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Sample records for ecologically meaningful genetic

  1. Students' Meaningful Learning Orientation and Their Meaningful Understandings of Meiosis and Genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, Ann Liberatore

    This 1-week study explored the extent to which high school students (n=140) acquired meaningful understanding of selected biological topics (meiosis and the Punnett square method) and the relationship between these topics. This study: (1) examined "mental modeling" as a technique for measuring students' meaningful understanding of the…

  2. The Retention of Meaningful Understanding of Meiosis and Genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, Ann Liberatore

    This study investigated the retention of meaningful understanding of the biological topics of meiosis, the Punnett square method and the relations between these two topics. This study also explored the predictive influence of students' general tendency to learn meaningfully or by rote (meaningful learning orientation), prior knowledge of meiosis,…

  3. Genetically meaningful phenotypic subgroups in autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veatch, O J; Veenstra-Vanderweele, J; Potter, M; Pericak-Vance, M A; Haines, J L

    2014-03-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder with strong evidence for genetic susceptibility. However, the effect sizes for implicated chromosomal loci are small, hard to replicate and current evidence does not explain the majority of the estimated heritability. Phenotypic heterogeneity could be one phenomenon complicating identification of genetic factors. We used data from the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised, Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, head circumferences, and ages at exams as classifying variables to identify more clinically similar subgroups of individuals with ASD. We identified two distinct subgroups of cases within the Autism Genetic Resource Exchange dataset, primarily defined by the overall severity of evaluated traits. In addition, there was significant familial clustering within subgroups (odds ratio, OR ≈ 1.38-1.42, P definition that should increase power to detect genetic factors influencing risk for ASD. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  4. The Effect of Case Teaching on Meaningful and Retentive Learning When Studying Genetic Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güccük, Ahmet; Köksal, Mustafa Serdar

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of case teaching on how students learn about genetic engineering, in terms of meaningful learning and retention of learning. The study was designed as quasi-experimental research including 63 8th graders (28 boys and 35 girls). To collect data, genetic engineering achievement tests were…

  5. Genetic Allee effects and their interaction with ecological Allee effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, Meike J; Stuis, Hanna; Metzler, Dirk

    2018-01-01

    It is now widely accepted that genetic processes such as inbreeding depression and loss of genetic variation can increase the extinction risk of small populations. However, it is generally unclear whether extinction risk from genetic causes gradually increases with decreasing population size or whether there is a sharp transition around a specific threshold population size. In the ecological literature, such threshold phenomena are called 'strong Allee effects' and they can arise for example from mate limitation in small populations. In this study, we aim to (i) develop a meaningful notion of a 'strong genetic Allee effect', (ii) explore whether and under what conditions such an effect can arise from inbreeding depression due to recessive deleterious mutations, and (iii) quantify the interaction of potential genetic Allee effects with the well-known mate-finding Allee effect. We define a strong genetic Allee effect as a genetic process that causes a population's survival probability to be a sigmoid function of its initial size. The inflection point of this function defines the critical population size. To characterize survival-probability curves, we develop and analyse simple stochastic models for the ecology and genetics of small populations. Our results indicate that inbreeding depression can indeed cause a strong genetic Allee effect, but only if individuals carry sufficiently many deleterious mutations (lethal equivalents). Populations suffering from a genetic Allee effect often first grow, then decline as inbreeding depression sets in and then potentially recover as deleterious mutations are purged. Critical population sizes of ecological and genetic Allee effects appear to be often additive, but even superadditive interactions are possible. Many published estimates for the number of lethal equivalents in birds and mammals fall in the parameter range where strong genetic Allee effects are expected. Unfortunately, extinction risk due to genetic Allee effects

  6. Contribution of genetics to ecological restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijangos, Jose Luis; Pacioni, Carlo; Spencer, Peter B S; Craig, Michael D

    2015-01-01

    Ecological restoration of degraded ecosystems has emerged as a critical tool in the fight to reverse and ameliorate the current loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services. Approaches derived from different genetic disciplines are extending the theoretical and applied frameworks on which ecological restoration is based. We performed a search of scientific articles and identified 160 articles that employed a genetic approach within a restoration context to shed light on the links between genetics and restoration. These articles were then classified on whether they examined association between genetics and fitness or the application of genetics in demographic studies, and on the way the studies informed restoration practice. Although genetic research in restoration is rapidly growing, we found that studies could make better use of the extensive toolbox developed by applied fields in genetics. Overall, 41% of reviewed studies used genetic information to evaluate or monitor restoration, and 59% provided genetic information to guide prerestoration decision-making processes. Reviewed studies suggest that restoration practitioners often overlook the importance of including genetic aspects within their restoration goals. Even though there is a genetic basis influencing the provision of ecosystem services, few studies explored this relationship. We provide a view of research gaps, future directions and challenges in the genetics of restoration. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Functional genetics of intraspecific ecological interactions in Arabidopsis thaliana

    OpenAIRE

    Wolf, Jason B.; Mutic, Joshua J.; Kover, Paula X.

    2011-01-01

    Studying the genetic basis of traits involved in ecological interactions is a fundamental part of elucidating the connections between evolutionary and ecological processes. Such knowledge allows one to link genetic models of trait evolution with ecological models describing interactions within and between species. Previous work has shown that connections between genetic and ecological processes in Arabidopsis thaliana may be mediated by the fact that quantitative trait loci (QTL) with ‘direct...

  8. Advancing ecological understandings through technological transformations in noninvasive genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albano Beja-Pereira; Rita Oliveira; Paulo C. Alves; Michael K. Schwartz; Gordon Luikart

    2009-01-01

    Noninvasive genetic approaches continue to improve studies in molecular ecology, conservation genetics and related disciplines such as forensics and epidemiology. Noninvasive sampling allows genetic studies without disturbing or even seeing the target individuals. Although noninvasive genetic sampling has been used for wildlife studies since the 1990s, technological...

  9. Ecological Risk Assessment of Genetically Modified Higher Plants (GMHP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, C.; Damgaard, C.; Kjellsson, G.

    Preface This publication is a first version of a manual identifying the data needs for ecological risk assessment of genetically modified higher plants (GMHP). It is the intention of the authors to stimulate further discussion of what data are needed in order to conduct a proper ecological risk...... of the project Biotechnology: elements in environmental risk assessment of genetically modified plants. December 1999 Christian Kjær Introduction In ecological risk assessment of transgenic plants, information on a wide range of subjects is needed for an effective and reliable assessment procedure...... in the amendment to the directive. This report suggests a structured way to identify the type of data needed to perform a sound ecological risk assessment for genetically modified higher plants (GMHP). The identified data types are intended to support the evaluation of the following risks: risk of invasion...

  10. Riverscape genetics identifies replicated ecological divergence across an Amazonian ecotone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Georgina M; Landguth, Erin L; Beheregaray, Luciano B

    2014-07-01

    Ecological speciation involves the evolution of reproductive isolation and niche divergence in the absence of a physical barrier to gene flow. The process is one of the most controversial topics of the speciation debate, particularly in tropical regions. Here, we investigate ecologically based divergence across an Amazonian ecotone in the electric fish, Steatogenys elegans. We combine phylogenetics, genome scans, and population genetics with a recently developed individual-based evolutionary landscape genetics approach that incorporates selection. This framework is used to assess the relative contributions of geography and divergent natural selection between environments as biodiversity drivers. We report on two closely related and sympatric lineages that exemplify how divergent selection across a major Amazonian aquatic ecotone (i.e., between rivers with markedly different hydrochemical properties) may result in replicated ecologically mediated speciation. The results link selection across an ecological gradient with reproductive isolation and we propose that assortative mating based on water color may be driving the divergence. Divergence resulting from ecologically driven selection highlights the importance of considering environmental heterogeneity in studies of speciation in tropical regions. Furthermore, we show that framing ecological speciation in a spatially explicit evolutionary landscape genetics framework provides an important first step in exploring a wide range of the potential effects of spatial dependence in natural selection. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  11. Advancing ecological understandings through technological transformations in noninvasive genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beja-Pereira, Albano; Oliveira, Rita; Alves, Paulo C; Schwartz, Michael K; Luikart, Gordon

    2009-09-01

    Noninvasive genetic approaches continue to improve studies in molecular ecology, conservation genetics and related disciplines such as forensics and epidemiology. Noninvasive sampling allows genetic studies without disturbing or even seeing the target individuals. Although noninvasive genetic sampling has been used for wildlife studies since the 1990s, technological advances continue to make noninvasive approaches among the most used and rapidly advancing areas in genetics. Here, we review recent advances in noninvasive genetics and how they allow us to address important research and management questions thanks to improved techniques for DNA extraction, preservation, amplification and data analysis. We show that many advances come from the fields of forensics, human health and domestic animal health science, and suggest that molecular ecologists explore literature from these fields. Finally, we discuss how the combination of advances in each step of a noninvasive genetics study, along with fruitful areas for future research, will continually increase the power and role of noninvasive genetics in molecular ecology and conservation genetics. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Functional genetics of intraspecific ecological interactions in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Jason B; Mutic, Joshua J; Kover, Paula X

    2011-05-12

    Studying the genetic basis of traits involved in ecological interactions is a fundamental part of elucidating the connections between evolutionary and ecological processes. Such knowledge allows one to link genetic models of trait evolution with ecological models describing interactions within and between species. Previous work has shown that connections between genetic and ecological processes in Arabidopsis thaliana may be mediated by the fact that quantitative trait loci (QTL) with 'direct' effects on traits of individuals also have pleiotropic 'indirect' effects on traits expressed in neighbouring plants. Here, we further explore these connections by examining functional relationships between traits affected directly and indirectly by the same QTL. We develop a novel approach using structural equation models (SEMs) to determine whether observed pleiotropic effects result from traits directly affected by the QTL in focal individuals causing the changes in the neighbours' phenotypes. This hypothesis was assessed using SEMs to test whether focal plant phenotypes appear to mediate the connection between the focal plants' genotypes and the phenotypes of their neighbours, or alternatively, whether the connection between the focal plants' genotypes and the neighbours' phenotypes is mediated by unmeasured traits. We implement this analysis using a QTL of major effect that maps to the well-characterized flowering locus, FRIGIDA. The SEMs support the hypothesis that the pleiotropic indirect effects of this locus arise from size and developmental timing-related traits in focal plants affecting the expression of developmental traits in their neighbours. Our findings provide empirical insights into the genetics and nature of intraspecific ecological interactions. Our technique holds promise in directing future work into the genetic basis and functional relationship of traits mediating and responding to ecological interactions.

  13. Ecological and population genetics of locally rare plants: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon A. Lei

    2001-01-01

    Plant species with limited dispersal ability, narrow geographical and physiological tolerance ranges, as well as with specific habitat and ecological requirements are likely to be rare. Small and isolated populations and species contain low levels of within-population genetic variation in many plant species. The gene pool of plants is a product of phenotype-environment...

  14. Application of genetic algorithm in radio ecological models parameter determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pantelic, G. [Institute of Occupatioanl Health and Radiological Protection ' Dr Dragomir Karajovic' , Belgrade (Serbia)

    2006-07-01

    The method of genetic algorithms was used to determine the biological half-life of 137 Cs in cow milk after the accident in Chernobyl. Methodologically genetic algorithms are based on the fact that natural processes tend to optimize themselves and therefore this method should be more efficient in providing optimal solutions in the modeling of radio ecological and environmental events. The calculated biological half-life of 137 Cs in milk is (32 {+-} 3) days and transfer coefficient from grass to milk is (0.019 {+-} 0.005). (authors)

  15. Application of genetic algorithm in radio ecological models parameter determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantelic, G.

    2006-01-01

    The method of genetic algorithms was used to determine the biological half-life of 137 Cs in cow milk after the accident in Chernobyl. Methodologically genetic algorithms are based on the fact that natural processes tend to optimize themselves and therefore this method should be more efficient in providing optimal solutions in the modeling of radio ecological and environmental events. The calculated biological half-life of 137 Cs in milk is (32 ± 3) days and transfer coefficient from grass to milk is (0.019 ± 0.005). (authors)

  16. Genetic signatures of ecological diversity along an urbanization gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Ryan P; O'Donnell, James L; Lowell, Natalie C; Shelton, Andrew O; Samhouri, Jameal F; Hennessey, Shannon M; Feist, Blake E; Williams, Gregory D

    2016-01-01

    Despite decades of work in environmental science and ecology, estimating human influences on ecosystems remains challenging. This is partly due to complex chains of causation among ecosystem elements, exacerbated by the difficulty of collecting biological data at sufficient spatial, temporal, and taxonomic scales. Here, we demonstrate the utility of environmental DNA (eDNA) for quantifying associations between human land use and changes in an adjacent ecosystem. We analyze metazoan eDNA sequences from water sampled in nearshore marine eelgrass communities and assess the relationship between these ecological communities and the degree of urbanization in the surrounding watershed. Counter to conventional wisdom, we find strongly increasing richness and decreasing beta diversity with greater urbanization, and similar trends in the diversity of life histories with urbanization. We also find evidence that urbanization influences nearshore communities at local (hundreds of meters) rather than regional (tens of km) scales. Given that different survey methods sample different components of an ecosystem, we then discuss the advantages of eDNA-which we use here to detect hundreds of taxa simultaneously-as a complement to traditional ecological sampling, particularly in the context of broad ecological assessments where exhaustive manual sampling is impractical. Genetic data are a powerful means of uncovering human-ecosystem interactions that might otherwise remain hidden; nevertheless, no sampling method reveals the whole of a biological community.

  17. Genetic and ecological studies of animals in Chernobyl and Fukushima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousseau, Timothy A; Møller, Anders P

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in genetic and ecological studies of wild animal populations in Chernobyl and Fukushima have demonstrated significant genetic, physiological, developmental, and fitness effects stemming from exposure to radioactive contaminants. The few genetic studies that have been conducted in Chernobyl generally show elevated rates of genetic damage and mutation rates. All major taxonomic groups investigated (i.e., birds, bees, butterflies, grasshoppers, dragonflies, spiders, mammals) displayed reduced population sizes in highly radioactive parts of the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. In Fukushima, population censuses of birds, butterflies, and cicadas suggested that abundances were negatively impacted by exposure to radioactive contaminants, while other groups (e.g., dragonflies, grasshoppers, bees, spiders) showed no significant declines, at least during the first summer following the disaster. Insufficient information exists for groups other than insects and birds to assess effects on life history at this time. The differences observed between Fukushima and Chernobyl may reflect the different times of exposure and the significance of multigenerational mutation accumulation in Chernobyl compared to Fukushima. There was considerable variation among taxa in their apparent sensitivity to radiation and this reflects in part life history, physiology, behavior, and evolutionary history. Interestingly, for birds, population declines in Chernobyl can be predicted by historical mitochondrial DNA base-pair substitution rates that may reflect intrinsic DNA repair ability. © The American Genetic Association 2014. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Ecological genetics of freshwater fish: a short review of the genotype–phenotype connection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidal, O.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Molecular ecology or ecological genetics is an expanding application of population genetics which has flourished in the last two decades but it is dominated by systematic and phylogeographic studies, with relatively little emphasis on the study of the genetic basis of the process of adaptation to different ecological conditions. The relationship between genotype and adaptive phenotypes is weak because populations are often difficult to quantify and experiments are logistically challenging or unfeasible. Interestingly, in freshwater fish, studies to characterize the genetic architecture of adaptive traits are not as rare as in other vertebrate groups. In this review, we summarize the few cases where the relationship between the ecology and genetics of freshwater fish is more developed, namely the relationship between genetic markers and ecological phenotypes.

  19. Ecological and Genetic Barriers Differentiate Natural Populations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clowers, Katie J; Heilberger, Justin; Piotrowski, Jeff S; Will, Jessica L; Gasch, Audrey P

    2015-09-01

    How populations that inhabit the same geographical area become genetically differentiated is not clear. To investigate this, we characterized phenotypic and genetic differences between two populations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae that in some cases inhabit the same environment but show relatively little gene flow. We profiled stress sensitivity in a group of vineyard isolates and a group of oak-soil strains and found several niche-related phenotypes that distinguish the populations. We performed bulk-segregant mapping on two of the distinguishing traits: The vineyard-specific ability to grow in grape juice and oak-specific tolerance to the cell wall damaging drug Congo red. To implicate causal genes, we also performed a chemical genomic screen in the lab-strain deletion collection and identified many important genes that fell under quantitative trait loci peaks. One gene important for growth in grape juice and identified by both the mapping and the screen was SSU1, a sulfite-nitrite pump implicated in wine fermentations. The beneficial allele is generated by a known translocation that we reasoned may also serve as a genetic barrier. We found that the translocation is prevalent in vineyard strains, but absent in oak strains, and presents a postzygotic barrier to spore viability. Furthermore, the translocation was associated with a fitness cost to the rapid growth rate seen in oak-soil strains. Our results reveal the translocation as a dual-function locus that enforces ecological differentiation while producing a genetic barrier to gene flow in these sympatric populations. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  20. ECOGEN - Soil ecological and economic evaluation of genetically modified crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, P. H

    2007-01-01

    ECOGEN is a project funded by the EU under the 6th Framework Programme. Based on results obtained from soil biodiversity studies and economic evaluations, ECOGEN assessed the impact on soil organisms of different agricultural management practices, including those involving genetically modified (GM...... Policy were then evaluated. These two major factors - ecological and economic - were then integrated into decision support models for predicting the overall consequences of introducing GM crops into an agricultural system. Bt-maize line MON 810, resistant to a widespread insect pest called the European...... and economic results were integrated into a decision support model to facilitate the assessment of the impact of various cropping systems on soil quality and economics. In conclusion, the ECOGEN results indicate no difference of biological relevance in the impact on soil organisms between Bt-maize line MON 810...

  1. Capacities for population-genetic variation and ecological adaptations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinković Dragoslav

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In contemporary science of population genetics it is equally complex and important to visualize how adaptive limits of individual variation are determined, as well as to describe the amount and sort of this variation. Almost all century the scientists devoted their efforts to explain the principles and structure of biological variation (genetic, developmental, environmental, interactive, etc., basing its maintenance within existing limits mostly on equilibria proclaimed by Hardy-Weinberg rules. Among numerous model-organisms that have been used to prove these rules and demonstrate new variants within mentioned concepts, Drosophila melanogaster is a kind of queen that is used in thousands of experiments for almost exactly 100 years (CARPENTER 1905, with which numerous discoveries and principles were determined that later turned out to be applicable to all other organisms. It is both, in nature and in laboratory, that Drosophilids were used to demonstrate the basic principles of population-genetic variation that was later applied to other species of animals. In ecological-genetic variation their richness in different environments could be used as an exact indicator of the status of a determined habitat, and its population-genetic structure may definitely point out to a possibility that specific resources of the environment start to be in danger to deteriorate, or to disappear in the near future. This paper shows clear-cut differences among environmental habitats, when populations of Drosophilidae are quantitatively observed in different wild, semi-domestic and domestic environments, demonstrating a highly expressed mutual dependence of these two parameters. A crucial approach is how to estimate the causes that determine the limits of biological, i.e. of individual and population-genetic variation. The realized, i.e. adaptive variation, is much lesser than a total possible variation of a polygenic trait, and in this study, using a moderately

  2. Ecological and genetic determinants of plasmid distribution in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medaney, Frances; Ellis, Richard J; Raymond, Ben

    2016-11-01

    Bacterial plasmids are important carriers of virulence and antibiotic resistance genes. Nevertheless, little is known of the determinants of plasmid distribution in bacterial populations. Here the factors affecting the diversity and distribution of the large plasmids of Escherichia coli were explored in cattle grazing on semi-natural grassland, a set of populations with low frequencies of antibiotic resistance genes. Critically, the population genetic structure of bacterial hosts was chararacterized. This revealed structured E. coli populations with high diversity between sites and individuals but low diversity within cattle hosts. Plasmid profiles, however, varied considerably within the same E. coli genotype. Both ecological and genetic factors affected plasmid distribution: plasmid profiles were affected by site, E. coli diversity, E. coli genotype and the presence of other large plasmids. Notably 3/26 E. coli serotypes accounted for half the observed plasmid-free isolates indicating that within species variation can substantially affect carriage of the major conjugative plasmids. The observed population structure suggest that most of the opportunities for within species plasmid transfer occur between different individuals of the same genotype and support recent experimental work indicating that plasmid-host coevolution, and epistatic interactions on fitness costs are likely to be important in determining occupancy. © 2016 The Authors. Environmental Microbiology published by Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. The conservation genetics juggling act: Integrating genetics and ecology, science and policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haig, Susan M.; Miller, Mark P.; Bellinger, Renee; Draheim, Hope M.; Mercer, Dacey; Mullins, Tom

    2016-01-01

    The field of conservation genetics, when properly implemented, is a constant juggling act integrating molecular genetics, ecology, and demography with applied aspects concerning managing declining species or implementing conservation laws and policies. This young field has grown substantially since the 1980’s following development of the polymerase chain reaction and now into the genomics era. Our lab has “grown up” with the field, having worked on these issues for over three decades. Our multi-disciplinary approach entails understanding the behavior and ecology of species as well as the underlying processes that contribute to genetic viability. Taking this holistic approach provides a comprehensive understanding of factors that influence species persistence and evolutionary potential while considering annual challenges that occur throughout their life cycle. As a federal lab, we are often addressing the needs of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service in their efforts to list, de-list or recover species. Nevertheless, there remains an overall communication gap between research geneticists and biologists who are charged with implementing their results. Therefore, we outline the need for a National Center for Small Population Biology to ameliorate this problem and provide organizations charged with making status decisions firmer ground from which to make their critical decisions. 

  4. Predictors for reproductive isolation in a ring species complex following genetic and ecological divergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Ricardo J; Monahan, William B; Wake, David B

    2011-07-06

    Reproductive isolation (RI) is widely accepted as an important "check point" in the diversification process, since it defines irreversible evolutionary trajectories. Much less consensus exists about the processes that might drive RI. Here, we employ a formal quantitative analysis of genetic interactions at several stages of divergence within the ring species complex Ensatina eschscholtzii in order to assess the relative contribution of genetic and ecological divergence for the development of RI. By augmenting previous genetic datasets and adding new ecological data, we quantify levels of genetic and ecological divergence between populations and test how they correlate with a restriction of genetic admixture upon secondary contact. Our results indicate that the isolated effect of ecological divergence between parental populations does not result in reproductively isolated taxa, even when genetic transitions between parental taxa are narrow. Instead, processes associated with overall genetic divergence are the best predictors of reproductive isolation, and when parental taxa diverge in nuclear markers we observe a complete cessation of hybridization, even to sympatric occurrence of distinct evolutionary lineages. Although every parental population has diverged in mitochondrial DNA, its degree of divergence does not predict the extent of RI. These results show that in Ensatina, the evolutionary outcomes of ecological divergence differ from those of genetic divergence. While evident properties of taxa may emerge via ecological divergence, such as adaptation to local environment, RI is likely to be a byproduct of processes that contribute to overall genetic divergence, such as time in geographic isolation, rather than being a direct outcome of local adaptation.

  5. Population genetics meets ecological genomics and community ecology in Cornus Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding evolutionary/ecological consequences of alien pests on native forests is important to conservation. Cornus florida L. subsp. florida is an ecologically important understory tree in forests of the eastern United States but faces heavy mortality from dogwood anthracnose. Understanding ge...

  6. Genetic Engineering and Human Mental Ecology: Interlocking Effects and Educational Considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Affifi, Ramsey

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes some likely semiotic consequences of genetic engineering on what Gregory Bateson has called ?the mental ecology? (1979) of future humans, consequences that are less often raised in discussions surrounding the safety of GMOs (genetically modified organisms). The effects are as follows: an increased 1) habituation to the presence of GMOs in the environment, 2) normalization of empirically false assumptions grounding genetic reductionism, 3) acceptance that humans are capabl...

  7. Genetic Coupling of Female Mate Choice with Polygenic Ecological Divergence Facilitates Stickleback Speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bay, Rachael A; Arnegard, Matthew E; Conte, Gina L; Best, Jacob; Bedford, Nicole L; McCann, Shaugnessy R; Dubin, Matthew E; Chan, Yingguang Frank; Jones, Felicity C; Kingsley, David M; Schluter, Dolph; Peichel, Catherine L

    2017-11-06

    Ecological speciation with gene flow is widespread in nature [1], but it presents a conundrum: how are associations between traits under divergent natural selection and traits that contribute to assortative mating maintained? Theoretical models suggest that genetic mechanisms inhibiting free recombination between loci underlying these two types of traits (hereafter, "genetic coupling") can facilitate speciation [2-4]. Here, we perform a direct test for genetic coupling by mapping both divergent traits and female mate choice in a classic model of ecological speciation: sympatric benthic and limnetic threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). By measuring mate choice in F2 hybrid females, we allowed for recombination between loci underlying assortative mating and those under divergent ecological selection. In semi-natural mating arenas in which females had access to both benthic and limnetic males, we found that F2 females mated with males similar to themselves in body size and shape. In addition, we found two quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with female mate choice that also predicted female morphology along the benthic-limnetic trait axis. Furthermore, a polygenic genetic model that explains adaptation to contrasting benthic and limnetic feeding niches [5] also predicted F2 female mate choice. Together, these results provide empirical evidence that genetic coupling of assortative mating with traits under divergent ecological selection helps maintain species in the face of gene flow, despite a polygenic basis for adaptation to divergent environments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Ecological genetics of floret mass variation in Bromus tectorum (Poaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan E. Meyer

    2010-01-01

    Bromus tectorum L. (cheatgrass, downy brome) is a highly invasive inbreeding annual grass that dominates millions of hectares of former shrubland in interior western North America. Factors contributing to its success include strong genetic regulation of key adaptive traits coupled with high phenotypic plasticity in response to resource availability (Meyer and Allen...

  9. Role of population genetics in guiding ecological responses to climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehfeldt, Gerald E; Leites, Laura P; Joyce, Dennis G; Weiskittel, Aaron R

    2018-02-01

    Population responses to climate were assessed using 3-7 years height growth data gathered for 266 populations growing in 12 common gardens established in the 1980s as part of five disparate studies of Pinus contorta var. latifolia. Responses are interpreted according to three concepts: the ecological optimum, the climate where a population is competitively exclusive and in which, therefore, it occurs naturally; the physiological optimum, the climate where a population grows best but is most often competitively excluded; and growth potential, the innate capacity for growth at the physiological optimum. Statistical analyses identified winter cold, measured by the square root of negative degree-days calculated from the daily minimum temperature (MINDD0 1/2 ), as the climatic effect most closely related to population growth potential; the colder the winter inhabited by a population, the lower its growth potential, a relationship presumably molded by natural selection. By splitting the data into groups based on population MINDD0 1/2 and using a function suited to skewed normal distributions, regressions were developed for predicting growth from the distance in climate space (MINDD0 1/2 ) populations had been transferred from their native location to a planting site. The regressions were skewed, showing that the ecological optimum of most populations is colder than the physiological optimum and that the discrepancy between the two increases as the ecological optimum becomes colder. Response to climate change is dependent on innate growth potential and the discrepancy between the two optima and, therefore, is population-specific, developing out of genotype-environment interactions. Response to warming in the short-term can be either positive or negative, but long term responses will be negative for all populations, with the timing of the demise dependent on the amount of skew. The results pertain to physiological modeling, species distribution models, and climate

  10. Ecological-genetic aspects of consequences of an irradiation at the workers of a nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telnov, V.I.

    2000-01-01

    The urgent problem of genetic consequences of radiation exposure at the workers of atomic plant ''Mayak'' is considered. Two basic aspects of this problem are allocated: influences of radiation on hereditary structures and processes, which is a prerogative of radiation genetics and role of the genetic factors in different reactions to an irradiation, that is a task of ecology genetics, which recently receives the increasing recognition. Proceeding from distinctions in reproduction biology of the human and experimental biological objects determining non-comparable mutation risk at them, is recognized expedient to expand a spectrum of genetic researches in the irradiated people. The results of different genetic researches in total in 2811 peoples executed in view of two named aspects discussed. At radiation-genetic investigation of distribution of genetic polymorphism system (haptoglobin -Hp, Gc-protein -Gc and blood groups ABO) the certain changes in distribution of Hp types and alleles of children of the irradiated workers connected with a gonad external gamma-radiation doses are established. The genetic structure of the grandsons of the irradiated workers has not any deviations. The increase of mutation frequency in minisatellite DNA in germline cells of irradiate workers was not found out. At ecological-genetic investigation the important meaning of haptoglobin genetic system in different radiation resistance of the people established at study of a role of a number of the genetic polymorphism systems (Hp, Gc and ABO) in radiation effects at different levels of biological organization. The integrated estimation of role of Hp genotypes in observable radiation effects carried out. (author)

  11. Hybridization at an ecotone: ecological and genetic barriers between three Iberian vipers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarroso, Pedro; Pereira, Ricardo J; Martínez-Freiría, Fernando; Godinho, Raquel; Brito, José C

    2014-03-01

    The formation of stable genetic boundaries between emerging species is often diagnosed by reduced hybrid fitness relative to parental taxa. This reduced fitness can arise from endogenous and/or exogenous barriers to gene flow. Although detecting exogenous barriers in nature is difficult, we can estimate the role of ecological divergence in driving species boundaries by integrating molecular and ecological niche modelling tools. Here, we focus on a three-way secondary contact zone between three viper species (Vipera aspis, V. latastei and V. seoanei) to test for the contribution of ecological divergence to the development of reproductive barriers at several species traits (morphology, nuclear DNA and mitochondrial DNA). Both the nuclear and mitochondrial data show that all taxa are genetically distinct and that the sister species V. aspis and V. latastei hybridize frequently and backcross over several generations. We find that the three taxa have diverged ecologically and meet at a hybrid zone coincident with a steep ecotone between the Atlantic and Mediterranean biogeographical provinces. Integrating landscape and genetic approaches, we show that hybridization is spatially restricted to habitats that are suboptimal for parental taxa. Together, these results suggest that niche separation and adaptation to an ecological gradient confer an important barrier to gene flow among taxa that have not achieved complete reproductive isolation. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Permanent genetic resources added to molecular ecology resources database 1 February 2013-31 March 2013

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Arias, M. C.; Atteke, C.; Augusto, S. C.; Bailey, J.; Bazaga, P.; Beheregaray, L. B.; Benoit, L.; Blatrix, R.; Born, C.; Brito, R. M.; Chen, H.-K.; Covarrubias, S.; de Vega, C.; Djiéto-Lordon, C.; Dubois, M.-P.; Francisco, F. O.; García, C.; Concalves, P. H. P.; González, C.; Gutiérrez-Rodríguez, C.; Hammer, M. P.; Herrera, C. M.; Itoh, H.; Kamimura, S.; Karaoglu, H.; Kojima, S.; Li, S.-L.; Ling, H. J.; Matos Maravi, Pavel F.; McKey, D.; Mezui-M’Eko, J.; Ornelas, J. F.; Park, R. F.; Pozo, M. I.; Ramula, S.; Rigueiro, C.; Sandoval-Castillo, J.; Santiago, L. R.; Seino, M. M.; Song, C.-B.; Takeshima, H.; Vasemägi, A.; Wellings, C. R.; Yan, J.; Du, Y.-Z.; Zhang, C.-R.; Zhang, T.-Y.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 4 (2013), s. 760-762 ISSN 1755-098X Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : molecular ecology Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.626, year: 2013 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1755-0998.12121/pdf

  13. The Ecology, Genetic Diversity, and Phylogeny of Huaiyangshan Virus in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Yong-Zhen; Zhou, Dun-Jin; Qin, Xin-Cheng; Tian, Jun-Hua; Xiong, Yanwen; Wang, Jian-Bo; Chen, Xiao-Ping; Gao, Dong-Ya; He, Yong-Wen; Jin, Dong; Sun, Qiangzheng; Guo, Wen-Ping; Wang, Wen; Yu, Bin; Li, Juan; Dai, Yong-An; Li, Wei; Peng, Jin-Song; Zhang, Guo-Bin; Zhang, Shaomin; Chen, Xiao-Min; Wang, Yan; Li, Ming-Hui; Lu, Xin; Ye, Changyun; de Jong, Menno D.; Xu, Jianguo

    2012-01-01

    Surveys were carried out to better understand the tick vector ecology and genetic diversity of Huaiyangshan virus (HYSV) in both regions of endemicity and regions of nonendemicity. Haemaphysalis longicornis ticks were dominant in regions of endemicity, while Rhipicephalus microplus is more abundant

  14. Chronic irradiation as an ecological factor affecting genetic population structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kal'chenko, V.A.; Kalabushkin, B.A.; Rubanovich, A.V.

    1991-01-01

    Genetic structure of two Centaurea scabiosa L. populations was studied by frequency distribution of leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) locus genotypes. The experimental population has been growing under conditions of chronic irradiation, with the dose per generation amounting to 1.2 to 25.5 Gy. In it, mutational variants are observed with a frequency of 5.4.10(-3)-4.5.10(-2) per generation (as compared to control population frequency at 5.4.10(-4)). Indexes for heterozygosity, mean number of genotypes, and effective number of alleles were higher in the experimental population. Segregation analysis revealed no differences in viability in the control population, and all genotypic combinations were found to be nearly neutral. In the experimental population, however, significant differences in relative viability of the genotypes were disclosed. The relative viability of heterozygotes for mutant allele C' was nearly maximum, while heterozygotes for other mutant alleles showed minimum viability. We reach the conclusion that the differences in genetic structure of the populations under investigation can be explained by the chronic irradiation factor that brought out differences in adaptability of both normal and mutant genotypes. The suggestion is that intra-locus interactions of the C' allele with normal alleles determine plant resistance to a wide range of unfavorable environmental conditions

  15. The genetics of indirect ecological effects - plant parasites and aphid herbivores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer K Rowntree

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available When parasitic plants and aphid herbivores share a host, both direct and indirect ecological effects (IEEs can influence evolutionary processes. We used a hemiparasitic plant (Rhinanthus minor, a grass host (Hordeum vulgare and a cereal aphid (Sitobion avenae to investigate the genetics of IEEs between the aphid and the parasitic plant, and looked to see how these might affect or be influenced by the genetic diversity of the host plants. Survival of R. minor depended on the parasite’s population of origin, the genotypes of the aphids sharing the host and the genetic diversity in the host plant community. Hence the indirect effects of the aphids on the parasitic plants depended on the genetic environment of the system. Here, we show that genetic variation can be important in determining the outcome of IEEs. Therefore, IEEs have the potential to influence evolutionary processes and the continuity of species interactions over time.

  16. A parametric interpretation of Bayesian Nonparametric Inference from Gene Genealogies: Linking ecological, population genetics and evolutionary processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponciano, José Miguel

    2017-11-22

    Using a nonparametric Bayesian approach Palacios and Minin (2013) dramatically improved the accuracy, precision of Bayesian inference of population size trajectories from gene genealogies. These authors proposed an extension of a Gaussian Process (GP) nonparametric inferential method for the intensity function of non-homogeneous Poisson processes. They found that not only the statistical properties of the estimators were improved with their method, but also, that key aspects of the demographic histories were recovered. The authors' work represents the first Bayesian nonparametric solution to this inferential problem because they specify a convenient prior belief without a particular functional form on the population trajectory. Their approach works so well and provides such a profound understanding of the biological process, that the question arises as to how truly "biology-free" their approach really is. Using well-known concepts of stochastic population dynamics, here I demonstrate that in fact, Palacios and Minin's GP model can be cast as a parametric population growth model with density dependence and environmental stochasticity. Making this link between population genetics and stochastic population dynamics modeling provides novel insights into eliciting biologically meaningful priors for the trajectory of the effective population size. The results presented here also bring novel understanding of GP as models for the evolution of a trait. Thus, the ecological principles foundation of Palacios and Minin (2013)'s prior adds to the conceptual and scientific value of these authors' inferential approach. I conclude this note by listing a series of insights brought about by this connection with Ecology. Copyright © 2017 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Genetic and phenotypic variation along an ecological gradient in lake trout Salvelinus namaycush

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillie, Shauna M.; Muir, Andrew M.; Hansen, Michael J.; Krueger, Charles C.; Bentzen, Paul

    2016-01-01

    BackgroundAdaptive radiation involving a colonizing phenotype that rapidly evolves into at least one other ecological variant, or ecotype, has been observed in a variety of freshwater fishes in post-glacial environments. However, few studies consider how phenotypic traits vary with regard to neutral genetic partitioning along ecological gradients. Here, we present the first detailed investigation of lake trout Salvelinus namaycushthat considers variation as a cline rather than discriminatory among ecotypes. Genetic and phenotypic traits organized along common ecological gradients of water depth and geographic distance provide important insights into diversification processes in a lake with high levels of human disturbance from over-fishing.ResultsFour putative lake trout ecotypes could not be distinguished using population genetic methods, despite morphological differences. Neutral genetic partitioning in lake trout was stronger along a gradient of water depth, than by locality or ecotype. Contemporary genetic migration patterns were consistent with isolation-by-depth. Historical gene flow patterns indicated colonization from shallow to deep water. Comparison of phenotypic (Pst) and neutral genetic variation (Fst) revealed that morphological traits related to swimming performance (e.g., buoyancy, pelvic fin length) departed more strongly from neutral expectations along a depth gradient than craniofacial feeding traits. Elevated phenotypic variance with increasing water depth in pelvic fin length indicated possible ongoing character release and diversification. Finally, differences in early growth rate and asymptotic fish length across depth strata may be associated with limiting factors attributable to cold deep-water environments.ConclusionWe provide evidence of reductions in gene flow and divergent natural selection associated with water depth in Lake Superior. Such information is relevant for documenting intraspecific biodiversity in the largest freshwater lake

  18. Ecological Genetics of Vernalization Response in Bromus tectorum L. (Poaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    MEYER, SUSAN E.; NELSON, DAVID L.; CARLSON, STEPHANIE L.

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Aims Bromus tectorum (cheatgrass or downy brome) is an exotic annual grass that is dominant over large areas of former shrubland in western North America. To flower in time for seed production in early summer, B. tectorum plants generally require vernalization at winter temperatures, either as imbibed seeds or as established seedlings. • Methods Variation in response to increasing periods of vernalization as seeds or seedlings for progeny of ten full‐sib families from each of four B. tectorum populations from contrasting habitats was studied. • Key Results As vernalization was increased from 0 to 10 weeks, the proportion of plants flowering within 20 weeks increased, weeks to initiation of flowering decreased, and seed yield per plant increased, regardless of whether plants were vernalized as seeds or seedlings. Most of the variation was accounted for by differences among populations. Plants of the warm desert population flowered promptly even without vernalization, while those of the cold desert, foothill and montane populations showed incremental changes in response variables as a function of vernalization period. Populations differed in among‐family variance, with the warm desert population generally showing the least variance and the cold desert population the most. Variation among populations and among families within populations decreased as vernalization period increased, whereas the non‐genetic component of variance showed no such pattern. • Conclusions Variation in vernalization response was found to be adaptively significant and apparently represents the result of contrasting selection regimes on a range of founder genotypes. PMID:15087300

  19. Chronic radiation exposure as an ecological factor: Hypermethylation and genetic differentiation in irradiated Scots pine populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkova, P.Yu.; Geras'kin, S.A.; Horemans, N.; Makarenko, E.S.; Saenen, E.; Duarte, G.T.; Nauts, R.; Bondarenko, V.S.; Jacobs, G.; Voorspoels, S.; Kudin, M.

    2018-01-01

    Genetic and epigenetic changes were investigated in chronically irradiated Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) populations from territories that were heavily contaminated by radionuclides as result of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident. In comparison to the reference site, the genetic diversity revealed by electrophoretic mobility of AFLPs was found to be significantly higher at the radioactively contaminated areas. In addition, the genome of pine trees was significantly hypermethylated at 4 of the 7 affected sites. - Highlights: • Chronic radiation exposure changes the genetic structure of plant populations. • Genomes of irradiated pines are hypermethylated. • The level of hypermethylation does not depend on annual dose. - These results indicate that even relatively low levels of chronic radiation exposure can influence on the genetic characteristics and the methylation status of natural pine populations and that it should be considered as an important ecological factor reflecting the anthropogenic impact on ecosystems.

  20. Assessing Genetic Structure in Common but Ecologically Distinct Carnivores: The Stone Marten and Red Fox.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mafalda P Basto

    Full Text Available The identification of populations and spatial genetic patterns is important for ecological and conservation research, and spatially explicit individual-based methods have been recognised as powerful tools in this context. Mammalian carnivores are intrinsically vulnerable to habitat fragmentation but not much is known about the genetic consequences of fragmentation in common species. Stone martens (Martes foina and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes share a widespread Palearctic distribution and are considered habitat generalists, but in the Iberian Peninsula stone martens tend to occur in higher quality habitats. We compared their genetic structure in Portugal to see if they are consistent with their differences in ecological plasticity, and also to illustrate an approach to explicitly delineate the spatial boundaries of consistently identified genetic units. We analysed microsatellite data using spatial Bayesian clustering methods (implemented in the software BAPS, GENELAND and TESS, a progressive partitioning approach and a multivariate technique (Spatial Principal Components Analysis-sPCA. Three consensus Bayesian clusters were identified for the stone marten. No consensus was achieved for the red fox, but one cluster was the most probable clustering solution. Progressive partitioning and sPCA suggested additional clusters in the stone marten but they were not consistent among methods and were geographically incoherent. The contrasting results between the two species are consistent with the literature reporting stricter ecological requirements of the stone marten in the Iberian Peninsula. The observed genetic structure in the stone marten may have been influenced by landscape features, particularly rivers, and fragmentation. We suggest that an approach based on a consensus clustering solution of multiple different algorithms may provide an objective and effective means to delineate potential boundaries of inferred subpopulations. sPCA and progressive

  1. Assessing Genetic Structure in Common but Ecologically Distinct Carnivores: The Stone Marten and Red Fox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basto, Mafalda P.; Santos-Reis, Margarida; Simões, Luciana; Grilo, Clara; Cardoso, Luís; Cortes, Helder; Bruford, Michael W.; Fernandes, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The identification of populations and spatial genetic patterns is important for ecological and conservation research, and spatially explicit individual-based methods have been recognised as powerful tools in this context. Mammalian carnivores are intrinsically vulnerable to habitat fragmentation but not much is known about the genetic consequences of fragmentation in common species. Stone martens (Martes foina) and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) share a widespread Palearctic distribution and are considered habitat generalists, but in the Iberian Peninsula stone martens tend to occur in higher quality habitats. We compared their genetic structure in Portugal to see if they are consistent with their differences in ecological plasticity, and also to illustrate an approach to explicitly delineate the spatial boundaries of consistently identified genetic units. We analysed microsatellite data using spatial Bayesian clustering methods (implemented in the software BAPS, GENELAND and TESS), a progressive partitioning approach and a multivariate technique (Spatial Principal Components Analysis-sPCA). Three consensus Bayesian clusters were identified for the stone marten. No consensus was achieved for the red fox, but one cluster was the most probable clustering solution. Progressive partitioning and sPCA suggested additional clusters in the stone marten but they were not consistent among methods and were geographically incoherent. The contrasting results between the two species are consistent with the literature reporting stricter ecological requirements of the stone marten in the Iberian Peninsula. The observed genetic structure in the stone marten may have been influenced by landscape features, particularly rivers, and fragmentation. We suggest that an approach based on a consensus clustering solution of multiple different algorithms may provide an objective and effective means to delineate potential boundaries of inferred subpopulations. sPCA and progressive partitioning

  2. Assessing Genetic Structure in Common but Ecologically Distinct Carnivores: The Stone Marten and Red Fox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basto, Mafalda P; Santos-Reis, Margarida; Simões, Luciana; Grilo, Clara; Cardoso, Luís; Cortes, Helder; Bruford, Michael W; Fernandes, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The identification of populations and spatial genetic patterns is important for ecological and conservation research, and spatially explicit individual-based methods have been recognised as powerful tools in this context. Mammalian carnivores are intrinsically vulnerable to habitat fragmentation but not much is known about the genetic consequences of fragmentation in common species. Stone martens (Martes foina) and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) share a widespread Palearctic distribution and are considered habitat generalists, but in the Iberian Peninsula stone martens tend to occur in higher quality habitats. We compared their genetic structure in Portugal to see if they are consistent with their differences in ecological plasticity, and also to illustrate an approach to explicitly delineate the spatial boundaries of consistently identified genetic units. We analysed microsatellite data using spatial Bayesian clustering methods (implemented in the software BAPS, GENELAND and TESS), a progressive partitioning approach and a multivariate technique (Spatial Principal Components Analysis-sPCA). Three consensus Bayesian clusters were identified for the stone marten. No consensus was achieved for the red fox, but one cluster was the most probable clustering solution. Progressive partitioning and sPCA suggested additional clusters in the stone marten but they were not consistent among methods and were geographically incoherent. The contrasting results between the two species are consistent with the literature reporting stricter ecological requirements of the stone marten in the Iberian Peninsula. The observed genetic structure in the stone marten may have been influenced by landscape features, particularly rivers, and fragmentation. We suggest that an approach based on a consensus clustering solution of multiple different algorithms may provide an objective and effective means to delineate potential boundaries of inferred subpopulations. sPCA and progressive partitioning

  3. Ecology-genetic consequences of the chronic irradiation of animals in Chernobyl alienation zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glazko, V.I.; Grodzinskij, D.M.; Glazko, T.T.

    2006-01-01

    The investigation with the use of different molecular-genetic markers and the cytogenetic analysis of genetic-population consequences in different species of voles and experimental cattle herd reproduced in Chernobyl's alienation zone is carried out. The decrease in the number of animals with cytogenetic anomalies in bone marrow cells in voles, was revealed, that testified to the selection by the radioresistance. The obtained data allow us to make conclusion that the increase of ionizing radiation is a particular case of ecological changes leading to the microevolution events connected with the selection by the stability to new conditions of the reproduction of populations

  4. Interactions between Genetic and Ecological Effects on the Evolution of Life Cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rescan, Marie; Lenormand, Thomas; Roze, Denis

    2016-01-01

    Sexual reproduction leads to an alternation between haploid and diploid phases, whose relative length varies widely across taxa. Previous genetical models showed that diploid or haploid life cycles may be favored, depending on dominance interactions and on effective recombination rates. By contrast, niche differentiation between haploids and diploids may favor biphasic life cycles, in which development occurs in both phases. In this article, we explore the interplay between genetical and ecological factors, assuming that deleterious mutations affect the competitivity of individuals within their ecological niche and allowing different effects of mutations in haploids and diploids (including antagonistic selection). We show that selection on a modifier gene affecting the relative length of both phases can be decomposed into a direct selection term favoring the phase with the highest mean fitness (due to either ecological differences or differential effects of mutations) and an indirect selection term favoring the phase in which selection is more efficient. When deleterious alleles occur at many loci and in the presence of ecological differentiation between haploids and diploids, evolutionary branching often occurs and leads to the stable coexistence of alleles coding for haploid and diploid cycles, while temporal variations in niche sizes may stabilize biphasic cycles.

  5. Ecological genomics in Xanthomonas: the nature of genetic adaptation with homologous recombination and host shifts

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Chao-Li

    2015-03-15

    Background: Comparative genomics provides insights into the diversification of bacterial species. Bacterial speciation usually takes place with lasting homologous recombination, which not only acts as a cohering force between diverging lineages but brings advantageous alleles favored by natural selection, and results in ecologically distinct species, e.g., frequent host shift in Xanthomonas pathogenic to various plants. Results: Using whole-genome sequences, we examined the genetic divergence in Xanthomonas campestris that infected Brassicaceae, and X. citri, pathogenic to a wider host range. Genetic differentiation between two incipient races of X. citri pv. mangiferaeindicae was attributable to a DNA fragment introduced by phages. In contrast to most portions of the genome that had nearly equivalent levels of genetic divergence between subspecies as a result of the accumulation of point mutations, 10% of the core genome involving with homologous recombination contributed to the diversification in Xanthomonas, as revealed by the correlation between homologous recombination and genomic divergence. Interestingly, 179 genes were under positive selection; 98 (54.7%) of these genes were involved in homologous recombination, indicating that foreign genetic fragments may have caused the adaptive diversification, especially in lineages with nutritional transitions. Homologous recombination may have provided genetic materials for the natural selection, and host shifts likely triggered ecological adaptation in Xanthomonas. To a certain extent, we observed positive selection nevertheless contributed to ecological divergence beyond host shifting. Conclusion: Altogether, mediated with lasting gene flow, species formation in Xanthomonas was likely governed by natural selection that played a key role in helping the deviating populations to explore novel niches (hosts) or respond to environmental cues, subsequently triggering species diversification. © Huang et al.

  6. Ecological genomics in Xanthomonas: the nature of genetic adaptation with homologous recombination and host shifts

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Chao-Li; Pu, Pei-Hua; Huang, Hao-Jen; Sung, Huang-Mo; Liaw, Hung-Jiun; Chen, Yi-Min; Chen, Chien-Ming; Huang, Ming-Ban; Osada, Naoki; Gojobori, Takashi; Pai, Tun-Wen; Chen, Yu-Tin; Hwang, Chi-Chuan; Chiang, Tzen-Yuh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Comparative genomics provides insights into the diversification of bacterial species. Bacterial speciation usually takes place with lasting homologous recombination, which not only acts as a cohering force between diverging lineages but brings advantageous alleles favored by natural selection, and results in ecologically distinct species, e.g., frequent host shift in Xanthomonas pathogenic to various plants. Results: Using whole-genome sequences, we examined the genetic divergence in Xanthomonas campestris that infected Brassicaceae, and X. citri, pathogenic to a wider host range. Genetic differentiation between two incipient races of X. citri pv. mangiferaeindicae was attributable to a DNA fragment introduced by phages. In contrast to most portions of the genome that had nearly equivalent levels of genetic divergence between subspecies as a result of the accumulation of point mutations, 10% of the core genome involving with homologous recombination contributed to the diversification in Xanthomonas, as revealed by the correlation between homologous recombination and genomic divergence. Interestingly, 179 genes were under positive selection; 98 (54.7%) of these genes were involved in homologous recombination, indicating that foreign genetic fragments may have caused the adaptive diversification, especially in lineages with nutritional transitions. Homologous recombination may have provided genetic materials for the natural selection, and host shifts likely triggered ecological adaptation in Xanthomonas. To a certain extent, we observed positive selection nevertheless contributed to ecological divergence beyond host shifting. Conclusion: Altogether, mediated with lasting gene flow, species formation in Xanthomonas was likely governed by natural selection that played a key role in helping the deviating populations to explore novel niches (hosts) or respond to environmental cues, subsequently triggering species diversification. © Huang et al.

  7. Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ternjej, Ivancica; Mihaljevic, Zlatko

    2017-10-01

    Ecology is a science that studies the mutual interactions between organisms and their environment. The fundamental subject of interest in ecology is the individual. Topics of interest to ecologists include the diversity, distribution and number of particular organisms, as well as cooperation and competition between organisms, both within and among ecosystems. Today, ecology is a multidisciplinary science. This is particularly true when the subject of interest is the ecosystem or biosphere, which requires the knowledge and input of biologists, chemists, physicists, geologists, geographists, climatologists, hydrologists and many other experts. Ecology is applied in a science of restoration, repairing disturbed sites through human intervention, in natural resource management, and in environmental impact assessments.

  8. Ecological genetics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ford, E. B

    1975-01-01

    ... years and is attracting an increasing number of scientists. The author has developed principles, illustrated by examples drawn from both zoology and botany, rather than produced a compendium of available information...

  9. Genetic tests for ecological and allopatric speciation in anoles on an island archipelago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, Roger S; Surget-Groba, Yann; Johansson, Helena

    2010-04-29

    From Darwin's study of the Galapagos and Wallace's study of Indonesia, islands have played an important role in evolutionary investigations, and radiations within archipelagos are readily interpreted as supporting the conventional view of allopatric speciation. Even during the ongoing paradigm shift towards other modes of speciation, island radiations, such as the Lesser Antillean anoles, are thought to exemplify this process. Geological and molecular phylogenetic evidence show that, in this archipelago, Martinique anoles provide several examples of secondary contact of island species. Four precursor island species, with up to 8 mybp divergence, met when their islands coalesced to form the current island of Martinique. Moreover, adjacent anole populations also show marked adaptation to distinct habitat zonation, allowing both allopatric and ecological speciation to be tested in this system. We take advantage of this opportunity of replicated island coalescence and independent ecological adaptation to carry out an extensive population genetic study of hypervariable neutral nuclear markers to show that even after these very substantial periods of spatial isolation these putative allospecies show less reproductive isolation than conspecific populations in adjacent habitats in all three cases of subsequent island coalescence. The degree of genetic interchange shows that while there is always a significant genetic signature of past allopatry, and this may be quite strong if the selection regime allows, there is no case of complete allopatric speciation, in spite of the strong primae facie case for it. Importantly there is greater genetic isolation across the xeric/rainforest ecotone than is associated with any secondary contact. This rejects the development of reproductive isolation in allopatric divergence, but supports the potential for ecological speciation, even though full speciation has not been achieved in this case. It also explains the paucity of anole species

  10. Applying ecological models to communities of genetic elements: the case of neutral theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linquist, Stefan; Cottenie, Karl; Elliott, Tyler A; Saylor, Brent; Kremer, Stefan C; Gregory, T Ryan

    2015-07-01

    A promising recent development in molecular biology involves viewing the genome as a mini-ecosystem, where genetic elements are compared to organisms and the surrounding cellular and genomic structures are regarded as the local environment. Here, we critically evaluate the prospects of ecological neutral theory (ENT), a popular model in ecology, as it applies at the genomic level. This assessment requires an overview of the controversy surrounding neutral models in community ecology. In particular, we discuss the limitations of using ENT both as an explanation of community dynamics and as a null hypothesis. We then analyse a case study in which ENT has been applied to genomic data. Our central finding is that genetic elements do not conform to the requirements of ENT once its assumptions and limitations are made explicit. We further compare this genome-level application of ENT to two other, more familiar approaches in genomics that rely on neutral mechanisms: Kimura's molecular neutral theory and Lynch's mutational-hazard model. Interestingly, this comparison reveals that there are two distinct concepts of neutrality associated with these models, which we dub 'fitness neutrality' and 'competitive neutrality'. This distinction helps to clarify the various roles for neutral models in genomics, for example in explaining the evolution of genome size. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. The ecological imperative and its application to ethical issues in human genetic technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Malcolm Byrnes

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available As a species, we are on the cusp of being able to alter that which makes us uniquely human, our genome. Two new genetic technologies, embryo selection and germline engineering, are either in use today or may be developed in the future. Embryo selection acts to alter the human gene pool, reducing genetic diversity, while germline engineering will have the ability to alter directly the genomes of engineered individuals. Our genome has come to be what it is through an evolutionary process extending over millions of years, a process that has involved exceedingly complex and unpredictable interactions between ourselves or our ancestors and myriad other life forms within Earth's biosphere. In this paper, the ecological imperativ e, which states that we must not alter the human genome or the collective human genetic inheritance, will be introduced. It will be argued based on ecological principles that embryo selection and germline engineering are unethical and unwise because they will diminish our survivability as a species, will disrupt our relationship with the natural world, and will destroy the very basis of that which makes us human.

  12. Comparative population genetics of two invading ticks: Evidence of the ecological mechanisms underlying tick range expansions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadolny, Robyn; Gaff, Holly; Carlsson, Jens; Gauthier, David

    2015-10-01

    Two species of ixodid tick, Ixodes affinis Neumann and Amblyomma maculatum Koch, are simultaneously expanding their ranges throughout the mid-Atlantic region of the US. Although we have some understanding of the ecology and life history of these species, the ecological mechanisms governing where and how new populations establish and persist are unclear. To assess population connectivity and ancestry, we sequenced a fragment of the 16S mitochondrial rRNA gene from a representative sample of individuals of both species from populations throughout the eastern US. We found that despite overlapping host preferences throughout ontogeny, each species exhibited very different genetic and geographic patterns of population establishment and connectivity. I. affinis was of two distinct mitochondrial clades, with a clear geographic break separating northern and southern populations. Both I. affinis populations showed evidence of recent expansion, although the southern population was more genetically diverse, indicating a longer history of establishment. A. maculatum exhibited diverse haplotypes that showed no significant relationship with geographic patterns and little apparent connectivity between sites. Heteroplasmy was also observed in the 16S mitochondrial rRNA gene in 3.5% of A. maculatum individuals. Genetic evidence suggests that these species rely on different key life stages to successfully disperse into novel environments, and that host vagility, habitat stability and habitat connectivity all play critical roles in the establishment of new tick populations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Use of genetic data to infer population-specific ecological and phenotypic traits from mixed aggregations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Moran

    Full Text Available Many applications in ecological genetics involve sampling individuals from a mixture of multiple biological populations and subsequently associating those individuals with the populations from which they arose. Analytical methods that assign individuals to their putative population of origin have utility in both basic and applied research, providing information about population-specific life history and habitat use, ecotoxins, pathogen and parasite loads, and many other non-genetic ecological, or phenotypic traits. Although the question is initially directed at the origin of individuals, in most cases the ultimate desire is to investigate the distribution of some trait among populations. Current practice is to assign individuals to a population of origin and study properties of the trait among individuals within population strata as if they constituted independent samples. It seemed that approach might bias population-specific trait inference. In this study we made trait inferences directly through modeling, bypassing individual assignment. We extended a Bayesian model for population mixture analysis to incorporate parameters for the phenotypic trait and compared its performance to that of individual assignment with a minimum probability threshold for assignment. The Bayesian mixture model outperformed individual assignment under some trait inference conditions. However, by discarding individuals whose origins are most uncertain, the individual assignment method provided a less complex analytical technique whose performance may be adequate for some common trait inference problems. Our results provide specific guidance for method selection under various genetic relationships among populations with different trait distributions.

  14. Use of genetic data to infer population-specific ecological and phenotypic traits from mixed aggregations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Paul; Bromaghin, Jeffrey F.; Masuda, Michele

    2014-01-01

    Many applications in ecological genetics involve sampling individuals from a mixture of multiple biological populations and subsequently associating those individuals with the populations from which they arose. Analytical methods that assign individuals to their putative population of origin have utility in both basic and applied research, providing information about population-specific life history and habitat use, ecotoxins, pathogen and parasite loads, and many other non-genetic ecological, or phenotypic traits. Although the question is initially directed at the origin of individuals, in most cases the ultimate desire is to investigate the distribution of some trait among populations. Current practice is to assign individuals to a population of origin and study properties of the trait among individuals within population strata as if they constituted independent samples. It seemed that approach might bias population-specific trait inference. In this study we made trait inferences directly through modeling, bypassing individual assignment. We extended a Bayesian model for population mixture analysis to incorporate parameters for the phenotypic trait and compared its performance to that of individual assignment with a minimum probability threshold for assignment. The Bayesian mixture model outperformed individual assignment under some trait inference conditions. However, by discarding individuals whose origins are most uncertain, the individual assignment method provided a less complex analytical technique whose performance may be adequate for some common trait inference problems. Our results provide specific guidance for method selection under various genetic relationships among populations with different trait distributions.

  15. Ecological and genetic factors influencing the transition between host-use strategies in sympatric Heliconius butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, R M; Naisbit, R E; Mallet, J; Jiggins, C D

    2013-09-01

    Shifts in host-plant use by phytophagous insects have played a central role in their diversification. Evolving host-use strategies will reflect a trade-off between selection pressures. The ecological niche of herbivorous insects is partitioned along several dimensions, and if populations remain in contact, recombination will break down associations between relevant loci. As such, genetic architecture can profoundly affect the coordinated divergence of traits and subsequently the ability to exploit novel habitats. The closely related species Heliconius cydno and H. melpomene differ in mimetic colour pattern, habitat and host-plant use. We investigate the selection pressures and genetic basis underlying host-use differences in these two species. Host-plant surveys reveal that H. melpomene specializes on a single species of Passiflora. This is also true for the majority of other Heliconius species in secondary growth forest at our study site, as expected under a model of interspecific competition. In contrast, H. cydno, which uses closed-forest habitats where both Heliconius and Passiflora are less common, appears not to be restricted by competition and uses a broad selection of the available Passiflora. However, other selection pressures are likely involved, and field experiments reveal that early larval survival of both butterfly species is highest on Passiflora menispermifolia, but most markedly so for H. melpomene, the specialist on that host. Finally, we demonstrate an association between host-plant acceptance and colour pattern amongst interspecific hybrids, suggesting that major loci underlying these important ecological traits are physically linked in the genome. Together, our results reveal ecological and genetic associations between shifts in habitat, host use and mimetic colour pattern that have likely facilitated both speciation and coexistence. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2013 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  16. ECOGEN - Soil ecological and economic evaluation of genetically modified crops (preface)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, P. H.; Griffiths, B. S.

    2007-01-01

    to integrate the combined soil ecological and economic effects of introducing systems including genetically modified (GM) crops by performing data mining and building decision support systems. The project involved eight academic partners from five EU countries and an input from Monsanto. Maize expressing......The biodiversity of, and processes performed by soil organisms make up a crucial part of the natural basis for agricultural production and, therefore, have subsequent economic consequences. ECOGEN was a research initiative funded under the European Commission Framework 5 programme, designed...

  17. Meaningful and Purposeful Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clementi, Donna

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a graphic, designed by Clementi and Terrill, the authors of "Keys to Planning for Learning" (2013), visually representing the components that contribute to meaningful and purposeful practice in learning a world language, practice that leads to greater proficiency. The entire graphic is centered around the letter…

  18. Non invasive methods for genetic analysis applied to ecological and behavioral studies in Latino-America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana González

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Documenting the presence and abundance of the neotropical mammals is the first step for understanding their population ecology, behavior and genetic dynamics in designing conservation plans. The combination of field research with molecular genetics techniques are new tools that provide valuable biological information avoiding the disturbance in the ecosystems, trying to minimize the human impact in the process to gather biological information. The objective of this paper is to review the available non invasive sampling techniques that have been used in Neotropical mammal studies to apply to determine the presence and abundance, population structure, sex ratio, taxonomic diagnostic using mitochondrial markers, and assessing genetic variability using nuclear markers. There are a wide range of non invasive sampling techniques used to determine the species identification that inhabit an area such as searching for tracks, feces, and carcasses. Other useful equipment is the camera traps that can generate an image bank that can be valuable to assess species presence and abundance by morphology. With recent advances in molecular biology, it is now possible to use the trace amounts of DNA in feces and amplify it to analyze the species diversity in an area, and the genetic variability at intraspecific level. This is particularly helpful in cases of sympatric and cryptic species in which morphology failed to diagnose the taxonomic status of several species of brocket deer of the genus Mazama.

  19. Ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalusche, D.

    1978-01-01

    The book turns to the freshment, the teacher, for preparation of ecological topics for lessons, but also to pupils of the secondary stage II, and the main course ecology. The book was knowingly held simple with the restriction to: the ecosystem and its abiotic basic functions, simple articles on population biology, bioceonotic balance ith the questions of niche formation and the life form types coherent with it, of the substance and energy household, the production biology and space-wise and time-wise differentations within an ecological system form the main points. A central role in the volume is given to the illustrations. Their variety is to show and deepen the coherences shown. (orig./HP) [de

  20. Genetic divergence is decoupled from ecological diversification in the Hawaiian Nesosydne planthoppers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesch Goodman, Kari; Welter, Stephen C; Roderick, George K

    2012-09-01

    Adaptive radiation involves ecological shifts coupled with isolation of gene pools. However, we know little about what drives the initial stages of divergence. We study a system in which ecological diversification is found within a chronologically well-defined geological matrix to provide insight into this enigmatic phase of radiation. We tested the hypothesis that a period of geographic isolation precedes ecological specialization in an adaptive radiation of host-specialized Hawaiian planthoppers. We examined population structure and history using mitochondrial and multiple independent microsatellite loci in a species whose geographic distribution on the island of Hawaii enabled us to observe the chronology of divergence in its very earliest stages. We found that genetic divergence is associated with geographic features but not different plant hosts and that divergence times are very recent and on the same timescales as the dynamic geology of the island. Our results suggest an important role for geography in the dynamics of the early stages of divergence. © 2012 The Author(s). Evolution© 2012 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  1. Genetic and ecological insights into glacial refugia of walnut (Juglans regia L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallikarjuna Aradhya

    Full Text Available The distribution and survival of trees during the last glacial maximum (LGM has been of interest to paleoecologists, biogeographers, and geneticists. Ecological niche models that associate species occurrence and abundance with climatic variables are widely used to gain ecological and evolutionary insights and to predict species distributions over space and time. The present study deals with the glacial history of walnut to address questions related to past distributions through genetic analysis and ecological modeling of the present, LGM and Last Interglacial (LIG periods. A maximum entropy method was used to project the current walnut distribution model on to the LGM (21-18 kyr BP and LIG (130-116 kyr BP climatic conditions. Model tuning identified the walnut data set filtered at 10 km spatial resolution as the best for modeling the current distribution and to hindcast past (LGM and LIG distributions of walnut. The current distribution model predicted southern Caucasus, parts of West and Central Asia extending into South Asia encompassing northern Afghanistan, Pakistan, northwestern Himalayan region, and southwestern Tibet, as the favorable climatic niche matching the modern distribution of walnut. The hindcast of distributions suggested the occurrence of walnut during LGM was somewhat limited to southern latitudes from southern Caucasus, Central and South Asian regions extending into southwestern Tibet, northeastern India, Himalayan region of Sikkim and Bhutan, and southeastern China. Both CCSM and MIROC projections overlapped, except that MIROC projected a significant presence of walnut in the Balkan Peninsula during the LGM. In contrast, genetic analysis of the current walnut distribution suggested a much narrower area in northern Pakistan and the surrounding areas of Afghanistan, northwestern India, and southern Tajikistan as a plausible hotspot of diversity where walnut may have survived glaciations. Overall, the findings suggest that

  2. Genetic variation of Lymnaea stagnalis tolerance to copper: A test of selection hypotheses and its relevance for ecological risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Côte, Jessica; Bouétard, Anthony; Pronost, Yannick; Besnard, Anne-Laure; Coke, Maïra; Piquet, Fabien; Caquet, Thierry; Coutellec, Marie-Agnès

    2015-01-01

    The use of standardized monospecific testing to assess the ecological risk of chemicals implicitly relies on the strong assumption that intraspecific variation in sensitivity is negligible or irrelevant in this context. In this study, we investigated genetic variation in copper sensitivity of the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis, using lineages stemming from eight natural populations or strains found to be genetically differentiated at neutral markers. Copper-induced mortality varied widely among populations, as did the estimated daily death rate and time to 50% mortality (LT50). Population genetic divergence in copper sensitivity was compared to neutral differentiation using the Q ST -F ST approach. No evidence for homogenizing selection could be detected. This result demonstrates that species-level extrapolations from single population studies are highly unreliable. The study provides a simple example of how evolutionary principles could be incorporated into ecotoxicity testing in order to refine ecological risk assessment. - Highlights: • Genetic variation in copper tolerance occurs between Lymnaea stagnalis populations. • We used the Q ST -F ST approach to test evolutionary patterns in copper tolerance. • No evidence for uniform selection was found. • Results suggest that extrapolations to the species level are not safe. • A method is proposed to refine ecological risk assessment using genetic parameters. - Genetic variation in copper tolerance occurs in Lymnaea stagnalis. A method is proposed for considering evolutionary parameters in ecological risk assessment

  3. Plant genetic variation mediates an indirect ecological effect between belowground earthworms and aboveground aphids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Akanksha; Braun, Julia; Decker, Emilia; Hans, Sarah; Wagner, Agnes; Weisser, Wolfgang W; Zytynska, Sharon E

    2014-10-21

    Interactions between aboveground and belowground terrestrial communities are often mediated by plants, with soil organisms interacting via the roots and aboveground organisms via the shoots and leaves. Many studies now show that plant genetics can drive changes in the structure of both above and belowground communities; however, the role of plant genetic variation in mediating aboveground-belowground interactions is still unclear. We used an earthworm-plant-aphid model system with two aphid species (Aphis fabae and Acyrthosiphon pisum) to test the effect of host-plant (Vicia faba) genetic variation on the indirect interaction between the belowground earthworms (Eisenia veneta) on the aboveground aphid populations. Our data shows that host-plant variety mediated an indirect ecological effect of earthworms on generalist black bean aphids (A. fabae), with earthworms increasing aphid growth rate in three plant varieties but decreasing it in another variety. We found no effect of earthworms on the second aphid species, the pea aphid (A. pisum), and no effect of competition between the aphid species. Plant biomass was increased when earthworms were present, and decreased when A. pisum was feeding on the plant (mediated by plant variety). Although A. fabae aphids were influenced by the plants and worms, they did not, in turn, alter plant biomass. Previous work has shown inconsistent effects of earthworms on aphids, but we suggest these differences could be explained by plant genetic variation and variation among aphid species. This study demonstrates that the outcome of belowground-aboveground interactions can be mediated by genetic variation in the host-plant, but depends on the identity of the species involved.

  4. Felling-system and regeneration of pine forests on ecological-genetic-geographical basis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Sannikov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A conception of the adaptation of Scots pine populations to the natural regeneration on open sites with the mosaic retained stand and mineralized soil surface on the basis of the ecological-genetic-geographical investigations in the forests of the Russia and the theory of petropsammofitness-pyrofitness (Sannikov S. N., 1983 has been substantiated. The methods of clear cuts with the seeding from surrounding forest, seed curtains and sufficiently extent of the substrate preparation for the pine selfsown have been selected and elaborated as a main organization principle of the system «felling-regeneration» in the plains pine forests of the forest zone. High regeneration efficiency of this system with the application of original aggregate for the optimal mineralization of the soil substrate (with its synchronous loosing has been shown on the example of dominating pine forest types in the subzone for-forest-steppe of the Western Siberia. The silvicultural-ecological and reproductive-genetic advantages of retaining seed curtains instead of separate seed trees have been substantiated. The basic parameters of the system «felling-regeneration», which guarantee a sufficient success of the following pine regeneration in the for-forest-steppe subzone, have been determined with the help of the methods of the mathematical imitation modeling of the pine selfsown density depending on the area and localization of seed curtains, surrounding forest and the extent of the substrate mineralization. The zonal differentiated system of the fellings and measures for the regeneration optimization in the climatically substituting pine forest types in the Western Siberia has been elaborated according to the parameters, studied earlier, on the ecological-genetic-geographical basis. The principles of this system in forest zone come to the clear strip-fellings with insemination of cuts from the seed curtains and forest walls, and to the hollow-fellings with the

  5. Population genetics of ecological communities with DNA barcodes: An example from New Guinea Lepidoptera

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Craft, K. J.; Pauls, S. U.; Darrow, K.; Miller, S. E.; Hebert, P. D. N.; Helgen, L. E.; Novotný, Vojtěch; Weiblen, G. D.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 107, č. 11 (2010), s. 5041-5046 ISSN 0027-8424 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/0115; GA ČR GD206/08/H044; GA AV ČR IAA600960712; GA MŠk LC06073 Grant - others: National Science Foundation(US) DEB 9628840; National Science Foundation(US) DEB 9707928; National Science Foundation(US) DEB 0211591; National Science Foundation(US) DEB 0515678; German Academy of Sciences Leopoldina(DE) BMBF-LPD 9901/8-169 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : community ecology * DNA barcoding * phylogeography Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 9.771, year: 2010

  6. Ecological and genetic divergence between two lineages of Middle American túngara frogs Physalaemus (= Engystomops pustulosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron Santiago R

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Uncovering how populations of a species differ genetically and ecologically is important for understanding evolutionary processes. Here we combine population genetic methods (microsatellites with phylogenetic information (mtDNA to define genetic population clusters of the wide-spread Neotropical túngara frog (Physalaemus pustulosus. We measure gene flow and migration within and between population clusters and compare genetic diversity between population clusters. By applying ecological niche modeling we determine whether the two most divergent genetic groups of the túngara frog (1 inhabit different habitats, and (2 are separated geographically by unsuitable habitat across a gap in the distribution. Results Most population structure is captured by dividing all sample localities into two allopatric genetic lineages. The Northern genetic lineage (NW Costa Rica is genetically homogenous while the Southern lineage (SW Costa Rica and Panama is sub-divided into three population clusters by both microsatellite and mtDNA analyses. Gene flow is higher within the Northern lineage than within the Southern lineage, perhaps due to increased landscape heterogeneity in the South. Niche modeling reveals differences in suitable habitat between the Northern and Southern lineages: the Northern lineage inhabits dry/pine-oak forests, while the Southern lineage is confined to tropical moist forests. Both lineages seem to have had little movement across the distribution gap, which persisted during the last glacial maximum. The lack of movement was more pronounced for the Southern lineage than for the Northern lineage. Conclusions This study confirms the finding of previous studies that túngara frogs diverged into two allopatric genetic lineages north and south of the gap in the distribution in central Costa Rica several million years ago. The allopatric distribution is attributed to unsuitable habitat and probably other unknown ecological factors

  7. Life is pretty meaningful.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heintzelman, Samantha J; King, Laura A

    2014-09-01

    The human experience of meaning in life is widely viewed as a cornerstone of well-being and a central human motivation. Self-reports of meaning in life relate to a host of important functional outcomes. Psychologists have portrayed meaning in life as simultaneously chronically lacking in human life as well as playing an important role in survival. Examining the growing literature on meaning in life, we address the question "How meaningful is life, in general?" We review possible answers from various psychological sources, some of which anticipate that meaning in life should be low and others that it should be high. Summaries of epidemiological data and research using two self-report measures of meaning in life suggest that life is pretty meaningful. Diverse samples rate themselves significantly above the midpoint on self-reports of meaning in life. We suggest that if meaning in life plays a role in adaptation, it must be commonplace, as our analysis suggests. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. A New Method for Noninvasive Genetic Sampling of Saliva in Ecological Research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Lobo

    Full Text Available Noninvasive samples for genetic analyses have become essential to address ecological questions. Popular noninvasive samples such as faeces contain degraded DNA which may compromise genotyping success. Saliva is an excellent alternative DNA source but scarcity of suitable collection methods makes its use anecdotal in field ecological studies. We develop a noninvasive method of collection that combines baits and porous materials able to capture saliva. We report its potential in optimal conditions, using confined dogs and collecting saliva early after deposition. DNA concentration in saliva extracts was generally high (mean 14 ng μl(-1. We correctly identified individuals in 78% of samples conservatively using ten microsatellite loci, and 90% of samples using only eight loci. Consensus genotypes closely matched reference genotypes obtained from hair DNA (99% of identification successes and 91% of failures. Mean genotyping effort needed for identification using ten loci was 2.2 replicates. Genotyping errors occurred at a very low frequency (allelic dropout: 2.3%; false alleles: 1.5%. Individual identification success increased with duration of substrate handling inside dog's mouth and the volume of saliva collected. Low identification success was associated with baits rich in DNA-oxidant polyphenols and DNA concentrations <1 ng μl(-1. The procedure performed at least as well as other noninvasive methods, and could advantageously allow detection of socially low-ranked individuals underrepresented in sources of DNA that are involved in marking behaviour (faeces or urine. Once adapted and refined, there is promise for this technique to allow potentially high rates of individual identification in ecological field studies requiring noninvasive sampling of wild vertebrates.

  9. Ecological and physical barriers shape genetic structure of the Alpine porcini (Boletus reticuloceps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Bang; Liu, Jian Wei; Xu, Jianping; Zhao, Kuan; Ge, Zai Wei; Yang, Zhu L

    2017-04-01

    The Alpine porcini, Boletus reticuloceps, is an ectomycorrhizal mushroom distributed in subalpine areas of Southwest China, central China, and Taiwan Island. This distribution pattern makes it an ideal organism to infer how ectomycorrhizal fungi have reacted to historical tectonic and climatic changes, and to illustrate the mechanism for the disjunction of organisms between Southwest China and Taiwan. In this study, we explored the phylogeographic pattern of B. reticuloceps by microsatellite genotyping, DNA sequencing, ecological factor analysis, and species distribution modeling. Three genetic groups from the East Himalayas (EH), northern Hengduan Mountains (NHM), and southern Hengduan Mountains (SHM), were identified. The earlier divergent SHM group is found under Abies in moister environments, whereas the EH and NHM groups, which are physically separated by the Mekong-Salween Divide, are found mainly under Picea in drier environments. Samples from Taiwan showed a close relationship with the SHM group. High mountains did not form dispersal barriers among populations in each of the EH, NHM, and SHM groups, probably due to the relatively weak host specificity of B. reticuloceps. Our study indicated that ecological heterogeneity could have contributed to the divergence between the SHM and the NHM-EH groups, while physical barriers could have led to the divergence of the NHM and the EH groups. Dispersal into Taiwan via Central China during the Quaternary glaciations is likely to have shaped its disjunct distribution.

  10. Insights into population ecology and sexual selection in snakes through the application of DNA-based genetic markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, H L; Weatherhead, P J

    2001-01-01

    Hypervariable genetic markers have revolutionized studies of kinship, behavioral ecology, and population biology in vertebrate groups such as birds, but their use in snakes remains limited. To illustrate the value of such markers in snakes, we review studies that have used microsatellite DNA loci to analyze local population differentiation and parentage in snakes. Four ecologically distinct species of snakes all show evidence for differentiation at small spatial scales (2-15 km), but with substantial differences among species. This result highlights how genetic analysis can reveal hidden aspects of the natural history of difficult-to-observe taxa, and it raises important questions about the ecological factors that may contribute to restricted gene flow. A 3-year study of genetic parentage in marked populations of the northern water snake showed that (1) participation in mating aggregations was a poor predictor of genetic-based measures of reproductive success; (2) multiple paternity was high, yet there was no detectable fitness advantage to multiple mating by females; and (3) the opportunity for selection was far higher in males than in females due to a larger variance in male reproductive success, and yet this resulted in no detectable selection on morphological variation in males. Thus genetic markers have provided accurate measures of individual reproductive success in this species, an important step toward resolving the adaptive significance of key features including multiple paternity and reversed sexual size dimorphism. Overall these studies illustrate how genetic analyses of snakes provide previously unobtainable information of long-standing interest to behavioral ecologists.

  11. Distribution, ecology, life history, genetic variation, and risk of extinction of nonhuman primates from Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María E Zaldívar

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available We examined the association between geographic distribution, ecological traits, life history, genetic diversity, and risk of extinction in nonhuman primate species from Costa Rica. All of the current nonhuman primate species from Costa Rica are included in the study; spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi, howling monkeys (Alouatta palliata, capuchins (Cebus capucinus, and squirrel monkeys (Saimiri oerstedii. Geographic distribution was characterized accessing existing databases. Data on ecology and life history traits were obtained through a literature review. Genetic diversity was characterized using isozyme electrophoresis. Risk of extinction was assessed from the literature. We found that species differed in all these traits. Using these data, we conducted a Pearson correlation between risk of extinction and ecological and life history traits, and genetic variation, for widely distributed species. We found a negative association between risk of extinction and population birth and growth rates; indicating that slower reproducing species had a greater risk of extinction. We found a positive association between genetic variation and risk of extinction; i.e., species showing higher genetic variation had a greater risk of extinction. The relevance of these traits for conservation efforts is discussed. Rev. Biol. Trop. 52(3: 679-693. Epub 2004 Dic 15.Se estudió la asociación entre la distribución geográfica, algunos rasgos ecológicos, las historias de vida, la diversidad genética y el riesgo de extinción, en primates no humanos de Costa Rica. Se incluyen todas las especies de primates no humanos del país: los monos araña (Ateles geoffroyi, congo (Alouatta palliata, cara blanca (Cebus capucinus, y tití (Saimiri oerstedii. La distribución geográfica se caracterizó utilizando principalmente bases de datos existentes. Se obtuvo información acerca de sus características ecológicas y de historias de vida mediante una revisión bibliogr

  12. Genetic diversity of cultivated lentil (Lens culinaris Medik. and its relation to the world’s agro-ecological zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Khazaei

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of genetic diversity and population structure of germplasm collections plays a critical role in supporting conservation and crop genetic enhancement strategies. We used a cultivated lentil (Lens culinaris Medik. collection consisting of 352 accessions originating from 54 diverse countries to estimate genetic diversity and genetic structure using 1194 polymorphic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers which span the lentil genome. Using principal coordinate analysis, population structure analysis and UPGMA cluster analysis, the accessions were categorized into three major groups that prominently reflected geographical origin (world’s agro-ecological zones. The three clusters complemented the origins, pedigrees and breeding histories of the germplasm. The three groups were a South Asia (sub-tropical savannah, b Mediterranean and c northern temperate. Based on the results from this study, it is also clear that breeding programs still have considerable genetic diversity to mine within the cultivated lentil, however, surveyed South Asian and Canadian germplasm revealed narrow genetic diversity.

  13. The persistence and ecological impacts of a cyanobacterium genetically engineered to express mosquitocidal Bacillus thuringiensis toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketseoglou, Irene; Bouwer, Gustav

    2016-05-10

    The cyanobacterium Anabaena PCC 7120#11 has been genetically engineered to act as a delivery vehicle for Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies israelensis mosquitocidal toxins. To address ecological concerns about releasing this genetically engineered microorganism into the environment for mosquito larva control, the persistence and ecological impacts of PCC 7120#11 was evaluated using multi-species, standardized aquatic microcosms. The microcosms were set up as described in ASTM E1366-02 (Standard Practice for Standardized Aquatic Microcosms: Fresh Water), with a few modifications. The treatment group microcosms were inoculated with PCC 7120#11 and key water quality parameters and non-target effects were compared between the treatment and control groups over a period of 35 days. PCC 7120#11 decreased from a concentration of 4.50 × 10(6) cells/ml (at inoculation) to 1.32 × 10(3) cells/ml after 4 weeks and larvicidal activity against third instar larvae of Anopheles arabiensis was only evident for two weeks after treatment. Both treatment and the interaction of treatment and time had a significant effect on nitrate, phosphate and photosynthetic microorganism concentrations. Treatment with PCC 7120#11 caused a temporary spike in ammonia in the microcosms a week after treatment, but the concentrations were well below acute and chronic criteria values for ammonia in freshwater ecosystems. Cyprinotus vidua concentrations were not significantly different between PCC 7120#11 and control microcosms. In PCC 7120#11 microcosms, Daphnia pulex concentrations were significantly lower than control concentrations between days 18 and 25. By the end of the experiment, none of the measured variables were significantly different between the treatment groups. The standard aquatic microcosm experiments provided more data on the ecological impacts of PCC 7120#11 than single-organism assessments would have. On the basis of the relatively minor, short-term effects that PCC 7120

  14. Genetics, morphology and ecology reveal a cryptic pika lineage in the Sikkim Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahal, Nishma; Lissovsky, Andrey A; Lin, Zhenzhen; Solari, Katherine; Hadly, Elizabeth A; Zhan, Xiangjiang; Ramakrishnan, Uma

    2017-01-01

    Asian pika species are morphologically ∼similar and have overlapping ranges. This leads to uncertainty and species misidentification in the field. Phylogenetic analyses of such misidentified samples leads to taxonomic ambiguity. The ecology of many pika species remains understudied, particularly in the Himalaya, where sympatric species could be separated by elevation and/or substrate. We sampled, measured, and acquired genetic data from pikas in the Sikkim Himalaya. Our analyses revealed a cryptic lineage, Ochotona sikimaria, previously reported as a subspecies of O. thibetana. The results support the elevation of this lineage to the species level, as it is genetically divergent from O. thibetana, as well as sister species, O. cansus (endemic to central China) and O. curzoniae (endemic to the Tibetan plateau). The Sikkim lineage diverged from its sister species' about 1.7-0.8myrago, coincident with uplift events in the Himalaya. Our results add to the recent spate of cryptic diversity identified from the eastern Himalaya and highlight the need for further study within the Ochotonidae. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Frontiers of torenia research: innovative ornamental traits and study of ecological interaction networks through genetic engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Advances in research in the past few years on the ornamental plant torenia (Torenia spps.) have made it notable as a model plant on the frontier of genetic engineering aimed at studying ornamental characteristics and pest control in horticultural ecosystems. The remarkable advantage of torenia over other ornamental plant species is the availability of an easy and high-efficiency transformation system for it. Unfortunately, most of the current torenia research is still not very widespread, because this species has not become prominent as an alternative to other successful model plants such as Arabidopsis, snapdragon and petunia. However, nowadays, a more global view using not only a few selected models but also several additional species are required for creating innovative ornamental traits and studying horticultural ecosystems. We therefore introduce and discuss recent research on torenia, the family Scrophulariaceae, for secondary metabolite bioengineering, in which global insights into horticulture, agriculture and ecology have been advanced. Floral traits, in torenia particularly floral color, have been extensively studied by manipulating the flavonoid biosynthetic pathways in flower organs. Plant aroma, including volatile terpenoids, has also been genetically modulated in order to understand the complicated nature of multi-trophic interactions that affect the behavior of predators and pollinators in the ecosystem. Torenia would accordingly be of great use for investigating both the variation in ornamental plants and the infochemical-mediated interactions with arthropods. PMID:23803155

  16. The genetic architecture of a complex ecological trait: host plant use in the specialist moth, HELIOTHIS SUBFLEXA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The study of the genetic basis of ecological adaptation remains in its infancy, and most studies have focused on phenotypically simple traits. Host plant use by herbivorous insects is phenotypically complex. While research has illuminated the evolutionary determinants of host use, knowledge of its...

  17. Pre-whaling genetic diversity and population ecology in eastern Pacific gray whales: insights from ancient DNA and stable isotopes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Elizabeth Alter

    Full Text Available Commercial whaling decimated many whale populations, including the eastern Pacific gray whale, but little is known about how population dynamics or ecology differed prior to these removals. Of particular interest is the possibility of a large population decline prior to whaling, as such a decline could explain the ~5-fold difference between genetic estimates of prior abundance and estimates based on historical records. We analyzed genetic (mitochondrial control region and isotopic information from modern and prehistoric gray whales using serial coalescent simulations and Bayesian skyline analyses to test for a pre-whaling decline and to examine prehistoric genetic diversity, population dynamics and ecology. Simulations demonstrate that significant genetic differences observed between ancient and modern samples could be caused by a large, recent population bottleneck, roughly concurrent with commercial whaling. Stable isotopes show minimal differences between modern and ancient gray whale foraging ecology. Using rejection-based Approximate Bayesian Computation, we estimate the size of the population bottleneck at its minimum abundance and the pre-bottleneck abundance. Our results agree with previous genetic studies suggesting the historical size of the eastern gray whale population was roughly three to five times its current size.

  18. An ecologically-based method for selecting ecological indicators for assessing risks to biological diversity from genetically-engineered plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andow, D. A.; Lövei, Gabor L; Arpaia, Salvatore

    2013-01-01

    into ecological functional groups and selecting those that deliver the identified environmental values. (3) All of the species or ecosystem processes related to the selected functional groups are identified and (4) multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) is used to rank the indicator endpoint entities, which may...... adverse effects to biological diversity. The approach starts by (1) identifying the local environmental values so the ERA addresses specific concerns associated with local biological diversity. The model simplifies the indicator endpoint selection problem by (2) classifying biological diversity...... be species or ecological processes. MCDA focuses on those species and processes that are critical for the identified ecological functions and are likely to be highly exposed to the GE organism. The highest ranked indicator entities are selected for the next step. (5) Relevant risk hypotheses are identified...

  19. Genetic variation of Lymnaea stagnalis tolerance to copper: A test of selection hypotheses and its relevance for ecological risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côte, Jessica; Bouétard, Anthony; Pronost, Yannick; Besnard, Anne-Laure; Coke, Maïra; Piquet, Fabien; Caquet, Thierry; Coutellec, Marie-Agnès

    2015-10-01

    The use of standardized monospecific testing to assess the ecological risk of chemicals implicitly relies on the strong assumption that intraspecific variation in sensitivity is negligible or irrelevant in this context. In this study, we investigated genetic variation in copper sensitivity of the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis, using lineages stemming from eight natural populations or strains found to be genetically differentiated at neutral markers. Copper-induced mortality varied widely among populations, as did the estimated daily death rate and time to 50% mortality (LT50). Population genetic divergence in copper sensitivity was compared to neutral differentiation using the QST-FST approach. No evidence for homogenizing selection could be detected. This result demonstrates that species-level extrapolations from single population studies are highly unreliable. The study provides a simple example of how evolutionary principles could be incorporated into ecotoxicity testing in order to refine ecological risk assessment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Genetic variability and population structure of Plasmodium falciparum parasite populations from different malaria ecological regions of Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingasia, Luicer A; Cheruiyot, Jelagat; Okoth, Sheila Akinyi; Andagalu, Ben; Kamau, Edwin

    2016-04-01

    Transmission intensity, movement of human and vector hosts, biogeographical features, and malaria control measures are some of the important factors that determine Plasmodium falciparum parasite genetic variability and population structure. Kenya has different malaria ecologies which might require different disease intervention methods. Refined parasite population genetic studies are critical for informing malaria control and elimination strategies. This study describes the genetic diversity and population structure of P. falciparum parasites from the different malaria ecological zones in Kenya. Twelve multi-locus microsatellite (MS) loci previously described were genotyped in 225 P. falciparum isolates collected between 2012 and 2013 from five sites; three in lowland endemic regions (Kisumu, Kombewa, and Malindi) and two in highland, epidemic regions (Kisii and Kericho). Parasites from the lowland endemic and highland epidemic regions of western Kenya had high genetic diversity compared to coastal lowland endemic region of Kenya [Malindi]. The Kenyan parasites had a mean genetic differentiation index (FST) of 0.072 (p=0.011). The multi-locus genetic analysis of the 12 MS revealed all the parasites had unique haplotypes. Significant linkage disequilibrium (LD) was observed in all the five parasite populations. Kisumu had the most significant index of association values (0.16; pKenya after introduction of the artemether-lumefantrine is important in refining the spread of drug resistant strains and malaria transmission for more effective control and eventual elimination of malaria in Kenya. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Genetic Drift Linked to Heterogeneous Landscape and Ecological Specialization Drives Diversification in the Alpine Endemic Columbine Aquilegia thalictrifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lega, Margherita; Fior, Simone; Li, Mingai; Leonardi, Stefano; Varotto, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    The European Alpine system is an extensive mountain range, whose heterogeneous landscape together with Quaternary climatic oscillations significantly affected organismal diversity and distribution in Europe. The model genus Aquilegia represents a textbook example of a rapid and recent radiation through the Northern hemisphere, with the majority of the European taxa occuring in the Alpine system. However, the processes governing genetic differentiation of the genus in this complex geographic area are still widely unexplored. In this work, we used 9 microsatellite loci to study the genetic structure and diversity of 11 populations of Aquilegia thalictrifolia Schott & Kotschy, an alpine taxon characterized by a marked ecological specificity. We found that, despite the endemic and fragmented distribution, A. thalictrifolia has overall high levels of heterozygosity, which is consistent to the substantial inbreeding depression that characterizes the genus. Strong spatial genetic structuring of populations suggests a historical prevalence of genetic drift over gene flow, with natural barriers and ecological niche hindering migration. An analytical comparison of fixation and population differentiation indexes allowed us to infer hypotheses of the postglacial history and more recent demographic events that have influenced the genetics of the species. Overall, our results indicate allopatry as a major force of differentiation in the European scenario, likely to underlie the development of taxonomic boundaries in a broader geographic context. This adds to previous notions on the primary evolutionary forces shaping the Aquilegia radiation in Europe. © The American Genetic Association 2014. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Utilization of farm animal genetic resources in a changing agro-ecological environment in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kantanen, Juha; Løvendahl, Peter; Strandberg, Erling

    2015-01-01

    Livestock production is the most important component of northern European agriculture and contributes to and will be affected by climate change. Nevertheless, the role of farm animal genetic resources in the adaptation to new agro-ecological conditions and mitigation of animal production’s effects...... to a future with altered production systems. Some animals with useful phenotypes and genotypes may be more useful than others in the changing environment. Robust animal breeds with the potential to adapt to new agro-ecological conditions and tolerate new diseases will be needed. The key issue in mitigation...

  3. Impact of ecological diversity on genetic and phytochemical variation injuniperus excelsa from high elevation zones of quetta valley, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seed, S.; Barozai, M.Y.K.; Ahmed, A.; Tareen, R.B.

    2017-01-01

    Juniperusexcelsa (Cupressaceae) is an evergreen tree and the second most diverse group of the conifers distributed abundantly in high elevation zones of Balochistan. Genetic and phytochemical variations in three naturally occurring populations of J.excelsa were analysed. Genetic variability was assessed by different molecular markers (RAPD, ISSR and URP) with an objective to use genetic diversity as a key to conserve the taxon which is also known as living fossil as dominated in Mesozoic era. Genetic diversity was assessed by polymorphic bands to generate a dendrogram based on UPGMA. Using tested markers, 116 bands were amplified out of which 67 bands were polymorphic with an average value of 8.37 (57%) bands per primer. Based on data, a cluster dendrogram was prepared that exhibited the mean genetic similarity matrix as 0.57 and two major clusters diverge at 0.49. The genetic similarity coefficient among all accessions ranged from 0.35 to 0.90. In phytochemical analysis, total phenolic and flavonoid contents were estimated and compared among all accessions. Ecological characteristics of the study sites were measured to check their impact on genetic and chemical variation. Soil properties were analyzed for Principal Component Analysis. Chemical variation of J. excelsa of three sites revealed by dissimilarity matrix exhibiting genetic distance based on TPC and Flavonoids. Cluster analysis represent two major groups. Mean concentration of TPC and flavonoids were 56+-9.15 and 150+-27.9 mg/g respectively. PCA of soil considered three factors had Eigen values >1 and explain cumulatively 4.60 %, 26.02% and 10.36 % of the variance. First factor was positively correlated with second and fifth, but negatively correlated with other factors. In conclusion, molecular marker profiling together with phytochemical variation of total phenolic and flavonoid content in all accessions of Juniperusexcelsa and impact of ecological diversity on Genetic and chemical variation can be used

  4. A practical introduction to Random Forest for genetic association studies in ecology and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brieuc, Marine S O; Waters, Charles D; Drinan, Daniel P; Naish, Kerry A

    2018-03-05

    Large genomic studies are becoming increasingly common with advances in sequencing technology, and our ability to understand how genomic variation influences phenotypic variation between individuals has never been greater. The exploration of such relationships first requires the identification of associations between molecular markers and phenotypes. Here, we explore the use of Random Forest (RF), a powerful machine-learning algorithm, in genomic studies to discern loci underlying both discrete and quantitative traits, particularly when studying wild or nonmodel organisms. RF is becoming increasingly used in ecological and population genetics because, unlike traditional methods, it can efficiently analyse thousands of loci simultaneously and account for nonadditive interactions. However, understanding both the power and limitations of Random Forest is important for its proper implementation and the interpretation of results. We therefore provide a practical introduction to the algorithm and its use for identifying associations between molecular markers and phenotypes, discussing such topics as data limitations, algorithm initiation and optimization, as well as interpretation. We also provide short R tutorials as examples, with the aim of providing a guide to the implementation of the algorithm. Topics discussed here are intended to serve as an entry point for molecular ecologists interested in employing Random Forest to identify trait associations in genomic data sets. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Transition probabilities for general birth-death processes with applications in ecology, genetics, and evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Forrest W.; Suchard, Marc A.

    2011-01-01

    A birth-death process is a continuous-time Markov chain that counts the number of particles in a system over time. In the general process with n current particles, a new particle is born with instantaneous rate λn and a particle dies with instantaneous rate μn. Currently no robust and efficient method exists to evaluate the finite-time transition probabilities in a general birth-death process with arbitrary birth and death rates. In this paper, we first revisit the theory of continued fractions to obtain expressions for the Laplace transforms of these transition probabilities and make explicit an important derivation connecting transition probabilities and continued fractions. We then develop an efficient algorithm for computing these probabilities that analyzes the error associated with approximations in the method. We demonstrate that this error-controlled method agrees with known solutions and outperforms previous approaches to computing these probabilities. Finally, we apply our novel method to several important problems in ecology, evolution, and genetics. PMID:21984359

  6. Comparing Ecological and Genetic Diversity Within the Marine Diatom Genus Pseudo-nitzschia: A Multiregional Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, K.; Bruzek, S.

    2016-02-01

    The globally distributed marine diatom genus Pseudo-nitzschia consists of approximately 40 species, more than half of which occur in US coastal waters. Here, sensitive genetic tools targeting a variable portion of the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) region of the rRNA gene were used to assess Pseudo-nitzschia spp. diversity in more than 600 environmental DNA samples collected from US Atlantic, Pacific, and Gulf of Mexico waters. Community-based approaches employed genus-specific primers for environmental DNA fingerprinting and targeted sequencing. For the Gulf of Mexico samples especially, a nested PCR approach (with or without degenerate primers) improved resolution of species diversity. To date, more than 40 unique ITS1 amplicon sizes have been repeatedly observed in ITS1 fingerprints. Targeted sequencing of environmental DNA as well as single chains isolated from live samples indicate that many of these represent novel and known inter- and intra-specific Pseudo-nitzschia diversity. A few species (e.g., P. pungens, P. cuspidata) occur across all three regions, whereas other species and intraspecific variants occurred at local to regional spatial scales only. Generally, species frequently co-occur in complex assemblages, and transitions in Pseudo-nitzschia community composition occur seasonally, prior to bloom initiation, and across (cross-shelf, latitudinal, and vertical) environmental gradients. These observations highlight the dynamic nature of diatom community composition in the marine environment and the importance of classifying diversity at relevant ecological and/or taxonomic scales.

  7. Beyond meaningful use: getting meaningful value from IT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortin, Jason; Zywiak, Walt

    2010-02-01

    The HITECH provisions of ARRA include financial incentives for providers to demonstrate meaningful use of certified EHR technology. However, to maximize the value of IT under new payment models, provider organizations will need to go beyond meaningful use criteria in three key areas: Delivering high-quality care. Ensuring coordinated care. Integrating financial systems.

  8. Tracing early stages of species differentiation: Ecological, morphological and genetic divergence of Galápagos sea lion populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brunner Sylvia

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oceans are high gene flow environments that are traditionally believed to hamper the build-up of genetic divergence. Despite this, divergence appears to occur occasionally at surprisingly small scales. The Galápagos archipelago provides an ideal opportunity to examine the evolutionary processes of local divergence in an isolated marine environment. Galápagos sea lions (Zalophus wollebaeki are top predators in this unique setting and have an essentially unlimited dispersal capacity across the entire species range. In theory, this should oppose any genetic differentiation. Results We find significant ecological, morphological and genetic divergence between the western colonies and colonies from the central region of the archipelago that are exposed to different ecological conditions. Stable isotope analyses indicate that western animals use different food sources than those from the central area. This is likely due to niche partitioning with the second Galápagos eared seal species, the Galápagos fur seal (Arctocephalus galapagoensis that exclusively dwells in the west. Stable isotope patterns correlate with significant differences in foraging-related skull morphology. Analyses of mitochondrial sequences as well as microsatellites reveal signs of initial genetic differentiation. Conclusion Our results suggest a key role of intra- as well as inter-specific niche segregation in the evolution of genetic structure among populations of a highly mobile species under conditions of free movement. Given the monophyletic arrival of the sea lions on the archipelago, our study challenges the view that geographical barriers are strictly needed for the build-up of genetic divergence. The study further raises the interesting prospect that in social, colonially breeding mammals additional forces, such as social structure or feeding traditions, might bear on the genetic partitioning of populations.

  9. Utilization of farm animal genetic resources in a changing agro-ecological environment in the Nordic countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juha eKantanen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Livestock production is the most important component of northern European agriculture and contributes to and will be affected by climate change. Nevertheless, the role of farm animal genetic resources in the adaptation to new agro-ecological conditions and mitigation of animal production’s effects on climate change has been inadequately discussed despite there being several important associations between animal genetic resources and climate change issues. The sustainability of animal production systems and future food security require access to a wide diversity of animal genetic resources.There are several genetic questions that should be considered in strategies promoting adaptation to climate change and mitigation of environmental effects of livestock production. For example, it may become important to choose among breeds and even among farm animal species according to their suitability to a future with altered production systems. Some animals with useful phenotypes and genotypes may be more useful than others in the changing environment.Robust animal breeds with the potential to adapt to new agro-ecological conditions and tolerate new diseases will be needed. The key issue in mitigation of harmful greenhouse gas effects induced by livestock production is the reduction of methane (CH4 emissions from ruminants. There are differences in CH4 emissions among breeds and among individual animals within breeds that suggest a potential for improvement in the trait through genetic selection.Characterization of breeds and individuals with modern genomic tools should be applied to identify breeds that have genetically adapted to marginal conditions and to get critical information for breeding and conservation programmes for farm animal genetic resources. We conclude that phenotyping and genomic technologies and adoption of new breeding approaches, such as genomic selection introgression, will promote breeding for useful characters in livestock species.

  10. Utilization of farm animal genetic resources in a changing agro-ecological environment in the Nordic countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantanen, Juha; Løvendahl, Peter; Strandberg, Erling; Eythorsdottir, Emma; Li, Meng-Hua; Kettunen-Præbel, Anne; Berg, Peer; Meuwissen, Theo

    2015-01-01

    Livestock production is the most important component of northern European agriculture and contributes to and will be affected by climate change. Nevertheless, the role of farm animal genetic resources in the adaptation to new agro-ecological conditions and mitigation of animal production’s effects on climate change has been inadequately discussed despite there being several important associations between animal genetic resources and climate change issues. The sustainability of animal production systems and future food security require access to a wide diversity of animal genetic resources. There are several genetic questions that should be considered in strategies promoting adaptation to climate change and mitigation of environmental effects of livestock production. For example, it may become important to choose among breeds and even among farm animal species according to their suitability to a future with altered production systems. Some animals with useful phenotypes and genotypes may be more useful than others in the changing environment. Robust animal breeds with the potential to adapt to new agro-ecological conditions and tolerate new diseases will be needed. The key issue in mitigation of harmful greenhouse gas effects induced by livestock production is the reduction of methane (CH4) emissions from ruminants. There are differences in CH4 emissions among breeds and among individual animals within breeds that suggest a potential for improvement in the trait through genetic selection. Characterization of breeds and individuals with modern genomic tools should be applied to identify breeds that have genetically adapted to marginal conditions and to get critical information for breeding and conservation programs for farm animal genetic resources. We conclude that phenotyping and genomic technologies and adoption of new breeding approaches, such as genomic selection introgression, will promote breeding for useful characters in livestock species. PMID:25767477

  11. The ecological and genetic basis of convergent thick-lipped phenotypes in cichlid fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Marco; Diepeveen, Eveline T; Muschick, Moritz; Santos, M Emilia; Indermaur, Adrian; Boileau, Nicolas; Barluenga, Marta; Salzburger, Walter

    2013-02-01

    The evolution of convergent phenotypes is one of the most interesting outcomes of replicate adaptive radiations. Remarkable cases of convergence involve the thick-lipped phenotype found across cichlid species flocks in the East African Great Lakes. Unlike most other convergent forms in cichlids, which are restricted to East Africa, the thick-lipped phenotype also occurs elsewhere, for example in the Central American Midas Cichlid assemblage. Here, we use an ecological genomic approach to study the function, the evolution and the genetic basis of this phenotype in two independent cichlid adaptive radiations on two continents. We applied phylogenetic, demographic, geometric morphometric and stomach content analyses to an African (Lobochilotes labiatus) and a Central American (Amphilophus labiatus) thick-lipped species. We found that similar morphological adaptations occur in both thick-lipped species and that the 'fleshy' lips are associated with hard-shelled prey in the form of molluscs and invertebrates. We then used comparative Illumina RNA sequencing of thick vs. normal lip tissue in East African cichlids and identified a set of 141 candidate genes that appear to be involved in the morphogenesis of this trait. A more detailed analysis of six of these genes led to three strong candidates: Actb, Cldn7 and Copb. The function of these genes can be linked to the loose connective tissue constituting the fleshy lips. Similar trends in gene expression between African and Central American thick-lipped species appear to indicate that an overlapping set of genes was independently recruited to build this particular phenotype in both lineages. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Genetic, Ecological and Morphological Distinctness of the Blue Mussels Mytilus trossulus Gould and M. edulis L. in the White Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Katolikova

    Full Text Available Two blue mussel lineages of Pliocene origin, Mytilus edulis (ME and M. trossulus (MT, co-occur and hybridize in several regions on the shores of the North Atlantic. The two species were distinguished from each other by molecular methods in the 1980s, and a large amount of comparative data on them has been accumulated since that time. However, while ME and MT are now routinely distinguished by various genetic markers, they tend to be overlooked in ecological studies since morphological characters for taxonomic identification have been lacking, and no consistent habitat differences between lineages have been reported. Surveying a recently discovered area of ME and MT co-occurrence in the White Sea and employing a set of allozyme markers for identification, we address the issue whether ME and MT are true biological species with distinct ecological characteristics or just virtual genetic entities with no matching morphological and ecological identities. We find that: (1 in the White Sea, the occurrence of MT is largely concentrated in harbors, in line with observations from other subarctic regions of Europe; (2 mixed populations of ME and MT are always dominated by purebred individuals, animals classified as hybrids constituting only ca. 18%; (3 in terms of shell morphology, 80% of MT bear a distinct uninterrupted dark prismatic strip under the ligament while 97% of ME lack this character; (4 at sites of sympatry MT is more common on algal substrates while ME mostly lives directly on the bottom. This segregation by the substrate may contribute to maintaining reproductive isolation and decreasing competition between taxa. We conclude that while ME and MT are not fully reproductively isolated, they do represent clearly distinguishable biological, ecological and morphological entities in the White Sea. It remains to be documented whether the observed morphological and ecological differences are of a local character, or whether they have simply been

  13. Cryptic changes in the genetic structure of a highly clonal coral population and the relationship with ecological performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Dana E.; Miller, M. W.; Baums, I. B.

    2014-09-01

    Elkhorn coral , Acropora palmata, relies heavily on clonal propagation and often displays low genotypic (clonal) diversity. Populations in the Florida Keys experienced rapid declines in tissue cover between 2004 and 2006, largely due to hurricanes and disease, but remained stable from 2006 to 2010. All elkhorn colonies in 150 m2 permanent study plots were genotyped in 2006 ( n = 15 plots) and 2010 ( n = 24 plots), and plots sampled in both years were examined for changes in allelic and genotypic diversity during this period of stable ecological abundance. Overall, genetic diversity of Florida plots was low and declined further over the 4-yr period; seven of the 36 original genets and two of 67 alleles (among five microsatellite loci) were lost completely from the sampled population, and an additional 15 alleles were lost from individual reefs. In 2010, Florida plots (~19 colonies) contained an average of 2.2 ± 1.38 (mean ± SD) genets with a significant negative correlation between colony abundance and genotypic diversity. When scaled to total tissue abundance, genotypic diversity is even lower, with 43 % of genets below the size of sexual maturity. We examined the hypothesized positive relationship of local genotypic diversity with ecological performance measures. In Florida plots ( n = 15), genotypic diversity was not significantly correlated with tissue loss associated with chronic predation, nor with acute disease and storm-fragmentation events, though this relationship may be obscured by the low range of observed diversity and potential confounding with abundance. When more diverse plots in Curaçao ( n = 9) were examined, genotypic diversity was not significantly correlated with resistance during an acute storm disturbance or rate of recovery following disturbance. Cryptic loss of genetic diversity occurred in the apparently stable Florida population and confirms that stable or even increasing abundance does not necessarily indicate genetic stability.

  14. MAINTENANCE OF ECOLOGICALLY SIGNIFICANT GENETIC VARIATION IN THE TIGER SWALLOWTAIL BUTTERFLY THROUGH DIFFERENTIAL SELECTION AND GENE FLOW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossart, J L; Scriber, J M

    1995-12-01

    Differential selection in a heterogeneous environment is thought to promote the maintenance of ecologically significant genetic variation. Variation is maintained when selection is counterbalanced by the homogenizing effects of gene flow and random mating. In this study, we examine the relative importance of differential selection and gene flow in maintaining genetic variation in Papilio glaucus. Differential selection on traits contributing to successful use of host plants (oviposition preference and larval performance) was assessed by comparing the responses of southern Ohio, north central Georgia, and southern Florida populations of P. glaucus to three hosts: Liriodendron tulipifera, Magnolia virginiana, and Prunus serotina. Gene flow among populations was estimated using allozyme frequencies from nine polymorphic loci. Significant genetic differentiation was observed among populations for both oviposition preference and larval performance. This differentiation was interpreted to be the result of selection acting on Florida P. glaucus for enhanced use of Magnolia, the prevalent host in Florida. In contrast, no evidence of population differentiation was revealed by allozyme frequencies. F ST -values were very small and Nm, an estimate of the relative strengths of gene flow and genetic drift, was large, indicating that genetic exchange among P. glaucus populations is relatively unrestricted. The contrasting patterns of spatial differentiation for host-use traits and lack of differentiation for electrophoretically detectable variation implies that differential selection among populations will be counterbalanced by gene flow, thereby maintaining genetic variation for host-use traits. © 1995 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  15. Permanent Genetic Resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 December 2012 - 31 January 2013

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mendel, Jan; Urbánková, Soňa; Vyskočilová, M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 3 (2013), s. 546-549 ISSN 1755-098X Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : genetic database * microsatellite marker loci Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.626, year: 2013

  16. Genetic and ecological outcomes of Inga vera subsp. affinis (Leguminosae) tree plantations in a fragmented tropical landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz Neto, Oswaldo; Aguiar, Antonio V; Twyford, Alex D; Neaves, Linda E; Pennington, R Toby; Lopes, Ariadna V

    2014-01-01

    Planting of native trees for habitat restoration is a widespread practice, but the consequences for the retention and transmission of genetic diversity in planted and natural populations are unclear. Using Inga vera subsp. affinis as a model species, we genotyped five natural and five planted populations in the Atlantic forest of northeastern Brazil at polymorphic microsatellite loci. We studied the breeding system and population structure to test how much genetic diversity is retained in planted relative to natural populations. We then genotyped seedlings from these populations to test whether genetic diversity in planted populations is restored by outcrossing to natural populations of I. vera. The breeding system of natural I. vera populations was confirmed to be highly outcrossing (t = 0.92; FIS = -0.061, P = 0.04), with populations showing weak population substructure (FST = 0.028). Genetic diversity in planted populations was 50% less than that of natural populations (planted: AR = 14.9, HO = 0.865 and natural: AR = 30.8, HO = 0.655). However, seedlings from planted populations showed a 30% higher allelic richness relative to their parents (seedlings AR = 10.5, parents AR = 7.6). Understanding the processes and interactions that shape this system are necessary to provide ecologically sensible goals and successfully restore hyper-fragmented habitats. Future restoration plans for I. vera must consider the genetic diversity of planted populations and the potential for gene flow between natural populations in the landscape, in order to preserve ecological interactions (i.e. pollination), and promote opportunities for outcrossing.

  17. Permanent Genetic Resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 April 2010 – 31 May 2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andree, K.; Axtner, J.; Bagley, M.J.; Govers, F.; Jacobsen, E.; Mendes, O.; Lee, van der T.A.J.

    2010-01-01

    This article documents the addition of 396 microsatellite marker loci to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Anthocidaris crassispina, Aphis glycines, Argyrosomus regius, Astrocaryum sciophilum, Dasypus novemcinctus, Delomys sublineatus,

  18. The Genetics Underlying Natural Variation in the Biotic Interactions of Arabidopsis thaliana: The Challenges of Linking Evolutionary Genetics and Community Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, F; Bergelson, J

    2016-01-01

    In the context of global change, predicting the responses of plant communities in an ever-changing biotic environment calls for a multipronged approach at the interface of evolutionary genetics and community ecology. However, our understanding of the genetic basis of natural variation involved in mediating biotic interactions, and associated adaptive dynamics of focal plants in their natural communities, is still in its infancy. Here, we review the genetic and molecular bases of natural variation in the response to biotic interactions (viruses, bacteria, fungi, oomycetes, herbivores, and plants) in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana as well as the adaptive value of these bases. Among the 60 identified genes are a number that encode nucleotide-binding site leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR)-type proteins, consistent with early examples of plant defense genes. However, recent studies have revealed an extensive diversity in the molecular mechanisms of defense. Many types of genetic variants associate with phenotypic variation in biotic interactions, even among the genes of large effect that tend to be identified. In general, we found that (i) balancing selection rather than directional selection explains the observed patterns of genetic diversity within A. thaliana and (ii) the cost/benefit tradeoffs of adaptive alleles can be strongly dependent on both genomic and environmental contexts. Finally, because A. thaliana rarely interacts with only one biotic partner in nature, we highlight the benefit of exploring diffuse biotic interactions rather than tightly associated host-enemy pairs. This challenge would help to improve our understanding of coevolutionary quantitative genetics within the context of realistic community complexity. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. ASSESSING POSSIBLE ECOLOGICAL RISKS OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED CROPS: GENE EXPRESSION ASSAYS AND GENETIC MONITORING OF NON-TARGET ORGANISMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widespread planting of genetically modified crops with the Bt transgene pesticide has led to concern over non-target effects of Bt compounds in agroecosystems. While some research suggests that non-target organisms exposed to Bt toxin exhibit reduced fecundity and increased morta...

  20. Psychological context of work meaningfulness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Paulík

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a significant shift of approach to the management of organizations and workers in recent decades. This shift in management philosophy is characterized by converting from traditional, conventional (rather bureaucratic management models to rather humanistic/existential oriented models. This transition comes partly from the understanding that human resources are the most promising and effective way for organization development, partly from a shift in the understanding of the role of organizations in society. The key point of these approaches has become a "meaning" or "meaningfulness" in relation to the work and organization. The importance of work meaningfulness is not only in its potential to increase the competitiveness of organizations, but especially in its major (mostly positive impacts on the employee himself and his work (and by that the organization and its performance. Work meaningfulness is strongly connected to the work engagement, which represents the active personal participation in the work process, manifested by vigor, active cooperation, willingness to contribute to the company's success and dedication to work. Work engagement seems to be next important factor affecting work attitudes and achievements of employees. The paper gives an overview of various approaches to work meaningfulness and work engagement, on the basis of which authors propose new model of work meaningfulness with overlap to work engagement. The work meaningfulness is not seen as one-dimensional variable, but consists of complex of interacting factors and processes that define an individual perceived meaning and importance of the work. Meaningful work is influenced by three areas. The first is the organizational culture. This is defined as a specific pattern of values, norms, beliefs, attitudes and assumptions that are often not clearly expressed, but affect the way individuals behave in an organization and how things are done. The second area is the work

  1. Efficient ecologic and economic operational rules for dammed systems by means of nondominated sorting genetic algorithm II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niayifar, A.; Perona, P.

    2015-12-01

    River impoundment by dams is known to strongly affect the natural flow regime and in turn the river attributes and the related ecosystem biodiversity. Making hydropower sustainable implies to seek for innovative operational policies able to generate dynamic environmental flows while maintaining economic efficiency. For dammed systems, we build the ecological and economical efficiency plot for non-proportional flow redistribution operational rules compared to minimal flow operational. As for the case of small hydropower plants (e.g., see the companion paper by Gorla et al., this session), we use a four parameters Fermi-Dirac statistical distribution to mathematically formulate non-proportional redistribution rules. These rules allocate a fraction of water to the riverine environment depending on current reservoir inflows and storage. Riverine ecological benefits associated to dynamic environmental flows are computed by integrating the Weighted Usable Area (WUA) for fishes with Richter's hydrological indicators. Then, we apply nondominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II) to an ensemble of non-proportional and minimal flow redistribution rules in order to generate the Pareto frontier showing the system performances in the ecologic and economic space. This fast and elitist multiobjective optimization method is eventually applied to a case study. It is found that non-proportional dynamic flow releases ensure maximal power production on the one hand, while conciliating ecological sustainability on the other hand. Much of the improvement in the environmental indicator is seen to arise from a better use of the reservoir storage dynamics, which allows to capture, and laminate flood events while recovering part of them for energy production. In conclusion, adopting such new operational policies would unravel a spectrum of globally-efficient performances of the dammed system when compared with those resulting from policies based on constant minimum flow releases.

  2. Genetic mating systems and reproductive natural histories of fishes: lessons for ecology and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avise, John C; Jones, Adam G; Walker, DeEtte; DeWoody, J Andrew

    2002-01-01

    Fish species have diverse breeding behaviors that make them valuable for testing theories on genetic mating systems and reproductive tactics. Here we review genetic appraisals of paternity and maternity in wild fish populations. Behavioral phenomena quantified by genetic markers in various species include patterns of multiple mating by both sexes; frequent cuckoldry by males and rare cuckoldry by females in nest-tending species; additional routes to surrogate parentage via nest piracy and egg-thievery; egg mimicry by nest-tending males; brood parasitism by helper males in cooperative breeders; clutch mixing in oral brooders; kinship in schooling fry of broadcast spawners; sperm storage by dams in female-pregnant species; and sex-role reversal, polyandry, and strong sexual selection on females in some male-pregnant species. Additional phenomena addressed by genetic parentage analyses in fishes include clustered mutations, filial cannibalism, and local population size. All results are discussed in the context of relevant behavioral and evolutionary theory.

  3. On indigenous production, genetic diversity and crop ecology of enset (Ensete ventricosum (Welw.) Cheesman)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsegaye, A.

    2002-01-01

    Keywords : Enset, staple, indigenous knowledge, genetic diversity, AFLP, characterisation, conservation, Leaf Appearance Rate, Radiation Use Efficiency, yield potential, transplanting, leaf pruning, fermentation, 'kocho', food

  4. Ecological genetics and evolution: essays in honour of E. B. Ford

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Creed, Robert; Ford, E. B

    1971-01-01

    .... Other than some more general aspects of polymorphism, topics covered include genetics in relation to disease and its treatment in Man, mimicry and its evolution in the Lepidoptera melanism in moths...

  5. The ecological imperative and its application to ethical issues in human genetic technology

    OpenAIRE

    W. Malcolm Byrnes

    2003-01-01

    As a species, we are on the cusp of being able to alter that which makes us uniquely human, our genome. Two new genetic technologies, embryo selection and germline engineering, are either in use today or may be developed in the future. Embryo selection acts to alter the human gene pool, reducing genetic diversity, while germline engineering will have the ability to alter directly the genomes of engineered individuals. Our genome has come to be what it is through an evolutionary process extend...

  6. Chronic radiation exposure as an ecological factor: Hypermethylation and genetic differentiation in irradiated Scots pine populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkova, P Yu; Geras'kin, S A; Horemans, N; Makarenko, E S; Saenen, E; Duarte, G T; Nauts, R; Bondarenko, V S; Jacobs, G; Voorspoels, S; Kudin, M

    2018-01-01

    Genetic and epigenetic changes were investigated in chronically irradiated Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) populations from territories that were heavily contaminated by radionuclides as result of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident. In comparison to the reference site, the genetic diversity revealed by electrophoretic mobility of AFLPs was found to be significantly higher at the radioactively contaminated areas. In addition, the genome of pine trees was significantly hypermethylated at 4 of the 7 affected sites. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Behavioral, ecological and genetic differentiation in an open environment--a study of a mysid population in the Baltic Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Ogonowski

    Full Text Available Diel vertical migration (DVM is often assumed to encompass an entire population. However, bimodal nighttime vertical distributions have been observed in various taxa. Mysid shrimp populations also display this pattern with one group concentrated in the pelagia and the other near the bottom. This may indicate alternative migratory strategies, resembling the seasonal partial migrations seen in birds, fishes and amphibians, where only a subset of the population migrates. To assess the persistence of these alternative strategies, we analyzed the nitrogen and carbon stable isotope signatures (as proxies for diet, biochemical indices (as proxies for growth condition, and genetic population divergence in the Baltic mysid Mysis salemaai collected at night in the pelagia and close to the bottom. Stable isotope signatures were significantly different between migrants (pelagic samples and residents (benthic samples, indicating persistent diet differences, with pelagic mysids having a more uniform and carnivorous diet. Sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome subunit I (COI gene showed genetic differentiation attributable to geographic location but not between benthic and pelagic groups. Divergent migration strategies were however supported by significantly lower gene flow between benthic populations indicating that these groups have a lower predisposition for horizontal migrations compared to pelagic ones. Different migration strategies did not convey measurable growth benefits as pelagic and benthic mysids had similar growth condition indices. Thus, the combination of ecological, biochemical and genetic markers indicate that this partial migration may be a plastic behavioral trait that yields equal growth benefits.

  8. Permanent genetic resources added to molecular ecology resources database 1 june 2011–31 july 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barker, F. Keith; Bell, James J.; Bogdanowicz, Steven M.

    2011-01-01

    This article documents the addition of 112 microsatellite marker loci and 24 pairs of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) sequencing primers to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Agelaius phoeniceus, Austrolittorina cincta, Circus cyaneus......, Circus macrourus, Circus pygargus, Cryptocoryne · purpurea Ridl. nothovar. purpurea, Mya arenaria, Patagioenas squamosa, Prochilodus mariae, Scylla serrata and Scytalopus speluncae. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Cryptocoryne · purpurea nothovar. purpurea, Cryptocoryne affinis...

  9. The role of ecological and genetic factors in the onset of asthma in children (literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chumachenko N.G.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a literature review of publications domestic and foreign authors on the risk factors of the onset of asthma in children. Health is 20–40% dependent on the environment and 35–70% dependent on genetic factors. The interaction of genetic and environmental factors lead to anti-oxidant stress and changes not only on the level of the entire organism, but also on the cellular and molecular level. To asses to prognosis for onset and development of bronchial asthma in children, that reside in environmentally neglected zones it is necessary to continue the research into the molecular-genetic gene polymorphism of the enzymes of the xenobiotic detoxication system, as well as metabolic disturbances in children in order to delineate risk group for the onset of the condition and to develop indications for anti-oxidant treatment, to correct the molecular disturbances, that appear long before the clinical manifestation of asthma.

  10. Recent developments in computer modeling add ecological realism to landscape genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background / Question / Methods A factor limiting the rate of progress in landscape genetics has been the shortage of spatial models capable of linking life history attributes such as dispersal behavior to complex dynamic landscape features. The recent development of new models...

  11. The ecology and evolution of animal medication: genetically fixed response versus phenotypic plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choisy, Marc; de Roode, Jacobus C

    2014-08-01

    Animal medication against parasites can occur either as a genetically fixed (constitutive) or phenotypically plastic (induced) behavior. Taking the tritrophic interaction between the monarch butterfly Danaus plexippus, its protozoan parasite Ophryocystis elektroscirrha, and its food plant Asclepias spp. as a test case, we develop a game-theory model to identify the epidemiological (parasite prevalence and virulence) and environmental (plant toxicity and abundance) conditions that predict the evolution of genetically fixed versus phenotypically plastic forms of medication. Our model shows that the relative benefits (the antiparasitic properties of medicinal food) and costs (side effects of medicine, the costs of searching for medicine, and the costs of plasticity itself) crucially determine whether medication is genetically fixed or phenotypically plastic. Our model suggests that animals evolve phenotypic plasticity when parasite risk (a combination of virulence and prevalence and thus a measure of the strength of parasite-mediated selection) is relatively low to moderately high and genetically fixed medication when parasite risk becomes very high. The latter occurs because at high parasite risk, the costs of plasticity are outweighed by the benefits of medication. Our model provides a simple and general framework to study the conditions that drive the evolution of alternative forms of animal medication.

  12. Ecological genetics of the Bromus tectorum (Poaceae) - Ustilago Bullata (Ustilaginaceae): A role for frequency dependent selection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan E. Meyer; David L. Nelson; Suzette Clement; Alisa Ramakrishnan

    2010-01-01

    Evolutionary processes that maintain genetic diversity in plants are likely to include selection imposed by pathogens. Negative frequency-dependent selection is a mechanism for maintenance of resistance polymorphism in plant - pathogen interactions. We explored whether such selection operates in the Bromus tectorum - Ustilago bullata pathosystem. Gene-for-gene...

  13. Permanent genetic resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 February 2013-31 March 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, M C; Atteke, Christiane; Augusto, S C; Bailey, J; Bazaga, Pilar; Beheregaray, Luciano B; Benoit, Laure; Blatrix, Rumsaïs; Born, Céline; Brito, R M; Chen, Hai-kui; Covarrubias, Sara; de Vega, Clara; Djiéto-Lordon, Champlain; Dubois, Marie-Pierre; Francisco, F O; García, Cristina; Gonçalves, P H P; González, Clementina; Gutiérrez-Rodríguez, Carla; Hammer, Michael P; Herrera, Carlos M; Itoh, H; Kamimura, S; Karaoglu, H; Kojima, S; Li, Shou-Li; Ling, Hannah J; Matos-Maraví, Pável F; McKey, Doyle; Mezui-M'Eko, Judicaël; Ornelas, Juan Francisco; Park, R F; Pozo, María I; Ramula, Satu; Rigueiro, Cristina; Sandoval-Castillo, Jonathan; Santiago, L R; Seino, Miyuki M; Song, Chang-Bing; Takeshima, H; Vasemägi, Anti; Wellings, C R; Yan, Ji; Yu-Zhou, Du; Zhang, Chang-Rong; Zhang, Tian-Yun

    2013-07-01

    This article documents the addition of 142 microsatellite marker loci to the Molecular Ecology Resources database. Loci were developed for the following species: Agriophyllum squarrosum, Amazilia cyanocephala, Batillaria attramentaria, Fungal strain CTeY1 (Ascomycota), Gadopsis marmoratus, Juniperus phoenicea subsp. turbinata, Liriomyza sativae, Lupinus polyphyllus, Metschnikowia reukaufii, Puccinia striiformis and Xylocopa grisescens. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Amazilia beryllina, Amazilia candida, Amazilia rutila, Amazilia tzacatl, Amazilia violiceps, Amazilia yucatanensis, Campylopterus curvipennis, Cynanthus sordidus, Hylocharis leucotis, Juniperus brevifolia, Juniperus cedrus, Juniperus osteosperma, Juniperus oxycedrus, Juniperus thurifera, Liriomyza bryoniae, Liriomyza chinensis, Liriomyza huidobrensis and Liriomyza trifolii. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Permanent Genetic Resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 October 2011 - 30 November 2011

    KAUST Repository

    Abreu, Aluana Gonç alves; Albaina, A.; Alpermann, Tilman J.; Apkenas, Vanessa E.; Bankhead-Dronnet, Sté phanie; Bergek, Sara; Berumen, Michael L.; Cho, Changhung; Clobert, Jean; Coulon, Auré lie; De Feraudy, D.; Estonba, Andone; Hankeln, Thomas M A; Hochkirch, Axel; Hsu, Tsaiwen; Huang, Tsurngjuhn; Irigoien, Xabier; Iriondo, Mikel; Kay, Kathleen M.; Kinitz, Tim; Kothera, Linda; Le Hé nanff, Maxime; Lieutier, Franç ois; Lourdais, Olivier; Macrini, Camila M T; Manzano, Carmen; Martin, Carine; Morris, Veronica Ruth Franco; Nanninga, Gerrit B.; Pardo, D.; Plieske, Jö rg; Pointeau, Sophie; Prestegaard, Tore; Quack, Markus; Richard, Murielle; Savage, Harry M.; Schwarcz, Kaiser D.; Shade, Jessica; Simms, Ellen L.; Solferini, Vera Nisaka; Stevens, Virginie M.; Veith, Michael W.; Wen, Meijuan; Wicker, Florian; Yost, Jenn M.; Zarraonaindia, Iratxe

    2012-01-01

    This article documents the addition of 139 microsatellite marker loci and 90 pairs of single-nucleotide polymorphism sequencing primers to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Aglaoctenus lagotis, Costus pulverulentus, Costus scaber, Culex pipiens, Dascyllus marginatus, Lupinus nanus Benth, Phloeomyzus passerini, Podarcis muralis, Rhododendron rubropilosum Hayata var. taiwanalpinum and Zoarces viviparus. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Culex quinquefasciatus, Rhododendron pseudochrysanthum Hay. ssp. morii (Hay.) Yamazaki and R. pseudochrysanthum Hayata. This article also documents the addition of 48 sequencing primer pairs and 90 allele-specific primers for Engraulis encrasicolus. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Permanent Genetic Resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 October 2011 - 30 November 2011

    KAUST Repository

    Abreu, Aluana Gonçalves

    2012-02-01

    This article documents the addition of 139 microsatellite marker loci and 90 pairs of single-nucleotide polymorphism sequencing primers to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Aglaoctenus lagotis, Costus pulverulentus, Costus scaber, Culex pipiens, Dascyllus marginatus, Lupinus nanus Benth, Phloeomyzus passerini, Podarcis muralis, Rhododendron rubropilosum Hayata var. taiwanalpinum and Zoarces viviparus. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Culex quinquefasciatus, Rhododendron pseudochrysanthum Hay. ssp. morii (Hay.) Yamazaki and R. pseudochrysanthum Hayata. This article also documents the addition of 48 sequencing primer pairs and 90 allele-specific primers for Engraulis encrasicolus. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Ecological and genetic interactions between cyanobacteria and viruses in a low-oxygen mat community inferred through metagenomics and metatranscriptomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voorhies, Alexander A; Eisenlord, Sarah D; Marcus, Daniel N; Duhaime, Melissa B; Biddanda, Bopaiah A; Cavalcoli, James D; Dick, Gregory J

    2016-02-01

    Metagenomic and metatranscriptomic sequencing was conducted on cyanobacterial mats of the Middle Island Sinkhole (MIS), Lake Huron. Metagenomic data from 14 samples collected over 5 years were used to reconstruct genomes of two genotypes of a novel virus, designated PhV1 type A and PhV1 type B. Both viral genotypes encode and express nblA, a gene involved in degrading phycobilisomes, which are complexes of pigmented proteins that harvest light for photosynthesis. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the viral-encoded nblA is derived from the host cyanobacterium, Phormidium MIS-PhA. The cyanobacterial host also has two complete CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) systems that serve as defence mechanisms for bacteria and archaea against viruses and plasmids. One 45 bp CRISPR spacer from Phormidium had 100% nucleotide identity to PhV1 type B, but this region was absent from PhV1 type A. Transcripts from PhV1 and the Phormidium CRISPR loci were detected in all six metatranscriptomic data sets (three during the day and three at night), indicating that both are transcriptionally active in the environment. These results reveal ecological and genetic interactions between viruses and cyanobacteria at MIS, highlighting the value of parallel analysis of viruses and hosts in understanding ecological interactions in natural communities. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Ecological genetics of Chinese rhesus macaque in response to mountain building: all things are not equal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan-Jin Wu

    Full Text Available Pliocene uplifting of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP and Quaternary glaciation may have impacted the Asian biota more than any other events. Little is documented with respect to how the geological and climatological events influenced speciation as well as spatial and genetic structuring, especially in vertebrate endotherms. Macaca mulatta is the most widely distributed non-human primate. It may be the most suitable model to test hypotheses regarding the genetic consequences of orogenesis on an endotherm.Using a large dataset of maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA gene sequences and nuclear microsatellite DNA data, we discovered two maternal super-haplogroups exist, one in western China and the other in eastern China. M. mulatta formed around 2.31 Ma (1.51-3.15, 95%, and divergence of the two major matrilines was estimated at 1.15 Ma (0.78-1.55, 95%. The western super-haplogroup exhibits significant geographic structure. In contrast, the eastern super-haplogroup has far greater haplotypic variability with little structure based on analyses of six variable microsatellite loci using Structure and Geneland. Analysis using Migrate detected greater gene flow from WEST to EAST than vice versa. We did not detect signals of bottlenecking in most populations.Analyses of the nuclear and mitochondrial datasets obtained large differences in genetic patterns for M. mulatta. The difference likely reflects inheritance mechanisms of the maternally inherited mtDNA genome versus nuclear biparentally inherited STRs and male-mediated gene flow. Dramatic environmental changes may be responsible for shaping the matrilineal history of macaques. The timing of events, the formation of M. mulatta, and the divergence of the super-haplogroups, corresponds to both the uplifting of the QTP and Quaternary climatic oscillations. Orogenesis likely drove divergence of western populations in China, and Pleistocene glaciations are likely responsible for genetic structuring in

  18. Molecular Genetic Insights on Cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) Ecology and Conservation in Namibia

    OpenAIRE

    Marker, Laurie L.; Wilkerson, Alison J. Pearks; Sarno, Ronald J.; Martenson, Janice; Breitenmoser-Würsten, Christian; O'Brien, Stephen J.; Johnson, Warren E.

    2017-01-01

    The extent and geographic patterns of molecular genetic diversity of the largest remaining free-ranging cheetah population were described in a survey of 313 individuals from throughout Namibia. Levels of relatedness, including paternity/maternity (parentage), were assessed across all individuals using 19 polymorphic microsatellite loci, and unrelated cheetahs (n = 89) from 7 regions were genotyped at 38 loci to document broad geographical patterns. There was limited differentiation among regi...

  19. Molecular genetic insights on cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) ecology and conservation in Namibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marker, Laurie L; Pearks Wilkerson, Alison J; Sarno, Ronald J; Martenson, Janice; Breitenmoser-Würsten, Christian; O'Brien, Stephen J; Johnson, Warren E

    2008-01-01

    The extent and geographic patterns of molecular genetic diversity of the largest remaining free-ranging cheetah population were described in a survey of 313 individuals from throughout Namibia. Levels of relatedness, including paternity/maternity (parentage), were assessed across all individuals using 19 polymorphic microsatellite loci, and unrelated cheetahs (n = 89) from 7 regions were genotyped at 38 loci to document broad geographical patterns. There was limited differentiation among regions, evidence that this is a generally panmictic population. Measures of genetic variation were similar among all regions and were comparable with Eastern African cheetah populations. Parentage analyses confirmed several observations based on field studies, including 21 of 23 previously hypothesized family groups, 40 probable parent/offspring pairs, and 8 sibling groups. These results also verified the successful integration and reproduction of several cheetahs following natural dispersal or translocation. Animals within social groups (family groups, male coalitions, or sibling groups) were generally related. Within the main study area, radio-collared female cheetahs were more closely interrelated than similarly compared males, a pattern consistent with greater male dispersal. The long-term maintenance of current patterns of genetic variation in Namibia depends on retaining habitat characteristics that promote natural dispersal and gene flow of cheetahs.

  20. Genetic consequences of historical anthropogenic and ecological events on giant pandas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lifeng; Hu, Yibo; Qi, Dunwu; Wu, Hua; Zhan, Xiangjiang; Zhang, Zhejun; Bruford, Michael W; Wang, Jinliang; Yang, Xuyu; Gu, Xiaodong; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Baowei; Zhang, Shanning; Wei, Fuwen

    2013-10-01

    The giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) was taken to the brink of extinction in the 1980s through a combination of deforestation, large-scale loss of bamboo in the core of its range, poaching, and zoo collection, causing over 1000 deaths from the 1950s. It was thought that the drastic population decline was likely to impose a severe impact on population viability. Here, based on temporal genotyping of individuals, we show that this rapid decline did not significantly reduce the overall effective population size and genetic variation of this species, or of the two focal populations (Minshan and Qionglai) that declined the most. These results are contrary to previously assumptions, probably because the population decline has not produced the expected negative impact due to the short time scale involved (at most 10 generations), or because previous surveys underestimated the population size at the time of decline. However, if present-day habitat fragmentation and limited migration of giant pandas remains, we predict a loss of genetic diversity across the giant pandas' range in the near future. Thus, our findings highlight the substantial resilience of this species when facing demographic and environmental stochasticity, but key conservation strategies, such as enhancing habitat connectivity and habitat restoration should be immediately implemented to retain the extant genetic variation and maintain long-term evolutionary potential of this endangered species.

  1. Introduction to the Arizona Sky Island Arthropod Project (ASAP): Systematics, biogeography, ecology, and population genetics of arthropods of the Madrean Sky Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendy Moore; Wallace M. Meyer; Jeffrey A. Eble; Kimberly Franklin; John F. Wiens; Richard C. Brusca

    2013-01-01

    The Arizona Sky Island Arthropod Project (ASAP) is a new multi-disciplinary research program at the University of Arizona that combines systematics, biogeography, ecology, and population genetics to study origins and patterns of arthropod diversity along elevation gradients and among mountain ranges in the Madrean Sky Island Region. Arthropods represent taxonomically...

  2. Blind to morphology: Genetics identifies several widespread ecologically common species and few endemics among Indo-Pacific cauliflower corals (Pocillopora, Scleractinia)

    KAUST Repository

    Pinzón, Jorge H C

    2013-04-05

    Aim: Using high-resolution genetic markers on samples gathered from across their wide distributional range, we endeavoured to delimit species diversity in reef-building Pocillopora corals. They are common, ecologically important, and widespread throughout the Indo-Pacific, but their phenotypic plasticity in response to environmental conditions and their nearly featureless microskeletal structures confound taxonomic assignments and limit an understanding of their ecology and evolution. Location: Indo-Pacific, Red Sea, Arabian/Persian Gulf. Methods: Sequence analysis of nuclear ribosomal (internal transcribed spacer 2, ITS2) and mitochondrial (open reading frame) loci were combined with population genetic data (seven microsatellite loci) for Pocillopora samples collected throughout the Indo-Pacific, Red Sea and Arabian Gulf, in order to assess the evolutionary divergence, reproductive isolation, frequency of hybridization and geographical distributions of the genus. Results: Between five and eight genetically distinct lineages comparable to species were identified with minimal or no hybridization between them. Colony morphology was generally incongruent with genetics across the full range of sampling, and the total number of species is apparently consistent with lower estimates from competing morphologically based hypotheses (about seven or eight taxa). The most commonly occurring genetic lineages were widely distributed and exhibited high dispersal and gene flow, factors that have probably minimized allopatric speciation. Uniquely among scleractinian genera, this genus contains a monophyletic group of broadcast spawners that evolved recently from an ancestral brooder. Main conclusions: The delineation of species diversity guided by genetics fundamentally advances our understanding of Pocillopora geographical distributions, ecology and evolution. Because traditional diagnostic features of colony and branch morphology are proving to be of limited utility, the

  3. Blind to morphology: Genetics identifies several widespread ecologically common species and few endemics among Indo-Pacific cauliflower corals (Pocillopora, Scleractinia)

    KAUST Repository

    Pinzó n, Jorge H C; Sampayo, Eugenia M.; Cox, Evelyn F.; Chauka, Leonard J.; Chen, Chaolun Allen; Voolstra, Christian R.; LaJeunesse, Todd C.

    2013-01-01

    Aim: Using high-resolution genetic markers on samples gathered from across their wide distributional range, we endeavoured to delimit species diversity in reef-building Pocillopora corals. They are common, ecologically important, and widespread throughout the Indo-Pacific, but their phenotypic plasticity in response to environmental conditions and their nearly featureless microskeletal structures confound taxonomic assignments and limit an understanding of their ecology and evolution. Location: Indo-Pacific, Red Sea, Arabian/Persian Gulf. Methods: Sequence analysis of nuclear ribosomal (internal transcribed spacer 2, ITS2) and mitochondrial (open reading frame) loci were combined with population genetic data (seven microsatellite loci) for Pocillopora samples collected throughout the Indo-Pacific, Red Sea and Arabian Gulf, in order to assess the evolutionary divergence, reproductive isolation, frequency of hybridization and geographical distributions of the genus. Results: Between five and eight genetically distinct lineages comparable to species were identified with minimal or no hybridization between them. Colony morphology was generally incongruent with genetics across the full range of sampling, and the total number of species is apparently consistent with lower estimates from competing morphologically based hypotheses (about seven or eight taxa). The most commonly occurring genetic lineages were widely distributed and exhibited high dispersal and gene flow, factors that have probably minimized allopatric speciation. Uniquely among scleractinian genera, this genus contains a monophyletic group of broadcast spawners that evolved recently from an ancestral brooder. Main conclusions: The delineation of species diversity guided by genetics fundamentally advances our understanding of Pocillopora geographical distributions, ecology and evolution. Because traditional diagnostic features of colony and branch morphology are proving to be of limited utility, the

  4. Permanent genetic resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 December 2011-31 January 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, M C; Arnoux, E; Bell, James J; Bernadou, Abel; Bino, Giorgia; Blatrix, R; Bourguet, Denis; Carrea, Cecilia; Clamens, Anne-Laure; Cunha, Haydée A; d'Alençon, E; Ding, Yi; Djieto-Lordon, C; Dubois, M P; Dumas, P; Eraud, C; Faivre, B; Francisco, F O; Françoso, E; Garcia, M; Gardner, Jonathan P A; Garnier, S; Gimenez, S; Gold, John R; Harris, D J; He, Guangcun; Hellemans, B; Hollenbeck, Christopher M; Jing, Shengli; Kergoat, G J; Liu, Bingfang; McDowell, Jan R; McKey, D; Miller, Terrence L; Newton, Erica; Pagenkopp Lohan, Katrina M; Papetti, Chiara; Paterson, Ian; Peccoud, J; Peng, Xinxin; Piatscheck, F; Ponsard, Sergine; Reece, Kimberly S; Reisser, Céline M O; Renshaw, Mark A; Ruzzante, Daniel E; Sauve, M; Shields, Jeffrey D; Solé-Cava, Antonio; Souche, E L; Van Houdt, J K J; Vasconcellos, Anderson; Volckaert, F A M; Wang, Shuzhen; Xiao, Jie; Yu, Hangjin; Zane, Lorenzo; Zannato, Barbara; Zemlak, Tyler S; Zhang, Chunxiao; Zhao, Yan; Zhou, Xi; Zhu, Lili

    2012-05-01

    This article documents the addition of 473 microsatellite marker loci and 71 pairs of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) sequencing primers to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Barteria fistulosa, Bombus morio, Galaxias platei, Hematodinium perezi, Macrocentrus cingulum Brischke (a.k.a. M. abdominalis Fab., M. grandii Goidanich or M. gifuensis Ashmead), Micropogonias furnieri, Nerita melanotragus, Nilaparvata lugens Stål, Sciaenops ocellatus, Scomber scombrus, Spodoptera frugiperda and Turdus lherminieri. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Barteria dewevrei, Barteria nigritana, Barteria solida, Cynoscion acoupa, Cynoscion jamaicensis, Cynoscion leiarchus, Cynoscion nebulosus, Cynoscion striatus, Cynoscion virescens, Macrodon ancylodon, Menticirrhus americanus, Nilaparvata muiri and Umbrina canosai. This article also documents the addition of 116 sequencing primer pairs for Dicentrarchus labrax. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Permanent genetic resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 December 2010-31 January 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agata, Kiyokazu; Alasaad, Samer; Almeida-Val, Vera Maria Fonseca; Alvarez-Dios, J A; Barbisan, F; Beadell, Jon S; Beltrán, J F; Benítez, M; Bino, G; Bleay, Colin; Bloor, P; Bohlmann, Jörg; Booth, Warren; Boscari, E; Caccone, Adalgisa; Campos, Tatiana; Carvalho, B M; Climaco, Gisele Torres; Clobert, Jean; Congiu, L; Cowger, Christina; Dias, G; Doadrio, I; Farias, Izeni Pires; Ferrand, N; Freitas, Patrícia D; Fusco, G; Galetti, Pedro M; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian; Gaunt, Michael W; Ocampo, Zaneli Gomez; Gonçalves, H; Gonzalez, E G; Haye, Pilar; Honnay, O; Hyseni, Chaz; Jacquemyn, H; Jowers, Michael J; Kakezawa, Akihiro; Kawaguchi, Eri; Keeling, Christopher I; Kwan, Ye-Seul; La Spina, Michelangelo; Lee, Wan-Ok; Leśniewska, M; Li, Yang; Liu, Haixia; Liu, Xiaolin; Lopes, S; Martínez, P; Meeus, S; Murray, Brent W; Nunes, Aline G; Okedi, Loyce M; Ouma, Johnson O; Pardo, B G; Parks, Ryan; Paula-Silva, Maria Nazaré; Pedraza-Lara, C; Perera, Omaththage P; Pino-Querido, A; Richard, Murielle; Rossini, Bruno C; Samarasekera, N Gayathri; Sánchez, Antonio; Sanchez, Juan A; Santos, Carlos Henrique Dos Anjos; Shinohara, Wataru; Soriguer, Ramón C; Sousa, Adna Cristina Barbosa; Sousa, Carolina Fernandes Da Silva; Stevens, Virginie M; Tejedo, M; Valenzuela-Bustamante, Myriam; Van de Vliet, M S; Vandepitte, K; Vera, M; Wandeler, Peter; Wang, Weimin; Won, Yong-Jin; Yamashiro, A; Yamashiro, T; Zhu, Changcheng

    2011-05-01

    This article documents the addition of 238 microsatellite marker loci to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Alytes dickhilleni, Arapaima gigas, Austropotamobius italicus, Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici, Cobitis lutheri, Dendroctonus ponderosae, Glossina morsitans morsitans, Haplophilus subterraneus, Kirengeshoma palmata, Lysimachia japonica, Macrolophus pygmaeus, Microtus cabrerae, Mytilus galloprovincialis, Pallisentis (Neosentis) celatus, Pulmonaria officinalis, Salminus franciscanus, Thais chocolata and Zootoca vivipara. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Acanthina monodon, Alytes cisternasii, Alytes maurus, Alytes muletensis, Alytes obstetricans almogavarii, Alytes obstetricans boscai, Alytes obstetricans obstetricans, Alytes obstetricans pertinax, Cambarellus montezumae, Cambarellus zempoalensis, Chorus giganteus, Cobitis tetralineata, Glossina fuscipes fuscipes, Glossina pallidipes, Lysimachia japonica var. japonica, Lysimachia japonica var. minutissima, Orconectes virilis, Pacifastacus leniusculus, Procambarus clarkii, Salminus brasiliensis and Salminus hilarii. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Genetic, ecological and morphological divergence between populations of the endangered Mexican Sheartail hummingbird (Doricha eliza.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuyini Licona-Vera

    Full Text Available The Mexican Sheartail (Doricha eliza, an endangered hummingbird, is endemic to Mexico where two populations have a disjunct distribution. One population is distributed along the northern tip of the Yucatan Peninsula whereas the other is mostly restricted to central Veracruz. Despite their disjunct distribution, previous work has failed to detect morphological or behavioral differences between these populations. Here we use variation in morphology, mtDNA and nuDNA sequences to determine the degree of morphological and molecular divergence between populations, their divergence time, and historical demography. We use species distribution modeling and niche divergence tests to infer the relative roles of vicariance and dispersal in driving divergence in the genus. Our Bayesian and maximum likelihood phylogenetic analyses revealed that Doricha eliza populations form a monophyletic clade and support their sister relationship with D. enicura. We found marked genetic differentiation, with reciprocal monophyly of haplotypes and highly restricted gene flow, supporting a history of isolation over the last 120,000 years. Genetic divergence between populations is consistent with the lack of overlap in environmental space and slight morphological differences between males. Our findings indicate that the divergence of the Veracruz and Yucatan populations is best explained by a combination of a short period of isolation exacerbated by subsequent divergence in climate conditions, and that rather than vicariance, the two isolated ranges of D. eliza are the product of recent colonization and divergence in isolation.

  7. Nest materials as a source of genetic data for avian ecological studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, J.M.; Fields, R.L.; Scribner, K.T.

    1997-01-01

    We examined the utility of feathers and egg shell membranes, deposited in the nests of Spectacled Eiders (Somateria fischeri), as a source of DNA for genetic studies at both the population and individual level. The potential for feather DNA contamination as a result of female behavioral interactions (e.g. nest parasitism), reuse of nest sites from previous years, or other unknown occurrences was acknowledged and specifically tested. DNA was successfully extracted from both feathers and egg shell membranes and waterfowl microsatellite loci were used to construct individual genotypes. We found no difference in the genotypes obtained from nest feathers or blood of the incubating female. Detection of nest feather contamination was possible with as little as one feather when samples from multiple females were intentionally mixed. Triplicate DNA extractions from 33 nests provided a means of detecting contamination in 3 nests. Egg membranes proved a viable source of offspring DNA and can contribute valuable data to investigations of parentage when assayed jointly with maternal feather DNA. Nest materials provide an efficient, non-invasive method of genetic sampling that can be readily incorporated into field research. However, the natural history traits and mating strategies of a species must be considered during sample collection to identify the possible sources of nest materials (e.g., paternal, maternal, parasite, etc.). Specific experiments should also be designed to test sampling assumptions.

  8. Permanent Genetic Resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources database 1 January 2009-30 April 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abercrombie, L G; Anderson, C M; Baldwin, B G; Bang, I C; Beldade, R; Bernardi, G; Boubou, A; Branca, A; Bretagnolle, F; Bruford, M W; Buonamici, A; Burnett, R K; Canal, D; Cárdenas, H; Caullet, C; Chen, S Y; Chun, Y J; Cossu, C; Crane, C F; Cros-Arteil, S; Cudney-Bueno, R; Danti, R; Dávila, J A; Della Rocca, G; Dobata, S; Dunkle, L D; Dupas, S; Faure, N; Ferrero, M E; Fumanal, B; Gigot, G; González, I; Goodwin, S B; Groth, D; Hardesty, B D; Hasegawa, E; Hoffman, E A; Hou, M L; Jamsari, A F J; Ji, H J; Johnson, D H; Joseph, L; Justy, F; Kang, E J; Kaufmann, B; Kim, K S; Kim, W J; Koehler, A V; Laitung, B; Latch, P; Liu, Y D; Manjerovic, M B; Martel, E; Metcalfe, S S; Miller, J N; Midgley, J J; Migeon, A; Moore, A J; Moore, W L; Morris, V R F; Navajas, M; Navia, D; Neel, M C; De Nova, P J G; Olivieri, I; Omura, T; Othman, A S; Oudot-Canaff, J; Panthee, D R; Parkinson, C L; Patimah, I; Pérez-Galindo, C A; Pettengill, J B; Pfautsch, S; Piola, F; Potti, J; Poulin, R; Raimondi, P T; Rinehart, T A; Ruzainah, A; Sarver, S K; Scheffler, B E; Schneider, A R R; Silvain, J F; Siti Azizah, M N; Springer, Y P; Stewart, C N; Sun, W; Tiedemann, R; Tsuji, K; Trigiano, R N; Vendramin, G G; Wadl, P A; Wang, L; Wang, X; Watanabe, K; Waterman, J M; Weisser, W W; Westcott, D A; Wiesner, K R; Xu, X F; Yaegashi, S; Yuan, J S

    2009-09-01

    This article documents the addition of 283 microsatellite marker loci to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Agalinis acuta; Ambrosia artemisiifolia; Berula erecta; Casuarius casuarius; Cercospora zeae-maydis; Chorthippus parallelus; Conyza canadensis; Cotesia sesamiae; Epinephelus acanthistius; Ficedula hypoleuca; Grindelia hirsutula; Guadua angustifolia; Leucadendron rubrum; Maritrema novaezealandensis; Meretrix meretrix; Nilaparvata lugens; Oxyeleotris marmoratus; Phoxinus neogaeus; Pristomyrmex punctatus; Pseudobagrus brevicorpus; Seiridium cardinale; Stenopsyche marmorata; Tetranychus evansi and Xerus inauris. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Agalinis decemloba; Agalinis tenella; Agalinis obtusifolia; Agalinis setacea; Agalinis skinneriana; Cercospora zeina; Cercospora kikuchii; Cercospora sorghi; Mycosphaerella graminicola; Setosphaeria turcica; Magnaporthe oryzae; Cotesia flavipes; Cotesia marginiventris; Grindelia Xpaludosa; Grindelia chiloensis; Grindelia fastigiata; Grindelia lanceolata; Grindelia squarrosa; Leucadendron coniferum; Leucadendron salicifolium; Leucadendron tinctum; Leucadendron meridianum; Laodelphax striatellus; Sogatella furcifera; Phoxinus eos; Phoxinus rigidus; Phoxinus brevispinosus; Phoxinus bicolor; Tetranychus urticae; Tetranychus turkestani; Tetranychus ludeni; Tetranychus neocaledonicus; Tetranychus amicus; Amphitetranychus viennensis; Eotetranychus rubiphilus; Eotetranychus tiliarium; Oligonychus perseae; Panonychus citri; Bryobia rubrioculus; Schizonobia bundi; Petrobia harti; Xerus princeps; Spermophilus tridecemlineatus and Sciurus carolinensis. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Permanent genetic resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 August 2011-30 September 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A'Hara, S W; Amouroux, P; Argo, Emily E; Avand-Faghih, A; Barat, Ashoktaru; Barbieri, Luiz; Bert, Theresa M; Blatrix, R; Blin, Aurélie; Bouktila, D; Broome, A; Burban, C; Capdevielle-Dulac, C; Casse, N; Chandra, Suresh; Cho, Kyung Jin; Cottrell, J E; Crawford, Charles R; Davis, Michelle C; Delatte, H; Desneux, Nicolas; Djieto-Lordon, C; Dubois, M P; El-Mergawy, R A A M; Gallardo-Escárate, C; Garcia, M; Gardiner, Mary M; Guillemaud, Thomas; Haye, P A; Hellemans, B; Hinrichsen, P; Jeon, Ji Hyun; Kerdelhué, C; Kharrat, I; Kim, Ki Hwan; Kim, Yong Yul; Kwan, Ye-Seul; Labbe, Ellen M; LaHood, Eric; Lee, Kyung Mi; Lee, Wan-Ok; Lee, Yat-Hung; Legoff, Isabelle; Li, H; Lin, Chung-Ping; Liu, S S; Liu, Y G; Long, D; Maes, G E; Magnoux, E; Mahanta, Prabin Chandra; Makni, H; Makni, M; Malausa, Thibaut; Matura, Rakesh; McKey, D; McMillen-Jackson, Anne L; Méndez, M A; Mezghani-Khemakhem, M; Michel, Andy P; Paul, Moran; Muriel-Cunha, Janice; Nibouche, S; Normand, F; Palkovacs, Eric P; Pande, Veena; Parmentier, K; Peccoud, J; Piatscheck, F; Puchulutegui, Cecilia; Ramos, R; Ravest, G; Richner, Heinz; Robbens, J; Rochat, D; Rousselet, J; Saladin, Verena; Sauve, M; Schlei, Ora; Schultz, Thomas F; Scobie, A R; Segovia, N I; Seyoum, Seifu; Silvain, J-F; Tabone, Elisabeth; Van Houdt, J K J; Vandamme, S G; Volckaert, F A M; Wenburg, John; Willis, Theodore V; Won, Yong-Jin; Ye, N H; Zhang, W; Zhang, Y X

    2012-01-01

    This article documents the addition of 299 microsatellite marker loci and nine pairs of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) EPIC primers to the Molecular Ecology Resources (MER) Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Alosa pseudoharengus, Alosa aestivalis, Aphis spiraecola, Argopecten purpuratus, Coreoleuciscus splendidus, Garra gotyla, Hippodamia convergens, Linnaea borealis, Menippe mercenaria, Menippe adina, Parus major, Pinus densiflora, Portunus trituberculatus, Procontarinia mangiferae, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, Schizothorax richardsonii, Scophthalmus rhombus, Tetraponera aethiops, Thaumetopoea pityocampa, Tuta absoluta and Ugni molinae. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Barilius bendelisis, Chiromantes haematocheir, Eriocheir sinensis, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Eucalyptus cladocalix, Eucalyptus globulus, Garra litaninsis vishwanath, Garra para lissorhynchus, Guindilla trinervis, Hemigrapsus sanguineus, Luma chequen. Guayaba, Myrceugenia colchagüensis, Myrceugenia correifolia, Myrceugenia exsucca, Parasesarma plicatum, Parus major, Portunus pelagicus, Psidium guayaba, Schizothorax richardsonii, Scophthalmus maximus, Tetraponera latifrons, Thaumetopoea bonjeani, Thaumetopoea ispartensis, Thaumetopoea libanotica, Thaumetopoea pinivora, Thaumetopoea pityocampa ena clade, Thaumetopoea solitaria, Thaumetopoea wilkinsoni and Tor putitora. This article also documents the addition of nine EPIC primer pairs for Euphaea decorata, Euphaea formosa, Euphaea ornata and Euphaea yayeyamana. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Proceedings. Larch genetics and breeding. Research findings and ecological-silvicultural demands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinsson, Owe [ed.

    1995-12-31

    The genus Larix Mill. (larch) represents a great part of the boreal and alpine forests. Larch species are the most common conifers in Siberia and they have an important role in European and North American forest ecosystems and forest economies. The value of these group of species are expected to increase in the future. There are at least three different reasons for that assumption: 1. Larch has highly appreciated technical wood properties., 2. Intensive cutting during the past three centuries has made larch a threatened group of species in some parts of the world., 3. Increasing access to Siberia will make forestry and forest harvest of larch an important part of the forest economy and ecology. In August 1995 a group of forest scientists gathered under the framework of IUFRO working group S2.02-07 in southern Sweden for exchange of experience in the fields of breeding and silviculture of larch. This proceedings was compiled on the basis of the presentations of this working group. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 12 of the 17 papers

  11. Aspen Ecology in Rocky Mountain National Park: Age Distribution, Genetics, and the Effects of Elk Herbivory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL; Yin, Tongming [ORNL

    2008-10-01

    Lack of aspen (Populus tremuloides) recruitment and canopy replacement of aspen stands that grow on the edges of grasslands on the low-elevation elk (Cervus elaphus) winter range of Rocky Mountain National Park (RMNP) in Colorado has been a cause of concern for more than 70 years (Packard, 1942; Olmsted, 1979; Stevens, 1980; Hess, 1993; R.J. Monello, T.L. Johnson, and R.G. Wright, Rocky Mountain National Park, 2006, written commun.). These aspen stands are a significant resource since they are located close to the park's road system and thus are highly visible to park visitors. Aspen communities are integral to the ecological structure of montane and subalpine landscapes because they contain high native species richness of plants, birds, and butterflies (Chong and others, 2001; Simonson and others, 2001; Chong and Stohlgren, 2007). These low-elevation, winter range stands also represent a unique component of the park's plant community diversity since most (more than 95 percent) of the park's aspen stands grow in coniferous forest, often on sheltered slopes and at higher elevations, while these winter range stands are situated on the low-elevation ecotone between the winter range grasslands and some of the park's drier coniferous forests.

  12. Proceedings. Larch genetics and breeding. Research findings and ecological-silvicultural demands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinsson, Owe [ed.

    1996-12-31

    The genus Larix Mill. (larch) represents a great part of the boreal and alpine forests. Larch species are the most common conifers in Siberia and they have an important role in European and North American forest ecosystems and forest economies. The value of these group of species are expected to increase in the future. There are at least three different reasons for that assumption: 1. Larch has highly appreciated technical wood properties., 2. Intensive cutting during the past three centuries has made larch a threatened group of species in some parts of the world., 3. Increasing access to Siberia will make forestry and forest harvest of larch an important part of the forest economy and ecology. In August 1995 a group of forest scientists gathered under the framework of IUFRO working group S2.02-07 in southern Sweden for exchange of experience in the fields of breeding and silviculture of larch. This proceedings was compiled on the basis of the presentations of this working group. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 12 of the 17 papers

  13. Building Bridges Through Meaningful Occupation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Fortuna

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Mary Block, MS, OTR/L, an occupational therapist and artist based in Illinois, provided the cover art for the Summer 2017 issue of The Open Journal of Occupational Therapy (OJOT. Generations is a sculpture made from concrete that measures 240 x100 in. (6.096 x 2.54 m. The piece was commissioned by Mary’s home town, the Village of Deerfield, IL. Mary always knew she wanted to be an artist. When competing paradigms altered Mary’s career path, the field of occupational therapy helped her to shape a new worldview. In uncertain times, meaningful occupation empowered Mary to start over again where she originally began

  14. The Review of Ecological and Genetic Research of Ponto-Caspian Gobies (Pisces, Gobiidae in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakšić Goran

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Invasive Ponto-Caspian gobies (monkey goby Neogobius fluviatilis, round goby Neogobius melanostomus and bighead goby Ponticola kessleri have recently caused dramatic changes in fish assemblage structure throughout European river systems. This review provides summary of recent research on their dietary habits, age and growth, phylogenetic lineages and gene diversity. The principal food of all three species is invertebrates, and more rarely fish, which depends on the type of habitat, part of the year, as well as the morphological characteristics of species. According to the von Bertalanffy growth model, size at age is specific for the region, but due to its disadvantages it is necessary to test other growth models. Phylogenetic analysis of monkey goby and round goby indicates separation between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea haplotypes. The greatest genetic diversity is found among populations of the Black Sea, and the lowest among European invaders. The lack of molecular research on bighead goby requires further studies.

  15. Untangling individual variation in natural populations: ecological, genetic and epigenetic correlates of long-term inequality in herbivory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, C M; Bazaga, P

    2011-04-01

    Individual variation in ecologically important features of organisms is a crucial element in ecology and evolution, yet disentangling its underlying causes is difficult in natural populations. We applied a genomic scan approach using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers to quantify the genetic basis of long-term individual differences in herbivory by mammals at a wild population of the violet Viola cazorlensis monitored for two decades. In addition, methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) analyses were used to investigate the association between browsing damage and epigenetic characteristics of individuals, an aspect that has been not previously explored for any wild plant. Structural equation modelling was used to identify likely causal structures linking genotypes, epigenotypes and herbivory. Individuals of V. cazorlensis differed widely in the incidence of browsing mammals over the 20-year study period. Six AFLP markers (1.6% of total) were significantly related to herbivory, accounting altogether for 44% of population-wide variance in herbivory levels. MSAP analyses revealed considerable epigenetic variation among individuals, and differential browsing damage was significantly related to variation in multilocus epigenotypes. In addition, variation across plants in epigenetic characteristics was related to variation in several herbivory-related AFLP markers. Statistical comparison of alternative causal models suggested that individual differences in herbivory are the outcome of a complex causal structure where genotypes and epigenotypes are interconnected and have direct and indirect effects on herbivory. Insofar as methylation states of MSAP markers influential on herbivory are transgenerationally heritable, herbivore-driven evolutionary changes at the study population will involve correlated changes in genotypic and epigenotypic distributions. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Commensal ecology, urban landscapes, and their influence on the genetic characteristics of city-dwelling Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner-Santana, L C; Norris, D E; Fornadel, C M; Hinson, E R; Klein, S L; Glass, G E

    2009-07-01

    Movement of individuals promotes colonization of new areas, gene flow among local populations, and has implications for the spread of infectious agents and the control of pest species. Wild Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) are common in highly urbanized areas but surprisingly little is known of their population structure. We sampled individuals from 11 locations within Baltimore, Maryland, to characterize the genetic structure and extent of gene flow between areas within the city. Clustering methods and a neighbour-joining tree based on pairwise genetic distances supported an east-west division in the inner city, and a third cluster comprised of historically more recent sites. Most individuals (approximately 95%) were assigned to their area of capture, indicating strong site fidelity. Moreover, the axial dispersal distance of rats (62 m) fell within typical alley length. Several rats were assigned to areas 2-11.5 km away, indicating some, albeit infrequent, long-distance movement within the city. Although individual movement appears to be limited (30-150 m), locations up to 1.7 km are comprised of relatives. Moderate F(ST), differentiation between identified clusters, and high allelic diversity indicate that regular gene flow, either via recruitment or migration, has prevented isolation. Therefore, ecology of commensal rodents in urban areas and life-history characteristics of Norway rats likely counteract many expected effects of isolation or founder events. An understanding of levels of connectivity of rat populations inhabiting urban areas provides information about the spatial scale at which populations of rats may spread disease, invade new areas, or be eradicated from an existing area without reinvasion.

  17. Cryptic sexual populations account for genetic diversity and ecological success in a widely distributed, asexual fungus-growing ant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabeling, Christian; Gonzales, Omar; Schultz, Ted R; Bacci, Maurício; Garcia, Marcos V B; Verhaagh, Manfred; Ishak, Heather D; Mueller, Ulrich G

    2011-07-26

    Sex and recombination are central processes in life generating genetic diversity. Organisms that rely on asexual propagation risk extinction due to the loss of genetic diversity and the inability to adapt to changing environmental conditions. The fungus-growing ant species Mycocepurus smithii was thought to be obligately asexual because only parthenogenetic populations have been collected from widely separated geographic localities. Nonetheless, M. smithii is ecologically successful, with the most extensive distribution and the highest population densities of any fungus-growing ant. Here we report that M. smithii actually consists of a mosaic of asexual and sexual populations that are nonrandomly distributed geographically. The sexual populations cluster along the Rio Amazonas and the Rio Negro and appear to be the source of independently evolved and widely distributed asexual lineages, or clones. Either apomixis or automixis with central fusion and low recombination rates is inferred to be the cytogenetic mechanism underlying parthenogenesis in M. smithii. Males appear to be entirely absent from asexual populations, but their existence in sexual populations is indicated by the presence of sperm in the reproductive tracts of queens. A phylogenetic analysis of the genus suggests that M. smithii is monophyletic, rendering a hybrid origin of asexuality unlikely. Instead, a mitochondrial phylogeny of sexual and asexual populations suggests multiple independent origins of asexual reproduction, and a divergence-dating analysis indicates that M. smithii evolved 0.5-1.65 million years ago. Understanding the evolutionary origin and maintenance of asexual reproduction in this species contributes to a general understanding of the adaptive significance of sex.

  18. Evaluation of terrestrial microcosms for assessing the fate and effects of genetically engineered microorganisms on ecological processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fredrickson, J.K.; Bentjen, S.A.; Bolton, H. Jr.; Li, S.W.; Ligotke, M.W.; McFadden, K.M.; Van Voris, P.

    1989-04-01

    This project evaluates and modifies the existing US Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Pesticides and Toxic Substances (EPA/OPTS) terrestrial microcosm test system and test protocols such that they can be used to determine the environmental fate and ecological hazards of genetically engineered microorganisms (GEMs). The intact soil-core microcosm represents terrestrial ecosystems, and when coupled with appropriate test protocols, such microcosms may be appropriate to define and limit risks associated with the intentional release of GEMs. The terrestrial microcosm test system was used to investigate the survival and transport of two model GEMs (Azospirillum lipoferum and Pseudomonas sp. Tn5 mutants) to various trophic levels and niches and through intact soil cores. Subsequent effects on nutrient cycling and displacement of indigenous microorganisms were evaluated. The model organisms were a diazotrophic root-colonizing bacterium (A. lipoferum) and a wheat root growth-inhibiting rhizobacterium (Pseudomonas sp.). The transposable element Tn5 was used as a genetic marker for both microorganisms in two separate experiments. The organisms were subjected to transposon mutagenesis using a broad host-range-mobilizable suicide plasmid. The transposon Tn5 conferred levels of kanamycin resistance up to 500 ..mu..g/ml (Pseudomonas sp.), which allowed for selection of the bacteria from environmental samples. The presence of Tn5 DNA in the genome of the model GEMs also allowed the use of Tn5 gene probes to confirm and enumerate the microorganisms in different samples from the microcosms. Two types of root growth-inhibiting Pseudomonas sp. Tn5 mutants were obtained and used in microcosm studies: those that lacked the ability to inhibit either wheat root growth or the growth of other microorganisms in vitro (tox/sup /minus//) and those which retained these properties (tox/sup +/). 53 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

  19. Species delimitation of common reef corals in the genus Pocillopora using nucleotide sequence phylogenies, population genetics and symbiosis ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinzón, Jorge H; LaJeunesse, Todd C

    2011-01-01

    Stony corals in the genus Pocillopora are among the most common and widely distributed of Indo-Pacific corals and, as such, are often the subject of physiological and ecological research. In the far Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP), they are major constituents of shallow coral communities, exhibiting considerable variability in colony shape and branch morphology and marked differences in response to thermal stress. Numerous intermediates occur between morphospecies that may relate to extensive hybridization. The diversity of the Pocillopora genus in the TEP was analysed genetically using nuclear ribosomal (ITS2) and mitochondrial (ORF) sequences, and population genetic markers (seven microsatellite loci). The resident dinoflagellate endosymbiont (Symbiodinium sp.) in each sample was also characterized using sequences of the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) rDNA and the noncoding region of the chloroplast psbA minicircle. From these analyses, three symbiotically distinct, reproductively isolated, nonhybridizing, evolutionarily divergent animal lineages were identified. Designated types 1, 2 and 3, these groupings were incongruent with traditional morphospecies classification. Type 1 was abundant and widespread throughout the TEP; type 2 was restricted to the Clipperton Atoll; and type 3 was found only in Panama and the Galapagos Islands. Each type harboured a different Symbiodinium'species lineage' in Clade C, and only type 1 associated with the 'stress-tolerant'Symbiodinium glynni (D1). The accurate delineation of species and implementation of a proper taxonomy may profoundly improve our assessment of Pocillopora's reproductive biology, biogeographic distributions, and resilience to climate warming, information that must be considered when planning for the conservation of reef corals. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Ecology, Genetic Diversity, and Phylogeographic Structure of Andes Virus in Humans and Rodents in Chile▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Rafael A.; Torres-Perez, Fernando; Galeno, Hector; Navarrete, Maritza; Vial, Pablo A.; Palma, R. Eduardo; Ferres, Marcela; Cook, Joseph A.; Hjelle, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Andes virus (ANDV) is the predominant etiologic agent of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) in southern South America. In Chile, serologically confirmed human hantavirus infections have occurred throughout a wide latitudinal distribution extending from the regions of Valparaíso (32 to 33°S) to Aysén (46°S) in southern Patagonia. In this study, we found seropositive rodents further north in the Coquimbo region (30°S) in Chile. Rodent seroprevalence was 1.4%, with Oligoryzomys longicaudatus displaying the highest seroprevalence (5.9%), followed by Abrothrix longipilis (1.9%) and other species exhibiting ≤0.6% seropositivity. We sequenced partial ANDV small (S) segment RNA from 6 HCPS patients and 32 rodents of four different species collected throughout the known range of hantavirus infection in Chile. Phylogenetic analyses showed two major ANDV South (ANDV Sout) clades, congruent with two major Chilean ecoregions, Mediterranean (Chilean matorral [shrubland]) and Valdivian temperate forest. Human and rodent samples grouped according to geographic location. Phylogenetic comparative analyses of portions of S and medium segments (encoding glycoproteins Gn and Gc) from a subset of rodent specimens exhibited similar topologies, corroborating two major ANDV Sout clades in Chile and suggesting that yet unknown factors influence viral gene flow and persistence throughout the two Chilean ecoregions. Genetic algorithms for recombination detection identified recombination events within the S segment. Molecular demographic analyses showed that the virus is undergoing purifying selection and demonstrated a recent exponential growth in the effective number of ANDV Sout infections in Chile that correlates with the increased number of human cases reported. Although we determined virus sequences from four rodent species, our results confirmed O. longicaudatus as the primary ANDV Sout reservoir in Chile. While evidence of geographic differentiation exists, a single

  1. Ecology, genetic diversity, and phylogeographic structure of andes virus in humans and rodents in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Rafael A; Torres-Perez, Fernando; Galeno, Hector; Navarrete, Maritza; Vial, Pablo A; Palma, R Eduardo; Ferres, Marcela; Cook, Joseph A; Hjelle, Brian

    2009-03-01

    Andes virus (ANDV) is the predominant etiologic agent of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) in southern South America. In Chile, serologically confirmed human hantavirus infections have occurred throughout a wide latitudinal distribution extending from the regions of Valparaíso (32 to 33 degrees S) to Aysén (46 degrees S) in southern Patagonia. In this study, we found seropositive rodents further north in the Coquimbo region (30 degrees S) in Chile. Rodent seroprevalence was 1.4%, with Oligoryzomys longicaudatus displaying the highest seroprevalence (5.9%), followed by Abrothrix longipilis (1.9%) and other species exhibiting Chile. Phylogenetic analyses showed two major ANDV South (ANDV Sout) clades, congruent with two major Chilean ecoregions, Mediterranean (Chilean matorral [shrubland]) and Valdivian temperate forest. Human and rodent samples grouped according to geographic location. Phylogenetic comparative analyses of portions of S and medium segments (encoding glycoproteins Gn and Gc) from a subset of rodent specimens exhibited similar topologies, corroborating two major ANDV Sout clades in Chile and suggesting that yet unknown factors influence viral gene flow and persistence throughout the two Chilean ecoregions. Genetic algorithms for recombination detection identified recombination events within the S segment. Molecular demographic analyses showed that the virus is undergoing purifying selection and demonstrated a recent exponential growth in the effective number of ANDV Sout infections in Chile that correlates with the increased number of human cases reported. Although we determined virus sequences from four rodent species, our results confirmed O. longicaudatus as the primary ANDV Sout reservoir in Chile. While evidence of geographic differentiation exists, a single cosmopolitan lineage of ANDV Sout remains the sole etiologic agent for HCPS in Chile.

  2. Microbial and genetic ecology of tropical Vertisols under intensive chemical farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Jaya; Aparna, K; Dua, Ankita; Sangwan, Naseer; Trimurtulu, N; Rao, D L N; Lal, Rup

    2015-01-01

    There are continued concerns on unscientific usage of chemical fertilizers and pesticides, particularly in many developing countries leading to adverse consequences for soil biological quality and agricultural sustainability. In farmers' fields in tropical Vertisols of peninsular India, "high" fertilizer and pesticide usage at about 2.3 times the recommended rates in black gram (Vigna mungo) did not have a deleterious effect on the abundance of culturable microorganisms, associative nitrogen fixers, nitrifiers, and 16S rRNA gene diversity compared to normal rates. However, "very high" application at about five times the fertilizers and 1.5 times pesticides in chilies (Capsicum annuum) adversely affected the populations of fungi, actinomycetes, and ammonifiers, along with a drastic change in the eubacterial community profile and diversity over normal rates. Actinobacteria were dominant in black gram normal (BG1) (47%), black gram high (BG2) (36%), and chili normal (CH1) (30%) and were least in chili very high (CH2) (14%). Geodermatophilus formed 20% of Actinobacteria in BG1 but disappeared in BG2, CH1, and CH2. Asticcacaulis dominated at "very high" input site (CH2). Diversity of nitrogen fixers was completely altered; Dechloromonas and Anaeromyxobacter were absent in BG1 but proliferated well in BG2. There was reduction in rhizobial nifH sequences in BG2 by 46%. Phylogenetic differences characterized by UniFrac and principal coordinate analysis showed that BG2 and CH2 clustered together depicting a common pattern of genetic shift, while BG1 and CH1 fell at different axis. Overall, there were adverse consequences of "very high" fertilizer and pesticide usage on soil microbial diversity and function in tropical Vertisols.

  3. Ecological prevalence, genetic diversity and epidemiological aspects of Salmonella isolated from tomato agricultural regions of the Virginia Eastern Shore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca L. Bell

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Virginia is the third largest producer of fresh-market tomatoes in the United States. Tomatoes grown along the eastern shore of Virginia are implicated almost yearly in Salmonella illnesses. Traceback implicates contamination occurring in the pre-harvest environment. To get a better understanding of the ecological niches of Salmonella in the tomato agricultural environment, a two-year study was undertaken at a regional agricultural research farm in Virginia. Environmental samples, including tomato (fruit, blossoms and leaves, irrigation water, surface water and sediment, were collected over the growing season. These samples were analyzed for the presence of Salmonella using modified FDA-BAM methods. Molecular assays were used to screen the samples. Over 1500 samples were tested. Seventy-five samples tested positive for Salmonella yielding over 230 isolates. The most commonly isolated serovars were S. Newport and S. Javiana with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis yielding 39 different patterns. Genetic diversity was further underscored among many other serotypes, which showed multiple PFGE subtypes. Whole genome sequencing of several S. Newport isolates collected in 2010 compared to clinical isolates associated with tomato consumption showed very few single nucleotide differences between environmental isolates and clinical isolates suggesting a source link to Salmonella contaminated tomatoes. Nearly all isolates collected during two growing seasons of surveillance were obtained from surface water and sediment sources pointing to these sites as long-term reservoirs for persistent and endemic contamination of this environment.

  4. Ecological and genetic data indicate recovery of the endangered coral Acropora palmata in Los Roques, Southern Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubillaga, A. L.; Márquez, L. M.; Cróquer, A.; Bastidas, C.

    2008-03-01

    The rapid decline of Acropora cervicornis and Acropora palmata has often been linked with coral reef deterioration in the Caribbean; yet, it remains controversial whether these species are currently recovering or still declining. In this study, the status of ten populations of A. palmata in Los Roques National Park (LRNP), Venezuela is presented. Six of these populations showed signs of recovery. Ten 80 m2 belt-transects were surveyed at each of the ten reef sites. Within belt-transects, each colony was measured (maximum diameter and height) and its status (healthy, diseased or injured) was recorded. Populations in recovery were defined by a dominance of small to medium-sized colonies in densities >1 colony per 10 m2, together with 75% undamaged colonies, a low prevalence of diseases (<10%), and a low density of predators (0.25 snails per colony). Based on allozyme analysis of seven polymorphic loci in four populations ( N = 30), a moderate to high-genetic connectivity among these populations ( F ST = 0.048) was found with a predominance of sexual over asexual reproduction ( N* : N = 1; N go : N = 0.93-1). Both ecological and molecular data support a good prognosis for the recovery of this species in Los Roques.

  5. Comparative Genomic Hybridization Analysis of Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis Identifies Genetic Traits to Elucidate Their Different Ecologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaisa Jaakkola

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Enteropathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis are both etiological agents for intestinal infection known as yersiniosis, but their epidemiology and ecology bear many differences. Swine are the only known reservoir for Y. enterocolitica 4/O:3 strains, which are the most common cause of human disease, while Y. pseudotuberculosis has been isolated from a variety of sources, including vegetables and wild animals. Infections caused by Y. enterocolitica mainly originate from swine, but fresh produce has been the source for widespread Y. pseudotuberculosis outbreaks within recent decades. A comparative genomic hybridization analysis with a DNA microarray based on three Yersinia enterocolitica and four Yersinia pseudotuberculosis genomes was conducted to shed light on the genomic differences between enteropathogenic Yersinia. The hybridization results identified Y. pseudotuberculosis strains to carry operons linked with the uptake and utilization of substances not found in living animal tissues but present in soil, plants, and rotting flesh. Y. pseudotuberculosis also harbors a selection of type VI secretion systems targeting other bacteria and eukaryotic cells. These genetic traits are not found in Y. enterocolitica, and it appears that while Y. pseudotuberculosis has many tools beneficial for survival in varied environments, the Y. enterocolitica genome is more streamlined and adapted to their preferred animal reservoir.

  6. Wild European Apple (Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill.) Population Dynamics: Insight from Genetics and Ecology in the Rhine Valley. Priorities for a Future Conservation Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnitzler, Annik; Arnold, Claire; Cornille, Amandine; Bachmann, Olivier; Schnitzler, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    The increasing fragmentation of forest habitats and the omnipresence of cultivars potentially threaten the genetic integrity of the European wild apple (Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill). However, the conservation status of this species remains unclear in Europe, other than in Belgium and the Czech Republic, where it has been declared an endangered species. The population density of M. sylvestris is higher in the forests of the upper Rhine Valley (France) than in most European forests, with an unbalanced age-structure, an overrepresentation of adults and a tendency to clump. We characterize here the ecology, age-structure and genetic diversity of wild apple populations in the Rhine Valley. We use these data to highlight links to the history of this species and to propose guidelines for future conservation strategies. In total, 255 individual wild apple trees from six forest stands (five floodplain forests and one forest growing in drier conditions) were analysed in the field, collected and genotyped on the basis of data for 15 microsatellite markers. Genetic analyses showed no escaped cultivars and few hybrids with the cultivated apple. Excluding the hybrids, the genetically “pure” populations displayed high levels of genetic diversity and a weak population structure. Age-structure and ecology studies of wild apple populations identified four categories that were not randomly distributed across the forests, reflecting the history of the Rhine forest over the last century. The Rhine wild apple populations, with their ecological strategies, high genetic diversity, and weak traces of crop-to-wild gene flow associated with the history of these floodplain forests, constitute candidate populations for inclusion in future conservation programmes for European wild apple. PMID:24827575

  7. Wild European apple (Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill.) population dynamics: insight from genetics and ecology in the Rhine Valley. Priorities for a future conservation programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnitzler, Annik; Arnold, Claire; Cornille, Amandine; Bachmann, Olivier; Schnitzler, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    The increasing fragmentation of forest habitats and the omnipresence of cultivars potentially threaten the genetic integrity of the European wild apple (Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill). However, the conservation status of this species remains unclear in Europe, other than in Belgium and the Czech Republic, where it has been declared an endangered species. The population density of M. sylvestris is higher in the forests of the upper Rhine Valley (France) than in most European forests, with an unbalanced age-structure, an overrepresentation of adults and a tendency to clump. We characterize here the ecology, age-structure and genetic diversity of wild apple populations in the Rhine Valley. We use these data to highlight links to the history of this species and to propose guidelines for future conservation strategies. In total, 255 individual wild apple trees from six forest stands (five floodplain forests and one forest growing in drier conditions) were analysed in the field, collected and genotyped on the basis of data for 15 microsatellite markers. Genetic analyses showed no escaped cultivars and few hybrids with the cultivated apple. Excluding the hybrids, the genetically "pure" populations displayed high levels of genetic diversity and a weak population structure. Age-structure and ecology studies of wild apple populations identified four categories that were not randomly distributed across the forests, reflecting the history of the Rhine forest over the last century. The Rhine wild apple populations, with their ecological strategies, high genetic diversity, and weak traces of crop-to-wild gene flow associated with the history of these floodplain forests, constitute candidate populations for inclusion in future conservation programmes for European wild apple.

  8. What is microbial community ecology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konopka, Allan

    2009-11-01

    The activities of complex communities of microbes affect biogeochemical transformations in natural, managed and engineered ecosystems. Meaningfully defining what constitutes a community of interacting microbial populations is not trivial, but is important for rigorous progress in the field. Important elements of research in microbial community ecology include the analysis of functional pathways for nutrient resource and energy flows, mechanistic understanding of interactions between microbial populations and their environment, and the emergent properties of the complex community. Some emergent properties mirror those analyzed by community ecologists who study plants and animals: biological diversity, functional redundancy and system stability. However, because microbes possess mechanisms for the horizontal transfer of genetic information, the metagenome may also be considered as a community property.

  9. Genetics and ecology of colonization and mass rearing of Hawaiian fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) for use in sterile insect control programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saul, S.H.; McCombs, S.D.

    1995-01-01

    It is critical to maintain the genetic, physiological and behavioral competence of colonized populations of insect species, such as fruit flies, which are reared for release in sterile insect and other genetic control programs. Selective pressures associated with the mass rearing process affect this competence, but the underlying mechanisms of genetic change arc largely unknown. However, competence is often an operational goal achieved by manipulating environmental factors without possessing precise genetic knowledge of alleles and their marginal effects on the desired traits. One goal of this paper is to show that the precise genetic and statistical analysis of components that determine competence in a broad sense or fitness in the narrower ecological sense, is extremely difficult. We can gel contradictory results from the different methods for estimating genetic variation in tephritid populations. We observe low levels of allozyme variation, but high levels of recessive mutants in inbred populations. We propose that genetic variability may be maintained in colonized and mass reared laboratory populations by balanced lethal systems and that the introduction of fresh genetic material may reduce, not increase, fitness. We require rigorous and precise models of directional selection in the laboratory and selective forces in the natural environment to aid our understanding of dynamic changes in courtship and mating behavior under artificial conditions. We have chosen to examine the lek model as an example of an idea whose usefulness has yet to be determined by test ing and validation. The inclusion of lek forming ability in genetic models will be depen dent on rigorously establishing the validity of the lek model for each tephritid species

  10. Perspectives on why digital ecologies matter: combining population genetics and ecologically informed agent-based models with GIS for managing dipteran livestock pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Steven L

    2014-10-01

    It is becoming clear that handling the inherent complexity found in ecological systems is an essential task for finding ways to control insect pests of tropical livestock such as tsetse flies, and old and new world screwworms. In particular, challenging multivalent management programs, such as Area Wide Integrated Pest Management (AW-IPM), face daunting problems of complexity at multiple spatial scales, ranging from landscape level processes to those of smaller scales such as the parasite loads of individual animals. Daunting temporal challenges also await resolution, such as matching management time frames to those found on ecological and even evolutionary temporal scales. How does one deal with representing processes with models that involve multiple spatial and temporal scales? Agent-based models (ABM), combined with geographic information systems (GIS), may allow for understanding, predicting and managing pest control efforts in livestock pests. This paper argues that by incorporating digital ecologies in our management efforts clearer and more informed decisions can be made. I also point out the power of these models in making better predictions in order to anticipate the range of outcomes possible or likely. Copyright © 2014 International Atomic Energy Agency 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Biosemiotics and ecological monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruni, Luis Emilio

    2001-01-01

    of the qualitative and relational aspects that can only be grasped by considering the semiotic networks operative in complex ecological and cultural systems. In this paper, it is suggested that a biosemiotic approach to ecology may prove useful for the modelling process, which in turn will allow the construction...... of meaningful monitoring systems. It is also contended that a biosemiotic approach may also serve to better integrate our understanding and monitoring of ecosystems into the cultural process of searching for (human) sustainability....

  12. Introduction to the Arizona Sky Island Arthropod Project (ASAP): Systematics, Biogeography, Ecology, and Population Genetics of Arthropods of the Madrean Sky Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Wendy; Meyer, Wallace M; Eble, Jeffrey A; Franklin, Kimberly; Wiens, John F; Brusca, Richard C

    2013-01-01

    The Arizona Sky Island Arthropod Project (ASAP) is a new multi-disciplinary research program at the University of Arizona that combines systematics, biogeography, ecology, and population genetics to study origins and patterns of arthropod diversity along elevation gradients and among mountain ranges in the Madrean Sky Island Region. Arthropods represent taxonomically and ecologically diverse organisms that drive key ecosystem processes in this mountain archipelago. Using data from museum specimens and specimens we obtain during long-term collecting and monitoring programs, ASAP will document arthropod species across Arizona's Sky Islands to address a number of fundamental questions about arthropods of this region. Baseline data will be used to determine climatic boundaries for target species, which will then be integrated with climatological models to predict future changes in arthropod communities and distributions in the wake of rapid climate change. ASAP also makes use of the natural laboratory provided by the Sky Islands to investigate ecological and genetic factors that influence diversification and patterns of community assembly. Here, we introduce the project, outline overarching goals, and describe preliminary data from the first year of sampling ground-dwelling beetles and ants in the Santa Catalina Mountains.

  13. Ecological and Genetic Divergences with Gene Flow of Two Sister Species (Leucomeris decora and Nouelia insignis) Driving by Climatic Transition in Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yujuan; Yin, Genshen; Pan, Yuezhi; Gong, Xun

    2018-01-01

    Understanding of the processes of divergence and speciation is a major task for biodiversity researches and may offer clearer insight into mechanisms generating biological diversity. Here, we employ an integrative approach to explore genetic and ecological differentiation of Leucomeris decora and Nouelia insignis distributed allopatrically along the two sides of the biogeographic boundary 'Tanaka Line' in Southwest China. We addressed these questions using ten low-copy nuclear genes and nine plastid DNA regions sequenced among individuals sampled from 28 populations across their geographic ranges in China. Phylogenetic, coalescent-based population genetic analyses, approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) framework and ecological niche models (ENMs) were conducted. We identified a closer phylogenetic relationship in maternal lineage of L. decora with N. insignis than that between L . decora and congeneric Leucomeris spectabilis . A deep divergence between the two species was observed and occurred at the boundary between later Pliocene and early Pleistocene. However, the evidence of significant chloroplast DNA gene flow was also detected between the marginal populations of L. decora and N. insignis . Niche models and statistical analyses showed significant ecological differentiation, and two nuclear loci among the ten nuclear genes may be under divergent selection. These integrative results imply that the role of climatic shift from Pliocene to Pleistocene may be the prominent factor for the divergence of L . decora and N . insignis , and population expansion after divergence may have given rise to chloroplast DNA introgression. The divergence was maintained by differential selection despite in the face of gene flow.

  14. Reflections on Meaningfulness and its Social Relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Note

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Philosophers who write about the meaning of life are few nowadays. Thesubject has lost its attractiveness. Perceived from a viewpoint of logical positivism or language philosophy, the whole issue of meaningfulness seems rather pointless. It is often considered to be related to metaphysics, making it less suitable for philosophical inquiry. The topic of meaningfulness seems too intangible. Indeed, the few philosophers that have embarked on examining meaningfulness have proven to be well aware of the challenges this poses. At times they acknowledge that the more they concentrate on the subject, the more it seems to fall apart into unintelligible pieces about whichnothing of philosophical value can be said.

  15. Population genetical investigation of the level of mutagenesis and teratological events frequency in ecologically different regions of Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashaganova, Zh.A.; Zhapbasov, R.; Kadyrova, N.Zh.; Karimbaeva, K.S.; Mamyrbaeva, A.N.; Altaeva, N.Z.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Kazakhstan territory is unique including regions with radioactive pollution of Semipalatinsk nuclear test territory and storage of radioactive waste of uranium mines and metallurgy enterprises, and regions of drying Aral sea. These technogenic factors may cause some types of chromosome aberrations and developmental anomalies in mammals. The level of mutagenesis was estimated basing on chromosome aberrations and genomic mutation frequencies in bone marrow cells of natural rodents populations (Allactaga major Kern, Allactaga saltator Eversman, Cytellus eritrogenus Br.) and domestic animals (sheep, cattle, horse), which inhabit these regions. Sheep populations which are bred in the regions with different climatic conditions were used for teratological investigations. Different generations are met in the populations of mice family rodents caught in the nature. So studying the animals of different ages separately we can estimate the frequency of mutations in the animals of different age inhabiting the same radiation polluted regions. The frequency of chromosome abe rations in mice family rodents from such territories was twice as high as from the clear territories. In some animals chromosome aberration types characteristic for radiation mutagenesis (dicentrics, double acentric fragments) were found. High level of cytogenetical instability in somatic cells of agricultural animals which were bred on the pastures within former nuclear test territories for several generations may be caused by chronic radiation in low doses. The analysis of the spectrum of recorder chromosome aberrations in somatic cells and their dynamics in different animal species inhabiting for several generations these territories being chronically irradiated, allows us to investigate the direction of genetical evolution of mammals genofond structure induced by ecological factors. Comparative analysis of the frequencies of spontaneous abortuses, deadborn and newborn animals with innate

  16. The role of ecological factors in determining phylogeographic and population genetic structure of two sympatric island skinks (Plestiodon kishinouyei and P. stimpsonii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurita, Kazuki; Toda, Mamoru

    2017-04-01

    We conducted comparative phylogeographic and population genetic analyses of Plestiodon kishinouyei and P. stimpsonii, two sympatric skinks endemic to islands in the southern Ryukyus, to explore different factors that have influenced population structure. Previous phylogenetic studies using partial mitochondrial DNA indicate similar divergence times from their respective closest relatives, suggesting that differences in population structure are driven by intrinsic attributes of either species rather than the common set of extrinsic factors that both presumably have been exposed to throughout their history. In this study, analysis of mtDNA sequences and microsatellite polymorphism demonstrate contrasting patterns of phylogeography and population structure: P. kishinouyei exhibits a lower genetic variability and lower genetic differentiation among islands than P. stimpsonii, consistent with recent population expansion. However, historical demographic analyses indicate that the relatively high genetic uniformity in P. kishinouyei is not attributable to recent expansion. We detected significant isolation-by-distance patterns among P. kishinouyei populations on the land bridge islands, but not among P. stimpsonii populations occurring on those same islands. Our results suggest that P. kishinouyei populations have maintained gene flows across islands until recently, probably via ephemeral Quaternary land bridges. The lower genetic variability in P. kishinouyei may also indicate smaller effective population sizes on average than that of P. stimpsonii. We interpret these differences as a consequence of ecological divergence between the two species, primarily in trophic level and habitat preference.

  17. A meaningful workplace: Framework, space and context ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A meaningful workplace: Framework, space and context. ... PL Steenkamp, JS Basson ... The organisation experiences a loss of productivity, quality, innovation, et cetera ... This is what this article is about: to conceptualise the workplace as ...

  18. Making Social Studies Meaningful to Elementary Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Susan

    1982-01-01

    Describes a unit on Ancient Greece designed to make social studies meaningful to fourth and fifth graders. Individual projects and group activities helped students learn about ancient Greek culture. (AM)

  19. Meaningful work, work engagement and organisational commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madelyn Geldenhuys

    2014-03-01

    Research purpose: The aim of the study was to investigate the relationships amongst psychological meaningfulness, work engagement and organisational commitment and to test for a possible mediation effect of work engagement on the relationship between psychological meaningfulness and organisational commitment. Motivation for the study: Managers have to rethink ways of improving productivity and performance at work, due to the diverse, and in some instances escalating, needs of employees (e.g. financial support to uphold their interest in and enjoyment of working. Research approach, design and method: A quantitative approach was employed to gather the data for the study, utilising a cross-sectional survey design. The sample (n = 415 consisted of working employees from various companies and positions in Gauteng, South Africa. Main findings: The results confirmed a positive relationship between psychological meaningfulness, work engagement and organisational commitment. Further, psychological meaningfulness predicts work engagement, whilst psychological meaningfulness and work engagement predict organisational commitment. Practical/managerial implications: Employers identifying their employees’ commitment patterns and mapping out strategies for enhancing those that are relevant to organisational goals will yield positive work outcomes (e.g. employees who are creative, seek growth or challenges for themselves. Contribution/value-add: This study contributes to the literature through highlighting the impact that meaningful work has on sustaining employee commitment to the organisation.

  20. Long-range gene flow and the effects of climatic and ecological factors on genetic structuring in a large, solitary carnivore: the Eurasian lynx.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosław Ratkiewicz

    Full Text Available Due to their high mobility, large terrestrial predators are potentially capable of maintaining high connectivity, and therefore low genetic differentiation among populations. However, previous molecular studies have provided contradictory findings in relation to this. To elucidate patterns of genetic structure in large carnivores, we studied the genetic variability of the Eurasian lynx, Lynx lynx throughout north-eastern Europe using microsatellite, mitochondrial DNA control region and Y chromosome-linked markers. Using SAMOVA we found analogous patterns of genetic structure based on both mtDNA and microsatellites, which coincided with a relatively little evidence for male-biased dispersal. No polymorphism for the cytochrome b and ATP6 mtDNA genes and Y chromosome-linked markers were found. Lynx inhabiting a large area encompassing Finland, the Baltic countries and western Russia formed a single genetic unit, while some marginal populations were clearly divergent from others. The existence of a migration corridor was suggested to correspond with distribution of continuous forest cover. The lowest variability (in both markers was found in lynx from Norway and Białowieża Primeval Forest (BPF, which coincided with a recent demographic bottleneck (Norway or high habitat fragmentation (BPF. The Carpathian population, being monomorphic for the control region, showed relatively high microsatellite diversity, suggesting the effect of a past bottleneck (e.g. during Last Glacial Maximum on its present genetic composition. Genetic structuring for the mtDNA control region was best explained by latitude and snow cover depth. Microsatellite structuring correlated with the lynx's main prey, especially the proportion of red deer (Cervus elaphus in its diet. Eurasian lynx are capable of maintaining panmictic populations across eastern Europe unless they are severely limited by habitat continuity or a reduction in numbers. Different correlations of mtDNA and

  1. Assessment of Genetic Variation and Population Structure of Diverse Rice Genotypes Adapted to Lowland and Upland Ecologies in Africa Using SNPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Noelle Ndjiondjop

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Using interspecific crosses involving Oryza glaberrima Steud. as donor and O. sativa L. as recurrent parents, rice breeders at the Africa Rice Center developed several ‘New Rice for Africa (NERICA’ improved varieties. A smaller number of interspecific and intraspecific varieties have also been released as ‘Advanced Rice for Africa (ARICA’. The objective of the present study was to investigate the genetic variation, relatedness, and population structure of 330 widely used rice genotypes in Africa using DArTseq-based single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. A sample of 11 ARICAs, 85 NERICAs, 62 O. sativa spp. japonica, and 172 O. sativa spp. indica genotypes were genotyped with 27,560 SNPs using diversity array technology (DArT-based sequencing (DArTseq platform. Nearly 66% of the SNPs were polymorphic, of which 15,020 SNPs were mapped to the 12 rice chromosomes. Genetic distance between pairs of genotypes that belong to indica, japonica, ARICA, and NERICA varied from 0.016 to 0.623, from 0.020 to 0.692, from 0.075 to 0.763, and from 0.014 to 0.644, respectively. The proportion of pairs of genotypes with genetic distance > 0.400 was the largest within NERICAs (35.1% of the pairs followed by ARICAs (18.2%, japonica (17.4%, and indica (5.6%. We found one pair of japonica, 11 pairs of indica, and 35 pairs of NERICA genotypes differing by <2% of the total scored alleles, which was due to 26 pairs of genotypes with identical pedigrees. Cluster analysis, principal component analysis, and the model-based population structure analysis all revealed two distinct groups corresponding to the lowland (primarily indica and lowland NERICAs and upland (japonica and upland NERICAs growing ecologies. Most of the interspecific lowland NERICAs formed a sub-group, likely caused by differences in the O. glaberrima genome as compared with the indica genotypes. Analysis of molecular variance revealed very great genetic differentiation (FST = 0.688 between the

  2. Assessment of Genetic Variation and Population Structure of Diverse Rice Genotypes Adapted to Lowland and Upland Ecologies in Africa Using SNPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndjiondjop, Marie Noelle; Semagn, Kassa; Sow, Mounirou; Manneh, Baboucarr; Gouda, Arnaud C; Kpeki, Sèdjro B; Pegalepo, Esther; Wambugu, Peterson; Sié, Moussa; Warburton, Marilyn L

    2018-01-01

    Using interspecific crosses involving Oryza glaberrima Steud. as donor and O. sativa L. as recurrent parents, rice breeders at the Africa Rice Center developed several 'New Rice for Africa (NERICA)' improved varieties. A smaller number of interspecific and intraspecific varieties have also been released as 'Advanced Rice for Africa (ARICA)'. The objective of the present study was to investigate the genetic variation, relatedness, and population structure of 330 widely used rice genotypes in Africa using DArTseq-based single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). A sample of 11 ARICAs, 85 NERICAs, 62 O. sativa spp. japonica , and 172 O. sativa spp. indica genotypes were genotyped with 27,560 SNPs using diversity array technology (DArT)-based sequencing (DArTseq) platform. Nearly 66% of the SNPs were polymorphic, of which 15,020 SNPs were mapped to the 12 rice chromosomes. Genetic distance between pairs of genotypes that belong to indica, japonica, ARICA, and NERICA varied from 0.016 to 0.623, from 0.020 to 0.692, from 0.075 to 0.763, and from 0.014 to 0.644, respectively. The proportion of pairs of genotypes with genetic distance > 0.400 was the largest within NERICAs (35.1% of the pairs) followed by ARICAs (18.2%), japonica (17.4%), and indica (5.6%). We found one pair of japonica, 11 pairs of indica, and 35 pairs of NERICA genotypes differing by <2% of the total scored alleles, which was due to 26 pairs of genotypes with identical pedigrees. Cluster analysis, principal component analysis, and the model-based population structure analysis all revealed two distinct groups corresponding to the lowland (primarily indica and lowland NERICAs) and upland (japonica and upland NERICAs) growing ecologies. Most of the interspecific lowland NERICAs formed a sub-group, likely caused by differences in the O. glaberrima genome as compared with the indica genotypes. Analysis of molecular variance revealed very great genetic differentiation ( F ST = 0.688) between the lowland and upland

  3. Meaningful Interaction in a Local Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, Ulla

    2006-01-01

    This keynote is based on a Ph.D. thesis on development of socially meaningful interaction in music therapy with children with very poor communication skills (Holck 2002). The aim was to identify some of the conditions, whereby actions can be understood as meaningful - that is, whereby the child......’ Samspil i Musikterapi [Eng.: ’Commusical’ Interplay in Music Therapy. Qualitative Video Analyses of Musical and Gestural Interactions with Children with Severe Functional Limitations, including Children with Autism]. Unpubl. PhD thesis, Aalborg Universitet. Holck, U. (2004) Interaction Themes in Music...

  4. Bacterial Genetic Architecture of Ecological Interactions in Co-culture by GWAS-Taking Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus as an Example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaoqing; Jin, Yi; Ye, Meixia; Chen, Nan; Zhu, Jing; Wang, Jingqi; Jiang, Libo; Wu, Rongling

    2017-01-01

    How a species responds to such a biotic environment in the community, ultimately leading to its evolution, has been a topic of intense interest to ecological evolutionary biologists. Until recently, limited knowledge was available regarding the genotypic changes that underlie phenotypic changes. Our study implemented GWAS (Genome-Wide Association Studies) to illustrate the genetic architecture of ecological interactions that take place in microbial populations. By choosing 45 such interspecific pairs of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus strains that were all genotyped throughout the entire genome, we employed Q-ROADTRIPS to analyze the association between single SNPs and microbial abundance measured at each time point for bacterial populations reared in monoculture and co-culture, respectively. We identified a large number of SNPs and indels across the genomes (35.69 G clean data of E. coli and 50.41 G of S. aureus ). We reported 66 and 111 SNPs that were associated with interaction in E. coli and S. aureus , respectively. 23 out of 66 polymorphic changes resulted in amino acid alterations.12 significant genes, such as murE, treA, argS , and relA , which were also identified in previous evolutionary studies. In S. aureus , 111 SNPs detected in coding sequences could be divided into 35 non-synonymous and 76 synonymous SNPs. Our study illustrated the potential of genome-wide association methods for studying rapidly evolving traits in bacteria. Genetic association study methods will facilitate the identification of genetic elements likely to cause phenotypes of interest and provide targets for further laboratory investigation.

  5. Ecological consequences, genetic and chemical variations in fragmented populations of a medicinal plant, justicia adhatoda and implications for its conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilani, S.A.; Watanabe, K.N.; Fujii, Y.; Shinwari, Z.K.

    2011-01-01

    Justicia adhatoda from Kohat Plateau was selected for genetic diversity studies, due to its fragmented habitat, importance in traditional and pharmaceutical medicine and a lack of population structure studies. We had two hypotheses: that habitat loss posed a greater threat to populations than loss of genetic diversity, and that chemical diversity would be higher among different populations than within populations. Genetic diversity within and among populations was evaluated using PBA (P450 based analogue) markers. AMOVA analysis revealed that there was higher genetic diversity within populations (90%) than among populations (10%). No genetic drift was observed, i.e., genetic diversity within populations was maintained despite fewer numbers of individuals in fragmented populations. Surveys of J. adhatoda populations revealed that they were growing in harsh conditions and were imperiled due to extensive harvesting for commercial and domestic purposes. Chemical diversity was evaluated by GC-MS (Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrometry) analysis of 90% methanol and 1:2 chloroform:methanol extracts. GC-MS analysis of both the extracts showed nine and 18 chemical compounds, respectively, with higher chemical variations among populations. It is therefore recommended that efforts for the conservation of severely fragmented populations of J. adhatoda must be carried out along with sustainable harvesting. (author)

  6. Protestant ethic: Contributing towards a meaningful workplace ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The article also indicates that the Protestant ethic can indeed contribute towards a meaningful experience whilst performing work-related tasks in workspace. The Protestant work ethic is more than a cultural norm that places a positive moral value on doing a good job. Based on a belief that work has intrinsic value for its own ...

  7. Remedial principles and meaningful engagement in education ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article evaluates the meaningful engagement doctrine in the education rights jurisprudence of the Constitutional Court in the light of a set of normative principles developed by Susan Sturm for evaluating participatory public law remedies. It commences by identifying four principles for evaluating participatory remedies ...

  8. Meaningful Learning in the Cooperative Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharan, Yael

    2015-01-01

    Meaningful learning is based on more than what teachers transmit; it promotes the construction of knowledge out of learners' experience, feelings and exchanges with other learners. This educational view is based on the constructivist approach to learning and the co-operative learning approach. Researchers and practitioners in various…

  9. Meaningful Use of School Health Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kathleen Hoy; Bergren, Martha Dewey

    2011-01-01

    Meaningful use (MU) of Electronic Health Records (EHRs) is an important development in the safety and security of health care delivery in the United States. Advancement in the use of EHRs occurred with the passage of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, which provides incentives for providers to support adoption and use of EHRs.…

  10. Wonderful Life : Exploring Wonder in Meaningful Moments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Goor, Marie Jacqueline; Sools, Anna Maria; Westerhof, Gerben Johan; Bohlmeijer, Ernst Thomas

    In this article, we bring the study of meaning together with the emerging field of study focusing on the emotions of wonder: wonder, enchantment, awe, and being moved. It is in meaningful moments that these two meet, and in our empirical study, we used the emotions of wonder as a lens to investigate

  11. Assessing Assessment: In Pursuit of Meaningful Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rootman-le Grange, Ilse; Blackie, Margaret A. L.

    2018-01-01

    The challenge of supporting the development of meaningful learning is prevalent in chemistry education research. One of the core activities used in the learning process is assessments. The aim of this paper is to illustrate how the semantics dimension of Legitimation Code Theory can be a helpful tool to critique the quality of assessments and…

  12. Fishing for meaningful units in connected speech

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henrichsen, Peter Juel; Christiansen, Thomas Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    In many branches of spoken language analysis including ASR, the set of smallest meaningful units of speech is taken to coincide with the set of phones or phonemes. However, fishing for phones is difficult, error-prone, and computationally expensive. We present an experiment, based on machine...

  13. Historical ecology meets conservation and evolutionary genetics: a secondary contact zone between Carabus violaceus (Coleoptera, Carabidae populations inhabiting ancient and recent woodlands in north-western Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Matern

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Only very few cases have documented that an increase in connectivity after a period of fragmentation in ecological time has had an effect on the distribution, genetic structure and morphology of stenotopic species. In this study we present an example of clinal variability in a woodland ground beetle as a result of changes in the connectivity of a landscape during the last two centuries. The study area hosts both the nominate form C. violaceus s. str. and the subspecies C. v. purpurascens, which is ranked as a distinct species by some authors. We studied 12 Carabus violaceus populations from a 30 km transect of ancient and recent forests in north-western Germany. We analyzed three polymorphic enzyme loci, classified the elytron sculpture and measured the shape of the aedeagus tip of the specimens. C. violaceus showed secondary gradients both in allozyme markers and morphometric characters in our study area. A genetic differentiation of 16% between the populations is high but lies within the range of intraspecific variability in habitat specialists of the genus Carabus. Populations had no significant deficit of heterozygotes. We found many hybrid populations in terms of morphological properties. This study highlights the conservation value of ancient woodland and the consequences of landscape connectivity and defragmentation on the genetic setting of a ground beetle. Moreover, it shows that differences in the external shape of male genitalia do not prevent gene flow within the genus Carabus. Thus, the establishment of species status should not exclusively be based on this property.

  14. Gairo virus, a novel arenavirus of the widespread Mastomys natalensis: Genetically divergent, but ecologically similar to Lassa and Morogoro viruses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gryseels, S.; Rieger, T.; Oestereich, L.; Cuypers, B.; Borremans, B.; Makundi, R.; Leirs, H.; Günther, S.; Goüy de Bellocq, Joëlle

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 476, February (2015), s. 249-256 ISSN 0042-6822 R&D Projects: GA ČR GCP502/11/J070; GA MŠk EE2.3.20.0303 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Arenavirus * Mastomys natalensis * Tanzania * Virology * Phylogeny * Ecology * Zoonotic infections * Hemorrhagic fevers Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.200, year: 2015

  15. [Applied ecology: retrospect and prospect].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xingyuan; Zeng, Dehui

    2004-10-01

    Applied ecology is evolved into a principal part of modern ecology that rapidly develops. The major stimulus for the development of applied ecology roots in seeking the solutions for the problems of human populations, resources and environments. Through four decades, the science of applied ecology has been becoming a huge group of disciplines. The future for the applied ecology should concern more with human-influenced and managed ecosystems, and acknowledge humans as the components of ecosystems. Nowadays and in future, the top-priorities in applied ecology should include following fields: sustainable ecosystems and biosphere, ecosystem services and ecological design, ecological assessment of genetically modified organisms, ecology of biological invasions, epidemical ecology, ecological forecasting, ecological process and its control. The authors believe that the comprehensive and active research hotspots coupled some new traits would occur around these fields in foreseeable future.

  16. Genetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubitschek, H.E.

    1975-01-01

    Progress is reported on the following research projects: genetic effects of high LET radiations; genetic regulation, alteration, and repair; chromosome replication and the division cycle of Escherichia coli; effects of radioisotope decay in the DNA of microorganisms; initiation and termination of DNA replication in Bacillus subtilis; mutagenesis in mouse myeloma cells; lethal and mutagenic effects of near-uv radiation; effect of 8-methoxypsoralen on photodynamic lethality and mutagenicity in Escherichia coli; DNA repair of the lethal effects of far-uv; and near uv irradiation of bacterial cells

  17. Genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kaare; McGue, Matt

    2016-01-01

    The sequenced genomes of individuals aged ≥80 years, who were highly educated, self-referred volunteers and with no self-reported chronic diseases were compared to young controls. In these data, healthy ageing is a distinct phenotype from exceptional longevity and genetic factors that protect...

  18. Genetically modified (GM) corn in the Philippines : Ecological impacts on agroecosystems, effects on the economic status and farmers’ experiences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mabutol-Afidchao, Miladis B.

    2013-01-01

    To seek answers to the issues on GM corn adoption in the Philippines, the thesis focused to find answers on the general question: How can genetically modified (GM) corn and its attributed changes in agricultural practices affect the agro-ecosystem’s biodiversity and the economic status and social

  19. The covariance between genetic and environmental influences across ecological gradients: reassessing the evolutionary significance of countergradient and cogradient variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conover, David O; Duffy, Tara A; Hice, Lyndie A

    2009-06-01

    Patterns of phenotypic change across environmental gradients (e.g., latitude, altitude) have long captivated the interest of evolutionary ecologists. The pattern and magnitude of phenotypic change is determined by the covariance between genetic and environmental influences across a gradient. Cogradient variation (CoGV) occurs when covariance is positive: that is, genetic and environmental influences on phenotypic expression are aligned and their joint influence accentuates the change in mean trait value across the gradient. Conversely, countergradient variation (CnGV) occurs when covariance is negative: that is, genetic and environmental influences on phenotypes oppose one another, thereby diminishing the change in mean trait expression across the gradient. CnGV has so far been found in at least 60 species, with most examples coming from fishes, amphibians, and insects across latitudinal or altitudinal gradients. Traits that display CnGV most often involve metabolic compensation, that is, the elevation of various physiological rates processes (development, growth, feeding, metabolism, activity) to counteract the dampening effect of reduced temperature, growing season length, or food supply. Far fewer examples of CoGV have been identified (11 species), and these most often involve morphological characters. Increased knowledge of spatial covariance patterns has furthered our understanding of Bergmann size clines, phenotypic plasticity, species range limits, tradeoffs in juvenile growth rate, and the design of conservation strategies for wild species. Moreover, temporal CnGV explains some cases of an apparent lack of phenotypic response to directional selection and provides a framework for predicting evolutionary responses to climate change.

  20. Evolution and ecology meet molecular genetics: adaptive phenotypic plasticity in two isolated Negev desert populations of Acacia raddiana at either end of a rainfall gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, David; Shrestha, Madan K.; Golan-Goldhirsh, Avi

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims The ecological, evolutionary and genetic bases of population differentiation in a variable environment are often related to the selection pressures that plants experience. We compared differences in several growth- and defence-related traits in two isolated populations of Acacia raddiana trees from sites at either end of an extreme environmental gradient in the Negev desert. Methods We used random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) to determine the molecular differences between populations. We grew plants under two levels of water, three levels of nutrients and three levels of herbivory to test for phenotypic plasticity and adaptive phenotypic plasticity. Key Results The RAPD analyses showed that these populations are highly genetically differentiated. Phenotypic plasticity in various morphological traits in A. raddiana was related to patterns of population genetic differentiation between the two study sites. Although we did not test for maternal effects in these long-lived trees, significant genotype × environment (G × E) interactions in some of these traits indicated that such plasticity may be adaptive. Conclusions The main selection pressure in this desert environment, perhaps unsurprisingly, is water. Increased water availability resulted in greater growth in the southern population, which normally receives far less rain than the northern population. Even under the conditions that we defined as low water and/or nutrients, the performance of the seedlings from the southern population was significantly better, perhaps reflecting selection for these traits. Consistent with previous studies of this genus, there was no evidence of trade-offs between physical and chemical defences and plant growth parameters in this study. Rather, there appeared to be positive correlations between plant size and defence parameters. The great variation in several traits in both populations may result in a diverse potential for responding to selection pressures in

  1. [Ecology and ecologies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valera, Luca

    2011-01-01

    Ecology (from the Greek words οιχοσ, "house" and λογια "study of") is the science of the "house", since it studies the environments where we live. There are three main ways of thinking about Ecology: Ecology as the study of interactions (between humans and the environment, between humans and living beings, between all living beings, etc.), Ecology as the statistical study of interactions, Ecology as a faith, or rather as a science that requires a metaphysical view. The history of Ecology shows us how this view was released by the label of "folk sense" to gain the epistemological status of science, a science that strives to be interdisciplinary. So, the aim of Ecology is to study, through a scientific methodology, the whole natural world, answering to very different questions, that arise from several fields (Economics, Biology, Sociology, Philosophy, etc.). The plurality of issues that Ecology has to face led, during the Twentieth-century, to branch off in several different "ecologies". As a result, each one of these new approaches chose as its own field a more limited and specific portion of reality.

  2. the ecology of an ecology project and some suggested adaptations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    be ineffective in making the classroom teaching of ecology more meaningful. It may be ... schooling and certification offer a route to a more fulfilling life. It is perhaps too easy .... begin to say 11The way school is, is a problem and we want to do ...

  3. Molecular ecology of the big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus): Genetic and natural history variation in a hybrid zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubaum, M.A.; Douglas, M.R.; Douglas, M.E.; O'Shea, T.J.

    2007-01-01

    Several geographically distinct mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) lineages of the big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus) have been documented in North America. Individuals from 2 of these lineages, an eastern and a western form, co-occur within maternity colonies in Colorado. The discovery of 2 divergent mtDNA lineages in sympatry prompted a set of questions regarding possible biological differences between haplotypes. We captured big brown bats at maternity roosts in Colorado and recorded data on body size, pelage color, litter size, roosting and overwintering behaviors, and local distributions. Wing biopsies were collected for genetic analysis. The ND2 region of the mtDNA molecule was used to determine lineage of the bats. In addition, nuclear DNA (nDNA) intron 1 of the ??-globin gene was used to determine if mtDNA lineages are hybridizing. Eastern and western mtDNA lineages differed by 10.3% sequence divergence and examination of genetic data suggests recent population expansion for both lineages. Differences in distribution occur along the Colorado Front Range, with an increasing proportion of western haplotypes farther south. Results from nDNA analyses demonstrated hybridization between the 2 lineages. Additionally, no outstanding distinctiveness was found between the mtDNA lineages in natural history characters examined. We speculate that historical climate changes separated this species into isolated eastern and western populations, and that secondary contact with subsequent interbreeding was facilitated by European settlement. ?? 2007 American Society of Mammalogists.

  4. End user programming with personally meaningful objects

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smith, Andrew C

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available (Kimchi et al., 2003). Perceptual organisation is a neuro-cognitive process that dictates how we perceive objects in physical space and how we interpret some objects as being distinct from others and yet other objects as part of a whole (Helm, 2014... called the designer-cum-user. Using this approach, the user creates a personally meaningful artefact that represents the target product. Although not confirmed, we anticipate that this approach reduces the initial cognitive load on the user when he uses...

  5. Synthesizing research and education: Ecology and genetics of independent fern gametophytes and teaching science inquiry and content through simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Aaron M.

    Two of the main areas of focus in university academics are research and education. The mission statements of Utah State University and the Department of Biology emphasize both areas, as do the requirements of funding agencies. I attempted to integrate research and education by using tools that I developed to support and inform my biological research projects to teach science. Ferns have a life cycle with alternating haploid and diploid life stages, both of which are free-living and potentially long-lived. The haploid gametophytes of some ferns reproduce asexually and may have different environmental requirements than the diploid sporophytes, so it is possible for populations of gametophytes to exist without sporophytes. This dissertation includes a description of surveys for Hymenophyllum wrightii, a fern with independent gametophytes in the Pacific Northwest, and improves our understanding of the range, distribution, and habitat requirements of these plants which were previously assumed to be rare. It also describes an attempt to explore the population genetics of gametophytes of Crepidomanes intricatum, a widespread fern in the Appalachian Mountains for which no sporophytes have ever been found. To help visualize evolutionary processes in independent gametophyte populations I developed the Virtual Population Genetics Simulator (VPGsim) to simulate populations of ferns in a 3-dimensional environment. This dissertation includes a description of VPGsim, a learning module using it to teach undergraduate genetics, and a study demonstrating its effectiveness at improving students' understanding of science content and confidence in their ability to perform science inquiry. That simulation tool led to a collaboration to find other ways to teach science with simulations, and to the development of a Virtual Plant Community simulator (VPCsim) for teaching middle school students about the effects of the environment and human impacts on living organisms. This dissertation

  6. Meaningful radiation worker training for temporary craftsmen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, S.L.

    1976-01-01

    The carefully organized Radiation Worker Training Program presented to permanently assigned personnel at a power reactor facility too often falls by the wayside when temporary craftsmen are brought in for an outage. Even though these temporary workers will frequently be assigned to outage jobs with high radiation and/or contamination exposures, their Radiation Worker Training is often squeezed into an already busy schedule, thus reducing its effectiveness. As an aid for evaluating the effectiveness of an existing Radiation Worker Training Program for temporary craftsmen or for setting up a new program, the following guides are presented and discussed in this paper: the training environment; the interest and meaningfulness of the presentation; the method or methods used for presentation of the training information; the use of demonstrations; trainee participation; and, measuring the amount and type of information retained by a trainee. Meaningful Radiation Worker Training for temporary craftsmen can pay big dividends. Craftsmen can be expected to make fewer mistakes, thus reducing radiation exposure and lessening the chance for the spread of contamination. The craftsmen will also benefit by being able to work longer and utility management will benefit by having lower outage costs

  7. Ecological niche modeling for visceral leishmaniasis in the state of Bahia, Brazil, using genetic algorithm for rule-set prediction and growing degree day-water budget analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prixia Nieto

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Two predictive models were developed within a geographic information system using Genetic Algorithm Rule-Set Prediction (GARP and the growing degree day (GDD-water budget (WB concept to predict the distribution and potential risk of visceral leishmaniasis (VL in the State of Bahia, Brazil. The objective was to define the environmental suitability of the disease as well as to obtain a deeper understanding of the eco-epidemiology of VL by associating environmental and climatic variables with disease prevalence. Both the GARP model and the GDDWB model, using different analysis approaches and with the same human prevalence database, predicted similar distribution and abundance patterns for the Lutzomyia longipalpis-Leishmania chagasi system in Bahia. High and moderate prevalence sites for VL were significantly related to areas of high and moderate risk prediction by: (i the area predicted by the GARP model, depending on the number of pixels that overlapped among eleven annual model years, and (ii the number of potential generations per year that could be completed by the Lu. longipalpis-L. chagasi system by GDD-WB analysis. When applied to the ecological zones of Bahia, both the GARP and the GDD-WB prediction models suggest that the highest VL risk is in the interior region of the state, characterized by a semi-arid and hot climate known as Caatinga, while the risk in the Bahia interior forest and the Cerrado ecological regions is lower. The Bahia coastal forest was predicted to be a low-risk area due to the unsuitable conditions for the vector and VL transmission.

  8. Phylogeography and Ecological Niche Modeling Reveal Reduced Genetic Diversity and Colonization Patterns of Skunk Cabbage (Symplocarpus foetidus; Araceae From Glacial Refugia in Eastern North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seon-Hee Kim

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Alternating glacial and interglacial periods during the Quaternary have dramatically affected the distribution and population genetic structure of plant and animal species throughout the northern hemisphere. Surprisingly, little is known about the post-glacial recolonization history of wetland herbaceous perennials that are widely distributed in the understory of deciduous or mixed deciduous-evergreen forests in eastern North America. In this study, we investigated infraspecific variation among 32 populations of skunk cabbage, Symplocarpus foetidus, to test the hypothesis that the extant species diversity of skunk cabbage is the result of a post-glacial range expansion from southern refugia during the Quaternary Ice Age. A total of 4041 base pairs (bp of the chloroplast intergenic spacer region (cpDNA was sequenced from 485 individuals sampled from glaciated (18 populations, 275 individuals and unglaciated (14 populations, 210 individuals regions east and west of the Appalachian Mountains. Haplotype number, haplotype diversity, and nucleotide diversity were calculated, and genetic variation within and among populations was assessed by analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA. The geographic pattern of genetic differentiation was further investigated with a spatial analysis of molecular variance (SAMOVA. A total of eight haplotypes and three genetic groups (SAMOVA were recovered and a much higher haplotype number (eight haplotypes and haplotype diversity (0.7425 was observed in unglaciated compared to glaciated populations (five haplotypes, haplotype diversity = 0.6099. All haplotypes found in glaciated regions represented a subset of haplotypes found in unglaciated regions. Haplotypes of S. foetidus likely diverged during the Tertiary (mid-Miocene and late Pliocene, predating the last glacial maximum (LGM. Predictions based on ecological niche modeling (ENM suggested that there was considerably less suitable habitat for skunk cabbage during the LGM

  9. Ecological Perspectives in HCI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blevis, Eli; Bødker, Susanne; Flach, John

    The aim of the workshop is to provide a forum for researchers and practitioners to discuss the present and future of ecological perspectives in HCI. The participants will reflect on the current uses and interpretations of “ecology” and related concepts in the field. The workshop will assess the p...... the potential of ecological perspectives in HCI for supporting rich and meaningful analysis, as well as innovative design, of interactive technologies in real-life contexts......The aim of the workshop is to provide a forum for researchers and practitioners to discuss the present and future of ecological perspectives in HCI. The participants will reflect on the current uses and interpretations of “ecology” and related concepts in the field. The workshop will assess...

  10. Towards a mathematical theory of meaningful communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corominas-Murtra, Bernat; Fortuny, Jordi; Solé, Ricard V.

    2014-04-01

    Meaning has been left outside most theoretical approaches to information in biology. Functional responses based on an appropriate interpretation of signals have been replaced by a probabilistic description of correlations between emitted and received symbols. This assumption leads to potential paradoxes, such as the presence of a maximum information associated to a channel that creates completely wrong interpretations of the signals. Game-theoretic models of language evolution and other studies considering embodied communicating agents show that the correct (meaningful) match resulting from agent-agent exchanges is always achieved and natural systems obviously solve the problem correctly. Inspired by the concept of duality of the communicative sign stated by the swiss linguist Ferdinand de Saussure, here we present a complete description of the minimal system necessary to measure the amount of information that is consistently decoded. Several consequences of our developments are investigated, such as the uselessness of a certain amount of information properly transmitted for communication among autonomous agents.

  11. The challenge of a meaningful job

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Ingrid

    and the feeling of doing high quality care generate job satisfaction. The obligation and pressure to perform well and the disadvantages on the midwives’ private lives is counterbalanced by the feeling of doing a meaningful and important job. Working in caseload midwifery creates a feeling of working in a self....... The methodology was inspired by ethnography, and applied methods were field observations followed by interviews. Participants: Thirteen out of eighteen midwives working in caseloads were observed during one or two days in the antenatal clinic and interviewed at a later occasion. Findings: The recognition......-governing model within the public hospital, without losing the technological benefits of a modern birth unit. For pregnant women with a challenging personality or attitude towards others, Caseload midwifery may provide an extra opportunity to feel recognized and respected. Key conclusions: Caseload midwifery...

  12. Creating Visual Design and Meaningful Audience Experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steijn, Arthur; Ion Wille, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of the EU Interreg funded Classical Composition Music and Experience Design project, was to rethink audience experiences and develop knowledge of applied technologies connected to classical music and live concerts. The project and its main objectives was motivated by at least thee...... conditions. The most important being 1) the development in new technology creating new expectations in audiences attending cultural events, including classical concerts, 2) resent decline in audiences attending classical music and 3) a will to strengthen relations between cultural institutions, creative...... businesses and educational institutions in the Øresund region (including the city and surroundings of Malmø and Copenhagen). Therefore the project Classical Composition Music and Experience Design focused on developing new and meaningful audience experiences where live classical music meets new digital...

  13. Meaningful Academic Work as Praxis in Emergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keijo Räsänen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The managerial form of university governance has changed the conditions of academic work in many countries. While some academics consider this a welcome development, others experience it as a threat to their autonomy and to the meaningfulness of their work. This essay suggests a stance in response to the current conditions that should serve especially the latter group of academics. The claim is that by approaching academic work as a potential praxis in emergence, it is possible to appreciate local, autonomous activity in renewing academic work. Even if such efforts remain difficult, dispersed in space, discontinuous in time, and incomplete, they may provide a sense of direction and keep up hope. The conception of praxis is a way of articulating the mission of such efforts; simultaneously, it is also a way of defining an epistemic object for research on academic work.

  14. Assessment of spatial discordance of primary and effective seed dispersal of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) by ecological and genetic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millerón, M; López de Heredia, U; Lorenzo, Z; Alonso, J; Dounavi, A; Gil, L; Nanos, N

    2013-03-01

    Spatial discordance between primary and effective dispersal in plant populations indicates that postdispersal processes erase the seed rain signal in recruitment patterns. Five different models were used to test the spatial concordance of the primary and effective dispersal patterns in a European beech (Fagus sylvatica) population from central Spain. An ecological method was based on classical inverse modelling (SSS), using the number of seed/seedlings as input data. Genetic models were based on direct kernel fitting of mother-to-offspring distances estimated by a parentage analysis or were spatially explicit models based on the genotype frequencies of offspring (competing sources model and Moran-Clark's Model). A fully integrated mixed model was based on inverse modelling, but used the number of genotypes as input data (gene shadow model). The potential sources of error and limitations of each seed dispersal estimation method are discussed. The mean dispersal distances for seeds and saplings estimated with these five methods were higher than those obtained by previous estimations for European beech forests. All the methods show strong discordance between primary and effective dispersal kernel parameters, and for dispersal directionality. While seed rain was released mostly under the canopy, saplings were established far from mother trees. This discordant pattern may be the result of the action of secondary dispersal by animals or density-dependent effects; that is, the Janzen-Connell effect. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Motivational reading on education, meaningful reading realisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Qafa

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study I will present some ideas on today’s educational practice for motivation, the realization of the meaningful reading. There is a special place for the methodical ranking of the reading process, starting in school. Main requests of this reading, consist of the deep meaning of the subject, exploration of the idea, and other elements of the subject, implementation of the technique’s rules of the expressive reading, such as breathing, voice, diction, intonation, spelling, stoppages, logical emphasizes, emotional expressions, temper, timber, gesticulations, and mimic. There is also highlighted the fact that the used method comes from the pupils’ results and depends on the capability and level of the teacher, from the programming’s scale, the tools that are put into disposition, the age and the level of the pupils, and from the environment that the teacher creates during courses. At the end there are some practical guidelines for the realization of the expressive reading in the literature subject.

  16. A meaningful MESS (Medical Education Scholarship Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shari A. Whicker

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Graduate medical education faculty bear the responsibility of demonstrating active research and scholarship; however, faculty who choose education-focused careers may face unique obstacles related to the lack of promotion tracks, funding, career options, and research opportunities. Our objective was to address education research and scholarship barriers by providing a collaborative peer-mentoring environment and improve the production of research and scholarly outputs. Methods: We describe a Medical Education Scholarship Support (MESS group created in 2013. MESS is an interprofessional, multidisciplinary peer-mentoring education research community that now spans multiple institutions. This group meets monthly to address education research and scholarship challenges. Through this process, we develop new knowledge, research, and scholarly products, in addition to meaningful collaborations. Results: MESS originated with eight founding members, all of whom still actively participate. MESS has proven to be a sustainable unfunded local community of practice, encouraging faculty to pursue health professions education (HPE careers and fostering scholarship. We have met our original objectives that involved maintaining 100% participant retention; developing increased knowledge in at least seven content areas; and contributing to the development of 13 peer-reviewed publications, eight professional presentations, one Masters of Education project, and one educational curriculum. Discussion: The number of individuals engaged in HPE research continues to rise. The MESS model could be adapted for use at other institutions, thereby reducing barriers HPE researchers face, providing an effective framework for trainees interested in education-focused careers, and having a broader impact on the education research landscape.

  17. Oceanographic Currents and Local Ecological Knowledge Indicate, and Genetics Does Not Refute, a Contemporary Pattern of Larval Dispersal for The Ornate Spiny Lobster, Panulirus ornatus in the South-East Asian Archipelago.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoc Tan Dao

    Full Text Available Here we utilize a combination of genetic data, oceanographic data, and local ecological knowledge to assess connectivity patterns of the ornate spiny lobster Panulirus ornatus (Fabricius, 1798 in the South-East Asian archipelago from Vietnam to Australia. Partial mitochondrial DNA control region and 10 polymorphic microsatellites did not detect genetic structure of 216 wild P. ornatus samples from Australia, Indonesia and Vietnam. Analyses show no evidence for genetic differentiation among populations (mtDNA control region sequences ΦST = -0.008; microsatellite loci FST = 0.003. A lack of evidence for regional or localized mtDNA haplotype clusters, or geographic clusters of microsatellite genotypes, reveals a pattern of high gene flow in P. ornatus throughout the South-East Asian Archipelago. This lack of genetic structure may be due to the oceanography-driven connectivity of the pelagic lobster larvae between spawning grounds in Papua New Guinea, the Philippines and, possibly, Indonesia. The connectivity cycle necessitates three generations. The lack of genetic structure of P. ornatus population in the South-East Asian archipelago has important implications for the sustainable management of this lobster in that the species within the region needs to be managed as one genetic stock.

  18. Are students ready for meaningful use?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary S. Ferenchick

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The meaningful use (MU of electronic medical records (EMRs is being implemented in three stages. Key objectives of stage one include electronic analysis of data entered into structured fields, using decision-support tools (e.g., checking drug–drug interactions [DDI] and electronic information exchange. Objective: The authors assessed the performance of medical students on 10 stage-one MU tasks and measured the correlation between students’ MU performance and subsequent end-of-clerkship professionalism assessments and their grades on an end-of-year objective structured clinical examination. Participants: Two-hundred and twenty-two third-year medical students on the internal medicine (IM clerkship. Design/main measures: From July 2010 to February 2012, all students viewed 15 online tutorials covering MU competencies. The authors measured student MU documentation and performance in the chart of a virtual patient using a fully functional training EMR. Specific MU measurements included, adding: a new problem, a new medication, an advanced directive, smoking status, the results of screening tests; and performing a DDI (in which a major interaction was probable, and communicating a plan for this interaction. Key results: A total of 130 MU errors were identified. Sixty-eight (30.6% students had at least one error, and 30 (13.5% had more than one (range 2–6. Of the 130 errors, 90 (69.2% were errors in structured data entry. Errors occurred in medication dosing and instructions (18%, DDI identification (12%, documenting smoking status (15%, and colonoscopy results (23%. Students with MU errors demonstrated poorer performance on end-of-clerkship professionalism assessments (r=−0.112, p=0.048 and lower observed structured clinical examination (OSCE history-taking skills (r=−0.165, p=0.008 and communication scores (r=− 0.173, p=0.006. Conclusions: MU errors among medical students are common and correlate with subsequent poor

  19. The Multi-factor Predictive Seis &Gis Model of Ecological, Genetical, Population Health Risk and Bio-geodynamic Processes In Geopathogenic Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondarenko, Y.

    I. Goal and Scope. Human birth rate decrease, death-rate growth and increase of mu- tagenic deviations risk take place in geopathogenic and anthropogenic hazard zones. Such zones create unfavourable conditions for reproductive process of future genera- tions. These negative trends should be considered as a protective answer of the com- plex biosocial system to the appearance of natural and anthropogenic risk factors that are unfavourable for human health. The major goals of scientific evaluation and de- crease of risk of appearance of hazardous processes on the territory of Dnipropetrovsk, along with creation of the multi-factor predictive Spirit-Energy-Information Space "SEIS" & GIS Model of ecological, genetical and population health risk in connection with dangerous bio-geodynamic processes, were: multi-factor modeling and correla- tion of natural and anthropogenic environmental changes and those of human health; determination of indicators that show the risk of destruction structures appearance on different levels of organization and functioning of the city ecosystem (geophys- ical and geochemical fields, soil, hydrosphere, atmosphere, biosphere); analysis of regularities of natural, anthropogenic, and biological rhythms' interactions. II. Meth- ods. The long spatio-temporal researches (Y. Bondarenko, 1996, 2000) have proved that the ecological, genetic and epidemiological processes are in connection with de- velopment of dangerous bio-geophysical and bio-geodynamic processes. Mathemat- ical processing of space photos, lithogeochemical and geophysical maps with use of JEIS o and ERDAS o computer systems was executed at the first stage of forma- tion of multi-layer geoinformation model "Dnipropetrovsk ARC View GIS o. The multi-factor nonlinear correlation between solar activity and cosmic ray variations, geophysical, geodynamic, geochemical, atmospheric, technological, biological, socio- economical processes and oncologic case rate frequency, general and primary

  20. Landscape genetics for the empirical assessment of resistance surfaces: The European pine marten (Martes martes) as a target-species of a regional ecological network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aritz Ruiz-Gonzalez; Mikel Gurrutxaga; Samuel A. Cushman; Maria Jose Madeira; Ettore Randi; Benjamin J. Gomez-Moliner

    2014-01-01

    Coherent ecological networks (EN) composed of core areas linked by ecological corridors are being developed worldwide with the goal of promoting landscape connectivity and biodiversity conservation. However, empirical assessment of the performance of EN designs is critical to evaluate the utility of these networks to mitigate effects of habitat loss and...

  1. Meaningfulness of Service and Marital Satisfaction in Army Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Jeffrey S.; Renshaw, Keith D.; Allen, Elizabeth S.; Markman, Howard J.; Stanley, Scott M.

    2015-01-01

    The vast numbers of military service members who have been deployed since 2001 highlights the need to better understand relationships of military couples. A unique consideration in military couples is the concept of meaningfulness of service, or the value service members and their partners place on military service in spite of the sacrifices it requires. In a sample of 606 Army couples, we used path analysis to examine how male service members’ and female spouses’ perceived meaningfulness of service added to the prediction of marital satisfaction in both members of the couple, when accounting for service members’ PTSD symptoms. Spouses’ perceived meaningfulness of service was linked with higher marital satisfaction in spouses, regardless of service member’s perceived meaningfulness of service. Service members’ perceived meaningfulness of service was also associated with increased marital satisfaction in service members, but only when their spouses also perceived higher meaningfulness. There were no significant interactions between service members’ PTSD and either partner’s perceived meaningfulness. Implications for enhanced attention to spousal perceptions of meaningfulness of service are discussed. PMID:25046347

  2. Intrinsic Value and a Meaningful Life | Audi | Philosophical Papers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    I distinguish various ways in which human life may be thought to be meaningful and present an account of what might be called existential meaningfulness. The account is neutral with respect to both theism and naturalism, but each is addressed in several places and the paper's main points are harmonious with certain ...

  3. Meaningfulness of service and marital satisfaction in Army couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Jeffrey S; Renshaw, Keith D; Allen, Elizabeth S; Markman, Howard J; Stanley, Scott M

    2014-10-01

    The vast numbers of military service members who have been deployed since 2001 highlights the need to better understand relationships of military couples. A unique consideration in military couples is the concept of meaningfulness of service, or the value service members and their partners place on military service in spite of the sacrifices it requires. In a sample of 606 Army couples, the authors used path analysis to examine how male service members' and female spouses' perceived meaningfulness of service added to the prediction of marital satisfaction in both members of the couple, when accounting for service members' PTSD symptoms. Spouses' perceived meaningfulness of service was linked with higher marital satisfaction in spouses, regardless of service member's perceived meaningfulness of service. Service members' perceived meaningfulness of service was also associated with increased marital satisfaction in service members, but only when their spouses also perceived higher meaningfulness. There were no significant interactions between service members' PTSD and either partner's perceived meaningfulness. Implications for enhanced attention to spousal perceptions of meaningfulness of service are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Meaningful Use of Health Information Technology by Rural Hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Jeffrey; Casey, Michelle; Moscovice, Ira; Burlew, Michele

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study examines the current status of meaningful use of health information technology (IT) in Critical Access Hospitals (CAHs), other rural, and urban US hospitals, and it discusses the potential role of Medicare payment incentives and disincentives in encouraging CAHs and other rural hospitals to achieve meaningful use. Methods: Data…

  5. Characteristics of meaningful chemistry education - The case of water quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westbroek, Hanna Barbara

    2005-01-01

    This thesis addresses the question of how to involve students in meaningful chemistry education by a proper implementation of three characteristics of meaningful: a context, a need-to-know approach and attention for student input. The characteristics were adopted as solution strategies for

  6. Relationship between meaningful work and job performance in nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Ling

    2018-04-01

    The present study was designed to determine the relationship between meaningful work and job performance, and the impact of meaningful work on nursing care quality. Meaningful work has been suggested as a significant factor affecting job performance, but the relationship has never been studied in nurses in China. A descriptive correlational study was designed to assess the level of meaningful work, tasks, and contextual performance as well as their relationships. We used a stratified random-sampling approach to enrol nurses from hospitals. Multivariate regression analysis was applied to determine the relationship between meaningful work and their demographic data. There were significant, positive relationships between meaningful work and task performance and contextual performance. Education level, work unit, and employment type influenced meaningful work. The work motivation score of the nurses was lower than that of the other 2 dimensions, and a negative work motivation score negatively influenced job performance. Improving meaningful work and providing more support and assistance could improve nurse performance, thereby improving the quality of nursing care. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  7. Self-Determination and Meaningful Work: Exploring Socioeconomic Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blake A Allan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study examined a model of meaningful work among a diverse sample of working adults. From the perspectives of Self-Determination Theory and the Psychology of Working Framework, we tested a structural model with social class and work volition predicting SDT motivation variables, which in turn predicted meaningful work. Partially supporting hypotheses, work volition was positively related to internal regulation and negatively related to amotivation, whereas social class was positively related to external regulation and amotivation. In turn, internal regulation was positively related to meaningful work, whereas external regulation and amotivation were negatively related to meaningful work. Indirect effects from work volition to meaningful work via internal regulation and amotivation were significant, and indirect effects from social class to meaningful work via external regulation and amotivaiton were significant. This study highlights the important relations between SDT motivation variables and meaningful work, especially the large positive relation between internal regulation and meaningful work. However, results also reveal that work volition and social class may play critical roles in predicting internal regulation, external regulation, and amotivation.

  8. Self-Determination and Meaningful Work: Exploring Socioeconomic Constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Blake A; Autin, Kelsey L; Duffy, Ryan D

    2016-01-01

    This study examined a model of meaningful work among a diverse sample of working adults. From the perspectives of Self-Determination Theory and the Psychology of Working Framework, we tested a structural model with social class and work volition predicting SDT motivation variables, which in turn predicted meaningful work. Partially supporting hypotheses, work volition was positively related to internal regulation and negatively related to amotivation, whereas social class was positively related to external regulation and amotivation. In turn, internal regulation was positively related to meaningful work, whereas external regulation and amotivation were negatively related to meaningful work. Indirect effects from work volition to meaningful work via internal regulation and amotivation were significant, and indirect effects from social class to meaningful work via external regulation and amotivation were significant. This study highlights the important relations between SDT motivation variables and meaningful work, especially the large positive relation between internal regulation and meaningful work. However, results also reveal that work volition and social class may play critical roles in predicting internal regulation, external regulation, and amotivation.

  9. Meaningful work and secondary school teachers' intention to leave ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The following measuring instruments were used: Work-role Fit Scale, Job Enrichment Scale, Co-worker and Supervisor Relationships Scales, Psychological Meaningfulness Scale and Turnover Intention Scale. Work-role fit and job enrichment both had direct positive effect on experiences of psychological meaningfulness at ...

  10. Between order and chaos: The quest for meaningful information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adriaans, P.

    2009-01-01

    The notion of meaningful information seems to be associated with the sweet spot between order and chaos. This form of meaningfulness of information, which is primarily what science is interested in, is not captured by both Shannon information and Kolmogorov complexity. In this paper I develop a

  11. Meaningful spatial and temporal sequences of activities in dwelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hematalikeikha, M.A.; Coolen, H.C.C.H.; Pourdeihimi, S.

    2014-01-01

    Human activities based on human needs are affected by affordances and meanings that occur in the dwelling. Activities over time and space have meaningful sequences. The meaningfulness of activities in the cultural framework is conditioned by its special temporality and spatiality. Also, temporal or

  12. Meaningful work and secondary school teachers' intention to leave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Janik

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates the relations between secondary school teachers' work-role fit, job enrichment, supervisor relationships, co-worker relationships, psychological meaningfulness of work and intention to leave. A cross-sectional survey was used. The participants were 502 secondary school teachers in Namibia. The following measuring instruments were used: Work-role Fit Scale, Job Enrichment Scale, Co-worker and Supervisor Relationships Scales, Psychological Meaningfulness Scale and Turnover Intention Scale. Work-role fit and job enrichment both had direct positive effect on experiences of psychological meaningfulness at work, while poor work-role fit and low psychological meaningfulness both had a direct effect on teachers' intentions to leave. An analysis of the indirect effects showed that poor work-role fit and poor job enrichment affected intention to leave due to the concomitant experience of low psychological meaningfulness. These findings have implications for the retention of teachers in secondary schools.

  13. ON THE DERIVATIVE OF SMOOTH MEANINGFUL FUNCTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjo Zlobec

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The derivative of a function f in n variables at a point x* is one of the most important tools in mathematical modelling. If this object exists, it is represented by the row n-tuple f(x* = [∂f/∂xi(x*] called the gradient of f at x*, abbreviated: “the gradient”. The evaluation of f(x* is usually done in two stages, first by calculating the n partials and then their values at x = x*. In this talk we give an alternative approach. We show that one can characterize the gradient without differentiation! The idea is to fix an arbitrary row n-tuple G and answer the following question: What is a necessary and sufficient condition such that G is the gradient of a given f at a given x*? The answer is given after adjusting the quadratic envelope property introduced in [3]. We work with smooth, i.e., continuously differentiable, functions with a Lipschitz derivative on a compact convex set with a non-empty interior. Working with this class of functions is not a serious restriction. In fact, loosely speaking, “almost all” smooth meaningful functions used in modelling of real life situations are expected to have a bounded “acceleration” hence they belong to this class. In particular, the class contains all twice differentiable functions [1]. An important property of the functions from this class is that every f can be represented as the difference of some convex function and a convex quadratic function. This decomposition was used in [3] to characterize the zero derivative points. There we obtained reformulations and augmentations of some well known classic results on optimality such as Fermats extreme value theorem (known from high school and the Lagrange multiplier theorem from calculus [2, 3]. In this talk we extend the results on zero derivative points to characterize the relation G = f(x*, where G is an arbitrary n-tuple. Some special cases: If G = O, we recover the results on zero derivative points. For functions of a single

  14. Antecedents and outcomes of meaningful work among school teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmari Fouché

    2017-03-01

    Research purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate antecedents and outcomes of meaningful work among school teachers. Motivation for the study: Meaningful work underpins people’s motivation and affects their well-being and job satisfaction. Furthermore, it is a significant pathway to healthy and authentic organisations. However, a research gap exists regarding the effects of different antecedents and outcomes of meaningful work. Research approach, design and method: A cross-sectional survey was used with a convenience sample of 513 teachers. The Work-Life Questionnaire, Revised Job Diagnostic Survey, Co-worker Relations Scale, Work and Meaning Inventory, Personal Resources Scale, Work Engagement Scale, Turnover Intention Scale and a measure of self-rated performance were administered. Main findings: A calling orientation, job design and co-worker relations were associated with meaningful work. A low calling orientation and poor co-worker relationships predicted burnout. A calling orientation, a well-designed job, good co-worker relationships and meaningful work predicted work engagement. Job design was moderately associated with self-ratings of performance. The absence of a calling orientation predicted teachers’ intention to leave the organisation. Practical/managerial implications: Educational managers should consider implementing interventions to affect teachers’ calling orientation (through job crafting, perceptions of the nature of their jobs (by allowing autonomy and co-worker relations (through teambuilding to promote perceptions of meaningful work. Promoting perceptions of meaningful work might contribute to lower burnout, higher work engagement, better self-ratings of performance and retention of teachers. Contribution/value-add: This study contributes to scientific knowledge regarding the effects of three antecedents, namely a calling orientation, job design and co-worker relationships on meaningful work. It also contributed to knowledge

  15. Lessons from the use of genetically modified Drosophila melanogaster in ecological studies: Hsf mutant lines show highly trait-specific performance in field and laboratory thermal assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Givskov; Loeschcke, Volker; Kristensen, Torsten Nygård

    2009-01-01

    . 2.  We have tested the importance of inducible heat shock proteins (Hsps) under different thermal conditions using two heat shock factor (Hsf) mutant lines (either able (Hsf+) or unable (Hsf0) to mount a heat stress response) and an outbred laboratory adapted wild-type line of Drosophila......1.  Laboratory studies on genetically modified strains may reveal important information on mechanisms involved in coping with thermal stress. However, to address the evolutionary significance of specific genes or physiological mechanisms, ecologically relevant field tests should also be performed...

  16. Callings, work role fit, psychological meaningfulness and work ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    meaningful work experiences, which also impact individuals' work .... group 25 to 29 years. .... significant chi-squared difference tests, after these path deletions, indicated that .... Counseling Psychology, 59:479-485. doi: 10.1037/a0028949.

  17. Poignancy: Mixed Emotional Experience in the Face of Meaningful Endings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersner-Hershfield, Hal; Mikels, Joseph A.; Sullivan, Sarah J.; Carstensen, Laura L.

    2009-01-01

    The experience of mixed emotions increases with age. Socioemotional selectivity theory suggests that mixed emotions are associated with shifting time horizons. Theoretically, perceived constraints on future time increase appreciation for life, which, in turn, elicits positive emotions such as happiness. Yet, the very same temporal constraints heighten awareness that these positive experiences come to an end, thus yielding mixed emotional states. In 2 studies, the authors examined the link between the awareness of anticipated endings and mixed emotional experience. In Study 1, participants repeatedly imagined being in a meaningful location. Participants in the experimental condition imagined being in the meaningful location for the final time. Only participants who imagined “last times” at meaningful locations experienced more mixed emotions. In Study 2, college seniors reported their emotions on graduation day. Mixed emotions were higher when participants were reminded of the ending that they were experiencing. Findings suggest that poignancy is an emotional experience associated with meaningful endings. PMID:18179325

  18. Readiness for Meaningful Use of Health Information Tech...

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — According to findings reported in Readiness for Meaningful Use of Health Information Technology and Patient Centered Medical Home Recognition Survey Results,...

  19. Meaningful work and secondary school teachers' intention to leave

    OpenAIRE

    Janik, M.; Rothmann, S.

    2015-01-01

    The study investigates the relations between secondary school teachers' work-role fit, job enrichment, supervisor relationships, co-worker relationships, psychological meaningfulness of work and intention to leave. A cross-sectional survey was used. The participants were 502 secondary school teachers in Namibia. The following measuring instruments were used: Work-role Fit Scale, Job Enrichment Scale, Co-worker and Supervisor Relationships Scales, Psychological Meaningfulness Scale and Turnove...

  20. Design democratization with communities: Drawing toward locally meaningful design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winschiers-Goagoses, Naska; Winschiers-Theophilus, Heike; Rodil, Kasper

    2012-01-01

    The authors present community drawing as meaningful representations to inform locally valid technology design. They investigate recognition within and across cultural borders, thereby exposing variances of localities. The study contributes to the still scarce body of empirical work on culturally...... meaningful development of visual representations and recognition, as part of a longitudinal research project in which we co-design a 3D visualization for a specific Namibian pilot site....

  1. PROMOTING MEANINGFUL LEARNING THROUGH CREATE-SHARE-COLLABORATE

    OpenAIRE

    Sailin, Siti Nazuar; Mahmor, Noor Aida

    2017-01-01

    Students in this 21st century are required to acquire these 4C skills: Critical thinking, Communication, Collaboration and Creativity. These skills can be integrated in the teaching and learning through innovative teaching that promotes active and meaningful learning. One way of integrating these skills is through collaborative knowledge creation and sharing. This paper providesan example of meaningful teaching and learning activities designed within the Create-Share-Collaborate instructional...

  2. Self-Determination and Meaningful Work: Exploring Socioeconomic Constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Allan, Blake A.; Autin, Kelsey L.; Duffy, Ryan D.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined a model of meaningful work among a diverse sample of working adults. From the perspectives of Self-Determination Theory and the Psychology of Working Framework, we tested a structural model with social class and work volition predicting SDT motivation variables, which in turn predicted meaningful work. Partially supporting hypotheses, work volition was positively related to internal regulation and negatively related to amotivation, whereas social class was positively relat...

  3. The effect of occupational meaningfulness on occupational commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itai Ivtzan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Existing research lacks a scholarly consensus on how to define and validly measure ‘meaningful work’ (e.g., Rosso, Dekas & Wrzesniewski, 2010. The following correlational study highlights the value of investigating meaningfulness in the context of occupational commitment. The study hypothesizes that occupational commitment is positively correlated with occupational meaningfulness, where meaningfulness is defined as the extent to which people’s occupations contribute to personal meaning in life. One-hundred and fifty-six full-time office based UK workers completed an online questionnaire including 18 questions measuring levels of occupational commitment (Meyer, Allen & Smith, 1993, in addition to six novel items measuring occupational meaningfulness. The results supported the hypothesis and also showed that the affective sub-type of occupational commitment had the highest correlation with occupational meaningfulness. Such results exhibit the importance of finding meaning at work, as well as the relevance of this to one’s level of commitment to his or her job. This paper argues that individuals should consider OM before choosing to take a specific role, whereas organizations ought to consider the OM of their potential candidates before recruiting them into a role. Possible directions for future research directions are also discussed.

  4. Helping others increases meaningful work: Evidence from three experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Blake A; Duffy, Ryan D; Collisson, Brian

    2018-03-01

    The aim of the current research was to examine whether manipulating task significance increased the meaningfulness of work among students (Study 1), an online sample of working adults (Study 2), and public university employees (Study 3). In Study 1, students completed a typing task for the benefit of themselves, a charity, or someone they knew would directly benefit from their work. People who worked to benefit someone else, rather than themselves, reported greater task meaningfulness. In Study 2, a representative, online sample of employees reflected on a time when they worked to benefit themselves or someone else at work. Results revealed that people who reflected on working to benefit someone else, rather than themselves, reported greater work meaningfulness. In Study 3, public university employees participated in a community intervention by working as they normally would, finding new ways to help people each day, or finding several new ways to help others on a single day. People who helped others many times in a single day experienced greater gains in work meaningfulness over time. Across 3 experimental studies, we found that people who perceived their work as helping others experienced more meaningfulness in their work. This highlights the potential mechanisms practitioners, employers, and other parties can use to increase the meaningfulness of work, which has implications for workers' well-being and productivity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Meaningful work and mental health: job satisfaction as a moderator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Blake A; Dexter, Chelsea; Kinsey, Rebecca; Parker, Shelby

    2018-02-01

    Depression, anxiety and stress are common problems for modern workers. Although having meaningful work, or work that is significant, facilitates personal growth, and contributes to the greater good, has been linked to better mental health, people's work might also need to be satisfying or enjoyable to improve outcomes. The purpose of the present study was to examine meaningful work's relation to mental health (i.e. depression, anxiety and stress) and investigate job satisfaction as a moderator of this relation. The study hypotheses were tested with a large, diverse sample recruited from an online source. Partially supporting hypotheses, when controlling for job satisfaction, meaningful work negatively correlated with depression but did not have a significant relation with anxiety and stress. Similarly, job satisfaction negatively predicted depression and stress. Furthermore, the relations between meaningful work and both anxiety and stress were moderated by job satisfaction. Specifically, only people perceiving their work as meaningful and satisfying reported less anxiety and stress. Although continued research is needed, employers and employees may have to target both the meaningfulness and job satisfaction to address the issues of stress and anxiety among working adults.

  6. Large-scale pattern of genetic differentiation within African rainforest trees: insights on the roles of ecological gradients and past climate changes on the evolution of Erythrophleum spp (Fabaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duminil, Jerome; Brown, Richard P; Ewédjè, Eben-Ezer B K; Mardulyn, Patrick; Doucet, Jean-Louis; Hardy, Olivier J

    2013-09-12

    The evolutionary events that have shaped biodiversity patterns in the African rainforests are still poorly documented. Past forest fragmentation and ecological gradients have been advocated as important drivers of genetic differentiation but their respective roles remain unclear. Using nuclear microsatellites (nSSRs) and chloroplast non-coding sequences (pDNA), we characterised the spatial genetic structure of Erythrophleum (Fabaceae) forest trees in West and Central Africa (Guinea Region, GR). This widespread genus displays a wide ecological amplitude and taxonomists recognize two forest tree species, E. ivorense and E. suaveolens, which are difficult to distinguish in the field and often confused. Bayesian-clustering applied on nSSRs of a blind sample of 648 specimens identified three major gene pools showing no or very limited introgression. They present parapatric distributions correlated to rainfall gradients and forest types. One gene pool is restricted to coastal evergreen forests and corresponds to E. ivorense; a second one is found in gallery forests from the dry forest zone of West Africa and North-West Cameroon and corresponds to West-African E. suaveolens; the third gene pool occurs in semi-evergreen forests and corresponds to Central African E. suaveolens. These gene pools have mostly unique pDNA haplotypes but they do not form reciprocally monophyletic clades. Nevertheless, pDNA molecular dating indicates that the divergence between E. ivorense and Central African E. suaveolens predates the Pleistocene. Further Bayesian-clustering applied within each major gene pool identified diffuse genetic discontinuities (minor gene pools displaying substantial introgression) at a latitude between 0 and 2°N in Central Africa for both species, and at a longitude between 5° and 8°E for E. ivorense. Moreover, we detected evidence of past population declines which are consistent with historical habitat fragmentation induced by Pleistocene climate changes. Overall

  7. Translating ecology, physiology, biochemistry and population genetics research to meet the challenge of tick and tick-borne diseases in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerging and re-emerging tick-borne diseases threaten public health and the wellbeing of domestic animals and wildlife globally. The adoption of an evolutionary ecology framework aimed to diminish the impact of tick-borne diseases needs to be part of strategies to protect human and animal population...

  8. Conservation genetics of the genus Martes: Assessing within-species movements, units to conserve, and connectivity across ecological and evolutionary time [Chapter 17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael K. Schwartz; Aritz Ruiz-Gonzalez; Ryuchi Masuda; Cino Pertoldi

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the physical and temporal factors that structure Martes populations is essential to the conservation and management of the 8 recognized Martes species. Recently, advances in 3 distinct subdisciplines in molecular ecology have provided insights into historical and contemporary environmental factors that have created population substructure and influenced...

  9. Landscape Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Andreas Aagaard; Brandt, Jesper; Svenningsen, Stig Roar

    2017-01-01

    Landscape ecology is an interdisciplinary field of research and practice that deals with the mutual association between the spatial configuration and ecological functioning of landscapes, exploring and describing processes involved in the differentiation of spaces within landscapes......, and the ecological significance of the patterns which are generated by such processes. In landscape ecology, perspectives drawn from existing academic disciplines are integrated based on a common, spatially explicit mode of analysis developed from classical holistic geography, emphasizing spatial and landscape...... pattern analysis and ecological interaction of land units. The landscape is seen as a holon: an assemblage of interrelated phenomena, both cultural and biophysical, that together form a complex whole. Enduring challenges to landscape ecology include the need to develop a systematic approach able...

  10. Recent invasion of the mountain birch Betula pubescens ssp. tortuosa above the treeline due to climate change: genetic and ecological study in northern Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, C; Palmé, A E; Felber, F

    2007-01-01

    Mountain birch, Betula pubescens ssp. tortuosa, forms the treeline in northern Sweden. A recent shift in the range of the species associated with an elevation of the treeline is commonly attributed to climate warming. Using microsatellite markers, we explored the genetic structure of populations along an altitudinal gradient close to the treeline. Low genetic differentiation was found between populations, whereas high genetic diversity was maintained within populations. High level of gene flow compensated for possible losses of genetic diversity at higher elevations and dissipated the founding effect of newly established populations above the treeline. Spatial autocorrelation analysis showed low spatial genetic structure within populations because of extensive gene flow. At the treeline, significant genetic structure within the juvenile age class at small distances did not persist in the adult age class, indicating recent expansion of young recruits due to the warming of the climate. Finally, seedling performance above the treeline was positively correlated with parameters related to temperature. These data confirm the high migration potential of the species in response to fluctuating environmental conditions and indicate that it is now invading higher altitudes due to the recent warming of the climate.

  11. Towards a meaningful assessment of marine ecological impacts in life cycle assessment (LCA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, John S; Veltman, Karin; Huijbregts, Mark A J; Verones, Francesca; Hertwich, Edgar G

    2016-01-01

    Human demands on marine resources and space are currently unprecedented and concerns are rising over observed declines in marine biodiversity. A quantitative understanding of the impact of industrial activities on the marine environment is thus essential. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a widely applied method for quantifying the environmental impact of products and processes. LCA was originally developed to assess the impacts of land-based industries on mainly terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems. As such, impact indicators for major drivers of marine biodiversity loss are currently lacking. We review quantitative approaches for cause-effect assessment of seven major drivers of marine biodiversity loss: climate change, ocean acidification, eutrophication-induced hypoxia, seabed damage, overexploitation of biotic resources, invasive species and marine plastic debris. Our review shows that impact indicators can be developed for all identified drivers, albeit at different levels of coverage of cause-effect pathways and variable levels of uncertainty and spatial coverage. Modeling approaches to predict the spatial distribution and intensity of human-driven interventions in the marine environment are relatively well-established and can be employed to develop spatially-explicit LCA fate factors. Modeling approaches to quantify the effects of these interventions on marine biodiversity are less well-developed. We highlight specific research challenges to facilitate a coherent incorporation of marine biodiversity loss in LCA, thereby making LCA a more comprehensive and robust environmental impact assessment tool. Research challenges of particular importance include i) incorporation of the non-linear behavior of global circulation models (GCMs) within an LCA framework and ii) improving spatial differentiation, especially the representation of coastal regions in GCMs and ocean-carbon cycle models. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Analysis of community-level mesocosm data based on ecologically meaningful dissimilarity measures and data transformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tebby, Cleo; Joachim, Sandrine; Brink, Van den Paul J.; Porcher, Jean Marc; Beaudouin, Rémy

    2017-01-01

    The principal response curve (PRC) method is a constrained ordination method developed specifically for the analysis of community data collected in mesocosm experiments, which provides easily understood summaries and graphical representations of community response to stress. It is a redundancy

  13. The Autoimmune Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaya, Juan-Manuel; Ramirez-Santana, Carolina; Alzate, Maria A; Molano-Gonzalez, Nicolas; Rojas-Villarraga, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases (ADs) represent a heterogeneous group of disorders that affect specific target organs or multiple organ systems. These conditions share common immunopathogenic mechanisms (i.e., the autoimmune tautology), which explain the clinical similarities they have among them as well as their familial clustering (i.e., coaggregation). As part of the autoimmune tautology, the influence of environmental exposure on the risk of developing ADs is paramount (i.e., the autoimmune ecology). In fact, environment, more than genetics, shapes immune system. Autoimmune ecology is akin to exposome, that is all the exposures - internal and external - across the lifespan, interacting with hereditary factors (both genetics and epigenetics) to favor or protect against autoimmunity and its outcomes. Herein, we provide an overview of the autoimmune ecology, focusing on the immune response to environmental agents in general, and microbiota, cigarette smoking, alcohol and coffee consumption, socioeconomic status (SES), gender and sex hormones, vitamin D, organic solvents, and vaccines in particular. Inclusion of the autoimmune ecology in disease etiology and health will improve the way personalized medicine is currently conceived and applied.

  14. THE AUTOIMMUNE ECOLOGY.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan-Manuel eAnaya

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Autoimmune diseases (ADs represent a heterogeneous group of disorders that affect specific target organs or multiple organ systems. These conditions share common immunopathogenic mechanisms (i.e., the autoimmune tautology, which explain the clinical similarities they have among them as well as their familial clustering (i.e., coaggregation. As part of the autoimmune tautology, the influence of environmental exposure on the risk of developing ADs is paramount (i.e., the autoimmune ecology. In fact, environment, more than genetics, shapes immune system. Autoimmune ecology is akin to exposome, that is all the exposures - internal and external - across the lifespan, interacting with hereditary factors (both genetics and epigenetics to favor or protect against autoimmunity and its outcomes. Herein we provide an overview of the autoimmune ecology, focusing on the immune response to environmental agents in general, and microbiota, cigarette smoking, alcohol and coffee consumption, socioeconomic status, gender and sex hormones, vitamin D, organic solvents and vaccines in particular. Inclusion of the autoimmune ecology in disease etiology and health will improve the way personalized medicine is currently conceived and applied.

  15. Landscape Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Andreas Aagaard; Brandt, Jesper; Svenningsen, Stig Roar

    2017-01-01

    , and the ecological significance of the patterns which are generated by such processes. In landscape ecology, perspectives drawn from existing academic disciplines are integrated based on a common, spatially explicit mode of analysis developed from classical holistic geography, emphasizing spatial and landscape...... to translate positivist readings of the environment and hermeneutical perspectives on socioecological interaction into a common framework or terminology....

  16. Designing Meaningful Game Experiences for Rehabilitation and Sustainable Mobility Settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Gabrielli

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the approach followed in two ongoing research projects aimed to designing meaningful game-based experiences to support home rehabilitation, eco-sustainable mobility goals and more in general better daily lifestyles. We first introduce the need for designing meaningful game-based experiences that are well-connected to the relevant non-game settings and can be customized by/for users, then, we show examples of how this approach can be realized in the rehabilitation and sustainable mobility contexts.

  17. The role of ecological context and predation risk-stimuli in revealing the true picture about the genetic basis of boldness evolution in fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klefoth, Thomas; Skov, Christian; Krause, Jens

    2011-01-01

    To showcase the importance of genotype × environment interactions and the presence of predation risk in the experimental assessment of boldness in fish, we investigated boldness in terms of feeding behavior and refuge use in two genetically different populations of juvenile carp (Cyprinus carpio)...

  18. Range-wide conservation of Pinus aristata: A genetic collection with ecological context for proactive management today and resources for tomorrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anna W. Schoettle; Jonathan C. Coop

    2017-01-01

    Tree species are highly vulnerable to anthropogenic environmental change, and are increasingly being challenged by non-native pests and climate change. Rocky Mountain bristlecone pines are long-lived, exhibit delayed maturation, have low genetic diversity, and inhabit cold, high-elevation environments. They are threatened by the non-native disease white pine blister...

  19. Lack of genetic structure among ecologically adapted populations of an Australian rainforest Drosophila species as indicated by microsatellite markers and mitochondrial DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffer, Michele; Kennington, W J; Hoffmann, A A; Blacket, M J

    2007-04-01

    Although fragmented rainforest environments represent hotspots for invertebrate biodiversity, few genetic studies have been conducted on rainforest invertebrates. Thus, it is not known if invertebrate species in rainforests are highly genetically fragmented, with the potential for populations to show divergent selection responses, or if there are low levels of gene flow sufficient to maintain genetic homogeneity among fragmented populations. Here we use microsatellite markers and DNA sequences from the mitochondrial ND5 locus to investigate genetic differences among Drosophila birchii populations from tropical rainforests in Queensland, Australia. As found in a previous study, mitochondrial DNA diversity was low with no evidence for population differentiation among rainforest fragments. The pattern of mitochondrial haplotype variation was consistent with D. birchii having undergone substantial past population growth. Levels of nuclear genetic variation were high in all populations while F(ST) values were very low, even for flies from geographically isolated areas of rainforest. No significant differentiation was observed between populations on either side of the Burdekin Gap (a long-term dry corridor), although there was evidence for higher gene diversity in low-latitude populations. Spatial autocorrelation coefficients were low and did not differ significantly from random, except for one locus which revealed a clinal-like pattern. Comparisons of microsatellite differentiation contrasted with previously established clinal patterns in quantitative traits in D. birchii, and indicate that the patterns in quantitative traits are likely to be due to selection. These results suggest moderate gene flow in D. birchii over large distances. Limited population structure in this species appears to be due to recent range expansions or cycles of local extinctions followed by recolonizations/expansions. Nevertheless, patterns of local adaptation have developed in D. birchii that

  20. Meaningful Work and Secondary School Teachers' Intention to Leave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janik, M.; Rothmann, S.

    2015-01-01

    The study investigates the relations between secondary school teachers' work-role fit, job enrichment, supervisor relationships, co-worker relationships, psychological meaningfulness of work and intention to leave. A cross-sectional survey was used. The participants were 502 secondary school teachers in Namibia. The following measuring instruments…

  1. Meaningful community involvement in protected area issues: a dialogue session

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurie Yung

    2000-01-01

    The current effort to rethink public involvement in decision-making processes for federal lands is gaining momentum. Advocates of alternative decision-making processes seek to involve communities in more meaningful ways than traditional NEPA-style public participation. These new processes take the form of citizen monitoring, partnerships, and most often, collaboration...

  2. Pedagogical Principles of Learning to Teach Meaningful Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ní Chróinín, Déirdre; Fletcher, Tim; O'Sullivan, Mary

    2018-01-01

    Background: Concerns that current forms of physical education teacher education (PETE) are not adequately providing teachers with the tools necessary for working with the realities and challenges of teaching physical education in contemporary schools has led some scholars to advocate for an approach that prioritises meaningfulness in physical…

  3. Callings, work role fit, psychological meaningfulness and work ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Our aim in this study was to investigate the relationships among a calling orientation, work role fit, psychological meaningfulness and work engagement of teachers in Zambia. A quantitative approach was followed and a cross-sectional survey was used. The sample (n = 150) included 75 basic and 75 secondary school ...

  4. Morality and a Meaningful Life | Thomas | Philosophical Papers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... healthy dovetail with respect to leading a meaningful life. With this argument regarding psychological health I draw upon, and extend, P. F. Strawson's seminal essay “Freedom and Resentment”. Also in this regard, I extend Wittgenstein's argument against the possibility of a private language to social behavior generally.

  5. Water Habitat Study: Prediction Makes It More Meaningful.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasgow, Dennis R.

    1982-01-01

    Suggests a teaching strategy for water habitat studies to help students make a meaningful connection between physiochemical data (dissolved oxygen content, pH, and water temperature) and biological specimens they collect. Involves constructing a poster and using it to make predictions. Provides sample poster. (DC)

  6. Cultural study in design : In search of a meaningful approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Boeijen, A.G.C.

    2014-01-01

    Does the Circuit of Culture help design students to do a cultural study that is meaningful for their design project? Indeed, it provides a good view on the phenomenon culture, its complexity and how contemporary cultures can be studied, providing an overview and structure of the processes that

  7. Meaningful Gamification in an Industrial/Organizational Psychology Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansbury, Jessica A.; Earnest, David R.

    2017-01-01

    Motivation and game research continue to demonstrate that the implementation of game design characteristics in the classroom can be engaging and intrinsically motivating. The present study assessed the extent to which an industrial organizational psychology course designed learning environment created with meaningful gamification elements can…

  8. Using Meaningful Contexts to Promote Understanding of Pronumerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linsell, Chris; Cavanagh, Michael; Tahir, Salma

    2013-01-01

    Developing a conceptual understanding of elementary algebra has been the focus of a number of recent articles in this journal. Baroudi (2006) advocated problem solving to assist students' transition from arithmetic to algebra, and Shield (2008) described the use of meaningful contexts for developing the concept of function. Samson (2011, 2012)…

  9. Comprehension for What? Preparing Students for Their Meaningful Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, Mark W.; Wise, Antoinette

    2011-01-01

    Researchers, policymakers, and educators face a daunting task these days concerning literacy education for the here and now and literacy for the future. Even though one clings to the romantic notion that education provides the building blocks in a straight line to a meaningful future, the reality is that mixed goals and instructional messages…

  10. Concept maps and the meaningful learning of science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio C. S. Valadares

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The foundations of the Meaningful Learning Theory (MLT were laid by David Ausubel. The MLT was highly valued by the contributions of Joseph Novak and D. B. Gowin. Unlike other learning theories, the MLT has an operational component, since there are some instruments based on it and with the meaningful learning facilitation as aim. These tools were designated graphic organizers by John Trowbridge and James Wandersee (2000, pp. 100-129. One of them is the concept map created by Novak to extract meanings from an amalgam of information, having currently many applications. The other one is the Vee diagram or knowledge Vee, also called epistemological Vee or heuristic Vee. It was created by Gowin, and is an excellent organizer, for example to unpack and make transparent the unclear information from an information source. Both instruments help us in processing and becoming conceptually transparent the information, to facilitate the cognitive process of new meanings construction. In this work, after a brief introduction, it will be developed the epistemological and psychological grounds of MLT, followed by a reference to constructivist learning environments facilitators of the meaningful learning, the characterization of concept maps and exemplification of its use in various applications that have proved to be very effective from the standpoint of meaningful learning.

  11. Operating Room Delays: Meaningful Use in Electronic Health Record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Winkle, Rachelle A; Champagne, Mary T; Gilman-Mays, Meri; Aucoin, Julia

    2016-06-01

    Perioperative areas are the most costly to operate and account for more than 40% of expenses. The high costs prompted one organization to analyze surgical delays through a retrospective review of their new electronic health record. Electronic health records have made it easier to access and aggregate clinical data; 2123 operating room cases were analyzed. Implementing a new electronic health record system is complex; inaccurate data and poor implementation can introduce new problems. Validating the electronic health record development processes determines the ease of use and the user interface, specifically related to user compliance with the intent of the electronic health record development. The revalidation process after implementation determines if the intent of the design was fulfilled and data can be meaningfully used. In this organization, the data fields completed through automation provided quantifiable, meaningful data. However, data fields completed by staff that required subjective decision making resulted in incomplete data nearly 24% of the time. The ease of use was further complicated by 490 permutations (combinations of delay types and reasons) that were built into the electronic health record. Operating room delay themes emerged notwithstanding the significant complexity of the electronic health record build; however, improved accuracy could improve meaningful data collection and a more accurate root cause analysis of operating room delays. Accurate and meaningful use of data affords a more reliable approach in quality, safety, and cost-effective initiatives.

  12. Synonyms, Antonyms, and Retroactive Inhibition with Meaningful Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisshed, Ethel

    1973-01-01

    The determination of the extent to which generalizations derived from studies of rote verbal learning, particularly paired-associate learning applied to highly meaningful materials, was the focus of this study. It was found that discriminating tags to synonyms and antonyms permitting the application of appropriate transfer rules may be attached.…

  13. Types of Meaningfulness of Life and Values of Future Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salikhova, Nailia R.

    2016-01-01

    The leading role of meaning of life in regulation of human's activity of all types provides the relevance of the research. The goal of the paper is to identify and describe types of meaningfulness of life in future teachers, and to reveal the specificity of values hierarchy indicative of each type. The leading approach applied in the research was…

  14. How Do Novice Art Teachers Define and Implement Meaningful Curriculum?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Christina; Newton, Connie; Kuster, Deborah; Milbrandt, Melody

    2010-01-01

    Four researchers collaborated on this qualitative case study that examined 11 first-year novice art teachers' understanding and implementation of meaningful curriculum. Participants were selected through a criterion method sampling strategy; the subjects were employed in rural, urban, and suburban public school districts. In order to conduct a…

  15. Authentic Leadership and Altruism: The Mediating Role of Meaningfulness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagnak, Mesut; Kuruöz, Mehmet

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the mediating effects of meaningfulness on the relationship between authentic leadership and altruistic behavior. The participants consisted of 356 teachers randomly selected from 14 primary and secondary schools in Nigde. Three different instruments were used in this study. The scales were translated…

  16. Modeling Meaningful Learning in Chemistry Using Structural Equation Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandriet, Alexandra R.; Ward, Rose Marie; Bretz, Stacey Lowery

    2013-01-01

    Ausubel and Novak's construct of "meaningful learning" stipulates that substantive connections between new knowledge and what is already known requires the integration of thinking, feeling, and performance (Novak J. D., (2010), "Learning, creating, and using knowledge: concept maps as facilitative tools in schools and…

  17. Work engagement and meaningful work across generational cohorts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crystal Hoole

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Engaging employees and providing employees with a sense of meaning at work is not a one-size-fits-all approach. Although research has shown that differences between work engagement and meaningful work amongst generational cohorts exist, results are still inconclusive. With age becoming increasingly more important as a diversity factor, a better understanding of the dynamics between work engagement and meaningful work across different generational cohorts is necessary to design the right strategy for each organisation’s unique parameters. Research purpose: The aim of this study was to determine whether there is a relationship between work engagement and meaningful work and whether there are significant variances between the levels of work engagement and meaningful work between different generational cohorts. Motivation for study: Work engagement has consistently been highlighted by researchers and human resources experts as a recommended solution to provide companies with the upper hand when it comes to creating a competitive edge. Yet, levels of work engagement are far from ideal, requiring intensified efforts to identify solutions towards raising overall engagement levels. In recent years, much of the focus in terms of generating engagement has been aimed in the direction of financial rewards and other benefits; some organisational experts are of the opinion that a shift is occurring towards meaningful work instead of monetary rewards as the driver of engagement. The changing nature of the work landscape also suggests that generational cohorts experience work engagement and meaningful work differently. Understanding these complexities is mandatory in creating solutions towards improving levels of engagement and meaningful work. Research approach, design and method: A cross-sectional quantitative research approach has been followed. The Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES and Psychological Meaningful Scale (PMS were administered

  18. Community Ecology

    CERN Document Server

    1988-01-01

    This book presents the proceedings of a workshop on community ecology organized at Davis, in April, 1986, sponsored by the Sloan Foundation. There have been several recent symposia on community ecology (Strong et. al., 1984, Diamond and Case, 1987) which have covered a wide range of topics. The goal of the workshop at Davis was more narrow: to explore the role of scale in developing a theoretical approach to understanding communities. There are a number of aspects of scale that enter into attempts to understand ecological communities. One of the most basic is organizational scale. Should community ecology proceed by building up from population biology? This question and its ramifications are stressed throughout the book and explored in the first chapter by Simon Levin. Notions of scale have long been important in understanding physical systems. Thus, in understanding the interactions of organisms with their physical environment, questions of scale become paramount. These more physical questions illustrate the...

  19. Evidence for the control of phytolith formation in Cucurbita fruits by the hard rind (Hr) genetic locus: Archaeological and ecological implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piperno, Dolores R.; Holst, Irene; Wessel-Beaver, Linda; Andres, Thomas C.

    2002-01-01

    Many angiosperms, both monocotyledons and dicotyledons, heavily impregnate their vegetative and reproductive organs with solid particles of silicon dioxide (SiO2) known as opaline phytoliths. The underlying mechanisms accounting for the formation of phytoliths in plants are poorly understood, however. Using wild and domesticated species in the genus Cucurbita along with their F1 and F2 progeny, we have demonstrated that the production of large diagnostic phytoliths in fruit rinds exhibits a one-to-one correspondence to the lignification of these structures. We propose that phytolith formation in Cucurbita fruits is primarily determined by a dominant genetic locus, called hard rind (Hr), previously shown to code for lignin deposition. If true, this evidence represents a demonstration of genetic control over phytolith production in a dicotyledon and provides considerable support to hypotheses that silica phytoliths constitute another important system of mechanical defense in plants. Our research also identifies Hr as another single locus controlling more than one important phenotypic difference between wild and domesticated plants, and establishes rind tissue cell structure and hardness under the effects of Hr as an important determinant of phytolith morphology. When recovered from pre-Columbian archaeological sites, Cucurbita phytoliths represent genetically controlled fossil markers of exploitation and domestication in this important economic genus. PMID:12149443

  20. Late Quaternary climatic vegetational shifts in an ecological transition zone of northern Madagascar: insights from genetic analyses of two endemic rodent species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakotoarisoa, J-E; Raheriarisena, M; Goodman, S M

    2013-05-01

    The Loky-Manambato region, located in northern Madagascar, is a biotically rich contact zone between different forest biomes. Local current forest cover is composed of both humid and dry formations, which show elevational stratification. A recent phylogeographical study of a regional dry forest rodent, Eliurus carletoni (subfamily Nesomyinae), found genetic evidence of forest contractions between 18 750 and 7500 years BP, which based on extrapolation of the pollen subfossil record, was thought to be associated with an expansion of local humid forests. Herein, we conduct a genetic test of this hypothesis and focused on populations on two neighbouring massifs of forest-dependent rodent species, one associated with low-elevation dry forests (E. carletoni) and the other with higher elevation humid forests (Eliurus tanala). Using mitochondrial markers and a combination of traditional and coalescent-based phylogeographical, historical demographic and population genetic methods, we found evidence of historical connections between populations of E. tanala. Adjacent populations of E. carletoni and E. tanala exhibit opposite historical demographic patterns, and for both, evidence suggests that historical demographic events occurred within the last 25 000 years BP. These findings strongly support the proposed late Quaternary shifts in the floristic composition of the Loky-Manambato region. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2013 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  1. Meaningful Human Control over Autonomous Systems: A Philosophical Account

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Santoni de Sio

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Debates on lethal autonomous weapon systems have proliferated in the past 5 years. Ethical concerns have been voiced about a possible raise in the number of wrongs and crimes in military operations and about the creation of a “responsibility gap” for harms caused by these systems. To address these concerns, the principle of “meaningful human control” has been introduced in the legal–political debate; according to this principle, humans not computers and their algorithms should ultimately remain in control of, and thus morally responsible for, relevant decisions about (lethal military operations. However, policy-makers and technical designers lack a detailed theory of what “meaningful human control” exactly means. In this paper, we lay the foundation of a philosophical account of meaningful human control, based on the concept of “guidance control” as elaborated in the philosophical debate on free will and moral responsibility. Following the ideals of “Responsible Innovation” and “Value-sensitive Design,” our account of meaningful human control is cast in the form of design requirements. We identify two general necessary conditions to be satisfied for an autonomous system to remain under meaningful human control: first, a “tracking” condition, according to which the system should be able to respond to both the relevant moral reasons of the humans designing and deploying the system and the relevant facts in the environment in which the system operates; second, a “tracing” condition, according to which the system should be designed in such a way as to grant the possibility to always trace back the outcome of its operations to at least one human along the chain of design and operation. As we think that meaningful human control can be one of the central notions in ethics of robotics and AI, in the last part of the paper, we start exploring the implications of our account for the design and use of non

  2. Metabolomics in chemical ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlisch, Constanze; Pohnert, Georg

    2015-07-01

    Chemical ecology elucidates the nature and role of natural products as mediators of organismal interactions. The emerging techniques that can be summarized under the concept of metabolomics provide new opportunities to study such environmentally relevant signaling molecules. Especially comparative tools in metabolomics enable the identification of compounds that are regulated during interaction situations and that might play a role as e.g. pheromones, allelochemicals or in induced and activated defenses. This approach helps overcoming limitations of traditional bioassay-guided structure elucidation approaches. But the power of metabolomics is not limited to the comparison of metabolic profiles of interacting partners. Especially the link to other -omics techniques helps to unravel not only the compounds in question but the entire biosynthetic and genetic re-wiring, required for an ecological response. This review comprehensively highlights successful applications of metabolomics in chemical ecology and discusses existing limitations of these novel techniques. It focuses on recent developments in comparative metabolomics and discusses the use of metabolomics in the systems biology of organismal interactions. It also outlines the potential of large metabolomics initiatives for model organisms in the field of chemical ecology.

  3. In search of meaningfulness: nostalgia as an antidote to boredom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tilburg, Wijnand A P; Igou, Eric R; Sedikides, Constantine

    2013-06-01

    We formulated, tested, and supported, in 6 studies, a theoretical model according to which individuals use nostalgia as a way to reinject meaningfulness in their lives when they experience boredom. Studies 1-3 established that induced boredom causes increases in nostalgia when participants have the opportunity to revert to their past. Studies 4 and 5 examined search for meaning as a mediator of the effect of boredom on nostalgia. Specifically, Study 4 showed that search for meaning mediates the effect of state boredom on nostalgic memory content, whereas Study 5 demonstrated that search for meaning mediates the effect of dispositional boredom on dispositional nostalgia. Finally, Study 6 examined the meaning reestablishment potential of nostalgia during boredom: Nostalgia mediates the effect of boredom on sense of meaningfulness and presence of meaning in one's life. Nostalgia counteracts the meaninglessness that individuals experience when they are bored.

  4. Concept Mapping Using Cmap Tools to Enhance Meaningful Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañas, Alberto J.; Novak, Joseph D.

    Concept maps are graphical tools that have been used in all facets of education and training for organizing and representing knowledge. When learners build concept maps, meaningful learning is facilitated. Computer-based concept mapping software such as CmapTools have further extended the use of concept mapping and greatly enhanced the potential of the tool, facilitating the implementation of a concept map-centered learning environment. In this chapter, we briefly present concept mapping and its theoretical foundation, and illustrate how it can lead to an improved learning environment when it is combined with CmapTools and the Internet. We present the nationwide “Proyecto Conéctate al Conocimiento” in Panama as an example of how concept mapping, together with technology, can be adopted by hundreds of schools as a means to enhance meaningful learning.

  5. Early- versus Late-Onset Dysthymia: A Meaningful Clinical Distinction?

    OpenAIRE

    Sansone, Randy A.; Sansone, Lori A.

    2009-01-01

    In the current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, dysthymic disorder is categorized as either early-onset or late-onset, based upon the emergence of symptoms before or after the age of 21, respectively. Does this diagnostic distinction have any meaningful clinical implications? In this edition of The Interface, we present empirical studies that have, within a single study, compared individuals with early-versus late-onset dysthymia. In this review, we found that, compared ...

  6. Meaningful Use of a Confidential Adolescent Patient Portal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Lindsay A; Martinko, Thomas; Budd, Pamela; Mercado, Rebeccah; Schentrup, Anzeela M

    2016-02-01

    To design and evaluate the usage of an adolescent patient portal specifically adapted for adolescent health care needs that also satisfied institutional meaningful use guidelines regarding electronic health records. Key stakeholders at one academic health care center adopted an online portal and opted to designate a patient portal specifically for adolescents to maximize confidentiality in compliance with state privacy laws. This study analyzed aggregate electronic health record data of adolescents' (ages 12-17.9 years) uptake, usage, and functionality of this portal and compared it to parent portal usage for younger children (ages 0-11 years). Differences in means were calculated using paired t tests. The portal was used similarly between parents of young children and adolescents, with almost 1,000 enrollees in each group from September 1, 2012 to March 31, 2015. There were no gender differences in enrollment. Adolescents were less likely than parents of younger children to review appointments (73% vs. 85%), laboratory tests (67% vs. 79%), problem lists (40% vs. 78%), or allergies (45% vs. 77%, all p values adolescents sent 1,397 confidential messages. Institutional decisions for implementing meaningful use requirements can align with goals of adolescent health. Patient portals can enhance adolescent health care quality and adolescents readily use a confidential portal. Implementation of meaningful use requirements should be checked against adolescent health care needs to maximize confidentiality and promote health communication. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Genetic variability in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi compatibility supports the selection of durum wheat genotypes for enhancing soil ecological services and cropping systems in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, A K; Hamel, C; Depauw, R M; Knox, R E

    2012-03-01

    Crop nutrient- and water-use efficiency could be improved by using crop varieties highly compatible with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Two greenhouse experiments demonstrated the presence of genetic variability for this trait in modern durum wheat ( Triticum turgidum L. var. durum Desf.) germplasm. Among the five cultivars tested, 'AC Morse' had consistently low levels of AM root colonization and DT710 had consistently high levels of AM root colonization, whereas 'Commander', which had the highest colonization levels under low soil fertility conditions, developed poor colonization levels under medium fertility level. The presence of genetic variability in durum wheat compatibility with AMF was further evidenced by significant genotype × inoculation interaction effects in grain and straw biomass production; grain P, straw P, and straw K concentrations under medium soil fertility level; and straw K and grain Fe concentrations at low soil fertility. Mycorrhizal dependency was an undesirable trait of 'Mongibello', which showed poor growth and nutrient balance in the absence of AMF. An AMF-mediated reduction in grain Cd under low soil fertility indicated that breeding durum wheat for compatibility with AMF could help reduce grain Cd concentration in durum wheat. Durum wheat genotypes should be selected for compatibility with AMF rather than for mycorrhizal dependency.

  8. Ecological macroeconomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    2013-01-01

    by a more theoretical debate and increased interaction between the heterodox schools of ecological economics and post-Keynesian economics. In addition, both the degrowth community and the research community organized around sustainable transitions of socio-technical systems have contributed to discussions...... on how to reconcile environmental and social concerns. Based on this broad variety of pieces in a jigsaw puzzle, a new ecological macroeconomics is emerging, but the contours are still vague. This chapter seeks to outline some of this topography and to add a few pieces of its own by highlighting the need...... to shift resources from consumption to investment and describing the role of consumer-citizens in such a change. The chapter starts by identifying the problems and challenges for an ecological macroeconomics. The next section outlines some of the shortcomings of traditional macroeconomics...

  9. Effects of introgression on the genetic population structure of two ecologically and economically important conifer species: lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) and jack pine (Pinus banksiana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullingham, Catherine I; Cooke, Janice E K; Coltman, David W

    2013-10-01

    Forest trees exhibit a remarkable range of adaptations to their environment, but as a result of frequent and long-distance gene flow, populations are often only weakly differentiated. Lodgepole and jack pine hybridize in western Canada, which adds the opportunity for introgression through hybridization to contribute to population structure and (or) adaptive variation. Access to large sample size, high density SNP datasets for these species would improve our ability to resolve population structure, parameterize introgression, and separate the influence of demography from adaptation. To accomplish this, 454 transcriptome reads for lodgepole and jack pine were assembled using Newbler and MIRA, the assemblies mined for SNPs, and 1536 SNPs were selected for typing on lodgepole pine, jack pine, and their hybrids (N = 536). We identified population structure using both Bayesian clustering and discriminate analysis of principle components. Introgressed SNP loci were identified and their influence on observed population structure was assessed. We found that introgressed loci resulted in increased differentiation both within lodgepole and jack pine populations. These findings are timely given the recent mountain pine beetle population expansion in the hybrid zone, and will facilitate future studies of adaptive traits in these ecologically important species.

  10. Ecological concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This volume contains three critical contributions on the application of modern technology from the ethical point of view. The peaceful use of nuclear power is rejected as a technical error, which is overwhelming humanity. Ethical bases of a preventive technological policy and ecological aims are developed for the 21st century, in economy, technology, politics, and consciousness. (HSCH) [de

  11. Information Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ellen Tove

    2006-01-01

    in the 1960ties, and chosen here because it integrates cultural and psychological trajectories in a theory of living settings. The pedagogical-didactical paradigm comprises three distinct information ecologies, named after their intended outcome: the problem-setting, the exploration-setting, and the fit...

  12. Variabilidade genética e ecológica de Stylosanthes macrocephala determinadas por RAPD e SIG Genetic and ecological variability of Stylosanthes macrocephaladetermined by RAPD markers and GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Barros

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Stylosanthes macrocephala M. B. Ferr. et S. Costa é uma leguminosa utilizada sob consorciação em pastagens, adubação e recuperação de áreas degradadas. A falta de características morfológicas e agronômicas estáveis e de informações ecogeográficas dos locais de coleta dos acessos tem dificultado o melhoramento genético da espécie. A fim de obter descritores ecológicos, moleculares e avaliar a variabilidade genética da coleção de S. macrocephala, 87 acessos foram analisados com o auxílio do Sistema de Informações Geográficas (SIG e de marcadores moleculares RAPD. Os acessos provieram de sete Estados, cinco bacias hidrográficas, sete tipos de vegetação e sete tipos de solos. As altitudes dos locais de coleta variaram de 1 a 1.298 m e a pluviometria anual média de 550 a 2.870 mm. A variabilidade de descritores ecológicos sugeriu diversidade adaptativa na coleção. Com base em 161 marcadores RAPD, verificou-se que as distâncias genéticas entre os acessos de S. macrocephala variaram entre 0,02 e 0,42. Com base nessas distâncias, dez grupos de similaridade genética foram estabelecidos. Observou-se tendência de separação por bacias hidrográficas e elevada variabilidade gen��tica entre os acessos coletados nos estados da Bahia e de Minas Gerais. A alta variabilidade genética da coleção de S. macrocephala evidencia a importância desses acessos para futuros trabalhos de melhoramento genético.Stylosanthes macrocephala M. B. Ferr et S. Costa is a leguminous species used as forage, cover crop and as a pioneer plant to recover degraded areas. Inexistence of stable morphological descriptors and lack of ecogeographic information about collecting sites bring difficulties to the studies of this species. The objective of this work was to use the geographic information system (GIS and RAPD markers to obtain ecological and molecular descriptors and to study the genetic variability of 87 S. macrocephala accessions. The

  13. Association between clinically meaningful behavior problems and overweight in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumeng, Julie C; Gannon, Kate; Cabral, Howard J; Frank, Deborah A; Zuckerman, Barry

    2003-11-01

    To determine whether there is a relationship between clinically meaningful behavior problems and concurrent and future overweight in 8- to 11-year-old children. 1998 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth interview data for 8- to 11-year-old children and their mothers were analyzed. A Behavior Problems Index score >90th percentile was considered clinically meaningful. Child overweight was defined as a body mass index (BMI) >or=95th percentile for age and sex. Multiple logistic regression was used to control for potential confounders (selected a priori): child's sex, race, use of behavior-modifying medication, history of academic retention, and hours of television per day; maternal obesity, smoking status, marital status, education, and depressive symptoms; family poverty status; and Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment-Short Form (HOME-SF) cognitive stimulation score. In an attempt to elucidate temporal sequence, a second analysis was conducted with a subsample of normal-weight children who became overweight between 1996 and 1998 while controlling for BMI z score in 1996. The sample included 755 mother-child pairs. Of the potential confounding variables, race, maternal obesity, academic grade retention, maternal education, poverty status, and HOME-SF cognitive stimulation score acted as joint confounders, altering the relationship between behavior problems and overweight in the multiple logistic regression model. With these covariates in the final model, behavior problems were independently associated with concurrent child overweight (adjusted odds ratio: 2.95; 95% confidence interval: 1.34-6.49). The relationship was strengthened in the subsample of previously normal-weight children, with race, maternal obesity, HOME-SF cognitive stimulation score, and 1996 BMI z score acting as confounders (adjusted odds ratio: 5.23; 95% confidence interval: 1.37-19.9). Clinically meaningful behavior problems in 8- to 11-year-old children were independently

  14. Measuring meaningful learning in the undergraduate chemistry laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Kelli R.

    The undergraduate chemistry laboratory has been an essential component in chemistry education for over a century. The literature includes reports on investigations of singular aspects laboratory learning and attempts to measure the efficacy of reformed laboratory curriculum as well as faculty goals for laboratory learning which found common goals among instructors for students to learn laboratory skills, techniques, experimental design, and to develop critical thinking skills. These findings are important for improving teaching and learning in the undergraduate chemistry laboratory, but research is needed to connect the faculty goals to student perceptions. This study was designed to explore students' ideas about learning in the undergraduate chemistry laboratory. Novak's Theory of Meaningful Learning was used as a guide for the data collection and analysis choices for this research. Novak's theory states that in order for meaningful learning to occur the cognitive, affective, and psychomotor domains must be integrated. The psychomotor domain is inherent in the chemistry laboratory, but the extent to which the cognitive and affective domains are integrated is unknown. For meaningful learning to occur in the laboratory, students must actively integrate both the cognitive domain and the affective domains into the "doing" of their laboratory work. The Meaningful Learning in the Laboratory Instrument (MLLI) was designed to measure students' cognitive and affective expectations and experiences within the context of conducting experiments in the undergraduate chemistry laboratory. Evidence for the validity and reliability of the data generated by the MLLI were collected from multiple quantitative studies: a one semester study at one university, a one semester study at 15 colleges and universities across the United States, and a longitudinal study where the MLLI was administered 6 times during two years of general and organic chemistry laboratory courses. Results from

  15. Genetic diversity in rosewood saplings (Aniba rosaeodora ducke, Lauraceae: an ecological approach Diversidade genética em plantas jovens de Pau-rosa (Aniba rosaeodora Ducke, Lauraceae: uma abordagem ecológica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Pereira Santos

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This article takes an ecological approach to the genetic diversity of Rosewood (Aniba rosaeodora Ducke in a central Amazonian terra firme forest north of Manaus. Planted Rosewood setting, under partial shaded canopy, were assessed in terms of fruiting production, frugivory, and seed dispersal. Using RAPD molecular analysis procedures, the influence of the spatial distribution of adult trees on the genetic diversity (polymorphism of saplings was assessed with genetic samples from 34 reproductive trees and 60 saplings. The density and distribution patterns the reproductive trees did not modify the sapling"s diversity (1.86%, AMOVA. Two types of adult tree dispersion were identified; i clumped and ii more widely dispersed. Polymorphism (77.5% and gene flow were high between these. Although more sapling genetic variability in areas with a higher density of mature plants was not as high as expected, density did not affect the genetic diversity of samplings, indicating a high incidence of gene flow amongst trees. In planted Rosewood population (surrounded by low disturbed forest, fruiting trees experienced a high level of removal of seeds by toucans (Rhamphastidae, about of 50%. The high gene flow found among native trees suggested that toucans, promoting seed rain at short and long distances from maternal trees, actively contribute to the maintenance of genetic diversity within wild rosewood populations.Dados genéticos e ecológicos foram obtidos do Pau-rosa (Aniba rosaeodora Ducke em uma floresta de terra firme localizada ao norte de Manaus. Em um sistema de plantio composto de plantas sob sombreamento parcial, foram analisados dados de frugivoria, produção de frutos e dispersão. Numa população natural, com 34 plantas adultas e 60 jovens, foi analisada a influência da distribuição espacial das plantas adultas na diversidade genética (polimorfismo das jovens utilizando o marcador molecular RAPD. O modelo de distribuição e densidade das

  16. A hybrid genetic linkage map of two ecologically and morphologically divergent Midas cichlid fishes (Amphilophus spp.) obtained by massively parallel DNA sequencing (ddRADSeq).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recknagel, Hans; Elmer, Kathryn R; Meyer, Axel

    2013-01-01

    Cichlid fishes are an excellent model system for studying speciation and the formation of adaptive radiations because of their tremendous species richness and astonishing phenotypic diversity. Most research has focused on African rift lake fishes, although Neotropical cichlid species display much variability as well. Almost one dozen species of the Midas cichlid species complex (Amphilophus spp.) have been described so far and have formed repeated adaptive radiations in several Nicaraguan crater lakes. Here we apply double-digest restriction-site associated DNA sequencing to obtain a high-density linkage map of an interspecific cross between the benthic Amphilophus astorquii and the limnetic Amphilophus zaliosus, which are sympatric species endemic to Crater Lake Apoyo, Nicaragua. A total of 755 RAD markers were genotyped in 343 F(2) hybrids. The map resolved 25 linkage groups and spans a total distance of 1427 cM with an average marker spacing distance of 1.95 cM, almost matching the total number of chromosomes (n = 24) in these species. Regions of segregation distortion were identified in five linkage groups. Based on the pedigree of parents to F(2) offspring, we calculated a genome-wide mutation rate of 6.6 × 10(-8) mutations per nucleotide per generation. This genetic map will facilitate the mapping of ecomorphologically relevant adaptive traits in the repeated phenotypes that evolved within the Midas cichlid lineage and, as the first linkage map of a Neotropical cichlid, facilitate comparative genomic analyses between African cichlids, Neotropical cichlids and other teleost fishes.

  17. Political ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strohm, H.

    1979-01-01

    Using facts and examples, this didactically structures textbook gives an insight into the extent and consequences of the damage to the environment, with the subjects - fundamentals of ecology; - population and food problems; - the energy problem; - economic growth; scarcity of resources, recycling; - ground, water, and air pollution, - city and traffic problems; - work protection and medical care; - political alternatives and 'soft technologies'. The analysis of the political and economic reasons is combined with social and technical alternatives from which demands to be made and measures to be taken can be derived for individuals, citizens' interest groups, political groups and trade unions. Teaching models intend to help teachers to work on specific problems of ecology. (orig.) [de

  18. Wasteland ecologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoag, Colin Brewster; Bertoni, Filippo; Bubandt, Nils Ole

    2018-01-01

    landscapes, this article argues, are the result of unheralded multispecies collaboration that can be traced empirically by attending ethnographically to multispecies forms of “gain-making,” the ways in which humans and other species leverage difference to find economic and ecological opportunity....... in the 1970s, when prevailing perceptions were that the entire mining area was a polluted wasteland, the AFLD Fasterholt waste and recycling plant has since changed in response to new EU waste management regulations, as well as the unexpected proliferation of non-human life in the area. Based on field...... research at this site—an Anthropocene landscape in the heartland of an EU-configured welfare state — this article is a contribution to the multispecies ethnography and political ecology of wastelands. We argue that “waste” is a co-species, biopolitical happening — a complex symbolic, political, biological...

  19. Marine ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Studies on marine ecology included marine pollution; distribution patterns of Pu and Am in the marine waters, sediments, and organisms of Bikini Atoll and the influence of physical, chemical, and biological factors on their movements through marine biogeochemical systems; transfer and dispersion of organic pollutants from an oil refinery through coastal waters; transfer of particulate pollutants, including sediments dispersed during construction of offshore power plants; and raft culture of the mangrove oysters

  20. Ecological Challenges for Closed Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Mark; Dempster, William; Allen, John P.

    2012-07-01

    Closed ecological systems are desirable for a number of purposes. In space life support systems, material closure allows precious life-supporting resources to be kept inside and recycled. Closure in small biospheric systems facilitates detailed measurement of global ecological processes and biogeochemical cycles. Closed testbeds facilitate research topics which require isolation from the outside (e.g. genetically modified organisms; radioisotopes) so their ecological interactions and fluxes can be studied separate from interactions with the outside environment. But to achieve and maintain closure entails solving complex ecological challenges. These challenges include being able to handle faster cycling rates and accentuated daily and seasonal fluxes of critical life elements such as carbon dioxide, oxygen, water, macro- and mico-nutrients. The problems of achieving sustainability in closed systems for life support include how to handle atmospheric dynamics including trace gases, producing a complete human diet and recycling nutrients and maintaining soil fertility, the sustaining of healthy air and water and preventing the loss of crucial elements from active circulation. In biospheric facilities the challenge is also to produce analogues to natural biomes and ecosystems, studying processes of self-organization and adaptation in systems that allow specification or determination of state variables and cycles which may be followed through all interactions from atmosphere to soils. Other challenges include the dynamics and genetics of small populations, the psychological challenges for small isolated human groups and measures and options which may be necessary to ensure long-term operation of closed ecological systems.

  1. An integrative approach to inferring biologically meaningful gene modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Kai

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ability to construct biologically meaningful gene networks and modules is critical for contemporary systems biology. Though recent studies have demonstrated the power of using gene modules to shed light on the functioning of complex biological systems, most modules in these networks have shown little association with meaningful biological function. We have devised a method which directly incorporates gene ontology (GO annotation in construction of gene modules in order to gain better functional association. Results We have devised a method, Semantic Similarity-Integrated approach for Modularization (SSIM that integrates various gene-gene pairwise similarity values, including information obtained from gene expression, protein-protein interactions and GO annotations, in the construction of modules using affinity propagation clustering. We demonstrated the performance of the proposed method using data from two complex biological responses: 1. the osmotic shock response in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and 2. the prion-induced pathogenic mouse model. In comparison with two previously reported algorithms, modules identified by SSIM showed significantly stronger association with biological functions. Conclusions The incorporation of semantic similarity based on GO annotation with gene expression and protein-protein interaction data can greatly enhance the functional relevance of inferred gene modules. In addition, the SSIM approach can also reveal the hierarchical structure of gene modules to gain a broader functional view of the biological system. Hence, the proposed method can facilitate comprehensive and in-depth analysis of high throughput experimental data at the gene network level.

  2. Myasthenia Gravis Impairment Index: Responsiveness, meaningful change, and relative efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Carolina; Bril, Vera; Kapral, Moira; Kulkarni, Abhaya V; Davis, Aileen M

    2017-12-05

    To study responsiveness and meaningful change of the Myasthenia Gravis Impairment Index (MGII) and its relative efficiency compared to other measures. We enrolled 95 patients receiving prednisone, IV immunoglobulin (IVIg), or plasma exchange (PLEX) and 54 controls. Patients were assessed with the MGII and other measures-including the Quantitative Myasthenia Gravis Score, Myasthenia Gravis Composite, and Myasthenia Gravis Activities of Daily Living-at baseline and 3-4 weeks after treatment. Statistical markers of responsiveness included between-groups and within-group differences, and we estimated the relative efficiency of the MGII compared to other measures. Patient-meaningful change was assessed with an anchor-based method, using the patient's impression of change. We determined the minimal detectable change (MDC) and the minimal important difference (MID) at the group and individual level. Treated patients had a higher change in MGII scores than controls (analysis of covariance p 1 favoring the MGII. The MGII demonstrated responsiveness to prednisone, IVIg, and PLEX in patients with myasthenia. There is a differential response in ocular and generalized symptoms to type of therapy. The MGII has higher relative efficiency than comparison measures and is viable for use in clinical trials. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. on behalf of the American Academy of Neurology.

  3. Terrestrial ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    The main effort of the Terrestrial Ecology Division has been redirected to a comprehensive study of the Espiritu Santo Drainage Basin located in northeastern Puerto Rico. The general objective are to provide baseline ecological data for future environmental assessment studies at the local and regional levels, and to provide through an ecosystem approach data for the development of management alternatives for the wise utilization of energy, water, and land resources. The interrelationships among climate, vegetation, soils, and man, and their combined influence upon the hydrologic cycle will be described and evaluated. Environmental management involves planning and decision making, and both require an adequate data base. At present, little is known about the interworkings of a complete, integrated system such as a drainage basin. A literature survey of the main research areas confirmed that, although many individual ecologically oriented studies have been carried out in a tropical environment, few if any provide the data base required for environmental management. In view of rapidly changing socio-economic conditions and natural resources limitations, management urgently requires data from these systems: physical (climatological), biological, and cultural. This integrated drainage basin study has been designed to provide such data. The scope of this program covers the hydrologic cycle as it is affected by the interactions of the physical, biological, and cultural systems

  4. Graphic Ecologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brook Weld Muller

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay describes strategic approaches to graphic representation associated with critical environmental engagement and that build from the idea of works of architecture as stitches in the ecological fabric of the city. It focuses on the building up of partial or fragmented graphics in order to describe inclusive, open-ended possibilities for making architecture that marry rich experience and responsive performance. An aphoristic approach to crafting drawings involves complex layering, conscious absence and the embracing of tension. A self-critical attitude toward the generation of imagery characterized by the notion of ‘loose precision’ may lead to more transformative and environmentally responsive architectures.

  5. Industrial ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, C K

    1992-01-01

    Industrial ecology addresses issues that will impact future production, use, and disposal technologies; proper use of the concept should reduce significantly the resources devoted to potential remediation in the future. This cradle-to-reincarnation production philosophy includes industrial processes that are environmentally sound and products that are environmentally safe during use and economically recyclable after use without adverse impact on the environment or on the net cost to society. This will require an industry-university-government round table to set the strategy and agenda for progress. PMID:11607254

  6. The measurement of water scarcity: Defining a meaningful indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damkjaer, Simon; Taylor, Richard

    2017-09-01

    Metrics of water scarcity and stress have evolved over the last three decades from simple threshold indicators to holistic measures characterising human environments and freshwater sustainability. Metrics commonly estimate renewable freshwater resources using mean annual river runoff, which masks hydrological variability, and quantify subjectively socio-economic conditions characterising adaptive capacity. There is a marked absence of research evaluating whether these metrics of water scarcity are meaningful. We argue that measurement of water scarcity (1) be redefined physically in terms of the freshwater storage required to address imbalances in intra- and inter-annual fluxes of freshwater supply and demand; (2) abandons subjective quantifications of human environments and (3) be used to inform participatory decision-making processes that explore a wide range of options for addressing freshwater storage requirements beyond dams that include use of renewable groundwater, soil water and trading in virtual water. Further, we outline a conceptual framework redefining water scarcity in terms of freshwater storage.

  7. School nurse evaluations: making the process meaningful and motivational.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Kathryn H; Overman, Muriel; Guttu, Martha; Engelke, Martha Keehner

    2013-02-01

    The professional standards of school nursing practice provide a framework to help school nurses focus on their unique mission of promoting health and academic achievement for all students. Without the standards, the nurse's role can become task oriented and limited in scope. By using an evaluation tool that reflects the standards, nurses not only become aware and begin to understand the standards; they also become directly accountable for meeting them. In addition, developing an evaluation process based on the standards of school nurse practice increases the visibility of school nurses and helps school administrators understand the role of the school nurse. This article describes how one school district integrated the scope and standards of school nursing into the job description and performance evaluation of the nurse. The process which is used to complete the evaluation in a manner that is meaningful and motivational to the school nurse is described.

  8. Understanding the Spatial Scale of Genetic Connectivity at Sea: Unique Insights from a Land Fish and a Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina M Cooke

    Full Text Available Quantifying the spatial scale of population connectivity is important for understanding the evolutionary potential of ecologically divergent populations and for designing conservation strategies to preserve those populations. For marine organisms like fish, the spatial scale of connectivity is generally set by a pelagic larval phase. This has complicated past estimates of connectivity because detailed information on larval movements are difficult to obtain. Genetic approaches provide a tractable alternative and have the added benefit of estimating directly the reproductive isolation of populations. In this study, we leveraged empirical estimates of genetic differentiation among populations with simulations and a meta-analysis to provide a general estimate of the spatial scale of genetic connectivity in marine environments. We used neutral genetic markers to first quantify the genetic differentiation of ecologically-isolated adult populations of a land dwelling fish, the Pacific leaping blenny (Alticus arnoldorum, where marine larval dispersal is the only probable means of connectivity among populations. We then compared these estimates to simulations of a range of marine dispersal scenarios and to collated FST and distance data from the literature for marine fish across diverse spatial scales. We found genetic connectivity at sea was extensive among marine populations and in the case of A. arnoldorum, apparently little affected by the presence of ecological barriers. We estimated that ~5000 km (with broad confidence intervals ranging from 810-11,692 km was the spatial scale at which evolutionarily meaningful barriers to gene flow start to occur at sea, although substantially shorter distances are also possible for some taxa. In general, however, such a large estimate of connectivity has important implications for the evolutionary and conservation potential of many marine fish communities.

  9. Modulation of brain activity during action observation: influence of perspective, transitivity and meaningfulness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Hétu

    Full Text Available The coupling process between observed and performed actions is thought to be performed by a fronto-parietal perception-action system including regions of the inferior frontal gyrus and the inferior parietal lobule. When investigating the influence of the movements' characteristics on this process, most research on action observation has focused on only one particular variable even though the type of movements we observe can vary on several levels. By manipulating the visual perspective, transitivity and meaningfulness of observed movements in a functional magnetic resonance imaging study we aimed at investigating how the type of movements and the visual perspective can modulate brain activity during action observation in healthy individuals. Importantly, we used an active observation task where participants had to subsequently execute or imagine the observed movements. Our results show that the fronto-parietal regions of the perception action system were mostly recruited during the observation of meaningless actions while visual perspective had little influence on the activity within the perception-action system. Simultaneous investigation of several sources of modulation during active action observation is probably an approach that could lead to a greater ecological comprehension of this important sensorimotor process.

  10. ECOLOGICAL SAFETY OF CITIZENS OF RECREATIONAL ZONES OF THE BLACK SEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Г. Білявський

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to meaningfulness estimation of ecological control of sea aquatory in forming ofsafety ecological conditions for citizens of the Black Sea. The pecularity and the role of technogenic pollution ofsea aquatory of the Black Sea are estimated. The degrees of ecological safety and negative influences of technogenicobjects on people living in the Black Sea coast are defined. The reccomendations for ecologization of recreationalzones of the Black Seat are characterized. The main goal of the work is the ecological estimation of livingconditions for sitizens in the Black Sea on the bases of using of methodology of complex searching andmarking of protecting laws

  11. Evolutionary ecology of virus emergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennehy, John J

    2017-02-01

    The cross-species transmission of viruses into new host populations, termed virus emergence, is a significant issue in public health, agriculture, wildlife management, and related fields. Virus emergence requires overlap between host populations, alterations in virus genetics to permit infection of new hosts, and adaptation to novel hosts such that between-host transmission is sustainable, all of which are the purview of the fields of ecology and evolution. A firm understanding of the ecology of viruses and how they evolve is required for understanding how and why viruses emerge. In this paper, I address the evolutionary mechanisms of virus emergence and how they relate to virus ecology. I argue that, while virus acquisition of the ability to infect new hosts is not difficult, limited evolutionary trajectories to sustained virus between-host transmission and the combined effects of mutational meltdown, bottlenecking, demographic stochasticity, density dependence, and genetic erosion in ecological sinks limit most emergence events to dead-end spillover infections. Despite the relative rarity of pandemic emerging viruses, the potential of viruses to search evolutionary space and find means to spread epidemically and the consequences of pandemic viruses that do emerge necessitate sustained attention to virus research, surveillance, prophylaxis, and treatment. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  12. Media Ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Ašković

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Does the trend in which electronic media are gradually becoming extension of human body have to move towards full enslavement of a human and his personality, or the same human will unpredictably, with the aid of his personal media literacy, exit the whirls of media and technological censorships? Personality crisis is closely related to the crisis of language no matter how contradicted to global ideology of transnational transhumanism it may seem. Considering the fact that recent media presentations of the world are based on commercialization of environmentalism, philosophical and aesthetic thought appears as an important subject of ecology. As media mediates, the scenery of civilized living increasingly becomes more appealing even though it derives from commercial and political background. Consequently, the future of humanity depends by large on the philosophy of media. Media have to truly ecologise returning the humanum to its essence making it into the extension of the natural world.

  13. Ecological Ethics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oughton, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Deborah Oughton started with a view of the work in progress by the ICRP TG 94 on ethics, from the historical context and the principles-based ethics in RP, to continue with an overview of the ethical theories and with the main area of elaboration which concerns the common values, to conclude with considerations about the implementation in different area such as biomedicine, nuclear safety and workers, ecological aspects, and environmental health and society. By reading again the ICRP and IAEA publications on the ethical aspects in the protection of environment from the effects of ionizing radiation, the presentation covers the various and different cultures within the history of environmental ethics, the perception of Nature and the theories of environmental ethics, in particular by focusing on anthropocentrism, biocentrism and ecocentrism, as philosophical worldwide views, and on conservation, biodiversity, sustainability, environmental justice and human dignity, as primary principles of environmental protection. The influence of western Christianity, with a view of man dominating over every creeping thing on earth, and of the non-western ideas, the human perception of Nature has been analyzed and discussed to conclude that, in reality then, the anthropocentrism, biocentrism and ecocentrism, as reflected in many cultures and religions, they all support the need to protect the environment and to recognise and preserve the diversity. Three challenges were then discussed in the presentation: the ecosystem approach and ecological economics, for example in the case of Fukushima by asking what is the economic cost of marine contamination; the ecosystem changes with attention to what harms, as in the case of the environment in the contaminated areas around Chernobyl; and the environmental consequences of remediation, which can be considered a source of controversy for environmental ethics and policy

  14. Sacrifice: an ethical dimension of caring that makes suffering meaningful.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helin, Kaija; Lindström, Unni A

    2003-07-01

    This article is intended to raise the question of whether sacrifice can be regarded stituting a deep ethical structure in the relationship between patient and carer. The significance of sacrifice in a patient-carer relationship cannot, however, be fully understood from the standpoint of the consistently utilitarian ethic that characterizes today's ethical discourse. Deontological ethics, with its universal principles, also does not provide a suitable point of departure. Ethical recommendations and codices are important and serve as general sources of knowledge when making decisions, but they should be supplemented by an ethic that takes into consideration contextual and situational factors that make every encounter between patient and carer unique. Caring science research literature presents, on the whole, general agreement on the importance of responsibility and devotian with regard to sense of duty, warmth and genuine engagement in caring. That sacrifice may also constitute an important ethical element in the patient-carer relationship is, however, a contradictory and little considered theme. Caring literature that deals with sacrifice/self-sacrifice indicates contradictory import. It is nevertheless interesting to notice that both the negative and the positive aspects bring out importance of the concept for the professional character of caring. The tradition of ideas in medieval Christian mysticism with reference to Lévinas' ethic of responsibility offers a deeper perspective in which the meaningfulness of sacrifice in the caring relationship can be sought. The theme of sacrifice is not of interest merely as a carer's ethical outlook, but sacrifice can also be understood as a potential process of transformation health. The instinctive or conscious experience of sacrifice on the part of the individual patient can, on a symbolic level, be regarded as analogous to the cultic or religious sacrifice aiming at atonement. Sacrifice appears to the patient as an act of

  15. Ecological stability of landscape - ecological infrastructure - ecological management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Field Workshop 'Ecological Stability of Landscape - Ecological Infrastructure - Ecological Management' was held within a State Environmental Programme financed by the Federal Committee for the Environment. The objectives of the workshop were to present Czech and Slovak approaches to the ecological stability of the landscape by means of examples of some case studies in the field, and to exchange ideas, theoretical knowledge and practical experience on implementing the concept of ecological infrastructure in landscape management. Out of 19 papers contained in the proceedings, 3 items were inputted to the INIS system. (Z.S.)

  16. Job enrichment: creating meaningful career development opportunities for nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffield, Christine; Baldwin, Richard; Roche, Michael; Wise, Sarah

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of a career development policy in South Australia which increased the number of senior staff nurse positions and provided senior registered nurses with time away from clinical duties to undertake agreed projects. We use Kanter's model of structural power and commitment theory to understand the dimensions of this policy. Development strategies for experienced staff who wish to remain at the bedside are needed, especially in smaller health services with limited opportunities for horizontal or vertical mobility. Face-to-face semistructured interviews were conducted with 54 senior staff nurses who participated in the career structure arrangements. The policy enhanced the structure of opportunity in three ways: by increasing the number of senior staff nurse positions, the ladder steps were improved; undertaking strategic projects developed new skills; and the job enrichment approach facilitated time out from the immediate pressures of ward work and challenged nurses in a different way. Through job enrichment, South Australia has found a novel way of providing meaningful career development opportunities for experienced nurses. Methods of job enrichment need to be considered as part of career development policy, especially where movement between clinical facilities is limited and staff wish to remain at the bedside. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Establishing meaningful cut points for online user ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschfeld, Gerrit; Thielsch, Meinald T

    2015-01-01

    Subjective perceptions of websites can be reliably measured with questionnaires. But it is unclear how such scores should be interpreted in practice, e.g. is an aesthetics score of 4 points on a seven-point-scale satisfactory? The current paper introduces a receiver-operating characteristic (ROC)-based methodology to establish meaningful cut points for the VisAWI (visual aesthetics of websites inventory) and its short form the VisAWI-S. In two studies we use users' global ratings (UGRs) and website rankings as anchors. A total of 972 participants took part in the studies which yielded similar results. First, one-item UGRs correlate highly with the VisAWI. Second, cut points on the VisAWI reliably differentiate between sites that are perceived as attractive versus unattractive. Third, these cut points are variable, but only within a certain range. Together the research presented here establishes a score of 4.5 on the VisAWI which is a reasonable goal for website designers and highlights the utility of the ROC methodology to derive relevant scores for rating scales.

  18. Redefining meaningful age groups in the context of disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geifman, Nophar; Cohen, Raphael; Rubin, Eitan

    2013-12-01

    Age is an important factor when considering phenotypic changes in health and disease. Currently, the use of age information in medicine is somewhat simplistic, with ages commonly being grouped into a small number of crude ranges reflecting the major stages of development and aging, such as childhood or adolescence. Here, we investigate the possibility of redefining age groups using the recently developed Age-Phenome Knowledge-base (APK) that holds over 35,000 literature-derived entries describing relationships between age and phenotype. Clustering of APK data suggests 13 new, partially overlapping, age groups. The diseases that define these groups suggest that the proposed divisions are biologically meaningful. We further show that the number of different age ranges that should be considered depends on the type of disease being evaluated. This finding was further strengthened by similar results obtained from clinical blood measurement data. The grouping of diseases that share a similar pattern of disease-related reports directly mirrors, in some cases, medical knowledge of disease-age relationships. In other cases, our results may be used to generate new and reasonable hypotheses regarding links between diseases.

  19. Contributions of meaningful experiences gatherings to artistic education field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Bustamante Cardona

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article shows a theoretical approach to and a description of some contributions of a work of transformation of educational and sociocultural reality carried out by a group of people and institutions, among which are San Buenaventura University, Antioquia Museum, Ediarte Inc. and Antioquia University. Such intervention aims at contributing to the improvement of Artistic Education quality in Antioquia and the nation. In order to understand the significance of these Gatherings, a short historical framework is explained in which global and regional processes of academic activities having an impact on the structure of the Artistic Education field are pointed out. Likewise, some perspectives in the definition of artistic education are tackled and then a definition of Pierre Bourdieu´s concept of fieldis presented. Therefore, Meaningful Experiences Gatherings in Artistic Education (MEGAE are presented and the three first gatherings are described. Finally, it is shown the panorama of the contributions of the gatherings both in the theoretical formulation and relational structure of the field.

  20. Do family physicians electronic health records support meaningful use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Lars E; Blackburn, Brenna; Ivins, Douglas; Mitchell, Jason; Matson, Christine; Phillips, Robert L

    2015-03-01

    Spurred by government incentives, the use of electronic health records (EHRs) in the United States has increased; however, whether these EHRs have the functionality necessary to meet meaningful use (MU) criteria remains unknown. Our objective was to characterize family physician access to MU functionality when using a MU-certified EHR. Data were obtained from a convenience survey of family physicians accessing their American Board of Family Medicine online portfolio in 2011. A brief survey queried MU functionality. We used descriptive statistics to characterize the responses and bivariate statistics to test associations between MU and patient communication functions by presence of a MU-certified EHR. Out of 3855 respondents, 60% reported having an EHR that supports MU. Physicians with MU-certified EHRs were more likely than physicians without MU-certified EHRs to report patient registry activities (49.7% vs. 32.3%, p-valuevs. 56.4%, p-valuecommunication abilities were low regardless of EHR capabilities. Family physicians with MU-certified EHRs are more likely to report MU functionality; however, a sizeable minority does not report MU functions. Many family physicians with MU-certified EHRs may not successfully meet the successively stringent MU criteria and may face significant upgrade costs to do so. Cross sectional survey. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Measuring Patient Experiences: Is It Meaningful and Actionable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Sabrina T; Johnston, Sharon; Burge, Fred; McGrail, Kim; Hogg, William

    2017-10-01

    Performance measurement must be meaningful to those being asked to contribute data and to the clinicians who are collecting the information. It must be actionable if performance measurement and reporting is to influence health system transformation. To date, measuring patient experiences in all parts of the healthcare system in Canada lags behind other countries. More attention needs to be paid to capturing patients with complex intersecting health and social problems that result from inequitable distribution of wealth and/or underlying structural inequities related to systemic issues such as racism and discrimination, colonialism and patriarchy. Efforts to better capture the experiences of patients who do not regularly access care and who speak English or French as a second language are also needed. Before investing heavily into collecting patient experience data as part of a performance measurement system the following ought to be considered: (1) ensuring value for and buy-in from clinicians who are being asked to collect the data and/or act on the results; (2) investment in the infrastructure to administer iterative, cost-effective patient/family experience data collection, analysis and reporting (e.g., automated software tools) and (3) incorporating practice support (e.g., facilitation) and health system opportunities to integrate the findings from patient experience surveys into policy and practice. Investment into the infrastructure of measuring, reporting and engaging clinicians in improving practice is needed for patient/caregiver experiences to be acted upon. © 2017 Longwoods Publishing.

  2. Possibilities of creating meaningful encounters in anesthesia nursing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Karin

    Anesthesia nursing is performed in a highly technological environment with restricted time for interaction with patients. Patients are in a vulnerable position, which can be characterized by anxiety regarding the anesthetic and surgical procedure. The bedrock of effective nursing care is to facil......Anesthesia nursing is performed in a highly technological environment with restricted time for interaction with patients. Patients are in a vulnerable position, which can be characterized by anxiety regarding the anesthetic and surgical procedure. The bedrock of effective nursing care...... of nursing. In this dissertation, focused ethnography is used to explore the interactions between patients and nurse anesthetists before general anesthesia. Moreover, it will explore the professional identity of nurse anesthetists, in relation to the situation of preparing patients for general anesthesia....... A micro-substantive theory is developed regarding the opportunities for creating meaningful encounters between patients and nurse anesthetists. The theory is based on three dominant motivations for interaction in anesthesia nursing. The context of care is not committed and responsive to the core elements...

  3. Ecology and evolution of gall-forming insects. Forest Service general technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, P.W.; Mattson, W.J.; Baranchikov, Y.N.

    1994-09-21

    ;Partial Contents: Ecology and Population Dynamics; Effects of the Physical Environment on the Ecology of Gall Insects; Biodiversity and Distribution; Genetic Variation in Host Plant Resistance; Evolutionary Perspectives on Gall Insects.

  4. Metabolomics: the chemistry between ecology and genetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macel, M.; Van Dam, N.M.; Keurentjes, J.J.B.

    2010-01-01

    Metabolomics is a fast developing field of comprehensive untargeted chemical analyses. It has many applications and can in principle be used on any organism without prior knowledge of the metabolome or genome. The amount of functional information that is acquired with metabolomics largely depends on

  5. Revealing plant cryptotypes: defining meaningful phenotypes among infinite traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitwood, Daniel H; Topp, Christopher N

    2015-04-01

    The plant phenotype is infinite. Plants vary morphologically and molecularly over developmental time, in response to the environment, and genetically. Exhaustive phenotyping remains not only out of reach, but is also the limiting factor to interpreting the wealth of genetic information currently available. Although phenotyping methods are always improving, an impasse remains: even if we could measure the entirety of phenotype, how would we interpret it? We propose the concept of cryptotype to describe latent, multivariate phenotypes that maximize the separation of a priori classes. Whether the infinite points comprising a leaf outline or shape descriptors defining root architecture, statistical methods to discern the quantitative essence of an organism will be required as we approach measuring the totality of phenotype. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Indigenous Ecological Knowledge and Modern Western Ecological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Indigenous knowledge is often dismissed as 'traditional and outdated', and hence irrelevant to modern ecological assessment. This theoretical paper critically examines the arguments advanced to elevate modern western ecological knowledge over indigenous ecological knowledge, as well as the sources and uses of ...

  7. Is the diagnostic threshold for bulimia nervosa clinically meaningful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapa, Danielle A N; Bohrer, Brittany K; Forbush, Kelsie T

    2018-01-01

    The DSM-5 differentiates full- and sub-threshold bulimia nervosa (BN) according to average weekly frequencies of binge eating and inappropriate compensatory behaviors. This study was the first to evaluate the modified frequency criterion for BN published in the DSM-5. The purpose of this study was to test whether community-recruited adults (N=125; 83.2% women) with current full-threshold (n=77) or sub-threshold BN (n=48) differed in comorbid psychopathology and eating disorder (ED) illness duration, symptom severity, and clinical impairment. Participants completed the Clinical Impairment Assessment and participated in semi-structured clinical interviews of ED- and non-ED psychopathology. Differences between the sub- and full-threshold BN groups were assessed using MANOVA and Chi-square analyses. ED illness duration, age-of-onset, body mass index (BMI), alcohol and drug misuse, and the presence of current and lifetime mood or anxiety disorders did not differ between participants with sub- and full-threshold BN. Participants with full-threshold BN had higher levels of clinical impairment and weight concern than those with sub-threshold BN. However, minimal clinically important difference analyses suggested that statistically significant differences between participants with sub- and full-threshold BN on clinical impairment and weight concern were not clinically significant. In conclusion, sub-threshold BN did not differ from full-threshold BN in clinically meaningful ways. Future studies are needed to identify an improved frequency criterion for BN that better distinguishes individuals in ways that will more validly inform prognosis and effective treatment planning for BN. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Knowledge construction in the classroom: a meaningful pedagogical dialogue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesuína Lopes de Almeida Pacca

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Teacher’s performance at their real classroom was analyzed in regard to the applied pedagogical interaction. These teachers were participating in a long range continuous formation course that uses the strategy of analyzing pedagogical planning while it was being elaborated , applied and continuously evaluated by the teacher; the course aimed to the construction of professional competence with an adequate sight of the classroom interaction, within constructivist parameters. The teacher pedagogical planning was the study object: it was discussed continuously by the peers group and the coordinator who intended to point out to the explicit pedagogical content and to the content objectives that were declared for every class plan. The learning objectives and the procedures contained within it were confronted with the real evidence of learning. In these discussions learning concepts that were coherent with constructivism were invoked in addition to science contents and their nature. Dialogue was important in these discussions and stressed as a means for teaching and continuous evaluation. In this dynamical process, the teacher planning was being constantly redrafted, changing the adjustment of that classroom students to the planned knowledge acquisition. This course dynamics, led by the coordinator, intended to be reproduced by participants with their students, at least in part. We noticed surprising results in these teachers professional development besides those that were concretely planned: the transference of the course procedures to the classroom seems to happen in regard to the presence of dialogue but the most meaningful part was individual and particular progress that was included in the development of their classes and led to an improvement of abilities. We concluded that unexpected results can be converted into poles of professional performance growth and performance evolution . These results have led us to give special importance to the

  9. Genetics and variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Jones; Norbert V. DeByle

    1985-01-01

    The broad genotypic variability in quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.), that results in equally broad phenotypic variability among clones is important to the ecology and management of this species. This chapter considers principles of aspen genetics and variation, variation in aspen over its range, and local variation among clones. For a more...

  10. Meaningful traits for grouping plant species across arid ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bär Lamas, Marlene Ivonne; Carrera, A L; Bertiller, M B

    2016-05-01

    Grouping species may provide some degree of simplification to understand the ecological function of plants on key ecosystem processes. We asked whether groups of plant species based on morpho-chemical traits associated with plant persistence and stress/disturbance resistance reflect dominant plant growth forms in arid ecosystems. We selected twelve sites across an aridity gradient in northern Patagonia. At each site, we identified modal size plants of each dominant species and assessed specific leaf area (SLA), plant height, seed mass, N and soluble phenol concentration in green and senesced leaves at each plant. Plant species were grouped according with plant growth forms (perennial grasses, evergreen shrubs and deciduous shrubs) and plant morphological and/or chemical traits using cluster analysis. We calculated mean values of each plant trait for each species group and plant growth form. Plant growth forms significantly differed among them in most of the morpho-chemical traits. Evergreen shrubs were tall plants with the highest seed mass and soluble phenols in leaves, deciduous shrubs were also tall plants with high SLA and the highest N in leaves, and perennial grasses were short plants with high SLA and low concentration of N and soluble phenols in leaves. Grouping species by the combination of morpho-chemical traits yielded 4 groups in which species from one growth form prevailed. These species groups differed in soluble phenol concentration in senesced leaves and plant height. These traits were highly correlated. We concluded that (1) plant height is a relevant synthetic variable, (2) growth forms adequately summarize ecological strategies of species in arid ecosystems, and (3) the inclusion of plant morphological and chemical traits related to defenses against environmental stresses and herbivory enhanced the potential of species grouping, particularly within shrubby growth forms.

  11. Behavioral meaningful opioidergic stimulation activates kappa receptor gene expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teodorov, E.; Ferrari, M.F.R.; Fior-Chadi, D.R.; Camarini, R.; Felício, L.F.

    2012-01-01

    The periaqueductal gray (PAG) has been reported to be a location for opioid regulation of pain and a potential site for behavioral selection in females. Opioid-mediated behavioral and physiological responses differ according to the activity of opioid receptor subtypes. The present study investigated the effects of the peripheral injection of the kappa-opioid receptor agonist U69593 into the dorsal subcutaneous region of animals on maternal behavior and on Oprk1 gene activity in the PAG of female rats. Female Wistar rats weighing 200-250 g at the beginning of the study were randomly divided into 2 groups for maternal behavior and gene expression experiments. On day 5, pups were removed at 7:00 am and placed in another home cage that was distant from their mother. Thirty minutes after removing the pups, the dams were treated with U69593 (0.15 mg/kg, sc) or 0.9% saline (up to 1 mL/kg) and after 30 min were evaluated in the maternal behavior test. Latencies in seconds for pup retrieval, grouping, crouching, and full maternal behavior were scored. The results showed that U69593 administration inhibited maternal behavior (P < 0.05) because a lower percentage of U69593 group dams showed retrieval of first pup, retrieving all pups, grouping, crouching and displaying full maternal behavior compared to the saline group. Opioid gene expression was evaluated using real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). A single injection of U69593 increased Oprk1 PAG expression in both virgin (P < 0.05) and lactating female rats (P < 0.01), with no significant effect on Oprm1 or Oprd1 gene activity. Thus, the expression of kappa-opioid receptors in the PAG may be modulated by single opioid receptor stimulation and behavioral meaningful opioidergic transmission in the adult female might occur simultaneously to specific changes in gene expression of kappa-opioid receptor subtype. This is yet another alert for the complex role of the opioid system in female

  12. Behavioral meaningful opioidergic stimulation activates kappa receptor gene expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teodorov, E. [Centro de Matemática, Computação e Cognição, Universidade Federal do ABC, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Ferrari, M.F.R. [Departamento de Genética e Biologia Evolutiva, Instituto de Biociências, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Fior-Chadi, D.R. [Departamento de Fisiologia, Instituto de Biociências, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Camarini, R. [Departamento de Farmacologia, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Felício, L.F. [Departamento de Patologia, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2012-06-01

    The periaqueductal gray (PAG) has been reported to be a location for opioid regulation of pain and a potential site for behavioral selection in females. Opioid-mediated behavioral and physiological responses differ according to the activity of opioid receptor subtypes. The present study investigated the effects of the peripheral injection of the kappa-opioid receptor agonist U69593 into the dorsal subcutaneous region of animals on maternal behavior and on Oprk1 gene activity in the PAG of female rats. Female Wistar rats weighing 200-250 g at the beginning of the study were randomly divided into 2 groups for maternal behavior and gene expression experiments. On day 5, pups were removed at 7:00 am and placed in another home cage that was distant from their mother. Thirty minutes after removing the pups, the dams were treated with U69593 (0.15 mg/kg, sc) or 0.9% saline (up to 1 mL/kg) and after 30 min were evaluated in the maternal behavior test. Latencies in seconds for pup retrieval, grouping, crouching, and full maternal behavior were scored. The results showed that U69593 administration inhibited maternal behavior (P < 0.05) because a lower percentage of U69593 group dams showed retrieval of first pup, retrieving all pups, grouping, crouching and displaying full maternal behavior compared to the saline group. Opioid gene expression was evaluated using real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). A single injection of U69593 increased Oprk1 PAG expression in both virgin (P < 0.05) and lactating female rats (P < 0.01), with no significant effect on Oprm1 or Oprd1 gene activity. Thus, the expression of kappa-opioid receptors in the PAG may be modulated by single opioid receptor stimulation and behavioral meaningful opioidergic transmission in the adult female might occur simultaneously to specific changes in gene expression of kappa-opioid receptor subtype. This is yet another alert for the complex role of the opioid system in female

  13. Behavioral meaningful opioidergic stimulation activates kappa receptor gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Teodorov

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The periaqueductal gray (PAG has been reported to be a location for opioid regulation of pain and a potential site for behavioral selection in females. Opioid-mediated behavioral and physiological responses differ according to the activity of opioid receptor subtypes. The present study investigated the effects of the peripheral injection of the kappa-opioid receptor agonist U69593 into the dorsal subcutaneous region of animals on maternal behavior and on Oprk1 gene activity in the PAG of female rats. Female Wistar rats weighing 200-250 g at the beginning of the study were randomly divided into 2 groups for maternal behavior and gene expression experiments. On day 5, pups were removed at 7:00 am and placed in another home cage that was distant from their mother. Thirty minutes after removing the pups, the dams were treated with U69593 (0.15 mg/kg, sc or 0.9% saline (up to 1 mL/kg and after 30 min were evaluated in the maternal behavior test. Latencies in seconds for pup retrieval, grouping, crouching, and full maternal behavior were scored. The results showed that U69593 administration inhibited maternal behavior (P < 0.05 because a lower percentage of kappa group dams showed retrieval of first pup, retrieving all pups, grouping, crouching and displaying full maternal behavior compared to the saline group. Opioid gene expression was evaluated using real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. A single injection of U69593 increased Oprk1 PAG expression in both virgin (P < 0.05 and lactating female rats (P < 0.01, with no significant effect on Oprm1 or Oprd1 gene activity. Thus, the expression of kappa-opioid receptors in the PAG may be modulated by single opioid receptor stimulation and behavioral meaningful opioidergic transmission in the adult female might occur simultaneously to specific changes in gene expression of kappa-opioid receptor subtype. This is yet another alert for the complex role of the opioid system in

  14. Evolutionary and Ecological Consequences of Interspecific Hybridization in Cladocerans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwenk, K.; Spaak, P.

    1995-01-01

    The evolutionary process of interspecific hybridization in cladocerans is reviewed based on ecological and population genetic data. The evolutionary consequences of hybridization, biogeographic patterns and fitness comparisons are analyzed within the conceptual framework of theories on

  15. New discoveries on the ecology and echolocation of the heart ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    New discoveries on the ecology and echolocation of the heart-nosed bat Cardioderma cor with a ... Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... However, additional genetic data are necessary to resolve the phylogeny of Megadermatidae, ...

  16. Biotechnology and industrial ecology: new challenges for a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    Key words: Biotechnology, industrial ecology, energy, agriculture, biofuels, climate change, desertification, genetic engineering. INTRODUCTION. The human population is growing at an exponential rate and average per capita consumption of natural resources is also increasing. These growth patterns are leading to.

  17. Microsatellite data analysis for population genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theories and analytical tools of population genetics have been widely applied for addressing various questions in the fields of ecological genetics, conservation biology, and any context where the role of dispersal or gene flow is important. Underlying much of population genetics is the analysis of ...

  18. Are estimates of meaningful decline in mobility performance consistent among clinically important subgroups? (Health ABC Study).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perera, S.; Studenski, S.; Newman, A.; Simonsick, E.; Harris, T.; Schwartz, A.; Visser, M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Meaningful change criteria help determine if function has improved or declined, but their magnitudes may vary across clinically relevant subgroups. We estimate meaningful decline in four common measures of physical performance in subgroups of older adults based on initial performance,

  19. Development of an Assessment Tool to Measure Students' Meaningful Learning in the Undergraduate Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Kelli R.; Bretz, Stacey Lowery

    2015-01-01

    Research on learning in the undergraduate chemistry laboratory necessitates an understanding of students' perspectives of learning. Novak's Theory of Meaningful Learning states that the cognitive (thinking), affective (feeling), and psychomotor (doing) domains must be integrated for meaningful learning to occur. The psychomotor domain is the…

  20. Meaningful Experiences in Physical Education and Youth Sport: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beni, Stephanie; Fletcher, Tim; Ní Chróinín, Déirdre

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to review the literature about young people's meaningful experiences in physical education and youth sport. We reviewed 50 empirical peer-reviewed articles published in English since 1987. Five themes were identified as central influences to young people's meaningful experiences in physical education and sport:…

  1. Relationship between attachment to God and meaningful life parents of mentally retarded children in Zahedan city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Jenaabadi

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: Given a significant positive correlation between appeal to God and meaningful life, it is suggested including spirituality therapy sessions and teaching religious coping methods to reduce stress and thus make meaningful life in these parents by welfare, education of exceptional children, and radio and television organizations.

  2. The Meaningful Activity Participation Assessment: A Measure of Engagement in Personally Valued Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eakman, Aaron M.; Carlson, Mike E.; Clark, Florence A.

    2010-01-01

    The Meaningful Activity Participation Assessment (MAPA), a recently developed 28-item tool designed to measure the meaningfulness of activity, was tested in a sample of 154 older adults. The MAPA evidenced a sufficient level of internal consistency and test-retest reliability and correlated as theoretically predicted with the Life Satisfaction…

  3. A Continuum of Learning: From Rote Memorization to Meaningful Learning in Organic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grove, Nathaniel P.; Bretz, Stacey Lowery

    2012-01-01

    The Assimilation Theory of Ausubel and Novak has typically been used in the research literature to describe two extremes to learning chemistry: meaningful learning "versus" rote memorization. It is unlikely, however, that such discrete categories of learning exist. Rote and meaningful learning, rather, are endpoints along a continuum of…

  4. Intraspecific ecological niche divergence and reproductive shifts foster cytotype displacement and provide ecological opportunity to polyploids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunarathne, Piyal; Schedler, Mara; Martínez, Eric J; Honfi, Ana I; Novichkova, Anastasiia; Hojsgaard, Diego

    2018-05-11

    Niche divergence between polyploids and their lower ploidy progenitors is one of the primary mechanisms fostering polyploid establishment and adaptive divergence. However, within-species chromosomal and reproductive variability have usually been neglected in community ecology and biodiversity analyses even though they have been recognized to play a role in the adaptive diversification of lineages. We used Paspalum intermedium, a grass species with diverging genetic systems (diploidy vs. autopolyploidy, allogamy vs. autogamy and sexuality vs. apomixis), to recognize the causality of biogeographic patterns, adaptation and ecological flexibility of cytotypes. Chromosome counts and flow cytometry were used to characterize within-species genetic systems diversity. Environmental niche modelling was used to evaluate intraspecific ecological attributes associated with environmental and climatic factors and to assess correlations among ploidy, reproductive modes and ecological conditions ruling species' population dynamics, range expansion, adaptation and evolutionary history. Two dominant cytotypes non-randomly distributed along local and regional geographical scales displayed niche differentiation, a directional shift in niche optima and signs of disruptive selection on ploidy-related ecological aptitudes for the exploitation of environmental resources. Ecologically specialized allogamous sexual diploids were found in northern areas associated with higher temperature, humidity and productivity, while generalist autogamous apomictic tetraploids occurred in southern areas, occupying colder and less productive environments. Four localities with a documented shift in ploidy and four mixed populations in a zone of ecological transition revealed an uneven replacement between cytotypes. Polyploidy and contrasting reproductive traits between cytotypes have promoted shifts in niche optima, and increased ecological tolerance and niche divergence. Ecologically specialized diploids

  5. Meaningful Watershed Experiences for Middle and High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Melinda; Smith, Cynthia; Greene, Joy

    2014-05-01

    Prince William County Public Schools and George Mason University in Virginia, USA, partnered to provide Meaningful Watershed Educational Experiences (MWEEs) for over 25,000 middle and high school students (11-18 year olds) across 34 schools. This school district, situated in a rapidly growing region 55 km southwest of Washington DC, has over 82,000 K-12 students. As native forest cover has been replaced with farming and urbanization, water quality has significantly degraded in the 166,534 km2 Chesapeake Bay watershed. This project was designed to increase student awareness of their impact on the land and waters of the largest estuary in the United States. MWEE is a long-term comprehensive project that incorporates a classroom preparation phase, a hands-on outdoor field investigation, and a reflection and data-sharing component. Training and technical assistance enhances the capacity of teachers of 6th grade, high school Earth Science and Environmental Science to deliver MWEEs which includes schoolyard stewardship, inquiry driven field study, use of hand-held technology and computer based mapping and analysis, project sharing and outreach. George Mason University researchers worked closely with K-12 science educators to create a comprehensive watershed-focused curriculum. Graduate and undergraduate students with strong interests in environmental science and education were trained to deliver the field investigation component of the MWEE. Representative teachers from each school were provided 3 days of professional development and were responsible for the training of their school's science education team. A comprehensive curriculum provided teachers with activities and tools designed to enhance students' mastery of state science objectives. Watershed concepts were used as the unifying theme to support student understanding of curriculum and STEM objectives including: scientific investigation, data collection and communication, chemistry, energy, erosion, human

  6. The domestication and evolutionary ecology of apples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornille, A.; Giraud, T.; Smulders, M.J.M.; Roldán-Ruiz, I.; Gladieux, P.

    2014-01-01

    The cultivated apple is a major fruit crop in temperate zones. Its wild relatives, distributed across temperate Eurasia and growing in diverse habitats, represent potentially useful sources of diversity for apple breeding. We review here the most recent findings on the genetics and ecology of apple

  7. An invertebrate stomach's view on vertebrate ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calvignac-Spencer, Sébastien; Leendertz, Fabian H.; Gilbert, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that vertebrate genetic material ingested by invertebrates (iDNA) can be used to investigate vertebrate ecology. Given the ubiquity of invertebrates that feed on vertebrates across the globe, iDNA might qualify as a very powerful tool for 21st century population...

  8. Deciphering the bat virome catalog to better understand the ecological diversity of bat viruses and the bat origin of emerging infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhiqiang; Yang, Li; Ren, Xianwen; He, Guimei; Zhang, Junpeng; Yang, Jian; Qian, Zhaohui; Dong, Jie; Sun, Lilian; Zhu, Yafang; Du, Jiang; Yang, Fan; Zhang, Shuyi; Jin, Qi

    2016-03-01

    Studies have demonstrated that ~60%-80% of emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) in humans originated from wild life. Bats are natural reservoirs of a large variety of viruses, including many important zoonotic viruses that cause severe diseases in humans and domestic animals. However, the understanding of the viral population and the ecological diversity residing in bat populations is unclear, which complicates the determination of the origins of certain EIDs. Here, using bats as a typical wildlife reservoir model, virome analysis was conducted based on pharyngeal and anal swab samples of 4440 bat individuals of 40 major bat species throughout China. The purpose of this study was to survey the ecological and biological diversities of viruses residing in these bat species, to investigate the presence of potential bat-borne zoonotic viruses and to evaluate the impacts of these viruses on public health. The data obtained in this study revealed an overview of the viral community present in these bat samples. Many novel bat viruses were reported for the first time and some bat viruses closely related to known human or animal pathogens were identified. This genetic evidence provides new clues in the search for the origin or evolution pattern of certain viruses, such as coronaviruses and noroviruses. These data offer meaningful ecological information for predicting and tracing wildlife-originated EIDs.

  9. Ecology of root colonizing Massilia (Oxalobacteraceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya Ofek

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ecologically meaningful classification of bacterial populations is essential for understanding the structure and function of bacterial communities. As in soils, the ecological strategy of the majority of root-colonizing bacteria is mostly unknown. Among those are Massilia (Oxalobacteraceae, a major group of rhizosphere and root colonizing bacteria of many plant species. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The ecology of Massilia was explored in cucumber root and seed, and compared to that of Agrobacterium population, using culture-independent tools, including DNA-based pyrosequencing, fluorescence in situ hybridization and quantitative real-time PCR. Seed- and root-colonizing Massilia were primarily affiliated with other members of the genus described in soil and rhizosphere. Massilia colonized and proliferated on the seed coat, radicle, roots, and also on hyphae of phytopathogenic Pythium aphanidermatum infecting seeds. High variation in Massilia abundance was found in relation to plant developmental stage, along with sensitivity to plant growth medium modification (amendment with organic matter and potential competitors. Massilia absolute abundance and relative abundance (dominance were positively related, and peaked (up to 85% at early stages of succession of the root microbiome. In comparison, variation in abundance of Agrobacterium was moderate and their dominance increased at later stages of succession. CONCLUSIONS: In accordance with contemporary models for microbial ecology classification, copiotrophic and competition-sensitive root colonization by Massilia is suggested. These bacteria exploit, in a transient way, a window of opportunity within the succession of communities within this niche.

  10. Ecology of root colonizing Massilia (Oxalobacteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofek, Maya; Hadar, Yitzhak; Minz, Dror

    2012-01-01

    Ecologically meaningful classification of bacterial populations is essential for understanding the structure and function of bacterial communities. As in soils, the ecological strategy of the majority of root-colonizing bacteria is mostly unknown. Among those are Massilia (Oxalobacteraceae), a major group of rhizosphere and root colonizing bacteria of many plant species. The ecology of Massilia was explored in cucumber root and seed, and compared to that of Agrobacterium population, using culture-independent tools, including DNA-based pyrosequencing, fluorescence in situ hybridization and quantitative real-time PCR. Seed- and root-colonizing Massilia were primarily affiliated with other members of the genus described in soil and rhizosphere. Massilia colonized and proliferated on the seed coat, radicle, roots, and also on hyphae of phytopathogenic Pythium aphanidermatum infecting seeds. High variation in Massilia abundance was found in relation to plant developmental stage, along with sensitivity to plant growth medium modification (amendment with organic matter) and potential competitors. Massilia absolute abundance and relative abundance (dominance) were positively related, and peaked (up to 85%) at early stages of succession of the root microbiome. In comparison, variation in abundance of Agrobacterium was moderate and their dominance increased at later stages of succession. In accordance with contemporary models for microbial ecology classification, copiotrophic and competition-sensitive root colonization by Massilia is suggested. These bacteria exploit, in a transient way, a window of opportunity within the succession of communities within this niche.

  11. Ecologies of Learning, Ecologies of Creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyrup, Helene

    in the light of the new Danish school reform. How can different learning institutions contribute to a “joint” ecology of learning? What would the benefits be from this in terms of young people’s literacies? On what theoretical basis can such an ecology and co-creation take place? And what kind of didactics...

  12. The journey of primary care practices to meaningful use: a Colorado Beacon Consortium study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernald, Douglas H; Wearner, Robyn; Dickinson, W Perry

    2013-01-01

    The Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act of 2009 provides for incentive payments through Medicare and Medicaid for clinicians who implement electronic health records (EHRs) and use this technology meaningfully to improve patient care. There are few comprehensive descriptions of how primary care practices achieve the meaningful use of clinical data, including the formal stage 1 meaningful use requirements. Evaluation of the Colorado Beacon Consortium project included iterative qualitative analysis of practice narratives, provider and staff interviews, and separate focus groups with quality improvement (QI) advisors and staff from the regional health information exchange (HIE). Most practices described significant realignment of practice priorities and aims, which often required substantial education and training of physicians and staff. Re-engineering office processes, data collection protocols, EHRs, staff roles, and practice culture comprised the primary effort and commitment to attest to stage 1 meaningful use and subsequent meaningful use of clinical data. While realizing important benefits, practices bore a significant burden in learning the true capabilities of their EHRs with little effective support from vendors. Attestation was an important initial milestone in the process, but practices faced substantial ongoing work to use their data meaningfully for patient care and QI. Key resources were instrumental to these practices: local technical EHR expertise; collaborative learning mechanisms; and regular contact and support from QI advisors. Meeting the stage 1 requirements for incentives under Medicare and Medicaid meaningful use criteria is the first waypoint in a longer journey by primary care practices to the meaningful use of electronic data to continuously improve the care and health of their patients. The intensive re-engineering effort for stage 1 yielded practice changes consistent with larger practice aims and goals

  13. Designing Lifestyle-specific Food Policies Based on Nutritional Requirements and Ecological Footprints.

    OpenAIRE

    Vetőné Mózner, Zsófia; Csutora, Mária

    2013-01-01

    Expanded understanding of the trends and determinants of food consumption is needed to reduce the ecological impacts of the contemporary agro-food system while also being attentive to broader issues pertaining to health and the environment. Incorporating these additional aspects and formulating meaningful dietary recommendations is a major challenge. This article seeks to highlight differences in ecological footprint (EF) by activity level for various so-cial groups to meet suggested physiolo...

  14. Values-led Participatory Design as a pursuit of meaningful alternatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leong, Tuck Wah; Iversen, Ole Sejer

    2015-01-01

    Participatory Design (PD) is inherently concerned with inquiring into and supporting human values when designing IT. We argue that a PD approach that is led by a focus upon participants' values can allow participants to discover meaningful alternatives -- alternative uses and alternative...... conceptualizations for IT that are particularly meaningful to them. However, how PD works with values in the design process has not been made explicit. In this paper, we aim to (i) explicate this values-led PD approach, (ii) illustrate how this approach can lead to outcomes that are meaningful alternatives, and (iii...

  15. Taoism and Deep Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvan, Richard; Bennett, David

    1988-01-01

    Contrasted are the philosophies of Deep Ecology and ancient Chinese. Discusses the cosmology, morality, lifestyle, views of power, politics, and environmental philosophies of each. Concludes that Deep Ecology could gain much from Taoism. (CW)

  16. Information Assurance Cyber Ecology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jorgensen, Jane

    2003-01-01

    .... The goals of the Cyber Ecology project were to: (1) enable and demonstrate the discovery of noel IA technologies for the detection and mitigation of damage due to cyber attack through the application of ecological models, (2...

  17. Forest Fire Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucca, Carol; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Presents a model that integrates high school science with the needs of the local scientific community. Describes how a high school ecology class conducted scientific research in fire ecology that benefited the students and a state park forest ecologist. (MKR)

  18. Quantification of ecological debt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez Alier, Joan

    2005-01-01

    The discussion about ecological debt is important keeping in mind historical foreign trade, where natural resources exploitation and primary production exported didn't assessment the ecological damage or the environmental values of the interchange. This essay shows the debate of ecological debt on greenhouse emission, enterprise environmental debit, unequal international trade, toxic waste export, and b io piracy ; in order to present the necessity of a new ecological and equitable world economy

  19. Multi-Attribute Modelling of Economic and Ecological Impacts of Cropping Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bohanec, M.; Dzeroski, S.; Znidarsic, M.; Messéan, A.; Scatasta, S.; Wesseler, J.H.H.

    2004-01-01

    Modelling of economic and ecological impacts of genetically modified crops is a demanding task. We present some preliminary attempts made for the purpose of the ECOGEN project "Soil ecological and economic evaluation of genetically modified crops". One of the goals of the project is to develop a

  20. Ecological restoration [book review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric J. Gustafson

    2010-01-01

    Ecological restoration has increased in prominence in recent years as environmental policies have slowed the rate of environmental degradation in many parts of the world and practitioners have looked for active ways to reverse the damage. Because of the vast number of types and contexts of degraded ecological systems, the field of ecological restoration is still very...

  1. Statistical methods in spatial genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guillot, Gilles; Leblois, Raphael; Coulon, Aurelie

    2009-01-01

    The joint analysis of spatial and genetic data is rapidly becoming the norm in population genetics. More and more studies explicitly describe and quantify the spatial organization of genetic variation and try to relate it to underlying ecological processes. As it has become increasingly difficult...... to keep abreast with the latest methodological developments, we review the statistical toolbox available to analyse population genetic data in a spatially explicit framework. We mostly focus on statistical concepts but also discuss practical aspects of the analytical methods, highlighting not only...

  2. Genetic diversity of grasscutter (Thryonomys swinderianus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Saharan Africa. There are very limited ecological studies on the grasscutter despite its importance as a protein resource. The objective of this study was to apply novel microsatellite markers to determine the genetic structure and diversity of ...

  3. Using Community-Based Participatory Research to Investigate Meaningful Prenatal Care Among African American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nypaver, Cynthia F; Shambley-Ebron, Donna

    2016-11-01

    In the United States, African American babies die more than twice as often as White babies. The cause for this difference remains elusive, yet is likely complex with one factor being inadequate cultural care of pregnant African American women. The purpose of this study was to explore African American women's perspectives of meaningful prenatal care. Community-based participatory research was employed for this study using photovoice. The sample included 11 African American mothers in an urban community in Midwestern United States. Five themes were abstracted from the data: (1) Access to Care; (2) Soul Nourishment; (3) Companionship; (4) Help Me, Teach Me; and (5) The Future. Meaningful prenatal care is influenced by culture. African American women need physical, social, and soulful support to enhance meaningfulness of care during pregnancy. The findings support that meaningfulness of prenatal care for African American women may be enhanced by accessible and uniquely designed, culturally congruent models of prenatal care. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Can Ausubel's Theory of Meaningful Learning Become an Alternative to Piagetian Psychology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Edna

    1979-01-01

    Discusses Novak's views that Ausubel's meaningful learning can become an alternative to Piagetian psychology and argues that Ausubel does not provide a theory that can be an alternative to Piaget's developmental psychology. (HM)

  5. Meaningful coping with chronic pain: Exploring the interplay between goal violation, meaningful coping strategies and life satisfaction in chronic pain patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezutter, Jessie; Dewitte, Laura; Thauvoye, Evalyne; Vanhooren, Siebrecht

    2017-02-01

    Trying to cope with chronic pain is a highly demanding and challenging task and pain patients often need to reformulate goals or aspirations due to their pain condition. This goal violation is often related with experienced distress and requires coping processes in order to decrease the distress and stimulate a healthy adaptation. Some scholars, however, argued that in so-called unsolvable or irreparable stressors such as chronic pain, conventional coping strategies like problem-focused coping might not be the most adaptive option. In these situations, meaningful coping strategies attempting to transform the meaning of the stressful experience would be more accurate. In this study, we aim to test if goal violation triggers meaningful coping strategies over time and whether engagement in these meaningful coping strategies result in improved life satisfaction, as an indicator of adaptation. A longitudinal three wave study in a sample of paint patients (n = 125) tests whether goal violation triggers positive reappraisal and downward comparison, two possible meaningful coping strategies. The study furthermore tests if engagement in these strategies results in a better adaptation to the pain condition, reflected in higher life satisfaction. Results partially supported our hypotheses by pointing to the benevolent role of downward comparison on life satisfaction via decreased goal violation of pain patients. Our findings however did also show that positive reappraisal predicted lower life satisfaction via increased levels of appraised goal violation which questions the role of positive reappraisal as a genuine meaningful coping strategy. Implications and limitations are discussed. © 2016 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Key ecological challenges for closed systems facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Mark; Dempster, William F.; Allen, John P.

    2013-07-01

    Closed ecological systems are desirable for a number of purposes. In space life support systems, material closure allows precious life-supporting resources to be kept inside and recycled. Closure in small biospheric systems facilitates detailed measurement of global ecological processes and biogeochemical cycles. Closed testbeds facilitate research topics which require isolation from the outside (e.g. genetically modified organisms; radioisotopes) so their ecological interactions and fluxes can be studied separate from interactions with the outside environment. But to achieve and maintain closure entails solving complex ecological challenges. These challenges include being able to handle faster cycling rates and accentuated daily and seasonal fluxes of critical life elements such as carbon dioxide, oxygen, water, macro- and mico-nutrients. The problems of achieving sustainability in closed systems for life support include how to handle atmospheric dynamics including trace gases, producing a complete human diet, recycling nutrients and maintaining soil fertility, the maintenance of healthy air and water and preventing the loss of critical elements from active circulation. In biospheric facilities, the challenge is also to produce analogues to natural biomes and ecosystems, studying processes of self-organization and adaptation in systems that allow specification or determination of state variables and cycles which may be followed through all interactions from atmosphere to soils. Other challenges include the dynamics and genetics of small populations, the psychological challenges for small isolated human groups and backup technologies and strategic options which may be necessary to ensure long-term operation of closed ecological systems.

  7. PERFORMANCE OF ECOLOGICAL AGRICULTURE IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CIPRIAN APOSTOL

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The term ecological agriculture has been attributed by the European Union of Romania to define this system of agriculture and is similar with terms organic agriculture or biological agriculture, which are used in other member states. One of the main goals of ecological agriculture is the production of agricultural and food products fresh and genuine through processes created to respect nature and its systems. Thus, it prohibits the use of genetically modified organisms, fertilizers and synthetic pesticides, stimulators and growth regulators, hormones, antibiotics for livestock and the use of synthetic chemical fertilizers, drastic interventions on the soil, the introduction of genetically modified organisms, in the case of the cultivated soil. The study aims to highlight the main features of ecological agriculture and its impact on the national economy. Through a descriptive and comparative analysis of specific indicators are surprising the main aspects of ecological agriculture performance in Romania and are identified investment opportunities in this sector of the national economy. Following this study, it was found that ecological agriculture in Romania is quite performant and recorded a continuous development, but mainly in the production, not in the processing and trading of natural products, which is why investment in these areas would be welcome.

  8. Audio-Visual and Meaningful Semantic Context Enhancements in Older and Younger Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten E Smayda

    Full Text Available Speech perception is critical to everyday life. Oftentimes noise can degrade a speech signal; however, because of the cues available to the listener, such as visual and semantic cues, noise rarely prevents conversations from continuing. The interaction of visual and semantic cues in aiding speech perception has been studied in young adults, but the extent to which these two cues interact for older adults has not been studied. To investigate the effect of visual and semantic cues on speech perception in older and younger adults, we recruited forty-five young adults (ages 18-35 and thirty-three older adults (ages 60-90 to participate in a speech perception task. Participants were presented with semantically meaningful and anomalous sentences in audio-only and audio-visual conditions. We hypothesized that young adults would outperform older adults across SNRs, modalities, and semantic contexts. In addition, we hypothesized that both young and older adults would receive a greater benefit from a semantically meaningful context in the audio-visual relative to audio-only modality. We predicted that young adults would receive greater visual benefit in semantically meaningful contexts relative to anomalous contexts. However, we predicted that older adults could receive a greater visual benefit in either semantically meaningful or anomalous contexts. Results suggested that in the most supportive context, that is, semantically meaningful sentences presented in the audiovisual modality, older adults performed similarly to young adults. In addition, both groups received the same amount of visual and meaningful benefit. Lastly, across groups, a semantically meaningful context provided more benefit in the audio-visual modality relative to the audio-only modality, and the presence of visual cues provided more benefit in semantically meaningful contexts relative to anomalous contexts. These results suggest that older adults can perceive speech as well as younger

  9. Pengaruh Job Enrichment terhadap Employee Engagement melalui Psychological Meaningfulness sebagai Mediator

    OpenAIRE

    Sungkit, Flavia Norpina; Meiyanto, IJK Sito

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to investigate the influence of job enrichment toward employee engagement through psychological meaningfulness as the mediator. Research design used is a cross-sectional study of 112 employees. Data is analyzed by multiple linear regression analysis. Result shows job enrichment is able to influence employee engagement significantly through psychological meaningfulness as the mediator. The p=0,000 with significance level 0,05. The sig F change shows 0,006, which is

  10. Reaping the benefits of meaningful work: The mediating versus moderating role of work engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Matthew J; Jiang, Lixin

    2017-08-01

    This study examined whether meaningful work may improve one's quality of life outside of the workplace (i.e., work-to-life enrichment). More importantly, we proposed and tested competing hypotheses regarding the role of work engagement in the relationship between meaningful work and work-to-life enrichment. Specifically, we investigated whether work engagement served as a mediator of this relationship, as suggested by the job demands-resources model, or instead a moderator, as suggested by conservation of resources theory. Two-wave survey data were collected from 194 respondents recruited via Amazon Mechanical Turk. Analyses showed that meaningful work was positively related to work-to-life enrichment over time (i.e., 3 months later). Additionally, work engagement mediated but did not moderate the relationship between meaningful work at Time 1 and work-to-life enrichment at Time 2. We suggest that organizations foster a sense of meaningfulness in employees to facilitate engagement and in turn enrich employees' lives beyond the workplace. Therefore, not only organizations, but individuals as well may reap the benefits of meaningful work. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. THE MEANINGFUL ACTIVITY PARTICIPATION ASSESSMENT: A MEASURE OF ENGAGEMENT IN PERSONALLY VALUED ACTIVITIES*

    Science.gov (United States)

    EAKMAN, AARON M.; CARLSON, MIKE E.; CLARK, FLORENCE A.

    2011-01-01

    The Meaningful Activity Participation Assessment (MAPA), a recently developed 28-item tool designed to measure the meaningfulness of activity, was tested in a sample of 154 older adults. The MAPA evidenced a sufficient level of internal consistency and test-retest reliability and correlated as theoretically predicted with the Life Satisfaction Index-Z, the Satisfaction with Life Scale, the Engagement in Meaningful Activities Survey, the Purpose in Life Test, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Inventory and the Rand SF-36v2 Health Survey subscales. Zero-order correlations consistently demonstrated meaningful relationships between the MAPA and scales of psychosocial well-being and health-related quality of life. Results from multiple regression analyses further substantiated these findings, as greater meaningful activity participation was associated with better psychological well-being and health-related quality of life. The MAPA appears to be a reliable and valid measure of meaningful activity, incorporating both subjective and objective indicators of activity engagement. PMID:20649161

  12. Philosophy of ecology

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Bryson; Peacock, Kent A

    2011-01-01

    The most pressing problems facing humanity today - over-population, energy shortages, climate change, soil erosion, species extinctions, the risk of epidemic disease, the threat of warfare that could destroy all the hard-won gains of civilization, and even the recent fibrillations of the stock market - are all ecological or have a large ecological component. in this volume philosophers turn their attention to understanding the science of ecology and its huge implications for the human project. To get the application of ecology to policy or other practical concerns right, humanity needs a clear and disinterested philosophical understanding of ecology which can help identify the practical lessons of science. Conversely, the urgent practical demands humanity faces today cannot help but direct scientific and philosophical investigation toward the basis of those ecological challenges that threaten human survival. This book will help to fuel the timely renaissance of interest in philosophy of ecology that is now oc...

  13. Journal of Genetics | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... Lanzhou 730070, People's Republic of China; Institute for Applied Ecology, University of Canberra, Bruce ACT 2601, Australia; Ecological Genetics Laboratory, Landcare Research, Private Bag 92170, Auckland, New Zealand; Institute of Natural Sciences, Massey University, North Shore Mail Centre 0632, Auckland, New ...

  14. Using ecological production functions to link ecological ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecological production functions (EPFs) link ecosystems, stressors, and management actions to ecosystem services (ES) production. Although EPFs are acknowledged as being essential to improve environmental management, their use in ecological risk assessment has received relatively little attention. Ecological production functions may be defined as usable expressions (i.e., models) of the processes by which ecosystems produce ES, often including external influences on those processes. We identify key attributes of EPFs and discuss both actual and idealized examples of their use to inform decision making. Whenever possible, EPFs should estimate final, rather than intermediate, ES. Although various types of EPFs have been developed, we suggest that EPFs are more useful for decision making if they quantify ES outcomes, respond to ecosystem condition, respond to stressor levels or management scenarios, reflect ecological complexity, rely on data with broad coverage, have performed well previously, are practical to use, and are open and transparent. In an example using pesticides, we illustrate how EPFs with these attributes could enable the inclusion of ES in ecological risk assessment. The biggest challenges to ES inclusion are limited data sets that are easily adapted for use in modeling EPFs and generally poor understanding of linkages among ecological components and the processes that ultimately deliver the ES. We conclude by advocating for the incorporation into E

  15. Meaningful work and work engagement : The mediating role of perceived opportunity to craft and job crafting behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Wingerden, Jessica; van der Stoep, Joost; Poell, R.F.

    2018-01-01

    This study examines the impact of meaningful work on employees’ level of work engagement as mediated by perceived opportunities to craft and job crafting. Based on the literature on meaningful work and job crafting, we hypothesize that meaningful work has a positive relationship with an employee’s

  16. Relationships between Flow Experience, Life Meaningfulness and Subjective Well-being in Music Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Sedlár

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study examines relationships between flow experience in musical activities, life meaningfulness and subjective well – being. Life meaningfulness belongs to eudaimonic good life, subjective well–being belongs to hedonic good life and flow seems to be combination of both approaches. It is supposed that flow experience in musical activity and life meaningfulness should have positive impact on subjective well –being. The research sample consisted of 96 university music students (37 males, 59 females from the Music and Dance Faculty, Academy of Performing Arts in Bratislava, Slovakia. Dispositional Flow Scale–2, which measures nine dimension of flow, was used for measuring frequency o f flow experience. Life Meaningfulness Scale, which measures three dimensions of life meaningfulness, was used for measuring meaningfulness of life. Positive and Negative Affect Schedule measured affective components of subjective well–being, and Satisfaction with Life Scale measured cognitive component of subjective well–being. Categorization revealed that the most favourite performing musical activities are creative musical activities, such as reproduction and production, during which music students relatively often experience flow. The results of correlation analysis showed that total scores of flow experience, life meaningfulness and components of subjective well–being, significantly correlate each other. Aspects of flow, clear goals and autotelic experience are positively related to cognitive and motivational dimension of life meaningfulness and also to positive affectivity. Loss of self–consciousness and autotelic experience are positively related to emotional dimension of life meaningfulness. Challenge–skill balance, action–awareness merging, clear goals, concentration on task at hand, sense of control and autotelic experience are negatively related to negative affectivity. Challenge–skill balance and autotelic experience are related to

  17. Investigating ecological speciation in non-model organisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foote, Andrew David

    2012-01-01

    Background: Studies of ecological speciation tend to focus on a few model biological systems. In contrast, few studies on non-model organisms have been able to infer ecological speciation as the underlying mechanism of evolutionary divergence. Questions: What are the pitfalls in studying ecological...... speciation in non-model organisms that lead to this bias? What alternative approaches might redress the balance? Organism: Genetically differentiated types of the killer whale (Orcinus orca) exhibiting differences in prey preference, habitat use, morphology, and behaviour. Methods: Review of the literature...... on killer whale evolutionary ecology in search of any difficulty in demonstrating causal links between variation in phenotype, ecology, and reproductive isolation in this non-model organism. Results: At present, we do not have enough evidence to conclude that adaptive phenotype traits linked to ecological...

  18. Demands–abilities fit, work beliefs, meaningful work and engagement in nature-based jobs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nellie de Crom

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Meaningful work and personal engagement are important dimensions of flourishing of employees, especially when individuals work in challenging jobs. Research purpose: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between demands–abilities fit, work beliefs, meaningful work and engagement in individuals in nature-based jobs. Motivation for the study: Individuals working in nature often work under challenging circumstances without the necessary resources. A research gap exists regarding the effects of demands–abilities fit and work beliefs on meaningful work. It is also not clear how these antecedents and meaningful work will impact the engagement of individuals working in nature. Research approach, design and method: A cross-sectional survey was used with a convenience sample of 161 nature-based employees. Data were collected using a structured online questionnaire consisting of items from the demands–abilities fit scale, work–life questionnaire, work and meaning Inventory, work engagement scale and a biographical questionnaire. Main findings: Work beliefs (calling, career and job and demands–abilities fit predicted a large percentage of the variance in meaning making. Work beliefs (calling and job and demands–abilities fit also predicted a large percentage of the variance in greater good motivations. Demands–abilities fit and a calling work orientation indirectly affected work engagement via meaningful work. The scales which measured calling and job orientations showed insufficient discriminant validity in relation to the scales which measured positive meaning and work engagement. Practical and managerial implications: Managers should consider implementing interventions to affect the demands–abilities fit (through human resource management interventions and work beliefs of individuals working in nature (through job crafting. Promoting perceptions of meaningful work might contribute to higher personal engagement

  19. Proteomics in evolutionary ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, B; Millar, A H

    2016-03-01

    Evolutionary ecologists are traditionally gene-focused, as genes propagate phenotypic traits across generations and mutations and recombination in the DNA generate genetic diversity required for evolutionary processes. As a consequence, the inheritance of changed DNA provides a molecular explanation for the functional changes associated with natural selection. A direct focus on proteins on the other hand, the actual molecular agents responsible for the expression of a phenotypic trait, receives far less interest from ecologists and evolutionary biologists. This is partially due to the central dogma of molecular biology that appears to define proteins as the 'dead-end of molecular information flow' as well as technical limitations in identifying and studying proteins and their diversity in the field and in many of the more exotic genera often favored in ecological studies. Here we provide an overview of a newly forming field of research that we refer to as 'Evolutionary Proteomics'. We point out that the origins of cellular function are related to the properties of polypeptide and RNA and their interactions with the environment, rather than DNA descent, and that the critical role of horizontal gene transfer in evolution is more about coopting new proteins to impact cellular processes than it is about modifying gene function. Furthermore, post-transcriptional and post-translational processes generate a remarkable diversity of mature proteins from a single gene, and the properties of these mature proteins can also influence inheritance through genetic and perhaps epigenetic mechanisms. The influence of post-transcriptional diversification on evolutionary processes could provide a novel mechanistic underpinning for elements of rapid, directed evolutionary changes and adaptations as observed for a variety of evolutionary processes. Modern state-of the art technologies based on mass spectrometry are now available to identify and quantify peptides, proteins, protein

  20. Genetic algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lui; Bayer, Steven E.

    1991-01-01

    Genetic algorithms are mathematical, highly parallel, adaptive search procedures (i.e., problem solving methods) based loosely on the processes of natural genetics and Darwinian survival of the fittest. Basic genetic algorithms concepts are introduced, genetic algorithm applications are introduced, and results are presented from a project to develop a software tool that will enable the widespread use of genetic algorithm technology.

  1. Bringing political ecology into critical medical anthropology: a challenge to biocultural approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, H A

    1996-12-01

    This essay presents an effort to incorporate the "environment" into critical medical anthropology. Rather than relying upon the multifactorial approach characteristic of medical ecology or biocultural approaches in medical anthropology, it urges critical medical anthropologists to turn to the burgeoning literature on eco-Marxism, eco-socialism, or political ecology in their efforts to develop a political ecology of health. Given that political ecologists generally advocate democratic eco-socialism as a meaningful alternative to the capitalist world system, this essay also presents a critical examination of the environmental record of post-revolutionary societies.

  2. Ecological partitioning and diversity in tropical planktonic foraminifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seears Heidi A

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ecological processes are increasingly being viewed as an important mode of diversification in the marine environment, where the high dispersal potential of pelagic organisms, and a lack of absolute barriers to gene flow may limit the occurrence of allopatric speciation through vicariance. Here we focus on the potential role of ecological partitioning in the diversification of a widely distributed group of marine protists, the planktonic foraminifera. Sampling was conducted in the tropical Arabian Sea, during the southwest (summer monsoon, when pronounced environmental conditions result in a strong disparity in temperature, salinity and productivity between distinct northern and southern water masses. Results We uncovered extensive genetic diversity within the Arabian Sea planktonic foraminifera, identifying 13 morphospecies, represented by 20 distinct SSU rRNA genetic types. Several morphospecies/genetic types displayed non-random biogeographical distributions, partitioning between the northern and southern water masses, giving a strong indication of independent ecological adaptations. Conclusions We propose sea-surface primary productivity as the main factor driving the geographical segregation of Arabian Sea planktonic foraminifera, during the SW monsoon, with variations in symbiotic associations possibly playing a role in the specific ecological adaptations observed. Our findings suggest that ecological partitioning could be contributing to the high levels of 'cryptic' genetic diversity observed within the planktonic foraminifera, and support the view that ecological processes may play a key role in the diversification of marine pelagic organisms.

  3. Data Assimilation at FLUXNET to Improve Models towards Ecological Forecasting (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Y.

    2009-12-01

    Dramatically increased volumes of data from observational and experimental networks such as FLUXNET call for transformation of ecological research to increase its emphasis on quantitative forecasting. Ecological forecasting will also meet the societal need to develop better strategies for natural resource management in a world of ongoing global change. Traditionally, ecological forecasting has been based on process-based models, informed by data in largely ad hoc ways. Although most ecological models incorporate some representation of mechanistic processes, today’s ecological models are generally not adequate to quantify real-world dynamics and provide reliable forecasts with accompanying estimates of uncertainty. A key tool to improve ecological forecasting is data assimilation, which uses data to inform initial conditions and to help constrain a model during simulation to yield results that approximate reality as closely as possible. In an era with dramatically increased availability of data from observational and experimental networks, data assimilation is a key technique that helps convert the raw data into ecologically meaningful products so as to accelerate our understanding of ecological processes, test ecological theory, forecast changes in ecological services, and better serve the society. This talk will use examples to illustrate how data from FLUXNET have been assimilated with process-based models to improve estimates of model parameters and state variables; to quantify uncertainties in ecological forecasting arising from observations, models and their interactions; and to evaluate information contributions of data and model toward short- and long-term forecasting of ecosystem responses to global change.

  4. Integration of genetic and demographic data to assess population risk in a continuously distributed species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedy, Bradley C.; Row, Jeffery R.; Oyler-McCance, Sara J.

    2017-01-01

    The identification and demographic assessment of biologically meaningful populations is fundamental to species’ ecology and management. Although genetic tools are used frequently to identify populations, studies often do not incorporate demographic data to understand their respective population trends. We used genetic data to define subpopulations in a continuously distributed species. We assessed demographic independence and variation in population trends across the distribution. Additionally, we identified potential barriers to gene flow among subpopulations. We sampled greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) leks from across their range (≈175,000 Km2) in Wyoming and amplified DNA at 14 microsatellite loci for 1761 samples. Subsequently, we assessed population structure in unrelated individuals (n = 872) by integrating results from multiple Bayesian clustering approaches and used the boundaries to inform our assessment of long-term population trends and lek activity over the period of 1995–2013. We identified four genetic clusters of which two northern ones showed demographic independence from the others. Trends in population size for the northwest subpopulation were statistically different from the other three genetic clusters and the northeast and southwest subpopulations demonstrated a general trend of increasing proportion of inactive leks over time. Population change from 1996 to 2012 suggested population growth in the southern subpopulations and decline, or neutral, change in the northern subpopulations. We suggest that sage-grouse subpopulations in northern Wyoming are at greater risk of extirpation than the southern subpopulations due to smaller census and effective population sizes and higher variability within subpopulations. Our research is an example of incorporating genetic and demographic data and provides guidance on the identification of subpopulations of conservation concern.

  5. Between Design and Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Mona Chor

    such vegetation, based on concepts and theories in plant community ecology. If these communities are based on local forbs there is a continuum in anthropogenic intervention from designed and intensively maintained to semi-natural herbaceous vegetation. Results from a large field experiment show that, after three...... colonised by grasses and eventually woody species. This thesis adds useful basic knowledge in plant community ecology and species-specific growth, which are relevant to research and planning in landscape architecture and ecology....

  6. Development of Ecological Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrius Keizikas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents research on ecological buildings and their influence on the constructional sphere. The aim of the paper is to reveal the essence of ecological architecture showing substantial progress and its potential to stimulate architectural and technological growth. The article also describes relations between the ideas of ecological buildings and the ‘passive house’ concepts and aspects of development as well as describes the possibilities of improving building sustainability and energy efficiency. Article in Lithuanian

  7. The ecological economics: An ecological economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castiblanco R, Carmenza

    2007-01-01

    Ecological Economics arise as a scientific discipline aimed to integrate concepts of economics, ecology, thermodynamics, ethic and other natural and social sciences in order to incorporate a biophysical and integrated perspective of the inter dependences between economies and environment, from a plural conception and a methodology beyond disciplines. Ecological Economics studies the black box of economic processes usually excluded of the traditional economics: thermodynamics and ecology. Although it is relatively a new field of study, it has been strengthening its theoretical framework with scientific basis and analytic principles that lead to its identification as a new discipline that show a whole new paradigm. The scope of this article is to show the conceptual and methodological bases, the main founders, approaches and central debates of this new discipline. This brief introduction is a preamble to the papers of the meeting Ecological Economics: a perspective for Colombia included in this number, that took place on September 22 - 27 of 2007, at the National University of Colombia at Bogota. During tree days national and international experts, professors, researchers, workers of environmental sector and people interested on environmental issues joined together to know the conceptual and methodological achievements reached of this discipline; as well as to analyse and evaluate the environmental problems of the country, from the systemic, interdisciplinary and general perspective that it promotes

  8. Dynamics in artifact ecologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne; Klokmose, Clemens Nylandsted

    2012-01-01

    We increasingly interact with multiple interactive artifacts with overlapping capabilities during our daily activities. It has previously been shown that the use of an interactive artifact cannot be understood in isolation, but artifacts must be understood as part of an artifact ecology, where...... artifacts influence the use of others. Understanding this interplay becomes more and more essential for interaction design as our artifact ecologies grow. This paper continues a recent discourse on artifact ecologies. Through interviews with iPhone users, we demonstrate that relationships between artifacts...... in artifact ecologies cannot be understood as static, instead they evolve dynamically over time. We provide activity theory-based concepts to explain these dynamics....

  9. Ecological risk assessment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Suter, Glenn W; Barnthouse, L. W. (Lawrence W)

    2007-01-01

    Ecological risk assessment is commonly applied to the regulation of chemicals, the remediation of contaminated sites, the monitoring of importation of exotic organisms, the management of watersheds...

  10. Chemical ecology of fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiteller, Peter

    2015-07-01

    Fungi are widespread in nature and have conquered nearly every ecological niche. Fungi occur not only in terrestrial but also in freshwater and marine environments. Moreover, fungi are known as a rich source of secondary metabolites. Despite these facts, the ecological role of many of these metabolites is still unknown and the chemical ecology of fungi has not been investigated systematically so far. This review intends to present examples of the various chemical interactions of fungi with other fungi, plants, bacteria and animals and to give an overview of the current knowledge of fungal chemical ecology.

  11. Genetic Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... greatly advanced genetics research. The improved quality of genetic data has reduced the time required to identify a ... cases, a matter of months or even weeks. Genetic mapping data generated by the HGP's laboratories is freely accessible ...

  12. Can Evolution Supply What Ecology Demands?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokko, Hanna; Chaturvedi, Anurag; Croll, Daniel; Fischer, Martin C; Guillaume, Frédéric; Karrenberg, Sophie; Kerr, Ben; Rolshausen, Gregor; Stapley, Jessica

    2017-03-01

    A simplistic view of the adaptive process pictures a hillside along which a population can climb: when ecological 'demands' change, evolution 'supplies' the variation needed for the population to climb to a new peak. Evolutionary ecologists point out that this simplistic view can be incomplete because the fitness landscape changes dynamically as the population evolves. Geneticists meanwhile have identified complexities relating to the nature of genetic variation and its architecture, and the importance of epigenetic variation is under debate. In this review, we highlight how complexity in both ecological 'demands' and the evolutionary 'supply' influences organisms' ability to climb fitness landscapes that themselves change dynamically as evolution proceeds, and encourage new synthetic effort across research disciplines towards ecologically realistic studies of adaptation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Genetic privacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar, Pamela

    2003-01-01

    During the past 10 years, the number of genetic tests performed more than tripled, and public concern about genetic privacy emerged. The majority of states and the U.S. government have passed regulations protecting genetic information. However, research has shown that concerns about genetic privacy are disproportionate to known instances of information misuse. Beliefs in genetic determinacy explain some of the heightened concern about genetic privacy. Discussion of the debate over genetic testing within families illustrates the most recent response to genetic privacy concerns.

  14. Simulating natural selection in landscape genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. L. Landguth; S. A. Cushman; N. Johnson

    2012-01-01

    Linking landscape effects to key evolutionary processes through individual organism movement and natural selection is essential to provide a foundation for evolutionary landscape genetics. Of particular importance is determining how spatially- explicit, individual-based models differ from classic population genetics and evolutionary ecology models based on ideal...

  15. Genetic variation between ecotypic populations of Chloris ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic variation between ecotypic populations of Chloris roxburghiana grass detected through RAPD analysis. ... frequency indicated that the four populations of C. roxburghiana were genetically distinct, probably as a result of variation in soil fertility, geographical isolation and socio-ecological history of the study sites.

  16. Scale dependent inference in landscape genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel A. Cushman; Erin L. Landguth

    2010-01-01

    Ecological relationships between patterns and processes are highly scale dependent. This paper reports the first formal exploration of how changing scale of research away from the scale of the processes governing gene flow affects the results of landscape genetic analysis. We used an individual-based, spatially explicit simulation model to generate patterns of genetic...

  17. Meaningful Clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Calapristi, Augustin J.; Crow, Vernon L.; Hetzler, Elizabeth G.; Turner, Alan E.

    2004-05-26

    We present an approach to the disambiguation of cluster labels that capitalizes on the notion of semantic similarity to assign WordNet senses to cluster labels. The approach provides interesting insights on how document clustering can provide the basis for developing a novel approach to word sense disambiguation.

  18. Perspective: The missing link in academic career planning and development: pursuit of meaningful and aligned work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieff, Susan J

    2009-10-01

    Retention of faculty in academic medicine is a growing challenge. It has been suggested that inattention to the humanistic values of the faculty is contributing to this problem. Professional development should consider faculty members' search for meaning, purpose, and professional fulfillment and should support the development of an ability to reflect on these issues. Ensuring the alignment of academic physicians' inner direction with their outer context is critical to professional fulfillment and effectiveness. Personal reflection on the synergy of one's strengths, passions, and values can help faculty members define meaningful work so as to enable clearer career decision making. The premise of this article is that an awareness of and the pursuit of meaningful work and its alignment with the academic context are important considerations in the professional fulfillment and retention of academic faculty. A conceptual framework for understanding meaningful work and alignment and ways in which that framework can be applied and taught in development programs are presented and discussed.

  19. Students’ Expectations and Experiences of Meaningful Simulation-Based Medical Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuulikki Keskitalo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate students’ expectations and experiences of meaningful learning in simulation-based learning environments. We set the following research question: How do students’ experiences of meaningful simulation-based learning correspond to their expectations? The students’ (n = 87; male 51, female 36 pre- and post-questionnaires were analyzed using statistical methods. The results indicated that students’ expectations and experiences of meaningful learning were positive, and for most statements, there were statistically significant differences between the mean pre-questionnaire rating and the mean post-questionnaire rating, thereby indicating that students’ actual experiences of simulation-based learning were more positive than their expectations. Thus, students’ experiences exceeded their expectations.

  20. The Sphagnome Project: enabling ecological and evolutionary insights through a genus-level sequencing project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, David J; Turetsky, Merritt R; Johnson, Matthew G; Granath, Gustaf; Lindo, Zoë; Belyea, Lisa R; Rice, Steven K; Hanson, David T; Engelhardt, Katharina A M; Schmutz, Jeremy; Dorrepaal, Ellen; Euskirchen, Eugénie S; Stenøien, Hans K; Szövényi, Péter; Jackson, Michelle; Piatkowski, Bryan T; Muchero, Wellington; Norby, Richard J; Kostka, Joel E; Glass, Jennifer B; Rydin, Håkan; Limpens, Juul; Tuittila, Eeva-Stiina; Ullrich, Kristian K; Carrell, Alyssa; Benscoter, Brian W; Chen, Jin-Gui; Oke, Tobi A; Nilsson, Mats B; Ranjan, Priya; Jacobson, Daniel; Lilleskov, Erik A; Clymo, R S; Shaw, A Jonathan

    2018-01-01

    Considerable progress has been made in ecological and evolutionary genetics with studies demonstrating how genes underlying plant and microbial traits can influence adaptation and even 'extend' to influence community structure and ecosystem level processes. Progress in this area is limited to model systems with deep genetic and genomic resources that often have negligible ecological impact or interest. Thus, important linkages between genetic adaptations and their consequences at organismal and ecological scales are often lacking. Here we introduce the Sphagnome Project, which incorporates genomics into a long-running history of Sphagnum research that has documented unparalleled contributions to peatland ecology, carbon sequestration, biogeochemistry, microbiome research, niche construction, and ecosystem engineering. The Sphagnome Project encompasses a genus-level sequencing effort that represents a new type of model system driven not only by genetic tractability, but by ecologically relevant questions and hypotheses. © 2017 UT-Battelle New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  1. "Meaningful use" of electronic health records and its relevance to laboratories and pathologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter H Henricks

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Electronic health records (EHRs have emerged as a major topic in health care and are central to the federal government′s strategy for transforming healthcare delivery in the United States. Recent federal actions that aim to promote the use of EHRs promise to have significant implications for laboratories and for pathology practices. Under the HITECH (Health Information Technology Economic and Clinical Health Act, an EHR incentive program has been established through which individual physicians and hospitals can qualify to receive incentive payments if they achieve "meaningful use" of "certified" EHR technology. The rule also establishes payment penalties in future years for eligible providers who have not met the requirements for meaningful use of EHRs. Meaningful use must be achieved using EHR technology that has been certified in accordance with functional and technical criteria that are set forth a regulation that parallels the meaningful use criteria in the incentive program. These actions and regulations are important to laboratories and pathologists for a number of reasons. Several of the criteria and requirements in the meaningful use rules and EHR certification criteria relate directly or indirectly to laboratory testing and laboratory information management, and future stage requirements are expected to impact the laboratory as well. Furthermore, as EHR uptake expands, there will be greater expectations for electronic interchange of laboratory information and laboratory information system (LIS-EHR interfaces. Laboratories will need to be aware of the technical, operational, and business challenges that they may face as expectations for LIS-EHR increase. This paper reviews the important recent federal efforts aimed at accelerating EHR use, including the incentive program for EHR meaningful use, provider eligibility, and EHR certification criteria, from a perspective of their relevance for laboratories and pathology practices.

  2. [Using ecology thinking reconstructing traditional agronomy: role of production ecology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Song-Liang

    2012-08-01

    Traditional agronomy, as a discipline or specialty, is originated from the reductionism thinking of neoteric experimental sciences and motivated by the great success of industrialized revolution, but loses the ensemble grasp of the relationships between agricultural organisms and their resources and environment, i.e., agroecosystem mechanism. Moreover, due to the excessively relying on exogenous fossil energy input and the monoculture with a few highly productive crop cultivars, the agricultural interior sustainability has unceasingly lost, making our mankind facing the double crises of grain security and food safety. Therefore, it is imperative to reconstruct the traditional agronomy and its educational system. In this paper, the author proposed to link traditional agronomy with ecology, establishing agroecology as the core subject and agroecosystem management as the core applied system, and in particular, establishing 'production ecology' to fill up the wide gap between the crop cultivation and farming system and the crop genetics and breeding, the two second grade disciplines under agronomy. Ideologically and methodologically, this proposal could provide disciplinary, scientific, and educational bases to authentically implement the strategy of sustainable development of agriculture.

  3. Health information technology: integration of clinical workflow into meaningful use of electronic health records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowens, Felicia M; Frye, Patricia A; Jones, Warren A

    2010-10-01

    This article examines the role that clinical workflow plays in successful implementation and meaningful use of electronic health record (EHR) technology in ambulatory care. The benefits and barriers of implementing EHRs in ambulatory care settings are discussed. The researchers conclude that widespread adoption and meaningful use of EHR technology rely on the successful integration of health information technology (HIT) into clinical workflow. Without successful integration of HIT into clinical workflow, clinicians in today's ambulatory care settings will continue to resist adoption and implementation of EHR technology.

  4. The consistency and complementarity between critical meaningful learning theory and the epistemology of Paul Feyerabend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Damasio

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Researchers in science teaching have advocated concomitant education about and of science. To approach the nature and history of science in basic education is necessary to have an epistemological approach that can go between of rationalism of Bunge and relativism of Feyerabend. In this paper, it is argued that Feyerabend's epistemological stance is that more can help promote meaningful learning critical, so as to form inquiring, flexible, creative, innovative, tolerant and liberal people. In addition, the suggestions Feyerabend's epistemology also complement the Theory of Meaningful Learning Critical to propose a curriculum and a context for the principles of the theory are in science classrooms.

  5. Pilot Study of Flow and Meaningfulness as Psychological Learning Concepts in Patient Education: A Short Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicic, Sara; Nørby, Karina; Bruun Johansen, Clea

    2014-01-01

    of this study was to investigate the applicability of these concepts of positive psychological theory in a patient education setting. Methods: This pilot study combines participating observation of group based patient education and 8 qualitative interviews with 4 patients with type 2 diabetes. Meaning......Abstract Background: The aim of this pilot study was to explore patient experiences of meaningfulness and flow related to group based patient education in type 2 diabetes. Meaningfulness and flow are underexposed as psychological learning concepts in patient education, and the ambition...

  6. Creating a meaningful infection control program: one home healthcare agency's lessons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poff, Renee McCoy; Browning, Sarah Via

    2014-03-01

    Creating a meaningful infection control program in the home care setting proved to be challenging for agency leaders of one hospital-based home healthcare agency. Challenges arose when agency leaders provided infection control (IC) data to the hospital's IC Committee. The IC Section Chief asked for national benchmark comparisons to align home healthcare reporting to that of the hospital level. At that point, it was evident that the home healthcare IC program lacked definition and structure. The purpose of this article is to share how one agency built a meaningful IC program.

  7. WHATSAPP CONTRIBUTIONS IN SPANISH TEACHING: A PERSPECTIVE OF MEANINGFUL AND COLLABORATIVE LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iandra Maria Weirich da Silva Coelho

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a didactic proposal, mediated by the use of WhatsApp as a potential tool for the teaching of Spanish as an additional language. Activities are drawn from collaborative and meaningful practice with authentic situations of the language usage, taking by reference the theoretical construct of the Theory of Meaningful Learning (AUSUBEL, 2003 and Collaborative Practice of Writing. The results identify positive contributions about the increased interest and motivation of students, promotion of discursive competence, interactivity, autonomy, about actions involving the authorship and collaborative construction in information network for knowledge sharing.

  8. Improving students' meaningful learning on the predictive nature of quantum mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Alves de Carvalho Neto

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with research about teaching quantum mechanics to 3rd year high school students and their meaningful learning of its predictive aspect; it is based on the Master’s dissertation of one of the authors (CARVALHO NETO, 2006. While teaching quantum mechanics, we emphasized its predictive and essentially probabilistic nature, based on Niels Bohr’s complementarity interpretation (BOHR, 1958. In this context, we have discussed the possibility of predicting measurement results in well-defined experimental contexts, even for individual events. Interviews with students reveal that they have used quantum mechanical ideas, suggesting their meaningful learning of the essentially probabilistic predictions of quantum mechanics.

  9. Genetic sex determination and extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedrick, Philip W; Gadau, Jürgen; Page, Robert E

    2006-02-01

    Genetic factors can affect the probability of extinction either by increasing the effect of detrimental variants or by decreasing the potential for future adaptive responses. In a recent paper, Zayed and Packer demonstrate that low variation at a specific locus, the complementary sex determination (csd) locus in Hymenoptera (ants, bees and wasps), can result in a sharply increased probability of extinction. Their findings illustrate situations in which there is a feedback process between decreased genetic variation at the csd locus owing to genetic drift and decreased population growth, resulting in an extreme type of extinction vortex for these ecologically important organisms.

  10. Ecological analyses and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brocksen, R.W.

    1977-01-01

    Progress is reported on the following: analysis of ecological impacts of construction and operation of nuclear power plants; fossil energy environmental project; ecological analysis of geothermal energy development; HUD modular integrated utility systems; expansion of uranium enrichment facilities at Portsmouth; environmental standard review plans; environmental assessment of cooling reservoirs; and analysis of fish impingement at power plants in the southeastern United States

  11. Ecology and economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menard, M.; Bischoff, J.

    1980-01-01

    The green movement challenges workers' unions and socialists. Who are the 'Greens', and what do they want. Where do their theoretical fundamentals come from. Will an ecological economy be able to function. Are the 'Greens' leftists or dreamers fighting against progress. Arguments for trade unionists and socialists in the ecological controversy. (orig.) [de

  12. Ecological analyses and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroodsma, R.L.; Craig, R.B.; Hildebrand, S.G.

    1978-01-01

    Progress is reported on the following: assessment of nuclear power plants; ecological analysis of uranium mining, milling, and fuel fabrication; environmental impact statements concerning uranium enrichment facilities; site evaluations for storage of radioactive wastes; ecological analysis of geothermal energy development; enhanced oil recovery; environmental monitoring plan for modular integrated utility systems; and fossil energy environmental project

  13. Terrestrial Ecology Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, James W., Ed.; Hall, James A., Ed.

    This collection of study units focuses on the study of the ecology of land habitats. Considered are such topics as map reading, field techniques, forest ecosystem, birds, insects, small mammals, soils, plant ecology, preparation of terrariums, air pollution, photography, and essentials of an environmental studies program. Each unit contains…

  14. Children's Ecology Books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lussenhop, Martha

    Selected for this listing of children's books are fiction and non-fiction books which add to an understanding of ecology, broadly considered here as the study of the interrelationships of organisms to each other and their environment. General ecology, natural resources, man and his environment, evolution and adaptation, appreciation, survival,…

  15. Towards a More Biologically-meaningful Climate Characterization: Variability in Space and Time at Multiple Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christianson, D. S.; Kaufman, C. G.; Kueppers, L. M.; Harte, J.

    2013-12-01

    Sampling limitations and current modeling capacity justify the common use of mean temperature values in summaries of historical climate and future projections. However, a monthly mean temperature representing a 1-km2 area on the landscape is often unable to capture the climate complexity driving organismal and ecological processes. Estimates of variability in addition to mean values are more biologically meaningful and have been shown to improve projections of range shifts for certain species. Historical analyses of variance and extreme events at coarse spatial scales, as well as coarse-scale projections, show increasing temporal variability in temperature with warmer means. Few studies have considered how spatial variance changes with warming, and analysis for both temporal and spatial variability across scales is lacking. It is unclear how the spatial variability of fine-scale conditions relevant to plant and animal individuals may change given warmer coarse-scale mean values. A change in spatial variability will affect the availability of suitable habitat on the landscape and thus, will influence future species ranges. By characterizing variability across both temporal and spatial scales, we can account for potential bias in species range projections that use coarse climate data and enable improvements to current models. In this study, we use temperature data at multiple spatial and temporal scales to characterize spatial and temporal variability under a warmer climate, i.e., increased mean temperatures. Observational data from the Sierra Nevada (California, USA), experimental climate manipulation data from the eastern and western slopes of the Rocky Mountains (Colorado, USA), projected CMIP5 data for California (USA) and observed PRISM data (USA) allow us to compare characteristics of a mean-variance relationship across spatial scales ranging from sub-meter2 to 10,000 km2 and across temporal scales ranging from hours to decades. Preliminary spatial analysis at

  16. Genetic Engineering of Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan; Khurshid, Muhammad; Sun, Zhan Min; Tang, Yi Xiong; Zhou, Mei Liang; Wu, Yan Min

    2016-01-01

    Alfalfa is excellent perennial legume forage for its extensive ecological adaptability, high nutrition value, palatability and biological nitrogen fixation. It plays a very important role in the agriculture, animal husbandry and ecological construction. It is cultivated in all continents. With the development of modern plant breeding and genetic engineering techniques, a large amount of work has been carried out on alfalfa. Here we summarize the recent research advances in genetic engineering of alfalfa breeding, including transformation, quality improvement, stress resistance and as a bioreactor. The review article can enables us to understand the research method, direction and achievements of genetic engineering technology of Alfalfa.

  17. Predictive systems ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Matthew R; Bithell, Mike; Cornell, Stephen J; Dall, Sasha R X; Díaz, Sandra; Emmott, Stephen; Ernande, Bruno; Grimm, Volker; Hodgson, David J; Lewis, Simon L; Mace, Georgina M; Morecroft, Michael; Moustakas, Aristides; Murphy, Eugene; Newbold, Tim; Norris, K J; Petchey, Owen; Smith, Matthew; Travis, Justin M J; Benton, Tim G

    2013-11-22

    Human societies, and their well-being, depend to a significant extent on the state of the ecosystems that surround them. These ecosystems are changing rapidly usually in response to anthropogenic changes in the environment. To determine the likely impact of environmental change on ecosystems and the best ways to manage them, it would be desirable to be able to predict their future states. We present a proposal to develop the paradigm of predictive systems ecology, explicitly to understand and predict the properties and behaviour of ecological systems. We discuss the necessary and desirable features of predictive systems ecology models. There are places where predictive systems ecology is already being practised and we summarize a range of terrestrial and marine examples. Significant challenges remain but we suggest that ecology would benefit both as a scientific discipline and increase its impact in society if it were to embrace the need to become more predictive.

  18. Spatial ecology across scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, Alan; Petrovskii, Sergei; Morozov, Andrew

    2011-04-23

    The international conference 'Models in population dynamics and ecology 2010: animal movement, dispersal and spatial ecology' took place at the University of Leicester, UK, on 1-3 September 2010, focusing on mathematical approaches to spatial population dynamics and emphasizing cross-scale issues. Exciting new developments in scaling up from individual level movement to descriptions of this movement at the macroscopic level highlighted the importance of mechanistic approaches, with different descriptions at the microscopic level leading to different ecological outcomes. At higher levels of organization, different macroscopic descriptions of movement also led to different properties at the ecosystem and larger scales. New developments from Levy flight descriptions to the incorporation of new methods from physics and elsewhere are revitalizing research in spatial ecology, which will both increase understanding of fundamental ecological processes and lead to tools for better management.

  19. What is dental ecology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuozzo, Frank P; Sauther, Michelle L

    2012-06-01

    Teeth have long been used as indicators of primate ecology. Early work focused on the links between dental morphology, diet, and behavior, with more recent years emphasizing dental wear, microstructure, development, and biogeochemistry, to understand primate ecology. Our study of Lemur catta at the Beza Mahafaly Special Reserve, Madagascar, has revealed an unusual pattern of severe tooth wear and frequent tooth loss, primarily the result of consuming a fallback food for which these primates are not dentally adapted. Interpreting these data was only possible by combining our areas of expertise (dental anatomy [FC] and primate ecology [MS]). By integrating theoretical, methodological, and applied aspects of both areas of research, we adopted the term "dental ecology"-defined as the broad study of how teeth respond to the environment. Specifically, we view dental ecology as an interpretive framework using teeth as a vehicle for understanding an organism's ecology, which builds upon earlier work, but creates a new synthesis of anatomy and ecology that is only possible with detailed knowledge of living primates. This framework includes (1) identifying patterns of dental pathology and tooth use-wear, within the context of feeding ecology, behavior, habitat variation, and anthropogenic change, (2) assessing ways in which dental development and biogeochemical signals can reflect habitat, environmental change and/or stress, and (3) how dental microstructure and macro-morphology are adapted to, and reflect feeding ecology. Here we define dental ecology, provide a short summary of the development of this perspective, and place our new work into this context. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Parent Perceptions of Time Spent Meaningfully by Young Adults with Pervasive Support Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetti, Zachary; Lehr, Donna; Lederer, Leslie; Pelerin, Dana; Huang, Shuoxi

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a qualitative study that examined how 23 young adults with pervasive support needs and limited functional communication spent their time and how their parents (n = 23) and direct support professionals (DSPs; n = 2) defined meaningfulness in relation to the young adults' experiences. Data were collected through…

  1. Measuring Meaningful Learning in the Undergraduate Chemistry Laboratory: A National, Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Kelli R.; Bretz, Stacey Lowery

    2015-01-01

    Research on laboratory learning points to the need to better understand what and how students learn in the undergraduate chemistry laboratory. The Meaningful Learning in the Laboratory Instrument (MLLI) was administered to general and organic chemistry students from 15 colleges and universities across the United States in order to measure the…

  2. Pedagogical Background for Technology Education--Meaningful Learning in Theory and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autio, Ossi

    2009-01-01

    One important theme in technology education is the growing need to develop the type of pedagogies that encourage pupils in authentic and meaningful learning experiences. Often, the teaching strategies of technology education are only a matter of teaching the handling of materials and tools, and the production of mere objects does not consider how…

  3. Using Cluster Analysis to Characterize Meaningful Learning in a First-Year University Chemistry Laboratory Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Kelli R.; Bretz, Stacey Lowery

    2015-01-01

    The Meaningful Learning in the Laboratory Instrument (MLLI) was designed to measure students' cognitive and affective learning in the university chemistry laboratory. The MLLI was administered at the beginning and the end of the first semester to first-year university chemistry students to measure their expectations and experiences for learning in…

  4. Meaningful Gamification and Students' Motivation: A Strategy for Scaffolding Reading Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Lynette Tan Yuen

    2018-01-01

    Gamification is an innovative pedagogical strategy where digital games are used in an educational setting and as an aid to learning. Recent publications on gamification in the classroom investigate the concept of "meaningful gamification," where, in line with Ryan and Deci's self-determination theory, competency, autonomy, and…

  5. Meaningful Understanding and Systems Thinking in Organic Chemistry: Validating Measurement and Exploring Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachliotis, Theodoros; Salta, Katerina; Tzougraki, Chryssa

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was dual: First, to develop and validate assessment schemes for assessing 11th grade students' meaningful understanding of organic chemistry concepts, as well as their systems thinking skills in the domain. Second, to explore the relationship between the two constructs of interest based on students' performance…

  6. What constitutes meaningful engagement for patients and families as partners on research teams?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Agnes; Strain, Kimberly; Wallsworth, Christine; Charlton, Sara-Grey; Chang, Wilma; McNamee, Kate; Hamilton, Clayon

    2018-01-01

    Objective There is growing emphasis on health care organizations to ensure that lay people are meaningfully engaged as partners on research teams. Our aim was to explore the perspectives of patients, family members and informal caregivers who have been involved on health care research teams in Canada and elicit their recommendations for meaningful engagement. Methods We conducted a qualitative study guided by thematic analysis of transcripts of focus groups and interviews of 19 experienced patient research partners in Canada. Results We identified four main themes: research environment, expectations, support and value, which highlight participants' combined perspectives on important factors to ensure their engagement in research is meaningful. Conclusions Our findings add to the evolving evidence base on the perspectives of lay people involved in health care research and their recommendations for research leaders on meaningful engagement. Our study suggests that research leaders should provide a welcoming research environment, outline appropriate expectations for patient research partners on research teams, support patient research partners' engagement in projects and recognize the value patient research partners bring to health research.

  7. Patient-perceived satisfactory improvement (PPSI): interpreting meaningful change in pain from the patient's perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Klooster, Peter M.; Drossaers-Bakker, K.W.; Taal, Erik; van de Laar, Mart A F J

    2006-01-01

    The assessment of clinically meaningful changes in patient-reported pain has become increasingly important when interpreting results of clinical studies. However, proposed response criteria, such as the minimal clinically important difference, do not correspond with the growing need for information

  8. 75 FR 28331 - Meaningful Access to United States Currency for Blind and Visually Impaired Persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-20

    ... feature is used in some foreign currency, and the Study's data indicated that this feature was more... Currency for Blind and Visually Impaired Persons AGENCY: Bureau of Engraving and Printing, Department of... meaningful access to U.S. currency to people who are blind and visually impaired pursuant to section 504 of...

  9. Identifying meaningful activities among elderly people with demenitia: the developing process of an observation taxonomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Mette

    2014-01-01

    , values and beliefs in the center formed the base in the development of the tool. Aim: To develop an observational tool which can identify meaningful activities among elderly demented nursing home residents and thereby provide staff with more knowledge and possibilities for inviting and engaging residents...

  10. Callings, Work Role Fit, Psychological Meaningfulness and Work Engagement among Teachers in Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothmann, Sebastiaan; Hamukang'andu, Lukondo

    2013-01-01

    Our aim in this study was to investigate the relationships among a calling orientation, work role fit, psychological meaningfulness and work engagement of teachers in Zambia. A quantitative approach was followed and a cross-sectional survey was used. The sample (n = 150) included 75 basic and 75 secondary school teachers in the Choma district of…

  11. Doing the Project and Learning the Content: Designing Project-Based Science Curricula for Meaningful Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanter, David E.

    2010-01-01

    Project-based science curricula can improve students' usable or meaningful understanding of the science content underlying a project. However, such curricula designed around "performances" wherein students design or make something do not always do this. We researched ways to design performance project-based science curricula (pPBSc) to better…

  12. Towards a More Meaningful Involvement of Librarians in Academic Program Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowker, Lynne

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: Using a descriptive case study approach, this paper aims to validate academic librarians' perceptions that they are marginalized by faculty during academic program reviews, and recommends ways for the two groups to collaborate more effectively to make program reviews more meaningful. Design/methodology/approach: The paper describes a case…

  13. "Seeing the Whole Elephant": Changing Mindsets and Empowering Stakeholders to Meaningfully Manage Accountability and Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush-Mecenas, Susan; Marsh, Julie A.; Montes de Oca, David; Hough, Heather

    2018-01-01

    School accountability and improvement policy are on the precipice of a paradigm shift. While the multiple-measure dashboard accountability approach holds great promise for promoting more meaningful learning opportunities for all students, our research indicates that this can come with substantial challenges in practice. We reflect upon the lessons…

  14. Beyond Needs Analysis: Soft Systems Methodology for Meaningful Collaboration in EAP Course Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajino, Akira; James, Robert; Kijima, Kyoichi

    2005-01-01

    Designing an EAP course requires collaboration among various concerned stakeholders, including students, subject teachers, institutional administrators and EAP teachers themselves. While needs analysis is often considered fundamental to EAP, alternative research methodologies may be required to facilitate meaningful collaboration between these…

  15. Meaningfulness for creation of growth in Small- and Medium-sized enterprises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brink, Tove; Neville, Mette

    2016-01-01

    The research in this paper reveals how meaningfulness of growth can be created in Small- and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs). The research is conducted in a four-year period with 24 SMEs participating from different industry branches. The research is now in the late part of the 3rd. year starting...

  16. Community-based medical education: is success a result of meaningful personal learning experiences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Len; Walters, Lucie; Rosenthal, David

    2014-01-01

    Community-based medical education (CBME) is the delivery of medical education in a specific social context. Learners become a part of social and medical communities where their learning occurs. Longitudinal integrated clerkships (LICs) are year-long community-based placements where the curriculum and clinical experience is typically delivered by primary care physicians. These programs have proven to be robust learning environments, where learners develop strong communication skills and excellent clinical reasoning. To date, no learning model has been offered to describe CBME. The characteristics of CBME are explored by the authors who suggest that the social and professional context provided in small communities enhances medical education. The authors postulate that meaningfulness is engendered by the authentic context, which develops over time. These relationships with preceptors, patients and the community provide meaningfulness, which in turn enhances learning. The authors develop a novel learning model. They propose that the context-rich environment of CBME allows for meaningful relationships and experiences for students and that such meaningfulness enhances learning.

  17. Meaningful Learning in the Teaching of Culture: The Project Based Learning Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kean, Ang Chooi; Kwe, Ngu Moi

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on a collaborative effort taken by a team of three teacher educators in using the Project Based Learning (PBL) approach in the teaching of Japanese culture with the aim to investigate the presence of actual "meaningful learning" among 15 students of a 12-Week Preparatory Japanese Language course under a teacher…

  18. Magnitude and meaningfulness of change in SF-36 scores in four types of orthopedic surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busija, Lucy; Osborne, Richard H; Nilsdotter, Anna

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Medical Outcomes General Health Survey (SF-36) is a widely used health status measure; however, limited evidence is available for its performance in orthopedic settings. The aim of this study was to examine the magnitude and meaningfulness of change and sensitivity of SF-36...

  19. Finding pathways to more equitable and meaningful public-scientist partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniela Soleri; Jonathan W. Long; Monica D. Ramirez-Andreotta; Ruth Eitemiller; Rajul Pandyaǁ

    2016-01-01

    For many, citizen science is exciting because of the possibility for more diverse, equitable partnerships in scientific research with outcomes considered meaningful and useful by all, including public participants. This was the focus of a symposium we organized at the 2015 conference of the Citizen Science Association. Here we synthesize points made by symposium...

  20. The categorisation of dysthymic disorder: Can its constituents be meaningfully apportioned?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rhebergen, D.; Graham, R.; Hadzi-Pavlovic, D.; Stek, M.L.; Friend, P.; Barrett, M.; Parker, G.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Since its introduction in DSM-III, the validity of dysthymia has been debated. Our objective is to further examine the concept of dysthymia in an outpatient sample, and explore whether its constituents can be meaningfully apportioned. Methods: 318 patients attending the Black Dog

  1. Mutually Beneficial Foreign Language Learning: Creating Meaningful Interactions through Video-Synchronous Computer-Mediated Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Fumie; Spring, Ryan; Mori, Chikako

    2016-01-01

    Providing learners of a foreign language with meaningful opportunities for interactions, specifically with native speakers, is especially challenging for instructors. One way to overcome this obstacle is through video-synchronous computer-mediated communication tools such as Skype software. This study reports quantitative and qualitative data from…

  2. Meaningful Share Generation for Increased Number of Secrets in Visual Secret-Sharing Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Ulutas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new scheme for hiding two halftone secret images into two meaningful shares created from halftone cover images. Meaningful shares are more desirable than noise-like (meaningless shares in Visual Secret Sharing because they look natural and do not attract eavesdroppers' attention. Previous works in the field focus on either increasing number of secrets or creating meaningful shares for one secret image. The method outlined in this paper both increases the number of secrets and creates meaningful shares at the same time. While the contrast ratio of shares is equal to that of Extended Visual Cryptography, two secrets are encoded into two shares as opposed to one secret in the Extended Visual Cryptography. Any two natural-looking images can be used as cover unlike the Halftone Visual Cryptography method where one cover should be the negative of the other cover image and can only encode one secret. Effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by an experiment.

  3. Mediating role of meaningful work between resources and work engagement in Bangladesh’s private banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawrin Rubaba

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Engaged employees are considered as the most desired assets for the organization. Although significant contributions have been observed in the engagement literature, a holistic approach is yet to be untouched in terms of developing relationship between various resources, work engagement and psychological mechanism such as meaningful work. The purpose of this study is to explore the mediating role of meaningful work between resources and work engagement in private banks in Bangladesh. This study followed the quantitative methodological approach and based on Bakker and Demerouti’s (2007 Job demand-resources model. A survey questionnaire was prepared and used to collect data. 440 respondents participated in this study, who is currently working in private banks in Bangladesh. Multiple regression analysis along with Sobel test was performed to analyze the data. The findings confirmed that the relationships between organizational, job, personal resources and work engagement were partially mediated through meaningful work. It has been observed that all determinates had a significant influence on work engagement. For practical implications, the organization can align various resources to uplift the engagement level of the employees. Since meaningful work was found to be a significant predictor, managers can develop jobs where employees can relate their purpose to their work. This study recommends that future research can apply this model to different contexts as well as to different groups of respondents.

  4. Transforming City Schools through Art: Approaches to Meaningful K-12 Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutzel, Karen; Bastos, Flavia M. C.; Cozier, Kimberly J.

    2012-01-01

    This anthology places art at the center of meaningful urban education reform. Providing a fresh perspective on urban education, the contributors describe a positive, asset-based community development model designed to tap into the teaching/learning potential already available in urban cities. Rather than focusing on a lack of resources, this…

  5. The association of meaningfulness, well-being, and engagement with absenteeism : A moderated mediation model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soane, E.; Shantz, A.; Alfes, K.; Truss, C.; Rees, C.; Gatenby, M.

    2013-01-01

    We theorized that absence from work is a resource-based process that is related to perceived meaningfulness of work, well-being, and engagement. Broaden-and-build theory (Fredrickson, 1998, 2001) and engagement theory (Bakker, Schaufeli, Leiter, & Taris, 2008; Kahn, 1990) were used to develop a

  6. The Right to Appropriate and Meaningful Education for Children with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, David; Goodall, Craig

    2015-01-01

    This paper will explore from a "child's rights perspective" the "right" of children with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) to appropriate and meaningful education. Human "rights" principles within international law will be evaluated in relation to how they have been interpreted and applied in relation to achieving this…

  7. The Omaha system and meaningful use: applications for practice, education, and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Karen S; Monsen, Karen A; Bowles, Kathryn H

    2011-01-01

    Meaningful use has become ubiquitous in the vocabulary of health information technology. It suggests that better healthcare does not result from the adoption of technology and electronic health records, but by increasing interoperability and informing clinical decisions at the point of care. Although the initial application of meaningful use was limited to eligible professionals and hospitals, it incorporates complex processes and workflow that involve all nurses, other healthcare practitioners, and settings. The healthcare community will become more integrated, and interdisciplinary practitioners will provide enhanced patient-centered care if electronic health records adopt the priorities of meaningful use. Standardized terminologies are a necessary component of such electronic health records. The Omaha System is an exemplar of a standardized terminology that enables meaningful use of clinical data to support and improve patient-centered clinical practice, education, and research. It is user-friendly, generates data that can be shared with patients and their families, and enables healthcare providers to analyze and exchange patient-centered coded data. Use of the Omaha System is increasing steadily in diverse practice, education, and research settings nationally and internationally.

  8. Measuring Meaningful Learning in the Undergraduate General Chemistry and Organic Chemistry Laboratories: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Kelli R.; Bretz, Stacey Lowery

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how students learn in the undergraduate chemistry teaching laboratory is an essential component to developing evidence-based laboratory curricula. The Meaningful Learning in the Laboratory Instrument (MLLI) was developed to measure students' cognitive and affective expectations and experiences for learning in the chemistry…

  9. Does (Non-)Meaningful Sensori-Motor Engagement Promote Learning With Animated Physical Systems?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pouw, Wim T J L; Eielts, Charly; van Gog, Tamara; Zwaan, Rolf A.; Paas, Fred

    2016-01-01

    Previous research indicates that sensori-motor experience with physical systems can have a positive effect on learning. However, it is not clear whether this effect is caused by mere bodily engagement or the intrinsically meaningful information that such interaction affords in performing the

  10. Integrating Concept Mapping into Information Systems Education for Meaningful Learning and Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Yue, Kwok-Bun

    2017-01-01

    Concept map (CM) is a theoretically sound yet easy to learn tool and can be effectively used to represent knowledge. Even though many disciplines have adopted CM as a teaching and learning tool to improve learning effectiveness, its application in IS curriculum is sparse. Meaningful learning happens when one iteratively integrates new concepts and…

  11. Using Mobile Tools to Support Meaningful Work-based Learning in Vocational Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Vuojärvi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This case study focused on meaningful work-based learning (WBL and the pedagogical use of mobile information and communication technologies (ICTs in vocational tourism education. The aim was to reveal how teaching/tutoring and learning are realized and how the use of smartphones supports the realization of meaningful learning characteristics during WBL periods in highly versatile environments. Within a design-based research framework, the data was collected through learning journals written by students and qualitative interviews. The results of thematic analysis were used to develop a practice-oriented pedagogical model for meaningful WBL. The model visualizes the roles of students, teachers, and companies involved in WBL, the meaningful learning characteristics that can be amplified through the use of mobile ICTs, and the outcomes for each stakeholder. The model suggests structuring WBL through four negotiations involving a student, a teacher, and a company to assure that each student has clearly formulated learning goals and possibilities to pursue those goals regardless of the mobility of their work or facilities during their WBL period.

  12. Which role for Life Cycle Thinking in the definition of meaningful indicators for the circular economy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niero, Monia

    2017-01-01

    at the micro level. We discuss the role of Life Cycle Thinking (LCT) in the development of meaningful circularity indicators at the product level taking into account the absolute perspective on CE. Our analysis is limited to the environmental aspect of sustainability with a focus on the climate change impact...

  13. Representing and Practising Meaningful Differences in a Well-Structured but Complex Art Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunliffe, Leslie

    2010-01-01

    This paper conceptualizes the secondary art curriculum as a well-structured but complex knowledge-domain, with the aim of emphasizing meaningful differences in the way creative grammar operates in the following gatherings of art practices: Pre-historic and non-European cultures; Ancient and European cultures before c. 1800; Romantic and Modern…

  14. Application of Ausubel's Theory of Meaningful Verbal Learning to Curriculum, Teaching and Learning of Deaf Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biser, Eileen

    Implications of D. Ausubel's Theory of Meaningful Verbal Learning and its derivative, the Advance Organizer Model of Teaching, for deaf students are examined. Ausubel believes that complex intellectual processes (thinking, language, problem-solving, concept formation) are the major aspects of learning, and that primary emphasis should be placed on…

  15. Meaningful cultural learning by imitative participation: the case of abstract thinking in primary school

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oers, B.

    2012-01-01

    The article describes a theory-driven approach to meaningful learning in primary schools, based on the Vygotskian cultural-historical theory of human development and learning. This approach is elaborated into an educational concept called 'developmental education' that is implemented in the

  16. Security, Dignity, Caring Relationships, and Meaningful Work: Needs Motivating Participation in a Job-Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, David F.; Miller-Dyce, Cherrel; Carlone, David

    2008-01-01

    Researchers asked 17 participants in a job-training program to describe their personal struggles following an economic restructuring. Examined through a critical theoretical lens, findings indicate that the learners enrolled in the program to reclaim security, dignity, meaningful work, and caring relationships. Program planners at community…

  17. A prototype system for multilingual data discovery of International Long-Term Ecological Research (ILTER) Network data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristin Vanderbilt; John H. Porter; Sheng-Shan Lu; Nic Bertrand; David Blankman; Xuebing Guo; Honglin He; Don Henshaw; Karpjoo Jeong; Eun-Shik Kim; Chau-Chin Lin; Margaret O' Brien; Takeshi Osawa; Éamonn Ó Tuama; Wen Su; Haibo Yang

    2017-01-01

    Shared ecological data have the potential to revolutionize ecological research just as shared genetic sequence data have done for biological research. However, for ecological data to be useful, it must first be discoverable. A broad-scale research topic may require that a researcher be able to locate suitable data from a variety of global, regional and national data...

  18. Education in ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marek, R.

    1993-01-01

    It is not enough to convey knowledge, insights and attitudes if education in ecology is to have fruitful effects. Space and opportunity for action and creativity must be provided in addition. This includes personal consumer habits (eating, transport, hygiene, leisure activities etc.); an individual workplace - in this case school - that can be shaped according to ecological needs. Beyond this, ecological maturation should not be confined to, but should transcend school, for instance in youth groups, citizens' committees, political parties. If school does not inspire action - including action outside school -then education in ecology could be smothered by the Midas effect, where all life is reduced to material, to the curriculum in this case. This book presents ecological projects that have been tried at schools. They aim at an education in ecology that is oriented to the pupil and open to experience. They could be an incentive for colleagues to conduct similar projects at their schools. The projects work from the pupils' own experience and aim at concrete action and activities in his or her own environment. They should encourage teachers to venture outside the classroom with the pupils and teach ecology where it takes place. (orig.) [de

  19. Recent Developments in Ecological Economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reader with published articles within the field of ecological economics, mostly from 1997 - 2007......Reader with published articles within the field of ecological economics, mostly from 1997 - 2007...

  20. Annotating spatio-temporal datasets for meaningful analysis in the Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasch, Christoph; Pebesma, Edzer; Scheider, Simon

    2014-05-01

    More and more environmental datasets that vary in space and time are available in the Web. This comes along with an advantage of using the data for other purposes than originally foreseen, but also with the danger that users may apply inappropriate analysis procedures due to lack of important assumptions made during the data collection process. In order to guide towards a meaningful (statistical) analysis of spatio-temporal datasets available in the Web, we have developed a Higher-Order-Logic formalism that captures some relevant assumptions in our previous work [1]. It allows to proof on meaningful spatial prediction and aggregation in a semi-automated fashion. In this poster presentation, we will present a concept for annotating spatio-temporal datasets available in the Web with concepts defined in our formalism. Therefore, we have defined a subset of the formalism as a Web Ontology Language (OWL) pattern. It allows capturing the distinction between the different spatio-temporal variable types, i.e. point patterns, fields, lattices and trajectories, that in turn determine whether a particular dataset can be interpolated or aggregated in a meaningful way using a certain procedure. The actual annotations that link spatio-temporal datasets with the concepts in the ontology pattern are provided as Linked Data. In order to allow data producers to add the annotations to their datasets, we have implemented a Web portal that uses a triple store at the backend to store the annotations and to make them available in the Linked Data cloud. Furthermore, we have implemented functions in the statistical environment R to retrieve the RDF annotations and, based on these annotations, to support a stronger typing of spatio-temporal datatypes guiding towards a meaningful analysis in R. [1] Stasch, C., Scheider, S., Pebesma, E., Kuhn, W. (2014): "Meaningful spatial prediction and aggregation", Environmental Modelling & Software, 51, 149-165.

  1. Enhancing the Meaningfulness of Work for Astronauts on Long Duration Space Exploration Missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britt, Thomas W; Sytine, Anton; Brady, Ashley; Wilkes, Russ; Pittman, Rebecca; Jennings, Kristen; Goguen, Kandice

    2017-08-01

    Numerous authors have identified the stressors likely to be encountered on long duration space exploration missions (e.g., to Mars), including the possibility of significant crises, separation from family, boredom/monotony, and interpersonal conflict. Although many authors have noted that meaningful work may be beneficial for astronauts on these missions, none have detailed the sources of meaningful work for astronauts and how these sources may differ between astronauts. The present article identifies how engagement in meaningful work during long duration missions may mitigate the adverse effects of demands and increase the potential for benefits resulting from the missions. Semistructured interviews were conducted with nine NASA personnel, including astronauts, flight directors, and flight surgeons. Questions addressed sources of meaning for astronauts, characteristics of tasks that enhance vs. detract from meaning, and recommendations for enhancing meaning. Personnel mentioned contributing to humanity and the next generation, contributing to the mission, and exploration as the most meaningful aspects of their work. Characteristics of tasks that enhanced meaning included using a variety of skills, feeling personal control over their schedule, autonomy in the execution of tasks, and understanding the importance of the experiments conducted on the mission. Top recommendations to sustain meaning were insuring social needs were met through such activities as the strategic use of social media, giving astronauts autonomy as well as structure, and conducting training during transit. Implications are addressed for tailoring meaning-based interventions for astronauts participating on long duration missions and assessing the effectiveness of these interventions.Britt TW, Sytine A, Brady A, Wilkes R, Pittman R, Jennings K, Goguen K. Enhancing the meaningfulness of work for astronauts on long duration space exploration missions. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(8):779-783.

  2. Hospital IT adoption strategies associated with implementation success: implications for achieving meaningful use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Eric W; Menachemi, Nir; Huerta, Timothy R; Yu, Feliciano

    2010-01-01

    Health systems are facing significant pressure to either implement health information technology (HIT) systems that have "certified" electronic health record applications and that fulfill the federal government's definition of "meaningful use" or risk substantial financial penalties in the near future. To this end, hospitals have adopted one of three strategies, described as "best of breed," "best of suite," and "single vendor," to meet organizational and regulatory demands. The single-vendor strategy is used by the simple majority of U.S. hospitals, but is it the most effective mode for achieving full implementation? Moreover, what are the implications of adopting this strategy for achieving meaningful use? The simple answer to the first question is that the hospitals using the hybrid best of suite strategy had fully implemented HIT systems in significantly greater proportions than did hospitals employing either of the other strategies. Nonprofit and system-affiliated hospitals were more likely to have fully implemented their HIT systems. In addition, increased health maintenance organization market penetration rates were positively correlated with complete implementation rates. These results have ongoing implications for achieving meaningful use in the near term. The federal government's rewards and incentives program related to the meaningful use of HIT in hospitals has created an organizational imperative to implement such systems. For hospitals that have not begun systemwide implementation, pursuing a best of suite strategy may provide the greatest chance for achieving all or some of the meaningful use targets in the near term or at least avoiding future penalties scheduled to begin in 2015.

  3. Meaningful Words and Non-Words Repetitive Articulatory Rate (Oral Diadochokinesis) in Persian Speaking Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, Peyman; Rezai, Hossein; Garmatani, Neda Tahmasebi

    2017-08-01

    Repetitive articulatory rate or Oral Diadochokinesis (oral-DDK) shows a guideline for appraisal and diagnosis of subjects with oral-motor disorder. Traditionally, meaningless words repetition has been utilized in this task and preschool children have challenges with them. Therefore, we aimed to determine some meaningful words in order to test oral-DDK in Persian speaking preschool children. Participants were 142 normally developing children, (age range 4-6 years), who were asked to produce /motæka, golabi/ as two meaningful Persian words and /pa-ta-ka/ as non-word in conventional oral-DDK task. We compared the time taken for 10-times fast repetitions of two meaningful Persian words and the tri-syllabic nonsense word /pa-ta-ka/. Praat software was used to calculate the average time that subjects took to produce the target items. In 4-5 year old children, [Formula: see text] of time taken for 10-times repetitions of /pa-ta-ka, motæka, golabi/ were [Formula: see text], and [Formula: see text] seconds respectively, and in 5-6 year old children were [Formula: see text], and [Formula: see text] seconds respectively. Findings showed that the main effect of type of words on oral diadochokinesis was significant ([Formula: see text]). Children repeated meaningful words /motæka, golabi/ faster than the non-word /pa-ta-ka/. Sex and age factors had no effect on time taken for repetition of oral-DDK test. It is suggested that Speech Therapists can use meaningful words to facilitate oral-DDK test for children.

  4. Complex adaptive systems ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommerlund, Julie

    2003-01-01

    In the following, I will analyze two articles called Complex Adaptive Systems EcologyI & II (Molin & Molin, 1997 & 2000). The CASE-articles are some of the more quirkyarticles that have come out of the Molecular Microbial Ecology Group - a groupwhere I am currently making observational studies....... They are the result of acooperation between Søren Molin, professor in the group, and his brother, JanMolin, professor at Department of Organization and Industrial Sociology atCopenhagen Business School. The cooperation arises from the recognition that bothmicrobial ecology and sociology/organization theory works...

  5. Quantitative plant ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Christian

    2014-01-01

    This e-book is written in the Wolfram' CDF format (download free CDF player from Wolfram.com) The objective of this e-book is to introduce the population ecological concepts for measuring and predicting the ecological success of plant species. This will be done by focusing on the measurement...... and statistical modelling of plant species abundance and the relevant ecological processes that control species abundance. The focus on statistical modelling and likelihood function based methods also means that more algorithm based methods, e.g. ordination techniques and boosted regression tress...

  6. Ecological niche partitioning between Anopheles gambiae molecular forms in Cameroon: the ecological side of speciation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fotsing Jean-Marie

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Speciation among members of the Anopheles gambiae complex is thought to be promoted by disruptive selection and ecological divergence acting on sets of adaptation genes protected from recombination by polymorphic paracentric chromosomal inversions. However, shared chromosomal polymorphisms between the M and S molecular forms of An. gambiae and insufficient information about their relationship with ecological divergence challenge this view. We used Geographic Information Systems, Ecological Niche Factor Analysis, and Bayesian multilocus genetic clustering to explore the nature and extent of ecological and chromosomal differentiation of M and S across all the biogeographic domains of Cameroon in Central Africa, in order to understand the role of chromosomal arrangements in ecological specialisation within and among molecular forms. Results Species distribution modelling with presence-only data revealed differences in the ecological niche of both molecular forms and the sibling species, An. arabiensis. The fundamental environmental envelope of the two molecular forms, however, overlapped to a large extent in the rainforest, where they occurred in sympatry. The S form had the greatest niche breadth of all three taxa, whereas An. arabiensis and the M form had the smallest niche overlap. Correspondence analysis of M and S karyotypes confirmed that molecular forms shared similar combinations of chromosomal inversion arrangements in response to the eco-climatic gradient defining the main biogeographic domains occurring across Cameroon. Savanna karyotypes of M and S, however, segregated along the smaller-scale environmental gradient defined by the second ordination axis. Population structure analysis identified three chromosomal clusters, each containing a mixture of M and S specimens. In both M and S, alternative karyotypes were segregating in contrasted environments, in agreement with a strong ecological adaptive value of

  7. Challenges of ecological restoration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halme, Panu; Allen, Katherine A.; Aunins, Ainars

    2013-01-01

    we introduce northern forests as an ecosystem, discuss the historical and recent human impact and provide a brief status report on the ecological restoration projects and research already conducted there. Based on this discussion, we argue that before any restoration actions commence, the ecology......The alarming rate of ecosystem degradation has raised the need for ecological restoration throughout different biomes and continents. North European forests may appear as one of the least vulnerable ecosystems from a global perspective, since forest cover is not rapidly decreasing and many...... on Biological Diversity. Several northern countries are now taking up this challenge by restoring forest biodiversity with increasing intensity. The ecology and biodiversity of boreal forests are relatively well understood making them a good model for restoration activities in many other forest ecosystems. Here...

  8. Ecological Provinces of Minnesota

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This coverage provides information for the first level of the Ecological Classification System. The boundaries of the polygons of this coverage were derived from...

  9. Market Squid Ecology Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains ecological information collected on the major adult spawning and juvenile habitats of market squid off California and the US Pacific Northwest....

  10. Ecological risk estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartell, S.M.; Gardner, R.H.; O'Neill, R.V.

    1992-01-01

    Ecological risk assessment, the process that evaluates the likelihood that adverse ecological effects may occur or are occurring as a result of exposure to one or more stressors, is being developed by the US EPA as a tool for decision making. This book presents one approach to risk assessment-that of applying laboratory toxicity data within an ecosystem model to predict the potential ecological consequences of toxic chemicals. Both Standard Water Column Model (SWACOM), using zooplankton and fish, and Monte Carlo simulations are discussed in detail, along with quantitative explanations for many responses. Simplifying assumptions are explicitly presented. The final chapter discusses strengths, weaknesses, and future directions of the approach. The book is appropriate for anyone who does or uses ecological risk assessment methodologies

  11. Green Turtle Trophic Ecology

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — SWFSC is currently conducting a study of green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) trophic ecology in the eastern Pacific. Tissue samples and stable carbon and stable...

  12. Ecological Sections of Minnesota

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This coverage provides information for the second level of the Ecological Classification System. The boundaries of the polygons of this coverage were derived from...

  13. The French ecological movement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sansen, Bernard

    1977-01-01

    The analysis of the ecological Movement in France is presented: its organisation, its topics, its position with respect to the main political trends. The accent is put in particular on the antinuclear contestation [fr

  14. Marine Ecological Environment Management Based on Ecological Compensation Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qunzhen Qu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The level of marine environmental management is a key factor in the successful implementation of marine power strategies. The improvement in management levels of marine environments requires innovation in marine management. In other words, the transformation of marine environmental management into marine ecological environment management must be done in order to achieve sustainable development of the marine economy. As an environmental economic policy that combines both administrative and market measures, ecological compensation mechanisms have significant advantages in marine ecological environment management. Based on the study of the current development of ecological compensation mechanisms in China, through the analysis of the connotation of marine ecological civilization, existing marine ecological protection practices and marine environmental management methods, this paper posits that the current marine ecological environment management in China should be established on the basis of ecological compensation mechanisms. At present, a lack of laws and regulations for overall marine ecological environment management is the key factor restricting the practice of marine ecological environment management. Therefore, it is necessary to explore the current path of marine ecological environment management in China from the perspective of the construction of legal system of ecological compensation law, the establishment of ecological compensation fees, ecological taxes and ecological compensation fund systems, and the clear status for a marine ecological management and supervision body.

  15. Sraffa and ecological economics

    OpenAIRE

    Verger, Yoann

    2015-01-01

    References to Sraffa and to the neo-Ricardian school is something quite customary in ecological economics. By looking at contributions in this area since the beginning of ecological economics and at contributions on environmental problem from the neo-Ricardian school, we see that a connection between both school still has to be made. This connection should be articulated around the initial aim of Sraffa: to develop a new paradigm, competing against the neoclassical one. Only then it will be p...

  16. Translational ecology for hydrogeology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlesinger, William H

    2013-01-01

    Translational ecology--a special discipline aimed to improve the accessibility of science to policy makers--will help hydrogeologists contribute to the solution of pressing environmental problems. Patterned after translational medicine, translational ecology is a partnership to ensure that the right science gets done in a timely fashion, so that it can be communicated to those who need it. © 2013, National Ground Water Association.

  17. Context-dependent memory in a meaningful environment for medical education: in the classroom and at the bedside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koens, Franciska; Ten Cate, Olle Th J; Custers, Eugène J F M

    2003-01-01

    Learning-in-context is a much-discussed topic in medical education. Information is said to be better recalled when the learning environment resembles the later retrieval environment. Godden and Baddeley (1975) showed that divers recalled words better when the recall condition matched the original learning environment, i.e. underwater or on land. Though it is unclear whether the findings can be generalized for medical education, medical educators regularly refer to them. We replicated the Godden and Baddeley study in ecologically more valid conditions for medical education and extended it with meaningful subject matter (namely, a patient case description). Sixty-three clerks were randomized over four conditions, contrasting a clinical (bedside) with an educational (classroom) environment as both learning and recall conditions. Students were asked to recall a list of words and a patient case in the same environment or in the opposite environment as where they learned it. We failed to find a significant same-context advantage for free recall of the list of words and the patient case propositions. However, there does appear to be a slight tendency towards better recall of the case description when learning took place in the clinical environment. In medical education, the context, if conceived as physical surroundings, does not seem to contribute to a same-context advantage. One should be cautious in generalizing the findings of Godden and Baddeley. However, different forms of 'context' other than the physical one used in the Godden and Baddeley study may well enhance learning effects in medical education.

  18. Hydrology and Ecology Go to Court

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, W. R.; Crisman, T. L.

    2009-04-01

    The authors were involved in a high profile case in the United States District Court involving Lake Okeechobee and the Everglades Agricultural Area in the State of Florida. One of the central issues of the case rested on a theory that all navigable waters of the United States comprised one "unitary" water body, and as such, transfer of water from one navigable water to another did not require any permitting action. Should this theory have prevailed, great precedent would be set regarding inter-basin transfer of volumes of water capable of significantly impact to the ecologic structure and function of all involved basins. Furthermore, the impact would certainly have had demographic implications of great significance. We were asked to serve as an expert witnesses in the case charged with developing a strategy to demonstrate that three large irrigation canals were "meaningfully hydrologically distinct" (language from the U.S. Supreme Court opinion on a related case) from Lake Okeechobee, the second largest freshwater lake wholly in the continental U.S. Although a totally hydrologic approach could have been taken easily, it was thought better for the legal team to include an aquatic ecologic perspective, a true example of the linkage of the two disciplines into ecohydrology. Together, an argument was crafted to explain to the judge how, in fact, the waters could in no way be "unitary" in character and that they were "meaningfully hydrologically distinct." The fundamentals of the arguments rested on well known and established principles of physics, chemistry, and biology. It was incumbent upon the authors to educate the judge on how to think about hydrologic and ecologic principles. Issues of interest to the judge included a forensic assessment of the hydrologic and ecologic regime of the lake and the original Everglades system when the State of Florida first joined the U.S. While there are anecdotal archives that describe some elements of the system, there are few

  19. Benefits of ecological engineering practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Boomen, R.; Chaudhuri, N.; Heeb, J.; Jenssen, P.; Kalin, M.; Schönborn, A.; Brüll, A.; Van Bohemen, H.; Costanza, R.; Mitsch, W.J.

    2011-01-01

    With the intention to further promote the field of ecological engineering and the solutions it provides, a workshop on “Benefits of Ecological Engineering Practices” was held 3 Dec 2009. It was conducted by the International Ecological Engineering Society in Paris at the conference “Ecological

  20. Genetic modification and genetic determinism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, David B; Vorhaus, Daniel B

    2006-01-01

    In this article we examine four objections to the genetic modification of human beings: the freedom argument, the giftedness argument, the authenticity argument, and the uniqueness argument. We then demonstrate that each of these arguments against genetic modification assumes a strong version of genetic determinism. Since these strong deterministic assumptions are false, the arguments against genetic modification, which assume and depend upon these assumptions, are therefore unsound. Serious discussion of the morality of genetic modification, and the development of sound science policy, should be driven by arguments that address the actual consequences of genetic modification for individuals and society, not by ones propped up by false or misleading biological assumptions. PMID:16800884

  1. Designing meaningful educational spaces for the development of competencies in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yenny Otálora Sevilla

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A meaningful educational space is a learning environment that promotes and strengthens the development of social and cognitive competencies in children. This article offers conceptual and methodological elements from Educational Psychology that facilitates the design of significant educational spaces for the development of child competencies, both in and out of school. On the one hand, the learning environment is defined as a dynamic and complex space of construction of knowledge. On the other it takes into account some considerations about child development which help set five criteria to characterize learning environments as meaningful educational spaces: They are structured, intensive, extensive, generative and interactive situations. Each of these criteria is illustrated through learning environments designed by educators in Colombia, based on the use of cultural practices inherent their communities of origin. Cultural practices were found to be relevant to the development of their children’s competencies.

  2. Meaningful metrics a 21st-century librarian's guide to bibliometrics, altmetrics, and research impact

    CERN Document Server

    Roemer, Robin Chin

    2015-01-01

    What does it mean to have meaningful metrics in today's complex higher education landscape? With a foreword by Heather Piwowar and Jason Priem, this highly engaging and activity-laden book serves to introduce readers to the fast-paced world of research metrics from the unique perspective of academic librarians and LIS practitioners. Starting with the essential histories of bibliometrics and altmetrics, and continuing with in-depth descriptions of the core tools and emerging issues at stake in the future of both fields, Meaningful Metrics is a convenient all-in-one resource that is designed to be used by a range of readers, from those with little to no background on the subject to those looking to become movers and shakers in the current scholarly metrics movement. Authors Borchardt and Roemer, offer tips, tricks, and real-world examples illustrate how librarians can support the successful adoption of research metrics, whether in their institutions or across academia as a whole.

  3. The co-creation of meaningful action: bridging enaction and interactional sociology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peräkylä, Anssi; Stevanovic, Melisa

    2016-01-01

    What makes possible the co-creation of meaningful action? In this paper, we go in search of an answer to this question by combining insights from interactional sociology and enaction. Both research schools investigate social interactions as such, and conceptualize their organization in terms of autonomy. We ask what it could mean for an interaction to be autonomous, and discuss the structures and processes that contribute to and are maintained in the so-called interaction order. We also discuss the role played by individual vulnerability as well as the vulnerability of social interaction processes in the co-creation of meaningful action. Finally, we outline some implications of this interdisciplinary fraternization for the empirical study of social understanding, in particular in social neuroscience and psychology, pointing out the need for studies based on dynamic systems approaches on origins and references of coordination, and experimental designs to help understand human co-presence. PMID:27069055

  4. Hospital budget increase for information technology during phase 1 meaningful use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumeier, Harold; Berner, Eta S; Burke, Darrell E; Azuero, Andres

    2015-01-01

    Federal policies have a significant effect on how businesses spend money. The 2009 HITECH (Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act) authorized incentive payments through Medicare and Medicaid to clinicians and hospitals when they use certified electronic health records privately and securely to achieve specified improvements in care delivery. Federal incentive payments were offered in 2011 for hospitals that had satisfied "meaningful use" criteria. A longitudinal study of nonfederal hospital information technology (IT) budgets (N = 493) during the years 2009 to 2011 found increases in the percentage of hospital annual operating budgets allocated to IT in the years leading up to these federal incentives. This increase was most pronounced among hospitals receiving high proportions of their reimbursements from Medicaid, followed by hospitals receiving high proportions of their reimbursements from Medicare, possibly indicating a budget shift during this period to more IT spending to achieve meaningful-use policy guidelines.

  5. Social networking for language learners: Creating meaningful output with Web 2.0 tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Chartrand

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The Internet has the potential to provide language learners with vast resources of authentic written, audio, and video materials to supplement lessons. Educators can find a wide assortment of materials for learners to study in class or after class for independent learning and to encourage learner autonomy. More recently, however, the immense popularity of social networking websites has created new opportunities for language learners to interact in authentic ways that were previously difficult to achieve. Advances in technology mean that today, learners of a language can easily interact with their peers in meaningful practice that helps foster language acquisition and motivation. That is, tasks that make use of Web 2.0 interactivity can significantly raise students’ potential to generate meaningful output and stimulate their interest in language learning.

  6. The Meaningful Roles Intervention: An Evolutionary Approach to Reducing Bullying and Increasing Prosocial Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Bruce J; Volk, Anthony A; Gonzalez, Jose-Michael; Embry, Dennis D

    2016-12-01

    Bullying is a problem that affects adolescents worldwide. Efforts to prevent bullying have been moderately successful at best, or iatrogenic at worst. We offer an explanation for this limited success by employing an evolutionary-psychological perspective to analyze antibullying interventions. We argue that bullying is a goal-directed behavior that is sensitive to benefits as well as costs, and that interventions must address these benefits. This perspective led us to develop a novel antibullying intervention, Meaningful Roles, which offers bullies prosocial alternatives-meaningful roles and responsibilities implemented through a school jobs program and reinforced through peer-to-peer praise notes-that effectively meet the same status goals as bullying behavior. We describe this new intervention and how its theoretical evolutionary roots may be applicable to other intervention programs. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Research on Adolescence © 2015 Society for Research on Adolescence.

  7. The co-creation of meaningful action: bridging enaction and interactional sociology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jaegher, Hanne; Peräkylä, Anssi; Stevanovic, Melisa

    2016-05-05

    What makes possible the co-creation of meaningful action? In this paper, we go in search of an answer to this question by combining insights from interactional sociology and enaction. Both research schools investigate social interactions as such, and conceptualize their organization in terms of autonomy. We ask what it could mean for an interaction to be autonomous, and discuss the structures and processes that contribute to and are maintained in the so-called interaction order. We also discuss the role played by individual vulnerability as well as the vulnerability of social interaction processes in the co-creation of meaningful action. Finally, we outline some implications of this interdisciplinary fraternization for the empirical study of social understanding, in particular in social neuroscience and psychology, pointing out the need for studies based on dynamic systems approaches on origins and references of coordination, and experimental designs to help understand human co-presence. © 2016 The Authors.

  8. Engaging Axiology: Enabling MeaningfulTransdisciplinary Collaboration in Adapted Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peers, Danielle

    2018-07-01

    In this article, I explore the concept of axiology in the context of adapted physical activity research and analyze its connection to the more commonly discussed paradigmatic assumptions of epistemology and ontology. Following methodological scholars, I argue for an acknowledgment of the pivotal role that axiology already plays in adapted physical activity research and for the potential interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary opportunities that could be enabled by engaging with axiology in more explicit ways. I discuss a number of potential axiological gaps between the field of adapted physical activity and disability communities, arguing that such differences may undermine attempts at doing meaningful transdisciplinary research with such communities. I offer strategies for bridging these axiological gaps, encouraging us to work together in axiologically reflexive ways in order to increase meaningful opportunities for more people with disabilities to be engaged in the movement-based activities and communities of their choice.

  9. Molecular ecological network analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Ye; Jiang, Yi-Huei; Yang, Yunfeng; He, Zhili; Luo, Feng; Zhou, Jizhong

    2012-05-30

    Understanding the interaction among different species within a community and their responses to environmental changes is a central goal in ecology. However, defining the network structure in a microbial community is very challenging due to their extremely high diversity and as-yet uncultivated status. Although recent advance of metagenomic technologies, such as high throughout sequencing and functional gene arrays, provide revolutionary tools for analyzing microbial community structure, it is still difficult to examine network interactions in a microbial community based on high-throughput metagenomics data. Here, we describe a novel mathematical and bioinformatics framework to construct ecological association networks named molecular ecological networks (MENs) through Random Matrix Theory (RMT)-based methods. Compared to other network construction methods, this approach is remarkable in that the network is automatically defined and robust to noise, thus providing excellent solutions to several common issues associated with high-throughput metagenomics data. We applied it to determine the network structure of microbial communities subjected to long-term experimental warming based on pyrosequencing data of 16 S rRNA genes. We showed that the constructed MENs under both warming and unwarming conditions exhibited topological features of scale free, small world and modularity, which were consistent with previously described molecular ecological networks. Eigengene analysis indicated that the eigengenes represented the module profiles relatively well. In consistency with many other studies, several major environmental traits including temperature and soil pH were found to be important in determining network interactions in the microbial communities examined. To facilitate its application by the scientific community, all these methods and statistical tools have been integrated into a comprehensive Molecular Ecological Network Analysis Pipeline (MENAP), which is open

  10. Qualitative Insights from a Canadian Multiinstitutional Research Study: In Search of Meaningful E-learning

    OpenAIRE

    Lorraine M. Carter; Vince Salyers; Sue Myers; Carol Hipfner; Caroline Hoffart; Christa MacLean; Kathy White; Theresa Matus; Vivian Forssman; Penelope Barrett

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the qualitative findings of a mixed methods research study conducted at three Canadian post-secondary institutions. Called the Meaningful E-learning or MEL project, the study was an exploration of the teaching and learning experiences of faculty and students as well as their perceptions of the benefits and challenges of e-learning. Importantly, e-learning was conceptualized as the integration of pedagogy, instructional technology, and the Internet into teaching ...

  11. The Relationship between Psychological Meaningfulness and Employee Engagement: Moderating Effect of Age and Gender

    OpenAIRE

    Ruswahida Ibnu Ruslan; Md. Aminul Islam; Idris Mohd Noor

    2014-01-01

    There has been a great deal of interest in employee engagement over the years, and it has become a popular term. However, there is no one universally acceptable definition for employee engagement until now. Employee engagement has been defined in many ways, and its assessment also seems to be similar, as developed by scholars such as Kahn [1] who coins the term psychological meaningfulness. This paper reviews the literature surrounding employee engagement, especially in terms of psychological...

  12. Consumers’ social media brand behaviors: uncovering underlying motivators and deriving meaningful consumer segments

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitriu, Radu; Guesalaga Trautmann, Rodrigo

    2017-01-01

    The current research identifies the range of social media brand behaviors (i.e., brand touch points) that consumers can exhibit on social media, and subsequently queries a representative sample of consumers with regard to such behaviors. The analysis reveals four underlying motivators for consumers’ social media behaviors, including brand tacit engagement, brand exhibiting, brand patronizing and brand deal seeking. These motivators are used to derive meaningful consumer segments identified as...

  13. Contested Spaces. Meaningful Places. Contemporary Performances of Place and Belonging in Spain and Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria J. C. Krom

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay aims to contribute to current anthropological debate on space and place, analysing in two instances of festival performance how, on the one hand the politics of appropriation of space contributes to the configuration of power relations, and how on the other hand, participants in these festivals engage individually and collectively with physical space(s to create places which they experience as meaningful in terms of identity and belonging.

  14. Assessing clinically meaningful treatment effects in controlled trials: chronic migraine as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodick, David W; Turkel, Catherine C; DeGryse, Ronald E; Diener, Hans-Christoph; Lipton, Richard B; Aurora, Sheena K; Nolan, Marissa E; Silberstein, Stephen D

    2015-02-01

    In addition to headache, persons with chronic migraine (CM) experience multiple symptoms, both ictal and interictal, that may contribute to their suffering. Translating clinical trial results into practice requires assessment of the results' clinical meaningfulness. When examining treatment benefit in this disabled patient population, multiple headache-symptom measures should be considered to fully reflect clinical relevance. Currently, only onabotulinumtoxinA is approved specifically for headache prophylaxis in adults with CM. Topiramate is the only other therapeutic agent with double-blind, placebo-controlled evidence in this population. Herein we evaluate the clinical meaningfulness of onabotulinumtoxinA and topiramate as headache prophylaxis in CM by comparing primary endpoints from the placebo-controlled, double-blind phase of the Phase 3 REsearch Evaluating Migraine Prophylaxis Therapy (PREEMPT) clinical program and the topiramate clinical trial (frequency of headache days [primary endpoint in PREEMPT; secondary in topiramate trial] and migraine/migrainous days [primary in topiramate trial, or "migraine/probable-migraine days"; secondary in PREEMPT]). Additionally, outcome measures such as responder rates, health-related quality of life, discontinuation rates, safety, and tolerability profiles are important clinical considerations. The clinical data indicate that statistically significant, clinically relevant treatment benefits exist for both onabotulinumtoxinA and topiramate. These data support these treatments as meaningful headache prophylaxis in adults with CM. CM is a chronic pain condition. We sought to determine the clinical relevance of recent trials in this disabled population. Clinical data indicate that statistically significant, clinically relevant treatment benefits exist for both onabotulinumtoxinA and topiramate, and support use of these treatments as meaningful headache prophylaxis in CM. Copyright © 2015 American Pain Society. Published

  15. Developing an instrument to measure emotional behaviour abilities of meaningful learning through the Delphi technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadorin, Lucia; Bagnasco, Annamaria; Tolotti, Angela; Pagnucci, Nicola; Sasso, Loredana

    2017-09-01

    To identify items for a new instrument that measures emotional behaviour abilities of meaningful learning, according to Fink's Taxonomy. Meaningful learning is an active process that promotes a wider and deeper understanding of concepts. It is the result of an interaction between new and previous knowledge and produces a long-term change of knowledge and skills. To measure meaningful learning capability, it is very important in the education of health professionals to identify problems or special learning needs. For this reason, it is necessary to create valid instruments. A Delphi Study technique was implemented in four phases by means of e-mail. The study was conducted from April-September 2015. An expert panel consisting of ten researchers with experience in Fink's Taxonomy was established to identify the items of the instrument. Data were analysed for conceptual description and item characteristics and attributes were rated. Expert consensus was sought in each of these phases. An 87·5% consensus cut-off was established. After four rounds, consensus was obtained for validation of the content of the instrument 'Assessment of Meaningful learning Behavioural and Emotional Abilities'. This instrument consists of 56 items evaluated on a 6-point Likert-type scale. Foundational Knowledge, Application, Integration, Human Dimension, Caring and Learning How to Learn were the six major categories explored. This content validated tool can help educators (teachers, trainers and tutors) to identify and improve the strategies to support students' learning capability, which could increase their awareness of and/or responsibility in the learning process. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Evaluating meaningful learning using concept mapping in dental hygiene education: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canasi, Dina M; Amyot, Cynthia; Tira, Daniel

    2014-02-01

    Concept mapping, as a teaching strategy, has been shown to promote critical thinking and problem solving in educational settings. Dental clinicians must distinguish between critical and irrelevant characteristics in the delivery of care, thus necessitating reasoning skills to do so. One of the aims of the American Dental Education Association Commission on Change and Innovation (ADEA-CCI) is to identify deficiencies in curriculum which were meant to improve critical thinking and problem solving skills necessary in clinical practice. The purpose of this study was to compare 2 teaching strategies, traditional lecture and lecture supported by concept mapping exercises within collaborative working groups, to determine if there is a beneficial effect on meaningful learning. For this pilot study, the study population consisted of students from 2 geographically separated associate level dental hygiene programs in the southeastern U.S. A quasi-experimental control group pre- and post-test design was used. The degree of meaningful learning achieved by both programs was assessed by comparing pre- and post-test results. Both programs experienced a significant degree of meaningful learning from pre- to post-test. However, there was no statistically significant difference between the programs on the post-test. These results were in direct contrast to research in other disciplines on concept mapping and its effect on promoting meaningful learning. Further investigation into the study's outcome was obtained through a follow-up focus group. In spite of careful attention to methodology in the development of this research project, the focus group illuminated methodological failings that potentially impacted the outcome of the study. Recommendations are underscored for future conduct of educational research of this kind.

  17. The Search for Meaningful E-Learning at Canadian Universities: A Multi-Institutional Research Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salyers, Vincent; Carter, Lorraine; Carter, Alanna; Myers, Sue; Barrett, Penelope

    2014-01-01

    While e-learning is now characterized by a past and trends within that past, there continues to be uncertainty about how e-learning is defined and conceptualized, whether or not we like e-learning, and whether or not it is as meaningful to us as face to face learning. The purpose of this study was to document the e-learning perceptions of students…

  18. A cost-effective method of achieving meaningful citizen participation in public roadway pipeline studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buszynski, M.E.

    1996-12-31

    Many proponents of gas pipeline studies using the public roadway for their facilities have trouble encouraging public participation. Problems resulting from a lack of public involvement are documented. A public participation process designed to gather meaningful public input is presented through a case study of a public roadway pipeline study in southern Ontario. Techniques are outlined to effectively stimulate public interest and document the public involvement process. Recommendations are made as to the transferability of this process to other jurisdictions.

  19. Meaningful real-life relationships in massively multiplayer online roleplaying games

    OpenAIRE

    Mansikkamäki, E. (Eetu)

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Massively Multiplayer Online Roleplaying Games are extremely popular with millions and millions of players spending large portions of their free time in these virtual environments. Still the social value and the meaningfulness of the relationships formed within them are questioned by most non-gamers and even some gamers. In the past even academia was mainly concentrating on the negative aspects of gaming but lately...

  20. Initial Development of the Meaningful Learning with Technology Scale (MeLTS) for High-School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chwee Beng

    2018-01-01

    With the rapid developments in emerging technologies and the emphasis on technologies in learning environments, the connection between technologies and meaningful learning has strengthened. Developing an understanding of the components of meaningful learning with technology is pivotal, as this may enable educators to make more informed decisions…

  1. Sweeping the floor or putting a man on the moon : How to define and measure meaningful work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Both-Nwabuwe, Jitske M.C.; Dijkstra, Maria T.M.; Beersma, Bianca

    2017-01-01

    Meaningful work is integral to well-being and a flourishing life. The construct of "meaningful work" is, however, consistently affected by conceptual ambiguity. Although there is substantial support for arguments to maintain the status of conceptual ambiguity, we make a case for the benefits of

  2. Sweeping the Floor or Putting a Man on the Moon: How to Define and Measure Meaningful Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Both-Nwabuwe, Jitske M C; Dijkstra, Maria T M; Beersma, Bianca

    2017-01-01

    Meaningful work is integral to well-being and a flourishing life. The construct of "meaningful work" is, however, consistently affected by conceptual ambiguity. Although there is substantial support for arguments to maintain the status of conceptual ambiguity, we make a case for the benefits of having consensus on a definition and scale of meaningful work in the context of paid work. The objective of this article, therefore, was twofold. Firstly, we wanted to develop a more integrative definition of meaningful work. Secondly, we wanted to establish a corresponding operationalization. We reviewed the literature on the existing definitions of meaningful work and the scales designed to measure it. We found 14 definitions of meaningful work. Based on these definitions, we identified four categories of definitions, which led us to propose an integrative and comprehensive definition of meaningful work. We identified two validated scales that were partly aligned with the proposed definition. Based on our review, we conclude that scholars in this field should coalesce rather than diverge their efforts to conceptualize and measure meaningful work.

  3. Sentence Processing as a Function of Syntax, Short Term Memory Capacity, the Meaningfulness of the Stimulus and Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamlin, Peter J.

    1971-01-01

    Examines the effects of short term memory (STM) capacity, meaningfulness of stimuli, and age upon listeners' structuring of sentences. Results show that the interaction between STM capacity and meaningfulness (1) approached significance when data were collapsed over both age levels, and (2) was significant for one age level. Tables and references.…

  4. Engaging in Work Even When It Is Meaningless: Positive Affective Disposition and Meaningful Work Interact in Relation to Work Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steger, Michael F.; Littman-Ovadia, Hadassah; Miller, Michal; Menger, Lauren; Rothmann, Sebastiaan

    2013-01-01

    The central aim of the present study was to assess the predictive value of affective disposition and meaningful work on employee engagement. Specifically, it was proposed that meaningful work moderates the relationship between affective disposition and engagement. Questionnaires were completed by 252 white-collar employees, working in a variety of…

  5. Effects of perceptual load and socially meaningful stimuli on crossmodal selective attention in Autism Spectrum Disorder and neurotypical samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyndall, Ian; Ragless, Liam; O'Hora, Denis

    2018-04-01

    The present study examined whether increasing visual perceptual load differentially affected both Socially Meaningful and Non-socially Meaningful auditory stimulus awareness in neurotypical (NT, n = 59) adults and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD, n = 57) adults. On a target trial, an unexpected critical auditory stimulus (CAS), either a Non-socially Meaningful ('beep' sound) or Socially Meaningful ('hi') stimulus, was played concurrently with the presentation of the visual task. Under conditions of low visual perceptual load both NT and ASD samples reliably noticed the CAS at similar rates (77-81%), whether the CAS was Socially Meaningful or Non-socially Meaningful. However, during high visual perceptual load NT and ASD participants reliably noticed the meaningful CAS (NT = 71%, ASD = 67%), but NT participants were unlikely to notice the Non-meaningful CAS (20%), whereas ASD participants reliably noticed it (80%), suggesting an inability to engage selective attention to ignore non-salient irrelevant distractor stimuli in ASD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Meaningful Statistics in Professional Practices as a Bridge between Mathematics and Science: An Evaluation of a Design Research Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierdorp, Adri; Bakker, Arthur; van Maanen, Jan A.; Eijkelhof, Harrie M. C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Creating coherence between school subjects mathematics and science and making these school subjects meaningful are still topical challenges. This study investigates how students make meaningful connections between mathematics, statistics, science and applications when they engage in a specially developed unit that is based on…

  7. Biotechnologies as a Context for Enhancing Junior High-School Students' Ability to Ask Meaningful Questions about Abstract Biological Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsher, G.; Dreyfus, A.

    1999-01-01

    Suggests a new approach to teaching about biochemical cellular processes by stimulating student interest in those biochemical processes that allowed for the outcomes of modern biotechnologies. Discusses the development of students' ability to ask meaningful questions about intra-cellular processes, and the resulting meaningful learning of relevant…

  8. Meaningful learning: The essential factor for conceptual change in limited or inappropriate propositional hierarchies leading to empowerment of learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Joseph D.

    2002-07-01

    The construction and reconstruction of meanings by learners requires that they actively seek to integrate new knowledge with knowledge already in their cognitive structure. Ausubel's assimilation theory of cognitive learning has been shown to be effective in guiding research and instructional design to facilitate meaningful learning (Ausubel, The psychology of meaningful verbal learning, New York: Grune and Stratton, 1963; Educational psychology: A cognitive view, New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1968; The acquisition and retention of knowledge, Dordrecht: Kluwer, 2000). Gowin's Vee heuristic has been employed effectively to aid teachers and students in understanding the constructed nature of knowledge (Gowin, Educating, Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1981). Situated learning occurs when learning is by rote or at a lower level of meaningful learning. Concept mapping has been used effectively to aid meaningful learning with resulting modification of student's knowledge structures. When these knowledge structures are limited or faulty in some way, they may be referred to as Limited or Inappropriate Propositional Hierarchies (LIPH's). Conceptual change, or more accurately conceptual reconstrution, requires meaningful learning to modify LIPH's. Collaborative group learning facilitates meaningful learning and new knowledge construction. World-wide economic changes are forcing major changes in business and industry placing a premium on the power and value of knowledge and new knowledge production. These changes require changes in school and university education that centers on the nature and power of meaningful learning. New computer tools are available to facilitate teaching activities targeted at modifying LIPH's, and aiding meaningful learning in general.

  9. Young Children’s Developmental Ecologies and Kindergarten Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollborn, Stefanie

    2016-01-01

    Children enter the crucial transition to school with sociodemographic disparities firmly established. Domain-specific research (e.g., on poverty and family structure) has shed light on these disparities, but we need broader operationalizations of children’s environments to explain them. Building on existing theory, this study articulates the concept of developmental ecology—those interrelated features of a child’s proximal environment that shape development and health. Developmental ecology links structural and demographic factors with interactional, psychological, and genetic factors. Using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS-B), this study conducts latent class analyses to identify how 41 factors from three domains—namely, household resources, health risks, and ecological changes—cluster within children as four overarching developmental ecologies. Because it documents how numerous factors co-occur within children, this method allows an approximation of their lived environments. Findings illuminate powerful relationships between race/ethnicity, parental age, socioeconomic background, and nativity and a child’s developmental ecology, as well as associations between developmental ecology and kindergarten cognition, behavior, and health. Developmental ecology represents a major pathway through which demographic characteristics shape school readiness. Because specific factors have different implications depending on the ecologies in which they are embedded, findings support the usefulness of a broad ecological approach. PMID:27873222

  10. Testing the ecological consequences of evolutionary change using elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyasingh, Punidan D; Cothran, Rickey D; Tobler, Michael

    2014-02-01

    Understanding the ecological consequences of evolutionary change is a central challenge in contemporary biology. We propose a framework based on the ˜25 elements represented in biology, which can serve as a conduit for a general exploration of poorly understood evolution-to-ecology links. In this framework, known as ecological stoichiometry, the quantity of elements in the inorganic realm is a fundamental environment, while the flow of elements from the abiotic to the biotic realm is due to the action of genomes, with the unused elements excreted back into the inorganic realm affecting ecological processes at higher levels of organization. Ecological stoichiometry purposefully assumes distinct elemental composition of species, enabling powerful predictions about the ecological functions of species. However, this assumption results in a simplified view of the evolutionary mechanisms underlying diversification in the elemental composition of species. Recent research indicates substantial intraspecific variation in elemental composition and associated ecological functions such as nutrient excretion. We posit that attention to intraspecific variation in elemental composition will facilitate a synthesis of stoichiometric information in light of population genetics theory for a rigorous exploration of the ecological consequences of evolutionary change.

  11. A technology training protocol for meeting QSEN goals: Focusing on meaningful learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Shuhong; Kalman, Melanie

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe and discuss how we designed and developed a 12-step technology training protocol. The protocol is meant to improve meaningful learning in technology education so that nursing students are able to meet the informatics requirements of Quality and Safety Education in Nursing competencies. When designing and developing the training protocol, we used a simplified experiential learning model that addressed the core features of meaningful learning: to connect new knowledge with students' prior knowledge and real-world workflow. Before training, we identified students' prior knowledge and workflow tasks. During training, students learned by doing, reflected on their prior computer skills and workflow, designed individualized procedures for integration into their workflow, and practiced the self-designed procedures in real-world settings. The trainer was a facilitator who provided a meaningful learning environment, asked the right questions to guide reflective conversation, and offered scaffoldings at critical moments. This training protocol could significantly improve nurses' competencies in using technologies and increase their desire to adopt new technologies. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Meaningful and efficient? Enduring challenges to Aboriginal participation in environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Udofia, Aniekan; Noble, Bram; Poelzer, Greg

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the underlying practice-based challenges to meaningful and efficient Aboriginal participation in environmental assessment (EA) - participation that provides meaningful opportunities for Aboriginal communities to shape EA, yet assures a degree of efficiency for project proponents who need to obtain EA approvals in a timely and financially viable manner. We do so based on an analysis of the EA policy community's experience with uranium exploration and mining in Saskatchewan, Canada. Many of the challenges to meaningful and efficient Aboriginal participation that emerged are multi-dimensional, often concerning participation processes, decision-making, and relationships. Although scholars have explored many of these issues and have proposed numerous solutions, challenges persist in practice. Several other issues also emerged from our study that have received limited attention, including the non-commitment to early and ongoing participation by smaller project proponents, and the EA exemption of exploration projects; the limited availability of information to project developers on local right holders and Aboriginal interests; expectations about the integration of traditional knowledge and land use in EA not aligning with the information that is available to proponents; confusion about who is responsible for initiating early participation and consultation processes; the lack of early relationship building with potentially affected communities, particularly by governments; and the lack of other viable avenues, outside EA, for Aboriginal communities to raise more strategic issues of concern that affect traditional lands and treaty rights.

  13. Meaningfulness in work - experiences among employed individuals with persistent mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leufstadius, Christel; Eklund, Mona; Erlandsson, Lena-Karin

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate how people with persistent mental illness, with various types of work and employment conditions, experience and describe the meaningfulness of work. The study had a qualitative approach and twelve informants living in the community were purposefully selected and interviewed according to overarching themes. The interviews were analysed using qualitative content analysis, and all of the authors were involved in the analysis process. The findings resulted in four main themes: 1) work per se has certain characteristics, 2) participation in different contexts gives a feeling of normality, acceptance, belonging and fulfilment of norms and values, 3) work affords structure, energy and a balanced daily life, and 4) work increases well-being and strengthens one's identity. A tentative model is described concerning perceived meaningfulness in work among individuals with persistent mental illness, in which the first three aspects of meaning are a prerequisite for meaning in terms of increased well-being and strengthened identity. Furthermore, it seems important that work has to bring the just right challenge to the individual in order for him or her to perceive the identified aspects of meaningfulness.

  14. An empirically based conceptual framework for fostering meaningful patient engagement in research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Clayon B; Hoens, Alison M; Backman, Catherine L; McKinnon, Annette M; McQuitty, Shanon; English, Kelly; Li, Linda C

    2018-02-01

    Patient engagement in research (PEIR) is promoted to improve the relevance and quality of health research, but has little conceptualization derived from empirical data. To address this issue, we sought to develop an empirically based conceptual framework for meaningful PEIR founded on a patient perspective. We conducted a qualitative secondary analysis of in-depth interviews with 18 patient research partners from a research centre-affiliated patient advisory board. Data analysis involved three phases: identifying the themes, developing a framework and confirming the framework. We coded and organized the data, and abstracted, illustrated, described and explored the emergent themes using thematic analysis. Directed content analysis was conducted to derive concepts from 18 publications related to PEIR to supplement, confirm or refute, and extend the emergent conceptual framework. The framework was reviewed by four patient research partners on our research team. Participants' experiences of working with researchers were generally positive. Eight themes emerged: procedural requirements, convenience, contributions, support, team interaction, research environment, feel valued and benefits. These themes were interconnected and formed a conceptual framework to explain the phenomenon of meaningful PEIR from a patient perspective. This framework, the PEIR Framework, was endorsed by the patient research partners on our team. The PEIR Framework provides guidance on aspects of PEIR to address for meaningful PEIR. It could be particularly useful when patient-researcher partnerships are led by researchers with little experience of engaging patients in research. © 2017 The Authors Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. How Facilitation May Interfere with Ecological Speciation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Liancourt

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Compared to the vast literature linking competitive interactions and speciation, attempts to understand the role of facilitation for evolutionary diversification remain scarce. Yet, community ecologists now recognize the importance of positive interactions within plant communities. Here, we examine how facilitation may interfere with the mechanisms of ecological speciation. We argue that facilitation is likely to (1 maintain gene flow among incipient species by enabling cooccurrence of adapted and maladapted forms in marginal habitats and (2 increase fitness of introgressed forms and limit reinforcement in secondary contact zones. Alternatively, we present how facilitation may favour colonization of marginal habitats and thus enhance local adaptation and ecological speciation. Therefore, facilitation may impede or pave the way for ecological speciation. Using a simple spatially and genetically explicit modelling framework, we illustrate and propose some first testable ideas about how, when, and where facilitation may act as a cohesive force for ecological speciation. These hypotheses and the modelling framework proposed should stimulate further empirical and theoretical research examining the role of both competitive and positive interactions in the formation of incipient species.

  16. The ecology of primate material culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koops, Kathelijne; Visalberghi, Elisabetta; van Schaik, Carel P

    2014-11-01

    Tool use in extant primates may inform our understanding of the conditions that favoured the expansion of hominin technology and material culture. The 'method of exclusion' has, arguably, confirmed the presence of culture in wild animal populations by excluding ecological and genetic explanations for geographical variation in behaviour. However, this method neglects ecological influences on culture, which, ironically, may be critical for understanding technology and thus material culture. We review all the current evidence for the role of ecology in shaping material culture in three habitual tool-using non-human primates: chimpanzees, orangutans and capuchin monkeys. We show that environmental opportunity, rather than necessity, is the main driver. We argue that a better understanding of primate technology requires explicit investigation of the role of ecological conditions. We propose a model in which three sets of factors, namely environment, sociality and cognition, influence invention, transmission and retention of material culture. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  17. From Genetics to Genetic Algorithms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Genetic algorithms (GAs) are computational optimisation schemes with an ... The algorithms solve optimisation problems ..... Genetic Algorithms in Search, Optimisation and Machine. Learning, Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Inc. 1989.

  18. From Genetics to Genetic Algorithms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    artificial genetic system) string feature or ... called the genotype whereas it is called a structure in artificial genetic ... assigned a fitness value based on the cost function. Better ..... way it has produced complex, intelligent living organisms capable of ...

  19. Ecological suicide in microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratzke, Christoph; Denk, Jonas; Gore, Jeff

    2018-05-01

    The growth and survival of organisms often depend on interactions between them. In many cases, these interactions are positive and caused by a cooperative modification of the environment. Examples are the cooperative breakdown of complex nutrients in microbes or the construction of elaborate architectures in social insects, in which the individual profits from the collective actions of her peers. However, organisms can similarly display negative interactions by changing the environment in ways that are detrimental for them, for example by resource depletion or the production of toxic byproducts. Here we find an extreme type of negative interactions, in which Paenibacillus sp. bacteria modify the environmental pH to such a degree that it leads to a rapid extinction of the whole population, a phenomenon that we call ecological suicide. Modification of the pH is more pronounced at higher population densities, and thus ecological suicide is more likely to occur with increasing bacterial density. Correspondingly, promoting bacterial growth can drive populations extinct whereas inhibiting bacterial growth by the addition of harmful substances-such as antibiotics-can rescue them. Moreover, ecological suicide can cause oscillatory dynamics, even in single-species populations. We found ecological suicide in a wide variety of microbes, suggesting that it could have an important role in microbial ecology and evolution.

  20. Marx, Engels and Ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Löwy

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This is a brief survey of Marx and Engels’ views on ecology, from the viewpoint of their relevance for 21th Century ecosocialism. While there are some serious limitations in the way both consider the “development of productive forces”, there are powerfull insights in their discussion of the destructive consequences of capitalist expansion for the environment - an expansion that generates a disastrous metabolic rift in the exchanges between human societies and nature. Some ecological Marxists distinguish between “first stage ecosocialists” - who believe that Marx analyses on ecological issues are too incomplete and dated to be of real relevance today - and “second stage ecosocialists” that emphasize the contemporary methodological significance of Marx’s ecological critique of capitalism. This paper tries to argue for a third position (which probably could be accepted by several people of the two groups above: Marx and Engels discussion on ecological issues is incomplete and dated, but inspite these shortcomings, it has real relevance and methodological significance today.