WorldWideScience

Sample records for economic benefits carbon

  1. Carbon emissions: the economic benefits of the Kyoto Protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leo, G.A. de; Gatto, M.

    2001-01-01

    The third Conference of the Parties in Kyoto set the target of reducing greenhouse-gas emissions by an average of 5.3 per cent with respect to 1990 values by 2008 - 2012. One of the main objections to the protocol's ratification is that compliance would pose an unbearable economic burden on the countries involved. But we show here that this is not the case if costs apart from the direct costs of energy production are also considered. Costs are also incurred in rectifying damage to human health, material goods, agriculture and the environment related to greenhouse-gas emissions. (author)

  2. Comparing economic benefits and environmental impacts. A further explanation of differences in carbon dioxide emission figures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Haan, M.; Verduin, H.

    2000-01-01

    To assist the development of international climate policies, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has developed instructions which can be used to calculate and report the emissions of greenhouse gases for each individual country. Bunkering, i.e., refuelling aircraft and ships, is reported separately. However, the agreements on reductions for countries or regions laid down in the Kyoto protocol do not take pollution from international transport into consideration. The Dutch economy generates a substantial amount of pollution outside its national borders through international transport. In 1998, for example, 26 of the total of 203 billion kg carbon dioxide were emitted outside the national borders. In addition, IPCC regulations result in incompatibilities between emission figures and economic key figures (gross domestic product, employment) from the national accounts. This paper reviews the various definitions of emission figures that are used in the Netherlands and their interrelationships. Special attention is paid to the analytical advantages of harmonising environmental statistics with the system of national accounts. 4 refs

  3. Economic Benefits, Conservation and Wildlife Tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Tisdell, Clement A.

    2012-01-01

    Different economic methods are being used to estimate the economic benefits generated by nature (wildlife) tourism. The most prominent of these are economic valuation analysis and economic impact analysis. These methods often provide divergent and conflicting estimates of the economic benefits obtained from wildlife tourism, as is demonstrated in this article by the use of a microeconomic model. Tourism Research Australia has estimated the economic benefits to Australia of nature tourism base...

  4. Carbon taxes: Their benefits, liabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufmann, R.K.; Thompson, L.L.J.

    1993-01-01

    A carbon tax holds much promise for helping to reduce global greenhouse gas emissions, but administration will be a problem. Non-compliance, tilting the economic scales in favor of one energy source at the expense of another, and questions of equity between and within nations all must be addressed if the market-based efficiencies of a carbon tax are to become a concrete global reality. This article discusses carbon taxes in the following topic areas: how to set the rates for carbon taxes; administering the tax; international cooperation; type or form of tax; tax adjustments in existing taxes

  5. Commercial Vessel Safety Economic Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-02-01

    accidents, including basic steps in conducting cost- benefit analyses. 15 Ill. ASSUMPTIONS AND DEFINITIONS This section is used to define the scope...Analysis. Alexandria: Department of Defense, 1978. Devanney, J. W., et al. "Conference Ratemaking and the West Coast of South America," Journal of Transport

  6. Quantifying economic benefits for rail infrastructure projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    This project identifies metrics for measuring the benefit of rail infrastructure projects for key : stakeholders. It is important that stakeholders with an interest in community economic development play an active : role in the development of the rai...

  7. Anticipating the Economic Benefits of Blockchain

    OpenAIRE

    Melanie Swan

    2017-01-01

    In this general overview article intended for non-experts, I define blockchain technology and some of the key concepts, and then I elaborate four specific applications that highlight the potential economic benefits of digital ledgers. These applications are digital asset registries, blockchains as leapfrog technology for global financial inclusion, long-tail personalized economic services, and net settlement payment channels. I also highlight key challenges that offset the potential economic ...

  8. Economic Developments on Perceived Safety, Violence, and Economic Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Emerging research highlights the promise of community- and policy-level strategies in preventing youth violence. Large-scale economic developments, such as sports and entertainment arenas and casinos, may improve the living conditions, economics, public health, and overall wellbeing of area residents and may influence rates of violence within communities. Objective. To assess the effect of community economic development efforts on neighborhood residents’ perceptions on violence, safety, and economic benefits. Methods. Telephone survey in 2011 using a listed sample of randomly selected numbers in six Pittsburgh neighborhoods. Descriptive analyses examined measures of perceived violence and safety and economic benefit. Responses were compared across neighborhoods using chi-square tests for multiple comparisons. Survey results were compared to census and police data. Results. Residents in neighborhoods with the large-scale economic developments reported more casino-specific and arena-specific economic benefits. However, 42% of participants in the neighborhood with the entertainment arena felt there was an increase in crime, and 29% of respondents from the neighborhood with the casino felt there was an increase. In contrast, crime decreased in both neighborhoods. Conclusions. Large-scale economic developments have a direct influence on the perception of violence, despite actual violence rates.

  9. Carbon farming economics: What have we learned?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Kai; Kragt, Marit E; Hailu, Atakelty; Ma, Chunbo

    2016-05-01

    This study reviewed 62 economic analyses published between 1995 and 2014 on the economic impacts of policies that incentivise agricultural greenhouse (GHG) mitigation. Typically, biophysical models are used to evaluate the changes in GHG mitigation that result from landholders changing their farm and land management practices. The estimated results of biophysical models are then integrated with economic models to simulate the costs of different policy scenarios to production systems. The cost estimates vary between $3 and $130/t CO2 equivalent in 2012 US dollars, depending on the mitigation strategies, spatial locations, and policy scenarios considered. Most studies assessed the consequences of a single, rather than multiple, mitigation strategies, and few considered the co-benefits of carbon farming. These omissions could challenge the reality and robustness of the studies' results. One of the biggest challenges facing agricultural economists is to assess the full extent of the trade-offs involved in carbon farming. We need to improve our biophysical knowledge about carbon farming co-benefits, predict the economic impacts of employing multiple strategies and policy incentives, and develop the associated integrated models, to estimate the full costs and benefits of agricultural GHG mitigation to farmers and the rest of society. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Nuclear generation cost management and economic benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horton, E.P.; Sepa, T.R.

    1989-01-01

    The CANDU-Pressurized Heavy Water (CANDU-PHW) type of nuclear generating station has been developed jointly by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited and Ontario Hydro. This report discusses the cost management principles used for Ontario Hydro's CANDU-PHW program, current cost management initiatives, and the economic benefits of nuclear power to the provinces of Ontario and New Brunswick, in Canada

  11. Anticipating the Economic Benefits of Blockchain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Swan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this general overview article intended for non-experts, I define blockchain technology and some of the key concepts, and then I elaborate four specific applications that highlight the potential economic benefits of digital ledgers. These applications are digital asset registries, blockchains as leapfrog technology for global financial inclusion, long-tail personalized economic services, and net settlement payment channels. I also highlight key challenges that offset the potential economic benefits of blockchain distributed ledgers, while arguing that the benefits would outweigh the potential risks. The overarching theme is that an increasing amount of everyday operations involving money, assets, and documents could start to be conducted via blockchain-based distributed network ledgers with cryptographic security, and at more granular levels of detail. One economic implication of widespread blockchain adoption is that the institutional structure of society could shift to one that is computationally-based and thus has a diminished need for human-operated brick-and-mortar institutions.

  12. Crowdfunding our health: Economic risks and benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renwick, Matthew J; Mossialos, Elias

    2017-10-01

    Crowdfunding is an expanding form of alternative financing that is gaining traction in the health sector. This article presents a typology for crowdfunded health projects and a review of the main economic benefits and risks of crowdfunding in the health market. We use evidence from a literature review, complimented by expert interviews, to extend the fundamental principles and established theories of crowdfunding to a health market context. Crowdfunded health projects can be classified into four types according to the venture's purpose and funding method. These are projects covering health expenses, fundraising health initiatives, supporting health research, or financing commercial health innovation. Crowdfunding could economically benefit the health sector by expanding market participation, drawing money and awareness to neglected health issues, improving access to funding, and fostering project accountability and social engagement. However, the economic risks of health-related crowdfunding include inefficient priority setting, heightened financial risk, inconsistent regulatory policies, intellectual property rights concerns, and fraud. Theorized crowdfunding behaviours such as signalling and herding can be observed in the market for health-related crowdfunding. Broader threats of market failure stemming from adverse selection and moral hazard also apply. Many of the discussed economic benefits and risks of crowdfunding health campaigns are shared more broadly with those of crowdfunding projects in other sectors. Where crowdfunding health care appears to diverge from theory is the negative externality inefficient priority setting may have towards achieving broader public health goals. Therefore, the market for crowdfunding health care must be economically stable, as well as designed to optimally and equitably improve public health. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Economic Benefits of Space Tourism to Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, P.

    The European aerospace industry has been very slow to consider the commercial opportunities in supplying passenger space travel services. This has been a costly mistake not just of space policy, but also of economic policy and environmental policy. This is because it is very unlikely that space tourism will remain just a small-scale activity of the very rich; it is much more likely to grow into a major new industry, employing millions of people in high quality employment - eventually much of it outside the Earth's eco-system. This is particularly important because, although the European “social-economic model” has greater popular support than the “USA model” (including among the general USA population), Europe today faces the major problem of high unemployment, which is imposing heavy social and economic costs. If Europe makes serious efforts soon to encourage the growth of passenger space travel, and of the many other economically and environmentally valuable space activities to which this will lead, then commercial space activities could become a major new axis of economic growth and employment-creation for Europe. Moreover, Europe has several advantages over the USA, Russia, Japan, China and India, and so could play a leading role in this field, if policy errors are corrected. The paper discusses the above possibilities, and the potential economic, environmental and other benefits for Europe in investing boldly in this fledgling industry.

  14. Economic benefits of metrology in manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savio, Enrico; De Chiffre, Leonardo; Carmignato, S.

    2016-01-01

    examples from industrial production, in which the added value of metrology in manufacturing is discussed and quantified. Case studies include: general manufacturing, forging, machining, and related metrology. The focus of the paper is on the improved effectiveness of metrology when used at product...... and process design stages, as well as on the improved accuracy and efficiency of manufacturing through better measuring equipment and process chains with integrated metrology for process control.......In streamlined manufacturing systems, the added value of inspection activities is often questioned, and metrology in particular is sometimes considered only as an avoidable expense. Documented quantification of economic benefits of metrology is generally not available. This work presents concrete...

  15. Environmental and economic benefits of sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKay, P.; Kelly, B.; Passmore, J.

    1997-01-01

    The panel on sustainable development was moderated by Paul McKay of the Wildside Foundation. Bryan Kelly, Director of Environment and Sustainable Development at Ontario Hydro, and Jeffrey Passmore of Passmore Associates International were the panel members. Bryan Kelly described the objectives of his group's program as reducing market barriers, and get renewables on a level playing field through technological advances to ensure that ' when Ontario Hydro or its successors make decisions about new capacity, renewables will be a viable option and will not be dismissed out of hand'. To illustrate the approach, he described several ongoing research and development projects. Jeffrey Passmore reported on a study he conducted for the Canadian Wind Energy Association and Environment Canada to determine the environmental and economic benefits of wind energy in Canada. He estimated achievable wind energy potential in Canada at around 6400 MW by 2010. He stressed wind energy's potential for job creation and CO 2 reduction as the principal economic and environmental benefits

  16. Direct economic benefits associated with dietetic internships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conklin, M T; Simko, M D

    1994-02-01

    We explored the direct economic benefits of hospital dietetics departments sponsoring an internship for dietetics studies. Forty-five dietetics departments in US hospitals participated in a mail survey that involved comprehensive data collection procedures using three instruments, including activity logs recorded by 298 dietitians and interns. Direct benefits were defined as the net student labor provided to the department during routine and staff relief experiences that released professional labor for other work. Net student productivity during routine assignments was calculated by subtracting the time dietitians spent teaching during a typical work week from the amount of time dietetic interns spent performing professional services without direct supervision. Student productivity during staff relief rotations was calculated by multiplying the number of students assigned to this type of experience by the length of the rotation. While involved in routine learning experiences, dietetic interns provided a direct benefit. The difference between the time interns spent in independent, professional service in the departments and the time dietitians spent in activities designed specifically for teaching was a mean of 29 hours in favor of the students. All departments received a direct benefit from assigning dietetic interns to a staff relief rotation. The median number of weeks of student labor gained by the departments per year was 24. A paired t test was used to analyze the difference between the time dietitians devoted to teaching interns and the time students spent in independent, professional service in the departments. The difference was very highly significant (P impact of their supervised practice program on the sponsoring organization.

  17. Assessing the carbon benefit of saltmarsh restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Benjamin; Paterson, David; Hanley, Nicholas

    2016-04-01

    The quantification of carbon sequestration rates in coastal ecosystems is required to better realise their potential role in climate change mitigation. Through accurate valuation this service can be fully appreciated and perhaps help facilitate efforts to restore vulnerable ecosystems such as saltmarshes. Vegetated coastal ecosystems are suggested to account for approximately 50% of oceanic sedimentary carbon despite their 2% areal extent. Saltmarshes, conservatively estimated to store 430 ± 30 Tg C in surface sediment deposits, have experienced extensive decline in the recent past; through processes such as land use change and coastal squeeze. Saltmarsh habitats offer a range of services that benefit society and the natural world, making their conservation meaningful and beneficial. The associated costs of restoration projects could, in part, be subsidised through payment for ecosystem services, specifically Blue carbon. Additional storage is generated through the (re)vegetation of mudflat areas leading to an altered ecosystem state and function; providing similar benefits to natural saltmarsh areas. The Eden Estuary, Fife, Scotland has been a site of saltmarsh restoration since 2000; providing a temporal and spatial scale to evaluate these additional benefits. The study is being conducted to quantify the carbon benefit of restoration efforts and provide an insight into the evolution of this benefit through sites of different ages. Seasonal sediment deposition and settlement rates are measured across the estuary in: mudflat, young planted saltmarsh, old planted saltmarsh and extant high marsh areas. Carbon values being derived from loss on ignition organic content values. Samples are taken across a tidal cycle on a seasonal basis; providing data on tidal influence, vegetation condition effects and climatic factors on sedimentation and carbon sequestration rates. These data will inform on the annual characteristics of sedimentary processes in the estuary and be

  18. Optimization of catalyst system reaps economic benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Roy, C.F.; Hanshaw, M.J.; Fischer, S.M.; Malik, T.; Kooiman, R.R.

    1991-01-01

    Champlin Refining and Chemicals Inc. is learning to optimize its catalyst systems for hydrotreating Venezuelan gas oils through a program of research, pilot plant testing, and commercial unit operation. The economic results of this project have been evaluated, and the benefits are most evident in improvements in product yields and qualities. The project has involved six commercial test runs, to date (Runs 10-15), with a seventh run planned. A summary of the different types of catalyst systems used in the test runs, and the catalyst philosophy that developed is given. Runs 10 and 11 used standard CoMo and NiMo catalysts for heavy gas oils hydrotreating. These catalysts had small pore sizes and suffered high deactivation rates because of metals contamination. When it was discovered that metals contamination was a problem, catalyst options were reviewed

  19. Economic and environmental benefits of higher-octane gasoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speth, Raymond L; Chow, Eric W; Malina, Robert; Barrett, Steven R H; Heywood, John B; Green, William H

    2014-06-17

    We quantify the economic and environmental benefits of designing U.S. light-duty vehicles (LDVs) to attain higher fuel economy by utilizing higher octane (98 RON) gasoline. We use engine simulations, a review of experimental data, and drive cycle simulations to estimate the reduction in fuel consumption associated with using higher-RON gasoline in individual vehicles. Lifecycle CO2 emissions and economic impacts for the U.S. LDV fleet are estimated based on a linear-programming refinery model, a historically calibrated fleet model, and a well-to-wheels emissions analysis. We find that greater use of high-RON gasoline in appropriately tuned vehicles could reduce annual gasoline consumption in the U.S. by 3.0-4.4%. Accounting for the increase in refinery emissions from production of additional high-RON gasoline, net CO2 emissions are reduced by 19-35 Mt/y in 2040 (2.5-4.7% of total direct LDV CO2 emissions). For the strategies studied, the annual direct economic benefit is estimated to be $0.4-6.4 billion in 2040, and the annual net societal benefit including the social cost of carbon is estimated to be $1.7-8.8 billion in 2040. Adoption of a RON standard in the U.S. in place of the current antiknock index (AKI) may enable refineries to produce larger quantities of high-RON gasoline.

  20. Solar energy's economic and social benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheer, H.

    1995-01-01

    There are numerous indications that solar energy is far more than a mere stopgap measure to escape from the present environmental crisis. These include the natural as well as the developed, and still developing, technological potential of solar energy; the vast opportunities offered by abandoning destructive energy sources; and, not least, the new industrial perspectives arising from the conversion of our energy system. In addition to the environmental benefits, solar energy will bring about major economic and social gains. The creation of a solar energy system offers an unexpected and unique chance to release industrial society from the harmful consequences of the Industrial Revolution and to make available its positive accomplishments - particularly the social, democratic and cultural opportunities made possible by freeing mankind from slave labour - to all of mankind. Destruction of the environment is the greatest danger for industrialized societies pursuing economic growth, but it is not the only one. The Western high culture of welfare states is evidently a thing of the past. Created by the pressure of social movements that emerged in the Industrial Revolution, they stabilized capitalism by making it more responsive to the social needs in its strongholds. But both old and new contradictions, as well as the growth of welfare costs, lead to the conclusion that the future of the industrial system is increasingly seen only in terms of jettisoning its social obligations. Political democracy will then once more be in danger. Modern history is unable to provide an example of a stable democracy based on permanent mass misery

  1. Net energy benefits of carbon nanotube applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhai, Pei; Isaacs, Jacqueline A.; Eckelman, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Life cycle net energy benefits are examined. • CNT-enabled and the conventional technologies are compared. • Flash memory with CNT switches show significant positive net energy benefit. • Lithium-ion batteries with MWCNT cathodes show positive net energy benefit. • Lithium-ion batteries with SWCNT anodes tend to exhibit negative net energy benefit. - Abstract: Implementation of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in various applications can reduce material and energy requirements of products, resulting in energy savings. However, processes for the production of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are energy-intensive and can require extensive purification. In this study, we investigate the net energy benefits of three CNT-enabled technologies: multi-walled CNT (MWCNT) reinforced cement used as highway construction material, single-walled CNT (SWCNT) flash memory switches used in cell phones and CNT anodes and cathodes used in lithium-ion batteries used in electric vehicles. We explore the avoided or additional energy requirement in the manufacturing and use phases and estimate the life cycle net energy benefits for each application. Additional scenario analysis and Monte Carlo simulation of parameter uncertainties resulted in probability distributions of net energy benefits, indicating that net energy benefits are dependent on the application with confidence intervals straddling the breakeven line in some cases. Analysis of simulation results reveals that SWCNT switch flash memory and MWCNT Li-ion battery cathodes have statistically significant positive net energy benefits (α = 0.05) and SWCNT Li-ion battery anodes tend to have negative net energy benefits, while positive results for MWCNT-reinforced cement were significant only under an efficient CNT production scenario and a lower confidence level (α = 0.1).

  2. The Economic Benefits of Space Tourism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, P.

    The recent growth of activities towards developing passenger space travel services is very promising; however there is a widespread but mistaken idea that space tourism will remain a small-scale activity of the very wealthy. The truth is that, having been delayed for over three decades by government space agencies' failure to develop more than a small fraction of the commercial potential of space, the start of space travel services is long overdue, and so they are capable of growing rapidly into a major new industry. That is, the technical and business know-how exists to enable space tourism to grow to a turnover of 100 billion Euros/year within a few decades if it receives public support of even 10% of space agencies budgets. This development would sharply reduce the cost of accessing the resources of space, which could prevent the spread of the “resource wars” which have begun so ominously. No activity therefore offers greater economic benefits than the rapid development of low-cost space tourism services. A range of government policies should be revised to reflect this.

  3. Evaluation of Production and Carbon Benefit of Different Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HU Liang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed environmental and economic benefits of 8 types of vegetables in 4 different farms over 3 years. The specific results were as follows:(1The input-output ratio and carbon footprint of organic production mode was 18.5% and 87.4% of that of pollution-free mode, respectively; (2Fertilizer and power consumption was the main source of carbon emissions, accounting for 58.76% and 16.67% of total carbon emissions, respectively; (3There were positive correlations between N fertilizer and both carbon emissions and carbon footprint. In other words, higher use of N fertilizer resulted in higher carbon emissions and carbon footprint; (4 When organic fertilizers use reached 122 352 kg·hm-2, the crop production could reach the maximum under organic mode. Under the mode of pollution-free production, when agricultural chemicals input reached 20 103 yuan·hm-2, leafy vegetable production could reach the maximum. Therefore, to increase production and reduce carbon emissions in the process of vegetable production, the main approach was to use organic mode, increase the quantity of organic fertilizer, instead of the use of inorganic N fertilizer and other agricultural chemicals and establish water-saving irrigation system for electricity efficiency.

  4. Economic and ordinal benefits of Hydrogen Energy Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giannantoni, C.; Zoli, M.

    2009-01-01

    A method for assessing economic, environmental and energy investments is particularly suited for hydrogen technologies, because it makes it possible to calculate business returns, negative externalities and, above all, the economic benefits to the citizens: the monetizable positive externalities and the ordinal benefits, i.e. those which cannot be reduced to a simple monetary value. [it

  5. Measuring total economic benefits from water in plantation forestry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A quasi input-output framework was applied to measuring direct and indirect economic benefits from water use in plantation forestry in the Crocodile river catchment of South Africa. The study accounted for indirect economic benefits generated in downstream timber processing activities and input supply sectors linked with ...

  6. Expanding the development benefits from carbon offsets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayres, Jessica; Grieg-Gran, Maryanne; Harris, Lizzie; Huq, Saleemul

    2006-10-15

    The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) of the Kyoto Protocol which allows for trade in emission reductions between developing and developed countries has a specific aim of ensuring that carbon emission reduction projects contribute to sustainable development of the host country according to standards set by that country. However, the development potential of transactions under the CDM is constrained by a number of factors. Governments face the dilemma of setting demanding sustainable development criteria and running the risk of losing investments to other developing countries with less demanding standards, or setting less stringent standards and thus generating little benefit at the local level. This is compounded by the fact that concluding deals under the CDM in developing countries is more expensive, time-consuming and risky than buying carbon credits elsewhere.

  7. The Diversification Benefits of Including Carbon Assets in Financial Portfolios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinpeng Zhang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Carbon allowances traded in the EU-Emission Trading Scheme (EU-ETS were initially designed as an economic motivation for efficiently curbing greenhouse as emissions, but now it mimics quite a few characteristics of financial assets, and have now been used as a candidate product in building financial portfolios. In this study, we examine the time-varying correlations between carbon allowance prices with other financial indices, during the third phase of EU-ETS. The results show that, at the beginning of this period, carbon price was still strongly corrected with other financial indices. However, this connection was weakened over time. Given the relative independence of carbon assets from other financial assets, we argue for the diversification benefits of including carbon assets in financial portfolios, and building such portfolios, respectively, with the traditional global minimum variance (GMV strategy, the mean-variance-OGARCH (MV-OGARCH strategy, and the dynamic conditional correlation (DCC strategy. It is shown that the portfolio built with the MV-OGARCH strategy far out-performs the others and that including carbon assets in financial portfolios does help reduce investment risks.

  8. Economic benefits of the nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutherland, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    The historical and projected benefits of nuclear power are estimated as the cost differential between nuclear power and an alternative baseload generating source times the quantity of electricity generated. From 1976 through 1981 coal and nuclear power were close competitors in most regions, with nuclear power holding a small cost advantage overall in 1976 and 1977 that subsequently eroded. When nuclear power costs are contrasted to coal power costs, national benefits from nuclear power are estimated to be $336 million from 1976 to 1981, with an additional $1.8 billion for the present value of existing plants. Fuel oil has been the dominant source of baseload generation in California, Florida, and New England. When nuclear power costs are contrasted to those of fuel oil, the benefits of nuclear power in these three regions are estimated to be $8.3 billion and $28.1 billion in terms of present value. The present value of benefits of future nuclear plants is estimated to be $8.2 billion under a midcase scenario and $43 billion under an optimistic scenario. 18 references, 10 tables

  9. Monitoring and economic factors affecting the economic viability of afforestation for carbon sequestration projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, Kimberly; Loza-Balbuena, Isabel; Ford-Robertson, Justin

    2004-01-01

    The Kyoto Protocol is the first step towards achieving the objectives of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and aims among others to promote 'the protection and enhancement of carbon sinks and reservoirs'. To encourage afforestation for carbon sequestration a project must be economically viable. This study uses a model to analyse the impact on project viability of a range of carbon monitoring options, international carbon credit value and discount rate, applied to a Pinus radiata afforestation project in New Zealand. Monitoring carbon in conjunction with conventional forest inventory shows the highest return. Long-term average carbon accounting has lower accounting costs, compared to annual and 5 yearly accounting, as monitoring is only required every 5-10 years until the long-term average is attained. In this study we conclude that monitoring soil carbon stocks is not economically feasible using any of the accounting methods, when carbon is valued at US$ 10/t. This conclusion may be relevant to forest carbon sequestration projects elsewhere in the world and suggests care is needed in selecting the appropriate carbon monitoring options to avoid the risk that costs could be higher than any monetary benefits from terrestrial carbon sequestration. This would remove any commercial incentive to afforest for carbon sequestration reasons and severely limit the use of forest sinks as part of any package of measures addressing the ultimate objective of the UNFCCC

  10. Consequences of co-benefits for the efficient design of carbon sequestration programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, H.; Kling, C.L.

    2005-01-01

    The social efficiency of private carbon markets that also included trading in agricultural soil carbon sequestration with significant associated co-benefits were considered. Three topics related to the presence of co-benefits that sequester carbon were examined: (1) the consequences of co-benefits from carbon sinks and carbon abatement technology on the efficiency of carbon markets; (2) the efficient supply of carbon sequestration and co-benefits when there is spatial heterogeneity; and (3) the consequences of the presence of a carbon market when there is also a government supported conservation program. Co-benefits from carbon sinks and abatement were considered in relation to the socially efficient level of sequestration. The supply of carbon sequestration and co-benefits were then considered when fields differed in their potential to provide carbon and other environmental benefits. An empirical example of the economic characteristics of carbon sequestration and co-benefits in the Upper Mississippi River Basin was presented, in which the sequestration practice of land retirement with planting of perennial grasses was examined. Two sets of figures were used to illustrate the relationship between the cost of carbon sequestration and its marginal co-benefits: the marginal cost and the marginal co-benefits of carbon sequestration in a carbon market; and the marginal cost of carbon sequestration under a policy designed to maximize a bundle of environmental benefits. It was demonstrated that the relationship between carbon and its associated co-benefits will affect the efficiency of policy instruments designed for carbon sequestration. It was recommended that policy-makers consider that there are already a multitude of existing conservation programmes that result in significant carbon sequestration in many countries, and that nascent carbon markets are emerging in countries that have not ratified the Kyoto Protocol. The efficient level and location of carbon

  11. Electricity exports: Discussion of provincial economic benefits and costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    A review was conducted by the British Columbia Energy Council to assess the economic and social impacts of the export of long-term firm electricity to the USA and the distribution of these impacts. The objectives of, and the differences between, benefit-cost and socio-economic impact analysis are discussed as they apply to potential electricity export projects. Provincial export project review requirements (project justification, environmental impacts, socio-economic impact assessment) and proposed legislative changes are first reviewed. The concepts and objectives of value added, economic rent, opportunity costs, economic (benefit-cost) analysis, and socio-economic impact analysis are explained. Employment issues including unemployed labor, employment benefits, and regional and occupational considerations are then discussed, as well as transfers to various levels of government in the form of taxes, subsidies, resource royalties, and depletion costs. 8 refs., 4 tabs

  12. BENEFITS, COSTS AND LIMITS OF ECONOMIC INCREASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VĂDUVA CECILIA ELENA

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The macroeconomic situation of a nation cannot be characterized just by the equilibrium conditions of its economy, but especially by the growth level and rate of the gross domestic product or the national, total income and per inhabitant. These are at the base to ensure the resources to raise the life standard of people, and for the overall progress of the country, for its honorable placement or framing in the national economy. The oscillations of the economic activities and the long term trend interweaved along centuries. Looked in a millenary retrospective by “L'Histoire” known magazine, they appear like: “while the brutal, short-term crises are well sighted, and the tri-decennial cycles have been defined by the Russian economist Kondratieff and are admitted, the long term movements are less known, those trends which make the succession of “The beautiful of the XIV century”, “The gloomy of the XVII century” and the XIX century, considered “grey”, the extraordinary of the XX century, the economics and economic historians are far from agreeing on the reality of these long movements, and if they admit them, they separate on their profound causes.”

  13. Economic and environmental benefits of interconnected systems. The Spanish example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chicharro, A.S.; Dios Alija, R. de

    1996-01-01

    The interconnected systems provide large technical and economic benefits which, evaluated and contrasted with the associated network investment cost, usually produce important net savings. There are continental electrical systems formed by many interconnected subsystems. The optimal size of an interconnection should be defined within an economic background. It is necessary to take into account the global environmental effects. The approach and results of studies carried out by Red Electrica is presented, in order to analyse both economic and environmental benefits resulting from an increase in the present Spanish interconnection capacities. From both economic and environmental points of view, the development of the interconnected systems is highly positive. (author)

  14. Economic benefits of commercial space activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Barbara A.

    Space is not only an endless frontier for exploration, but also a potentially rich arena for profitable commerce to benefit all mankind. Access to the unique environment of space provides opportunities for unprecedented kinds of research to develop new products and services. This research can lead to commercially viable enterprises, which will become permanent businesses, which will provide good jobs for workers, pay taxes to their governments, and return dividends to their investors. Seeking superior products and processes is vital if the economy is to grow and prosper. This paper discusses the current and potential impact on the economy of selected private sector space activities.

  15. Quantifying the economic water savings benefit of water hyacinth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quantifying the economic water savings benefit of water hyacinth ... Value Method was employed to estimate the average production value of irrigation water, ... invasions of this nature, as they present significant costs to the economy and ...

  16. Estimating the Economic Benefits of Regional Ocean Observing Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kite-Powell, Hauke L; Colgan, Charles S; Wellman, Katharine F; Pelsoci, Thomas; Wieand, Kenneth; Pendleton, Linwood; Kaiser, Mark J; Pulsipher, Allan G; Luger, Michael

    2005-01-01

    We develop a methodology to estimate the potential economic benefits from new investments in regional coastal ocean observing systems in US waters, and apply this methodology to generate preliminary...

  17. Estimating the Economic Benefits of Forward-Engaged Naval Forces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Looney, Robert E; Schrady, David A; Brown, Ronald L

    2001-01-01

    In preparing for the 1997 quadrennial defense review, U.S. Navy leaders asked the Naval Postgraduate School to study the economic benefits of forward-engaged naval forces and communicate them to policy makers and the public...

  18. Understanding the economic benefits of climate change commitments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinge, A.W.; Bourgeois, T.G.

    1998-01-01

    Much has been written about the likely economic costs of US commitment to a global climate change treaty, whereby signatory countries would be expected to stabilize or reduce carbon emissions. A great deal of rhetoric has surrounded the potential costs of such action, with some estimates stating that committing to such a treaty would result in 1.2 to 1.8 million job losses by the year 2010. On the other side of the discussion, the Energy Innovations report prepared by ACEEE and others showed that emissions could be cut by 10% by 2010, at the same time that the economy would grow modestly by $2.8 billion over a base case, including a net gain of 800,000 additional jobs. One area that has not been adequately addressed in the debate is quantifying the current level of activity of the positively affected industries from such a climate treaty, including the energy efficiency and renewable energy industries and other environmental businesses. This paper presents information on the current and prospective contribution of the energy efficiency industries to US economic output, exports and job creation. This will better define what the possible benefits to the US economy might be of potential global climate change policies. The magnitude of the beneficial economic impact will in part be determined by the extent to which energy efficiency products, and the components which comprise them, are manufactured in the US. An important issue to be addressed is the existence, scale, and the competitive position of these energy efficiency industries in the US

  19. Valuing blue carbon: carbon sequestration benefits provided by the marine protected areas in Colombia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana G Zarate-Barrera

    Full Text Available Marine protected areas are aimed to protect and conserve key ecosystems for the provision of a number of ecosystem services that are the basis for numerous economic activities. Among the several services that these areas provide, the capacity of sequestering (capturing and storing organic carbon is a regulating service, provided mainly by mangroves and seagrasses, that gains importance as alternatives for mitigating global warming become a priority in the international agenda. The objective of this study is to value the services associated with the capture and storage of oceanic carbon, known as Blue Carbon, provided by a new network of marine protected areas in Colombia. We approach the monetary value associated to these services through the simulation of a hypothetical market for oceanic carbon. To do that, we construct a benefit function that considers the capacity of mangroves and seagrasses for capturing and storing blue carbon, and simulate scenarios for the variation of key variables such as the market carbon price, the discount rate, the natural rate of loss of the ecosystems, and the expectations about the post-Kyoto negotiations. The results indicate that the expected benefits associated to carbon capture and storage provided by these ecosystems are substantial but highly dependent on the expectations in terms of the negotiations surrounding the extension of the Kyoto Protocol and the dynamics of the carbon credit's demand and supply. We also find that the natural loss rate of these ecosystems does not seem to have a significant effect on the annual value of the benefits. This approach constitutes one of the first attempts to value blue carbon as one of the services provided by conservation.

  20. Economic benefits of subsea flexible flowlines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, R.T.; Measamer, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    The development of marginal off-shore hydrocarbon deposits has resulted in production of increasingly corrosive fluids, thus furthering the need for pipelines capable of operating at elevated temperatures in the presence of high concentrations of H 2 S and CO 2 gases. Conventional pipelines require the use of stainless steels or other corrosion resistant alloys which drives up the cost of materials and fabrication/installation of the system. The use of flexible pipe is assuming an important role in these applications where the selection of compatible metallic and non-metallic components have resulted in cost effective alternatives. As development of marginal and aggressive hydrocarbon reservoirs increases operators are faced with providing systems which minimize the cost of field production. This paper describes the results of economic analyses of actual field developments in order to provide a methodology for selection of an appropriate pipeline technology to minimize life cycle costs of the flowline system

  1. Economics of Cancer Medicines: For Whose Benefit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyawali, Bishal; Sullivan, Richard

    2017-04-01

    Although new cancer drugs are continually getting approved and used, the value that these drugs add is very debatable. Because of the skyrocketing cost of the new drugs, each new approval represents a multibillion market. However, unlike other branches of economics, cancer drugs are intricately associated with socio-political issues, emotional overlay, public pressure, industry manipulation and propaganda. In this article, we review the value added by new cancer drugs and examine the socio-political agenda around them with highlights on the increasing gulf between high-income and low-middle income countries regarding the affordability to these drugs. Finally, we also suggest a way forward to address this highly complex issue.

  2. Quantifying Carbon and distributional benefits of solar home system programs in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Limin; Bandyopadhyay, Sushenjit; Cosgrove-Davies, Mac; Samad, Hussain

    2011-01-01

    Scaling-up adoption of renewable energy technology, such as solar home systems, to expand electricity access in developing countries can accelerate the transition to low-carbon economic development. Using a purposely collected national household survey, this study quantifies the carbon and distributional benefits of solar home system programs in Bangladesh. Three key findings are generated...

  3. Nutrition economics: towards comprehensive understanding of the benefits of nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koponen, Aki; Sandell, Mari; Salminen, Seppo; Lenoir-Wijnkoop, Irene

    2012-01-01

    There has been an increase in the knowledge and interest on nutrition, and functional foods have gained popularity over the last few decades, and the trend is increasing. Probiotics and prebiotics are among the most studied functional foods. Nutrition economics has been defined as the discipline dedicated to researching and characterising health and economic outcomes in nutrition for the benefit of society. The concept and its application to probiotics and prebiotics will be discussed in terms of health and economic benefits and their evaluation. Health economics and concrete applications showing how to maximise long-term nutritional benefits will contribute to motivate consumers in making food choices based on a rational understanding of their own interest. We present a model that shows that nutrition economics can be used as an analytical tool for product and service network development.

  4. A comparative assessment of the economic benefits from shale gas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is an attempt to inform the policy debate by highlighting both the potential economic benefits and environmental costs. To date, the Econometrix report (published in 2012) provides the only estimate of the economic impacts that may emanate from developing the Karoo's shale gas. The report uses a Keynesian ...

  5. A Cost Benefit Analysis of an Active Travel Intervention with Health and Carbon Emission Reduction Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grams, Mark; Witten, Karen; Woodward, Alistair

    2018-01-01

    Active travel (walking and cycling) is beneficial for people’s health and has many co-benefits, such as reducing motor vehicle congestion and pollution in urban areas. There have been few robust evaluations of active travel, and very few studies have valued health and emissions outcomes. The ACTIVE before-and-after quasi-experimental study estimated the net benefits of health and other outcomes from New Zealand’s Model Communities Programme using an empirical analysis comparing two intervention cities with two control cities. The Programme funded investment in cycle paths, other walking and cycling facilities, cycle parking, ‘shared spaces’, media campaigns and events, such as ‘Share the Road’, and cycle-skills training. Using the modified Integrated Transport and Health Impacts Model, the Programme’s net economic benefits were estimated from the changes in use of active travel modes. Annual benefits for health in the intervention cities were estimated at 34.4 disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and two lives saved due to reductions in cardiac disease, diabetes, cancer, and respiratory disease. Reductions in transport-related carbon emissions were also estimated and valued. Using a discount rate of 3.5%, the estimated benefit/cost ratio was 11:1 and was robust to sensitivity testing. It is concluded that when concerted investment is made in active travel in a city, there is likely to be a measurable, positive return on investment. PMID:29751618

  6. Economic benefits of reducing emissions from the cement industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Fadel, M.; Metni, M.; Nuwayhid, M.I.; Kobrossi, R.

    1999-01-01

    Full text.Air pollution has recently been a growing concern in Lebanon particularly around industrial facilities and in urban areas. The cement industry constitutes a major polluting source and its impacts have historically raised considerable local public concern, as was previously the case in many developed countries. In this context, the town of Chekka, which is the site of four cement factories, has been the subject of long-lived controversy with respect to emissions and potential adverse environmental impacts. While field observations and public health complains support the presence of such impacts., scientific data are almost non-existent to adequately evaluate the actual situation. This paper describes recent efforts conducted towards a proper air quality characterization in order to shed light on the extent and nature of the impact of the cement industry in the Chekka region on its immediate vicinity. For this purpose, continuous monitoring of selected air pollutants (particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide, and carbon monoxide) was conducted during a limited period. In addition, pollutant dispersion modeling was performed to better define exposure areas. Field measurements coupled with simulation results were linked to a survey questionnaire to assess potential health and material damage on a sample area. The economic benefits of emissions reduction of selected pollutants are presented in the context of the results obtained during this study

  7. The benefit of sustainable industrial cooperation. Study on the economical and ecological benefits of industrial cooperatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, D.H.J.M.; Lavrijsen, T.; Vermeulen, W.J.V.

    2005-01-01

    From scientific literature and policy memoranda it appears that sustainable industrial cooperatives result into economical and ecological benefits. However, little empirical data on practical results is available. Therefore, recently, an analysis has been carried out determining the benefit of industrial cooperation. The economical and ecological offer businesses a cost-effective option to reduce the environmental burden. Still, real implementation of such cooperatives is only realized yet by forerunners in the field of environmental management [nl

  8. Benefits of carbon markets to small and medium enterprises (SMEs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Harvested wooden handicrafts products have the ability to lock carbon for long time and mitigate climate change. These products are currently eligible for availing benefits from voluntary carbon markets. The market size and opportunities for carbon credits are likely to increase substantially for these products during the ...

  9. Benefits of tree mixes in carbon plantings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulvey, Kristin B.; Hobbs, Richard J.; Standish, Rachel J.; Lindenmayer, David B.; Lach, Lori; Perring, Michael P.

    2013-10-01

    Increasingly governments and the private sector are using planted forests to offset carbon emissions. Few studies, however, examine how tree diversity -- defined here as species richness and/or stand composition -- affects carbon storage in these plantings. Using aboveground tree biomass as a proxy for carbon storage, we used meta-analysis to compare carbon storage in tree mixtures with monoculture plantings. Tree mixes stored at least as much carbon as monocultures consisting of the mixture's most productive species and at times outperformed monoculture plantings. In mixed-species stands, individual species, and in particular nitrogen-fixing trees, increased stand biomass. Further motivations for incorporating tree richness into planted forests include the contribution of diversity to total forest carbon-pool development, carbon-pool stability and the provision of extra ecosystem services. Our findings suggest a two-pronged strategy for designing carbon plantings including: (1) increased tree species richness; and (2) the addition of species that contribute to carbon storage and other target functions.

  10. Risks and benefits in health care: the view from economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauly, Mark V

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses the meaning of the term risk from the economic perspective. It argues that some consumer decisions about insurance and the use of medical care are consistent with the economic model, but many are not. When decisions are inconsistent, real-world democratic governments' ability to intervene is limited by politicians' desire to please voters. The choice of incomplete insurance coverage in private markets is often said to present a case for governmental intervention, but the choice of insurance design in the Medicare drug benefit shows that the political process also may fail to select insurance that is optimal from an economic viewpoint.

  11. Yam Storability and Economic Benefits of Storage Under the Modern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines yam storability and the economic benefits of storage under the modern (underground) and the traditional (yam barn) storage technologies in Southeastern Nigeria. Data were collected mainly from 55 respondents who were interviewed, as well as from measurement of storage parameters on yam ...

  12. The economic and environmental benefits of reprocessing and recycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masters, R.

    1977-01-01

    Recently published reports and papers on the economic, environmental and resource conservation benefits of reprocessing and the recycle of plutonium in thermal reactors provide an important background to the essentially political discussions in the United States on non-proliferation. Some of the main arguments and conclusions are presented. (author)

  13. Electronic Payment System in Nigeria: Its Economic Benefits and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okifo, Joseph; Igbunu, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The crux of this study is on the adoption of E-payment system in Nigeria: Its economic benefits and challenges. The arrival of the internet has taken electronic payments and transactions to an exponential growth level. Consumers could purchase goods and services from the internet and send unencrypted credit card numbers across the network, which…

  14. Economic benefits of power factor correction at a nuclear facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boger, R.M.; Dalos, W.; Juguilon, M.E.

    1986-01-01

    The economic benefits of correcting poor power factor at an operating nuclear facility are shown. A project approach for achieving rapid return of investment without disrupting plant availability is described. Examples of technical problems associated with using capacitors for power factor correction are presented

  15. Evaluating economic costs and benefits of climate resilient livelihood strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A major challenge for international development is to assist the poorest regions to achieve development targets while taking climate change into account. Such ‘climate resilient development’ (CRD must identify and implement adaptation strategies for improving livelihoods while also being cost-effective. While the idea that climate resilience and development goals should be compatible is often discussed, empirical evaluations of the economic impacts of actual CRD investments are practically non-existent. This paper outlines a framework to evaluate economic returns to CRD and applies it in two adaptation strategies trialed in Nusa Tenggara Barat Province, eastern Indonesia. The evaluation framework is composed of three models: a household benefit cost model, a diffusion model, and a regional benefit cost model. The models draw upon the impact evaluation, technology diffusion, and risk assessment literatures, respectively. The analyzes are based on expert opinion and locally-derived information, and hence can be applied in data-poor situations typical of developing countries. Our results explore economic costs and benefits at the household and regional scale, and we identify key input variables that greatly influence the economic returns of the strategies. These variables should therefore be a focus of ongoing investment. We also discuss how the framework is more generally applicable, its limitations including challenges in accounting for less tangible social and ecosystem service benefits, potentially leading to the underestimation of impacts, and how the approach should be complemented by qualitative methods.

  16. Growth Performance, Yields and Economic Benefits of Nile Tilapia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    fish culture integration in the growth, yields and economic benefits of fish and vegetables. Two 200 m2 earthen fishponds were stocked with Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus at 20,000 fish fingerlings per hectare. Pond A was fertilized with ...

  17. The economic benefits of Koeberg nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robb, W.

    1980-01-01

    The paper deals with the economics of the Koeberg power plant in 3 main parts, namely the economic benefit to Escom of going nuclear; the economic benefit to South Africa; and suggestions for the energy future in South Africa. In the first part, the cost of nuclear and coal-fired power plants is compared. Construction and operating costs are looked at as well as the cost of waste disposal. Other factors which are considered include security, insurance costs, personnel requirements and efficiency. In part two aspects such as the saving of coal and water; the prevention of environmental damage and health hazards; the stimulation of the economy and job creation; and the security of the power supply are considered. In the third part the author draws certain conclusions from the first two parts of the paper and makes suggestions to persons who would like to assess the situation

  18. Socio-economic benefits from protected areas in southeastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heagney, E C; Kovac, M; Fountain, J; Conner, N

    2015-12-01

    International case studies of protected area performance increasingly report that conservation and socio-economic outcomes are interdependent. Effective conservation requires support and cooperation from local governments and communities, which in turn requires that protected areas contribute to the economic well-being of the communities in which they are sited. Despite increasing recognition of their importance, robust studies that document the socio-economic impacts of protected areas are rare, especially in the developed world context. We proposed 3 potential pathways through which protected areas might benefit local communities in the developed world: the improved local housing value, local business stimulus, and increased local funding pathways. We examined these pathways by undertaking a statistical longitudinal analysis of 110 regional and rural communities covering an area of approximately 600,000 km(2) in southeastern Australia. We compared trends in 10 socio-economic indicators describing employment, income, housing, business development and local government revenue from 2000 to 2010. New protected areas acquisitions led to an increased number of new dwelling approvals and associated developer contributions, increased local business numbers, and increased local government revenue from user-pays services and grants. Longer-term effects of established protected areas included increased local council revenue from a variety of sources. Our findings provide support for each of our 3 proposed benefit pathways and contribute new insights into the cycling of benefits from protected areas through the economy over time. The business and legislative models in our study are typical of those operating in many other developed countries; thus, the benefit pathways reported in our study are likely to be generalizable. By identifying and communicating socio-economic benefits from terrestrial protected areas in a developed world context, our findings represent an important

  19. Probabilistic economic analysis of green roof benefits for policy design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, C.; Adriaens, P.; Talbot, B.

    2006-01-01

    The installation costs of green roofs continue to deter widespread use of green roof technology. Analyses of the boundary conditions for the cost differential between a green roof and a conventional roof are usually compared to environmental benefits such as storm water reduction and building energy savings. However, evidence is emerging that green roofs may play a role in urban air quality improvement. This paper discussed a methodology for developing probabilistic ranges of benefits and cost analyses. A probabilistic analysis was conducted to prepare a generalized cost-benefit analysis for application to a range of green roof projects. Environmental benefits of roof greening were quantified on a per unit surface area to assess environmental impact at the building scale. Parameters included conventional and green roof installation costs; storm water fees and fee reductions for green roofs; energy costs due to heat flux and the resultant savings through the installation of a green roof and the additional economic valuation of the public health benefits due to air pollution mitigation. Results were then integrated into an economic model to determine the length of time required for a return on investment in a green roof, assuming that a traditional roof would require replacement after 20 years. A net present value analysis was performed for an average-sized university roof. Results of the study showed that a valuation of environmental benefits can reduce the time required for a return on investment in a moderately priced green roof. While reduced installation costs reduced the time required for a return on investment, optimizing the green roof system for maximum environmental benefit had a greater potential to provide a higher return. It was concluded that the benefit of improved air quality should not be ignored by green roof policy-makers as a valuation tool. 10 refs., 3 tabs., 1 fig

  20. Dollars from Sense: The Economic Benefits of Renewable Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-09-01

    This document illustrates direct economic benefits, including job creation, of renewable energy technologies. Examples of electricity generation from biomass, wind power, photovoltaics, solar thermal energy, and geothermal energy are given, with emphasis on the impact of individual projects on the state and local community. Employment numbers at existing facilities are provided, including total national employment for each renewable industry where available. Renewable energy technologies offer economic advantages because they are more labor-intensive than conventional generation technologies, and they use primarily indigenous resources.

  1. Economic benefits analysis of listed companies in radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yingming; Xu Tao; Zhang Yue; Yang Bin; Zhao Wenying

    2012-01-01

    Radiation processing industry is an important part of civilian nuclear technology and develop rapidly during the past decade. Radiation modification of new materials industries use new technology to promote new product development and application and get good economic benefit. There are problems and bottlenecks during the development, such as how to implement the guideline of optimize the industrial structure and upgrade the product, and adapt the market develop law and need. By analysing the typical listed companies in this field together with the domestic economic development condition and future situation, we give the development strategy and method in the future. (authors)

  2. Economic Benefits of Self-Employment for Canadian Immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakhaie, Reza

    2015-11-01

    This paper evaluates the economic benefits of self-employment in Canada for 12 groups of ethno-racial immigrants. It tests whether or not their self-employment earnings are higher or lower than similar groups in wage and salary employment, whether ethnic minorities earn more or less from self-employment compared to White immigrants, and whether self-employment earnings of immigrant groups vary by their industrial sectors of employment. Using the Canadian Census 2006, I show that self-employed ethno-racial immigrants earn less than White immigrants. I also show that the economic benefits of self-employment depend on the ethno-racial groups and the industrial mix of their self-employment. © 2015 Canadian Sociological Association/La Société canadienne de sociologie.

  3. Economic benefits of the EU Ecodesign Directive. Improving European economies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molenbroek, E.; Cuijpers, M.; Blok, K.

    2012-04-15

    The EU Ecodesign Directive aims at reducing the environmental impact of a number of products sold in the EU, with emphasis on their energy consumption. Ecofys investigated economic benefits related to the Directive. A correct implementation of the EU Ecodesign Directive would yield yearly savings of up to 600 TWh of electricity and 600 TWh of heat in 2020. In addition to these environmental benefits, this study identified important economic advantages like: Net savings for European consumers and businesses of 90 billion euro per year (1% of EU's current GDP) in the year 2020; Reinvesting these savings in other sectors of the economy would result in the creation of one million jobs; Dependency on imports of energy would be reduced by 23% and 37% for natural gas and coal, respectively. This means the EU could slash natural gas imports from Russia by more than half and imports of coal from Russia could be stopped altogether.

  4. Socio-economic benefits from Hibernia operations in 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-06-01

    The report identifies and describes the socio-economic effects of oil production from this offshore site, over and above the initial socio-economic effects of construction and fabrication. It documents a wide range of Newfoundlanders and Labradorians who benefit, directly and indirectly, from Hibernia operations. It builds on a series of reports which have examined the effects of Hibernia construction activity on employment, businesses and communities, including those resulting from spending and technology transfer. The report discusses the large scale and long term nature of the social and economic benefits of production activity and a wide range of benefits and beneficiaries. The report documents the ways in which Hibernia and other offshore oil activity are helping to transform the provincial economy. Another section of the report provides an overview of economic benefits. Based on information from Hibernia's production, expenditures and employment during 1998, the provincial government's Newfoundland and Labrador Econometric Model was used to calculate and describe Hibernia's effect on the gross domestic product, employment, unemployment rate, total incomes, retail sales and housing starts. Another section looks at the range of infrastructure that has resulted from Hibernia and other offshore petroleum activity, including industrial, training and research and development infrastructure. A further section on training and technology transfer describes the ways in which the oil industry has increased local training capabilities and provided opportunties for Newfoundlanders and Labradorians to learn locally and work elsewhere. Another section examines the effects of all this on a range of companies. A last section provides a brief review of the findings related to the activity to date and what can be expected in the future. 8 refs., 2 tabs

  5. Benefits and Economic Costs of Managed Aquifer Recharge in California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debra Perrone

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.15447/sfews.2016v14iss2art4Groundwater management is important and challenging, and nowhere is this more evident than in California. Managed aquifer recharge (MAR projects can play an important role in ensuring California manages its groundwater sustainably. Although the benefits and economic costs of surface water storage have been researched extensively, the benefits and economic costs of MAR have been little researched. Historical groundwater data are sparse or proprietary within the state, often impairing groundwater analyses. General obligation bonds from ballot propositions offer a strategic means of mining information about MAR projects, because the information is available publicly. We used bond-funding applications to identify anticipated MAR project benefits and proposed economic costs. We then compared these costs with actual project costs collected from a survey, and identified factors that promote or limit MAR. Our analysis indicates that the median proposed economic cost for MAR projects in California is $410 per acre-foot per year ($0.33 per cubic meter per year. Increasing Water Supply, Conjunctive Use, and Flood Protection are the most common benefits reported. Additionally, the survey indicates that (1 there are many reported reasons for differences between proposed and actual costs ($US 2015 and (2 there is one primary reason for differences between proposed recharge volumes and actual recharge volumes (AFY: availability of source water for recharge. Although there are differences between proposed and actual costs per recharge volume ($US 2015/AFY, the ranges for proposed costs per recharge volume and actual costs per recharge volume for the projects surveyed generally agree. The two most important contributions to the success of a MAR project are financial support and good communication with stakeholders.

  6. Alberta benefits : economic impacts of northern gas pipeline construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rylska, N.L.; Graebeiel, J.E.; Mirus, R.K.; Janzen, S.S.; Frost, R.J.

    2003-11-01

    This paper describes the potential economic impact and benefits to Alberta from the proposed development of the Alaska Highway Pipeline (AHP) and the Mackenzie Valley Pipeline (MVP). It also includes a planning framework for business and industry in the province. Each proposed pipeline was evaluated separately. The paper includes a list of Alberta companies that stand to benefit from the construction of one or both pipelines. The main findings indicate that northern pipeline development will bring opportunities to Alberta business in design, construction and management. There will be a secondary impact on petrochemical industries and infrastructure. Both pipeline developments will increase employment and yield billions of dollars in gross domestic product. The existing oil and gas industry in Alberta will receive value-added opportunities in areas of specialized expertise such as natural gas and natural gas liquid storage, natural gas liquid processing, and gas to liquid technology projects. The industry will also benefit from power generation and cogeneration. The northern pipelines have the potential to improve the role of First Nations in economic development. Gas consumers in Alberta should benefit from a secure supply of gas and lower prices. refs., tabs., figs

  7. Economic and policy implications of the cumulative carbon budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, M. R.; Otto, F. E. L.; Otto, A.; Hepburn, C.

    2014-12-01

    The importance of cumulative carbon emissions in determining long-term risks of climate change presents considerable challenges to policy makers. The traditional notion of "total CO2-equivalent emissions", which forms the backbone of agreements such as the Kyoto Protocol and the European Emissions Trading System, is fundamentally flawed. Measures to reduce short-lived climate pollutants benefit the current generation, while measures to reduce long-lived climate pollutants benefit future generations, so there is no sense in which they can ever be considered equivalent. Debates over the correct metric used to compute CO2-equivalence are thus entirely moot: both long-lived and short-lived emissions will need to be addressed if all generations are to be protected from dangerous climate change. As far as long-lived climate pollutants are concerned, the latest IPCC report highlights the overwhelming importance of carbon capture and storage in determining the cost of meeting the goal of limiting anthropogenic warming to two degrees. We will show that this importance arises directly from the cumulative carbon budget and the role of CCS as the technology of last resort before economic activity needs to be restricted to meet ambitious climate targets. It highlights the need to increase the rate of CCS deployment by orders of magnitude if the option of avoiding two degrees is to be retained. The difficulty of achieving this speed of deployment through conventional incentives and carbon-pricing mechanisms suggests a need for a much more direct mandatory approach. Despite their theoretical economic inefficiency, the success of recent regulatory measures in achieving greenhouse gas emissions reductions in jurisdictions such as the United States suggests an extension of the regulatory approach could be a more effective and politically acceptable means of achieving adequately rapid CCS deployment than conventional carbon taxes or cap-and-trade systems.

  8. Extended benefit cost analysis as an instrument of economic valuated in Petungkriyono forest ecosystem services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damayanti, Irma; Nur Bambang, Azis; Retnaningsih Soeprobowati, Tri

    2018-05-01

    Petungkriyono is the last tropical forest in Java and provides biodiversity including rare flora and fauna that must be maintained, managed and utilized in order to give meaning for humanity and sustainability. Services of Forest Ecosystem in Petungkriyono are included such as goods supply, soil-water conservation, climate regulation, purification environment and flora fauna habitats. The approach of this study is the literature review from various studies before perceiving the influenced of economic valuation in determining the measurement conservation strategies of Petungkriyono Natural Forest Ecosystem in Pekalongan Regency. The aims of this study are to analyzing an extended benefit cost of natural forest ecosystems and internalizing them in decision making. The method of quantification and valuation of forest ecosystem is Cost and Benefit Analysis (CBA) which is a standard economic appraisal tools government in development economics. CBA offers the possibility capturing impact of the project. By using productivity subtitution value and extended benefit cost analysis any comodity such as Backwoods,Pine Woods, Puspa woods and Pine Gum. Water value, preventive buildings of landslide and carbon sequestration have total economic value of IDR.163.065.858.080, and the value of Extended Benefit Cost Ratio in Petungkriyono is 281.35 %. However, from the result is expected the local government of Pekalongan to have high motivation in preserve the existence of Petungkriyono forest.

  9. Green roof valuation: a probabilistic economic analysis of environmental benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Corrie; Adriaens, Peter; Talbot, F Brian

    2008-03-15

    Green (vegetated) roofs have gained global acceptance as a technologythat has the potential to help mitigate the multifaceted, complex environmental problems of urban centers. While policies that encourage green roofs exist atthe local and regional level, installation costs remain at a premium and deter investment in this technology. The objective of this paper is to quantitatively integrate the range of stormwater, energy, and air pollution benefits of green roofs into an economic model that captures the building-specific scale. Currently, green roofs are primarily valued on increased roof longevity, reduced stormwater runoff, and decreased building energy consumption. Proper valuation of these benefits can reduce the present value of a green roof if investors look beyond the upfront capital costs. Net present value (NPV) analysis comparing a conventional roof system to an extensive green roof system demonstrates that at the end of the green roof lifetime the NPV for the green roof is between 20.3 and 25.2% less than the NPV for the conventional roof over 40 years. The additional upfront investment is recovered at the time when a conventional roof would be replaced. Increasing evidence suggests that green roofs may play a significant role in urban air quality improvement For example, uptake of N0x is estimated to range from $1683 to $6383 per metric ton of NOx reduction. These benefits were included in this study, and results translate to an annual benefit of $895-3392 for a 2000 square meter vegetated roof. Improved air quality leads to a mean NPV for the green roof that is 24.5-40.2% less than the mean conventional roof NPV. Through innovative policies, the inclusion of air pollution mitigation and the reduction of municipal stormwater infrastructure costs in economic valuation of environmental benefits of green roofs can reduce the cost gap that currently hinders U.S. investment in green roof technology.

  10. Spatial targeting of conservation tillage to improve water quality and carbon retention benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, W.; Sheng, C.; Voroney, P.

    2005-01-01

    Conservation tillage reduces soil erosion and improves water quality in agricultural watersheds. However, the benefits of conservation tillage in carbon sequestration are the subject of controversy. Public funds are provided to farms to encourage the adoption of conservation tillage. Given the economic costs, the targeting of areas likely to achieve the greatest environmental benefits has become an important policy-making issue. A geographic information system (GIS) based modelling framework which integrated hydrologic, soil organic matter, and farm models to evaluate the spatial targeting of conservation tillage was presented. A case study applying the framework in the Fairchild Creek watershed in Ontario indicated that targeting conservation tillage based on sediment abatement goals can achieve comparable carbon retention benefits in terms of the percentage reduction of base carbon losses. Targeted subcatchments for conservation tillage varied across the watershed based on benefit to cost ratios. Conservation tillage patterns based on carbon retention goals showed similar results to sediment abatement goals but slight differences were observed because of different carbon content in the soils. The results indicated that sediment abatement may be used as an indicator in setting up program goals. The impacts of conservation programs can then be evaluated based on calibrated and validated hydrologic models in conjunction with monitoring data. Results also showed that setting carbon retention may lead to higher costs in order to achieve corresponding sediment abatement benefits. Carbon retention may not be suitable for setting as a stand-alone environmental goal for conservation programs because of the difficulties in verifying the impacts and the discrepancies between carbon and sediment benefits. It was concluded that the modelling results have important policy implications for the design of conservation stewardship programs that aim to achieve environmental

  11. Economic Benefits of Investing in Women's Health: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine Husøy Onarheim

    Full Text Available Globally, the status of women's health falls short of its potential. In addition to the deleterious ethical and human rights implications of this deficit, the negative economic impact may also be consequential, but these mechanisms are poorly understood. Building on the literature that highlights health as a driver of economic growth and poverty alleviation, we aim to systematically investigate the broader economic benefits of investing in women's health.Using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA guidelines, we systematically reviewed health, gender, and economic literature to identify studies that investigate the impact of women's health on micro- and macroeconomic outcomes. We developed an extensive search algorithm and conducted searches using 10 unique databases spanning the timeframe 01/01/1970 to 01/04/2013. Articles were included if they reported on economic impacts stemming from changes in women's health (table of outcome measures included in full review, Table 1. In total, the two lead investigators independently screened 20,832 abstracts and extracted 438 records for full text review. The final review reflects the inclusion of 124 articles.The existing literature indicates that healthier women and their children contribute to more productive and better-educated societies. This study documents an extensive literature confirming that women's health is tied to long-term productivity: the development and economic performance of nations depends, in part, upon how each country protects and promotes the health of women. Providing opportunities for deliberate family planning; healthy mothers before, during, and after childbirth, and the health and productivity of subsequent generations can catalyze a cycle of positive societal development.This review highlights the untapped potential of initiatives that aim to address women's health. Societies that prioritize women's health will likely have better

  12. Economic Benefits of Investing in Women's Health: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onarheim, Kristine Husøy; Iversen, Johanne Helene; Bloom, David E

    2016-01-01

    Globally, the status of women's health falls short of its potential. In addition to the deleterious ethical and human rights implications of this deficit, the negative economic impact may also be consequential, but these mechanisms are poorly understood. Building on the literature that highlights health as a driver of economic growth and poverty alleviation, we aim to systematically investigate the broader economic benefits of investing in women's health. Using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines, we systematically reviewed health, gender, and economic literature to identify studies that investigate the impact of women's health on micro- and macroeconomic outcomes. We developed an extensive search algorithm and conducted searches using 10 unique databases spanning the timeframe 01/01/1970 to 01/04/2013. Articles were included if they reported on economic impacts stemming from changes in women's health (table of outcome measures included in full review, Table 1). In total, the two lead investigators independently screened 20,832 abstracts and extracted 438 records for full text review. The final review reflects the inclusion of 124 articles. The existing literature indicates that healthier women and their children contribute to more productive and better-educated societies. This study documents an extensive literature confirming that women's health is tied to long-term productivity: the development and economic performance of nations depends, in part, upon how each country protects and promotes the health of women. Providing opportunities for deliberate family planning; healthy mothers before, during, and after childbirth, and the health and productivity of subsequent generations can catalyze a cycle of positive societal development. This review highlights the untapped potential of initiatives that aim to address women's health. Societies that prioritize women's health will likely have better population health

  13. An economic assessment of low carbon vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Summerton, P. [Cambridge Econometrics CE, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Harrison, P. [European Climate Foundation ECF, Brussels (Belgium)] (eds.)

    2013-03-15

    The study aimed to analyse the economic impacts of decarbonizing light duty vehicles. As part of the study, the impacts of the European Commissions proposed 2020 CO2 regulation for cars and vans have been assessed. The analysis showed that a shift to low-carbon vehicles would increase spending on vehicle technology, therefore generating positive direct employment impacts, but potentially adding 1,000-1,100 euro to the capital cost of the average new car in 2020. However, these additional technology costs would be offset by fuel savings of around 400 euro per year, indicating an effective break-even point for drivers of approximately three years. At the EU level, the cost of running and maintaining the European car fleet would become 33-35 billion euro lower each year than in a 'do nothing scenario' by 2030, leading to positive economic impacts including indirect employment gains. Data on the cost of low carbon vehicle technologies has largely been sourced from the auto industry itself, with the study supported by a core working group including Nissan, GE, the European Association of Automotive Suppliers (CLEPA), and the European Storage Battery Manufacturers Association (Eurobat). Fuel price projections for the study were based on the IEA's World Energy Outlook, while technical modelling was carried out using the transport policy scoping tool SULTAN (developed by Ricardo-AEA for the European Commission) and the Road Vehicle Cost and Efficiency Calculation Framework, also developed by Ricardo-AEA. Macro-economic modelling was done using the E3ME model, which has previously been used for several European Commission and EU government impact assessments. This report focuses on efficient use of fossil fuels in internal combustion- and hybrid electric vehicles. It will be followed by a second report, which will focus on further reducing the use of fossil fuels by also substituting them with domestically produced energy carriers, such as electricity and

  14. ECONOMIC BENEFITS OF DEVELOPING INTERMODAL TRANSPORT IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crisan Radu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Transport plays a crucial role in economic and social development and its contribution goes beyond what is normally captured in traditional cost-benefit analyses. Transportation investments can have large long-term economic, social and environmental impacts. The European Commission when developing transport policy, focuses on the intermodal transport, which is seen as a sustainable mobility solution, environmentally friendly and efficient in terms of resources, especially in terms of freight. European transport policies promote co-modality - combining different modes for a single supply chain - as a solution to the adverse effects of transport: pollution, traffic congestion, energy consumption. Intermodal transport is found to be consistently cheaper than all-road solutions, and its external costs significantly lower, thereby confirming the high potential of intermodal transport in increasing the sustainability of the transport sector. So, freight intermodality is increasingly considered as major potential contributor to solving the sustainability problems of the European transport sector. This paper addresses the pricing issues specifically related to intermodal transport. The focus in on the main economical advantages of developing intermodal transport, but also on the usage limits brought by particularities of transport modes. Special attention is given to intermodal transfer terminals with solutions for activity efficiency increase, with major implications on the quality and cost of transportation. The theme discussed in this paper is of great importance, many authors and specialists developed it in their studies. Some names are needed to be mentioned: Todd Litman, Dr. Yuri V. Yevdokimov, John J. Coyle, Kenneth D. Boyer and few more. But, a special attention for this subject is paid by the European Commission and its subordinated institutions, that are interested in developing sustainable strategies and promoting concrete solutions for

  15. A Practical Guide to the Economics of Carbon Pricing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross McKitrick

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Canadian economists, politicians and even environmentalists are lining up enthusiastically behind pricing carbon as the solution to controlling greenhouse gas emissions in this country. Pricing carbon (or, more accurately, pricing carbon dioxide is not just a fashionable policy approach; it is the most efficient way we have to ration emissions, as it allows emitters — businesses and consumers — to make the most rational decisions about where it makes economic sense to curtail carbon and where it does not. Painfully costly command-and-control reductions make little sense in Canada, given our marginal contribution to global emissions. When practiced globally, a carbon price deals with Canadian emitters as fairly as it does others. However, a beneficial outcome is not guaranteed: certain rules must be observed in order for carbon pricing to have its intended effect of achieving the optimal balance between emission reduction and economic growth. First and foremost, carbon pricing only works in the absence of any other emission regulations. If pricing is layered on top of an emission-regulating regime already in place (such as emission caps or feed-in-tariff programs, it will not only fail to produce the desired effects in terms of emission rationing, it will have distortionary effects that cause disproportionate damage in the economy. Carbon taxes are meant to replace all other climate-related regulation, while the revenue from the taxes should not be funnelled into substitute goods, like renewable power (pricing lets the market decide which of those substitutes are worth funding but returned directly to taxpayers. The price of carbon is set according to what is known as the “social cost of carbon” — the quantified value of the impact that an emitted tonne of carbon today will have on humans in the future (adjusted to present value. That cost is not limitless; there is a point at which the cost of abating a tonne of carbon outweighs the

  16. Carbon Dioxide Mitigation Benefit of High-Speed Railway in Terms of Carbon Tax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Yanbing

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper calculates the carbon dioxide mitigation benefit of high-speed railway based on the carbon dioxide tax policy. We define the carbon dioxide emission system boundary for high-speed railway in its whole life cycle and estimate the life cycle carbon dioxide inventories during its construction, application, and recovery stages. And then we establish a theoretical model to calculate the life cycle carbon dioxide mitigation quantity for high-speed railway when compared with road transport and then calculate its carbon dioxide mitigation benefit. The numerical example shows that the carbon dioxide mitigation benefit of high-speed railway is better than that of road transport from the whole life cycle perspective.

  17. Technical and economic benefits of nuclear techniques in ore processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-08-01

    This report is the outcome of an Advisory Group Meeting organized by the Agency and hosted by the Institute of Physics and Nuclear Techniques, the Academy of Mining and Metallurgy in Krakow, Poland. The purpose of the meeting was to assess the technical and economic benefits of applying nuclear techniques in ore processing industry. Nucleonic control systems and nuclear on-line analytical techniques as well as radioisotope tracer tests and their applications in metallic ore-processing, coal production, and cement fabrication were discussed. This report contains a summary and the presentations dealing with nuclear techniques for process control made at this meeting. Using a number of case-histories as examples, it illustrates technical and economic benefits obtainable by the installation of nuclear process control instrumentation. It is expected to be useful for everybody dealing with ore and coal production, but especially for administrative personnel and engineers who plan and implement national development programmes related to mineral resources. Refs, figs and tabs

  18. A comparative assessment of the financial costs and carbon benefits of REDD+ strategies in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Victoria; Laurance, Susan G.; Grech, Alana; McGregor, Andrew; Venter, Oscar

    2016-11-01

    REDD+ holds potential for mitigating emissions from tropical forest loss by providing financial incentives for carbon stored in forests, but its economic viability is under scrutiny. The primary narrative raised in the literature is that REDD+ will be of limited utility for reducing forest carbon loss in Southeast Asia, while the level of finance committed falls short of profits from alternative land-use activities in the region, including large-scale timber and oil palm operations. Here we assess the financial costs and carbon benefits of various REDD+ strategies deployed in the region. We find the cost of reducing emissions ranges from 9 to 75 per tonne of avoided carbon emissions. The strategies focused on reducing forest degradation and promoting forest regrowth are the most cost-effective ways of reducing emissions and used in over 60% of REDD+ projects. By comparing the financial costs and carbon benefits of a broader range of strategies than previously assessed, we highlight the variation between different strategies and draw attention to opportunities where REDD+ can achieve maximum carbon benefits cost-effectively. These findings have broad policy implications for Southeast Asia. Until carbon finance escalates, emissions reductions can be maximized from reforestation, reduced-impact logging and investing in improved management of protected areas. Targeting cost-efficient opportunities for REDD+ is important to improve the efficiency of national REDD+ policy, which in-turn fosters greater financial and political support for the scheme.

  19. Gm crops: between biological risk and environmental and economic benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaparro Giraldo, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    The transgenic crops were the result of the application of recombinant DNA technology in agriculture. These crops were developed by transfer of foreign genes (transgenes) from any biological origin (animal, plant, microbial, viral) to the genome of cultivated species of plants. The crops genetically modified (GM) have been used in the world since 1996; up to December 2010 they counted to a billion hectares planted throughout the period. In just the past year 2010 148 million hectares were planted, grown by 15.4 million farmers in 29 countries. GM crops that are used in global agriculture are mainly soybean, cotton, corn and canola, which express transgenes derived from bacteria, and confer resistance to lepidopteron insects (ILR) or herbicide tolerance (HT; glyphosate and glufosinate ammonium). the first transgenic varieties containing only a single transgene, or simple event, while the current varieties express several transgenes, or stacked, conferring resistance to different species of Lepidoptera and coleopteran insects and tolerance to two different herbicides. In 2010 were planted in Colombia, 18.874 hectares of GM cotton, 16.793 hectares of GM corn, and 4 hectares of GM carnations and GM roses. GM corn and GM cotton were planted in Sucre, Cesar, Cordoba, Huila and Tolima. GM corn was planted in Antioquia, Valle del Cauca, Meta, Cundinamarca and Santander. Carnations and roses were planted in Cundinamarca. GM maize and GM cotton expressing ILR and HT features, as simple events or stacked. In the case of GM carnation and GM roses, these genotypes that express the color blue. Academia has tried to organize the debate on the adoption of GM crops around the analysis of biological risks and environmental vs environmental and economic benefits. Biological hazards are defined by the possible negative effects on human consumers or negative effects on the environment. The environmental benefits are related to reduce use of agrochemicals (insecticides and herbicides

  20. The economic benefits of reducing physical inactivity: an Australian example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cumming Toby B

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical inactivity has major impacts on health and productivity. Our aim was to estimate the health and economic benefits of reducing the prevalence of physical inactivity in the 2008 Australian adult population. The economic benefits were estimated as 'opportunity cost savings', which represent resources utilized in the treatment of preventable disease that are potentially available for re-direction to another purpose from fewer incident cases of disease occurring in communities. Methods Simulation models were developed to show the effect of a 10% feasible, reduction target for physical inactivity from current Australian levels (70%. Lifetime cohort health benefits were estimated as fewer incident cases of inactivity-related diseases; deaths; and Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs by age and sex. Opportunity costs were estimated as health sector cost impacts, as well as paid and unpaid production gains and leisure impacts from fewer disease events associated with reduced physical inactivity. Workforce production gains were estimated by comparing surveyed participation and absenteeism rates of physically active and inactive adults, and valued using the friction cost approach. The impact of an improvement in health status on unpaid household production and leisure time were modeled from time use survey data, as applied to the exposed and non-exposed population subgroups and valued by suitable proxy. Potential costs associated with interventions to increase physical activity were not included. Multivariable uncertainty analyses and univariate sensitivity analyses were undertaken to provide information on the strength of the conclusions. Results A 10% reduction in physical inactivity would result in 6,000 fewer incident cases of disease, 2,000 fewer deaths, 25,000 fewer DALYs and provide gains in working days (114,000, days of home-based production (180,000 while conferring a AUD96 million reduction in health sector costs

  1. The economic benefits of reducing physical inactivity: an Australian example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadilhac, Dominique A; Cumming, Toby B; Sheppard, Lauren; Pearce, Dora C; Carter, Rob; Magnus, Anne

    2011-09-24

    Physical inactivity has major impacts on health and productivity. Our aim was to estimate the health and economic benefits of reducing the prevalence of physical inactivity in the 2008 Australian adult population. The economic benefits were estimated as 'opportunity cost savings', which represent resources utilized in the treatment of preventable disease that are potentially available for re-direction to another purpose from fewer incident cases of disease occurring in communities. Simulation models were developed to show the effect of a 10% feasible, reduction target for physical inactivity from current Australian levels (70%). Lifetime cohort health benefits were estimated as fewer incident cases of inactivity-related diseases; deaths; and Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) by age and sex. Opportunity costs were estimated as health sector cost impacts, as well as paid and unpaid production gains and leisure impacts from fewer disease events associated with reduced physical inactivity. Workforce production gains were estimated by comparing surveyed participation and absenteeism rates of physically active and inactive adults, and valued using the friction cost approach. The impact of an improvement in health status on unpaid household production and leisure time were modeled from time use survey data, as applied to the exposed and non-exposed population subgroups and valued by suitable proxy. Potential costs associated with interventions to increase physical activity were not included. Multivariable uncertainty analyses and univariate sensitivity analyses were undertaken to provide information on the strength of the conclusions. A 10% reduction in physical inactivity would result in 6,000 fewer incident cases of disease, 2,000 fewer deaths, 25,000 fewer DALYs and provide gains in working days (114,000), days of home-based production (180,000) while conferring a AUD96 million reduction in health sector costs. Lifetime potential opportunity cost savings in

  2. An Integrated Carbon Policy-Based Interactive Strategy for Carbon Reduction and Economic Development in a Construction Material Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liming Zhang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Carbon emissions from the construction material industry have become of increasing concern due to increasingly urbanization and extensive infrastructure. Faced with serious atmospheric deterioration, governments have been seeking to reduce carbon emissions, with carbon trading and carbon taxes being considered the most effective regulatory policies. Over time, there has been a global consensus that integrated carbon trading/carbon tax policies are more effective in reducing carbon emissions. However, in an integrated carbon reduction policy framework, balancing the relationship between emission reductions and low-carbon benefits has been found to be a critical issue for governments and enterprises in both theoretical research and carbon emission reduction practices. As few papers have sought to address these issues, this paper seeks to reach a trade-off between economic development and environmental protection involving various stakeholders: regional governments which aim to maximize social benefits, and producers who seek economic profit maximization. An iterative interactive algorithmic method with fuzzy random variables (FRVs is proposed to determine the satisfactory equilibrium between these decision-makers. This methodology is then applied to a real-world case to demonstrate its practicality and efficiency.

  3. Environmental benefits of cropland conversion to hybrid poplar: economic and policy considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Updegraff, K.; Baughman, M.J.; Taff, S.J.

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate environmental benefits that might accrue from conversion of farmland to short-rotation woody crops (SRWC), a hypothetical conversion of 10%, 20% and 30% of cropland was modeled in a watershed of the Lower Minnesota River. The analysis synthesized output from a watershed model (ADAPT) with literature-based estimates of productivity and economic values for water quality, forest conservation and carbon sequestration. A Monte Carlo simulation approach was used to estimate ranges of environmental benefit values for cropland conversion to SRWCS. The summed average net benefits justified annual public subsidies ranging from $44 to 596 ha -1 , depending on market scenario and conversion level. Cropland conversion to SRWCs reduced cumulative annual stream flows, sediment and nitrogen loadings by up to 9%, 28% and 15%, respectively. Reduced sediment loads resulted in potential average annual public savings on culvert and ditch maintenance costs of $9.37 Mg -1 of sediment not delivered to the watershed outlet. Hybrid poplars over a 5-year rotation produced an estimated annual economic value due to carbon sequestration of $13-15 ha -1 when used for bioenergy and $29-33 ha -1 (depending on conversion rate) when converted to wood products. If hybrid poplars are substituted for aspen traditionally harvested from natural woodlands, the poplars create annual forest preservation values of $4.79-5.44 ha -1 . (author)

  4. Economic benefit analysis of cultivating Pleurotus ostreatus with rape straw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Qinlan; Gong, Mingfu; Tang, Mei

    2018-04-01

    The cultivation of Pleurotus ostreatus with rape straw not only can save the cultivation cost of P. ostreatus, but also can reuse the resources and protect the environment. By adding different proportion of rape straw to the cultivation material of P. ostreatus, the reasonable amount of rape straw was selected and the economic benefit of P. ostreatus cultivated with the optimum amount of rape straw was analyzed. The results showed that adding 10% to 40% rape straw to the cultivation material of P. ostreatus did not affect the yield and biological conversion rate of P. ostreatus, and the ratio of production and investment of the amount of rape straw in the range of 10% to 50% was higher than of cottonseed husk alone as the main material of the formula.

  5. Energy, Economic, and Environmental Benefits of the Solar America Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grover, S.

    2007-08-01

    The President's Solar America Initiative (SAI) was launched in January 2006 as part of the administration's Advanced Energy Initiative. The SAI is being led by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Solar Energy Technologies Program (SETP), with NREL providing analytical and technical support. The SAI has a goal of installing 5-10 GW of photovoltaic (PV) systems in the United States by 2015 and 70-100 GW of PV systems in the United States by 2030. To make PV cost-competitive with other energy resources, this requires that the installed cost of PV fall from approximately $8/Wdc in 2005 to $3.3/Wdc in 2015 and $2.5/Wdc in 2030. This report presents estimates of the potential energy, economic, and environmental benefits that could result should the SAI PV installation goals be achieved.

  6. Economic Benefits of Aerobic Rice Grown Using Integrated Nitrogen Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyle A. Pardillo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses in the effect of integrated nitrogen management to the yield and economic benefits of aerobic rice. This will help farmers to identify which of the two management technique to use to save costs while profit is high. A split plot experiment in Randomized Complete Block design is used with two main treatments and four sub treatments. Main treatments are the use of integrated nitrogen management and an application of synthetic nitrogen fertilizer. Sub treatments are the different rates of nitrogen fertilizer from 0 as control, 90, 120 and 150 kg N ha-1 . Data are consolidated and analyzed using the ANOVA of SAS 9.3 statistical tool and comparison means at 5% significance level in Duncan Multiple Range Test. Grain yield, income, costs, profit and return on expenses are the data gathered. There is an increasing yield from control to 120 kg N ha-1 and started to decline at 150 kg N ha-1 because optimum level reached at 120 kg N ha-1 . Significant increased in yield was observed in plants applied with integrated nitrogen management at 120 kg N ha-1 compared to plants applied with synthetic nitrogen due to release of nitrogen that contributed to the yield of aerobic rice. However, plants applied of 90 kg N ha-1 synthetic nitrogen gives significant yield increased compared to plants with integrated nitrogen management. Yield was subjected to economic analysis using gross income, costs and profit and return on expenses. Plants applied with synthetic nitrogen at 90 kg N ha-1 resulted to high income due to lower costs of fertilizer inputs and only treatment that has a positive return on expenses at 3.2% while other treatments have a negative remarks. This will lead to a conclusion that 90 kg N ha-1 is the optimum level of nitrogen that can give high yield and positive return on expenses that farmers will benefited.

  7. Going Clean - The Economics of China's Low-carbon Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallding, Karl; Thai, Helen; Han, Guoyi; Olsson, Marie; Kartha, Sivan [Stockholm Environment Inst. (Sweden); Eklund, Klas [SEB, Stockholm (Sweden); Ming, SU [Peking Univ. (China); Jing, Cao [Tsinghua Univ. (China); Luderer, [Potsdam Inst. for Climate Impact (Germany)

    2009-11-15

    This report shows that China can achieve the transition to a low-carbon economy. China can make these emissions reductions within the tight constraints of a global 2 deg C target while still meeting development and economic growth goals over the next four decades. There are strong mitigation potentials in the building, industry, transport and electricity generation sectors. China would benefit from early mitigation, but immediate action is critical for the world to have a reasonable chance of keeping warming below the 2 deg C target. Such a transition would also be an essential part of China's modernisation. A low-carbon transition presents opportunities for China to improve its energy security and move its economy up the value chain in the production of international goods and services. A low-carbon China is a country with a larger service sector, more advanced labour skills and less environmental degradation. During this transition, new, green job opportunities will emerge, and support an overall shift to a low-carbon economy. Active labour market and social policies, vocational training and upgrading of skills are imperative to facilitate this modernisation and reduce the impact of jobs lost in resource-intensive industries. With today's low price on carbon emissions, the incentives for a low-carbon transition are not sufficiently strong. Consumption and production patterns must be steered in a more resource-sustainable direction. A first step is to phase out subsidies on fossil fuels. Another is to place a price on carbon, either through a carbon tax or a cap-and-trade system, which would create incentives for companies and individuals to produce and consume less carbon-intensive goods and services, and to undertake abatement opportunities to reduce their overall carbon footprint. Advancing technology and innovation need to be fundamental, shared policy objectives in this transition. Early investment reduces costs and paves the way for large-scale abatement

  8. Carbon righteousness: how to lever pro-poor benefits from REDD+

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scwarte, Christoph [Foundation for International Environmental Law and Development(United Kingdom); Mohammed, Essam Yassin

    2011-07-15

    A growing focus on mitigating climate change by reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD and REDD+) is prompting the creation of a new form of private property — the 'carbon right' — that can be bought and sold in domestic or international markets. But to make REDD+ work for the poor, carbon trading schemes will have to ensure that a wide range of forest-dependent groups and communities benefit. In part, this means carefully assessing how carbon rights are assigned — to ensure they support the rural poor who rarely hold formal land ownership or tenure rights but who are key players in putting sustainable forest management into practice on the ground. It also means rethinking eligibility criteria for REDD+ projects so that they include economic, social and environmental standards and co-benefits.

  9. Low-Carbon Economic Dispatching for Power Grid Integrated with Carbon Capture Power Plants and Wind Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Siqing

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon emission characteristics of all kinds of power units are analyzed against the background of the low carbon economy. This paper introduces carbon trading in the dispatching model, gives full consideration to the benefit or cost of carbon emission and introduces carbon emission in the dispatching model as a decision variable so as to achieve the unity of the economy and the environmental protection of the dispatching model. A low carbon economic dispatching model is established based on multiple objectives, such as the lowest thermal power generation cost, the lowest carbon trading cost and the lowest carbon capture power plant operation cost. Load equalization, output constraint of power unit, ramping constraint, spinning reserve constraint and carbon capture efficiency constraint should be taken into account in terms of constraint conditions. The model is solved by the particle swarm optimization based on dynamic exchange and density distance. The fact that the introduction of carbon trading can effectively reduce the level of carbon emission and increase the acceptance level of wind power is highlighted through the comparison of the results of three models’ computational examples. With the carbon trading mechanism, carbon capture power plants with new technologies are able to give full play to the advantage of reducing carbon emission and wind curtailment so as to promote the development of the energy conservation and emission reduction technology and reduce the total cost of the dispatching system.

  10. Solar energy`s economic and social benefits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheer, H. [Bundeshaus, Bonn (Germany)

    1995-08-01

    There are numerous indications that solar energy is far more than a mere stopgap measure to escape from the present environmental crisis. These include the natural as well as the developed, and still developing, technological potential of solar energy; the vast opportunities offered by abandoning destructive energy sources; and, not least, the new industrial perspectives arising from the conversion of our energy system. In addition to the environmental benefits, solar energy will bring about major economic and social gains. The creation of a solar energy system offers an unexpected and unique chance to release industrial society from the harmful consequences of the Industrial Revolution and to make available its positive accomplishments - particularly the social, democratic and cultural opportunities made possible by freeing mankind from slave labour - to all of mankind. Destruction of the environment is the greatest danger for industrialized societies pursuing economic growth, but it is not the only one. The Western high culture of welfare states is evidently a thing of the past. Created by the pressure of social movements that emerged in the Industrial Revolution, they stabilized capitalism by making it more responsive to the social needs in its strongholds. But both old and new contradictions, as well as the growth of welfare costs, lead to the conclusion that the future of the industrial system is increasingly seen only in terms of jettisoning its social obligations. Political democracy will then once more be in danger. Modern history is unable to provide an example of a stable democracy based on permanent mass misery

  11. Costs and benefits of lunar oxygen: Engineering, operations, and economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Brent; Woodcock, Gordon R.

    1991-01-01

    Oxygen is the most commonly discussed lunar resource. It will certainly not be the easiest to retrieve, but oxygen's fundamental place in propulsion and life support guarantees it continued attention as a prime candidate for early in situ resource utilization (ISRU). The findings are reviewed of recent investigation, sponsored by NASA-Ames, into the kinds of technologies, equipment, and scenarios (the engineering and operations costs) that will be required even to initiate lunar oxygen production. The infrastructure necessary to surround and support a viable oxygen-processing operation is explained. Selected details are used to illustrate the depth of technology challenges, extent of operations burdens, and complexity of decision linkages. Basic assumptions, and resulting timelines and mass manifests, are listed. These findings are combined with state-of-the-art knowledge of lunar and Mars propulsion options in simple economic input/output and internal-rate-of-return models, to compare production costs with performance benefits. Implications for three realistic scales of exploration architecture - expeditionary, aggressive science, and industrialization/settlement - are discussed. Conclusions are reached regarding the contextual conditions within which production of lunar oxygen (LLOX) is a reasonable activity. LLOX appears less useful for Mars missions than previously hoped. Its economical use in low Earth orbit hinges on production of lunar hydrogen as well. LLOX shows promise for lunar ascent/descent use, but that depends strongly on the plant mass required.

  12. Economics of climate change under uncertainty. Benefits of flexibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anda, Jon; Golub, Alexander; Strukova, Elena

    2009-01-01

    The selection of climate policy has to be made in an extremely uncertain environment: both benefits and costs of a particular climate policy are unknown and in the best case could be described by the probability distribution of various outcomes. Dominated in literature, the expected value approach to the cost-benefit analysis of climate policy under uncertainties relies on the aggregated estimation of various outcomes of climate policy weighted and averaged by probabilities. The variance, skewness, and kurtosis are important characteristics of uncertainties but can be easily lost in the process of aggregation. The real option analysis (ROA) explicitly accounts for both the expected value of underling assets and the variance of the expected value (as well as skewness and kurtosis that are important to describe a fat tail phenomenon). In the paper, we propose an application of the real option analysis in order to formulate rules for the selection of a climate policy (emission target) and estimate the economic value of the future flexibility created by interim climate policy, which may be corrected in the future in response to new knowledge that hopefully reduces uncertainties. The initially selected interim policy has an option value and methodology for its valuation presented in the paper. (author)

  13. The environmental and economic sustainability of carbon capture and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardisty, Paul E; Sivapalan, Mayuran; Brooks, Peter

    2011-05-01

    For carbon capture and storage (CCS) to be a truly effective option in our efforts to mitigate climate change, it must be sustainable. That means that CCS must deliver consistent environmental and social benefits which exceed its costs of capital, energy and operation; it must be protective of the environment and human health over the long term; and it must be suitable for deployment on a significant scale. CCS is one of the more expensive and technically challenging carbon emissions abatement options available, and CCS must first and foremost be considered in the context of the other things that can be done to reduce emissions, as a part of an overall optimally efficient, sustainable and economic mitigation plan. This elevates the analysis beyond a simple comparison of the cost per tonne of CO(2) abated--there are inherent tradeoffs with a range of other factors (such as water, NOx, SOx, biodiversity, energy, and human health and safety, among others) which must also be considered if we are to achieve truly sustainable mitigation. The full life-cycle cost of CCS must be considered in the context of the overall social, environmental and economic benefits which it creates, and the costs associated with environmental and social risks it presents. Such analysis reveals that all CCS is not created equal. There is a wide range of technological options available which can be used in a variety of industries and applications-indeed CCS is not applicable to every industry. Stationary fossil-fuel powered energy and large scale petroleum industry operations are two examples of industries which could benefit from CCS. Capturing and geo-sequestering CO(2) entrained in natural gas can be economic and sustainable at relatively low carbon prices, and in many jurisdictions makes financial sense for operators to deploy now, if suitable secure disposal reservoirs are available close by. Retrofitting existing coal-fired power plants, however, is more expensive and technically

  14. The Environmental and Economic Sustainability of Carbon Capture and Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayuran Sivapalan

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available For carbon capture and storage (CCS to be a truly effective option in our efforts to mitigate climate change, it must be sustainable. That means that CCS must deliver consistent environmental and social benefits which exceed its costs of capital, energy and operation; it must be protective of the environment and human health over the long term; and it must be suitable for deployment on a significant scale. CCS is one of the more expensive and technically challenging carbon emissions abatement options available, and CCS must first and foremost be considered in the context of the other things that can be done to reduce emissions, as a part of an overall optimally efficient, sustainable and economic mitigation plan. This elevates the analysis beyond a simple comparison of the cost per tonne of CO2 abated—there are inherent tradeoffs with a range of other factors (such as water, NOx, SOx, biodiversity, energy, and human health and safety, among others which must also be considered if we are to achieve truly sustainable mitigation. The full life-cycle cost of CCS must be considered in the context of the overall social, environmental and economic benefits which it creates, and the costs associated with environmental and social risks it presents. Such analysis reveals that all CCS is not created equal. There is a wide range of technological options available which can be used in a variety of industries and applications—indeed CCS is not applicable to every industry. Stationary fossil-fuel powered energy and large scale petroleum industry operations are two examples of industries which could benefit from CCS. Capturing and geo-sequestering CO2 entrained in natural gas can be economic and sustainable at relatively low carbon prices, and in many jurisdictions makes financial sense for operators to deploy now, if suitable secure disposal reservoirs are available close by. Retrofitting existing coal-fired power plants, however, is more expensive and

  15. Health benefits, ecological threats of low-carbon electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibon, Thomas; Hertwich, Edgar G.; Arvesen, Anders; Singh, Bhawna; Verones, Francesca

    2017-03-01

    Stabilizing global temperature will require a shift to renewable or nuclear power from fossil power and the large-scale deployment of CO2 capture and storage (CCS) for remaining fossil fuel use. Non-climate co-benefits of low-carbon energy technologies, especially reduced mortalities from air pollution and decreased ecosystem damage, have been important arguments for policies to reduce CO2 emissions. Taking into account a wide range of environmental mechanisms and the complex interactions of the supply chains of different technologies, we conducted the first life cycle assessment of potential human health and ecological impacts of a global low-carbon electricity scenario. Our assessment indicates strong human health benefits of low-carbon electricity. For ecosystem quality, there is a significant trade-off between reduced pollution and climate impacts and potentially significant ecological impacts from land use associated with increased biopower utilization. Other renewables, nuclear power and CCS show clear ecological benefits, so that the climate mitigation scenario with a relatively low share of biopower has lower ecosystem impacts than the baseline scenario. Energy policy can maximize co-benefits by supporting other renewable and nuclear power and developing biomass supply from sources with low biodiversity impact.

  16. Assessment of private economic benefits and positive environmental externalities of tea plantation in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Hui; Ren, Xiaoyi; Li, Shiyu; Wu, Xu; Cheng, Hao; Xu, Bin; Gu, Baojing; Yang, Guofu; Peng, Changhui; Ge, Ying; Chang, Jie

    2013-10-01

    Tea plantations are rapidly expanding in China and other countries in the tropical and subtropical zones, driven by relatively high private economic benefit. However, the impact of tea plantations on the regional environment, including ecosystem services and disservices are unclear. In this study, we developed an assessment framework for determining the private economic benefits and environmental externalities (the algebraic sum of the regulating services and disservices) of tea plantations in China. Our results showed that tea plantations provided private economic benefits of 5,652 yuan ha(-1) year(-1) (7.6 yuan = 1 USD in 2007) for tea farmers, plus positive environmental externalities of 6,054 yuan ha(-1) year(-1) for the society. The environmental externalities were calculated as the sum of the value of four regulating services, including carbon sequestration (392 yuan ha(-1) year(-1)); soil retention (72 yuan ha(-1) year(-1)); soil fertility protection (3,189 yuan ha(-1) year(-1)) and water conservation (2,685 yuan ha(-1) year(-1)), and three disservices, including CO2 emission (-39 yuan ha(-1) year(-1)), N2O emission (-137 yuan ha(-1) year(-1)) and nonpoint source pollution (-108 yuan ha(-1) year(-1)). Before the private optimal level, the positive environmental externalities can be maintained by private economic benefits; if a social optimal level is required, subsidies from government are necessary.

  17. Economic growth and carbon emission control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenyu

    The question about whether environmental improvement is compatible with continued economic growth remains unclear and requires further study in a specific context. This study intends to provide insight on the potential for carbon emissions control in the absence of international agreement, and connect the empirical analysis with theoretical framework. The Chinese electricity generation sector is used as a case study to demonstrate the problem. Both social planner and private problems are examined to derive the conditions that define the optimal level of production and pollution. The private problem will be demonstrated under the emission regulation using an emission tax, an input tax and an abatement subsidy respectively. The social optimal emission flow is imposed into the private problem. To provide tractable analytical results, a Cobb-Douglas type production function is used to describe the joint production process of the desired output and undesired output (i.e., electricity and emissions). A modified Hamiltonian approach is employed to solve the system and the steady state solutions are examined for policy implications. The theoretical analysis suggests that the ratio of emissions to desired output (refer to 'emission factor'), is a function of productive capital and other parameters. The finding of non-constant emission factor shows that reducing emissions without further cutting back the production of desired outputs is feasible under some circumstances. Rather than an ad hoc specification, the optimal conditions derived from our theoretical framework are used to examine the relationship between desired output and emission level. Data comes from the China Statistical Yearbook and China Electric Power Yearbook and provincial information of electricity generation for the year of 1993-2003 are used to estimate the Cobb-Douglas type joint production by the full information maximum likelihood (FIML) method. The empirical analysis shed light on the optimal

  18. The carbon rent economics of climate policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalkuhl, Matthias; Brecha, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    By reducing the demand for fossil fuels, climate policy can reduce scarcity rents for fossil resource owners. As mitigation policies ultimately aim to limit emissions, a new scarcity for “space” in the atmosphere to deposit emissions is created. The associated scarcity rent, or climate rent (that is, for example, directly visible in permit prices under an emission trading scheme) can be higher or lower than the original fossil resource rent. In this paper, we analyze analytically and numerically the impact of mitigation targets, resource availability, backstop costs, discount rates and demand parameters on fossil resource rents and the climate rent. We assess whether and how owners of oil, gas and coal can be compensated by a carbon permit grandfathering rule. One important finding is that reducing (cumulative) fossil resource use could actually increase scarcity rents and benefit fossil resource owners under a permit grandfathering rule. For our standard parameter setting overall scarcity rents under climate policy increase slightly. While low discount rates of resource owners imply higher rent losses due to climate policies, new developments of reserves or energy efficiency improvements could more than double scarcity rents under climate policy. Another important implication is that agents receiving the climate rent (regulating institutions or owners of grandfathered permits) could influence the climate target such that rents are maximized, rather than to limit global warming to a socially desirable level. For our basic parameter setting, rents would be maximized at approximately 650 GtC emissions (50% of business-as-usual emissions) implying a virtual certainty of exceeding a 2 °C target and a likelihood of 4 °C warming. - Highlights: • Fossil resource rents form a substantial share of the global GDP. • Fossil resource owners can benefit from climate policy. • Climate targets might be influenced by rent-maximizing aspects

  19. Modeling the development and utilization of bioenergy and exploring the environmental economic benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Junnian; Yang, Wei; Higano, Yoshiro; Wang, Xian’en

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A complete bioenergy flow is schemed to industrialize bioenergy utilization. • An input–output optimization simulation model is developed. • Energy supply and demand and bioenergy industries’ development are optimized. • Carbon tax and subsidies are endogenously derived by the model. • Environmental economic benefits of bioenergy utilization are explored dynamically. - Abstract: This paper outlines a complete bioenergy flow incorporating bioresource procurement, feedstock supply, conversion technologies and energy consumption to industrialize the development and utilization of bioenergy. An input–output optimization simulation model is developed to introduce bioenergy industries into the regional socioeconomy and energy production and consumption system and dynamically explore the economic, energy and environmental benefits. 16-term simulation from 2010 to 2025 is performed in scenarios preset based on bioenergy industries, carbon tax-subsidization policy and distinct levels of greenhouse gas emission constraints. An empirical study is conducted to validate and apply the model. In the optimal scenario, both industrial development and energy supply and demand are optimized contributing to a 8.41% average gross regional product growth rate and a 39.9% reduction in accumulative greenhouse gas emission compared with the base scenario. By 2025 the consumption ratio of bioenergy in total primary energy could be increased from 0.5% to 8.2%. Energy self-sufficiency rate could be increased from 57.7% to 77.9%. A dynamic carbon tax rate and the extent to which bioenergy industrial development could be promoted are also elaborated. Regional economic development and greenhouse gas mitigation can be potentially promoted simultaneously by bioenergy utilization and a proper greenhouse gas emission constraint. The methodology presented is capable of introducing new industries or policies related to energy planning and detecting the best tradeoffs of

  20. A low carbon industrial revolution? Insights and challenges from past technological and economic transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearson, Peter J.G.; Foxon, Timothy J.

    2012-01-01

    Recent efforts to promote a transition to a low carbon economy have been influenced by suggestions that a low carbon transition offers challenges and might yield economic benefits comparable to those of the previous industrial revolutions. This paper examines these arguments and the challenges facing a low carbon transition, by drawing on recent thinking on the technological, economic and institutional factors that enabled and sustained the first (British) industrial revolution, and the role of ‘general purpose technologies’ in stimulating and sustaining this and subsequent industrial transformation processes that have contributed to significant macroeconomic gains. These revolutions involved profound, long drawn-out changes in economy, technology and society; and although their energy transitions led to long-run economic benefits, they took many decades to develop. To reap significant long-run economic benefits from a low carbon transition sooner rather than later would require systemic efforts and incentives for low carbon innovation and substitution of high-carbon technologies. We conclude that while achieving a low carbon transition may require societal changes on a scale comparable with those of previous industrial revolutions, this transition does not yet resemble previous industrial revolutions. A successful low carbon transition would, however, amount to a different kind of industrial revolution. - Highlights: ► Investigates lessons for a low carbon transition from past industrial revolutions. ► Explores the implications of ‘general purpose technologies’ and their properties. ► Examines analysis of ‘long waves’ of technological progress and diffusion. ► Draws insights for low carbon transitions and policy.

  1. The odd couple: The relationship between state economic performance and carbon emissions economic intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidsdottir, B.; Fisher, M.

    2011-01-01

    Historical time trends indicate that both carbon and energy intensity have declined in the United States over the last several decades, while economic performance, as measured by per capita GSP, has improved. This observation indicates that it may be possible to reduce carbon intensity without a reduction in economic performance. This paper assesses using panel analysis, the empirical relationship between carbon emissions intensity and economic performance, and examines the direction of causality between the two variables. Data for the analysis covered 48 states, excluding Hawaii, Alaska, and Washington DC, from 1980 to 2000. The results indicate significant bi-directional relationship between carbon emissions intensity and state economic performance, both using an aggregate indicator for carbon emissions intensity, decomposed using Laspeyres indexes and disaggregated by sector. This implies that it should be possible to implement statewide and sector-specific policies to reduce energy and carbon intensity and at the same time improve economic performance. - Highlights: → The empirical relationship between carbon emissions intensity and economic performance is assessed → The direction of causality between the two variables is examined. → Results indicate significant relationship between carbon emissions intensity and state economic performance. → Relationship is bi-directional, and holds for both aggregate analysis and by sector. → It is possible to implement policies to reduce carbon intensity and improve economic performance.

  2. Living Shorelines: Coastal Resilience with a Blue Carbon Benefit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jenny L; Currin, Carolyn A; O'Brien, Colleen; Raffenburg, Craig; Davis, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    Living shorelines are a type of estuarine shoreline erosion control that incorporates native vegetation and preserves native habitats. Because they provide the ecosystem services associated with natural coastal wetlands while also increasing shoreline resilience, living shorelines are part of the natural and hybrid infrastructure approach to coastal resiliency. Marshes created as living shorelines are typically narrow (erosion control and habitat for estuarine organisms has been documented but their capacity for carbon sequestration has not. We measured carbon sequestration rates in living shorelines and sandy transplanted Spartina alterniflora marshes in the Newport River Estuary, North Carolina. The marshes sampled here range in age from 12 to 38 years and represent a continuum of soil development. Carbon sequestration rates ranged from 58 to 283 g C m-2 yr-1 and decreased with marsh age. The pattern of lower sequestration rates in older marshes is hypothesized to be the result of a relative enrichment of labile organic matter in younger sites and illustrates the importance of choosing mature marshes for determination of long-term carbon sequestration potential. The data presented here are within the range of published carbon sequestration rates for S. alterniflora marshes and suggest that wide-scale use of the living shoreline approach to shoreline management may come with a substantial carbon benefit.

  3. Air Quality Co-Benefits of a Carbon Policy: Regional Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, T. M.; Rausch, S.; Saari, R.; Selin, N. E.

    2013-12-01

    We use an integrated modeling framework to assess the air quality influence of climate change policies in the Northeast U.S. states for air pollution, and their relative health and economic benefits. We analyze three carbon policy scenarios, each reducing the same total amount of GHG emissions in the Northeast United States: an economy-wide Cap and Trade (CAT) program reducing emissions from all sectors of the economy, a Clean Energy Scenario (CES) reducing emissions from the electricity sector only, and a Transportation Scenario (TRN) reducing emissions from the transportation sector only. Regional CES policy and a regional TRN policy will cost about 10 times and 50 times more than a CAT policy, respectively. Regional CAT policy will lead to a 6% greater reduction in carbon emissions nationally in the year 2030 compared to an electric or transportation sector cap with the same regional targets. This is because, unlike a total economy cap, targeted policy options will likely cause increases in carbon emissions outside of the region covered (called carbon leakage). The human health benefits of the CAT, CES and TRN policies are 530%, 118%, and 10% of the costs of each policy respectively, meaning that the CAT and CES policies will likely fully pay for themselves in the NE U.S. We estimate that the value of human health co-benefits associated with reductions of ground level ozone and particulate matter of the CES scenario is twice that of the CAT and TRN scenarios. Economic welfare costs for each of three regionally applied carbon emissions reduction scenario are shown in blue. The calculated dollar amount of the human health benefits point estimate is shown in red with the 95% confidence interval, associated with human health response only, shown using the green line. Values are in billions of year 2006 US dollars.

  4. Reducing the Incidence of Low Birth Weight in Low-Income Countries Has Substantial Economic Benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Alderman, Harold; Behrman, Jere R.

    2006-01-01

    Reducing the incidence of low birth weight not only lowers infant mortality rates but also has multiple benefits over the life cycle. This study estimates the economic benefits of reducing the incidence of low birth weight in low-income countries, both through lower mortality rates and medical costs and through increased learning and productivity. The estimated economic benefits, under pla...

  5. The economic implications of carbon cycle uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Steven J.; Edmonds, James A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the implications of uncertainty in the carbon cycle for the cost of stabilizing carbon dioxide concentrations. Using a state of the art integrated assessment model, we find that uncertainty in our understanding of the carbon cycle has significant implications for the costs of a climate stabilization policy, with cost differences denominated in trillions of dollars. Uncertainty in the carbon cycle is equivalent to a change in concentration target of up to 100 ppmv. The impact of carbon cycle uncertainties are smaller than those for climate sensitivity, and broadly comparable to the effect of uncertainty in technology availability

  6. Air quality co-benefits of carbon pricing in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingwei; Zhang, Da; Li, Chiao-Ting; Mulvaney, Kathleen M.; Selin, Noelle E.; Karplus, Valerie J.

    2018-05-01

    Climate policies targeting energy-related CO2 emissions, which act on a global scale over long time horizons, can result in localized, near-term reductions in both air pollution and adverse human health impacts. Focusing on China, the largest energy-using and CO2-emitting nation, we develop a cross-scale modelling approach to quantify these air quality co-benefits, and compare them to the economic costs of climate policy. We simulate the effects of an illustrative climate policy, a price on CO2 emissions. In a policy scenario consistent with China's recent pledge to reach a peak in CO2 emissions by 2030, we project that national health co-benefits from improved air quality would partially or fully offset policy costs depending on chosen health valuation. Net health co-benefits are found to rise with increasing policy stringency.

  7. Economic Benefit for Cuban Laurel Thrips Biological Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shogren, C; Paine, T D

    2016-02-01

    The Cuban laurel thrips, Gynaikothrips ficorum Marchal (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae), is a critical insect pest of Ficus microcarpa in California urban landscapes and production nurseries. Female thrips feed and oviposit on young Ficus leaves, causing the expanding leaves to fold or curl into a discolored leaf gall. There have been attempts to establish specialist predator natural enemies of the thrips, but no success has been reported. We resampled the same areas in 2013-2014 where we had released Montandoniola confusa (= morguesi) Streito and Matocq (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) in southern California in 1995 but had been unable to recover individuals in 1997-1998. Thrips galls were significantly reduced in all three of the locations in the recent samples compared with the earlier samples. M. confusa was present in all locations and appears to be providing successful biological control. The value of the biological control, the difference between street trees in good foliage condition and trees with poor foliage, was $58,766,166. If thrips damage reduced the foliage to very poor condition, the value of biological control was $73,402,683. Total cost for the project was $61,830. The benefit accrued for every dollar spent on the biological control of the thrips ranged from $950, if the foliage was in poor condition, to $1,187, if the foliage was in very poor condition. The value of urban forest is often underappreciated. Economic analyses that clearly demonstrate the very substantial rates of return on investment in successful biological control in urban forests provide compelling arguments for supporting future efforts. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. The Economic Benefits of Vehicle Miles Traveled (VMT)-Reducing Placemaking: Synthesizing a New View

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    This paper analyzes evidence on the economic benefits of placemaking efforts that prioritize pedestrian and non-motorized access and that, at times, reduce vehicle miles traveled. The previous literature on the economic impacts of transportation has ...

  9. Benefits of Low Carbon Development Strategies in Emerging Cities of Developing Country: a Case of Kathmandu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shree Raj Shakya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Kathmandu is one of the fastest growing cities in South Asia facing various challenges related to climate change, local pollutants emissions and energy security of supply. This study analysed the greenhouse gas mitigation potential in different economic sectors of the city by using Long-range Energy Planning (LEAP frame work. It shows that the effect of implementing various low carbon development strategy options can reduce 35.2% of total greenhouse gas emission from energy use as compared to the base case scenario in 2030. This indicates the need for exploring the possibility of utilizing the global climate funds and adopting voluntary mechanisms for greenhouse gas mitigation. The estimated demand side technology investment cost of low carbon measures for different sectors ranges from less than US$ 1/tonne CO2e for residential sector to US$ 99/tonne CO2e for transport sector. The low carbon options also results co-benefits in terms of significant reduction in emission of local pollutants and improvement of energy security. As Government of Nepal has envisioned following low carbon economic development path on the long run, there is the need of establishment of regulatory framework, institutional framework and development of clear action plans for realizing the implementation of low carbon development strategy measures in the country.

  10. Living Shorelines: Coastal Resilience with a Blue Carbon Benefit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny L Davis

    Full Text Available Living shorelines are a type of estuarine shoreline erosion control that incorporates native vegetation and preserves native habitats. Because they provide the ecosystem services associated with natural coastal wetlands while also increasing shoreline resilience, living shorelines are part of the natural and hybrid infrastructure approach to coastal resiliency. Marshes created as living shorelines are typically narrow (< 30 m fringing marshes with sandy substrates that are well flushed by tides. These characteristics distinguish living shorelines from the larger meadow marshes in which most of the current knowledge about created marshes was developed. The value of living shorelines for providing both erosion control and habitat for estuarine organisms has been documented but their capacity for carbon sequestration has not. We measured carbon sequestration rates in living shorelines and sandy transplanted Spartina alterniflora marshes in the Newport River Estuary, North Carolina. The marshes sampled here range in age from 12 to 38 years and represent a continuum of soil development. Carbon sequestration rates ranged from 58 to 283 g C m-2 yr-1 and decreased with marsh age. The pattern of lower sequestration rates in older marshes is hypothesized to be the result of a relative enrichment of labile organic matter in younger sites and illustrates the importance of choosing mature marshes for determination of long-term carbon sequestration potential. The data presented here are within the range of published carbon sequestration rates for S. alterniflora marshes and suggest that wide-scale use of the living shoreline approach to shoreline management may come with a substantial carbon benefit.

  11. China Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC): Benefits For Pakistan And Comparison With Suez And Panama Canals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    ECONOMIC CORRIDOR (CPEC): BENEFITS FOR PAKISTAN AND COMPARISON WITH SUEZ AND PANAMA CANALS by Hanif Ullah Khan December 2017 Thesis...DATE December 2017 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE CHINA PAKISTAN ECONOMIC CORRIDOR (CPEC): BENEFITS FOR...The China Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) is part of China’s “One Belt, One Road” initiative and joins two major economic corridors: The Silk Road

  12. Society environmental economic benefits of swan-labelled workwear service

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grüttner, Henrik; Dall, Ole; Thomsen, Henning

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an environmental and socio-economic comparison of textile supply of workwear with and without the Nordic Swan labelling scheme. The study is part of a project for development of a methodology for the environmental and socio-economic comparison for product groups. The study...... is transferred into economic impacts demonstrating a substantial saving for the society when purchasing the eco-labelled service....

  13. An Economic Approach to Planting Trees for Carbon Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter J. Parks; David O. Hall; Bengt Kristrom; Omar R. Masera; Robert J. Multon; Andrew J. Plantinga; Joel N. Swisher; Jack K. Winjum

    1997-01-01

    Abstract: Methods are described for evaluating economic and carbon storage aspects of tree planting projects (e.g., plantations for restoration, roundwood, bioenergy, and nonwood products). Total carbon (C) stock is dynamic and comprises C in vegetation, decomposing matter, soil, products, and fuel substituted. An alternative (reference) case is...

  14. Essays on the economics of forestry-based carbon mitigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benítez-Ponce, P.C.

    2005-01-01

    Keywords:climate change, carbon costs, afforestation, risk, secondary forests, conservation payments, ecosystem services

    This thesis is a collection of articles that deal with the economics of carbon sequestration in forests. It pays

  15. How large a carbon tax is justified by the secondary benefits of CO2 abatement?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekins, Paul

    1996-01-01

    The combustion of fossil fuels emits a range of damaging pollutants, the emissions of which are reduced if fossil fuel use is reduced in order to achieve CO 2 abatement. These reductions are termed the secondary benefits of such abatement. The paper reviews estimates of the size of these benefits at current levels of emissions of the relevant pollutants. Although the estimates are few and uncertain, their mid-range suggests that the secondary benefits are of the same order of magnitude as the gross costs of medium to high levels of CO 2 abatement, and are substantially larger than the (equally uncertain) estimates of the primary benefits of CO 2 abatement, except where these benefits derive from consideration of damages from unabated global warming in the very long term. The paper then reviews these calculations in the light of the limits on SO 2 emissions mandated by the Second Sulphur Protocol (SSP). It finds that the secondary benefits from abating SO 2 alone beyond the limits of the SSP still provide a substantial offset to the costs of a carbon tax. The paper concludes that the existence of significant secondary benefits greatly reinforces the economic case for an aggressive policy of CO 2 abatement

  16. Carbon taxes and tradeable emissions permits: the economic impacts of climate change policies in New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chisholm, A.; Porter, M. [Tasman Institute (Australia)

    1994-12-31

    Examines the potential economic impacts on New Zealand of climate change policy covering carbon taxes, expanding forest areas as carbon sinks (including selling plantation based emission credits to other OECD nations), and emissions quotas. It is concluded that climate change policy appears to offer high short-term economic costs and little prospect of longer-term economic gain, apart from uncertain environmental benefits. If the Government pursues an active policy to stabilise gross emissions of carbon dioxide at 1990 levels, short term losses in national output and real spending power could be around 0.5 to 1% of GDP. Any major intervention by the New Zealand Government to alter energy use patterns would bring about structural changes in the economy. 4 tabs., 12 refs.

  17. Quantified, localized health benefits of accelerated carbon dioxide emissions reductions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shindell, Drew; Faluvegi, Greg; Seltzer, Karl; Shindell, Cary

    2018-04-01

    Societal risks increase as Earth warms, and increase further for emissions trajectories accepting relatively high levels of near-term emissions while assuming future negative emissions will compensate, even if they lead to identical warming as trajectories with reduced near-term emissions1. Accelerating carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions reductions, including as a substitute for negative emissions, hence reduces long-term risks but requires dramatic near-term societal transformations2. A major barrier to emissions reductions is the difficulty of reconciling immediate, localized costs with global, long-term benefits3,4. However, 2 °C trajectories not relying on negative emissions or 1.5 °C trajectories require elimination of most fossil-fuel-related emissions. This generally reduces co-emissions that cause ambient air pollution, resulting in near-term, localized health benefits. We therefore examine the human health benefits of increasing 21st-century CO2 reductions by 180 GtC, an amount that would shift a `standard' 2 °C scenario to 1.5 °C or could achieve 2 °C without negative emissions. The decreased air pollution leads to 153 ± 43 million fewer premature deaths worldwide, with 40% occurring during the next 40 years, and minimal climate disbenefits. More than a million premature deaths would be prevented in many metropolitan areas in Asia and Africa, and >200,000 in individual urban areas on every inhabited continent except Australia.

  18. Quantified, Localized Health Benefits of Accelerated Carbon Dioxide Emissions Reductions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shindell, Drew; Faluvegi, Greg; Seltzer, Karl; Shindell, Cary

    2018-01-01

    Societal risks increase as Earth warms, but also for emissions trajectories accepting relatively high levels of near-term emissions while assuming future negative emissions will compensate even if they lead to identical warming [1]. Accelerating carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions reductions, including as a substitute for negative emissions, hence reduces long-term risks but requires dramatic near-term societal transformations [2]. A major barrier to emissions reductions is the difficulty of reconciling immediate, localized costs with global, long-term benefits [3, 4]. However, 2°C trajectories not relying on negative emissions or 1.5°C trajectories require elimination of most fossil fuel related emissions. This generally reduces co-emissions that cause ambient air pollution, resulting in near-term, localized health benefits. We therefore examine the human health benefits of increasing ambition of 21 st century CO 2 reductions by 180 GtC; an amount that would shift a 'standard' 2°C scenario to 1.5°C or could achieve 2°C without negative emissions. The decreased air pollution leads to 153±43 million fewer premature deaths worldwide, with ~40% occurring during the next 40 years, and minimal climate disbenefits. More than a million premature deaths would be prevented in many metropolitan areas in Asia and Africa, and >200,000 in individual urban areas on every inhabited continent except Australia.

  19. Estimating the Economic Benefits of Regional Ocean Observing Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kite-Powell, Hauke L; Colgan, Charles S; Wellman, Katharine F; Pelsoci, Thomas; Wieand, Kenneth; Pendleton, Linwood; Kaiser, Mark J; Pulsipher, Allan G; Luger, Michael

    2005-01-01

    ... prediction, offshore energy, power generation, and commercial fishing. Our findings suggest that annual benefits to users from the deployment of ocean observing systems are likely to run in the multiple...

  20. Economic benefits of employment transportation services : final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-30

    This report examines the benefits that accrue from employment transportation services implemented as a result of changes in welfare policy, namely the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) of 1996. Employment transp...

  1. US carbon emissions, technological progress and economic growth since 1870

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huntington, H.G.

    2005-01-01

    The long-term US experience emphasises the importance of controlling for electrification and other major technology transformations when evaluating the growth of carbon emissions at different stages of development. Prior to World War I, carbon emissions grew faster than economic growth by 2.3% per year. As electricity use expanded and steam engines became much larger, carbon emissions began to grow slower than economic growth by 1.6% per year. Adjusting to this technological shift, an expanding economy continues to increase carbon emissions by about 9% for each 10% faster growth. There is little evidence of a decline in this elasticity as the income level rises. These results suggest that the USA today will need to find additional policies to curb carbon emissions if it wishes to prevent any further increase in its per capita emissions, and if its per capita economy grows by more than 1.8% per year. (Author)

  2. The Mersey Barrage - indirect benefits: the economic and regional case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cockle, P.J.; McCormack, J.J.

    1992-01-01

    A major cost-benefit exercise, a regional and an exchequer impact assessment were performed. The cost-benefit net present values (NPV) (1991 prices) of market and non-market streams revealed: capital and operating cost (-Pound 799 million), electricity output (Pound 310 million), CO 2 savings (Pound 627 million), security of energy supply (Pound 18 million), amenity benefit/blight (-Pound 1 million), tourism (Pound 5 million), leisure (Pound 7 million), waders and wildfowl impact (-Pound 8 million) and a road crossing (Pound 132 million). The total mid-range estimate of Pound 370 million confirms the barrage would increase Britain's welfare. During construction the barrage would support up to 2,100 Merseyside jobs and 600 in operation. The cumulative gains to the exchequer are Pound 300 million. (author)

  3. The Process to Estimate Economical Benefits of Six Sigma Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kosina

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to define the process for the continuous evaluation of the financial benefits during Six Sigma project life time. The financial criteria are critical success factors of a Six Sigma project. The process has been developed as part of the six sigma project monitoring in order to estimate proper allocation of the resources taking in account the expected project benefits as well as evaluationof real achievements. The evaluation of the finacial benefits based on the quality costs is not sufficient in the real life and has to be accomplished with key financial performance indicators of the business to visualize the results. The evaluation based on the savings seems to be too difficult especially for green belts. The early involvement of the finance department in the project definition as well as ongoing evaluation is key. The defined process has been applied to real business enviroment.

  4. Electricity Consumption, Carbon Emissions and Economic Growth in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godwin Effiong Akpan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper applies a Multivariate Vector Error Correction (VECM framework to examine the long run and causal relationship between electricity consumption, carbon emissions and economic growth in Nigeria. Using annual time series data for 1970 to 2008, findings show that in the long run, economic growth is associated with increase carbon emissions, while an increase in electricity consumption leads to an increase in carbon emissions. These imply that Nigeria’s growth process is pollution intensive, while the negative relationship between electricity consumption (or positive relationship between electricity consumption and emissions in Nigeria is a clear indication that electricity consumption in the country has intensified carbon emissions. No support was obtained for the hypothesized environmental Kuznets curve (EKC. Granger-causality results confirm a unidirectional causality running from economic growth to carbon emissions, indicating that carbon emissions reduction policies could be pursued without reducing economic growth in Nigeria. No causality was found between electricity and growth, in either way, which further lends credence to the crisis in the Nigerian electricity sector. Overall, the paper submits that efficient planning and increased investment in electricity infrastructure development may be the crucial missing variable in the obtained neutrality hypothesis between electricity and growth.

  5. The Economics of Carbon Dioxide Removal: The Case against Free Disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, D. P.; Rickels, W.; Quaas, M.; Oschlies, A.; Reith, F.

    2016-12-01

    Facing the challenge to keep the average global temperature increase below 2°C and to limit long-term climate change, removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere (Carbon Dioxide Removal, CDR) and disposing of it in non-atmospheric carbon reservoirs is becoming increasingly necessary. The social cost of removing carbon into the terrestrial biosphere (e.g. by afforestation) or the ocean (e.g. by spreading olivine in coastal areas) arises from carbon-cycle feedbacks and saturation effects. Yet they are ignored in existing economic studies on CDR. Neglecting non-atmospheric social cost results in inconsistent estimates with regard to the share and timing of CDR measures in climate policy. Here, we use an intermediate-complexity earth system model, the University of Victoria (UVic) model, to calibrate a dynamic economic model, capturing the temperature feedback and saturation effect of terrestrial carbon uptake and the saturation effect of oceanic carbon uptake to obtain an improved understanding of the net social carbon value of terrestrial and oceanic CDR. We show that planning horizons beyond the year 2100 are required to properly reflect long-term scarcity issues of non-atmospheric carbon reservoirs in current carbon prices and that neglecting non-atmospheric social cost results in too low abatement efforts and in turn in too large and earlier application of CDR measures than if applied optimally. The figure shows the carbon prices for the different carbon reservoirs in the year 2100 in dependence of the planning horizon (for a climate policy aiming to limit global mean temperature increase to 2°C). The difference between the atmospheric and the non-atmospheric carbon prices indicates the benefits of the different CDR options.

  6. The benefits of being economics professor A (and not Z)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Praag, C.M.; van Praag, B.M.S.

    2007-01-01

    Alphabetic name ordering on multi-authored academic papers, which is the convention in the economics discipline and various other disciplines, is to the advantage of people whose last name initials are placed early in the alphabet. As it turns out, Professor A, who has been a first author more often

  7. The benefits of being economics professor A (rather than Z)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Praag, C.M.; van Praag, B.M.S.

    2008-01-01

    Alphabetical name ordering on multi-authored academic papers, which is the convention in economics and various other disciplines, is to the advantage of people whose last name initials are placed early in the alphabet. Professor A, who has been a first author more often than Professor Z, will have

  8. Socio–economic benefits and pollution levels of water resources ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Communities are dependent on wetlands resources for income generation. However, anthropogenic activities that result into pollution of water are one of the major public health problems. Assessment of socio–economic activities and pollution levels of domestic water sources in Gulu Municipality, Pece wetland was done.

  9. Economic Development Benefits of New Transit Service: RiverLINE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    This report documents the economic impacts of the RiverLINE, a light rail line connecting Trenton and Camden, New Jersey. The study examined whether and how the line impacted local land use, residential property values, travel behaviors and firm perf...

  10. Economics of Sustainable Technologies : Private and Public Costs and Benefits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krozer, Yoram; Abraham, Martin

    2017-01-01

    This article is focused on the economics of sustainable technologies from the mainstream and heterodox perspectives. The aim is to present major concepts, methodologies, and debates for public use. The paper is focused on decision making aiming at the development and use of sustainable technologies.

  11. Going Solar Yields Long-Term Economical, Educational Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Moos, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Going solar is not an easy decision, but a long-term investment with a potentially substantial up-front cost. While some schools have enough capital in reserve, can raise bond money, or can solicit sufficient donations, many schools rely on creative financial programs to make a solar energy system economically feasible. Thinking about going solar…

  12. Current Economic Issues in Employee Benefits. Background Paper No. 39.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodbury, Stephen A.

    A multitude of public policy issues currently surround the tax treatment of employee benefits, particularly since the tax-favored status of employer contributions to pensions and health insurance has been blamed for a shrinking tax base that has exacerbated the federal budget deficit, an inefficient and bloated health-care sector, overinsurance by…

  13. Broad economic benefits of freight transportation infrastructure improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    This project strives to introduce a novel way to quantify the broad re-organization benefits associated with an : improvement in the freight infrastructure. Using the approach based on 1) the technique known as Field of Influence, and : 2) RAS adjust...

  14. Evidence of economic benefits for public investment in MPAs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pascal, Nicolas; Brathwaite, Angelique; Brander, Luke; Seidl, Andrew; Philip, Maxime; Clua, Eric

    2018-01-01

    MPAs enhance some of the Ecosystem Services (ES) provided by coral reefs and clear, robust valuations of these impacts may help to improve stakeholder support and better inform decision-makers. Pursuant to this goal, Cost-Benefit Analyses (CBA) of MPAs in 2 different contexts were analysed: a

  15. Environmental and economic benefits of natural gas use for pollution control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dey, P.R.; Berkau, E.E.; Schnelle, K.B.

    1993-01-01

    One of the primary goals of this research effort was to document and compare the economic and environment benefits of using natural gas for pollution control in boilers, furnaces and internal combustion engines, with conventional control technologies. The study indicated that replacement of 15% of the coal used in coal-fired boilers employed in the generation of electric power in the US, with natural gas, would considerably reduce the emissions of acid rain precursors such as sulfur and nitrogen oxides, and do so in a cost-effect manner. The reductions achieved were also in concordance with the reductions in sulfur dioxide emissions mandated by the new Clean Air Act (CAA) Amendments of 1990. The combustion of natural gas would also produce less carbon dioxide as compared to the combustion of coal with an equivalent amount of heat content. Carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas, i.e., it is believed to play a major role in global warming. Natural gas technology therefore presents a cost-effective step in the eventual mitigation of two of the main environmental problems presently facing us, acid rain, and global warming

  16. Benefits of barrier fuel on fuel cycle economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowther, R.L.; Kunz, C.L.

    1988-01-01

    Barrier fuel rod cladding was developed to eliminate fuel rod failures from pellet/cladding stress/corrosion interaction and to eliminate the associated need to restrict the rate at which fuel rod power can be increased. The performance of barrier cladding has been demonstrated through extensive testing and through production application to many boiling water reactors (BWRs). Power reactor data have shown that barrier fuel rod cladding has a significant beneficial effect on plant capacity factor and plant operating costs and significantly increases fuel reliability. Independent of the fuel reliability benefit, it is less obvious that barrier fuel has a beneficial effect of fuel cycle costs, since barrier cladding is more costly to fabricate. Evaluations, measurements, and development activities, however, have shown that the fuel cycle cost benefits of barrier fuel are large. This paper is a summary of development activities that have shown that application of barrier fuel significantly reduces BWR fuel cycle costs

  17. Macro-economic benefits of an expanded oil sands industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    Probable impact of benefits of expanded oil sands development on employment and government revenues were analyzed. Investment in proposed oil sands facilities was forecast to create about 1 million person-years of direct and indirect employment. Forty percent of employment gains would be created in Alberta, with remaining positions mostly in Ontario and Quebec. Government taxes, royalties, reduced debts interest costs and revenues to municipalities, hospitals and pension plans would increase by $97 billion (1994 dollars) between 1995 and 2025. Additional benefits would include increases in average Canadian disposable incomes, substitution of imported with domestic oil, and expansion of gross domestic product in Alberta by 5%. Some variation may be expected because of accuracy of assumptions that were made in the analysis, but the character of the results were not expected to change

  18. Socio-economic, scientific, and political benefits of mycotourism

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Büntgen, Ulf; Latorre, J.; Egli, S.; Martinez-Pena, F.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 7 (2017), č. článku e01870. ISSN 2150-8925 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : climate change * economic crisis * Iberian Peninsula * long-term drying * non-wood forest products * Perigord black truffle Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7) Impact factor: 2.490, year: 2016

  19. Aligning economic impact with environmental benefits: a green strategy model

    OpenAIRE

    Gu, Q.; Lago, P.; Potenza, S.

    2012-01-01

    To achieve lower energy consumption many green strategies (e.g. virtualize applications and consolidate them on shared server machines, or optimize the usage of the private cloud by opening up to external consumers) have been discussed. In practice, however, the major incentive for a company to go green is reducing costs. While green strategies often focus on technical and environmental issues, they hardly address the economic impact that they may bring. If green strategies do not lead to an ...

  20. The Economic and Social Benefits of Air Transport

    OpenAIRE

    GHEORGHE Camelia; SEBEA Mihai

    2010-01-01

    Air transport is an innovative industry that drives economic and social progress. It connects people, countries and cultures; provides access to global markets and generates trade and tourism. It also forges links between developed and developing nations. Like most human activities, air transport has an impact on the environment, mainly through noise and emissions that affect local air quality and the climate. The industry fully recognises its responsibility in this regard and is determined t...

  1. Economic Benefits from Same-Sex Weddings in New Jersey

    OpenAIRE

    Badgett, M.V. Lee

    2006-01-01

    This study estimates the potential economic impact of samesex weddings on the State of New Jersey and concludes that the gain would be substantial. If New Jersey were to give same-sex couples the right to marry, that is marriage itself and not civil unions, the State would likely experience a surge in spending on weddings by same-sex couples who currently live in New Jersey, as well as an increase in wedding and tourist spending by same-sex couples from other states. The analysis outlined in ...

  2. Economic costs and benefits of commercial food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wills, P. A; Freeman, D. J.

    1985-01-01

    Decisions about commercialization of potential food irradiation applications usually involve pre-feasibility and feasibility studies to assess the expected return on investment. In this paper treatment costa/charges in theory and practice, investment philosophy, and the role of the multi-purpose plant in food irradiation are discussed. Other countries benefit commercially from the irradiation of a limited range of foods, including spices and frozen shrimps, exported from Southeast Asia. Some aspects of the feasibility of commercially irradiating these products, as well as mangoes and grains, in ASEAN countries and Australia are examined

  3. Economic effects of restricting carbon dioxide emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haaparanta, P.; Jerkkola, J.; Pohjola, J.

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the economy-wide effects of reducing CO 2 emissions. NO x and SO 2 emissions can also be included. The policy questions can be approached either by estimating the emission taxes needed to achieve the given levels of emissions or by estimating the level of emissions given the level of taxes. A computable general equilibrium (CGE) is used in this analysis. The general equilibrium models deal with long-run effects, after all markets have equilibrated and all resources are optimally used. They are particularly well-suited to analyze long-run resource allocation, welfare losses and income distribution, beyond the short-run macroeconomic disturbances and business cycle phenomena. As the general equilibrium framework integrates all main economic sectors, the feedbacks and interrelationships between the various sectors are taken into account

  4. Investing in children's health: what are the economic benefits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belli, Paolo C.; Bustreo, Flavia; Preker, Alexander

    2005-01-01

    This paper argues that investing in children's health is a sound economic decision for governments to take, even if the moral justifications for such programmes are not considered. The paper also outlines dimensions that are often neglected when public investment decisions are taken. The conclusion that can be drawn from the literature studying the relationship between children's health and the economy is that children's health is a potentially valuable economic investment. The literature shows that making greater investments in children's health results in better educated and more productive adults, sets in motion favourable demographic changes, and shows that safeguarding health during childhood is more important than at any other age because poor health during children's early years is likely to permanently impair them over the course of their life. In addition, the literature confirms that more attention should be paid to poor health as a mechanism for the intergenerational transmission of poverty. Children born into poor families have poorer health as children, receive lower investments in human capital, and have poorer health as adults. As a result, they will earn lower wages as adults, which will affect the next generation of children who will thus be born into poorer families. PMID:16283055

  5. DC Microgrids Scoping Study. Estimate of Technical and Economic Benefits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backhaus, Scott N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Swift, Gregory William [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Chatzivasileiadis, Spyridon [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Tschudi, William [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Glover, Steven [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Starke, Michael [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wang, Jianhui [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Yue, Meng [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Hammerstrom, Donald [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-03-23

    Microgrid demonstrations and deployments are expanding in US power systems and around the world. Although goals are specific to each site, these microgrids have demonstrated the ability to provide higher reliability and higher power quality than utility power systems and improved energy utilization. The vast majority of these microgrids are based on AC power transfer because this has been the traditionally dominant power delivery scheme. Independently, manufacturers, power system designers and researchers are demonstrating and deploying DC power distribution systems for applications where the end-use loads are natively DC, e.g., computers, solid-state lighting, and building networks. These early DC applications may provide higher efficiency, added flexibility, reduced capital costs over their AC counterparts. Further, when onsite renewable generation, electric vehicles and storage systems are present, DC-based microgrids may offer additional benefits. Early successes from these efforts raises a question - can a combination of microgrid concepts and DC distribution systems provide added benefits beyond what has been achieved individually?

  6. Economic benefits of productivity increases through truck-to-rail mode shift in freight transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-29

    Although the study of economic benefits of improving (or not improving) the efficiency of freight movement has been recognized as one of the critical research topic by the decision makers and researchers alike, there remains a dearth of transparent a...

  7. Assessing the environmental costs and benefits of plantations under future carbon pricing scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, R. B.; Barrett, D. J.; Farley, K.; Guenther, A.; Jobbágy, E. G.; Murray, B. C.; McCarl, B. A.; Schlesinger, W. H.

    2004-12-01

    Carbon sequestration programs are gaining attention globally as a means to offset increasing fossil fuel emissions and atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. We are examining scenarios of C sequestration in four regions of the world: the U.S., South America, China, and Australia. The analysis uses economic models to predict where the plantations will be grown and then categorizes the other biogeochemical changes that will likely occur. The goals of the project include: 1) Evaluating the assumptions behind C sequestration programs for plantations, including the importance of rotation rates, a full accounting of carbon costs (e.g., planting and site preparation), and how the C would be stored and safeguarded. 2) Examining the scale of the process needed to make a substantial contribution to offset fossil fuel emissions (see below). The scenario we have chosen to evaluate is one that addresses the consequences of storing 1 PgC yr-1 for 50 years. 3) Determining and summarizing the evidence for other biogeochemical changes that will likely occur. Some of the factors to be evaluated include soil acidification, changes in water fluxes and water-table dynamics, nutrient losses, changes in soil fauna and biodiversity, volatile organic carbon emissions, and erosion. 4) A final goal of the project is to make concrete recommendations for where plantations may be the most beneficial in terms of C storage and other environmental benefits, such as the amelioration of salinity and groundwater upwelling in Australia.

  8. Technology Development Benefits and the Economics Breakdown Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Eric J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the construction and application of the EBS (Economics Breakdown Structure) in evaluating technology investments across multiple systems and organizations, illustrated with examples in space transportation technology. The United States Government (USG) has a long history of investing in technology to enable its missions. Agencies such as the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Department of Defense (DoD) have evaluated their technology development programs primarily on their effects on mission performance and cost. More and more, though, USG agencies are being evaluated on their technology transfer to the commercial sector. In addition, an increasing number of USG missions are being accomplished by industry-led or joint efforts, where the USG provides technology and funding but tasks industry with development and operation of the mission systems.

  9. Economic costs and benefits of the renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Leo, G. A.

    2001-01-01

    In this work it has been analysed the potential diffusion of renewable energy sources and co-generation in the Italian market on the basis of the level of maturation of the different technologies, predicted market growth and environmental impacts associated to them. A sensitivity analysis on external costs generated by global climate changes has allowed everybody to assess how possible errors in estimating the potential impact of greenhouse gasses can affect the estimate of the economic performances of different scenarios of energetic development. On the basis of these considerations, it can be outlined a potential doubling of energy production by renewable energies in the next 10 years, with specific reference of small hydroelectric, biogass and eolic power plants [it

  10. Environmental Benefit Assessment for the Carbonation Process of Petroleum Coke Fly Ash in a Rotating Packed Bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Si-Lu; Pan, Shu-Yuan; Li, Ye-Mei; Chiang, Pen-Chi

    2017-09-19

    A high-gravity carbonation process was deployed at a petrochemical plant using petroleum coke fly ash and blowdown wastewater to simultaneously mineralized CO 2 and remove nitrogen oxides and particulate matters from the flue gas. With a high-gravity carbonation process, the CO 2 removal efficiency was found to be 95.6%, corresponding to a capture capacity of 600 kg CO 2 per day, at a gas flow rate of 1.47 m 3 /min under ambient temperature and pressure. Moreover, the removal efficiency of nitrogen oxides and particulate matters was 99.1% and 83.2%, respectively. After carbonation, the reacted fly ash was further utilized as supplementary cementitious materials in the blended cement mortar. The results indicated that cement with carbonated fly ash exhibited superior compressive strength (38.1 ± 2.5 MPa at 28 days in 5% substitution ratio) compared to the cement with fresh fly ash. Furthermore, the environmental benefits for the high-gravity carbonation process using fly ash were critically assessed. The energy consumption of the entire high-gravity carbonation ranged from 80 to 169 kWh/t-CO 2 (0.29-0.61 GJ/t-CO 2 ). Compared with the scenarios of business-as-usual and conventional carbon capture and storage plant, the economic benefit from the high-gravity carbonation process was approximately 90 and 74 USD per ton of CO 2 fixation, respectively.

  11. Evaluating the economic benefits of nonmotorized transportation : case studies and methods for the nonmotorized transportation pilot program communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report examines potential methods for evaluating the economic benefits from nonmotorized transportation investments. The variety of potential economic benefits of bicycle and pedestrian infrastructure and programming investments discussed includ...

  12. Brazilian waste potential: energy, environmental, social and economic benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, L.B.; Rosa, L.P.

    2003-01-01

    The potential energy that could be produced from solid wastes in Brazil tops 50 TWh. Equivalent to some 17% of the nation's total power consumption at costs that are competitive with more traditional options, this would also reduce greenhouse gases emissions. Moreover, managing wastes for energy generation purposes could well open up thousands of jobs for unskilled workers. Related to power generation and conservation, energy use requires discussions on the feasibility of each energy supply option, and comparison between alternatives available on the market. Power conservation is compared to projects implemented by the Federal Government, while power generation is rated against thermo-power plants fired by natural gas running on a combined cycle system. Although the operating costs of selective garbage collection for energy generation are higher than current levels, the net operating revenues of this scheme reach some US$ 4 billion/year. This underpins the feasibility of garbage management being underwritten by energy uses and avoided environmental costs. The suggested optimization of the technical, economic, social and environmental sustainability of the expansion of Brazil's power sector consists of compatibilizing the use of fossil and renewable fuels, which is particularly relevant for hybrid thermo-power plants with null account on greenhouse gases emissions

  13. The economic consequences of carbon taxation in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Common, M. [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia). Centre for Resource and Environmental Studies; Hamilton, C. [Australia Institute, Deakin, ACT (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    Global warming is an international problem. Multilateral actions agreed to under international treaties would be the most effective means of limiting global carbon dioxide emissions. Each country, however, would have some discretion in deciding how best to meet its obligations. In this paper, a potentially important `unilateral` action on the part of Australia, a carbon tax, is examined. When combined with a package of other measures, it may be argued that carbon taxation might be a beneficial policy measure even though actions by Australia would have only a small impact on global emissions. While the arguments may be developed in the Australian context they are relevant to industrial countries more generally. After considering Australia`s current situation with respect the emissions and international greenhouse obligations, the advantages and disadvantages of a carbon tax are reviewed. Based on some modelling work on the effects of introducing a carbon tax in Australia, including projections of impacts on carbon emissions, economic growth and employment, it is concluded that, with appropriate use of carbon tax revenues, there is a prima facie case for the unilateral introduction of carbon taxation in Australia. (author). 7 tabs., refs.

  14. Costs and benefits of controlling quarantine diseases : a bio-economic modeling approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breukers, M.L.H.; Mourits, M.C.M.; Werf, van der W.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a bio-economic model to quantify the costs and benefits of controlling plant quarantine diseases. The model integrates the epidemiology and economic consequences of a quarantine disease. It allows for ex ante evaluation of control scenarios for their cost-effectiveness, taking

  15. Estimating mortality risk reduction and economic benefits from controlling ozone air pollution

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on Estimating Mortality Risk Reduction Benefits from Decreasing Tropospheric Ozone Exposure

    2008-01-01

    ... in life expectancy, and to assess methods for estimating the monetary value of the reduced risk of premature death and increased life expectancy in the context of health-benefits analysis. Estimating Mortality Risk Reduction and Economic Benefits from Controlling Ozone Air Pollution details the committee's findings and posits several recommendations to address these issues.

  16. Potential biodiversity benefits from international programs to reduce carbon emissions from deforestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siikamäki, Juha; Newbold, Stephen C

    2012-01-01

    Deforestation is the second largest anthropogenic source of carbon dioxide emissions and options for its reduction are integral to climate policy. In addition to providing potentially low cost and near-term options for reducing global carbon emissions, reducing deforestation also could support biodiversity conservation. However, current understanding of the potential benefits to biodiversity from forest carbon offset programs is limited. We compile spatial data on global forest carbon, biodiversity, deforestation rates, and the opportunity cost of land to examine biodiversity conservation benefits from an international program to reduce carbon emissions from deforestation. Our results indicate limited geographic overlap between the least-cost areas for retaining forest carbon and protecting biodiversity. Therefore, carbon-focused policies will likely generate substantially lower benefits to biodiversity than a more biodiversity-focused policy could achieve. These results highlight the need to systematically consider co-benefits, such as biodiversity in the design and implementation of forest conservation programs to support international climate policy.

  17. Economic benefit of fertility control in wild horse populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholow, J.

    2007-01-01

    I projected costs for several contraceptive treatments that could be used by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) to manage 4 wild horse (Equus caballus) populations. Potential management alternatives included existing roundup and selective removal methods combined with contraceptives of different duration and effectiveness. I projected costs for a 20-year economic life using the WinEquus?? wild horse population model and state-by-state cost estimates reflecting BLM's operational expenses. Findings revealed that 1) currently available 2-year contraceptives in most situations are capable of reducing variable operating costs by 15%, 2) experimental 3-year contraceptives may be capable of reducing costs by 18%, and 3) combining contraceptives with modest changes to herd sex ratio (e.g., 55-60% M) could trim costs by 30%. Predicted savings can increase when contraception is applied in conjunction with a removal policy that targets horses aged 0-4 years instead of 0-5 years. However, reductions in herd size result in greater variation in annual operating expenses. Because the horse program's variable operating costs make up about half of the total program costs (which include other fixed costs), contraceptive application and management can only reduce total costs by 14%, saving about $6.1 million per year. None of the contraceptive options I examined eliminated the need for long-term holding facilities over the 20-year period simulated, but the number of horses held may be reduced by about 17% with contraceptive treatment. Cost estimates were most sensitive to the oldest age adoptable and per-day holding costs. The BLM will experience significant cost savings as carefully designed contraceptive programs become widespread in the wild horse herds it manages.

  18. Economic benefits of the Space Station to commercial communication satellite operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Kent M.; Dixson, John E.; Weyandt, Charles J.

    1987-01-01

    The economic and financial aspects of newly defined space-based activities, procedures, and operations (APOs) and associated satellite system designs are presented that have the potential to improve economic performance of future geostationary communications satellites. Launch insurance, launch costs, and the economics of APOs are examined. Retrieval missions and various Space Station scenarios are addressed. The potential benefits of the new APOs to the commercial communications satellite system operator are quantified.

  19. Economic Benefit Evaluation and Application of Northwest Rural Eco-Campus Based on Principal Component Projection Model

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Hong-ying; Wang, Lan-ying; Qiu, Yu-qiao

    2009-01-01

    Financial cost benefit (investment yield, financial net present value, benefit-cost ratio), social and economic benefits (saving rate of medical cost, average household income rate of trained farmers), technical and economic benefits (toilet-flushing water saves, pests and disease reduce rate, fruit or vegetable increase rate, and improve rate of technical skill level), and ecological and economic benefits (saving rate of afforestation cost, reduction of CO2 discharge, reduction of SO2 discha...

  20. Considerations on the assessment of economic benefits of industrial tracer application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guizerix, J.; Margrita, R.

    1990-01-01

    The benefit of a particular tracer study which can always theoretically be derived is practically very difficult to assess for decision-making which is more often based on rough estimates of it. Other criteria, as safety, environmental protection, 'social benefit', may replace the purely economic considerations. The economic benefits of industrial tracer applications can clearly be perceived through the commercial success of businesses offering tracer services, which implies that all factors involved in the law of supply and demand have (tacitly or explictly) been accounted. (orig.) [de

  1. Non-carbon benefits for effective implementation of REDD+

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EJIRO

    Environmental System of Accounting has a system to measure ... natural patches (Burel et al., 2013). Biodiversity ... of safeguards prioritization” from pure carbon to non- carbon ...... important intervention of climate-smart agriculture. Leaving ...

  2. Issues in assessing the economic benefits of ambient ozone control: some examples from agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, R.M.

    1983-01-01

    Information on the economic benefits arising from alternative secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards can provide one measure of regulatory efficiency. If benefits assessments are to be used in assessing regulatory impacts of federal standards as recently ordered by President Ronald Reagan, the economic concept of benefits, the limitations of benefits analysis, and the validity of those estimates needs to be clarified. Some methodological and applied issues which can effect the validity of environmental economic assessments as they pertain to agriculture are reviewed. Recent studies from the assessment literature on agriculture are critiqued with respect to how well they address such issues. An attempt is made to identify potential sources of variability in estimates found within that literature. Finally, implications for performance of future assessments are discussed.

  3. State of the art in benefit-risk analysis: economics and marketing-finance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalogeras, N; Odekerken-Schröder, G; Pennings, J M E; Gunnlaugsdóttir, H; Holm, F; Leino, O; Luteijn, J M; Magnússon, S H; Pohjola, M V; Tijhuis, M J; Tuomisto, J T; Ueland, Ø; White, B C; Verhagen, H

    2012-01-01

    All market participants (e.g., investors, producers, consumers) accept a certain level of risk as necessary to achieve certain benefits. There are many types of risk including price, production, financial, institutional, and individual human risks. All these risks should be effectively managed in order to derive the utmost of benefits and avoid disruption and/or catastrophic economic consequences for the food industry. The identification, analysis, determination, and understanding of the benefit-risk trade-offs of market participants in the food markets may help policy makers, financial analysts and marketers to make well-informed and effective corporate investment strategies in order to deal with highly uncertain and risky situations. In this paper, we discuss the role that benefits and risks play in the formation of the decision-making process of market-participants, who are engaged in the upstream and downstream stages of the food supply chain. In addition, we review the most common approaches (expected utility model and psychometrics) for measuring benefit-risk trade-offs in the economics and marketing-finance literature, and different factors that may affect the economic behaviour in the light of benefit-risk analyses. Building on the findings of our review, we introduce a conceptual framework to study the benefit-risk behaviour of market participants. Specifically, we suggest the decoupling of benefits and risks into the separate components of utilitarian benefits, hedonic benefits, and risk attitude and risk perception, respectively. Predicting and explaining how market participants in the food industry form their overall attitude in light of benefit-risk trade-offs may be critical for policy-makers and managers who need to understand the drivers of the economic behaviour of market participants with respect to production, marketing and consumption of food products. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Designer policy for carbon and biodiversity co-benefits under global change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Brett A.; Runting, Rebecca K.; Capon, Tim; Perring, Michael P.; Cunningham, Shaun C.; Kragt, Marit E.; Nolan, Martin; Law, Elizabeth A.; Renwick, Anna R.; Eber, Sue; Christian, Rochelle; Wilson, Kerrie A.

    2016-03-01

    Carbon payments can help mitigate both climate change and biodiversity decline through the reforestation of agricultural land. However, to achieve biodiversity co-benefits, carbon payments often require support from other policy mechanisms such as regulation, targeting, and complementary incentives. We evaluated 14 policy mechanisms for supplying carbon and biodiversity co-benefits through reforestation of carbon plantings (CP) and environmental plantings (EP) in Australia’s 85.3 Mha agricultural land under global change. The reference policy--uniform payments (bidders are paid the same price) with land-use competition (both CP and EP eligible for payments), targeting carbon--achieved significant carbon sequestration but negligible biodiversity co-benefits. Land-use regulation (only EP eligible) and two additional incentives complementing the reference policy (biodiversity premium, carbon levy) increased biodiversity co-benefits, but mostly inefficiently. Discriminatory payments (bidders are paid their bid price) with land-use competition were efficient, and with multifunctional targeting of both carbon and biodiversity co-benefits increased the biodiversity co-benefits almost 100-fold. Our findings were robust to uncertainty in global outlook, and to key agricultural productivity and land-use adoption assumptions. The results suggest clear policy directions, but careful mechanism design will be key to realising these efficiencies in practice. Choices remain for society about the amount of carbon and biodiversity co-benefits desired, and the price it is prepared to pay for them.

  5. Decoupling China's carbon emissions increase from economic growth : An economic analysis and policy implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, ZX

    As the world's second largest carbon emitter, China has long been criticized as a "free-rider" benefiting from other countries' efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions but not taking responsibility for its own emissions. China has been singled out as one of the major targets at the subsequent

  6. An Indicator Approach to Assessing Benefits of Carbon Sequestration and Other Ecosystem Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, V. H.; Kline, K. L.; Parish, E. S.

    2017-12-01

    While geoengineering offers one approach to carbon management, another tactic is providing land owners and managers with incentives to more efficiently and consistently increase carbon stocks and storage in soils and above ground. Growing bioenergy crops entails such an option. Landscape design can help identify where different strategies best fit into the larger framework of resource management to achieve desired stakeholder objectives. Our research goal is to develop means to assess management options and identify those that offer the highest degree of sustainability as measured by the provision to society of specific economic, environmental and social services with the least costs. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has worked with the US Department of Energy to develop an approach for assessing progress toward better management to improve sustainability. This approach involves six steps with decisions made at each step. First the scope of the assessment is established based on the particular context and options. Next indicators that pertain to the objective are selected and prioritized. Then, baselines and targets are determined for each indicator. Fourth, indicator values are measured, collected, and evaluated. Once the values are in hand, trends and tradeoffs in the indicator set are analyzed. The final step seeks to define and deploy good practices for the activity. ORNL's proposed checklist of environmental and socioeconomic indicators includes greenhouse gases and soil quality (including carbon) and emphasizes that changes in carbon stocks must be viewed in terms of their effects on other indicators, such as those for water quality and quantity, biodiversity, air quality, and productivity as well as on socioeconomic costs and benefits. The framework developed to select and evaluate indicators and assess progress toward sustainability goals is being encapsulated into a visualization tool. Visualization will inform stakeholders about potential effects of

  7. Panorama 2018 - Overview of economic carbon pricing tools worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coussy, Paula

    2018-01-01

    The Paris Agreement signed at COP21 came into effect in November 2016. This agreement aims to hold the increase in global average temperature to below 2 deg. C and pursue efforts to limit the rise to 1.5 deg. C by 2100. Governments and local jurisdictions must now implement an economic and regulatory framework to encourage greenhouse gas reductions. One of the economic tools available is carbon pricing. It varies greatly in form and value at international level and is deployed in all sectors of the economy. (author)

  8. Panorama 2017 - Overview of economic carbon pricing tools worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coussy, Paula

    2017-06-01

    The Paris Agreement signed at COP21 came into effect in November 2016. This agreement aims to hold the increase in global average temperature to below 2 deg. C and pursue efforts to limit the rise to 1.5 deg. C by 2100. Governments and local jurisdictions must now implement an economic and regulatory framework to encourage greenhouse gas reductions. One of the economic tools available is carbon pricing. It varies greatly in form and value at international level and is deployed in all sectors of the economy

  9. Social incidence and economic costs of carbon limits; A computable general equilibrium analysis for Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephan, G.; Van Nieuwkoop, R.; Wiedmer, T. (Institute for Applied Microeconomics, Univ. of Bern (Switzerland))

    1992-01-01

    Both distributional and allocational effects of limiting carbon dioxide emissions in a small and open economy are discussed. It starts from the assumption that Switzerland attempts to stabilize its greenhouse gas emissions over the next 25 years, and evaluates costs and benefits of the respective reduction programme. From a methodological viewpoint, it is illustrated how a computable general equilibrium approach can be adopted for identifying economic effects of cutting greenhouse gas emissions on the national level. From a political economy point of view it considers the social incidence of a greenhouse policy. It shows in particular that public acceptance can be increased and economic costs of greenhouse policies can be reduced, if carbon taxes are accompanied by revenue redistribution. 8 tabs., 1 app., 17 refs.

  10. The benefits of improved technologies in agricultural aviation. [economic impact and aircraft configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The economic benefits attributable to a variety of potential technological improvements in agricultural aviation are discussed. Topics covered include: the ag-air industry, the data base used to estimate the potential benefits and a summary of the potential benefits from technological improvements; ag-air activities in the United States; foreign ag-air activities; major ag-air aircraft is use and manufacturers' sales and distribution networks; and estimates of the benefits to the United States of proposed technological improvements to the aircraft and dispersal equipment. A bibliography of references is appended.

  11. The economic benefit of treating subclinical Streptococcus agalactiae mastitis in lactating cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagata, M; Goodger, W J; Weaver, L; Franti, C

    1987-12-15

    The economic benefits of treating lactating cows for Streptococcus agalactiae mastitis were studied at a large (689 milking cows) central California dairy. Postcure milk production of case cows (infected, treated, and cured) was compared with production of paired control cows (uninfected) and was matched for yield, days in milk, days in gestation, and parity. A simulation was used to plot expected lactation curves for mastitic cows (infected, not treated) with characteristics similar to those of each control cow, and these curves were compared with actual case-cow lactation curves. The difference in actual and expected production was used to calculate net economic benefits of treatment. Comparison of expected with actual production indicated a net benefit from treatment of $396/cow for cows treated in early lactation and $237 for cows treated in midlactation, but a net loss of $55 for cows treated in late lactation. Lactation number did not have a significant impact on economic benefits of treatment. In contrast to other studies indicating no economic benefit from treating mastitis during lactation, this study's positive results may have been attributable to the high cure rate (98%) and the subclinical form of mastitis being treated. Streptococcus agalactiae mastitis treatment during early and midlactation would appear to be an economically justifiable option for dairy managers.

  12. Economic valuation of environmental benefits from wastewater treatment processes: an empirical approach for Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Sancho, Francesc; Molinos-Senante, María; Sala-Garrido, Ramón

    2010-01-15

    Economic research into the design and implementation of policies for the efficient management of water resources has been emphasized by the European Water Framework Directive (Directive 2000/60/EC). The efficient implementation of policies to prevent the degradation and depletion of water resources requires determining their value in social and economic terms and incorporating this information into the decision-making process. A process of wastewater treatment has many associated environmental benefits. However, these benefits are often not calculated because they are not set by the market, due to inadequate property rights, the presence of externalities, and the lack of perfect information. Nevertheless, the valuation of these benefits is necessary to justify a suitable investment policy and a limited number of studies exist on the subject of the economic valuation of environmental benefits. In this paper, we propose a methodology based on the estimation of shadow prices for the pollutants removed in a treatment process. This value represents the environmental benefit (avoided cost) associated with undischarged pollution. This is a pioneering approach to the economic valuation of wastewater treatment. The comparison of these benefits with the internal costs of the treatment process will provide a useful indicator for the feasibility of wastewater treatment projects. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Low carbon national strategy. A macro-economical assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baiz, Adam; Monnoyer-Smith, Laurence; Callonnec, Gael

    2016-11-01

    This publication briefly reports the use of the Three-ME model (Multi-sector Macroeconomic Model for the Evaluation of Environmental and Energy) to assess the combined effect of the several instruments mobilised for the transition towards a low carbon economy within the French National Low Carbon Strategy (SNBC). It first presents the Three-ME model which has been developed since 2008 by the OFCE and the Ademe, is a neo-Keynesian and hybrid model, and which comprises 14.000 equations and 70.000 parameters dealing with prices, interest rates, investments, salaries, foreign trade, State policy, a production function, and a consumption function. Some characteristics of the SNBC scenario are indicated, as well as those of a reference trend-based scenario. Obtained results are then briefly commented in terms of positive ecological and economic impacts of a carbon tax and of sector-based measures defined within the SNBC

  14. Carbon benefits from protected areas in the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daolan Zheng; Linda S. Heath; Mark J. Ducey

    2013-01-01

    Conversion of forests to other land cover or land use releases the carbon stored in the forests and reduces carbon sequestration potential of the land. The rate of forest conversion could be reduced by establishing protected areas for biological diversity and other conservation goals. The purpose of this study is to quantify the efficiency and potential of forest land...

  15. How can ASEAN and Japan mutually benefit from ASEAN economic integration?

    OpenAIRE

    Sato, Hitoshi

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the evolution of the economic and political relationship between the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Member States and Japan since the 1970s, from the perspectives of trade in goods and services, foreign direct investment (FDI) and international labour movements. ASEAN economic integration is likely to yield mutual benefits for both ASEAN Member States and Japan. The larger ASEAN market will not only attract new Japanese FDI but also encourage Japanese multin...

  16. On the economic benefit of utility based estimation of a volatility model

    OpenAIRE

    Adam Clements; Annastiina Silvennoinen

    2009-01-01

    Forecasts of asset return volatility are necessary for many financial applications, including portfolio allocation. Traditionally, the parameters of econometric models used to generate volatility forecasts are estimated in a statistical setting and subsequently used in an economic setting such as portfolio allocation. Differences in the criteria under which the model is estimated and applied may inhibit reduce the overall economic benefit of a model in the context of portfolio allocation. Thi...

  17. Economic impact analysis for global warming: Sensitivity analysis for cost and benefit estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ierland, E.C. van; Derksen, L.

    1994-01-01

    Proper policies for the prevention or mitigation of the effects of global warming require profound analysis of the costs and benefits of alternative policy strategies. Given the uncertainty about the scientific aspects of the process of global warming, in this paper a sensitivity analysis for the impact of various estimates of costs and benefits of greenhouse gas reduction strategies is carried out to analyze the potential social and economic impacts of climate change

  18. Carbon emissions and the economic costs of transport policy in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, G.W.; Kristroem, B.

    1997-01-01

    Our most important conclusion is that unilateral increases in carbon, diesel and petrol taxes do not appear to generate emission reductions that are sufficient to justify the cost they impose on the consumers. Using twice the economic gross benefit estimated by IPCC WG3 per ton of CO2 avoided, the benefit is of the order of one percent of the costs for individuals or households for carbon, diesel or petrol taxes. The model we use is incomplete in a number of important parameters. Specifically, we need to (1) add better data on the differences in factor endowments of households, to better reflect differences in the income sources; (2) incorporate data-based estimates of leisure consumption in the benchmark, as well as labor supply elasticities for different household types; and (3) employ data-based estimates of differences in carbon emissions in foreign countries relative to Sweden. The model may also be incomplete in terms of it's treatment of the economic structure of some sectors. 38 refs., 13 tabs

  19. Carbon emissions and the economic costs of transport policy in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, G.W. [South Carolina Univ., Columbia, SC (United States). Dept. of Economics, College of Business Administration; Kristroem, B. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Umeaa (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Economics

    1997-09-01

    Our most important conclusion is that unilateral increases in carbon, diesel and petrol taxes do not appear to generate emission reductions that are sufficient to justify the cost they impose on the consumers. Using twice the economic gross benefit estimated by IPCC WG3 per ton of CO2 avoided, the benefit is of the order of one percent of the costs for individuals or households for carbon, diesel or petrol taxes. The model we use is incomplete in a number of important parameters. Specifically, we need to (1) add better data on the differences in factor endowments of households, to better reflect differences in the income sources; (2) incorporate data-based estimates of leisure consumption in the benchmark, as well as labor supply elasticities for different household types; and (3) employ data-based estimates of differences in carbon emissions in foreign countries relative to Sweden. The model may also be incomplete in terms of it`s treatment of the economic structure of some sectors. 38 refs., 13 tabs.

  20. An economic evaluation of carbon emission and carbon sequestration for the forestry sector in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, R.

    1995-01-01

    Forestry is an important sector in Malaysia. The long term development of the forestry sector will definitely affect the future amounts of carbon sequestration and emission of the country. This paper evaluates various forestry economic options that contribute to the reduction of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. The analysis shows that, although forest plantation could sequester the highest amount of carbon per unit area, natural forests which are managed for sustainable timber production are the cheapest option for per-unit area carbon sequestrated. In evaluating forest options to address the issues of carbon sequestration and emission, the paper proposes that it should be assessed as an integral part of overall long term forestry development of the country which takes into account the future demands for forestry goods and services, financial resources, technology and human resource development. (Author)

  1. Benefits of carbon markets to small and medium enterprises (SMEs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    furniture can store carbon for more than 100 years. (Haripriya Gundimeda .... centre of wholesale and retail trade, particularly in grain, timber and textiles. The description of ... local wood carving cottage industry and other demands. There are ...

  2. The Estimated Health and Economic Benefits of Three Decades of Polio Elimination Efforts in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, Arindam; Barter, Devra M; Prinja, Shankar; John, T Jacob

    2016-08-07

    In March 2014, India, the country with historically the highest burden of polio, was declared polio free, with no reported cases since January 2011. We estimate the health and economic benefits of polio elimination in India with the oral polio vaccine (OPV) during 1982-2012. Based on a pre-vaccine incidence rate, we estimate the counterfactual burden of polio in the hypothetical absence of the national polio elimination program in India. We attribute differences in outcomes between the actual (adjusted for under-reporting) and hypothetical counterfactual scenarios in our model to the national polio program. We measure health benefits as averted polio incidence, deaths, and disability adjusted life years (DALYs). We consider two methods to measure economic benefits: the value of statistical life approach, and equating one DALY to the Gross National Income (GNI) per capita. We estimate that the National Program against Polio averted 3.94 million (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.89-3.99 million) paralytic polio cases, 393,918 polio deaths (95% CI: 388,897- 398,939), and 1.48 billion DALYs (95% CI: 1.46-1.50 billion). We also estimate that the program contributed to a $1.71 trillion (INR 76.91 trillion) gain (95% CI: $1.69-$1.73 trillion [INR 75.93-77.89 trillion]) in economic productivity between 1982 and 2012 in our base case analysis. Using the GNI and DALY method, the economic gain from the program is estimated to be $1.11 trillion (INR 50.13 trillion) (95% CI: $1.10-$1.13 trillion [INR 49.50-50.76 trillion]) over the same period. India accrued large health and economic benefits from investing in polio elimination efforts. Other programs to control/eliminate more vaccine-preventable diseases are likely to contribute to large health and economic benefits in India.

  3. Integrating socio-economical dimensions in the ICRP cost-benefit model (a theoretical approach)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lochard, Jacques.

    1981-09-01

    This report aims at analysing, from a methodological point of view, the main problems associated with the integration of socio-economical dimensions in the cost-benefit model recommended by the ICRP in its publication no. 26. After recalling the basic principles of cost-benefit analysis, the elements to be retained in the objective function characterizing the analysis, and the question of the social benefit definitions are discussed. The theory of social surplus with an illustration taken from the radiological protection field is presented [fr

  4. Reducing nitrogen leaching from fertilizers to surface waters: catchment specific indicators of economic benefits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou; Levin, Gregor; Odgaard, Mette Vestergaard

    2018-01-01

    We explore with impact pathway methodology the economic benefits of reducing nitrogen leaching to transitional surface waters, as expected for a proportionality test under the EU’s Water Framework Directive article 4. Ten different catchments is analyzed for a policy scenario where downstream dis...

  5. Who Benefits Most from College? Evidence for Negative Selection in Heterogeneous Economic Returns to Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Jennie E.; Yu Xie,

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we consider how the economic return to a college education varies across members of the U.S. population. Based on principles of comparative advantage, scholars commonly presume that positive selection is at work, that is, individuals who are most likely to select into college also benefit most from college. Net of observed…

  6. An economic benefit analysis on the cobalt-60 irradiation facility of Beijing Radiation Research Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Binlin

    1995-01-01

    The peculiarity, the investment and annual operating cost of the 3.7 x 10 16 Bq (MCi) cobalt-60 irradiation facility at Beijing Radiation Application Research Centre are described. Its economic benefits each year are analyzed according to several year operating practice. Some related questions on carrying out radiation processing are raised and discussed. (author)

  7. Informal waste harvesting in Victoria Falls town, Zimbabwe: Socio-economic benefits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masocha, M.

    2006-01-01

    Waste harvesting, which occurs mostly but not exclusively at open waste dumps in Zimbabwe, constitutes one of the most important survival options for the urban poor. This paper analyses and discusses socio-economic benefits of informal waste harvesters in Victoria Falls town. Victoria Falls town has

  8. Economic benefits comparison of two pig breeding cycle modes -- Taking Liaoning Province as an example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yunan; Wang, Hui; Ma, Yu

    2018-01-01

    Pig breeding pollution has become one of the important sources of environmental pollution, and the circular economy has provided an effective way to alleviate the pollution of pig breeding. In this paper, the “Three-in-one” and “Four-in-one” mode of circular economy with methane as link were constructed, and taking Liaoning Province as the research area, the economic benefits of different pig breeding modes were compared and analyzed. The results show that: (1) The modes of circular economy use the pig manure waste as raw materials through the digesters, solar greenhouse to generate new resources, compared with the traditional farming methods, created considerable economic benefits and also alleviated the pressure of pollution, is an effective way to control the pollution of pig breeding. (2) The economic benefit of the “Four-in-one” mode in Liaoning was much higher than the “Three-in-one” mode. The economic benefits of biogas digesters were higher than the “Three-in-one” mode of 125 million yuan, while the solar greenhouse would introduce the planting industry into the recycling chain, with a net profit of about 38.64*108 yuan.

  9. Economic rate of discount and estimating cost benefit of viral immunisation programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, R R

    1999-01-01

    Many individual and societal decisions over purchase (or investment) involve consideration of timing, in that either the price may be paid now and the benefit enjoyed some time in the future or the converse the benefit enjoyed now and the price paid later. Since most individuals generally prefer the present to the future, economic theory has conventionally discounted future costs or benefits to estimate 'net present values'. The rationale for this is principally based on future uncertainty. In recent years, economists have turned their attention to valuing health as an economic 'good'. Observations of individual behaviour would imply that individuals discount future health, as other potential benefits, mostly because there is some uncertainty about their futures. Although economic theory is strongly predicated on the 'sovereignty of the individual', it does not necessarily follow that society discounts the future as do individuals, since for society the future is not so uncertain. Society's endorsement of many public health and preventive medicine objectives, which seek health gains in the future (rather than the present), imply that society's rate of discount may be appreciably lower than that of individuals. In immunisation, arguably one of the most effective of preventive measures, there is the additional benefit to others attributable to herd immunity. This paper argues that the future health gains for society arising from immunisation should not be underestimated by application of inappropriate discounting.

  10. Economical and ecological comparison of granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorber refill strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Peter; Heuer, Edda; Karl, Ute; Finkel, Michael

    2005-05-01

    Technical constraints can leave a considerable freedom in the design of a technology, production or service strategy. Choosing between economical or ecological decision criteria then characteristically leads to controversial solutions of ideal systems. For the adaptation of granular-activated carbon (GAC) fixed beds, various technical factors determine the adsorber volume required to achieve a desired service life. In considering carbon replacement and recycling, a variety of refill strategies are available that differ in terms of refill interval, respective adsorber volume, and time-dependent use of virgin, as well as recycled GAC. Focusing on the treatment of contaminant groundwater, we compare cost-optimal reactor configurations and refill strategies to the ecologically best alternatives. Costs and consumption of GAC are quantified within a technical-economical framework. The emissions from GAC production out of hard coal, transport and recycling are equally derived through a life cycle impact assessment. It is shown how high discount rates lead to a preference of small fixed-bed volumes, and accordingly, a high number of refills. For fixed discount rates, the investigation reveals that both the economical as well as ecological assessment of refill strategies are especially sensitive to the relative valuation of virgin and recycled GAC. Since recycling results in economic and ecological benefits, optimized systems thus may differ only slightly.

  11. Big Numbers about Small Children: Estimating the Economic Benefits of Addressing Undernutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderman, Harold; Behrman, Jere R; Puett, Chloe

    2017-02-01

    Different approaches have been used to estimate the economic benefits of reducing undernutrition and to estimate the costs of investing in such programs on a global scale. While many of these studies are ultimately based on evidence from well-designed efficacy trials, all require a number of assumptions to project the impact of such trials to larger populations and to translate the value of the expected improvement in nutritional status into economic terms. This paper provides a short critique of some approaches to estimating the benefits of investments in child nutrition and then presents an alternative set of estimates based on different core data. These new estimates reinforce the basic conclusions of the existing literature: the economic value from reducing undernutrition in undernourished populations is likely to be substantial.

  12. Socio-Economic Benefits of Bamboo-Craft Entrepreneurship: The Case of Rinconada Bamboo Entrepreneurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth B. Barandon

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available –Bamboo entrepreneurship is one of the key instruments in uplifting the socio-economic status of the poor and under privileged people in Rinconada area. This study evaluated the socioeconomic benefits of bamboo craft making on the entrepreneurs of the district. Using descriptive-survey, data were obtained from 60 purposely chosen bamboo entrepreneurs from a list given by the Department of Trade of Industry. A 12-item researcher-made questionnaire was the main gathering tool supported by interview and observation. Results revealed that the social benefits derived by the bamboo entrepreneurs can able to communicate to more networks, adequate support to education of children is being provided, and television sets, while economic benefits is having their own house with sanitation. The bamboo entrepreneurs can satisfy the hierarchy of needs for shelter, security and social communication.

  13. Theoretical and methodological aspects of assessing economic effectiveness of nuclear power plant construction using cost-benefit analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moravcik, A.

    1984-01-01

    The cost benefit of investments is devided into social and economic benefits. The postulates are discussed for the assessment of the cost benefit of capital costs of nuclear power plants. The relations are given for total cost benefit of capital costs expressed by the total profit rate of capital costs, and the absolute effectiveness exoressed by the socio-economic benefit of capital costs. The absolute cost benefit of capital costs is characterized by several complex indexes. Comparable capital cost benefit is used for assessing the effectiveness of interchangeable variants of solution. The minimum calculated costs serve as the criterion for selecting the optimal variant. (E.S.)

  14. Economic benefits of less restrictive regulation of advanced practice nurses in North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conover, Chris; Richards, Robert

    2015-01-01

    With looming provider shortages and increased demand for health care, many states are looking for low-cost ways to alleviate the shortages. The purpose of this study was to assess the economic impact of less restrictive regulations for advanced practice registered nurses (APRNs) in North Carolina. We use economic impact analysis to demonstrate the economic impacts of making state scope-of-practice regulations on APRNs less restrictive in North Carolina. Outcomes include economic output, value-added, payroll compensation, employment, and tax revenue for North Carolina and for various subregions. If North Carolina adopted the same approach to APRN regulation as the least restrictive states, its economy will benefit from substantial increases in economic output and employment. The state will also see increases in tax revenue. In addition to substantially shrinking the size of projected physician shortages, allowing full scope-of-practice for APRNs will bring significant economic benefits to the state of North Carolina. Our analysis should be helpful to policy makers considering ways to deal with provider shortages. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Carbon felt and carbon fiber - A techno-economic assessment of felt electrodes for redox flow battery applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minke, Christine; Kunz, Ulrich; Turek, Thomas

    2017-02-01

    Carbon felt electrodes belong to the key components of redox flow batteries. The purpose of this techno-economic assessment is to uncover the production costs of PAN- and rayon-based carbon felt electrodes. Raw material costs, energy demand and the impact of processability of fiber and felt are considered. This innovative, interdisciplinary approach combines deep insights into technical, ecologic and economic aspects of carbon felt and carbon fiber production. Main results of the calculation model are mass balances, cumulative energy demands (CED) and the production costs of conventional and biogenic carbon felts supplemented by market assessments considering textile and carbon fibers.

  16. Carbon dioxide utilization in a microalga-based biorefinery: Efficiency of carbon removal and economic performance under carbon taxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesberg, Igor Lapenda; Brigagão, George Victor; de Medeiros, José Luiz; de Queiroz Fernandes Araújo, Ofélia

    2017-12-01

    Coal-fired power plants are major stationary sources of carbon dioxide and environmental constraints demand technologies for abatement. Although Carbon Capture and Storage is the most mature route, it poses severe economic penalty to power generation. Alternatively, this penalty is potentially reduced by Carbon Capture and Utilization, which converts carbon dioxide to valuable products, monetizing it. This work evaluates a route consisting of carbon dioxide bio-capture by Chlorella pyrenoidosa and use of the resulting biomass as feedstock to a microalgae-based biorefinery; Carbon Capture and Storage route is evaluated as a reference technology. The integrated arrangement comprises: (a) carbon dioxide biocapture in a photobioreactor, (b) oil extraction from part of the produced biomass, (b) gasification of remaining biomass to obtain bio-syngas, and (c) conversion of bio-syngas to methanol. Calculation of capital and operational expenditures are estimated based on mass and energy balances obtained by process simulation for both routes (Carbon Capture and Storage and the biorefinery). Capital expenditure for the biorefinery is higher by a factor of 6.7, while operational expenditure is lower by a factor of 0.45 and revenues occur only for this route, with a ratio revenue/operational expenditure of 1.6. The photobioreactor is responsible for one fifth of the biorefinery capital expenditure, with footprint of about 1000 ha, posing the most significant barrier for technical and economic feasibility of the proposed biorefinery. The Biorefinery and Carbon Capture and Storage routes show carbon dioxide capture efficiency of 73% and 48%, respectively, with capture cost of 139$/t and 304$/t. Additionally, the biorefinery has superior performance in all evaluated metrics of environmental impacts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. An annotated bibliography of scientific literature on managing forests for carbon benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah J. Hines; Linda S. Heath; Richard A. Birdsey

    2010-01-01

    Managing forests for carbon benefits is a consideration for climate change, bioenergy, sustainability, and ecosystem services. A rapidly growing body of scientific literature on forest carbon management includes experimental, modeling, and synthesis approaches, at the stand- to landscape- to continental-level. We conducted a search of the scientific literature on the...

  18. Economic assessment of single-walled carbon nanotube processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacs, J. A.; Tanwani, A.; Healy, M. L.; Dahlben, L. J.

    2010-02-01

    The carbon nanotube market is steadily growing and projected to reach 1.9 billion by 2010. This study examines the economics of manufacturing single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) using process-based cost models developed for arc, CVD, and HiPco processes. Using assumed input parameters, manufacturing costs are calculated for 1 g SWNT for arc, CVD, and HiPco, totaling 1,906, 1,706, and 485, respectively. For each SWNT process, the synthesis and filtration steps showed the highest costs, with direct labor as a primary cost driver. Reductions in production costs are calculated for increased working hours per day and for increased synthesis reaction yield (SRY) in each process. The process-based cost models offer a means for exploring opportunities for cost reductions, and provide a structured system for comparisons among alternative SWNT manufacturing processes. Further, the models can be used to comprehensively evaluate additional scenarios on the economics of environmental, health, and safety best manufacturing practices.

  19. Economic assessment of single-walled carbon nanotube processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaacs, J. A., E-mail: jaisaacs@coe.neu.ed [Northeastern University, NSF Center for High-rate Nanomanufacturing (United States); Tanwani, A. [Infojini Solutions Inc. (United States); Healy, M. L. [Babcock Power Inc. (United States); Dahlben, L. J. [Northeastern University, NSF Center for High-rate Nanomanufacturing (United States)

    2010-02-15

    The carbon nanotube market is steadily growing and projected to reach $1.9 billion by 2010. This study examines the economics of manufacturing single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) using process-based cost models developed for arc, CVD, and HiPco processes. Using assumed input parameters, manufacturing costs are calculated for 1 g SWNT for arc, CVD, and HiPco, totaling $1,906, $1,706, and $485, respectively. For each SWNT process, the synthesis and filtration steps showed the highest costs, with direct labor as a primary cost driver. Reductions in production costs are calculated for increased working hours per day and for increased synthesis reaction yield (SRY) in each process. The process-based cost models offer a means for exploring opportunities for cost reductions, and provide a structured system for comparisons among alternative SWNT manufacturing processes. Further, the models can be used to comprehensively evaluate additional scenarios on the economics of environmental, health, and safety best manufacturing practices.

  20. Energy and women's economic empowerment: Rethinking the benefits of improved cookstove use in rural India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaward, James Nicholas

    International development organizations have recently ramped up efforts to promote the use of improved cookstoves (ICS) in developing countries, aiming to reduce the harmful environmental and public health impacts of the burning of biomass for cooking and heating. I hypothesize that ICS use also has additional benefits---economic and social benefits---that can contribute to women's economic empowerment in the developing world. To explore the relationship between ICS use and women's economic empowerment, I use Ordinary Least Squares and Logit models based on data from the India Human Development Survey (IHDS) to analyze differences between women living in households that use ICS and those living in homes that use traditional cookstoves. My regression results reveal that ICS use has a statistically significant and negative effect on the amount of time women and girls spend on fuel collection and a statistically significant and positive effect on the likelihood of women's participation in side businesses, but does not have a statistically significant effect on the likelihood of lost productivity. My analysis shows promise that in addition to health and environmental benefits, fuel-efficient cooking technologies can also have social and economic impacts that are especially beneficial to women. It is my hope that the analysis provided in this paper will be used to further the dialogue about the importance of women's access to modern energy services in the fight to improve women's living standards in the developing world.

  1. The economic benefits of vegetation in the upstream area of Ciliwung watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saridewi, T. R.; Nazaruddin

    2018-04-01

    Ciliwung watershed has strategic values since its entire downstream area is located in the Special Administrative Region of Jakarta (DKI Jakarta), the capital of Indonesia. This causes forest and farmland areas are converted into open areas or built-up areas. The existence of these areas provides enormous environmental and economic benefits. Economic benefit values are very important to be considered in developing a policy development plan, but they have not been calculated yet. This study aims to determine the economic benefits provided by trees and other vegetation anddevelops a development policy that takes into account simultaneously ecological and economic aspects. The study is conducted in the upstream Ciliwung watershed, by using land cover patterns in 1989, 2000, 2010 and 2014, and employs GIS and CITY green analysis. The results show that conversion of forest and farmland areas reduces the ability of Ciliwung upstream watershed to store water. Therefore, its ability to reduce the flow of surface has been decreased. This creates a decrease in the cost savings of annual stormwater, from US 15,175,721 in 1989 to US 13,317,469 in 2014. The Environmental Services Payment Policy (PES) for upstream community groups managing the watershed has been considered as a fairly effective policy.

  2. Counting the cost: estimating the economic benefit of pedophile treatment programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanahan, M; Donato, R

    2001-04-01

    The principal objective of this paper is to identify the economic costs and benefits of pedophile treatment programs incorporating both the tangible and intangible cost of sexual abuse to victims. Cost estimates of cognitive behavioral therapy programs in Australian prisons are compared against the tangible and intangible costs to victims of being sexually abused. Estimates are prepared that take into account a number of problematic issues. These include the range of possible recidivism rates for treatment programs; the uncertainty surrounding the number of child sexual molestation offences committed by recidivists; and the methodological problems associated with estimating the intangible costs of sexual abuse on victims. Despite the variation in parameter estimates that impact on the cost-benefit analysis of pedophile treatment programs, it is found that potential range of economic costs from child sexual abuse are substantial and the economic benefits to be derived from appropriate and effective treatment programs are high. Based on a reasonable set of parameter estimates, in-prison, cognitive therapy treatment programs for pedophiles are likely to be of net benefit to society. Despite this, a critical area of future research must include further methodological developments in estimating the quantitative impact of child sexual abuse in the community.

  3. SEASAT economic assessment. Volume 1: Summary and conclusions. [management analysis of the economic benefits of the SEASAT program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    A summary is presented of the economic benefits that can be derived from using the SEASAT Satellite System. A statement of the major findings of case studies of the practical applications of the SEASAT program to the following areas is given: (1) offshore oil and natural gas industry, (2) ocean mining, (3) coastal zones, (4) oil exploration in Arctic regions, (5) ocean fishing, and (6) ports and harbors. Also given is a description of the SEASAT System and its performance. A computer program, used to optimize SEASAT System's costs and operational requirements, is also considered.

  4. Potential to sequester carbon in Canadian forests: Some economic considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kooten, G.C. van; Arthur, L.M.; Wilson, W.R.

    1992-01-01

    The potential role of reforestation policies in reducing Canada's contribution to atmospheric CO 2 is examined. The results indicate sequestering carbon by reforestation of forest lands may be a cost-effective means for Canada to offset domestic emissions of CO 2 from other sources, and that planting forests on marginal agricultural lands also warrants consideration. But these policies need to be compared with alternatives for reducing CO 2 emissions to determine their relative cost-effectiveness. It is found that reforestation is more costly than policies to increase the fuel efficiency of automobiles, but economically more efficient than converting vehicles to natural gas. Forestation can make an important contribution to reduced atmospheric accumulation of carbon after the more cost-effective strategy, replacing less fuel-efficient automobiles, is exhausted (i.e. when the marginal costs of automobile emissions increase beyond those of forestation alternatives). Finally, it is demonstrated that, because of its vast forests, Canada is a net carbon sink. 26 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs

  5. Current Global Pricing For Human Papillomavirus Vaccines Brings The Greatest Economic Benefits To Rich Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlihy, Niamh; Hutubessy, Raymond; Jit, Mark

    2016-02-01

    Vaccinating females against human papillomavirus (HPV) prior to the debut of sexual activity is an effective way to prevent cervical cancer, yet vaccine uptake in low- and middle-income countries has been hindered by high vaccine prices. We created an economic model to estimate the distribution of the economic surplus-the sum of all health and economic benefits of a vaccine, minus the costs of development, production, and distribution-among different country income groups and manufacturers for a cohort of twelve-year-old females in 2012. We found that manufacturers may have received economic returns worth five times their original investment in HPV vaccine development. High-income countries gained the greatest economic surplus of any income category, realizing over five times more economic value per vaccinated female than low-income countries did. Subsidizing vaccine prices in low- and middle-income countries could both reduce financial barriers to vaccine adoption and still allow high-income countries to retain their economic surpluses and manufacturers to retain their profits. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  6. Economic benefits of methylmercury exposure control in Europe: Monetary value of neurotoxicity prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellanger, Martine; Pichery, Céline; Aerts, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Due to global mercury pollution and the adverse health effects of prenatal exposure to methylmercury (MeHg), an assessment of the economic benefits of prevented developmental neurotoxicity is necessary for any cost-benefit analysis. METHODS: Distributions of hair-Hg concentrations among...... with a slope of 0.465 Intelligence Quotient (IQ) point reduction per μg/g increase in the maternal hair-Hg concentration during pregnancy, assuming no deficits below a hair-Hg limit of 0.58 μg/g thought to be safe. A logarithmic IQ response was used in sensitivity analyses. The estimated IQ benefit cost.......58 μg/g, and about 200,000 births exceed a higher limit of 2.5 μg/g proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO). The total annual benefits of exposure prevention within the EU were estimated at more than 600,000 IQ points per year, corresponding to a total economic benefit between €8,000 million...

  7. Trade-offs and synergies between carbon storage and livelihood benefits from forest commons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhatre, Ashwini; Agrawal, Arun

    2009-10-20

    Forests provide multiple benefits at local to global scales. These include the global public good of carbon sequestration and local and national level contributions to livelihoods for more than half a billion users. Forest commons are a particularly important class of forests generating these multiple benefits. Institutional arrangements to govern forest commons are believed to substantially influence carbon storage and livelihood contributions, especially when they incorporate local knowledge and decentralized decision making. However, hypothesized relationships between institutional factors and multiple benefits have never been tested on data from multiple countries. By using original data on 80 forest commons in 10 countries across Asia, Africa, and Latin America, we show that larger forest size and greater rule-making autonomy at the local level are associated with high carbon storage and livelihood benefits; differences in ownership of forest commons are associated with trade-offs between livelihood benefits and carbon storage. We argue that local communities restrict their consumption of forest products when they own forest commons, thereby increasing carbon storage. In showing rule-making autonomy and ownership as distinct and important institutional influences on forest outcomes, our results are directly relevant to international climate change mitigation initiatives such as Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD) and avoided deforestation. Transfer of ownership over larger forest commons patches to local communities, coupled with payments for improved carbon storage can contribute to climate change mitigation without adversely affecting local livelihoods.

  8. Economic benefits of broadened local area networks for electric power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, T.

    1988-01-01

    The paper discusses economic benefits which influenced the choice of a broadband local area network for a power plant instead of an alternative multi-cable communication network. Broadband communication networks can offer significant economies over alternative technologies. One-time, cost avoidance savings and recurring annual savings are estimated to total $5.1 million in the first year. The cost/benefit analysis presented here can be used as a guide by other utilities to analyze communication networking alternatives. The paper also includes a discussion of local area network attributes relevant to the power plant installation

  9. Efficiency and economic benefits of skipjack pole and line (huhate) in central Moluccas, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siahainenia, Stevanus M.; Hiariey, Johanis; Baskoro, Mulyono S.; Waeleruny, Wellem

    2017-10-01

    Excess fishing capacity is a crucial problem in marine capture fisheries. This phenomenon needed to be investigated regarding sustainability and development of the fishery. This research was aimed at analyzing technical efficiency (TE) and computing financial aspects of the skipjack pole and line. Primary data were collected from the owners of the fishing units at the different size of gross boat tonnage (GT), while secondary data were gathered from official publications relating to this research. Data envelopment analysis (DEA) approach was applied to estimate technical efficiency whereas a selected financial analysis was utilized to calculate economic benefits of the skipjack pole and line business. The fishing units with a size of 26-30 GT provided a higher TE value, and also achieved larger economic benefit values than that of the other fishing units. The empirical results indicate that skipjack pole and line in the size of 26-30 GT is a good fishing gear for the business development in central Moluccas.

  10. Environmental-economic benefits and trade-offs on sustainably certified coffee farms

    OpenAIRE

    Haggar, Jeremy; Soto, Gabriela; Casanoves, Fernando; de Melo Virginio, Elias

    2017-01-01

    Coffee with diverse shade trees is recognized as conserving greater biodiversity than more intensive production methods. Sustainable certification has been proposed as an incentive to conserve shade grown coffee. With 40% of global coffee production certified as sustainable, evidence is needed to demonstrate whether certification supports the environmental benefits of shade coffee. Environmen-tal and economic data were taken from 278 coffee farms in Nicaragua divided between non-certified and...

  11. MODELING ECONOMIC AND ECOLOGICAL BENEFITS OF POST-FIRE REVEGETATION IN THE GREAT BASIN

    OpenAIRE

    Niell, Rebecca; Englin, Jeffrey E.; Nalle, Darek

    2004-01-01

    This study employs a Markov chain model of vegetation dynamics to examine the economic and ecological benefits of post-fire revegetation in the Great Basin sagebrush steppe. The analysis is important because synergies between wildland fire and invasive weeds in this ecosystem are likely to result in the loss of native biodiversity, less predictable forage availability for livestock and wildlife, reduced watershed stability and water quality, and increased costs and risk associated with firefi...

  12. The recent and projected public health and economic benefits of cigarette taxation in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpert, Hillel R; Vardavas, Constantine I; Chaloupka, Frank J; Vozikis, Athanassios; Athanasakis, Konstantinos; Kyriopoulos, Ioannis; Bertic, Monique; Behrakis, Panagiotis K; Connolly, Gregory N

    2014-09-01

    Greece is in an economic crisis compounded by the costs caused by smoking. The present investigation estimates the economic and public health benefits ensuing from the recent cigarette excise tax increase in 2011 and projects the potential benefits from an additional €2.00 per pack cigarette tax increase. The effects of the recent cigarette excise tax increase were calculated on outcome measures: total price per pack, including specific excise, ad valorem tax, and value-added tax consumption; tax revenue; and per capita consumption of cigarettes. Additionally, smoking-attributable mortality, years of potential life lost, and productivity losses were estimated. Projected effects of an additional €2.00 per pack tax increase on consumption and tax revenue were also assessed. The cigarette excise tax increase in 2011 created €558 million in new tax revenue. Cigarette consumption reached a recent low of 24.9 billion sticks sold or 2197 sticks per person in 2011, indicating a 16% decrease in per capita cigarette consumption from the previous year. An additional €2.00 per pack increase in Greek cigarette taxes is projected to result in reduced cigarette sales by an additional 20% and lead to an increase in total cigarette tax revenues by nearly €1.2 billion and the prevention of 192,000 premature deaths. Nations such as Greece, should employ taxation as a crucial measure to promote public health and economic development in such dire times. International economic organisations should aggressively pursue programmes and policies that champion the economic benefits of tobacco taxation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. The economic valuation on atmospheric improvement benefit by nuclear power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, S. J.; Yoo, S. H.; Han, S. Y.; Do, G. W.; Lee, J. S. [Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea)

    2000-12-01

    The major contents are as follows : To begin with, major air pollutants' emissions and emission reduction facilities in industrial sectors including a power generation were investigated and the future prospect was suggested. Environmental effects by attributes of air pollutions were summarized through a extensive literature survey. And the concept of benefit-cost based upon social costs and economic values of generation was established to estimate atmospheric improvement benefits by using a nuclear power. As a result of investigating many valuation methodologies that can estimate economic values of environmental improvement, we adopted MAUA(multi-attribute utility assessment) as a research method and estimated environmental costs by air pollutant and by power generating source. Also, we presented foreign case studies related to social costs in power generating sector and horizontally compared study's results home and abroad. Then, we set up four scenarios based on total generation that the 5th long-term power resources planning forecasted and calculated economic values of atmospheric improvement benefits among scenarios. Further, we suggested the results incorporating uncertainty of estimation parameters. Finally, we suggested a rational ground to move toward environment-friendly energy consumption and proposed a plan for the national energy policy against the green age in the 21th century. 147 refs., 45 figs., 103 tabs. (Author)

  14. Comprehensive evaluation of environmental and economic benefits of China's urban underground transportation construction projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaobin; Chen, Zhilong; Guo, Dongjun

    2015-07-01

    Urban underground transportation projects are introduced to address problems of scarce green land and traffic pollution. As construction of urban underground transportation is still in its infancy, there is no definite quantitative measurement on whether the construction is beneficial and what influences it will place on the region in China. This study intends to construct a comprehensive evaluation method for evaluating social, economic and environmental benefits of urban underground transportation projects and proposes the concept, role and principle for evaluation of environmental and economic benefits. It figures out relationship between the environment and factors of city development. It also summarizes three relevant factors, including transportation, biophysics and social economy, and works out indicators to evaluate the influence of urban underground transportation construction. Based on Contingent Valuation Method (CVM), Cost of Illness Approach (CIA), Human Capital Approach (HCA), this paper constructs 13 monetization calculation models for social, economic and environmental benefits in response to seven aspects, namely, reducing noise pollution and air pollution, using land efficiently, improving traffic safety, reducing traffic congestion, saving shipping time and minimizing transportation costs.

  15. The economic valuation on atmospheric improvement benefit by nuclear power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, S J; Yoo, S H; Han, S Y; Do, G W; Lee, J S [Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea)

    2000-12-01

    The major contents are as follows : To begin with, major air pollutants' emissions and emission reduction facilities in industrial sectors including a power generation were investigated and the future prospect was suggested. Environmental effects by attributes of air pollutions were summarized through a extensive literature survey. And the concept of benefit-cost based upon social costs and economic values of generation was established to estimate atmospheric improvement benefits by using a nuclear power. As a result of investigating many valuation methodologies that can estimate economic values of environmental improvement, we adopted MAUA(multi-attribute utility assessment) as a research method and estimated environmental costs by air pollutant and by power generating source. Also, we presented foreign case studies related to social costs in power generating sector and horizontally compared study's results home and abroad. Then, we set up four scenarios based on total generation that the 5th long-term power resources planning forecasted and calculated economic values of atmospheric improvement benefits among scenarios. Further, we suggested the results incorporating uncertainty of estimation parameters. Finally, we suggested a rational ground to move toward environment-friendly energy consumption and proposed a plan for the national energy policy against the green age in the 21th century. 147 refs., 45 figs., 103 tabs. (Author)

  16. Technical-Economic Evaluation of a Cogeneration Unit Considering Carbon Emission Savings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Christina Ferreira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The support of combined heat and power production systems has gained policy attention, because these are often considered to be less polluting and more efficient than conventional energy conversion systems. As a consequence, the potential market for these energy systems that contribute to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to enhance energy security on a national level, is shifting from large-scale existing units to small and micro-size emerging technologies. This paper presents a numerical model based on a cost-benefit analysis used to design an optimal cogeneration system for a small-scale building application, considering the Portuguese context and the comparison with the harmonized efficiency reference values for the separate production of electricity and useful heat. The model includes the identification of the objective function terms (i.e., the elements involved in the financial analysis across the system lifetime and the economic evaluation of costs and benefits of the combined heat and power production system. The economic viability of cogeneration systems significantly depends on system technology, client energy requirements and support schemes implemented in the respective countries. A strategic approach is necessary to adequately embed the new technology as a feasible solution in terms of investment and operational costs. Only by matching the energy supply to the needs and expectations of the energy users, it will be possible to improve the market competitiveness of these alternative power production plants. The optimal solution disclosed a positive annual worth, which is higher if the carbon emission savings are monetized. In addition, the optimal system represents a more efficient way to produce useful heat and electricity (i.e. a positive primary energy saving and to reduce gas emissions. A cost-benefit analysis can be applied for the techno-economic evaluation of a CHP system by assessing the monetary socio-environmental costs

  17. Environmental and economic benefits of the recovery of materials in a municipal solid waste management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Feo, Giovanni; Ferrara, Carmen; Finelli, Alessio; Grosso, Alberto

    2017-12-07

    The main aim of this study was to perform a Life cycle assessment study as well as an economic evaluation of the recovery of recyclable materials in a municipal solid waste management system. If citizens separate erroneously waste fractions, they produce both environmental and economic damages. The environmental and economic evaluation was performed for the case study of Nola (34.349 inhabitants) in Southern Italy, with a kerbside system that assured a source separation of 62% in 2014. The economic analysis provided a quantification of the economic benefits obtainable for the population in function of the achievable percentage of source separation. The comparison among the environmental performance of four considered scenarios showed that the higher the level of source separation was, the lower the overall impacts were. This occurred because, even if the impacts of the waste collection and transport increased, they were overcome by the avoided impacts of the recycling processes. Increasing the source separation by 1% could avoid the emission of 5 kg CO 2 eq. and 5 g PM10 for each single citizen. The economic and environmental indicators defined in this study provide simple and effective information useful for a wide-ranging audience in a behavioural change programme perspective.

  18. The potential economic and environmental impact of a Public Benefit Fund in Louisiana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, M.J.; Pulsipher, A.G.; Baumann, R.H.

    2004-01-01

    Public Benefit Fund programs are one approach to provide energy assistance to low-income households placed at risk in a competitive electric industry. The purpose of this paper is to assess the potential economic and environmental impact of a proposed Public Benefit Fund for the state of Louisiana. The 'best available' model to estimate the relationship between the cost of Public Benefit Fund programs and the benefits delivered by its implementation would be based on an evaluation of existent energy conservation and weatherization programs in the state, but unfortunately, such an evaluation has not been previously performed and so the 'next best' analytic model was employed. The impact of a Public Benefit Fund on energy savings and environmental consequences is assessed through a simulation model and input-output analysis. The model developed is based on publicly available data and infer results under a reasonable assumption set. The model structure and system assumptions of the Public Benefit Fund program are described, realistic policy alternatives are examined--including cost-ceiling, variable funding, and target group strategies--and the limitations of the analysis are outlined

  19. The potential economic and environmental impact of a Public Benefit Fund in Louisiana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, Mark J.; Pulsipher, Allan G.; Baumann, Robert H.

    2004-01-01

    Public Benefit Fund programs are one approach to provide energy assistance to low-income households placed at risk in a competitive electric industry. The purpose of this paper is to assess the potential economic and environmental impact of a proposed Public Benefit Fund for the state of Louisiana. The 'best available' model to estimate the relationship between the cost of Public Benefit Fund programs and the benefits delivered by its implementation would be based on an evaluation of existent energy conservation and weatherization programs in the state, but unfortunately, such an evaluation has not been previously performed and so the 'next best' analytic model was employed. The impact of a Public Benefit Fund on energy savings and environmental consequences is assessed through a simulation model and input-output analysis. The model developed is based on publicly available data and infer results under a reasonable assumption set. The model structure and system assumptions of the Public Benefit Fund program are described, realistic policy alternatives are examined, including cost-ceiling, variable funding, and target group strategies, and the limitations of the analysis are outlined. (Author)

  20. Economic consideration of nuclear safety and cost benefit analysis in nuclear safety regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Y. S.; Choi, K. S.; Choi, K. W.; Song, I. J.; Park, D. K.

    2001-01-01

    For the optimization of nuclear safety regulation, understanding of economic aspects of it becomes increasingly important together with the technical approach used so far to secure nuclear safety. Relevant economic theories on private and public goods were reviewed to re-illuminate nuclear safety from the economic perspective. The characteristics of nuclear safety as a public good was reviewed and discussed in comparison with the car safety as a private safety good. It was shown that the change of social welfare resulted from the policy change induced can be calculated by the summation of compensating variation(CV) of individuals. It was shown that the value of nuclear safety could be determined in monetary term by this approach. The theoretical background and history of cost benefit analysis of nuclear safety regulation were presented and topics for future study were suggested

  1. Application of System Dynamics to Evaluate the Social and Economic Benefits of Infrastructure Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiep Nguyen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA is often employed to inform decision makers about the desirability of transport infrastructure investment options. One of the main limitations of traditional CBA approaches is that they do not provide a dynamic view that explicitly illustrates the cost and benefit relationships between component entities over time. This paper addresses this issue by describing a System Dynamics (SD approach that can perform transport infrastructure CBA through the application of systems thinking to develop a causal-loop model that can subsequently be operationalised into an executable stock-and-flow model. Execution of this model readily enables sensitivity analysis of infrastructure investment options and visualisation of the cost-benefit behaviour of each variant over time. The utility of the approach is illustrated through a case study, the Co Chien Bridge project in Vietnam, using a model that incorporates conventional economic metrics and factors that measure indirect project benefits, such as impact on gross domestic product, unemployment rate, and total taxes gained from affected economic sectors.

  2. Composting, anaerobic digestion and biochar production in Ghana. Environmental–economic assessment in the context of voluntary carbon markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galgani, Pietro; Voet, Ester van der; Korevaar, Gijsbert

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Economic–environmental assessment of combining composting with biogas and biochar in Ghana. • These technologies can save greenhouse gas emissions for up to 0.57 t CO 2 eq/t of waste treated. • Labor intensive, small-scale organic waste management is not viable without financial support. • Carbon markets would make these technologies viable with carbon prices in the range of 30–84 EUR/t. - Abstract: In some areas of Sub-Saharan Africa appropriate organic waste management technology could address development issues such as soil degradation, unemployment and energy scarcity, while at the same time reducing emissions of greenhouse gases. This paper investigates the role that carbon markets could have in facilitating the implementation of composting, anaerobic digestion and biochar production, in the city of Tamale, in the North of Ghana. Through a life cycle assessment of implementation scenarios for low-tech, small scale variants of the above mentioned three technologies, the potential contribution they could give to climate change mitigation was assessed. Furthermore an economic assessment was carried out to study their viability and the impact thereon of accessing carbon markets. It was found that substantial climate benefits can be achieved by avoiding landfilling of organic waste, producing electricity and substituting the use of chemical fertilizer. Biochar production could result in a net carbon sequestration. These technologies were however found not to be economically viable without external subsidies, and access to carbon markets at the considered carbon price of 7 EUR/ton of carbon would not change the situation significantly. Carbon markets could help the realization of the considered composting and anaerobic digestion systems only if the carbon price will rise above 75–84 EUR/t of carbon (respectively for anaerobic digestion and composting). Biochar production could achieve large climate benefits and, if approved as a land

  3. Composting, anaerobic digestion and biochar production in Ghana. Environmental–economic assessment in the context of voluntary carbon markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galgani, Pietro, E-mail: p.galgani@hotmail.com [Department of Industrial Ecology, Institute of Environmental Sciences, Leiden University, Van Steenis gebouw, Einsteinweg 2, 2333CC Leiden (Netherlands); Voet, Ester van der [Department of Industrial Ecology, Institute of Environmental Sciences, Leiden University, Van Steenis gebouw, Einsteinweg 2, 2333CC Leiden (Netherlands); Korevaar, Gijsbert [Department of Energy and Industry, Faculty of Technology, Policy, and Management, Delft University of Technology, Jaffalaan 5, 2628 BX Delft (Netherlands)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Economic–environmental assessment of combining composting with biogas and biochar in Ghana. • These technologies can save greenhouse gas emissions for up to 0.57 t CO{sub 2} eq/t of waste treated. • Labor intensive, small-scale organic waste management is not viable without financial support. • Carbon markets would make these technologies viable with carbon prices in the range of 30–84 EUR/t. - Abstract: In some areas of Sub-Saharan Africa appropriate organic waste management technology could address development issues such as soil degradation, unemployment and energy scarcity, while at the same time reducing emissions of greenhouse gases. This paper investigates the role that carbon markets could have in facilitating the implementation of composting, anaerobic digestion and biochar production, in the city of Tamale, in the North of Ghana. Through a life cycle assessment of implementation scenarios for low-tech, small scale variants of the above mentioned three technologies, the potential contribution they could give to climate change mitigation was assessed. Furthermore an economic assessment was carried out to study their viability and the impact thereon of accessing carbon markets. It was found that substantial climate benefits can be achieved by avoiding landfilling of organic waste, producing electricity and substituting the use of chemical fertilizer. Biochar production could result in a net carbon sequestration. These technologies were however found not to be economically viable without external subsidies, and access to carbon markets at the considered carbon price of 7 EUR/ton of carbon would not change the situation significantly. Carbon markets could help the realization of the considered composting and anaerobic digestion systems only if the carbon price will rise above 75–84 EUR/t of carbon (respectively for anaerobic digestion and composting). Biochar production could achieve large climate benefits and, if approved as a land

  4. Forest carbon benefits, costs and leakage effects of carbon reserve scenarios in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash Nepal; Peter J. Ince; Kenneth E. Skog; Sun J. Chang

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the potential effectiveness of future carbon reserve scenarios, where U.S. forest landowners would hypothetically be paid to sequester carbon on their timberland and forego timber harvests for 100 years. Scenarios featured direct payments to landowners of $0 (baseline), $5, $10, or $15 per metric ton of additional forest carbon sequestered on the...

  5. A comparison of benefit and economic value between two sound therapy tinnitus management options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Craig W; Sandridge, Sharon A

    2012-02-01

    Sound therapy coupled with appropriate counseling has gained widespread acceptance in the audiological management of tinnitus. For many years, ear level sound generators (SGs) have been used to provide masking relief and to promote tinnitus habituation. More recently, an alternative treatment device was introduced, the Neuromonics Tinnitus Treatment (NTT), which employs spectrally-modified music in an acoustic desensitization approach in order to help patients overcome the disturbing consequences of tinnitus. It is unknown, however, if one treatment plan is more efficacious and cost-effective in comparison to the other. In today's economic climate, it has become critical that clinicians justify the value of tinnitus treatment devices in relation to observed benefit. To determine perceived benefit from, and economic value associated with, two forms of sound therapy, namely, SGs and NTT. Retrospective between-subject clinical study. A sample of convenience comprised of 56 patients drawn from the Tinnitus Management Clinic at the Cleveland Clinic participated. Twenty-three patients selected SGs, and 33 patients selected NTT as their preferred sound therapy treatment option. Sound therapy benefit was quantified using the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI). The questionnaire was administered before and 6 mo after initiation of tinnitus treatment. Prior to device fitting, all patients participated in a 1.5 hr group education session about tinnitus and its management. Economic value comparisons between sound therapy options were made using a cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) and cost-utility analysis (CUA). THI scores indicated a significant improvement (p 0.05) between the treatment alternatives at baseline or 6 mo postfitting. The magnitude of improvement for both SGs and NTT was dependent on initial perceived tinnitus handicap. Based on the CEA and CUA economic analyses alone, it appears that the SGs may be the more cost-effective alternative; however, the magnitude of

  6. Anthropocene Dialogues: Decoupling Economic Prosperity from Carbon Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewksbury, J.; Kohm, K.

    2017-12-01

    Anthropocene magazine is a new science magazine produced by Future Earth. Its mission is to bring together the world's leading scientists, technologists, and creatives to explore on-the-ground stories of sustainability science in action. For AGU 2017, Anthropocene magazine will stage an "Anthropocene Dialogue" based on its July 2017 issue. Anthropocene Dialogues are panel discussions about the successes and challenges of transformative science-policy collaborations by leading science journalists, researchers, and practitioners. The focus of this dialogue is: What are the scientific and technological innovations that drive the decarbonization of economies—from plugging artificial intelligence into electrical grids to new experiments in solar geoengineering. Panelist include: Robert Jackson of the Global Carbon Project discussing the historic decoupling of carbon emissions from GDP, Oliver Morton of The Economist speaking on how geoengineering can be a key element of a decoupling process; Robinson Meyer of The Atlantic outlining a coal "retirement plan" based on supply side economics; Wayt Gibbs of Scientific American tackling the quintessential question, How much energy will the world need? and Mark Harris of IEEE Spectrum looking at new experiments in artificial intelligence that could pull fossil fuels out of electrical grids, factories, data centers, and transit systems. For more information on these stories, visit: anthropocenemagazine.org/in-print/. Free sample copies of the magazine will be available at the session.

  7. Scaling of economic benefits from green roof implementation in Washington, DC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Hao; Clark, Corrie; Zhou, Jiti; Adriaens, Peter

    2010-06-01

    Green roof technology is recognized for mitigating stormwater runoff and energy consumption. Methods to overcome the cost gap between green roofs and conventional roofs were recently quantified by incorporating air quality benefits. This study investigates the impact of scaling on these benefits at the city-wide scale using Washington, DC as a test bed because of the proposed targets in the 20-20-20 vision (20 million ft(2) by 2020) articulated by Casey Trees, a nonprofit organization. Building-specific stormwater benefits were analyzed assuming two proposed policy scenarios for stormwater fees ranging from 35 to 50% reduction for green roof implementation. Heat flux calculations were used to estimate building-specific energy savings for commercial buildings. To assess benefits at the city scale, stormwater infrastructure savings were based on operational savings and size reduction due to reduced stormwater volume generation. Scaled energy infrastructure benefits were calculated using two size reductions methods for air conditioners. Avoided carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxide (NO(x)), and sulfur dioxide emissions were based on reductions in electricity and natural gas consumption. Lastly, experimental and fugacity-based estimates were used to quantify the NO(x) uptake by green roofs, which was translated to health benefits using U.S. Environmental Protection Agency models. The results of the net present value (NPV) analysis showed that stormwater infrastructure benefits totaled $1.04 million (M), while fee-based stormwater benefits were $0.22-0.32 M/y. Energy savings were $0.87 M/y, while air conditioner resizing benefits were estimated at $0.02 to $0.04 M/y and avoided emissions benefits (based on current emission trading values) were $0.09 M-0.41 M/y. Over the lifetime of the green roof (40 years), the NPV is about 30-40% less than that of conventional roofs (not including green roof maintenance costs). These considerable benefits, in concert with current and

  8. A cost-benefit analysis for the economic growth in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, Zongguo; Chen, Jining

    2008-01-01

    Currently, traditional development issues such as income inequality, depletion of natural resources, environmental pollution as well as retardation of infrastructure have occurred in China. In the future, more pressures would be imposed on China by the continuous fast development of industrialization, and with transfer of the world manufacture center to China. Sustainable development, including its economic, environmental and social elements, is a key goal of decision-makers. This paper develops a methodology on cost benefit analysis of economic growth at macroscopic level to identify issues of China's sustainability. In order to address some important issues on how to make policies to improve the quality of economic growth, the CBA framework developed in this study analyses economic-ecological-social interaction, building three accounts that reflect three dimensions of sustainable development that includes 26 sub-models in all, and finally is integrated into an index as Net Progress Proceeds (NPP). The estimation methods of these submodels, such as cost of environmental pollution, depletion of natural resources and defensive expenditures are described in detail. Based on the framework and methods, this paper examines the costs and benefits of economic growth in three aspects of economy, ecology and society. The results illustrate that NPR of China's economic growth had been negative for a long time and has just became positive since year 2000 but was quite low. Even the best was only 1.6% in 2002 (the worst was - 24.2% in 1982). Based on the comparison between three accounts, we can draw a conclusion that ecological cost is the dominant factor that affects China's NPR. The empirical results show that if no other innovative measures or policies are taken in the future the costs of growth would outweigh its benefits, resulting in un-sustainability. Basically, the long-term economic growth would be unsustainable due to increasing environmental damage and depletion of

  9. A cost-benefit analysis for the economic growth in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, Zongguo; Chen, Jining [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2008-04-01

    Currently, traditional development issues such as income inequality, depletion of natural resources, environmental pollution as well as retardation of infrastructure have occurred in China. In the future, more pressures would be imposed on China by the continuous fast development of industrialization, and with transfer of the world manufacture center to China. Sustainable development, including its economic, environmental and social elements, is a key goal of decision-makers. This paper develops a methodology on cost benefit analysis of economic growth at macroscopic level to identify issues of China's sustainability. In order to address some important issues on how to make policies to improve the quality of economic growth, the CBA framework developed in this study analyses economic-ecological-social interaction, building three accounts that reflect three dimensions of sustainable development that includes 26 sub-models in all, and finally is integrated into an index as Net Progress Proceeds (NPP). The estimation methods of these submodels, such as cost of environmental pollution, depletion of natural resources and defensive expenditures are described in detail. Based on the framework and methods, this paper examines the costs and benefits of economic growth in three aspects of economy, ecology and society. The results illustrate that NPR of China's economic growth had been negative for a long time and has just became positive since year 2000 but was quite low. Even the best was only 1.6% in 2002 (the worst was - 24.2% in 1982). Based on the comparison between three accounts, we can draw a conclusion that ecological cost is the dominant factor that affects China's NPR. The empirical results show that if no other innovative measures or policies are taken in the future the costs of growth would outweigh its benefits, resulting in un-sustainability. Basically, the long-term economic growth would be unsustainable due to increasing environmental damage

  10. Economic benefits of methylmercury exposure control in Europe: Monetary value of neurotoxicity prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Due to global mercury pollution and the adverse health effects of prenatal exposure to methylmercury (MeHg), an assessment of the economic benefits of prevented developmental neurotoxicity is necessary for any cost-benefit analysis. Methods Distributions of hair-Hg concentrations among women of reproductive age were obtained from the DEMOCOPHES project (1,875 subjects in 17 countries) and literature data (6,820 subjects from 8 countries). The exposures were assumed to comply with log-normal distributions. Neurotoxicity effects were estimated from a linear dose-response function with a slope of 0.465 Intelligence Quotient (IQ) point reduction per μg/g increase in the maternal hair-Hg concentration during pregnancy, assuming no deficits below a hair-Hg limit of 0.58 μg/g thought to be safe. A logarithmic IQ response was used in sensitivity analyses. The estimated IQ benefit cost was based on lifetime income, adjusted for purchasing power parity. Results The hair-mercury concentrations were the highest in Southern Europe and lowest in Eastern Europe. The results suggest that, within the EU, more than 1.8 million children are born every year with MeHg exposures above the limit of 0.58 μg/g, and about 200,000 births exceed a higher limit of 2.5 μg/g proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO). The total annual benefits of exposure prevention within the EU were estimated at more than 600,000 IQ points per year, corresponding to a total economic benefit between €8,000 million and €9,000 million per year. About four-fold higher values were obtained when using the logarithmic response function, while adjustment for productivity resulted in slightly lower total benefits. These calculations do not include the less tangible advantages of protecting brain development against neurotoxicity or any other adverse effects. Conclusions These estimates document that efforts to combat mercury pollution and to reduce MeHg exposures will have very substantial

  11. Low-carbon energy policy and ambient air pollution in Shanghai, China: A health-based economic assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Changhong; Chen Bingheng; Wang Bingyan; Huang Cheng; Zhao Jing; Dai Yi; Kan Haidong

    2007-01-01

    Energy and related health issues are of growing concern worldwide today. To investigate the potential public health and economic impact of ambient air pollution under various low-carbon energy scenarios in Shanghai, we estimated the exposure level of Shanghai residents to air pollution under various planned scenarios, and assessed the public health impact using concentration-response functions derived from available epidemiologic studies. We then estimated the corresponding economic values of the health effects based on unit values for each health outcome. Our results show that ambient air pollution in relation to low-carbon energy scenarios could have a significant impact on the future health status of Shanghai residents, both in physical and monetary terms. Compared with the base case scenario, implementation of various low-carbon energy scenarios could prevent 2804-8249 and 9870-23,100 PM 10 -related avoidable deaths (mid-value) in 2010 and 2020, respectively. It could also decrease incidence of several relevant diseases. The corresponding economic benefits could reach 507.31-1492.33 and 2642.45-6192.11 million U.S. dollars (mid-value) in 2010 and 2020, respectively. These findings illustrate that a low-carbon energy policy will not only decrease the emission of greenhouse gases, but also play an active role in the reduction of air pollutant emissions, improvement of air quality, and promotion of public health. Our estimates can provide useful information to local decision-makers for further cost-benefit analysis

  12. Low-carbon energy policy and ambient air pollution in Shanghai, China: a health-based economic assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Changhong; Chen, Bingheng; Wang, Bingyan; Huang, Cheng; Zhao, Jing; Dai, Yi; Kan, Haidong

    2007-02-01

    Energy and related health issues are of growing concern worldwide today. To investigate the potential public health and economic impact of ambient air pollution under various low-carbon energy scenarios in Shanghai, we estimated the exposure level of Shanghai residents to air pollution under various planned scenarios, and assessed the public health impact using concentration-response functions derived from available epidemiologic studies. We then estimated the corresponding economic values of the health effects based on unit values for each health outcome. Our results show that ambient air pollution in relation to low-carbon energy scenarios could have a significant impact on the future health status of Shanghai residents, both in physical and monetary terms. Compared with the base case scenario, implementation of various low-carbon energy scenarios could prevent 2804-8249 and 9870-23,100 PM10-related avoidable deaths (mid-value) in 2010 and 2020, respectively. It could also decrease incidence of several relevant diseases. The corresponding economic benefits could reach 507.31-1492.33 and 2642.45-6192.11 million U.S. dollars (mid-value) in 2010 and 2020, respectively. These findings illustrate that a low-carbon energy policy will not only decrease the emission of greenhouse gases, but also play an active role in the reduction of air pollutant emissions, improvement of air quality, and promotion of public health. Our estimates can provide useful information to local decision-makers for further cost-benefit analysis.

  13. The economic costs and benefits of dog guides for the blind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Kathleen E; Rein, David B

    2008-01-01

    To document the economic costs and benefits associated with providing dog guide services for blind individuals able to benefit from them. This study estimates the annual cost of dog guide services accounting for cost offsets associated with reduced informal and formal care costs over the working life of the animal (8 years). We estimated the cost per dog guide trained using previously unpublished survey data from dog guide training schools in the United States. We also estimated the incremental economic benefits as the reduction in costs associated with formal and informal care using published studies and a set of reasonable assumptions. Costs were discounted to 2006$ using a 3% discount rate. We found the average total cost per dog guide over its working life was $40,598, of which $21,568 were off-set by reductions in other costs. The costs associated with dog guides included $35,536 in dog acquisition costs and $5,061 for annual maintenance over the animal's working life. The economic benefits included $16,324 and $5,244 in reduced formal and informal care costs, respectively. The average net cost of dog guide ownership per year over the working life of the animal was $2,379. Using available information and reasonable assumptions, this study documents the costs of dog guides accounting for a limited number of cost off-setting elements. However, given limited available evidence, further study of the impact of guide dogs on the lives of blind individuals who use them should be conducted to validate this study's results.

  14. Limited carbon and biodiversity co-benefits for tropical forest mammals and birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudrot, Lydia; Kroetz, Kailin; Alvarez-Loayza, Patricia; Amaral, Eda; Breuer, Thomas; Fletcher, Christine; Jansen, Patrick A; Kenfack, David; Lima, Marcela Guimarães Moreira; Marshall, Andrew R; Martin, Emanuel H; Ndoundou-Hockemba, Mireille; O'Brien, Timothy; Razafimahaimodison, Jean Claude; Romero-Saltos, Hugo; Rovero, Francesco; Roy, Cisquet Hector; Sheil, Douglas; Silva, Carlos E F; Spironello, Wilson Roberto; Valencia, Renato; Zvoleff, Alex; Ahumada, Jorge; Andelman, Sandy

    2016-06-01

    The conservation of tropical forest carbon stocks offers the opportunity to curb climate change by reducing greenhouse gas emissions from deforestation and simultaneously conserve biodiversity. However, there has been considerable debate about the extent to which carbon stock conservation will provide benefits to biodiversity in part because whether forests that contain high carbon density in their aboveground biomass also contain high animal diversity is unknown. Here, we empirically examined medium to large bodied ground-dwelling mammal and bird (hereafter "wildlife") diversity and carbon stock levels within the tropics using camera trap and vegetation data from a pantropical network of sites. Specifically, we tested whether tropical forests that stored more carbon contained higher wildlife species richness, taxonomic diversity, and trait diversity. We found that carbon stocks were not a significant predictor for any of these three measures of diversity, which suggests that benefits for wildlife diversity will not be maximized unless wildlife diversity is explicitly taken into account; prioritizing carbon stocks alone will not necessarily meet biodiversity conservation goals. We recommend conservation planning that considers both objectives because there is the potential for more wildlife diversity and carbon stock conservation to be achieved for the same total budget if both objectives are pursued in tandem rather than independently. Tropical forests with low elevation variability and low tree density supported significantly higher wildlife diversity. These tropical forest characteristics may provide more affordable proxies of wildlife diversity for future multi-objective conservation planning when fine scale data on wildlife are lacking.

  15. Going Clean - The Economics of China's Low-carbon Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallding, Karl; Thai, Helen; Han, Guoyi; Olsson, Marie; Kartha, Sivan (Stockholm Environment Inst. (Sweden)); Eklund, Klas (SEB, Stockholm (Sweden)); SU Ming (Peking Univ. (China)); Cao Jing (Tsinghua Univ. (China)); Luderer (Potsdam Inst. for Climate Impact (Germany))

    2009-11-15

    This report shows that China can achieve the transition to a low-carbon economy. China can make these emissions reductions within the tight constraints of a global 2 deg C target while still meeting development and economic growth goals over the next four decades. There are strong mitigation potentials in the building, industry, transport and electricity generation sectors. China would benefit from early mitigation, but immediate action is critical for the world to have a reasonable chance of keeping warming below the 2 deg C target. Such a transition would also be an essential part of China's modernisation. A low-carbon transition presents opportunities for China to improve its energy security and move its economy up the value chain in the production of international goods and services. A low-carbon China is a country with a larger service sector, more advanced labour skills and less environmental degradation. During this transition, new, green job opportunities will emerge, and support an overall shift to a low-carbon economy. Active labour market and social policies, vocational training and upgrading of skills are imperative to facilitate this modernisation and reduce the impact of jobs lost in resource-intensive industries. With today's low price on carbon emissions, the incentives for a low-carbon transition are not sufficiently strong. Consumption and production patterns must be steered in a more resource-sustainable direction. A first step is to phase out subsidies on fossil fuels. Another is to place a price on carbon, either through a carbon tax or a cap-and-trade system, which would create incentives for companies and individuals to produce and consume less carbon-intensive goods and services, and to undertake abatement opportunities to reduce their overall carbon footprint. Advancing technology and innovation need to be fundamental, shared policy objectives in this transition. Early investment reduces costs and paves the way for large

  16. The economic costs and benefits of dental education: an empirical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, Gary L; Nourzad, Farrokh; Lobb, William K; Beall, Jason R

    2014-11-01

    The rising costs associated with obtaining a dental education have caused some to question the financial benefit of pursuing a dental degree. There is a concern that recent graduates may have difficulty finding professional opportunities that provide the income necessary to service their accumulated educational debt. The aim of this study was to evaluate the trends in educational costs to aid in making an accurate appraisal of the financial benefit of a dental education. Adjusted into constant dollar terms, data from a variety of sources were collected for economic variables such as tuition, fees, student indebtedness, and dentists' earnings. These variables were then analyzed to determine the true costs and benefits of obtaining a dental education. The results showed that, over the course of the last decade, educational costs increased faster than the real net income of practicing dentists, which led to a decline in the return on investment in dental education. However, regardless of an applicant's choice of public or private dental school, there continues to be a positive economic return on students' commitment of both financial resources and time to receive a dental education.

  17. The economic benefits of malaria elimination: do they include increases in tourism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modrek, Sepideh; Liu, Jenny; Gosling, Roland; Feachem, Richard G A

    2012-07-28

    Policy makers have speculated that one of the economic benefits of malaria elimination includes increases in foreign direct investment, particularly tourism. This study examines the empirical relationship between the demand for travel and malaria cases in two countries with large tourism industries around the time in which they carried out malaria-elimination campaigns. In Mauritius, this analysis examines historical, yearly tourist arrivals and malaria cases from 1978-1999, accounting for the background secular trend of increasing international travel. In Dominican Republic, a country embarking upon malaria elimination, it employs a time-series analysis of the monthly, international tourist arrivals from 1998-2010 to determine whether the timing of significant deviations in tourist arrivals coincides with malaria outbreaks. While naïve relationships exist in both cases, the results show that the relationships between tourist arrivals and malaria cases are relatively weak and statistically insignificant once secular confounders are accounted for. This suggests that any economic benefits from tourism that may be derived from actively pursuing elimination in countries that have high tourism potential are likely to be small when measured at a national level. Rather, tourism benefits are likely to be experienced with greater impact in more concentrated tourist areas within countries, and future studies should seek to assess these relationships at a regional or local level.

  18. [Impact of Phosphogypsum Wastes on the Wheat Growth and CO2 Emissions and Evaluation of Economic-environmental Benefit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ji; Wu, Hong-sheng; Gao, Zhi-qiu; Shang, Xiao-xia; Zheng, Pei-hui; Yin, Jin; Kakpa, Didier; Ren, Qian-qi; Faustin, Ogou Katchele; Chen, Su-yun; Xu, Ya; Yao, Tong-yan; Ji, Wei; Qian, Jing-shan; Ma, Shi-jie

    2015-08-01

    Phosphogypsum is a phosphorus chemical waste which has not been managed and reused well, resultantly, causing environmental pollution and land-occupation. Phosphogypsum wastes were used as a soil amendment to assess the effect on wheat growth, yield and CO2 emissions from winter wheat fields. Its economic and environmental benefits were analyzed at the same time. The results showed that wheat yield was increased by 37.71% in the treatment of phosphogypsum of 2 100 kg x hm(-2). Compared with the control treatment, throughout the wheat growing season, CO2 emission was accumulatively reduced by 3% in the treatment of phosphogypsum waste of 1050 kg x hm(-2), while reduced by 8% , 10% , and 6% during the jointing stage, heading date and filling period of wheat, respectively; while CO2 emission was accumulatively reduced by 7% in the treatment of phosphogypsum waste of 2 100 kg x hm(-2) throughout the wheat growing season, as reduced by 11% , 4% , and 12% during the reviving wintering stage, heading date and filling period of wheat, respectively. It was better for CO2 emission reduction in the treatment of a larger amount of phosphogypsum waste. In the case of application of phosphogypsum waste residue within a certain range, the emission intensity of CO2 ( CO2 emissions of per unit of fresh weight or CO2 emissions of per unit of yield) , spike length, fresh weight and yield showed a significantly negative correlation--the longer the ear length, the greater fresh weight and yield and the lower the CO2 emissions intensity. As to the carbon trading, phosphogypsum utilization was of high economic and environmental benefits. Compared with the control, the ratio of input to output changed from 1: 8.3 to 1: 10.7, which in the same situation of investment the output could be increased by 28.92% ; phosphogypsum as a greenhouse gas reducing agent in the wheat field, it could decrease the cost and increase the environmental benefit totally about 290 yuan per unit of ton. The

  19. Economic analysis of the energy and carbon tax for the sustainable development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, J.K.; Cho, G.L. [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    2001-12-01

    The concept of 'Sustainable Development' has been playing a very important role since seventies. Countries all over the world, whether developed or developing, strive to achieve their economic development in a sustainable way. U.N Conference on Environment and Development held in 1992 at Rio was instrumental in the movement of the sustainable development. Korea is not an exception in this movement as Presidential Commission on Sustainable Development (PCSD) was established in September 2000. The Climate Change occupies the heart of the sustainable development. In response to the urgent need to protect global climate, the U.N. Convention on Climate Change (1992) and the Kyoto Protocol (1997) were adopted. An analysis is required to respond effectively and sustainedly to the issue of climate change. Energy sector is the main contributor to the emissions of greenhouse gases. Consequently, this study aims to analyse the implication of the energy{center_dot}carbon tax for the benefit of present and future generation, its impact on economy, industry, and energy. It also studies new elements related to the differential impact of energy carbon tax on income classes. We developed 'Overlapping Generation Equilibrium model' which consists of eleven industry, three income classes, time span of 100 years. Scenario analysis was performed for the case of the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions by 20 percent in 2010 and afterward in comparison with its 'Business As Usual' path. Three major analysis preformed are as follows: 1. Numerical computation was done on the differential impact of the carbon tax on three income classes. 2. The impact on various generation was calculated. 3. Most importantly, the hypothesis of 'Double Dividend' was tested. This study cautiously concludes that carbon tax recycling by the reduction of the corporate income tax may increase GDP despite the reduction of the emissions of carbon dioxides. The results of this

  20. Emergy evaluation of water utilization benefits in water-ecological-economic system based on water cycle process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, X.; Wu, Z.; Lv, C.

    2017-12-01

    The water utilization benefits are formed by the material flow, energy flow, information flow and value stream in the whole water cycle process, and reflected along with the material circulation of inner system. But most of traditional water utilization benefits evaluation are based on the macro level, only consider the whole material input and output and energy conversion relation, and lack the characterization of water utilization benefits accompanying with water cycle process from the formation mechanism. In addition, most studies are from the perspective of economics, only pay attention to the whole economic output and sewage treatment economic investment, but neglect the ecological function benefits of water cycle, Therefore, from the perspective of internal material circulation in the whole system, taking water cycle process as the process of material circulation and energy flow, the circulation and flow process of water and other ecological environment, social economic elements were described, and the composition of water utilization positive and negative benefits in water-ecological-economic system was explored, and the performance of each benefit was analyzed. On this basis, the emergy calculation method of each benefit was proposed by emergy quantitative analysis technique, which can realize the unified measurement and evaluation of water utilization benefits in water-ecological-economic system. Then, taking Zhengzhou city as an example, the corresponding benefits of different water cycle links were calculated quantitatively by emergy method, and the results showed that the emergy evaluation method of water utilization benefits can unify the ecosystem and the economic system, achieve uniform quantitative analysis, and measure the true value of natural resources and human economic activities comprehensively.

  1. Macro-economic analysis of forestry options on carbon sequestration in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadekodi, Gopal K.; Ravindranath, N.H.

    1997-01-01

    There is a need to evaluate the additional spending on forestry by analysing the environmental (particularly carbon abatement), social and economic benefits. The biomass needs for India are expected to increase by two to three times by 2020. Depending upon the forest types, ownership patterns and land use patterns, feasible forestry options are identified. It is found among many supply options to be feasible to meet the 'demand based needs' with a mix of management options, species choices and organisational set up. A comparative static framework is used to analyze the macro-economic impacts. Forestry accounts for 1.84% of GNP in India. It is characterized by significant forward industrial linkages and least backward linkage. Forestry generates about 36 million person years of employment annually. India imports Rs. 15 billion worth of forest based materials annually. Implementation of the demand based forestry options can lead to a number of ecological, economic and institutional changes. The notable ones are: enhancement of C stock from 9578 to 17094 Mt and a net annual C-sequestration from 73 to 149 Mt after accounting for all emissions; a trebling of the output of forestry sector from Rs. 49 billion to Rs. 146 billion annually; an increase in GDP contribution of forestry from Rs. 32 billion to Rs. 105 billion over a period of 35 years; an increase in annual employment level by 23 million person years; emergence of forestry as a net contributor of foreign exchange through trading of forestry products; and an increase in economic value of forest capital stock by Rs. 7260 billion with a cost benefit analysis showing forestry as a profitable option. Implementation of forestry options calls for an understanding of current forest policies and barriers which are analyzed and a number of policy options are suggested

  2. Economic Benefits of Investing in Women’s Health: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, David E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Globally, the status of women’s health falls short of its potential. In addition to the deleterious ethical and human rights implications of this deficit, the negative economic impact may also be consequential, but these mechanisms are poorly understood. Building on the literature that highlights health as a driver of economic growth and poverty alleviation, we aim to systematically investigate the broader economic benefits of investing in women’s health. Methods Using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines, we systematically reviewed health, gender, and economic literature to identify studies that investigate the impact of women’s health on micro- and macroeconomic outcomes. We developed an extensive search algorithm and conducted searches using 10 unique databases spanning the timeframe 01/01/1970 to 01/04/2013. Articles were included if they reported on economic impacts stemming from changes in women’s health (table of outcome measures included in full review, Table 1). In total, the two lead investigators independently screened 20,832 abstracts and extracted 438 records for full text review. The final review reflects the inclusion of 124 articles. Results The existing literature indicates that healthier women and their children contribute to more productive and better-educated societies. This study documents an extensive literature confirming that women’s health is tied to long-term productivity: the development and economic performance of nations depends, in part, upon how each country protects and promotes the health of women. Providing opportunities for deliberate family planning; healthy mothers before, during, and after childbirth, and the health and productivity of subsequent generations can catalyze a cycle of positive societal development. Conclusions This review highlights the untapped potential of initiatives that aim to address women’s health. Societies that prioritize women

  3. Economic benefits, external costs and the regulation of unconventional gas in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cronshaw, Ian; Grafton, R. Quentin

    2016-01-01

    We review the economic benefits and external costs of unconventional gas production (UCG) in the United States from a policy perspective. Based on an overview of state regulation in Pennsylvania, a state that has witnessed very rapid growth of gas production over the past 5 years, and global experiences we present 10 key principles that are proposed to reduce the risks and to increase the net rewards of UCG. Application of these principles has the potential to reduce the risks of UCG, especially at a local level, while maximizing the benefits of gas developments. - Highlights: • SWOT summary of unconventional gas developments. • Risks and returns of unconventional gas highlighted. • 10 principles given to reduce risks and increase rewards of gas extraction.

  4. Designing water supplies: Optimizing drinking water composition for maximum economic benefit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rygaard, Martin; Arvin, Erik; Bath, A.

    2011-01-01

    to water quality aspects, costs of water production, fresh water abstraction and CO2-emissions are integrated into a holistic economic assessment of the optimum share of desalinated water in water supplies. Results show that carefully designed desalination post-treatment can have net benefits up to €0.......3 ± 0.2 per delivered m3 for Perth and €0.4(±0.2) for Copenhagen. Costs of remineralization and green house gas emission mitigation are minor when compared to the potential benefits of an optimum water composition. Finally, a set of optimum water quality criteria is proposed for the guidance of water...... includes modeling of possible water quality blends and an evaluation of corrosion indices. Based on concentration-response relationships a range of impacts on public health, material lifetimes and consumption of soap have been valued for Perth, Western Australia and Copenhagen, Denmark. In addition...

  5. Prognostic Health Monitoring System: Component Selection Based on Risk Criteria and Economic Benefit Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pham, Binh T.; Agarwal, Vivek; Lybeck, Nancy J.; Tawfik, Magdy S.

    2012-01-01

    Prognostic health monitoring (PHM) is a proactive approach to monitor the ability of structures, systems, and components (SSCs) to withstand structural, thermal, and chemical loadings over the SSCs planned service lifespan. The current efforts to extend the operational license lifetime of the aging fleet of U.S. nuclear power plants from 40 to 60 years and beyond can benefit from a systematic application of PHM technology. Implementing a PHM system would strengthen the safety of nuclear power plants, reduce plant outage time, and reduce operation and maintenance costs. However, a nuclear power plant has thousands of SSCs, so implementing a PHM system that covers all SSCs requires careful planning and prioritization. This paper therefore focuses on a component selection that is based on the analysis of a component's failure probability, risk, and cost. Ultimately, the decision on component selection depends on the overall economical benefits arising from safety and operational considerations associated with implementing the PHM system. (author)

  6. Enhancing identified circular economic benefits related to the deployment off Solrød biogas plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lybæk, Rikke

    MacArthur Foundation, the paper analysis three areas being; 1) Biogas production, 2) Nitrogen, Phosphor & GHG, 3) Re-cycle/cascade materials, and consequently elaborate on the environmental benefits obtained, as far as CO2 emission reductions from biogas production substituting fossil fuels, improved......This paper investigates how experiences from the deployment of Solrød biogas plant in Denmark - a large scale centralized biogas plant - can assist future biogas technologies in achieving Circular Economic benefits. Departing from a theoretical understanding of Circular Economy provided by Ellen...... Biogas, this paper further proposes to include the following activities when planning for future biogas plants: Waste-stream identification and coupling in the local community; Measuring the value of digestate as fertilizer; Short distance to farmers delivering manure; and Plant design according to local...

  7. The potential health and economic benefits of preventing recurrent respiratory papillomatosis through quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesson, Harrell W; Forhan, Sara E; Gottlieb, Sami L; Markowitz, Lauri E

    2008-08-18

    We estimated the health and economic benefits of preventing recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) through quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination. We applied a simple mathematical model to estimate the averted costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) saved by preventing RRP in children whose mothers had been vaccinated at age 12 years. Under base case assumptions, the prevention of RRP would avert an estimated USD 31 (range: USD 2-178) in medical costs (2006 US dollars) and save 0.00016 QALYs (range: 0.00001-0.00152) per 12-year-old girl vaccinated. Including the benefits of RRP reduced the estimated cost per QALY gained by HPV vaccination by roughly 14-21% in the base case and by 100% in the sensitivity analyses. More precise estimates of the incidence of RRP are needed, however, to quantify this impact more reliably.

  8. Environmental Sustainability and Economic Benefits of Dairy Farm Biogas Energy Production: A Case Study in Umbria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biancamaria Torquati

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Accelerating demand to reduce the environmental impact of fossil fuels has been driving widespread attention to renewable fuels, such as biogas. In fact, in the last decade numerous policy guidelines and laws regarding energy, the environment and agriculture have been issued to encourage the use of animal sewage as a raw material for the production of biogas. The production of energy from biogas in a dairy farm can provide a good opportunity for sustainable rural development, augmenting the farm’s income from traditional sources and helping to reduce the overall environmental impact of the energy sector. This paper investigates the trade-off between the environmental and economic benefits of an agro-energy farm in the Umbria region of Italy that employs livestock sewage and manure, dedicated energy crops (corn and triticale silage and olive waste. The environmental analysis was performed using the LCA methodology, while the economic investigation was carried out by reconstructing the economic balance of the agro-energetic supply chain based on the budgets of each activity performed. The LCA results show, on the one hand, the predominant weight of producing dedicated crops compared to all other processes in the supply chain and, on the other hand, a significant reduction in environmental impact compared to that caused by energy production from fossil fuels. Economic analysis revealed that the results depend significantly on what rate per kWh the government incentives guarantee to agricultural producers of renewable energy.

  9. Framework for economic pluvial flood risk assessment considering climate change effects and adaptation benefits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Qianqian; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen; Halsnæs, Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    Climate change is likely to affect the water cycle by influencing the precipitation patterns. It is important to integrate the anticipated changes into the design of urban drainage in response to the increased risk level in cities. This paper presents a pluvial flood risk assessment framework...... to identify and assess adaptation options in the urban context. An integrated approach is adopted by incorporating climate change impact assessment, flood inundation modeling, economic tool, and risk assessment, hereby developing a step-by-step process for cost-benefit assessment of climate change adaptation...

  10. Strategic considerations in Indian space programme—Towards maximising socio-economic benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhara Murthi, K. R.; Madhusudan, H. N.

    2008-07-01

    Strategic thinking and planning have been the hallmarks of Indian space programme, whose objectives are sharply focused on deriving socio-economic benefits of space technology. The purpose of this paper is to identify various strategies, which played a role in different phases of the programme, contributing to social and economic outcomes and effectiveness. While self-reliant development of technological capacity and evaluation of applications with involvement of users formed the backbone of strategy in the initial phase of the programme, subsequent strategies were centred on development of organisational culture and systems, industry role and promotion of spin offs. Other strategies dealt with the response to challenges inherent in space endeavours in terms of risk management, sustainability, investments and long-term commitments, judicious make or buy decisions, safeguard of sensitive technologies, space commerce and finally harmonising international cooperation with national objectives. The strategies in the programme were consistently driven by a clear-cut vision and objectives to develop and use space technology in diverse areas where space systems become relevant for socio-economic development such as telecommunications and broadcasting, meteorology, disaster management support, remote sensing of natural and anthropogenic phenomena, and positioning and navigation services. This paper synthesises various studies and experiences in India in order to analyse strategies in the face of changes in technology, application needs and international policies. It also examines the effectiveness of these strategies in terms of economic and social costs and benefits. Based on the above analysis, a typical conceptual model for use of space for development is suggested.

  11. The Economic Benefits Of Multipurpose Reservoirs In The United States- Federal Hydropower Fleet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadjerioua, Boualem [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Witt, Adam M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Stewart, Kevin M. [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States). Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE); Bonnet Acosta, Marisol [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States). Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE); Mobley, Miles [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The United States is home to over 80,000 dams, of which approximately 3% are equipped with hydroelectric generating capabilities. When a dam serves as a hydropower facility, it provides a variety of energy services that range from clean, reliable power generation to load balancing that supports grid stability. In most cases, the benefits of dams and their associated reservoirs go far beyond supporting the nation s energy demand. As evidenced by the substantial presence of non-powered dams with the ability to store water in large capacities, the primary purpose of a dam may not be hydropower, but rather one of many other purposes. A dam and reservoir may support navigation, recreation, flood control, irrigation, and water supply, with each multipurpose benefit providing significant social and economic impacts on a local, regional, and national level. When hydropower is one of the services provided by a multipurpose reservoir, it is then part of an integrated system of competing uses. Operating rules, management practices, consumer demands, and environmental constraints must all be balanced to meet the multipurpose project s objectives. When federal dams are built, they are authorized by Congress to serve one or more functions. Legislation such as the Water Resources Development Act regulates the operation of the facility in order to coordinate the authorized uses and ensure the dam s intended objectives are being met. While multipurpose reservoirs account for billions of dollars in contributions to National Economic Development (NED) every year, no attempt has been made to evaluate their benefits on a national scale. This study is an on-going work conducted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory in an effort to estimate the economic benefits of multipurpose hydropower reservoirs in the United States. Given the important role that federal hydropower plays in the U.S., the first focus of this research will target the three main federal hydropower owners Tennessee Valley

  12. Tendances Carbone no. 66 'Understanding the link between macro-economic environment and the EU carbon price'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevallier, Julien

    2012-01-01

    Among the publications of CDC Climat Research, 'Tendances Carbone' bulletin specifically studies the developments of the European market for CO 2 allowances. This issue addresses the following points: The reaction of the carbon price to changes in macro-economic fundamentals can be understood from different levels. My recent academic research has identified two strong linkages. First, there is a link between the EU carbon price and financial markets, such as equity and bond markets. These analyses emphasize how the volatility of the carbon price is affected when financial markets enter 'bull' or 'bear' periods. By estimating various volatility models, carbon futures prices may be weakly forecasted on the basis of two variables from the stock and bond markets, i.e equity dividend yields (returns on stocks) and the 'junk bond' premium (spread between BAA- and AAA-rated bonds). Moreover, by assessing the transmission of international shocks to the carbon market, carbon prices tend to respond negatively to an exogenous recessionary shock on global economic indicators. In consequence, for investments managers, carbon assets such as EUA appear to be well-suited for portfolio diversification since they do not match exactly the business cycle. The second relationship addresses the physical association between industrial production and carbon price changes though the emissions level. The first objective of an academic researcher is to identify the most explanatory variable: in our case, the monthly Eurostat aggregated industrial production index to proxy for changes in macro-economic fundamentals. In the light of the recent periods of economic expansion (2005-2007) and recession (since 2008), several studies can bring fruitful results: - Our results tend to confirm that the carbon market adjusts to the macro-economic environment with a delay due to the specific institutional constraints of the EU ETS. - The relationship between carbon prices and EU industrial production has

  13. Spatial optimization of carbon-stocking projects across Africa integrating stocking potential with co-benefits and feasibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greve, Michelle; Reyers, Belinda; Mette Lykke, Anne; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2013-01-01

    Carbon offset projects through forestation are employed within the emissions trading framework to store carbon. Yet, information about the potential of landscapes to stock carbon, essential to the design of offset projects, is often lacking. Here, based on data on vegetation carbon, climate and soil, we quantify the potential for carbon storage in woody vegetation across tropical Africa. The ability of offset projects to produce co-benefits for ecosystems and people is then quantified. When co-benefits such as biodiversity conservation are considered, the top-ranked sites are sometimes different to sites selected purely for their carbon-stocking potential, although they still possess up to 92% of the latter carbon-stocking potential. This work provides the first continental-scale assessment of which areas may provide the greatest direct and indirect benefits from carbon storage reforestation projects at the smallest costs and risks, providing crucial information for prioritization of investments in carbon storage projects.

  14. Is There a Limit to Growth? Comparing the Environmental Cost of an Airport’s Operations with Its Economic Benefit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherie Lu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available With the growing global awareness of the requirement for sustainable development, economic development is no longer the sole objective of business activities. The need to find a balance between environmental impacts and economic benefits is especially the case for airport operations in or around cities. This study measured the environmental costs and economic benefits and of an airport for a period of 10 years, using Taipei Songshan Airport for the empirical analysis, to examine whether the environmental costs could outweigh the economic benefits. Of all the environmental negative side effects, aircraft engine emissions and noise nuisance are considered the main sources of environmental impacts. The dose-response method and the hedonic price method, respectively, were used for estimating the social costs of these. Income generation from both direct and secondary employment is measured as economic benefits by applying the Garin-Lowry model, originally developed in 1966, for estimation of the employment multiplier. The results show that, in general, the operation of Taipei Songshan Airport brought more economic benefits than environmental costs. The sensitivity analysis of emissions and noise social cost parameters shows that the environmental costs might have exceeded the economic benefits in 2008 and 2009 in certain high emissions and noise social cost cases.

  15. The potential monetary benefits of reclaiming hazardous waste sites in the Campania region: an economic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerriero, Carla; Cairns, John

    2009-06-24

    Evaluating the economic benefit of reducing negative health outcomes resulting from waste management is of pivotal importance for designing an effective waste policy that takes into account the health consequences for the populations exposed to environmental hazards. Despite the high level of Italian and international media interest in the problem of hazardous waste in Campania little has been done to reclaim the land and the waterways contaminated by hazardous waste. This study aims to reduce the uncertainty about health damage due to waste exposure by providing for the first time a monetary valuation of health benefits arising from the reclamation of hazardous waste dumps in Campania. First the criteria by which the landfills in the Campania region, in particular in the two provinces of Naples and Caserta, have been classified are described. Then, the annual cases of premature death and fatal cases of cancers attributable to waste exposure are quantified. Finally, the present value of the health benefits from the reclamation of polluted land is estimated for each of the health outcomes (premature mortality, fatal cancer and premature mortality adjusted for the cancer premium). Due to the uncertainty about the time frame of the benefits arising from reclamation, the latency of the effects of toxic waste on human health and the lack of context specific estimates of the Value of Preventing a Fatality (VPF), extensive sensitivity analyses are performed. There are estimated to be 848 cases of premature mortality and 403 cases of fatal cancer per year as a consequence of exposure to toxic waste. The present value of the benefit of reducing the number of waste associated deaths after adjusting for a cancer premium is euro11.6 billion. This value ranges from euro5.4 to euro20.0 billion assuming a time frame for benefits of 10 and 50 years respectively. This study suggests that there is a strong economic argument for both reclaiming the land contaminated with hazardous

  16. The potential monetary benefits of reclaiming hazardous waste sites in the Campania region: an economic evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cairns John

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evaluating the economic benefit of reducing negative health outcomes resulting from waste management is of pivotal importance for designing an effective waste policy that takes into account the health consequences for the populations exposed to environmental hazards. Despite the high level of Italian and international media interest in the problem of hazardous waste in Campania little has been done to reclaim the land and the waterways contaminated by hazardous waste. Objective This study aims to reduce the uncertainty about health damage due to waste exposure by providing for the first time a monetary valuation of health benefits arising from the reclamation of hazardous waste dumps in Campania. Methods First the criteria by which the landfills in the Campania region, in particular in the two provinces of Naples and Caserta, have been classified are described. Then, the annual cases of premature death and fatal cases of cancers attributable to waste exposure are quantified. Finally, the present value of the health benefits from the reclamation of polluted land is estimated for each of the health outcomes (premature mortality, fatal cancer and premature mortality adjusted for the cancer premium. Due to the uncertainty about the time frame of the benefits arising from reclamation, the latency of the effects of toxic waste on human health and the lack of context specific estimates of the Value of Preventing a Fatality (VPF, extensive sensitivity analyses are performed. Results There are estimated to be 848 cases of premature mortality and 403 cases of fatal cancer per year as a consequence of exposure to toxic waste. The present value of the benefit of reducing the number of waste associated deaths after adjusting for a cancer premium is €11.6 billion. This value ranges from €5.4 to €20.0 billion assuming a time frame for benefits of 10 and 50 years respectively. Conclusion This study suggests that there is a strong

  17. Techno-economic analysis and decision making for PHEV benefits to society, consumers, policymakers and automakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Alawi, Baha Mohammed

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are an emerging automotive technology that has the capability to reduce transportation environmental impacts, but at an increased production cost. PHEVs can draw and store energy from an electric grid and consequently show reductions in petroleum consumption, air emissions, ownership costs, and regulation compliance costs, and various other externalities. Decision makers in the policy, consumer, and industry spheres would like to understand the impact of HEV and PHEV technologies on the U.S. vehicle fleets, but to date, only the disciplinary characteristics of PHEVs been considered. The multidisciplinary tradeoffs between vehicle energy sources, policy requirements, market conditions, consumer preferences and technology improvements are not well understood. For example, the results of recent studies have posited the importance of PHEVs to the future US vehicle fleet. No studies have considered the value of PHEVs to automakers and policy makers as a tool for achieving US corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) standards which are planned to double by 2030. Previous studies have demonstrated the cost and benefit of PHEVs but there is no study that comprehensively accounts for the cost and benefits of PHEV to consumers. The diffusion rate of hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) and PHEV technology into the marketplace has been estimated by existing studies using various tools and scenarios, but results show wide variations between studies. There is no comprehensive modeling study that combines policy, consumers, society and automakers in the U.S. new vehicle sales cost and benefits analysis. The aim of this research is to build a potential framework that can simulate and optimize the benefits of PHEVs for a multiplicity of stakeholders. This dissertation describes the results of modeling that integrates the effects of PHEV market penetration on policy, consumer and economic spheres. A model of fleet fuel economy and CAFE compliance for

  18. Economic benefits of arsenic removal from ground water--a case study from West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Joyashree

    2008-07-01

    People living in almost 50% of the districts in West Bengal are exposed to arsenic contaminated water. This paper seeks to estimate the economic costs imposed by arsenic-related health problems. We use data from a primary survey of 473 households carried out in the districts of North 24 Parganas and Midnapore. We take into account household actions to either decrease the exposure of family members to unsafe water or to alleviate the health effects of consuming arsenic-contaminated water. This allows us to assess the benefits of arsenic-safe water by estimating a three equation system that includes averting actions, medical expenditures and a sickness function. We find that by reducing arsenic concentration to the safe limit of 50 microg/l, a representative household will benefit by Rs 297 ($7) per month. The current cost of supplying filtered piped water by the Kolkata Municipal Corporation to households is Rs 127 ($3) per month per household. Thus, investing in safe drinking water is economically feasible and households are willing to pay for such investments if made aware of the effective gain in welfare. Poor households, who make up the highest proportion of arsenic-affected households and incur the largest number of sick days, will be major beneficiaries of such investments.

  19. The Long-Term Economic Benefits of Natural Mentoring Relationships for Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timpe, Zach C; Lunkenheimer, Erika

    2015-09-01

    Natural mentors have been shown to help improve psychological and educational outcomes of youth, and may serve an important role for youth experiencing risk in the home. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health), we investigated the associations between natural mentors during youth and income during early adulthood, including how these relations were moderated by the absence of a father figure and race. We also estimated the lifetime economic benefits to having a natural mentor. The presence of a natural mentor alone did not have a significant impact on annual earnings during adulthood. However, youth without a father but who had a male mentor earned significantly more, on average, than those without a male mentor. These effects were more pronounced in a subsample of African American youth. The net present value of total lifetime benefits to having a male natural mentor was approximately $190,000 for all fatherless youth and $458,000 for African American fatherless youth. These results suggest that natural mentors play a crucial role in economic outcomes for youth, which may vary by sociodemographic factors.

  20. Economic Benefit of Introducing a Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) in Kano State Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, K. A.; Afolabi, S.; Nda, M.; Daura, H. A.

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this study is to know the variables use in quantifying economic benefits of public transport project, contribution of public transport to economic productivity This paper attempts to provide a Road User Cost (RUC) comparison of current usage of Buses and Cars in three different stages which are the present time, do nothing and the introduction of new modes. Vehicle operating cost (VOC), value of time (VOT), pollution cost, accident cost and environmental cost are calculated in other to know the benefits for their abilities to ensure accessibility and mobility, reduce accidents and reduce environmental loss. The study stretch involves an 11.1 km of 2-lane divided carriageway road connecting Kabuga bus stop to Janguza market. Social costs which included accident costs, accident cost of cars (private modes) were found to be 50 times the accident cost of bus accidents. California Air Resource Board (CARB) model was adopted to evaluate Environmental costs. The total road user costs were then obtained to provide comparative evaluation among the study modes. Furthermore, the multiple future scenarios were created to provide understanding about the need for inclusion of other modes. In this regard, this paper provided a framework for the cost evaluation for an urban area and results indicate that buses are more cost-effective in transportation of equivalent number of passengers.

  1. Unequal Exchange of Air Pollution and Economic Benefits Embodied in China's Exports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Wang, Feng; Hubacek, Klaus; Liu, Yu; Wang, Jinnan; Feng, Kuishuang; Jiang, Ling; Jiang, Hongqiang; Zhang, Bing; Bi, Jun

    2018-04-03

    As the world's factory, China has enjoyed huge economic benefits from international export but also suffered severe environmental consequences. Most studies investigating unequal environmental exchange associated with trade took China as a homogeneous entity ignoring considerable inequality and outsourcing of pollution within China. This paper traces the regional mismatch of export-induced economic benefits and environmental costs along national supply chains by using the latest multiregional input-output model and emission inventory for 2012. The results indicate that approximately 56% of the national GDP induced by exports has been received by developed coastal regions, while about 72% of air pollution embodied in national exports, measured as aggregated atmospheric pollutant equivalents (APE), has been mainly incurred by less developed central and western regions. For each yuan of export-induced GDP, developed regions only incurred 0.4-0.6 g APE emissions, whereas less developed regions from western or central China had to suffer 4-8 times the amount of emissions. This is due to poorer regions providing lower value added and higher emission-intensive inputs and having lower environmental standards and less efficient technologies. Our results may pave a way to mitigate the unequal relationship between developed and less developed regions from the perspective of environment-economy nexus.

  2. Assessment of economic benefits and costs of marine managed areas in Hawaii, 1998 - 2003 (NODC Accession 0001756)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset combines the research results from a number of papers carried out under the study "Assessment of Economic Benefits and Costs of Marine Managed Areas in...

  3. Assessment of Economic Benefits and Costs of Marine Managed Areas in Hawaii 1998-2003 (NODC Accession 0001756)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset combines the research results from a number of papers carried out under the study "Assessment of Economic Benefits and Costs of Marine Managed Areas in...

  4. Technological, economic and financial prospects of carbon dioxide capture in the cement industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jia; Tharakan, Pradeep; Macdonald, Douglas; Liang, Xi

    2013-01-01

    Cement is the second largest anthropogenic emission source, contributing approximately 7% of global CO 2 emissions. Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technology is considered by the International Energy Agency (IEA) as an essential technology capable of reducing CO 2 emissions in the cement sector by 56% by 2050. The study compares CO 2 capture technologies for the cement manufacturing process and analyses the economic and financial issues in deploying CO 2 capture in the cement industry. Post-combustion capture with chemical absorption is regarded as a proven technology to capture CO 2 from the calcination process. Oxyfuel is less mature but Oxyfuel partial capture—which only recycles O 2 /CO 2 gas in the precalciner—is estimated to be more economic than post-combustion capture. Carbonate looping technologies are not yet commercial, but they have theoretical advantages in terms of energy consumption. In contrast with coal-fired power plants, CO 2 capture in the cement industry benefits from a higher concentration of CO 2 in the flue gas, but the benefit is offset by higher SO x and NO x levels and the smaller scale of emissions from each plant. Concerning the prospects for financing cement plant CO 2 capture, large cement manufacturers on average have a higher ROE (return on equity) and lower debt ratio, thus a higher discount rate should be considered for the cost analysis than in power plants. IEA estimates that the incremental cost for deploying CCS to decarbonise the global cement sector is in the range US$350–840 billion. The cost estimates for deploying state-of-the art post-combustion CO 2 capture technologies in cement plants are above $60 to avoid each tonne of CO 2 emissions. However, the expectation is that the current market can only provide a minority of financial support for CO 2 capture in cement plants. Public financial support and/or CO 2 utilisation will be essential to trigger large-scale CCS demonstration projects in the cement

  5. Model developments for quantitative estimates of the benefits of the signals on nuclear power plant availability and economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seong, Poong Hyun

    1993-01-01

    A novel framework for quantitative estimates of the benefits of signals on nuclear power plant availability and economics has been developed in this work. The models developed in this work quantify how the perfect signals affect the human operator's success in restoring the power plant to the desired state when it enters undesirable transients. Also, the models quantify the economic benefits of these perfect signals. The models have been applied to the condensate feedwater system of the nuclear power plant for demonstration. (Author)

  6. ECONOMIC BENEFITS OF LEFT VENTRICULAR HYPERTROPHY REGRESSION IN PATIENTS WITH ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Tarlovskaya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate by modelling the economic benefits of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH regression in patients with arterial hypertension (HT due to therapy with fixed combination of valsartan/amlodipine.  Material and methods. 20 patients (15 females and 5 males, aged 18 to 70 years with essential HT accompanied by metabolic syndrome with a history of previous ineffective antihypertensive therapy were included into the study. All patients were treated with fixed combination of amlodipine/valsartan in doses of 5/160 and 10/160 mg depending on blood pressure (BP level. Treatment duration was 24 weeks. Changes in BP level, LVH regression were assessed. Economic evaluation was performed on the basis of modelling with the specialized software Decision Tree 4.xla. Results. Effect of fixed amlodipine/valsartan combination therapy on LVH was used to estimate treatment effectiveness and to build the model. Patients were distributed according to left ventricular (LV mass (at baseline and after 24 weeks of therapy. Significant decrease in LV mass from 205.8±50.4 to 181.9±45.1 g (p<0.05 was revealed. The model took into account economic and frequency factors for 10 year prognosis: this therapy prevents 36 deaths, 6 strokes, 24 myocardial infarction per 1000 patients. Absence of need in treatment of these prevented events can save 2 516 772.42 RUR for every 1 000 patients. It would reduce the total costs per patient during 10 years. Conclusion. Treatment with amlodipine/valsartan single pill combination has not only clinical advantages, but also pharmacoeconomic benefits. This combination reduces risk of acute myocardial infarction and death more effectively. Treatment with fixed valsartan/amlodipine combination saves maximum years of life with less cost during 10 years. Despite of higher pharmacotherapy costs, fixed valsartan/amlodipine combination reduces total costs due to prevention of fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular events.

  7. Economic benefits from food recovery at the retail stage: an application to Italian food chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuseppe, Aiello; Mario, Enea; Cinzia, Muriana

    2014-07-01

    The food supply chain is affected by losses of products near to their expiry date or damaged by improper transportation or production defects. Such products are usually poorly attractive for the consumer in the target market even if they maintain their nutritional properties. On the other hand undernourished people face every day the problem of fulfilling their nutritional needs usually relying on non-profit organizations. In this field the food recovery enabling economic benefits for donors is nowadays seen as a coherent way to manage food products unsalable in the target market for various causes and thus destined to be discarded and disposed to landfill thus representing only a cost. Despite its obvious affordability the food recovery is today not always practiced because the economic benefits that could be achieved are barely known. The paper aims at presenting a deterministic mathematical model for the optimization of the supply chain composed by retailers and potential recipients that practice the food recovery, taking into account the benefits recognized to donors and the management costs of the food recovery. The model determines the optimal time to withdraw the products from the shelves as well as the quantities to be donated to the non-profit organizations and those to be sent to the livestock market maximizing the retailer profit. The results show that the optimal conditions ensuring the affordability of the food recovery strategy including the tax reliefs and cost saving for the retailers outperforms the profit achievable in absence of such a system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Seeing the impact: The socio-economic benefits of peaceful nuclear technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkart, W.; Rosenthal, M.D.

    2003-01-01

    The widespread use of 'atoms for peace' brings tens of billions of dollars of benefits annually to people across the globe. They contribute to better medical care, food production, electricity generation, and manufacturing, for example. In many countries today, nuclear and radiation technologies are established, dynamic components of national economies. But dollars and cents tell only part of the story, and figures are not equally sustainable for all countries that apply nuclear technologies. Better assessments are needed of when, where, and why the atom's peaceful benefits can be realized, and as importantly, how they can be sustained. The information is important for decision-makers and the public alike. Even the most novel or sophisticated nuclear techniques do not stand alone, and nuclear technology decisions must be framed in a larger picture. Nuclear applications have to be judged against their potential contributions and compared to conventional competitors. They must be measured, too, in terms of cost, reliability, safety, simplicity, sustainability and other factors central to plans of governments, private companies, research institutes and consumers. For all these constituencies, more reliable information is needed to assist in making choices. In the nuclear area, the information is often rightly or wrongly shaped by perceptions and misperceptions about risk. In addition, new challenges - such as privatization in electricity production and health care-need to be taken into account to evaluate fairly the economic competitiveness and future of nuclear applications. Through informed assessments, we can reach a better understanding of the impact of peaceful nuclear applications, which will help countries make better decisions on future uses. This article takes stock of the peaceful atom's social and economic impact and compares different approaches to assessing benefits. Such assessments can provide important insights about how nuclear applications can best

  9. Carbon Policy and Technical Change: Market Structure, Increasing Returns, and Secondary Benefits. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peretto, P.; Smith, V. K.

    2001-11-19

    An economic evaluation of the impact of policies intended to control emissions of CO{sub 2} and other ''greenhouse gases'' (GHGS) depends on the net costs of these controls and their distribution throughout the production sectors of developed and developing economics. The answers derived from appraisals of these net costs, in turn, stem from what is assumed about the timing of the controls, the pace of technological change, and any short-term secondary benefits from their control. There have only been a few serious attempts to estimate the economic benefits from the policies associated with such long run outcomes. All of the approaches to date have made fairly strong assumptions or relied on contingent valuation estimates of hypothetical situations.

  10. Promoting sustainable economic growth in South Africa through the production and export of low-carbon environmental goods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoinette van Niekerk

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Many countries, particularly those in the developing world, are under increasing pressure to improve their growth rates in order to tackle pressing economic problems at the domestic level. Increasing export volumes can make a positive contribution to a country’s economic growth rate, but it can also endanger the environment. How to reconcile the often conflicting phenomena of increased export activity, stronger economic growth and a lower carbon footprint is the focus of this study. A core outcome of the study was the creation of a single list using a cross-section of international sources, of low-carbon environmental goods, and their ranking according to their inherent ability to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, South Africa’s capacity to produce them, and their economic benefits, as reflected in the export opportunities they present. These export opportunities were revealed through the application of the Decision Support Model (DSM, an export market selection tool that incorporates a systematic filtering and screening system. The results of the analysis should help guide policymakers in their strategic deliberations on which export sectors to incentivise and support with a view to encouraging more ‘green’ growth in South Africa in the years ahead. diffusion of such goods. If the production and export of environmental goods were to increase, it could have a potentially positive effect on economic and environmental objectives, such as raising economic growth rates and lowering greenhouse gas intensity, respectively. For the purpose of this study, an analysis of four existing lists of environmental goods led to the identification of 39 core environmental goods. These 39 goods were ranked according to three criteria: i the potential environmental benefits of each environmental good, using consensus among role players as a proxy; ii South Africa’s capacity to produce each environmental good, using the Revealed Comparative Advantage (RCA

  11. An economical device for carbon supplement in large-scale micro-algae production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Zhenfeng; Kang, Ruijuan; Shi, Shaoyuan; Cong, Wei; Cai, Zhaoling

    2008-10-01

    One simple but efficient carbon-supplying device was designed and developed, and the correlative carbon-supplying technology was described. The absorbing characterization of this device was studied. The carbon-supplying system proved to be economical for large-scale cultivation of Spirulina sp. in an outdoor raceway pond, and the gaseous carbon dioxide absorptivity was enhanced above 78%, which could reduce the production cost greatly.

  12. Measuring the regional economic impact of mega-events: what are the benefits of the 2014 Olympics for Sochi?

    OpenAIRE

    Mueller, Martin

    2009-01-01

    The economic benefits of mega-events such as the Olympic Games are much touted but little quantified. This paper first presents a systematisation of the money streams associated with hosting the Olympic Games and then introduces basic concepts from regional economics. On this basis it outlines a general model that could be employed to estimate the regional economic impact of tourism associated with the Olympic Winter Games in Sochi in 2014.

  13. Effect of tariffs on the performance and economic benefits of PV-coupled battery systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parra, David; Patel, Martin K.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Pb-acid and Li-ion batteries are compared under three different retail tariffs. • The battery ageing, i.e. capacity and discharge capability reduction is simulated. • A dynamic tariff (1-h resolution) increases the battery discharge value up to 28%. • A Li-ion cost of 375 CHF/kW h is required for Geneva for PV energy time-shift. • This requirement becomes 500 CHF/kW h if demand peak-shaving is also performed. - Abstract: The use of batteries in combination with PV systems in single homes is expected to become a widely applied energy storage solution. Since PV system cost is decreasing and the electricity market is constantly evolving there is marked interest in understanding the performance and economic benefits of adding battery systems to PV generation under different retail tariffs. The performance of lead-acid (PbA) and lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery systems in combination with PV generation for a single home in Switzerland is studied using a time-dependant analysis. Firstly, the economic benefits of the two battery types are analysed for three different types of tariffs, i.e. a dynamic tariff based on the wholesale market (one price per hour for every day of the year), a flat rate and time-of-use tariff with two periods. Secondly, the reduction of battery capacity and annual discharge throughout the battery lifetime are simulated for PbA and Li-ion batteries. It was found that despite the levelised value of battery systems reaches up to 28% higher values with the dynamic tariff compared to the flat rate tariff, the levelised cost increases by 94% for the dynamic tariff, resulting in lower profitability. The main reason for this is the reduction of equivalent full cycles performed with by battery systems with the dynamic tariff. Economic benefits also depend on the regulatory context and Li-ion battery systems were able to achieve internal rate of return (IRR) up to 0.8% and 4.3% in the region of Jura (Switzerland) and Germany due to

  14. Assessing the probability of carbon and greenhouse gas benefit from the management of peat soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worrall, F.; Bell, M.J.; Bhogal, A.

    2010-01-01

    This study proposes a method for assessing the probability that land management interventions will lead to an improvement in the carbon sink represented by peat soils. The method is able to: combine studies of different carbon uptake and release pathways in order to assess changes on the overall carbon or greenhouse gas budget; calculate the probability of the management or restoration leading to an improvement in the budget; calculate the uncertainty in that probability estimate; estimate the equivalent number of complete budgets available from the combination of the literature; test the difference in the outcome of different land management interventions; and provide a method for updating the predicted probabilities as new studies become available. Using this methodology, this study considered the impact of: afforestation, managed burning, drainage, drain-blocking, grazing removal; and revegetation, on the carbon budget of peat soils in the UK. The study showed that afforestation, drain-blocking, revegetation, grazing removal and cessation of managed burning would bring a carbon benefit, whereas deforestation, managed burning and drainage would bring a disbenefit. The predicted probabilities of a benefit are often equivocal as each management type or restoration often leads to increase in uptake in one pathway while increasing losses in another.

  15. Technical benefit and risk analysis on cement clinkering process with compact internal burning of carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Hanmin

    2015-01-01

    This article demonstrates the potential technical benefit and risk for cement clinkering process with compact internal burning of carbon, a laboratory-phase developing technique, from 9 aspects, including the heat consumption of clinkering and exhaust heat utilization, clinker quality, adaptability to alternative fuels, the disposal ability of industrial offal and civil garbage, adaptability to the raw materials and fuels with high content of chlorine, sulphur and alkali, the feasibility of process scale up, the briquetting process of the coal-containing cement raw meal pellet, NO x emission and the capital cost and benefit of conversion project. It is concluded that it will be able to replace the modern precalciner rotary kiln process and to become the main stream technique of cement clinkering process in low carbon economy times. - Highlights: • Compact internal burning of carbon enables cement shaft kiln to run stably. • Compact internal burning of carbon enables cement shaft kiln to scale up. • New process triples energy efficiency with excellent environmental performance. • It will be able to compete with and replace the existing precalciner kiln process. • It will become the mainstream clinkering process in low carbon economy

  16. Soil organic carbon stocks under native vegetation - revised estimates for use with the simple assessment option of the Carbon Benefits Project system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batjes, N.H.

    2011-01-01

    The Carbon Benefits Project (CBP) is developing a standardized system for sustainable land management projects to measure, model and report changes in carbon stocks and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for use at varying scales. A global framework of soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks under native

  17. Unintended benefits: the potential economic impact of addressing risk factors to prevent Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Pei-Jung; Yang, Zhou; Fillit, Howard M; Cohen, Joshua T; Neumann, Peter J

    2014-04-01

    Certain chronic conditions appear to be modifiable risk factors of Alzheimer's disease and related dementias. To understand the potential health and economic impacts of addressing those risk factors, we used data on a Medicare cohort to simulate four scenarios: a 10 percent reduction in the prevalence of diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, respectively, and a 10 percent reduction in body mass index among beneficiaries who were overweight or obese. Our simulation demonstrated that reducing the prevalence of these conditions may yield "unintended benefits" by lowering the risk, delaying the onset, reducing the duration, and lowering the costs of dementia. More research is needed to clarify the exact relationship between various other chronic diseases and dementia. However, our findings highlight potential health gains and savings opportunities stemming from the better management of other conditions associated with dementia.

  18. Economic Benefit from Progressive Integration of Scheduling and Control for Continuous Chemical Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Logan D. R. Beal

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Performance of integrated production scheduling and advanced process control with disturbances is summarized and reviewed with four progressive stages of scheduling and control integration and responsiveness to disturbances: open-loop segregated scheduling and control, closed-loop segregated scheduling and control, open-loop scheduling with consideration of process dynamics, and closed-loop integrated scheduling and control responsive to process disturbances and market fluctuations. Progressive economic benefit from dynamic rescheduling and integrating scheduling and control is shown on a continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR benchmark application in closed-loop simulations over 24 h. A fixed horizon integrated scheduling and control formulation for multi-product, continuous chemical processes is utilized, in which nonlinear model predictive control (NMPC and continuous-time scheduling are combined.

  19. Applying Bayesian decision theory to assess reprocessing economic and social cost-benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heising, C.D.

    1978-01-01

    Bayesian decision theory, combined with conventional systems analysis techniques into the discipline called decision analysis, has been applied in this work to assess economic and social cost-benefits associated with reprocessing nuclear fuel. Particular attention in this paper is given to the models which have been developed to place numerical estimates in dollar terms on the three categories of social risks that have been identified with reprocessing. These categories include: (1) health, environment, and safety, (2) diversion of fissile material, including sabotage, terrorist acts, and subnational diversion, and (3) nuclear proliferation, defined to be a diversion at the national level to obtain weapons capability. The emphasis is placed on the third category, as proliferation risk has not been treated elsewhere in a quantitative fashion; most arguments have in the main been qualitative conjectures put forth by political scientists

  20. Carbon mitigation with biomass: An engineering, economic and policy assessment of opportunities and implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, James S., III

    2007-12-01

    C"), equivalent to roughly 3% of U.S. GHG emissions. In the medium or longer term, integration of carbon capture and storage technologies with advanced bio-energy conversion technologies ("biomass-CCS"), in both liquid fuels production and electric sector applications, will likely be feasible. These systems are capable of generating useful energy products with negative net atmospheric carbon emissions at carbon prices between 100 and 200 per tC. Negative emissions from biomass-CCS could be applied to offset emissions sources that are difficult or expensive to abate directly. Such indirect mitigation may prove cost competitive and provide important flexibility in achieving stabilization of atmospheric GHG concentrations at desirable levels. With increasing deployments, alternate bio-energy systems will eventually compete for limited biomass resources and inputs to agricultural production--particularly land. In this context, resource allocation decisions will likely turn on the relative economic performance of alternate bio-energy systems in their respective energy markets. The relatively large uncertainty in forecasts of energy futures confounds reliable prediction of economically efficient uses for available biomass resources. High oil prices or large valuation of energy security benefits will likely enable bio-fuels production to dominate electric-sector options. In contrast, low oil prices and low valuation of energy security benefits will likely enable electric-sector applications to dominate. In the latter scenario, indirect mitigation of transportation-sector emissions via emissions offsets from electric-sector biomass-CCS could prove more efficient than direct fuel substitution with biofuels, both economically and in terms of the transportation-sector mitigation of available biomass resources [tC tbiomass-1]. The policy environment surrounding industrial bio-energy development is systematically examined. Specifically, the policy objectives that may be advanced with bio

  1. Beyond fuelwood savings. Valuing the economic benefits of introducing improved biomass cookstoves in the Purepecha region of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Frapolli, Eduardo; Schilmann, Astrid; Berrueta, Victor M.; Riojas-Rodriguez, Horacio; Edwards, Rufus D.; Johnson, Michael; Guevara-Sangines, Alejandro; Armendariz, Cynthia; Masera, Omar

    2010-01-01

    Half of the world population relies on biomass for cooking, with very significant health as well as climate change impacts. Improved cookstoves have been disseminated as an alternative to reduce these impacts. However, few detailed studies about the economic benefits of improved cookstoves (ICS) interventions, including environmental and health co-benefits, exist to date. In this paper we perform a comprehensive economic evaluation of a dissemination program of ICS in rural Mexico. The resulting cost-benefit analysis (CBA) of the Patsari improved cookstove is presented, utilizing estimation of direct costs and benefits, including fuelwood savings, income generation, health impacts, environmental conservation, and reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. The analysis is based on comprehensive data obtained through monitoring studies carried out in the Study Area from 2003 to the present. Results show that Patsari cookstoves represent a viable economic option for improving living conditions of the poorest inhabitants of rural Mexico, with benefit/cost ratios estimated between 11.4:1 and 9:1. The largest contributors to economic benefits stemmed from fuelwood savings and reductions in health impacts, which constituted 53% and 28% of the overall benefit, respectively. (author)

  2. A Pedagogical Note on Modeling the Economic Benefit of Emissions Abatement vs. the Economic Harm from Emissions

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher S. Decker

    2012-01-01

    The number of undergraduate-level textbooks on environmental economics has increased in recent years, but the textbook treatment of optimal emissions (abatement) varies markedly from textbook to textbook. In particular, there is no consensus as to whether to model the economic “bad” (i.e. emissions) or the economic “good” (abatement). This inconsistency can lead to some needless confusion for students introduced to environmental economics for the first time, particularly those students outsid...

  3. From demonstration to deployment: An economic analysis of support policies for carbon capture and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krahé, Max; Heidug, Wolf; Ward, John; Smale, Robin

    2013-01-01

    This paper argues that an integrated policy architecture consisting of multiple policy phases and economic instruments is needed to support the development of carbon capture and storage (CCS) from its present demonstration phase to full-scale deployment. Building on an analysis of the different types of policy instruments to correct market failures specific to CCS in its various stages of development, we suggest a way to combine these into an integrated policy architecture. This policy architecture adapts to the need of a maturing technology, meets the requirement of policymakers to maintain flexibility to respond to changing circumstances while providing investors with the policy certainty that is needed to encourage private sector investment. This combination of flexibility and predictability is achieved through the use of ‘policy gateways’ which explicitly define rules and criteria for when and how policy settings will change. Our findings extend to bioenergy-based CCS applications (BECCS), which could potentially achieve negative emissions. We argue that within a framework of correcting the carbon externality, the added environmental benefits of BECCS should be reflected in an extra incentive. - Highlights: • Sensible aim of current climate policy: secure option of future CCS deployment. • But policy makers require flexibility while private investors require predictability. • Integrating CCS policy into an overall policy architecture can overcome this antinomy. • We describe the key features of a good policy architecture and give an example

  4. Economics of forest and forest carbon projects. Translating lessons learned into national REDD+ implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaballa Romero, M.; Traerup, S.; Wieben, E.; Ravnkilde Moeller, L.; Koch, A.

    2013-01-15

    The financial implications of implementing a new forest management paradigm have not been well understood and have often been underestimated. Resource needs for e.g., stakeholder consultation, capacity building and addressing the political economy are seldom fully accounted for in the resource needs estimates put forward in connection to REDD+. This report investigates the economics of implementing forest and REDD+ projects through eight case studies from Africa, Latin America and Asia, analyzing real forest and REDD+ investments. The report is part of efforts to share financial experiences and lessons learned with policymakers, project developers and stakeholders, with the objective to inform forest project and strategy development. It presents experiences and advice on the risks, costs and revenues of forest projects, thereby informing not only the development of future REDD+ initiatives but also the testing of advanced market commitments as a finance option for sustainable forest management. The findings in the report underline the fact that only through sound and transparent financial information will forest projects and national forest initiatives become interesting for private financial institutions and comparable with other investment opportunities. It is therefore important to include robust analysis of the operations business case and its financial attractiveness to commercial investors, early in the design process. As for the economics of forest and forest carbon projects, it appears that REDD+ payments alone, especially at current prices, will not deliver the revenues that cover all expenses of transparent and long-term mitigation of forest carbon emissions. Instead the findings underline the importance of building up forest operations which effectively manages risk and delivers several revenue streams. These findings are aligned with the advocacy efforts of UNEP and the UN-REDD Programme on multiple benefits and the combination of various funding and

  5. The economic benefit of short-term forecasting for wind energy in the UK electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barthelmie, R.J.; Murray, F.; Pryor, S.C.

    2008-01-01

    In the UK market, the total price of renewable electricity is made up of the Renewables Obligation Certificate and the price achieved for the electricity. Accurate forecasting improves the price if electricity is traded via the power exchange. In order to understand the size of wind farm for which short-term forecasting becomes economically viable, we develop a model for wind energy. Simulations were carried out for 2003 electricity prices for different forecast accuracies and strategies. The results indicate that it is possible to increase the price obtained by around pound 5/MWh which is about 14% of the electricity price in 2003 and about 6% of the total price. We show that the economic benefit of using short-term forecasting is also dependant on the accuracy and cost of purchasing the forecast. As the amount of wind energy requiring integration into the grid increases, short-term forecasting becomes more important to both wind farm owners and the transmission/distribution operators. (author)

  6. Economic impact of a nationwide outbreak of salmonellosis: cost-benefit of early intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, J A; Sockett, P N; Gill, O N

    1989-05-06

    The recognition and investigation of an outbreak of food poisoning in 1982 due to chocolate contaminated with Salmonella napoli enabled the food that carried the salmonella to be identified and four fifths of the implicated consignment of chocolate to be withdrawn. The economic benefits of prompt intervention in the outbreak have been assessed. The cost of the outbreak was over 0.5 pounds m. It is estimated that five deaths were prevented by the intervention and that 185 admissions to hospital and 29,000 cases of S napoli enteritis were avoided. This successful investigation yielded a 3.5-fold rate of return to the public sector and a 23.3-fold return to society on an investment in public health surveillance. A methodology is described that can be used to estimate the benefits of early intervention in outbreaks of foodborne illness and topics for further research are suggested. It is concluded that public health authorities and industry have much to gain by collaborating in the research into the design of cost effective programmes to prevent foodborne infections.

  7. The long-term health and economic benefits of DOTS implementation in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxlade, Olivia; Vaca, Judyth; Romero, Elizabeth; Schwartzman, Kevin; Graham, Brian; Hernandez, Lucero; Tannenbaum, Terry; Menzies, Dick

    2006-01-01

    Between April 2001 and March 2004, the Directly Observed Therapy-Short course (DOTS) program was successfully implemented by the National Tuberculosis control program, with assistance from the Canadian Lung Association, in three provinces of Ecuador, where 52% of the population of the country reside. Markov modelling was used to project TB-related morbidity, mortality and costs if the former TB control program (status quo) had continued or if the newly expanded DOTS program is maintained over 20 years. Extensive sensitivity analyses were used to determine the effect on projected outcomes of varying key assumptions. If DOTS is maintained over the next 20 years, we predict that 18,760 cases and 15,812 TB-related deaths will be prevented, resulting in societal savings of dollars 203 million and government savings of dollars 7.1 million (all costs in dollars US). These findings were robust in extensive sensitivity analyses. Given the initial investment of dollars 3 million for DOTS implementation, this would mean a cost of dollars 190 per life saved. Implementation of DOTS could yield very substantial public health and economic benefits for Ecuador. These results demonstrate the benefits from Canadian government support for DOTS implementation in low- and middle-income countries.

  8. The Economic Implications of Introducing Carbon Taxes in South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Thomas Channing

    2014-01-01

    carbon adjustments. Results indicate that a phased-in carbon tax of US$30 per ton of CO2 can achieve national emissions reductions targets set for 2025. Relative to a baseline with free disposal of CO2, constant world prices and no change in trading partner behavior, the preferred tax scenario reduces......South Africa is considering introducing a carbon tax to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Following a discussion of the motivations for considering a carbon tax, we evaluate potential impacts using a dynamic economywide model linked to an energy sector model including a detailed evaluation of border...

  9. ECONOMIC COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF COMBINATION OF ACTIVATED CARBON GENERATION AND SPENT ACTIVATED CARBON REGENERATION PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TINNABHOP SANTADKHA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the maximum annual profit of proposed three project plants as follows: (i a generation process of activated carbon (AC prepared from coconut shells; (ii a regeneration process of spent AC obtained from petrochemical industries; and (iii a project combined the AC generation process with the regeneration process. The maximum annual profit obtained from the sole regeneration plant was about 1.2- and 15.4- fold higher than that obtained from the integrated and the generation plants, respectively. The sensitivity of selected variables to net present value (NPV, AC sales price was the most sensitive to NPV while fixed costs of generation and regeneration, and variable cost of regeneration were the least sensitive to NPV. Based on the optimal results of each project plant, the economic indicators namely NPV, return on investment (ROI, internal rate of return (IRR, and simple payback period (SPP were determined. Applying a rule of thumb of 12% IRR and 7-year SPP, the AC sales prices for the generation, regeneration, and integrated plants were 674.31, 514.66 and 536.66 USD/ton of product, respectively. The economic analysis suggested that the sole regeneration project yields more profitable.

  10. [Participant structure and economic benefit of prevention bonus programmes in company health insurance funds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrichs, M; Friedel, H; Bödeker, W

    2009-10-01

    This study investigates differences in sex, age, and educational level between participants and non-participants of prevention bonus programmes. The differences in the utilisation of drugs, hospital care, and sickness absence before the start of the programmes between these groups are also shown. Finally the economic benefit of the health insurance funds attributed to these programmes is estimated. Data from some 5.2 million insured subjects of 74 company health insurance funds in Germany were linked to information on enrollment into a prevention bonus programme anonymously. In a descriptive analysis the differences in the sociodemographic patterns between both groups are shown as well as the differences in costs to the health insurances in the three sectors mentioned above. The benefit to the health insurance funds is estimated by means of an analysis of covariance. Prevention bonus programmes yields an annual benefit of at least 129 euro per participant. Men aged 40 and older and women aged 30 and older are more likely to opt into such a programme. The same is true for persons with a higher educational level. There are only few differences in health-care utilisation between the participants and non-participants of the programmes before enrollment. Only 1.4% of all insured persons participated in the programmes. There is at least a short-term gain to both involved parties: the insured and the health insurance funds. The programmes are not dominated by deadweight effects. Long-term effects and effectiveness of prevention bonus programmes still have to be investigated. Copyright Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart . New York.

  11. The health and economic benefits of reducing intimate partner violence: an Australian example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadilhac, Dominique A; Sheppard, Lauren; Cumming, Toby B; Thayabaranathan, Tharshanah; Pearce, Dora C; Carter, Rob; Magnus, Anne

    2015-07-09

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) has important impacts on the health of women in society. Our aim was to estimate the health and economic benefits of reducing the prevalence of IPV in the 2008 Australian female adult population. Simulation models were developed to show the effect of a 5 percentage point absolute feasible reduction target in the prevalence of IPV from current Australian levels (27%). IPV is not measured in national surveys. Levels of psychological distress were used as a proxy for exposure to IPV since psychological conditions represent three-quarters of the disease burden from IPV. Lifetime cohort health benefits for females were estimated as fewer incident cases of violence-related disease and injury; deaths; and Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs). Opportunity cost savings were estimated for the health sector, paid and unpaid production and leisure from reduced incidence of IPV-related disease and deaths. Workforce production gains were estimated by comparing surveyed participation and absenteeism rates of females with moderate psychological distress (lifetime IPV exposure) against high or very high distress (current IPV exposure), and valued using the friction cost approach (FCA). The impact of improved health status on unpaid household production and leisure time were modelled from time use survey data. Potential costs associated with interventions to reduce IPV were not considered. Multivariable uncertainty analyses and univariable sensitivity analyses were undertaken. A 5 percentage point absolute reduction in the lifetime prevalence of IPV in the 2008 Australian female population was estimated to produce 6000 fewer incident cases of disease/injury, 74 fewer deaths, 5000 fewer DALYs lost and provide gains of 926,000 working days, 371,000 days of home-based production and 428,000 leisure days. Overall, AUD371 million in opportunity cost savings could be achievable. The greatest economic savings would be home-based production (AUD147 million

  12. Energy and emissions benefits of renewable energy derived from municipal solid waste: Analysis of a low carbon scenario in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Sie Ting; Hashim, Haslenda; Lim, Jeng Shiun; Ho, Wai Shin; Lee, Chew Tin; Yan, Jinyue

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Feasibility study on the energy and GHG emission reduction for WtE strategies for municipal solid waste (MSW) in Malaysia. • Greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions from WtE strategies analysed using IPCC guideline. • Scenario analysis by comparison of different WtE strategies. • Impact of moisture content of MSW towards energy potential and GHG emission reduction. - Abstract: Ineffective waste management that involves dumping of waste in landfills may degrade valuable land resources and emit methane gas (CH 4 ), a more potent greenhouse gas than carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). The incineration of waste also emits polluted chemicals such as dioxin and particle. Therefore, from a solid waste management perspective, both landfilling and incineration practices pose challenges to the development of a green and sustainable future. Waste-to-energy (WtE) has become a promising strategy catering to these issues because the utilisation of waste reduces the amount of landfilled waste (overcoming land resource issues) while increasing renewable energy production. The goal of this paper is to evaluate the energy and carbon reduction potential in Malaysia for various WtE strategies for municipal solid waste (MSW). The material properties of the MSW, its energy conversion potential and subsequent greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions are analysed based on the chemical compositions and biogenic carbon fractions of the waste. The GHG emission reduction potential is also calculated by considering fossil fuel displacement and CH 4 avoidance from landfilling. In this paper, five different scenarios are analysed with results indicating a integration of landfill gas (LFG) recovery systems and waste incinerator as the major and minor WtE strategies shows the highest economical benefit with optimal GHG mitigation and energy potential. Sensitivity analysis on the effect of moisture content of MSW towards energy potential and GHG emissions are performed. These evaluations of Wt

  13. Energy and economic considerations for ex-situ and aqueous mineral carbonation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Connor, William K.; Dahlin, David C.; Rush, G.E.; Gerdemann, Stephen J.; Penner, L.R.

    2004-01-01

    Due to the scale and breadth of carbon dioxide emissions, and speculation regarding their impact on global climate, sequestration of some portion of these emissions has been under increased study. A practical approach to carbon sequestration will likely include several options, which will be driven largely by the energy demand and economics of operation. Aqueous mineral carbonation of calcium and magnesium silicate minerals has been studied as one potential method to sequester carbon dioxide. Although these carbonation reactions are all thermodynamically favored, they occur at geologic rates of reaction. Laboratory studies have demonstrated that these rates of reaction are accelerated with increasing temperature, pressure, and particle surface area. Mineral-specific activation methods were identified, however, each of these techniques incurs energy as well as economic costs. An overview of the mineral availability, pretreatment options and energy demands, and process economics is provided.

  14. The economic costs and benefits of potassium iodide prophylaxis for a reference LWR facility in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behling, U.H.; Behling, K.

    1995-01-01

    Policy decisions relating to radiation protection are commonly based on an evaluation in which the benefits of exposure reduction are compared to the economic costs of the protective measure. A generic difficulty countered in cost-benefit analyses, however, is the quantification of major elements that define the costs and the benefits in commensurate units. In this study, the costs of making KI (potassium iodine) available for public use and the avoidance of thyroidal health effects (i.e., the benefit) in the event of nuclear emergency are defined in the commensurate units of dollars. (Authors). 11 refs., 15 tabs

  15. Climate change economics: Make carbon pricing a priority

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepburn, Cameron

    2017-06-01

    Estimates of the social cost of carbon vary widely as a function of different ethical parameters. Faced with values ranging from US$10 to US$1,000 per tCO2 and above, some perplexed policymakers have adopted 'target-consistent' carbon pricing instead.

  16. Economics of climate change : sensitivity analysis of social cost of carbon

    OpenAIRE

    Torniainen, Sami

    2016-01-01

    Social cost of carbon (SCC) is the key concept in the economics of climate change. It measures the economic cost of climate impacts. SCC has influence on how beneficial it is to prevent climate change: if the value of SCC increases, investments to low-carbon technology become more attractive and profitable. This paper examines the sensitivity of two important assumptions that affect to SCC: the choice of a discount rate and time horizon. Using the integrated assessment model, ...

  17. Climate constraints on the carbon intensity of economic growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozenberg, Julie; Narloch, Ulf; Hallegatte, Stephane; Davis, Steven J

    2015-01-01

    Development and climate goals together constrain the carbon intensity of production. Using a simple and transparent model that represents committed CO 2 emissions (future emissions expected to come from existing capital), we explore the carbon intensity of production related to new capital required for different temperature targets across several thousand scenarios. Future pathways consistent with the 2 °C target which allow for continued gross domestic product growth require early action to reduce carbon intensity of new production, and either (i) a short lifetime of energy and industry capital (e.g. early retrofit of coal power plants), or (ii) large negative emissions after 2050 (i.e. rapid development and dissemination of carbon capture and sequestration). To achieve the 2 °C target, half of the scenarios indicate a carbon intensity of new production between 33 and 73 g CO 2 /$—much lower than the global average today, at 360 g CO 2 /$. The average lifespan of energy capital (especially power plants), and industry capital, are critical because they commit emissions far into the future and reduce the budget for new capital emissions. Each year of lifetime added to existing, carbon intensive capital, decreases the carbon intensity of new production required to meet a 2 °C carbon budget by 1.0–1.5 g CO 2 /$, and each year of delaying the start of mitigation decreases the required CO 2 intensity of new production by 20–50 g CO 2 /$. Constraints on the carbon intensity of new production under a 3 °C target are considerably relaxed relative to the 2 °C target, but remain daunting in comparison to the carbon intensity of the global economy today. (letter)

  18. Examining carbon emissions economic growth nexus for India: A multivariate cointegration approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Sajal

    2010-01-01

    The study probes cointegration and causality between carbon emissions and economic growth for India using ARDL bounds testing approach complemented by Johansen-Juselius maximum likelihood procedure in a multivariate framework by incorporating energy supply, investment and employment for time span 1971-2006. The study fails to establish long-run equilibrium relationship and long term causality between carbon emissions and economic growth; however, there exists a bi-directional short-run causality between the two. Hence, in the short-run, any effort to reduce carbon emissions could lead to a fall in the national income. This study also establishes unidirectional short-run causality running from economic growth to energy supply and energy supply to carbon emissions. The absence of causality running from energy supply to economic growth implies that in India, energy conservation and energy efficiency measures can be implemented to minimize the wastage of energy across value chain. Such measures would narrow energy demand-supply gap. Absence of long-run causality between carbon emissions and economic growth implies that in the long-run, focus should be given on harnessing energy from clean sources to curb carbon emissions, which would not affect the country's economic growth.

  19. Distribution of Economic Benefits from Ecotourism: A Case Study of Wolong Nature Reserve for Giant Pandas in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Guangming; Chen, Xiaodong; Liu, Wei; Bearer, Scott; Zhou, Shiqiang; Cheng, Lily Yeqing; Zhang, Hemin; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Liu, Jianguo

    2008-12-01

    Ecotourism is widely promoted as a conservation tool and actively practiced in protected areas worldwide. Theoretically, support for conservation from the various types of stakeholder inside and outside protected areas is maximized if stakeholders benefit proportionally to the opportunity costs they bear. The disproportional benefit distribution among stakeholders can erode their support for or lead to the failure of ecotourism and conservation. Using Wolong Nature Reserve for Giant Pandas (China) as an example, we demonstrate two types of uneven distribution of economic benefits among four major groups of stakeholders. First, a significant inequality exists between the local rural residents and the other types of stakeholder. The rural residents are the primary bearers of the cost of conservation, but the majority of economic benefits (investment, employment, and goods) in three key ecotourism sectors (infrastructural construction, hotels/restaurants, and souvenir sales) go to other stakeholders. Second, results show that the distribution of economic benefits is unequal among the rural residents inside the reserve. Most rural households that benefit from ecotourism are located near the main road and potentially have less impact on panda habitat than households far from the road and closer to panda habitats. This distribution gap is likely to discourage conservation support from the latter households, whose activities are the main forces degrading panda habitats. We suggest that the unequal distribution of the benefits from ecotourism can be lessened by enhancing local participation, increasing the use of local goods, and encouraging relocation of rural households closer to ecotourism facilities.

  20. [Eco-economic thinking for developing carbon sink industry in the de-farming regions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ji Jun; Wang, Zheng Shu; Cheng, Si Min; Gu, Wen; Li, Yue; Li, Mao Sen

    2017-12-01

    Based on the potential and the law that plants absorb carbon dioxide, carbon sink industry means certain appropriate artificial intervention to obtain clean air, and to meet people's production and life demand for ecological environment industry. Carbon sink industry is considered as a breakthrough point and a new growth point for optimizing and upgrading of the original relatively balanced or stable agricultural industry-resources system. Among the ecosystem services in the de-farming regions, the rapid increase of the economic manifestation of carbon fixation and oxygen release function and the carbon sink potential, as well as the rise of carbon trading and carbon market both in domestic and international, have established a theoretical and practical basis for the deve-lopment of carbon industry. With the development of the carbon sink industry, improving the carbon sequestration output will become the core of the carbon sink industry. The producers or marketers will form the controlling of the carbon source, the development of the path for carbon storage increasing and re-layout of agricultural industry-resources structure, and thus bring new vitality to regional sustainable development in the de-farming regions. This indicates the emphasis for the future research and development, that is, allocating the agricultural industry-resources structure and their benign coupling mechanism after integrating the carbon sink industry.

  1. Economic benefits from colonial assets : the case of the Netherlands and Indonesia 1870-1958

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eng, Pierre van der

    1998-01-01

    This paper explores the question whether and to what extent the economic relations between the Netherlands and its former colony Indonesia could be crucial to explaining `metropolitan' economic development and `peripheral' underdevelopment. It first surveys the literature on economic explanations

  2. Economic benefit evaluation for renewable energy transmitted by HVDC based on production simulation (PS) and analytic hierarchy process(AHP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinfang; Zheng, Kuan; Liu, Jun; Huang, Xinting

    2018-02-01

    In order to support North and West China’s RE (RE) development and enhance accommodation in reasonable high level, HVDC’s traditional operation curves need some change to follow the output characteristic of RE, which helps to shrink curtailment electricity and curtailment ratio of RE. In this paper, an economic benefit analysis method based on production simulation (PS) and Analytic hierarchy process (AHP) has been proposed. PS is the basic tool to analyze chosen power system operation situation, and AHP method could give a suitable comparison result among many candidate schemes. Based on four different transmission curve combinations, related economic benefit has been evaluated by PS and AHP. The results and related index have shown the efficiency of suggested method, and finally it has been validated that HVDC operation curve in following RE output mode could have benefit in decreasing RE curtailment level and improving economic operation.

  3. [Economic benefits of overlapping induction: investigation using a computer simulation model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunziker, S; Baumgart, A; Denz, C; Schüpfer, G

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the potential economic benefit of overlapping anaesthesia induction given that all patient diagnosis-related groups (AP DRG) are used as the model for hospital reimbursement. A computer simulation model was used for this purpose. Due to the resource-intensive production process, the operating room (OR) environment is the most expensive part of the supply chain for surgical disciplines. The economical benefit of a parallel production process (additional personnel, adaptation of the process) as compared to a conventional serial layout was assessed. A computer-based simulation method was used with commercially available simulation software. Assumptions for revenues were made by reimbursement based on AP DRG. Based on a system analysis a model for the computer simulation was designed on a step-by-step abstraction process. In the model two operating rooms were used for parallel processing and two operating rooms for a serial production process. Six different types of surgical procedures based on historical case durations were investigated. The contribution margin was calculated based on the increased revenues minus the cost for the additional anaesthesia personnel. Over a period of 5 weeks 41 additional surgical cases were operated under the assumption of duration of surgery of 89+/-4 min (mean+/-SD). The additional contribution margin was CHF 104,588. In the case of longer surgical procedures with 103+/-25 min duration (mean+/-SD), an increase of 36 cases was possible in the same time period and the contribution margin was increased by CHF 384,836. When surgical cases with a mean procedural time of 243+/-55 min were simulated, 15 additional cases were possible. Therefore, the additional contribution margin was CHF 321,278. Although costs increased in this simulation when a serial production process was changed to a parallel system layout due to more personnel, an increase of the contribution margin was possible, especially with

  4. Economic benefits of the Mediterranean-style diet consumption in Canada and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad M.H. Abdullah

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Mediterranean-style diet (MedDiet is an established healthy-eating behavior that has consistently been shown to favorably impact cardiovascular health, thus likely improving quality of life and reducing costs associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD. Data on the economic benefits of MedDiet intakes are, however, scarce. Objective: The objective of this study was to estimate the annual healthcare and societal cost savings that would accrue to the Canadian and American public, independently, as a result of a reduction in the incidence of CVD following adherence to a MedDiet. Design: A variation in cost-of-illness analysis entailing three stages of estimations was developed to 1 identify the proportion of individuals who are likely to adopt a MedDiet in North America, 2 assess the impact of the MedDiet intake on CVD incidence reduction, and 3 impute the potential savings in costs associated with healthcare and productivity following the estimated CVD reduction. To account for the uncertainty factor, a sensitivity analysis of four scenarios, including ideal, optimistic, pessimistic, and very-pessimistic assumptions, was implemented within each of these stages. Results: Significant improvements in CVD-related costs were evident with varying MedDiet adoption and CVD reduction rates. Specifically, CAD $41.9 million to 2.5 billion in Canada and US $1.0–62.8 billion in the United States were estimated to accrue as total annual savings in economic costs, given the ‘very-pessimistic’ through ‘ideal’ scenarios. Conclusions: Closer adherence to dietary behaviors that are consistent with the principles of the MedDiet is expected to contribute to a reduction in the monetary burdens of CVD in Canada, the United States, and possibly other parts of the world.

  5. Socio-economic benefits from petroleum industry activity in Newfoundland and Labrador 2003 and 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-11-01

    An update on previous macroeconomic analyses of the impacts of offshore petroleum activities in Newfoundland and Labrador was presented. Details of industry activity and expenditures in Newfoundland and Labrador were presented as well as the resultant direct, indirect and induced economic benefits to the province. Related developments in infrastructure, education, training, and research and development were also provided. It was observed that there was a further consolidation and expansion of the offshore petroleum industry in the province as well as additional growth in its contribution to the province's economy. By 2004, the petroleum industry was responsible for nearly 25 per cent of the province's GDP, with total labour income being 12 per cent higher than it would have been without offshore petroleum industry activity. Significant positive effects were noted in retail sales, the unemployment rate, housing starts and the size of the provincial population. Production activity has become increasingly important, and there has been increased involvement of local companies and individuals in export work, indicating that the petroleum industry is making an important contribution to economic diversification and sustainability. New offshore petroleum activities included the Hebron oilfield project; satellite field developments in the Jeanne d'Arc Basin; exploration in the Orphan Basin and Laurentian Sub-basin; and the development of natural gas reserves using compressed natural gas (CNG) or alternative transportation strategies. Infrastructure, education, training and research and development activities were outlined. It was noted that the low level of exploration in 2003 and 2004 was a matter of concern. It was concluded that a failure to proceed with more recent development projects would be a major blow to the local petroleum industry and the economy as a whole. 2 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  6. From the Cover: Environmental, economic, and energetic costs and benefits of biodiesel and ethanol biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Jason; Nelson, Erik; Tilman, David; Polasky, Stephen; Tiffany, Douglas

    2006-07-01

    Negative environmental consequences of fossil fuels and concerns about petroleum supplies have spurred the search for renewable transportation biofuels. To be a viable alternative, a biofuel should provide a net energy gain, have environmental benefits, be economically competitive, and be producible in large quantities without reducing food supplies. We use these criteria to evaluate, through life-cycle accounting, ethanol from corn grain and biodiesel from soybeans. Ethanol yields 25% more energy than the energy invested in its production, whereas biodiesel yields 93% more. Compared with ethanol, biodiesel releases just 1.0%, 8.3%, and 13% of the agricultural nitrogen, phosphorus, and pesticide pollutants, respectively, per net energy gain. Relative to the fossil fuels they displace, greenhouse gas emissions are reduced 12% by the production and combustion of ethanol and 41% by biodiesel. Biodiesel also releases less air pollutants per net energy gain than ethanol. These advantages of biodiesel over ethanol come from lower agricultural inputs and more efficient conversion of feedstocks to fuel. Neither biofuel can replace much petroleum without impacting food supplies. Even dedicating all U.S. corn and soybean production to biofuels would meet only 12% of gasoline demand and 6% of diesel demand. Until recent increases in petroleum prices, high production costs made biofuels unprofitable without subsidies. Biodiesel provides sufficient environmental advantages to merit subsidy. Transportation biofuels such as synfuel hydrocarbons or cellulosic ethanol, if produced from low-input biomass grown on agriculturally marginal land or from waste biomass, could provide much greater supplies and environmental benefits than food-based biofuels. corn | soybean | life-cycle accounting | agriculture | fossil fuel

  7. Environmental, economic, and energetic costs and benefits of biodiesel and ethanol biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Jason; Nelson, Erik; Tilman, David; Polasky, Stephen; Tiffany, Douglas

    2006-07-25

    Negative environmental consequences of fossil fuels and concerns about petroleum supplies have spurred the search for renewable transportation biofuels. To be a viable alternative, a biofuel should provide a net energy gain, have environmental benefits, be economically competitive, and be producible in large quantities without reducing food supplies. We use these criteria to evaluate, through life-cycle accounting, ethanol from corn grain and biodiesel from soybeans. Ethanol yields 25% more energy than the energy invested in its production, whereas biodiesel yields 93% more. Compared with ethanol, biodiesel releases just 1.0%, 8.3%, and 13% of the agricultural nitrogen, phosphorus, and pesticide pollutants, respectively, per net energy gain. Relative to the fossil fuels they displace, greenhouse gas emissions are reduced 12% by the production and combustion of ethanol and 41% by biodiesel. Biodiesel also releases less air pollutants per net energy gain than ethanol. These advantages of biodiesel over ethanol come from lower agricultural inputs and more efficient conversion of feedstocks to fuel. Neither biofuel can replace much petroleum without impacting food supplies. Even dedicating all U.S. corn and soybean production to biofuels would meet only 12% of gasoline demand and 6% of diesel demand. Until recent increases in petroleum prices, high production costs made biofuels unprofitable without subsidies. Biodiesel provides sufficient environmental advantages to merit subsidy. Transportation biofuels such as synfuel hydrocarbons or cellulosic ethanol, if produced from low-input biomass grown on agriculturally marginal land or from waste biomass, could provide much greater supplies and environmental benefits than food-based biofuels.

  8. CO2 emissions and economic activity: Short- and long-run economic determinants of scale, energy intensity and carbon intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Fredrik N.G.; Karpestam, Peter

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the short-term and the long-term determinants of energy intensity, carbon intensity and scale effects for eight developed economies and two emerging economies from 1973 to 2007. Our results show that there is a difference between the short-term and the long-term results and that climate policy are more likely to affect emission over the long-term than over the short-term. Climate policies should therefore be aimed at a time horizon of at least 8 years and year-on-year changes in emissions contains little information about the trend path of emissions. In the long-run capital accumulation is the main driver of emissions. Productivity growth reduces the energy intensity while the real oil price reduces both the energy intensity and the carbon intensity. The real oil price effect suggests that a global carbon tax is an important policy tool to reduce emissions, but our results also suggest that a carbon tax is likely to be insufficient decouple emission from economic growth. Such a decoupling is likely to require a structural transformation of the economy. The key policy challenge is thus to build new economic structures where investments in green technologies are more profitable. - Highlights: • We model determinants of scale, energy intensity and carbon intensity. • Using band spectrum regressions, we separate between short and long run effects. • Different economic variables affect emission in the short and long run. • CO 2 reducing policies should have a long run horizon of (at least 8 years). • A low carbon society requires a structural transformation of the economy

  9. Health economic studies: an introduction to cost-benefit, cost-effectiveness, and cost-utility analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angevine, Peter D; Berven, Sigurd

    2014-10-15

    Narrative overview. To provide clinicians with a basic understanding of economic studies, including cost-benefit, cost-effectiveness, and cost-utility analyses. As decisions regarding public health policy, insurance reimbursement, and patient care incorporate factors other than traditional outcomes such as satisfaction or symptom resolution, health economic studies are increasingly prominent in the literature. This trend will likely continue, and it is therefore important for clinicians to have a fundamental understanding of the common types of economic studies and be able to read them critically. In this brief article, the basic concepts of economic studies and the differences between cost-benefit, cost-effectiveness, and cost-utility studies are discussed. An overview of the field of health economic analysis is presented. Cost-benefit, cost-effectiveness, and cost-utility studies all integrate cost and outcome data into a decision analysis model. These different types of studies are distinguished mainly by the way in which outcomes are valued. Obtaining accurate cost data is often difficult and can limit the generalizability of a study. With a basic understanding of health economic analysis, clinicians can be informed consumers of these important studies.

  10. Cover crops effect on farm benefits and nitrate leaching: linking economic and environmental analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, José Luis; Vanclooster, Marnik; Garrido, Alberto; Quemada, Miguel

    2013-04-01

    Introducing cover crops interspersed with intensively fertilized crops in rotation has the potential to reduce nitrate leaching. However, despite the evident environmental services provided and the range of agronomic benefits documented in the literature, farmers' adoption of the technique is still limited because growing CC could lead to extra costs for the farm in three different forms: direct, indirect, and opportunity costs. Environmental studies are complex, and evaluating the indicators that are representative of the environmental impact of an agricultural system is a complicated task that is conducted by specialized groups and methodologies. Multidisciplinary studies may help to develop reliable approaches that would contribute to choosing the best agricultural strategies based on linking economic and environmental benefits. This study evaluates barley (Hordeum vulgare L., cv. Vanessa), vetch (Vicia villosa L., cv. Vereda) and rapeseed (Brassica napus L., cv. Licapo) as cover crops between maize, leaving the residue in the ground or selling it for animal feeding, and compares the economic and environmental results with respect to a typical maize-fallow rotation. Nitrate leaching for different weather conditions was calculated using the mechanistic-deterministic WAVE model, using the Richards equation parameterised with a conceptual model for the soil hydraulic properties for describing the water flow in the vadose zone, combined with field observed data. The economic impact was evaluated through stochastic (Monte-Carlo) simulation models of farms' profits using probability distribution functions of maize yield and cover crop biomass developed fitted with data collected from various field trials (during more than 5 years) and probability distribution functions of maize and different cover crop forage prices fitted from statistical sources. Stochastic dominance relationships are obtained to rank the most profitable strategies from a farm financial perspective

  11. Economic effects of a carbon tax in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossier, F.; De Rous, R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper proposes to evaluate the consequences of the introduction of a carbon tax for the Belgian economy. To this end, two scenarios are studied. The first scenario introduces a carbon tax of about 23.5 ecus per ton of CO 2 emitted and the second scenario combines the tax with incentives to energy savings investments. The results suggest that the tax, alone, is not sufficient to meet the international requirements as far as a stabilization of CO 2 emissions is required. It is therefore suggested that a policy-mix of pure taxation measures with various forms of subsidies to investments should be achieved. (author)

  12. Can parked cars and carbon taxes create a profit? The economics of vehicle-to-grid energy storage for peak reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, Gerad M.; Drennen, Thomas E.; White, Andrew D.

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses a five-year, hourly economic model of vehicle-to-grid energy storage for peak reduction. Several scenarios are modeled for a participant using a 60 kW-h capacity battery electric vehicle, such as the Tesla Model S or Chevrolet Bolt, in the New York City area using pricing data for the years 2010 through 2014. Sensitivity analysis identifies that variables such as one-way power efficiency and battery lifetime are the major factors influencing the economics of selling electricity back to the grid. Although it is shown that vehicle-to-grid electricity sales can create positive economic benefits, the magnitudes are small due to the cost of added degradation to the vehicle's battery and are not likely to entice the average electric vehicle owner to participate. However, over the five-year period, the potential economic benefits of this technology have shown a promising trend. A carbon dioxide tax is examined as a potential policy measure to encourage vehicle-to-grid adoption. The implementation of a carbon dioxide tax is shown to create additional opportunities for economic gain but, these benefits are dependent on the grid's electricity generation portfolio. Added benefits from the tax are also small in magnitude considering current international carbon prices. - Highlights: • Three scenarios of vehicle-to-grid storage for peak reduction are proposed. • Average annual savings generated by vehicle-to-grid are small but positive. • Savings have remained positive or increased during 2010–2014. • Moderate carbon tax policies can generate extra savings, but they are small.

  13. Global economic effects of changes in crops, pasture, and forests due to changing climate, carbon dioxide, and ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reilly, J.; Paltsev, S.; Felzer, B.; Wang, X.; Kicklighter, D.; Melillo, J.; Prinn, R.; Sarofim, M.; Sokolov, A.; Wang, C.

    2007-01-01

    Multiple environmental changes will have consequences for global vegetation. To the extent that crop yields and pasture and forest productivity are affected, there can be important economic consequences. We examine the combined effects of changes in climate, increases in carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), and changes in tropospheric ozone on crop, pasture, and forest lands and the consequences for the global and regional economies. We examine scenarios where there is limited or little effort to control these substances, and policy scenarios that limit emissions of CO 2 and ozone precursors. We find the effects of climate and CO 2 to be generally positive, and the effects of ozone to be very detrimental. Unless ozone is strongly controlled, damage could offset CO 2 and climate benefits. We find that resource allocation among sectors in the economy, and trade among countries, can strongly affect the estimate of economic effect in a country

  14. Economics of afforestation for carbon sequestration in western Canada

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooten, van G.C.; Stennes, B.; Krcmar-Nozic, E.; Gorkom, van R.

    2000-01-01

    The Kyoto Accord on climate change requires developed countries to achieve CO2-emissions reduction targets, but permits them to charge uptake of carbon (C) in terrestrial (primarily forest) ecosystems against emissions. Countries such as Canada hope to employ massive afforestation programs to

  15. Potential energy efficiency and conservation, economic, and environmental benefits from the implementation of superconducting magnetic energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, P.D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) which is a recent technology that has the capability to significantly improve electrical system operations within electric utility systems. The technology has already been demonstrated by Bonneville Power Administration in a 30-MJ SMES test demonstration unit. Savings in utility operations from improved system efficiency, increased reliability, and reduced maintenance requirements contribute to the economic justification of SMES. Beyond these benefits, there are additional benefits which in the long run may equal or outweigh the electrical operational benefits. These benefits are the energy conservation and environmental benefits. The technology has the capability of reducing fuel consumption which can in turn reduce emissions. In a regional setting it can shift emissions both in volumes and in physical. With its capability to strategically shift generation and significantly affect emissions and air quality it can stretch clean energy generation options, thus SMES can be seen as an energy and environmental management technology and tool

  16. Business Case for Energy Efficiency in Support of Climate Change Mitigation, Economic and Societal Benefits in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNeil, Michael A.; Ke, Jing; Can, Stephane de la Rue du; Letschert, Virginie E.; McMahon, James E.

    2011-12-02

    This study seeks to provide policymakers and other stakeholders with actionable information towards a road map for reducing energy consumption cost-effectively. We focus on individual end use equipment types (hereafter referred to as appliance groups) that might be the subject of policies - such as labels, energy performance standards, and incentives - to affect market transformation in the short term, and on high-efficiency technology options that are available today. the high efficiency or Business Case scenario is constructed around a model of cost-effective efficiency improvement. Our analysis demonstrates that a significant reduction in energy consumption and emissions is achievable at net negative cost, that is, as a profitable investment for consumers. Net savings are calculated assuming no additional costs to energy consumption such as carbon taxes. Savings relative to the base case as calculated in this way is often referred to as “economic savings potential”. So far, the Indian market has responded favorably to government efficiency initiatives, with Indian manufacturers producing a higher fraction of high-efficiency equipment than before program implementation. This study highlights both the financial benefit and the scope of potential impact for adopting this equipment, all of which is already readily available on the market. The approach of the study is to assess the impact of short-term actions on long-term impacts. “Short-term” market transformation is assumed to occur by 2015, while “long-term” energy demand reduction impacts are assessed in 2030. In the intervening years, most but not all of the equipment studied will turn over completely. The Business Case concentrates on technologies for which cost-effectiveness can be clearly demonstrated.

  17. Economic evaluation of health benefits of mercury emission controls for China and the neighboring countries in East Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Wei; Zhen, Gengchong; Chen, Long; Wang, Huanhuan; Li, Ying; Ye, Xuejie; Tong, Yindong; Zhu, Yan; Wang, Xuejun

    2017-01-01

    Globally, coal-fired power plant (CFPP) is a major source of mercury. China is developing its first National Implementation Plan on Mercury Control, which priorities the control of emissions from CFPPs. While social benefits play an important role in designing environmental policies in China, the benefits associated with mercury control are not yet understood, mainly due to the scientific challenges to trace mercury's emissions-to-impacts path. This study evaluates the benefits of mercury reductions in China's CFPPs for China and its three neighboring countries in East Asia. Four policy scenarios are analyzed following the policies-to-impacts path, which links a global atmospheric model to health benefit analysis models to estimate the economic gains from avoided mercury-related adverse health outcomes under each scenario, and take into account key uncertainties in the path. Under the most stringent scenario, the benefits of mercury reduction by 2030 are projected to be $432 billion (95% CI: $166–941 billion), with the benefits for China and the neighboring countries accounting for 96% and 4% of the total benefits, respectively. Policy scenario analysis indicates that coal washing generates the greatest benefits in the near term, whereas upgrading air pollution control devices maximizes health benefits in the long term. - Highlights: • Benefits of mercury controls for China and neighboring countries are analyzed. • Policy analysis shows that coal washing generates the largest benefits in near term. • Upgrading air pollution control devices maximizes health benefits in long term. • For mercury controls, local policies contribute most to local benefits.

  18. Science supporting the economic and environmental benefits of using wood and wood products in green building construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael A. Ritter; Kenneth Skog; Richard Bergman

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this report is to summarize the scientific findings that support the environmental and economic benefits of using wood and wood products in green building construction. Despite documented advantages in many peer-reviewed scientific articles, most building professionals and members of the public do not recognize wood as a renewable resource or the role...

  19. [Evaluation on the eco-economic benefits of small watershed in Beijing mountainous area: a case of Yanqi River watershed].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Hui-Jie; Wei, Zi-Gang; Wang, Qing; Zhu, Xiao-Bo

    2012-12-01

    Based on the theory of harmonious development of ecological economy, a total of 13 evaluation indices were selected from the ecological, economic, and social sub-systems of Yanqi River watershed in Huairou District of Beijing. The selected evaluation indices were normalized by using trapezoid functions, and the weights of the evaluation indices were determined by analytic hierarchy process. Then, the eco-economic benefits of the watershed were evaluated with weighted composite index method. From 2004 to 2011, the ecological, economic, and social benefits of Yanqi River watershed all had somewhat increase, among which, ecological benefit increased most, with the value changed from 0.210 in 2004 to 0.255 in 2011 and an increment of 21.5%. The eco-economic benefits of the watershed increased from 0.734 in 2004 to 0.840 in 2011, with an increment of 14.2%. At present, the watershed reached the stage of advanced ecosystem, being in beneficial circulation and harmonious development of ecology, economy, and society.

  20. Economic feasibility of second generation ethanol with and without indirect greenhouse gas reduction benefits : a simulation for Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lagares Tavora, F.; Bakker, R.R.; Stojanovic, M.; Elbersen, H.W.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the economic feasibility of second generation ethanol from sugar cane, whereby traditional ethanol production is combined with the use of lignocellulosic biomass for ethanol production. By applying cost-benefit analysis, this study evaluated the viability of the

  1. The Dilemma of the Contribution of African Women Toward and the Benefits They Derive from Economic Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amuge, Immaculate Mary

    1986-01-01

    Africa and Third World countries do not include women in economic development projects. Women have benefited little from the minimum development done so far. These governments' lack of recognition and expansion of women's critical activities in producing and distributing food and cash crops will perpetuate underdevelopment and poverty. (PS)

  2. A study of space station needs, attributes and architectural options, volume 2, technical. Book 3: Economic benefits, costs and programmatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    The economic benefits, cost analysis, and industrial uses of the manned space station are investigated. Mission payload costs are examined in relation to alternative architectures and projected technological evolution. Various approaches to industrial involvement for financing, development, and marketing of space station resources are described.

  3. Integrating black liquor gasification with pulping - Process simulation, economics and potential benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Erik Vilhelm Mathias

    Gasification of black liquor could drastically increase the flexibility and improve the profit potential of a mature industry. The completed work was focused on research around the economics and benefits of its implementation, utilizing laboratory pulping experiments and process simulation. The separation of sodium and sulfur achieved through gasification of recovered black liquor, can be utilized in processes like modified continuous cooking, split sulfidity and green liquor pretreatment pulping, and polysulfide-anthraquinone pulping, to improve pulp yield and properties. Laboratory pulping protocols have been developed for these modified pulping technologies and different process options evaluated. The process simulation work around BLG has led to the development of a WinGEMS module for the low temperature MTCI steam reforming process, and case studies comparing a simulated conventional kraft process to different process options built around the implementation of a BLG unit operation into the kraft recovery cycle. Pulp yield increases of 1-3% points with improved product quality, and the potential for capital and operating cost savings relative to the conventional kraft process have been demonstrated. Process simulation work has shown that the net variable operating cost for a pulping process using BLGCC is highly dependent on the cost of lime kiln fuel and the selling price of green power to the grid. Under the assumptions taken in the performed case study, the BLGCC process combined with split sulfidity or PSAQ pulping operations had net variable operating cost 2-4% greater than the kraft reference. The influence of the sales price of power to the grid is the most significant cost factor. If a sales price increase to 6 ¢/KWh for green power could be achieved, cost savings of about $40/ODtP could be realized in all investigated BLG processes. Other alternatives to improve the process economics around BLG would be to modify or eliminate the lime kiln unit

  4. The economic value of biochar in crop production and carbon sequestration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galinato, Suzette P.; Yoder, Jonathan K.; Granatstein, David

    2011-01-01

    This paper estimates the economic value of biochar application on agricultural cropland for carbon sequestration and its soil amendment properties. In particular, we consider the carbon emissions avoided when biochar is applied to agricultural soil, instead of agricultural lime, the amount of carbon sequestered, and the value of carbon offsets, assuming there is an established carbon trading mechanism for biochar soil application. We use winter wheat production in Eastern Whitman County, Washington as a case study, and consider different carbon offset price scenarios and different prices of biochar to estimate a farm profit. Our findings suggest that it may be profitable to apply biochar as a soil amendment under some conditions if the biochar market price is low enough and/or a carbon offset market exists. - Highlights: → We estimate the economic value of biochar application on agricultural cropland. → We consider biochar's carbon sequestration and soil amendment properties. → Biochar soil application may be profitable if a carbon offset market exists for it. → Farmers may use biochar if its market price is low enough to earn a profit.

  5. Tiny Stowaways: Analyzing the Economic Benefits of a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Permit Regulating Ballast Water Discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, Sabrina J.; Drake, Lisa A.

    2009-03-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has proposed permitting ballast water discharges—a benefit of which would be to reduce the economic damages associated with the introduction and spread of aquatic invasive species. Research on ship-borne aquatic invasive species has been conducted in earnest for decades, but determining the economic damages they cause remains troublesome. Furthermore, with the exception of harmful algal blooms, the economic consequences of microscopic invaders have not been studied, despite their potentially great negative effects. In this paper, we show how to estimate the economic benefits of preventing the introduction and spread of harmful bacteria, microalgae, and viruses delivered in U.S. waters. Our calculations of net social welfare show the damages from a localized incident, cholera-causing bacteria found in shellfish in the Gulf of Mexico, to be approximately 706,000 (2006). On a larger scale, harmful algal species have the potential to be transported in ships’ ballast tanks, and their effects in the United States have been to reduce commercial fisheries landings and impair water quality. We examine the economic repercussions of one bloom-forming species. Finally, we consider the possible translocation within the Great Lakes of a virus that has the potential to harm commercial and recreational fisheries. These calculations illustrate an approach to quantifying the benefits of preventing invasive aquatic microorganisms from controls on ballast water discharges.

  6. The economic benefits resulting from the first 8 years of the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (2000-2007.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian K Chu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Between 2000-2007, the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF delivered more than 1.9 billion treatments to nearly 600 million individuals via annual mass drug administration (MDA of anti-filarial drugs (albendazole, ivermectin, diethylcarbamazine to all at-risk for 4-6 years. Quantifying the resulting economic benefits of this significant achievement is important not only to justify the resources invested in the GPELF but also to more fully understand the Programme's overall impact on some of the poorest endemic populations.To calculate the economic benefits, the number of clinical manifestations averted was first quantified and the savings associated with this disease prevention then analyzed in the context of direct treatment costs, indirect costs of lost-labor, and costs to the health system to care for affected individuals. Multiple data sources were reviewed, including published literature and databases from the World Health Organization, International Monetary Fund, and International Labour OrganizationAn estimated US$21.8 billion of direct economic benefits will be gained over the lifetime of 31.4 million individuals treated during the first 8 years of the GPELF. Of this total, over US$2.3 billion is realized by the protection of nearly 3 million newborns and other individuals from acquiring lymphatic filariasis as a result of their being born into areas freed of LF transmission. Similarly, more than 28 million individuals already infected with LF benefit from GPELF's halting the progression of their disease, which results in an associated lifetime economic benefit of approximately US$19.5 billion. In addition to these economic benefits to at-risk individuals, decreased patient services associated with reduced LF morbidity saves the health systems of endemic countries approximately US$2.2 billion.MDA for LF offers significant economic benefits. Moreover, with favorable program implementation costs (largely a result of

  7. Economic effects of using carbon taxes to reduce carbon dioxide emissions in major OECD countries. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    A tax on fossil fuels designed to obtain a 20 percent reduction in emissions of carbon dioxide by the year 2020 would lower output among major OECD nations by 1 to 3 1/2 percent. The tax required to achieve a 20% reduction in emissions of carbon dioxide by 2020 ranged from $489.4 (Sweden) per metric ton of carbon to $2,427.9 (Japan) per ton of carbon. The tax required for the U.S. was $720.6 per ton. In the U.S., a tax per $100 per ton of carbon would equate to a tax of $70.68 per short ton of coal, $11.42 per barrel of oil, $1.66 per MCF of natural gas and 0.27 per gallon of gasoline. The study is part of a multi-phase effort to gauge the economic consequences of various measures being discussed by the international community to mitigate the possibility of global climate change by limiting emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil fuel use. The study assumed that the carbon tax program would be revenue neutral in that increased revenues from the carbon tax would be offset by reductions in personal income taxes

  8. Carbon dioxide emission and economic growth of China-the role of international trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boamah, Kofi Baah; Du, Jianguo; Bediako, Isaac Asare; Boamah, Angela Jacinta; Abdul-Rasheed, Alhassan Alolo; Owusu, Samuel Mensah

    2017-05-01

    This study investigates the role of international trade in mitigating carbon dioxide emission as a nation economically advances. This study disaggregated the international trade into total exports and total imports. A multivariate model framework was estimated for the time series data for the period of 1970-2014. The quantile regression detected all the essential relationship, which hitherto, the traditional ordinary least squares could not capture. A cointegration relationship was confirmed using the Johansen cointegration model. The findings of the Granger causality revealed the presence of a uni-directional Granger causality running from energy consumption to economic growth; from import to economic growth; from imports to exports; and from urbanisation to economic growth, exports and imports. Our study established the presence of long-run relationships amongst carbon dioxide emission, economic growth, energy consumption, imports, exports and urbanisation. A bootstrap method was further utilised to reassess the evidence of the Granger causality, of which the results affirmed the Granger causality in the long run. This study confirmed a long-run N-shaped relationship between economic growth and carbon emission, under the estimated cubic environmental Kuznet curve framework, from the perspective of China. The recommendation therefore is that China as export leader should transform its trade growth mode by reducing the level of carbon dioxide emission and strengthening its international cooperation as it embraces more environmental protectionisms.

  9. Pilot test of Pickliq{reg_sign} process to determine energy and environmental benefits & economic feasibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, D.R.

    1997-07-13

    Green Technology Group (GTG) was awarded Grant No. DE-FG01-96EE 15657 in the amount of $99,904 for a project to advance GTG`s Pickliq{reg_sign} Process in the Copper and Steel Industries. The use of the Pickliq{reg_sign} Process can significantly reduce the production of waste acids containing metal salts. The Pickliq{reg_sign} Process can save energy and eliminate hazardous waste in a typical copper rod or wire mill or a typical steel wire mill. The objective of this pilot project was to determine the magnitude of the economic, energy and environmental benefits of the Pickliq{reg_sign} Process in two applications within the metal processing industry. The effectiveness of the process has already been demonstrated at facilities cleaning iron and steel with sulfuric acid. 9207 companies are reported to use sulfuric and hydrochloric acid in the USA. The USEPA TRI statistics of acid not recycled in the US is 2.4 x 10{sup 9} lbs (net) for Hydrochloric Acid and 2.0 x 10{sup 9} lbs (net) for Sulfuric Acid. The energy cost of not reclaiming acid is 10.7 x 10{sup 6} BTU/ton for Hydrochloric Acid and 21.6 x 10{sup 6} BTU/Ton for Sulfuric Acid. This means that there is a very large market for the application of the Pickliq{reg_sign} Process and the widespread use of the process will bring significant world wide savings of energy to the environment.

  10. Long-term economic benefits attributed to IVF-conceived children: a lifetime tax calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Mark P; Pollard, Michael S; Hoorens, Stijn; Kaplan, Brian R; Oskowitz, Selwyn P; Silber, Sherman J

    2008-09-01

    To evaluate whether lifetime future net tax revenues from an in vitro fertilization (IVF)-conceived child are substantial enough to warrant public subsidy relative to the mean IVF treatment costs required to obtain 1 live birth. Mathematical generational accounting model. The model estimates direct financial interactions between the IVF-conceived child and the government during the child's projected lifetime. In the model, we accrue IVF costs required to conceive the child to the government, and then we estimate future net tax revenue to the federal and state governments from this individual, offset by direct financial transfers from the government (eg, child allowances, education, Medicare, and Social Security). We discount lifetime costs and gross tax payments at Treasury Department rates to establish the present value of investing in IVF. We applied US Congressional Budget Office projected changes in tax rates over the course of the model. An IVF-conceived child, average in every respect (eg, future earnings, healthcare consumption, and life expectancy), represents a net positive return to the government. Based on an average employed individual born in 2005, the projected net lifetime tax contribution is US $606,200. Taking into consideration IVF costs and all direct financial interactions, the net present value is US $155,870. Lifetime net taxes paid from a child relative to the child's initial IVF investment represent a 700% net return to the government in discounted US dollars from fully employed individuals. This suggests that removing barriers to IVF would have positive tax benefits for the government, notwithstanding its beneficial effect on overall economic growth.

  11. Does robotic assistance confer an economic benefit during laparoscopic radical nephrectomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, David Y; Monn, M Francesca; Bahler, Clinton D; Sundaram, Chandru P

    2014-09-01

    While robotic assisted radical nephrectomy is safe with outcomes and complication rates comparable to those of the pure laparoscopic approach, there is little evidence of an economic or clinical benefit. From the 2009 to 2011 Nationwide Inpatient Sample database we identified patients 18 years old or older who underwent radical nephrectomy for primary renal malignancy. Robotic assisted and laparoscopic techniques were noted. Patients treated with the open technique and those with evidence of metastatic disease were excluded from analysis. Descriptive statistics were performed using the chi-square and Mann-Whitney tests, and the Student t-test. Multiple linear regression was done to examine factors associated with increased hospital costs and charges. We identified 24,312 radical nephrectomy cases for study inclusion, of which 7,787 (32%) were performed robotically. There was no demographic difference between robotic assisted and pure laparoscopic radical nephrectomy cases. Median total charges were $47,036 vs $38,068 for robotic assisted vs laparoscopic surgery (p robotic assisted surgery were $15,149 compared to $11,735 for laparoscopic surgery (p robotic assistance conferred an estimated $4,565 and $11,267 increase in hospital costs and charges, respectively, when adjusted for adapted Charlson comorbidity index score, perioperative complications and length of stay (p Robotic assisted radical nephrectomy results in increased medical expense without improving patient morbidity. Assuming surgeon proficiency with pure laparoscopy, robotic technology should be reserved primarily for complex surgeries requiring reconstruction. Traditional laparoscopic techniques should continue to be used for routine radical nephrectomy. Copyright © 2014 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Economic Evaluations for the Carbon Dioxide-involved Production of High-value Chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Lee, Dong Woog; Jang, Se Gyu; Kwak, No-Sang; Lee, In Young; Jang, Kyung Ryoung; Shim, Jae-Goo [KEPCO Research Institute, Daejon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jong Shin [Korea East-West Power Co. LTD, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-15

    Economic evaluation of the manufacturing technology of high-value chemicals through the carbonation reaction of carbon dioxide contained in the flue gas was performed, and analysis of the IRR (Internal Rate of Return) and whole profit along the production plan of the final product was conducted. Through a carbonation reaction with sodium hydroxide that is generated from electrolysis and by using carbon dioxide in the combustion gas that is generated in the power plant, it is possible to get a high value products such as sodium bicarbonate compound and also to reduce the carbon dioxide emission simultaneously. The IRR (Internal Rate of Return) and NPV (Net Present Value) methods were used for the economic evaluation of the process which could handle carbon dioxide of 100 tons per day in the period of the 20 years of plant operation. The results of economic evaluation showed that the IRR of baseline case of technology was 67.2% and the profit that obtained during the whole operation period (20 years) was 346,922 million won based on NPV value. When considering ETS due to the emissions trading enforcement that will be activated in 2015, the NPV was improved to a 6,000 million won. Based on this results, it could be concluded that this CO2 carbonation technology is an cost-effective technology option for the reduction of greenhouse gas.

  13. Economic Evaluations for the Carbon Dioxide-involved Production of High-value Chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Lee, Dong Woog; Jang, Se Gyu; Kwak, No-Sang; Lee, In Young; Jang, Kyung Ryoung; Shim, Jae-Goo; Choi, Jong Shin

    2014-01-01

    Economic evaluation of the manufacturing technology of high-value chemicals through the carbonation reaction of carbon dioxide contained in the flue gas was performed, and analysis of the IRR (Internal Rate of Return) and whole profit along the production plan of the final product was conducted. Through a carbonation reaction with sodium hydroxide that is generated from electrolysis and by using carbon dioxide in the combustion gas that is generated in the power plant, it is possible to get a high value products such as sodium bicarbonate compound and also to reduce the carbon dioxide emission simultaneously. The IRR (Internal Rate of Return) and NPV (Net Present Value) methods were used for the economic evaluation of the process which could handle carbon dioxide of 100 tons per day in the period of the 20 years of plant operation. The results of economic evaluation showed that the IRR of baseline case of technology was 67.2% and the profit that obtained during the whole operation period (20 years) was 346,922 million won based on NPV value. When considering ETS due to the emissions trading enforcement that will be activated in 2015, the NPV was improved to a 6,000 million won. Based on this results, it could be concluded that this CO2 carbonation technology is an cost-effective technology option for the reduction of greenhouse gas

  14. [Awareness of health co-benefits of carbon emissions reduction in urban residents in Beijing: a cross-sectional survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, J H; Zhang, Y; Wang, J; Chen, H J; Zhang, G B; Liu, X B; Wu, H X; Li, J; Li, J; Liu, Q Y

    2017-05-10

    Objective: To understand the awareness of the health co-benefits of carbon emission reduction in urban residents in Beijing and the influencing factors, and provide information for policy decision on carbon emission reduction and health education campaigns. Methods: Four communities were selected randomly from Fangshan, Haidian, Huairou and Dongcheng districts of Beijing, respectively. The sample size was estimated by using Kish-Leslie formula for descriptive analysis. 90 participants were recruited from each community. χ (2) test was conducted to examine the associations between socio-demographic variables and individuals' awareness of the health co-benefits of carbon emission reduction. Ordinal logistic regression analysis was performed to investigate the factors influencing the awareness about the health co-benefits. Results: In 369 participants surveyed, 12.7 % reported they knew the health co-benefits of carbon emission reduction. The final logistic regression analysis revealed that age ( OR =0.98), attitude to climate warming ( OR =0.72) and air pollution ( OR =1.59), family monthly average income ( OR =1.27), and low carbon lifestyle ( OR =2.36) were important factors influencing their awareness of the health co-benefits of carbon emission reduction. Conclusion: The awareness of the health co-benefits of carbon emissions reduction were influenced by people' socio-demographic characteristics (age and family income), concerns about air pollution and climate warming, and low carbon lifestyle. It is necessary to take these factors into consideration in future development and implementation of carbon emission reduction policies and related health education campaigns.

  15. Benefits of economic criteria for water scarcity management under global changes: insights from a large-scale hydroeconomic framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neverre, Noémie; Dumas, Patrice; Nassopoulos, Hypatia

    2016-04-01

    Global changes are expected to exacerbate water scarcity issues in the Mediterranean region in the next decades. In this work, we investigate the impacts of reservoirs operation rules based on an economic criterion. We examine whether can they help reduce the costs of water scarcity, and whether they become more relevant under future climatic and socioeconomic conditions. We develop an original hydroeconomic model able to compare future water supply and demand on a large scale, while representing river basin heterogeneity. On the demand side, we focus on the two main sectors of water use: the irrigation and domestic sectors. Demands are projected in terms of both quantity and economic value. Irrigation requirements are computed for 12 types of crops, at the 0.5° spatial resolution, under future climatic conditions (A1B scenario). The computation of the economic benefits of irrigation water is based on a yield comparison approach between rainfed and irrigated crops. For the domestic sector, we project the combined effects of demographic growth, economic development and water cost evolution on future demands. The economic value of domestic water is defined as the economic surplus. On the supply side, we evaluate the impacts of climate change on water inflows to the reservoirs. Operating rules of the reservoirs are set up using a parameterisation-simulation-optimisation approach. The objective is to maximise water benefits. We introduce prudential parametric rules in order to take into account spatial and temporal trade-offs. The methodology is applied to Algeria at the 2050 horizon. Overall, our results show that the supply-demand imbalance and its costs will increase in most basins under future climatic and socioeconomic conditions. Our results suggest that the benefits of operating rules based on economic criteria are not unequivocally increased with global changes: in some basins the positive impact of economic prioritisation is higher under future conditions

  16. Economic benefits of the Doha round for The Netherlands; Report submitted to the Ministry of Economic Affairs,

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Francois, J.; Meijl, van H.; Tongeren, van F.W.

    2003-01-01

    This study provides insights into the nature and magnitude of the impacts of the WTO Doha Round for international trade and the resulting welfare improvements. The analysis of specific economic consequences for the Netherlands is a special feature of this study. These effects at national level are

  17. Estimating the health and economic benefits associated with reducing air pollution in the Barcelona metropolitan area (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Laura; Sunyer, Jordi; Künzli, Nino

    2009-01-01

    To estimate the health and economic benefits that would result from two scenarios of improved air quality in 57 municipalities of the metropolitan area of Barcelona. We used attributable fractions and life tables to quantify the benefits for selected health outcomes, based on published concentration-response functions and economic unit values. The mean weighted concentration of PM(10) for the study population was estimated through concentration surface maps developed by the local government. The annual mean health benefits of reducing the mean PM(10) exposure estimated for the population in the study area (50microg/m(3)) to the annual mean value recommended by the World Health Organization (20microg/m(3)) were estimated to be 3,500 fewer deaths (representing an average increase in life expectancy of 14 months), 1,800 fewer hospitalizations for cardio-respiratory diseases, 5,100 fewer cases of chronic bronchitis among adults, 31,100 fewer cases of acute bronchitis among children, and 54,000 fewer asthma attacks among children and adults. The mean total monetary benefits were estimated to be 6,400 million euros per year. Reducing PM(10) to comply with the current European Union regulatory annual mean level (40microg/m(3)) would yield approximately one third of these benefits. This study shows that reducing air pollution in the metropolitan area of Barcelona would result in substantial health and economic benefits. The benefits are probably underestimated due to the assumptions made in this study. Assessment of the health impact of local air pollution is a useful tool in public health.

  18. A macro-economic and sectoral evaluation of carbon taxation in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callonnec, Gael; Reynes, Frederic; Yeddir-Tamsamani, Yasser

    2011-01-01

    This paper evaluates the macro-economic and sectoral impact of a carbon tax in France using the Three-ME model that combines two important features: (1) The model has a detailed industrial structure and detailed description of the French tax system, particularly the taxation applied to energy. (2) It has the main properties of the neo-Keynesian models because it takes into account the slow process adjustment of prices and quantifies. Our results show under certain conditions the possibility of a double economic and environmental dividends resulting from carbon taxation, for both the short and long term. Carbon tax. Neo-Keynesian macro-economic model. Sectoral analysis. Initially published in 'Revue de l'OFCE / Debats et politiques' No. 120

  19. Implications of albedo changes following afforestation on the benefits of forests as carbon sinks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. U. F. Kirschbaum

    2011-12-01

    length of the rotation, the changes in albedo negated the benefits from increased carbon storage by 17–24 %.

  20. Techno-economic and environmental analysis of low carbon energy technologies: Indian perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, Vijay Prakash; Kumar, Rahul; Kumar, Manish; Deswal, Surinder; Chandna, Pankaj

    2010-09-15

    In this paper, techno-economic and an environmental investigation and analysis of Low Carbon Technologies (LCTs) has been presented, with special emphasis on India. The paper identify, analyze and recommend, on the basis of available and collected / collated information and data, the promising and potential low carbon energy technology options suited to Indian conditions for grid connected power generation. The evaluation criteria adopted include - emission reduction potential, technological feasibility, and economic viability; and on its basis recommend a detailed action plan and strategy for guiding future research and development with a more focused approach considering current Indian policy framework.

  1. A multivariate causality test of carbon dioxide emissions, energy consumption and economic growth in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Ching-Chih

    2010-01-01

    This paper uses multivariate co-integration Granger causality tests to investigate the correlations between carbon dioxide emissions, energy consumption and economic growth in China. Some researchers have argued that the adoption of a reduction in carbon dioxide emissions and energy consumption as a long term policy goal will result in a closed-form relationship, to the detriment of the economy. Therefore, a perspective that can make allowances for the fact that the exclusive pursuit of economic growth will increase energy consumption and CO 2 emissions is required; to the extent that such growth will have adverse effects with regard to global climate change. (author)

  2. Economic Value of the Carbon Sink Services of Tropical Secondary Forests and Its Management Implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, O.A.; Carpio, C.E.; Ortiz, R.; Finnegan, B.

    2002-01-01

    This paper explores the economic feasibility of secondary forest regeneration and conservation as an alternative in the campaign addressing the problem of global warming. Detailed measurements of tropical secondary forests over time, in different ecological zones of Costa Rica, are used to evaluate carbon storage models. The paper addresses key issues in the international discussion about cross- and within-country compensation for carbon storage services and illustrates a method to compute/predict their economic value over time under a variety of scenarios. The procedure is applicable to other developing countries where secondary forest growth is increasingly important

  3. Carbon emissions, energy consumption and economic growth: An aggregate and disaggregate analysis of the Indian economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Ashfaq; Zhao, Yuhuan; Shahbaz, Muhammad; Bano, Sadia; Zhang, Zhonghua; Wang, Song; Liu, Ya

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the long and short run relationships among carbon emissions, energy consumption and economic growth in India at the aggregated and disaggregated levels during 1971–2014. The autoregressive distributed lag model is employed for the cointegration analyses and the vector error correction model is applied to determine the direction of causality between variables. Results show that a long run cointegration relationship exists and that the environmental Kuznets curve is validated at the aggregated and disaggregated levels. Furthermore, energy (total energy, gas, oil, electricity and coal) consumption has a positive relationship with carbon emissions and a feedback effect exists between economic growth and carbon emissions. Thus, energy-efficient technologies should be used in domestic production to mitigate carbon emissions at the aggregated and disaggregated levels. The present study provides policy makers with new directions in drafting comprehensive policies with lasting impacts on the economy, energy consumption and environment towards sustainable development. - Highlights: •Relationships among carbon emissions, energy consumption and economic growth are investigated. •The EKC exists at aggregated and disaggregated levels for India. •All energy resources have positive effects on carbon emissions. •Gas energy consumption is less polluting than other energy sources in India.

  4. Renewable energy policy in remote rural areas of Western China. Implementation and socio-economic benefits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shyu, Chian-Woei

    2010-05-19

    the 'Township Electrification Program' followed a 'centralized and closed top-down' approach within China's communist political framework conditions, which ultimately resulted in pursuing political leaders' conceptions instead of the energy needs of local people. Third, the implementation of the Program possessed a technical orientation (e.g. construction of stations, installation of systems), and underestimated the financial implications (e.g. electricity tariff, households' ability to pay electricity fee, financial management) as well as human resources available (e.g. training for operators, household participation) and institutional capacity building (e.g. good governance, regulatory framework) at the local level. Fourth, there was a change of households' energy use pattern from traditional energy sources (such as candles and dry cell batteries) to electricity from solar PV power stations in the two investigated townships. But traditional energy sources were not totally substituted by electricity. This is due to the fact that the current electricity supply was not sufficient for households' needs and electricity was not provided daily on a regular basis. Households still had to rely on traditional energy sources. Fifth, the impacts of the Program on the improvement of socio-economic benefits for households, the improvement of township development, and the reduction of negative environmental impacts were limited. Lastly, based on these findings, this study suggests policy recommendations for the Chinese government as well as policy implications for developing countries. (orig.)

  5. Renewable energy policy in remote rural areas of Western China. Implementation and socio-economic benefits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shyu, Chian-Woei

    2010-05-19

    formulation and adoption of the 'Township Electrification Program' followed a 'centralized and closed top-down' approach within China's communist political framework conditions, which ultimately resulted in pursuing political leaders' conceptions instead of the energy needs of local people. Third, the implementation of the Program possessed a technical orientation (e.g. construction of stations, installation of systems), and underestimated the financial implications (e.g. electricity tariff, households' ability to pay electricity fee, financial management) as well as human resources available (e.g. training for operators, household participation) and institutional capacity building (e.g. good governance, regulatory framework) at the local level. Fourth, there was a change of households' energy use pattern from traditional energy sources (such as candles and dry cell batteries) to electricity from solar PV power stations in the two investigated townships. But traditional energy sources were not totally substituted by electricity. This is due to the fact that the current electricity supply was not sufficient for households' needs and electricity was not provided daily on a regular basis. Households still had to rely on traditional energy sources. Fifth, the impacts of the Program on the improvement of socio-economic benefits for households, the improvement of township development, and the reduction of negative environmental impacts were limited. Lastly, based on these findings, this study suggests policy recommendations for the Chinese government as well as policy implications for developing countries. (orig.)

  6. Economic and utilitarian benefits of monetary versus non-monetary in-store sales promotions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reid, Mike; Thompson, Peter; Mavondo, Felix

    2014-01-01

    While prior research has examined the issue of sales promotion proneness, very little has examined proneness to non-monetary promotions, such as contests and premiums discovered in store. This study draws on a promotions benefits framework to examine the influence of shoppers’ desired benefits...... are that many monetary sales promotion-prone shoppers may be attracted by the benefits provided by non-monetary promotions. The increased use by managers of non-monetary promotions instead of monetary promotions may result in improved category value and brand equity benefits....

  7. The economic benefits of sorting SPF lumber to be kiln-dried on the basis of initial moisture content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, S.; Johnson, G.

    1997-01-01

    This study evaluates the economic benefits of sorting green lumber into moisture content classes before kiln-drying. Laser moisture sensing technology was implemented in the sawmill for sorting purposes. The grade outturn and energy savings resulting from shortened drying times were examined. The final moisture content distribution resulting from moisture sorting did not show overdrying or underdrying. Based on grade outturn, the benefits were as much as $15.94 per thousand board feet (MBF) for 2 by 4 by 16 lumber and $19.66 per MBF for 2 by 6 by 16 lumber; energy savings were $1.88 per thousand board feet

  8. The Economics of Vaccinating or Dosing Cattle against Disease: A Simple Linear Cost-Benefit Model with Modifications

    OpenAIRE

    Tisdell, Clem; Ramsay, Gavin

    1995-01-01

    Outlines a simple linear cost-benefit model for determining whether it is economic at the farm-level to vaccinate or dose a batch of livestock against a disease. This model assumes that total benefits and costs are proportional to the number of animals vaccinated. This model is then modified to allow for the possibility of programmes of vaccination or disease prevention involving start-up costs which increase, but at a decreasing rate with batch size or with the size of the herd to be vaccina...

  9. The impact of a carbon tax on economic growth and carbon dioxide emissions in Ireland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conefrey, Thomas; Fitz Gerald, John D.; Valeri, Laura Malaguzzi; Tol, Richard S J

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses the medium-term effects of a carbon tax on growth and CO2 emissions in Ireland, a small open economy. We find that a double dividend exists if the carbon tax revenue is recycled through reduced income taxes. If the revenue is recycled by giving a lump-sum transfer to households,

  10. Algae to Economically Viable Low-Carbon-Footprint Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhujade, Ramesh; Chidambaram, Mandan; Kumar, Avnish; Sapre, Ajit

    2017-06-07

    Algal oil as an alternative to fossil fuel has attracted attention since the 1940s, when it was discovered that many microalgae species can produce large amounts of lipids. Economics and energy security were the motivational factors for a spurt in algae research during the 1970s, 1990s, and early 2000s. Whenever crude prices declined, research on algae stopped. The scenario today is different. Even given low and volatile crude prices ($30-$50/barrel), interest in algae continues all over the world. Algae, with their cure-all characteristics, have the potential to provide sustainable solutions to problems in the energy-food-climate nexus. However, after years of effort, there are no signs of algae-to-biofuel technology being commercialized. This article critically reviews past work; summarizes the current status of the technology; and based on the lessons learned, provides a balanced perspective on a potential path toward commercialization of algae-to-oil technology.

  11. Incentive Matters!--The Benefit of Reminding Students about Their Academic Standing in Introductory Economics Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qihui; Okediji, Tade O.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the authors illustrate how incentives can improve student performance in introductory economics courses. They implemented a policy experiment in a large introductory economics class in which they reminded students who scored below an announced cutoff score on the midterm exam about the risk of failing the course. The authors…

  12. Impact of population and economic growth on carbon emissions in Taiwan using an analytic tool STIRPAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Chao Yeh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon emission has increasingly become an issue of global concern because of climate change. Unfortunately, Taiwan was listed as top 20 countries of carbon emission in 2014. In order to provide appropriate measures to control carbon emission, it appears that there is an urgent need to address how such factors as population and economic growth impact the emission of carbon dioxide in any developing countries. In addition to total population, both the percentages of population living in urban area (i.e., urbanization percentage, and non-dependent population may also serve as limiting factors. On the other hand, the total energy-driven gross domestic production (GDP and the percentage of GDP generated by the manufacturing industries are assessed to see their respective degree of impact on carbon emission. Therefore, based on the past national data in the period 1990–2014 in Taiwan, an analytic tool of Stochastic Impacts by Regression on Population, Affluence and Technology (STIRPAT was employed to see how well those aforementioned factors can describe their individual potential impact on global warming, which is measured by the total amount of carbon emission into the atmosphere. Seven scenarios of STIRPAT model were proposed and tested statistically for the significance of each proposed model. As a result, two models were suggested to predict the impact of carbon emission due to population and economic growth by the year 2025 in Taiwan.

  13. Economic Benefits of Studying Economics in Canada: A Comparison of Wages of Economics Majors with Wages in Other Fields of Study, Circa 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, Ather H.; Aydede, Yigit

    2015-01-01

    We compared the wages of economics degree holders with of those in 49 other fields of study using data from the 2006 Canadian population census. At the undergraduate level, economics majors earned the sixth highest average wage in 2005. When demographic controls were applied, they ranked ninth on the salary scale. When we compared the wages in 15…

  14. A planning tool for tree species selection and planting schedule in forestation projects considering environmental and socio-economic benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollan, Catherine Denise; Li, Richard; San Juan, Jayne Lois; Dizon, Liezel; Ong, Karl Benedict

    2018-01-15

    Species selection is a crucial step in the planning phase of forestation programs given its impact on the results and on stakeholder interactions. This study develops a planning tool for forestation programs that incorporates the selection of tree species and the scheduling of planting and harvesting, while balancing the maximization of the carbon sequestered and income realized, into the forestation decision-making and planning process. The validation of the goal programming model formulated demonstrates that the characteristics of natural tree species along with the behavior of growth and timing of yield are significant factors in achieving the environmental and socio-economic aspirations. The proposed model is therefore useful in gauging species behavior and performance over time. Sensitivity analysis was also conducted where the behavior of the income generated and carbon sequestered with respect to the external factors such as carbon market prices, percentage area allocated for protection and discount factor was assessed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Enhancing the Economic Value of Large Investments in Sustainable Drainage Systems (SuDS through Inclusion of Ecosystems Services Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Urrestarazu Vincent

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Although Sustainable Drainage Systems (SuDS are used in cities across the world as effective flood adaptation responses, their economic viability has frequently been questioned. Inclusion of the monetary value of ecosystem services (ES provided by SuDS can increase the rate of return on investments made. Hence, this paper aims at reviewing the enhancement of the economic value of large-scale investments in SuDS through inclusion of ecosystem services. This study focuses on the flood reduction capacity and the ES benefits of green roofs and rain barrels in the combined sewerage network of Montevideo Municipality in Uruguay. The methodology comprises a cost–benefit analysis—with and without monetised ES provided by SuDS—of two drainage network configurations comprising: (i SuDS; and (ii SuDS and detention storage. The optimal drainage design for both these drainage configurations have been determined using SWMM-EA, a tool which uses multi-objective optimisation based evolutionary algorithm (EA and the storm water management model (SWMM. In both design configurations, total benefits comprising both flood reduction and ES benefits are always higher than their costs. The use of storage along with SuDS provides greater benefits with a larger reduction in flooding, and thus is more cost-effective than using SuDS alone. The results show that, for both of the drainage configurations, the larger investments are not beneficial unless ES benefits are taken into account. Hence, it can be concluded that the inclusion of ES benefits is necessary to justify large-scale investments in SuDS.

  16. Developing a community owned wind farm, with social and economic benefits for a low-income community, at St Helena Bay, Western Cape, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewin, J. [Seeland Development Trust (South Africa); Chown, D. [Genesis Eco-Energy, Cape Town (South Africa); Townsend, N. [Oxfam (United Kingdom)

    2008-07-01

    This paper described the development of a wind farm at St. Helena Bay in South Africa that involved the collaboration of the Seeland Development Trust, Genesis Eco-Energy and Oxfam. Some of the challenges that have emerged were presented along with the solutions that have been found to those problems, many of which are applicable to other communities attempting to undertake a similar project. The primary objective of this project was to develop a substantially community owned, renewable energy power project, from which revenues will be used to contribute to a range of social and economic development projects. The project, which is in the early stages of development, will have additional benefits, such as job creation, reductions in carbon dioxide emissions, development of alternative financial models for the development of renewable energy and the demonstration of renewable energy as an economically viable opportunity in South Africa. The project site was acquired by the Seeland Development Trust under the South African Government's land restitution process, and is to be used to address issues of poverty, economic development and job creation. This paper described the unique partnership of a local community, a private sector company and a global charity, and presented the business and ownership models that have been developed to achieve the overall objective of the wind energy project.

  17. Low carbon scenarios for transport in India: Co-benefits analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhar, Subash; Shukla, Priyadarshi R.

    2015-01-01

    Dependence on oil for transport is a concern for India's policymakers on three counts – energy security, local environment and climate change. Rapid urbanisation and accompanying motorisation has created some of the most polluting cities in India and rising demand for oil is leading to higher imports, besides causing more CO 2 emissions. The government of India wants to achieve the climate goals through a sustainability approach that simultaneously addresses other environment and developmental challenges. This paper analyses a sustainable low carbon transport (SLCT) scenario based on sustainable strategies for passenger and freight mobility, vehicle technologies and fuel using global CO 2 prices that correspond to 2 °C global stabilisation target. The scenarios span from years 2010 to 2050 and are analysed using the energy system model-ANSWER MARKAL. The SLCT scenario has improved energy security (cumulative oil demand lower by 3100 Mtoe), improved air quality (PM 2.5 emissions never exceed the existing levels) and the cumulative CO 2 emissions are lower by 13 billion t CO 2 thereby showing that achieving development objectives with CO 2 co-benefits is feasible. -- Highlights: •India's BAU transitions pose challenges for energy security and climate change. •Sustainable transport policies deliver benefits for air quality and energy security. •Sustainable transport policies fall short of mitigation needed for 2 °C stabilisation. •Transport sector becomes increasingly dependent on electricity. •Low carbon policies are essential to clean transport and electricity generation

  18. Assessing the economic impacts of agricultural carbon sequestration: Terraces and agroforestry in the Peruvian Andes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antle, J.M.; Stoorvogel, J.J.; Valdivia, R.O.

    2007-01-01

    There is an increasing demand for information about the economic impact of agricultural carbon (C) sequestration in the developing world, but as yet no studies have assessed the potential for farmers in the highland tropics to participate in C contracts. In this paper we show how an

  19. Towards low carbon business park energy systems: Classification of techno-economic energy models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timmerman, Jonas; Vandevelde, Lieven; Van Eetvelde, Greet

    2014-01-01

    To mitigate climate destabilisation, human-induced greenhouse gas emissions urgently need to be curbed. A major share of these emissions originates from the industry and energy sectors. Hence, a low carbon shift in industrial and business park energy systems is called for. Low carbon business parks minimise energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by maximal exploitation of local renewable energy production, enhanced energy efficiency, and inter-firm heat exchange, combined in a collective energy system. The holistic approach of techno-economic energy models facilitates the design of such systems, while yielding an optimal trade-off between energetic, economic and environmental performances. However, no models custom-tailored for industrial park energy systems are detected in literature. In this paper, existing energy model classifications are scanned for adequate model characteristics and accordingly, a confined number of models are selected and described. Subsequently, a practical typology is proposed, existing of energy system evolution, optimisation, simulation, accounting and integration models, and key model features are compared. Finally, important features for a business park energy model are identified. - Highlights: • A holistic perspective on (low carbon) business park energy systems is introduced. • A new categorisation of techno-economic energy models is proposed. • Model characteristics are described per model category. • Essential model features for business park energy system modelling are identified. • A strategy towards a techno-economic energy model for business parks is proposed

  20. The economic impact of shale gas development on state and local economies: benefits, costs, and uncertainties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Jannette M

    2013-01-01

    It is often assumed that natural gas exploration and development in the Marcellus Shale will bring great economic prosperity to state and local economies. Policymakers need accurate economic information on which to base decisions regarding permitting and regulation of shale gas extraction. This paper provides a summary review of research findings on the economic impacts of extractive industries, with an emphasis on peer-reviewed studies. The conclusions from the studies are varied and imply that further research, on a case-by-case basis, is necessary before definitive conclusions can be made regarding both short- and long-term implications for state and local economies.

  1. Basis for the evaluation of economic benefits from using modules for the development of radiation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodyukov, V.M.; Purtova, M.I.; Smirnova, Z.M.; Semenova, T.D.

    1976-01-01

    A method is discussed for calculating the economic effect obtained by introduction of a designing principle involving standardized units and blocks of various radiation equipment. The method was based on a comparison of the technological and economic factors that could be obtained by using the said principle with similar factors not involving the aggregate principle (used previously in designing various instruments and installations). The formulae are sited for estimating the economy involved in designing and manufacturing aggregated complexes (AC) of the subsystems involved in an aggregated system of instrument making (ASIM) and for evaluating the additional economic effect resulting from reduced AC development time

  2. The economic benefits of rainwater-runoff reduction by urban green spaces: a case study in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Biao; Xie, Gaodi; Zhang, Canqiang; Zhang, Jing

    2012-06-15

    Urbanization involves the replacement of vegetated surfaces with impervious built surfaces, and it often results in an increase in the rate and volume of rainwater surface runoff. Urban green spaces play a positive role in rainwater-runoff reduction. However, few studies have explored the benefits of rainwater-runoff reduction by urban green spaces. Based on inventory data of urban green spaces in Beijing, the paper evaluated the economic benefits of rainwater-runoff reduction by urban green spaces, using the rainwater-runoff-coefficient method as well as the economic valuation methods. The results showed that, 2494 cubic meters of potential runoff was reduced per hectare of green area and a total volume of 154 million cubic meters rainwater was stored in these urban green spaces, which almost corresponds to the annual water needs of the urban ecological landscape in Beijing. The total economic benefit was 1.34 billion RMB in 2009 (RMB: Chinese currency, US$1=RMB6.83), which is equivalent to three-quarters of the maintenance cost of Beijing's green spaces; the value of rainwater-runoff reduction was 21.77 thousand RMB per hectare. In addition, the benefits in different districts and counties were ranked in the same order as urban green areas, and the average benefits per hectare of green space showed different trends, which may be related to the impervious surface index in different regions. This research will contribute to an understanding of the role that Beijing's green spaces play in rainwater regulation and in the creation and scientific management of urban green spaces. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Positive Catch & Economic Benefits of Periodic Octopus Fishery Closures: Do Effective, Narrowly Targeted Actions ‘Catalyze’ Broader Management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Thomas A.; Oleson, Kirsten L. L.; Ratsimbazafy, Hajanaina; Raberinary, Daniel; Benbow, Sophie; Harris, Alasdair

    2015-01-01

    Overview Eight years of octopus fishery records from southwest Madagascar reveal significant positive impacts from 36 periodic closures on: (a) fishery catches and (b) village fishery income, such that (c) economic benefits from increased landings outweigh costs of foregone catch. Closures covered ~20% of a village’s fished area and lasted 2-7 months. Fishery Catches from Each Closed Site Octopus landings and catch per unit effort (CPUE) significantly increased in the 30 days following a closure’s reopening, relative to the 30 days before a closure (landings: +718%, poctopus fishery income doubled in the 30 days after a closure, relative to 30 days before (+132%, p<0.001, n = 28). Control villages not implementing a closure showed no increase in income after “no ban” closures and modest increases after “ban” closures. Villages did not show a significant decline in income during closure events. Net Economic Benefits from Each Closed Site Landings in closure sites generated more revenue than simulated landings assuming continued open-access fishing at that site (27/36 show positive net earnings; mean +$305/closure; mean +57.7% monthly). Benefits accrued faster than local fishers’ time preferences during 17-27 of the 36 closures. High reported rates of illegal fishing during closures correlated with poor economic performance. Broader Co-Management We discuss the implications of our findings for broader co-management arrangements, particularly for catalyzing more comprehensive management. PMID:26083862

  4. Cost/benefit analysis comparing ex situ treatment technologies for removing carbon tetrachloride from Hanford groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truex, M.J.; Brown, D.R.; Elliott, D.B.

    1993-05-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a cost/benefit and performance analysis to compare ex situ technologies that can be used to destroy the carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ) in the ground water of Hanford's 200 West Area. The objective of this work was to provide a direct quantitative and qualitative comparison of competing technologies. The technologies examined included a biological system, the Thermochemical Environmental Energy System II (TEES II), and a UV/oxidation system. The factors examined included key system operation parameters, impact on inorganic contaminants in the ground water, and secondary waste production. The cost effectiveness of these destruction technologies was also compared to the cost for an air stripping/granular activated carbon (AS/GAC) system. While the AS/GAC system appeared to be more cost effective at many levels than the CCl 4 destruction technologies, the secondary waste produced by this system may lead to significant cost and/or regulatory problems. The factors with the greatest influence on cost for each destruction technology are as follows: nutrient requirements for both of the biological systems, electricity requirements and the type of unit operations for the TEES II process, and electricity requirements for UV/oxidation

  5. Cost-benefit analysis of a green electricity system in Japan considering the indirect economic impacts of tropical cyclones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esteban, Miguel; Zhang, Qi; Longarte-Galnares, Gorka

    2012-01-01

    Global warming is likely to profoundly influence future weather patterns, and one consequence of this is the likelihood of an increase in tropical cyclone intensity. The present paper presents a cost-benefit analysis of introducing significant amounts of green energy in the electricity system in Japan in the light of the economic damage that an increase in tropical cyclone intensity could have on GDP growth between 2010 and 2085. Essentially the passage of a tropical cyclone will result not only in physical damage but also on a decrease in economic productivity due to precautionary cessation of the economic activity, which has an effect on GDP growth. By comparing the economic performance of different electricity system scenarios with the indirect economic damage of tropical cyclones from 2010 to 2085, based on the yearly economic data of green electricity, fossil fuel, GDP and population, it can be seen that the green scenarios are generally a cost-effective way of mitigating the effects of these weather systems, despite the large amount of initial investments necessary. - Highlights: ► Climate change is likely to increase the future strength of tropical cyclones. ► An increase in tropical cyclone strength would reduce GDP growth in Japan. ► Reducing green-house gas emissions is a cost-effective mitigation strategy.

  6. Analysis of carbon mitigation technology to 2050 in Japan through integrated energy economic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komiyama, Ryoichi; Suzuki, Kengo; Nagatomi, Yu; Matsuo, Yuji; Suehiro, Shigeru

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the outline of integrated energy economic model and calculated result concerning the outlook of energy and carbon dioxide emissions in Japan to 2050. The energy model developed in this paper is integrated one which consistently combines econometric model endogenously generating socio-economic outlook and bottom-up type technology model, MARKAL, identifying cost-minimizing optimal mix of various energy technologies. In reference scenario which imposes no carbon emissions constraint, CO 2 emission in 2050 will decrease by approximately 40% from the level of emissions in 2005. In carbon-constraints scenario, imposing emissions cap of 60% reduction by 2050 from the emissions in 2005, natural gas-fired power plant equipped with CCS and renewable energy are expected to expand its portion in power generation mix. In transportation sector on this scenario, clean energy vehicles such as electric vehicle (EV) and hydrogen fuel cell vehicle (FCV) will be deployed and contribute to mitigate CO 2 emissions. (author)

  7. Public health benefits of strategies to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions: low-carbon electricity generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markandya, Anil; Armstrong, Ben G; Hales, Simon; Chiabai, Aline; Criqui, Patrick; Mima, Silvana; Tonne, Cathryn; Wilkinson, Paul

    2009-12-12

    In this report, the third in this Series on health and climate change, we assess the changes in particle air pollution emissions and consequent effects on health that are likely to result from greenhouse-gas mitigation measures in the electricity generation sector in the European Union (EU), China, and India. We model the effect in 2030 of policies that aim to reduce total carbon dioxide (CO(2)) emissions by 50% by 2050 globally compared with the effect of emissions in 1990. We use three models: the POLES model, which identifies the distribution of production modes that give the desired CO(2) reductions and associated costs; the GAINS model, which estimates fine particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter 2.5 microm or less (PM(2.5)) concentrations; and a model to estimate the effect of PM(2.5) on mortality on the basis of the WHO's Comparative Risk Assessment methods. Changes in modes of production of electricity to reduce CO(2) emissions would, in all regions, reduce PM(2.5) and deaths caused by it, with the greatest effect in India and the smallest in the EU. Health benefits greatly offset costs of greenhouse-gas mitigation, especially in India where pollution is high and costs of mitigation are low. Our estimates are approximations but suggest clear health gains (co-benefits) through decarbonising electricity production, and provide additional information about the extent of such gains.

  8. Estimating mortality risk reduction and economic benefits from controlling ozone air pollution

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on Estimating Mortality Risk Reduction Benefits from Decreasing Tropospheric Ozone Exposure

    2008-01-01

    ... to establish a committee of experts to evaluate independently the contributions of recent epidemiologic studies to understanding the size of the ozone-mortality effect in the context of benefit analysis...

  9. Estimating mortality risk reduction and economic benefits from controlling ozone air pollution

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on Estimating Mortality Risk Reduction Benefits from Decreasing Tropospheric Ozone Exposure, National Research Council

    2008-01-01

    In light of recent evidence on the relationship of ozone to mortality and questions about its implications for benefit analysis, the Environmental Protection Agency asked the National Research Council...

  10. The economic and social benefits of an aquaponic system for the integrated production of fish and water plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizal, A.; Dhahiyat, Y.; Zahidah; Andriani, Y.; Handaka, A. A.; Sahidin, A.

    2018-04-01

    Aquaponics is an evolving closed-system food production technology that integrates recirculating aquaculture with hydroponics. In this paper we give a brief literature overview of the benefit aspects of aquaponics by discussing its social, environmental, and economic impacts in different potential settings. The technology might be applied to commercial or community based urban food production, industrial scale production in rural areas, small scale farming in developing countries or as systems for education and decoration inside buildings. We concluded that due to the different potential applications and settings for installing the technology, benefit impacts need to be considered separately and that due the complexity, communities, urban and rural infrastructure and policy settings, further research and data acquisition is needed to be able to assess all benefit aspects.

  11. A New Model for Designing Cost Effective Zero Carbon Homes: Minimizing Commercial Viability Issues and Improving the Economics for Both the Developer and Purchaser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehan Khodabuccus

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available There is a limited penetration of housing which offsets all operational carbon emissions within UK housing developer portfolios. This paper develops a balanced approach to zero carbon housing design from both architectural and national house builder perspectives. The paper discusses the techniques which can be used to reduce build costs, simplify designs and simplify renewable energy systems, resulting in more cost effective homes. The paper develops a technical and economic linked model to optimise a zero carbon design and then develops a home using this technique. It acknowledges that extra costs are inevitable but minimises them and details a lifecycle costing approach to provide economic justification. The paper then focuses on how the building designed can function more efficiently and economically than a Part L 2013 Building Regulation compliant building. Improved functionality is demonstrated both with and without the use of feed in tariffs. A key finding from this research is that zero carbon homes can benefit the consumer without impacting the developer. The results also demonstrate that homes could be better marketed on economic rather than environmental or technical attributes.

  12. Carbon sequestration and climate policy: elements of economic analysis. CGDD-TSE partnership

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubreu, Nathalie; Hardelin, Julien; Gilles Lafforgue

    2012-05-01

    In September 2011 the General Commission for Sustainable Development and Toulouse School of Economics jointly organized a conference on 'Carbon capture and storage (CCS) and climate policies: an economic analysis'. This paper presents an overview of the main results of the conference concerning the optimal energy mix and carbon emission path in the presence of CCS, the superiority of a policy mix combining an environmental tax with R and D subsidies, as well as the inter-generational equity-efficiency trade-off. It is based on presentations by Gilles Lafforgue, Andre Grimaud and Michel Moreaux, researchers from the Toulouse School of Economics. This overview confirms that a climate policy is more effective if it combines several instruments (tax and subsidies) and if it is quickly implemented. (authors)

  13. Quantifying non-energy benefits of a carbon reduction initiative for a glassware company

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willoughb-y, Sheri (World Wildlife Fund (United States)); Guo, Stephan (IKEA Trading (Hongkong) Ltd. (China)); Dahlgren, Maja (IKEA Trading Services Sp. z o.o. (Poland)); Schaefer, Thomas (IKEA of Sweden (Sweden)); Jia, Hongming (Hongwei Glassware Co. Ltd. (China))

    2011-07-01

    A glassware company in Yuncheng, China, which supplies to IKEA, upgraded its furnaces and switched the fuel source from coal to natural gas as a participant in an IKEA and WWF-led carbon reduction project. In addition to reducing its greenhouse gas emissions by 35 % (approx7,000 tons CO{sub 2}e) between 2009 and 2010, the company realized numerous non-energy benefits (NEBs) which improved the business case for their investment. While many NEBs can be difficult to quantify, the company calculated that improvements in product quality related to switching the pot furnaces from coal to natural gas directly reduced cost of products by 17 %. This cost reduction was realized from two primary NEBs: 1. Rate of available material: For one product, improved temperature stability in the natural gas furnace increased the output rate from 1,200 to 1,350 pieces, reducing each product's cost 12.5 %. 2. Improvement of qualified rate (non-rejects): For another product output increased from 900 to 1,050 pieces and the qualified rate increased from 75 to 80 percent. This gain was also due to increased temperature stability in the natural gas furnace which made the melted color and the material quality more stable. This resulted in a cost reduction of 5 % compared to the daily output from the coal furnace. While the glassware company had not yet broke even on its investment in the first year, the management had a very favourable view on this project due to the NEBs listed above as well as increased labor productivity due to improved working conditions (cleaner and cooler) and reduced risk of fines due to environmental regulation of coal. If a source of biogas could be secured, further carbon reductions could be realized while maintaining the NEBs achieved by switching to natural gas. This paper will further examine these and other non-energy benefits realized by the glassware company through the IKEA-WWF carbon reduction project

  14. Is faster economic growth compatible with reductions in carbon emissions? The role of diminished population growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Gregory; Galor, Oded

    2017-01-01

    We provide evidence that lower fertility can simultaneously increase income per capita and lower carbon emissions, eliminating a trade-off central to most policies aimed at slowing global climate change. We estimate the effect of lower fertility on carbon emissions, accounting for the fact that changes in fertility patterns affect carbon emissions through three channels: total population, the age structure of the population, and economic output. Our analysis proceeds in two steps. First, we estimate the elasticity of carbon emissions with respect to population and income per capita in an unbalanced yearly panel of cross-country data from 1950-2010. We demonstrate that the elasticity with respect to population is nearly seven times larger than the elasticity with respect to income per capita and that this difference is statistically significant. Thus, the regression results imply that 1% slower population growth could be accompanied by an increase in income per capita of nearly 7% while still lowering carbon emissions. In the second part of our analysis, we use a recently constructed economic-demographic model of Nigeria to estimate the effect of lower fertility on carbon emissions, accounting for the impacts of fertility on population growth, population age structure, and income per capita. We find that by 2100 C.E. moving from the medium to the low variant of the UN fertility projection leads to 35% lower yearly emissions and 15% higher income per capita. These results suggest that population policies could be part of the approach to combating global climate change.

  15. Economic valuation of environmental benefits of removing pharmaceutical and personal care products from WWTP effluents by ozonation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molinos-Senante, M., E-mail: maria.molinos@uv.es [Department of Mathematics for Economy, Universitat de Valencia, Campus dels Tarongers, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Reif, R., E-mail: rreif@icra.cat [Laboratory of Chemical and Environmental Engineering (LEQUIA), Universitat de Girona, Facultat Ciències, Campus Montilivi, 17071 Girona (Spain); Chemical Engineering Department, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Rua Lope Gomez de Marzoa s/n, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Garrido-Baserba, M., E-mail: mgarrido@icra.cat [Catalan Institute for Water Research, Scientific and Technological Park, H2O Building, Emili Grahit 101, 17003 Girona (Spain); Laboratory of Chemical and Environmental Engineering (LEQUIA), Universitat de Girona, Facultat Ciències, Campus Montilivi, 17071 Girona (Spain); Hernández-Sancho, F., E-mail: francesc.hernandez@uv.es [Department of Applied Economics II, Universitat de Valencia, Campus dels Tarongers, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Omil, F., E-mail: francisco.omil@usc.es [Chemical Engineering Department, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Rua Lope Gomez de Marzoa s/n, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Poch, M., E-mail: manel@lequia.udg.edu [Catalan Institute for Water Research, Scientific and Technological Park, H2O Building, Emili Grahit 101, 17003 Girona (Spain); Laboratory of Chemical and Environmental Engineering (LEQUIA), Universitat de Girona, Facultat Ciències, Campus Montilivi, 17071 Girona (Spain); Sala-Garrido, R., E-mail: ramon.sala@uv.es [Department of Mathematics for Economy, Universitat de Valencia, Campus dels Tarongers, 46022 Valencia (Spain)

    2013-09-01

    Continuous release of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) present in effluents from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is nowadays leading to the adoption of specific measures within the framework of the Directive 2000/60/EC (Water Framework Directive). The ozonation process, normally employed for drinking water production, has also proven its potential to eliminate PPCPs from secondary effluents in spite of their low concentrations. However, there is a significant drawback related with the costs associated with its implementation. This lack of studies is especially pronounced regarding the economic valuation of the environmental benefits associated to avoid the discharge of these pollutants into water bodies. For the first time the shadow prices of 5 PPCPs which are ethynilestradiol, sulfamethoxazole, diclofenac, tonalide and galaxolide from treated effluent using a pilot-scale ozonation reactor have been estimated. From non-sensitive areas their values are − 73.73; − 34.95; − 42.20; − 10.98; and − 8.67 respectively and expressed in €/kg. They represent a proxy to the economic value of the environmental benefits arisen from undischarged pollutants. This paper contributes to value the environmental benefits of implementing post-treatment processes aimed to achieve the quality standards required by the Priority Substances Directive. - Highlights: • Environmental Benefit Analysis of PPCPs • PPCPs' removal depends on their functional group and molecular structures. • Shadow prices as a proxy of the environmental benefits from ozonation process • HHCB and AHTN have the lowest shadow prices. • The greatest environmental benefit is associated with the removal of DCF.

  16. Economic valuation of environmental benefits of removing pharmaceutical and personal care products from WWTP effluents by ozonation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molinos-Senante, M.; Reif, R.; Garrido-Baserba, M.; Hernández-Sancho, F.; Omil, F.; Poch, M.; Sala-Garrido, R.

    2013-01-01

    Continuous release of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) present in effluents from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is nowadays leading to the adoption of specific measures within the framework of the Directive 2000/60/EC (Water Framework Directive). The ozonation process, normally employed for drinking water production, has also proven its potential to eliminate PPCPs from secondary effluents in spite of their low concentrations. However, there is a significant drawback related with the costs associated with its implementation. This lack of studies is especially pronounced regarding the economic valuation of the environmental benefits associated to avoid the discharge of these pollutants into water bodies. For the first time the shadow prices of 5 PPCPs which are ethynilestradiol, sulfamethoxazole, diclofenac, tonalide and galaxolide from treated effluent using a pilot-scale ozonation reactor have been estimated. From non-sensitive areas their values are − 73.73; − 34.95; − 42.20; − 10.98; and − 8.67 respectively and expressed in €/kg. They represent a proxy to the economic value of the environmental benefits arisen from undischarged pollutants. This paper contributes to value the environmental benefits of implementing post-treatment processes aimed to achieve the quality standards required by the Priority Substances Directive. - Highlights: • Environmental Benefit Analysis of PPCPs • PPCPs' removal depends on their functional group and molecular structures. • Shadow prices as a proxy of the environmental benefits from ozonation process • HHCB and AHTN have the lowest shadow prices. • The greatest environmental benefit is associated with the removal of DCF

  17. Assessing energy projects from the viewpoint of individual economic branches and total economy. The role of economic efficiency analysis, cost-benefit analysis and multicriteria methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sell, A.

    1992-01-01

    Energy is an extremely important good and means of production not only for the individual branches of economy but, due to its essential meaning to the development of a region or a national economy and its external effects connected with production and consumption, also of great interest to all economic branches. This article deals with the relation of analyses in individual economical branches and those in total economy and with the question of what the importance of cost-benefit analyses and other methods is in the analysis in total economy. The author also mentions the planning as in the special literature the planning and evaluation phases are not analytically separated which is seen especially in the discussion about the multi-criteria methods. (orig.) [de

  18. Economic innovation and efficiency gains as the driving force for accelerating carbon dioxide emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, T. J.

    2012-12-01

    It is normally assumed that gains in energy efficiency are one of the best routes that society has available to it for stabilizing future carbon dioxide emissions. For a given degree of economic productivity less energy is consumed and a smaller quantity of fossil fuels is required. While certainly this observation is true in the instant, it ignores feedbacks in the economic system such that efficiency gains ultimately lead to greater energy consumption: taken as a global whole, they permit civilization to accelerate its expansion into the energy reserves that sustain it. Here this argument is formalized from a general thermodynamic perspective. The core result is that there exists a fixed, time-independent link between a very general representation of global inflation-adjusted economic wealth (units currency) and civilization's total capacity to consume power (units energy per time). Based on 40 years of available statistics covering more than a tripling of global GDP and a doubling of wealth, this constant has a value of 7.1 +/- 0.01 Watts per one thousand 2005 US dollars. Essentially, wealth is power. Civilization grows by dissipating power in order to sustain all its current activities and to incorporate more raw material into its existing structure. Growth of its structure is related to economic production, so more energy efficient economic production facilitates growth. Growth is into the reserves that sustain civilization, in which case there is a positive feedback in the economic system whereby energy efficiency gains ultimately "backfire" if their intended purpose is to reduce energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions. The analogy that can be made is to a growing child: a healthy child who efficiently incorporates food into her structure grows quickly and is able to consume more in following years. Economically, an argument is made that, for a range of reasons, there are good reasons to refer to efficiency gains as economic "innovation", both for

  19. Carbon offsets as an economic alternative to large-scale logging: a case study in Guyana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborne, T. [Energy and Resources Group, University of California Berkeley, 310 Barrows Hall, Berkeley CA 94720 (United States); Kiker, C. [Food and Resource Economics Department, University of Florida, PO Box 110240, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2005-03-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the economic viability of carbon-offset projects that avoid logging in Guyana's forests. The results of this case study illustrate the cost effectiveness of alternative land-use options that reduce deforestation and associated greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This analysis demonstrates that using Guyana's rainforests for climate change mitigation can generate equivalent revenue to that of conventional large-scale logging without detrimental environmental impacts. At a 12% discount rate, the break-even price for carbon is estimated to be about US$ 0.20/tC. This estimate falls toward the low range of carbon prices for existing carbon offset projects that avoid deforestation.

  20. Assessment of TEES reg sign applications for Wet Industrial Wastes: Energy benefit and economic analysis report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, D.C.; Scheer, T.H.

    1992-02-01

    Fundamental work is catalyzed biomass pyrolysis/gasification led to the Thermochemical Environmental Energy System (TEES{reg sign}) concept, a means of converting moist biomass feedstocks to high-value fuel gases such as methane. A low-temperature (350{degrees}C), pressurized (3100 psig) reaction environment and a nickel catalyst are used to reduce volumes of very high-moisture wastes such as food processing byproducts while producing useful quantities of energy. A study was conducted to assess the economic viability of a range of potential applications of the process. Cases examined included feedstocks of cheese whey, grape pomace, spent grain, and an organic chemical waste stream. The analysis indicated that only the organic chemical waste process is economically attractive in the existing energy/economic environment. However, food processing cases will become attractive as alternative disposal practices are curtailed and energy prices rise.

  1. Business Case for Energy Efficiency in Support of Climate Change Mitigation, Economic and Societal Benefits in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNeil, Michael A.; Bojda, Nicholas; Ke, Jing; Qin, Yining; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Fridley, David; Letschert, Virginie E.; McMahon, James E.

    2011-08-18

    construction continues at a rapid pace. Growth in this sector means that commercial lighting and HVAC will play an increasingly important role in energy demand in China. The outlook for efficiency improvement in China is encouraging, since the Chinese national and local governments have implemented significant policies to contain energy intensity and announced their intention to continue and accelerate these. In particular, the Chinese appliance standards program, first established in 1989, was significantly strengthened and modernized after the passage of the Energy Conservation Law of 1997. Since then, the program has expanded to encompass over 30 equipment types (including motor vehicles). The current study suggests that, in spite of these efforts, there is significant savings to be captured through wide adoption of technologies already available on the Chinese market. The approach of the study is to assess the impact of short-term actions on long-term impacts. 'Short-term' market transformation is assumed to occur by 2015, while 'long-term' energy demand reduction impacts are assessed in 2030. In the intervening years, most but not all of the equipment studied will turn over completely. Early in 2011, the Chinese government announced a plan to reduce carbon dioxide emissions intensity (per unit GDP) by 16% by 2015 as part of the 12th five year plan. These targets are consistent with longer term goals to reduce emissions intensity 40-45% relative to 2005 levels by 2020. The efforts of the 12th FYP focus on short-term gains to meet the four-year targets, and concentrate mainly in industry. Implementation of cost-effective technologies for all new equipment in the buildings sector thus is largely complementary to the 12th FYP goals, and would provide a mechanism to sustain intensity reductions in the medium and long term. The 15-year time frame is significant for many products, in the sense that delay of implementation postpones economic benefits and

  2. Integrating science, economics and law into policy: The case of carbon sequestration in climate change policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Kenneth

    in carbon sinks. Consequently, the private sector will increase the rate of return required for participation, increasing the cost of this option. Carbon sequestration can still be a major factor in a national carbon emission abatement program. However, because of the interplay of science, economics and law, the most commonly prescribed environmental policy instruments--marketable allowance and taxes--have little or no direct role to play in the implementation process.

  3. Integration of hydrothermal carbonization and a CHP plant: Part 2 –operational and economic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saari, Jussi; Sermyagina, Ekaterina; Kaikko, Juha; Vakkilainen, Esa; Sergeev, Vitaly

    2016-01-01

    Wood-fired combined heat and power (CHP) plants are a proven technology for producing domestic, carbon-neutral heat and power in Nordic countries. One drawback of CHP plants is the low capacity factors due to varying heat loads. In the current economic environment, uncertainty over energy prices creates also uncertainty over investment profitability. Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a promising thermochemical conversion technology for producing an improved, more versatile wood-based fuel. Integrating HTC with a CHP plant allows simplifying the HTC process and extending the CHP plant operating time. An integrated polygeneration plant producing three energy products is also less sensitive to price changes in any one product. This study compares three integration cases chosen from the previous paper, and the case of separate stand-alone plants. The best economic performance is obtained using pressurized hot water from the CHP plant boiler drum as HTC process water. This has the poorest efficiency, but allows the greatest cost reduction in the HTC process and longest CHP plant operating time. The result demonstrates the suitability of CHP plants for integration with a HTC process, and the importance of economic and operational analysis considering annual load variations in sufficient detail. - Highlights: • Integration of wood hydrothermal carbonization with a small CHP plant studied. • Operation and economics of three concepts and stand-alone plants are compared. • Sensitivity analysis is performed. • Results show technical and thermodynamic analysis inadequate and misleading alone. • Minimizing HTC investment, extending CHP operating time important for profitability.

  4. Economic analysis of measles elimination program in the Republic of Korea, 2001: a cost benefit analysis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Geun-Ryang; Choe, Young June; Go, Un Yeong; Kim, Yong-Ik; Lee, Jong-Koo

    2013-05-31

    In this study, we modeled the cost benefit analysis for three different measles vaccination strategies based upon three different measles-containing vaccines in Korea, 2001. We employed an economic analysis model using vaccination coverage data and population-based measles surveillance data, along with available estimates of the costs for the different strategies. In addition, we have included analysis on benefit of reduction of complication by mumps and rubella. We evaluated four different strategies: strategy 1, keep-up program with a second dose measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine at 4-6 years without catch-up campaign; strategy 2, additional catch-up campaign with measles (M) vaccine; strategy 3, catch-up campaign with measles-rubella (MR) vaccine; and strategy 4, catch-up campaign with MMR vaccine. The cost of vaccination included cost for vaccines, vaccination practices and other administrative expenses. The direct benefit of estimated using data from National Health Insurance Company, a government-operated system that reimburses all medical costs spent on designated illness in Korea. With the routine one-dose MMR vaccination program, we estimated a baseline of 178,560 measles cases over the 20 years; when the catch-up campaign with M, MR or MMR vaccines was conducted, we estimated the measles cases would decrease to 5936 cases. Among all strategies, the two-dose MMR keep-up program with MR catch-up campaign showed the highest benefit-cost ratio of 1.27 with a net benefit of 51.6 billion KRW. Across different vaccination strategies, our finding suggest that MR catch-up campaign in conjunction with two-dose MMR keep-up program was the most appropriate option in terms of economic costs and public health effects associated with measles elimination strategy in Korea. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Information Technology for Economic and Social Benefit--Options for Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuiyan, Farhad Ali

    2002-01-01

    Considers how information technology (IT) can help socioeconomic growth of developing countries based on experiences in Bangladesh. Topics include Bangladesh's development plans; future economic growth trends triggered by IT; emerging technologies; intellectual and societal development; industrial revolutions; telematics; regional and world…

  6. The Role of Finance in Economic Development : Benefits, Risks, and Politics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beck, T.H.L.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: Theoretical and empirical research has shown that a sound and effective financial system is critical for economic development and growth. The financial system, however, is also subject to boom and bust cycles and fragility, with negative repercussions for the real economy. Further, the

  7. The Potential Economic Benefits of Education of Migrants in the EU. EENEE Analytical Report No. 31

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, Holger

    2017-01-01

    While international mobility has developed into a major driver of population change in the European Union, people with immigrant background in the Member States continue to be placed in disadvantaged socio-economic positions. They are often hampered by a lack of host country specific skills and knowledge. Many native-born children of…

  8. The Economic Costs of Partner Violence and the Cost-Benefit of Civil Protective Orders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, T. K.; Walker, Robert; Hoyt, William

    2012-01-01

    Partner violence affects a significant number of women and their children each year. Estimates of the economic costs of partner violence are substantial. However, most estimates of the costs of partner violence are made at the aggregate level rather than the individual level. Estimating costs at the individual level allows for a wider range of…

  9. The role of finance in economic development : Benefits, risks, and politics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beck, T.H.L.; Müller, D.C.

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the role of the financial sector for economic growth, the causes and consequences of financial fragility, and the politics behind financial deepening and fragility. In doing so, it identifies the critical role of the financial sector within capitalist economies, a role with

  10. Role of nonmarket economic values in benefit-cost analysis of public forest management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cindy Sorg Swanson; John B. Loomis

    1996-01-01

    Recreation in the Pacific Northwest is a valuable resource. A method is described that translates recreation on USDA Forest Service and U.S. Department of Interior Bureau of Land Management lands in northern California, western Oregon, and western Washington into economic value. By assigning recreation to land use type (using the Forest Service recreation opportunity...

  11. Economic benefits of combining soil and water conservation measures with nutrient management in semiarid Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zougmoré, R.; Mando, A.; Stroosnijder, L.; Ouédraogo, E.

    2004-01-01

    Nutrient limitation is the main cause of per capita decline in crop production in the Sahel, where water shortage also limits an efficient use of available nutrients. Combining soil and water conservation measures with locally available nutrient inputs may optimize crop production and economic

  12. Costs and benefits of controlling Campylobacter in the Netherlands - integrating risk analysis, epidemiology and economics.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havelaar AH; Nauta MJ; Mangen MJJ; Koeijer AG de; Bogaardt M-J; Evers EG; Jacobs-Reitsma WF; Pelt W van; Wagenaar JA; Wit GA de; Zee H van der; MGB

    2005-01-01

    A combination of decontamination with a chemical such as lactic acid and technical measures to reduce leakage of feces during slaughtering have been shown by model calculations in a Netherlands study to be the most economic method to improve the safety of broiler meat. Campylobacter bacteria form

  13. The economic benefits and costs of entrepreneurship: A review of the research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Praag, C.M.; Versloot, P.H.

    2008-01-01

    Many studies in the entrepreneurship literature are motivated by the statement that entrepreneurship has important economic value, for instance, in terms of productivity and growth, employment generation or, innovation. This claim is often substantiated by a reference to (at most) one or two studies

  14. Economics of forest fire management: Spatial accounting of costs and benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    José J. Sánchez; Ken Baerenklau; Armando González-Cabán; Kurt Schwabe

    2013-01-01

    To better evaluate the potential impacts of wildland fire in the San Bernardino National Forest, we developed a geographic information system (GIS) data layer containing nonmarket economic values for the San Jacinto Ranger District. Each pixel in the data layer contains an estimate of the most prominent nonmarket values at that location. This information can be used by...

  15. Energy consumption, carbon emissions and economic growth in Saudi Arabia: An aggregate and disaggregate analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alkhathlan, Khalid; Javid, Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the relationship among economic growth, carbon emissions and energy consumption at the aggregate and disaggregate levels. For the aggregate energy consumption model, we use total energy consumption per capita and CO 2 emissions per capita based on the total energy consumption. For the disaggregate analysis, we used oil, gas and electricity consumption models along with their respective CO 2 emissions. The long-term income elasticities of carbon emissions in three of the four models are positive and higher than their estimated short-term income elasticities. These results suggest that carbon emissions increase with the increase in per capita income which supports the belief that there is a monotonically increasing relationship between per capita carbon emissions and per capita income for the aggregate model and for the oil and electricity consumption models. The long- and short-term income elasticities of carbon emissions are negative for the gas consumption model. This result indicates that if the Saudi Arabian economy switched from oil to gas consumption, then an increase in per capita income would reduce carbon emissions. The results also suggest that electricity is less polluting than other sources of energy. - Highlights: • Carbon emissions increase with the increase in per capita income in Saudi Arabia. • The income elasticity of CO 2 is negative for the gas consumption model. • The income elasticity of CO 2 is positive for the oil consumption model. • The results suggest that electricity is less polluting than oil and gas

  16. Enhancing forest carbon sequestration in China: toward an integration of scientific and socio-economic perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J M; Thomas, S C; Yin, Y; Maclaren, V; Liu, J; Pan, J; Liu, G; Tian, Q; Zhu, Q; Pan, J-J; Shi, X; Xue, J; Kang, E

    2007-11-01

    This article serves as an introduction to this special issue, "China's Forest Carbon Sequestration", representing major results of a project sponsored by the Canadian International Development Agency and the Chinese Academy of Sciences. China occupies a pivotal position globally as a principle emitter of carbon dioxide, as host to some of the world's largest reforestation efforts, and as a key player in international negotiations aimed at reducing global greenhouse gas emission. The goals of this project are to develop remote sensing approaches for quantifying forest carbon balance in China in a transparent manner, and information and tools to support land-use decisions for enhanced carbon sequestration (CS) that are science based and economically and socially viable. The project consists of three components: (i) remote sensing and carbon modeling, (ii) forest and soil assessment, and (iii) integrated assessment of the socio-economic implications of CS via forest management. Articles included in this special issue are highlights of the results of each of these components.

  17. Predicting carbon benefits from climate-smart agriculture: High-resolution carbon mapping and uncertainty assessment in El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Sean Patrick; Coops, Nicholas C; Chan, Kai M A; Fonte, Steven J; Siles, Pablo; Smukler, Sean M

    2017-11-01

    Agroforestry management in smallholder agriculture can provide climate change mitigation and adaptation benefits and has been promoted as 'climate-smart agriculture' (CSA), yet has generally been left out of international and voluntary carbon (C) mitigation agreements. A key reason for this omission is the cost and uncertainty of monitoring C at the farm scale in heterogeneous smallholder landscapes. A largely overlooked alternative is to monitor C at more aggregated scales and develop C contracts with groups of land owners, community organizations or C aggregators working across entire landscapes (e.g., watersheds, communities, municipalities, etc.). In this study we use a 100-km 2 agricultural area in El Salvador to demonstrate how high-spatial resolution optical satellite imagery can be used to map aboveground woody biomass (AGWB) C at the landscape scale with very low uncertainty (95% probability of a deviation of less than 1%). Uncertainty of AGWB-C estimates remained low (agricultural lands in the study area, and that utilizing AGWB-C maps to target denuded areas could increase C gains per unit area by 46%. The potential value of C credits under a plausible adoption scenario would range from $38,270 to $354,000 yr -1 for the study area, or about $13 to $124 ha -1  yr -1 , depending on C prices. Considering farm sizes in smallholder landscapes rarely exceed 1-2 ha, relying solely on direct C payments to farmers may not lead to widespread CSA adoption, especially if farm-scale monitoring is required. Instead, landscape-scale approaches to C contracting, supported by satellite-based monitoring methods such as ours, could be a key strategy to reduce costs and uncertainty of C monitoring in heterogeneous smallholder landscapes, thereby incentivizing more widespread CSA adoption. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Economic valuation of environmental benefits of removing pharmaceutical and personal care products from WWTP effluents by ozonation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinos-Senante, M; Reif, R; Garrido-Baserba, M; Hernández-Sancho, F; Omil, F; Poch, M; Sala-Garrido, R

    2013-09-01

    Continuous release of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) present in effluents from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is nowadays leading to the adoption of specific measures within the framework of the Directive 2000/60/EC (Water Framework Directive). The ozonation process, normally employed for drinking water production, has also proven its potential to eliminate PPCPs from secondary effluents in spite of their low concentrations. However, there is a significant drawback related with the costs associated with its implementation. This lack of studies is especially pronounced regarding the economic valuation of the environmental benefits associated to avoid the discharge of these pollutants into water bodies. For the first time the shadow prices of 5 PPCPs which are ethynilestradiol, sulfamethoxazole, diclofenac, tonalide and galaxolide from treated effluent using a pilot-scale ozonation reactor have been estimated. From non-sensitive areas their values are -73.73; -34.95; -42.20; -10.98; and -8.67 respectively and expressed in €/kg. They represent a proxy to the economic value of the environmental benefits arisen from undischarged pollutants. This paper contributes to value the environmental benefits of implementing post-treatment processes aimed to achieve the quality standards required by the Priority Substances Directive. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Quantifying the emissions and air quality co-benefits of lower-carbon electricity production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plachinski, Steven D.; Holloway, Tracey; Meier, Paul J.; Nemet, Gregory F.; Rrushaj, Arber; Oberman, Jacob T.; Duran, Phillip L.; Voigt, Caitlin L.

    2014-09-01

    integrated modeling can quantify the emission and air quality co-benefits associated with carbon reduction measures, and this approach can be applied to other regions and larger geographical scales.

  20. Optimization of Water Resources and Agricultural Activities for Economic Benefit in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    LIM, J.; Lall, U.

    2017-12-01

    The limited water resources available for irrigation are a key constraint for the important agricultural sector of Colorado's economy. As climate change and groundwater depletion reshape these resources, it is essential to understand the economic potential of water resources under different agricultural production practices. This study uses a linear programming optimization at the county spatial scale and annual temporal scales to study the optimal allocation of water withdrawal and crop choices. The model, AWASH, reflects streamflow constraints between different extraction points, six field crops, and a distinct irrigation decision for maize and wheat. The optimized decision variables, under different environmental, social, economic, and physical constraints, provide long-term solutions for ground and surface water distribution and for land use decisions so that the state can generate the maximum net revenue. Colorado, one of the largest agricultural producers, is tested as a case study and the sensitivity on water price and on climate variability is explored.

  1. The spatial distribution of gambling and its economic benefits to municipalities in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiedor David

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Gambling is a specific type of economic activity that significantly affects many aspects of society. It is associated mainly with negative impacts on the lives of individuals and their families, but it also has a positive economic impact on the public budgets of states, regions and municipalities. In this article, we focus on a geographic assessment of the development of gambling in the Czech Republic, which is based on a spatial analysis of data on licensed games and data on the revenues of municipalities arising from gambling. It turns out that the occurrence of gambling is strongly influenced by binary centre/periphery dichotomy, with the exception of the Czech-Austrian and Czech-German border areas which are characterised by a high concentration of casinos resulting from more rigid regulation of gambling on the other side of the border. In this research, the authors develop an innovative scientific discipline within Czech human geography: The geography of gambling.

  2. Quantifying the benefit of A-SCOPE data for reducing uncertainties in terrestrial carbon fluxes in CCDAS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaminski, T.; Scholze, M.; Houweling, S.

    2010-01-01

    ESA’s Earth Explorer candidate mission A-SCOPE aims at observingCO2 from space with an active LIDAR instrument. This study employs quantitative network design techniques to investigate the benefit of A-SCOPE observations in a Carbon Cycle Data Assimilation System. The system links the observations

  3. Economic costs and benefits of promoting healthy takeaway meals at workplace canteens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Mørkbak, Morten Raun; Nordström, Leif Jonas

    2012-01-01

    to assess the net society costs and benefits associated with an extended use of canteen takeaway meals as a health promotion strategy. The results show that employees have a positive willingness to pay for health attributes in canteen takeaway meals, but with a minority having a highly negative willingness......Canteen Takeaway is a novel concept, which entails workplace canteens to utilise existing production capacity to supply packaged meals for employees to bring home. The concept has a potential to raise the average nutritional quality of employees' diets. The purpose of the study is to assess...... to pay for the canteen takeaway concept. The potential health effects of a healthy canteen takeaway programme are estimated to be positive, but modest in magnitude. The estimated costs of providing healthy canteen takeaway meals exceed the sum of average direct and indirect benefits. In conclusion...

  4. Economic costs and benefits of promoting healthy takeaway meals at workplace canteens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Mørkbak, Morten Raun; Nordström, Leif Jonas

    to assess the net society costs and benefits associated with an extended use of canteen takeaway meals as a health promotion strategy. The results show that employees have a positive willingness to pay for health attributes in canteen takeaway meals, but with a minority having a highly negative willingness......Canteen Takeaway is a novel concept, which entails workplace canteens to utilise existing production capacity to supply packaged meals for employees to bring home. The concept has a potential to raise the average nutritional quality of employees' diets. The purpose of the study is to assess...... to pay for the canteen takeaway concept. The potential health effects of a healthy canteen takeaway programme are estimated to be positive, but modest in magnitude. The estimated costs of providing healthy canteen takeaway meals exceed the sum of average direct and indirect benefits. In conclusion...

  5. Reinventing the Wheel: The Economic Benefits of Wheeled Transportation in Early British Colonial West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Isaías N. Chaves; Stanley L. Engerman; James A. Robinson

    2013-01-01

    One of the great puzzles of Sub-Saharan African economic history is that wheeled transportation was barely used prior to the colonial period. Instead, head porterage was the main method of transportation. The consensus among historians is that this was a rational adaption to the underlying conditions and factor endowments. In this paper we undertake the first systematic investigation of the relative costs of the different forms of wheeled transportation in Africa. We focus on calculating the ...

  6. Incorporation of distributed generation and shunt capacitor in radial distribution system for techno-economic benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukul Dixit

    2017-04-01

    The various costs such as purchase active power from grid, DG installation, capacitor installation, DG Operation and Maintenance (O&M are evaluated at two different load scenarios. In addition to that, technical and economical analyses are examined for various combinations of DGs and shunt capacitors. The proposed methodology is successfully demonstrated on 33-bus and 85-bus radial networks and the obtained numerical outcomes validate the suitability, importance and effectiveness to identify locations as well as sizes of DGs and shunt capacitors.

  7. Desirable misuse of unemployment benefits: the economics of “Canada Dry” retirement

    OpenAIRE

    CREMER, Helmuth; LOZACHMEUR, Jean-Marie; PESTIEAU, Pierre

    2006-01-01

    The 'Canada Dry' pensions system is in some countries one of the frequent routes to early retirement. It constitutes an informal substitute for early retirement programs. Accordingly, firms lay off aged workers they find costly for what they produce and, to get their support, supplement unemployment benefits by some extra compensation that is paid until formal retirement. Whether the government cannot or does not want to stop these practises is not clear. In this paper we show that these prac...

  8. Economics of Forest Fire Management: Spatial Accounting of Costs and Benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchez, Jose Julio

    2014-01-01

    A nonmarket valuation approach is used in this study to evaluate the recreation values of the San Jacinto Wilderness in southern California. The analysis utilizes survey data from a stated-choice experiment involving backcountry visitors who responded to questions about hypothetical wildfire burn scenarios. Benefits of landscape preservation are derived using a Kuhn-Tucker (KT) demand system. Model results suggest that recreationists are more attracted to sites with recent foreground wildf...

  9. Law, Economics, and Culture: Theory of Mandated Benefits and Evidence from Maternity Leave Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Yehonatan Givati; Ugo Troiano

    2012-01-01

    Why do some countries mandate a long maternity leave, while others mandate only a short one? We incorporate into a standard mandated-benefit model social tolerance of gender-based discrimination, showing that the optimal length of maternity leave depends on it. The less tolerant a society is of gender-based discrimination, the longer the maternity leave it will mandate. Relying on recent research in psychology and linguistics according to which patterns in languages offer a window into their ...

  10. Workshop in economics - the problem of climate change benefit-cost analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosobud, R.F.

    1992-01-01

    Could benefit-cost analysis play a larger role in the discussion of policies to deal with the greenhouse effect? The paper also investigates the causes of this lack of influence. Selected forms of benefit-cost research are probed, particularly the critical discussions raised by this type of research, in an effort to suggest where the chances of greater acceptance lie. The paper begins by discussing the search for an appropriate policy: optimal, targeted, or incremental. It then describes the work being done in specifying and estimating climate change damage relationships. A consideration of the work being done in specifying and estimating abatement (both mitigation and adaptation) cost relationships follows. Finally, the paper ends with an examination of the search for the appropriate policy instrument. International and methodological concerns cut across these areas and are discussed in each section. This paper concludes that there seem to be a number of reasons that benefit-cost results play only a limited role in policy development. There is some evidence that the growing interest in market-based approaches to climate change policy and to other environmental control matters is a sign of increased acceptance. Suggestions about research directions are made throughout this paper

  11. The dynamic performance and economic benefit of a blended braking system in a multi-speed battery electric vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruan, Jiageng; Walker, Paul D.; Watterson, Peter A.; Zhang, Nong

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Maximum braking energy recovery potentials of various cycles are reported. • Braking strategies are proposed for performance, comfort and energy recovery. • Braking force distributions and wheel slip ratios of different strategies are demonstrated. • The performance of ‘Eco’ strategy is experimentally validated in HWFET and NEDC. • The economic benefit of energy recovering is summarized, regarding to the fuel and maintenance cost saving. - Abstract: As motor-supplied braking torque is applied to the wheels in an entirely different way to hydraulic friction braking systems and it is usually only connected to one axle complicated effects such as wheel slip and locking, vehicle body bounce and braking distance variation will inevitability impact on the performance and safety of braking. The potential for braking energy recovery in typical driving cycles is presented to show its benefit in this study. A general predictive model is designed to analysis the economic and dynamic performance of blended braking systems, satisfying the relevant regulations/laws and critical limitations. Braking strategies for different purposes are proposed to achieve a balance between braking performance, driving comfort and energy recovery rate. Special measures are taken to avoid any effects of motor failure. All strategies are analyzed in detail for various braking events. Advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS), such as ABS and EBD, are properly integrated to work with the regenerative braking system (RBS) harmoniously. Different switching plans during braking are discussed. The braking energy recovery rates and brake force distribution details for different driving cycles are simulated. Results for two of the cycles in an ‘Eco’ mode are measured on a drive train test rig and found to agree with the simulated results to within approximately 10%. Reliable conclusions can thus be gained on the economic benefit and dynamic braking performance. The

  12. POLAND IN AND OUTSIDE THE EURO ZONE – RISKS AND BENEFITS IN THE LIGHT OF NEW POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC DETERMINANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Dobrowolski

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the benefits and risks of Poland adopting the euro in the light of current political and economic conditions. For this purpose, the following research methods were used: literature research, intuitive method and descriptive statistics. Poland has fulfilled the criteria for nominal convergence for two years, apart from participating in the ERM II mechanism, but the political situation in the country precludes the adoption of measures leading to the euro zone. The future shape of this zone is yet unknown, as its closer integration is planned. Theoretical analysis indicates that the process of globalization makes it difficult for medium-sized, open-economy countries to pursue autonomous monetary and exchange rate policy, so the loss of these instruments after the adoption of the euro should not jeopardize long-term economic growth, even in the case of asymmetric shocks. The market mechanisms of restoring the balance and fiscal policy may then be used. The economy will also benefit from the elimination of transaction costs and exchange rate risks in the euro zone. The analysis shows that it is possible to use the opportunity for faster GDP growth associated with the adoption of the common currency if the right economic policy is pursued. Adopting the euro may also incur costs. For banks it can be the loss of foreign exchange earnings and commissions on FX hedge transactions. For the economy it can be the possibility of speculative bubbles, as a result of excessive consumption growth, caused by possibly too low interest rates. Expected benefits should, however, outweigh any losses.

  13. Enhancing identified Circular Economic benefits related to the deployment of the Solrød biogas plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lybæk, Rikke; Kjær, Tyge

    2017-01-01

    by the Ellen MacArthur Foundation, the paper analyzes three areas: 1) biogas production, 2) nitrogen, phosphorous & green house gas (GHG) emissions, and 3) re-cycle/cascade materials. It consequently elaborates on the environmental benefits obtained, in terms of CO2 emission from biogas production substituted......This paper investigates how experiences from the deployment of the Solrød biogas plant in Denmark - a large scale centralized biogas plant - can assist future biogas technologies in achieving circular economic benefits. Departing from a theoretical understanding of a circular economy provided...... from Solrød Biogas, this paper further proposes to include the following activities when planning for future biogas plants: waste-stream identification and coupling in the local community, measuring the value of digestate as a fertilizer, short distance to farmers delivering manure, and plant design...

  14. Cost and economic benefit of clinical decision support systems for cardiovascular disease prevention: a community guide systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Verughese; Thota, Anilkrishna B; Chattopadhyay, Sajal K; Njie, Gibril J; Proia, Krista K; Hopkins, David P; Ross, Murray N; Pronk, Nicolaas P; Clymer, John M

    2017-05-01

    This review evaluates costs and benefits associated with acquiring, implementing, and operating clinical decision support systems (CDSSs) to prevent cardiovascular disease (CVD). Methods developed for the Community Guide were used to review CDSS literature covering the period from January 1976 to October 2015. Twenty-one studies were identified for inclusion. It was difficult to draw a meaningful estimate for the cost of acquiring and operating CDSSs to prevent CVD from the available studies ( n  = 12) due to considerable heterogeneity. Several studies ( n  = 11) indicated that health care costs were averted by using CDSSs but many were partial assessments that did not consider all components of health care. Four cost-benefit studies reached conflicting conclusions about the net benefit of CDSSs based on incomplete assessments of costs and benefits. Three cost-utility studies indicated inconsistent conclusions regarding cost-effectiveness based on a conservative $50,000 threshold. Intervention costs were not negligible, but specific estimates were not derived because of the heterogeneity of implementation and reporting metrics. Expected economic benefits from averted health care cost could not be determined with confidence because many studies did not fully account for all components of health care. We were unable to conclude whether CDSSs for CVD prevention is either cost-beneficial or cost-effective. Several evidence gaps are identified, most prominently a lack of information about major drivers of cost and benefit, a lack of standard metrics for the cost of CDSSs, and not allowing for useful life of a CDSS that generally extends beyond one accounting period. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  15. Willingness to pay for carbon offset certification and co-benefits among (high-)flying young adults in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKerron, George J.; Mourato, Susana; Egerton, Catrin; Gaskell, Christopher; Parpia, Aimie

    2009-01-01

    Voluntary carbon offsets represent a growing share of the carbon market as a whole, and have the potential to contribute to meeting greenhouse gas emissions targets and reducing anthropogenic climate change. Certain offset project types may also deliver co-benefits including safeguarding or promoting biodiversity, supporting human development and poverty reduction, and enabling market and technology development in low-carbon sectors. These co-benefits might encourage consumers to participate in the voluntary offset market, depending on their effects both on consumers' willingness to pay (WTP) for offsets and on implementation costs. However, the offset market is not yet sufficiently developed to give a clear indication of consumer WTP for offsets with varying attributes. This exploratory stated preference study therefore uses a choice experiment to estimate WTP for certified and uncertified offsets, with or without these specific co-benefits, in an aviation context. It is, to the best of our knowledge, the first to do so. Our results suggest that uptake of voluntary offsets may be encouraged by investing in projects with co-benefits and by emphasising those co-benefits to consumers. They also suggest that certification regimes will add value to offsets, helping compensate for increased costs, provided that consumers are made fully aware of them. (author)

  16. Low-carbon transition of iron and steel industry in China: carbon intensity, economic growth and policy intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bing; Li, Xiao; Qiao, Yuanbo; Shi, Lei

    2015-02-01

    As the biggest iron and steel producer in the world and one of the highest CO2 emission sectors, China's iron and steel industry is undergoing a low-carbon transition accompanied by remarkable technological progress and investment adjustment, in response to the macroeconomic climate and policy intervention. Many drivers of the CO2 emissions of the iron and steel industry have been explored, but the relationships between CO2 abatement, investment and technological expenditure, and their connections with the economic growth and governmental policies in China, have not been conjointly and empirically examined. We proposed a concise conceptual model and an econometric model to investigate this crucial question. The results of regression, Granger causality test and impulse response analysis indicated that technological expenditure can significantly reduce CO2 emissions, and that investment expansion showed a negative impact on CO2 emission reduction. It was also argued with empirical evidence that a good economic situation favored CO2 abatement in China's iron and steel industry, while achieving CO2 emission reduction in this industrial sector did not necessarily threaten economic growth. This shed light on the dispute over balancing emission cutting and economic growth. Regarding the policy aspects, the year 2000 was found to be an important turning point for policy evolution and the development of the iron and steel industry in China. The subsequent command and control policies had a significant, positive effect on CO2 abatement. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Main ways and suitable technologies of improving economic benefits for uranium ore heap leaching in China (the end)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan Zibin

    2001-01-01

    Combining with practice of China's uranium ore heap leaching, the author proposes main ways and suitable technologies in the fields of emphasizing feasibility research, adopting strengthened technologies, improving equipment level, optimizing control technological factors and developing application range and so on, which include adopting acid-currying and ferric sulphate-trickle leaching process, bacteria heap leaching, countercurrent heap leaching, selecting advanced material of heap bottom, developing large mechanized heap construction equipment and methods, popularizing drip irrigation distributing solution, optimizing heap leaching process parameters, as well as developing recovery equipment suited to heap leaching, etc, in order to increase leaching rate, reduce heap leaching period and achieve more economic benefits

  18. Integrated assessment of the health and economic benefits of long-term renewable energy development in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, H.; Xie, Y.; Zhang, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Context/Purpose: Power generation from renewable energy (RE) could substitute huge amount of fossil energy in the power sector and have substantial co-benefits of air quality and human health improvement. In 2016, China National Renewable Energy Center (CNREC) released China Renewable Energy Outlook, CREO2016 and CREO2017, towards 2030 and 2050, respectively, in which two scenarios are proposed, namely, a conservative "Stated Policy" scenario and a more ambitious "High RE" scenario. This study, together with CNREC, aims to quantify the health and economic benefits of developing renewable energy at the provincial level in China up to 2030 and 2050. Methods: For this purpose, we developed an integrated approach that combines a power dispatch model at CNREC, an air pollutant emission projection model using energy consumption data from the Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning System (LEAP) model, an air quality model (GEOS-Chem at Harvard), an own-developed health model, and a macro economic model (Computable General Equilibrium model). Results: All together, we attempt to quantify how developing RE could reduce the concentration of PM2.5 and ozone in 30 provinces of China, how the human health could be improved in terms of mortality, morbidity and work hour loss, and what is the economic value of the health improvement in terms of increased GDP and the value of statistical life lost. The results show that developing RE as stated in the CREO2016 could prevent chronic mortality of 286 thousand people in China in 2030 alone, the value of saved statistical life is worthy 1200 billion Yuan, equivalent to 1.2% of GDP. In addition, averagely, due to reduced mortality and improved morbidity each person could work additionally by 1.16 hours per year, this could contribute to an increase of GDP by 0.1% in 2030. The assessment up to 2050 is still underway. Interpretation: The results imply that when the external benefit of renewable energy is taken into account, RE could be

  19. The grain of spatially referenced economic cost and biodiversity benefit data and the effectiveness of a cost targeting strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, N J; Armsworth, P R

    2014-12-01

    Facing tight resource constraints, conservation organizations must allocate funds available for habitat protection as effectively as possible. Often, they combine spatially referenced economic and biodiversity data to prioritize land for protection. We tested how sensitive these prioritizations could be to differences in the spatial grain of these data by demonstrating how the conclusion of a classic debate in conservation planning between cost and benefit targeting was altered based on the available information. As a case study, we determined parcel-level acquisition costs and biodiversity benefits of land transactions recently undertaken by a nonprofit conservation organization that seeks to protect forests in the eastern United States. Then, we used hypothetical conservation plans to simulate the types of ex ante priorities that an organization could use to prioritize areas for protection. We found the apparent effectiveness of cost and benefit targeting depended on the spatial grain of the data used when prioritizing parcels based on local species richness. However, when accounting for complementarity, benefit targeting consistently was more efficient than a cost targeting strategy regardless of the spatial grain of the data involved. More pertinently for other studies, we found that combining data collected over different spatial grains inflated the apparent effectiveness of a cost targeting strategy and led to overestimation of the efficiency gain offered by adopting a more integrative return-on-investment approach. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  20. Development of a Polymer-carbon Nanotubes based Economic Solar Collector

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, S. I.; Kissick, John; Spence, Stephen; Boyle, Christine

    2014-01-01

    A low cost solar collector was developed by using polymeric components as opposed to metal and glass components of traditional solar collectors. In order to utilize polymers for the absorber of the solar collector, Carbon Nanotubes (CNT) has been added as a filler to improve the thermal conductivity and the solar absorptivity of polymers. The solar collector was designed as a multi-layer construction with considering the economic manufacturing. Through the mathematical heat transfer analysis,...

  1. Charcoal from biomass residues of a Cryptomeria plantation and analysis of its carbon fixation benefit in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Yu-Jen; Hwang, Gwo-Shyong

    2009-01-01

    Charcoal production as an age-old industry not only supplies fuel in developing countries, in recent decades, it has also become a means of supplying new multifunctional materials for environmental improvement and agricultural applications in developed countries. These include air dehumidification and deodorization, water purification, and soil improvement due to charcoal's excellent adsorption capacity. Paradoxically, charcoal production might also help curb greenhouse gas emissions. In this study, we made charcoal from discarded branches and tops of wood from a Cryptomeria plantation after thinning using a still-operational earthen kiln. Woody biomass was used as the carbonization fuel. The effect of carbonization on carbon fixation was calculated and its benefits evaluated. The results showed that the recovered fixed carbon reached 33.2%, i.e., one-third of the biomass residual carbon was conserved as charcoal which if left on the forest ground would decompose and turn into carbon dioxide, and based on a net profit of US$1.13 kg -1 for charcoal, an annual net profit of US$14,665 could be realized. Charcoaling thus appears to be a feasible alternative to promote reutilization of woody resides which would not only reduce greenhouse gas emissions, but also provide potential benefits to regional economies in developing countries.

  2. Economically important species dominate aboveground carbon storage in forests of southwestern Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Galia Selaya

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Tree species in tropical forests provide economically important goods and ecosystem services. In submontane forests of southwestern Amazonia, we investigated the degree to which tree species important for subsistence and trade contribute to aboveground carbon storage (AGC. We used 41 1-hectare plots to determine the species abundance, basal area, and AGC of stems > 10 cm diameter at breast height (dbh. Economically important taxa were classified using ethnobotanical studies and according to their stem density. These taxa (n = 263 accounted for 45% of total stems, 53% of total basal area, and 56% of total AGC, significantly more than taxa with minor or unknown uses (Welch test at p 40 cm and few stems in regeneration classes of dbh < 10 to 20 cm (e.g., Bertholletia excelsa, Cariniana spp., Cedrelinga spp., Ceiba spp., Dipteryx spp., whereas dominant Tetragastris spp., and Pseudolmedia spp. had most stems in low diameter classes and a median diameter of < 30 cm. Bertholletia excelsa, with 1.5 stems per hectare, showed the highest basal area of any species and accounted for 9% of AGC (11 Mg/ha, twice that of the second-ranking species. Our study shows that economic importance and carbon stocks in trees are closely linked in southwestern Amazonia. Unplanned harvests can disrupt synergistic dual roles altering carbon stocks temporally or permanently. Precautionary measures based on species ecology, demography, and regeneration traits should be at the forefront of REDD+ to reconcile maximum harvesting limits, biodiversity conservation, and sustainable forest management.

  3. Addition of meloxicam to the treatment of bovine clinical mastitis results in a net economic benefit to the dairy farmer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Soest, Felix J S; Abbeloos, Elke; McDougall, Scott; Hogeveen, Henk

    2018-04-01

    Recently, it has been shown that the addition of meloxicam to standard antimicrobial therapy for clinical mastitis (CM) improves the conception rate of dairy cows contracting CM in the first 120 d in milk. The objective of our study was to assess whether this improved reproduction through additional treatment with meloxicam would result in a positive net economic benefit for the farmer. We developed a stochastic bio-economic simulation model, in which a dairy cow with CM in the first 120 d in milk was simulated. Two scenarios were simulated in which CM cases were treated with meloxicam in conjunction with antimicrobial therapy or with antimicrobial therapy alone. The scenarios differed for conception rates (31% with meloxicam or 21% without meloxicam) and for the cost of CM treatment. Sensitivity analyses were undertaken for the biological and economic components of the model to assess the effects of a wide range of inputs on inferences about the cost effectiveness of meloxicam treatment. Model results showed an average net economic benefit of €42 per CM case per year in favor of the meloxicam scenario. Cows in the no-meloxicam treatment scenario had higher returns on milk production, lower costs upon calving, and reduced costs of treatment. However, these did not outweigh the savings associated with lower feed intake, reduced number of inseminations, and the reduced culling rate. The net economic benefit favoring meloxicam therapy was a consequence of the better reproductive performance in the meloxicam scenario in which cows had a shorter calving to conception interval (132 vs. 143 d), a shorter intercalving interval (405 vs. 416 d), and fewer inseminations per conception (2.9 vs. 3.7) compared with cows in the no-meloxicam treatment scenario. This resulted in a shorter lactation, hence a lower lactational milk production (8,441 vs. 8,517 kg per lactation) with lower feeding costs in the meloxicam group. A lower culling rate (12 vs. 25%) resulted in lower

  4. Energy consumption, carbon emissions and economic growth nexus in Bangladesh: Cointegration and dynamic causality analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahangir Alam, Mohammad; Ara Begum, Ismat; Buysse, Jeroen; Van Huylenbroeck, Guido

    2012-01-01

    The paper investigates the possible existence of dynamic causality between energy consumption, electricity consumption, carbon emissions and economic growth in Bangladesh. First, we have tested cointegration relationships using the Johansen bi-variate cointegration model. This is complemented with an analysis of an auto-regressive distributed lag model to examine the results' robustness. Then, the Granger short-run, the long-run and strong causality are tested with a vector error correction modelling framework. The results indicate that uni-directional causality exists from energy consumption to economic growth both in the short and the long-run while a bi-directional long-run causality exists between electricity consumption and economic growth but no causal relationship exists in short-run. The strong causality results indicate bi-directional causality for both the cases. A uni-directional causality runs from energy consumption to CO 2 emission for the short-run but feedback causality exists in the long-run. CO 2 Granger causes economic growth both in the short and in the long-run. An important policy implication is that energy (electricity as well) can be considered as an important factor for the economic growth in Bangladesh. Moreover, as higher energy consumption also means higher pollution in the long-run, policy makers should stimulate alternative energy sources for meeting up the increasing energy demand. - Highlights: ► Dynamic causality among energy and electricity consumption, CO 2 and economic growth. ► Uni-directional causality exists from energy consumption to economic growth. ► Bi-directional causality exists between electricity consumption and economic growth. ► Feedback causality exists between CO 2 emission to energy consumption. ► CO 2 Granger causes economic growth both in the short and in the long-run.

  5. Synthesis of integrated absorption refrigeration systems involving economic and environmental objectives and quantifying social benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lira-Barragán, Luis Fernando; Ponce-Ortega, José María; Serna-González, Medardo; El-Halwagi, Mahmoud M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new methodology for energy integration of systems that require absorption refrigeration. It allows heat exchange among process hot and cold streams and the integration of excess process heat as well as external utilities provided by solar energy, fossil fuels and biofuels. An optimization formulation is developed to address the multiple objectives of simultaneously minimizing the total annualized cost and the greenhouse gas emissions while the social impact is measured by the number of jobs generated by the project in the entire life cycle. The economic function accounts for the tax credit obtained by the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions when cleaner technologies are used. The proposed model also considers the optimal selection of different types of solar collectors and the optimal time-based usage of solar energy, fossil fuel, and biofuel. Two example problems are presented to show the applicability of the proposed methodology. -- Highlights: ► An approach for the thermal integration of refrigeration processes is proposed. ► Different forms of sustainable energies are considered in the optimization process. ► Economic and environmental objectives are considered quantifying the number of jobs. ► The availability for the different forms of energy is taken into account. ► Results show significant advantages obtained with the proposed approach

  6. Potential health and economic benefits of three locally grown nuts in Nigeria: implications for developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayomadewa Mercy Olatunya

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Malnutrition and lack of economic sustainability are major problems in developing countries. This study was conducted to evaluate and compare the nutrients‘ contents of three locally grown nuts in Nigeria (local groundnut, Kampala groundnut and breadnut and highlight their health and economic potentials. Proximate analysis, chemical properties, minerals and fatty acids composition of the nuts were determined. The highest protein, crude fibre and carbohydrate contents were found in Kampala groundnut, local groundnut and breadnut respectively. Their sodium-potassium ratios were all less than 1.0 and their oils have mainly unsaturated fatty acids. Their acid values ranged between (2.41–6.34 mgKOH/g while the iodine values were between 36.0 and 93.0 I2 g/100 g. Analysis of the nuts and their oils indicated that they could help in solving malnutrition problem and also boost nations’ economy. Encouraging their large scale production can enhance adequate nutrition and sustain industrial growth in developing countries. Keywords: Nutrition, Food analysis, Food science

  7. Efficiency, equity or disagreement? The economics of international carbon abatement negotiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mabey, N.; Smith, C.

    1995-01-01

    The current international effort to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, as embodied in the Framework Convention on Climate Change, is often criticized as inefficient by economists because it uses uniform targets instead of more theoretically efficient instruments such as international taxes. However, the effectiveness of any international treaty in producing environmental benefits is not wholly dependent on its economic efficiency but also on its political stability and the ability to accurately monitor and enforce its conditions. Stability depends on the magnitude and distribution of costs and benefits between countries which have heterogeneous economies, environmental damages, trading partners and abatement costs. The distribution of costs between countries will also depend on the type of policy instrument used to coordinate international abatement efforts. This paper analyses trade-offs that must be made when negotiating international agreements in order to balance the need for administrative convenience and economic efficiency with the realization that any agreement is better than no agreement

  8. Economic Screening of Geologic Sequestration Options in the United States with a Carbon Management Geographic Information System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahowski, Robert T.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Dooley, James J.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Brown, Daryl R.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Stephan, Alex J.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Badie I. Morsi

    2001-10-19

    Developing a carbon management strategy is a formidable task for nations as well as individual companies. It is often difficult to understand what options are available, let alone determine which may be optimal. In response to the need for a better understanding of complex carbon management options, Battelle has developed a state-of-the-art Geographic Information System (GIS) model with economic screening capability focused on carbon capture and geologic sequestration opportunities in the United States. This paper describes the development of this GIS-based economic screening model and demonstrates its use for carbon management analysis.

  9. Creating Carbon Offsets in Agriculture through No-Till Cultivation. A Meta-Analysis of Costs and Carbon Benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manley, J.; Van Kooten, G.C.; Moeltner, K.; Johnson, D.W.

    2005-01-01

    Carbon terrestrial sinks are often seen as a low-cost alternative to fuel switching and reduced fossil fuel use for lowering atmospheric CO2. To determine whether this is true for agriculture, one meta-regression analysis (52 studies, 536 observations) examines the costs of switching from conventional tillage to no-till, while another (51 studies, 374 observations) compares carbon accumulation under the two practices. Costs per ton of carbon uptake are determined by combining the two results. The viability of agricultural carbon sinks is found to vary by region and crop, with no-till representing a low-cost option in some regions (costs of less than $10 per tC), but a high-cost option in others (costs of 100-$400 per tC). A particularly important finding is that no-till cultivation may store no carbon at all if measurements are taken at sufficient depth. In some circumstances no-till cultivation may yield a triple dividend of carbon storage, increased returns and reduced soil erosion, but in many others creating carbon offset credits in agricultural soils is not cost effective because reduced tillage practices store little or no carbon

  10. NILAI EKONOMI KARBON HUTAN RAWA GAMBUT MERANG KEPAYANG, PROVINSI SUMATERA SELATAN (Economic Value of Carbon of Merang Kepayang Peat Swamp Forest, South Sumatera Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Arifatul Ulya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Hutan rawa gambut menyimpan cadangan karbon baik di tanah maupun di atas tanah. Hutan Rawa Gambut Merang Kepayang (HRGMK merupakan kawasan hutan yang berada di kubah gambut terbesar di Sumatera Selatan, yaitu Kubah Gambut Merang (KGM, yang didalamnya terdapat gambut dengan ketebalan lebih dari 3 meter. Meskipun menurut aturan KGM seharusnya dikonservasi, pada kenyataannya kawasan HRGMK dihadapkan pada konversi. Konversi HRGMK diduga akan mengakibatkan terganggunya fungsi hutan rawa gambut sebagai cadangan karbon dunia sehingga akan menyebabkan terjadinya emisi karbon ke atmosfer dalam jumlah besar. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui nilai ekonomi kawasan HRGMK sebagai penyimpan cadangan karbon. Hasil penelitian diharapkan menjadi acuan pelestarian HRGMK sebagai stabilisator iklim dunia. Nilai ekonomi karbon HRGMK ditaksir dengan menggunakan harga bayangan. Harga karbon yang digunakan untuk menaksir nilai ekonomi karbon diperoleh dengan metode benefit transfer. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa nilai total karbon HRGMK adalah US$ 1.591.878.378,00 atau Rp. 14.002.162.211.645,00. Nilai tersebut sebagian besar berasal dari cadangan karbon di bawah tanah. ABSTRACT Peat swamp forests store aboveground and belowground carbon. Merang Kepayang Peat Swamp Forest (MKPSF is a forest area which is located in Merang Peat Dome (MPD, the largest peat dome in South Sumatra, with peat thickness more than 3 meters. Although the order should be conserved MPD, in fact MKPSF area exposed to the conversion. MKPSF conversion would presumably result in impaired function of peat swamp forest as world's carbon storage that will be caused carbon emissions into the atmosphere in large quantities. This study aimed to determine the economic value of the HRGMK as carbon storage. The results are expected to be justifications for conservation of MKPSF as climate stabilizers. The economic value of carbon HRGMK assessed using shadow pricing method. The carbon price

  11. Greenhouse gas emissions reduction in different economic sectors: Mitigation measures, health co-benefits, knowledge gaps, and policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jinghong; Hou, Hongli; Zhai, Yunkai; Woodward, Alistair; Vardoulakis, Sotiris; Kovats, Sari; Wilkinson, Paul; Li, Liping; Song, Xiaoqin; Xu, Lei; Meng, Bohan; Liu, Xiaobo; Wang, Jun; Zhao, Jie; Liu, Qiyong

    2018-05-15

    To date, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, mitigation strategies and the accompanying health co-benefits in different economic sectors have not been fully investigated. The purpose of this paper is to review comprehensively the evidence on GHG mitigation measures and the related health co-benefits, identify knowledge gaps, and provide recommendations to promote further development and implementation of climate change response policies. Evidence on GHG emissions, abatement measures and related health co-benefits has been observed at regional, national and global levels, involving both low- and high-income societies. GHG mitigation actions have mainly been taken in five sectors: energy generation, transport, food and agriculture, household and industry, consistent with the main sources of GHG emissions. GHGs and air pollutants to a large extent stem from the same sources and are inseparable in terms of their atmospheric evolution and effects on ecosystem; thus, GHG reductions are usually, although not always, estimated to have cost effective co-benefits for public health. Some integrated mitigation strategies involving multiple sectors, which tend to create greater health benefits. The pros and cons of different mitigation measures, issues with existing knowledge, priorities for research, and potential policy implications were also discussed. Findings from this study can play a role not only in motivating large GHG emitters to make decisive changes in GHG emissions, but also in facilitating cooperation at international, national and regional levels, to promote GHG mitigation policies that protect public health from climate change and air pollution simultaneously. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Valuing geospatial information: Using the contingent valuation method to estimate the economic benefits of Landsat satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loomis, John; Koontz, Steve; Miller, Holly M.; Richardson, Leslie A.

    2015-01-01

    While the U.S. government does not charge for downloading Landsat images, the images have value to users. This paper demonstrates a method that can value Landsat and other imagery to users. A survey of downloaders of Landsat images found: (a) established US users have a mean value of $912 USD per scene; (b) new US users and users returning when imagery became free have a mean value of $367 USD per scene. Total US user benefits for the 2.38 million scenes downloaded is $1.8 billion USD. While these benefits indicate a high willingness-to-pay among many Landsat downloaders, it would be economically inefficient for the US government to charge for Landsat imagery. Charging a price of $100 USD a scene would result in an efficiency loss of $37.5 million a year. This economic information should be useful to policy-makers who must decide about the future of this and similar remote sensing programs.

  13. Positive Catch & Economic Benefits of Periodic Octopus Fishery Closures: Do Effective, Narrowly Targeted Actions 'Catalyze' Broader Management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Thomas A; Oleson, Kirsten L L; Ratsimbazafy, Hajanaina; Raberinary, Daniel; Benbow, Sophie; Harris, Alasdair

    2015-01-01

    Eight years of octopus fishery records from southwest Madagascar reveal significant positive impacts from 36 periodic closures on: (a) fishery catches and (b) village fishery income, such that (c) economic benefits from increased landings outweigh costs of foregone catch. Closures covered ~20% of a village's fished area and lasted 2-7 months. Octopus landings and catch per unit effort (CPUE) significantly increased in the 30 days following a closure's reopening, relative to the 30 days before a closure (landings: +718%, poctopus fishery income doubled in the 30 days after a closure, relative to 30 days before (+132%, p<0.001, n = 28). Control villages not implementing a closure showed no increase in income after "no ban" closures and modest increases after "ban" closures. Villages did not show a significant decline in income during closure events. Landings in closure sites generated more revenue than simulated landings assuming continued open-access fishing at that site (27/36 show positive net earnings; mean +$305/closure; mean +57.7% monthly). Benefits accrued faster than local fishers' time preferences during 17-27 of the 36 closures. High reported rates of illegal fishing during closures correlated with poor economic performance. We discuss the implications of our findings for broader co-management arrangements, particularly for catalyzing more comprehensive management.

  14. Obtaining natural-like flow releases in diverted river reaches from simple riparian benefit economic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perona, Paolo; Dürrenmatt, David J; Characklis, Gregory W

    2013-03-30

    We propose a theoretical river modeling framework for generating variable flow patterns in diverted-streams (i.e., no reservoir). Using a simple economic model and the principle of equal marginal utility in an inverse fashion we first quantify the benefit of the water that goes to the environment in relation to that of the anthropic activity. Then, we obtain exact expressions for optimal water allocation rules between the two competing uses, as well as the related statistical distributions. These rules are applied using both synthetic and observed streamflow data, to demonstrate that this approach may be useful in 1) generating more natural flow patterns in the river reach downstream of the diversion, thus reducing the ecodeficit; 2) obtaining a more enlightened economic interpretation of Minimum Flow Release (MFR) strategies, and; 3) comparing the long-term costs and benefits of variable versus MFR policies and showing the greater ecological sustainability of this new approach. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The Benefits of Financial Ratios' as the Indocators of Future Bankruptcy on the Economic Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setia Mulyawan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available It is proved that financial ratios can predict future bankruptcy even on high uncertainty conditions such as an economic crisis. The research indicates that the accuracy of prediction is more increasing in line with a coming bankruptcy.The result of the research shows that four years before a corporate becomes bankrupt there have been significant differences of financial ratios between bankrupt company and sustained one. The ratios of liquidity, profitability, activity, and return on investment of sustained company are higher; while the leverage ratio is lower.The dominant influencing financial ratios toward a bankruptcy are liquidity and leverage ratios. The research finds that from ten tested ratios, Current Asset to current liabilities and total liabilities to total asset are the dominant financial ratios. 

  16. Competing Purposes: Mother Tongue Education Benefits Versus Economic Interests in Rural Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamuchirai Tsitsi Ndamba

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the perceptions of educators on the barriers to the implementation of the Zimbabwean language-in-education policy, which recommends use of Indigenous languages up to the end of the primary school level. Postcolonial theory informed this case study. Individual interviews and focus group discussions were conducted with 15 rural primary school teachers, 3 school heads, and 2 school's inspectors who were purposefully selected from Masvingo district. Data were analysed using the constant comparative method for thematic coding. The findings revealed that participants strongly believed that the English language offers socio-economic opportunities, a factor which may negatively influence teachers in the implementation of the mother tongue-based policy. Recommendations that inform policy-makers are made.

  17. Realizing the world economic, environmental and non-proliferation benefits of the ALMR actinide recycle system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, J.E.

    1995-01-01

    The Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) Actinide Recycle System has enormous potential to: positively impact the global environment; extend currently known energy resources; and assist developing/undeveloped countries' energy resource access. A global vision of the benefits of developing and deploying this system, including the role of highly developed countries is presented. In this vision, the ALMR System is heavily used, in conjunction with light water reactors (LWRs), in highly developed countries thus displacing fossil fuel demand in those economies, and making them more available for developing/undeveloped countries. In addition, LWRs in developing countries can further reduce global fossil fuel demand. This vision provides quality of life and standard of living improvements in these developing/undeveloped economies, which should lead to more political stability. (author)

  18. Environmental benefits and economic rationale of expanding the Italian natural gas private car fleet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballardin, Giorgio

    2005-01-01

    There are several concerns which bring to consider natural gas as a viable alternative to liquid fuels in transport. First, natural gas allows the curbing of global pollution in this steadily growing industry. Indeed, decoupling greenhouse gas emissions from transport growth has become a major issue in tackling climate change. Second, a more extensive use of natural gas would relieve city air quality, which is presently at levels harmful of human health. Nonetheless, this is just one side of the coin. The other side entails building a refuelling station network, and this carries financial requirements. The financing fraction holds a pivotal role in deciding whether natural gas for automotive purposes is an efficient solution. The final aim of this work is, therefore, to compare the natural gas advantages, stemming from avoided global and local emission, with the economic rationale of engaging in supplementary model network investments. A system dynamics model underlies this study's economic reasoning and is taken as reference for quantitative assertions. The model, named CH 4 CleanerAir, contains data referring to two scenarios: a Business As Usual Scenario and an Expansion Scenario. Simulation runs in Expansion Scenario serve to understand how gaseous pollution diminishes and network investments rise when the natural gas-fuelled fleet, as share of the total fleet, increases. Are new infrastructures needs compatible with existing refuelling facilities? What is the extent by which the natural gas-fuelled fleet can actually reduce global and local emission? The scenarios' gap analysis lead to the work's final considerations. The sounder reductions of gaseous pollutants in the last years of the considered time lag make the overall assessment lean towards a positive evaluation of natural gas employment in this industry. The beneficial effects of increasing the natural gas-fuel-led fleet take some time to unfold, but they eventually prevail. This study shows how natural

  19. Walking to work in Canada: health benefits, socio-economic characteristics and urban-regional variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchen, Peter; Williams, Allison; Chowhan, James

    2011-04-04

    There is mounting concern over increasing rates of physical inactivity and overweight/obesity among children and adult in Canada. There is a clear link between the amount of walking a person does and his or her health. The purpose of this paper is to assess the health factors, socio-economic characteristics and urban-regional variations of walking to work among adults in Canada. Data is drawn from two cycles of the Canadian Community Health Survey: 2001 and 2005. The study population is divided into three groups: non-walkers, lower-duration walkers and high-duration walkers. Logistic regression modeling tests the association between levels of walking and health related outcomes (diabetes, high blood pressure, stress, BMI, physical activity), socio-economic characteristics (sex, age, income, education) and place of residence (selected Census Metropolitan Areas). In 2005, the presence of diabetes and high blood pressure was not associated with any form of walking. Adults within the normal weight range were more likely to be high-duration walkers. Females and younger people were more likely to be lower-duration walkers but less likely to be high-duration walkers. There was a strong association between SES (particularly relative disadvantage) and walking to work. In both 2001 and 2005, the conditions influencing walking to work were especially prevalent in Canada's largest city, Toronto, as well as in several small to medium sized urban areas including Halifax, Kingston, Hamilton, Regina, Calgary and Victoria. A number of strategies can be followed to increase levels of walking in Canada. It is clear that for many people walking to work is not possible. However, strategies can be developed to encourage adults to incorporate walking into their daily work and commuting routines. These include mass transit walking and workplace walking programs.

  20. Walking to work in Canada: health benefits, socio-economic characteristics and urban-regional variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Allison

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is mounting concern over increasing rates of physical inactivity and overweight/obesity among children and adult in Canada. There is a clear link between the amount of walking a person does and his or her health. The purpose of this paper is to assess the health factors, socio-economic characteristics and urban-regional variations of walking to work among adults in Canada. Methods Data is drawn from two cycles of the Canadian Community Health Survey: 2001 and 2005. The study population is divided into three groups: non-walkers, lower-duration walkers and high-duration walkers. Logistic regression modeling tests the association between levels of walking and health related outcomes (diabetes, high blood pressure, stress, BMI, physical activity, socio-economic characteristics (sex, age, income, education and place of residence (selected Census Metropolitan Areas. Results In 2005, the presence of diabetes and high blood pressure was not associated with any form of walking. Adults within the normal weight range were more likely to be high-duration walkers. Females and younger people were more likely to be lower-duration walkers but less likely to be high-duration walkers. There was a strong association between SES (particularly relative disadvantage and walking to work. In both 2001 and 2005, the conditions influencing walking to work were especially prevalent in Canada's largest city, Toronto, as well as in several small to medium sized urban areas including Halifax, Kingston, Hamilton, Regina, Calgary and Victoria. Conclusion A number of strategies can be followed to increase levels of walking in Canada. It is clear that for many people walking to work is not possible. However, strategies can be developed to encourage adults to incorporate walking into their daily work and commuting routines. These include mass transit walking and workplace walking programs.

  1. Comparing the economic and health benefits of different approaches to diagnosing Clostridium difficile infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, Sarah M; Umscheid, Craig A; Nachamkin, Irving; Hamilton, Keith; Lee, Bruce Y

    2015-01-01

    Accurate diagnosis of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is essential to effectively managing patients and preventing transmission. Despite the availability of several diagnostic tests, the optimal strategy is debatable and their economic values are unknown. We modified our previously existing C. difficile simulation model to determine the economic value of different CDI diagnostic approaches from the hospital perspective. We evaluated four diagnostic methods for a patient suspected of having CDI: 1) toxin A/B enzyme immunoassay, 2) glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) antigen/toxin AB combined in one test, 3) nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT), and 4) GDH antigen/toxin AB combination test with NAAT confirmation of indeterminate results. Sensitivity analysis varied the proportion of those tested with clinically significant diarrhoea, the probability of CDI, NAAT cost and CDI treatment delay resulting from a false-negative test, length of stay and diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. The GDH/toxin AB plus NAAT approach leads to the timeliest treatment with the fewest unnecessary treatments given, resulted in the best bed management and generated the lowest cost. The NAAT-alone approach also leads to timely treatment. The GDH/toxin AB diagnostic (without NAAT confirmation) approach resulted in a large number of delayed treatments, but results in the fewest secondary colonisations. Results were robust to the sensitivity analysis. Choosing the right diagnostic approach is a matter of cost and test accuracy. GDH/toxin AB plus NAAT diagnosis led to the timeliest treatment and was the least costly. Copyright © 2014 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Promotion of electricity from renewable energy in Europe post 2020. The economic benefits of cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuersch, Michaela; Lindenberger, Dietmar

    2013-08-15

    In Europe, the availability of renewable energies, especially from sun and wind, differs significantly across regions. Consequently, cooperation in the deployment of renewable energy among European countries potentially yields substantial efficiency gains. However, in order to achieve the 2020 renewable energy targets for electricity, Member States of the European Union almost purely rely on domestic production. For the period after 2020, a European renewable energy target has not yet been defined, but decarbonization pathways outlined in the Roadmap of the European Commission include renewable energy shares of electricity generation to be 50-60% by 2030. Therefore, we analyze the benefits of cooperation compared to continuing with national renewable energy support after 2020. We use a large-scale dynamic investment and dispatch model of the European electricity system and find that compared to a 2030 CO{sub 2}-only target (-40% compared to 1990 emission levels), electricity system costs increase by 5 to 7% when a European-wide renewable energy target for electricity generation (of around 55%) is additionally implemented. However, these additional costs are lower by 41 to 45% compared to the additional electricity system costs which would arise if the renewable energy target was reached through national support systems (without cooperation). Furthermore, we find that the cooperation gains (i.e., the cost reduction achieved by cooperation) are quite robust: They decrease only slightly when interconnectors are not further extended (compared to today) and depend only slightly on assumptions about investment cost developments of renewable energy technologies. With regard to the practical implementation of cooperation, however, unclear administrative issues and questions concerning the fair sharing of costs and benefits between the Member States represent major obstacles that need to be tackled in order to reach renewable energy targets at the lowest costs possible.

  3. Updated (BP3) Technical and Economic Feasibility Study - Electrochemical Membrane for Carbon Dioxide Capture and Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghezel-Ayagh, Hossein

    2016-10-12

    This topical report summarizes the results of an updated Technical & Economic Feasibility Study (T&EFS) which was conducted in Budget Period 3 of the project to evaluate the performance and cost of the Electrochemical Membrane (ECM)-based CO2 capture system. The ECM technology is derived from commercially available inorganic membranes; the same used in FuelCell Energy’s commercial fuel cell power plants and sold under the trade name Direct FuelCell® (DFC®). The ECM stacks are utilized in the Combined Electric Power (generation) And Carbon dioxide Separation (CEPACS) systems which can be deployed as add-ons to conventional power plants (Pulverized Coal, Combined Cycle, etc.) or industrial facilities to simultaneously produce power while capturing >90% of the CO2 from the flue gas. In this study, an ECM-based CEPACS plant was designed to capture and compress >90% of the CO2 (for sequestration or beneficial use) from the flue gas of a reference 550 MW (nominal, net AC) Pulverized Coal (PC) Rankine Cycle (Subcritical steam) power plant. ECM performance was updated based on bench scale ECM stack test results. The system process simulations were performed to generate the CEPACS plant performance estimates. The performance assessment included estimation of the parasitic power consumption for CO2 capture and compression, and the efficiency impact on the PC plant. While the ECM-based CEPACS system for the 550 MW PC plant captures 90% of CO2 from the flue gas, it generates additional (net AC) power after compensating for the auxiliary power requirements of CO2 capture and compression. An equipment list, ECM stacks packaging design, and CEPACS plant layout were developed to facilitate the economic analysis. Vendor quotes were also solicited. The economic feasibility study included estimation of CEPACS plant capital cost, cost of electricity (COE) analyses and estimation of cost per ton of CO2 captured. The incremental COE for the ECM-based CO2 capture is expected to meet

  4. Updated (BP3) Technical and Economic Feasibility Study - Electrochemical Membrane for Carbon Dioxide Capture and Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghezel-Ayagh, Hossein [FuelCell Energy, Inc., Danbury, CT (United States)

    2017-12-21

    This topical report summarizes the results of an updated Technical & Economic Feasibility Study (T&EFS) which was conducted in Budget Period 3 of the project to evaluate the performance and cost of the Electrochemical Membrane (ECM)-based CO2 capture system. The ECM technology is derived from commercially available inorganic membranes; the same used in FuelCell Energy’s commercial fuel cell power plants and sold under the trade name Direct FuelCell® (DFC®). The ECM stacks are utilized in the Combined Electric Power (generation) And Carbon dioxide Separation (CEPACS) systems which can be deployed as add-ons to conventional power plants (Pulverized Coal, Combined Cycle, etc.) or industrial facilities to simultaneously produce power while capturing >90% of the CO2 from the flue gas. In this study, an ECM-based CEPACS plant was designed to capture and compress >90% of the CO2 (for sequestration or beneficial use) from the flue gas of a reference 550 MW (nominal, net AC) Pulverized Coal (PC) Rankine Cycle (Subcritical steam) power plant. ECM performance was updated based on bench scale ECM stack test results. The system process simulations were performed to generate the CEPACS plant performance estimates. The performance assessment included estimation of the parasitic power consumption for CO2 capture and compression, and the efficiency impact on the PC plant. While the ECM-based CEPACS system for the 550 MW PC plant captures 90% of CO2 from the flue gas, it generates additional (net AC) power after compensating for the auxiliary power requirements of CO2 capture and compression. An equipment list, ECM stacks packaging design, and CEPACS plant layout were developed to facilitate the economic analysis. Vendor quotes were also solicited. The economic feasibility study included estimation of CEPACS plant capital cost, cost of electricity (COE) analyses and estimation of cost per ton of CO2

  5. Lifecycle GHG emissions of palm biodiesel: Unintended market effects negate direct benefits of the Malaysian Economic Transformation Plan (ETP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul-Manan, Amir F.N.

    2017-01-01

    Biodiesel expansion can lead to unintended effects that offset the direct GHG benefits of biofuels. Two documented unintended effects are the indirect land use change (ILUC) and indirect energy use change (IEUC). ILUC has been included in many lifecycle GHG studies of biofuels, but IEUC has remained relatively elusive. This paper presents an updated assessment of the lifecycle GHG emissions of palm biodiesel from Malaysia and, for the first time, incorporating the two estimated indirect effects simultaneously. Future GHG emissions of palm biodiesel are projected by taking into account of Malaysia's Economic Transformation Programme (ETP) that aims to reform the oil palm industry in order to achieve a high-income nation. Uncertainties associated with lifecycle GHG models were dealt with using Monte Carlo simulation in order to identify the breadth and likelihood of GHG reductions relative to petroleum-based fuels in the context of the European directives. This study has shown that the ETP, if successfully implemented, can significantly improve the direct GHG emissions of palm biodiesel, but the benefits are offset by the rise in global emissions due to ILUC and IEUC. Biofuel policies should also include IEUC, in addition to ILUC, to avoid GHG emissions leakages. - Highlights: • Estimate current and future lifecycle GHG emissions of Malaysian palm biodiesel. • Evaluate the GHG effects of Malaysia's Economic Transformation Plan (ETP). • Direct GHG benefits of biodiesel offset by indirect market effects. • Palm biodiesel unlikely to enable global GHG emissions reductions. • Global biofuel policy must account for indirect effects.

  6. The Economic Merits of Flexible Carbon Capture and Sequestration as a Compliance Strategy with the Clean Power Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Michael T; Jaramillo, Paulina; Zhai, Haibo; Klima, Kelly

    2017-02-07

    Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) may be a key technology for achieving large CO 2 emission reductions. Relative to "normal" CCS, "flexible" CCS retrofits include solvent storage that allows the generator to temporarily reduce the CCS parasitic load and increase the generator's net efficiency, capacity, and ramp rate. Due to this flexibility, flexible CCS generators provide system benefits that normal CCS generators do not, which could make flexible CCS an economic CO 2 emission reduction strategy. Here, we estimate the system-level cost effectiveness of reducing CO 2 emissions with flexible CCS compared to redispatching (i.e., substituting gas- for coal-fired electricity generation), wind, and normal CCS under the Clean Power Plan (CPP) and a hypothetical more stringent CO 2 emission reduction target ("stronger CPP"). Using a unit commitment and economic dispatch model, we find flexible CCS achieves more cost-effective emission reductions than normal CCS under both reduction targets, indicating that policies that promote CCS should encourage flexible CCS. However, flexible CCS is less cost effective than wind under both reduction targets and less and more cost effective than redispatching under the CPP and stronger CPP, respectively. Thus, CCS will likely be a minor CPP compliance strategy but may play a larger role under a stronger emission reduction target.

  7. Benefit Evaluation of Wind Turbine Generators in Wind Farms Using Capacity-Factor Analysis and Economic-Cost Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Wang, L.; Yeh, T-H.

    2009-01-01

    Due to the recent price spike of the international oil and the concern of global warming, the development and deployment of renewable energy become one of the most important energy policies around the globe. Currently, there are different capacities and hub heights for commercial wind turbine gen...... height for WTGs that have been installed in Taiwan. Important outcomes affecting wind cost of energy in comparison with economic results using the proposed economic-analysis methods for different WFs are also presented.......Due to the recent price spike of the international oil and the concern of global warming, the development and deployment of renewable energy become one of the most important energy policies around the globe. Currently, there are different capacities and hub heights for commercial wind turbine...... generators (WTGs). To fully capture wind energy, different wind farms (WFs) should select adequate capacity of WTGs to effectively harvest wind energy and maximize their economic benefit. To establish selection criterion, this paper first derives the equations for capacity factor (CF) and pairing performance...

  8. The environmental and socio-economic impacts and benefits associated with developing a natural gas distribution system in Nova Scotia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buszynski, M.E.; Peacock, T. [Sempra Atlantic Gas Inc., Halifax, NS (Canada)

    2000-07-01

    The discovery of large natural gas reserves off the Scotian Shelf has resulted in the development and construction of offshore production platforms as well as underwater and onshore pipelines to transport natural gas to markets on the eastern seaboard. A billion-dollar expenditure is proposed to establish a local distribution company to construct and maintain approximately 8000 km of distribution and lateral pipelines in the province of Nova Scotia. The many aspects of the proposed program were described with particular focus on the regulatory hearings. The paper also discussed the different landscapes that will be crossed and the specialized construction techniques that will be used to meet environmental and economic challenges. The mechanisms in place to ensure maximum benefit for Nova Scotians were also discussed. The proposed project was also compared to other local megaprojects in the province such as the Sable Offshore Energy Project and the Interprovincial Pipeline through Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. Some of the successful strategies for implementing benefits plans related to large energy projects were also described. Sempra has been awarded the franchise to distribute natural gas in Nova Scotia. The company has developed a benefits plan that offers significant local involvement in terms of labour and materials. 4 figs.

  9. The economic valuation of the recreational benefits of Dichato Beach (tome-Chlie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Alonso Orrego

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Las condiciones naturales y la infraestructura de servicios existente en la playa de Dichato (VIII Región-Chile, posibilitan la presencia de un considerable número de familias durante las temporadas de verano. Mediante la adecuada aplicación del método del costo de viaje, es posible estimar la demanda recreacional de la playa y sus beneficios económicos. El documento privilegia la modelación del número de viajes efectuados durante un período de tiempo determinado, y en este sentido presenta los resultados econométricos de los siguientes modelos estadísticos: estimación por mínimos cuadrados ordinarios de una forma funcional lineal (OLSL, y de una forma semi-log (OLSS; estimación por máxima verosimilitud de una forma funcional lineal (MLEL, de una semi-log (MLES, de una distribución Poisson tanto general (POIS como truncada (TPOIS, y de una distribución de una Binomial Negativa también general (BNEG como truncada (TBNEG. En total son ocho (8 modelos, de los cuales OLSL, OLSS, MLEL y MLES se caracterizan por generar estimadores basados en distribuciones de probabilidades continuas. Los restantes modelos POIS, TPOIS, BNEG y TBNEG, corresponden a distribuciones discretas.

  10. FESTIVALS AS CULTURAL ACTIVITIES – COMBINATIONS OF ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL BENEFITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Sava

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In the latest years, academics have talked more and more about the creative economy, as a cause of a different classification and division of the economic activities, including in its area all those activities which are based on the human resource, its talent and intellectual capital. The creativity seems to be a too special feature, having its own ways to flourish and to be exploited, so it has to be treated separately from the sectors of manufacture, industry or services. The Romanian culture is transmitted and exploited in various ways, starting with the commercialisation of handicrafts and ending with the organisation of events with artistic or symbolic expression. We will focus on the performing arts, organized as events for different communities. These events appear as leisure activities and have an important social feature because they have the attribute to develop the sense of identity, belonging to the group and social cohesion. These aspects are crucial for the development of a creative habitat or cultural center. The festivals attract people for different reasons; some of them are looking for an environment where to socialise, others come being interested exactly in enjoying the event or the specific goods and services which are offered there. Another type of the festival consumers is represented by the ones who only look for something new to experiment, exploring the unknown, this segment not representing loyal customers, but whatever the reason are, each participant comes for the emotional stimulation offered by the enjoyment of the festival.

  11. Economic costs and benefits of the renewable energy sources; Costi e benefici economici delle fonti rinnovabili

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Leo, G. A. [Parma Univ., Parma (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze Ambientali; Rizzi, L. [Milan Politecnico, Milan (Italy). Dipt. di Elettronica; Caizzi, A. [Cesi Spa, Business Unit Ambiente, Milan (Italy)

    2001-08-01

    In this work it has been analysed the potential diffusion of renewable energy sources and co-generation in the Italian market on the basis of the level of maturation of the different technologies, predicted market growth and environmental impacts associated to them. A sensitivity analysis on external costs generated by global climate changes has allowed everybody to assess how possible errors in estimating the potential impact of greenhouse gasses can affect the estimate of the economic performances of different scenarios of energetic development. On the basis of these considerations, it can be outlined a potential doubling of energy production by renewable energies in the next 10 years, with specific reference of small hydroelectric, biogass and eolic power plants. [Italian] Viene analizzata la capacita' di penetrazione delle fonti di energia rinnovabile e della cogenerazione nel mercato italiano sulla base dello stato di maturazione delle varie tecnologie e gli impatti ambientali ad esse associate. L'articolo mostra che il rispetto del vincolo di Kyoto comporterebbe in ultima analisi non un aggravio dei costi per la collettivita', ma addirittura un risparmio di 11 lire per ogni kWh prodotto, ovvero oltre il 10% rispetto ai costi totali.

  12. Representing inequities in the distribution of socio-economic benefits and environmental risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, Garric E; Magpili, Luna M

    2002-10-01

    There is currently no standard method for analyzing claims of environmental inequity. Neither is there a database of statistics on the extent of relationship between regional indicators of environmental quality, likely sources of pollution, and the demographic characteristics of affected populations. The resolution of environmental disputes is often hampered by inadequate communication between stakeholder groups about their perceptions and prioritization of the issues in dispute and by differential access to information about the issues by each stakeholder group. This paper describes a web-based tool, ICEP, that uses multi-layered GIS maps to establish a standard method for analyzing claims of environmental inequity and establish a database of correlation coefficients between environmental indicators, industry type by SIC code, and demographic characteristics of the population in proximity to noxious facilities. The maps are generated from stakeholder reports of environmental quality and are designed to be accessible via the Internet. This provides stakeholders with direct access to graphical displays of the perceptions of their co-stakeholders and provides all groups with links to relevant information sources about the issues in dispute. ICEP enhances existing community environmental websites like Scorecard and Envirofacts by providing displays of median household income as a measure of the distribution of benefits accrued within an area.

  13. Modelling the implications of reducing smoking prevalence: the public health and economic benefits of achieving a 'tobacco-free' UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Daniel; Knuchel-Takano, André; Jaccard, Abbygail; Bhimjiyani, Arti; Retat, Lise; Selvarajah, Chit; Brown, Katrina; Webber, Laura L; Brown, Martin

    2018-03-01

    Smoking is still the most preventable cause of cancer, and a leading cause of premature mortality and health inequalities in the UK. This study modelled the health and economic impacts of achieving a 'tobacco-free' ambition (TFA) where, by 2035, less than 5% of the population smoke tobacco across all socioeconomic groups. A non-linear multivariate regression model was fitted to cross-sectional smoking data to create projections to 2035. These projections were used to predict the future incidence and costs of 17 smoking-related diseases using a microsimulation approach. The health and economic impacts of achieving a TFA were evaluated against a predicted baseline scenario, where current smoking trends continue. If trends continue, the prevalence of smoking in the UK was projected to be 10% by 2035-well above a TFA. If this ambition were achieved by 2035, it could mean 97 300 +/- 5 300 new cases of smoking-related diseases are avoided by 2035 (tobacco-related cancers: 35 900+/- 4 100; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: 29 000 +/- 2 700; stroke: 24 900 +/- 2 700; coronary heart disease: 7600 +/- 2 700), including around 12 350 diseases avoided in 2035 alone. The consequence of this health improvement is predicted to avoid £67 +/- 8 million in direct National Health Service and social care costs, and £548 million in non-health costs, in 2035 alone. These findings strengthen the case to set bold targets on long-term declines in smoking prevalence to achieve a tobacco 'endgame'. Results demonstrate the health and economic benefits that meeting a TFA can achieve over just 20 years. Effective ambitions and policy interventions are needed to reduce the disease and economic burden of smoking. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. Leaf turgor loss point is correlated with drought tolerance and leaf carbon economics traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shi-Dan; Chen, Ya-Jun; Ye, Qing; He, Peng-Cheng; Liu, Hui; Li, Rong-Hua; Fu, Pei-Li; Jiang, Guo-Feng; Cao, Kun-Fang

    2018-05-01

    Leaf turgor loss point (πtlp) indicates the capacity of a plant to maintain cell turgor pressure during dehydration, which has been proven to be strongly predictive of the plant response to drought. In this study, we compiled a data set of πtlp for 1752 woody plant individuals belonging to 389 species from nine major woody biomes in China, along with reduced sample size of hydraulic and leaf carbon economics data. We aimed to investigate the variation of πtlp across biomes varying in water availability. We also tested two hypotheses: (i) πtlp predicts leaf hydraulic safety margins and (ii) it is correlated with leaf carbon economics traits. Our results showed that there was a positive relationship between πtlp and aridity index: biomes from humid regions had less negative values than those from arid regions. This supports the idea that πtlp may reflect drought tolerance at the scale of woody biomes. As expected, πtlp was significantly positively correlated with leaf hydraulic safety margins that varied significantly across biomes, indicating that this trait may be useful in modelling changes of forest components in response to increasing drought. Moreover, πtlp was correlated with a suite of coordinated hydraulic and economics traits; therefore, it can be used to predict the position of a given species along the 'fast-slow' whole-plant economics spectrum. This study expands our understanding of the biological significance of πtlp not only in drought tolerance, but also in the plant economics spectrum.

  15. Are hospital staff aware of the economic benefits of employing people with disabilities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata M. Machaj

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : One of the regulations governing employment on the open labour market is the Act for vocational and social rehabilitation and employment of people with disabilities, which defines disability in the context that it impacts upon a person’s ability to work. Aim of the research : To evaluate the level of hospital staff awareness of the financial impacts of employing people with disabilities at the Central Clinical Hospital of the Ministry of the Interior in Warsaw. Material and methods: The sample and control groups consisted of people working at the hospital, comprising 247 individuals, including 194 women and 53 men, aged between 25 and 60 years. The sample group consisted of people with disabilities. The control group consisted of colleagues with disabilities, of both sexes, and of the same age range. There was also a separate sample group comprising 60 people from middle management and senior management. The sample and control groups were provided with a questionnaire about issues relating to the economic aspects of employing people with disabilities. The results were compared with data from the questionnaire for management and from hospital statistics. The methodology of mathematical statistics was used. Results : Discrepancies were found between sample and control groups, and hospital statistics pertaining to people with disabilities as employees in terms of the burden placed on the business, such as sick leave, breaks from work in the general sense, additional leave, accessing specialist tests during working hours, and earnings, in particular reimbursement of the cost of workplace equipment and funding for salaries. Conclusions: There is a significant degree of divergence between managers’ and employees’ notions of privileges for disabled workers and their actual scale. There is misunderstanding and lack of knowledge of the applicable provisions of the Act for the Vocational and Social Rehabilitation and Employment of

  16. Clinical and economic benefits of fidaxomicin compared to vancomycin for Clostridium difficile infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Jason C; Reilly, Joseph P; Navalkele, Bhagyashri; Downham, Gemma; Haynes, Kevin; Trivedi, Manish

    2015-11-01

    We studied the clinical and economic impact of a protocol encouraging the use of fidaxomicin as a first-line drug for treatment of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in patients hospitalized during a 2-year period. This study evaluated patients who received oral vancomycin or fidaxomicin for the treatment of CDI during a 2-year period. All included patients were eligible for administration of fidaxomicin via a protocol that encouraged its use for selected patients. The primary clinical endpoint was 90-day readmission with a diagnosis of CDI. Hospital charges and insurance reimbursements for readmissions were calculated along with the cost of CDI therapy to estimate the financial impact of the choice of therapy. Recurrences were seen in 10/49 (20.4%) fidaxomicin patients and 19/46 (41.3%) vancomycin patients (P = 0.027). In a multivariate analysis that included determinations of severity of CDI, serum creatinine increases, and concomitant antibiotic use, only fidaxomicin was significantly associated with decreased recurrence (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.12 to 0.93). The total lengths of stay of readmitted patients were 183 days for vancomycin and 87 days for fidaxomicin, with costs of $454,800 and $196,200, respectively. Readmissions for CDI were reimbursed on the basis of the severity of CDI, totaling $151,136 for vancomycin and $107,176 for fidaxomicin. Fidaxomicin drug costs totaled $62,112, and vancomycin drug costs were $6,646. We calculated that the hospital lost an average of $3,286 per fidaxomicin-treated patient and $6,333 per vancomycin-treated patient, thus saving $3,047 per patient with fidaxomicin. Fidaxomicin use for CDI treatment prevented readmission and decreased hospital costs compared to use of oral vancomycin. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  17. Study on the economic and environmental benefits of different EV powertrain topologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Bin; Xu, Min; Yang, Li

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • EV powertrain topologies can be realized by flexible distributed electric motors. • Model-based design optimization method is used to analyze and evaluate the EV. • The wheel-hub drive with reducer possesses the most competitive advantages. • US06 and NYCC result in the deterioration of EVs’ cost and GHG emissions. - Abstract: Numerous feasible schemes of powertrain topology can be designed for the electric vehicles (EVs) based on the distributed configurations of the electric motors. In this study, the effects of different EV powertrain topologies on the energy efficiency, vehicle ownership cost and lifecycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of EVs are investigated. Energy-based vehicle simulation model including the regenerative braking function and battery degradation prediction method is established firstly. An optimization scheme combining the energy-based vehicle simulation model is conducted to minimize the electric energy consumption under various scenarios and driving conditions. Then the vehicle ownership cost and lifecycle GHG emissions of EVs are evaluated based on Chinese EV market and electricity grid. The sensitivity analyses of EV powertrain topology are implemented based on the different vehicle weights, CO 2 intensities of electricity and all-electric ranges. Results show that EVs using the powertrain of wheel-hub drive with the gear reducer have lower energy consumption. Furthermore, the driving cycles with more aggressive acceleration/deceleration and frequently stop-and-go conditions can increase both the vehicle ownership cost and lifecycle GHG emissions simultaneously. Chinese city traffic conditions will help EVs to obtain more benefits in respect of the economy and environment

  18. Oilsands for the USA : while environmental groups ask for a shutdown, new study shows significant resulting economic benefits in America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, D.L.

    2010-01-01

    The United States is beginning to appreciate the value of having massive oil sands resources located in relatively close proximity to their northern border. This article discussed a recent study conducted by the Canadian Energy Research Institute (CERI) to assess the impact of Canada's oil sands development on the economy of the United States. The study forecasted that the demand for oil sands-related goods and services from American companies will continue to increase as the industry expands. The top national-level goods and services impacts will be derived from increases in manufacturing; finance; insurance; real estate; and professional, scientific, and technical services. Accommodation and food services in the United States will also benefit from the growth of the oil sands industry. The United States may not risk pushing ahead with strict carbon-cutting legislation targeting the oil sands when policy-makers consider the potential impacts of Canada selling its resources to China. 1 fig.

  19. Potential economic benefits of adapting agricultural production systems to future climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagre, Daniel B.; Pederson, Gregory; Bengtson, Lindsey E.; Prato, Tony; Qui, Zeyuan; Williams, Jimmie R.

    2010-01-01

    Potential economic impacts of future climate change on crop enterprise net returns and annual net farm income (NFI) are evaluated for small and large representative farms in Flathead Valley in Northwest Montana. Crop enterprise net returns and NFI in an historical climate period (1960–2005) and future climate period (2006–2050) are compared when agricultural production systems (APSs) are adapted to future climate change. Climate conditions in the future climate period are based on the A1B, B1, and A2 CO2 emission scenarios from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report. Steps in the evaluation include: (1) specifying crop enterprises and APSs (i.e., combinations of crop enterprises) in consultation with locals producers; (2) simulating crop yields for two soils, crop prices, crop enterprises costs, and NFIs for APSs; (3) determining the dominant APS in the historical and future climate periods in terms of NFI; and (4) determining whether NFI for the dominant APS in the historical climate period is superior to NFI for the dominant APS in the future climate period. Crop yields are simulated using the Environmental/Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) model and dominance comparisons for NFI are based on the stochastic efficiency with respect to a function (SERF) criterion. Probability distributions that best fit the EPIC-simulated crop yields are used to simulate 100 values for crop yields for the two soils in the historical and future climate periods. Best-fitting probability distributions for historical inflation-adjusted crop prices and specified triangular probability distributions for crop enterprise costs are used to simulate 100 values for crop prices and crop enterprise costs. Averaged over all crop enterprises, farm sizes, and soil types, simulated net return per ha averaged over all crop enterprises decreased 24% and simulated mean NFI for APSs decreased 57% between the historical and future climate periods. Although adapting

  20. Potential Economic Benefits of Adapting Agricultural Production Systems to Future Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prato, Tony; Zeyuan, Qiu; Pederson, Gregory; Fagre, Dan; Bengtson, Lindsey E.; Williams, Jimmy R.

    2010-03-01

    Potential economic impacts of future climate change on crop enterprise net returns and annual net farm income (NFI) are evaluated for small and large representative farms in Flathead Valley in Northwest Montana. Crop enterprise net returns and NFI in an historical climate period (1960-2005) and future climate period (2006-2050) are compared when agricultural production systems (APSs) are adapted to future climate change. Climate conditions in the future climate period are based on the A1B, B1, and A2 CO2 emission scenarios from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report. Steps in the evaluation include: (1) specifying crop enterprises and APSs (i.e., combinations of crop enterprises) in consultation with locals producers; (2) simulating crop yields for two soils, crop prices, crop enterprises costs, and NFIs for APSs; (3) determining the dominant APS in the historical and future climate periods in terms of NFI; and (4) determining whether NFI for the dominant APS in the historical climate period is superior to NFI for the dominant APS in the future climate period. Crop yields are simulated using the Environmental/Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) model and dominance comparisons for NFI are based on the stochastic efficiency with respect to a function (SERF) criterion. Probability distributions that best fit the EPIC-simulated crop yields are used to simulate 100 values for crop yields for the two soils in the historical and future climate periods. Best-fitting probability distributions for historical inflation-adjusted crop prices and specified triangular probability distributions for crop enterprise costs are used to simulate 100 values for crop prices and crop enterprise costs. Averaged over all crop enterprises, farm sizes, and soil types, simulated net return per ha averaged over all crop enterprises decreased 24% and simulated mean NFI for APSs decreased 57% between the historical and future climate periods. Although adapting APSs to

  1. Potential economic benefits of adapting agricultural production systems to future climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prato, Tony; Zeyuan, Qiu; Pederson, Gregory; Fagre, Dan; Bengtson, Lindsey E; Williams, Jimmy R

    2010-03-01

    Potential economic impacts of future climate change on crop enterprise net returns and annual net farm income (NFI) are evaluated for small and large representative farms in Flathead Valley in Northwest Montana. Crop enterprise net returns and NFI in an historical climate period (1960-2005) and future climate period (2006-2050) are compared when agricultural production systems (APSs) are adapted to future climate change. Climate conditions in the future climate period are based on the A1B, B1, and A2 CO(2) emission scenarios from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report. Steps in the evaluation include: (1) specifying crop enterprises and APSs (i.e., combinations of crop enterprises) in consultation with locals producers; (2) simulating crop yields for two soils, crop prices, crop enterprises costs, and NFIs for APSs; (3) determining the dominant APS in the historical and future climate periods in terms of NFI; and (4) determining whether NFI for the dominant APS in the historical climate period is superior to NFI for the dominant APS in the future climate period. Crop yields are simulated using the Environmental/Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) model and dominance comparisons for NFI are based on the stochastic efficiency with respect to a function (SERF) criterion. Probability distributions that best fit the EPIC-simulated crop yields are used to simulate 100 values for crop yields for the two soils in the historical and future climate periods. Best-fitting probability distributions for historical inflation-adjusted crop prices and specified triangular probability distributions for crop enterprise costs are used to simulate 100 values for crop prices and crop enterprise costs. Averaged over all crop enterprises, farm sizes, and soil types, simulated net return per ha averaged over all crop enterprises decreased 24% and simulated mean NFI for APSs decreased 57% between the historical and future climate periods. Although adapting APSs

  2. Socio-economic effects and benefits of biofuels in power and heat generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turkki, J.

    1999-10-01

    This report studies the socioeconomic effects and benefits of domestic fuels - peat and wood and agricultural energy plants also - in power and heat generation. For evaluation of the employment and income effects, it compares the costs of domestic as well as imported fuels as regards to production, transportation and power stations by looking especially at the direct labour input and inputs in terms of intermediate products and investment. Their indirect employment effects and allocation to domestic factor income and imports are introduced by means of an input-output model. The net changes in the disposable incomes of local households, firms and municipalities, the government and other are derived from factor incomes by means of income redistribution. If in heat generation 15 MW oil heating plant is replaced by a peat heating plant, the annual local employment increases by 8 man years. If the fuel used is wood, employment increases by 9 man-years. The disposable income of the local economy rises annually about FIM 0,8 million with the peat alternative and FIM 0,9 million with the wood alternative. Although with the domestic fuel alternatives the income tax revenue grows and the unemployment security payments decrease, the loss of the high fuel taxes collected on oil means however, that the government is netloser by FIM 0,8-1,4 million annually. The total annual import bill decreases both with peat and wood by FIM 2,5 million respectively. Calculated by a small-sized 3/9 MW cogeneration station, which in heat generation replaces oil heating plants and in power generation replaces coal condensation power, the annual local employment effect is 11 man-years with peat and 12 with food fuel. The local economy gain an annual net income of FIM 0,8-0,9 million. The net increase of the government is FIM 0,1 million annually. With the wood alternative the government is a net looser by FIM 0,2 million. The annual import bill decreases by FIM 2,3-2,5 million. (orig.)

  3. Impact of battery weight and charging patterns on the economic and environmental benefits of plug-in hybrid vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiau, Ching-Shin Norman; Samaras, Constantine; Hauffe, Richard; Michalek, Jeremy J.

    2009-01-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) technology is receiving attention as an approach to reducing US dependency on foreign oil and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the transportation sector. PHEVs require large batteries for energy storage, which affect vehicle cost, weight, and performance. We construct PHEV simulation models to account for the effects of additional batteries on fuel consumption, cost, and GHG emissions over a range of charging frequencies (distance traveled between charges). We find that when charged frequently, every 20 miles or less, using average US electricity, small-capacity PHEVs are less expensive and release fewer GHGs than hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) or conventional vehicles. For moderate charging intervals of 20-100 miles, PHEVs release fewer GHGs, but HEVs have lower lifetime costs. High fuel prices, low-cost batteries, or high carbon taxes combined with low-carbon electricity generation would make small-capacity PHEVs cost competitive for a wide range of drivers. In contrast, increased battery specific energy or carbon taxes without decarbonization of the electricity grid would have limited impact. Large-capacity PHEVs sized for 40 or more miles of electric-only travel do not offer the lowest lifetime cost in any scenario, although they could minimize GHG emissions for some drivers and provide potential to shift air pollutant emissions away from population centers. The tradeoffs identified in this analysis can provide a space for vehicle manufacturers, policymakers, and the public to identify optimal decisions for PHEV design, policy and use. Given the alignment of economic, environmental, and national security objectives, policies aimed at putting PHEVs on the road will likely be most effective if they focus on adoption of small-capacity PHEVs by urban drivers who can charge frequently.

  4. Assessment of the Carbon Footprint, Social Benefit of Carbon Reduction, and Energy Payback Time of a High-Concentration Photovoltaic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen H. Hu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Depleting fossil fuel sources and worsening global warming are two of the most serious world problems. Many renewable energy technologies are continuously being developed to overcome these challenges. Among these technologies, high-concentration photovoltaics (HCPV is a promising technology that reduces the use of expensive photovoltaic materials to achieve highly efficient energy conversion. This reduction process is achieved by adopting concentrating and tracking technologies. This study intends to understand and assess the carbon footprint and energy payback time (EPBT of HCPV modules during their entire life cycles. The social benefit of carbon reduction is also evaluated as another indicator to assess the energy alternatives. An HCPV module and a tracker from the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (INER were applied, and SimaPro 8.0.2 was used for the assessment. The functional unit used in this study was 1 kWh, which is produced by HCPV, and inventory data was sourced from Ecoinvent 3.0 and the Taiwan carbon footprint calculation database. The carbon footprint, EPBT, and social benefit of carbon reduction were evaluated as 107.69 g CO2eq/kWh, 2.61 years, and 0.022 USD/kWh, respectively. Direct normal irradiation (DNI, life expectancy, and the degradation rate of HCPV system were subjected to sensitivity analysis. Results show that the influence of lifetime assumption under a low DNI value is greater than those under high DNI values. Degradation rate is also another important factor when assessing the carbon footprint of HCPV under a low DNI value and a long lifetime assumption. The findings of this study can provide several insights for the development of the Taiwanese solar industry.

  5. Communicating climate change – Learning from business: challenging values, changing economic thinking, innovating the low carbon economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Kaesehage

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The risks and opportunities presented by climate change for Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs have been largely overlooked by previous research. The subsequent lack of knowledge in this field makes it difficult for SMEs to engage with climate change in a meaningful, profitable, and sustainable way. Further, current research cannot explain why SMEs rarely engage with climate change. We examine critically 30 SMEs, which engage with climate change knowledges and 5 Innovation-Support-Organizations (ISOs that communicate climate change knowledges. Over a three-year period we explore why and how these businesses approach the knowledge gap between climate change science and business practice, drawing on a variety of ethnographic research methods: (1 in-depth semi-structured and open interviews; (2 participant observations; and (3 practitioners’ workshops. The results demonstrate that business’ mitigation and adaptation strategies are lay-knowledge-dependent, derived from personal values, space, and place identity. To enhance the number of SMEs engaging with climate change, maximize the potential value of climate change for the econo- my and establish a low carbon economy, climate change communication needs to target personal values of business leaders. The message should highlight local impacts of climate change, the benefits of engagement to (the local society and economy, and possible financial benefits for the business. Climate change communication therefore needs to go beyond thinking about potential financial benefits and scientific evidence and challenge values, cultures, and beliefs to stimulate economic, political, and social frameworks that promote values-based decision-making.

  6. Analysis of economic and environmental benefits of a new heat pump air conditioning system with a heat recovery device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, lingxue

    2017-08-01

    The paper designs a new wind-water cooling and heating water conditioner system, connects cooling tower with heat recovery device, which uses cooling water to completely remove the heat that does not need heat recollection, in order to ensure that the system can work efficiently with higher performance coefficient. After the test actual engineering operation, the system’s maximum cooling coefficient of performance can reach 3.5. Its maximum comprehensive coefficient of performance can reach 6.5. After the analysis of its economic and environmental, we conclude that the new system can save 89822 kw per year. It reflects energy-saving and environmental benefits of the cold and hot water air conditioning system.

  7. Economic and environmental benefits of converting industrial processes to district heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djuric Ilic, Danica; Trygg, Louise

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The potential for converting industrial processes to district heating is analyzed. • The study includes 83 manufacturing companies in three Swedish counties. • The energy costs for the companies decrease after the conversions. • The conversion opens up for a reduction of global greenhouse gas emissions. • CHP plants in the local district heating system are better utilized. - Abstract: The aim of this study was to analyse the possibilities of converting industrial processes from electricity and fossil fuels to district heating in 83 companies in three Swedish counties. Effects on the local district heating systems were explored, as well as economic effects and impacts on global emissions of greenhouse gases. The study was conducted considering two different energy market conditions for the year 2030. The results show that there is a potential for increasing industrial district heating use in all analysed counties. The greatest potential regarding percentage is found in Jönköping, where the annual district heating use in the manufacturing companies could increase from 5 GW h to 45 GW h. The annual industrial district heating use could increase from 84 GW h to 168 GW h in Östergötland and from 14 GW h to 58 GW h in Västra Götaland. The conversion of the industrial production processes to district heating would lead to district heating demand curves which are less dependent on outdoor temperature. As a result, the utilization period of the base load plants (above all of the combined heat and power plants) would be prolonged; this would decrease district heating production costs due to the increased income from the electricity production. The energy costs for the industrial companies decrease after the conversions as well. Furthermore, the increased electricity production in the combined heat and power plants, and the decreased electricity and fossil fuel use in the industrial sector opens up a possibility for a reduction of global

  8. The economics of an efficient reliance on biomass, carbon capture and carbon sequestration in a Kyoto-style emissions control environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yohe, G.W.; Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA

    2001-01-01

    This note employs the economics paradigm to sort through the complications of relying simultaneously on biomass fuels, carbon capture with active sequestration and passive carbon sequestration to meet Kyoto-style carbon emission limits. It does so by exploiting the structure of a tax cum repurchase scheme for carbon. Under such a scheme, the carbon content of fossil fuel should be taxed at the point of purchase at a price that matches the shadow price of the carbon emission limit, but carbon embedded in biomass fuel should go un-taxed. The price of biomass fuel would, though, have to reflect the marginal cost of any externalities it might cause and the opportunity cost of its land-use requirements. Captured carbon could be repurchased at a price equal to the shadow price of carbon, net of the cost of active sequestration, itself the sum of private and social marginal costs. Finally, the price of the passive sequestration of carbon should equal the shadow price of carbon, net of the opportunity cost of setting those resources aside. Since a marketable permit system would support direct estimates of the requisite shadow price of carbon, such a system would also provide direct information about base prices for the tax cum repurchase scheme. To support long-term investment in biomass supply and sequestration, though, changes over time in emission limits must be accomplished in a smooth and predictable manner. (author)

  9. Energy consumption-economic growth relationship and carbon dioxide emissions in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fei Li, E-mail: lfly2004@yahoo.com.c [Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Dong Suocheng; Xue Li [Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Liang Quanxi [Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Yang Wangzhou [Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China)

    2011-02-15

    This paper applies the panel unit root, heterogeneous panel cointegration and panel-based dynamic OLS to re-investigate the co-movement and relationship between energy consumption and economic growth for 30 provinces in mainland China from 1985 to 2007. The empirical results show that there is a positive long-run cointegrated relationship between real GDP per capita and energy consumption variables. Furthermore, we investigate two cross-regional groups, namely the east China and west China groups, and get more important results and implications. In the long-term, a 1% increase in real GDP per capita increases the consumption of energy by approximately 0.48-0.50% and accordingly increases the carbon dioxide emissions by about 0.41-0.43% in China. The economic growth in east China is energy-dependent to a great extent, and the income elasticity of energy consumption in east China is over 2 times that of the west China. At present, China is subject to tremendous pressures for mitigating climate change issues. It is possible that the GDP per capita elasticity of carbon dioxide emissions would be controlled in a range from 0.2 to 0.3 by the great effort. - Research Highlights: {yields} The long-run cointegrated relationship between real GDP per capita and energy consumption in China is examined. {yields} GDP per capita elasticity of carbon dioxide emissions is estimated. {yields} Economic growth in east China is energy-dependent to a great extent, and relies on the consumption of the energy more than the west China.

  10. Energy consumption-economic growth relationship and carbon dioxide emissions in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fei Li; Dong Suocheng; Xue Li; Liang Quanxi; Yang Wangzhou

    2011-01-01

    This paper applies the panel unit root, heterogeneous panel cointegration and panel-based dynamic OLS to re-investigate the co-movement and relationship between energy consumption and economic growth for 30 provinces in mainland China from 1985 to 2007. The empirical results show that there is a positive long-run cointegrated relationship between real GDP per capita and energy consumption variables. Furthermore, we investigate two cross-regional groups, namely the east China and west China groups, and get more important results and implications. In the long-term, a 1% increase in real GDP per capita increases the consumption of energy by approximately 0.48-0.50% and accordingly increases the carbon dioxide emissions by about 0.41-0.43% in China. The economic growth in east China is energy-dependent to a great extent, and the income elasticity of energy consumption in east China is over 2 times that of the west China. At present, China is subject to tremendous pressures for mitigating climate change issues. It is possible that the GDP per capita elasticity of carbon dioxide emissions would be controlled in a range from 0.2 to 0.3 by the great effort. - Research Highlights: → The long-run cointegrated relationship between real GDP per capita and energy consumption in China is examined. → GDP per capita elasticity of carbon dioxide emissions is estimated. → Economic growth in east China is energy-dependent to a great extent, and relies on the consumption of the energy more than the west China.

  11. Energy Tax versus Carbon Tax. A quantitative macro economical analysis with the HERMES/MIDAS models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karadeloglou, P.

    1992-01-01

    The idea of imposing a tax has been recently put forward as a policy-instrument to induce substitutions aiming at reducing CO[sub 2] overall emissions. One can distinguish two options: recycle tax revenues for energy system restructuring (supply or demand restructuring); or use the corresponding revenues in order to reduce the negative impacts caused on the economic activity by the introduction of the tax. Several papers dealing with only the macroeconomic aspects of the environmental problems have been written. These papers neglect more or less the energy sphere and consider that the energy feedback effects are very small. Macroeconomic impacts of the carbon tax have been examined for the United Kingdom and for the four big European countries elsewhere. In this paper a synthesis of both the energy and the macroeconomic approaches is realized. The approach adopted is global and tries to evaluate the impacts on both the economic and energy system. The main question examined is the effectiveness and impacts of fiscal policy on CO[sub 2] emission and the effects of the adoption of an accommodating policy. Thus, not only the effects of imposing an energy or carbon tax are examined, but also the effects of introducing accommodating measures are studied. The analysis is effected by using the HERMES-MIDAS linked system of models and is limited in analyzing the effects of carbon and energy taxes and the reduction of direct taxes and is effected for four countries namely France, Federal Republic of Germany, Italy and the United Kingdom. In section 2 policy scenarios are described while in sections three and four the results of the policy simulations are presented. In section five we compare the differences of two taxes (energy tax and carbon tax) and in section six the reduction of direct taxation as an accommodating measure is examined. 27 tabs., 10 refs

  12. Energy Tax versus Carbon Tax. A quantitative macro economical analysis with the HERMES/MIDAS models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karadeloglou, P. [National Technical University of Athens (Greece)

    1992-03-01

    The idea of imposing a tax has been recently put forward as a policy-instrument to induce substitutions aiming at reducing CO{sub 2} overall emissions. One can distinguish two options: recycle tax revenues for energy system restructuring (supply or demand restructuring); or use the corresponding revenues in order to reduce the negative impacts caused on the economic activity by the introduction of the tax. Several papers dealing with only the macroeconomic aspects of the environmental problems have been written. These papers neglect more or less the energy sphere and consider that the energy feedback effects are very small. Macroeconomic impacts of the carbon tax have been examined for the United Kingdom and for the four big European countries elsewhere. In this paper a synthesis of both the energy and the macroeconomic approaches is realized. The approach adopted is global and tries to evaluate the impacts on both the economic and energy system. The main question examined is the effectiveness and impacts of fiscal policy on CO{sub 2} emission and the effects of the adoption of an accommodating policy. Thus, not only the effects of imposing an energy or carbon tax are examined, but also the effects of introducing accommodating measures are studied. The analysis is effected by using the HERMES-MIDAS linked system of models and is limited in analyzing the effects of carbon and energy taxes and the reduction of direct taxes and is effected for four countries namely France, Federal Republic of Germany, Italy and the United Kingdom. In section 2 policy scenarios are described while in sections three and four the results of the policy simulations are presented. In section five we compare the differences of two taxes (energy tax and carbon tax) and in section six the reduction of direct taxation as an accommodating measure is examined. 27 tabs., 10 refs.

  13. The market triumph of ecotourism: an economic investigation of the private and social benefits of competing land uses in the Peruvian Amazon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher A Kirkby

    Full Text Available Annual revenue flow to developing countries for ecotourism (or nature-based tourism could be as large as US$ 210×10(12, providing an enormous financial incentive against habitat loss and exploitation. However, is ecotourism the most privately and/or socially valuable use of rainforest land? The question is rarely answered because the relevant data, estimates of profits and fixed costs, are rarely available. We present a social cost-benefit analysis of land use in an ecotourism cluster in the Tambopata region of Amazonian Peru. The net present value of ecotourism-controlled land is given by the producer surplus (profits plus fixed costs of ecotourism lodges: US$ 1,158 ha(-1, which is higher than all currently practiced alternatives, including unsustainable logging, ranching, and agriculture. To our knowledge, this is the first sector-wide study of profitability and producer surplus in a developing-country ecotourism sector and the first to compare against equivalent measures for a spectrum of alternative uses. We also find that ecotourism-controlled land sequesters between 5.3 to 8.7 million tons of above-ground carbon, which is equivalent to between 3000-5000 years of carbon emissions from the domestic component of air and surface travel between the gateway city of Cusco and the lodges, at 2005 emission rates. Ecotourism in Tambopata has successfully monetized the hedonic value of wild nature in Amazonian Peru, and justifies the maintenance of intact rainforest over all alternative uses on narrow economic grounds alone.

  14. The market triumph of ecotourism: an economic investigation of the private and social benefits of competing land uses in the Peruvian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkby, Christopher A; Giudice-Granados, Renzo; Day, Brett; Turner, Kerry; Velarde-Andrade, Luz Marina; Dueñas-Dueñas, Agusto; Lara-Rivas, Juan Carlos; Yu, Douglas W

    2010-09-29

    Annual revenue flow to developing countries for ecotourism (or nature-based tourism) could be as large as US$ 210×10(12), providing an enormous financial incentive against habitat loss and exploitation. However, is ecotourism the most privately and/or socially valuable use of rainforest land? The question is rarely answered because the relevant data, estimates of profits and fixed costs, are rarely available. We present a social cost-benefit analysis of land use in an ecotourism cluster in the Tambopata region of Amazonian Peru. The net present value of ecotourism-controlled land is given by the producer surplus (profits plus fixed costs of ecotourism lodges): US$ 1,158 ha(-1), which is higher than all currently practiced alternatives, including unsustainable logging, ranching, and agriculture. To our knowledge, this is the first sector-wide study of profitability and producer surplus in a developing-country ecotourism sector and the first to compare against equivalent measures for a spectrum of alternative uses. We also find that ecotourism-controlled land sequesters between 5.3 to 8.7 million tons of above-ground carbon, which is equivalent to between 3000-5000 years of carbon emissions from the domestic component of air and surface travel between the gateway city of Cusco and the lodges, at 2005 emission rates. Ecotourism in Tambopata has successfully monetized the hedonic value of wild nature in Amazonian Peru, and justifies the maintenance of intact rainforest over all alternative uses on narrow economic grounds alone.

  15. The Market Triumph of Ecotourism: An Economic Investigation of the Private and Social Benefits of Competing Land Uses in the Peruvian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkby, Christopher A.; Giudice-Granados, Renzo; Day, Brett; Turner, Kerry; Velarde-Andrade, Luz Marina; Dueñas-Dueñas, Agusto; Lara-Rivas, Juan Carlos; Yu, Douglas W.

    2010-01-01

    Annual revenue flow to developing countries for ecotourism (or nature-based tourism) could be as large as US$ 210×1012, providing an enormous financial incentive against habitat loss and exploitation. However, is ecotourism the most privately and/or socially valuable use of rainforest land? The question is rarely answered because the relevant data, estimates of profits and fixed costs, are rarely available. We present a social cost-benefit analysis of land use in an ecotourism cluster in the Tambopata region of Amazonian Peru. The net present value of ecotourism-controlled land is given by the producer surplus (profits plus fixed costs of ecotourism lodges): US$ 1,158 ha−1, which is higher than all currently practiced alternatives, including unsustainable logging, ranching, and agriculture. To our knowledge, this is the first sector-wide study of profitability and producer surplus in a developing-country ecotourism sector and the first to compare against equivalent measures for a spectrum of alternative uses. We also find that ecotourism-controlled land sequesters between 5.3 to 8.7 million tons of above-ground carbon, which is equivalent to between 3000–5000 years of carbon emissions from the domestic component of air and surface travel between the gateway city of Cusco and the lodges, at 2005 emission rates. Ecotourism in Tambopata has successfully monetized the hedonic value of wild nature in Amazonian Peru, and justifies the maintenance of intact rainforest over all alternative uses on narrow economic grounds alone. PMID:20927377

  16. Evaluating energy, health and carbon co-benefits from improved domestic space heating: A randomised community trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preval, Nick; Chapman, Ralph; Pierse, Nevil; Howden-Chapman, Philippa

    2010-01-01

    In order to value the costs and benefits associated with improved space heating we analysed the Housing, Heating and Health Study, a randomised community trial involving installation of energy efficient and healthy heaters (heat pump, wood pellet burner or flued gas heater) in homes with basic insulation and poor heating, occupied by households which included a child with asthma. We compared the initial purchase and installation cost of heaters with changes in the number of visits to health professionals, time off work/school, caregiving, and pharmaceutical use for household members and changes in total household energy use and carbon emissions following the intervention. We used two scenarios to analyse the results over the predicted 12-year life-span of the heaters. The targeted approach (Scenario A - assuming high rates of household asthma throughout the period of analysis) produced enough health-related benefits to offset the cost of the heaters, and when total energy use and carbon emission savings were included in the analysis the ratio of benefits to costs was 1.09:1. The untargeted approach (Scenario B - assuming typical New Zealand asthma rates throughout the period of analysis) had a ratio of total benefits to costs of 0.31:1.

  17. Evaluating energy, health and carbon co-benefits from improved domestic space heating. A randomised community trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preval, Nick; Pierse, Nevil; Howden-Chapman, Philippa [He Kainga Oranga/Housing and Health Research Programme, University of Otago, Wellington, PO Box 7343, Wellington South (New Zealand); Chapman, Ralph [School of Geography, Graduate Programme in Environmental Studies, Environment and Earth Sciences, Victoria University, PO Box 600, Wellington 6140 (New Zealand)

    2010-08-15

    In order to value the costs and benefits associated with improved space heating we analysed the Housing, Heating and Health Study, a randomised community trial involving installation of energy efficient and healthy heaters (heat pump, wood pellet burner or flued gas heater) in homes with basic insulation and poor heating, occupied by households which included a child with asthma. We compared the initial purchase and installation cost of heaters with changes in the number of visits to health professionals, time off work/school, caregiving, and pharmaceutical use for household members and changes in total household energy use and carbon emissions following the intervention. We used two scenarios to analyse the results over the predicted 12-year life-span of the heaters. The targeted approach (Scenario A - assuming high rates of household asthma throughout the period of analysis) produced enough health-related benefits to offset the cost of the heaters, and when total energy use and carbon emission savings were included in the analysis the ratio of benefits to costs was 1.09:1. The untargeted approach (Scenario B - assuming typical New Zealand asthma rates throughout the period of analysis) had a ratio of total benefits to costs of 0.31:1. (author)

  18. Evaluating energy, health and carbon co-benefits from improved domestic space heating: A randomised community trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preval, Nick [He Kainga Oranga/Housing and Health Research Programme, University of Otago, Wellington, PO Box 7343, Wellington South (New Zealand); Chapman, Ralph, E-mail: Ralph.chapman@vuw.ac.n [School of Geography, Graduate Programme in Environmental Studies, Environment and Earth Sciences, Victoria University, PO Box 600, Wellington 6140 (New Zealand); Pierse, Nevil; Howden-Chapman, Philippa [He Kainga Oranga/Housing and Health Research Programme, University of Otago, Wellington, PO Box 7343, Wellington South (New Zealand)

    2010-08-15

    In order to value the costs and benefits associated with improved space heating we analysed the Housing, Heating and Health Study, a randomised community trial involving installation of energy efficient and healthy heaters (heat pump, wood pellet burner or flued gas heater) in homes with basic insulation and poor heating, occupied by households which included a child with asthma. We compared the initial purchase and installation cost of heaters with changes in the number of visits to health professionals, time off work/school, caregiving, and pharmaceutical use for household members and changes in total household energy use and carbon emissions following the intervention. We used two scenarios to analyse the results over the predicted 12-year life-span of the heaters. The targeted approach (Scenario A - assuming high rates of household asthma throughout the period of analysis) produced enough health-related benefits to offset the cost of the heaters, and when total energy use and carbon emission savings were included in the analysis the ratio of benefits to costs was 1.09:1. The untargeted approach (Scenario B - assuming typical New Zealand asthma rates throughout the period of analysis) had a ratio of total benefits to costs of 0.31:1.

  19. Socio-economic research on fusion. SERF 1997-98. Macro Tast E2: External costs and benefits. Task 2: Comparison of external costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleisner, Lotte; Korhonen, Riitta

    1998-12-01

    This report is part of the SERF (Socio-Economic Research on Fusion) project, Macro Task E2, which covers External Costs and Benefits. The report is the documentation of Task 2, Comparison of External Costs. The aim of Task 2 Comparison of External Costs, has been to compare the external costs of the fusion energy with those from other alternative energy generation technologies. In this task identification and quantification of the external costs for wind energy and photovoltaic have been performed by Risoe, while identification and quantification of the external cost for nuclear fission and fossil fuels have been discussed by VTT. The methodology used for the assessment of the externalities of the fuel cycles selected has been the one developed within the ExternE Project. First estimates for the externalities of fusion energy have been under examination in Macrotask E2. Externalities of fossil fuels and nuclear fission have already been evaluated in the ExternE project and a vast amount of material for different sites in various countries is available. This material is used in comparison. In the case of renewable wind energy and photovoltaic are assessed separately. External costs of the various alternatives may change as new technologies are developed and costs can to a high extent be avoided (e.g. acidifying impacts but also global warming due to carbon dioxide emissions). Also fusion technology can experience major progress and some important cost components probably can be avoided already by 2050. (EG)

  20. Socio-economic research on fusion. SERF 1997-98. Macro Tast E2: External costs and benefits. Task 2: Comparison of external costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleisner, Lotte; Korhonen, Riitta

    1998-12-01

    This report is part of the SERF (Socio-Economic Research on Fusion) project, Macro Task E2, which covers External Costs and Benefits. The report is the documentation of Task 2, Comparison of External Costs. The aim of Task 2 Comparison of External Costs, has been to compare the external costs of the fusion energy with those from other alternative energy generation technologies. In this task identification and quantification of the external costs for wind energy and photovoltaic have been performed by Risoe, while identification and quantification of the external cost for nuclear fission and fossil fuels have been discussed by VTT. The methodology used for the assessment of the externalities of the fuel cycles selected has been the one developed within the ExternE Project. First estimates for the externalities of fusion energy have been under examination in Macrotask E2. Externalities of fossil fuels and nuclear fission have already been evaluated in the ExternE project and a vast amount of material for different sites in various countries is available. This material is used in comparison. In the case of renewable wind energy and photovoltaic are assessed separately. External costs of the various alternatives may change as new technologies are developed and costs can to a high extent be avoided (e.g. acidifying impacts but also global warming due to carbon dioxide emissions). Also fusion technology can experience major progress and some important cost components probably can be avoided already by 2050. (EG) 36 refs.

  1. Spatial optimization of carbon-stocking projects across Africa integrating stocking potential with co-benefits and feasibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Michelle; Reyers, Belinda; Lykke, Anne Mette

    2013-01-01

    Carbon (C) offset projects through forestation are employed within the emissions trading framework to store C. Yet, information about the potential of landscapes to stock C, essential to the design of offset projects, is often lacking. Based on data on vegetation C, climate and soil we quantified...... the potential for C storage in woody vegetation across tropical Africa. The ability for offset projects to produce co-benefits for ecosystems and local communities was also investigated. When co-benefits such as biodiversity conservation were considered, the top-ranked sites were often different to sites...... selected purely for their C stocking potential, but they still possessed 68% of the latter’s C stocking potential. This work provides the first continental-scale assessment of which areas may provide the greatest direct and indirect benefits from C storage reforestation projects at the smallest costs...

  2. Quantifying the economic benefits of prevention in a healthcare setting with severe financial constraints: the case of hypertension control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasakis, Kostas; Kyriopoulos, Ilias-Ioannis; Boubouchairopoulou, Nadia; Stergiou, George S; Kyriopoulos, John

    2015-01-01

    Hypertension significantly contributes to the increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, thus leading to rising healthcare costs. The objective of this study was to quantify the clinical and economic benefits of optimal systolic blood pressure (SBP), in a setting under severe financial constraints, as in the case of Greece. Hence, a Markov model projecting 10-year outcomes and costs was adopted, in order to compare two scenarios. The first one depicted the "current setting", where all hypertensives in Greece presented an average SBP of 164 mmHg, while the second scenario namely "optimal SBP control" represented a hypothesis in which the whole population of hypertensives would achieve optimal SBP (i.e. perspective (discounted at a 3% annual rate). Findings showed that compared to the "current setting", universal "optimal SBP control" could, within a 10-year period, reduce the occurrence of non-fatal events and deaths, by 80 and 61 cases/1000 male smokers; 59 and 37 cases/1000 men non-smokers; whereas the respective figures for women were 69 and 57 cases/1000 women smokers; and accordingly, 52 and 28 cases/1000 women non-smokers. Considering health expenditures, they could be reduced by approximately €83 million per year. Therefore, prevention of cardiovascular events through BP control could result in reduced morbidity, thereby in substantial cost savings. Based on clinical and economic outcomes, interventions that promote BP control should be a health policy priority.

  3. The contribution of foreign direct investment to clean energy use, carbon emissions and economic growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jung Wan

    2013-01-01

    The paper investigates the contributions of foreign direct investment (FDI) net inflows to clean energy use, carbon emissions, and economic growth. The paper employs cointegration tests to examine a long-run equilibrium relationship among the variables and fixed effects models to examine the magnitude of FDI contributions to the other variables. The paper analyzes panel data of 19 nations of the G20 from 1971 to 2009. The test results indicate that FDI has played an important role in economic growth for the G20 whereas it limits its impact on an increase in CO 2 emissions in the economies. The research finds no compelling evidence of FDI link with clean energy use. Given the results, the paper discusses FDI's potential role in achieving green growth goals. - Highlights: ► FDI inflows strongly lead to economic growth in the G20. ► FDI inflows lead to an increase in energy use in the G20. ► FDI inflows are in no relation to CO 2 emissions in the G20. ► FDI inflows are in no relation to clean energy use in the G20. ► Economic growth is in negative relation to CO 2 emissions in the G20

  4. Economic and financial benefits as a compensation for living near a nuclear power station. A case study of Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Takaaki; Hatta, Masahisa; Matsumoto, Shiro; Nishikawa, Masashi

    2007-01-01

    Although dwellers living near a nuclear power station are entitled to economic/financial benefits such as increased job opportunities and local tax revenues pertaining to the power station, it is not clear whether such benefits are appreciated by the dwellers. Two findings of this study based upon a social survey of local dwellers living near the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Station are summarized as follows. First, an increase in the per capita sizes of the local tax revenue and national subsidies resulted in a larger share of respondents who thought that those revenues are beneficial. Therefore, local dwellers are aware of the sizes of economic/financial benefits. Second, given the same risk level of nuclear disaster, a larger per capita financial benefit resulted in a larger share of respondents who felt compensated for the nuclear risk. However, this increase in the number of compensated respondents is low relative to the increase in the amount of financial benefits. (author)

  5. Economic Effects of Legislations and Policies to Expand Mental Health and Substance Abuse Benefits in Health Insurance Plans: A Community Guide Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Verughese; Qu, Shuli; Chattopadhyay, Sajal; Sipe, Theresa Ann; Knopf, John A.; Goetzel, Ron Z.; Finnie, Ramona; Thota, Anilkrishna B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Health insurance plans have historically limited the benefits for mental health and substance abuse (MH/SA) services compared to benefits for physical health services. In recent years, legislative and policy initiatives in the U.S. have been taken to expand MH/SA health insurance benefits and achieve parity with physical health benefits. The relevance of these legislations for international audiences is also explored, particularly for the European context. Aims of the Study This paper reviews the evidence of costs and economic benefits of legislative or policy interventions to expand MH/SA health insurance benefits in the U.S. The objectives are to assess the economic value of the interventions by comparing societal cost to societal benefits, and to determine impact on costs to insurance plans resulting from expansion of these benefits. Methods The search for economic evidence covered literature published from January 1950 to March 2011 and included evaluations of federal and state laws or rules that expanded MH/SA benefits as well as voluntary actions by large employers. Two economists screened and abstracted the economic evidence of MH/SA benefits legislation based on standard economic and actuarial concepts and methods. Results The economic review included 12 studies: eleven provided evidence on cost impact to health plans, and one estimated the effect on suicides. There was insufficient evidence to determine if the intervention was cost-effective or cost-saving. However, the evidence indicates that MH/SA benefits expansion did not lead to any substantial increase in costs to insurance plans, measured as a percentage of insurance premiums. Discussion and Limitations This review is unable to determine the overall economic value of policies that expand MH/SA insurance benefits due to lack of cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit studies, predominantly due to the lack of evaluations of morbidity and mortality outcomes. This may be remedied in time when

  6. Legislations and policies to expand mental health and substance abuse benefits in health insurance plans: a community guide systematic economic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Verughese; Qu, Shuli; Chattopadhyay, Sajal; Sipe, Theresa Ann; Knopf, John A; Goetzel, Ron Z; Finnie, Ramona; Thota, Anilkrishna B

    2015-03-01

    Health insurance plans have historically limited the benefits for mental health and substance abuse (MH/SA) services compared to benefits for physical health services. In recent years, legislative and policy initiatives in the U.S. have been taken to expand MH/SA health insurance benefits and achieve parity with physical health benefits. The relevance of these legislations for international audiences is also explored, particularly for the European context. This paper reviews the evidence of costs and economic benefits of legislative or policy interventions to expand MH/SA health insurance benefits in the U.S. The objectives are to assess the economic value of the interventions by comparing societal cost to societal benefits, and to determine impact on costs to insurance plans resulting from expansion of these benefits. The search for economic evidence covered literature published from January 1950 to March 2011 and included evaluations of federal and state laws or rules that expanded MH/SA benefits as well as voluntary actions by large employers. Two economists screened and abstracted the economic evidence of MH/SA benefits legislation based on standard economic and actuarial concepts and methods. The economic review included 12 studies: eleven provided evidence on cost impact to health plans, and one estimated the effect on suicides. There was insufficient evidence to determine if the intervention was cost-effective or cost-saving. However, the evidence indicates that MH/SA benefits expansion did not lead to any substantial increase in costs to insurance plans, measured as a percentage of insurance premiums. This review is unable to determine the overall economic value of policies that expanded MH/SA insurance benefits due to lack of cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit studies, predominantly due to the lack of evaluations of morbidity and mortality outcomes. This may be remedied in time when long-term MH/SA patient-level data becomes available to researchers. A

  7. Assessing wildlife benefits and carbon storage from restored and natural coastal marshes in the Nisqually River Delta: Determining marsh net ecosystem carbon balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Frank; Bergamaschi, Brian; Windham-Myers, Lisamarie; Woo, Isa; De La Cruz, Susan; Drexler, Judith; Byrd, Kristin; Thorne, Karen M.

    2016-06-24

    Working in partnership since 1996, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the Nisqually Indian Tribe have restored 902 acres of tidally influenced coastal marsh in the Nisqually River Delta (NRD), making it the largest estuary-restoration project in the Pacific Northwest to date. Marsh restoration increases the capacity of the estuary to support a diversity of wildlife species. Restoration also increases carbon (C) production of marsh plant communities that support food webs for wildlife and can help mitigate climate change through long-term C storage in marsh soils.In 2015, an interdisciplinary team of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) researchers began to study the benefits of carbon for wetland wildlife and storage in the NRD. Our primary goals are (1) to identify the relative importance of the different carbon sources that support juvenile chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) food webs and contribute to current and historic peat formation, (2) to determine the net ecosystem carbon balance (NECB) in a reference marsh and a restoration marsh site, and (3) to model the sustainability of the reference and restoration marshes under projected sea-level rise conditions along with historical vegetation change. In this fact sheet, we focus on the main C sources and exchanges to determine NECB, including carbon dioxide (CO2) uptake through plant photosynthesis, the loss of CO2 through plant and soil respiration, emissions of methane (CH4), and the lateral movement or leaching loss of C in tidal waters.

  8. Is a Clean Development Mechanism project economically justified? Case study of an International Carbon Sequestration Project in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katircioglu, Salih; Dalir, Sara; Olya, Hossein G

    2016-01-01

    The present study evaluates a carbon sequestration project for the three plant species in arid and semiarid regions of Iran. Results show that Haloxylon performed appropriately in the carbon sequestration process during the 6 years of the International Carbon Sequestration Project (ICSP). In addition to a high degree of carbon dioxide sequestration, Haloxylon shows high compatibility with severe environmental conditions and low maintenance costs. Financial and economic analysis demonstrated that the ICSP was justified from an economic perspective. The financial assessment showed that net present value (NPV) (US$1,098,022.70), internal rate of return (IRR) (21.53%), and payback period (6 years) were in an acceptable range. The results of the economic analysis suggested an NPV of US$4,407,805.15 and an IRR of 50.63%. Therefore, results of this study suggest that there are sufficient incentives for investors to participate in such kind of Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects.

  9. The potential for reduc