Sample records for economic development problems

  1. Problems of Economic Development in Reunified Germany. Retrospective Approach

    Marta Gotz


    Full Text Available Does Eastern Germany differ significantly from Western part in economic terms? How have new Bundeslnder been developing over past twenty years? How fast has East been catching up with West? What could have hampered convergence? How today are German states equipped with factors determining future growth? How the new Bundeslnder performed do compared with the old ones? This paper seeks to address above mentioned questions. It offers a comprehensive review of key economic developments of two decades of reunited Germany. Particularly it examines current economic landscape; investigates convergence processes taking place since reunification and tries to identify most likely impediments hampering full catching up. Finally, it aims at assessing contemporary growth potential of German states. With respect to the starting point poor performance of East Germany back in 1990 the progress made and results achieved are impressive. Though, comparing the situation with Western part of the country significant discrepancies continue to exist. Certainly, assessment of the last twenty years of reunited Germany hinges much upon perspective taken. Two decades after Berlin Wall Fall opinions on economic consequences of reunification are more balanced, since much has been achieved, but much still needs to be done.

  2. Institutional Problems and Development Perspectives Innovative Entrepreneurship in Resource Economics

    Rutskiy Vladislav, N.


    Full Text Available The paper justifies the necessity to transit towards the mobilization model "triple helix" (strategic partnership of science and education organizations, business and government, the public. Innovation as a product of entrepreneurship permeate the system of relations from top to bottom – from more efficient ways of doing home Ho households, and to design mechanisms of state regulation of the economy. However, at the theoretical level, the relationship remains poorly studied in-novations as a function of entrepreneurship and entrepreneurship as social phenomenon in the system of institutional relations "business-authorities-society". Modern Russian economy has features of "dual enclave economy" with isolated more productive export-oriented resource sector. Innovative entrepreneurs do not become actors of change because of weak protection of property rights, manipulated state, weak sanctions for rent-seeking. The transition from innovative system "technology push" (fundamental knowledge on demand of state towards innovation system "market pull" (innovations on demand of business is complicated within Y-matrix of competitive institutional environment. It could turn out to be more effective to transit to the mobilization model "triple helix" (strategic partnership of science and education organizations, business and government, the public in compliance with X-matrix of cooperative institutional environment of redistribution. This will allow to create the necessary mechanisms for the exchange of missing codified knowledge (for those who imitate innovations and tacit knowledge (for pure innovators in the cross-sectoral technological chains. The design of institutional change in compliance with real needs of participants of innovative processes requires formal analysis of the region economic development type through assessing its key spheres, revealing and modeling prevailing type of entrepreneurship as well as identifying the relationship between

  3. Problems of Foreign Economic Relations Development of Ural Regions with BRICS Countries

    Mikhail Ivanovich Maslennikov


    Full Text Available In the article, the basic vocabulary of BRICS countries, its regional tendencies of business development, and its share taken in the foreign-economic activity are analyzed. Contribution of different foreign trade fields of regions into economic development is revealed. Indicators of development levels of external economic links are reviewed. Alternative options of the foreign trade development, expenses and benefits from its reorientation, and the reason of low indicators of development of foreign trade activity of the Ural regions with BRICS countries are evaluated, and measures for their improvement and development are offered. The mechanism and tools of stimulation of foreign economic relations development of regions with BRICS countries are investigated. The internal and external motives and incentives of expansion of these relations are examined. The factors influencing the regional markets development and revealing multidirectional tendencies in activities of business, government, society for development of foreign economic relations of the Ural regions with BRICS countries, and first of all with Brazil, India, China and the Republic of South Africa are investigated. The export-import features of the foreign trade operations with these countries, and also possible ways and the directions of expansion of the prognostics of foreign economic relations in the conditions of toughening and restriction of similar operations and financial sources from the developed countries, first of all the USA and EU countries are represented. Author examines the reasons and scenario, problems and difficulties for the country and the Ural regions in refocusing of international economic relation from Western Europe to the South-East Asia countries. Real opportunities of participation of regions of the country in the import substitution and development of own resource and production base are analyzed. The research is focused on analysis of international economic

  4. Economic Problems of Oil and Gas Complex Development in the Northern Territories of Russia

    Elena G. Katysheva


    Full Text Available The main economic problems of oil and gas fields development in the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation in the conditions of an economic crisis and an adverse foreign policy situation are characterized in this article. The main way to decrease the influence of sanctions in the sphere of oil and gas extraction is significant decline in the market share of foreign companies using import substitution. It has to be mentioned that localization of equipment production and development of technologies for sea oil and gas production in the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation can become incentive for import substitution, and attracting foreign investments into the Russian oil and gas sector. Nowadays an experience of the Arctic defense enterprises has significantly increased in the sphere of the equipment production for oil and gas extraction and processing. The most significant examples of creation of new productions in the Arctic zone are given in this article. The particular attention is given to development prospects of seismic works in the Arctic shelf under sanctions and fall in oil prices. The Russian sea geophysical companies aren't equipped with modern specialized ships for holding 3D seismic exploration. As a result the seismic works which are carried out now on the Russian shelf 3D in technological parameters considerably lag behind world level. However ensuring of import substitution in the sphere of geophysical oilfield service is accompanied by a number of serious economic problems. It is concluded that drawn that localization of production capacities and service bases near the Arctic shelf will provide multiplicative economic effect, and also will serve as incentive to qualitatively new industrial and infrastructural development of northern territories

  5. [Some fundamental problems concerning the relationship between population growth and economic development].

    Huang, Z


    The population growth rate is closely related to the quality of economic life, available funds for individual and social consumption, national income to be used for reproduction, and the labor employment situation. Since liberation, socialism has not been able to show its superiority, mainly because of China's large population figure, low economic productivity, low national income, and poor management in the relationship between consumption and accumulation. In order to solve these problems, we need to adequately control the pace of the population growth and match the rate of population growth with the pace of economic development. A way to increase national income is through saving and avoiding unnecessary waste. Social expenditures on education, culture, science, health and medical care, social welfare, and investment in the promotion of people's wisdom should all be increased. Meanwhile, the living standard of the people needs to be raised, and capital accumulation should also be managed so that funds will be available for industrial and economic enterprises. Existing inefficient production enterprises should be properly reorganized so that full employment may be achieved. In this way, the national economy will have more prosperity, and the people will benefit more from the Socialist policy.

  6. Problems of private industrial economic development and its countermeasures for Zigong City,Sichuan Province,China


    The differences of regional econotnic development between underdeveloped areas and developed areas are mainly embodied by different levels of private economic development.Since20-year reform and opening-up to the outside world,the private industry of Zigong has developed gradually,become more and more economically competitive,and played a more and more important role in the economic structure of Zigong.This paper analyzes the problems of private economy and its countermeasures based on the research on its status quo.

  7. Komi Republic at the border of the XX and XXI centuries (the problems of socio-economic development

    Vitaliy Nikolaevich Lazhentsev


    Full Text Available The first decade of the twenty-first century from a historical point of view is interesting, first of all, because of the fact that social development receives priority over the economic in public opinion and public policy of many countries. Attempts to adhere to this rule were also made in Russia. The paper analyzes the problems of socio-economic development of the Komi Republic in the first decade of the XXI century. The pass through problems (demographic crisis, aging of the fixed assets, disproportions of reproduction and new problems related to the reorganization of the property management systems and the production, differentiation of people’s incomes and expenditures, violation of the principles of economic federalism and financial crisis are highlighted. Solving of these problems is linked to the innovative development of the productive forces of the republic and the strengthening of interregional economic integration. The scientifically arranged directions of innovational economy in the Komi Republic (fuel, mining and metallurgical complexes, forest and agricultural sector of the economy are reviewed.

  8. Special Economic Zones as a Nanoindustry Development Institute: Failures, Problems and Prospects

    Inshakov Oleg Vasilyevich


    Full Text Available The article deals with the contradictions arising from the formation and operation of special economic zones (SEZ of Russia as the institutes of national nanoindustry (NNI in 2006-2013. The specific deficiencies in the management of SEZ JSC are identified. The author reveals uneven and delayed development, structural imbalances, decreased liability or destructive activities of stakeholders, insufficient activity of resident companies and related groups, the high degree of uncertainty in achieving profitability and efficiency of the SEZ. The drawbacks of state support for the development of SEZs in the NNI, braking and acceleration mechanisms of this process are shown. The necessity of introducing a more effective mechanism for the stimulation of the Russias NNI SEZ development with the use of not only preferences, guarantees and benefits, but also the sanctions to residents, their partners and contractors in the construction process and in the performance of tasks is argued. The idea of the feasibility of establishing SEZ on the initiative of regional authorities and entrepreneurs at the expense of private investment and development budgets of the Russian Federation for significant recovery of the accumulation process in the NNI and reducing the cost of public investment is put forward. The creation of the General Scheme of the NNI SEZ network in Russia in view of the allocation of resources, production and infrastructure dislocation, scope and vectors of firms, is justified. The conclusions are confirmed by the materials of the Russian Ministry of Economic Development monitoring and the audit of the Accounts Chamber.


    Nidziy Elena Nikolaevna


    Full Text Available The construction industry is one of the key fund-creating industries, the formation of the Russian economy greatly depends on it. The construction sector is cyclic, that’s why it has always been sensitive to the tendencies of the national economy. In the contemporary conditions of weak economical climate the construction industry is in a state of sluggish recession. The key indicators exercising restraining influence on the construction complex are analyzed. The author carried out calculations of the prices for residential real estate in the past years. The author’s view on the near-term prospects on the exit from recession state is formulated. From the view of the today’s state and the nearest development prospects, it can be stated that the construction industry is one of the most problematic among the basic economic sectors. Retrieval of the expansion rate of the construction industry is possible in case of the positive changes of general economic state.


    Liliana Scutaru


    Full Text Available The paper put in antithesis, theoretically, two models of development and evolution of mankind, namely, economic development based on consumption of the exhaustible resources and pollution and on the other hand the development based on the concepts of sustainable development, involving a new mentality on human life and environment. Economic development includes economic growth, quantified in particular through the GDP, aspect that leads to a reduced analysis taking into account a limited number of variables such as household income, employment labour, consumption of goods and services, etc.. Perpetuation of this model has led, over time, to the company's inability to solve the problems facing mankind today and serious discrepancies regarding current levels of human development. This type of model does not take into account variables such as unemployment, poverty, education, health, environmental pollution, population migration, urban overcrowding, social inclusion etc. At the opposite side of this type of development, which proves to be beyond the crowd problems currently facing humanity, is a new alternative model, that of sustainable development, which provides an integrated view of all these variables and hence the chance of the human society to a new level of evolution. The sustainable development model of mankind put, among others, the zero growth issue or even sustained decrease for some countries. This model requires also reducing resource consumption and increase sustainability of assets created. It also offers practical solutions to many current problems of mankind, among which we can mention providing food for a growing world population and producing clean alternative energy.

  11. Causality problem in Economic Science



    Full Text Available The main point of the paper is the problem of the economy to be consider like a science in the most strict term of the concept. In the first step we are going to tackle a presentation about what we understand by science to subsequently present some of the fallacies which have bring certain scepticism about the scientific character of the investigation in economy, to know: 1 The differences between hard and weak sciences -physics and social; 2 The differences between paradigm, —positivist and phenomenological— 3 The differences between physic causalityand historic causality. In the second step we are going to talk about two fundamental problems which are questioned: 1 the confusion between ontology and gnoseology and, 2 the erroneous concept of causality that commonly is used. In the last step of the paper we are going over the recent models of «causal explanation» and we suggest the probabilistic casualty development next with a more elaborated models of causal explanation, like a way to conjugate the scientific severity with the possibility to tackle complex economic realities.

  12. Corruption and Economic Development

    Dr.Sc. Skender Ahmeti


    Full Text Available There is no sustainable economic development without a functioning rule of law. Besides sustainable economic policies like low interest rates, low inflation, low budget deficit, reasonable taxes and economic freedom for business development, the necessary ones for country’s economic growth are functioning of state institutions, support and development of reforms as well as successful fight against corruption. Corruption is a phenomena often encountered and spread in countries that have problems with rule of law as well as with judiciary system. Corruption manifestation is inevitable in circumstances when state institutions are weak. The phenomena is especially problematic in countries that go through transition periods since these countries are often characterized as nonefficient in fighting this phenomena1 . Countries in transition continue to have the image of countries with high level of corruption, which causes serious crisis from local opinion and continuous demand from international community due to the unsuccessful fight against this malevolence. World Bank considers corruption as the biggest obstacle in the fight for poverty eradication, since it undermines the rule of law, weakens state institutions and most of all it affects the poor. Politically, it undermines democracy and good governance, economic equal growth and development, as well as people’s trust in state institutions. Lately, several anti-corruption laws have been adopted in Kosovo, but they have not been implemented in practice and were not sufficient in fight against corruption. Kosovo’s long lasting dream of integrating in European Union, necessarily demands to built and functionalize anti-corruptive measures with priority, as a fundamental precondition for EU pre-accession process

  13. CDBG Economic Development Activity

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — CDBG activity related to economic development, including commercial or industrial rehab, commercial or industrial land acquisition, commercial or industrial...

  14. The geosystem approach to the problems of social and economic development of regions of the North of Russia

    Vitalii Nikolaevich Lazhentsev


    Full Text Available The position of the North of Russia in various geographical dimensions: circumpolar, zonal (latitudinal, meridional, structural and territorial, is consid-ered. On the basis of the primary data of district and regional municipalities the author has carried out estimation of number and dynamics of the population in three zones of the North of Russia and executed typological groupings with reference to the systems of resettlement of the population and economic specialization of territories. The analysis of "anatomy" of the North has shown that the basic part of problems of social and economic policy should be considered at regional and local levels with reference to those territorial and economic systems which have already been formed, but require modernization on the basis of the technologies adapted for extreme and difficult climatic conditions. The applied part of studying the problems of the North is co-ordinated to the theory of the territorial (geosystem organization of economy

  15. Mechanism design problems in carbon economics

    Arava, Radhika; Narahari, Y.; Bagchi, Deepak; Suresh, P.; Subrahmanya, SV


    Reduction of carbon emissions is of paramount importance in the context of global warming and climate change. Countries and global companies are now engaged in understanding systematic ways of solving carbon economics problems, aimed ultimately at achieving well defined emission targets. This paper proposes mechanism design as an approach to solving carbon economics problems. The paper first introduces carbon economics issues in the world today and next focuses on carbon economics problems...

  16. Turkmenistan; Recent Economic Developments


    This paper reviews economic developments in Turkmenistan during 1994–97. To address the growing economic difficulties, the government announced an economic reform package for 1996, which aimed at achieving a recovery in output, sharply lowering inflation, maintaining a strong reserve position, and promoting private sector development. The reform package had mixed success. Monetary and credit policy was generally restrained until late 1996, contributing to a moderation in inflation. However,...

  17. Economic development and Islam revisited

    Hasan, Zubair


    This paper is a thoroughly revised, enlarged and updated version of a 1992 publication. It deals with the concept objectives and priorities of economic development from an Islamic perspective. The paper attempts to integrate the Islamic positions with mainstream definitions and approaches to development to put issues in an operable mode. It discusses problems Muslim countries currently face on the economic front and suggest ways to come out of their predicament... The paper constitutes one of...

  18. Effects of Problem Based Economics on High School Economics Instruction

    Finkelstein, Neal; Hanson, Thomas


    The primary purpose of this study is to assess student-level impacts of a problem-based instructional approach to high school economics. The curriculum approach examined here was designed to increase class participation and content knowledge for high school students who are learning economics. This study tests the effectiveness of Problem Based…

  19. Finance and Economic Development

    Ugo Panizza


    Full Text Available Published by Palgrave MacmillanThis chapter reviews the literature on finance and economic development. It starts with a description of the roles of finance, a definition of financial efficiency, and a discussion of whether countries may have financial sectors that are ‘too large’ compared to the size of the domestic economy. Next, the author describes several indicators of financial development and reviews the literature on the relationship between financial development and economic growth. In the literature review, he discusses in detail some recent evidence indicating that the marginal contribution of financial development to gross domestic product (GDP growth becomes negative when credit to the private sector reaches 110 per cent of GDP. The chapter concludes with some policy conclusions targeted to developing countries.

  20. Ghana--medical care amid economic problems.

    Bacon, L


    Describing the pattern of disease encountered in primary health care (PHC) in Ghana and the facilities available to treat it, this discussion provides an account of the rapidly deteriorating economic situation and its effects on the inhabitants and on medical practice. During the 1977-79 period Ghana suffered severe economic and political difficulties, affecting work at the University Hospital in Legon, Ghana. The workload differs from that in developed countries in several ways: tropical diseases are common; the diseases of proverty are rife; diseases due to poor public health and an absence of some diseases, e.g., myocardial infarct and multiple sclerosis. There is no equivalent of the British general practioner, but there are 4 main sources of care: 54 government hospitals with 137 health centrs and health posts distributed around the country; 57 private but relatively low cost hospitals and clinics; exclusive, high cost private clinics; and traditional healers and herbalists practicing their art. Between 1976-79 the economy of Ghana went into a steep decline. Exact figures for inflation are difficult to come by; 15% per year was popularly quoted. The cedi (the Ghanaian unit of currency) was officially devalued. Goods became very scarce as well as expensive. Basic food items, spare parts for vehicles and other machinery, petroleum products, soap, and all medical supplies were hard to obtain. There was public unrest during this period. Strikes became frequent. Notable from the health perspective was a strike of all professionals, including doctors, in June 1977, strikes of government employed nurses in April 1978 and May 1979. The main events were 3 changes of government. Although exact data are not easy to obtain, the diseases of poverty appeared to be on the increase. Lack of money tended to keep those not entitled to free treatment away from private hospitals, but the deteriorating situation at the clinics seemed to more than compensate for this. Shortages

  1. [Economic and logistical problems of radiation oncology].

    Solodkiĭ, V A; Pan'shin, G A; Sotnikov, V M; Ivashin, A V


    An analysis of economic and logistical problems of radiation oncology is presented based on domestic and foreign literature. Despite the high efficacy of radiotherapy this branch of oncology is not financed enough in most countries. As a consequence, it is ubiquitously marked radiotherapy capacity deficit that does not allow to fully realize its therapeutic potential. Medical electron accelerators and related equipment have become increasingly complex and expensive and radiotherapy techniques more consuming. Even in developed countries growing waiting times for radiotherapy, not using the most modern and efficient radiotherapy technologies (image guiding, etc.) has become a daily reality. Based on these data, we assessed the prospects and possibilities of upgrading the technical base of radiation oncology in Russia including the development of hadron therapy.

  2. States and Economic Development

    Atul Kohli


    Full Text Available Today the Washington Consensus on development lies in tatters. The recent history of the developing world has been unkind to the core claim that a nation that opens its economy and keeps government's role to a minimum invariably experiences rapid economic growth. The evidence against this claim is strong: the developing world as a whole grew faster during the era of state intervention and import substitution (1950-1980 than in the more recent era of structural adjustment (1990-2005; and the recent economic performance of both Latin America and Sub-Saharan Africaregions that truly embraced neoliberalismhas lagged well behind that of many Asian economies, which have instead pursued judicial and unorthodox combinations of state intervention and economic openness. As scholars and policy makers reconstruct alternatives to the Washington Consensus on development, it is important to underline that prudent and effective state intervention and selective integration with the global economy have been responsible for development success in the past; they are also likely to remain the recipes for upward mobility in the global economy in the future."

  3. Rural development as economic category



    Is conducted scientific analysis of such concepts as “steady development of village”, “development of rural territories”, “development of rural locality”, “rural development”, “steady economic development”, “economic relations”. Reasonably and the vision of determination of rural development is given from the economic point of view.

  4. Economic Development and "Indian Model"


    @@ Dao: Early this year, there are many relevant reports on India's catching up from behind in economic development. It is reported that India and China will be the two engines to drive world economic development.

  5. Heuristics for the economic dispatch problem

    Flores, Benjamin Carpio [Centro Nacional de Controle de Energia (CENACE), Mexico, D.F. (Mexico). Dept. de Planificacion Economica de Largo Plazo], E-mail:; Laureano Cruces, A.L.; Lopez Bracho, R.; Ramirez Rodriguez, J. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana (UAM), Mexico, D.F. (Brazil). Dept. de Sistemas], Emails:,,


    This paper presents GRASP (Greedy Randomized Adaptive Search Procedure), Simulated Annealing (SAA), Genetic (GA), and Hybrid Genetic (HGA) Algorithms for the economic dispatch problem (EDP), considering non-convex cost functions and dead zones the only restrictions, showing the results obtained. We also present parameter settings that are specifically applicable to the EDP, and a comparative table of results for each heuristic. It is shown that these methods outperform the classical methods without the need to assume convexity of the target function. (author)

  6. Doctrines and Contemporary Economic Theories in the Economic Development

    Gheorghe Stefan


    Full Text Available Contemporary economic theories justify economic polarization, both before and after thesecond world war, through enhanced differences between the rich countries and those in course ofdevelopment. The instrument quantifying this economic gap is represented by the high price forindustrial products and a very low one for essentials thus maintaining at minimal level the purchasingpower of the agrarian countries (of the under-developed states. Through the agency of someinstitutions and specialized organizations like U.N., U.N.E.S.C.O. or the E.U., there are conductedinternational programs for the sectorial support mainly aiming the resolution of all kinds of problems.

  7. Economic Analysis and Countermeasures of Migrant Workers’ Problems


    Generation and development of migrant workers’ problems are analyzed from the perspective of economics. There are economic factors causing migrant workers’ problems: imbalance in the industrial structure brings farmers living pressure; urban modern civilization is attractive to farmers; urban economic development needs a large number of agricultural laborers engaged in manual labor. Moreover, relevant countermeasures are proposed. The dual economic structure is to be broken to gradually eliminate the barrier between urban and rural areas; an unified and standard labor market is to be established to narrow the gap between urban and rural areas; overall considerations should be taken and the reform of matching system should be quickened; the construction of urbanization is to be duly promoted to improve the level of modernization in the countryside.


    Kulikova S. Y.


    Full Text Available At the Department of "Economics and organization of production" at the end of XX - beginning of XXI centuries created the scientific school in the field of organizational and economic modeling, econometrics and statistics. The same name section of the department oversees the teaching of the relevant disciplines. The Laboratory of economic and mathematical methods in controlling of the Research and Education Center "Controlling and innovation in management" of Bauman Moscow State Technical University conducts research in this domain. This article is devoted to the activities of the scientific school, conducting research, and some of the results. We start with a discussion of the definitions of terms, which we use. Organizationaleconomic modeling - scientific, practical and academic discipline which devoted to the development, research and application of mathematical and statistical methods and models in economics and management of the national economy, especially in economics and management of industrial enterprises and their associations. The term "economic-mathematical methods and models" has close content. Statistical methods in economics - the subject of econometrics, the base of which is applied statistics. Organizational-economic modeling and econometrics are discussed as a theoretical and practical trainings and discipline. We developed textbooks and manuals on the organizational and economic modeling, econometrics and statistics. We have conducted theoretical research and development of applications in the field of organizational and economic modeling. In particular, the prediction is regarded as one of the management functions in industry. We study the problem of stability in the models and methods of development of strategy of the enterprise. For prospective organizational and economic mechanisms of management of industrial and economic activities, we proposed design based on solidary information economy

  9. The Population Problem as Economic Disarticulation.

    Yapa, Lakshman S.


    Overpopulation exists when people lack the basic means of subsistence, or when there is massive and permanent unemployment. Population problems of developing countries are examined, and causes of high rates of fertility are discussed. The utilization of productive resources in solving population problems is also examined. (RM)

  10. Foreign economic activity of Saint Petersburg, the Leningrad Region, and the Republic of Karelia: problems and opportunities for development

    Bazhenov Yu. N.


    Full Text Available In this paper, we look at the interregional cooperation in adjacent areas. Specifically, we focus our attention on the cluster of regions formed by the city of St. Petersburg, the Leningrad region and the Republic of Karelia. All three areas face a number of challenges when it comes to international trade: challenges that are shared and that require strategic coordinated solutions from regional decisionmakers. One of such solutions, for example, could require pooling of competitive advantages of these areas. The analysis of strategic documents of regional development, however, shows that the issue of interregional cooperation has not been duly addressed at any level, theoretical or practical. It is important to strengthen international trade capacity and to increase cooperation in other areas of cross-border relations, since these processes are crucial for Russia’s integration into the global markets.

  11. Mathematical model in economic environmental problems

    Nahorski, Z. [Polish Academy of Sciences, Systems Research Inst. (Poland); Ravn, H.F. [Risoe National Lab. (Denmark)


    The report contains a review of basic models and mathematical tools used in economic regulation problems. It starts with presentation of basic models of capital accumulation, resource depletion, pollution accumulation, and population growth, as well as construction of utility functions. Then the one-state variable model is discussed in details. The basic mathematical methods used consist of application of the maximum principle and phase plane analysis of the differential equations obtained as the necessary conditions of optimality. A summary of basic results connected with these methods is given in appendices. (au) 13 ills.; 17 refs.

  12. Specialized Cooperative Economic Organization of Farmers: Problems and Suggestions

    XiangzhiKong; QiaoGuanghua


    This article analyses the problems of the specialized cooperative economic organizations of farmers in their development process. These problems are: excessive interference by local governments; low service capacity at the operating level; administrative and management confusion resulting from the lack of status as a legal entity, with rules and regulations. It is suggested that the relevant laws and regulations concerning these organizations be established as soon as possible, giving them a legal identification; that the regulations and organizational structure be perfected; that support be increased and the financial situation of the specialized cooperative economic organizations of farmers be improved.

  13. Costa Rica; Recent Economic Developments

    International Monetary Fund


    This paper reviews economic developments in Costa Rica during 1995–97. Costa Rica faced a slump in economic activity in 1995–96 following a sharp deterioration in the public finances and higher inflation associated with the 1993–94 political–economic cycle. To avert a balance-of-payments crisis in early 1995, the authorities increased interest rates, imposed temporary import surcharges, and raised excise taxes, while tightening expenditure and shifting some outlays to 1996. The econom...

  14. Economic development and environmental protection: an ecological economics perspective.

    Rees, William E


    This paper argues on both theoretical and empirical grounds that, beyond a certain point, there is an unavoidable conflict between economic development (generally taken to mean 'material economic growth') and environmental protection. Think for a moment of natural forests, grasslands, marine estuaries, salt marshes, and coral reefs; and of arable soils, aquifers, mineral deposits, petroleum, and coal. These are all forms of 'natural capital' that represent highly-ordered self-producing ecosystems or rich accumulations of energy/matter with high use potential (low entropy). Now contemplate despoiled landscapes, eroding farmlands, depleted fisheries, anthropogenic greenhouse gases, acid rain, poisonous mine tailings and toxic synthetic compounds. These all represent disordered systems or degraded forms of energy and matter with little use potential (high entropy). The main thing connecting these two states is human economic activity. Ecological economics interprets the environment-economy relationship in terms of the second law of thermodynamics. The second law sees economic activity as a dissipative process. From this perspective, the production of economic goods and services invariably requires the consumption of available energy and matter. To grow and develop, the economy necessarily 'feeds' on sources of high-quality energy/matter first produced by nature. This tends to disorder and homogenize the ecosphere, The ascendance of humankind has consistently been accompanied by an accelerating rate of ecological degradation, particularly biodiversity loss, the simplification of natural systems and pollution. In short, contemporary political rhetoric to the contrary, the prevailing growth-oriented global development paradigm is fundamentally incompatible with long-term ecological and social sustainability. Unsustainability is not a technical nor economic problem as usually conceived, but rather a state of systemic incompatibility between a economy that is a fully

  15. Development Economics and Economic Development: Why do Institution Matter?

    Cosmin Marinescu


    Full Text Available Economic development is a complex phenomenon, at least when speaking about understanding its real sources, despite the simplifying tendencies of economic growth neoclassical theories. These orthodox theories limit themselves to identifying the necessary conditions - such as capital accumulation and technological progress - for production increasing. But, in order to explain "why" people are saving, investing, learning and looking for knowledge, we must take into consideration the institutions that define any economic system. Within society, people are perceptive to a system of general rules that provides incentives and constraints for human behavior. Institutions’ and human action’s mutuality, and also its economic and political implications, explain the essential importance of institutions in economic science and the institutional approach viability.

  16. Essays in Development Economics

    Poppe, Robert


    In Chapter 1, the first essay explores a school meals program in Ethiopia. In food-insecure parts of poor countries school meals can provide a strong incentive to poor households to send their children to school. School meals appear to be attractive as they may not only increase school participation but may also improve learning and cognitive development. Chapter 2 investigates the role of poor eyesight on educational outcomes in rural Ethiopia. Chapter 3 uses data on four financial literacy ...


    马辉民; 张子刚; 周少甫; 黄卫来


    The paper develops an algorithm that solves economic lot size problem in O(n2) time in the Wagner-Whitin case. The algorithm is based on the standard dynamic programming approach which requires the computation of the maximal relative benefit for some possible subplans of the production plan. In this algorithm the authors have studied the forward property and decomposition properties which can make computation easy. The proposed algorithm appears to perform quite reasonably for practical application.

  18. Poverty – a major economical problem

    Assistent Professor Somogyi János


    Full Text Available Poverty is the state for the majority of the world’s people and nations. Yet there is plenty offood in the world for everyone. The problem is that hungry people are trapped in severe poverty. They lackthe money to buy enough food to nourish them. Being constantly malnourished, they become weaker and oftensick. This makes them increasingly less able to work, which then makes them even poorer and hungrier.This downward spiral often continues until death for them and their families.Why is this? How is to blame? Poor people for their own predicament? Have they been lazy, madepoor decisions, and been solely responsible for their plight? What about their governments? Have theypursued policies that actually harm successful development? Such causes of poverty and inequality are nodoubt real. But deeper and more global causes of poverty are often less discussed. This article explores variouspoverty problems in more depth.

  19. Theories of International Economic Development (Case Study: Economic Development in Kosovo

    MSc. Bardhok Bashota


    Full Text Available Karl Popper rightly says that “real starting point for each research is set based on assumptions of reality, not only based on the real facts”. The text below was prepared In accordance with this logic, where the Theories of International Development are treated especially focusing on International Economic Development. Therefore, theoretical reflections present assumption side, and study of many empirically measured data will correspond with real facts, because with ought these facts assumption would be useless. Technically this writing consists of two parts: in the first part are elaborated all theoretical and practical characteristics of overall international development, while in a second part as a case study will be Economic Development i Kosovo. From methodological point of view this is a comparative study and based on statistical data, while problem treating approach is critical and explanatory. As it will be understood later, development theories have been decisively influenced by economic thinking, and the focus on this dimension responds best to the nature of the term development. On the other hand the fact of unfolding economical development will reflect interference and the nature of it’s inter politics. Today economic development becomes a worldwide goal, having a considerable place in most of the literature with economic content. Also, here are presented as well examples from different practices that reflect economic development in different periods and places. Here is presented international economic development starting with a brief description of a genealogy of this development and ways of economic development back that time. It is of a special importance elaboration through theoretical approach on the creation of capital and economic development, as  mercantilist theory, classic and neo classic theory, than capitalization and Socialism-Marxism. To better understand the nature of economic development, the focus falls on

  20. Methodological problems of modern economic science

    Avtonomov, V. S.


    The radical breaking of Russia's socioeconomic basis has generated keen public interest in forecasts and recommendations of economic science. Quite often, and generally unjustifiably, responsibility for unreasoned decisions in the economic sphere is attributed to economists. Meanwhile, present-day e

  1. Promote Kaifeng Circulation Problems of Economic Development Research%推进开封循环经济发展问题研究



    To develop recycling economy,to implement the scientific development concept is the inevitable requirement and effective carrier,reflected the people-oriented concept of development,China is the only sustainable economic and social development.Kaifeng insufficiency of circular economy development of circular economy development and kaifeng thinking.%大力发展循环经济,是贯彻落实科学发展观的必然要求和有效载体,体现了以人为本的发展理念,是中国经济社会可持续发展的必由之路。针对开封市循环经济发展存在的不足提出开封市发展循环经济的思路。

  2. Economic development and natural disasters

    Klomp, Jeroen


    In this study we examine the impact of large-scale natural disasters on economic development. A major obstacle in exploring this relationship is the poor data quality on GDP per capita in low-income countries, while at the same time more than 90% of all disasters that happen worldwide occur in th

  3. Credit Market Development and Economic Growth

    Athanasios Vazakidis


    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study investigated the relationship between credit market development and economic growth for Italy for the period 1965-2007 using a Vector Error Correction Model (VECM. Questions were raised whether economic growth spurs credit market development taking into account the negative effect of inflation rate on credit market development. The purpose of this study was to investigated the short-run and the long-run relationship between the examined variables applying the Johansen cointegration analysis. Approach: For this purpose unit root tests were carried out according to Dickey-Fuller (1979. Johansen cointegration analysis was applied to examine whether the variables are cointegrated of the same order taking into account the maximum eigenvalues and trace statistics tests. Finally, a vector error correction model was selected to investigate the long-run relationship between economic growth and credit market development. Results: A short-run increase of economic growth per 1% induced an increase of bank lending 0.4% in Italy, while an increase of inflation rate per 1% induced a relative decrease of bank lending per 0.5% in Italy. The estimated coefficient of error correction term was statistically significant and had a negative sign, which confirmed that there was not any a problem in the long-run equilibrium between the examined variables. Conclusion: The results suggested that economic growth has a positive effect on credit market development, while inflation rate had a negative effect. Bank development was determined by the size of bank lending directed to private sector at times of low inflation rates leading to higher economic growth rates.

  4. REVIEWS OF TOPICAL PROBLEMS: On some problems of physical economics

    Chernavskiĭ, Dmitrii S.; Starkov, Nikolai I.; Shcherbakov, Andrei V.


    Attempts of designing economics along the lines of natural sciences (in particular, physics) with the use of mathematical modeling are reviewed. This area of research has come to be known as physical economics. Some topical questions of market economics are discussed; specifically, whether the market equilibrium is unique, whether transitions between stationary states are possible, and, if so, how these transitions proceed. By analogy with physics, the apparatus of mathematical modeling is widely used in answering these questions. It is shown that, under given external conditions, a self-sufficient country can be in two stationary, stable states — either in a high-productivity (HP) or in a low-productivity (LP) state. Transitions between them appear to be either an 'economical crisis' or an 'economical miracle'. It is shown that, for contemporary Russia, the crisis is already over, and the country is now in a stable LP state. Possible transitions to a HP state are discussed. The distributions of social elements over liquid accumulations and incomes are considered. It is shown that, in present-day Russia, these distributions are bimodal, meaning the coexistence of the poor and the wealthy with virtually no middle layer in between. In the tail of the distribution, a very small number of very wealthy people are present.

  5. Evolution of approaches to economic security problems in Europe

    Kuznetsov, Alexey; Toganova, Natalia; Gutnik, Anna


    The report, written by the experts of the Center for European Studies of IMEMO RAN – Dr. Alexey Kuznetsov, Natalia Toganova and Anna Gutnik – analyzes the evolution of the approaches to the problems of economic security in Europe. The report is prepared for the Commission of the Euro-Atlantic Security Initiative (EASI). The authors analyze the reasons why some economic problems in Europe cause the attention as the security problems. The report presents a study on transformation of the appr...

  6. Japan’s Development Ambitions for Myanmar: The Problem of “Economics before Politics”

    Donald M. Seekins


    Full Text Available Myanmar and Japan have had an important shared history since the Pacific War, when Japan occupied the British colony of Burma and established the country’s first postcolonial state and army. The period from 1941 to 1945 also witnessed the “militarization” of Myanmar as the country was turned into a battlefield by the Japanese, the Allies and indigenous insurgents. After independence from Britain in 1948, the Union of Burma continued to suffer insurgency and became a deeply conflicted society, especially under the isolationist socialist regime of General Ne Win (1962–1988. However, Japan played a major role in Myanmar’s economic development through its allocation of war reparations and official development assistance (ODA, especially yen loans. During the period of martial law from 1988 to 2011, Tokyo exercised some self-restraint in giving aid due to pressure from its major ally, the United States, with its human rights agenda. However, with the transition from junta rule to constitutional government in 2011 came a dramatic increase in Japanese ODA, as Tokyo forgave large amounts of debt and invested in ambitious new special economic zones (SEZ. Japan will no doubt benefit from Myanmar as close ties are expanded: Not only will Japanese companies profit, but Japan will have access to Myanmar’s raw materials and gain ability to compete more effectively with an economically expansive China. On Myanmar’s side, though, it is unlikely that anyone other than the military and crony capitalist elites will benefit from the flood of new yen loans and infrastructure projects. This paper argues that without a political resolution of Myanmar’s many conflicts, including the establishment of genuinely open political institutions, the aid of Japan (and other countries is likely to make these deep-rooted social and ethnic conflicts even worse.

  7. Technical and Economic Problems Associated with the Development of Methods of Processing and Using Radioactive Waste; Problemes techniques et economiques lies au developpement des methodes de traitement et d'utilisation des dechets radioactifs

    Thiriet, L.; Sauteron, J.; Oger, C. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-Aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    The paper briefly reviews the various techniques used in processing the radioactive wastes which unavoidably result from the generation of electric power from nuclear sources. The paper goes on to define the relative importance, in nuclear fuel cycles, of the problem raised by these wastes. Emphasis is placed on the economic influence of management policies on the cost of power generation, and hence on the relative position of nuclear energy. A substantial percentage of these wastes can be economically utilized. Attention is drawn to the major technical and economic features of the industry which will come into being as a result of this utilization. The major uses anticipated are discussed: radiation sources, heat sources, auxiliary power generation. The paper concludes that satisfactory solutions have already been found to these problems, and describes possible improvements. (author) [French] La communication rappelle d'abord succinctement les differentes techniques de traitement des dechets radioactifs resultant necessairement de la production d'electricite d'origine nucleaire. On situe ensuite l'importance du probleme pose par ces residus dans le cycle du combustible nucleaire. On fait ressortir l'influence economique du choix des methodes de gestion sur le cout de production de l'energie, et par consequent sur la place devolue a l'energie nucleaire. Une part importante de ces dechets peut faire l'objet d'une utilisation rentable de l'industrie qui naitra de cette utilisation. Les principales applications envisagees sont evoquees: sources d'irradiation, sources chauffantes, generateurs auxiliaires d'energie. On conclut que d'ores et deja des solutions satisfaisantes ont ete apportees a ces problemes, et l'on decrit les perspectives d'amelioration concevables. (auteur)


    Vergina CHIRITESCU


    Full Text Available The issue of the relationship between humankind and the environment became scientific and economic concerns of the international community since the first UN Conference on the Human Environment (Stockholm, 1972 and resulted in the work of the World Commission on Environment and Development, established in 1985. Report of the Commission presented in 1987 by GH Brundtland, entitled "Our Common Future" provided the first universally accepted definition of sustainable development as "development that meets the needs of the present generation without compromising the opportunities of future generations to meet their own needs". Brundtland Report, 1987, was reaffirmed by the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development / Earth Summit held in Rio de Janeiro - Brazil, 1992 which established the principles of Agenda 21, which was intended to be a guide implementation of sustainable development for the 21st century, a development that was required to be applied at national, regional and local level. [1] In the context of developing new eco-economic system adopted a number of international conventions that establish detailed obligations of the States and strict implementation deadlines climate change, biodiversity conservation, protection of forests and wetlands, limiting the use of certain chemicals, access information on the state of the environment and other international legal space outlining the practical application of the principles of sustainable economic development in ecological conditions.

  9. Problems of hydroelectric development at existing dams: an analysis of institutional, economic, and environmental restraints in Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Maryland

    Taylor, R.J.; Green, L.L.


    The methodology that has been developed to analyze the impact of possible government actions on the development of small-scale hydroelectric power in the United States is described. The application of the methodology to a specific region of the United States is also described. Within the Pennsylvania-New Jersey-Maryland (PJM) region, the methodology has been used to evaluate the significance of some of the existing institutional and economic constraints on hydroelectric development at existing dams. The basic process for the analysis and evaluation is estimation of the hydroelectric energy that can be developed for a given price of electricity. Considering the present constraints and a geographical region of interest, one should be able to quantify the potential hydroelectric energy supply versus price. Estimates of how the supply varies with possible changes in governmental policies, regulations, and actions should assist the government in making decisions concerning these governmental functions relative to hydroelectric development. The methodology for estimating the hydroelectric supply at existing dams is included.

  10. Recent Developments in Ecological Economics

    Reader with published articles within the field of ecological economics, mostly from 1997 - 2007......Reader with published articles within the field of ecological economics, mostly from 1997 - 2007...



    The Central Asia region, which is located in the very heart of the vast Eurasian continent at the crossroads where four of the largest civilizations (Russian, Chinese, Indian, and Islamic) meet, has a long and profuse history teeming with difficulties and conflicts. The Ferghana Valley is a territory where all the problems of the Central Asia region (border conflicts, poverty, shortage of fertile land and water resources, unemployment, ethnic disputes, and so on) are concentrated and come tog...

  12. 2005 China's Economic Development Trend


    @@ The fruitful 2004 almost passed and the promising 2005 is coming.Through arduous practice of macro control for more than one year,people now are full of confidence about the development of China's economy and have a clear understanding of those problems existing.

  13. Using Evolutionary Computation to Solve the Economic Load Dispatch Problem

    Samir SAYAH


    Full Text Available This paper reports on an evolutionary algorithm based method for solving the economic load dispatch (ELD problem. The objective is to minimize the nonlinear function, which is the total fuel cost of thermal generating units, subject to the usual constraints.The IEEE 30 bus test system was used for testing and validation purposes. The results obtained demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method for solving the economic load dispatch problem.

  14. Variables Affecting Economic Development of Wind Energy

    Lantz, E.; Tegen, S.


    NREL's JEDI Wind model performed an analysis of wind-power-related economic development drivers. Economic development benefits for wind and coal were estimated using NREL's JEDI Wind and JEDI Coal models.

  15. Economic Developments on Perceived Safety, Violence, and Economic Benefits

    Anthony Fabio


    Full Text Available Background. Emerging research highlights the promise of community- and policy-level strategies in preventing youth violence. Large-scale economic developments, such as sports and entertainment arenas and casinos, may improve the living conditions, economics, public health, and overall wellbeing of area residents and may influence rates of violence within communities. Objective. To assess the effect of community economic development efforts on neighborhood residents’ perceptions on violence, safety, and economic benefits. Methods. Telephone survey in 2011 using a listed sample of randomly selected numbers in six Pittsburgh neighborhoods. Descriptive analyses examined measures of perceived violence and safety and economic benefit. Responses were compared across neighborhoods using chi-square tests for multiple comparisons. Survey results were compared to census and police data. Results. Residents in neighborhoods with the large-scale economic developments reported more casino-specific and arena-specific economic benefits. However, 42% of participants in the neighborhood with the entertainment arena felt there was an increase in crime, and 29% of respondents from the neighborhood with the casino felt there was an increase. In contrast, crime decreased in both neighborhoods. Conclusions. Large-scale economic developments have a direct influence on the perception of violence, despite actual violence rates.

  16. A Stochastic Decision Support System for Economic Order Quantity Problem

    Amir Yousefli


    Full Text Available Improving decisions efficiency is one of the major concerns of the decision support systems. Specially in the uncertain environment, decision support systems could be implemented efficiently to simplify decision making process. In this paper stochastic economic order quantity (EOQ problem is investigated in which decision variables and objective function are uncertain in nature and optimum probability distribution functions of them are calculated through a geometric programming model. Obtained probability distribution functions of the decision variables and the objective function are used as optimum knowledge to design a new probabilistic rule base (PRB as a decision support system for EOQ model. The developed PRB is a new type of the stochastic rule bases that can be used to infer optimum or near optimum values of the decision variables and the objective function of the EOQ model without solving the geometric programming problem directly. Comparison between the results of the developed PRB and the optimum solutions which is provided in the numerical example illustrates the efficiency of the developed PRB.

  17. Problems of Ukraine trade potential development

    Sydiaga, Bohdan Volodymyrovych


    Full Text Available The current stage of Ukraine economy development dictates new requirements and rules of the mechanisms of formation and functioning of trade relations. Under the conditions of uncertainty of the external state vector, market globalization, growing competition in most sectors and areas of activity, the source of the successful development of commercial potential is the use of modern technology with low power consumption equipment. It is clear that large investments are needed to solve this problem. Traditionally foreign trade is one of the main factors of Ukraine economic dynamics. The structure of foreign trade allows to have an idea of the country competitive position in the world markets, to identify economic "niche"and development of trade relations in which it is competitive. Thus, the state and development of trade relations with key external partners have critical importance for Ukraine economic development.

  18. WWC Review of the Report "Effects of Problem Based Economics on High School Economics Instruction"

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2012


    The study described in this report included 128 high school economics teachers from 106 schools in Arizona and California, half of whom were randomly assigned to the "Problem Based Economics Instruction" condition and half of whom were randomly assigned to the comparison condition. High levels of teacher attrition occurred after randomization and…

  19. Women for sustainable economic development.


    In the aftermath of Viet Nam's devastating war, the Vietnamese people suffer from a low standard of living, impoverishment, unemployment, child malnutrition, the deteriorating health of women, and a widespread inability to pay school fees. The Vietnam Women's Union (VWU) responded to this situation in 1989 by adopting the goals of 1) achieving cooperation among women to increase family income and living standards and 2) improving child nutrition and school attendance. In 1992-97, the VWU initiated additional programs to train women; generate employment income for women; support maternal-child health care, family planning, and child development; build and consolidate the VWU; and expand international cooperation. To promote economic development, Vietnamese women have constructed rural infrastructure; developed an agricultural extension system based on a model that combines a garden, pond, and pigsty on family land plots; launched health education projects to promote family planning, good nutrition, and health care; supported outreach educational efforts for children; and encouraged increased community participation in the design, implementation, and management of projects.

  20. Multiobjective Economic Load Dispatch Problem Solved by New PSO

    Nagendra Singh


    Full Text Available Proposed in this paper is a new particle swarm optimization technique for the solution of economic load dispatch as well as environmental emission of the thermal power plant with power balance and generation limit constraints. Economic load dispatch is an online problem to minimize the total generating cost of the thermal power plant and satisfy the equality and inequality constraints. Thermal power plants use fossil fuels for the generation of power; fossil fuel emits many toxic gases which pollute the environment. This paper not only considers the economic load dispatch problem to reduce the total generation cost of the thermal power plant but also deals with environmental emission minimization. In this paper, fuel cost and the environmental emission functions are considered and formulated as a multiobjective economic load dispatch problem. For obtaining the solution of multiobjective economic load dispatch problem a new PSO called moderate random search PSO was used. MRPSO enhances the ability of particles to explore in the search spaces more effectively and increases their convergence rates. The proposed algorithm is tested for the IEEE 30 bus test systems. The results obtained by MRPSO algorithm show that it is effective and efficient.

  1. Annealed Demon Algorithms Solving the Environmental / Economic Dispatch Problem

    Aristidis VLACHOS


    Full Text Available This paper presents an efficient and reliable Annealed Demon (AD algorithm for the Environmental/Economic Dispatch (EEB problem. The EED problem is a multi-objective non-linear optimization problem with constraints. This problem is one of the fundamentals issues in power system operation. The system of generation associates thermal generators and emissions which involves sulphur oxides (SO2 and nitrogen oxides (NOx. The aim is to minimize total fuel cost of the system and control emission. The proposed AD algorithm is applied for EED of a simple power system.

  2. Reproduction, fertility and socio-economic development

    Meshkani Z


    Full Text Available The rapid growth of population in the third world countries specially in recent decades has posed an important social problem. There have been some attempts to propose solutions for this problem by scientists from various disciplines. However, it seems that an integrated approach calling for collaboration of various efforts can be more fruitful. In this work, we study the relation of women fertility and socio-economical indices along with government's programmed efforts in the third world countries. Employing a statistical approach, we show that development indices such as gross national product, infant mortality rate, education enrolment, and access to mass media along with government's programmed efforts are effective in reducing the fertility rate, but more important is the interaction between these factors. Thus, an integrated approach emerges as a better solution to population control

  3. On Solving the World’s Economic Problems by Doing Something Unfashionable


    The world currently faces a number of economic problems. These include the large global economic imbalances that may prove to be unsustainable; international poverty, where projections suggest that it is unlikely that the Millennium Development Goals will be achieved; and stalled multilateral trade talks that threaten a return to more aggressive protectionism. Although very unfashionable, a new allocation of Special Drawing Rights by the IMF could help to alleviate all of these problems. Clea...

  4. Europe’s economic problems in an international perspective



    Full Text Available The author sees signs that the European Community is entering a phase of steady economic growth, with inflation under control and a favourable outlook for exports. However, these assumptions are dependent on other trading nations getting a firmer control over their domestic fiscal and monetary policies. In particular, the US federal budget deficit will remain a problem, as will the continuing balance of trade surplus in Japan. The major problem for the European countries will remain unemployment.




    Full Text Available The social and economical development must be approached in such a way that it minimizes the effects of the economic activity over the deterioration of resources and to discourage waste. The pollution control depends on humans’ ability to understand the seriousness of the ecological lack of balance.The sustainable lasting development, being a long term economical development, is possible by efficiently using the economical instruments (cost, profit; the political, juridical and social ones, which utter signals for the economic agents, so that they can become aware of the limited character of natural resources and of the damage caused to the environment.

  6. Developing Animated Cartoons for Economic Teaching

    Zhang, Yu Aimee


    Purpose: A picture is worth a thousand words. Multimedia teaching materials have been widely adopted by teachers in Physics, Biotechnology, Psychology, Religion, Analytical Science, and Economics nowadays. To assist with engaging students in their economic study, increase learning efficiency and understanding, solve misconception problems,…

  7. Development of the scale of economic abuse.

    Adams, Adrienne E; Sullivan, Cris M; Bybee, Deborah; Greeson, Megan R


    Economic abuse is part of the pattern of behaviors used by batterers to maintain power and control over their partners. However, no measure of economic abuse exists. This study describes the development of the Scale of Economic Abuse, which was designed to fill this gap. Interviews were conducted with 103 survivors of domestic abuse, each of whom responded to measures of economic, physical, and psychological abuse as well as economic hardship. Results provide evidence for the reliability and validity of the scale. This study is an important first step toward understanding the extent and impact of economic abuse experienced by survivors.

  8. 3 CFR - Biofuels and Rural Economic Development


    ... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Biofuels and Rural Economic Development Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Memorandum of May 5, 2009 Biofuels and Rural Economic Development... Rural Development Act of 1972 and the Rural Development Policy Act of 1980 direct the Secretary...

  9. Environmental degradation and remediation: is economics part of the problem?

    Dore, Mohammed H I; Burton, Ian


    It is argued that standard environmental economic and 'ecological economics', have the same fundamentals of valuation in terms of money, based on a demand curve derived from utility maximization. But this approach leads to three different measures of value. An invariant measure of value exists only if the consumer has 'homothetic preferences'. In order to obtain a numerical estimate of value, specific functional forms are necessary, but typically these estimates do not converge. This is due to the fact that the underlying economic model is not structurally stable. According to neoclassical economics, any environmental remediation can be justified only in terms of increases in consumer satisfaction, balancing marginal gains against marginal costs. It is not surprising that the optimal policy obtained from this approach suggests only small reductions in greenhouse gases. We show that a unidimensional metric of consumer's utility measured in dollar terms can only trivialize the problem of global climate change.

  10. Economic Problems of Greece and Their Influence on International Tourism

    Kristina A. Menshikova


    Full Text Available The article deals with key economic issues of Greece and their influence on development of international tourism. Such tourist attractions as: popular cities, resorts, wharfs and thermal springs are presented.

  11. Population and economic development in Sarawak, Malaysia

    Furuoka, Fumitaka


    This paper chooses a Malaysian state in Borneo Island, Sarawak, as the case study to examine the relationship between population growth and economic development. The findings imply that there is no statistically significant long-run relationship, but a causal relationship between population growth and economic development in Sarawak. In other words, the empirical findings indicate that population can have neither positive nor negative impact on economic development. The findings also indicate...


    Pershin S. P.


    Full Text Available Modern trends of development of economic relations are not devoid of problems. The globalization of economic relations, development of communication network has opened a lot of abuse, incorrectly built relationships with contractors and agencies administration, well-known difficulties and shortcomings of law enforcement. The study showed that the weight of these circumstances caused the absence of an organized system of registration, formation, compilation, analysis and presentation of information. Collectively it is nothing like the attributes of the accounting system. The development of accounting in the region and the country as a whole in the direction of generalization of accounting information on all economic entities and other economic actors, becomes the requirement of time. The authors proposed the principles of the organization's user systems through a single automated account management system. Defined the functional role of each participant in such system. Much of the information comes from the so-called user agents – the authority of the state machinery and economic entities authorized in the formation and presentation of the required accounting information. The rules of the proposed system will provide the consistency required functionality of each participant and access to some form of economic information through economic roadmap. The implementation of the proposed accounting system will allow to define rules of functioning of the uniform economic space of the country, which will make possible the implementation of economic policies more effective, will allow to disseminate the experience of effective ministries in all areas of economic space

  13. The ethics of New Development Economics: is the Experimental Approach to Development Economics morally wrong?

    Stéphane J. Baele


    Full Text Available The 2000s have witnessed the arrival and growing popularity of randomized controlled experiments (RCTs in Development Economics. Whilst this new way of conducting research on development has unfolded important insights, the ethical challenge it provokes has not yet been systematically examined. The present article aims at filling this gap by providing the first ad hoc discussion of the moral issues that accompany the use of RCTs in Development Economics. Claiming that this new research agenda needs its own, specific set of ethical guidelines, we expose the six ethical problems that these experiments potentially provoke and that should therefore be carefully assessed by ethics committees before an RCT is launched and by scholarly journals before its results are published.

  14. Economic Development Capacity amongst Small Rural Communities.

    Keane, Michael J.


    Examines indigenous capacity for local community development. Examines new economic development initiatives by communities, nature of relationships between local and larger economies, and how relationships affect local capacity for new economic activities. Discusses benefits of spatial framework in rural development and planning. (TES)

  15. Economic Development and Network Science


    3 Stiglitz and Gallegati (2011) introduced new heterogeneous agent models to enhance our understanding of macro-economic behavior. Their science, but 4 Stiglitz , Joseph E. and Mauro Gallegati, “Heterogeneous Interacting...important as financial capital. As Stiglitz and Gallegati (2011) note, “Some network designs may be good at absorbing small shocks, when there can be

  16. Researches on Agricultural Cooperative Economic Organization Promoting Agricultural Insurance Development


    The advantages of cooperative economic organization being the effective carrier of agricultural insurance development are analyzed. Firstly, cooperative economic organization promotes scale management and solves the problem of decentralized operation of small households. Secondly, cooperative economic organization can settle the problem of peasants’ low systematization. Thirdly, cooperative economic organization can largely reduce the costs of agricultural insurance operation. Fourthly, cooperative organization decreases moral risks as well as adverse selection to some extent. Lastly, cooperative organization, to a certain degree, reduces the risks of agricultural production and increases the insurability of agricultural risks. Meanwhile, limitations of agricultural cooperative economic organization being the carrier of agricultural insurance operation are pointed out. Firstly, cooperative economic organization has limited coverage and small size of organization, which is harmful to the diversification of agricultural risks. Secondly, cooperative economic organization lacks capital funds and its development is not standard, which is not perfect for the function exertion as a carrier. Lastly, members of professional cooperative organization have low cultural qualities, which restrict the implementation of agricultural insurance. The modes of farmers’ cooperative economic organization promoting agricultural insurance development are proposed, including mode of agricultural insurance cooperative ( mutual corporation), mode of "leading enterprises (companies) + professional cooperative organization (planting majors) + insurance" and mode of professional cooperatives serving as agricultural insurance agent. Last of all, the promoting role of agricultural insurance in agricultural cooperative economic organization is briefly illustrated.

  17. The Economic Crisis and Sustainable Development

    Lund, Henrik; Hvelplund, Frede

    of sustainable energy solutions involves the replacement of imported fossil fuels by substantial investments in energy conservation and renewable energy. In such situation, it becomes increasingly essential to develop economic thinking and economic models that can analyse the concrete institutions in which......This paper presents Concrete Institutional Economics as an economic paradigm to understand how the wish for sustainable energy in times of economic crisis can be used to generate jobs as well as economic growth. In most countries, including European countries, the USA and China, the implementation...... the market is embedded. This paper presents such tools and methodologies and applies them to the case of the Danish heating sector. The case shows how investments in decreasing fossil fuels and CO2 emissions can be made in a way in which they have a positive influence on job creation and economic development...


    Ana Mihei


    Full Text Available Economic development is the supreme goal of modern civilization. This phenomenon is seen not just in terms of growth, but rather as an overall improvement in living standards. Economic development is a national goal, but also an objective of international economic bodies. Talks about development are held in the context of the opposition between developed countries and developing countries.In this article, we discuss whether development aid that originates from industrialized states supports sustainable economic rise of the countries lagging behind and whether it is preferable to let market operate freely, through the liberalization of international trade. Our conclusion is that economic development through the promotion of free trade would be achieved faster and more efficiently, based on net gains from trade and the pride of the peoples who would have won by themselves their daily bread and a place in the global market.

  19. The Economic Crisis and Sustainable Development

    Lund, Henrik; Hvelplund, Frede


    of sustainable energy solutions involves the replacement of imported fossil fuels by substantial investments in energy conservation and renewable energy (RE). In such situation, it becomes increasingly essential to develop economic thinking and economic models that can analyse the concrete institutions in which......This paper presents Concrete Institutional Economics as an economic paradigm to understand how the wish for sustainable energy in times of economiccrisis can be used to generate jobs as well as economic growth. In most countries, including European countries, the USA and China, the implementation...

  20. The Economic Financialization From the Perspective of Development Economics to Research the Problem About Income Distribution%发展经济学视角下经济金融化过程中收入分配问题研究

    胡冰; 王敬伟


    在经济全球化影响下,经济金融化趋势逐步发展。这样的趋势对世界各国特别是发展中国家的经济发展提出了新的要求与内涵,也增添了新的困难。传统的经济发展方式,已不能满足现阶段发展中国家的经济发展要求,收入分配差距逐步扩大。因此,怎样解决经济增长过程中发展中国家的收入分配问题已成为重中之重。发展中国家政府要在经济金融化下作出适度的干预,完善制度建设,构建合理的经济结构,使收入分配差异控制在合理范围。%Under the influence of economic globalization , economic financialization is gradually developing .This trend of economic development make the world, especially in developing countries put forward new requirements and content,also adds a new difficulty.The traditional mode of de-velopment economics, can not meet the requirements of the present stage of economic development of developing countries , the income gap gradually expanded.So, how to solve the problem of income distribution in the process of economic growth in developing countries has become a priority .The direction of the developing countries under the economic financialization to solve the issue of income distribution should be put forward , that is to make government intervention in the economy Financialization make the system construction better , to build a rational economic structure .Also make the differences in income distribution at a reasonable range.


    Aurelia-Camelia MARIN


    Full Text Available Involving local governments is one of the key issues and challenges for the development of each region, not least for the development of Romania, as an EU member country. The main purpose of this paper is to identify the main factors affecting the ability of local authorities in Romania, especially those in Valcea county to provide economic operators and citizens conducting an environment of economic activities and a high level of quality of life. For example, I follow the development of several economic indicators relevant for economic development and opportunities for involvement of local government to improve the economic situation specific to this county. As research methods in paper I plugged classification, synthesis, static and dynamic comparative analysis, methods of induction and deduction, the graphical representation of events and phenomena investigated in an attempt to provide an explanation of the problem that is, in terms theoretically convincing.


    Todt Horst


    Full Text Available The paper gives a critical assessment of the theses of UNWTO that tourism is an effective means of developing whole regions especially difficult aeries such as mountain regions. Growth Pole Theory and Economic Base Theory are used as methodological base.


    Pshunetlev A. A.


    Full Text Available The article contains basic assumptions of the region sustainable economic development model, which can be used to gain new knowledge about economic processes, contribute to the stability of the regional development, as well as serve as an educational tool in the study of relevant disciplines

  4. Reintroducing ethics to economics and development theories

    Graaf, Frank Jan de


    Frank Jan de Graaf argues that the domination of neoclassical economic thinking in academia has contributed to the economic crisis and hindered thinking about sustainable development. Currently, ethics is re-entering the debate about how to develop prosperous open societies. A group of NGOs recently


    郑茜; 李晓勤


    In November 2004,on international symposium was held in Kunming capital of southwest China's Yunnan Province,on economic development of China's ethnic cultures.Participants agreed that the gathering came in good time in view of the fact that economic development is posing a growing threat to the very existence of ethnic cultures.

  6. Notes on innovation systems and economic development

    Lundvall, Bengt-Åke


    This paper gives a brief history and background for the concept 'national innovation system' and discusses its usefulness for understanding and managing economic development.......This paper gives a brief history and background for the concept 'national innovation system' and discusses its usefulness for understanding and managing economic development....

  7. Economism

    P. Simons


    Full Text Available Modern society is characterised not only by a fascination with scientific technology as a means of solving all problems, especially those that stand in the way of material progress (technicism, but also by an obsessive interest in everything that has to do with money (economism or mammonism. The article discusses the relationship between technicism and economism, on the basis of their relationship to utilitarian thinking: the quest for the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people. Recent major studies of neo-liberalism (seen as an intensification of utilitarianism by Laval and Dardot are used as reference to the development of utilitarianism. It is suggested that the western view of the world, as expressed in economism and technicism, with a utilitarian ethics, features three absolutisations: those of theoretical thinking, technology and economics. In a second part, the article draws on the framework of reformational philosophy to suggest an approach that, in principle, is not marred by such absolutisations.




    Full Text Available The economic crisis had recoiled on enterprises, families and citizens in all over the European Union. In Europe there are over 20 million unemployed people, and the situation has no perspective to improve. European cohesion policy helps European national and regional authorities fight together against unemployment. Accordingly, the Strategy Europe 2020 proposes a vision for the social market economy of Europe in the next decade and it’s based on three priority domains, which intersect and mutually stimulate: intelligent economic growth, development of an economy based on knowledge and innovation, durable economic growth, promotion of a competitive economy, with low carbon emissions and an efficient use of resources, also inclusive economic growth, promotion of an economy with a high level of labour force absorption which will generate social and territorial cohesion.

  9. The Fuzzy Economic Order Quantity Problem with a Finite Production Rate and Backorders

    Kaj-Mikael Björk


    Full Text Available The track of developing Economic Order Quantity (EOQ models with uncertainties described as fuzzy numbers has been very lucrative. In this paper, a fuzzy Economic Production Quantity (EPQ model is developed to address a specific problem in a theoretical setting. Not only is the production time finite, but also backorders are allowed. The uncertainties, in the industrial context, come from the fact that the production availability is uncertain as well as the demand. These uncertainties will be handled with fuzzy numbers and the analytical solution to the optimization problem will be obtained. A theoretical example from the process industry is also given to illustrate the new model.

  10. Ecological economic benefit in sustainable development

    Jiang Xuemin; Ren Long


    From the concept of ecological economic benefit, I put forward the general formula for the benefit of ecological economy and the appraisal methods of the ecological economy, Theory on ecological benefit and economic benefit is the base of the benefits of ecological economy To some extent, the development of ecological economy, theory and practice on eco-agriculture are both the production made from opposition and unify of ecological benefit and economic benefit. This paper discusses the "T" type structure, which will give the theoretical bases for enhancing the ecological and economical benefits.


    Peter A. Apukhtin


    Russian coal sector is an essential part ofthe Russian economy and energy, closely correlated with other activities. Article presents the results of the multidimensional classification of economic activities in the industrial sector based on the characteristics of profitability, condition of fixed assets and the capital-labor. Which allowed us to determine key factors of thecoal sector development. Economical andstatistical analysis of the Russian coalindustry problems and possible solutionshas ...


    Peter A. Apukhtin


    Full Text Available Russian coal sector is an essential part ofthe Russian economy and energy, closely correlated with other activities. Article presents the results of the multidimensional classification of economic activities in the industrial sector based on the characteristics of profitability, condition of fixed assets and the capital-labor. Which allowed us to determine key factors of thecoal sector development. Economical andstatistical analysis of the Russian coalindustry problems and possible solutionshas been conducted.

  13. Assessing competition policy on economic development

    Tilsa Oré


    Implementation of competition policies is one of the most recommended strategies to developing countries as a tool for achieving economic development. Using a panel dataset of over 100 countries and 7 years (from 2005-2011), I estimate the effect of competition on economic development, and also determine which of the comprehensive policy factors are the most relevant for increasing competition. A fixed effects instrumental variable approach is used. I find that competition intensity positivel...

  14. Essays on financial development and economic growth


    This thesis was submitted for the award of Doctor of Philosophy and was awarded by Brunel University London This thesis is based on three empirical essays in financial development and economic growth. The first essay, investigated in the third chapter, the effect of financial development on economic growth in the context of Saudi Arabia, an oil-rich economy. In doing so, the study distinguishes between the effects of financial development on the oil and non-oil sectors of the economy. The ...

  15. Economic and innovative development of corporation

    O.V. Kornukh


    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The aim of the article is to determine the essence of economic and innovative development of corporation on the basis of complex approach. The results of the analysis. The article has revealed the nature of development from economic and philosophical points of view. The understanding of the nature of development enables managing it, i. e. working out appropriate development strategies (economic, innovative, technological, social, etc. The study of theoretical approaches to the essence of a corporation enables the statement that at present a corporation is the most promising form of entrepreneurship as the evolution of corporation has brought it to a higher level as compared with an enterprise in terms of property, approaches to management etc. The evident advantage of a corporation over an enterprise is in implementing innovative projects, pooling corporate interests and providing them with intellectual, financial, technical and other kinds of resources. Theoretical and methodological approach to determining the economic and innovative development of an enterprise consists in determining the complicated and capacious category «an enterprise’s economic development» through its main components (business processes, finances, investments, logistics and marketing and the structure of economic activities. Components of the innovative development and the structure of an enterprise’s innovative development are presented similarly. The article presents the complex approach to determining the essence of the economic and innovative development of a corporation on the grounds of relationship of a corporation’s development lines and gives the classification of a corporation’s economic and innovative development (CEID depending on the level of innovativeness of the economic development. The article defines the term «corporation’s economic and innovative development» as a category that characterizes dynamic qualitative

  16. Mathematics at economic university: problems and ways of their decision

    Sergei Udin


    Full Text Available In article problems of teaching of mathematical disciplines at economic universities are considered. The analysis of a state of preparation of entrants last years on the basis of researches PISA and the report of UNESCO on formation in the world is carried out. It is shown that in the conditions of an insufficient financ-ing of education in the Russian Federation and low level of preparation of entrants in the basic subjects, it is necessary to optimize curriculums and to use new educational technologies. It is offered to use the free software designed for carrying out mathematical and econometrics calculations, unique system of genera-tion of examinations and tests, the modern language of programming optimized for use by students of economic specialties, profound studying of tabular processor Microsoft Excel.


    Vazakidis Athanasios


    Full Text Available This study investigated the causal relationship between stock market development and economic growth for Greece for the period 1978-2007 using a Vector Error Correction Model (VECM. Questions were raised whether stock market development causes economic growth taking into account the negative effect of interest rate on stock market development. The purpose of this study was to investigate the short-run and the long-run relationship between the examined variables applying the Johansen co-integration analysis. To achieve this objective unit root tests were carried out for all time series data in their levels and their first differences. Johansen co-integration analysis was applied to examine whether the variables are co-integrated of the same order taking into account the maximum eigenvalues and trace statistics tests. Finally, a vector error correction model was selected to investigate the long-run relationship between stock market development and economic growth. A short-run increase of economic growth per 1% induced an increase of stock market index 0.41% in Greece, while an increase of interest rate per 1% induced a relative decrease of stock market index per 1.42% in Greece. The estimated coefficient of error correction term was statistically significant and had a negative sign, which confirmed that there was not any problem in the long-run equilibrium between the examined variables. The results of Granger causality tests indicated that there is a unidirectional causality between stock market development and economic growth with direction from economic growth to stock market development and a unidirectional causal relationship between economic growth and interest rate with direction from economic growth to interest rate. Therefore, it can be inferred that economic growth has a direct positive effect on stock market development while interest rate has a negative effect on stock market development and economic growth respectively.

  18. A study of economic development in Tibet of China based on the ecological economic mode

    Zhao Xiaohong; He Jia; Jiang Li


    The purpose of this paper is to study the issues on keeping the continuous development of Tibetan economy and the relative stability of its ecosystem. Hence, in order to achieve the object, the study analyzes the status quo of economic development in Tibet and the problems of resource exploitation. It especially discusses frailty of Tibetan eco-environment, and evaluates the contradictions between the traditional economic developing mode and the safety of plateau's ecosystem. It concludes that there is an inevitable clash between the development of Tibetan economy and the safety of plateau's eco-system; this problem cannot be avoided by any decision maker. Therefore, the character of Tibetan eco-environment and the requirement of its economic development strategy determine that ecological economy developing mode is the only choice for Tibet. This paper suggests that it should be compensated by the national government to assure that Tibetan economy can keep a higher developing speed. In accordance with the feature of plateau eco-economy system and demand of Tibetan economic development, this paper also suggests several methods to apply the eco-economy developing strategy of Tibet.

  19. [Outlier cases in surgical disciplines. Micro-economic and macro-economic problems].

    Tecklenburg, A; Liebeneiner, J; Schaefer, O


    Postoperative complications will always occur and the negative impact puts strain on patients, relatives and the attending physicians. The conversion to a remuneration system based on flat rates (diagnosis-related groups) presents additional economic problems for hospitals in some resource-intensive treatments. This particularly pertains to extremely cost-intensive cases in which costs succeed revenue by the factor of 2 and are often surgical procedures. Here the economic risk increases with the number of interventions performed. Despite improvements in the remuneration system this problem persists. An improved payment for these treatments is desirable. To achieve this it is necessary to systematically analyze the extremely cost-intensive cases by experts of different medical disciplines to create a data basis for a proposal of a cost-covering payment.

  20. A review of mathematical models in economic environmental problems

    Nahorski, Z.; Ravn, H.F.


    The paper presents a review of mathematical models used,in economic analysis of environmental problems. This area of research combines macroeconomic models of growth, as dependent on capital, labour, resources, etc., with environmental models describing such phenomena like natural resources...... exhaustion or pollution accumulation and degradation. In simpler cases the models can be treated analytically and the utility function can be optimized using, e.g., such tools as the maximum principle. In more complicated cases calculation of the optimal environmental policies requires a computer solution....


    T. J. Lomakina


    Full Text Available The necessity of continuous economic education of future professionals is caused by importance of forming correct understanding of the economic reality, of comprehension of economic basic laws, of understanding of global and national tendencies in economic development; the growing role of continuous economic education as a major factor of formation and development of a postindustrial society is shown; the reasons and circumstances of the active reference of the domestic pedagogical science and practice to problems of economic education are emphasized; the factors influencing development of continuous economic education are established in the article. Continuous economic education is considered as a part of continuous education promoting the formation of a competitive expert in conditions of market economy, demanded on labour market and directed on formation of economic competencies depending on the type of preparation (economic and not economic at different educational levels according to models of the graduate and the teacher and realized by means of economic training and economic education.

  2. Legal Institutions and Economic Development

    Beck, T.H.L.


    Legal institutions are critical for the development of market-based economies. This paper defines legal institutions and discusses different indicators to measure their quality and efficiency. It surveys a large historical and empirical literature showing the importance of legal institutions in expl

  3. Study on Potential Problems of Shandong Economic Forest Construction and Standardization Construction Scheme

    Runze; CAO


    Shandong is a culturally powerful province with excellent natural geographical condition and the warm temperate monsoon climate creates abundant benefits to the agricultural development there.In 2009,Shandong administration bureau of Yellow River economic development held the forum on related issues of national new countryside industry office planning to build economic forest base around the Yellow River in Shandong.The primary intention was settled and the construction of Shandong Economic Forest was formally started.Although impressive progress has been achieved in recent years,there also exists potential problems in the construction of economic forest,among which heavy metal pollution and soil acidification are the worst,causing huge damage to the physiological health of the consumers of economic forest.The writer proposes the countermeasures against standardization construction of economic forest.Scientific management is to be adopted to improve the professional skills of the employees in economic forest and brand innovation should be emphasized to quicken the quality certification of the products of economic forest.Besides,standard production demonstration is to be created and promoted in order to boost scale development.Furthermore,mechanism innovation is also to be stressed and forestry specialized cooperation organizations should be largely supported.




    Full Text Available Economic growth and Sustainable development concepts have emerged at different moments in history.However, at this time, they are related to each other more than ever, because at one point, one of them evolutiondetermined the other’s birth, preventing humanity to destroy itself.This paper intends to present some conceptual delimitation, evolution of the concept of economic growth, butalso several theories and models of economic growth that was the subject of specialists’ researches. Like any economicphenomenon, growth brings some benefits and some costs. When these costs threaten the future of humanity, somesolutions need to be found, no matter how hard ware them to implement, to remove unwanted effects.In this light, the paper deals with the concept of sustainable development, with this emergence and evolution, butespecially with the link between sustainable development and economic growth.

  5. Nigerian stock exchange and economic development



    Full Text Available This article studies role of cooperations in creating opportunities for using rich renewable energy sources and also their potential role for entrepreneurship and employment in Iran. The presence of constant, sustainable and economical energy is an essential basis for any economical and social development while it can upgrade life qualities. Iran has a considerable amount of natural resources for modernizing its energy supply and being transited to a sustainable energy system as it has countless opportunities for using rich renewable energy sources. On the other hand, cooperation have been considered as a strategic way to create job opportunities as they are strong organizations which can encounter economical and social side affects caused by quick moderating procedures in structural programs.Results show convergence between renewable sources development and Iran's economical development through taking a frugal approach in expenses, creating new job opportunities and entrepreneurship in renewable energies.

  6. The research of economic development law in resourceful city



    The resource advantage of resourceful region has made the region develop very fast. However because the resource is of exhausting character, this means that the region has hidden troubles of economic depression. The paper analyzes the formation of resourceful region and the law of resourceful region's economic development, and then the paper brings forward that the resourceful region has a potential danger of economic depression. Considering China's economic development practice, the paper puts forward a basic way of thinking. That is: we must attach importance to the problem of industrial structure when we pay attention to existing resource advantage in order to avoid the simplification of regional industrial structure and to avoid entering a vicious cycle.

  7. System of enterprise steady economic development management

    K.О. Ivanchuk


    Full Text Available Providing enterprise controlled movement from one attractor to another preserving steady space requires formation of system of enterprise steady economic development management. The main purpose of such system is providing of effective and practical tools for managing steady economic development through the development of fundamental scientific and theoretical basis. The article proves the need for the management of steady economic development based on an integrated approach of a new type, which takes into account differences in objectives, principles, conditions of decision-making at the operational, tactical and strategic levels. Proposed and justified to manage the development of the enterprise from the perspective of steadiness at the operational level, mainly using the principles of the process approach; tactical management platform should be formed based on functional-dominant approach; strategic dimension of steady development management is viewed through the prism of a systemic approach. Effective implementation of an integrated management approach needs to adhere to a set of principles that are interpreted by the author from the perspective of the element development of the enterprise individual subsystems and from the standpoint of summarizing complex aspect that reflects the unity and integrity of the steady economic development management. Scroll to the management of the enterprise steady economic development, which cover the general functions block and the specific functions block, among which are defined homeostatic, adaptive and resistant function of steady development management system. Generalized representation of theoretical propositions is a system of conceptual propositions management of steady economic development. According to these provisions, the management system of steady development contently fills the scientific and theoretical and methodological core. These cores play the role of coordinating elements between the

  8. Social Policy and Economic Development in the Nordic Countries

    Kangas, Olli; Palme, Joakim

    This volume examines the relationship between Nordic social policy and economic development from a comparative perspective. It identifies the driving forces behind the development of the Nordic welfare model and the problems and dilemmas the model is facing at present. The book also traces the link...... between democratization and social policy, drawing attention to the role of the state and non-governmental organizations. Social Policy and Economic Development in Nordic Countries examines Nordic social policies on unemployment, social care, family, education and health care policies, and reviews future...

  9. [Policies of economic development and population].

    Aleman, J L


    This literature review attempts to evaluate critically the theoretical and empirical evidence regarding the relationship between development policies and population and to assess the logical coherence of the principal types of population policy as they relate to economic development. The 1st part, on the relationship between economic development and population growth, consists of 5 sections which discuss: 1) the theories of classical economists including Quesnay, Malthus, Pareto, Marshall, and Pigou; 2) attempts to correlate population growth and economic development in developed countries by Kuznets and in developing countries by Adelman, Weintraub, Heer, Kirk, and others; 3) macroeconomic arguments used to defend aggressive policies of population control, including the scarcity of natural resources, the difficulty of increasing the rates of savings and investment with growing populations, and the disadvantages of rural-urban migration; 4) economic analyses of the desire to limit births which view children as either producer or consumer goods; and 5) the influence of economic development on social structure as it relates to the demand for children. In the 2nd part, 3 principal "ideal types" of population and economic development policy are identified: policies oriented toward growth of the modern sector of the economy, policies oriented toward population control, and policies oriented toward income distribution and education. The assumptions, mode of action, probabilities of success and limitations of each strategy are assessed. It is concluded that neither development of the modern sector alone nor attempts to promote birth control alone are sufficient to curb population growth appreciably. A concentrated policy to develop the most backward sectors of the economy might be the most likely to lead to a significant slowing of population growth but such a policy is unlikely to be tolerated by the wealthier classes in the absence of extreme coercion. A combination of

  10. Neighborhood Energy/Economic Development project


    Energy costs impact low income communities more than anyone else. Low income residents pay a larger percentage of their incomes for energy costs. In addition, they generally have far less discretionary energy use to eliminate in response to increasing energy prices. Furthermore, with less discretionary income, home energy efficiency improvements are often too expensive. Small neighborhood businesses are in the same situation. Improved efficiency in the use of energy can improve this situation by reducing energy costs for residents and local businesses. More importantly, energy management programs can increase the demand for local goods and services and lead to the creation of new job training and employment opportunities. In this way, neighborhood based energy efficiency programs can support community economic development. The present project, undertaken with the support of the Urban Consortium Energy Task Force, was intended to serve as a demonstration of energy/economic programming at the neighborhood level. The San Francisco Neighborhood Energy/Economic Development (NEED) project was designed to be a visible demonstration of bringing the economic development benefits of energy management home to low-income community members who need it most. To begin, a Community Advisory Committee was established to guide the design of the programs to best meet needs of the community. Subsequently three neighborhood energy/economic development programs were developed: The small business energy assistance program; The youth training and weatherization program; and, The energy review of proposed housing development projects.

  11. Flower Pollination Algorithm Applied for Different Economic Load Dispatch Problems

    R. Prathiba


    Full Text Available Economic load dispatch (ELD is the main optimization task in power system operation. Minimizing the fuel cost by optimally setting the real power outputs from generators is the objective of ELD problem. In this work, ELD problem is addressed by considering three different cost functions. Real power generations are adjusted for minimizing the fuel cost by using flower pollination algorithm (FOA. This algorithm works on the basis of pollinating behavior of flowering plants. Unlike the other nature inspired algorithms, it follows only the levy flight mechanism for generating the population for the next generation. Being free from large number of parameters, the algorithm works well and there is no much difficulty in tuning to suit for different problems. The algorithm can be coded easily in any programming language. The proposed algorithm is tested on the standard IEEE-30 bus system and the results are compared with those of the other algorithms reported in the literature. The results are found to be improved and encouraging.

  12. Economic Stress, Emotional Quality of Life, and Problem Behavior in Chinese Adolescents with and without Economic Disadvantage

    Shek, Daniel T. L.


    The relationships between perceived economic stress (current economic hardship and future economic worry) and emotional quality of life (existential well-being, life satisfaction, self-esteem, sense of mastery, psychological morbidity) as well as problem behavior (substance abuse and delinquency) were examined in 1519 Chinese adolescents with and…

  13. Economics and Human Resource Development: A Rejoinder

    Wang, Greg G.; Swanson, Richard A.


    This article focuses on the areas agreement between two recent and seemingly disparate Human Resource Development Review articles by Wang and Swanson (2008) and McLean, Lynham, Azevedo, Lawrence, and Nafukho (2008). The foundational roles of economics in human resource development theory and practice are highlighted as well as the need for…

  14. Essays in development economics and public finance

    Hoseini, Mohammad


    This dissertation studies a range of topics in development economics and public finance. The first two chapters contain empirical studies on India addressing the impact of financial development on poverty and informality. Using time and state-level variation across Indian states, the first study exa

  15. Economic Development Perspective and City Leadership

    James Vanderleeuw


    Full Text Available The viability of traditional economic development strategies has long been questioned by urban policy scholars; yet traditional strategies remain the norm among city leaders. Traditional concerns emphasize economic and business considerations at the expense of nontraditional community considerations such as quality of life. In this paper, we examine the conditions under which city leaders give weight to nontraditional community concerns when making economic development decisions. Our analysis of the results of a survey conducted of more than 200 leaders in over 150 Texas cities indicates that although traditional economic development concerns remain dominant, certain conditions may exist that allow or compel city leaders to give increased weight to non-traditional community considerations. Conditions revealed by our study include the socioeconomic status of Texas cities and the relative differences in leadership positions and professionalism among city leaders. The paper concludes with a discussion of how our study contributes to the literature about economic development policy and points to avenues for future research on the conditions under which decision-making strategies are pursued by city leaders.


    Sim Monica Ariana


    Full Text Available The difficulties brought about by the passive constructions have been an issue to debate for many linguists and scientist. Translations become ever more important in an increasingly global marketplace, and they are sometimes taken too lightly, when in fact it is a serious business that should be approached sensibly in order to avoid poor results. Translation is a specialised branch of translation, which requires specific skills and also methodology, theme as well as terminology competences. Without being exhaustive the aim of our paper is to focus on the types of the passive constructions specific to the scientific discourse, the economic one, in particular. It also tackles the translation difficulties that may come along when dealing with scientific papers and rendering texts from Romanian into English. Passive constructions are frequently used both in English and Romanian. However, active forms are more common in literary writing or where the focus is on the people who make things happen. In contrast, passives are mainly specific to texts where the focus is on events and processes, in things that happen. The most common problem in writing economic texts is overusing the passive voice. Specialists recommend or even require the passive voice in scientific, technical writing; motivating that by using the passive voice in scientific writing it achieves an objective tone whereas, sometimes it only obscure the text. The scientific discourse and the economic one in particular, basically mean presenting ideas, descriptions, definitions, classifications, instructions, etc. The speech is brief, the technical person, and the scientist managing to say things which in ordinary language would require a vast amount of talk. Therefore, speakers or writers use the passive constructions in the scientific discourse for the following reasons: a when there is no use of identifying the agent of the action, being unimportant or obvious from the context; b to avoid

  17. Contribution of Services to Economic Development

    Laurentiu Tachiciu


    Full Text Available Service activities have become the main engine for sustainable development. The share of services in the global economic output is about 70% and their contribution to global employment is about 40%. There are substantial differences between countries and regions of the world in the development of services sector, the share of tertiary activities in both output and employment being higher in strong industrialized economies, but growing rapidly in developing and transition economies as well. As services tend to become essential inputs for every activity, service productivity is a key factor of economic performance not only directly, but also by its multiplier effects spread all over the economy, including manufacturing and agriculture. From a qualitative point of view, services are at the core of transformative processes toward more inclusive societies, reconciliation between economic growth and environment preservation, enhancing knowledge production and improving the exploitation of technological advances, and better governance.




    Full Text Available This study shows the problems and reflections of Romania,in the period after the aderation to EU, this being a period when all the economic activities will be tested according to their level of efficiency and productivity of work. Maintining the traditional form of organization of work, of investments of structure of the finite products may transform the country into a colony, into an exporter of raw materials and workforce in the EU. We can notice the same thing, based on our research, in the case of the Moldavian Republic: the exports and investments influence very little the economic growth. This is due to the reduced performances of Moldavian exporters, and, even more, to the uncompetitive structure on groups of products. Half of the Moldavian exports is assured by the agro-alimentary market, without noticing some obvious trends of specialization in other new branches. The cause of this trend is the weak productive potential of national agriculture and industry (Anastase.I 2010.


    Victoria Prokhorova


    Full Text Available Purpose: Oriented reflective approach to management involves restructuring of goal, ideal and pragmatic, creating a program of action, organizing, correcting, control the definition of the new strategy. This process is only possible with multidimensional analysis and reflection of all the administrative restructuring process and its elements in determining and planning activities, creating conditions of restructuring, predicting outcomes and consequences of making a choice of ways to solve problems means to achieve the goal of information called ' bonds with participants restructuring process and correction flow management process based on continuous reflection. Methods: Development of the system of economic development now requires the use of mechanisms for continuous monitoring of internal and external environment to identify factors that threaten businesses. Rest of this is possible through the use of diagnostic tests: static analysis, expert diagnosis, linear and dynamic programming. Results: Built as part of the study economic and mathematical models can determine the status and level of economic development potential of aerospace companies that were investigated, confirming the need for action to manage economic development. To develop the mechanism of competition in the aircraft building sector must: implementation in practice of management motivation mechanisms to ensure the appropriate level of interest in the functioning of airlines on the basis of private property; formation of economic market institutions in the field of aircraft construction, affecting the creation of a competitive environment. Discussion: Stipulates that in difficult economic crisis positive results can be achieved managers who are constantly looking for original approaches to inclusion in the development process by aligning internal external opportunities generated by market. It is concluded that aviation business management in times of economic instability or

  20. Women Education and Economic Development in Kenya: Implications for Curriculum Development and Implementation Processes

    Syomwene, Anne; Kindiki, Jonah Nyaga


    This paper is a discussion of the relationship between women education and sustainable economic development in Kenya and its implications for curriculum development and implementation processes. The argument advanced in this paper is that the solution to the development problems in Kenya and other developing nations lies on women education.…

  1. Urbanization, Economic Development and Environmental Change

    Shushu Li


    Full Text Available This paper applies the pressure-state-response (PSR model to establish environmental quality indices for 30 administrative regions in China from 2003 to 2011 and employs panel data analysis to study the relationships among the urbanization rate, economic development and environmental change. The results reveal a remarkable inverted-U-shaped relationship between the urbanization rate and changes in regional environmental quality; the “turning point” generally appears near an urbanization rate of 60%. In addition, the degree and mode of economic development have significant, but anisotropic effects on the regional environment. Generally, at a higher degree of economic development, the environment will tend to improve, but an extensive economic growth program that simply aims to increase GDP has a clear negative impact on the environment. Overall, the results of this paper not only further confirm the “environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis”, but also expand it in a manner. The analysis in this paper implies that the inverted-U-shaped evolving relationship between environmental quality and economic growth (urbanization is universally applicable.


    M. Ya. Veselovsky


    Full Text Available In article the perspective of a sustainable development of the industrial enterprises is investigated, the factors infl uencing stability of development of the enterprises are analyzed, defi nition of different types of economic stability in the period of economic instability is given, internal and external factors of stability of the enterprises are allocated, is underlined that economic stability, first of all, is distinguished from the major factors infl uencing stability of development of the industrial enterprises. At the same time, authors consider factors of the available instability and their infl uence on rates of development of the industrial enterprises. Change of the current situation requires weakening of a number of the factors resulting in economic instability.Purposes. The purpose of article is the analysis of factors of the industrial enterprises infl uencing a sustainable development in the conditions of economic instability and development of the off ers providing on their sustainable development. Article tasks: to investigate and allocate factors, in the conditions of the worsening economic situation which are expedient for considering at a solution of the problem of a sustainable development of the industrial enterprises.Methodology. When carrying out the real research materials of the state statistics were the main sources of basic data. Comparative methods of the analysis are the basis for methodical development.Results. The concept is given and types of economic stability of the industrial enterprises are given. Infl uence of internal and external factors of the enterprises infl uencing stability is shown. Infl uence of an economic situation on a role of these factors is allocated. For achievement of a sustainable development of the industrial enterprises it is off ered to realize measures for weakening of the factors resulting in economic instability.Conclusions / importance. In the conditions of new economic

  3. Contribution of Services to Economic Development

    Laurentiu Tachiciu


    Service activities have become the main engine for sustainable development. The share of services in the global economic output is about 70% and their contribution to global employment is about 40%. There are substantial differences between countries and regions of the world in the development of services sector, the share of tertiary activities in both output and employment being higher in strong industrialized economies, but growing rapidly in developing and transition economies as well. As...

  4. The research of economic development law in resourceful city

    LU Shi-chang


    The resource advantage of resourceful region has made the region devel op very fast. However because the resource is of exhausting character, this mean s that the region has hidden troubles of economic depression. The paper analyzes the formation of resourceful region and the law of resourceful regions econom i c development, and then the paper brings forward that the resourceful region has a potential danger of economic depression. Considering Chinas economic develo p ment practice, the paper puts forward a basic way of thinking. That is: we must attach importance to the problem of industrial structure when we pay attention t o existing resource advantage in order to avoid the simplification of regional i ndustrial structure and to avoid entering a vicious cycle.

  5. Applied problems of physical education students of economic specialties

    Dubinskaya O.Y.


    Full Text Available Purpose : to analyze the problems of physical education students of economics in the context of professionally applied physical training. Material : analysis of Ukrainian and foreign publications on species means of improving professional-applied physical training of students in higher education. Results : It was found that the state system of physical education students is ineffective. It does not provide psychophysical and professional readiness of graduates for productive activities and later life. The system also needs constant improvement. A new approach to solving the problem of training to learn the adoption of practical importance of physical education. Also the formation of motivation by demonstrating a real need and usefulness of the proposed exercise. Such exercises should be differentiated, taking into account the health status and subsequent career expectations. Conclusion: it is proved that for an efficient system of training is necessary to use popular among students sports. It is also necessary to take into account the interests of students when choosing tools professionally applied physical training.

  6. Economic Growth of a Rapidly Developing Economy: Theoretical Formulation

    Oleg Sergeyevich Sukharev


    Full Text Available The subject matter of the article is the description of economic growth. Modern economy is characterized by a high rate of changes. These changes are the limiting parameters of modern development, which requires a modification of the basic models of growth, the substantiation of the expediency and necessity of a rapid development strategy. In a simple mathematical form, the statement of the problem of economic growth in the “green economy” is examined, in which the costs of environmental measures are not considered a priori as hampering economic development (as it is common for a number of modern neoclassical and neo-Keynesian growth models. The methodological basis of the article are the econometric approach and modelling method. The article has a theoretical character. The main hypothesis supposes that the rapid development strategy cannot make an adequate development strategy under certain conditions, but may be acceptable in other its specific conditions. In this sense, the important growth conditions are the availability of resources, the effectiveness of institutions and the current economic structure, the technological effectiveness of economy, as well as the conditions of technological development (“green economy” and the path of such development. In the article, on the theoretical level of analysis, the substantiation of the adequacy of the rapid development strategy for an economic system is given, whose goal is to achieve the standard of living of the countryleader. Based on the assumptions introduced, the period for which the rapid development strategy might be implemented and the economic lag of the country might be reduced from the country-leader is determined. The conditions that ensure the impact of innovations on the rate of economic development are summarized. The introduced range of dependencies and relations can be useful for the elaboration of the theory of innovation development and for the formation of a new

  7. Economic development, growth, institutions and geography

    Bhupatiraju, S.; Verspagen, B.


    In this paper, we test the Rodrik et al (2004) framework to explain differences in development levels across countries by using a broader set of definitions for institutions, geography and economic variables. We use a multi-faceted database to measure institutions in an attempt to go beyond the sing

  8. Economic development and the geography of institutions

    Bosker, E.M.; Garretsen, J.H.


    To explain cross-country income differences, research has recently focused on the so-called deep determinants of economic development, notably institutions and geography. This article shows that it is not only absolute geography, in terms of for instance climate or being landlocked, but also relativ

  9. Information Technology: Key to Economic Development


    THE spread of SARS in China during the first half of 2003 focused world concern on Chinese economic development. The Chinese economy indeed suffered; in the first five months of the year Zhejiang Province’s industrial revenue slid, but recovered in the latter half of the year. From January to November, 2003, Zhejiang industry


    Гвоздецька, Ірина Василівна


    The article reveals the concept of "economic development", "growth", "and cyclical economic growth." The approaches to the study of these economic categories of foreign and Ukrainian scientists and the evolution of defining the notion of "economic development." are analysed. The existing interpretation of economic development through the use of conventional interpretation is summarised. The points of the categories "economic development" and "growth" are distinguished. Development is a key ph...

  11. The Relationship between Credit Market Development and Economic Growth

    Antonios Adamopoulos


    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study investigated the relationship between credit market development and economic growth for Spain for the period 1976-2007 using a Vector Error Correction Model (VECM. Questions were raised whether economic growth spurs credit market development taking into account the negative effect of inflation rate and investments on credit market development. This study aimed to investigate the short-run and the long-run relationship between bank lending, gross domestic product and inflation rate applying the Johansen cointegration analysis. Approach: To achieve this objective classical and panel unit root tests were carried out for all time series data in their levels and their first differences. Johansen cointegration analysis was applied to examine whether the variables are cointegrated of the same order taking into account the maximum eigenvalues and trace statistics tests. Finally, a vector error correction model was selected to investigate the long-run relationship between economic growth and credit market development. Results: A short-run increase of economic growth per 1% induced an increase of bank lending 0.08%, while an increase of inflation rate per 1% induced a relative decrease of bank lending per 0.56% and also an increase of investments rate per 1% induced an increase of bank credits per 0.18% in Spain. The estimated coefficient of error correction term was statistically significant and had a negative sign, which confirmed that there was not any a problem in the long-run equilibrium between the examined variables. Conclusion: The empirical results indicated that economic growth and investment have a positive effect on credit market development, while inflation rate has a negative effect. Bank development was determined by the size of bank lending directed to private sector at times of low inflation rates leading to higher economic growth rates.




    Full Text Available Operating with business ethic we meet, some ethical systems, some of them developed in Antiquity, that still have a great influence upon economics development. One of these is the ethics of virtue. The aim of this paper work is to focus upon the one ethical system virtue ethics and to illustrate his influence in economical field, offering a new coordination in this direction. We understand the importance of the human character for a successful leadership and management. Recent ethical dilemmas illustrate us how a vicious character has an influence not only to the possessor of that type of character but also to the entire community where he develop his activities. For a comprehensive understanding I expose a briefly review on virtue ethics as it was developed by Plato and Aristotle, ant its new coordination and influence upon our contemporaneous economy, illustrated by some examples.

  13. Externalities, Learning and Governance: New Perspectives on Local Economic Development

    A.H.J. Helmsing (Bert)


    textabstractIn spite of growing mobility of production and production factors, economic development is increasingly localized in economic agglomerations. This article reviews three partially overlapping perspectives on local economic development, which derive from three factors intensifying the loca

  14. Global health funding and economic development

    Martin Greg


    Full Text Available Abstract The impact of increased national wealth, as measured by Gross Domestic Product (GDP, on public health is widely understood, however an equally important but less well-acclaimed relationship exists between improvements in health and the growth of an economy. Communicable diseases such as HIV, TB, Malaria and the Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs are impacting many of the world's poorest and most vulnerable populations, and depressing economic development. Sickness and disease has decreased the size and capabilities of the workforce through impeding access to education and suppressing foreign direct investment (FDI. There is clear evidence that by investing in health improvements a significant increase in GDP per capita can be attained in four ways: Firstly, healthier populations are more economically productive; secondly, proactive healthcare leads to decrease in many of the additive healthcare costs associated with lack of care (treating opportunistic infections in the case of HIV for example; thirdly, improved health represents a real economic and developmental outcome in-and-of itself and finally, healthcare spending capitalises on the Keynesian 'economic multiplier' effect. Continued under-investment in health and health systems represent an important threat to our future global prosperity. This editorial calls for a recognition of health as a major engine of economic growth and for commensurate investment in public health, particularly in poor countries.

  15. Individualism-Collectivism, Governance and Economic Development

    Kyriacou, Andreas


    While an individualist society prizes personal control, autonomy and individual accomplishments, a collectivist society puts a premium on loyalty and cohesion and imposes mutual obligations in the context of in-groups. It has been argued that individualism will promote economic development directly by sharpening individual incentives to invest, innovate and accumulate wealth. In this article, I argue that the individualist-collectivist dimension can also affect development through its impact ...

  16. Issues in the Economic Development of Nonmetropolitan United States. Economic Development Research Report.

    Ledebur, Larry C.

    Describing issues relative to economic development in nonmetropolitan areas, this document presents narrative and tabular data re: (1) the causal forces behind economic decline in rural America (technology, shifting patterns of demand for goods and services, and changes in life styles and residential preferences); (2) the incidence and indicators…

  17. The Financial Crisis and the Death (or Hegemony) of Development Economics

    Rajan, Raghuram


    "Development economics" was the study of how to create the plumbing that would allow developing economies to become developed. The financial crisis leads us to question whether industrialized countries have the plumbing problem solved and thus leads us to question whether we need a development economics that is separate from macroeconomics.…

  18. Developing economic and managerial competencies of bachelors in mechanical engineering

    Lizunkov Vladislav G.; Minin Michail G.; Malushko Elena Y.; Medvedev Valentin E.


    The paper deals with the development problems of economic and managerial competencies of bachelors after graduating from engineering higher schools to meet employers’ requirements, through implementing the Federal State Education Standards (FSES) of the third generation. The case study is conducted on the basis of training programs for the bachelor’s degree in Mechanical Engineering at Yurga Institute of Technology (Affiliate) of National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University. The list of eco...

  19. Economic Geography and Economic Development in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Bosker, E. Maarten; Garretsen, Harry


    The physical or absolute geography of Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is often blamed for its poor economic performance. A country's location however not only determines its absolute geography, it also pins down its relative position on the globe vis-à-vis other countries. This paper assesses the importance of relative geography, and access to foreign markets in particular, in explaining the substantial income differences between SSA countries. We base our empirical analysis on a new economic geogra...

  20. Environmental problems and developing countries.


    The status of environmental conditions for forests, soils, water, air, and atmospheric changes is presented for developing countries. Loss and degradation of forests continue. The rate of cutting of moist tropical forests is 17-20 million hectares/year. The consequences would be eventual total destruction within several generations, lost soil and watershed protection, local climate change, and habitat destruction. The human toll can also be great as seen by the flooding deaths of 5000 Philippine villagers. Soil erosion is a greater danger than desertification. In sub-Saharan Africa, total harvest and yields of important food crops have declined compared to increases elsewhere in the world. In countries such as Costa Rica, Malawi, Mali, and Mexico the soil losses approximate .5-1.5% of gross domestic product annually. Progress has been made in water purification, but there are still nearly 1 million people in the developing world without access to clean water for drinking and bathing. 1.7 billion have inadequate sanitation. Access to sanitation in urban areas is on the rise. Waterborne diseases are a result of poor sanitation: 900 million cases of diarrheal disease/year, 500 million with trachoma, 200 million with schistosomiasis, or bilharzia, and 900 million from hookworm. Other diseases resulting from improper sanitation are cholera, typhoid, and paratyphoid. Water scarcity is another problem. Air quality is threatened by dust and smoke pollution which contribute to respiratory illnesses, by indoor burning of wood and charcoal particularly in rural Africa and south Asia, and high levels of lead from automobile emissions. Hundreds of thousands of people are affected through increased illness and even loss of mental functioning as in the case of lead poisoning. Atmospheric changes such as ozone depletion or global warming may not show their impact until decades later. The consequences are high levels of ultraviolet radiation which cause cancers, cataracts, and


    Florentina-Georgiana, COJOCARU


    Full Text Available Entrepreneurship in Romania is no longer an unfamiliar concept, but we can assert that it is a journey full of obstacles. Bureaucracy, the lack of fiscal predictability as well as the absence of an entrepreneurial culture often lead entrepreneurs to bankruptcy. A country develops itself with the help of strong economic policies dictated by the economic environment and not by the political one. The entrepreneur's policy is to make profit which has significant effects in all areas: social, educational, economic. Sustaining entrepreneurship is a solution to be taken into consideration for weighting youth unemployment, given the level reached in the second quarter of 2014 of 23.90%. This article aims to capture aspects of the current situation of entrepreneurship in Romania among young people. Based on data collected, we will analyze the unemployment rate among young people at education level and county-level compared to the number of companies founded by students, with the rate of workforce occupancy. The contribution of young entrepreneurs to economic growth can be achieved in two phases, as more companies are founded, number of employees increases, as a consequence, more young people will become entrepreneurs, so the unemployment rate among them will thus decrease.

  2. Energy, pollution, and economic development in Tunisia

    Miniar Ben Ammar Sghari


    The rising level of energy consumption that is occurring internationally also is being mirrored at regional and national levels. An interesting case study along these lines is Tunisia, which is one of the high-growth economies in the Middle East and North African area yet lacks sufficient energy supply to satisfy its growing demand. Tunisia looks like many nations around the world with a young population, growing economy, increasing domestic energy consumption, and the need to balance economic development with environmental concerns.

  3. Foreign investment multinational companies and economic development

    Popov, Đorđe


    There is no universal answer on the question whether foreign investments stimulate economic development. The positive effect of foreign direct investments will follow when the investments is carried out under normal conditions of competition. That means, above all, low barriers for foreign trade and the low level of restrictions for foreign owned companies. In such circumstances, multinational corporations can assist the economies of penetration to make its businesses more efficient. Foreign ...

  4. The Ramakrishna Mission economic PV development initiative

    Stone, J.L.; Ullal, H.S. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Sherring, C. [Sherring Energy Associates, Princeton, NJ (United States)


    India is the world`s second most populous country, quickly approaching one billion persons. Although it has a well-developed electricity grid, many of the people have little or no access to electricity and all of the benefits associated with it. There are areas that are isolated from the grid and will not be connected for many years, if ever. One such area is the Sundarbans located in the delta region of the two great rivers, the Ganges and Brahmaputra, partially in India and partially in Bangladesh. It is estimated that 1.5 million people live in this area, crisscrossed by many islands and rivers, who have only marginal supplies of electricity generated primarily from diesel generators and batteries. Working with the regional non-governmental organization (NGO), the Ramakrishna Mission, and the West Bengal Renewable Energy Development Agency, the governments of India and the US initiated a rural electrification initiative to demonstrate the economic and technical feasibility of photovoltaics to provide limited supplies of electricity for such applications as solar home lighting systems (SHS), water pumping, vaccine refrigeration, communications, and economic development activities. This paper details initial results from approximately 30 kilowatts of PV systems installed in the area, including socio-economic impacts and technical performance.

  5. Economic development, climate and values: making policy.

    Stern, Nicholas


    The two defining challenges of this century are overcoming poverty and managing the risks of climate change. Over the past 10 years, we have learned much about how to tackle them together from ideas on economic development and public policy. My own work in these areas over four decades as an academic and as a policy adviser in universities and international financial institutions has focused on how the investment environment and the empowerment of people can change lives and livelihoods. The application of insights from economic development and public policy to climate change requires rigorous analysis of issues such as discounting, modelling the risks of unmanaged climate change, climate policy targets and estimates of the costs of mitigation. The latest research and results show that the case for avoiding the risks of dangerous climate change through the transition to low-carbon economic development and growth is still stronger than when the Stern Review was published. This is partly because of evidence that some of the impacts of climate change are happening more quickly than originally expected, and because of remarkable advances in technologies, such as solar power. Nevertheless, significant hurdles remain in securing the international cooperation required to avoid dangerous climate change, not least because of disagreements and misunderstandings about key issues, such as ethics and equity.

  6. Revenue Allocation and Economic Development in Nigeria

    Dagwom Yohanna Dang


    Full Text Available This study empirically examines the impact of revenue allocation on economic development in Nigeria. Specifically, the study looks at how the various revenue allocations to the three tiers of government affect real gross domestic product (RGDP in Nigeria using time series data for the period 1993 to 2012. Error correction model (ECM and Pairwise Granger Causality test are used in analyzing the data. The study carries out test of stationarity of the variables using Augmented Dickey–Fuller unit root test and test of long-run relationship among the variables using Johansen Cointegration test. The study’s findings show that revenue allocations have significant causal relationship with economic development in Nigeria, with only revenue allocation to states having significant negative relationship. Unidirectional causality runs from revenue allocations to real GDP in Nigeria. All variables of the study are cointegrated and have a long-run relationship that 87.62% of the short-run disequilibrium is corrected yearly. The study recommends among others that more financial control and value for money audit should be carried out to minimize wastages and corruption in the states of the federation, so as to change the direction of influence of states’ revenue allocation on economic development.

  7. Economic Development and Population Growth. International Evidence Economic Development and Population Growth. International Evidence

    Munir Quddus


    Full Text Available Economic Development and Population Growth. International Evidence The paper usses Granger causality tests on economic development and population growth for 44 countries to discriminate among several alternative hypotheses. The time series evidence does not provide an unambiguous picture as to the exact nature of the relationship. Therefore, previous attempts to generalize such relationship based on simple cross-section data are strongly suspect.

  8. GA and PSO culled hybrid technique for economic dispatch problem with prohibited operating zones



    This paper presents an efficient and reliable genetic algorithm (GA) based particle swarm optimization (PSO) technique (hybrid GAPSO) for solving the economic dispatch (ED) problem in power systems. The non-linear characteristics of the generators, such as prohibited operating zones, ramp rate limits and non-smooth cost functions of the practical generator operation are considered. The proposed hybrid algorithm is demonstrated for three different systems and the performance is compared with the GA and PSO in terms of solution quality and computation efficiency. Comparison of results proved that the proposed algorithm can obtain higher quality solutions efficiently in ED problems. A comprehensive software package is developed using MATLAB.


    Kulikova S. Y.; Muravyeva V. S.; Orlov A. I.


    At the Department of "Economics and organization of production" at the end of XX - beginning of XXI centuries created the scientific school in the field of organizational and economic modeling, econometrics and statistics. The same name section of the department oversees the teaching of the relevant disciplines. The Laboratory of economic and mathematical methods in controlling of the Research and Education Center "Controlling and innovation in management" of Bauman Moscow State Technical Uni...

  10. Labor markets and economic development in Malaysia.

    Smith, J P


    A researcher analyzed data on male workers from 1262 households from Peninsular Malaysia (1976-1977 Malaysian Family Life Survey) to identify the leading effects of economic development for earnings and employment patterns within labor markets. All 3 major ethnic groups in Malaysia profited from the increasing levels of real income over time. The relative income of ethnic Malays, the poorest socioeconomic class, increased more so than the Chinese and Indians. Yet the income of Chinese was 108% higher than Malays and that of Indians was 60%. The difference between Malays and Chinese grew considerably as men aged. Further economic growth resulted in higher earnings for young men than for older men. In addition, the more educated men were the higher their earnings. In fact, education was the most significant determinant of time related growth in incomes. Further, income of men who participated in job training programs grew 2 times as fast than that of men who did not participate in job training programs. Lastly, economic growth increased earnings of men in urban areas more so than those in rural areas. Malaysia had put a lot of time and resources in research and development in rubber and rice production which has resulted in continual introduction of new varieties of rubber trees and rice. These new varieties have increased production considerably. In conclusion, Malaysia was able to experience economic growth because it invested in education and job training for male workers and in research and development to advance production of its 2 most important commodities--rubber and rice.

  11. Economic Development Achievements, Problems and Countermeasures of Hong Kong after the Return%回归后香港经济发展的成就、问题与对策

    陈广汉; 张光南; 卢扬帆


    Since it returned to China, the economic growth of Hong Kong has gone through three great fluctuations but still maintained an overall upward trend. The implementation of CEPA enhances Hong Kong status as an international center of financial, trade and shipping. Hong Kong still plays an important role in the opening of Mainland China, however, some long-established and deep-seated problems, such as the lack of motivation in industrial transformation and upgrading, the slowing-down trend of economic growth and problems caused by wider income gap as well as the housing issue, remain unsolved.%香港回归以来经济增长经历了三次较大波动,但总体呈增长态势。CEPA实施为香港经济注入新的活力,但是,其经济发展中长期形成的深层次问题并没有解决,某些民生问题日益突出。

  12. E-Learning and Economic Development

    Kelly CAREY


    Full Text Available E-Learning and Economic Development Kelly CAREY West Valley College Saratoga, CA, USA Stanko BLATNIK Institute for Symbolic Analysis and Development of Information Technologies Velenje, SLOVENIA ABSTRACT In this article, our experience in the development and realization of e-Learning courses in Slovenia is described and discussed. Slovenia, the most developed republic of former Yugoslavia, became an EU member in May 2004. In 1991, after its independence from Yugoslavia, Slovenia’s transition to a free market economy resulted in lost jobs and an unemployment rate of 12%. In 1999, as the Institute for Symbolic Analysis and Development of Information Technologies, located in Velenje, Slovenia, we decided to offer several online courses to help unemployed people gain the skills and knowledge needed for employability in information technology. We drew on our previous experience teaching online courses at Sarajevo University after the Bosnian war and on the experience of West Valley College from Saratoga, Silicon Valley in e-Learning. Over the last four years, we organized and delivered e-Learning courses in digital media design and production, with good results. Several students found jobs and changed their perception and attitude as they became more self-confident. We believe e-Learning can efficiently enhance lifelong learning and support economic development, especially in new member countries transitioning from former socialistic to free market economies.




    Full Text Available Aggregate demand in our country far exceeds the ability of the economy to produce goods and services. The gap between total demand for goods and services on the one hand and economic status, on the other hand stands out primarily by the continuing need for funds to cover the budget deficit. The Lack of foreign investors, poor development of capital market and non-involvement of credit institutions to support economic development leads the Romanian state to borrow regularly on international money market. Guarantor of the country for these loans is the reserve fund managed by the central bank of the state. Trade deficits and foreign borrowing are two components of the same problems. As the state borrows more from the international financial markets the higher is the trade deficit. A national initiative on facilities development companies with export production and aggregate demand for domestic products, can lead to lower imports. Increasing the fund's reserves and activation may be one of the solutions required to support economic development. Through this study we try to discover the role of the reserve fund and other sources of economic development.

  14. Home economics in development through action research

    Benn, Jette


    This research study aimed at describing and developing home economics education through an action research approach in 2 schools and classes grade 6. The study went through 3 phases, an explorative phase with preliminary observations, interviews and discussions with teachers and pupils. Next...... in discursive phase changes have been implemented and conducted in accordance with findings. Third phase the explicative phase results were translated into text books for pupil's grade 4 to7 and to a teachers' guide. The subject is analysed theoretical through a model of the subject and research field. Findings...... and suggestions were discussed in relation to theories of learning, education and home economics. The overall perspectives were to involve pupils, to make them responsible by active and critical participation, and lastly to evaluate education in different ways....

  15. Problems in the design and development of 750 MW turbogenerators

    Anempodistov, V P; Urusov, I D; Fry, D W; Higinbotham, W


    Problems in the Design and Development of 750 MW Turbo-Generators covers selected problems mainly related to projected machines in the development of turbo-generators. This book describes the main lines of research at the Electromechanics Institute of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences.This book is divided into six chapters and begins with an overview of the progress in the generation of electricity along with the rapid economic development of the U.S.S.R. The succeeding chapter deals with the use of efficient cooling system of the winding copper to address the problem of electrical machine's un

  16. Economic Geography and Economic Development in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Bosker, Maarten; Garretsen, Harry


    Sub-Saharan Africas (SSA) physical geography is often blamed for its poor economic performance. A countrys geographical location does, however, not only determine its agricultural conditions or disease environment. It also pins down a countrys relative position vis--vis other countries, affecting it

  17. Aid Fuels Faster Socio-Economic Development


    In the past 40 years since the founding of the Tibet Autonomous Region, the area has developed at an extraordinarily fast rate. All this has taken place with the strong support of the Central Government and various fraternal provinces and municipalities directly under the Central Government. Blind to the situation, however, the 14th Dalai Lama and his clique, last April,again dished up the so-called Intemational Development Project in Tibet and Guidelines for Sustainable Development (hereinafter referred to as the Guidelines). The proposal contains lies and distorted facts,negating the great achievements in the social and economic development in Tibet, openly attacking national aid to the region and rejecting the idea of the Tibetan people accepting the socialist system.

  18. Problems of Economic Grown in Modern Russia: General Characteristics and Regional Aspect

    Sergey N. Levin


    Full Text Available Authors analyze the problem to find the optimal policy options to stimulate economic growth in modern conditions. They point out three possible options for such policy according to the different structural priorities. This point causes the question of the extent to which the proposed policy approaches to stimulate economic growth correspond to real economic trends. The solution of this problem is possible only on the basis of the empirical study analysis results. Also it is necessary to take into account the regional dimension related to the fact that the various sectors of the economy linked to the various regions. According to this fact one may point out Russian regions with the predominance of the mining industry, manufacturing industry and services. Authors exploit panel dataset on 80 Russian regions for the period 2005-2014 to analyze the relationship between annual shares of sectors in output and employment and per capita gross regional growth. Results indicate that regions with a higher share of manufacturing and mining both in terms of output and employment grow slower during the reporting period. The impact of services on growth is somewhat paradoxical: regions with bigger shares of healthcare and education in output growth faster, but a bigger share of this sector in employment, as much as expanding of the labor share of these sectors impede growth. Possible reason for this paradox is that the high proportion of services in the regions-leaders (especially the share of total employment reflects not the degree of their development, but the development of the public sector in relatively poor regions. The results show that neither manufacturing nor mining and services are not the engines of economic growth that can ensure sustainable development of the whole economy. Authors point out that it is necessary to conduct multivariate policies to stimulate economic growth, which is based on the various configurations of developmental actors

  19. Quantum Economics

    Vukotić Veselin


    The globalization is breaking-down the idea of national state, which was the base for the development of economic theory which is dominant today. Global economic crisis puts emphasis on limited possibilities of national governments in solving economic problems and general problems of society. Does it also mean that globalization and global economic crisis points out the need to think about new economic theory and new understanding of economics? In this paper I will argue that globalizat...

  20. Wealth and well-being, economic growth, and integral development.

    Bunge, Mario


    This essay tackles a bimillenary problem in psychology, ethics, economics, and political philosophy: that of the relations between wealth and well-being. What are they, and should we live for pleasure, or rather seek to live a full and useful life? This is the ancient dilemma between hedonism, the cult of pleasure, and eudemonism, the search for a good life. Economists, almost without exception, have opted for hedonism, but they have not found out what percentage of the goods that ordinary people want are not merchandises. This gap is currently being filled by psychologists, sociologists, socioeconomists, and other workers in the new "science of happiness". Their main finding, that happiness is not for sale, might surprise the orthodox economists. On the social level, the former problem, concerning individuals, gets translated into the question of national development: what kind of development should we seek, and for whom? In particular, should economic growth be prioritized, or should we promote the simultaneous development of all sectors of society, including the political and cultural? In either case, should development benefit the chosen few or everybody? And should it enhance the well-being of the individual and make that of her offspring possible? This problem, of course, lies at the intersection of three sciences--psychology, economics, and political science--and two chapters of philosophy--ethics and political philosophy. Consequently, anyone daring to propose original solutions to the problem in question will risk being criticized by experts distributed among these five fields, who are not used to talking to one another.

  1. Population and Economic Growth in Developing Countries

    Minh Quang Dao


    Full Text Available This paper examines the economic effects of the demographic transition in developing countries. Based on data from the World Bank and using a sample of forty-three developing economies, we find that the growth rate of per capita GDP is linearly dependent upon population growth, both the young and old dependency ratios, the mortality rate, and whether or not the rate of population growth is less than 1.2 percent per year. Using interaction variables in light of the severe degree of multicollinearity among explanatory variables, we find that per capita GDP growth linearly depends on population growth, the old dependency ratio, the mortality rate, and the interactions between population growth and both the young and old dependency ratios, between population growth and whether or not the rate of population growth is less than 1.2 percent per year, and the interaction term between the young dependency ratio and whether or not the rate of population growth is less than 1.2 percent per year. Statistical results of such an empirical examination will assist governments in devising policies aimed at influencing the economic effects of the demographic transition. Data for all variables are from the 2010 World Development Indicators. We apply the least-squares estimation technique in a multivariate linear regression. We also test for the nonlinear effect of population growth on economic growth and note that the introduction of interaction terms between population growth and dependency ratios as well as those between whether or not the population growth rate is less than 1.2 percent and population growth and the young dependency ratio yields better statistical results.

  2. Organisational Problems in Planning Educational Development.

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France). Directorate for Scientific Affairs.

    Papers submitted to a meeting of economists, educators, and government officials discuss the organizational implications of the link between education and economic growth. Following an introduction by Henning Friis, the authors and titles of the papers are (1) Necat Erder, "Some Administrative Problems in Educational Planning," (2) Raymond…


    Rozalia Iuliana KICSI


    Full Text Available Liberal doctrine, in its various attempts to find legitimacy, has exerted a real influence on the ”architecture” of the world economy. Liberal rhetoric, validated by historical reality, has shown that liberalism, through its virtues, design a proper environment for both individuals and nations development. In this equation of development the catalytic role of economic freedom and free trade was a theme of reflections during the evolution of many nations, but emphasis on the quantitative dimensions was obvious. In the last decades, attention has been focused on the quality of development too, understanding that the wealth of a nation is reflected not only in the improvement of macroeconomic indicators, but in the better quality of individuals’ life.

  4. Developing Creativity through Collaborative Problem Solving

    Albert, Lillie R.; Kim, Rina


    This paper discusses an alternative approach for developing problem solving experiences for students. The major argument is that students can develop their creativity by engaging in collaborative problem solving activities in which they apply a variety of mathematical methods creatively to solve problems. The argument is supported by: considering…

  5. Debt, Trade, and Payments Issues of Developing Countries and U.S.-Mexican Economic Interdependencies

    Anonymous,; Bredahl, Maury E.


    Debt problems of developing countries seriously constrain their economic and social development as well as the prospects and pace of economic recovery in the developed countries. Debt and trade problems of Mexico are particularly important for the U.S. agricultural economy because of the size and importance of U.S.-Mexican agricultural trade. The importance of Mexico as a U.S. trading partner lends importance to research on Mexican supply, demand, and trade of agricultural commodities and on ...

  6. Human resources, physical resources and economic development: A foundation of human resource economics

    Furuoka, Fumitaka


    Despite numerous studies on production inputs, such labour and capital, there is still a lack of systematic analysis on the crucial interaction between the human resources (HR) and physical resources (PR) in the process of economic development. Thus, the current paper aims to describe how these production resources would jointly determine the dynamics process of economic development. This holistic role of the HR in the economic development can be a foundation for the human resource economics.

  7. Problems of economic security in Russian transportation and intermediate carrier infrastructure

    Valeriy Anatol'evich Tsvetkov


    Full Text Available This paper reviews the basic problems of economic security in infrastructural ensuring of the implementation of transportation and intermediate carrier potential of Russia: development and reconstruction of communication lines, usage of innovative transportation methods, building a network of transportation and logistics centers, development of regional airport hubs and others. Particular attention is paid to the problems of transportation and transit potential implementation of Siberia and the Far East. It is shown that the increase of transit facilities in the territory of Russia takes place in a competitive market of infrastructure projects. At the same time it is emphasized that along with exhausting the possibilities of commodity economy development, a natural competitive advantage of Russia as a transport bridge between Europe, Asia and America will be implemented in full force.

  8. Problems of economic security in Russian transportation and intermediate carrier infrastructure

    Valeriy Anatol'evich Tsvetkov


    Full Text Available This paper reviews the basic problems of economic security in infrastructural ensuring of the implementation of transportation and intermediate carrier potential of Russia: development and reconstruction of communication lines, usage of innovative transportation methods, building a network of transportation and logistics centers, development of regional airport hubs and others. Particular attention is paid to the problems of transportation and transit potential implementation of Siberia and the Far East. It is shown that the increase of transit facilities in the territory of Russia takes place in a competitive market of infrastructure projects. At the same time it is emphasized that along with exhausting the possibilities of commodity economy development, a natural competitive advantage of Russia as a transport bridge between Europe, Asia and America will be implemented in full force.

  9. An efficient technique to solve combined economic and emission dispatch problem using modified Ant colony optimization

    R Gopalakrishnan; A Krishnan


    Economic load dispatch is one of the vital purposes in electrical power system operation, management and planning. Economic dispatch problem is one of the most important problems in electric power system operation. In large scale system, the problem is more complex and difficult to find out optimal solution because it is nonlinear function and it contains number of local optimal. Combined economic emission dispatch (CEED) problem is to schedule the committed generating units outputs to meet the required load demand at minimum operating cost with minimum emission simultaneously. The main aim of economic load dispatch is to reduce the total production cost of the generating system and at the same time the necessary equality and inequality constraints should also be fulfilled. This leads to the development of CEED techniques. There are various techniques proposed by several researchers to solve CEED problem based on optimization techniques. But still some problems such as slower convergence and higher computational complexity exist in using the optimization techniques such as GA for solving CEED problem. This paper proposes an efficient and reliable technique for combined fuel cost economic optimization and emission dispatch using the Modified Ant Colony Optimization algorithm (MACO) to produce better optimal solution. The simulation results reveal the significant performance of the proposed MACO approach.


    Crisan Radu


    Full Text Available Transport plays a crucial role in economic and social development and its contribution goes beyond what is normally captured in traditional cost-benefit analyses. Transportation investments can have large long-term economic, social and environmental impacts. The European Commission when developing transport policy, focuses on the intermodal transport, which is seen as a sustainable mobility solution, environmentally friendly and efficient in terms of resources, especially in terms of freight. European transport policies promote co-modality - combining different modes for a single supply chain - as a solution to the adverse effects of transport: pollution, traffic congestion, energy consumption. Intermodal transport is found to be consistently cheaper than all-road solutions, and its external costs significantly lower, thereby confirming the high potential of intermodal transport in increasing the sustainability of the transport sector. So, freight intermodality is increasingly considered as major potential contributor to solving the sustainability problems of the European transport sector. This paper addresses the pricing issues specifically related to intermodal transport. The focus in on the main economical advantages of developing intermodal transport, but also on the usage limits brought by particularities of transport modes. Special attention is given to intermodal transfer terminals with solutions for activity efficiency increase, with major implications on the quality and cost of transportation. The theme discussed in this paper is of great importance, many authors and specialists developed it in their studies. Some names are needed to be mentioned: Todd Litman, Dr. Yuri V. Yevdokimov, John J. Coyle, Kenneth D. Boyer and few more. But, a special attention for this subject is paid by the European Commission and its subordinated institutions, that are interested in developing sustainable strategies and promoting concrete solutions for

  11. Food safety and ecologization: practical solutions to problems at the regional level in current economic conditions

    Lysochenko Alla, A.


    Full Text Available Ensuring food security and greening both at the level of the country, and at the level of regions are main objectives of modern agroeconomic policy. The state support creates favorable conditions for dynamic development of agrarian and industrial complex, raises investment opportunities and competitiveness of agricultural producers. A realization of the actions directed on assistance to the enterprises making import-substituting production of the regional agro-industrial complex is actual in modern economic conditions. The solution of this problem consists of investment projects implementation and production expansion of the operating enterprises. Considering new economic conditions, the ensuring financial stability of agricultural producers, availability of the food to needy segments of the population, production of valeologically safe food, and also increase efficiency of use of natural resources and conditions along with preservation of quality of environment at the local, regional and global levels are particularly acute challenges. State regulation of development of an agrofood complex of Russia remains a necessary condition for its reproduction functioning, and the social and economic policy has to provide economic availability of the food to all groups of the population that causes need of standard and legal fixing of mechanisms offood security achievement at the regional level.

  12. Financial Structure and Economic Development in Nigieria

    Ph. D. Olusegun Olowe


    Full Text Available In this study , the measurement of the Nigerian financial interrelation ratio was considered in line with the structure and development of financial system between 1999 and 2008 with a view to examining the incidences of the financial liberalization . The financial intermediation role for Nigeria on current basic prices was computed to determining the extent of stability and /or positive cum negative changes. This is to ensure the involvement of government as well as thedegree of financial institutions’ involvement in the economic growth and development of the country. In essence, the results of this study will be of relevance to formulate and execute policy formulation in its entirety. The result of the study revealed a pure neglect in the country with emphasis on financial intermediation. The earlier we put an enhanced financial structure in place, , the better for the economy.

  13. Heuristics for the Economic Production Quantity Problem under Restrictions on Production and Maintenance Time

    Qi Xu


    Full Text Available This paper proposes an economic production quantity problem with the maximal production run time and minimal preventive maintenance time over a finite planning horizon. The objective is to find the efficient production and maintenance policy to minimize the total cost composed of production, maintenance, shortages, and holding costs under the restriction on the production run time and the preventive maintenance time. The production and maintenance decisions include the production and maintenance frequencies and the production run and the maintenance time. The variability and the boundedness of the production run and maintenance time make the problem difficult to solve. Two heuristic algorithms are developed using different techniques based on the optimal properties of the relaxed problem. The performance comparison between the two algorithms is illustrated by numerical examples. The numerical results show that, for the most part, there exists a heuristic algorithm which is more effective than the other.

  14. Between fiscal discipline and economic recovery. The solutions problem

    Anca Maria GHERMAN


    Full Text Available In this study we proposed a comparative analysis of the effect of the measures taken in seven European countries, which were aimed the fiscal consolidation, in correlation with monetary policy and economic recovery. The selected countries have been systematized into two groups: first group includes states that have signed agreements with international financial institutions (Romania, Ireland, Greece and Portugal and the second group contains countries which, even if not directly assisted in the international funding programs, have take a several adjustment measures (Italy, Spain and France. In the same time, we keep in mind during the analysis the trade-off between fiscal discipline and sustainable economic recovery.

  15. Resource integration of regional economic development in northwest China


    Northwestern area is the most arid and underdeveloped area in China. Lots of researches have been done to find the approaches to alleviate poverty. But there are some problems, for example, how to invest, how to use capital,and why the utilization rate is ambiguous. Water, capital and human resources are analyzed in this paper to be compared with their Utilization rates. As a result, according to the dependences of economic growth on those resources, a new approach has been selected to organize the integration ways among these resources for economic development in northwestern China. The efficient ways to develop northwestern China are: firstly, use the wanting resources most effectively to make an efficient integration model of multiple resources. For example, enhance the utilization rate of water to raise the value of other resources. Secondly, invest more in basic factors for economic development to upgrade the competitiveness in the western China. For example, invest more in primary education and sustainable development of basic natural resources in order to have more power for sustainable development.


    Huru Dragos


    Full Text Available In Romania, in the last year the economic growth is a real phenomenon that is not our subject for demonstration or for analyze in this paper. Our concern is related with the way of manifestation for economic growth in the economic system. We study if not the economic growth on the contrary of development for current or further performance (regardless of economic aspect or level of analyze can unstuck in consumption of the availed resources for consolidate potential for development.

  17. Government, Financial Markets, and Economic Development

    Stiglitz, Joseph E.


    Ideological debates on the role of government in development have focused on two contrasting prescriptions: one calling for large scale government interventions to solve problems of massive market failures, the other for the unfettering of markets, with the dynamic forces of capitalism naturally leading to growth and prosperity. This paper is part of an exploration of a middle road, focusing in particular on the role of government in financial markets. After explaining the importance of, and ...

  18. Economics.

    Palley, Paul D; Parcero, Miriam E


    A review of literature in the calendar year 2015 dedicated to environmental policies and sustainable development, and economic policies. This review is divided into these sections: sustainable development, irrigation, ecosystems and water management, climate change and disaster risk management, economic growth, water supply policies, water consumption, water price regulation, and water price valuation.

  19. Problems of Pedagogical Creativity Development

    Ibragimkyzy, Shynar; Slambekova, Tolkyn S.; Saylaubay, Yerlan E.; Albytova, Nazymgul


    This article provides analysis of research papers by different scholars, dedicated to topical issues of pedagogical creativity development in the educational process. The authors determined that pedagogical creativity could be considered at five levels: information-reproducing, adaptive-prognostic, innovative, research and creative-prognostic. In…

  20. Commercializing plant tissue culture processes: economics, problems and prospects

    Sahai, O.; Knuth, M.


    Novel tissue culture techniques and a range of process schemes may be considered for commercial production of plant derived drugs, chemicals, flavors and cosmetics. Plant cell immobilization, in conjunction with strain selection and product leakage, represents a major technological advancement, with significant economic implications. Conventional batch processes produce high value products at low production capacities, whereas continuous biocatalytic processes can potentially enable production of plant derived chemicals in the $20-$25/kg price range.

  1. International Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (I-JEDI) Model


    International Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (I-JEDI) is a freely available economic model that estimates gross economic impacts from wind, solar, biomass, and geothermal energy projects. Building on a similar model for the United States, I-JEDI was developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory under the U.S. government's Enhancing Capacity for Low Emission Development Strategies (EC-LEDS) program to support partner countries in assessing economic impacts of LEDS actions in the energy sector.

  2. Theories of International Economic Development (Case Study: Economic Development in Kosovo)

    MSc. Bardhok Bashota; MSc. Petrit Hasanaj


    Karl Popper rightly says that “real starting point for each research is set based on assumptions of reality, not only based on the real facts”. The text below was prepared In accordance with this logic, where the Theories of International Development are treated especially focusing on International Economic Development. Therefore, theoretical reflections present assumption side, and study of many empirically measured data will correspond with real facts, because with ought these facts assumpt...

  3. Response of Land Use Planning in Less Developed Areas to Economic Globalization

    LIU Xiang-nan


    Under the background of economic globalization, the development mechanisms of various regions face potential deep transformation, and the effective participation of less developed areas in China in economic globalization is of great significance to the sustainable development of Chinese economy and society. In this study, we summarized the characteristics and influences of economic globalization from the aspects of industrial recombination and transfer, competition, economic relevance and development modes, and analysed the opportunities and challenges of land use in less developed areas brought by economic globalization. Afterwards, based on the major problems of land use planning management in the middle of Jiangsu Province, we put forward some suggestion including management of planning process, balanced development of ecology and economy, strengtheningn planing use zoning, spatial agglomeration and protecting cultural diversity to response to economic globalization.

  4. Health as an economic engine: evidence for the importance of health in economic development.

    Mirvis, David M; Chang, Cyril F; Cosby, Arthur


    Most discussions on the relationships between health and economic conditions have focused on the impact of differences in personal finances or national economic conditions on health. Recently, however, the role of health as an 'economic engine' has been promoted. This paradigm proposes that better health leads to economic development. Evidence from historical, national, and transnational studies have shown that improved health increases economic growth through impacts on micro- and macro-economic factors. In this review, we will summarize the evidence supporting these concepts as a basis for discussing their implications for underdeveloped regions within the United States.

  5. Financial Structure and Economic Welfare: Applied General Equilibrium Development Economics.

    Townsend, Robert


    This review provides a common framework for researchers thinking about the next generation of micro-founded macro models of growth, inequality, and financial deepening, as well as direction for policy makers targeting microfinance programs to alleviate poverty. Topics include treatment of financial structure general equilibrium models: testing for as-if-complete markets or other financial underpinnings; examining dual-sector models with both a perfectly intermediated sector and a sector in financial autarky, as well as a second generation of these models that embeds information problems and other obstacles to trade; designing surveys to capture measures of income, investment/savings, and flow of funds; and aggregating individuals and households to the level of network, village, or national economy. The review concludes with new directions that overcome conceptual and computational limitations.

  6. Environmental, social and economic problems in the Borkena plain, Ethiopia

    Balcha, Berhanu

    People in Borkena in Ethiopia suffer from a complex interplay of environmental degradation, increasing shortage of land due to population growth, conflicts between different ethnic and religious identities, and social confrontations as a result of such tensions. The most depressing problem...... is that they can not find a way out of the downward spiral of resource scarcity and conflict. And the authorities do not give them any chance to get involved themselves in actively searching for solutions specific to their complex problems. All they get is orders, and plans which are designed from above and do...... not take into account their experience about the complexity of their social situation, and consequently can not solve their problems. This paper was part of the requirements for a Masters degree at the University of Aalborg. Fieldwork for this study was supported by Chr. Michelsen Institute through a grant...




    Full Text Available The quality of tourist resources and tourist products, competitive ability and positioning of the destinations in the tourist market affect the economic development of the national economy. Natural resources are key, but under-utilized resources necessary for the tourism development, whereby reaching the level where the key development resources are on the verge of carrying capacities, thus making the model structure of the future development to be a significant contribution in searching the optimal model of sustainable development. The paper points to the importance of previous positive experience in the development of tourism and related activities especially in terms of development planning in accordance with the available resources, spatial opportunities and sustainable development. The research the possibility of defining an optimal model for sustainable tourism development in the case of mountain destinations in Zlatibor District will indicate the need to precisely define economic-geographical resources which determine the individual role of an each resource in creating the tourist offer, as well as, to show that the inadequate management of tourist resources and marketing activities leads to their degradation.

  8. Teaching Creative Problem Solving Methods to Undergraduate Economics and Business Students

    Cancer, Vesna


    This paper seeks to explore the need for and possibility of teaching current and potential problem solvers--undergraduate students in the economic and business field to define problems, to generate and choose creative and useful ideas and to verify them. It aims to select an array of quick and easy-to-use creative problem solving (CPS) techniques.…

  9. Evolutionary Systems Theory, Universities, and Endogenous Regional Economic Development

    Bowen, William M.


    Universities today are increasingly being viewed in terms of serving the purpose of economic development. This paper postulates that their chief purpose is to advance knowledge and that in doing so they effectuate regional economic growth and development through processes specified in the endogenous economic growth model. To achieve this purpose…

  10. Renewable Energy for Rural Economic Development

    Hartman, Cathy L. [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States); Stafford, Edwin R. [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States)


    When Renewable Energy for Rural Economic Development (RERED) began in 2005, Utah had no commercial wind power projects in operation. Today, the state hosts two commercial wind power plants, the Spanish Fork Wind Project and the Milford Wind Corridor Project, totaling 324 megawatts (MW) of wind capacity. Another project in San Juan County is expected to break ground very soon, and two others, also in San Juan County, are in the approval process. RERED has played a direct role in advancing wind power (and other renewable energy and clean technology innovations) in Utah through its education outreach and research/publication initiatives. RERED has also witnessed and studied some of the persistent barriers facing wind power development in communities across Utah and the West, and its research expanded to examine the diffusion of other energy efficiency and clean technology innovations. RERED leaves a legacy of publications, government reports, and documentary films and educational videos (archived at to provide important insights for entrepreneurs, policymakers, students, and citizens about the road ahead for transitioning society onto a cleaner, more sustainable future.


    N. V. Lyasnikov


    Full Text Available The dynamic socio-economic development of Russia, the long-term competitiveness in the global economy involves the formation of a new socio-economic institute of management – an active subject of modern innovative economy.

  12. Socio-economic consequences of large scale resource development; cases of mining in Greenland

    Rasmussen, Rasmus Ole


    Parallel to the attempts to look for new means of economic independence for Greenland, there is still a growing awareness of the possible problems and potential negative consequences of such a development. The contribution has its focus on the short and long term socio-economic consequences...




  14. Trends in the economic evolution of urban development poles

    Cristina Burtea


    Full Text Available Cities are facing constant and more increasingly changes and challenges. In the light of these changes and challenges, this paper tries to configure the idea of how communities, especially those in urban areas face their problems and initiatives to use existing opportunities to access sustainable and balanced development. An integrated approach to urban development and the concept of cities as centers of power in disseminating positive effects in neighboring territories, led the European Union to structure a policy framework, an institutional and legal framework in order to support this type of events. Doing a little review of the EU and national action and support framework for urban development, this paper aims to highlight the effect of this support on urban development in terms of economic dimension. Approach starts from the assumption that urban areas are able to efficiently use the leverage created by the European Union and accessible nationally through established internal policies, in support of urban development. Proposed research hypothesis applies in a case study upon the urban development poles from Romania’s North-West Region, by linking information from the analysis of the local economic environment with the level of structural funds absorption rate for these poles in the 2007-2013 financial programming.

  15. Managing Economic Transition. Dimensions of Human Resource Development in Hungary.

    Benedek, Andras; Klekner, Peter


    Outlines the state of economic transition in Hungary, the status of human resource development, economic and legal reforms, and the social partnership (education, business, government) in vocational training. (SK)

  16. Comparison of heuristics for an economic lot scheduling problem with deliberated coproduction

    Pilar I. Vidal-Carreras


    Full Text Available We built on the Economic Lot Scheduling Problem Scheduling (ELSP literature by making some modifications in order to introduce new constraints which had not been thoroughly studied with a view to simulating specific real situations. Specifically, our aim is to propose and simulate different scheduling policies for a new ELSP variant: Deliberated Coproduction. This problem comprises a product system in an ELSP environment in which we may choose if more than one product can be produced on the machine at a given time. We expressly consider the option of coproducing two products whose demand is not substitutable. In order to draw conclusions, a simulation model and its results were developed in the article by employing modified Bomberger data which include two items that could be produced simultaneously.

  17. Management Strategies and Economic Development in Ghana

    Kuada, John


    Ghana has experienced a tumultuous political and economic history since its independence in 1957. But today it is among the handful of African nations that showcase the dreams and aspirations of Sub-Sahara Africa. In 2011 it achieved an impressive economic growth rate of 14.6 per cent and ranked...

  18. Pedagogy for Economic Competitiveness and Sustainable Development

    Sahlberg, Pasi; Oldroyd, David


    Accelerating threats to a sustainable relationship between economic growth and the capacity of the global social-ecological system to support it require that the implications of competitiveness be reassessed. Today, the capacities that underlie economic competitiveness must also be brought to bear on policy and pedagogy to prepare the coming…

  19. Advanced Small Modular Reactor Economics Model Development

    Harrison, Thomas J [ORNL


    The US Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy’s Advanced Small Modular Reactor (SMR) research and development activities focus on four key areas: Developing assessment methods for evaluating advanced SMR technologies and characteristics; and Developing and testing of materials, fuels and fabrication techniques; and Resolving key regulatory issues identified by US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and industry; and Developing advanced instrumentation and controls and human-machine interfaces. This report focuses on development of assessment methods to evaluate advanced SMR technologies and characteristics. Specifically, this report describes the expansion and application of the economic modeling effort at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Analysis of the current modeling methods shows that one of the primary concerns for the modeling effort is the handling of uncertainty in cost estimates. Monte Carlo–based methods are commonly used to handle uncertainty, especially when implemented by a stand-alone script within a program such as Python or MATLAB. However, a script-based model requires each potential user to have access to a compiler and an executable capable of handling the script. Making the model accessible to multiple independent analysts is best accomplished by implementing the model in a common computing tool such as Microsoft Excel. Excel is readily available and accessible to most system analysts, but it is not designed for straightforward implementation of a Monte Carlo–based method. Using a Monte Carlo algorithm requires in-spreadsheet scripting and statistical analyses or the use of add-ons such as Crystal Ball. An alternative method uses propagation of error calculations in the existing Excel-based system to estimate system cost uncertainty. This method has the advantage of using Microsoft Excel as is, but it requires the use of simplifying assumptions. These assumptions do not necessarily bring into question the analytical results. In fact, the

  20. Economic Efficiency Analysis for Information Technology in Developing Countries

    Ghassan F. Issa


    Full Text Available Problem statement: The introduction of Information Technology (IT to government institutions in developing countries bears a great deal of risk of failure. The lack of qualified personnel, lack of financial support and the lack of planning and proper justification are just few of the causes of projects failure. Study presented in this study focused on the justification issue of IT projects through the application of Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA as part of a comprehensive Economic Efficiency Analysis (EEA of IT Projects, thus providing management with a decision making tool which highlights existing and future problems and reduces the risk of failure. Approach: Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA based on Economic Efficiency Analysis (EEA was performed on selected IT projects from ministries and key institutions in the government of Jordan using a well established approach employed by the Federal Government of Germany (KBSt approach. The approach was then modified and refined to suit the needs of developing countries so that it captured all the relevant elements of cost and benefits both quantitatively and qualitatively and includes a set of guidelines for data collection strategy. Results: When IT projects were evaluated using CBA, most cases yielded negative Net Present Value (NPV, even though, some cases showed some reduction in operation cost starting from the third year of project life. However, when the CBA was applied as a part of a comprehensive EEA by introducing qualitative aspects and urgency criteria, proper justification for new projects became feasible. Conclusion: The modified EEA represented a systematic approach which was well suited for the government of Jordan as a developing country. This approach was capable of dealing with the justification issue, evaluation of existing systems and the urgency of replacing legacy systems. This study explored many of the challenges and inherited problems existing in the public sectors of developing

  1. Existing Problems of Agricultural Development in China and Recommendations

    Guoqin; HUANG


    In 2012,China’s total grain yield reached 590 million tons and realized nine consecutive years of growth. This is huge historic achievement of China and also rare in development history of world agriculture. However,at the same time of making great achievements,China’s agriculture is still confronted with many problems. On the basis of extensive survey,it pointed out 10 outstanding problems: farmland,labor,livestock power,water conservancy,input,agricultural disaster,ecological and environmental problem,waste of resources,economic scale and economic benefits. These problems have brought great adverse influence on China’s agricultural development. In view of these problems,to realize sustainable,stable and healthy development of agriculture in the new period,it came up with following recommendations:( i)deepening the understanding;( ii) enforcing laws strictly;( iii) enhancing training;( iv) increasing benefits;( v) saving resources;( vi) protecting environment;( vii) developing science and technology;( viii) consolidating foundation.

  2. The Financial and Economic Crisis and Developing Countries

    Bruno Gurtner


    Full Text Available Developing countries were hit hard by the financial and economic crisis, although the impact was somewhat delayed. Every country had different challenges to master. The closer the developing countries are interconnected with the world economy, the crasser the effects. And the incipient recovery that is becoming noticeable is, for the time being, restricted to only a few countries and regions.The crisis was transmitted primarily by trade and financial flows forcing millions back into poverty. Attainment of the Millennium Development Goals is seriously jeopardised in many countries. Many developing countries did not and do not have the resources to stimulate the economy and protect their socially disadvantaged populations to the same extent as the industrialised countries. However, many countries have made considerable efforts to mitigate the effects. Developing countries have also increased their cooperation with one another and are urgently demanding a greater voice in global economic affairs.The industrialised countries are for the most part more concerned with their own problems. Their readiness to provide more extensive aid is limited. They are under pressure from the international institutions to relax their previous dominance in favour of the increasingly strong emerging countries. A shift in power and influence that was already noticeable before the financial crisis is deepening.

  3. The University and Local Economic Development

    John MULLIN


    Full Text Available Increasing pressures on universities and educational institutions to be more involved in the communities that house them have led to a wave of interactions that have been both creative and mutually supportive. These ‘town-gown’ relations have stemmed not only from pressures by government leaders, but also from the sense of civic responsibility and the drive for ‘service learning’ where students move beyond the academic walls to engage in real life situations as part of the learning process. The resultant merits are invaluable lessons and experiences that are mutually beneficial to the students and the communities. Similarly, the involvement of community residents with events on campus fosters a mutual relationship and a positive perception towards the university. Challenges with such partnerships include the resentment between the community residents and the university members and the ‘us and them’ mentality that leads to communication blocks, mistrust and resentment. Overcoming these sentiments requires perseverance, patience, and creative thinking. This paper discusses one successful partnership between the University of Massachusetts at Amherst and the City of Springfield in Massachusetts. This collaboration was targeted to benefit the City by helping with their economic revitalization efforts, and the University by giving them a space in downtown Springfield for a ‘Design Center’, where students have a meeting space for studio and field work and can then exhibit their work. The paper ends with a set of principles that can guide other institutions and communities in developing strategic outreach and engagement activities.

  4. Multiobjective fuzzy dominance based bacterial foraging algorithm to solve economic emission dispatch problem

    Panigrahi, B.K.; Ravikumar Pandi, V. [Department of Electrical Engineering, IIT, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110016 (India); Das, Sanjoy [Electrical and Computer Engineering, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506 (United States); Das, Swagatam [Department of electronics and Telecomm. Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata (India)


    This paper proposes the bacterial foraging meta-heuristic algorithm for multiobjective optimization. In this multiobjective bacterial foraging optimization technique, the most recent bacterial locations are obtained by chemotaxis process. Next, Fuzzy dominance based sorting procedure is used here to select the Pareto optimal front (POF). To test the suitability of our proposed algorithm we have considered a highly constrained optimization problem namely economic/emission dispatch. Now-a-days environmental concern that arises due to the operation of fossil fuel fired electric generators and global warming, transforms the classical economic load dispatch problem into multiobjective environmental/economic dispatch (EED) problem. In the proposed work, we have considered the standard IEEE 30-bus six-generator test system and the results obtained by proposed algorithm are compared with the other recently reported results. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is a capable candidate in solving the multiobjective economic emission load dispatch problem. (author)

  5. Figthing Social Exclusion: Between Economic Development and Social Wellbeing


    Social exclusion is the product of the interaction of a wide range of socio-economic, cultural and institutional problems. In order to be successful, these programs should aim to combine - in the real contexts in which they operate - interventions for economic growth that increase the opportunities for the excluded to benefit from them. This paper describes what social exclusion is, the factors causing it and the effects these have on excluded groups as a whole (economic, cultural, political)...

  6. Revisiting sub-Saharan African countries' drug problems: health, social, economic costs, and drug control policy.

    Affinnih, Yahya H


    This article takes an international perspective on the drug problem in sub-Saharan Africa. This analysis borrows ideas from physical and economic geography as a heuristic device to conceptualize the global narcoscapes in which drug trafficking occurs. Both the legitimate and the illegal drug trade operate within the same global capitalist system and draw on the same technological innovations and business processes. Central to the paper's argument is evidence that sub-Saharan African countries are now integrated into the political economy of drug consumption due to the spill-over effect. These countries are now minor markets for "hard drugs" as the result of the activities of organizations and individual traffickers that use Africa as a staging point in their trade with Europe and the United States. As a result, sub-Saharan African countries have drug consumption problems that were essentially absent prior to 1980, along with associated health, social, and economic costs. The emerging drug problem has forced African countries to develop their own drug control policy. The sub-Saharan African countries mentioned below vary to some extent in the level of drug use and misuse problems: Burundi, Comoros, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Reunion, Rwanda, Seychelles, Somalia, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Congo (Zaire), Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Sao Tome and Principe, Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Cote d'Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, and Togo. As part of this effort, African countries are assessing the health, social, and economic costs of drug-use-related problems to pinpoint methods which are both effective and inexpensive, since their budgets for social programs are severely constrained. Many have progressed to the point of adopting anti


    Ioan Beudean


    Full Text Available The absence of consensus in definition and economic assessment performance does not take as linguistic valences of the concept as such, as the system of diverging interests of its contents. Can be felt in the case of this major economic concept as well as other economic categories, the power influence of different interveners (not necessarily from know better ones, which will determine and impose the dominant message. Current financial capital, created and imposed an obviously own vision about performance that would serve its interests.

  8. A review on economic emission dispatch problems using quantum computational intelligence

    Mahdi, Fahad Parvez; Vasant, Pandian; Kallimani, Vish; Abdullah-Al-Wadud, M.


    Economic emission dispatch (EED) problems are one of the most crucial problems in power systems. Growing energy demand, limitation of natural resources and global warming make this topic into the center of discussion and research. This paper reviews the use of Quantum Computational Intelligence (QCI) in solving Economic Emission Dispatch problems. QCI techniques like Quantum Genetic Algorithm (QGA) and Quantum Particle Swarm Optimization (QPSO) algorithm are discussed here. This paper will encourage the researcher to use more QCI based algorithm to get better optimal result for solving EED problems.

  9. Financial Development and Economic Growth: A Panel Data Approach

    Nuno Carlos LEITÃO


    Full Text Available The relationship between financial development and economic growth has been studied long time in economics (Adam Smith and Schumpeter. Structural reforms and the integration of financial markets have been attracting the interest of the academic community. This manuscript examines the link between financial development and economic growth. The European Union Countries (EU-27, and BRIC (Brazil, Russia, India and China were examined, between 1980 and 2006. Using a static and dynamic panel data approach, the results demonstrate that the financial development contribute to economic growth. Our study also consider productivity and trade, these proxies confirm the positive effect on economic growth.




    Full Text Available the economic sector plays an important role in the development of the local economy. Local economic development is also a continuous and complex process of planning and implementing strategic programmes and sustainable development policies for the purpose of improving the quality of life of the entire local community by diligently using local resources, may they be human or financial. Also, this article contains a description of the principles of local development, of the actors, factors and sources of local economic development and of their role in the process of planning, elaborating and implementing the strategies for local economic development, as well as a description of the monitoring and evaluation mechanisms.

  11. Particle Swarm Optimization Applied to the Economic Dispatch Problem

    Rafik Labdani


    Full Text Available This paper presents solution of optimal power flow (OPF problem of a power system via a simple particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm. The objective is to minimize the fuel cost and keep the power outputs of generators, bus voltages, shunt capacitors/reactors and transformers tap-setting in their secure limits.The effectiveness of PSO was compared to that of OPF by MATPOWER. The potential and superiority of PSO have been demonstrated through the results of IEEE 30-bus system

  12. The Impact of Economic Development on Higher Education in China

    FengyuWang; CodyS.Ding


    Higher education is not only directly dependent on economic development, but may also make a great contribution to economic development. The development of China's economy has made a great difference in the scope of higher education, including expansion of higher education institutions, improvement of the quality of the institutions, and promoting reform of educational systems. This article discusses the recent development in these three areas as the consequence of economic changes in China.

  13. A Study on the development of macro environmental economic model(I)

    Chung, Young Keun; Han, Min Jung [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)


    This study is the first year study of the two year research project for developing a macro environmental economic model to analyze environment and economics. By using this model, the economic effects of investment on pollution reduction and on energy conservation are analyzed. Also, a comprehensive modeling of analyzing effects of environmental tax, reduction on greenhouse gas emission, and problems on foreign exchange on environment and economy is a main goal of this study. It is planned to develop a simulation program for the estimation of model and policies using environmental and economic data. 126 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. Policy (institutional) diversity and economic development

    Daianu, Daniel


    Diversity, or variety, is the essence of economic life in the sense of underlying choice; economic calculation gives numerical substance to how people make choices in their daily endeavours, either as consumers or entrepreneurs. How does variety/diversity takes shape in the realm of institutions and policy making? Is the range of choices open-ended? The last couple of decades have revealed an overwhelming offensive of the neo-liberal paradigm in terms of defining 'best practices'. Even langua...

  15. Legal and institutional problems facing geothermal development in Hawaii


    The problems discussed confronting future geothermal development in Hawaii include: a seemingly insoluble mismatch of resource and market; the burgeoning land claims of the Native Hawaiian community; a potential legal challenge to the State's claim to hegemony over all of Hawaii's geothermal resources, regardless of surface ownership; resistance to any sudden, large scale influx of Mainland industry, and questionable economics for the largest potential industrial users. (MHR)

  16. Cultural diversity, economic development and societal instability

    Nettle, D.; Grace, J.B.; Choisy, M.; Cornell, H.V.; Guegan, J.-F.; Hochberg, M.E.


    Background. Social scientists have suggested that cultural diversity in a nation leads to societal instability. However, societal instability may be affected not only by within-nation on ?? diversity, but also diversity between a nation and its neighbours or ?? diversity. It is also necessary to distinguish different domains of diversity, namely linguistic, ethnic and religious, and to distinguish between the direct effects of diversity on societal instability, and effects that are mediated by economic conditions. Methodology/Principal Findings. We assembled a large cross-national dataset with information on ?? and ?? cultural diversity, economic conditions, and indices of societal instability. Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate the direct and indirect effects of cultural diversity on economics and societal stability. Results show that different type and domains of diversity have interacting effects. As previously documented, linguistic ?? diversity has a negative effect on economic performance, and we show that it is largely through this economic mechanism that it affects societal instability. For ?? diversity, the higher the linguistic diversity among nations in a region, the less stable the nation. But, religious ?? diversity has the opposite effect, reducing instability, particularly in the presence of high linguistic diversity. Conclusions. Within-nation linguistic diversity is associated with reduced economic performance, which, in turn, increases societal instability. Nations which differ linguistically from their neighbors are also less stable. However, religious diversity between, neighboring nations has the opposite effect, decreasing societal instability.

  17. Developing economic and managerial competencies of bachelors in mechanical engineering

    Lizunkov Vladislav G.


    Full Text Available The paper deals with the development problems of economic and managerial competencies of bachelors after graduating from engineering higher schools to meet employers’ requirements, through implementing the Federal State Education Standards (FSES of the third generation. The case study is conducted on the basis of training programs for the bachelor’s degree in Mechanical Engineering at Yurga Institute of Technology (Affiliate of National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University. The list of economic and managerial competencies for bachelors in mechanical engineering is specified according to the third generation FSES, enlarged with new competences based on surveys and analyses after questioning employers. The criteria and indicators are described to identify maturity levels in terms of economic and managerial competencies for bachelors. A structural and functional model for training mechanical engineering bachelors has been tested in the implementation of the bachelor’s degree courses in "Mechanical engineering" at Yurga Institute of Technology (Affiliate of National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, in the period from 2011 to 2015.

  18. Economic Growth and Development in the Undergraduate Curriculum

    Acemoglu, Daron


    A central theme of this article is that economics instructors should spend more time teaching about economic growth and development at the undergraduate level because the topic is of interest to students, is less abstract than other macroeconomic topics, and is the focus of exciting research in economics. Facts and data can be presented to…

  19. Editorial: Social Entrepreneurship and Socio–Economic Development

    Remigiusz Gawlik


    Full Text Available As the editor of this issue of Entrepreneurial Business and Economics Review I am deeply convinced that the scientific papers included here do contribute to a bigger goal: restoring the Science of Economics to the service of humanity and therefore provide stable ground for a sustainable and socio-economically balanced development of individuals and societies.

  20. The Impact of the Economic Transition on the Development of Economic Freedom – Case of Poland

    Anna Stepniak-Kucharska


    Full Text Available The changes in the Polish socio-economic system, initiated at the turn of 1989 and 1990, led to a systematic increase in the liberalization of economy and thereby the rise of the level of economic freedom. The aim of this paper is to examine the impact of the economic transition on the development of economic freedom in Poland. The analysis, carried out in the period 1995-2015, was conducted on the basis of the chain-linked Economic Freedom Index by the Fraser Institute and the Index of Economic Freedom of the Heritage Foundation and the Wall Street Journal. The analysis indicates that: (1 Poland cannot be considered as a country that is fully free economically, but the transition of its economic system has resulted in a rapid growth of economic freedom. (2 The impact of transition varies for different areas (sub-indices of the economy. (3 The European economic integration stimulated the increase of EFI, but the economic crisis did not decrease the level of economic freedom.

  1. Developing Mathematics Problems Based on Pisa Level

    Shahibul Ahyan


    Full Text Available This research aims to produce mathematics problems based on PISA level with valid and practical content of change and relationships and has potential effect for Junior High School students. A development research method developed by Akker, Gravemeijer, McKenney and Nieveen is used this research. In the first stage, the researcher analyzed students, algebra material in school-based curricula (KTSP and mathematics problems of PISA 2003 of change and relationships content. The second stage, the researcher designed 13 problems with content of change and relationships. The last, the researcher used formative evaluation design developed by Tessmer which includes self evaluation, one-to-one, expert review, small group, and field test. The data collect by walk through, interview, and questionnaire. The result of this research indicated that 12 mathematical problems based on PISA level of change and relationships content that developed have validity, practically, and potential effects for Junior High School students.

  2. What Health Problems Can Develop during Pregnancy?

    ... Who is at risk for complications? How does stress affect pregnancy? NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications What health problems can develop during pregnancy? Skip sharing on ...

  3. Economic and geographic factors affecting the development of Greater Baku



    Full Text Available Globally, the responsible factors for the ongoing development of urbanization are the high speed of population growth, and the mass migration of humans to cities and large urban areas. In most countries, this process resulted in the emergence of ‘pseudo-urbanization’ which is difficult to be regulated. The purpose of the carried researches to determine the development priorities in the territory of Greater Baku – the capital city of the Republic of Azerbaijan; to define the problems that take place in this connection; and to develop ways of elimination of these problems. The reason of taking Baku as a research area is connected with some of the factors. Firstly, studies on Baku have been conducted based on the Soviet geographical and urban planning school and their methods for a long period. In this regard, it is necessary to carry out research in this field based on the principles adopted in most countries. Secondly, since 1992, the intensive accumulation of population in the territory of the capital city and the surrounding areas is being observed because of socio-economic problems. As a result, the process of pseudo-urbanization intensified, entailing a densely-populated area. Thirdly, low-rise buildings still continue to exist in the large areas within the territory of Baku, and they are not associated with the functional structure of the city. This situation creates many challenges, particularly in terms of density growth and effective use of the city’s territory. Finally, numerous new buildings have been constructed in the residential areas of Baku in recent years, and this may entailserious problems in water supply, energy provision, and utilities. The study is carried out referring to previous works of researchers, statistic data, and the results of the population census conducted in 1959-2009.The practical significance of the scientific work is that positive and negative factors affecting the further development of Greater Baku


    Al Shama, Nada


    Dubai’s rapid double-digit economic growth was severely challenged by the global financial crisis of 2007, which raised many concerns questioning the sustainability of the Dubai model of economic development and the viability of the emirate’s economic managerial practices. Although the economic landscape of Dubai has experienced a significant transformation over the last two decades, from a basic traditional economy of US $ 17.9 billion in 2001 to a diversified non-oil dependent economy of US...

  5. Environmental and economic problems in the oil-extracting industry of north territories

    Tatyana Sergeevna Krestovskikh


    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is substantiation of environmental and economic problems in the sphere of nature protection activities of oil-extracting industry of north territories (on the example of the Komi Republic and development of proposals for decreases a negative effect on the environment and population health. The authors have made the analysis of nature protection activities of the Komi Republic oil-extracting enterprises. Strengthening negativeimpact on theenvironment wasestablished despite growth ofexpenses for environmental measures. It is related to the fact that enterprises invest in the elimination of consequences of man-made impact technogenicinfluence and man-made accidents, instead of fortheirconsecutivereduction and prevention. In the work, the assessment of socio-economiceffects from oil waste disposal iscarried out. Proposals for regional integrated programs of an environmental orientation are developed.


    Kovachev Atanas Dimitrov


    Full Text Available The author provides an overview of the main urban planning trends in the present-day Bulgaria. The author also demonstrates principal approaches to area planning and provides examples of master plans of major cities of the country. The author emphasizes the need to resolve the environmental problems of urban territories, to develop their public transportation networks, resorts, landscape gardening, and a special role of historic and archeological monuments in the present-day cities. Today, multiple hierarchically arranged plans of districts and towns are being developed in accordance with the Law on area arrangement of 2001. There are three levels of area planning in Bulgaria: strategic, tactical and operative/applied. The level of strategic planning covers the territory of the whole country (or its major parts, including regions and clusters of communities. The second level of area planning represents a tactical level. It is applied to smaller sections of the territory (communities, towns and it converts into more detailed planning of the territory if compared to the top level of area planning. The general structure of the territory is developed at this level of planning. This level includes master plans of cities and towns. The third level, the level of operative/ applied planning, is applied to separate parts of populated areas, even particular sites. This level is characterized by detailed elaboration and it serves as a link to architectural planning. This level incorporates detailed area plans.

  7. Development Of Economic Techniques For Residential Thermography

    Allen, Lee R.; Allen, Sharon


    Infrared thermography has proven to be a valuable tool in the detection of heat loss in both commercial and residential buildings. The field of residential thermography has needed a simple method with which to report the deficiencies found during an infrared scan. Two major obstacles hindering the cost effectiveness of residential thermography have been 1) the ability to quickly transport some high resolution imaging system equipment from job site to job site without having to totally dismount the instruments at each area, and 2) the lack of a standard form with which to report the findings of the survey to the customer. Since the industry has yet to provide us with either, we believed it necessary to develop our own. Through trial and error, we have come up with a system that makes interior residential thermography a profitable venture at a price the homeowner can afford. Insulation voids, or defects can be instantly spotted with the use of a thermal imaging system under the proper conditions. A special hand-held device was developed that enables the thermographer to carry the equipment from house to house without the need to dismantle and set up at each stop. All the necessary components are attached for a total weight of about 40 pounds. The findings are then conveyed to a form we have developed. The form is simple enough that the client without special training in thermography can understand. The client is then able to locate the problems and take corrective measures or give it to a con-tractor to do the work.

  8. [30 years' development of economic theories in confrontation with facts].

    Levy, F


    In 1969, R. Frish and J. Tinbergen received the first Nobel Price in Economics. 200 years after Quesnay's "economic tables", economics were at last considered as a science. During the last thirty years, economics haven't lost their scientific reputation, but, confronted with different situations in the world and in France, economics have been unable to bring appropriate solutions to every problem. Nowadays, economics are quite far from the promises born after the Second World War: indeed, until the 1974 world crisis, Keynes' theory (from a macro-economic point of view) and Walras' formalisation of the markets (from a micro-economic point of view) were sufficient to give satisfying representations of any economic reality and mechanism. Nevertheless, these theories were unable to deal with both growing unemployment and raising inflation in the late 70's and early 80's. Today, economics present a wide variety of efficient analysis of society. Game theory, behaviour theory or econometrics are new means used to found new kinds of reality representation. Therefore, if economics can no longer be considered as an exact science, it remains nevertheless scientific.

  9. Control of Resources for Economic Development in Food Networks

    Brink, Tove


    of preferences on the control of resources, the significant benefit of oral instructions and the significant negative impact from supervising product quality on economic development in the context of the food networking SMEs. Previous level of knowledge has no significant influence on their economic development...... to control resources for innovation to add value and economic development. This paper reveals how crossing dynamic composite underlying boundaries can have an impact on control of resources for economic development in food networking SMEs .The analyses in this paper shows the broad and significant impact...

  10. Evaluation of Sustainable Development (Economic Indicators in Parand New City

    Fatemeh Razavian


    Full Text Available Introduction: Sustainable development has been an important part of urban management and lack of attention to this issue can seriously threaten the life of the city and its citizens in long-term. Large cities confront high population growth and frame development, and lack of attention to sustainable development has made the cities to face issues and problems such as the separation of workplace from the residential areas, being away from nature, reducing recreational areas and spending leisure time, reducing open space and finally confront lack of liveliness. Attitude of sustainable development, in practice, can be raised in terms of sustainable development of natural resources (renewable and non-renewable, efficient use of resources, less pollution for the environment and sustainable society.Purpose: The aim of this study is to determine the economic factors affecting the sustainable development indicators in the industrial city of Parand and investigating the status of sustainable development in this industrial city.Methodology: This is an applied descriptive-survey. The study population consists all residents of Parand city whose number is unknown and unlimited. The sample population was obtained as 384 through simple random sampling and Krejcieand Morgan Table. The collected data was analyzed through descriptive and inferential statistics such as mean, median and chi-square test.Findings: As the results indicated, the economic indicators of sustainable development in the new industrial city of Parand are in a very good situation.Conclusion:It is necessary for the city managers and practitioners to attend more to promote the developmental indicators in this city regarding the mentioned indicators.

  11. A Rapid Grid Search Method for Solving Dynamic Programming Problems in Economics

    Hui He; Hao Zhang


    We introduce a rapid grid search method in solving dynamic programming problems in economics. Compared to mainstream grid search methods, by using local information of the Bellman equation, this method can significantly increase the efficiency in solving dynamic programming problems by reducing the grid points searched in the control space.

  12. A Note on a Rapid Grid Search Method for Solving Dynamic Programming Problems in Economics

    Hui He; Hao Zhang


    We introduce a rapid grid search method in solving the dynamic programming problems in economics. Compared to mainstream grid search methods, by using local information of the Bellman equation, this method can significantly increase the efficiency in solving dynamic programming problems by reducing the grid points searched in the control space.

  13. An Attempt to Assess the Quantitative Impact of Institutions on Economic Growth and Economic Development

    Próchniak Mariusz


    Full Text Available This study aims at assessing to what extent institutional environment is responsible for worldwide differences in economic growth and economic development. To answer this question, we use an innovative approach based on a new concept of the institutions-augmented Solow model which is then estimated empirically using regression equations. The analysis covers 180 countries during the 1993-2012 period. The empirical analysis confirms a large positive impact of the quality of institutional environment on the level of economic development. The positive link has been evidenced for all five institutional indicators: two indices of economic freedom (Heritage Foundation and Fraser Institute, the governance indicator (World Bank, the democracy index (Freedom House, and the EBRD transition indicator for post-socialist countries. Differences in physical capital, human capital, and institutional environment explain about 70-75% of the worldwide differences in economic development. The institutions-augmented Solow model, however, performs slightly poorer in explaining differences in the rates of economic growth: only one institutional variable (index of economic freedom has a statistically significant impact on economic growth. In terms of originality, this paper extends the theoretical analysis of the Solow model by including institutions, on the one hand, and shows a comprehensive empirical analysis of the impact of various institutional indicators on both the level of development and the pace of economic growth, on the other. The results bring important policy implications.

  14. The Impacts of Water Pollution on Economic Development in Sudan

    Mohamed, Issam A.W.


    Water pollution is a chronic crisis in Sudan that is rarely researched. However, it is combined with scarcity, disputes and uncertainty. In The current paper we introduce its concepts with emphasis on the growing problems of pollution combined with scarcity. A Case study of the growing problem of pollution is introduced and analyzed using economic parameters.

  15. Economical Distinctions and Social Problems of Iran: Rates of Unemployment and Suicide

    Mohhamad ali Feizpour


    Full Text Available Introduction   Human resources as one of the important indexes of production and development have always suffered from social problems including committing suicide. Committing suicide is amongst the first ten causes of mortality. In some countries, it is among the first three causes of the death of young people who are the main capital of the society. Although an economic view to social problems especially committing suicide has just come to the forefront during the past decade, focusing on this view has been so widespread that the relationships between social and economic problems at the international, national, local, family, and individual levels has been the concern of economists and social scientists alike. Having this view in mind, it is illogical to ignore the role of economy in social problems; therefore, there have been many studies aimed at investigating this relationship. On the one hand, the rate of unemployment is one of the economic variables that has resulted in a remarkable discrimination in different areas. On the other hand, committing suicide is one of the social problems that has caught the attention of experts and communities alike. Therefore, the present study aims at investigating the relationships of the two variables – society and economy – in different parts of Iran base on the province.     Materials & Methods   In terms of the aim, this study is practical and it employed a descriptive-analytical approach. Library research was employed to collect the necessary data. The number of those committed suicide and the rate of unemployment from 1386 to 1389 were the major and most important sources of data for the present study. These data were extracted from the annual report declared by the Statistics Center of Iran. The independent variable of the model was the number of those who had committed suicide per 10000 people and the rate of unemployment defined as the ratio of the unemployed population to the active


    Mishchenko Tatyana Leonidovna


    Full Text Available The article discusses the importance of cooperation on the current economic stage as one of the forms of cooperation in the arena of the market of small, medium and large businesses. The aim of this work is the study of contemporary problems of agricultural co-operation and development of effective ways of functioning of the cooperative sector, which is a sustainable development factor of socio-economic systems, contributes to the protection of the interests of its participants, increasing of competitiveness at the industry and national markets. In compliance of the objectives outlined the following objectives of its decision: - to justify the relevance of research in modern Economics; - to analyze the economic interdependence of market subjects and their effectiveness in key financial indicators; - identify the causes, constraining the effective development of the cooperative forms of management. The scientific novelty of the results of the study consists of the following: - it is proved that the basic idea of the cooperative movement is a transition from small businesses to large-scale activity, which today has a real embodiment in life; - it is proved that co-operation is a key element of sustainable development of rural areas and market institutions and is based on a solid social base of farms, individual farms; - as a result of the carried out estimation of parameters of functioning of the agrarian market subjects, proposed an alternative way of economic interaction of participants of the cooperative company. As a conclusion it should be noted that the development of the cooperative sector in economic realities increases significantly in the conditions of Russia's accession to the WTO, ensuring competitiveness of the domestic products and first of all the country's food security.

  17. Investment factor of economic development in Uzbekistan

    Ravshan Yuldashev


    Full Text Available Introducing anti-crisis program and maintenance of high investment activity in Uzbekistan were among core factors of tackling with global crisis pressure. However, the high investment dynamics bears a threat of economic “overheating” and decrease of investment process effectiveness. Then, it can be neutralized by use of principles and tools of comprehensive innovation management.

  18. Economic development and growth in transition countries

    Rusinova, D.T.


    The countries of Central and Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union, commonly referred to as "transition countries", have undergone transformations unparalleled in recent economic history. This book concentrates on three aspects of the transition process: the factors driving growth, the effect o

  19. 75 FR 39730 - Tribal Economic Development Bonds


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... governments in quasi-commercial activities. In 2006, Treasury and the Internal Revenue Service (``IRS... government. Treasury and the IRS ] announced the results of the two phases of Tribal Economic...

  20. Welfare Reform and Black Women's Economic Development

    Alfred, Mary V.


    In 1996, the United States Congress passed the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act, placing emphasis on individuals to take responsibility for separating themselves from governmental dependence by becoming economically self-sufficient through employment. Using a qualitative approach, this study explored the experiences…

  1. Longitudinal relationship between economic development and occupational accidents in China.

    Song, Li; He, Xueqiu; Li, Chengwu


    The relativity between economic development and occupational accidents is a debated topic. Compared with the development courses of both economic development and occupational accidents in China during 1953-2008, this paper used statistic methods such as Granger causality test, cointegration test and impulse response function based on the vector autoregression model to investigate the relativity between economic development and occupational accidents in China from 1953 to 2008. Owing to fluctuation and growth scale characteristics of economic development, two dimensions including economic cycle and economic scale were divided. Results showed that there was no relationship between occupational accidents and economic scale during 1953-1978. Fatality rate per 10(5) workers was a conductive variable to gross domestic product per capita during 1979-2008. And economic cycle was an indicator to occupational accidents during 1979-2008. Variation of economic speed had important influence on occupational accidents in short term. Thus it is necessary to adjust Chinese occupational safety policy according to tempo variation of economic growth.


    Filippidis Ioannis


    Full Text Available In recent years significant researches have been done to identify what are the determinants of financial development. With regard to this outline, the main objective is to investigate the effect of economic, political and social dimension of institutional quality, as well as the effect of political and macroeconomic factors on financial development. More specifically, the present work aims to contribute to the relevant literature in the following ways: i in the econometric front, we employ dynamic panel techniques, that allow for heterogeneity among variables, avoiding the known problems of traditional techniques. More specifically, we employ the “system GMM” estimator developed by Arellano and Bover (1995, and Blundell and Bond (1998, controlling for endogeneity among variables; ii we disentangle into economic, political and social institutional quality in order to quantify the effect of institutions on financial development and check the robustness of our results; iii in the same logic, we decompose our measure of financial openness into equity- and loan-related foreign assets and liabilities in order to assess whether the hoarding of risky vs. riskless assets or the accumulation of equity vs. debt liabilities affect the development of domestic financial institutions; and iv to control for a potential bias among variables, we include a large set of information, which covers all the spectrum of possible effects on finance, giving emphasis on political factors and government policies. Our main finding from the regression analyses is a robust empirical relationship from institutions to financial development, a result consistent with most empirical studies. Also, we find a stronger effect from economic institutions to banking sector development and from political institutions to stock market development. Regarding the trade and finance link, we find that openness has a much stronger association with bank-based finance than with stock market




    Full Text Available Tax evasion means the avoidance of declaring and paying taxes. The purpose of the research is to identify ways and mechanisms of tax evasion through fictitious economic operations and how this kind o tax evasion can influence sustainable development. The principal methods are researching tax evasion cases investigated by the Romanian authorities responsible for combating this phenomenon, court trials on tax evasion and using the bibliographic references in the field. The data used are obtained through open sources of the authorities specialized in combating tax evasion for the cases made public, the media and also from specialised literature. The principal results are that this type of tax evasion is manifested through transactions with “ghost companies”, with offshore companies and transactions between associated enterprises. The main causes of this problem are: high taxation, corruption, inefficient government and tax authorities, no fiscal education and very hard tax legislation. The consequences are that the state budget is affected, the companies that do business legally are affected and also the final consumers, so Romania will not have economic growth and the quality of life will not improve. The main conclusion is that in order to have sustainable development, tax evasion in general and this kind of tax evasion in particular must be eradicated. The measures that have to be taken are to prevent tax evasion and to tighten controls but without violating taxpayers rights and without making abuses

  4. The Idea of National HRD: An Analysis Based on Economics and Theory Development Methodology

    Wang, Greg G.; Swanson, Richard A.


    Recent human resource development (HRD) literature focuses attention on national HRD (NHRD) research and represents problems in both HRD identity and research methodology. Based on a review of development economics and international development literature, this study analyzes the existing NHRD literature with respect to the theory development…

  5. Solving the Problems of Physical and Economic Accessibility of Foodstuff in the Region by Means of AIC State Regulation

    Babich Tatyana Vladimirovna


    Full Text Available The article deals with the physical and economic accessibility to foodstuff in the region. The effects of economic sanctions are analyzed, the main types of risks of the domestic agricultural producers’ competitiveness are described, and the methods of their reduction are identified. The concept of food security in terms of physical and economic accessibility is considered. The analysis of the Volgograd region data on the development of agricultural production let conclude that there is the problem of ensuring the physical availability of foodstuff in the region. The state regulation of agricultural production is identified as an important factor of food security in the modern world. The authors identified the basic problems of agricultural production, including the problem of irrigation, economic accessibility of food products, depreciation of fixed assets, the use of obsolete and resource-intensive technologies of production, decline in qualification level of staff employed in the industry, underfunding of agricultural science, low competitiveness of agricultural and food policy. Moreover, in the current situation the further growth of food prices and reduced purchasing power of the population, as a result of inflation, would further reduce the economic affordability of food and decrease food security in the region and in the country, as a whole. As a result, аs part of the solution to the problem of providing physical and economic access to food, the authors offered and proved complex measures on improving state regulation of agro-industrial complex. These measures include conducting large-scale works on restoration of the complex reclamation of the region; implementation of technical and technological modernization of agriculture, food industry and agrobusiness production services; formation of the system of professional agricultural education; formation of modern social infrastructure in rural areas; development of the program of food

  6. Strategic and ethical leadership in economical development

    Nerimane Bajraktari


    Full Text Available By a simple analysis, it can be said that ethics includes two components. Firstly, it treats recognition and understanding for right or wrong processes, good or wrong processes, and then it evaluates the action in personal or institutional practice concluding that it’s conducted in the right or wrong way. According to ethicists the one that constitutes an ethical guide, often, the next day arrives to convert in written legal act, in a rule, or liability to be implemented. Values such as: respect, honesty, sincerity, responsibility, that show us how to behave are considered moral values. All views that show how these values are applying are often defined as moral or ethical principles. Managers or leaders of the organization have a leading role during a decision-making process. This is because managerial decision-making is one of the problems which has a greater focus recently. Business decisions have a suspicious behavior, because its success in most cases is measured by the profit, not by the effectiveness of humans. Therefore, managers are those who firstly present unethical behavior, influenced by the situation that they are facing and factors surrounding them. If someone in an organization behaves unethically, it will create a bad image for that organization. It is worth mentioning that the ethical code of the company that arises from the organization has a very important role because it links the personal and organizational ethics. The absence of ethical codes, moral and legal principles, will affect greatly the development of the individual, organization and all sectors of economy.

  7. Modified Cuckoo Search Algorithm for Solving Nonconvex Economic Load Dispatch Problems

    Thang Trung Nguyen


    Full Text Available This paper presents the application of modified cuckoo search algorithm (MCSA for solving economic load dispatch (ELD problems. The MCSA method is developed to improve the search ability and solution quality of the conventional CSA method. In the MCSA, the evaluation of eggs has divided the initial eggs into two groups, the top egg group with good quality and the abandoned group with worse quality. Moreover, the value of the updated step size in MCSA is adapted as generating a new solution for the abandoned group and the top group via the Levy flights so that a large zone is searched at the beginning and a local zone is foraged as the maximum number of iterations is nearly reached. The MCSA method has been tested on different systems with different characteristics of thermal units and constraints. The result comparison with other methods in the literature has indicated that the MCSA method can be a powerful method for solving the ELD.

  8. Windfall gains, political economy and economic development

    Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Olsson, Ola


    Natural resource rents and foreign aid have the character of windfall gains that affect economic outcomes both directly and indirectly. Several studies have shown that the indirect effect typically works via institutions like corruption. In this article, we offer a theoretical framework for a joint...... in a large cross-section of countries. Our results suggest that whereas more aid means less corruption, natural resource rents is positively correlated with corruption, although both relationships are non-linear...

  9. The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development


    directorates that focus their work in such areas as employment and labor; environment and economics; trade and investment; biotechnology , agriculture...India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Russia , Saudi Arabia, South Africa, South Korea, Turkey, the United Kingdom, the United States, and the...Canada, France, Germany, Italy Japan, Russia , the United Kingdom, and the United States. 13 Countries in the Partnership currently include the five


    Almina B. Eldyaeva


    Full Text Available The results of statistical analysis of socio-economic development of Astrakhan region and its districts for the period 2008-2013, on the basis of which it was revealed the strongest economic inequality between the regions and the Krasnoyarsk region, where «Gazprom» that leads to huge imbalances in socio-economic development. Multivariate analysis to identify problem areas and priority directions of socio-economic development of municipal districts of the Astrakhan region was conducted.Application of the results of the analysis can enhance the effectiveness of actions of Executive bodies of various levels in the process of regulation of socio-economic development of society.


    Franklin OBENG-ODOOM


    The aggressive marketing of cities to attract private finance and capital is one important aspect of municipal neoliberalism. Urban marketing, as it is called, is said to be the the surest way to deliver urban economic development. Using a political-economic framework, this paper provides an alternative analysis of urban marketing, and highlights other avenues for addressing the urban question.

  12. A Research-Based Development Economics Course for Undergraduates

    Singh, Prakarsh; Guo, Hongye; Morales, Alvaro


    The authors present details of a research-based course in development economics taught at a private liberal arts college. There were three key elements in this class: teaching of applied econometrics, group presentations reviewing published and working papers in development economics, and using concepts taught in class to write an original…

  13. Chongqing Economic and Technological Development Area:Community Overview


    @@ Chongqing Economic and Technological Development Area, for 13 years of development, has made detailed work in building the investment environment, bold job in the management system innovation, full strengths in business recruitment and investment attacting,hard job in cultivating new point of economic growth.

  14. 13 CFR 302.11 - Economic development information clearinghouse.


    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Economic development information... information clearinghouse. Pursuant to section 502 of PWEDA, EDA maintains an economic development information clearinghouse on its Internet Web site at

  15. Economic development strategies of regions of Russia: system crisis and new economic space

    Aleksandr Borisovich Gusev


    Full Text Available To assess the strength of internal economic space of Russia and the positiveness of the interregional economic relations, the paper investigates the types of economic interaction of federal districts by means of “predator-prey” models. The strategic economic breaks between the European and East parts of the country are revealed. The accelerated economic growth of East part of the country is predicted that will allow to reach about the same volume of Gross Regional Product (GRP as GRP in the European part of Russia by 2020. With the help of model constructions the typology of integration crises of federal districts with each other is revealed: back-to-back paralyzing of economic activity (A crisis; mutual destruction (B crisis; economic indifference (C crisis; transition of a role of «predator» to the economically weak territories (D crisis. Macroeconomic threat and challenge to the territorial integrity of Russia is proved due to the state support of regions of the North Caucasus Federal District without involvement of intro regional sources of economic growth, and due to the accelerated economic development of the Far East Federal District. The limited opportunities of the Ural Federal District to support the national economy during a crisis at the expense of export of energy carriers is concluded. The thesis about the low sensitivity of the economy of Russia to the increase of the oil world prices, and about sensitivity to the negative external economic conditions are reasonable. Estimates of the GRP decrease in Russia at the various levels of decrease in the world prices for oil (up to 50 US dollars for barrel are received and given. The package of measures on response to the threats revealing to the internal economic space and territorial integrity of the country is presented.Keywords: regional economy, regional economic integration, federal districts, “predator-prey” model

  16. Institutional factor in international economic activity of region and its socio-economic development

    Elena Leonidovna Andreeva


    Full Text Available The article substantiates the impact of the institutional factor on the development of regional international economic relations. The scope of the study is regional international economic activity (IEA, the subject-matter is the role of the institutional factor in its development. The study purpose is to develop a scientific approach for the assessment of the institutional factor impact on the development of region’s international economic relations. The hypothesis is that the targeted efforts of all participants of IEA of the region (business, authorities, local community to strengthen of theese components of the institutional factor, which have a strong influence on the regional socio-economic development. A methodological approach for the assessment of this influenceis developed. It includes determining three elements of IEA institutionalization—agreements, organizations, events. A three-dimensional model is proposed for the coordination of these elements with 3 groups of countries—developed, developing and CIS, including the Eurasian Economic Union, and also with basic indexes characterizing the qualitative and quantitative contribution of region’s IEA into its socio-economic development. This model is tested on the example of the Sverdlovsk region of Russia for 2003–2015. That has allowed to define various kinds of the effects from strenthening the IEA institutional component, which are expressed in the increase of the export of the region, improvement of its investment attractiveness, the diversification of regional economy as well as the the generation of additional jobs and tax flows increase.


    Gorkemli Kazar


    Full Text Available As renewable energy requirements increases, its relation with development is controversial. In this study, by taking human development index for development level, the relationship between renewable electricity net generation values and development has been searched with panel analysis. Study covers two different time periods: 1980-2010 with 5 year data to analyze long term effects and 2005-2010 yearly data for short term effects. Unlike previous studies, energy generation has been taken into consideration for it is thought to be more related with economic development. It is found that in the long run economic development will be leading to renewable energy production, while in the short run there exists a bidirectional causal relationship between renewable energy production and economic development. In addition, the causal relationship between economic development and renewable energy production varies both in the long run and in the short run due to human development level of the countries.

  18. Transport Test Problems for Hybrid Methods Development

    Shaver, Mark W.; Miller, Erin A.; Wittman, Richard S.; McDonald, Benjamin S.


    This report presents 9 test problems to guide testing and development of hybrid calculations for the ADVANTG code at ORNL. These test cases can be used for comparing different types of radiation transport calculations, as well as for guiding the development of variance reduction methods. Cases are drawn primarily from existing or previous calculations with a preference for cases which include experimental data, or otherwise have results with a high level of confidence, are non-sensitive, and represent problem sets of interest to NA-22.

  19. Climate Change and Economic Development: A Pragmatic Approach (Invited Lecture)

    John Gowdy; Aneel Salman


    Two major problems promise to dominate economic and social policy during the twentyfirst century. These are global climate change and the growing gap between the rich and the poor. Economists are facing these issues at a time when many of the standard tools of economic analysis for example, competitive general equilibrium and the theoretical system that supports it have fallen into disfavour in analysing global issues involving uncertainty and irreversibility. This is both a challenge and an ...

  20. Economic development and industrial structure - an overview

    Nordaas, Hildegunn Kyvik


    The essay offers a selective review of central issues related to economic growth. The interrelationship between technological progress, capital accumulation, specialisation and industrial structure is emphasised. It is concluded that, first, there is little evidence that industrial structure plays an independent role in growth. Second, economists have been more successful in explaining the consequence of technological progress than the determinants of technological progress. However, even the consequences are not well understood and there is still a long way to go before general and well-documented policy implications can be drawn. (Author)


    A.I. Tatarkin


    Full Text Available Strengthening of a role of regions in foreign trade activities of Russia gets the increasing value and an urgency. Thanks to an intensification and diversification of international and foreign economic relations the subject of Federation can receive the big and additional incomes of the foreign trade activities. The international economic relations promote increase of investment appeal and social and economic development of region. In work on the basis of the analysis of features and the basic tendencies of the external economic complex of Sverdlovsk area problems of the further development and offers under their decision are formulated

  2. A Study on the Connotation of Regional Economic Development

    Tian; Yu-jia


    <正>1.Introduction Regional economic development means mutual development and ever-increasing communication of trade among areas,forming a reasonable tendency of regional division,keeping a high rate increase of overall regional economy as well as

  3. Guenon-factor of advancing national economic development

    E.Yu. Yahelskaia


    Full Text Available The aim of the article. Modern acceleration of evolutionary processes requires quick response and leading actions to harmonious existence and development of the national economy, which emphasizes the relevance of research of features and factors of advancing economic development. The purpose of this article is to investigate the factors of economic development, to identify those that affect the rate of development; to improve their classification and to form Guenon-factor of advancing national economic development. The subject of research is the causes underlying of advancing national economic development. Theoretical researches of world economic thought on the development of the national economy are served as methodological basis of this research. We used historically-logical method, comparative, structural and factorial analysis in the research. The results of the analysis. The factors of economic development are examined in the article. The emphasis was placed on finding those ones that impact directly on the advancing development. Attention was focused on classical and new approaches. It was justified, that the fundamental causes of advancing national economic development are the time and economic energy. It was proved that time determines the rate of development. The starting position of countries can vary, but the rate of the time that will be determined by culture, can provide leadership positions of national economy in a short period of time. It was concluded that the economic system is due to the economic value of the energy, which is an array of energies that determine the qualitative and quantitative state of the economic system and contribute to the transformation of its structure by changing the spatiotemporal layout. Research implies that time and energy are factors of broader action than others, and may be attributed to other factors of the general classification of economic development. So, on the basis of studied classifications

  4. Coordinated Economic Development and the Information Network.

    Easton, D. K.

    This is a discussion of some of the problems that the Advisory Organization for Gulf Industries (AOGI) will face when it undertakes (1) to organize both an information center (node) that will serve the information needs of the Gulf States of Iraq, Kuwait, Bahrain, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and Oman; and (2) to compile an…

  5. Human Capital, Population Growth and Economic Development: Beyond Correlations

    Rosenzweig, Mark R.


    Empirical evidence on three assertions commonly-made by population policy advocates about the relationships among population growth, human capital formation and economic development is discussed and evaluated in the light of economic-biological models of household behavior and of its relevance to population policy. The three assertions are that (a) population growth and human capital investments jointly reflect and respond to changes in the economic environment, (b) larger families directly i...

  6. The Two-sector Economic Problem Of Persistent Organic Pollution and Baltic Sea Salmon Fisheries

    Hutniczak, Barbara; Kronbak, Lone Grønbæk


    The paper describes the general nature of two-sector environmental and natural resource problems and highlights the issue of two sector models where one sector imposes a one-sided negative externality on the other sector, e.g. the polluting sector causes changes in the economic value of the fishery...... sector. The paper sets up a general social planner model and demonstrates it in simple functional form, using the problem of persistent organic pollution in the Baltic Sea and its effects on the regulation and economic value of the Baltic Salmon. The paper illustrates how a modified golden rule can...

  7. Staff Development in Problem-based Learning.

    Murray, Ian; Savin-Baden, Maggi


    Argues that, for problem-based learning (PBL) to succeed, a sound program of staff development is required and describes the introduction of PBL into Nursing and Midwifery curricula at the University of Dundee (Scotland) including key components and evaluatory evidence to support its efficacy. (DB)

  8. Development of Technology Transfer Economic Growth Metrics

    Mastrangelo, Christina M.


    The primary objective of this project is to determine the feasibility of producing technology transfer metrics that answer the question: Do NASA/MSFC technical assistance activities impact economic growth? The data for this project resides in a 7800-record database maintained by Tec-Masters, Incorporated. The technology assistance data results from survey responses from companies and individuals who have interacted with NASA via a Technology Transfer Agreement, or TTA. The goal of this project was to determine if the existing data could provide indications of increased wealth. This work demonstrates that there is evidence that companies that used NASA technology transfer have a higher job growth rate than the rest of the economy. It also shows that the jobs being supported are jobs in higher wage SIC codes, and this indicates improvements in personal wealth. Finally, this work suggests that with correct data, the wealth issue may be addressed.

  9. Longevity, Capital Formation and Economic Development

    Zhang Qiong


    Many researchers have concluded that longer life expectancies prompt increased investment in education, as a pro- longed labor supply raises the rate of return on education. Besides explaining the empirical evidence behind this conclusion (at an absolute level), there is another issue to be discussed: does time spent studying and working increase proportionally with higher longevity? Building on an extended life-cycle model, this paper shows that prolonged life expectancy will cause individuals to increase their time in education but may not warrant rises in labor input. Later we show that higher improvement rate of longevity rather than initial life expectancy will promote economic growth, even we exclude the mechanism of human capital formation, and only consider growth effects of higher improvement rate of life expectancy from physical capital investment.


    Ljiljana Stošić Mihajlović


    Full Text Available On Thursday, 23.6.2016. the British were out to vote - a referendum to stay or exit from European Union nations. With minimal but sufficient majority pleaded United Kingdom leave European Union. The paradox is even greater because there are, the principles, and the chapters that each member state has to pass, and to harmonize its legislation and rules of good practice in force in the EU, but there are no rules to carry out, or how to handle the situation when the country decided by a majority vote of its population to leave the EU. However, what is for Serbia at this moment most important is how it will affect the flow Brexit and Serbia's path towards the EU, in terms of whether and how much will be the consequences for Serbia in the light of recent events. More important question is, it seems, refers to economic stability in Serbia. In this regard, the paper discusses the situation primarily on the economic front Serbia after the decision of Great Britain to leave the European Union. Special attention is paid to the opportunities that presented themselves in connection with a faster reception of Serbia in the EU or in the work also indicates the obstacles that Serbia will inevitably encounter on the road to the EU as a strategic orientation through and in a situation where the purpose and existence of the European Union questioned. However, the conclusion is that the citizens of Serbia needed strong EU compared to the one that has ever existed.

  11. Future perspectives for climate action. How economics can prescribe more than an energy charge. An essay on how economics can contribute to resolving the climate problem

    De Bruyn, S.


    How can economics contribute to designing a 'solution' for the emerging climate crisis? This essay attempts to answer that question by investigating the roots of economic thinking and analyzing the coordination issues that are at the heart of the climate problem. While economics has been a protagonist in climate change debates by providing economic instruments such as tradeable emission permits, it has also been an antagonist by calling into doubt the need for mitigation, the benefits of which were held not to outweigh the costs. This essay argues that climate change is primarily a social equity issue and that economics is a poor science for analyzing such issues. Discussion models in economics and climate change science are fundamentally different, moreover, which means the two disciplines are prone to mutual misunderstanding. Nonetheless, to resolve the climate problem, climate science could well benefit from economic thinking, and especially from theoretical ideas from institutional economics concerning the design of effective policy instruments.

  12. Sustainable Economic Development and the Role of Entrepreneurship Factor



    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to conduct an in-depth analysis of the degree to which the entrepreneurship factor would enhance sustainable economic development. The analysis will run a comparative analysis on how the entrepreneurship factors would add value to sustainable economic development. It is worth mentioning that entrepreneurship is a factor of production per se. The design was based on secondary research but then focused on appropriate data that addressed the research objectives. The main data had been obtained from business and investment reports. On the other hand, the researcher conducted an evaluation of the entrepreneurship factor in sustainable economic development. In general, a review of relevant literature was undertaken and fundamental issues were identified. The research analysis contains a discussion of the entrepreneurship factor in sustainable economic development. Particular attention has been given to the contribution entrepreneurial activities have to sustainable economic development. The study also conducts a risk assessment among the three factors of production capital, labor and now entrepreneurship to assess the one that would have minimal risks in as far as sustainable economic development is concerned. The researcher purports that the entrepreneurship factor can extend quite a number of advantages through innovation, product development, and competitiveness, thus creating a more sustainable economic development. This research analysis brings together the discussion on the entrepreneurship factor and its relationship with sustainable economic development. Therefore, it should be a great resource to the managers and policy makers in their quest to enhance sustainable economic development especially in a strategic context.

  13. Measuring the Degree of Local Administration Action in Economic Development

    Elena Botezat


    Full Text Available The attentive diagnosis of the local economic basis, the deep understanding of the obstacles that confront the economic growth and the investments, the elaboration and the implementation of certain strategies to facilitate the investments are the means by which the local authorities can assure the future of the local community which voted them. The present paper proposes to measure the effectiveness and efficacity of their activity by lying the basis of the methodology of calculating the degree the local authorities imply themselves in the local economic development and its impact upon the financial mana¬gement performance of a certain town. Only a management that sustains the local economic development can lead to the permanent growth of the economic basis, which generates permanent development.

  14. Multiple Forces Driving China's Economic Development: A New Analytic Framework

    Yahua Wang; Angang Hu


    Based on economic growth theory and the World Bank's analytical framework relating to the quality of growth, the present paper constructs a framework that encompasses physical, international, human, natural and knowledge capital to synthetically interpret economic development. After defining the five types of capital and total capital, we analyze the dynamic changes of these types of capital in China and in other countries. The results show that since China's reform and opening up, knowledge, international, human and physical capital have grown rapidly, with speeds of growth higher than that of economic growth. As the five types of capital have all increased at varying paces, the savings level of total capital in China has quadrupled in 25 years and overtook that of the USA in the 1990s. The changes in the five types of capital and total capital reveal that there are progressively multiple driving forces behind China's rapid economic development. Implications for China's long-term economic development are thereby raised.

  15. Comprehensive Evaluation of the Economic Development Level of Guanzhong-Tianshui Economic Zone Using Principal Component Cluster Analysis

    Chunxiang; ZHAO; Xinrong; YAN; Xu; GUO


    Based on 10 years of statistics concerning economic development in Xi’an as the main part of Guanzhong- Tianshui Economic Zone, this article builds the main indicator system to reflect economic development. Using two mathematical methods( principal component analysis and cluster analysis),we carry out comprehensive evaluation analysis of the main economic indicators,point out the distribution differences in the economic development level in this region,and make classification,in order to provide a scientific basis for the decision- making body to lay down the relevant economic development strategies in accordance with the economic development level and geographical location.

  16. Cultural Tourism – a Model for Economic Development

    Mihaela-Carmen MUNTEAN


    Full Text Available Tourism is a complex activity whose development is manifested in a fast pace, which in the last period determined it to become one of the most spectacular phenomena of recent decades, with important economic effects and particularly, social and human effects. This form of cultural tourism is identified as an engine for development and promotion of local cultural identities, offering neighboring communities an opportunity to preservation of cultural heritage as a resource for socio-economic local development. Thus, cultural tourism is the boundary between culture and tourism industry, its development influencing each other. Cultural tourism is a form of economic development based on cultural resources, contributing to national economic development.

  17. A Process-Discursive Approach to Community Economic Development.

    Walter, G. R.


    When market-based growth fails to improve community economic development, an alternative approach to economic analysis is a process-discursive method, which considers the roles of human agents and importance of information about reality as experienced by individuals. The process model of community-sensitive transformation is participatory and can…

  18. Innovation systems, saving, trust, and economic development in Africa

    Pamuk, H.


    The five essays in the dissertation explore the interaction between economic development in Africa and three economic concepts from different fields: decentralized agricultural innovation systems, trust and saving practices. A relatively new view to boost agricultural growth is the implementation of

  19. Mathematical programming based approaches for classes of complex network problems : economical and sociological applications

    Nasini, Stefano


    The thesis deals with the theoretical and practical study of mathematical programming methodologies to the analysis complex networks and their application in economic and social problems. More specifically, it applies models and methods for solving linear and integer programming problems to network models exploiting the matrix structure of such models, resulting in efficient computational procedures and small processing time. As a consequence, it allows the study of larger and more complex n...

  20. Economic development and the transition to democracy a formal model

    Baizhu Chen; Yi Feng


    In this essay, we have developed a rational choice model to study the transition to democracy. Such a model implies that the change or maintenance of a political system is the result of rational decisions by individuals, interest groups, and political parties under specific constraints. Our analysis shows that political systems are critically dependent upon the level of economic development. If a nation is at the lower stage of economic development, and, particularly, if its citizenry is poor...

  1. Human Capital Development and Economic Growth: The Nigeria Experience

    God’stime Osekhebhen Eigbiremolen; Uchechi Shirley Anaduaka


    This study employs the augmented Solow human-capital-growth model to investigate the impact of human capital development on national output, a proxy for economic growth, using quarterly time-series data from 1999-2012. Empirical results show that human capita development, in line with theory, exhibits significant positive impact on output level. This implies that human capital development is indispensable in the achievement of sustainable economic growth in Nigeria, as there is an increase in...

  2. Economic Growth——"Sound and Rapid" Development



    Sound and rapid development is an intrinsic requirement in the implementation of the "scientific outlook on development" and represents an important change in the concept of economic development. This article, reviews past achievements under the guidance of "rapid and sound" development, and brings to light the reasons why we need to pursue "sound and rapid" development and how it can be achieved.

  3. Organizational support for the formation of the program of economic and social development of Donetsk city


    Article analyzes the organizational structure and the interaction between the participants of the formation of the program of socio-economic development of Donetsk city, systematizes their functions, identifies problems and to substantiates directions of organizational interaction of responsible executives and program coordinators. The main result is the set of regulations and recommendations for the creation of organizational support for the formation of the program of economic and social de...

  4. Global trends of economic diplomacy development under globalization

    O.L. Kanishchenko


    Full Text Available This article is devoted to global trends of economic diplomacy development in the context of globalization. Among the main factors that influence on the development of instruments of international economic diplomacy important role play political factors. They play key role in determining prospects for economic entities international cooperation and priorities of their business communication with representatives of other political systems. The most important in the political environment analysis is: (1 to study of political system characteristics to determine the main parameters and features of integrated political symptoms interaction and political forces subordination; (2 to determine the status of political stability in order to predict political priorities, create an atmosphere of political loyalty, and promote political conditions; (3 to assess political risks in order to predict certain expected and unexpected conflicts and to identify ways of their overcoming. Also on development of international economic diplomacy instruments influence such factors as economic environment, factors of socio-cultural environment, technological environment, physical environment, etc. Bright examples of negative tools of economic diplomacy implementation are: periodic “gas war” between Russia and Ukraine; prohibition by the Russian Federation on the import of Ukrainian dairy products, juices, soybean, soybean meal, sunflower and corn grits, potatoes, canned vegetables, canned fish, fruits, vegetables and herbs in 2014; economic sanctions by Western countries against Russia. The aim of the article. The aim of article is studying modern trends of development of economic diplomacy in context of globalization. The results of the analysis. Key point of argumentation of this article is that significant increase of national wealth in many countries in the second half of the 20th century is largely connected with intensification of economic diplomacy in all

  5. Population growth and economic development revisited with reference to Asia.

    Jha, S C; Deolalikar, A B; Pernia, E M


    "This article takes another look at the old issue of population growth and economic development in the context of recent developments and with the benefit of the increasing stock of knowledge on the subject. It first presents a demographic perspective; then it analyzes the implications of population growth with respect to such integral aspects of economic development as human capital accumulation, income distribution and poverty, the environment, and sustainable economic growth. The approach in each case is to review the theoretical considerations, survey the empirical evidence, and then draw policy implications. An overall conclusion with implications for policy caps the paper." The geographical focus is on Asia.

  6. Empiric Study about the Mix Fiscal Policy – Economic Development

    Alexandru Sergiu Ocnean


    Full Text Available Economic development is one of the primary objectives of any government. Fiscal policy represents one of the most effective tools that government authorities could use in order to influence the economy. Having this in mind, this paper focuses on the connection between economic development and fiscal policy and proposes an empirical study based on a sample of 21 European countries. Using a simple pool data model, we tried to distinguish the relations between the evolution of GDP per capita, as a proxy for economic development, and the evolution of three fiscal policy variables, namely the tax burden, the public expenditure to GDP ratio and the budget deficit to GDP ratio.

  7. Empiric Study about the Mix Fiscal Policy – Economic Development

    Alexandru Sergiu Ocnean


    Full Text Available Economic development is one of the primary objectives of any government. Fiscal policy represents one of the most effective tools that government authorities could use in order to influence the economy. Having this in mind, this paper focuses on the connection between economic development and fiscal policy and proposes an empirical study based on a sample of 21 European countries. Using a simple pool data model, we tried to distinguish the relations between the evolution of GDP per capita, as a proxy for economic development, and the evolution of three fiscal policy variables, namely the tax burden, the public expenditure to GDP ratio and the budget deficit to GDP ratio.

  8. Problem Based Learning and Education for Sustainable Development

    Guerra, Aida


    scientific and technological knowledge but instead align it with the social, economic and environmental dimensions of the professional practice. It is agreed among ESD experts that PBL is a suitable learning approach to integrate ESD in the engineering curricula. This paper provides an overview......An engineering education that integrates education for sustainable development (ESD) perspectives claims for a learning approach centred on students, interdisciplinary and problem oriented, and this cannot be achieve through an “add on” strategy. Example of such active learning approaches...... are problem based learning (PBL), project based learning (PjBL), case study, role play, group discussion, field work, etc. These learning approaches are capable of integrating education for sustainable development (ESD) in engineering education at different levels, and do not aim to substitute the core...


    Janesh Sami


    Full Text Available This study examines the role of remittances and economic growth in banking sector development in Fiji using annual data from 1980-2010. This study finds evidence of long run relationship between banking sector development, remittances and economic growth using bounds testing procedure developed by Pesaran et al. (2001. In addition, our causality analysis based on vector error correction model (VECM and Toda Yamamoto Granger Non Causality test (1995 suggest that there is causality from economic growth and remittances to banking sector development. The study indicates that remittances inflows may not be only important for economic growth but also for development of banking sector. It is thus, important for policymakers to ensure that remittances flow through formal channels.

  10. Economic aspects of solution of the problem of noise in a working zone of the airport

    Е. В. Коновалова


    Full Text Available Considered are the main principles of economic estimation of the measures of reduction of aviation noise in the working zone of the airport, also the method of determining the costs of main­taining the production environment for noise condition and problem of estimation and assessment of costs necessary for efficient correction of acoustics in industrial zone

  11. Psychosocial development and the development of problem behaviour during adolescence

    Ezinga, Menno Arnold Jan


    To what extent does psychosocial development have an effect on problem behaviour development? And does the effect of this development of psychosocial maturity differ for boys and girls? This thesis focuses on answering these questions. The research that is presented aims to identify relations in le

  12. Problems of Induction in Economics context%经济学语境中的归纳问题



    In the scientific development process of economics,traditional problems of induction give rise to the debate between inductivism and deductivism in classical economics.Guderman's "new riddle of induction" is closely related to Friedman's viewpoint that "theory is the tool of prediction".Contemporary methodological debate,from classical economics to neoclassical economics,focuses on new riddle of induction,which is a challenge to the predicting function of economics.The antithesis between induction and deduction results in the methodological dilemma of mainstream economics.%在经济学的科学化进程中,传统归纳问题引发了古典经济学中归纳主义和演绎主义之争,古德曼的"新归纳之谜"与弗里德曼提出的"理论是用于预测的工具"论点密切相关,成为当代经济学方法论论战的焦点。从古典到新古典经济学,归纳问题挥之不去,其中预设的归纳和演绎的对立正是主流经济学方法论困境的主要根源之一。

  13. A Wavelet Kernel-Based Primal Twin Support Vector Machine for Economic Development Prediction

    Fang Su


    Full Text Available Economic development forecasting allows planners to choose the right strategies for the future. This study is to propose economic development prediction method based on the wavelet kernel-based primal twin support vector machine algorithm. As gross domestic product (GDP is an important indicator to measure economic development, economic development prediction means GDP prediction in this study. The wavelet kernel-based primal twin support vector machine algorithm can solve two smaller sized quadratic programming problems instead of solving a large one as in the traditional support vector machine algorithm. Economic development data of Anhui province from 1992 to 2009 are used to study the prediction performance of the wavelet kernel-based primal twin support vector machine algorithm. The comparison of mean error of economic development prediction between wavelet kernel-based primal twin support vector machine and traditional support vector machine models trained by the training samples with the 3–5 dimensional input vectors, respectively, is given in this paper. The testing results show that the economic development prediction accuracy of the wavelet kernel-based primal twin support vector machine model is better than that of traditional support vector machine.

  14. Are smartphones smart for economic development?


    While the worldwide spread of smartphones continues, developing countries have become important markets for these devices. Smartphones´ independence of landline networks qualifies them for communication and Internet access in rural areas of developing countries. Drawing upon rural Southeast Asian survey data, this paper provides probably the first empirical evidence for smartphones´ contribution to households´ income.

  15. Economic Development in West Virginia. Information Series 6.

    Zeller, Frederick A.; Smith, Wil J.

    Excessive unemployment, serious deficiencies in education, housing, welfare, transportation, and government systems are major problems in West Virginia. A historical contributor to the present condition is the decline of the coal industry. Also a contributor is the general apathy of the citizens toward change and economic progress. The state's…

  16. Problem-Solving Learning in the Home Economics Education at Elementary Schools during the Post-Woeld-War II Period

    布川, 和恵; Nunokawa, Kazue


    The purpose of this paper is to explore how the home economics education in school was designed and what kinds of lessons were actually implemented under the tentative Course of Study published in 1947 and its plot, in order to deepen our understanding of problem-solving learning in home economies. For this purpose, first, the development of problem-solving learning in the empiricism education during the post-World-War II period was overviewed, and then two teaching practices were examined. T...

  17. Partnering for Economic Development: How Town-Gown Relations Impact Local Economic Development in Small and Medium Cities

    Massey, Jennifer; Field, Sean; Chan, Yolande


    Universities play an increasingly prominent role in shaping regional, social, and economic development. In Canada, however, spatial, economic, and social differences between universities and their host communities continue to challenge positive town--gown relationships and undermine the benefits associated with high concentrations of prospective…

  18. Cooperatives, Economic Democratization and Rural Development

    Bijman, J.; Muradian, Roldan; Schuurman, Jur


    Agricultural cooperatives and producer organisations are institutional innovations, which have the potential to reduce poverty and improve food security. This book presents a raft of international case studies, from developing and transition countries, to analyse the internal and external challenges

  19. Economic valuation of aquatic ecosystem services in developing countries

    Korsgaard, Louise; Schou, Jesper S.


    -the silent water user. A promising way of placing aquatic ecosystems on the water agenda is by economic valuation of services sustained by ecosystems. In developing countries, the livelihoods of rural people often depend directly on the provision of aquatic ecosystem services. In such situations, economic...... valuation of ecosystem services becomes particularly challenging. This paper reviews recent literature on economic valuation of aquatic ecosystem services in developing countries. "Market price" is the most widespread method used for valuating marketed ecosystem services in developing countries. "Cost based......" and "revealed preference" methods are frequently used when ecosystem services are non-marketed. A review of 27 existing valuation studies reveals a considerable range of estimated total economic value of aquatic ecosystem services in developing countries, that is from US$30 to 3,000/ha/year. The paper concludes...

  20. Undergraduate Research and Economic Development: A Systems Approach in Wisconsin

    Van Galen, Dean; Schneider-Rebozo, Lissa; Havholm, Karen; Andrews, Kris


    This chapter presents the state of Wisconsin and the University of Wisconsin System as an ongoing case study for best practices in systematic, intentional, statewide programming and initiatives connecting undergraduate research and economic development.




    Full Text Available Following the concept of sustainable development and standard economics, we find innovation presented as one of the most important factors of world economic growth. Although most authors focus their research on sustainable development, this paper will instead focus on sustainable innovation. The paper converges on studying innovation from the perspective of sustainable development and sustains several theoretical results in order to show the importance of adopting innovation process which respects sustainable goals. The paper it is also focused on analyzing the importance of creating sustainable innovative products or services within the constraints of economic, environment and social issues. The paper concludes by enhancing the understanding of the sustainable innovation power in economic environment development, correlated with social and natural environment.

  2. Inverse problems in geographical economics: parameter identification in the spatial Solow model.

    Engbers, Ralf; Burger, Martin; Capasso, Vincenzo


    The identification of production functions from data is an important task in the modelling of economic growth. In this paper, we consider a non-parametric approach to this identification problem in the context of the spatial Solow model which allows for rather general production functions, in particular convex-concave ones that have recently been proposed as reasonable shapes. We formulate the inverse problem and apply Tikhonov regularization. The inverse problem is discretized by finite elements and solved iteratively via a preconditioned gradient descent approach. Numerical results for the reconstruction of the production function are given and analysed at the end of this paper.

  3. Developmental State Policy, Educational Development, and Economic Development: Policy Processes in South Korea (1961-1979)

    Kim, Ki Su


    This paper explores two inter-connected issues--the state's role in educational development and educational contribution to economic development--in the policy processes entailed by the South Korean state's pursuit of economic development during the Park Chung Hi era, 1961-1979. It disputes the statist view that South Korea's economic development…

  4. Nuclear energy consumption and economic growth in nine developed countries

    Wolde-Rufael, Yemane [135 Carnwath Road, London SW6 3HR (United Kingdom); Menyah, Kojo [London Metropolitan Business School, London Metropolitan University, 84 Moorgate, London EC2M 6SQ (United Kingdom)


    This article attempts to test the causal relationship between nuclear energy consumption and real GDP for nine developed countries for the period 1971-2005 by including capital and labour as additional variables. Using a modified version of the Granger causality test developed by Toda and Yamamoto (1995), we found a unidirectional causality running from nuclear energy consumption to economic growth in Japan, Netherlands and Switzerland; the opposite uni-directional causality running from economic growth to nuclear energy consumption in Canada and Sweden; and a bi-directional causality running between economic growth and nuclear energy consumption in France, Spain, the United Kingdom and the United States. In Spain, the United Kingdom and the USA, increases in nuclear energy consumption caused increases in economic growth implying that conservation measures taken that reduce nuclear energy consumption may negatively affect economic growth. In France, Japan, Netherlands and Switzerland increases in nuclear energy consumption caused decreases in economic growth, suggesting that energy conservation measure taken that reduce nuclear energy consumption may help to mitigate the adverse effects of nuclear energy consumption on economic growth. In Canada and Sweden energy conservation measures affecting nuclear energy consumption may not harm economic growth. (author)

  5. Economic valuation for sustainable development in the Swedish coastal zone.

    Söderqvist, Tore; Eggert, Håkan; Olsson, Björn; Soutukorva, Asa


    The Swedish coastal zone is a scene of conflicting interests about various goods and services provided by nature. Open-access conditions and the public nature of many services increase the difficulty in resolving these conflicts. "Sustainability" is a vague but widely accepted guideline for finding reasonable trade-offs between different interests. The UN view of sustainable development suggests that coastal zone management should aim at a sustainable ecological, economic, and social-cultural development. Looking closer at economic sustainability, it is observed that economic analyses about whether changes in society imply a gain or a loss should take into account the economic value of the environment. Methods used for making such economic valuation in the context of the Swedish coastal zone are briefly reviewed. It is noted that the property rights context matters for the results of a valuation study. This general background is followed by a concise presentation of the design and results of four valuation studies on Swedish coastal zone issues. One study is on the economic value of an improved bathing water quality in the Stockholm archipelago. The other studies are a travel cost study about the economic value of improved recreational fisheries in the Stockholm archipelago, a replacement cost study on the value of restoring habitats for sea trout, and a choice experiment study on the economic value of improved water quality along the Swedish westcoast.

  6. Capital Freedom, Financial Development and Provincial Economic Growth in China

    Söderlund, Bengt; Gustavsson Tingvall, Patrik


    For more than three decades, China has managed to combine rapid economic growth with a heavily regulated financial sector. The discrepancy between economic and financial development has raised the question of whether China might be an exception to the so-called finance-growth nexus. This study examines the relationship between finance and growth at the provincial level in China using a new set of measures of capital freedom and financial development. The results indicate that capital freedom ...

  7. Restrictive Factors for Economic Growth in Developing Countries

    Bucur Ion; Bucur Cristian


    Economic growth reflects the ability of an economy to produce more goods, in the structure and quality demanded by consumers. Growth influence decisive the existing living standard in a country. Developing countries are characterized in a greater extent than developed countries by insufficient financial resources designed both to increase the volume of investment resources and their efficient use. Increasing economic resources requires investments and lead to increased production.




    Globalization and the crises context have influenced the local economic development in Romania and determined the government to adapt its policies according to them. This paper presents part of the results of a specific research on the impact of globalization and the government policies to the local economic development. The sample was composed by small and medium size enterprises from Bucharest. They are specialized in export of products from three main areas. The research methodology includ...

  9. Transformation of Economic Development Patterns and the Development of Science and Technology are Faced with the Problem and Measures%经济发展方式转变与科技发展面临的问题及措施研究



    本文在总结国内外经济发展方式转变的经验的基础之上,根据我国的实际国情,立足于我国的具体的、历史的、现实的条件,着眼于现代经济发展方式转变与科技进步的关系研究,结合当前我国经济发展中面临的经济结构、资源稀缺程度、沉淀成本等经济发展方式问题和我国科技发展在科技体制、运行机制、科技投入等方面的问题,从市场层面、政府层面、企业层面、人才发展层面提出了创新性对策和建议。%This paper summarizes the domestic and international economic development mode shift, according to China’ s actual conditions, the impact of science and technology, put an end to all the rote, scripted, so that both mutual promotion and common development.Based on development view and dialectical view to look upon the economic development pattern of the impact of scientific and technological progress, and correct analysis the role of this impact and counter productive, combined with the mode of economic development issues facing economic structure in China’ s economic development, resource scarcity, sunk costs and China’ s science and technology development in the science and technology system, run mechanisms, investment in science and technology.Propose innovative strategies and suggestions in the market level, the government level, the corporate level, the level of talent development strategies and suggestions put forward innovative.

  10. Nature's role in sustaining economic development.

    Dasgupta, Partha


    In this paper, I formalize the idea of sustainable development in terms of intergenerational well-being. I then sketch an argument that has recently been put forward formally to demonstrate that intergenerational well-being increases over time if and only if a comprehensive measure of wealth per capita increases. The measure of wealth includes not only manufactured capital, knowledge and human capital (education and health), but also natural capital (e.g. ecosystems). I show that a country's comprehensive wealth per capita can decline even while gross domestic product (GDP) per capita increases and the UN Human Development Index records an improvement. I then use some rough and ready data from the world's poorest countries and regions to show that during the period 1970-2000 wealth per capita declined in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, even though the Human Development Index (HDI) showed an improvement everywhere and GDP per capita increased in all places (except in sub-Saharan Africa, where there was a slight decline). I conclude that, as none of the development indicators currently in use is able to reveal whether development has been, or is expected to be, sustainable, national statistical offices and international organizations should now routinely estimate the (comprehensive) wealth of nations.

  11. The economics of the thermohaline circulation - A problem with multiple thresholds of unknown locations

    Naevdal, Eric [Department of Economics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1095, Blindern, N-0317 Oslo (Norway); Oppenheimer, Michael [Woodrow Wilson School, Princeton University, NJ (United States); Department of Geosciences, Princeton University, NJ (United States)


    A potentially serious environmental threat facing humanity is the possibility of a collapse of the thermohaline circulation. Resulting climate changes, including absolute cooling near Greenland and northwest Europe, could be abrupt. Collapse of the thermohaline circulation may be triggered if the temperature or the rate of temperature change exceeds certain thresholds. The locations of these thresholds are unknown. Economic regulation of this problem requires solution methods for a class of dynamic optimization problems with multiple thresholds located in n-dimensional space. This class of problems has hitherto not been discussed in the literature. We present a model for the economic regulation of CO{sub 2} emissions in the presence of threshold-triggered risk of a collapsing thermohaline circulation and derive optimality conditions for regulation. (author)


    Gheorghe RUSU


    Full Text Available Economic policies and decisions on EU association starting with the begginig of 90’s were pseudo-scientific, contradictory, incoherent because those policies have not based themselves on modern and current economic theories elaborated and promoted by the EU. Actuality. The topic is actual from the perspective of the factors’ analysis which were conducting to delay the association process of Moldova to the EU. At the same time, those were increasing instability, disequilibrium in the national economy and raise of social vulnerability and constraint levels which ultimately increased the gap between the national and EU economic development levels. During the period of 2000-2015, the socio-economic policy of the Republic of Moldova is described more as small and fragmented steps on conceiving economic and financial instruments for the integration into the EU which were reflected in the Neighbourhood Partnership and Association Agreement with the EU. These processes conducted for the state incapacity to define its own objectives and social-economic priorities for the association as well as legitimated a continuous stage of transition to the market economy. The scope of the present article is to propose a real change of the development and social-economic association policies for achieving final objective on integration to EU. The proposals would consist in emphasizing and implementation of the EU economic principles reflected in the neoclassic synthesis and neo-conservative theories; the elaboration and implementation of a new Strategy on economic supervision, coordination and anticipation of the economic disequilibrium; achieve economic stability for diminishing the negative effects of the global and regional crisis on national economy and adaptation of the development policies to the national socio-economic conditions. The methods used for the elaboration and achieving the expected results of the study were analysis and synthesis of the

  13. Social-economic role of small business in services sphere in the progressive development of Russia

    Lyudmila G. Rudenko


    Full Text Available Objective to assess the socioeconomic significance of small business in the services sector of national economy and to develop effective tools of its infrastructural support basing on the characteristics of the services sector. Methods systematic approach was applied to identify the characteristics of small businesses in the services sector methods of comparative and statistical analysis were used to assess the contribution of small business in service sector to the economic development of the country methods of analysis and synthesis revealed problems of development of small business in service sector program and target method was used to develop infrastructural tools to support small businesses. Results social and economic characteristics of small business in services were determined the contribution of small business in service sector into the economic progress of the country was assessed the problems and peculiarities of development of small entrepreneurship in services were identified and examined. Basing on the analysis of problems of small business growth and its role in the progressive development of the economy the necessity of state support is proved and the effective tools of infrastructure support for small businesses are determined basing on the characteristics of the service sector. Scientific novelty the characteristics of small business in services are identified and grouped by economic and social principle the growing contribution of the small business in service sector to the Russian economy is proved and its backlog from the developed economies is confirmed problems hindering the development of small business are identified. Basing on the problems effective tools for small business support are developed and offered. Practical significance the main provisions and conclusions of the research can be used in scientific activity to study the development and infrastructural support of small business in services sectors they can be

  14. Predictor-Corrector Primal-Dual Interior Point Method for Solving Economic Dispatch Problems: A Postoptimization Analysis

    Antonio Roberto Balbo


    Full Text Available This paper proposes a predictor-corrector primal-dual interior point method which introduces line search procedures (IPLS in both the predictor and corrector steps. The Fibonacci search technique is used in the predictor step, while an Armijo line search is used in the corrector step. The method is developed for application to the economic dispatch (ED problem studied in the field of power systems analysis. The theory of the method is examined for quadratic programming problems and involves the analysis of iterative schemes, computational implementation, and issues concerning the adaptation of the proposed algorithm to solve ED problems. Numerical results are presented, which demonstrate improvements and the efficiency of the IPLS method when compared to several other methods described in the literature. Finally, postoptimization analyses are performed for the solution of ED problems.

  15. Financial Development,Human Capital and Economic Growth

    Guihong; WAN


    Financial development and human capital are the important driving forces of economic and social development in Shandong Province,and the level of them as well as the degree of coordination between the two not only affects the transformation of economic development pattern in Shandong Province,but also affects the implementation of leapfrog development strategy in Shandong Province. Through the study,it is found that there is a long-term stable dynamic equilibrium relationship among economic growth,human capital and financial development;the degree of coordination between financial development and human capital in Shandong Province is constantly improved,evolving from imbalance to balance. Obviously,the coordination between financial development and urbanization construction in Shandong Province continues to improve.

  16. Development Economics between markets and institutions

    Bulte, E.H.; Ruben, R.


    This volume in the Mansholt series presents state of the art discussions on a wide variety of topics in the field of (agricultural) development. More than 20 chapters have been prepared by internationally known scholars and policy analysts, providing a concise overview of a variety of recent debates

  17. Relational knowledge leadership and local economic development

    Horlings, Lummina; Collinge, Chris; Gibney, John


    This paper concerns the role of spatial leadership in the development of the knowledge-based economy. It is argued within academic and practitioner circles that leadership of knowledge networks requires a particular non-hierarchical style that is required to establish an ambience conducive to networ

  18. A Study of Sustainable Development of China's State-Level Economic and Technological Development Zones



    State-level economic and technological development zones (ETDZs) are products of China's reform and opening-up policies and a new engine of growth for the Chinese economy. They have made tremendous contributions to the development of the Chinese economy. However,some problems have emerged in the course of this progress and new challenges are still lying ahead. Sustainable development is possible only when the strategy and objectives of development are adjusted, when the integrated investment environment is optimized, when industries are upgraded, when technical innovations are made, when independent innovation capabilities are lifted, when the mode of economic growth is changed, and when innovations are made in government management.

  19. Metaphors of Nature and Economic Development: Critical Education for Sustainable Business

    Helen Kopnina


    Full Text Available Neoliberal discourse often conceptualizes nature in relation to its market utility and economic development. This article will address the role of metaphors in shaping neoliberal discourse in business education. The aim of this article is to reveal reasoning patterns about environmental problems and economic development in students of sustainable business minor. The case study described in this article involves business students at The Hague University in The Netherlands. This case study aimed to explore a shift in student understanding of environmental problems and economic development before and after the intervention. The results suggest that critical curriculum can inform students about the alternative conceptions as well as instruct them about potential solutions to the sustainability challenges. The article culminates with the argument that without goal-oriented education for sustainability; neoliberal education may not permit transcendence from unsustainable practices.

  20. Economic Pressure, Parent Personality and Child Development: An Interactionist Analysis

    Conger, Rand D.; Schofield, Thomas K.; Conger, Katherine J.; Neppl, Tricia K.


    The current economic downturn in the U.S. and around the world has refocused attention on the processes through which families and children are affected by economic hardship. This study examines the response to economic pressure of a cohort of youth first studied 20 years ago as adolescents and now grown to adulthood. A total of 271 of the original G2 adolescents (M age = 25.6 years) participated in the study with their young child (G3, M age = 2.31 years at the first time of assessment) and the child’s other parent in 81% of the cases. Data analyses were guided by the interactionist model which proposed that positive G2 personality attributes during adolescence would predict lower economic pressure during adulthood and would diminish the negative family processes related to economic pressure expected to disrupt competent G3 development. The findings were consistent with this social selection aspect of the interactionist model. The model also predicted that economic pressure and other aspects of the related family stress process would affect G3 development net of earlier G2 personality. This social causation aspect of the interactionist model also received support. The findings suggest that the relationship between economic conditions and child development reflect a dynamic process of selection and causation that plays out over time and generations. PMID:21209795


    Tchai Tavor


    Full Text Available Recent years are a testimony to the astonishing development of the Internet, an increasingly important factor in current lifestyle. Internet advertising, as well, has seen a similar development, since marketers' online advertising budgets are growing as the years go by. In this study, I passed questionnaires to Israeli businesses and checked whether there is a difference in efficiency between two of the following types of online advertisement: banner advertisement and pop-up advertisement. I also characterized the respondents with respect to their preferred type of advertisement. The results of the latter showed that the number of clickers on banner advertisement is higher than that of pop-up advertisement, and that its efficiency rates are higher as well. In addition, the characterization of advertisers gave that the probability to advertise a banner advertisement is higher if the manager is either a female, married, older than 40 and employed in the construction, Car Dealership or wedding industry.

  2. Economic Development and Sectoral Unions in China


    Drawing on qualitative fieldwork in Chinaís Guangdong and Zhejiang Provinces, the author asks how post-socialist unions respond to worker unrest and why the development of sectoral-level bargaining has been uneven in different regions of China. While Zhejiang has had relative success in establishing the organizational infrastructure for sectoral bargaining, Guangdong has had little success despite ongoing attempts by unions. The author explains variation in sectoral-level bargaining through a...

  3. A Collection of Challenging Optimization Problems in Science, Engineering and Economics

    Mehta, Dhagash


    Function optimization and finding simultaneous solutions of a system of nonlinear equations (SNE) are two closely related and important optimization problems. However, unlike in the case of function optimization in which one is required to find the global minimum and sometimes local minima, a database of challenging SNEs where one is required to find stationary points (extrama and saddle points) is not readily available. In this article, we initiate building such a database of important SNE (which also includes related function optimization problems), arising from Science, Engineering and Economics. After providing a short review of the most commonly used mathematical and computational approaches to find solutions of such systems, we provide a preliminary list of challenging problems by writing the Mathematical formulation down, briefly explaning the origin and importance of the problem and giving a short account on the currently known results, for each of the problems. We anticipate that this database will n...

  4. PUBLISHER'S ANNOUNCEMENT: New developments for Inverse Problems


    2006 has proved to be a very successful year for Inverse Problems. After an increase for the fourth successive year, we achieved our highest impact factor to date, 1.541 (Source: 2005 ISI® Journal Citation Report), and the Editorial Board is keen to build on this success by continuing to improve the service we offer to our readers and authors. The Board has observed that Inverse Problems receives very few Letters to the Editor submissions, and that moreover those that we do receive rarely conform to the requirements for Letters to the Editor set out in the journal's editorial policy. The Board has therefore decided to merge the current Letters to the Editor section into our regular Papers section, which will now accommodate all research articles that meet the journal's high quality standards. Any submissions that would previously have been Letters to the Editor are still very welcome as Papers, and can be submitted by e-mail to or online using our online submissions form at Inverse Problems' processing times are already among the fastest in the field—on average, authors receive our decision on their paper in less than three months. Thanks to our easy-to-use online refereeing system, publishing a Paper is now just as fast as publishing a Letter to the Editor, and we are striving to ensure that the journal's high standards are applied consistently to all our Papers, maintaining Inverse Problems' position as the leading journal in the field. Our highly acclaimed Topical Review section will also continue and grow; providing timely insights into the development of all topical fields within Inverse Problems. We have many exciting Topical Reviews currently in preparation for 2007 and will continue to commission articles at the cutting edge of research. We look forward to receiving your contributions and to continuing to provide the best publication service available.

  5. Development Plan for Under- forest Economy of Henan Province Based on Central Plains Economic Region

    Xiaodong ZHAO; Yimin ZHAO


    Firstly,this paper analyzed current situations,major practice and existing problems of under-forest economy in Henan Province.Then,it made an in-depth discussion of guiding thought,principle and objectives,construction task and safeguarding measures of the underforest economic development plan. Besides,it analyzed benefits of the under-forest economic development plan. By 2017,the area of underforest economic land will reach 1. 60 million hm2,create output value of 155. 2 billion yuan( accounting for more than 20% of forest output value),provide 3. 27 million jobs,and will greatly increase ecological carrying capacity of construction and development of the Central Plains Economic Region( CPER).

  6. The problems and threats of innovative development of Russian regions

    Irina Markovna Golova


    Full Text Available Based on the analysis of the main indicators of innovative development of the Russian Federation for 2006–2013, the most acute problems and risks impeding the transition economy of Russian regions to the innovative model are revealed. There are problems of a further narrowing of the science sector, the continued reduction of human scientific potential, extremely slow formation of innovation sector, in particular the small increase of the share of innovation active enterprises, as well as volumes of their new products. The article pays particular attention to the tasks of improving regional innovative policy aimed at creating of the conditions for the formation and expanded reproduction of full-cycle innovation, involvement the business sector in the innovation processes, and the correlation between the regions innovation and socio-economic policies.

  7. Economic Development Benefits of the Mars Hill Wind Farm, Wind Powering America Rural Economic Development, Case Study (Fact Sheet)


    This case study summarizes the economic development benefits of the Mars Hill Wind Farm to the community of Mars Hill, Maine. The Mars Hill Wind Farm is New England's first utility-scale wind farm.

  8. Improvement of the organizational-economic mechanism of developing heat supply city system

    Doroshenko, Valentina


    Full Text Available The article examines a complex of social and economic problems that accompany the development of heat supply systems in Ukraine. It is determined that the negative effects of district heating in the cities and towns are caused by the failure of current management mechanism to ensure the solution of basic problems and implement the heat supply system as life support system. The main goal of study was the development of theoretical, methodological and methodical principles of organizational-economic mechanism of development of heat supply system based on the analysis of problems and reserves of its formation and implementation. Application of the systematic approach methodology has allowed to conclude that the effectiveness of heat supply is determined by the interaction of a complex of interrelated and interdependent components that form the theoretical, methodological and methodical basis of its ensuring - concepts, strategies, programs, the mechanism of formation and development of heat supply system. The result of the study was developing of the conceptual foundations of improvement of organizational-economic mechanism of heat supply system development, based on the principles of civilized paradigm, methodology to improve its main basic elements - the mechanisms of information, organizational, infrastructural, legal, financial support, tariff setting, energy saving motivation, optimal development of heat supply system so as to satisfy individual requirements of consumers with high effectiveness as a combination of social, economic, energy, environmental effects.

  9. Developing a Model for Solving the Flight Perturbation Problem

    Amirreza Nickkar


    Full Text Available Purpose: In the aviation and airline industry, crew costs are the second largest direct operating cost next to the fuel costs. But unlike the fuel costs, a considerable portion of the crew costs can be saved through optimized utilization of the internal resources of an airline company. Therefore, solving the flight perturbation scheduling problem, in order to provide an optimized schedule in a comprehensive manner that covered all problem dimensions simultaneously, is very important. In this paper, we defined an integrated recovery model as that which is able to recover aircraft and crew dimensions simultaneously in order to produce more economical solutions and create fewer incompatibilities between the decisions. Design/methodology/approach: Current research is performed based on the development of one of the flight rescheduling models with disruption management approach wherein two solution strategies for flight perturbation problem are presented: Dantzig-Wolfe decomposition and Lagrangian heuristic. Findings: According to the results of this research, Lagrangian heuristic approach for the DW-MP solved the problem optimally in all known cases. Also, this strategy based on the Dantig-Wolfe decomposition manage to produce a solution within an acceptable time (Under 1 Sec. Originality/value: This model will support the decisions of the flight controllers in the operation centers for the airlines. When the flight network faces a problem the flight controllers achieve a set of ranked answers using this model thus, applying crew’s conditions in the proposed model caused this model to be closer to actual conditions.

  10. Local Economic Development. New generation of actors, policies and instruments

    Helmsing, A.H.J.


    This is a summary report prepared for the UNCDF symposium on Decentralized Local Governance in Africa. The author explains how conditions for local economic development has changed, by distinguishing two sets of forces of change. The first refers to fundamental changes in development policy, while the second in the context of local development refers to what Dicken (1998) called the new 'geo-economy'.

  11. Workforce and Economic Development Annual Report, 2011-2012

    California Community Colleges, Chancellor's Office, 2013


    The California Community Colleges Workforce and Economic Development program (WED program) helps students, incumbent workers, business partners and industries develop skilled competencies in critical industry sectors. As a source for developing and implementing training and curriculum, the WED program is instrumental in helping the community…

  12. Public Health Problems in Low and High Socio Economic Areas of Karachi, Pakistan

    HA Qazi


    Full Text Available "nBackground: Despite many media campaigns by government and private sectors highlighting, water and sanitation treat­ment plans and policies, the public health problems are still common in different socioeconomic areas. The objective of our study was to explore the major public health problems prevailing in two different socio economic areas in Karachi, Pakistan."nMethods: A cross sectional survey was conducted from January 1, 2008, to June 15, 2008. Convenience sampling was used to select the EVACUE housing situated and model village. From each house selected, interviews were conducted based on one participant per house. The main outcome variables were measure of different qualities of drinking water safety, taste, etc. Problems of waste and sanitation included disposal of solid waste and leakage of drainage system in the area."nResults: The results found water quality to be good with safe drinking water and less residents complained in EVACUEE as compared to Model. The results also found better sanitary services with proper drainage system and less open dumping of garbage in EVACUEE as compared to Model."nConclusion: Health problems of drinking water and sanitation were more prevalent in low socio economic areas as com­pared to higher socio economic area.

  13. Behavioral economic measures of alcohol reward value as problem severity indicators in college students.

    Skidmore, Jessica R; Murphy, James G; Martens, Matthew P


    The aims of the current study were to examine the associations among behavioral economic measures of alcohol value derived from 3 distinct measurement approaches, and to evaluate their respective relations with traditional indicators of alcohol problem severity in college drinkers. Five behavioral economic metrics were derived from hypothetical demand curves that quantify reward value by plotting consumption and expenditures as a function of price, another metric measured proportional behavioral allocation and enjoyment related to alcohol versus other activities, and a final metric measured relative discretionary expenditures on alcohol (RDEA). The sample included 207 heavy-drinking college students (53% female) who were recruited through an on-campus health center or university courses. Factor analysis revealed that the alcohol valuation construct comprises 2 factors: 1 factor that reflects participants' levels of alcohol price sensitivity (demand persistence), and a second factor that reflects participants' maximum consumption and monetary and behavioral allocation toward alcohol (amplitude of demand). The demand persistence and behavioral allocation metrics demonstrated the strongest and most consistent multivariate relations with alcohol-related problems, even when controlling for other well-established predictors. The results suggest that behavioral economic indices of reward value show meaningful relations with alcohol problem severity in young adults. Despite the presence of some gender differences, these measures appear to be useful problem indicators for men and women.

  14. Efficient banking system as a factor of sustainable economic development of the regions

    Rulinskаyа, Anna


    In the article the analysis of the financial performance of credit institutions of the Russian Federation and regions of the Central Federal district of the Russian Federation. The topical problems of the creation of an effective banking system, the solution of which is seen as a prerequisite for sustainable economic development of the regions.

  15. Preferential Market Access, Foreign Aid and Economic Development

    Afesorgbor, Sylvanus Kwaku; Abreha, Kaleb Girma

    contributed to the economic development of the beneficiary countries. Focusing on the ACP countries over the period 1970-2009, we show that only the EU preferential scheme is effective in promoting exports and that market access plays a significant and economically large role in the development of beneficiary......Several studies highlight that exporters in developing countries face substantial trade costs. To reduce these costs, a few developed countries mainly Canada, the EU, Japan and the USA granted preferential market access to these exporters. We assess whether these preferential accesses have...

  16. Economics of Developing Hot Stratigraphic Reservoirs

    Greg Mines; Hillary Hanson; Rick Allis; Joseph Moore


    Stratigraphic geothermal reservoirs at 3 – 4 km depth in high heat-flow basins are capable of sustaining 100 MW-scale power plants at about 10 c/kWh. This paper examines the impacts on the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) of reservoir depth and temperature, reservoir productivity, and drillhole/casing options. For a reservoir at 3 km depth with a moderate productivity index by hydrothermal reservoir standards (about 50 L/s/MPa, 5.6 gpm/psi), an LCOE of 10c/kWh requires the reservoir to be at about 200°C. This is the upper temperature limit for pumps. The calculations assume standard hydrothermal drilling costs, with the production interval completed with a 7 inch liner in an 8.5 inch hole. If a reservoir at 4 km depth has excellent permeability characteristics with a productivity index of 100 L/s/MPa (11.3 gpm/psi), then the LCOE is about 11 c/kWh assuming the temperature decline rate with development is not excessive (< 1%/y, with first thermal breakthrough delayed by about 10 years). Completing wells with modest horizontal legs (e.g. several hundred meters) may be important for improving well productivity because of the naturally high, sub-horizontal permeability in this type of reservoir. Reducing the injector/producer well ratio may also be cost-effective if the injectors are drilled as larger holes.

  17. Economic development, rural livelihoods, and ecological restoration: evidence from China.

    Wang, Chengchao; Yang, Yusheng; Zhang, Yaoqi


    This article uses a case study in Southeast China to demonstrate how the substantial changes in rural livelihoods have been driven by a combination of "pull" forces from external economic development, and "push" forces from local areas, leading to a shift in rural household economic activities: household outmigration and de-population of the countryside, changes in energy consumption, and most importantly, changes in land uses and eventually, ecological restoration. Such dramatic changes are becoming common across the Chinese countryside. It is pointed out that economic development has generally caused a deterioration of the environment at least at the early period of economic growth, but the positive impacts, especially in some ecosystem in rural areas, have become more apparent.

  18. Development of Socio-Economic Potential of Russia: Theory and Practice

    Oleg Sergeyevich Sukharev


    Full Text Available The question of assessing and using the socio-economic potential of Russia is considered within the fundamental monograph prepared on the basis of the Institute of Economics of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The main achievements of the large research of the problem of the Russian socio-economic potential conducted by a group of authors with the definition of the most rational and important suggestions for the prospects of the Russian economy are allocated. Certain critical comments are noted, and the author’s position is specified concerning the policy of the new industrialization and innovative development within the modern scientific polemic about the subject and tools of economic policy, and also the need of ensuring it by the system efficiency. The main achievement of the presented teamwork of the scientists of the Ural economic school is the development of a methodological framework and hardware (techniques, models of the diagnostics of the socio-economic potential of the economic system of any level of complexity (despite the main specialization of this school on the regional research and measuring base. These achievements will give the chance of more exact identification of a condition of the system and definition of the direction of its movement, which will make it possible to affect the mode of this dynamics by the economic policy of regional and federal level.


    A. V. Alifanov


    Full Text Available The alloys of Fe-Cr-Ni-C system for the purpose of development the economic alloy paramagnetic (not magnetic steels are investigated. A series of alloys are melted for this purpose, deformation is carried out and a structural state was studied.The area for the selection of the chemical composition of the economic alloy steels with stable paramagnetic properties is defined.


    Khudinsha, E.A.


    Full Text Available The article shows the peculiarities of the English basic economical term origin “economics”, the dynamics of this term development. The lexical unit “economics” was based by the borrowing from Greek and Latin languages and began to be used actively in the meaning of the management of the household and modified to the term “economics” (the main modern economical science component.

  1. Credit Market Development and Economic Growth an Empirical Analysis for United Kingdom

    Athanasios Vazakidis


    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study investigated the causal relationship between credit market development and economic growth for UK for the period 1975-2007 using a Vector Error Correction Model (VECM. Questions were raised whether economic growth spurs credit market development taking into account the negative effect of inflation rate on credit market development. This study aimed to investigate the short-run and the long-run relationship between bank lending, gross domestic product and inflation rate applying the Johansen cointegration analysis. Approach: To achieve this objective classical and panel unit root tests were carried out for all time series data in their levels and their first differences. Johansen cointegration analysis was applied to examine whether the variables are cointegrated of the same order taking into account the maximum eigenvalues and trace statistics tests. Finally, a vector error correction model was selected to investigate the long-run relationship between economic growth and credit market development. Results: A short-run increase of economic growth per 1% induces an increase of bank lending 0.006%, while an increase of inflation rate per 1% induces a relative decrease of bank lending per 1.05% in UK. The estimated coefficient of error correction term is statistically significant and has a negative sign, which confirms that there is not any problem in the long-run equilibrium between the examined variables. Conclusion: The empirical results indicated that there is a unidirectional causal relationship between economic growth and credit market development with direction from economic growth to credit market development and a bilateral causality between inflation and credit market development for United Kingdom. Bank development is determined by the size of bank lending directed to private sector at times of low inflation rates leading to higher economic growth rates.

  2. A closer look at Chinese and Indian economic development



    Both populous and fast-growing, China and India share important similarities. Over the years, comparative studies on both countries, especially in terms of economic development, have become a hot topic around the world. China and India issues have aroused intense attention and interest in international academia. Three articles in this issue examine the race between the dragon and the elephant in the arena of economic development, information industry and software. In his article "A closer look at Chinese and Indian economic development," Prof. Huang Qunhui compares China and India’s economic development from national strategic perspectives based on his first-hand research; in "What China and India can learn from each other in the information industry?" Prof. Shen Kaiyan undertakes a comparative analysis of the development of information industries in China and India; lastly, Prof.Fang Hong’s empirical study looks at competition and cooperation in the Chinese and Indian software industries. This selection of essays begins with overall economic development, moves to a closer examination of the information industry, and then concludes with a look at the software industry, giving us an extremely broad yet also detailed comparison of the economies of these two emerging giants.

  3. A New Hybrid Shuffled Frog Leaping Algorithm to Solve Non-convex Economic Load Dispatch Problem

    Ehsan Bijami


    Full Text Available This paper presents a New Hybrid Shuffled Frog Leaping (NHSFL algorithm applied to solve Economic Load Dispatch (ELD problem. Practical ELD has non-convex cost function and various equality and inequality constraints that convert the ELD problem as a nonlinear, non-convex and non-smooth optimization problem. In this paper, a new frog leaping rule is proposed to improve the local exploration and the performance of the conventional SFL algorithm. Also a genetic mutation operator is used for the creation of new frogs instead of random frog creation that improves the convergence. To show the efficiency of the proposed approach, the non-convex ELD problem is solved using conventional SFL and an improved SFL method proposed by other researchers. Then the results of SFL methods are compared to the results obtained by the proposed NHSFL algorithm. Simulation studies show that the results obtained by NHSFL are more effective and better compared with these algorithms.


    T. Usmanova


    Full Text Available Strategy of social and economic development of regions has to be a basis for formation budgetary and tax and a monetary policy. Formation of strategic plans have to provide an exit to the new level of innovative economic and social development of Russia. Adaptation of the current legislation is necessary for the solution of the set major problems regarding budgetary and tax and a monetary policy in the Russian Federation. The important direction of development of social and economic development of territories is the clustering and formation of projects of the public-private partnership (PPP. Within integration of the countries into the world economy the organizations as systems in the form of clusters and the PPP projects can only be the competitive. Within formation of the organizations as systems it is necessary to provide formation of standards of a sustainable development (SEU for social protection of the population and increase of the human capital.

  5. A hybrid HNN-QP approach for dynamic economic dispatch problem

    Abdelaziz, A.Y.; Kamh, M.Z.; Mekhamer, S.F.; Badr, M.A.L. [Department of Electrical Power and Machines, Faculty of Engineering, Ain Shams University, 1 Elsarayat Street, Abdo Basha Square, Abbassia, Cairo (Egypt)


    This paper introduces a solution of the dynamic economic dispatch (DED) problem using a hybrid approach of Hopfield neural network (HNN) and quadratic programming (QP). The hybrid algorithm is based on using enhanced HNN; to solve the static part of the problem; the QP algorithm for solving the dynamic part of the DED. This technique guarantees the global optimality of the solution due to its look-ahead capability. The new algorithm is applied and tested to an example from the literature and the solution is then compared with that obtained by some other techniques to prove the superiority and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. (author)

  6. Oral-Dental Health Problems and Related Risk Factors Among Low Socio-Economic Status Students

    Deniz Kocoglu


    CONCLUSIONS: Poor socio-economic situation is considered a major risk for dental health however parents with low education, not having toothbrush and not to consume milk per day were risk factors for dental health negatively affect. Providing toothbrush for students with low socioeconomic status and distribution of milk in school can decrease the problems of in terms of dental health for this group [TAF Prev Med Bull 2014; 13(6.000: 479-486

  7. Innovative clusters: a solution for the economic development of Romania

    Mihaela-Cornelia DAN


    Full Text Available The Europe 2020 Strategy emphasizes the importance of the smart, sustainable and inclusive growth. The flagships of the strategy (digital agenda for the EU, innovation union, resource efficient Europe, industrial policy for the globalization agenda are setting the frame for economic development. Innovative clusters are seen as a solution to the crisis, a tool for competitiveness and regional development. Given the economic situation of Romania we bring in discussion the potential of clusters in our country and the arguments and critics regarding their development.

  8. The economics of agricultural development: what have we learned?

    Roumasset James


    Full Text Available Agricultural development thinking has gone through several stages of fad and fancy, often without an understanding of previous fallacies. Its current doldrums are unfortunate given the unrivaled importance of agricultural development for poverty reduction in most development countries. After reviewing several policy and program areas, lessons are synthesized, and a forward-looking research framework suggested, especially regarding role of specialization in the evolution of economic organization. The corresponding role of government is seen to be the facilitation of economic cooperation, rather than social engineering.

  9. Analysis on the Environmental Factors of Sustainable Economic Development

    Qu Haoyang


    @@ 1.China's environmental problems 1) Serious water pollution.Water is most indispensable to people's life.Contaminated water will seriously affect people's normal life and cause environmental degradation, putting people in the danger of catching various diseases.Therefore, everyone should save water and make full use of it.However, in China, water pollution is getting worse.China has abundant water resources but there are still some regions frequently suffering from draught and lack of water.Especially in recent years, following the rapid economic growth, the increasingly serious problem of water pollution is presenting hazards for people's life, which needs the attention of the central government.

  10. The Sino-British Economic and Trade Relationship: Achievements, Problems and Prospects



    After the founding of New China, Sino-British economic and trade relations went through ups and downs. Since China's adoption of the policy of reform and opening to the outside, especially since the return of Hong Kong to China, bilateral economic and trade relations have entered a new stage of sound expansion. The United Kingdom has become China's third biggest trade partner in Europe while China has become the tenth biggest supplier of Britain's imported goods. The establishment of a comprehensive strategic Sino-British partnership the extensive exchanges at all levels between the two countries, the obvious and great economic complementarities between the two countries and the smooth return of Hong Kong with the successful implementation of the "one count~,, two systems "policy in Hong Kong SAR, have opened broad prospects for the expansion of bilateral economic and trade relations between China and the U. K. However, at present, there still exist some problems, such as too small a proportion of bilateral trade in the two countries' respective foreign trade, too small an absolute amount of British investment in China, etc. With efforts by both sides, the mutually beneficial economic and trade relations between China and the U. K. are bound to grow further in the future.

  11. Innovative economic structures – support for development of urban systems

    Florin Marian Buhociu


    Full Text Available Training and development of urban systems (US is a main direction of territorial and regional development which requires multiple studies, including those of economic background. They should aim to highlight, on the one hand, the economic potential of geographical areas making up the urban system and secondly to assess development trends you need to focus their own resources and those that are to be attracted to getting a economic trend upward in that area. It is therefore very important a zonal configuration of the urban system by following the joint capitalization of existing human and material resources, including by building synergy effect to be achieved following the joint evolution of settlements in the US. Along with the development of US is required, from the economical point of view, to implement new forms of economic structures to directly potentate the development of the area through constant cooperation, innovation and transfer of know-how. Romania currently has seven major urban centers that were selected and were assigned the role of growth poles. There were also 13 designated urban growth poles, including Galati and Braila. Urban agglomeration formed by the two municipalities, located at a distance from each other of about 25 km, is the second largest in the country after Bucharest. There is currently underway specialized documentation to achieve an optimal configuration for US Galati-Braila. From the economic point of view in the respective area can be implemented new development structures of cluster (Porter, M.E.,2000 type aimed at achieving the competitiveness poles and which will constitute the true engine of economic development. These two new structures of economic development are characterized by the fact that they allow and provide the necessary conditions to attract the systems and modern technologies to build local innovation systems that can be integrated into similar systems at regional and even national level. It is

  12. Cultural differences and economic development of 31 countries.

    Nadler, Scott; Zemanek, James E


    To update and extend the empirical research of Hofstede, the influence of culture on 31 nations' economic development was examined and support for modernization theory provided. Per capita gross domestic product, literacy rates, the negative of the population growth rate, and life expectancy development data were collected from 31 countries. The pattern of correlations among measures provided partial support for Hofstede's 1980 findings.

  13. Comprehensive Evaluation of Circular Economic Development in North Anhui Province

    Hu, Shuheng; Zhang, Simei; Chen, Guangzhou; Xu, Min


    In view of the characteristics of north Anhui Province, an index system was constructed for evaluating the development level of circular economy according to relevant principles, Principal Component Analysis and Analytic Hierarchy Process were adopted to evaluate the circular economic development in north Anhui Province, and corresponding measures were put forward to promote the circular economy in north Anhui Province.

  14. Nascent Entrepreneurship and the Level of Economic Development

    A.R.M. Wennekers (Sander); A.J. van Stel (André); A.R. Thurik (Roy); P. Reynolds (Paul)


    textabstractBased upon two strands of literature, this paper hypothesizes a U-shaped relationship between a country’s rate of entrepreneurial dynamics and its level of economic development. This would imply a different scope for entrepreneurship policy across subsequent stages of development. Regres

  15. Understanding Economic and Management Sciences Teachers' Conceptions of Sustainable Development

    America, Carina


    Sustainable development has become a key part of the global educational discourse. Education for sustainable development (ESD) specifically is pronounced as an imperative for different curricula and regarded as being critical for teacher education. This article is based on research that was conducted on economic and management sciences (EMS)…


    A. Zalievska-Shyshak


    Full Text Available The nature and value of natural resources payments under sustainable economic development are revealed. Mechanisms of using of natural resources potential of Ukraine are examined. Payments for use of natural resources is one of the most important components of an economic mechanism of nature management are established. Features of current legislation as to the setting fees for nature management are studied and the necessity of creating an effective institutional support in controlling of tax authorities for the collection of payments for natural resources and their evaluation is proved.

  17. Exploration on Relativity of Modern Economic Science: Viewpoint Based on Sustainable Development

    Liu Xuemin


    Modern economics is a market economic theory and a necessary knowledge for people to understand market economy. However, when modern economic science puts in a "great economic system", modern economic science seems to be little convincing and even deviates from the science of sustainable development. This shows that modern economic science has relativity, and must be transformed by the idea of sustainable development.

  18. Main Problems and Prospects of Audit Development in Ukraine

    Sobolev Volodymyr M.


    Full Text Available The article analyses influence of the world crisis phenomena upon the national economy, shows a significant necessity of using international reporting standards. It justifies a necessity of strengthening financial control, the goal of which is to detect shortcomings in financial reports and recommendations regarding their elimination in order to ensure trustworthiness of reports. It considers main problems of audit activity and identifies necessary measures and ways of their solution. It reveals and justifies possible directions of prospective development of audit in Ukraine with consideration of the process of transition of economic subjects to international standards of financial reporting and marks out a necessity of strengthening the role of the state institutions in further audit development. It analyses the insufficient control over the quality of audit services and statistical material regarding the number and specific features of operation of audit firms and private auditors in Ukraine.

  19. Joint venture capital investment for clean technologies and their problems in developing countries.

    Doelle, H W


    All technological developments are aimed at improving the quality of life of a community of people. Biotechnology is a technology which allows the exploitation of microorganisms, plants and animal cells to take place within an economic framework. Developing countries are looking for programmes achieving sustainable, economical growth conducive to a higher per capita income of the community. Any joint venture which promises social advances and economic benefits will have to be rural-based. This presentation discusses the need for a change in fermentation industry attitudes to allow joint venture capital investment in clean technologies together with the problems developing countries face for the implementation of such technologies.

  20. Geo-economic development scenarios for the republic of Azerbaijan

    Cheshmi Hajiyeva


    Full Text Available The paper provides systematic analysis of Azerbaijan’s geo-economic development potential scenarios in the context of multivariation and multi-vector nature of the existing economic development paradigm. Methodological framework of the research was formed based on ‘intersection points’ of the pair ‘post-positivism → post-structuralism’. The author first provided scientific substantiation of the key mono- and multi-factor scenarios of Azerbaijan development based on technogenic and evolutionary competitiveness models. Analysing combination of interrelations between events and processes (such as revolutionary, political, social, military, etc. in the triad ‘country → multidimensional communication space → global economy’ allowed for determining an integrative approach to formation of a single scenario for providing high competitive status of the country and its economic impact expansion in the Eurasian continent


    Camelia Surugiu


    Full Text Available Specialists and decision-makers recognize the power of innovation in inducing economic growth and development of regions and countries. The question is how to sustain an innovative environment, in order to generate creative ideas for the market. The authors debate two solutions, namely marketing and fiscal policy, but we have to underline that there are other instruments available to induce innovativeness. This paper submits to the attention, the innovation as being one of the main forces which supports economic development and economic recovery. Governments which sustain enterprises’ innovation of products and process will have many chances to transform economies into developed and prosperous ones. But innovation by itself does not bring always success, and that is why marketers, economists and innovators must cooperate for favourable outcomes to occur.


    N. Kochkina


    Full Text Available The article discusses the impact of gender asymmetry on the socio-economic development of the country. Authors detected factors that determine with high level of the probability social development of the society. Econometric relationship between the level of GDP per capita in comparative prices and the socio-cultural and gender factors are developed and estimated. The analysis showed that the level of individualism, indulgence, economic participation, and political empowerment of women in the society have direct linear correlation with GDP per capita. Power distance has opposite inverse correlation with the level of GDP. Application of regression analysis gave the possibility to divide all countries into 9 clusters with similar features. Two-dimensional matrix included GDP per capita and coefficient of implementation of a country gender and sociocultural potential. The recommendations for stimulating economic growth by smoothing gender gaps are proposed.

  3. Tactical Economics: The U.S. Army’s Tactical Contribution to Economic Development


    Yunus , a scholar whose work with micro-finance and his Grameen Bank earned him the Nobel Peace Prize in 2006. Yunus introduced a novel concept... Yunus suggests that there are four kinds of organizations or organizational philosophies involved with economic development in developing and poverty...situation does not favor the organizations’ presence (i.e., leaving those in need, when they need it most). As an alternative, Yunus makes the case for

  4. Development of New Rural Cooperative Economic Organizations from the Perspective of Institutional Analysis

    Zhihua; BAI


    Appearance of new rural cooperative economic organizations is the result of institutional change and also important institutional arrangement and innovation promoting rural development of China. At present,development of rural cooperative economic organizations is faced with problems of unsmooth operation and management mechanism,lack of supervision mechanism,internal system defect and imperfect law,weak policy support,and imperfect financial system. In this situation,government should take due responsibility from improving legal system,strengthening policy support,deepening rural market reform,and improving rural financial system.

  5. Cooperative Game Among Cities in Urban Agglomerations and Economical Sustainable Development

    Shah Weidong


    This paper analyses redounded profits of cooperation and non-cooperation among cities in urban agglomerations based on game theory. It discusses the problems of economical development among cities with feeble cooperation, and deduces the conclusion that only cooperation of cities produces the maximum profits and realizes Pareto efficiency for cities and urban agglomerations. The paper states that cooperation is the cornerstone of economic sustainable development in urban agglomerations in profits produced by cooperation among cities.Some suggestions to accelerate cooperation among cities are proposed.

  6. Economic development with limited supplies of family labor: Chinese peasant families in balancing demographic and economic requisites.

    Chang, K S


    Family planning (FP) in rural China, particularly the ramifications of the 1-child policy, has profound implications and ramifications for family-centered social and economic life in addition to demographic control. Under a constitutionally endorsed policy of strict birth control, favorable economic opportunities coexisted with the problem of familial labor shortages. Recent reform policies have led to a more relaxed FP environment. The Chinese state is in a dilemma between the need to allow peasant's autonomy in determining the familial work situation and the population pressure on the limited cultivated land. The Chinese experience of rural reform is examined in terms of the complex relationship between population change and economic development which are influenced by the production and welfare activities of the peasant family. The theoretical argument is that a family reliant strategy of economic reform undercuts the effectiveness of population control programs. The ultimate solution lies with sustained industrialization with high labor absorption. National trends and the Dahe People's Commune/Township experience are analyzed. Discussion is focused on the dilemma of FP and family production, old and new evidence of family size and economic performance, welfare outcome of family size, the role of the state in altering the demographic balance sheet, and the strategic response of peasant families to bring families of old designs back and urban migration and proletarianization. It is concluded that there is growing understanding that the causal relationships between population growth and economic development do not clearly support universal population control. Human social organization, not the man/land ratio, shapes the consequences of population growth. The implications for the Malthusian vs. Marxian debate for developing countries are that the resources/population imbalance needs to consider more carefully the human organizational factors. Mao's notions that a

  7. China Needs More Oil to Fuel Its Economic Development


    @@ The Chinese government has always insisted that development should be the theme of China's 10th Five-Year Plan (2001-2005) and the nation should take advantage of all opportunities to speed up development with economic construction as the focal point. However, economic researchers and energy experts were caught off guard by the surprisingly strong pace in oil imports despite their prediction of China's increasing need for crude oil. In addition, the doubledigit growth of oil-related industries such as automobile and transportation sectors has further resulted in rocketing demand for crude oil consumption and imports.

  8. A conference on polymer composites: Infrastructure renewal and economic development

    Creese, R.C.; GangaRao, H. (eds.)


    Infrastructure Renewal and Economic Development identifies new applications of composites in areas that include: mining operations; civil infrastructure and its renewal (highways, bridges, sewers and water pipes); offshore exploration and off-shore dwellings; and power transmission. The papers in this new volume assess these areas' critical needs, delineate how composites meet these needs, estimate economic development that could result, explore the technical and regulatory barriers to progress, and identify agencies capable of enabling composite use expansion in infrastructure renewal. They also identify the materials and processes most relevant to infrastructure renewal, and discuss product and process improvements as well as specifications and standardization.

  9. Economic Impacts of Geothermal Development in Harney County, Oregon.

    Sifford, Alex; Beale, Kasi


    This study provides local economic impact estimates for a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power project in Oregon. The hypothetical project would be in Harney Count. Bonneville Power Administration commissioned this study to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council and its advisors. Harney County was chosen as it has both identified resources and industry interest. Geothermal energy is defined as the heat of the earth. For purposes of this study, geothermal energy is heat capable of economically generating electricity (using available technology). That translates to steam or hot water over 300{degrees}F. Local economic impacts include direct, indirect, and induced changes in the local economy. Direct economic impacts result from the costs of plant development, construction, and operation. Indirect impacts result from household and local government purchases. Induced impacts result from continued respending as goods and services to support the households and local governments are purchased. Employment impacts of geothermal development follow a pattern similar to the economic impacts. The workers associated with plant development bring their families to the area. Additional labor is required to provide support services for the new population. Local government services must also increase to support the new community growth and the geothermal plant itself. These changes yield indirect and induced employment impacts associated with the geothermal plant.

  10. Evaluation of the Economical and Intensive Use of Industrial Land in Chizhou Economic and Technological Development Zone

    Rui; LIU


    Based on the subdivision of industrial land in Chizhou Economic and Technological Development Zone,this paper builds the evaluation indicator system for the economical and intensive use of industrial land in the development zone,to analyze the current situation of economical and intensive use of industrial land. The results show that the levels of economical and intensive use of industrial land vary in the development zone; the factors affecting the intensive degree of various industries also vary; the industry in Chizhou Economic and Technological Development Zone is still in the transition phase from inefficient use to low level of use to intensive use.

  11. Development and Economic Effect of Farmers’ Specialized Cooperatives

    Huide; HUANG; Wanzhen; ZHANG; Enping; LIU


    The paper introduces the present development of farmers’ specialized cooperatives in China, points out that although the cooperatives in China develop rapidly, they are generally small and their advantages cannot be given into full play, and then analyzes the development achievements of the cooperatives, for example, they have realized scale benefits, their management system tends to more mature, the economic value of their brands is improved and they have created great economic benefits. The paper also points out the stable development path for the cooperatives, that is, the cooperatives should cooperate with local villages, and take a path of combined village and cooperative development so that the cooperative members can get a stable income; the cooperatives can also cooperate with local leading enterprises, which can help the cooperatives to manage, sell and form their products brands, thus the cooperatives can get loans easily to solve the capital bottleneck of cooperative development and improve the members’ incomes.

  12. Macro-economic model of aggregate market in the Albanian economy, and relevant problems thereto

    Dr.Sc. Alqi Naqellari


    Full Text Available This paper uses concrete data obtained on the Albanian economy to analyse the positions of aggregate demand/supply curves in the economy. As examples from micro-economics, we have taken the models of Ŵalras and Marshall, to view the possibilities of achieving an economic equilibrium. Data available from the Albanian economy, and from the global economic trends generally, have shown that the positions of curves are such, with differences in their inclination, while the classic position of the aggregate demand curve, with a negative trend, studied in the macro-economic theory, is unique. Therefore, our objective is to try and show the scholars of the field that the macro-economic problems must be viewed in this light, and not through the static scheme used so far. The equilibrium is met not only when the aggregate demand and aggregate supply curves are met, meaning when the aggregate expenditure are equal to aggregate production, but it exists at every moment, independently of whether it is consistent or not, while the pricing trends continue to increase, similar to two other aggregates. The understanding of such a situation should give the possibility to governments and other policy-making institutions to review their positions and relations with monetary and fiscal indicators, in a view of making the organic connection, and increasing their working effectiveness. The paper aims to show how one can define the relation between monetary and fiscal policies necessary to see their role and relevance in the economic growth of a country.

  13. Short Communication: Global warming – Problem with environmental and economical impacts



    Full Text Available Rai SM. 2013. Short Communication: Global warming – Problem with environmental and economical impacts. Nusantara Bioscience 5: 101-104. The present article is focused on global warming, which is an important global problem being faced by the humankind. The article discusses about the causes of the global warming, such as green house gases. The earth receives energy from the Sun in the form of solar radiations with small amount of infra red and ultraviolet rays. A part of these radiations is absorbed by green house gases which results into warming of the earth. These radiations increase temperature on the universe and are one of the most important global problems. The efforts from all the countries of the world are required for reduction of emissions of green house gases.

  14. Water: The conveyor belt for sustainable livelihoods and economic development

    Mapani, Benjamin; Meck, Maideyi; Makurira, Hodson; Magole, Lapologang; Mashauri, Damas; mazvimavi, Dominic; Mul, Marloes


    The theme for the 2014 symposium focused on the contribution of integrated water resources management (IWRM) to socio-economic development. A number of papers presented various methods that could be used to enable society to access clean water; sanitation and provision of water for rainfed and irrigation based agriculture and aquaculture. Water is the engine of development, that drives both money generating ventures as well as activities which cannot be assigned exact monetary value, but are essential for the social and economic well being of communities. It is now accepted that in order to produce most products, the contribution of water has to be factored in; from manufacturing to mining. The role that water plays in the has a much higher economic value than most people realize.

  15. Economic Analysis of Edirne Village Development Cooperatives Union

    I. H. Inan


    Full Text Available In this research, the management activities of Edirne Village Development Cooperatives’ Union were evaluated and revenues and costs required for economic analysis were calculated and profit and loss income statement was estimated for the years 2002, 2003 and 2004. Data for Gross Margin Analysis were supplied from income and loss statement and thus Table comprising gross margins was formed covering all the activities of The Union.Gross Margin Analysis was made in order to determine economic performance of The Union by means of the data obtained from economic results of the operational activities in the years 2002, 2003 and 2004. The Union should develop its present activities so as to survive in the future. Therefore, suggestions were made for the expansion of the profitable activities and to improve nonprofitable activities in order to make them profitable.

  16. 长江经济带:一种流域经济开发的依据、历程、问题和模式选择%The Yangtze River Economic Belt:the Basis, Course, Problems and Model Choice of The Development of a River Basin Economy

    罗清和; 张畅


    长江经济带具有以河流为纽带、产业布局呈梯度分布、生态环境紧密联系三个特征,是一种典型的流域经济。改革开放以来,长江经济带的开发与建设历经从自我发展到上升为国家发展战略四个阶段。然而目前其开发却面临着行政壁垒、生态环境恶化、综合性管理机构缺失、协调体制机制滞后和法律保障不完善等问题。欧洲的莱茵河、多瑙河和美国的田纳西河、密西西比河以及南美洲的亚马逊河等国际流域开发模式的经验与教训,为长江经济带开发提供了有益的借鉴与启示:要保护与有效利用水资源,加强河道整治与建设,完善河流流域管理机制,培植流域产业带和产业集群以及注重生态环境保护。坚持生态优先、绿色发展,共抓大保护,不搞大开发,创设一种流域经济开发的新模式,应该成为长江经济带开发必须遵循的基本原则。%The Yangtze River Economic Belt, characterized by being connected by rivers, gradient industrial distribution and closely related ecological environment, is a typical river basin economy. Since the reform and opening-up, the development and construction of the Yangtze River Economic Belt has experienced four stages, rising from self-development to national development strategy. However, currently its development is confronted with problems of administrative barriers, deterioration of ecological environment, absence of comprehensive management organizations, backward coordination system and mechanism, and imperfect law guarantee system. The experiences and lessons of the development models of the international basins such as Rhine and the Danube in Europe, Tennessee River and Mississippi River in the United States, and the Amazon in South America provide beneficial reference and enlightenment for the development of the Yangtze River Economic Belt: to protect and effectively use water resources; to

  17. Economic, Social and Political Aspect of Globalization on Health in Developing Countries (with Segregation

    Batool Rafat


    Full Text Available Today, scholars and human rights activists for more national and international responsibilities in a "right to health for everyone" exchange ideas and also propose some strategies. One of the major international problems of health hazards result from globalization. The Relationship between globalization and health aspects of economic, technological, political, social, scientific and cultural should be studied. This study intends to review the aspects of economic, social and political globalization on the health. In this case ,Kof index is which includes all three aspects of economic, social and political globalization agenda. The results show that economic globalization has a negative effect on health in developing countries and globalization, social and political effects are positive and statistically significant. The result is the same for both women and men, and there are only minor differences in the coefficients.

  18. ESDA-GIS Analysis of Spatial-temporal Disparity in Rural Economic Development of Guangxi


    On the basis of spatial-temporal perspective,by using the data of farmers’ net income per capita from 1996 to 2007 in counties of Guangxi coupled with the global and local spatial auto-correlation analysis of ESDA and GIS technology,we conduct the empirical research on the rural economic developmental disparity of counties in Guangxi and the evolving characteristics of local spatial heterogeneity.The results show that the rural economic developmental disparity of counties in Guangxi from 1996 to 2007 varies infinitesimally on the whole,and the regions with similar rural economic developmental level have spatial concentrated distribution.Based on these,the local MORAN’S I scatter diagram and LISA concentration diagram are drawn.In comparison with the traditional analytical method,the spatial analytical method of ESDA-GIS can explain the problem of spatial heterogeneity of rural economic development clearly,and have direct visual effect.

  19. Continuous grasp algorithm applied to economic dispatch problem of thermal units

    Vianna Neto, Julio Xavier [Pontifical Catholic University of Parana - PUCPR, Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Undergraduate Program at Mechatronics Engineering; Bernert, Diego Luis de Andrade; Coelho, Leandro dos Santos [Pontifical Catholic University of Parana - PUCPR, Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Industrial and Systems Engineering Graduate Program, LAS/PPGEPS], e-mail:


    The economic dispatch problem (EDP) is one of the fundamental issues in power systems to obtain benefits with the stability, reliability and security. Its objective is to allocate the power demand among committed generators in the most economical manner, while all physical and operational constraints are satisfied. The cost of power generation, particularly in fossil fuel plants, is very high and economic dispatch helps in saving a significant amount of revenue. Recently, as an alternative to the conventional mathematical approaches, modern heuristic optimization techniques such as simulated annealing, evolutionary algorithms, neural networks, ant colony, and tabu search have been given much attention by many researchers due to their ability to find an almost global optimal solution in EDPs. On other hand, continuous GRASP (C-GRASP) is a stochastic local search meta-heuristic for finding cost-efficient solutions to continuous global optimization problems subject to box constraints. Like a greedy randomized adaptive search procedure (GRASP), a C-GRASP is a multi-start procedure where a starting solution for local improvement is constructed in a greedy randomized fashion. The C-GRASP algorithm is validated for a test system consisting of fifteen units, test system that takes into account spinning reserve and prohibited operating zones constrains. (author)

  20. The economics of the provision of rural transport services in developing countries

    Ellis, S. D.


    Rural accessibility planning in developing countries over the last few decades has primarily focused on increasing rural communities access to rural roads. It has been considered that road building improves access to health, education, markets and employment opportunities, and hence promotes economic development. It is argued in this thesis that accessibility, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa, has not improved to the desired extent because the problem of mobility, in terms of...

  1. A non-standard optimal control problem arising in an economics application

    Alan Zinober


    Full Text Available A recent optimal control problem in the area of economics has mathematical properties that do not fall into the standard optimal control problem formulation. In our problem the state value at the final time the state, y(T = z, is free and unknown, and additionally the Lagrangian integrand in the functional is a piecewise constant function of the unknown value y(T. This is not a standard optimal control problem and cannot be solved using Pontryagin's Minimum Principle with the standard boundary conditions at the final time. In the standard problem a free final state y(T yields a necessary boundary condition p(T = 0, where p(t is the costate. Because the integrand is a function of y(T, the new necessary condition is that y(T should be equal to a certain integral that is a continuous function of y(T. We introduce a continuous approximation of the piecewise constant integrand function by using a hyperbolic tangent approach and solve an example using a C++ shooting algorithm with Newton iteration for solving the Two Point Boundary Value Problem (TPBVP. The minimising free value y(T is calculated in an outer loop iteration using the Golden Section or Brent algorithm. Comparative nonlinear programming (NP discrete-time results are also presented.

  2. Making the Connection: Disarmament, Development and Economic Conversion. A Reader.

    Gold, Howard, Ed.

    This document consists of articles which have been selected to provide insight into different aspects of the relationship between the two most pressing and challenging issues of the current time. The first is the need to achieve a just level of economic development for two-thirds of the world's population that live in poverty. The second is the…

  3. Commercialization of University Research for Technology-Based Economic Development

    Ferguson, W. Ker


    This empirical study investigates the hypothesized relationship between US federally funded university research and development (R&D) and its resulting economic impact, as measured by the level of licensing revenue generated by US universities. The author also examines the key operating statistics of the top-ten licensing income-producing…

  4. Economic Disparities in Middle Childhood Development: Does Income Matter?

    Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth


    A large literature has documented the influence of family economic resources on child development, yet income's effects in middle childhood have been understudied. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N = 3,551), the author examined the influence of family income in early and middle childhood on academic skills and…

  5. The Ethics of Economic Development and Human Displacement.

    D.R. Gasper (Des)


    textabstractDevelopment projects have frequently brought clashes between claims for improvement for powerful groups nationwide and worldwide and the rights of marginal groups in project-affected areas, leading to ruinous forced resettlement of the latter. Economic cost-benefit analysis based on the

  6. Economic evaluations of hepatitis B vaccination for developing countries

    H.A.T. Tu; H.J. Woerdenbag; S. Kane; A. Riewpaiboon; M. van Hulst; M.J. Postma


    Economic evaluations, in particular cost-effectiveness, are important determinants for policy makers and stakeholders involved in decision-making for health interventions. Up until now, most evaluations of cost-effectiveness of hepatitis B vaccination have been performed in developed countries. Appr

  7. Rural regions in the EU : exploring differences in economic development

    Terluin, Ida Joke


    Search for driving forces behind economic development in rural regions of the EU From a recent OECD analysis, it appeared that there were dynamic rural regions which showed an employment performance above the national average during the 1980s, and that there were also rural regions whose employment

  8. A Dooyeweerd-based approach to regional economic development

    Aay, H; Van Langevelde, A


    Within regional science there is a need for a general theory of regional economic development, one that evaluates and integrates existing approaches. In this paper, the philosophy of Herman Dooyeweerd is used as a basis for conceptualising the contours of such a theory. Contributions of this philoso

  9. International Inequalities: Algebraic Investigations into Health and Economic Development

    Staats, Susan; Robertson, Douglas


    The Millennium Project is an international effort to improve the health, economic status, and environmental resources of the world's most vulnerable people. Using data associated with the Millennium Project, students use algebra to explore international development issues including poverty reduction and the relationship between health and economy.…

  10. The Economics of Open Source Software Development: An Introduction


    This chapter introduces the fundamentals of Open Source Software, its nature, the central economic aspects and the key mechanisms of its development. Furthermore, we present the themes of the book and provide a first overview for the reader by giving short summaries of its chapters....

  11. Recent Developments in Financial Economics and Econometrics: An Overview

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); D.E. Allen (David); M.J. McAleer (Michael)


    textabstractResearch papers in empirical finance and financial econometrics are among the most widely cited, downloaded and viewed articles in the discipline of Finance. The special issue presents several papers by leading scholars in the field on “Recent Developments in Financial Economics and Econ

  12. Slavery, Statehood, and Economic Development in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Bezemer, D.; Bolt, J.; Lensink, B.W.


    Although Africa's indigenous systems of slavery have been extensively described in the historical literature, comparatively little attention has been paid to analyzing its long term impact on economic and political development. Based on data collected from anthropological records we conduct an econo

  13. Slavery, statehood, and economic development in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Bezemer, D.J.; Bolt, J.; Lensink, B.W.


    Although Africa's indigenous systems of slavery have been extensively described in the historical literature, comparatively little attention has been paid to analyzing its long term impact on economic and political development. Based on data collected from anthropological records we conduct an econo

  14. Population Explosion in Africa and its Implications for Economic Development

    Akinbode, Ade


    Analyzes patterns of population growth in Africa, accounts for the population explosion in certain parts of the continent, and discusses implications of the population growth for economic development. Seven tables and two maps are included in the article. (Author/DB)

  15. The agency problem and medical acting: an example of applying economic theory to medical ethics.

    Langer, Andreas; Schröder-Bäck, Peter; Brink, Alexander; Eurich, Johannes


    In this article, the authors attempt to build a bridge between economic theory and medical ethics to offer a new perspective to tackle ethical challenges in the physician-patient encounter. They apply elements of new institutional economics to the ethically relevant dimensions of the physician-patient relationship in a descriptive heuristic sense. The principal-agent theory can be used to analytically grasp existing action problems in the physician-patient relationship and as a basis for shaping recommendations at the institutional level. Furthermore, the patients' increased self-determination and modern opportunities for the medical laity to inform themselves lead to a less asymmetrical distribution of information between physician and patient and therefore require new interaction models. Based on the analysis presented here, the authors recommend that, apart from the physician's necessary individual ethics, greater consideration should be given to approaches of institutional ethics and hence to incentive systems within medical ethics.

  16. Problems and prospects of post-crisis development of entrepreneurship: a regional aspect

    P.A. Fisunenko


    Full Text Available In the article discussed the problems and prospects for development of entrepreneurship in the Ukraines regions. Determined that the development of business should be to Ukraine major means of overcoming economic depression and the resumption of growth based on a qualitative modernization of the economy.

  17. OECD Highlights China's Role in Economic Development of Latin America


    @@ Xinhua reported on October 28 that Latin America had been more resilient to the economic crisis by diversifying commercial and financial exchanges with Asian economies, with China as the main driver in the last three years, said Angel Gurria, General Secretary of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), in Asuncion, Paraguay.During the Ibero-American business forum within the Ibero- American Summit, to be opened Friday evening, Gurria made a speech on the theme "Towards a more sustainable trade and investment between Latin America and China".

  18. Electronic money in russia: current state and problems of development

    T. G. Bondarenko


    Full Text Available Article is devoted to urgent problems of non-cash methods of calculation development by using electronic money – as one of the modern economically developed state strategic tasks. On modern economic science strong influence appears informatization process. The control expansion tendency, influence and distribution of commerce due to informatization of society led to emergence of the new phenomenon – information economy. Information economy brought new economic events which owing to their novelty are insufficiently studied to life. It is possible to carry electronic money to such phenomena of modern network economy Relevance and, in our opinion, timeliness of this scientific work, consisting in novelty of this non-cash payment method, its prospects and innovation within non-cash methods of calculations. Authors set as the purpose – studying of problems and the prospects of development of electronic money in the Russian Federation. In article theoretical bases of electronic money functioning are described. Determinations and classifications dismissed non-cash a method, and also the principles of electronic money functioning are considered, the questions of their historical development are raised.Authors analyzed statistical data on development of electronic services and channels of their using. Features, benefits and shortcomings of the current state of the market of electronic money are studied. The emphasis on that fact that in modern conditions considerable number of economic actors perform the activities, both in the real environment of economy, and within the virtual environment that promotes expansion of methods of their customer interaction by means of technical devices of personal computers, mobile phones is placed. In article common problems and tendencies of payments with using an electronic money are designated, the research on assessment of the current state and the prospects of electronic money

  19. On the Integration and Synchronization of the Economic Development

    Elena Viktorovna Kurushina


    Full Text Available Modern trends are associated with the integration and globalization. Integration is an immanent property of all systems and is the result of the evolution. Integration has its positive and negative effects. The degree of the progress towards the global economy is measured by the integration level in terms of the market integration indicators and the economic convergence. The latent characteristic of the globalization as a process of a unified system creation is the synchronization assuming the coincidence of the economic development ascending and descending trends in time. The coincidence of the tempo-rhythms is studied on the basis of coefficients of the pair correlation of relative growth rates of GDP for 1995-2010 in 175 countries. The very high degree of synchronization of economic dynamics is revealed in the European Union countries and in the United States. The low level of the tempo-rhythm synchronization is registered on the territory of the CIS countries. Russia occupies 29th position in the world ranking. The study of the dependence of the economic instability in the world during the crisis of 2008-2009 on the level of the tempo-rhythm coincidence shows that the more synchronized economic dynamics is, the greater excess coefficient of the average dynamics is observed during the crisis period. In 2009 it manifested itself in a greater reduction of the GDP growth rates in the European countries relatively the average wave dynamics in the pre-crisis period. The obtained results are of interest from the perspective of the substantiation of the regional economic group creation and in the context of the measures on increasing the economic stability.

  20. Linking socio-economic development and environmental pressures

    Katja Vintar Mally


    Full Text Available Sustainable development paradigm requires new approaches to the study of linkages between socio-economic development and its accompanying environmental pressures. To this end, a three-level regional geographic model of interactions has been developed. This new index attempts to evaluate the level of general balance of development in each country or region, upgrading well established human development index by an environmental aspect (i.e. ecological footprint and consequently strongly modifying deeply rooted images of wellbeing in the world.


    Polidi A. A.


    Full Text Available The article proves the need of identification and classification of the most relevant factors of the sustainable balanced development of the regional economic system (RES. Substantial filling of the category "sustainable balanced development" which is accepted within the real research is designated. On the basis of the analysis of the classifications of factors of the sustainable balanced development of economy of the region presented in scientific literature their discrepancy modern is established to conditions of globalization of the economy causing increase of a role of foreign economic activity of territorial subjects of the Russian Federation in ensuring their long-term competitiveness. Proceeding from the last, within the classification of factors of the sustainable balanced development of RES offered by authors the following their groups are allocated: global, national, regional. For each of the designated groups we substantiated the set of relevant factors

  2. Economic development and coastal ecosystem change in China

    He, Qiang; Bertness, Mark D.; Bruno, John F.; Li, Bo; Chen, Guoqian; Coverdale, Tyler C.; Altieri, Andrew H.; Bai, Junhong; Sun, Tao; Pennings, Steven C.; Liu, Jianguo; Ehrlich, Paul R.; Cui, Baoshan


    Despite their value, coastal ecosystems are globally threatened by anthropogenic impacts, yet how these impacts are driven by economic development is not well understood. We compiled a multifaceted dataset to quantify coastal trends and examine the role of economic growth in China's coastal degradation since the 1950s. Although China's coastal population growth did not change following the 1978 economic reforms, its coastal economy increased by orders of magnitude. All 15 coastal human impacts examined increased over time, especially after the reforms. Econometric analysis revealed positive relationships between most impacts and GDP across temporal and spatial scales, often lacking dropping thresholds. These relationships generally held when influences of population growth were addressed by analyzing per capita impacts, and when population density was included as explanatory variables. Historical trends in physical and biotic indicators showed that China's coastal ecosystems changed little or slowly between the 1950s and 1978, but have degraded at accelerated rates since 1978. Thus economic growth has been the cause of accelerating human damage to China's coastal ecosystems. China's GDP per capita remains very low. Without strict conservation efforts, continuing economic growth will further degrade China's coastal ecosystems.

  3. Economic development and coastal ecosystem change in China.

    He, Qiang; Bertness, Mark D; Bruno, John F; Li, Bo; Chen, Guoqian; Coverdale, Tyler C; Altieri, Andrew H; Bai, Junhong; Sun, Tao; Pennings, Steven C; Liu, Jianguo; Ehrlich, Paul R; Cui, Baoshan


    Despite their value, coastal ecosystems are globally threatened by anthropogenic impacts, yet how these impacts are driven by economic development is not well understood. We compiled a multifaceted dataset to quantify coastal trends and examine the role of economic growth in China's coastal degradation since the 1950s. Although China's coastal population growth did not change following the 1978 economic reforms, its coastal economy increased by orders of magnitude. All 15 coastal human impacts examined increased over time, especially after the reforms. Econometric analysis revealed positive relationships between most impacts and GDP across temporal and spatial scales, often lacking dropping thresholds. These relationships generally held when influences of population growth were addressed by analyzing per capita impacts, and when population density was included as explanatory variables. Historical trends in physical and biotic indicators showed that China's coastal ecosystems changed little or slowly between the 1950s and 1978, but have degraded at accelerated rates since 1978. Thus economic growth has been the cause of accelerating human damage to China's coastal ecosystems. China's GDP per capita remains very low. Without strict conservation efforts, continuing economic growth will further degrade China's coastal ecosystems.

  4. Biobased Lubricant Development - Problems and Opportunities

    Biobased lubricants are those comprising ingredients derived from natural sources such as those harvested from farms, forests, etc. Biolubricants provide a number of economic, environmental and health benefits over petroleum-based products. Among these are: biodegradability, renewability and non-t...


    colantonio emiliano


    Full Text Available The international economic crisis of 2007 has had long-lasting negative effects on the financial markets and the real economy of many countries. The occurred uncertainty and the complications of the balance sheets of many banks, due to the strong international connections, particularly impacted on the ability and willingness of financial market, on granting credit to consumer households and companies. Credit, and the financial system in general, represent according to the economic literature, one of the determinants of economic development and, particularly, its efficiency determines the speed of growth and the potential level. The difficulties in the transmission of monetary policy and the structural inefficiency have worsened the negative effects of the economic crisis in many European countries, including Italy, where large differences in the socio-economic context of the various macro-areas still persist. The role of banks is to exploit tools and knowledge to the best addressing of funds, by subjects in excess to those in deficit, or towards who may exploit them for productive purposes. In addition, banks are locally a guidance to entrepreneurs and an entity aware of the local needs and potentials. In this paper we combine several variables on the credit and the quality of banking contracts, in addition to real economic and R&D variables, with reference to the Italian regions. The aim is to identify structural differences among the Italian regions in terms of financial and economic development, and in addition to observe the discrepancy between the various macro areas, even considering the effects of the international financial crisis broken out in the U.S. in 2007. We consider data over sufficiently long periods before and after the advent of the crisis and the long subsequent period of economic recession. The detail of the analysis is regional, in order to have a sufficient number of contexts that are grouped into homogeneous groups

  6. The migration policy of developed Socialist society: problems of improvement.

    Khomra, A


    In the USSR the need for migration policy stems from objective processes in the development of socialist production and from its constant structural and territorial modifications, which are particularly palpable under current conditions, at a time when vast new regions are undergoing intensive development. Migration policy, to play the part of an effective instrument for exerting a purposeful influence on migration processes, must be stable in its basic directions and relatively flexible when it is necessary to react quickly to changes in various relatively local circumstances. The determination of criteria of optimization of migration processes is of paramount significance for the solution of problems of migration policy. The improvement of migration policy under the conditions of developed socialism must be based on the known patterns of reproduction of the population. At the same time it is necessary to consider the fact that the migration of the population proper can be considered as the source of regional differences in this reproduction and simultaneously is their consequence to a considerable degree. Consequently, 1 of the approaches to the elaboration of migration policy measures is oriented toward the equalization of conditions of population reproduction at the settlement and regional level. Many investigators of the problem of retaining youth in the countryside and of attracting skilled persons to rural areas believe the optimization of the productive and nonproductive spheres of activity to be the solution. Migration policy is implemented at 3 levels: the population as a whole; the collective; and the individual. Migration policy measures are divided according to the nature of their impact on the population into economic, moral, and administrative categories with the leading role assigned to economic measures. Among the economic measures that stimulate migration, a leading role is played by cash payments in the form of wage increases and one time grants

  7. Influence of economic sanctions on the development of Russian tourism

    Irek Ilgizarovich Ziganshin


    Full Text Available Objective to estimate the influence of economic sanctions on the current state of the Russian tourist market. Methods analysis and synthesis historicallogical and economicstatistical methods. Results the presanction condition of the tourist market is compared with its current condition. The problem aspects of the Russian tourist sector are shown. The complex estimation is given to the tense situation in the Russian tourist market. Practical value the main provisions and conclusions of the article can be used for tourism arrangement and predicting the entrance and exit tourist flow. nbsp

  8. Cyclicality of Economic Development of Ukraine in the Context of its Political and Legal Transformations

    Stryzhychenko Kostyantyn A.


    Full Text Available The cyclicality in the development of the Ukrainian economy during the years of its independence under conditions of its political and legal transformations has been studied. On the basis of the analysis of worldwide research the problem of influence of political transformations on the socio-economic development of the state has been identified. There has been developed a methodological approach to studying the evolutionary development of the Ukrainian economy in the context of its European integration, which comprises three main blocks: Block 1 – studying the development of the legal field of Ukraine; Block 2 – studying the policy of development of Ukraine and orientation of its economic system; Block 3 – analyzing the evolutionary development of the Ukrainian economy and determining its cyclical nature. Within the developed approach there were used wavelet models, spectral analysis – Fourier expansion and Johanson test. The paper puts forward three hypotheses: hypothesis 1 – about the existence of short-term 5-year cycles of evolutionary development of the economy; hypothesis 2 – about the existence of a long-term cycle lasing 25 years and conditioned by political and legal processes in the society; hypothesis 3 – about the existence of cointegration relationships between the evolutionary development of the economy of Ukraine and the EU. On the basis of the modern political transformations the phases of development of the Ukrainian legal environment have been defined and comparison of these phases with the specifics of its economic development has been carried out. The analysis of the economic system of Ukraine and its policy made it possible to determine the vector of development of the Ukrainian economy. The approximating (trend and detailing (cyclic components of the economic development of Ukraine were determined with the help of wavelet expansion. Using Fourier analysis for the detailing components allowed to distinguish 5

  9. Spatio-Temporal Characteristics of Rural Economic Development in Eastern Coastal China

    Guogang Wang


    Full Text Available Although the regional differences of rural economic development can be easily determined, a challenging problem for research studies regarding rural economic development has been the inter-relatedness between different areas, and this challenge has been noted remarkably little in research data to date. As an empirical investigation, this study analyzes the spatio-temporal characteristics of rural economic development from a period beginning in 1978 to the year 2012, in the eastern coastal region of China. In order to determine the special differentiation characteristics of rural economic development, three indexes, namely the Gini coefficient (G, Tsui–Wang index (TW and Theil index (T, were employed. To explore the inter-relatedness among the different areas, we selected a spatial autocorrelation model. The results indicated that, to a large extent, rural economic development from 1978 to 2012 in the eastern coastal region of China was greatly influenced, and the per capita annual net income changed significantly, due to the process of rapid urbanization and industrialization. Generally speaking, the annual net income constantly increased, from 87.7 USD in 1978 to 1628.1 USD in 2012. However, the calculation results indicated that the per capita income gap in the same province decreased, while the gap between the provinces presented an aggregate trend. The regional polarization widened continuously. It was also found that the spatial positive autocorrelation for the regional economy was significant, with a waving and ascending trend, and the neighbor effect of regional economic growth was continuously strengthened. Qualitative analysis of the driving mechanism was applied, and it was determined that there are three primary factors affecting the development of the rural regions, namely resource endowments, economic location and policies.

  10. Economic journal: problems and prospects of promotion at the national and international level

    Ol’ga Valentinovna Tret’yakova


    Full Text Available The increasing importance of scientific journals for the development of academic science in general, for outlining the main research priorities, for establishing the integrity of research space and continuity of scientific process sets out new issues connected with the development and promotion of scientific titles at the national and international level. The article generalizes the publishing experience of the journal “Economic and social changes: facts, trends, forecast”, issued by the Institute of Socio-Economic Development of Territories of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The author gives the characteristics of the Journal as a scientific publication devoted to the analysis and forecast of changes in the economy and social sphere in different countries, regions and local areas. Special attention is paid to the evaluation of the title according to several dynamic parameters. The article outlines long-term objectives for promotion of the Journal at the national and international level

  11. Optimal control problem for the three-sector economic model of a cluster

    Murzabekov, Zainel; Aipanov, Shamshi; Usubalieva, Saltanat


    The problem of optimal control for the three-sector economic model of a cluster is considered. Task statement is to determine the optimal distribution of investment and manpower in moving the system from a given initial state to desired final state. To solve the optimal control problem with finite-horizon planning, in case of fixed ends of trajectories, with box constraints, the method of Lagrange multipliers of a special type is used. This approach allows to represent the desired control in the form of synthesis control, depending on state of the system and current time. The results of numerical calculations for an instance of three-sector model of the economy show the effectiveness of the proposed method.


    Marko Laketa


    Full Text Available Insufficient competitiveness of small and medium enterprises in Serbia can be significantly improved by a system of business associations through clusters, business incubators and technology parks. This connection contributes to the growth and development of not only the cluster members, but has a regional and national dimension as well because without it there is no significant breakthrough on the international market. The process of association of small and medium enterprises in clusters and other forms of interconnection in Serbia is far from the required and potential level.The awareness on the importance of clusters in a local economic development through contributions to the advancement of small and medium sized enterprises is not yet sufficiently mature. Support to associating into clusters and usage of their benefits after the model of highly developed countries is the basis for leading a successful economic policy and in Serbia there are all necessary prerequisites for it.


    Elena N. UNTARU


    Full Text Available The present paper aims to determine the influence of EU member countries’ economic development on their citizens’ pro-environmental attitudes, using a Cluster Analysis, a Principal Components Analysis and a series of multiple regressions. In this sense, we have used the results of the 2012 survey on the „Attitudes of Europeans towards building the single market for green products”, as well as the 2012 statistical information referring to EU member countries’ economic development, provided by Eurostat. Using multiple regression analyses, we have outlined a significant influence of macroeconomic variables, such as: the employment rate, tertiary educational attainment, GDP per capita, human development index value, unemployment rate, share of gross value added in services and share of employment in services on European citizens’ pro-environmental attitudes.

  14. Software development for the economic model of R.Barro

    Kalimoldayev, Maksat N.; Amirkhanova, Gulshat A.


    In this paper we describe the process of creating software for R.Barro economic model. The goal of the paper is the analysis of existing languages and platforms and selections of them as means for developing advanced software for modeling economic processes, and also the construction of algorithms and programs using traditional and modern methods of software development. Prototyping was selected as an approach for the development, it allows us to obtain in a short time the product, which is available for testing and further improvement in order to meet the requirements. The paper describes the version of the program that meets the recommended requirements, shows the schematic diagram of this program and describes its main functions.

  15. Financial Development and Economic Growth Nexus: The Moroccan Case

    Mohamed Abouch


    Full Text Available The issues of the existence and the direction of causality between inance and growth are not yet settled. Even if theoretical and historical evidences suggest an important contribution of inance to foster economic growth, empirical studies provide conlicting results depending upon  analytical  approaches,  econometric  techniques,  and  used  data  sets.  The  empirical exploration of the links between the development of the Moroccan inancial sector (MFS and the economic performance of the country shed some light on the proile of this relationship. It appears that even if the indicators measuring the degree of development of the MFS have steadily evolved, they are not systematically and signiicantly linked with economic growth. This situation may be explained by the characteristics of the MFS and the existence of other factors, not related to this sector, that hinder economic growth. ";} // -->activate javascript

  16. The Role and Importance of Local Economic Development in Urban Development: A Case of Harare

    Gladys Mandisvika


    Full Text Available The study assessed the role and importance of Local Economic Development as a means of enhancing urban development paying particular attention to the regulators of Local Economic Development in Harare. Local Economic Development is a process which encourages partners from the community, public sector, private sector and non-governmental sectors to work collectively to create better conditions for economic growth and employment generation with the aim of improving the locality economic future and the quality of life for all citizens. The study was premised on the theory of competitive advantage which puts up that prosperity and wealth creation is determined by microeconomic factors and that prosperity means increasing the standards of living for the local people and ultimately their quality of life. Primary data for the research was gathered through observation and key informant interviews. Data on key stakeholders understanding on the concept of Local Economic Development, how it is being practised and how the current regulatory framework enhance or impinge on local people’s participation in Local Economic Development was collected. Secondary data was also collected from Harare’s 2014 budget, census and existing forward plans. The study revealed that the practice of Local Economic Development in Harare is biased towards the setting aside of land zoned for industrial and commercial uses and implementation of development control parameters. Small to Medium Enterprises and the informal sector have also been identified as the major forms of Local Economic Development that citizens are involved in. However, the study revealed that proper policy frameworks which guide practice of Local Economic Development initiatives were missing

  17. Innovative development of Latvia: analysis of problems and directions of national innovative policy formation

    S.A. Stradinya


    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The aim of the article is to identify the reasons for the lack of innovational development in Latvia and to make recommendations on the formation of national innovation policy. The results of the analysis. EU countries are undergoing profound social and economic changes, including: the growing influence of developing countries, ageing populations in the industrialized countries, the unstable political situation. All this require a new approach to innovation, formation of national innovation policy that ensures the increase of the country's competitiveness. There should be created innovative policies that will promote economic restructuring. The article describes the problems and directions of innovative development in Latvia. Innovative development has become the main way to achieve economic growth and competitiveness in all EU countries. The estimation of the economic state of Latvia after joining the EU, is identified as positive aspects and disadvantages in economic development. Thanks to European money Latvian entrepreneurs were able to upgrade their equipment, to enter new markets and to expand production capacity. The identified problems of economic development in Latvia showed the exhaustion of the existing model of the economy. Studies have shown that foreign direct investments led to a qualitative leap in the growth of gross domestic product at the same time led to dependence on external financing as how freedom of movement has contributed to a significant leakage of the working population. Reflecting the dynamics of changes of innovation capacity problems hampers further innovative development. During the crisis of 2008-2011 it is manifested a lack of flexibility in management system, which combining with limited internal resources and the lack of demand had the most negative consequences. It is formulated the areas for further innovation development in Latvia, the implementation of which will contribute to the


    MEȘTER Liana-Eugenia


    The approach of the subject is theoretical starting from the need to support the economic activities by local social institutions fostering the access to information and technology and identifying some solutions that meet these needs - industrial parks. Even if industrial parks in Romania are still considered in draft form, some examples can be identified as functional and supporting the local development. Their functionality is given by the involvement of local authorities and the interest of the business environment in exploiting the economic potential of the region. The role of industrial parks in supporting the local development is measured in the number of new jobs created, the income received by local institutions by paying taxes and duties from firms benefiting from the infrastructure made available through their involvement in attracting investors; the more productive the industry and more efficient the production, the higher the company\\\\\\'s results and therefore the benefits of local institutions.

  19. Economic Development and Forest Cover: Evidence from Satellite Data

    Crespo Cuaresma, Jesús; Danylo, Olha; Fritz, Steffen; McCallum, Ian; Obersteiner, Michael; See, Linda; Walsh, Brian


    Ongoing deforestation is a pressing, global environmental issue with direct impacts on climate change, carbon emissions, and biodiversity. There is an intuitive link between economic development and overexploitation of natural resources including forests, but this relationship has proven difficult to establish empirically due to both inadequate data and convoluting geo-climactic factors. In this analysis, we use satellite data on forest cover along national borders in order to study the determinants of deforestation differences across countries. Controlling for trans-border geo-climactic differences, we find that income per capita is the most robust determinant of differences in cross-border forest cover. We show that the marginal effect of per capita income growth on forest cover is strongest at the earliest stages of economic development, and weakens in more advanced economies, presenting some of the strongest evidence to date for the existence of at least half of an environmental Kuznets curve for deforestation.

  20. Innovation tools of economic development of the enterprise

    Fedor Pavlovich Zotov


    Full Text Available Ways to generate new economic and financial benefits from the practice of rationalization work in the industrial enterprise are considered. An attempt to combine the practice rationalization work with the capabilities of tools and techniques of the modern management technologies is made. It is offered to learn the tools and techniques of the technologies by members of the 4types of the formed cross-functional teams through the tutorials. It is offered to distribute the tutorials between the four stages of the method PDCA management cycle. It is shown that the creation of teams and development of tutorials will create internal resources for innovation projects to achieve effective changes in economic development of the enterprise.

  1. Is Economic Development Promoting Monetary Integration in East Asia?

    Kentaro Kawasaki


    Full Text Available This paper tries to investigate whether there exist international integrated markets among East Asian economies, by employing the Generalized Purchasing Power Parity (G-PPP model, then, it would help to suggest whether the East Asian region is the Optimum Currency Area (OCA or not. The empirical results in this paper suggest that holding the G-PPP among nine Asian countries (China, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam becomes more applicable in 2000–2013 than of that in 1984–1997. In the period of “globalization,” which is characterized by expansion of world trade, increase of international capital flows, and development of information and communications technologies, Asian economic development has been promoting not only economic integrations but also constructing the stable linkages of real exchange rates. Therefore, it would help to adopt regional coordination for monetary policies to assure the feasibility of a possible monetary union.

  2. Danish Mortgage Finance, Property Rights Protection and Economic Development

    Haldrup, Karin

    of screening methods for assessing the readiness for such transplantation depends on a deeper understanding of three large domains: A) Mortgage Finance, B) Cadastre and Land Registration; and C) Economic Development; and the interrelations between these three areas. In particular the thesis has focused...... on the requirements of infrastructure in respect to protecting ‘security of collateral’, and on international monitoring systems providing information on the status of what cadaster, real property registration and other functions of importance for securing collateral and for valuation of properties. In the absence...... of data on the status of land registration (and of reliable ratings of protection of property rights), it was found that macro-economic indicators could serve as indicators of readiness. Findings included propositions on prerequisites for readiness of mortgage finance development and proposals concerning...


    Rashid K. Alimov


    Full Text Available The author analyzes the status and prospect of Tajik-Chinese relations in the context of the initiative of the President of the PRC on establishing of an economic corridor the Silk Road. A detailed characteristic of expected challenges and benefits for countries of Central Asia and China is given. Special attention is spent on the possibilities of developing of relations between Tajikistan and China, that have risen to the level of strategic partnership.

  4. The potentials for Political and Economic Development of Kosovo

    MSc. Ngadhnjim Brovina


    Full Text Available It is rather clear that it is mandatory to understand the potentials of growth for any economy to grow. With globalization taking place, countries in general, have intensified their political, economic and social integration. Kosovo, as the youngest state in Europe, is about to transform from a devastated economy into a developing one. It has not yet been able to tap on its natural resources and neither of its potentials for a faster economic growth. Its backbone economic sectors such as agriculture, textile, mining and metal sectors are still on their initial stages of revitalization, while the privatization of the public companies has not met its expectations. Whereas, Kosovo is doing a better job on, as its international presence and subjectivity of its political status (Independence is strengthened. More and more countries are recognizing it as a sovereign country, while the recent initiation of the Stabilization and Association Agreement with the European Union, Kosovo is undergoing through its structural reforms and alliance with the EU standards and regulations. The future of Kosovo, like of any country, will depend on the way that its human, financial and natural resources are utilized. On this regard, this paper is an attempt to explore the potentials of the economic growth on different political contexts that Kosovo has and is expected to undergo.

  5. Eurasian Economic Union and Prospects of Development of Transnational Corporations in the Frame of the Globalization

    Anatoliy Tikhonovitch Spitsyn


    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to study the processes of regional integration and its particular features in the frame of the Eurasian Economic Union formation and their impact on the development of transnational corporations in the region. The authors used the scientific and methodological basis including an integrated approach and economic, institutional and organizational methods, theoretical and methodological studies of domestic and foreign scientists. In order to achieve the defined aim of this research, the authors used the retrospective method and method of comparative analysis, studied the statistical data, including the reports of the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development and the World Bank’s ratings. The authors studied the historical background of the Eurasian Economic Union, analyzed the current economic situation in its Member States, and considered the experience of other regional alliances. According to the results of the research, the authors formulated the conclusions in the context of the most likely prospects for the development of transnational corporations in the frame of the integration of the Member States of the Eurasian Economic Union. In particular, the study of the experience of other regional associations presumes that the process of regional economic integration will have a positive impact on the dynamics of the attraction of foreign direct investment inflows in the region. In addition, regional integration will mitigate the problem of “limited” markets of the Member States of the Economic Union and, therefore, will help to increase the amount of investment resources in the manufacturing industry and services sector of the economy. The creation of the common energy markets in the framework of the new regional association would strengthen the resource-oriented domestic large-scale business and prepare the groundwork for the emergence of new transnational corporations, cooperating within the

  6. Impact of Fiscal Variables on Economic Development of Pakistan

    Zaheer Khan KAKAR


    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to determine the impact of the fiscal variables on economic growth in Pakistan using time series data for the period 1980-2009. Cointegration and error correction techniques are used for this analysis and Granger causality test is used to determine the direction of causality. This study will provide help in determining the importance of fiscal policy for the development of Pakistan.

  7. Professional Sports Facilities, Franchises and Urban Economic Development

    Dennis Coates; Brad R. Humphreys


    Local political and community leaders and the owners of professional sports teams frequently claim that professional sports facilities and franchises are important engines of economic development in urban areas. These structures and teams allegedly contribute millions of dollars of net new spending annually and create hundreds of new jobs, and provide justification for hundreds of millions of dollars of public subsidies for the construction of many new professional sports facilities in the Un...

  8. Who Wins The Olympic Games: Economic Development and Medal Totals

    Andrew B. Bernard; Busse, Meghan R.


    This paper examines determinants of Olympic success at the country level. Does the U.S. win its fair share of Olympic medals? Why does China win 6% of the medals even though it has 1/5 of the world's population? We consider the role of population and economic development in determining medal totals from 1960-1996. We also provide out of sample predictions for the 2000 Olympics in Sydney.

  9. T=S Model to Simulate Regional Economic Development

    WangQing; ChenGuo-jie; ZhangYu; ChenYong


    This paper proposes a mechanism theory on regional development by using a modified Logistic model. It reveals regional evolution is an integration of fluctuation in temporal dimension and disparity in spatial dimension. T=S model is established by using Logistic model to simulate the growth of per capita GDP in China from 1990 to 1999. The result shows that T=S model accurately simulates the tracks of economic growth.

  10. T=S Model to Simulate Regional Economic Development

    Wang Qing; Chen Guo-jie; Zhang Yu; Chen Yong


    This paper proposes a mechanism theory on regional development by using a modified Logistic model. It reveals regional evolution is an integration of fluctuation in temporal dimcnsion and disparity in spatial dimension. T = S model is established by using Logistic model to simulate the growth of per capita GDP in China from 1990 to 1999. The result shows that T= S model accurately simulates the tracks of economic growth.

  11. China Report, Economic Affairs, Energy: Status and Development -- XXVII


    come about through electrification . Since economic results achieved through the use of electricity are greater than through the use of other forms of...measures for conserving energy resources come about through the use of electricity, e.g., electrical metallurgy, electrified railways , and all forms of...extend electrification , will promote industrial development in border minority areas, will help in providing energy to the countryside, protecting

  12. Who Wins the Olympic Games: Economic Development and Medal Totals


    This paper examines determinants of Olympic success at the country level. Does the U.S. win its fair share of Olympic medals? Why does China win 6% of the medals even though it has 1/5 of the world's population? We consider the role of population and economic development in determining medal totals from 1960-1996. We also provide out of sample predictions for the 2000 Olympics in Sydney.

  13. Development of analogical problem-solving skill.

    Holyoak, K J; Junn, E N; Billman, D O


    3 experiments were performed to assess children's ability to solve a problem by analogy to a superficially dissimilar situation. Preschoolers and fifth and sixth graders were asked to solve a problem that allowed multiple solutions. Some subjects were first read a story that included an analogous problem and its solution. When the mapping between the relations involved in the corresponding solutions was relatively simple, and the corresponding instruments were perceptually and functionally similar, even preschoolers were able to use the analogy to derive a solution to the transfer problem (Experiment 1). Furthermore, salient similarity of the instruments was neither sufficient (Experiment 2) nor necessary (Experiment 3) for success by preschool subjects. When the story analog mapped well onto the transfer problem, 4-year-olds were often able to generate a solution that required transformation of an object with little perceptual or semantic similarity to the instrument used in the base analog (Experiment 3). The older children used analogies in a manner qualitatively similar to that observed in comparable studies with adults (Experiment 1), whereas the younger children exhibited different limitations.

  14. Environmental problems indicator under environmental modeling toward sustainable development

    P. Sutthichaimethee


    Full Text Available This research aims to apply a model to the study and analysis of environmental and natural resource costs created in supply chains of goods and services produced in Thailand, and propose indicators for environmental problem management, caused by goods and services production, based on concepts of sustainable production and consumer behavior. The research showed that the highest environmental cost in terms of Natural Resource Materials was from pipelines and gas distribution, while the lowest was for farming coconuts. The highest environmental cost in terms of Energy and Transportation was for iron and steel. The highest environmental cost in the category of Fertilizer and Pesticides was for oil palm. For Sanitation Services, the highest environmental cost was movie theaters. Overall, the lowest environmental cost for all categories, except Natural Resource Materials, was for petroleum and refineries. Based on the cost index, coconut farming gained the highest Real Benefit to the farm owner, while pipelines and gas distribution had the lowest Real Benefit. If Thailand were to use a similar environmental problem indicator, it could be applied to formulate efficient policy and strategy for the country in three areas, namely social, economic, and environmental development.

  15. Competitiveness and Economic Security — Priority Problems of the Region’s Metallurgical Comples and Its Leaders in the Conditions Of Instability

    Andrey Anatolyevich Kozitsyn


    Full Text Available The subject-matter of the research is the study of the regional metallurgical complex and its leaders, which account for 55 % of industrial output and more than 57 % of exports of the Sverdlovsk region, in the current terms of economic instability. Supporting the business priorities of improving the competitiveness and economic security of the enterprise is based on the example of "UMMCHolding" — the leader of ferrous metallurgy in the Middle Urals, an active participant in the global and Russian copper market. The modern economic, mathematical, and general scientific methods (comparison study, the ratio of total and private, and others are applied as the research methods. To obtain the study results, the main areas of the holding impacted by the sanctions are analyzed: modernization of production and spare parts provisions of the current imported equipment, correction of the supply chain, searching for new business partners, transformation of the structure and direction of cargo traffic, solving transportation problems, stocks system management and minimization of economic, social and environmental costs. The urgency of solving the problem of company competitiveness and economic security increasing together with its sectoral and regional features in the present conditions is proved as the key conclusion. The high competitiveness of the holding is considered to be one of the factors of its economic security. The main goal of the economic security of the company is its sustainable and maximally effective functioning at the present time and high potential for successful development in the future. The indicators and criteria for the economic security evaluation are studied in detail. The analysis conducted has shown that, in general, the holding has high indicators characterizing its economic security on the basis of high competitiveness. As a negative sign, a lack of the investment growth needed to solve urgent problems is noticed.

  16. Geothermal : Economic Impacts of Geothermal Development in Whatcom County, Washington.

    Lesser, Jonathan A.


    This report estimates the local economic impacts that could be anticipated from the development of a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power plant in eastern Whatcom County, Washington, near Mt. Baker, as shown in Figure 1. The study was commissioned by the Bonneville Power Administration to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council. Whatcom County was chosen due to both identified geotherrnal resources and developer interest. The analysis will focus on two phases: a plant construction phase, including well field development, generating plant construction, and transmission line construction; and an operations phase. Economic impacts will occur to the extent that construction and operations affect the local economy. These impacts will depend on the existing structure of the Whatcom County economy and estimates of revenues that may accrue to the county as a result of plant construction, operation, and maintenance. Specific impacts may include additional direct employment at the plant, secondary impacts from wage payments being used to purchase locally produced goods and services, and impacts due to expenditures of royalty and tax payments received by the county. The basis for the analysis of economic impacts in this study is the US Forest Service IMPLAN input-output modeling system.

  17. When Small is Big: Microcredit and Economic Development

    George Brown


    Full Text Available Microcredit - the extension of small loans - gives people who would otherwise not have access to credit the opportunity to begin or expand businesses or to pursue job-specific training. These borrowers lack the income, credit history, assets, or security to borrow from other sources. Although the popularity and success of microcredit in developing countries has been trumpeted in the media, microcredit is established and growing in the United States and Canada as well. Its appeal comes from its capacity to provide the means for those who have the ability, drive, and commitment to overcome the hurdles to self-sufficiency. In this article, the role of microcredit as a stimulant for economic development is examined. First, its importance for the establishment of small businesss is described. Second, the article provides an overview of the general microcredit climate in the United states and the local situation in the Ottawa area. Third, brief stories about individuals who have received this type of loan reveal the human impact behind the economic benefits. Finally, the role of microcredit in funding startups is analyzed in comparison to other sources of available funding. The article concludes with a summary of the benefits of microcredit as a win-win proposition for economic development.

  18. Hydrogen energy system & economic development of China%Hydrogen energy system & economic develop ment of China

    T.Nejat Veziroglu


    @@ Today fossil fuels(coal,petroleum and natural gas)meet about 80 percent of oar worldwide energy requirements.The demand for energy is growing with time for two reasons:(1)the growing population,and(2)the increasing demand for energy by the developing countries(especially China and India with very large populations).

  19. 75 FR 24781 - Task Force on Space Industry Workforce and Economic Development


    ... Science and Technology Policy the Director of the National Economic Council My Administration is committed...-level Administration officials from relevant agencies that will construct an economic development action... and coordination of Federal Government resources to facilitate workforce and economic...

  20. 75 FR 74077 - Information Collection for Native American Business Development Institute Funding for Economic...


    ... Funding for Economic Development Feasibility Studies and Long-Term Strategic, Reservation-Wide Economic... NABDI's funding of economic development feasibility studies (studies) and long-term strategic.... ] Type of Review: New. Title: NABDI Funding Solicitation for Economic Development Feasibility Studies...

  1. Innovation Cluster and Economic Development in Bucharest Ilfov Region

    Ana Cristina Adumitroaei


    Full Text Available Simultaneous globalisation tendencies have created policy challenges for national and local governments. One response to these challenges has been a dramatic proliferation of development policies based on clusters of firms and industries. In EU Strategy 2020 – COM 546/6.10.2010 Initiative “An Union of Innovation”, COM 614/27.10.2010 Initiative “Industrial Policy in the Globalization Era” innovative clusters were considered the “engine” of economic development. They represent a framework for business development, collaboration between companies, universities, research institutions, suppliers, customers and competitors located in the same geographical area. Clusters of small and medium sized firms in developing economies are coming under increased pressure from competition as products mature, technology becomes widely available, and companies seek lower cost locations for production. In this paper, we consider that the cluster is an engine for economic development in our region and we need to have a regional strategy for clusters in Bucharest Ilfov Regional Development Plan for 2014-2020.

  2. Modelling the impact of mining on socio-economic infrastructure development: a system dynamics approach

    Maluleke, George


    Full Text Available The contribution of mining activities to social infrastructure and human development is a complex socio-economic development issue in South Africa. Complexity theory has introduced a new approach to solving problems in social systems, recognising them as complex systems. The socio-economic development system in South Africa falls into this category of complex systems. Analysing such a system requires that a number of feedback loops and details about the issues be analysed simultaneously. This level of complexity is above a human’s ability to comprehend without the aid of tools such as systems thinking and system dynamics. The causality between investment in infrastructure capacity and socio-economic development is dynamic. The relationship is influenced by exogenous feedback that, if not managed, is likely to reverse itself. This paper presents the results of a system dynamics modelling of the relationship, based on the principle of relative attractiveness developed in previous system dynamics research. A Monte Carlo analysis is used to determine the sensitivity of the system to changes in feedback. The paper concludes that the limits to growth in a socio-economic environment are determined by more factors than the availability of capital, and also include land capacity constraints and skills shortage.

  3. Reallocation Fiscal Policy: Implications for Enhancing Human Capital and Infrastructure Development on Economic Growth and Welfare Society

    Hayat Abdullah


    Full Text Available The growth of the nation's economy continues to experience a variety of developments. Various economic challenges still facing the nation. At the Asean Free Trade Area (AFTA in 2015 soon arrives, the challenge is coming from a variety of factors, both internal factors (domestic and external (foreign. Restructuring as the evaluation and development of various infrastructure and economic infrastructure. Determination of the state budget and the budget allocation to be of key importance in the economic growth of the nation. The main problem is that correlation is not balanced in fiscal management. Likewise, expenses and income is not directly proportional to the economic growth and social welfare. The purpose of this study was (1 to describe and analyze the implementation of fiscal reallocation as a preference for the government in the way of reformulating policy and fiscal reallocation for sustainable economic development; (2 to determine and analyze the effect of an increase in human capital to economic growth; and (3 describe and analyze the relationship between infrastructure development and economic growth of the welfare of society. Therefore, to improve the welfare of the people of obstruction takes a comprehensive synergy between human capital and the development of adequate infrastructure, of course, this must be supported by the existence of a fiscal restructuring and reallocation policy making substantive and accommodating. So, that the implementation of AFTA in 2015, Indonesia is ready to be a trend setting in the economic growth, community welfare, human resource development and integrative development.

  4. Economics of Renewable Energy for Water Desalination in Developing Countries

    Enas R. Shouman


    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the economics of renewable energy- powered desalination, as applied to water supply for remote coastal and desert communities in developing countries. In this paper, the issue of integration of desalination technologies and renewable energy from specified sources is addressed. The features of Photovoltaic (PV system combined with reverse osmosis desalination technology, which represents the most commonly applied integration between renewable energy and desalination technology, are analyzed. Further, a case study for conceptual seawater reverse osmosis (SW-RO desalination plant with 1000 m3 /d capacity is presented, based on PV and conventional generators powered with fossil fuel to be installed in a remote coastal area in Egypt, as a typical developing country. The estimated water cost for desalination with PV/ SW-RO system is about $1.25 m3 , while ranging between $1.22-1.59 for SW-RO powered with conventional generator powered with fossil fuel. Analysis of the economical, technical and environmental factors depicts the merits of using large scale integrated PV/RO system as an economically feasible water supply relying upon a renewable energy source.




    Full Text Available The competitiveness of a nation is ensured by the profitable activity of firms. They strengthen their position in the domestic and international markets through global strategies whose purpose is to increase productivity and maintain it at a high level. For this, the company must take into account both the internal economic environment which ensures operating conditions and the external economic environment’s development. The five competitive forces determine the industry’s profitability because they configure firms’ selling prices, production costs and investments needed to be competitive in the field. The threat of new competitors limits the potential profit since they involve new production units and the opportunities for market expansion. Economic strength of the buyers and bidders attracts profits to them. Rivalry among existing competitors erodes profits by increasing costs of competition (like advertising, selling expenses or those required for research and development. The presence of substitutive goods or services limits competitors’ prices through buyers’ transfer phenomena limiting and eroding market share of industry / firm in the total production output.

  6. Population change and some aspects of socio-economic development.


    Some of the major dimensions of the interrelationship of population dynamics and socioeconomic development are examined in the context of Asia and the Pacific. Most of the countries in the region are developing, and population growth is viewed more as an obstacle to development rather than as a stimulant to economic progress. There are at least 10 countries in the region whose per capita income is less than US$300, namely: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Burma, China, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. In 1979 these countries had an estimated combined population of 1,867,103,000 or about 77% of the population of the region. Per capita gross national product (GNP) masks the real economic condition of the people as it fails to show the actual distribution of income and wealth. In most nonsocialist countries there is maldistribution of income and wealth. The International Labor Organization (ILO) report points out that during 1963-73 in Bangladesh, India, Malaysia, Pakistan, the Philippines, and Sri Lanka, the richest 20% of households receive about half the income. In contrast, the poorest 40% receive between 12-18% of total income. In short, there could be economic development but not social development, such as equitable distribution of wealth and income. Studies have shown that equitable income distribution exerts a far greater influence on fertility than the GNP. In many countries of the region poverty is reality. The World Bank estimates that half of the people in absolute poverty live in South Asia, mainly India and Bangladesh. It is most unfortunate that among the very poor, poverty is frequently regarded as the cause rather than the effect of high fertility. Among the very poor, mortality, particularly infant mortality, tends to be high. China is among the countries which have recognized that rapid population growth is not beneficial to the accelerated speed of capital accumulation. It has been observed that in most countries as the GNP per

  7. Economic Analysis on Key Challenges for Sustainable Aquaculture Development

    Gedefaw Abate, Tenaw

    developmental stage. The key challenge in this regard is that the conventional used live feed items, Artemia and rotifers, are nutritionally deficient. Thus, the first main purpose of the thesis is carrying out an economic analysis of the feasibility of commercial production and the use of an alternative live...... challenges that could obstruct its sustainable development, such as a lack of suitable feed, which includes fishmeal, fish oil and live feed, and negative environmental externalities. If the aquaculture industry is to reach its full potential, it must be both environmentally and economically sustainable....... To this end, key challenges should be thoroughly examined to identify sustainable and efficient solutions. Thus, the thesis focuses on two important bottlenecks in the growth of the aquaculture sector—namely, lack of nutritionally suitable live feed items for marine finfish production and negative...

  8. Economic development, mobility and traffic accidents in Algeria.

    Bougueroua, M; Carnis, L


    The aim of this contribution is to estimate the impact of road economic conditions and mobility on traffic accidents for the case of Algeria. Using the cointegration approach and vector error correction model (VECM), we will examine simultaneously short term and long-term impacts between the number of traffic accidents, fuel consumption and gross domestic product (GDP) per capital, over the period 1970-2013. The main results of the estimation show that the number of traffic accidents in Algeria is positively influenced by the GDP per capita in the short and long term. It implies that a higher economic development worsens the road safety situation. However, the new traffic rules adopted in 2009 have an impact on the forecast trend of traffic accidents, meaning efficient public policy could improve the situation. This result calls for a strong political commitment with effective countermeasures for avoiding the further deterioration of road safety record in Algeria.




    Full Text Available Energy intensity represents one of the main indicators for economic development and is expressed as the ratio between the gross inland consumption of energy and gross domestic product (GDP. The least energy-intensive economies in the EU are Denmark, Ireland and the UK. Among the most energy-intensive economies are Bulgaria, Romania, Estonia, the Czech Republic and Slovakia. In socialist times, eastern European Member States had economies with high shares of energy-intensive industries as well as an energy-inefficient infrastructure serving these industries. In this paper we will perform an analyze at Romanian level by comparing the obtained results with the one’s at Europe 27 level and we will determine the decouple degree between energy consumption and economic growth.

  10. Problem Solving in Student Police Officers' Professional Development

    Zascerinska, Jelena; Zascerinskis, Mihails


    Introduction: The success of human safety requires the ability of police officers in problem solving within continuing professional development to be considered. Aim of the study: To analyze problem based teaching and learning in tertiary education within continuing professional development. Materials and methods: The search for problem based…

  11. Development of solutions to benchmark piping problems

    Reich, M; Chang, T Y; Prachuktam, S; Hartzman, M


    Benchmark problems and their solutions are presented. The problems consist in calculating the static and dynamic response of selected piping structures subjected to a variety of loading conditions. The structures range from simple pipe geometries to a representative full scale primary nuclear piping system, which includes the various components and their supports. These structures are assumed to behave in a linear elastic fashion only, i.e., they experience small deformations and small displacements with no existing gaps, and remain elastic through their entire response. The solutions were obtained by using the program EPIPE, which is a modification of the widely available program SAP IV. A brief outline of the theoretical background of this program and its verification is also included.

  12. Issues of Regional Development and Evaluation Problems

    Polishchuk, Olexandr; Tyutyunnyk, Maria; Yadzhak, Mykhailo


    Region of the country is treated as an open megasystem that consists of many interconnected complex network systems. Classification of such systems on the basis of ordered motion of flows is performed. The main approaches to investigation of complex systems are described. Theory of evaluation is considered as a tool for analysis of network systems. Purpose and subject of evaluation of the systems are formulated. The main problems of evaluation are analyzed and the ways of further research are determined.

  13. Economic evaluation of the technological development of coal extraction. Ekonomicheskaya otsenka tekhnologicheskogo razvitiya ugledobychu

    Golland, E.B.; Rybakova, T.A.


    The monograph investigates the trends and prospects in the development of major technological directions in coal extraction. The characteristics of the development of the coal industry at the modern stage are analyzed and the basic trends of technical progress in coal extraction are characterized. Attention is devoted to the problems of evaluating the effectiveness and of determining the rational scales for using different technologies for coal extraction in the long range using economic and mathematical modeling. A model for optimizing the technological development of a coal basin is proposed. The results of calculation variants in terms of a model for the Kuzbass are presented.

  14. Basin Economic Allocation Model (BEAM): An economic model of water use developed for the Aral Sea Basin

    Riegels, Niels; Kromann, Mikkel; Karup Pedersen, Jesper; Lindgaard-Jørgensen, Palle; Sokolov, Vadim; Sorokin, Anatoly


    The water resources of the Aral Sea basin are under increasing pressure, particularly from the conflict over whether hydropower or irrigation water use should take priority. The purpose of the BEAM model is to explore the impact of changes to water allocation and investments in water management infrastructure on the overall welfare of the Aral Sea basin. The BEAM model estimates welfare changes associated with changes to how water is allocated between the five countries in the basin (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz Republic, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan; water use in Afghanistan is assumed to be fixed). Water is allocated according to economic optimization criteria; in other words, the BEAM model allocates water across time and space so that the economic welfare associated with water use is maximized. The model is programmed in GAMS. The model addresses the Aral Sea Basin as a whole - that is, the rivers Syr Darya, Amu Darya, Kashkadarya, and Zarafshan, as well as the Aral Sea. The model representation includes water resources, including 14 river sections, 6 terminal lakes, 28 reservoirs and 19 catchment runoff nodes, as well as land resources (i.e., irrigated croplands). The model covers 5 sectors: agriculture (crops: wheat, cotton, alfalfa, rice, fruit, vegetables and others), hydropower, nature, households and industry. The focus of the model is on welfare impacts associated with changes to water use in the agriculture and hydropower sectors. The model aims at addressing the following issues of relevance for economic management of water resources: • Physical efficiency (estimating how investments in irrigation efficiency affect economic welfare). • Economic efficiency (estimating how changes in how water is allocated affect welfare). • Equity (who will gain from changes in allocation of water from one sector to another and who will lose?). Stakeholders in the region have been involved in the development of the model, and about 10 national experts, including

  15. Persistent cannabis dependence and alcohol dependence represent risks for midlife economic and social problems: A longitudinal cohort study.

    Cerdá, Magdalena; Moffitt, Terrie E; Meier, Madeline H; Harrington, HonaLee; Houts, Renate; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Hogan, Sean; Poulton, Richie; Caspi, Avshalom


    With the increasing legalization of cannabis, understanding the consequences of cannabis use is particularly timely. We examined the association between cannabis use and dependence, prospectively assessed between ages 18-38, and economic and social problems at age 38. We studied participants in the Dunedin Longitudinal Study, a cohort (n=1,037) followed from birth to age 38. Study members with regular cannabis use and persistent dependence experienced downward socioeconomic mobility, more financial difficulties, workplace problems, and relationship conflict in early midlife. Cannabis dependence was not linked to traffic-related convictions. Associations were not explained by socioeconomic adversity, childhood psychopathology, achievement orientation, or family structure; cannabis-related criminal convictions; early onset of cannabis dependence; or comorbid substance dependence. Cannabis dependence was associated with more financial difficulties than alcohol dependence; no difference was found in risks for other economic or social problems. Cannabis dependence is not associated with fewer harmful economic and social problems than alcohol dependence.

  16. Research on Optimal Development Pattern of Yunnan Central Economic Region

    Diego Salmero; Suman Rana


    By the case study on the Urban Agglomeration Plan of Yunnan Central Economic Region (YCER), which is jointly made by Chinese and Swiss scholars, with the adoption of GIS and traditional urban planning methods, this paper uses multiple scenarios to analyze four development models of "Scattered Yunnan," "Regional Yunnan," "Metropolitan Yunnan" and "Network Yunnan." It also explores the relatively rational scenarios for the future development of YCER, i.e., up to 2030, the development model of YCER will be "Regional," and after 2030 it will be "Network." In this way, YCER will be developed stably and methodically, and finally achieve the unification of ecological safety, intensified energy and resources, as well as prosperous economy.

  17. Cities as development drivers: from waste problems to energy recovery and climate change mitigation.

    Johnson, Björn H; Poulsen, Tjalfe G; Hansen, Jens Aage; Lehmann, Martin


    There is a strong connection between economic growth and development of cities. Economic growth tends to stimulate city growth, and city economies have often shaped innovative environments that in turn support economic growth. Simultaneously, social and environmental problems related to city growth can be serious threats to the realization of the socio-economic contributions that cities can make. However, as a result of considerable diversity of competences combined with interactive learning and innovation, cities may also solve these problems. The 'urban order' may form a platform for innovative problem solving and potential spill-over effects, which may stimulate further economic growth and development. This paper discusses how waste problems of cities can be transformed to become part of new, more sustainable solutions. Two cases are explored: Aalborg in Denmark and Malmö in Sweden. It is shown that the cities have the potential to significantly contribute to a more sustainable development through increased material recycling and energy recovery. Waste prevention may increase this potential. For example, instead of constituting 3% of the total greenhouse gas emission problem, it seems possible for modern European cities to contribute to greenhouse gas emission reduction by 15% through up to date technology and integrated waste management systems for material and energy recovery. Going from being part of the problem to providing solutions; however, is not an easy endeavour. It requires political will and leadership, supportive regulatory frameworks, realistic timetables/roadmaps, and a diverse set of stakeholders that can provide the right creative and innovative mix to make it possible.

  18. Structural Change and Economic Development in China and India

    Vittorio Valli


    Full Text Available The comparison of the periods of rapid economic growth in China since 1978 and India since 1992 markedly show different patterns of development and structural change. However, both countries experienced some advantages of "relative economic backwardness" and some aspects of the "fordist model of growth". China had an anticipated and deeper structural change, spurred mainly by economic reforms and the growth of the internal market in the 1980s, and, since the mid-1990s, by a very rapid penetration of its industrial products in the world market. However, a substantial part of China's exports in medium and high tech sectors are due to joint-ventures with foreign multinationals. India had a more balanced structural change and a slower insertion in the world market, although some sectors, such as software, steel, automotive and pharmaceuticals are recently increasing their share in the world markets. Owing to the huge number of micro-enterprises and the great size of the informal sector, India benefited much less than China from the economies of scale and from the third wave of the "fordist model of growth". Both countries, but in particular China, experienced negative externalities of this recent phase of rapid growth, such as higher inequalities, pollution and urban congestion.

  19. Achieving inclusive economic growth and development in Nigeria through MSMEs

    Ezekiel Oseni


    Full Text Available The Nigerian economy has witnessed consistent average annual growth rate of 7.4% in the last few years, however, the impact of the growth on the citizenry remains insignificant while poverty, youth restlessness, kidnapping for ransoms, terrorism and other vices are on the rise. The objective of the study was to examine why the impact of the economic growth over the years has remained insignificant and what interventions are required to change the tide. The study discovered that the oil sector which is not labour intensive accounts for over eighty (80 percent of Government revenue and a major contributor to the nation GDP. The study also discovered that the poverty level and unemployment rate among the populace require urgent and drastic measures. The impactful measures will require creation of enabling environment, provision of relevant infrastructure and adequate funding programmes that can be easily accessed. The financial system like in any other economy is essential to attaining inclusive economic growth in Nigeria and it should be more supportive to the economy by abolishing existing lending conditions that make it impractically impossible for many MSMEs which are the engine of economic development to access funds.

  20. Status and problems of fusion reactor development.

    Schumacher, U


    Thermonuclear fusion of deuterium and tritium constitutes an enormous potential for a safe, environmentally compatible and sustainable energy supply. The fuel source is practically inexhaustible. Further, the safety prospects of a fusion reactor are quite favourable due to the inherently self-limiting fusion process, the limited radiologic toxicity and the passive cooling property. Among a small number of approaches, the concept of toroidal magnetic confinement of fusion plasmas has achieved most impressive scientific and technical progress towards energy release by thermonuclear burn of deuterium-tritium fuels. The status of thermonuclear fusion research activity world-wide is reviewed and present solutions to the complicated physical and technological problems are presented. These problems comprise plasma heating, confinement and exhaust of energy and particles, plasma stability, alpha particle heating, fusion reactor materials, reactor safety and environmental compatibility. The results and the high scientific level of this international research activity provide a sound basis for the realisation of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), whose goal is to demonstrate the scientific and technological feasibility of a fusion energy source for peaceful purposes.

  1. Comparative Research on the Economic Development of Xinjiang i n the Perspective of Development of the West Regions



    In the context of Development of the West Regions, by using the annual data from 1999 to 2009 in whole China and 12 provinces of the western regions, we analyze the achievements of socio-economic development of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region from 1999 to 2009 as follows: the economic aggregate has increased prominently and the growth rate is increasing ceaselessly; the primary industry, secondary industry and tertiary industry develop evenly, and the industrial structure is incessantly optimized; the quality of economic growth is promoted increasingly and the living standard of people is improved greatly; the primary industry, secondary industry and tertiary industry stride in tandem, and the momentum of growth is strong. We conduct horizontal comparison on the main economic indicators of Xinjiang, 12 provinces of the western regions and whole China, which include GDP and its growth rate, investment of fixed assets, structure of the primary industry, secondary industry and tertiary industry, the industrial added value, GDP per capita, gross retail sales of social consumption, export and import trade, net income per capita of peasants and herdsmen, and general budget revenue. The result shows that although the implementation of the strategy of Development of the West Regions and the economic development of Xinjiang have achieved some remarkable results, there is a conspicuous gap in comparison with the expected effect. The problems existing in the operation of Xinjiang’s economy are analyzed as follows: the industrial level is low, and the economic growth mode is yet to be transformed; the disposable income per capita of urban residents grows slowly, and the increasing gap between the urban areas and rural areas has no trend of dwindling; the investment aggregate is very low, and the momentum of economic growth is short. In order to make the central government and 19 provinces and cities offer pointed aid for Xinjiang, promote the implementation of new strategic

  2. Economic recession and fertility in the developed world.

    Sobotka, Tomáš; Skirbekk, Vegard; Philipov, Dimiter


    This article reviews research on the effects of economic recessions on fertility in the developed world. We study how economic downturns, as measured by various indicators, especially by declining GDP levels, falling consumer confidence, and rising unemployment, were found to affect fertility. We also discuss particular mechanisms through which the recession may have influenced fertility behavior, including the effects of economic uncertainty, falling income, changes in the housing market, and rising enrollment in higher education, and also factors that influence fertility indirectly such as declining marriage rates. Most studies find that fertility tends to be pro-cyclical and often rises and declines with the ups and downs of the business cycle. Usually, these aggregate effects are relatively small (typically, a few percentage points) and of short durations; in addition they often influence especially the timing of childbearing and in most cases do not leave an imprint on cohort fertility levels. Therefore, major long-term fertility shifts often continue seemingly uninterrupted during the recession—including the fertility declines before and during the Great Depression of the 1930s and before and during the oil shock crises of the 1970s. Changes in the opportunity costs of childbearing and fertility behavior during economic downturn vary by sex, age, social status, and number of children; childless young adults are usually most affected. Furthermore, various policies and institutions may modify or even reverse the relationship between recessions and fertility. The first evidence pertaining to the recent recession falls in line with these findings. In most countries, the recession has brought a decline in the number of births and fertility rates, often marking a sharp halt to the previous decade of rising fertility rates.

  3. [Fostering of health economics in Germany].

    Ulrich, V


    Health economics is now well established in Germany with the aim to apply economic tools to answer problems in health and health care. After a short review of the international development of health economics and the development in Germany in particular, the article looks at selected recent topics of health economic analysis in Germany (economic evaluation, industrial economics, health and education).


    Dmitriy A. Bryksin


    Full Text Available This article describes problems of organization management within a real estate development, the analysis of this problems and the methods of its solution based on the Balanced Scorecard. In present unsteady conditions of business development, commercial activity faces a number of problems. The main types are: the problem of lack of funding, the problem of the growth of a company, the company’s management problem, the problem of business processes, and the problem of the decision-making. As a method to solve the problems is proposed an introduction of the balanced scorecard (BSC, which allows accurately feel the slightest changes in the company, deviation from the planned strategies and adjust the direction of the motion during the life of the company.

  5. On the Problem of Motor Skill Development

    Clark, Jane E.


    As a way to address the serious obesity epidemic in the United States, many physical education classes have become fitness centers designed to raise heart rates and burn calories. An unintended consequence of this emphasis on fitness, however, is the lack of attention to motor skill development. Motor skills do not develop miraculously from one…


    Doru Botezat


    Full Text Available This article provides a non-comprehensive overview of social and economic theories regarding the contribution to the small communities’ economy and society of institutions, in all forms of expression. Institutions, first analyzed in terms of local culture together with elites and leadership, as well as formal institutions organized by state or NGO’s, generate a so-called spiritual infrastructure, intangible, but necessary for social progress on primary levels of aggregation. The study was accomplished using critical analysis of literature on which we grafted some examples from Romanian society. Finally, the article proposes some practical ideas for community development institutional interventionism.

  7. Economic valuation of climate change adaptation in developing countries.

    Stage, Jesper


    This paper reviews the literature on the economics of climate change adaptation in developing countries, and identifies three key points for consideration in future studies. One key point is that all development policy should be formulated using forecasts from climate science as a baseline. When this is not done, there is risk that a false status quo without climate change is seen as an implicit baseline. Another key point is that authors must be clearer about their behavioral assumptions: Many studies either (problematically) assume profit maximization on the side of farm households, or do not specify behavioral assumptions at all. A third important point is that the allocation of rights is crucial for the results; if households have a right to maintain their current livelihoods, the costs of climate change in developing countries are considerably greater than traditional willingness-to-pay studies would indicate. Thus, costs and benefits of climate change adaptation cannot be analyzed using economic aspects only; climate science, behavioral science, and legal and moral aspects have crucial implications for the outcome of the analysis.

  8. The integral indicator of socio-economic assessment in regard to resource-oriented territories development in Russia

    Chuvashova, M. N.; Avramchikova, N. T.; Zelenkov, P. V.; Petrosyan, M. O.


    Economic peculiarity of Russian resource-oriented territories are based on a focal type of industrial complex, differentiation of economies within a principle of mining and processing of natural resources. To improve the economic condition and integrate into the world innovative process is essential to solve the problem of eliminating the prevalence of resourse focus in the industrial economic structure that could ensure the overcoming of the existing spa- cial dissociation and market mechanisms development in innovative promotion. The monitoring system, involving the integral indicator of socioeconomic and territorial potential assessment, has suggested by the authors. The integral indicator could guarantee the objective evaluation of economic condition within a territory that is vital for the governmental authorities to design strategies providing the economic development of administrative territories.


    Dragomir Laurentiu


    Full Text Available The increasing productivity of production factors, due to progresses in science and technology is today the engine of economic growth. The economic theory managed to endogenize the technical progress, first as a result of the unintended activities of firms, then as the result of profit driven behaviour of economic agents. In globalization the stock of knowledge becomes available also to developing countries and the production technologies and their employment are more democratic regarding the availability. For the developing countries it still remains the problem of financial resources and availability. Developing new technologies has a prohibitive costs, at least until the moment in which large scale production allows for the reduction of costs. Long term economic growth will depend on the creation of global technology stock, including the leverage effect of sustained RxD. In this paper we will approach the progress of Romania in the area of knowledge base economy, especially regarding the policies in the RxD sector.


    L. Kyrylenko


    Full Text Available Approaches to understanding the nature of the process of socialization of the economic system, appearing to be an effective catalyst in the transformation of an active subject, who gets the power to regulate social and economic processes in accordance for their own purposes, conditions and development needs; approaches to the analysis of problems of adaptation the national economy to the requirements of the postindustrial society, the basic idea of national socialization policy is to be aware and implementing that provision social welfare is the prerogative not only the state but also every citizen of Ukraine; strategic direction of economic policy in the socialization process is the focus of efforts State to develop the abilities of citizens to self-sufficiency, and as a result – to self-realization; initiation mechanisms of self-organization; development of social partnership. suggestions on the formation of an effective integrated social strategy based on gradual delineation of tasks and allocation priorities socialization of the economic system are worked out.

  11. Vaccine prophylaxis: achievements, problems, perspectives of development

    Mavrutenkov V.V.


    Full Text Available The article presents medical and social aspects of immune prophylaxis of infectious diseases; the history of vaccines and vaccination is presented, as well as perspectives of development of vaccine prophylaxis.

  12. Staff Development: The Problems of Motivation.

    O'Connor, Andrea B.


    Inservice educators must incorporate humanistic approaches in their offerings. Nursing service administrators should delegate to staff development personnel only those activities that are clearly educational in nature. (Author/JOW)

  13. Danish Mortgage Finance, Property Rights Protection and Economic Development

    Haldrup, Karin

    The Danish mortgage finance system is attracting much international attention due to its simple, robust and efficient securitization principle, the balance principle. Housing finance experts consider how the model can be introduced in other countries to overcome shortcomings in previous mortgage...... systems (e.g., in the US) or to alleviate the gigantic unmet needs for housing finance around the world. In support of such efforts the research challenge was the development of a methodology for screening of readiness for transplanting this financing system to other countries. However, the development...... of screening methods for assessing the readiness for such transplantation depends on a deeper understanding of three large domains: A) Mortgage Finance, B) Cadastre and Land Registration; and C) Economic Development; and the interrelations between these three areas. In particular the thesis has focused...

  14. A model of regional economic development with increasing returns

    QIAN Edward Y.; YAO Yao-jun; CHEN Gary


    This paper develops mathematically and empirically tractable regional and interregional model of economic development with increasing returns to scale (IRS) under the neoclassical assumptions. A one-sector, two-region model in which one region exhibits IRS is presented and the whole nation presents constant returns to scale. The development of the local IRS economy is shown to be constrained to a "moving equilibrium" path. The preliminary empirical results are sufficiently supportive of the argument to encourage further research along the lines of the model. In particular, the neoclassical model does not predict negative coefficients on the real rental value of capital in regressions explaining population or employment relative to that in the nation.

  15. On the role of investment in the socio-economic development of territories

    Tamara Vitalyevna Uskova


    Full Text Available The modern stage of Russia’s socio-economic development is characterized by the lack of budgetary resources to finance both strategic and current tasks. The situation is exacerbated by the introduction of political and economic sanctions, the significant fluctuations in oil prices and the ruble exchange rate, the growing mistrust on the part of business, followed by the increase in capital outflow. These circumstances predetermine the search for the ways to solve the socio-economic problems. The studies of leading Russian and foreign scientists prove that investment plays a major role in ensuring sustainable economic growth and solving the problems of territorial development. Moreover, the recently increasing impact of large companies on the country’s development and the low budget lead to the necessity to attract private investment resources for regional development. In this regard, the authors analyze the investment activity in Russia, present the countries’ rankings by the state of investment climate and disclose the successful experience of business’ participation in socially significant regional projects. The periodicals and Internet resources comprise an information base of this study. To achieve this goal the authors use system and integrated approaches, general scientific research methods (comparative analysis, generalization and comparison, table and graphical methods of information processing. The results of the research help prove the need to attract private investment in distressed areas and provide the Vologda Oblast authorities with the recommendations that can be applied in other regions. The work describes the promising priority projects of the region. Their implementation will contribute to the restoration of positive investment growth. The authors suggest the directions to amend the federal legislation in order to stimulate investment activity of enterprises and, therefore, enhance the role of business in regional


    V. O. Lobovikov


    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to carry out historical-philosophical andlinguistic analysis of ethical and metaphysical doctrine of Aristotle on corruption in general; to discuss of formal-ethical view on the problem of corruption in basic scientific researches; to define the place and role of fundamental scientific researches in knowledge-based economy taken as a whole, and Boston Chart, in particular.Methods. The methods involve the historical-philosophical and logical-linguistic analysis of texts; creation and studying of the elementary discrete mathematical model of the researched moral phenomenon at the level of artificial language of two-digit algebra of the natural right and morals; use of such conceptual and figurative tool of the economic theory as Boston Chart.Results and scientific novelty. The definition of the concept «basic scientific research» is given for the first time; the concept includes time parameter and knowledge of utility (the practical importance of results of this research.Practical significance. The submitted definition (criterion gives a possibility to establish at any moment of time definite borderline between the basic and the applied scientific search (the line undergoes change in the flow of time. The effective criterion of basic scientific researches offered by the author, and also exact specifying of their place and role in lifecycle of knowledge as goods in market economy (at the conceptual level of the Boston Chart allow to designate an urgent problem of corruption of the scientific sphere in a new perspective. Along with some additional conditions, this new evidence could help to solve the problem.

  17. Mechanisms Fostering Social Entrepreneurship as Potential Instruments for Economic Development: The Eastern Partnership Perspective

    Plotnieks Dāvis


    Full Text Available With its plan to assign 600 million euros through the European Neighbourhood Instrument for Eastern Partnership countries, the European Union intended to increase the efficiency of institutions, attenuate social problems, and create an environment that fosters economic growth and human well-being in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova, and Ukraine. A few scholars have criticized the amount of funding and planned initiatives of the European Neighbourhood Instrument as insufficient and suggested that in order to foster cooperation and support reforms in its Eastern Partnership countries, more action should be taken. In times when European Commission budget is under constraints of consolidation and increase of aid for supporting European Neighbourhood countries is hardly possible, alternative solutions for tempering social problems need to be assessed. Various scientists, philanthropists and entrepreneurs see social entrepreneurship as a tool for solving social problems in a sustainable way where business thinking is being combined with non-profit philosophy. Contrary to government support and intervention for solving social problems, social entrepreneurship is already being used as tool that initially addresses joint needs--solve social problems and create revenue that provides much needed income for sustainable business initiatives. This paper analyzes the concept of social entrepreneurship, examples where social entrepreneurship is solving social problems, and mechanisms that can foster these phenomena. The aim of this paper is to examine different mechanisms of how governments can foster the creation and development of social entrepreneurship. Unique survey data derived from a project examining social entrepreneurship in Europe is used. It is concluded that by adopting mechanisms proven in various developed countries, the Eastern Partnership countries can stimulate social entrepreneurship, thus attenuating social problems and

  18. Appropriate Technological Development Guidelines for Rubber Plantation for Community Economic Development Using Local Wisdom in Northeastern Thailand

    Prathip Channuan


    Full Text Available Problem statement: The agriculturists in northeastern Thailand had more rubber plantations. They faced the problem for high investments from using the new technologies. The purposes of the study was to examine appropriate technological development guide lines for rubber plantation for community economic development using local wisdom. Approach: As a qualitative research, documentary and fieldwork were carried out using a survey, interviews, observations and workshop. The research data were analyzed descriptively. Results: As each plantation owner expand his or her land for rubber trees, it was necessary for them to used appropriate technology handling the soil preparation, selecting the rubber saplings, spacing between rows and individual rubber tree, maintenance, fertilizer, pesticide and equipment needed for good quality rubber sheets. The rubber plantation owners realized that they needs appropriate technology and understanding to handle their own problem; They should know about the water drainage underneath each plot of land; the rubber stocks that could resist diseases and droughts and give more substance. Each rai of land should grow 76 rubber trees with 50×50×50 centimeters of each tree bed. The air flows for the plants should be calculated; homemade fertilizer, pesticide, equipment, the sipping and rubber sheets making should also be fully applied. Conclusion/Recommendation: The farmers developed the technologies for community economic development using local wisdom by improving the soils and adjusted to the climate and the geographical feature. They cooperated with the officials who support them to learn how using the appropriate technologies.

  19. Privatization and economic liberalization: the role of the entrepreneur as a catalyst for economic development in transition economies

    Dibrell, Clay; Danskin Englis, Paula; Kedia, Ben L.; Lakatos, Gergo M.


    Many nations with transition economies are attempting to develop their national competitiveness through such processes as privatisation of state owned enterprises (SOEs) and/or the use of economic liberalisation (e.g. lessening of tariffs, industry regulations, etc.) to spur economic growth and deve

  20. Development of the Methodology for the Economic Evaluation of Managerial Decisions as a Factor of Economic Security Increase

    Olga Aleksandrovna Romanova; Vladimir Yevgenyevich Strovskiy


    In the article, it is noted that the emergence of the phenomenon of interdependence between security and development — so-called security-development nexus, becomes determining during the development of strategic documents at all hierarchical levels. It gives relevance to the search of the methodological decisions allowing to consider the possible threats to economic security at the strategic level, and the pragmatical actions which are not contradicting a strategic vector of economic entitie...

  1. Developing Tool Support for Problem Diagrams with CPN and VDM++

    Tjell, Simon; Lassen, Kristian Bisgaard


    In this paper, we describe ongoing work on the development of tool support for formal description of domains found in Problem Diagrams. The purpose of the tool is to handle the generation of a CPN model based on a collection of Problem Diagrams. The Problem Diagrams are used for representing the ...

  2. Implications of climate change for economic development in northern Canada: energy, resource, and transportation sectors.

    Prowse, Terry D; Furgal, Chris; Chouinard, Rebecca; Melling, Humfrey; Milburn, David; Smith, Sharon L


    Northern Canada is projected to experience major changes to its climate, which will have major implications for northern economic development. Some of these, such as mining and oil and gas development, have experienced rapid expansion in recent years and are likely to expand further, partly as the result of indirect effects of changing climate. This article reviews how a changing climate will affect several economic sectors including the hydroelectric, oil and gas, and mining industries as well as infrastructure and transportation, both marine and freshwater. Of particular importance to all sectors are projected changes in the cryosphere, which will create both problems and opportunities. Potential adaptation strategies that could be used to minimize the negative impacts created by a climate change are also reviewed.


    Ambar Sari Dewi


    Full Text Available The role of Small Medium Enterprise (SME has been proven to be important in economic development. Many research also believed that the rapid rise of SME’s development caused by Information and Communication Technology (ICT adaption in their business. However, its adoption in developing countries faces several problems. Using Rogers’ (1995 diffusion of innovation theory and Manueli’s (2007 recommendations, this essay will argue that to overcome the problem, a strong cooperation should be taken, interpersonal communication should be use as well as type of ICTs should be chosen wisely, based on specifi needs.

  4. Hirschsprung′s disease: Management problem in a developing country

    Bandré E


    Full Text Available Background: The management of Hirschsprung′s disease remains a problem in developing countries. Our aim is to identify the main epidemiological, clinical, and therapeutic characteristics of Hirschsprung′s disease at the University Child Hospital Charles De Gaulle of Ouagadougou (CHUP-CDG. Patients and Method: It is a retrospective study carried out in the period from January 2001 to December 2007 in the Surgery Unit at CHUP-CDG, which is a reference centre for Paediatric Surgery in Burkina Faso. Results: There were 52 patients (M: F=3.3:1. The annual incidence was seven cases. Age at presentation and diagnosis ranged from two days 10 years (median 20 months. Twenty five patients were from poor socio-economic conditions. Presentations were mainly intestinal obstruction, chronic constipation and enterocolitis. There were two cases of associated trisomy 21. Average age at operative intervention was 3.17 months. The rectosigmoidal form was the most frequently encountered. Over two-thirds (67.31%, with no complications at presentation, had benefited from nursing before their final treatment. A temporary colostomy was requested in case of complication. Swenson′s technique was practiced for all the patients who underwent surgery operation. The assessment of functional results in eight patients after an average decrease of 3.5 years gave excellent results. Post-surgery complications were mainly enterocolitis in 12% of patients. Mortality rate was 16%. Conclusion: Management of Hirschsprung′s disease is a problem in Burkina Faso. It is characterised by its late presentation and difficult diagnosis due to inaccessibility and the non-availability of some investigation services (barium enema, histochemistry, and histology, resulting in high morbidity and mortality rates. Effective technical capacities, adequate staff training, and public education will be necessary to improve care quality.

  5. Aspects of Development Financing After the Financial and Economic Crisis

    Bruno Gurtner


    Full Text Available Published by Palgrave MacmillanThe financial and economic crisis saw developing and emerging countries experience more severe setbacks in their growth rates than industrialised countries and they did not all have sufficient funds to finance robust stimulus measures. The major emerging economies have nevertheless recovered quickly and are currently the most important growth engines in the world economy.Private capital flows collapsed, leaving the global South with an overall deficit in financing. Greater official financing flows have not yet been able to compensate for the shortfalls and the slow increase in private capital flows since the end of 2009 has not been able to do so either. Overall, according to the UN, more capital flows from the South to the North than vice versa. The South thus continues to finance the North.Discussions regarding a reform of the global financial and economic order are ongoing but to date have had little impact on developing countries. The international financing institutions do have more funds at their disposal, but developing countries are still under-represented. The IMF and the World Bank have begun to question some of their previous dogmas. Opinions are divided on whether one can already speak of a new policy.The debate on the role of taxation in the mobilisation of local resources for development financing has intensified. Insight favouring comprehensive reforms of the taxation systems in developing countries has sharpened, but technical aid provided by industrialised countries to realise these reforms is still insufficient. Taxation is acquiring growing recognition as an instrument of State-building, democratisation and governance. The campaign to deal with international tax evasion and illicit capital flows is gaining momentum and the exchange of information on tax issues has improved. However, it is difficult to establish newer and more trenchant instruments for improved transparency, given the predominant


    Lucas Silva


    Full Text Available This paper tests the hypothesis that institutional capabilities have a positive effect on economic development. Methodologically, we used descriptive and multivariate statistics, spatial analysis and Ordinary Least Squares (OLS linear regression to estimate their effect. Spatial correlation was tested between the countries by their respective capabilities indexes. The results show in an aggregated level that institutional capabilities do have a positive effect on economic development. However, when we disaggregated by geographic region, we realized that this relation is significant only in four of them: (1 East Asia and Pacific, (2 Europe and Central Asia, (3 Latin America and Caribbean and (4 Middle East and North Africa. For OECD countries, the institutional capability effect is larger for members than for non-members. Taking political regime in consideration, our index performs better in democracies. In the end, global spatial autocorrelation indicates a weak, positive and statistically significate association comparing with institutional capability. (I = 0,192; p-value<0.05.


    ZhaoYin WANG; Yongsheng WU; Guangqian WANG


    This paper reports the phenomena of eutrophication and red tides correlated with human activities,especially economic development. The fertilizer production in China has been accelerated since the 1970s and has approximately doubled the rate of nitrogen input into the terrestrial N cycle. While the rate of the total population growth of China maintains relatively stable the rate of population growth in cities and towns in the 1980s and 1990s was 10 times higher than ever before. As a result, the urban sewage discharge increased by 400%, which carries 1 million tons of nitrogen into the environmental waters per year. The mining of P minerals and application of P-containing fertilizers greatly enhanced the input of P into the waters. Harmful algal blooms are consequence of the eutrophication. The high frequency of algal bloom is related to the quick economic development since the 1970s and the eutrophication of environmental waters. Analysis indicates that the number of the red tide events in the China Seas roughly follows the curve of the growth rate of GDP with a time lag of about 5-6 years. The time lag is explained as the period of the cycle of accumulation, denitrification and release of the nutrients with transportation and resuspension of the sediment.

  8. Sister Cities and Economic Development: A New Zeeland Perspective

    Brian CROSS


    Full Text Available Sister City relationships, originally built on cultural understanding and peace through citizen diplomacy, are evolving in today’s society. Politicians increasingly demand real returns where local government is actively involved. Meaningful sister city links are an asset for any community and its nation. However full utilisation requires skills and commitment talked about but often lacking in delivery. Increased emphasis on economic development as primary motivator for having sister cities provides opportunities, but also presents risks as policy emphasis shifts from relationship-building to pragmatic, shorter term goals. New Zealand’s portfolio of sister cities reflect its place on the Pacific Rim and its political/ economic positioning as “part of Asia”. An upsurge in interest from and in China as the place to do business has coincided with a levelling off of sister city activities when they should be increasing. The reasons are varied, but demonstrate the challenges New Zealand faces in continuing as a front-runner in the sister city movement. Sister city policies require honest assessment. Limited resources demand better investment where opportunities are identified or disassociation where they are not. Success requires robust policy development, professionalism and an effective public relations campaign informing communities concerned of the possibilities their international links can present.

  9. An Investigation into Bilingual Education for Children from Favored Socio-Economic Backgrounds. Problemes linguistiques des enfants de travailleurs migrants (Linguistic Problems of the Children of Migrant Workers).

    Baetens Beardsmore, Hugo

    The investigation reported sought to discover: (1) whether the problems faced by children of favored socio-economic backgrounds residing in countries other than those of origin are the same as or different from those faced by less favored groups, and (2) whether the techniques and programs provided for these privileged children can give any…

  10. Research on Urban Agricultural Scientific Development Path of the Construction of Central Economic Region

    Dehui; WU


    The significance of developing characteristic agriculture in Central Economic Zone was elaborated from four aspects of three modernizations coordinated development,guaranteeing city supply of agricultural products,creating more jobs for farmers,making agriculture more significant. The existing problems in urban agriculture development were analyzed,such as understanding deviation,extensive development,market confusion,short industrial chain,low degree of specialization,harsh environment. Several corresponding countermeasures were put forward,including giving full play to the role of government’s macro-control; perfecting compensation mechanism of urban agriculture,developing characteristic agriculture,promoting deep processing of agricultural products; advancing scientific innovation,improving production efficiency;operating sustainable ecological agricultural development road; relying on traffic advantage,promoting industrialization operation and urban agricultural logistics development.

  11. 7 CFR 1940.968 - Rural Economic Development Review Panel Grant (Panel Grant).


    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Rural Economic Development Review Panel Grant (Panel... of Certain Rural Development Programs § 1940.968 Rural Economic Development Review Panel Grant (Panel... associated with a State rural economic development review panel. (b) Objective. The objective of the...

  12. 76 FR 9588 - Announcement of Funding Awards for the Rural Housing and Economic Development Program; Fiscal...


    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Announcement of Funding Awards for the Rural Housing and Economic Development Program...) for the Rural Housing and Economic Development Program. This announcement contains the names of the.... Williams, PhD, Director, Office of Rural Housing and Economic Development, Office of Community Planning...


    Daiyun Yue


    Full Text Available This article proposes an analysis of the development of the Chinese Studies ofComparative Literature. After having delineated a short history of the discipline in China, the authordiscusses a series of fundamental theoretical nodes in order to characterize appropriately the wide fieldof action of the comparatist research. According to the author, in the period of transition withoutprecedence that we all have been living, the Comparative Literature is called to play a fundamentalrole in the construction of an ideal world, in which the various cultures can coexist and become rich bymeans of mutual exchange. The single national cultures, in fact, are destined unavoidably to open theirown borders and to develop, thanks to the encounter and interaction with the other cultures.

  14. Issues of sustainable socio-economic development of a region in modern conditions

    Damir Saifullovich Khairullov


    Full Text Available Objective to identify ways of ensuring sustainable socioeconomic development of a region under the conditions of Russia39s joining the WTO to offer tools of state regulation. Methods a systematic approach was applied to the definition of the term conditions and factors of sustainable socioeconomic development of the region comparative method and situational analysis were applied for the study of the problems of sustainable socioeconomic development of a region under the Russia joining the WTO programtarget method and synthesis method were applied for determining the ways of ensuring the socioeconomic development of a region under the Russia joining the WTO. Results the concept conditions and factors of sustainable socioeconomic development of the region were identified the problems and peculiarities of sustainable socioeconomic development of region under the Russia joining the WTO were analyzed. Basing on the analysis of the problems of sustainable socioeconomic development of region under the Russia joining the WTO the path of sustainable socioeconomic development of the region was defined. The priority directions of regional economic policy were listed that meet the challenges of sustainable socioeconomic development of region under the Russia joining the WTO. Tools of state regulation and forecasting were offered. The necessity of the formation of an effective system of state regulation of sustainable socioeconomic development of region under the Russia joining the WTO was proved. The role of the state in restructuring the economy in the implementation of industrial social investment innovation and food policy was shown ensuring the safety and sustainability of socioeconomic development of the region. Scientific novelty the priority directions of regional economic policy were elaborated which according to the authors will contribute to sustainable socioeconomic development of region under the Russia joining the WTO also tools of state

  15. The economic issue of tourism: Algerian and socio-economic conditions of sustainable development in Algeria

    Said Boumendjel


    Full Text Available Abstract in English: The development is the dominant characteristic of the evolution of the world economy since the end of the last war. Evidently it requires an important effort of investment in order to increase the potential of production and a programming or scheduling to orient the choices and the actions.It rests on the economical growth but this growth needs all activity branches to be lasting. The question is to know if it is possible to arrive to the stage of a supportable growth from a sector among others, the tourism. Before, we need to appreciate the economic importance of this sector and to know the mechanisms by which the main social and economic variables influence its multiple activities.  A real analysis of the determinants of the touristy offer and demand as well as the analysis of the touristy products and markets would have permitted us to appreciate its role better in its possible quality of second wealth after the hydrocarbons. The lack of acceptable data is the major reason of its impossibility. In all cases, we are going to tempt to appreciate its importance through the three essential questions of economists: why, how and what.  To tempt to answer there is making a first step toward the research of the solutions that would facilitate the process of lasting development of the tourism in Algeria.  Key words: advantage, competitiveness, challenges, issues, training, investment, obstacle Outline of the articlePart 1: Why invest in the tourism sector?Section 1: Benefits and current Challenges socioeconomicSection 2: The Dutch disease in AlgeriaSection 3: The "grapes" of modern tourismPart 2: How to get involved in the tourism sector?Section 1: Between the theoretical and the practicalSection 2: The necessary lifting of barriersSection 3: The essential conditions of the tourist take-off Part 3: What products make available?Section 1: Economy of market in tourismSection 2: Economics of transportation and housingSection 3

  16. The economic issue of tourism: Algerian and socio-economic conditions of sustainable development in Algeria

    Said Boumendjel


    Full Text Available Abstract in English:The development is the dominant characteristic of the evolution of the world economy since the end of the last war. Evidently it requires an important effort of investment in order to increase the potential of production and a programming or scheduling to orient the choices and the actions.It rests on the economical growth but this growth needs all activity branches to be lasting. The question is to know if it is possible to arrive to the stage of a supportable growth from a sector among others, the tourism. Before, we need to appreciate the economic importance of this sector and to know the mechanisms by which the main social and economic variables influence its multiple activities. A real analysis of the determinants of the touristy offer and demand as well as the analysis of the touristy products and markets would have permitted us to appreciate its role better in its possible quality of second wealth after the hydrocarbons. The lack of acceptable data is the major reason of its impossibility. In all cases, we are going to tempt to appreciate its importance through the three essential questions of economists: why, how and what. To tempt to answer there is making a first step toward the research of the solutions that would facilitate the process of lasting development of the tourism in Algeria. Key words: advantage, competitiveness, challenges, issues, training, investment, obstacleOutline of the articlePart 1: Why invest in the tourism sector?Section 1: Benefits and current Challenges socioeconomicSection 2: The Dutch disease in AlgeriaSection 3: The "grapes" of modern tourismPart 2: How to get involved in the tourism sector?Section 1: Between the theoretical and the practicalSection 2: The necessary lifting of barriersSection 3: The essential conditions of the tourist take-offPart 3: What products make available?Section 1: Economy of market in tourismSection 2: Economics of transportation and housingSection 3: Internal


    Zaman Gheorghe


    Full Text Available This paper is dealing with the problems concerning the improvement of regional classifications by using a composite index of economic development which encompasses four individual indicators: GDP/capita, labour productivity, FDIs and life expectancy. Our aim is to offer a better methodology and a multi-sided image on the regional development, from the perspective of two major factors of influence: Romania’s accession to EU and the recent economic crisis. A special attention should be paid to the hierarchical position of each influence factor. Depending on the specific factor mix, we try to draw conclusions regarding the relationship between economic resilience and vulnerability of each regional economy. The new approach based on the composite index’s computation has the advantage of providing a unique answer on problems such as unclear hierarchies or even contradictory results emerging from different classifications that use separate indicators. The study is covering the 2001-2012 period, divided into two sub-periods: 2001-2006 (pre-accession and 2007-2012 (post-accession.


    Bogdan-Daniel, FLOROIU


    Full Text Available The research developed in the present work is mainly aimed at the development of analysis of foreign direct investment in Romania present, and highlighting positive impact on the Romanian economy. Foreign direct investment has been a growth engine for the Romanian economy, bringing transnational companies and a contribution of 70% in foreign trade of Romania. Given the international economic crisis, foreign direct investment inflows fell above the European Union average, Romania's priority is to create a competitive investment climate to attract them. Therefore, considered vital to attract foreign direct investment in the economy and particularly in agriculture and tourism, as are areas that they can make an important contribution in Romania's gross domestic product, even if at the moment of their contribution is very small.

  19. Planning, Why Bother?! Does Urban Planning Really Matter for Economic Development?-Case of the Municipality of Shkodra



    Full Text Available The entry point of this research is that the economic performance of the city is, to a certain extent, influenced by the performance of the urban planning system. In the case of the Municipality of Shkodra, Economic development is seen as the purpose that Urban Planning should serve at. Statutory planning is not responding adequately to the urban dynamics especially to the need for the local governments to take actions to cope with the challenges as sustainable development, equity and problems related to the urban poor. Local economic development is about local people working together to achieve sustainable economic growth that brings economic benefits and quality of life improvements for all in the community. Planning local economic development is seen as a set of actions planned to reach the objective (LED therefore some how the two concepts Urban Planning and Economic Development are not independent and, depending on what angle you look at, they form part of each other. The low performance of the urban planning system is accentuated by the fact that the existing planning has never stimulated any opportunity of entering in partnership for stimulating a better environment for business and unemployment reduction. Finally the research advocates for an urban planning system that would be inspiring instead of obtrusive, should aim at guiding instead of seeking to stubbornly control the development.

  20. Evolutionary-Hierarchical Bases of the Formation of Cluster Model of Innovation Economic Development

    Yuliya Vladimirovna Dubrovskaya


    Full Text Available The functioning of a modern economic system is based on the interaction of objects of different hierarchical levels. Thus, the problem of the study of innovation processes taking into account the mutual influence of the activities of these economic actors becomes important. The paper dwells evolutionary basis for the formation of models of innovation development on the basis of micro and macroeconomic analysis. Most of the concepts recognized that despite a big number of diverse models, the coordination of the relations between economic agents is of crucial importance for the successful innovation development. According to the results of the evolutionary-hierarchical analysis, the authors reveal key phases of the development of forms of business cooperation, science and government in the domestic economy. It has become the starting point of the conception of the characteristics of the interaction in the cluster models of innovation development of the economy. Considerable expectancies on improvement of the national innovative system are connected with the development of cluster and network structures. The main objective of government authorities is the formation of mechanisms and institutions that will foster cooperation between members of the clusters. The article explains that the clusters cannot become the factors in the growth of the national economy, not being an effective tool for interaction between the actors of the regional innovative systems.