laminate flood events while recovering part of them for energy production. In conclusion, adopting such new operational policies would unravel a spectrum of globally-efficient performances of the dammed system when compared with those resulting from policies based on constant minimum flow releases.