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Sample records for ecological studies hsf

  1. Lessons from the use of genetically modified Drosophila melanogaster in ecological studies: Hsf mutant lines show highly trait-specific performance in field and laboratory thermal assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Givskov; Loeschcke, Volker; Kristensen, Torsten Nygård

    2009-01-01

    1.  Laboratory studies on genetically modified strains may reveal important information on mechanisms involved in coping with thermal stress. However, to address the evolutionary significance of specific genes or physiological mechanisms, ecologically relevant field tests should also be performed....... 2.  We have tested the importance of inducible heat shock proteins (Hsps) under different thermal conditions using two heat shock factor (Hsf) mutant lines (either able (Hsf+) or unable (Hsf0) to mount a heat stress response) and an outbred laboratory adapted wild-type line of Drosophila......-down resistance relative to Hsf0 flies but in other assays on heat, cold and desiccation resistance there was either no difference between the two mutant lines or the Hsf0 line had higher performance. Also, the superiority of the wild-type flies under field conditions was trait specific.5.  The results emphasize...

  2. HSF1 overexpression enhances oncolytic effect of replicative adenovirus

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    Deng Youwen

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background E1B55kD deleted oncolytic adenovirus was designed to achieve cancer-specific cytotoxicity, but showed limitations in clinical study. To find a method to increase its efficacy, we investigated the correlation between oncolytic effect of such oncolytic adenovirus Adel55 and intracellular heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1 activity. Methods In the present study, human breast cancer cell line Bcap37 was stably transfected with constitutively active HSF1 (cHSF1 or HSF1 specific siRNA (HSF1i to establish increased or decreased HSF1 expression levels. Cytotoxicity of Adel55 was analyzed in these cell lines in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, Adel55 incorporated with cHSF1 (Adel55-cHSF1 was used to treat various tumor xenografts. Results Adel55 could achieve more efficient oncolysis in cHSF1 transfected Bcap37 cells, both in vitro and in vivo. However, inhibition of HSF1 expression by HSF1i could rescue Bcap37 cell line from oncolysis by Adel55. A time course study of viral replication established a correlation between higher replication of Adel55 and cytolysis or tumor growth inhibition. Then, we constructed Adel55-cHSF1 for tumor gene therapy and demonstrated that it is more potent than Adel55 itself in oncolysis and replication in both Bcap37 and SW620 xenografts. Conclusions cHSF1 enhances the Adel55 cell-killing potential through increasing the viral replication and is a potential therapeutic implication to augment the potential of E1B55kD deleted oncolytic adenovirus by increasing its burst.

  3. HSF2 expression in ulcerative colitis lesion tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Rong Zeng; Peng-Fei Chen; Wen-Bin Wei

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the expression of HSF2 in ulcerative colitis lesion tissue and its value for diagnosis and assessment of the disease.Methods:A total of 40 cases with ulcerative colitis were included for study and divided into remission stage, mild activity stage, moderate activity stage and severe activity stage by Sutherland disease activity index. Lesion tissue and normal tissue were collected to detect HSFs, NOX1, ROS, COX2, PGE2, IL-6, JAK2, STAT3, TLRs and SOCSs contents.Results: HSF2 contents in lesion tissue were higher than those in normal tissue, and HSF1, HSF3 and HSF4 contents were not different from those of normal tissue; TLR2, TLR4, TLR5, MyD88, NF-kB, NOX1, ROS, COX2, PGE2, IL-6, JAK2 and STAT3 contents in lesion tissue were higher than those in normal tissue and positively correlated with HSF2 content; SOCS2 and SOCS3 contents in lesion tissue were lower than those in normal tissue and negatively correlated with HSF2 content, and SOCS1, SOCS4, SOCS5, SOCS6 and SOCS7 contents were not different from those of normal tissue.Conclusions:HSF2 expression abnormally increases in ulcerative colitis lesion tissue and is closely related to the activity of the disease, and HSF2 can regulate the expression of inflammatory signal molecules, TLRs and SOCSs to enhance inflammatory response.

  4. NEDD4-mediated HSF1 degradation underlies α-synucleinopathy.

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    Kim, Eunhee; Wang, Bin; Sastry, Namratha; Masliah, Eliezer; Nelson, Peter T; Cai, Huaibin; Liao, Francesca-Fang

    2016-01-15

    Cellular protein homeostasis is achieved by a delicate network of molecular chaperones and various proteolytic processes such as ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) to avoid a build-up of misfolded protein aggregates. The latter is a common denominator of neurodegeneration. Neurons are found to be particularly vulnerable to toxic stress from aggregation-prone proteins such as α-synuclein. Induction of heat-shock proteins (HSPs), such as through activated heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1) via Hsp90 inhibition, is being investigated as a therapeutic option for proteinopathic diseases. HSF1 is a master stress-protective transcription factor which activates genes encoding protein chaperones (e.g. iHsp70) and anti-apoptotic proteins. However, whether and how HSF1 is dysregulated during neurodegeneration has not been studied. Here, we discover aberrant HSF1 degradation by aggregated α-synuclein (or α-synuclein-induced proteotoxic stress) in transfected neuroblastoma cells. HSF1 dysregulation via α-synuclein was confirmed by in vivo assessment of mouse and in situ studies of human specimens with α-synucleinopathy. We demonstrate that elevated NEDD4 is implicated as the responsible ubiquitin E3 ligase for HSF1 degradation through UPS. Furthermore, pharmacologically induced SIRT1-mediated deacetylation can attenuate aberrant NEDD4-mediated HSF1 degradation. Indeed, we define the acetylation status of the Lys 80 residue located in the DNA-binding domain of HSF1 as a critical factor in modulating HSF1 protein stability in addition to its previously identified role in the transcriptional activity. Together with the finding that preserving HSF1 can alleviate α-synuclein toxicity, this study strongly suggests that aberrant HSF1 degradation is a key neurodegenerative mechanism underlying α-synucleinopathy.

  5. 热休克转录因子1在肝细胞癌中的表达及意义%The study of expression of HSF1 primary hepatic carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李袆; 王葵

    2009-01-01

    higher than that in its adjacent liver tissues.Both were involved in the primary hepatic carcinoma tumorigenesis.The mRNA expression of HSF1 were not associated with the patient′s gender,age,tumor size,pathologic grade or pathologic type,as well as level of serum AFP.It may create a new diagnostic method and treatment of PHC to study HSF1 further in primary hepatic carcinoma tumorigenesis.

  6. HSF-1 is involved in attenuating the release of inflammatory cytokines induced by LPS through regulating autophagy.

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    Tong, Zhongyi; Jiang, Bimei; Zhang, Lingli; Liu, Yanjuan; Gao, Min; Jiang, Yu; Li, Yuanbin; Lu, Qinglan; Yao, Yongming; Xiao, Xianzhong

    2014-05-01

    Autophagy plays a protective role in endotoxemic mice. Heat shock factor 1 (HSF-1) also plays a crucial protective role in endotoxemic mice by decreasing inflammatory cytokines. The purpose of this study was to determine whether HSF-1 is involved in attenuating the release of inflammatory cytokines in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated mice and peritoneal macrophages (PMs) through regulating autophagy activity. Autophagosome formation in HSF-1(+/+) and HSF-1(-/-) mice and PMs stimulated by LPS was examined by Western blotting and immunofluorescence. Lipopolysaccharide-induced autophagy and inflammatory cytokines were examined in HSF-1(+/+) and HSF-1(-/-) PMs treated with 3-methyladenine (3-MA) or rapamycin. Results showed that LPS-induced autophagy was elevated transiently at 12 h but declined at 24 h in the livers and lungs of mice. Higher levels of inflammatory cytokines and lower autophagy activity were detected in HSF-1(-/-) mice and PMs compared with HSF-1(+/+) mice and PMs. Interestingly, LPS-induced release of inflammatory cytokines did not further increase in HSF-1(-/-) PMs treated with 3-MA but aggravated in HSF-1(+/+) PMs. Lipopolysaccharide-induced autophagy did not decrease in HSF-1(-/-) PMs treated with 3-MA but decreased in HSF-1 PMs(+/+). Taken together, our results suggested that HSF-1 attenuated the release of inflammatory cytokines induced by LPS by regulating autophagy activity.

  7. Riluzole increases the amount of latent HSF1 for an amplified heat shock response and cytoprotection.

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    Jingxian Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Induction of the heat shock response (HSR and increased expression of the heat shock proteins (HSPs provide mechanisms to ensure proper protein folding, trafficking, and disposition. The importance of HSPs is underscored by the understanding that protein mis-folding and aggregation contribute centrally to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used a cell-based hsp70-luciferease reporter gene assay system to identify agents that modulate the HSR and show here that clinically relevant concentrations of the FDA-approved ALS drug riluzole significantly increased the heat shock induction of hsp70-luciferse reporter gene. Immuno-Western and -cytochemical analysis of HSF1 show that riluzole increased the amount of cytosolic HSF1 to afford a greater activation of HSF1 upon heat shock. The increased HSF1 contributed centrally to the cytoprotective activity of riluzole as hsf1 gene knockout negated the synergistic activity of riluzole and conditioning heat shock to confer cell survival under oxidative stress. Evidence of a post-transcriptional mechanism for the increase in HSF1 include: quantitation of mRNA(hsf1 by RT-PCR showed no effect of either heat shock or riluzole treatment; riluzole also increased the expression of HSF1 from a CMV-promoter; analysis of the turnover of HSF1 by pulse chase and immunoprecipitation show that riluzole slowed the decay of [(35S]labeled-HSF1. The effect of riluzole on HSF1 was qualitatively different from that of MG132 and chloroquine, inhibitors of the proteasome and lysosome, respectively, and appeared to involve the chaperone-mediated autophagy pathway as RNAi-mediated knockdown of CMA negated its effect. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: We show that riluzole increased the amount of HSF1 to amplify the HSR for cytoprotection. Our study provides novel insight into the mechanism that regulates HSF1 turnover, and identifies the degradation of HSF1 as a target for

  8. 热应激预处理影响鼠背轴型皮瓣HSP70、HSF1表达的实验研究%Study of Heat Stress Pretreatment Effect on Expressions of HSP70,HSF1 in Axial Flap of Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘哲伟; 苏开新; 陈军; 姚建; 李辉; 王海华; 赵鑫

    2014-01-01

    目的探讨热应激预处理(HSP)对缺血皮瓣组织的保护作用及其与皮瓣中热休克蛋白70(HSP70)和热休克因子1(HSF1)的关系。方法将96只雄性Sprague Dawley 大鼠随机分为缺血组与实验组(HSP+缺血组)。缺血组:皮瓣模型制备后,阻断皮瓣蒂部第1h、2h、4h、6h、8h、10h共6个时间点,每时间点后观测皮瓣存活面积、HSP70、HSF1的变化,并进行统计学分析;实验组( HSP+缺血组):先予以加热预处理,之后与缺血组相同。结果单纯缺血组皮瓣成活率下降率较实验组(HSP+缺血组)明显,差异有显著性(P<0.05),热应激预处理各组皮瓣的HSP70、HSF1合成量与皮瓣存活率呈正相关(r=0.7577,P<0.01)。结论热应激预处理能够改善皮瓣组织的存活率,HSP70、HSF1在热应激预处理改善皮瓣存活率的保护作用中发挥着重要的作用。%Objective This study was to reveal the continuous changes of HSP70 and HSF1 in the delayed and pro-tection of heat stress pretreatment on ischemic preconditioning axial flap in rats. Methods Animals were divided into two groups randomly:HSP+IPC group,ischemic pretreatment group( IPC) . In IPC group,rats skin flaps received ischemic pretreatment for 1 h,2 h,4 h,6 h,8 h,10 h,and the survival rate of the skin flaps,the contents of HSP70 and HSF1 were examined at the 6 time points. HSP+IPC group was given heat stress pretreatment and then the same treatment as IPC group. Results The survival rates of IPC descends more significantly than that of HSR+IPC. The survival rates of skin flaps have positive correlation with the contents of HSP70 and HSF1(r=0. 7577,P<0. 01). Conclusions Heat stress pretreatment can improve the survival rate of ischemia flap and the mechanism of the protection can be related to the func-tion of HSP70 and HSF1.

  9. Prokaryotic Expression and Purification of Heat Shock Factor HSF1 in Arabidopsis thaliana%拟南芥热激因子HSF1的表达与纯化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭丽红; 王定康; 袁燕; 刘开庆; 陈雪; 陈善娜

    2009-01-01

    [Objective] This study was to express and purify Arabidopsis thaliana heat shock factor HSF1. [Method] Using Escherichia coli M15 harboring HSF1 (pQE32/His6-HSF1, pREP4) as experimental materials, HSF1 was induced to express with isopropy1-β-D-galactoside (IPTG); then the expression product was purified using Ni-NTA-agarose affinity chromatography and analyzed by SDS-PAGE. [Result] HSF1 of Arabidopsis thaliana was successfully expressed and purified. [Conclusion] This study provides materials for understanding the blinding site of HSF1 on Arabidopsis thaliana chromosome, further laying a good foundation for revealing the regulatory mechanism and physiological function of HSF1.

  10. 小鼠MEF/Hsf1-/-/Hsf1细胞系的重建及Hsf1,SV40T-ag蛋白的表达%Reconstitute MEF/Hsf1-/-/Hsf1 mouse cell line and expression of Hsf1, SV40-Tag proteins

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    蒋杞英; 张智; 胡延忠; 王明丽; 马远方

    2014-01-01

    目的:重建热休克转录因子1(Heat shock transcription factor 1,Hsf1)过表达的MEF/Hsf1-/-/Hsf1细胞系,为进一步研究Hsf1的功能提供实验模型.方法:将携带Hsf1全长基因的逆转录病毒载体pWZL-blast-flag-Hsf1,通过瞬时转染的方法,转染产生病毒的小鼠包装细胞293 Phoenix.用病毒上清直接感染MEF/Hsf1-/-细胞,建立Hsf1稳定表达的MEF/Hsf1-/-/Hsf1细胞系.通过Western blot实验,检测Hsf1和SV40T抗原(T-antigen,T-ag)蛋白的表达.结果:Hsf1蛋白在MEF/Hsf1-/-/Hsf1细胞中的表达比WT/MEF细胞强,而在MEF/Hsf1-/-细胞中没有明显表达.SV40T-ag蛋白在MEF/Hsf1-/-细胞中的表达明显比WT/MEF细胞和MEF/Hsf1-/-/Hsf1细胞强,而SV40T-ag蛋白在WT/MEF细胞中的表达强于MEF/Hsf1-/-/Hsf1细胞.结论:成功建立了MEF/Hsf1-/-/Hsf1细胞系;Hsf1参与了对SV40T-ag蛋白的表达调控.

  11. BAG3 affects the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of HSF1 upon heat stress

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    Jin, Young-Hee [Department of Biochemistry, Dongguk University College of Oriental Medicine, Gyeongju 780-714 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Sang-Gun [Department of Pathology, Chosun University College of Dentistry, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Soo-A., E-mail: ksooa@dongguk.ac.kr [Department of Biochemistry, Dongguk University College of Oriental Medicine, Gyeongju 780-714 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-21

    Bcl2-associated athoanogene (BAG) 3 is a member of the co-chaperone BAG family. It is induced by stressful stimuli such as heat shock and heavy metals, and it regulates cellular adaptive responses against stressful conditions. In this study, we identified a novel role for BAG3 in regulating the nuclear shuttling of HSF1 during heat stress. The expression level of BAG3 was induced by heat stress in HeLa cells. Interestingly, BAG3 rapidly translocalized to the nucleus upon heat stress. Immunoprecipitation assay showed that BAG3 interacts with HSF1 under normal and stressed conditions and co-translocalizes to the nucleus upon heat stress. We also demonstrated that BAG3 interacts with HSF1 via its BAG domain. Over-expression of BAG3 down-regulates the level of nuclear HSF1 by exporting it to the cytoplasm during the recovery period. Depletion of BAG3 using siRNA results in reduced nuclear HSF1 and decreased Hsp70 promoter activity. BAG3 in MEF(hsf1{sup −/−}) cells actively translocalizes to the nucleus upon heat stress suggesting that BAG3 plays a key role in the processing of the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of HSF1 upon heat stress. - Highlights: • The expression level of BAG3 is induced by heat stress. • BAG3 translocates to the nucleus upon heat stress. • BAG3 interacts with HSF1 and co-localizes to the nucleus. • BAG3 is a key regulator for HSF1 nuclear shuttling.

  12. HSF1-deficiency affects gait coordination and cerebellar calbindin levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingenwerth, Marc; Estrada, Veronica; Stahr, Anna; Müller, Hans Werner; von Gall, Charlotte

    2016-09-01

    Heat shock proteins (HSPs) play an important role in cell homeostasis and protect against cell damage. They were previously identified as key players in different ataxia models. HSF1 is the main transcription factor for HSP activation. HSF1-deficient mice (HSF1-/-) are known to have deficiencies in motor control test. However, little is known about effects of HSF1-deficiency on locomotor, especially gait, coordination. Therefore, we compared HSF-deficient (HSF1-/-) mice and wildtype littermates using an automated gait analysis system for objective assessment of gait coordination. We found significant changes in gait parameters of HSF1-/- mice reminiscent of cerebellar ataxia. Immunohistochemical analyses of a cerebellum revealed co-localization of HSF1 and calbindin in Purkinje cells. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis of a potential interconnection between HSF1 and calbindin in Purkinje cells. Calbindin levels were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively by immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting, respectively. While quantitative PCR revealed no differences in calbindin mRNA levels between HSF1+/+ and HSF1-/- mice, calbindin protein levels, however, were significantly decreased in a cerebellum of HSF1-/- mice. A pathway analysis supports the hypothesis of an interconnection between HSF1 and calbindin. In summary, the targeted deletion of HSF1 results in changes of locomotor function associated with changes in cerebellar calbindin protein levels. These findings suggest a role of HSF1 in regular Purkinje cell calcium homeostasis. PMID:27173427

  13. Cloning and sequence analysis of hsf, an outer membrane protein gene of Pasteurella multocida serotype B:2

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    A. Priyadarshini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was undertaken to clone, sequence and analyze the hsf, an outer membrane protein gene of Pasteurella multocida serotype B:2 Materials and Methods: hsf gene was amplified from genomic DNA of P. multocida. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR product was cloned in pET-32a vector and was characterized. hsf gene was sequenced, analyzed and phylogenetic tree was constructed taking sequences of other strains. Results: Amplicon size was found to be 785 bp. Recombinant got characterized through colony PCR and restriction enzyme analysis. Conclusion: hsf gene of P. multocida serotype B is similar to serotype A, but different from serotype D. Further work is needed to evaluate role of Hsf protein in protection studies and to study the antigenic properties of this recombinant protein as a candidate for vaccine.

  14. Targeting HSF1 in Cancer Therapy%靶向HSF1在肿瘤治疗中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴谓; 刘飞飞; 刘颖; 张继虹

    2016-01-01

    Recently, many heat shock protein 90 inhibitors have been used against cancers in clinical trials. Discovery of these inhibitors is a milestone for cancer treatment, with more therapeu-tic programs for cancers developed. Cancer cells are more dependent on the function of highly con-served HSF1, which, as a transcript factor, can promote the transcription and expression of HSF. HSF1 is essential for the initial and development of cancers, which can regulate the abnormal sig-ning in cancer cells, inhibit the aneuploidy increased by cell mitosis and apoptosis of cancer cells and promote the metastasis and metabolism of cancer cells. With the development and application of screening methods for small molecule drugs, compounds targeting HSF1 have been reported, inclu-ding quercetin and triptolide. Here, we review the advances in the studies on HSF1-targeting drugs and elucidate the characteristics and mechanism of this type of drugs.%目前许多热休克蛋白90抑制剂已经用于抗癌的临床试验,这些抑制剂的产生是肿瘤治疗的里程碑,为癌症治疗探索出更多的新方法。高度保守的热休克转录因子1(heat shock factor 1, HSF1)作为转录因子促进热休克蛋白基因的转录和表达,肿瘤细胞比正常细胞更依赖其功能, HSF1对肿瘤的起始和维持是必需的:调控肿瘤细胞异常信号,抑制有丝分裂增加基因组非整倍性,抑制肿瘤细胞发生凋亡和促进肿瘤细胞转移和代谢等。随着很多小分子药物筛选方法不断的发现和运用,目前已有部分以HSF1为靶点的化合物研究报道,主要有槲皮素和雷公藤内酯抑制HSF1,同时减少热休克反应。文章综述了以HSF1为靶点的药物的研究前沿,并分别阐述了这类药物作用特点和机制。

  15. Deteriorated stress response in stationary-phase yeast: Sir2 and Yap1 are essential for Hsf1 activation by heat shock and oxidative stress, respectively.

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    Inbal Nussbaum

    Full Text Available Stationary-phase cultures have been used as an important model of aging, a complex process involving multiple pathways and signaling networks. However, the molecular processes underlying stress response of non-dividing cells are poorly understood, although deteriorated stress response is one of the hallmarks of aging. The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a valuable model organism to study the genetics of aging, because yeast ages within days and are amenable to genetic manipulations. As a unicellular organism, yeast has evolved robust systems to respond to environmental challenges. This response is orchestrated largely by the conserved transcription factor Hsf1, which in S. cerevisiae regulates expression of multiple genes in response to diverse stresses. Here we demonstrate that Hsf1 response to heat shock and oxidative stress deteriorates during yeast transition from exponential growth to stationary-phase, whereas Hsf1 activation by glucose starvation is maintained. Overexpressing Hsf1 does not significantly improve heat shock response, indicating that Hsf1 dwindling is not the major cause for Hsf1 attenuated response in stationary-phase yeast. Rather, factors that participate in Hsf1 activation appear to be compromised. We uncover two factors, Yap1 and Sir2, which discretely function in Hsf1 activation by oxidative stress and heat shock. In Δyap1 mutant, Hsf1 does not respond to oxidative stress, while in Δsir2 mutant, Hsf1 does not respond to heat shock. Moreover, excess Sir2 mimics the heat shock response. This role of the NAD+-dependent Sir2 is supported by our finding that supplementing NAD+ precursors improves Hsf1 heat shock response in stationary-phase yeast, especially when combined with expression of excess Sir2. Finally, the combination of excess Hsf1, excess Sir2 and NAD+ precursors rejuvenates the heat shock response.

  16. Enhanced antitumoral efficacy and immune response following conditionally replicative adenovirus containing constitutive HSF1 delivery to rodent tumors

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    Fan Rong

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oncolytic adenoviruses are promising as anticancer agents but have limited clinical responses. Our previous study showed that heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1 overexpression could increase the anti-tumor efficacy of E1B55kD deleted oncolytic adenovirus through increasing the viral burst. Due to the important roles of heat shock proteins (HSPs in eliciting innate and adaptive immunity, we reasoned that besides increasing the viral burst, HSF1 may also play a role in increasing tumor specific immune response. Methods In the present study, intra-dermal murine models of melanoma (B16 and colorectal carcinoma (CT26 were treated with E1B55kD deleted oncolytic adenovirus Adel55 or Adel55 incorporated with cHSF1, HSF1i, HSP70, or HSP90 by intra-tumoral injection. Tumors were surgically excised 72 h post injection and animals were analyzed for tumor resistance and survival rate. Results Approximately 95% of animals in the Adel55-cHSF1 treated group showed sustained resistance upon re-challenge with autologous tumor cells, but not in PBS, Adel55, or Adel55-HSF1i treated groups. Only 50–65% animals in the Adel55-HSP70 and Adel55-HSP90 treated group showed tumor resistance. Tumor resistance was associated with development of tumor type specific cellular immune responses. Adel55-cHSF1 treatment also showed higher efficacy in diminishing progression of the secondary tumor focus than Adel55-HSP70 or Adel55-HSP90 treatment. Conclusions Besides by increasing its burst in tumor cells, cHSF1 could also augment the potential of E1B55kD deleted oncolytic adenovirus by increasing the tumor-specific immune response, which is beneficial to prevent tumor recurrence. cHSF1 is a better gene for neoadjuvant immunotherapy than other heat shock protein genes.

  17. Overexpression of Heat Shock Factor Gene HsfA3 Increases Galactinol Levels and Oxidative Stress Tolerance in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chieun; Chung, Woo Sik; Lim, Chae Oh

    2016-06-30

    Heat shock factors (Hsfs) are central regulators of abiotic stress responses, especially heat stress responses, in plants. In the current study, we characterized the activity of the Hsf gene HsfA3 in Arabidopsis under oxidative stress conditions. HsfA3 transcription in seedlings was induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS), exogenous hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and an endogenous H2O2 propagator, 2,5-dibromo-3-methyl-6-isopropyl-p-benzoquinone (DBMIB). HsfA3-overexpressing transgenic plants exhibited increased oxidative stress tolerance compared to untransformed wild-type plants (WT), as revealed by changes in fresh weight, chlorophyll fluorescence, and ion leakage under light conditions. The expression of several genes encoding galactinol synthase (GolS), a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs), which function as antioxidants in plant cells, was induced in HsfA3 overexpressors. In addition, galactinol levels were higher in HsfA3 overexpressors than in WT under unstressed conditions. In transient transactivation assays using Arabidopsis leaf protoplasts, HsfA3 activated the transcription of a reporter gene driven by the GolS1 or GolS2 promoter. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that GolS1 and GolS2 are directly regulated by HsfA3. Taken together, these findings provide evidence that GolS1 and GolS2 are directly regulated by HsfA3 and that GolS enzymes play an important role in improving oxidative stress tolerance by increasing galactinol biosynthesis in Arabidopsis. PMID:27109422

  18. Analysis list: Hsf2 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Hsf2 Gonad + mm9 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Hsf2.1.tsv h...ttp://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Hsf2.5.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Hsf...2.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Hsf2.Gonad.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Gonad.gml ...

  19. Sulfide exposure results in enhanced sqr transcription through upregulating the expression and activation of HSF1 in echiuran worm Urechis unicinctus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaolong; Zhang, Zhifeng; Ma, Xiaoyu; Li, Xueyu; Zhou, Di; Gao, Beibei; Bai, Yajiao

    2016-01-01

    Sulfide is a natural, widely distributed, poisonous substance. Sulfide: quinone oxidoreductase (SQR) is responsible for the initial oxidation of sulfide in mitochondria. To study transcriptional regulation of sqr after sulfide exposure, a 2.6-kb sqr upstream sequence from echiuran worm Urechis unicinctus was cloned by genome walking. Bioinformatics analysis showed 3 heat shock elements (HSEs) in proximal promoter region of the sqr upstream sequence. Moreover, an Hsf1 cDNA in U. unicinctus (UuHsf1) was isolated with a full-length sequence of 2334 bp and its polyclonal antibody was prepared using U. unicinctus HSF1 (UuHSF1) expressed prokaryotically with whole sequence of its open reading frame (ORF). In vivo ChIP and in vitro EMSA assays revealed UuHSF1 could interact with the sqr proximal promoter region. Transient transfection and mutation assays indicated that UuHSF1 bound specifically to HSE (-155bp to -143bp) and enhanced the transcription of sqr. Furthermore, sulfide treatment experiments demonstrated that sulfide could increase the expression of HSF1 protein, and induce trimerization of the protein which binds to HSEs and then activate sqr transcription. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed sqr mRNA level increased significantly after U. unicinctus was exposed to sulfide for 6h, which corresponded to content changes of both trimeric HSF1 and HSF1-HSE complex. We concluded that UuHSF1 is a transcription factor of sqr and sulfide could induce sqr transcription by upregulating the expression and activation of HSF1 in U. unicinctus exposed to sulfide.

  20. Molecular cloning of hsf1 and hsbp1 cDNAs, and the expression of hsf1, hsbp1 and hsp70 under heat stress in the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dongxue; Sun, Lina; Liu, Shilin; Zhang, Libin; Yang, Hongsheng

    2016-08-01

    The heat shock response (HSR) is known for the elevated synthesis of heat shock proteins (HSPs) under heat stress, which is mediated primarily by heat shock factor 1 (HSF1). Heat shock factor binding protein 1 (HSBP1) and feedback control of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) are major regulators of the activity of HSF1. We obtained full-length cDNA of genes hsf1 and hsbp1 in the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus, which are the second available for echinoderm (after Strongylocentrotus purpuratus), and the first available for holothurian. The full-length cDNA of hsf1 was 2208bp, containing a 1326bp open reading frame encoding 441 amino acids. The full-length cDNA of hsbp1 was 2850bp, containing a 225bp open reading frame encoding 74 amino acids. The similarities of A. japonicus HSF1 with other species are low, and much higher similarity identities of A. japonicus HSBP1 were shared. Phylogenetic trees showed that A. japonicus HSF1 and HSBP1 were clustered with sequences from S. purpuratus, and fell into distinct clades with sequences from mollusca, arthropoda and vertebrata. Analysis by real-time PCR showed hsf1 and hsbp1 mRNA was expressed constitutively in all tissues examined. The expression of hsf1, hsbp1 and hsp70 in the intestine at 26°C was time-dependent. The results of this study might provide new insights into the regulation of heat shock response in this species. PMID:26952354

  1. Regulation of the heat stress response in Arabidopsis by MPK6-targeted phosphorylation of the heat stress factor HsfA2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Evrard

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available So far little is known on the functional role of phosphorylation in the heat stress response of plants. Here we present evidence that heat stress activates the Arabidopsis mitogen-activated protein kinase MPK6. In vitro and in vivo evidence is provided that MPK6 specifically targets the major heat stress transcription factor HsfA2. Activation of MPK6 results in complex formation with HsfA2. MPK6 phosphorylates HsfA2 on T249 and changes its intracellular localisation. Protein kinase and phosphatase inhibitor studies indicate that HsfA2 protein stability is regulated in a phosphorylation-dependent manner, but this mechanism is independent of MPK6. Overall, our data show that heat stress-induced targeting of HsfA2 by MPK6 participates in the complex regulatory mechanism how plants respond to heat stress.

  2. Analysis list: Hsf1 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Hsf1 Gonad,Neural + mm9 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Hsf1....1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Hsf1.5.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyu...shu-u/mm9/target/Hsf1.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Hsf1.Gonad.tsv,http://dbarchive.bioscience...dbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Hsf1.Neural.tsv http://dbarchive.bioscience...dbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Gonad.gml,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Neural.gml ...

  3. Molecular evolution and expression divergence of the Populus euphratica Hsf genes provide insight into the stress acclimation of desert poplar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin; Jia, Huixia; Li, Jianbo; Li, Yu; Lu, Mengzhu; Hu, Jianjun

    2016-01-01

    Heat shock transcription factor (Hsf) family is one of the most important regulators in the plant kingdom. Hsf has been demonstrated to be involved in various processes associated with plant growth, development as well as in response to hormone and abiotic stresses. In this study, we carried out a comprehensive analysis of Hsf family in desert poplar, Populus euphratica. Total of 32 genes encoding Hsf were identified and they were classified into three main classes (A, B, and C). Gene structure and conserved motif analyses indicated that the members in each class were relatively conserved. Total of 10 paralogous pairs were identified in PeuHsf family, in which nine pairs were generated by whole genome duplication events. Ka/Ks analysis showed that PeuHsfs underwent purifying selection pressure. In addition, various cis-acting elements involved in hormone and stress responses located in the promoter regions of PeuHsfs. Gene expression analysis indicated that several PeuHsfs were tissue-specific expression. Compared to Arabidopsis, more PeuHsf genes were significantly induced by heat, drought, and salt stresses (21, 19, and 22 PeuHsfs, respectively). Our findings are helpful in understanding the distinguished adaptability of P. euphratica to extreme environment and providing a basis for functional analysis of PeuHsfs in the future. PMID:27425424

  4. Molecular evolution and expression divergence of the Populus euphratica Hsf genes provide insight into the stress acclimation of desert poplar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin; Jia, Huixia; Li, Jianbo; Li, Yu; Lu, Mengzhu; Hu, Jianjun

    2016-01-01

    Heat shock transcription factor (Hsf) family is one of the most important regulators in the plant kingdom. Hsf has been demonstrated to be involved in various processes associated with plant growth, development as well as in response to hormone and abiotic stresses. In this study, we carried out a comprehensive analysis of Hsf family in desert poplar, Populus euphratica. Total of 32 genes encoding Hsf were identified and they were classified into three main classes (A, B, and C). Gene structure and conserved motif analyses indicated that the members in each class were relatively conserved. Total of 10 paralogous pairs were identified in PeuHsf family, in which nine pairs were generated by whole genome duplication events. Ka/Ks analysis showed that PeuHsfs underwent purifying selection pressure. In addition, various cis-acting elements involved in hormone and stress responses located in the promoter regions of PeuHsfs. Gene expression analysis indicated that several PeuHsfs were tissue-specific expression. Compared to Arabidopsis, more PeuHsf genes were significantly induced by heat, drought, and salt stresses (21, 19, and 22 PeuHsfs, respectively). Our findings are helpful in understanding the distinguished adaptability of P. euphratica to extreme environment and providing a basis for functional analysis of PeuHsfs in the future. PMID:27425424

  5. Does the ecological study of managed habitats constitute "real" ecology?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gábor L. L(O)VEI

    2011-01-01

    Ecology is not a very "old" science,with about one hundred years of history.In the early period,the general attitude was that the study of undisturbed ecological systems will provide us with clues of how the world is organised.To understand this world,we should study the regions,ecosystems,habitats that are still in their undisturbed condition,far from settlements,are uncultivated,and unspoilt.From these,we can form a picture how things should be.We can then use this knowledge to wisely manage other habitats,more under the influence

  6. Analysis of Genetic Polymorphisms of HSF1 and HSBP1 Gene in Holstein Ox%荷斯坦种公牛HSF1和HSBP1基因多态性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王延久; 李建斌; 王长法; 鞠志花; 黄金明; 李荣岭; 仲跻峰; 何剑斌; 李秋玲

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective] The aim was to study the genetic polymorphisms of HSF1 and HSBP1 gene in Holstein ox. [ Method] DNA direct sequencing was used for SNPs loci scanning,and CRS-PCR and PCR-RFLP method were used for genotyping of four SNPs in 162 Holstein ox,so as to analyze the polymorphism of HSF1 and HSBP1 gene. [ Result] The scanning results showed that a novel SNP was discovered at 1451 (G/T)in HSF1 gene and three novel SNPs of 324(G/C) ,589(C/T) ,651(C/G) were discovered in the second intron of HSBP1 gene. The polymorphism of HSF1 and HSBP1 gene analysis results showed that,for HSF1 ,the frequency of the AA genotype was higher and A allele was the dominant allele. While for HSBF1 ,AB,AA and BB appeared more frequently,dominant allele at 589 (C/T) was A, and that at 324 (G/C) and 651 (C/G)was B. Chi-square test indicated that 1451(G/T) polymorphic site in the HSF1 gene and 589(C/T) polymorphic site in HSBP1 gene were met Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in Holstein (P > 0.05 ), while 324 (G/C) and 651 (C/G) polymorphicsites in the HSBP1 gene were not meet Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P < 0. 05). [ Conclusion ] The study can provide trial basis for deeply researching the function of HSF1 and HSBP1 gene.%[目的]研究荷斯坦种公牛HSF1和HSBP1基因多态性.[方法]通过DNA测序技术对牛HSF1和HSBP1基因进行SNPs位点扫描,利用CRS-PCR和PCR-RFLP方法对4个单核苷酸多态性(SNPs)进行基因型分型,分析162头荷斯坦种公牛HSF1和HSBP1基因的多态性.[结果]扫描结果表明,在HSF1基因1451(G/T)处发现1个新SNP.在HSBP1基因第2内含子上发现3个新SNPs,分别为324(G/C)、589(C/T)和651(C/G).多态性分析结果表明,HSF1基因1451(G/T)住点的SNP的AA基因型频率最高,优势等住基因为A,而HSBP1基因3个SNP频率最高的基因型分别为AB、AA和BB,优势等位基因589(C/T)为A,而324(G/C)和651(C/G)均为B.χ适合性检验表明,HSF1基因1451(G/T)位点在荷斯坦种公牛群体中已

  7. Comparison of Copy Number of HSF Genes in Two Buffalo Genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Shardul Vikram; Mukherjee, Ayan; Brahma, Biswajit; Gohain, Moloya; Patra, Mahesh Chandra; Saini, Sushil Kumar; Mishra, Purushottam; Ahlawat, Sonika; Upadhyaya, Ramesh C; Datta, Tirtha K; De, Sachinandan

    2016-07-01

    The copy number variation (CNV) is the number of copies of a particular gene in the genotype of an individual. Recent evidences show that the CNVs can vary in frequency and occurrence between breeds. These variations reportedly allowed different breeds to adapt to different environments. As copy number variations follow Mendelian pattern of inheritance, identification and distribution of these variants between populations can be used to infer the evolutionary history of the species. In this study, we have examined the absolute copy number of four Heat shock factor genes viz. HSF-1, 2, 4, and 5 in two different breeds of buffalo species using real-time PCR. Here, we report that the absolute copy number of HSF2 varies between the two breeds. In contrast no significant difference was observed in the copy number for HSF-1, 4, and 5 between the two breeds. Our results provide evidence for the presence of breed specific differences in HSF2 genomic copy number. This seems to be the first step in delineating the genetic factors underlying environmental adaptation between the two breeds. Nevertheless, a more detailed study is needed to characterize the functional consequence of this variation. PMID:26953680

  8. Ecological studies in Inner Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ With an objective of making clear the ecological conditions in local region and offering countermeasures for its protection, a CAS task force recently visited Alxa League in Inner Mongolian Autonomous Region.

  9. HSF1 transcriptional activity mediates alcohol induction of Vamp2 expression and GABA release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence P. Varodayan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Many central synapses are highly sensitive to alcohol, and it is now accepted that short-term alterations in synaptic function may lead to longer term changes in circuit function. The regulation of postsynaptic receptors by alcohol has been well studied, but the mechanisms underlying the effects of alcohol on the presynaptic terminal are relatively unexplored. To identify a pathway by which alcohol regulates neurotransmitter release, we recently investigated the mechanism by which ethanol induces the Vamp2 gene, but not Vamp1, in mouse primary cortical cultures. These two genes encode isoforms of synaptobrevin, a vesicular soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE protein required for synaptic vesicle fusion. We found that alcohol activates the transcription factor heat shock factor 1 (HSF1 to induce Vamp2 gene expression, while Vamp1 mRNA levels remain unaffected. As the Vamp2 gene encodes a SNARE protein, we then investigated whether ethanol exposure and HSF1 transcriptional activity alter neurotransmitter release using electrophysiology. We found that alcohol increased the frequency of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA-mediated miniature IPSCs via HSF1, but had no effect on mEPSCs. Overall, these data indicate that alcohol induces HSF1 transcriptional activity to trigger a specific coordinated adaptation in GABAergic presynaptic terminals. This mechanism could explain some of the changes in synaptic function that occur soon after alcohol exposure, and may underlie some of the more enduring effects of chronic alcohol intake on local circuit function.

  10. Heat Shock Factors HsfB 1 and HsfB2b Are Involved in the Regulation of Pdfl.2 Expression and Pathogen Resistance in Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mukesh Kumar; Wolfgang Busch; Hannah Birke; Birgit Kemmerling; Thorsten N(U)rnberger; Friedrich Sch(o)ffl

    2009-01-01

    In order to assess the functional roles of heat stress-induced class B-heat shock factors in Arabidopsis, we investigated T-DNA knockout mutants of AtHsfB1 and AtHsfB2b. Micorarray analysis of double knockout hsfBl/hsfB2b plants revealed as strong an up-regulation of the basal mRNA-levels of the defensin genes Pdfl.2a/b in mutant plants.The Pdfexpression was further enhanced by jasmonic acid treatment or infection with the necrotrophic fungus Alternaria brassicicola. The single mutant hsfB2b and the double mutant hsfB1/B2b were significantly improved in disease resistance after A. brassicicola infection. There was no indication for a direct interaction of Hsf with the promoter of Pdfl.2, which is devoid of perfect HSE consensus Hsf-binding sequences. However, changes in the formation of late HsfA2-dependent HSE binding were detected in hsfB1/B2b plants. This suggests that HsfB1/B2b may interact with class A-Hsf in regulating the shut-off of the heat shock response. The identification of Pdfgenes as targets of Hsf-dependent negative regulation is the first evidence for an interconnection of Hsf in the regulation of biotic and abiotic responses.

  11. HSF1 is essential for the resistance of zebrafish eye and brain tissues to hypoxia/reperfusion injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan R Tucker

    Full Text Available Ischemia and subsequent reperfusion (IR produces injury to brain, eye and other tissues, contributing to the progression of important clinical pathologies. The response of cells to IR involves activation of several signaling pathways including those activating hypoxia and heat shock responsive transcription factors. However, specific roles of these responses in limiting cell damage and preventing cell death after IR have not been fully elucidated. Here, we have examined the role of heat shock factor 1 (HSF1 in the response of zebrafish embryos to hypoxia and subsequent return to normoxic conditions (HR as a model for IR. Heat shock preconditioning elevated heat shock protein expression and protected zebrafish embryo eye and brain tissues against HR-induced apoptosis. These effects were inhibited by translational suppression of HSF1 expression. Reduced expression of HSF1 also increased cell death in brain and eye tissues of embryos subjected to hypoxia and reperfusion without prior heat shock. Surprisingly, reduced expression of HSF1 had only a modest effect on hypoxia-induced expression of Hsp70 and no effect on hypoxia-induced expression of Hsp27. These results establish the zebrafish embryo as a model for the study of ischemic injury in the brain and eye and reveal a critical role for HSF1 in the response of these tissues to HR. Our results also uncouple the role of HSF1 expression from that of Hsp27, a well characterized heat shock protein considered essential for cell survival after hypoxia. Alternative roles for HSF1 are considered.

  12. 热休克因子1对FasL的调控作用%The transcription regulation of HSF1 on FasL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鄂顺梅; 陈茶; 曾建明; 邹江英

    2012-01-01

    目的 研究人热休克因子1( HSF1)对Fas配体(FasL)启动子转录活性的影响.方法 用在线启动子分析软件分析FasL启动子区转录因子结合位点;凝胶阻滞实验(EMSA)研究内源性HSF1与FasL启动子区的热休克元件(HSE)结合能力;将组成型活化的HSF1突变体与FasL启动子表达载体FasL-luc共同转染HeLa细胞,采用双荧光素酶报告基因检测系统,检测荧光索酶活性.结果 在FasL启动子区发现HSE核心序列(nGAAnnTTCn),HSF1可以与该HSE体外结合;荧光素酶活性测定发现HSF1明显上调FasL-luc转录活性,突变该HSE,则转录激活作用消失.结论 HSF1对FasL具有转录调控作用.%Objective To explore the transcription regulation and molecular mechanism of heat shock factor 1(HSF1) on Fas ligand of human and mouse. Methods The conserved region within FasL promoter upstream of the translational start site that contains heat shock element (HSE) was analyzed. DNA binding activity of HSF1 on the HSE of FasL promoter was studied by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA).HeLa cells transiently transfected with pcDNA or pcDNA-HSFld203-315 and pGL3-FasL.Dual-luciferase reporter assay was used to study the transcriptional activity of HSF1 among different groups. Results HSE consists of one perfect nGAAn pentamers, housed within the proximal region of the FasL promoter. HSF1 can directly bind to this element and upregulated transcriptional activity of FasL promoter. The mutation of HSE can abrogate the ability of HSF1 to bind and abrogate the promoter activity. Conclusion HSF1 induce transactivation activity of FasL.

  13. Study on ecological migration in Xinjiang, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abliz Yusup; Osman Niyaz

    2006-01-01

    This paper expounds on the meaning of migration and the status quo of studies at home and abroad on migration and ecological migration. It focuses on the discussion of the necessity of ecological migration in Xinjiang, and the problems faced by the ecological emigrants, such as the lack of water, the serious land salination and basification,sand storms, and the adaptation to the environment. Besides, it probes into the problems existing in the ecological migration, including the unscientific design of the moving project, the defects of the reclamation work, and the irrational treatment of the relation between ecological migration and regional development. Based on this, we put forward some suggestions about and countermeasures against those problems.

  14. Over-expression of OsHsfA7 enhanced salt and drought tolerance in transgenic rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai-Ling Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Heat shock proteins play an important role in plant stresstolerance and are mainly regulated by heat shock transcriptionfactors (Hsfs. In this study, we generated transgenic riceover-expressing OsHsfA7 and carried out morphologicalobservation and stress tolerance assays. Transgenic plantsexhibited less, shorter lateral roots and root hair. Under salttreatment, over-expressing OsHsfA7 rice showed alleviativeappearance of damage symptoms and higher survival rate, leafelectrical conductivity and malondialdehyde content of transgenicplants were lower than those of wild type plants. Meanwhile,transgenic rice seedlings restored normal growth but wild typeplants could not be rescued after drought and re-wateringtreatment. These findings indicate that over-expression ofOsHsfA7 gene can increase tolerance to salt and drought stressesin rice seedlings. [BMB Reports 2013; 46(1: 31-36

  15. Molecular cloning and expression of a human heat shock factor, HSF1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabindran, S.K.; Giorgi, G.; Clos, J.; Wu, C. (National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States))

    1991-08-15

    Human cells respond to heat stress by inducing the binding of a preexisting transcriptional activator (heat shock factor, HSF) to DNA. The authors isolated recombinant DNA clones for a human cDNA fragment. The human HSF1 probe was produced by the PCR with primers deduced from conserved amino acids in the Drosophila and yeast HSF sequences. The human HSF1 mRNA is constitutively expressed in HeLa cells under nonshock conditions and encodes a protein with four conserved leucine zipper motifs. Like its counterpart in Drosophila, human HSF1 produced in Escherichia coli in the absence of heat shock is active as a DNA binding transcription factor, suggesting that the intrinsic activity of HSF is under negative control in human cells. Surprisingly, an independently isolated human HSF clone, HSF2, is related to but significantly different from HSF.

  16. Synchronization of circadian Per2 rhythms and HSF1-BMAL1:CLOCK interaction in mouse fibroblasts after short-term heat shock pulse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teruya Tamaru

    Full Text Available Circadian rhythms are the general physiological processes of adaptation to daily environmental changes, such as the temperature cycle. A change in temperature is a resetting cue for mammalian circadian oscillators, which are possibly regulated by the heat shock (HS pathway. The HS response (HSR is a universal process that provides protection against stressful conditions, which promote protein-denaturation. Heat shock factor 1 (HSF1 is essential for HSR. In the study presented here, we investigated whether a short-term HS pulse can reset circadian rhythms. Circadian Per2 rhythm and HSF1-mediated gene expression were monitored by a real-time bioluminescence assay for mPer2 promoter-driven luciferase and HS element (HSE; HSF1-binding site-driven luciferase activity, respectively. By an optimal duration HS pulse (43°C for approximately 30 minutes, circadian Per2 rhythm was observed in the whole mouse fibroblast culture, probably indicating the synchronization of the phases of each cell. This rhythm was preceded by an acute elevation in mPer2 and HSF1-mediated gene expression. Mutations in the two predicted HSE sites adjacent (one of them proximally to the E-box in the mPer2 promoter dramatically abolished circadian mPer2 rhythm. Circadian Per2 gene/protein expression was not observed in HSF1-deficient cells. These findings demonstrate that HSF1 is essential to the synchronization of circadian rhythms by the HS pulse. Importantly, the interaction between HSF1 and BMAL1:CLOCK heterodimer, a central circadian transcription factor, was observed after the HS pulse. These findings reveal that even a short-term HS pulse can reset circadian rhythms and cause the HSF1-BMAL1:CLOCK interaction, suggesting the pivotal role of crosstalk between the mammalian circadian and HSR systems.

  17. HSF-1 is involved in regulation of ascaroside pheromone biosynthesis by heat stress in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Hyoe-Jin; Park, Saeram; Kim, Kwang-Youl; Kim, Mun-Young; Kim, Heekyeong; Park, Donha; Paik, Young-Ki

    2016-03-15

    The nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans survives by adapting to environmental stresses such as temperature extremes by increasing the concentrations of ascaroside pheromones, termed ascarosides or daumones, which signal early C. elegans larvae to enter a non-aging dauer state for long-term survival. It is well known that production of ascarosides is stimulated by heat stress, resulting in enhanced dauer formation by which worms can adapt to environmental insults. However, the molecular mechanism by which ascaroside pheromone biosynthesis is stimulated by heat stress remains largely unknown. In the present study, we show that the heat-shock transcription factor HSF-1 can mediate enhanced ascaroside pheromone biosynthesis in response to heat stress by activating the peroxisomal fatty acid β-oxidation genes in C. elegans. To explore the potential molecular mechanisms, we examined the four major genes involved in the ascaroside biosynthesis pathway and then quantified the changes in both the expression of these genes and ascaroside production under heat-stress conditions. The transcriptional activation of ascaroside pheromone biosynthesis genes by HSF-1 was quite notable, which is not only supported by chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, but also accompanied by the enhanced production of chemically detectable major ascarosides (e.g. daumones 1 and 3). Consequently, the dauer formation rate was significantly increased by the ascaroside pheromone extracts from N2 wild-type but not from hsf-1(sy441) mutant animals grown under heat-stress conditions. Hence heat-stress-enhanced ascaroside production appears to be mediated at least in part by HSF-1, which seems to be important in adaptation strategies for coping with heat stress in this nematode.

  18. Heterotypic Signals from Neural HSF-1 Separate Thermotolerance from Longevity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter M. Douglas

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Integrating stress responses across tissues is essential for the survival of multicellular organisms. The metazoan nervous system can sense protein-misfolding stress arising in different subcellular compartments and initiate cytoprotective transcriptional responses in the periphery. Several subcellular compartments possess a homotypic signal whereby the respective compartment relies on a single signaling mechanism to convey information within the affected cell to the same stress-responsive pathway in peripheral tissues. In contrast, we find that the heat shock transcription factor, HSF-1, specifies its mode of transcellular protection via two distinct signaling pathways. Upon thermal stress, neural HSF-1 primes peripheral tissues through the thermosensory neural circuit to mount a heat shock response. Independent of this thermosensory circuit, neural HSF-1 activates the FOXO transcription factor, DAF-16, in the periphery and prolongs lifespan. Thus a single transcription factor can coordinate different stress response pathways to specify its mode of protection against changing environmental conditions.

  19. File list: Oth.ALL.50.Hsf2.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.ALL.50.Hsf2.AllCell mm9 TFs and others Hsf2 All cell types SRX515501,SRX515500,...SRX515499 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.ALL.50.Hsf2.AllCell.bed ...

  20. File list: Oth.ALL.20.Hsf1.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.ALL.20.Hsf1.AllCell mm9 TFs and others Hsf1 All cell types SRX148354,SRX148355,...SRX148353,SRX515498,SRX515496,SRX515497,SRX148352 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.ALL.20.Hsf1.AllCell.bed ...

  1. Protein refolding in peroxisomes is dependent upon an HSF1-regulated function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heldens, Lonneke; van Genesen, Siebe T.; Hanssen, Lars L. P.; Hageman, Jurre; Kampinga, Harm H.; Lubsen, Nicolette H.

    2012-01-01

    Post-heat shock refolding of luciferase requires chaperones. Expression of a dominant negative HSF1 mutant (dnHSF1), which among other effects depletes cells of HSF1-regulated chaperones, blocked post-heat shock refolding of luciferase targeted to the cytoplasm, nucleus, or peroxisomes, while refold

  2. Hsf1 activation inhibits rapamycin resistance and TOR signaling in yeast revealed by combined proteomic and genetic analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sricharan Bandhakavi

    Full Text Available TOR kinases integrate environmental and nutritional signals to regulate cell growth in eukaryotic organisms. Here, we describe results from a study combining quantitative proteomics and comparative expression analysis in the budding yeast, S. cerevisiae, to gain insights into TOR function and regulation. We profiled protein abundance changes under conditions of TOR inhibition by rapamycin treatment, and compared this data to existing expression information for corresponding gene products measured under a variety of conditions in yeast. Among proteins showing abundance changes upon rapamycin treatment, almost 90% of them demonstrated homodirectional (i.e., in similar direction transcriptomic changes under conditions of heat/oxidative stress. Because the known downstream responses regulated by Tor1/2 did not fully explain the extent of overlap between these two conditions, we tested for novel connections between the major regulators of heat/oxidative stress response and the TOR pathway. Specifically, we hypothesized that activation of regulator(s of heat/oxidative stress responses phenocopied TOR inhibition and sought to identify these putative TOR inhibitor(s. Among the stress regulators tested, we found that cells (hsf1-R206S, F256S and ssa1-3 ssa2-2 constitutively activated for heat shock transcription factor 1, Hsf1, inhibited rapamycin resistance. Further analysis of the hsf1-R206S, F256S allele revealed that these cells also displayed multiple phenotypes consistent with reduced TOR signaling. Among the multiple Hsf1 targets elevated in hsf1-R206S, F256S cells, deletion of PIR3 and YRO2 suppressed the TOR-regulated phenotypes. In contrast to our observations in cells activated for Hsf1, constitutive activation of other regulators of heat/oxidative stress responses, such as Msn2/4 and Hyr1, did not inhibit TOR signaling. Thus, we propose that activated Hsf1 inhibits rapamycin resistance and TOR signaling via elevated expression of specific

  3. Molecular characterization and expression of HSP70, HSF and HSBP genes inOctopus vulgaris during thermal stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HONG Jingni; MAO Yong; NIU Sufang; SUN Tiantian; SU Yongquan

    2015-01-01

    Temperature is an important environmental factor that affects the growth and survival ofOctopus vulgaris, the common octopus. To understand the protective mechanism thatO.vulgaris exhibits under heat stress, we used rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) to obtain full-length sequences of three heat stress response related genes: (1) the heat shock protein 70 (OvHSP70), (2) the heat shock transcription factor (OvHSF) , and (3) the heat shock factor-binding protein (OvHSBP) ofO.vulgaris. The OvHSP70, OvHSF, and OvHSBP proteins contained 2 222 bp, 2 264 bp, 841 bp that encoded for 635, 458 and 90 amino acids, respectively. The results of multiple sequence alignment showed that the amino acid sequences of OvHSP70 were highly conserved with respect to other species. Similarly, the DNA binding domain, the trimerization domain of OvHSF, and the coiled coil region of OvHSBP also had highly conserved regions. The real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results indicated that OvHSP70 was temperature-dependent and time-dependent, showing a positive response to heat stress. On exposure to 28°C and to 30°C, the mRNA expression levels of OvHSF and OvHSBP were higher than those in the control group at 24°C. The mRNA expression of OvHSBP significantly increased with heat treatment at 26°C, while the mRNA expression of OvHSF decreased. The experimental results indicated that the expression of OvHSP70, OvHSF and OvHSBP were all sensitive to heat stress, which suggests that these three genes may play an important role forO.vulgaris in responding to environmental stress. Thus, this study sets a theoretical foundation for further in-depth studies on the molecular protective mechanisms of the heat response inO.vulgaris.

  4. Study of Teacher Development Based on the Ecological Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Liu Bo; Xiao Qianyin; Xiong Feng

    2014-01-01

    Based on the understanding of the ecology background, the ecological system of Teacher Development (TD) is constructed and the influential factors, such as the natural, social environment, regulatory environment and the physiological and psychological environment, which have an effect on TD, are analyzed in the present study. Besides, with the combination of the ecological characteristics of TD, The sustainable model for TD is proposed. In accordance with the ecological principles of TD and w...

  5. Tomato HsfA1a plays a critical role in plant drought tolerance by activating ATG genes and inducing autophagy

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yu; Cai, Shuyu; Yin, Lingling; Kai SHI; Xia, Xiaojian; Zhou, Yanhong; Yu, Jingquan; Zhou, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy plays critical roles in plant responses to stress. In contrast to the wealth of information concerning the core process of plant autophagosome assembly, our understanding of the regulation of autophagy is limited. In this study, we demonstrated that transcription factor HsfA1a played a critical role in tomato tolerance to drought stress, in part through its positive role in induction of autophagy under drought stress. HsfA1a expression was induced by drought stress. Virus-induced Hs...

  6. Downregulation of chloroplast RPS1 negatively modulates nuclear heat-responsive expression of HsfA2 and its target genes in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Dong Yu

    Full Text Available Heat stress commonly leads to inhibition of photosynthesis in higher plants. The transcriptional induction of heat stress-responsive genes represents the first line of inducible defense against imbalances in cellular homeostasis. Although heat stress transcription factor HsfA2 and its downstream target genes are well studied, the regulatory mechanisms by which HsfA2 is activated in response to heat stress remain elusive. Here, we show that chloroplast ribosomal protein S1 (RPS1 is a heat-responsive protein and functions in protein biosynthesis in chloroplast. Knockdown of RPS1 expression in the rps1 mutant nearly eliminates the heat stress-activated expression of HsfA2 and its target genes, leading to a considerable loss of heat tolerance. We further confirm the relationship existed between the downregulation of RPS1 expression and the loss of heat tolerance by generating RNA interference-transgenic lines of RPS1. Consistent with the notion that the inhibited activation of HsfA2 in response to heat stress in the rps1 mutant causes heat-susceptibility, we further demonstrate that overexpression of HsfA2 with a viral promoter leads to constitutive expressions of its target genes in the rps1 mutant, which is sufficient to reestablish lost heat tolerance and recovers heat-susceptible thylakoid stability to wild-type levels. Our findings reveal a heat-responsive retrograde pathway in which chloroplast translation capacity is a critical factor in heat-responsive activation of HsfA2 and its target genes required for cellular homeostasis under heat stress. Thus, RPS1 is an essential yet previously unknown determinant involved in retrograde activation of heat stress responses in higher plants.

  7. Ecological studies on Prochlorococcus in China seas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Prochlorococcus, a tiny oxygenic photosynthetic picoplankton with unique pigment composition, has been found to be ubiquitous and abundant in the world oceans, and has been recognized to be closely related to living resources and environmental issues. It has attracted the interest of marine biologists since its discovery, and field data on it over global oceans have accumulated rapidly in the past 10 years. In China, we have studied Prochlorococcus for 8 years, achieving a basic ecological understanding. The presence of Prochlorococcus in China seas, marginal seas of the west Pacific, was confirmed, and its distribution patterns were also brought to light. Prochlorococcus is very abundant in the South China Sea and the offshore regions of the East China Sea. It is seasonally present in the southeast part of the Yellow Sea and absent in the Bohai Sea. Temporal and spatial variations of the abundance of Prochlorococcus and their affecting factors, physiological and ecological characteristics of Prochlorococcus and their relationships to the other groups of picoplankton, and the importance of Prochlorococcus in total biomass and possible roles in living resources and environmental problems are discussed. In the future, isolation of different Prochlorococcus strains from the China seas and their physiological characteristics, genetic diversity, phylogenies and gene exploiture, etc. are important issues to be addressed.

  8. Cloning, Localization and Expression Analysis of ZmHsf-like Gene in Zea mays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hui-cong; LI Guo-liang; LIU Zi-hui; ZHANG Hong-mei; ZHANG Yan-min; GUO Xiu-lin

    2014-01-01

    Using homology cloning method, a heat shock transcription factor (Hsf) like gene, ZmHsf-like, was cloned from maize (Zea mays) leaves. Sequence analyses showed that the open reading frame (ORF) of the gene ZmHsf-like is 1 404 bp long, encoding 467 amino acids. The sequence of amino acids encoded by ZmHsf-like contains the most conserved and typical DNA-binding domain of Hsf family. By bombardment into onion epidermis, we ifrstly found that the ZmHsf-like was subcellular-located in nucleus. NucPred analysis revealed there is a classic NLS of KKRR peptide in protein. Real-time PCR showed that ZmHsf-like gene expressed in leaves, stems and roots of maize seedlings under normal growth conditions, and the highest expression level was in roots, lower in leaves and the lowest in stems. The ZmHsf-like gene expression could be up-regulated by heat shock, PEG, ABA, and H2O2 in different degrees, among which the heat shock and ABA worked more efifciently. Obvious differences of the peak value and its corresponding time point of ZmHsf-like gene expression were observed among treatments. Experiments with inhibitor further suggested that the up-regulation ZmHsf-like gene expression of heat shock was H2O2-dependent while the induction of ZmHsf-like with PEG did not depend on the existence of H2O2. These results pointed out that ZmHsf-like gene probably regulates responsive reactions to abiotic stresses especially heat shock and drought through different signal transduction pathways.

  9. Inhibition of heat shock factor1 response enhances PS-341-mediated glioma cell apoptosis%抑制 HSF-1增强 PS-341诱导胶质瘤细胞凋亡

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宏瑜; 毕云科; 刘耀华; 徐龙庆; 王瑞恒; 赵世光

    2014-01-01

    目的:探索HSF1是否能诱导HSPs的高表达,以及抑制HSF1是否能够增强PS-341诱导胶质瘤细胞凋亡。方法 Western检测HSP70、HSF1的表达,以及JNK的磷酸化。转染siRNA敲除HSF1,胎盘蓝染色及sub-G1检测细胞凋亡。结果胶质瘤细胞中HSP70及HSF1的表达明显高于正常脑组织。敲除HSF1能通过抑制HSP70明显增强PS-341诱导的胶质瘤细凋亡,并能增强及延长JNK通路的活化。在HSF1+/+细胞中, PS-341能够强烈诱导HSP70的表达;而在HSF1-/-细胞中,PS-341诱导并延长了JNK通路的激活。热休克预处理对两种细胞活性都没明显影响,但能明显增强HSF1+/+细胞对抗PS-341诱导凋亡的能力。结论胶质瘤细胞中,HSF1的激活能促进HSPs的表达,进而对抗PS-341诱导的细胞凋亡。抑制HSF-1能增强PS-341诱导胶质瘤细胞凋亡,这有望成为一种新的胶质瘤治疗途径。%Objective Proteasome inhibitor have profound effects on tumor growth and cause cells to undergo apoptosis .PS-341,as an extremely potent and selective proteasome inhibitor , which is the first proteasome inhibitor to be used in clinical practice with the approve of FDA , can induces cell death via JNK pathway in vitro in glioma .However,suppressing proteasome complex by PS-341 may induce activation of heat shock factor 1 ( HSF1 ) , which can induce the expression of heat shock proteins ( HSPs ) to against cellular stress .In this study , we explored whether HSF 1 could induce expression of HSPs and whether inhibition of HSF 1 could enhance cell damage induced by PS-341 in glioma cells.Methods Surgically excised specimens from 30 patients with glioma (gradeⅡ-Ⅳ) and 10 normal brain control specimens obtained at autopsy were collected from the Department of Neurosurgery ,The First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University , China.The histological characteristics of 30 patients with glioma were established based on World Health

  10. Transcription factors GAF and HSF act at distinct regulatory steps to modulate stress-induced gene activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuda, Nicholas J.; Mahat, Dig B.; Core, Leighton J.; Guertin, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    The coordinated regulation of gene expression at the transcriptional level is fundamental to development and homeostasis. Inducible systems are invaluable when studying transcription because the regulatory process can be triggered instantaneously, allowing the tracking of ordered mechanistic events. Here, we use precision run-on sequencing (PRO-seq) to examine the genome-wide heat shock (HS) response in Drosophila and the function of two key transcription factors on the immediate transcription activation or repression of all genes regulated by HS. We identify the primary HS response genes and the rate-limiting steps in the transcription cycle that GAGA-associated factor (GAF) and HS factor (HSF) regulate. We demonstrate that GAF acts upstream of promoter-proximally paused RNA polymerase II (Pol II) formation (likely at the step of chromatin opening) and that GAF-facilitated Pol II pausing is critical for HS activation. In contrast, HSF is dispensable for establishing or maintaining Pol II pausing but is critical for the release of paused Pol II into the gene body at a subset of highly activated genes. Additionally, HSF has no detectable role in the rapid HS repression of thousands of genes. PMID:27492368

  11. Role of HSF1 Knock-out in Protection of Heat Shock Response Against Endotoxemia%HSF1基因剔除对HSR抗内毒素血症的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈广文; 王慷慨; 刘瑛; 唐道林; 肖献忠

    2008-01-01

    利用内毒素(LPS)血症小鼠模型,观察HSF1基因剔除对热休克反应(HSR)保护作用的影响.采用腹腔注射LPS建立内毒素血症小鼠模型,HSR采用肛温42℃维持15 min,室温恢复24 h,利用RT-PCR、苏木素-伊红(HE)染色、丙二醛测定以及死亡率,计算和分析重要脏器组织中炎症介质基因的表达、脏器损伤程度及小鼠存活率.注射LPS 15mg/kg 72 h后HSR+LPS(HSF1+/+)组存活率(7/15)显著高于LPS(HSF1+/+)组(0/15)、LPS(HSF1-/-)组(0/14)和HSR+LPS(HSF1-/-)组(0/14),而注射LPS 14 mg/kg 72 h后,LPS(HSF1+/+)组存活率(5/15)显著高于LPS(HSF1-/-)组(0/13)和HSR+LPS(HSF1-/-)组(0/13).在注射LPS 12 h后LPS(HSF1+/+)组、LPS(HSF1-/-)组和HSR+LPS(HSF1-/-)组的心、肺组织丙二醛含量显著升高,但HSR+LPS(HSF1+/+)组不升高.肺组织炎症介质基因IL-IB、IL-6、TNF-α、CCL-2、SOCS3、MCSF、GCSF、IL-15在LPS(HSF1-/-)组和LPS(HSF1+/+)组表达上调,HSR+LPS(HSF1-/-)组除IL-15较低外其他上调更甚,HSR+LPS(HSF1+/+)组除IL-1β和TNF-α较高外其他显著下调.注射LPS后LPS(HSF1+/+)组和LPS(HSF1-/-)组的肺、肝、肾病理形态改变明显,HSR+LPS(HSF1+/+)组改变较轻,HSR+LPS(HSF1-/-)组改变更加严重.HSF1基因剔除能显著消减HSR对内毒素血症小鼠的保护作用.

  12. The master regulator of the cellular stress response (HSF1 is critical for orthopoxvirus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Marie Filone

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The genus Orthopoxviridae contains a diverse group of human pathogens including monkeypox, smallpox and vaccinia. These viruses are presumed to be less dependent on host functions than other DNA viruses because they have large genomes and replicate in the cytoplasm, but a detailed understanding of the host factors required by orthopoxviruses is lacking. To address this topic, we performed an unbiased, genome-wide pooled RNAi screen targeting over 17,000 human genes to identify the host factors that support orthopoxvirus infection. We used secondary and tertiary assays to validate our screen results. One of the strongest hits was heat shock factor 1 (HSF1, the ancient master regulator of the cytoprotective heat-shock response. In investigating the behavior of HSF1 during vaccinia infection, we found that HSF1 was phosphorylated, translocated to the nucleus, and increased transcription of HSF1 target genes. Activation of HSF1 was supportive for virus replication, as RNAi knockdown and HSF1 small molecule inhibition prevented orthopoxvirus infection. Consistent with its role as a transcriptional activator, inhibition of several HSF1 targets also blocked vaccinia virus replication. These data show that orthopoxviruses co-opt host transcriptional responses for their own benefit, thereby effectively extending their functional genome to include genes residing within the host DNA. The dependence on HSF1 and its chaperone network offers multiple opportunities for antiviral drug development.

  13. HSF1的抗炎症作用机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉玺; 敖杰男

    2009-01-01

    目前,已经发现4种热休克转录因子(Heat Shock Transcription Factor,HSF),除HSF3存在于鸟类基因外,其它三种(HSF1、HSF2、HSF4)可见于哺乳动物细胞,不同种类的HSF结构上相似,但功能上存在不同程度的差异:HSF1可以被热应激、氧化应激、化学应激和生理应激等激活,主要介导热休克蛋白(HSPs)合成,HSF2在发育和细胞分化的不同阶段调节热休克基因的表达,HSF4可能阻遏某些蛋白质的表达,其基因突变与白内障的早发形式密切相关。其中HSF1对机体炎症的保护作用除了通过诱导保护性基因表达上调来实现外,还可通过抑制损伤性基因表达下调来实现。

  14. Lubei Ecological Industry Project:A Case Study in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Jiutian

    2004-01-01

    Lubei General Company of Enterprise Group, Shangdong Province, set up joint enterprises industrial ecosystem by sharing resources, symbiosis industry and compact structure. As an ecological industry park, the industrial ecosystem has been operated successfully with rich experiment and has become one of ecological industry examples in the world. Based on the case study of Lubei ecological industry project, components of industrial chains,matter recycle and conversion, energy cycle and multilevel utilization, systematic structure and impact factor identification are analyzed and summarized in this paper. The possible extension and development of Lubei ecological industry project in future is brought forward as well.

  15. Molecular ecology studies of marine Synechococcus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Ying; JIAO Nianzhi

    2004-01-01

    Cyanobacteria of the genus Synechococcus is a dominant component of microbial community in the world's oceans, and is a major contributor to marine primary productivity and thus plays an important role in carbon cycling in the oceans. Besides the ecological importance, the cultivability also made Synechococcus a very special group of marine microorganisms, which has attracted great attention from oceanographers and biologists. Great progress in the physiology, biochemistry and phylogeny of Synechococcus has been made since its discovery. We here review the current status of molecular ecology of marine Synechococcus and give a perspective into the future based on our understanding of the literature and our own work.

  16. Scientists Study Ecological Development in Karst Regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ As part of a consultancy project by the CAS Aca demic Divisions (CASAD)on ecological reconstruction and sustainable development in China's west, a task force headed by CAS members Yuan Xiandao and Sun Honglie conducted a six-day survey of southwest China's Guizhou Province.

  17. Ecological Benefits Evaluation in Ecological Migration Zone Based on Ecological Green Equivalent: A Case Study of Migration Zone in Yanchi County

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun; SHI; Muwen; HAN; Zhuzhou; ZHUANG; Chao; Ma; Jin; WU; Xue; MA

    2015-01-01

    With four ecological migration zones in Huamachi Town of Yanchi County in Ningxia Autonomous Region as the object of study,we carry out the evaluation of ecological benefits in ecological migration zone. Using the SPOT satellite remote sensing image in 2008 and UAV aerophotographic image in 2013,we first monitor and analyze the land use change over five years in the study area,and then adopt ecological green equivalent evaluation model for the evaluation of ecological benefits in the ecological migration zone. Studies have shown that:( i) from 2008 to 2013,the ecological green equivalent in the study area was increased and the ecological environment was improved;( ii) the ecological green equivalent in the study area was less than 1 in 2008 and 2013,and ecological environment was still fragile in the migration zone;( iii)the forest coverage rate of the study area was 20% less than the minimum forest coverage rate of the United Nations,but 15% higher than the forest coverage rate of the Ministry of Environmental Protection. There is a large gap between the forest coverage rate based on ecological green equivalent and optimal forest coverage rate,suggesting that the land use still needs to be adjusted in study area,and it is necessary to increase efforts to strengthen ecological restoration and continue to implement forest conservation,returning land for farming to forestry and other measures.

  18. Structures of HSF2 Reveal Mechanisms for Differential Regulation of Human Heat Shock Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Alex M.; Pemble, Charles W.; Sistonen, Lea; Thiele, Dennis J.

    2016-01-01

    Heat Shock Transcription Factor (HSF) family members function in stress protection and in human disease including proteopathies, neurodegeneration and cancer. The mechanisms that drive distinct post-translational modifications, co-factor recruitment and target gene activation for specific HSF paralogs are unknown. We present high-resolution crystal structures of the human HSF2 DNA-binding domain (DBD) bound to DNA, revealing an unprecedented view of HSFs that provides insights into their unique biology. The HSF2 DBD structures resolve a novel carboxyl-terminal helix that directs the coiled-coil domain to wrap around DNA, exposing paralog-specific sequences of the DBD surface, for differential post-translational modifications and co-factor interactions. We further demonstrate a direct interaction between HSF1 and HSF2 through their coiled-coil domains. Together, these features provide a new model for HSF structure as the basis for differential and combinatorial regulation to influence the transcriptional response to cellular stress. PMID:26727490

  19. 不同hsf1基因型对小鼠心肌组成型αBC表达的影响%EFFECTS OF hsf1 GENOTYPE ON THE CONSTITUTIVE EXPRESSION OF αB-CRYSTALLIN IN MICE MYOCARDIUM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘莉; 张红慧; 丁国宪; 程蕴琳; 晏良军; Benjamin I J

    2004-01-01

    目的:了解热休克转录因子1(heat shock transcription factor 1,HSF1)基因对小鼠心肌组成型(B晶体蛋白(αB-Crystallin,αBC)表达的影响.方法:用Western Blot和免疫组织化学方法,测定组成型αBC在HSF1基因野生型(hsf1+ / +)和HSF1基因敲除型(hsf1- / -)小鼠心肌中的表达.结果:αBC在hsf1- / - 和 hsf1+ / +小鼠心肌表达量分别为68.42%±4.16% 和100%±7.58%(心肌可溶性组分,P<0.05),20.53%±1.01%和37.55%±1.91%(心肌不可溶性组分,P<0.05);免疫组化显示αBC在hsf1- / -心肌细胞内的表达信号较hsf1+ / +明显减弱.结论:hsf1基因是介导组成型αBC基因表达重要的、但不是唯一的因子.

  20. Cloning and expression of HSF1 cDNA from Hainan Eld's deer%海南坡鹿HSF1cDNA的克隆与表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成鹰; 林杰材; 满初日嘎; 杜丽; 王凤阳; 刘涛; 李治深; 许世英; 符运南; 林贤梅; 吴科榜

    2009-01-01

    采用RT-PCR和RACE方法扩增海南坡鹿热休克转录调节因子1(Heat shock transcription factor 1,HSF1)cDNA全长,将扩增产物与pMD20-T载体连接,重组质粒经PCR、酶切鉴定后测序并进行生物信息学分析;构建pET28a-hdHSF1表达载体,经IPTG诱导表达后,进行SDS-PAGE和Western blot分析.结果显示,海南坡鹿HSF1cDNA全长为2 036 bp,含有1个1 578 bp的开放阅读框,编码525个氨基酸.经生物信息学分析,HSF1是一个等电点为4.93的亲水性蛋白.经IPTG诱导表达后,得到一个带组氨酸标签的约62 kD的融合蛋白,用抗His单克隆抗体进行Western blot,得到一条约62 kD特异性抗体结合带,表明海南坡鹿HSF1原核表达载体成功构建并表达.

  1. Behavioral Characterization of HSF1 Knockout Male Mice%雄性HSF1基因缺陷小鼠的行为改变

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱熊兆; 程明; 彭敏; 姚树桥

    2007-01-01

    为研究HSF1基因缺陷小鼠的行为特征,探索HSF1基因在小鼠行为表现中的作用.选取6~7个月大雄性HSF1基因缺陷小鼠39只及野生型小鼠36只进行情绪性评分、旷场实验、高架十字迷宫实验、简易迷津实验、T-CAT实验、独木桥实验和悬挂实验以观察其情绪性唤醒水平、焦虑水平、探索行为、工作记忆能力和运动能力.结果表明HSF1基因缺陷小鼠的情绪唤醒水平和焦虑水平较低、探索行为减少、T-CAT中转换率较低,提示小鼠的情绪、探索动机和工作记忆受HSF1基因的调控.

  2. Study of tourist motivation to Guangzhou urban ecological parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Wang, Fengtang

    2012-01-01

    Based on the push - pull theory, this article show the empirical studies of tourists' travel motivation to Guangzhou Ecological Park. We identified four push factors and three pull factors which are of the potential features of travel motivation, and on this basis, using analysis of variance to further test the significant differences of push and pull factors in the demographic characteristics of different groups. The conclusion has a certain reference value to the Ecological Park in Guangzhou to attract tourists.

  3. Expression and Purification of Heat Shock Factor HSF1 in Arabidopsis thaliana%拟南芥热激因子HSF1的表达与纯化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭丽红; 王定康; 袁燕; 刘开庆; 张乐民

    2009-01-01

    [目的] 表达和纯化拟南芥热激因子HSF1.[方法] 以构建的能表达热激因子HSF1的大肠杆菌Escherichia coli M15(pQE32/ His6- HSF1,pREP4)为材料,用异丙基硫代-β-D-半乳糖苷(IPTG)诱导表达HSF1,再通过镍亲和层析纯化表达的HSF1,通过变性的聚丙酰胺(SDS-PAGE)电泳分析表达蛋白和纯化蛋白.[结果] 试验获得了表达的HSF1,并且进一步获得了纯化的HSF1.[结论]该研究为探讨拟南芥HSF1在基因组的结合位点提供了试验材料,为全面认识HSF1作用机理和生理功能奠定了基础.

  4. Investigations on biological functions of heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1) using a gene knock out mouse model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    HSF1 is the major heat shock transcription factor that binds heat shock element (HSE) in the promoter of heat shock proteins (HSPs) and controls rapid HSP induction in cells subjected to various stresses such as elevated temperature, chemicals, or exposure to toxins. Although at least four members of the vertebrate HSF have been cloned, details of their individual physiological roles remain relatively obscure. To clarify the exact in vivo functions of HSF1 and assess whether HSF1 exhibits redundant or unique roles, we have created homozygous Hsf1-/- mice using standard gene targeting techniques and isolated Hsf1-/- embryonic fibroblasts. Here we demonstrate that heat shock response (HSR) was not attainable in Hsf1-/- embryonic fibroblasts, and this response was required for thermotolerance and protection against heat-induced apoptosis, and that homozygous Hsf1-/- mice, which survived to adulthood according to genetic background, exhibited multiple phenotypes including: (1) placental defects that reduced embryonic viability after late midgestation (day 13.5); (2) growth retardation; (3) female infertility caused by preimplantation lethality, and (4) increased mortality (+/+ vs -/-, P<0.05) and exaggerated production of proinflammatory cytokine, TNF α (+/- vs -/-, P<0.05) after endotoxin challenge. Interestingly, although Hsf1-/- mice exhibited placental defects and embryonic death, basal HSP expression is not appreciably altered during embryonic development by the HSF1 null mutation, suggesting this factor might be involved in regulating some non-HSP genes or signaling pathways which may be important for development. Taken together, our results established direct causal effects for the HSF1 transactivator in regulating diverse physiological and pathophysiological conditions such as developnent, growth, reproduction, apoptosis and sepsis. The present work also provided a useful mammalian model for further investigating the implications of Hsf1 and its target

  5. The Study on the ecological education of community residents based on the viewpoint of ecological civilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田文明; 黄辉

    2015-01-01

    The essay focuses on the analysis of necessity and urgency of the mobilization to conduct a comprehensive ecological protection for community residents.The author emphasizes the significance of strengthen community residents ecological education.Based on the present situation of the ecological education of community residents,community residents' ecological education is carried out,has great significance and importance.

  6. 40 CFR 159.165 - Toxicological and ecological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of test organism. (v) By a different route of exposure. (2) Acute oral, acute dermal, acute... the median lethal dose (LD50), median lethal concentration (LC50) or irritation indices, are not... under the criteria of 40 CFR 156.62. (b) Ecological studies. The results of a study of the toxicity of...

  7. HSF1基因表达升高与大肠癌%Induction of HSF1 expression and sporadic colorectal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方永明; 董琦; 岑辉; 唐小萍; 郑树

    2004-01-01

    目的:探讨散发性人结直肠癌发生发展中可能的信号转导通路.方法:应用8条信号通路基因芯片筛选结直肠癌组织与正常粘膜组织表达差异基因;提取35例结直肠癌患者配对的癌组织及正常粘膜组织(阴性切缘组织,距肿瘤10 cm以上)总RNA,以RT-PCR的方法对有差异的基因进行表达差异比较.结果:结直肠癌组织中hsf1、hsp27及inos的表达明显高于正常组织.经35例结直肠癌患者癌组织与正常大肠粘膜组织对比,癌组织中hsf1、hsp27、inos表达增高,其中hsf1为86%(30/35),inos为63%(22/35).结论:在结直肠癌组织中hsf1、hsp27及inos基因被激活,其中可能存在热刺激应激信号转导通路激活的通道.

  8. Conceptualizing power to study social-ecological interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiebren J. Boonstra

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available My aim is to conceptualize power using social science theory and to demonstrate why and how the concept of power can complement resilience studies and other analyses of social-ecological interaction. Social power as a scientific concept refers to the ability to influence both conduct and context. These two dimensions of power (conduct and context can be observed by differentiating between various sources of power, including, for example, technology or mental power. The relevance of the conceptualization of power presented here is illustrated with the example of fire as a source of social-ecological power. I conclude by discussing how attention to power can help to address issues of social justice and responsibility in social-ecological interactions.

  9. Hsp90 orchestrates transcriptional regulation by Hsf1 and cell wall remodelling by MAPK signalling during thermal adaptation in a pathogenic yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle D Leach

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Thermal adaptation is essential in all organisms. In yeasts, the heat shock response is commanded by the heat shock transcription factor Hsf1. Here we have integrated unbiased genetic screens with directed molecular dissection to demonstrate that multiple signalling cascades contribute to thermal adaptation in the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans. We show that the molecular chaperone heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90 interacts with and down-regulates Hsf1 thereby modulating short term thermal adaptation. In the longer term, thermal adaptation depends on key MAP kinase signalling pathways that are associated with cell wall remodelling: the Hog1, Mkc1 and Cek1 pathways. We demonstrate that these pathways are differentially activated and display cross talk during heat shock. As a result ambient temperature significantly affects the resistance of C. albicans cells to cell wall stresses (Calcofluor White and Congo Red, but not osmotic stress (NaCl. We also show that the inactivation of MAP kinase signalling disrupts this cross talk between thermal and cell wall adaptation. Critically, Hsp90 coordinates this cross talk. Genetic and pharmacological inhibition of Hsp90 disrupts the Hsf1-Hsp90 regulatory circuit thereby disturbing HSP gene regulation and reducing the resistance of C. albicans to proteotoxic stresses. Hsp90 depletion also affects cell wall biogenesis by impairing the activation of its client proteins Mkc1 and Hog1, as well as Cek1, which we implicate as a new Hsp90 client in this study. Therefore Hsp90 modulates the short term Hsf1-mediated activation of the classic heat shock response, coordinating this response with long term thermal adaptation via Mkc1- Hog1- and Cek1-mediated cell wall remodelling.

  10. Characterizing HSF1 Binding and Post-Translational Modifications of hsp70 Promoter in Cultured Cortical Neurons: Implications in the Heat-Shock Response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea V Gómez

    Full Text Available Causes of lower induction of Hsp70 in neurons during heat shock are still a matter of debate. To further inquire into the mechanisms regulating Hsp70 expression in neurons, we studied the activity of Heat Shock Factor 1 (HSF1 and histone posttranslational modifications (PTMs at the hsp70 promoter in rat cortical neurons. Heat shock induced a transient and efficient translocation of HSF1 to neuronal nuclei. However, no binding of HSF1 at the hsp70 promoter was detected while it bound to the hsp25 promoter in cortical neurons during heat shock. Histone PTMs analysis showed that the hsp70 promoter harbors lower levels of histone H3 and H4 acetylation in cortical neurons compared to PC12 cells under basal conditions. Transcriptomic profiling data analysis showed a predominant usage of cryptic transcriptional start sites at hsp70 gene in the rat cerebral cortex, compared with the whole brain. These data support a weaker activation of hsp70 canonical promoter. Heat shock increased H3Ac at the hsp70 promoter in PC12 cells, which correlated with increased Hsp70 expression while no modifications occurred at the hsp70 promoter in cortical neurons. Increased histone H3 acetylation by Trichostatin A led to hsp70 mRNA and protein induction in cortical neurons. In conclusion, we found that two independent mechanisms maintain a lower induction of Hsp70 in cortical neurons. First, HSF1 fails to bind specifically to the hsp70 promoter in cortical neurons during heat shock and, second, the hsp70 promoter is less accessible in neurons compared to non-neuronal cells due to histone deacetylases repression.

  11. Study on Key Problems of a New Environmental Dredging Based on Ecological Protection and Subsequent Ecological Restoration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU; Wei

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The research aimed to study key problems of a new environmental dredging based on ecological protection and subsequent ecological restoration. [Method] People paid more attention to sediment pollutant removal in environmental dredging, without considering coming aquatic eco-restoration work after dredging. Factor affecting aquatic ecosystem existence and growth was screened, and ecological dredging manner was put forward. [Result] On the basis of analyzing dredging objective, effect and influence, started from ecological protection and subsequent ecological restoration, water depth and substrate were screened as priority control factors of the environmental sediment dredging. New manner of combining sediment dredging to reshape underwater terrain was put forward. [Conclusion] The research provided solution for water depth and substrate demands of the subsequent ecological restoration.

  12. Radiological Review Studies On Ismailia Canal Ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work is a brief review of pr-studies carried out on Ismailia Canal, Egypt, water ecosystem. Ismailia Canal water body is a bicarbonate stream with slight seasonal variations in its water chemical constituents. The canal water pH in all the stream locations are below 8.3 with low suspended matter(SM) content (22-33 mg.l-1). The mineralogical analysis of the canal bottom sediments consist mainly of quartz, smectite and kaolinite minerals. The γ- spectroscopic identification showed traces of naturally occurring radio nuclides (238U, 232Th and 40K). The average activity level of the dry samples ranged from 12 to 89 Bq.Kg-1 for the detected natural radio nuclides. Some parameters affected the sorption behaviour of radio nuclides on suspended matters and bottom sediments; such as solution pH, SM concentration, sediment grain size, carrier concentration and competing ions were studied. The reaction rates were investigated for each radionuclide studied. The distribution of the studied radio nuclides, between the liquid phase and the sediments phase was investigated, for both flowing and static systems. For both flowing and non-flowing (static), the depth penetration of the studied radio nuclides within the bottom sediment layers were found to vary from one radionuclide to the other. The total capacities of bottom sediments and the suspended matter were found to be low. As Ismailia Canal is an important source of water for public domestic uses, irrigation animals and the aquatic species; these situations have led to state that it is not recommended to release any liquid radioactive wastes to this canal. Furthermore, periodical radiometric analysis for the canal water and its components should be carried out.

  13. Stable isotope methods in biological and ecological studies of arthropods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hood-Nowotny, R.C.; Knols, B.G.J.

    2007-01-01

    This is an eclectic review and analysis of contemporary and promising stable isotope methodologies to study the biology and ecology of arthropods. It is augmented with literature from other disciplines, indicative of the potential for knowledge transfer. It is demonstrated that stable isotopes can b

  14. Redesigning a Curriculum for Inquiry: An Ecology Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spronken-Smith, R. A.; Walker, R.; Dickinson, K. J. M.; Closs, G. P.; Lord, J. M.; Harland, T.

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on an interdisciplinary ecology degree that was redesigned to provide more research activity for undergraduates. A case study approach explored how the teaching team constructed a curriculum that used inquiry activities. The development of an inquiry curriculum was enabled by a University audit focusing on the links between…

  15. Immunolocalization of anti-hsf1 to the acetabular glands of infectious schistosomes suggests a non-transcriptional function for this transcriptional activator.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Ishida

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is a chronically debilitating disease caused by parasitic worms of the genus Schistosoma, and it is a global problem affecting over 240 million people. Little is known about the regulatory proteins and mechanisms that control schistosome host invasion, gene expression, and development. Schistosome larvae, cercariae, are transiently free-swimming organisms and infectious to man. Cercariae penetrate human host skin directly using proteases that degrade skin connective tissue. These proteases are secreted from anucleate acetabular glands that contain many proteins, including heat shock proteins. Heat shock transcription factors are strongly conserved activators that play crucial roles in the maintenance of cell homeostasis by transcriptionally regulating heat shock protein expression. In this study, we clone and characterize the schistosome Heat shock factor 1 gene (SmHSF1. We verify its ability to activate transcription using a modified yeast one-hybrid system, and we show that it can bind to the heat shock binding element (HSE consensus DNA sequence. Our quantitative RT-PCR analysis shows that SmHSF1 is expressed throughout several life-cycle stages from sporocyst to adult worm. Interestingly, using immunohistochemistry, a polyclonal antibody raised against an Hsf1-peptide demonstrates a novel localization for this conserved, stress-modulating activator. Our analysis suggests that schistosome Heat shock factor 1 may be localized to the acetabular glands of infective cercariae.

  16. The Urban Ecology Institute's field studies program: utilizing urban areas for experiential learning and ecological research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starry, O.

    2005-05-01

    The Urban Ecology Institute (UEI) promotes the stewardship of healthy urban ecosystems by improving science and civic education for middle and high school youth and by working with urban communities to protect and transform natural resources. Established in 1999, UEI's field studies program engages over 1000 youth in the greater Boston area. A substantial component of this program involves water quality monitoring. We have recently adapted protocols from published leaf breakdown studies for incorporation into the UEI water quality curriculum. A 2004 pilot study of these leaf breakdown activities, conducted at four sites, compared rates of red maple breakdown to those of Norway maple, a potentially invasive urban street tree. Preliminary data from this successful pilot study suggest that leaf litter inputs from the two different tree species have varying effects on stream ecosystem function. We present this study as an example of how urban areas can be utilized for both ecological research and inclusive experiential learning through which science and mathematic knowledge can be effectively communicated.

  17. Ecological study of bacteriophages of Vibrio natriegens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zachary, A.

    1978-03-01

    Effects of temperature and anaerobic conditions on the replication of two bacteriophages, nt-1 and nt-6, of the estuarine bacterium Vibrio natriegens were studied. Reduction in temperature resulted in longer latent periods and reduced burst sizes for both phages. Replication under anaerobic conditions resulted in longer latent periods; however, phage nt-6 had a reduced burst size, whereas phage nt-1 had an increased burst size, resulting in a rate of phage production nearly equal to that observed under aerobic conditions. Therefore the distribution of the phages in marsh areas could be influenced by temperature and anaerobiosis.

  18. Induction of HSF1 expression is associated with sporadic colorectal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Cen; Shu Zheng; Yong-Ming Fang; Xiao-Ping Tang; Qi Dong

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To explore the activation of signal transduction pathways related with the carcinogenesis of sporadic colon cancers.METHODS: A gene array monitoring the activation of 8 signal transduction pathways (PathwayFinder GEArray) was used to screen the differentially expressed genes between colorectal cancer and normal colon tissues. The differentially expressed genes were further analyzed by RT-PCR, using RNA derived from colorectal cancer and normal colon tissue of 35 patients.RESULTS: The expression of HSF1, HSF27, HSP90 and iNOS was increased in colon cancer tissues compared to normal colon tissue using PathwayFinder GEArray. The RT-PCR results showed that the expression of HSF1 was increased in 86% (30/35) patients and the expression of iNOS was increased in 63% (22/35) patients.CONCLUSION: The induction of HSF1 gene expression is associated with sporadic colon cancer. HSF1 induces heat shock stress signaling pathway, which might play a role in the carcinogenesis of sporadic colorectal cancer.

  19. Hsf1 Is Required for the Nuclear Translocation of p53 Tumor Suppressor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Li

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Although the p53 tumor suppressor is most frequently inactivated by genetic mutations, exclusion from the nucleus is also seen in human tumors. We have begun to examine p53 nuclear importation by isolating a series of mutant cells in which the temperature-sensitive murine p53Val135 mutant is sequestered in the cytoplasm. We previously showed that that three of them (ALTR12, ALTR19, and ALTR25 constituted a single complementation group. Here, we found that ALTR12 cells are more sensitive to heat stress than either ALTR19 or ALTR25 and that there was a complete lack of induction of Hsp70 in response to heat shock. Western blot analysis showed no expression of the Hsf1 transcription factor, and neither heat shock nor azetidine could induce p53 nuclear localization in ALTR12 cells but did in parental A1–5 cells. Suppression of Hsf1 in A1–5 cells with quercetin or an Hsf1 siRNA reduced p53 nuclear importation and inhibited p53-mediated activation of a p21 reporter. Most convincingly, p53 nuclear importation could be restored in ALTR12 cells by introducing an exogenous Hsf1 gene. Collectively, our result suggests that Hsf1 is required for p53 nuclear importation and activation and implies that heat shock factors play a role in the regulation of p53.

  20. An ecological study on childhood autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    St-Hilaire Sophie

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and methods Idiopathic autism, suspected to be caused by exposure of genetically susceptible individuals to unknown environmental triggers, has increased dramatically in the past 25 years. The objectives of our study were to determine, using a linear regression model, whether the county prevalence of autism in the Pacific Northwest of the United States was associated with the source of drinking water for that county and whether this relationship was dependent on the level of environmental pollutants and meteorological factors in the county. Results We found the previously reported relationship between precipitation and autism in a county was dependent on the amount of drinking water derived from surface sources in the county. We also found a positive association between the EPA’s risk of neurological disease and autism, but this relationship was only present in warm areas. Conclusions Our study provides evidence for the hypothesis that environmental factors are associated with autism and that meteorological factors play a role in this relationship.

  1. Science and ecological literacy in undergraduate field studies education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapp, Kim J.

    There is an ever-increasing number of issues that face our world today; from climate change, water and food scarcity, to pollution and resource extraction. Science and ecology play fundamental roles in these problems, and yet the understanding of these fields is limited in our society (Miller, 2002; McBride, Brewer, Berkowitz, and Borrie, 2013). Across the nation students are finishing their undergraduate degrees and are expected to enter the workforce and society with the skills needed to succeed. The deficit of science and ecological literacy in these students has been recognized and a call for reform begun (D'Avanzo, 2003 and NRC, 2009). This mixed-methods study looked at how a field studies course could fill the gap of science and ecological literacy in undergraduates. Using grounded theory, five key themes were data-derived; definitions, systems thinking, human's role in the environment, impetus for change and transference. These themes where then triangulated for validity and reliability through qualitative and quantitative assessments. A sixth theme was also identified, the learning environment. Due to limited data to support this themes' development and reliability it is discussed in Chapter 5 to provide recommendations for further research. Key findings show that this field studies program influenced students' science and ecological literacy through educational theory and practice.

  2. HsfA1d, a Protein Identified via FOX Hunting Using Thellungiella salsuginea cDNAs Improves Heat Tolerance by Regulating Heat-Stress-Responsive Gene Expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yukari Higashi; Naohiko Ohama; Tomoko Ishikawa; Taku Katori; Ayaka Shimura; Kazuya Kusakabe; Kazuko Yamaguchi-Shinozaki

    2013-01-01

    Theilungiella salsuginea (formerly T.halophila),a species closely related to Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana),is tolerant not only to high salt levels,but also to chilling,freezing,and ozone.Here,we report that T.salsuginea also shows greater heat tolerance than Arabidopsis.We identified T.salsuginea HsfAld (TsHsfAld) as a gene that can confer marked heat tolerance on Arabidopsis.TsHsfAld was identified via Full-length cDNA Over-eXpressing gene (FOX) hunting from among a collection of heat-stress-related T.salsuginea cDNAs.Transgenic Arabidopsis overexpressing TsHsfAld showed constitutive up-regulation of many genes in the Arabidopsis AtHsfA1 regulon under normal growth temperature.In Arabidopsis mesophyll protoplasts,TsHsfAld was localized in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm.TsHsfAld also interacted with AtHSP90,which negatively regulates AtHsfAls by forming HsfA1-HSP90 complexes in the cytoplasm.It is likely that the partial nuclear localization of TsHsfAld induced the expression of the AtHsfAld regulon in the transgenic plants at normal temperature.We also discovered that transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing AtHsfAld were more heat-tolerant than wild-type plants and up-regulated the expression of the HsfAld regulon,as was observed in TsHsfAld-overexpressing plants.We propose that the products of both TsHsfAld and AtHsfAld function as positive regulators of Arabidopsis heat-stress response and would be useful for the improvement of heat-stress tolerance in other plants.

  3. 禁食通过 HSF1保护肝脏缺血再灌注损伤%Fasting protects mice against hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury through HSF1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔小兰; 张常明; 李大伟; 张江; 夏强

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨短期禁食对肝脏缺血再灌注损伤的影响及和 HSF1的关系。方法小鼠随机分为两大组8小组,第一大组为假手术组,再进一步分为4个小组:A 组 HSF1Alb-小鼠正常饮食,B 组 HSF1Alb-小鼠禁食16 h,C 组HSF1Alb+小鼠正常饮食,D 组 HSF1Alb+小鼠禁食16 h。对照组只进行开关腹和游离左外叶不进行阻断和开放左外叶血流;第二大组为缺血再灌注组,进一步分为4个小组:E 组 HSF1Alb-小鼠正常饮食,F 组 HSF1Alb-小鼠禁食16 h,G 组HSF1Alb+小鼠正常饮食,H 组 HSF1Alb+小鼠禁食16 h。缺血再灌注组进行小鼠左外叶30%的缺血60 min 再灌注6 h实验。检测各组小鼠血清 ALT、AST。通过比较各组血清转氨酶的水平以及评价肝组织病理损伤的程度,来判断短期禁食及 HSF1对小鼠缺血再灌注损伤的影响。结果假手术组禁食和不禁食对血清转氨酶没有明显差别,缺血再灌注组中, HSF1Alb-小鼠禁食组的转氨酶明显低于正常饮食组,但在 HSF1Alb+小鼠看不到这一明显的保护作用;HSF1Alb-小鼠禁食组的肝组织损伤明显减轻。结论禁食能明显减轻肝脏缺血再灌注损伤,禁食的肝脏缺血再灌注损伤的保护作用在HSF1-/-小鼠被消除。%Objective To investigate the effect of short-term fasting on hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (IR)injury and its relationship with heat shock factor 1 (HSF1 ).Methods A hepatic ischemia/reperfusion model was built.The left lateral liver was subjected to 60 minutes of ischemia followed by 6 hours of reperfusion,then the left liver and blood was collected.Male HSF1Alb-and HSF1Alb+ mice were randomly divided into 2 groups:control group (with false operation);IR group,which were subjected to ischemia for 60min and reperfusion for 6h.Furthermore,both groups were divided into 4 subgroups according to the fasting and HSF1Alb.Levels of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate

  4. A Direct Regulatory Interaction between Chaperonin TRiC and Stress-Responsive Transcription Factor HSF1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel W. Neef

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1 is an evolutionarily conserved transcription factor that protects cells from protein-misfolding-induced stress and apoptosis. The mechanisms by which cytosolic protein misfolding leads to HSF1 activation have not been elucidated. Here, we demonstrate that HSF1 is directly regulated by TRiC/CCT, a central ATP-dependent chaperonin complex that folds cytosolic proteins. A small-molecule activator of HSF1, HSF1A, protects cells from stress-induced apoptosis, binds TRiC subunits in vivo and in vitro, and inhibits TRiC activity without perturbation of ATP hydrolysis. Genetic inactivation or depletion of the TRiC complex results in human HSF1 activation, and HSF1A inhibits the direct interaction between purified TRiC and HSF1 in vitro. These results demonstrate a direct regulatory interaction between the cytosolic chaperone machine and a critical transcription factor that protects cells from proteotoxicity, providing a mechanistic basis for signaling perturbations in protein folding to a stress-protective transcription factor.

  5. Defining the Essential Function of Yeast Hsf1 Reveals a Compact Transcriptional Program for Maintaining Eukaryotic Proteostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solís, Eric J; Pandey, Jai P; Zheng, Xu; Jin, Dexter X; Gupta, Piyush B; Airoldi, Edoardo M; Pincus, David; Denic, Vladimir

    2016-07-01

    Despite its eponymous association with the heat shock response, yeast heat shock factor 1 (Hsf1) is essential even at low temperatures. Here we show that engineered nuclear export of Hsf1 results in cytotoxicity associated with massive protein aggregation. Genome-wide analysis revealed that Hsf1 nuclear export immediately decreased basal transcription and mRNA expression of 18 genes, which predominately encode chaperones. Strikingly, rescuing basal expression of Hsp70 and Hsp90 chaperones enabled robust cell growth in the complete absence of Hsf1. With the exception of chaperone gene induction, the vast majority of the heat shock response was Hsf1 independent. By comparative analysis of mammalian cell lines, we found that only heat shock-induced but not basal expression of chaperones is dependent on the mammalian Hsf1 homolog (HSF1). Our work reveals that yeast chaperone gene expression is an essential housekeeping mechanism and provides a roadmap for defining the function of HSF1 as a driver of oncogenesis. PMID:27320198

  6. Study on the Ecological Restoration Project of Dalian Lake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Choosing Dalian Lake as study area to implement ecological restoration project,the existing environmental problems in Dalian Lake were analyzed firstly,and then the project area in Dalian Lake was divided into wetland restoration and reconstruction area,forest wetland cultivation area and shallow wetland restoration and diversity conservation area,finally corresponding restoration measures were put forward according to various function areas,so as to improve the economic output of wetland and operability an...

  7. Ecological interaction and phylogeny, studying functionality on composed networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Claudia P. T.; Fonseca, Carlos Roberto; Corso, Gilberto

    2012-02-01

    We study a class of composed networks that are formed by two tree networks, TP and TA, whose end points touch each other through a bipartite network BPA. We explore this network using a functional approach. We are interested in how much the topology, or the structure, of TX (X=A or P) determines the links of BPA. This composed structure is a useful model in evolutionary biology, where TP and TA are the phylogenetic trees of plants and animals that interact in an ecological community. We make use of ecological networks of dispersion of fruits, which are formed by frugivorous animals and plants with fruits; the animals, usually birds, eat fruits and disperse their seeds. We analyse how the phylogeny of TX determines or is correlated with BPA using a Monte Carlo approach. We use the phylogenetic distance among elements that interact with a given species to construct an index κ that quantifies the influence of TX over BPA. The algorithm is based on the assumption that interaction matrices that follows a phylogeny of TX have a total phylogenetic distance smaller than the average distance of an ensemble of Monte Carlo realisations. We find that the effect of phylogeny of animal species is more pronounced in the ecological matrix than plant phylogeny.

  8. Isolation of a cDNA for HSF 2: Evidence for two heat shock factor genes in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuetz, T.J.; Gallo, G.J.; Sheldon, L.; Kingston, R.E. (Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston (United States) Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)); Tempst, P. (Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States))

    1991-08-15

    The heat shock response is transcriptionally regulated by an evolutionarily conserved protein termed heat shock factor (HSF). The authors report the purification to homogeneity and the partial peptide sequence of HSF from HeLa cells. The peptide sequence was used to isolate a human cDNA with a predicted open reading frame that has homology to the DNA binding domains of both Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Drosophila HSFs. The cDNA directs the synthesis of a protein that binds to the heat shock element with specificity identical to HeLa HSF and stimulates transcription from a heat shock promoter. The expressed protein cross-reacts with anti-HSF antibodies. Surprisingly, however, this cDNA does not encode all of the peptides obtained from purified HeLa HSF. These peptides are encoded by a distinct human cDNA. HSF1. It therefore appears that there is a human heat shock factor gene family and that at least two separate but related HSF proteins regulate the stress response in humans.

  9. 大鼠再生肝中hsbp1、hsf1、hsf2、hsp70表达水平改变的分析%ANALYSIS OF CHANGES ABOUT hsbp1, hsf1, hsf2 AND hsp70'S EXPRESSION LEVELS IN RAT'S REGENERATING LIVER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏丽娟; 常翠芳; 韩鸿鹏; 马辉; 徐存拴

    2006-01-01

    在克隆了大鼠热休克因子结合蛋白1基因(hsbp1)全长cDNA基础上,进一步分析它在肝再生中作用.用SD纯系大鼠为材料,按Higgens等方法建立大鼠部分肝切除(PH)模型;用原位杂交等方法分析hsbp1在肝再生中表达变化;用基因表达谱芯片分析hsbp1、hsf1、hsf2和hsp70在肝再生中表达变化.原位杂交和基因表达谱芯片分析表明,PH后6h和66-144h,hsp1表达发生了有意义上调;8-16h,hsf1表达发生了有意义上调;2-16h,hsf2表达发生了有意义上调;0.5-24h,hsp70表达发生了有意义上调.假手术(只打开腹腔和翻动肝叶,但不进行部分肝切除)后0.5-2h,hsbp1表达发生了有意义下调;8-16h,hsf1表达发生了有意义上调;0-144h,hsf2未发生有意义表达变化;0.5-30h,hsp70表达发生了有意义上调.根据实验结果推测,PH后hsbp1表达上调可增加细胞内HSBP1量,促进生长、发育、分化相关基因表达和再生肝的组织结构功能重建;(假)手术后hsbp1表达下调可减少细胞内HSBP1量,有利于HSF1上调hsp70表达,提高机体和肝脏抗损伤能力.

  10. A DNA sequence directed mutual transcription regulation of HSF1 and NFIX involves novel heat sensitive protein interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umashankar Singh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Though the Nuclear factor 1 family member NFIX has been strongly implicated in PDGFB-induced glioblastoma, its molecular mechanisms of action remain unknown. HSF1, a heat shock-related transcription factor is also a powerful modifier of carcinogenesis by several factors, including PDGFB. How HSF1 transcription is controlled has remained largely elusive. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: By combining microarray expression profiling and a yeast-two-hybrid screen, we identified that NFIX and its interactions with CGGBP1 and HMGN1 regulate expression of HSF1. We found that CGGBP1 organizes a bifunctional transcriptional complex at small CGG repeats in the HSF1 promoter. Under chronic heat shock, NFIX uses CGGBP1 and HMGN1 to get recruited to this promoter and in turn affects their binding to DNA. Results show that the interactions of NFIX with CGGBP1 and HMGN1 in the soluble fraction are heat shock sensitive due to preferential localization of CGGBP1 to heterochromatin after heat shock. HSF1 in turn was found to bind to the NFIX promoter and repress its expression in a heat shock sensitive manner. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: NFIX and HSF1 exert a mutual transcriptional repressive effect on each other which requires CGG repeat in HSF1 promoter and HSF1 binding site in NFIX promoter. We unravel a unique mechanism of heat shock sensitive DNA sequence-directed reciprocal transcriptional regulation between NFIX and HSF1. Our findings provide new insights into mechanisms of transcription regulation under stress.

  11. E2F, HSF2, and miR-26 in thyroid carcinoma: bioinformatic analysis of RNA-sequencing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, J C; Zhang, Y P

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we examined the molecular mechanism of thyroid carcinoma (THCA) using bioinformatics. RNA-sequencing data of THCA (N = 498) and normal thyroid tissue (N = 59) were downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas. Next, gene expression levels were calculated using the TCC package and differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified using the edgeR package. A co-expression network was constructed using the EBcoexpress package and visualized by Cytoscape, and functional and pathway enrichment of DEGs in the co-expression network was analyzed with DAVID and KOBAS 2.0. Moreover, modules in the co-expression network were identified and annotated using MCODE and BiNGO plugins. Small-molecule drugs were analyzed using the cMAP database, and miRNAs and transcription factors regulating DEGs were identified by WebGestalt. A total of 254 up-regulated and 59 down-regulated DEGs were identified between THCA samples and controls. DEGs enriched in biological process terms were related to cell adhesion, death, and growth and negatively correlated with various small-molecule drugs. The co-expression network of the DEGs consisted of hub genes (ITGA3, TIMP1, KRT19, and SERPINA1) and one module (JUN, FOSB, and EGR1). Furthermore, 5 miRNAs and 5 transcription factors were identified, including E2F, HSF2, and miR-26. miR-26 may participate in THCA by targeting CITED1 and PLA2R1; E2F may participate in THCA by regulating ITGA3, TIMP1, KRT19, EGR1, and JUN; HSF2 may be involved in THCA development by regulating SERPINA1 and FOSB; and small-molecule drugs may have anti-THCA effects. Our results provide novel directions for mechanistic studies and drug design of THCA. PMID:26985959

  12. Study of ecological situation for the West Kazakhstan south districts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the results of comprehensive research for ecological status of Karabota, Kaztal, Dzhangaly, Dzhanibek and Akzhaik districts of the West Kazakhstan districts adjoining to 'Kapustin Yar' and Azgir' test sites are presented. In the indicated districts the following examinations were conducted: analysis of soils samples; bottom sediments, flora and fauna samples for determination of radionuclide and heavy metals content in its; determination of absorption dose with population by the EPR dosimetry method by human teeth enamel; study of α-radiation accumulation in a diverse trees' annual rings

  13. [Ecology and ecologies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valera, Luca

    2011-01-01

    Ecology (from the Greek words οιχοσ, "house" and λογια "study of") is the science of the "house", since it studies the environments where we live. There are three main ways of thinking about Ecology: Ecology as the study of interactions (between humans and the environment, between humans and living beings, between all living beings, etc.), Ecology as the statistical study of interactions, Ecology as a faith, or rather as a science that requires a metaphysical view. The history of Ecology shows us how this view was released by the label of "folk sense" to gain the epistemological status of science, a science that strives to be interdisciplinary. So, the aim of Ecology is to study, through a scientific methodology, the whole natural world, answering to very different questions, that arise from several fields (Economics, Biology, Sociology, Philosophy, etc.). The plurality of issues that Ecology has to face led, during the Twentieth-century, to branch off in several different "ecologies". As a result, each one of these new approaches chose as its own field a more limited and specific portion of reality.

  14. Study on RS- and GIS-based ecological capital assessment in arid areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Kefa; CHEN Xi; ZHOU Huarong; ZHANG Qing; ZUO Qiting; ZHANG Haibo; YAN Jinfeng; CHEN Chuan

    2006-01-01

    Ecological capital assessment is currently one of the important research contents in the interdisciplinary field of ecology, resources economics, environmental economics and ecological economics. To scientifically assess ecological capital redounds to decision-makers to consider the ecological cost in economic development, and is also necessary for sustainable economic development in arid areas. Based on the theory of landscape ecology,in this paper the per unit area ecological capital values in arid areas are researched by using the Landsat TM data, CBERS satellite data, meteorological data, MODIS satellite data and other ecological data,and the RS- and GIS-based models of assessing ecological capital values in arid areas are developed.Moreover, based on the field-measured data, a case study on ecological capital assessment in the Manas River basin, Xinjiang in 2003 is carried out. The basin is divided into 4 ecological capital areas so as to quantitatively calculate the ecological capital values of the ecosystems, analyze the spatial distribution of ecological capital, and chart the maps of spatial distribution of ecological capital. The results show that the total ecological capital value of the ecosystems in the Manas River basin in 2003 was 1.49454×1011yuan RMB. In spatial distribution, the ecological capital decreases from the alpine zones to the plains and from the oases to the deserts, which accords with the distribution of vegetation zonality in this arid area.The assessed results can objectively reflect the ecological capital and its spatial distribution in the arid basin, and can also provide reference for roundly carrying out the assessment of ecological capital in arid areas.

  15. HSF1 Induced High Expression of KLF4 Gene in Heat-shock Response%HSF1在热休克反应中对KLF4基因表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘瑛; 张华莉; 袁灿; 王秋鹏; 刘梅冬; 涂自智; 肖献忠

    2004-01-01

    [目的]观察热休克因子1(HSF1)在热休克反应中对Kruppel 样因子4(KLF4)基因表达的影响;采用生物信息学方法初步探讨KLF4在热休克反应中调控的下游基因.[方法]采用HSF1基因敲除小鼠热休克模型,抽提HSF1基因敲除小鼠(HSF1-/-)和野生型小鼠(HSF1+/+)心肌及肺组织的总RNA进行RT-PCR和Northern blot实验,观察KLF4 mRNA表达的情况.用热休克处理和HSF1过表达的小鼠RAW264.7巨噬细胞,抽提总RNA进行RT-PCR实验,观察KLF4 mRNA表达的情况;用TESS分析启动子含有KLF4结合位点的下游基因.[结果]热休克处理后,HSF1+/+小鼠组织中KLF4 mRNA的水平明显增加,HSF1-/-小鼠组织中KLF4 mRNA水平的增加明显低于HSF1+/+小鼠.小鼠RAW264.7巨噬细胞受热刺激后,KLF4 mRNA的水平明显增加;在HSF1过表达细胞中KLF4的表达也明显增高.经TESS软件分析发现6个启动子区含有KLF4结合位点的下游基因.[结论]HSF1诱导KLF4基因在热休克反应中呈现高表达.

  16. Plotting partial correlation and regression in ecological studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Moya-Laraño

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Multiple regression, the General linear model (GLM and the Generalized linear model (GLZ are widely used in ecology. The widespread use of graphs that include fitted regression lines to document patterns in simple linear regression can be easily extended to these multivariate techniques in plots that show the partial relationship of the dependent variable with each independent variable. However, the latter procedure is not nearly as widely used in ecological studies. In fact, a brief review of the recent ecological literature showed that in ca. 20% of the papers the results of multiple regression are displayed by plotting the dependent variable against the raw values of the independent variable. This latter procedure may be misleading because the value of the partial slope may change in magnitude and even in sign relative to the slope obtained in simple least-squares regression. Plots of partial relationships should be used in these situations. Using numerical simulations and real data we show how displaying plots of partial relationships may also be useful for: 1 visualizing the true scatter of points around the partial regression line, and 2 identifying influential observations and non-linear patterns more efficiently than using plots of residuals vs. fitted values. With the aim to help in the assessment of data quality, we show how partial residual plots (residuals from overall model + predicted values from the explanatory variable vs. the explanatory variable should only be used in restricted situations, and how partial regression plots (residuals of Y on the remaining explanatory variables vs. residuals of the target explanatory variable on the remaining explanatory variables should be the ones displayed in publications because they accurately reflect the scatter of partial correlations. Similarly, these partial plots can be applied to visualize the effect of continuous variables in GLM and GLZ for normal distributions and identity link

  17. Role of HSF1 in spatial learning task%HSF1基因在空间学习记忆能力中的作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭敏; 姚树桥; 朱熊兆

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨热休克因子1(heat shock factor 1,HSF1)在小鼠Morris水迷宫空间学习任务中的作用.方法 HSF1+/+小鼠12只,HSF1-/-小鼠12只,进入空间学习任务实验.小鼠在Morris水迷宫中训练7d后,处死,剥离前额叶,液氮冻存,Western blots检测磷酸化的细胞外调节蛋白激酶(phospho-Extracellular regulated protein kinases, P-Erk1/2)表达水平.结果 HSF1-/-小鼠在Morris水迷宫定向航行实验中,第1天至第7天逃避潜伏期均明显长于HSF1+/+小鼠(P<0.05).Western blots显示:HSF1-/-小鼠在Morris水迷宫学习任务中前额叶内P-Erk1/2水平明显低于HSF1+/+小鼠(P<0.05)相应的脑区.结论 HSF1在Morris水迷宫学习任务中能够维持前额叶Erk1/2激活,因而在Morris水迷宫空间学习任务中起着重要的作用.

  18. Expression of HSF1 and XAF1 in Gastro-intestinal Cancer%HSF1与XAF1基因在胃肠肿瘤中表达的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李霆; 陈村龙; 王继德; 崔生达; 崔丹瑜; 郭文

    2007-01-01

    目的 已知X连锁凋亡抑制蛋白(XIAP)相关因子1(XAF1)在胃肠癌细胞中低表达,本研究的目的 在于探讨XAF1与热休克转录因子1(HSF1)在胃肠癌中的表达情况及其相互关系.方法 应用免疫印迹分析法检测胃癌、大肠癌组织以及胃肠道肿瘤细胞株中的XAF1及HSF1蛋白表达;用含有HSF1的真核表达载体转染胃肠道肿瘤细胞株或用RNA干扰的方法上调或下调HSF1表达,同步检测对XAF1表达的影响;用应激原刺激诱导HSFl表达.观察对XAF1表达的作用.结果 在胃肠癌组织中HSF1的表达高于正常组织;在胃肠癌细胞株中XAF1与HSF1的表达呈负相关,应激刺激上调HSF1的同时下调XAF1表达.结论 胃肠道肿瘤细胞高表达HSF1,其结果是抑制XAF1表达,这种机制应该是XAF1在(胃肠道)肿瘤细胞中低表达并导致肿瘤细胞凋亡缺失的原因之一.

  19. The translational study of apathy – an ecological approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flurin eCathomas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Apathy, a quantitative reduction in goal-directed behavior, is a prevalent symptom dimension with a negative impact on functional outcome in various neuropsychiatric disorders including schizophrenia and depression. The aim of this review is to show that interview-based assessment of apathy in humans and observation of spontaneous rodent behavior in an ecological setting can serve as an important complementary approach to already existing task-based assessment, to study and understand the neurobiological bases of apathy. We first discuss the paucity of current translational approaches regarding animal equivalents of psychopathological assessment of apathy. We then present the existing evaluation scales for the assessment of apathy in humans and propose five sub-domains of apathy, namely self-care, social interaction, exploration, work/education and recreation. Each of the items in apathy evaluation scales can be assigned to one of these sub-domains. We then show that corresponding, well-validated behavioral readouts exist for rodents and that, indeed, three of the five human apathy sub-domains have a rodent equivalent. In conclusion, the translational ecological study of apathy in humans and mice is possible and will constitute an important approach to increase the understanding of the neurobiological bases of apathy and the development of novel treatments.

  20. The SIRT1 modulators AROS and DBC1 regulate HSF1 activity and the heat shock response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Raynes

    Full Text Available The heat shock response, the cellular response to protein damaging stress, is critical in maintaining proteostasis. The heat shock response is regulated by the transcription factor HSF1, which is activated upon heat shock and other stresses to induce the expression of molecular chaperones. SIRT1 has previously been shown to activate HSF1 by deacetylating it, leading to increased DNA binding ability. We have investigated how the heat shock response may be controlled by factors influencing SIRT1 activity. We found that heat shock results in an increase in the cellular NAD(+/NADH ratio and an increase in recruitment of SIRT1 to the hsp70 promoter. Furthermore, we found that the SIRT1 modulators AROS and DBC1 have an impact on hsp70 transcription, HSF1 acetylation status, and HSF1 recruitment to the hsp70 promoter. Therefore, AROS and DBC1 are now two new targets available for therapeutic regulation of the heat shock response.

  1. Ecological Compensation Mechanism of Agricultural Water Resources: An Empirical Study in Zhejiang, China

    OpenAIRE

    Qichang Hu

    2015-01-01

    Ecological compensation is a new area in the field of resources environment. In this study, we set an empirical analysis model about ecological compensation mechanism and analyze influential factors based on agricultural perspective. The result shows that: first, loss of development opportunities is the most important factor that will affect ecological compensation, the regression coefficient is 0.071; sec, environmental protection cost is the most significant variable in ecological compensat...

  2. A Critical Review of Some Ecological Studies on Scientific Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Shigeaki

    There have been hot discussions about the number and the rate of growth of scientific journals. The purpose of this review is intended to provide a critical assessment of those ecological studies on scientific journals. In 1961, Price presented his famous graph curve, and noted that rate of growth of journals had been fairly consisted at 5 per cent annum for nearly 300 years. But Price's graph curve has some primary error, and the author suggest to examine carefully his study. There is another problem that the loose definition of scientific journals is used. The author try to give a clear definition on the term ‘scientific journals’, and try to reestimate historically the growth rate in numbers of current scientific journals, referring several reliable studies previously conducted. The Author's estimation is about 1.85 per cent a year from the last of 18 century.

  3. New methodology for studying the structural ecology of occlusal caries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dige, Irene; Grønkjær, Lene; Nyvad, Bente

    Microbiological studies of occlusal dental biofilms have hitherto been hampered by inaccessibility to the sampling site and demolition of the original biofilm architecture. The aim of the present study was to explore the spatial distribution of bacterial taxa in vivo at various stages of occusal...... caries, applying a new methodology involving preparation of embedded hard dental tissue slices for fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and confocal microscopy. 11 extracted teeth were included in the study and classified according to their occlusal caries status (active/inactive/sound; cavitated...... to histological features of lesion penetration. The sites showed distinct differences in the bacterial composition and fluorescence intensity between different ecological niches in occlusal caries. Biofilm observed along the entrance of fissures showed an inner layer of microorganisms organized in palisades often...

  4. Identification of MicroRNA SNPs of HSF1 Gene and Their Association with Heat Tolerance in Chinese Holstein%中国荷斯坦牛HSF1基因microRNA SNPs与耐热性能的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李秋玲; 鞠志花; 贾祥捷; 黄金明; 李建斌; 李荣岭; 李芳; 王长法; 仲跻峰

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] Heat shock transcription factorl (HSF1) is the key protein in regulating heat stress response. [Method] The polymorphisms of HSF1 gene and their association with heat tolerance in 638 Chinese Holstein cattle were investigated for the purpose of providing molecular marker information to facilitate the breeding efficiency ofthermo tolerant cows.Primers were designed to amplify HSF1 gene fragment. DNA sequencing, PCR-SSCP and PCR-RFLP methods were used to analyze the polymorphisms. MicroRNA SNPs of HSF1 gene were localized by blasting to miRBASE database. Linkage disequilibrium and haplotype were analyzed using SHEsis software. The association of these polymorphisms with heat tolerance index including potassium content in erythrocytes (PCE), decrease rate of milk production (R), rectal temperature (RT) and heat-tolerance coefficient (HTC) was analyzed by SAS software. The transcriptional level of HSF1 mRNA under heat stress conditions was studied by fluorescent quantitative RT-PCR technology. [Result] Two novel microRNA SNPs, T909C and G4693T, were found. The cows with CC and CT genotype showed higher heat tolerance than those with TT genotype at T909C locus (P< 0.05). The cows with TT genotype showed higher heat tolerance than those with GG genotype at G4693T locus (P<0.05). Four haplotype and 10 haplotype combinations were found. The cows with H2H4 haplotype combination had lower PCE, RT and higher HCT than those with H1H3 haplotype combination (P<0.05). The cows with H2H4 haplotype combination had lower R than those with H1H1 haplotype combination (P<0.05). H2H4 was the heat tolerant haplotype combination. The transcriptional level of HSF1 mRNA under heat stress conditions was different in different tissues. The highest is that in heart, which is 11.24-fold enrichment than that in muscle (P<0.05). [Conclusion] microRNA SNPs of HSF1 gene could be chosen as the molecular markers for choosing thermo tolerant dairy cattle in breeding program

  5. Study on vegetation ecological water requirement in Ejina Oasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The Ecological Water Requirement (EWR) of desert oasis is the amount of water required to maintain a normal growth of vegetation in the special ecosystems. In this study EWR of the Ejina desert oasis is estimated through the relational equation between normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), productivity and transpiration coefficient, which was established by a combination of the RS, GIS, GPS techniques with the field measurements of productivity. The results show that about 1.53×108 m3 water would be needed to maintain the present state of the Ejina Oasis, and the ecological water requirement would amount to 3.49×108 m3 if the existing vegetation was restored to the highest productivity level at present. Considering the domestic water requirement, river delivery loss, oasis vegetation water con-sumption, farmland water demand, precipitation recharge, etc., the draw-off discharge of the Heihe River (at Longxin Mount) should be 1.93×108―2.23 ×108 m3 to maintain the present state of the Ejina Oasis, and 4.28×108―5.17×108 m3 to make the existing vegetation be restored to the highest productiv-ity level at present.

  6. Study on ecological structures of coastal lakes in Antarctic continent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Coastal region on the Antarctic continent, where it is under the influences both of ocean and ice sheet, as well as frequent human activities, could be considered as a fragile zone in Antarctic ecological environment. There are many lakes in coastal region, showing much differences from each other in physical-chemical features because of individual evolutionary history in their geographical environments, and suffering from different outside factors, such as climate changes and precipitation. Thus, it results in respective biological distribution and ecological structure in lakes. The present paper reports the results from the studies of chemical components, species distributions and community structures, which mainly consisted of planktons in lakes in the Vestfold Hills (68°38'S, 78°06'E), and the Larsemann Hills (69°30'S, 76°20'E), East Antarctica. It also treats the biological diversities and nutrient relationships of these different types of lakes. So as to provide more scientific basis for monitoring of climate changes and environmental protection in Antarctica.

  7. The wing in yeast heat shock transcription factor (HSF) DNA-binding domain is required for full activity

    OpenAIRE

    Cicero, Marco P.; T. Hubl, Susan; Harrison, Celia J.; Littlefield, Otis; Hardy, Jeanne A.; Nelson, Hillary C. M.

    2001-01-01

    The yeast heat shock transcription factor (HSF) belongs to the winged helix family of proteins. HSF binds DNA as a trimer, and additional trimers can bind DNA co-operatively. Unlike other winged helix–turn–helix proteins, HSF’s wing does not appear to contact DNA, as based on a previously solved crystal structure. Instead, the structure implies that the wing is involved in protein–protein interactions, possibly within a trimer or between adjacent trimers. To unders...

  8. HSF1生理特征及调控HSP表达的研究进展%Progress in the Physical Character and Regulation of HSF1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐雪; 马中富; 黄帆

    2008-01-01

    热休克因子1(the heat shock factorl,HSF1)通过与热休克蛋白基因上游的热休克元件相结合而调控热休克蛋白的表达,保护机体免受应激因素损害.其活化受到理化因素、细胞因子等不同水平机制的调控,具有结构、功能、活化以及调控过程的自身特点.

  9. Hsf1对人肝癌细胞株PLC/PRF5的生长调控作用%Regulatory fe fect of Hsf1 on PLC/PRF5 hepa toma cells proliferation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋杞英; 张智; 王明丽; 马远方

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨热休克转录因子1(Heat shock transcription factor 1,Hsf1)对人肝癌细胞株PLC/PRF5生长的调控作用。方法:通过shRNA基因沉默技术,构建 Hsf1基因沉默的PLC/PRF5肝癌细胞株。采用 Western blot检测PLC/PRF5肝癌细胞Hsf 1、p53和Rb蛋白的表达。通过四甲基偶氮唑盐( Methylthiazolyl tetrazolium assay ,MTT)法、平板克隆实验和细胞周期的检测,观察PLC/PRF5细胞株的增殖情况。结果:shRNA-Hsf1能有效地沉默Hsf1在PLC /PRF5细胞中的表达;shRNA-Hsf1能有效阻滞细胞周期于G1期,抑制PLC/PRF5细胞的生长速度和细胞克隆形成率;Hsf1基因沉默可上调PLC/PRF5细胞p53和Rb蛋白的表达。结论:Hsf1基因沉默可通过上调p53和Rb蛋白的表达抑制肝癌细胞株PLC/PRF5的增殖。%Objective:To explore the regulatory effect of Hsf 1 on PLC/PRF5 hepatoma cells proliferation.Methods: By shRNA gene silencing technology ,constructed PLC/PRF5 hepatoma cell line of Hsf 1 gene silencing.To detect the expression of Hsf 1, p53 and Rb proteins in PLC/PRF5 hepatoma cells by Western blot.The proliferation of PLC/PRF5 cell line was observed by methylthiazolyl tetrazolium assay ( MTT ) , plate clone formation assay ( PCFA ) and cell cycle assay.Results: shRNA-Hsf1 could significantly inhibit the expression of Hsf 1 in PLC/PRF5 cells.It could induce PLC/PRF5 cells stopping at G1 phase of cell cycle , inhibit cell proliferation and colonal formation;silencing Hsf1 caused up-regulation of p53 and Rb proteins expression in PLC/PRF5 cells.Conclusion: Silencing Hsf1 is involved in up-regulation of p53 and Rb proteins expression , which results in inhibiting proliferation of PLC/PRF5 hepatoma cells.

  10. assessing contributions of jgofs; previewing Studies in Ocean Ecology, Biogeochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Deborah K.; Ducklow, Hugh W.; Buesseler, Ken O.; Bowles, Margaret C.

    Despite impediments to travel imposed by global political and health concerns, 332 scientists and students from 32 countries gathered in Washington, D.C. in early May to celebrate the conclusion of the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS), and to assess both its accomplishments and the future course of research in ocean ecology and biogeochemistry.Launched in 1987 under the auspices of the Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research (SCOR), JGOFS became the first core project of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP) 2 years later as its first field studies were getting underway. Global in scope and multinational and interdisciplinary from its inception, JGOFS adopted two major goals: to understand the processes controlling the cycling of carbon and other biogenic elements in the ocean and their exchange with the atmosphere and the sea floor, and to advance our capacity to predict the response of ocean systems to anthropogenic perturbations.

  11. Agriculture and snakebite in Bahia, Brazil - An ecological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mise, Yukari F; Lira-da-Silva, Rejâne M; Carvalho, Fernando M

    2016-07-15

    This study investigated the correlation between the incidence of snakebite and indicators of agricultural development in municipal districts of the State of Bahia, Brazil. An ecological study was conducted with the 27,347 cases of snakebite poisoning reported to the Reportable Diseases National Information System in municipalities from the State of Bahia, Brazil, 2000-2009. The unit of analysis was each one of the 417 State municipalities, and the outcome variable was the average annual incidence of snakebite. Data were analyzed by multiple linear regression technique. The average annual incidence of snakebite ranged from zero to 221.96 per 100,000 inhabitants, according to the municipalities. The incidence of snakebite was positively and strongly associated with municipality characteristics: planted areas of cocoa and coffee, and the size of domestic bred chicken and bovine livestocks. It was concluded that several characteristics related to municipal agricultural profile were strongly associated with the incidence of snakebite. PMID:27660860

  12. Packaging and distributing ecological data from multisite studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, R.J.; Voorhees, L.D.; Field, J.M.; Gentry, M.J.

    1996-10-01

    Studies of global change and other regional issues depend on ecological data collected at multiple study areas or sites. An information system model is proposed for compiling diverse data from dispersed sources so that the data are consistent, complete, and readily available. The model includes investigators who collect and analyze field measurements, science teams that synthesize data, a project information system that collates data, a data archive center that distributes data to secondary users, and a master data directory that provides broader searching opportunities. Special attention to format consistency is required, such as units of measure, spatial coordinates, dates, and notation for missing values. Often data may need to be enhanced by estimating missing values, aggregating to common temporal units, or adding other related data such as climatic and soils data. Full documentation, an efficient data distribution mechanism, and an equitable way to acknowledge the original source of data are also required.

  13. Ecological and sociological considerations of wind energy: A multidisciplinary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicknell, Lucas John

    Wind energy is quickly becoming a critical technology for providing Americans with renewable energy, and rapid construction of wind facilities may have impacts on both wildlife and human communities. Understanding both the social and ecological issues related to wind energy development could provide a framework for effectively meeting human energy needs while conserving species biodiversity. In this research I looked at two aspects of wind energy development: public attitudes toward wind energy development and wind facility impacts on local bat populations. These papers present aspects of wind energy development that have been the subject of increasing study. This preliminary research is intended to demonstrate the responsibility we have to making well-informed decisions as we continue to expand wind energy development. Additionally, I hope to generate interest in interdisciplinary study as a means to broaden the scope of research by making use of the diverse tools available within different disciplines.

  14. Study on Ecological Compensation System and Land Desertification Control

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Zhixiang; Gao, Bingtao

    2009-01-01

    The problems of desertification control in China are analyzed from the perspective of ecological compensation. Firstly, there is no guarantee of ecological compensation system in desertification control. On the basis of knowing land desertification connotation, the western region is taken as an example to analyze the serious consequence brought by land desertification, besides, the connotation and importance of ecological compensation are summarized, as well as the views related to resolve th...

  15. Sex specific effects of heat induced hormesis in Hsf-deficient Drosophila melanogaster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, J G; Kristensen, Torsten Nygård; Kristensen, K V;

    2007-01-01

    In insects mild heat stress early in life has been reported to increase life span and heat resistance later in life, a phenomenon termed hormesis. Here, we test if the induction of the heat shock response by mild heat stress is mediating hormesis in longevity and heat resistance at older age....... To test this hypothesis we used two heat shock transcription factor (Hsf) mutant stocks. One stock harbours a mutation giving rise to a heat sensitive Hsf which inactivates the heat shock response at high temperature and the other is a rescued mutant giving rise to a wild-type phenotype. We measured...... longevity, heat resistance and expression level of a heat shock protein, Hsp70, in controls and mildly heat treated flies. We found a marked difference between males and females with males showing a beneficial effect of the early heat treatment on longevity and heat resistance later in life in the rescued...

  16. Ecological tax reform - an optimal solution?. Critical remarks on the DIW study ''Economic effects of an ecological tax reform''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Through the latest expertise of the German institute for economic research (DIW) regarding an ecological tax reform, the discussion about a tax system considering the shortage of the ressource environment and a deficiency of demand regarding the ressource work is newly provoked. The focus of this article is a critical dealing with the methodical procedure of the German institute for economic reserarch when analyzing the national economic effect of a concretely formulated ecological tax law scenario. When assessing the overall economic consequences of a tax reform, it is recommended to use an analysis instrument, which is farly more consistent compared to the instruments by DIW, and which is more problem adequate through the increased resort to financial knowledge. Based on the obvious weakness of the DIW study, a more extensive comprehension for an ecological tax reform is pleaded for, standing out for an application of taxes based on division of labour and oriented to the objective. (orig./UA)

  17. Dynamic Changes of Land Ecological Carrying Capacity Based on the Ecological Footprint——By the Case Study of Chengdu City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenfu PENG; Xiaolan ZHONG; Qiuyang LI; Qin LI

    2012-01-01

    Chengdu City is in the period of rapid urbanization and industrialization, and the disturbance derived from human activities on environment is increasing remarkablely in recent 20 years. The pressure on environment, economy and population is also increasing and land use in Chengdu has changed enormously. As struc- ture and function of land ecological system change obviously, sustainable development of land productivity has been an important goal and strategic task from now on, and it is necessary to systematically research land ecological carrying capacity based on ecological footprint. The ecological footprint of Chengdu City in the past ten years was calculated and analyzed from the spatial and temporal aspects according to statistical data from 1998 to 2008, as per ecological footprint method, ecological carrying capacity and the GIS spatial analysis method, and regression analysis method. The ecological footprint and ecological carrying capacity values from 2009 to 2019 in Chengdu City were predicted through calculation results in the past ten years. The results show that the ecological footprint and ecological deficit of land use from 1998 to 2008 increased in Chengdu City. The ecological deficit of land use within the city center was in high levels in the past ten years, and the ecological footprint kept raising, especially in areas, such as Shuangliu, Chongzhou, Qingyang among 9 city areas, 4 counties and 6 districts in Chengdu City. There is fanlike distribution of ecological deficit of land use. Analysis shows that the social and natural ecological system is uneven distribution, which is not in sustainable de- velopment situation. The results of the study show that the economic, social and natural ecological system in Chengdu City is not sustainable, and the ecological foot- print is uneven distribution. The analysis of the dynamic change of land ecological carrying capacity in Chengdu City is very important for city government in the pro- cess of the

  18. [Applications of stable isotope analysis in the trophic ecology studies of cephalopods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun-Kai; Gong, Yi; Chen, Xin-Jun

    2014-05-01

    Cephalopods play an important role in marine food webs, however, knowledge about their complex life history, especially their feeding ecology, remains limited. With the rapidly increasing use of stable isotope analysis (SIA) in ecology, it becomes a powerful tool and complement of traditional methods for investigating the trophic ecology and migration patterns of invertebrates. Here, after summarizing the current methods for trophic ecology investigation of cephalopods, applications of SIA in studying the trophic ecology of cephalopods were reviewed, including the key issues such as standardization of available tissues for SIA analyzing, diet shift and migration patterns of cephalopods, with the aim of advancing its application in the biology of cephalopods in the future.

  19. HSF1-TPR interaction facilitates export of stress-induced HSP70 mRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaggs, Hollie S; Xing, Hongyan; Wilkerson, Donald C; Murphy, Lynea A; Hong, Yiling; Mayhew, Christopher N; Sarge, Kevin D

    2007-11-23

    Stress conditions inhibit mRNA export, but mRNAs encoding heat shock proteins continue to be efficiently exported from the nucleus during stress. How HSP mRNAs bypass this stress-associated export inhibition was not known. Here, we show that HSF1, the transcription factor that binds HSP promoters after stress to induce their transcription, interacts with the nuclear pore-associating TPR protein in a stress-responsive manner. TPR is brought into proximity of the HSP70 promoter after stress and preferentially associates with mRNAs transcribed from this promoter. Disruption of the HSF1-TPR interaction inhibits the export of mRNAs expressed from the HSP70 promoter, both endogenous HSP70 mRNA and a luciferase reporter mRNA. These results suggest that HSP mRNA export escapes stress inhibition via HSF1-mediated recruitment of the nuclear pore-associating protein TPR to HSP genes, thereby functionally connecting the first and last nuclear steps of the gene expression pathway, transcription and mRNA export.

  20. Developmental expression of Hsp90, Hsp70 and HSF during morphogenesis in the vetigastropod Haliotis asinina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunter, Helen M; Degnan, Bernard M

    2007-08-01

    Heat shock proteins (Hsps) have dual functions, participating in both the stress response and a broad range of developmental processes. At physiological temperatures, it has been demonstrated in deuterostomes (vertebrates) and ecdysozoans (insects) that Hsps are expressed in tissues that are undergoing differentiation and morphogenesis. Here we investigate the developmental expression of Hsp70, Hsp90 and their regulatory transcription factor heat shock transcription factor (HSF) in the marine gastropod Haliotis asinina, a representative of the 3rd major lineage of bilaterian animals, the Lophotrochozoa. HasHsp70, HasHsp90 and HasHSF are maternally expressed in H. asinina and are progressively restricted to the micromere lineage during cleavage. During larval morphogenesis, they are expressed in unique and overlapping patterns in the prototroch, foot, and mantle. Hsp expression peaked in these tissues during periods of cell differentiation and morphogenesis, returning to lower levels after morphogenesis was complete. These patterns of Hsp and HSF expression in H. asinina are akin to those observed in ecdysozoans and deuterostomes, with Hsps being activated in cells and tissues undergoing morphogenesis.

  1. A study on the measurement for forest ecological benefit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张杰; 李绪尧; 姜秋来; 李长胜; 刘鹏; 董丹峰; 林丽莎; 徐文婷

    2000-01-01

    The indexes of dependent variables of the measurement on the forest ecological benefits were defined according to the analysis of the multiple ecological benefits of forest. This indexes system includes water-reserving, soil and water conservation, wind and sand suppression, microclimate improvement, carbon dioxide assimilation, atmosphere purification, flood and drought mitigation, tourism resource and wild creature protection benefits. The main factors from the numerous factors that affect dependent variables were chosen as independent variables. At last, a multivariate linear model was established for measurement of forest ecological benefit. With this multivariate linear model the forest ecological benefit of China was calculated. The forest ecological benefit of China is 723816 million yuan per year, which equals to 23.07% of the gross domestic product of China.

  2. Hydrodynamic and Ecological Assessment of Nearshore Restoration: A Modeling Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Along the Pacific Northwest coast, much of the estuarine habitat has been diked over the last century for agricultural land use, residential and commercial development, and transportation corridors. As a result, many of the ecological processes and functions have been disrupted. To protect coastal habitats that are vital to aquatic species, many restoration projects are currently underway to restore the estuarine and coastal ecosystems through dike breaches, setbacks, and removals. Information on physical processes and hydrodynamic conditions are critical for the assessment of the success of restoration actions. Restoration of a 160- acre property at the mouth of the Stillaguamish River in Puget Sound has been proposed. The goal is to restore native tidal habitats and estuary-scale ecological processes by removing the dike. In this study, a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model was developed for the Stillaguamish River estuary to simulate estuarine processes. The model was calibrated to observed tide, current, and salinity data for existing conditions and applied to simulate the hydrodynamic responses to two restoration alternatives. Responses were evaluated at the scale of the restoration footprint. Model data was combined with biophysical data to predict habitat responses at the site. Results showed that the proposed dike removal would result in desired tidal flushing and conditions that would support four habitat types on the restoration footprint. At the estuary scale, restoration would substantially increase the proportion of area flushed with freshwater (< 5 ppt) at flood tide. Potential implications of predicted changes in salinity and flow dynamics are discussed relative to the distribution of tidal marsh habitat.

  3. The progress in the study of Arctic pack ice ecology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何剑锋; 王桂忠; 蔡明红; 李少菁

    2004-01-01

    The sea ice community plays an important role in the Arctic marine ecosystem. Because of the predicted environmental changes in the Arctic environment and specifically related to sea ice, the Arctic pack ice biota has received more attention in recent years using modern ice-breaking research vessels. Studies show that the Arctic pack ice contains a diverse biota and besides ice algae, the bacterial and protozoan biomasses can be high. Surprisingly high primary production values were observed in the pack ice of the central Arctic Ocean. Occasionally biomass maximum were discovered in the interior of the ice floes, a habitat that had been ignored in most Arctic studies. Many scientific questions, which deserve special attention, remained unsolved due to logistic limitations and the sea ice characteristics. Little is know about the pack ice community in the central Arctic Ocean. Almost no data exists from the pack ice zone for the winter season. Concerning the abundance of bacteria and protozoa, more studies are needed to understand the microbial network within the ice and its role in material and energy flows. The response of the sea ice biota to global change will impact the entire Arctic marine ecosystem and a long-term monitoring program is needed. The techniques, that are applied to study the sea ice biota and the sea ice ecology, should be improved.

  4. mTOR is essential for the proteotoxic stress response, HSF1 activation and heat shock protein synthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiuh-Dih Chou

    Full Text Available The target of rapamycin (TOR is a high molecular weight protein kinase that regulates many processes in cells in response to mitogens and variations in nutrient availability. Here we have shown that mTOR in human tissue culture cells plays a key role in responses to proteotoxic stress and that reduction in mTOR levels by RNA interference leads to increase sensitivity to heat shock. This effect was accompanied by a drastic reduction in ability to synthesize heat shock proteins (HSP, including Hsp70, Hsp90 and Hsp110. As HSP transcription is regulated by heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1, we examined whether mTOR could directly phosphorylate this factor. Indeed, we determined that mTOR could directly phosphorylate HSF1 on serine 326, a key residue in transcriptional activation. HSF1 was phosphorylated on S326 immediately after heat shock and was triggered by other cell stressors including proteasome inhibitors and sodium arsenite. Null mutation of S326 to alanine led to loss of ability to activate an HSF1-regulated promoter-reporter construct, indicating a direct role for mTOR and S326 in transcriptional regulation of HSP genes during stress. As mTOR is known to exist in at least two intracellular complexes, mTORC1 and mTOR2 we examined which complex might interact with HSF1. Indeed mTORC1 inhibitor rapamycin prevented HSF1-S326 phosphorylation, suggesting that this complex is involved in HSF1 regulation in stress. Our experiments therefore suggest a key role for mTORC1 in transcriptional responses to proteotoxic stress.

  5. Sudbury soils study : summary of volume 3 : ecological risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-03-15

    The Sudbury soils study was comprised of 3 volumes: (1) a background, study organization and 2001 soils survey; (2) a human health risk assessment; and (3) an ecological risk assessment (ERA). This document provided details of the ERA, which was conducted to characterize the current and future risks of chemicals of concern (COC) to terrestrial and ecosystem components from Sudbury smelter particulate emissions. The extent to which COC are preventing the recovery of regionally representative terrestrial plant communities was investigated. Risks to terrestrial wildlife populations and endangered species and communities were evaluated. Samples of soil, water, sediment, plants, terrestrial invertebrates, and fish tissue were collected. Data were then analyzed by scientists and independent consultants in order to assess the impacts of arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, copper, lead, nickel and selenium. Results of the study indicated that terrestrial plant communities in the region continue to be impacted by COC in the soil, as well as by soil erosion, low nutrient levels, and a lack of soil organic matter. Direct impacts on wildlife populations were also observed. 5 refs., 7 tabs., 21 figs.

  6. Cloning and Sequence Analysis of HSF1 cDNA Full Length of Hainan Yellow Cattle%海南黄牛HSF1 cDNA全长的克隆与序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成鹰; 林杰材; 满初日嘎; 米华存; 祁超; 李治深; 杜丽; 王凤阳; 刘涛; 申明霞; 张莉娜; 张巍; 吴科榜

    2008-01-01

    目的:根据人、小鼠HSF1cDNA保守区序列设计引物,通过PCR方法扩增海南黄牛HSF1cDNA,并进行序列分析.方法:利用RT-PER、半巢式PCR以及3'-RACE技术分段扩增得到了海南黄牛HSF1cDNA序列,测序正确后进行拼接.用DNANAN生物信息学软件分析海南黄牛HSF1cDNA与赫里福德牛、人、小鼠同源性和海南黄牛HSF1蛋白的氨基酸组成、等电点、亲/疏水区等蛋白质性质,并根据各种动物HSF1蛋白绘制进化树.结果:(1)海南黄牛的HSF1 cDNA序列全长为1 993bp,包括150bp的5'非翻译区,1 578bp的开放阅读框以及264bp(不含poly(A)尾)的3'非翻译区,编码524个氨基酸,分子量为56.42 kD,等电点(pI)为4.79.(2)海南黄牛的HSF1 cDNA与赫里福德牛、小鼠和人HSF1 cDNA的同源性分别为98.99%、81.78%、87.82%,相应编码蛋白氨基酸序列的同源性分别为98.86%、83.84%、89.06%,其中N-末端和C-末端高度保守,而中间区域存在缺失或替换.(3)根据氨基酸序列构建不同动物HSF1蛋白的进化树,与采用经典遗传分类法构建的进化树基本一致.结论:首次克隆了海南黄牛HSF1 cDNA全长,分析表明:海南黄牛HSF1蛋白是亲水性蛋白,在8种动物中,其同源性大于73%,高度保守.海南黄牛与赫里福德牛HSF1蛋白同源性高达98.86%,在三聚体化区域、转录调节域和激活域存在6个位点的单氨基酸突变,这些发现为进一步揭示海南黄牛抗热性状形成的分子机制提供了重要依据.

  7. 前列腺癌中HSF1蛋白的表达及与临床病理特征的相关性%Correlation Between Expression of HSF1 and Clinicopathological Features of Prostate Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓波; 齐琳; 唐正严; 阮景德

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨HSF1在前列腺癌组织中的表达及与前列腺癌各项临床病理特征的关系.方法 应用免疫组织化学法和图像分析系统研究82例前列腺癌标本中HS目的 表达情况.结果 HSF1蛋白在前列腺癌癌细胞胞浆部化染色阳性,阳性表达率为89.2%.HSF1在前列腺癌组织中的表达与Gleason评分呈正相关(r=0.66,P<0.001).HSF1表达与PSA水平随PSA升高而升高,呈正相关(r=0.76,P<0.001).结论 HSF1蛋白在前列腺癌中表达增加,可能与调控热休克蛋白家族成员作用机制有关.

  8. PCR方法在HSF1基因敲除小鼠基因型分析中的应用%Genotype Analysis of HSF1 Gene Knockout Mice with Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈广文; 刘喜玲; 肖献忠

    2002-01-01

    目的为HSF1基因敲除鼠探索快速、简单的基因型PCR检测方法.方法设计两对引物扩增野生型HSF1基因和HSF1缺陷突变基因的DNA片段,用PCR仪梯度方案测试最佳退火温度,并将所得基因型结果与经典的Southern blot方法比较.结果野生型仅在562 bp处有一条条带,突变纯合子仅在377 bp处有一条条带,杂合子则在377 bp和562 bp处出现两条条带. 用PCR方法获得的HSF1基因分析结果与经典的Southern blot方法获得的结果完全一致.结论用PCR方法分析HSF1基因敲除鼠的基因型具有快速、简单、廉价和适用的特点.

  9. 双荧光素酶报告质粒检测小鼠巨噬细胞热休克转录因子1调控核转录因子kappa B活性的研究%A Study of the Effects of HSF1 on NF-κB Activity in RAW264.7 Macrophages by Dual-luciferase Assay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雄; 罗成群; 周建大; 贺全勇; 徐阳成

    2010-01-01

    目的:观察烧伤血清刺激后小鼠巨噬细胞NF-κB活性的变化,以及HSF1对NF-κB可能的调控作用.方法:制作15%TBSA Ⅲ°烧伤小鼠模型,提取烧伤血清.通过表达质粒与报告质粒共转染,检测烧伤血清诱导下NF-κB活性的变化以及过表达HSFI后NF-κB活性的变化规律.结果:对比正常血清,烧伤血清刺激后相对荧光素酶活性早期即明显增加(P<0.05),这种变化在诱导后2 h即达到高峰,12 h后逐渐下降;过表达HSF1可以显著抑制烧伤血清引起这种活性变化(P<0.05).结论:烧伤后NF-κB早期即活化,热休克反应可能通过HSF1途径抑制NF-κB的活性.

  10. Aggregation of polyQ proteins is increased upon yeast aging and affected by Sir2 and Hsf1: novel quantitative biochemical and microscopic assays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aviv Cohen

    Full Text Available Aging-related neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's, Alzheimer's and Huntington's diseases, are characterized by accumulation of protein aggregates in distinct neuronal cells that eventually die. In Huntington's disease, the protein huntingtin forms aggregates, and the age of disease onset is inversely correlated to the length of the protein's poly-glutamine tract. Using quantitative assays to estimate microscopically and capture biochemically protein aggregates, here we study in Saccharomyces cerevisiae aging-related aggregation of GFP-tagged, huntingtin-derived proteins with different polyQ lengths. We find that the short 25Q protein never aggregates whereas the long 103Q version always aggregates. However, the mid-size 47Q protein is soluble in young logarithmically growing yeast but aggregates as the yeast cells enter the stationary phase and age, allowing us to plot an "aggregation timeline". This aging-dependent aggregation was associated with increased cytotoxicity. We also show that two aging-related genes, SIR2 and HSF1, affect aggregation of the polyQ proteins. In Δsir2 strain the aging-dependent aggregation of the 47Q protein is aggravated, while overexpression of the transcription factor Hsf1 attenuates aggregation. Thus, the mid-size 47Q protein and our quantitative aggregation assays provide valuable tools to unravel the roles of genes and environmental conditions that affect aging-related aggregation.

  11. Expression of hsp70, hsp90 and hsf1 in the reef coral Acropora digitifera under prospective acidified conditions over the next several decades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masako Nakamura

    2012-02-01

    Ocean acidification is an ongoing threat for marine organisms due to the increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration. Seawater acidification has a serious impact on physiologic processes in marine organisms at all life stages. On the other hand, potential tolerance to external pH changes has been reported in coral larvae. Information about the possible mechanisms underlying such tolerance responses, however, is scarce. In the present study, we examined the effects of acidified seawater on the larvae of Acropora digitifera at the molecular level. We targeted two heat shock proteins, Hsp70 and Hsp90, and a heat shock transcription factor, Hsf1, because of their importance in stress responses and in early life developmental stages. Coral larvae were maintained under the ambient and elevated CO2 conditions that are expected to occur within next 100 years, and then we evaluated the expression of hsps and hsf1 by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Expression levels of these molecules significantly differed among target genes, but they did not change significantly between CO2 conditions. These findings indicate that the expression of hsps is not changed due to external pH changes, and suggest that tolerance to acidified seawater in coral larvae may not be related to hsp expression.

  12. Temporal and Spatial Melanoma Trends in Austria: An Ecological Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Haluza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Annual solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR is mostly determined by latitude and altitude. Over the last decades, increasing UVR ground levels have been observed. Exposure to UVR is associated with a life-time risk to develop melanoma, a malign skin cancer. Thus, we hypothesized that melanoma incidence in Austria is associated with altitude of place of living and time of diagnosis. We investigated this hypothesis in an ecological study by district and year for Austrian melanoma incidence (1990–2010 and mortality (1970–2011 data. As expected, incidence rates increased with altitude (about 2% per 10 m and year (about 2%. Additionally, melanoma incidence rates were about 50% higher in urban than in rural districts. In contrast, mortality rates decreased with altitude (for males: 0.4% per 10 m, for women: 0.7% per 10 m, respectively. The observed discrepancy between incidence and mortality data could partly be explained by melanoma diagnosis at earlier tumor stage in districts with higher altitude. Possible reasons for this finding include higher awareness of patients, better diagnostic performance of medical professionals working at higher altitudes, or slower tumor growth due to protective effects of sun light-associated vitamin D synthesis.

  13. Ecological study of isolation and suicide in Tuscany (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martiello, Michele Arcangelo; Giacchi, Mariano Vincenzo

    2012-06-30

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the association between suicide and demographic and socio-economic measures in Tuscany. Data on standardized rates of suicide from 1997 to 2005 in addition to census-derived variables, income and abstention were derived from the Mortality register, the 2001 Census, the Tax Agency and the Regional Electoral Office databases. Pearson's correlation and stepwise multiple regression analyses (unweighted and weighted by population) were used to analyze the association between suicide rates and demographic and socio-economic measures for the 34 health districts for both males and females. The correlation analyses showed that suicide was significantly associated with many variables in men, but only with old age in women. The multiple regression analyses showed that the best predictors in men were education, single person households and isolated houses (only education and single person households in the weighted model). For women, the best predictors were the proportion of elderly people and income (this was also true for the weighted model, but in the opposite order). An ecological correlation between suicide and measures of economic deprivation and social fragmentation was found in both men and women. Among the best predictors, isolated houses may act as a marker for remoteness and isolation on a small scale.

  14. An Ecological Flood Control System in Phoenix Island of Huzhou, China: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuowen Wang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Traditional flood control systems always have a conflict with natural ones, i.e., rivers in cities are usually straight and smooth, whereas natural ones are according to ecological mechanisms. Social and economic developments in the modern world require a new system combining ecological needs and traditional flood control system. Ecological flood control systems were put forward and defined as flood control systems with full consideration of ecological demands for sustainable development. In such systems, four aspects are promoted: connectivity of water system, landscapes of river and lakes, mobility of water bodies, and safety of flood control. In Phoenix Island, Huzhou, needs for ecological flood controls were analyzed from the four aspects above. The Water system layout was adjusted with the water surface ratio, which is the ratio of water surface area (including rivers, lakes, and other water bodies to the total drainage area, and connectivity as controlling indicators. The designed water levels provided references for landscape plant selection. Mobility of the adjusted water system was analyzed, including flow direction and residence time. On the bases mentioned above, ecological flood control projects were planned with comprehensive consideration of the ecological requirements. The case study indicates that ecological needs can be integrated with flood control to develop ecological flood control systems that do not only prevent floods but also retain the ecological functions of water bodies.

  15. MEDIA, ECOLOGY AND WILDLIFE CONSERVATION: AN ANALYTICAL RESEARCH STUDY OF DUDHWA NATIONAL PARK

    OpenAIRE

    Anurag Swaroop; M. K. Padhy

    2015-01-01

    Ecology is a science of ecosystems or totality of reciprocal interactions between living organisms and their physical surroundings (Clark 1973). The word ecology signifies the study of environments: their structure, content, and impact on people. Ecology is theoretically an academic discipline, such as mathematics or physics. The word wildlife is usually associated with non-domesticated vertebrates, but has broadly related to all wild animals, plants and other organisms. People from diverse f...

  16. HSF1中的半胱氨酸残基氧化还原状态对其功能的调节%HSF1 may have Integrated Redox Dependent Regulation of Cysteine Residues into Its Function Response

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林正; 黄帆; 罗兰; 张式鸿; 马中富; 吴兴刚; 徐康

    2005-01-01

    人热休克转录因子1(heat shock transcription factor l,HSF1)的结构和功能与其半胱氨酸残基的氧化还原化学性能相关.为了鉴别在氧化还原状态改变时参与分子内双硫键交联的HSF1半胱氨酸残基,了解其氧化还原化学性改变在生物学调节中的重要性,通过建立和应用重组人HSF1中的5个半胱氨酸突变体和1个双重突变体,并用已知的巯基氧化介导剂联氨(diamide,H2N·NH2)和还原介导剂二硫苏糖醇(DTT)与在体外转录和翻译的HSF1突变体蛋白质预孵育,观察其构象和与DNA结合活性的改变.结果显示,与野生型一样,所有的HSF1半胱氨酸突变体都能被热激活并与DNA结合;联氨预处理能阻断这种作用,但对突变体C153S和双重突变体G373、378S无效.氧化还原状态对HSF1构象改变显示联氨能使HSF1野生型和突变体C36T和C103Y形成氧化型HSF1(ox-HSF1)构象,但对C153S和C373、378S双重突变体不起作用,而单一突变体C373S或C378S在联氨作用下分别形成二种分子量稍不同的ox-HSF1构象.结果提示,在氧化条件下HSF1中的半胱氨酸残基C153可能与C373或与G378形成分子内二硫键交联;在对抗氧化作用上5C153和C373、C378起着"关闭性"作用,预防了HSF1的激活.

  17. Targeted Acoustic Data Processing for Ocean Ecological Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidorovskaia, N.; Li, K.; Tiemann, C.; Ackleh, A. S.; Tang, T.; Ioup, G. E.; Ioup, J. W.

    2015-12-01

    The Gulf of Mexico is home to many species of deep diving marine mammals. In recent years several ecological studies have collected large volumes of Passive Acoustic Monitoring (PAM) data to investigate the effects of anthropogenic activities on protected and endangered marine mammal species. To utilize these data to their fullest potential for abundance estimates and habitat preference studies, automated detection and classification algorithms are needed to extract species acoustic encounters from a continuous stream of data. The species which phonate in overlapping frequency bands represent a particular challenge. This paper analyzes the performance of a newly developed automated detector for the classification of beaked whale clicks in the Northern Gulf of Mexico. Current used beaked whale classification algorithms rely heavily on experienced human operator involvement in manually associating potential events with a particular species of beaked whales. Our detection algorithm is two-stage: the detector is triggered when the species-representative phonation band energy exceeds the baseline detection threshold. Then multiple event attributes (temporal click duration, central frequency, frequency band, frequency sweep rate, Choi-Williams distribution shape indices) are measured. An attribute vector is then used to discriminate among different species of beaked whales present in the Gulf of Mexico and Risso's dolphins which were recognized to mask the detections of beaked whales in the case of widely used energy-band detectors. The detector is applied to the PAM data collected by the Littoral Acoustic Demonstration Center to estimate abundance trends of beaked whales in the vicinity of the 2010 oil spill before and after the disaster. This algorithm will allow automated processing with minimal operator involvement for new and archival PAM data. [The research is supported by a BP/GOMRI 2015-2017 consortium grant.

  18. Study on the Programming Standard for Ecological Rescue in General Land Use Planning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bai Wei; Hao Jinmin; Zhang Qiuping

    2006-01-01

    This paper aims at establishing the operation idea based on the analysis of the connotation, principles and reference indexes for programming standard for ecological rescue. The paper puts forward that the programming standard should take into account the natural, social and economic reference indexes, and modifies the scale and distribution of the ecological rescue according to the order of ecological safety, social safety and economic development. The paper suggests that the land planning department should strengthen the study and datum accumulation in order to establish the technology regulations of programming standard of the ecological rescue.

  19. Site-Specific ecological risk assessment. Case-study 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, John

    The decision supporting and integrating assessment tool, TRIAD, is used site-specific on PAH- and heavy metal contaminated sites in Denmark. The various aspects of the TRIAD approach are used on a set of chemistry-, ecotoxicology- and ecology related data collected among others in the EU project...... “Development of a decision support system for sustainable management of contaminated land by linking bioavailability, ecological risk and ground water pollution of organic pollutants”or in short “LIBERATION”. The presentation includes examples on how to scale and integrate the results from various scientific...

  20. Hsf1-潜在的睾丸支持细胞雄激素受体靶基因%Hsf1 as a potential target of androgen/AR in mouse sertoli cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王亚东; 叶炯贤; 牟丽莎; 来永庆; 李贤新; 桂耀庭

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨雄激素受体(AR)对睾丸支持细胞中热休克转录因子1(Hsf1)基因表达的影响及其分子机制.方法 采用PCR法及Western blot法检测,AR特异性敲除(S-AR-/y)小鼠和野生型(WT)小鼠睾丸组织中Hsf1的表达,观察雄激素对TM4细胞系中Hsf1和热休克蛋白(HSPs)表达的影响.结果 与WT小鼠比较,S-AR-/y小鼠睾丸组织中Hsf1表达水平升高(P<0.05);雄激素显著降低TM4细胞中热休克转录因子-1(HSF1)表达(P<0.05),并且HSF1能够升高热休克蛋白105(HSP105)和HSP60水平.结论 Hsf1可能是睾丸支持细胞中AR调控的靶基因.%Objective To identify the heat shook transcription factor-l( Hsfl ) as a target gene of AR in sertoli cells and its molecular mechanism in male infertility. Methods PCR and Western blot was used to compare the expression level of Hsfl in sertoli cell-selective knockout AR mice ( S-AR-/y ) with wild type mice ( WT ) and TM4 cell line with or without testosterone. Results Hsfl expression level in S-AR-/y mice was significantly increased compared with WT mice. On condition of testosterone, Hsfl expression of TM4 cell line was significantly reduced in both mRNA and protein level. Moreover, our data suggested that HSF1 acted as a positive factor for target gene expression, in particular regulating heat shock protein 105 ( HSP105 ) and HSP60. Conclusion The Hsfl may plays as a novel target gene of AR in mice sertoli cells.

  1. Ecological studies on rain forest in Northern Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulz, J.P.

    1960-01-01

    During the years 1955-1957 ecological data were collected in various types of mesophytic forest occurring in the northern half of central Suriname (fig. 1). Physiognomically as well as floristically these forests correspond with the type of vegetation which in the other parts of tropical America gen

  2. HSF-1, HIF-1and HSP90 expression on recombinant Pichia pastoris under fed-batch fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea B. Zepeda

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Pichia pastoris is a methylotrophic yeast used as an efficient expression system for heterologous protein production as compared to other expression systems. Considering that every cell must respond to environmental changes to survive and differentiate, determination of endogenous protein related to heat stress responses and hypoxia, it would necessary to establish the temperature and methanol concentration conditions for optimal growth. The aim of this study is characterize the culture conditions through the putative biomarkers in different conditions of temperature and methanol concentration. Three yeast cultures were performed: 3X = 3% methanol -10 °C, 4X = 3% methanol -30 °C, and 5X = 1% methanol -10 °C. The expression level of HIF-1α, HSF-1, HSP-70 and HSP-90 biomarkers were measured by Western blot and in situ detection was performed by immunocytochemistry. The western blot results of HIF-1α and HSP-90 did not indicate statistically significant in the culture conditions studied. Respect to biomarkers location, HIF-1α and HSP-90 presented differences between cultures. In conclusion, the results suggest the cultures in a hypoxic condition produce a high density and yeast cells smaller. Beside the high density would not necessary related with a high production of recombinant proteins in modified-genetically P. pastoris.

  3. Transcriptional regulation of heat shock proteins and ascorbate peroxidase by CtHsfA2b from African bermudagrass conferring heat tolerance in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiuyun; Huang, Wanlu; Yang, Zhimin; Liu, Jun; Huang, Bingru

    2016-01-01

    Heat stress transcription factor A2s (HsfA2s) are key regulators in plant response to high temperature. Our objectives were to isolate an HsfA2 gene (CtHsfA2b) from a warm-season grass species, African bermudagrass (Cynodon transvaalensis Burtt-Davy), and to determine the physiological functions and transcriptional regulation of HsfA2 for improving heat tolerance. Gene expression analysis revealed that CtHsfA2b was heat-inducible and exhibited rapid response to increasing temperature. Ectopic expression of CtHsfA2b improved heat tolerance in Arabidopsis and restored heat-sensitive defects of Arabidopsis hsfa2 mutant, which was demonstrated by higher survival rate and photosynthetic parameters, and lower electrolyte leakage in transgenic plants compared to the WT or hsfa2 mutant. CtHsfA2b transgenic plants showed elevated transcriptional regulation of several downstream genes, including those encoding ascorbate peroxidase (AtApx2) and heat shock proteins [AtHsp18.1-CI, AtHsp22.0-ER, AtHsp25.3-P and AtHsp26.5-P(r), AtHsp70b and AtHsp101-3]. CtHsfA2b was found to bind to the heat shock element (HSE) on the promoter of AtApx2 and enhanced transcriptional activity of AtApx2. These results suggested that CtHsfA2b could play positive roles in heat protection by up-regulating antioxidant defense and chaperoning mechanisms. CtHsfA2b has the potential to be used as a candidate gene to genetically modify cool-season species for improving heat tolerance. PMID:27320381

  4. CASE STUDY: Community Based Ecological Mangrove Rehabilitation (CBEMR) in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Ben; Fadillah, Ratna; Nurdin, Yusran; Soulsby, Iona; Ahmad, Rio

    2014-01-01

    While successful examples of large-scale (5 000-10 000 ha) ecological wetland/mangrove rehabilitation projects exist worldwide, mangrove rehabilitation efforts in Indonesia, both large and small, have mainly failed. The majority of projects (both government programs and non-government initiatives) have oversimplified the technical processes of mangrove rehabilitation, favouring the direct planting of a restricted subset of mangrove species (from the family Rhizophoracea), commonly in the lowe...

  5. Political Cultural Ecology and the Study of Regions in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Fábregas Puig, Andrés

    2009-01-01

    This paper shows why Cultural Ecology, understood as a method to explore the relationships between the environment and cultural processes, has deeply influenced a whole generation of Mexican anthropologists as a result of the teachings of Ángel Palerm and Eric Wolf. The practical application of Steward’s theories to the processes of Mexican regional formation, linked to the use of hydraulic technologies as part of both adaptative cultural strategies and the political control of water in the p...

  6. Assessing Conifer Ray Parenchyma for Ecological Studies: Pitfalls and Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Arx, Georg; Arzac, Alberto; Olano, José M; Fonti, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Ray parenchyma is an essential tissue for tree functioning and survival. This living tissue plays a major role for storage and transport of water, nutrients, and non-structural carbohydrates (NSC), thus regulating xylem hydraulics and growth. However, despite the importance of rays for tree carbon and water relations, methodological challenges hamper knowledge about ray intra- and inter-tree variability and its ecological meaning. In this study we provide a methodological toolbox for soundly quantifying spatial and temporal variability of different ray features. Anatomical ray features were surveyed in different cutting planes (cross-sectional, tangential, and radial) using quantitative image analysis on stem-wood micro-sections sampled from 41 mature Scots pines (Pinus sylvestris). The percentage of ray surface (PERPAR), a proxy for ray volume, was compared among cutting planes and between early- and latewood to assess measurement-induced variability. Different tangential ray metrics were correlated to assess their similarities. The accuracy of cross-sectional and tangential measurements for PERPAR estimates as a function of number of samples and the measured wood surface was assessed using bootstrapping statistical technique. Tangential sections offered the best 3D insight of ray integration into the xylem and provided the most accurate estimates of PERPAR, with 10 samples of 4 mm(2) showing an estimate within ±6.0% of the true mean PERPAR (relative 95% confidence interval, CI95), and 20 samples of 4 mm(2) showing a CI95 of ±4.3%. Cross-sections were most efficient for establishment of time series, and facilitated comparisons with other widely used xylem anatomical features. Earlywood had significantly lower PERPAR (5.77 vs. 6.18%) and marginally fewer initiating rays than latewood. In comparison to tangential sections, PERPAR was systematically overestimated (6.50 vs. 4.92%) and required approximately twice the sample area for similar accuracy. Radial cuttings

  7. Assessing conifer ray parenchyma for ecological studies: pitfalls and guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg evon Arx

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Ray parenchyma is an essential tissue for tree functioning and survival. This living tissue plays a major role for storage and transport of water, nutrients and non-structural carbohydrates (NSC, thus regulating xylem hydraulics and growth. However, despite the importance of rays for tree carbon and water relations, methodological challenges hamper knowledge about ray intra- and inter-tree variability and its ecological meaning. In this study we provide a methodological toolbox for soundly quantifying spatial and temporal variability of different ray features.Anatomical ray features were surveyed in different cutting planes (cross-sectional, tangential, and radial using quantitative image analysis on stem-wood micro-sections sampled from 41 mature Scots pines (Pinus sylvestris. The percentage of ray surface (PERPAR, a proxy for ray volume, was compared among cutting planes and between early- and latewood to assess measurement-induced variability. Different tangential ray metrics were correlated to assess their similarities. The accuracy of cross-sectional and tangential measurements for PERPAR estimates as a function of number of samples and the measured wood surface was assessed using bootstrapping statistical technique. Tangential sections offered the best 3D insight of ray integration into the xylem and provided the most accurate estimates of PERPAR, with 10 samples of 4 mm2 showing an estimate within ±6.0% of the true mean PERPAR (relative 95% confidence interval, CI95, and 20 samples of 4 mm2 showing a CI95 of ±4.3%. Cross-sections were most efficient for establishment of time series, and facilitated comparisons with other widely used xylem anatomical features. Earlywood had significantly lower PERPAR (5.77 vs. 6.18% and marginally fewer initiating rays than latewood. In comparison to tangential sections, PERPAR was systematically overestimated (6.50 vs. 4.92% and required approximately twice the sample area for similar accuracy. Radial

  8. Application of ecological footprint in ecological industrial systems :a study case of maize-MSG production systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Lizhen; Cheng Shengkui; Min Qingwen; Sun Yehong

    2007-01-01

    To improve the comparability of the research results of ecological industry, the ecological footprint is applied to analyze the resource utilization and environmental pollution in various subsystems, taking maize-MSG as a case.Results show that the production process from maize to MSG is a extended process of ecological footprint, and that the ecological footprint of the maize production is the biggest; the extension of ecological footprint is followed by the increase of footprint profit, which means that the extension of production chain is an important method to improve the resources profit; the systems have a big proportion of the indirect energy ecological footprint; the air and water pollution in MSG subsystem is the most serious. At last, it can be identified that ecological footprint is a good method to measure resource utilization and environmental pollution in various subsystems of an integrated ecological industry.

  9. Ecological niche transferability using invasive species as a case study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Fernández

    Full Text Available Species distribution modeling is widely applied to predict invasive species distributions and species range shifts under climate change. Accurate predictions depend upon meeting the assumption that ecological niches are conserved, i.e., spatially or temporally transferable. Here we present a multi-taxon comparative analysis of niche conservatism using biological invasion events well documented in natural history museum collections. Our goal is to assess spatial transferability of the climatic niche of a range of noxious terrestrial invasive species using two complementary approaches. First we compare species' native versus invasive ranges in environmental space using two distinct methods, Principal Components Analysis and Mahalanobis distance. Second we compare species' native versus invaded ranges in geographic space as estimated using the species distribution modeling technique Maxent and the comparative index Hellinger's I. We find that species exhibit a range of responses, from almost complete transferability, in which the invaded niches completely overlap with the native niches, to a complete dissociation between native and invaded ranges. Intermediate responses included expansion of dimension attributable to either temperature or precipitation derived variables, as well as niche expansion in multiple dimensions. We conclude that the ecological niche in the native range is generally a poor predictor of invaded range and, by analogy, the ecological niche may be a poor predictor of range shifts under climate change. We suggest that assessing dimensions of niche transferability prior to standard species distribution modeling may improve the understanding of species' dynamics in the invaded range.

  10. Studies on Marine Oil Spills and Their Ecological Damage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MEI Hong; YIN Yanjie

    2009-01-01

    The sources of marine oil spills are mainly from accidents of marine oil tankers or freighters, marine oil-drilling platforms, marine oil pipelines, marine oilfields, terrestrial pollution, oil-bearing atmosphere, and offshore oil production equipment. It is concluded upon analysis that there are two main reasons for marine oil spills: (Ⅰ) The motive for huge economic benefits of oil Industry owners and oil shipping agents far surpasses their sense of ecological risks. (Ⅱ) Marine ecological safety has not become the main concern of national security. Oil spills are disasters because humans spare no efforts to get economic benefits from oil. The present paper draws another conclusion that marine ecological damage caused by oil spills can be roughly divided into two categories: damage to marine resource value (direct value) and damage to marine ecosystem service value (indirect value). Marine oil spills cause damage to marine biological, fishery, seawater, tourism and mineral resources to various extents, which contributes to the lower quality and value of marine resources.

  11. Studies on marine oil spills and their ecological damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Hong; Yin, Yanjie

    2009-09-01

    The sources of marine oil spills are mainly from accidents of marine oil tankers or freighters, marine oil-drilling platforms, marine oil pipelines, marine oilfields, terrestrial pollution, oil-bearing atmosphere, and offshore oil production equipment. It is concluded upon analysis that there are two main reasons for marine oil spills: (I) The motive for huge economic benefits of oil industry owners and oil shipping agents far surpasses their sense of ecological risks. (II) Marine ecological safety has not become the main concern of national security. Oil spills are disasters because humans spare no efforts to get economic benefits from oil. The present paper draws another conclusion that marine ecological damage caused by oil spills can be roughly divided into two categories: damage to marine resource value (direct value) and damage to marine ecosystem service value (indirect value). Marine oil spills cause damage to marine biological, fishery, seawater, tourism and mineral resources to various extents, which contributes to the lower quality and value of marine resources.

  12. Assessing Landscape Ecological Risk in a Mining City: A Case Study in Liaoyuan City, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Peng

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Landscape ecological risk assessment can effectively identify key elements for landscape sustainability, which directly improves human wellbeing. However, previous research has tended to apply risk probability, measured by overlaying landscape metrics to evaluate risk, generally lacking a quantitative assessment of loss and uncertainty of risk. This study, taking Liaoyuan City as a case area, explores landscape ecological risk assessment associated with mining cities, based on probability of risk and potential ecological loss. The assessment results show landscape ecological risk is lower in highly urbanized areas than those rural areas, suggesting that not only cities but also natural and semi-natural areas contribute to overall landscape-scale ecological risk. Our comparison of potential ecological risk in 58 watersheds in the region shows that ecological loss are moderate or high in the 10 high-risk watersheds. The 35 moderate-risk watersheds contain a large proportion of farmland, and the 13 low-risk watersheds are mainly distributed in flat terrain areas. Our uncertainty analyses result in a close range between simulated and calculated values, suggesting that our model is generally applicable. Our analysis has good potential in the fields of resource development, landscape planning and ecological restoration, and provides a quantitative method for achieving landscape sustainability in a mining city.

  13. Study on the Ecological Ethics of Agricultural College Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhihong; MENG

    2013-01-01

    From the perspective of environmental sociology,a questionnaire survey was conducted on the environmental awareness and behaviors of undergraduates from nearly all fields of majors in Sichuan Agricultural University. According to the investigation results,there are los of problems,for example,the college students generally do not have adequate knowledge about environment and are unclear about the existing na- tional ecological law system; their attitude towards environment is often influenced by their majors; their evaluation of environment is far from the reality; their environmental behaviors are weakly restrained and conserved. According to these problems,related suggestions were proposed.

  14. Amchitka aquatic ecology studies, third quarter, January through March 1968: Progress report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objectives of the aquatic ecology study include an assessment of the fish and aquatic invertebrate populations in the streams and in the ponds throughout the...

  15. STABLE ISOTOPES IN ECOLOGICAL STUDIES: NEW DEVELOPMENTS IN MIXING MODELS (URUGUAY)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stable isotopes are increasingly being used as tracers in ecological studies. One application uses isotopic ratios to quantify the proportional contributions of multiple sources to a mixture. Examples include pollution sources for air or water bodies, food sources for animals, ...

  16. The transcriptional coactivator PGC1α protects against hyperthermic stress via cooperation with the heat shock factor HSF1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, L; Ma, X; Bagattin, A; Mueller, E

    2016-01-01

    Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are required for the clearance of damaged and aggregated proteins and have important roles in protein homeostasis. It has been shown that the heat shock transcription factor, HSF1, orchestrates the transcriptional induction of these stress-regulated chaperones; however, the coregulatory factors responsible for the enhancement of HSF1 function on these target genes have not been fully elucidated. Here, we demonstrate that the cold-inducible coactivator, PGC1α, also known for its role as a regulator of mitochondrial and peroxisomal biogenesis, thermogenesis and cytoprotection from oxidative stress, regulates the expression of HSPs in vitro and in vivo and modulates heat tolerance. Mechanistically, we show that PGC1α physically interacts with HSF1 on HSP promoters and that cells and mice lacking PGC1α have decreased HSPs levels and are more sensitive to thermal challenges. Taken together, our findings suggest that PGC1α protects against hyperthermia by cooperating with HSF1 in the induction of a transcriptional program devoted to the cellular protection from thermal insults. PMID:26890141

  17. The transcriptional coactivator PGC1α protects against hyperthermic stress via cooperation with the heat shock factor HSF1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, L; Ma, X; Bagattin, A; Mueller, E

    2016-02-18

    Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are required for the clearance of damaged and aggregated proteins and have important roles in protein homeostasis. It has been shown that the heat shock transcription factor, HSF1, orchestrates the transcriptional induction of these stress-regulated chaperones; however, the coregulatory factors responsible for the enhancement of HSF1 function on these target genes have not been fully elucidated. Here, we demonstrate that the cold-inducible coactivator, PGC1α, also known for its role as a regulator of mitochondrial and peroxisomal biogenesis, thermogenesis and cytoprotection from oxidative stress, regulates the expression of HSPs in vitro and in vivo and modulates heat tolerance. Mechanistically, we show that PGC1α physically interacts with HSF1 on HSP promoters and that cells and mice lacking PGC1α have decreased HSPs levels and are more sensitive to thermal challenges. Taken together, our findings suggest that PGC1α protects against hyperthermia by cooperating with HSF1 in the induction of a transcriptional program devoted to the cellular protection from thermal insults.

  18. Ecological studies related to construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility on the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Savannah River Ecology Laboratory has completed 10 years of ecological studies related to the construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) on the Savannah River Site. This progress report examines water quality studies on streams peripheral to the DWPF construction site and examines the effectiveness of ''refuge ponds'' in ameliorating the effects of construction on local amphibians. Individual papers on these topics are indexed separately. 93 refs., 15 figs., 15 tabs

  19. Ecological studies related to construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility on the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, D.E.; Pechmann, J.H.K.; Knox, J.N.; Estes, R.A.; McGregor, J.H.; Bailey, K. (ed.)

    1988-12-01

    The Savannah River Ecology Laboratory has completed 10 years of ecological studies related to the construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) on the Savannah River Site. This progress report examines water quality studies on streams peripheral to the DWPF construction site and examines the effectiveness of refuge ponds'' in ameliorating the effects of construction on local amphibians. Individual papers on these topics are indexed separately. 93 refs., 15 figs., 15 tabs. (MHB)

  20. A holistic approach to studying social-ecological systems and its application to southern Transylvania

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Hanspach; Tibor Hartel; Andra I. Milcu; Friederike Mikulcak; Ine Dorresteijn; Jacqueline Loos; Henrik von Wehrden; Tobias Kuemmerle; David Abson; Anikó Kovács-Hostyánszki; András Báldi; Joern Fischer

    2014-01-01

    Global change presents risks and opportunities for social-ecological systems worldwide. Key challenges for sustainability science are to identify plausible future changes in social-ecological systems and find ways to reach socially and environmentally desirable conditions. In this context, regional-scale studies are important, but to date, many such studies have focused on a narrow set of issues or applied a narrow set of tools. Here, we present a holistic approach to work through the complex...

  1. Applications of C and N stable isotopes to ecological and environmental studies in seagrass ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Lepoint, Gilles; Dauby, Patrick; Gobert, Sylvie

    2004-01-01

    Stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen are increasingly used in marine ecosystems, for ecological and environmental studies. Here, we examine some applications of stable isotopes as ecological integrators or tracers in seagrass ecosystem studies. We focus on both the use of natural isotope abundance as food web integrators or environmental tracers and on the use of stable isotopes as experimental tools. As ecosystem integrators, stable isotopes have helped to elucidate the general structure o...

  2. 苯并[a]芘对内皮细胞HSF1与HSE结合特性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐增光; 文冠华; 杨晓波; 杨进波; 邬堂春

    2005-01-01

    目的研究苯并[a]芘(BaP)作用下热休克转录因子1(HSF1)与热休克元件(HSE)结合特性,分析BaP对热应激蛋白70(HSP70)的表达的影响。方法取对数生长期的猪主动脉内皮细胞传代培养,分别以不同浓度的BaP染毒(0、0.1、0.5、1、5、10μmol/L)24h,提取细胞核蛋白,用凝胶阻滞电泳实验(EMSA)检测结合率。结果低(0.1μM)、中剂量(0.5,1μM)BaP可使HSF1-HSE结合率上升,高剂量(5,10μM)BaP使HSF1-HSE结合率明显降低。结论BaP可改变细胞HSF1-HSE结合能力,低、中剂量的BaP使HSF1-HSE结合率升高,提示可促进HSP70表达,高浓度BaP可抑制HSP70的表达。

  3. RhoA Activation Sensitizes Cells to Proteotoxic Stimuli by Abrogating the HSF1-Dependent Heat Shock Response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roelien A M Meijering

    Full Text Available The heat shock response (HSR is an ancient and highly conserved program of stress-induced gene expression, aimed at reestablishing protein homeostasis to preserve cellular fitness. Cells that fail to activate or maintain this protective response are hypersensitive to proteotoxic stress. The HSR is mediated by the heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1, which binds to conserved heat shock elements (HSE in the promoter region of heat shock genes, resulting in the expression of heat shock proteins (HSP. Recently, we observed that hyperactivation of RhoA conditions cardiomyocytes for the cardiac arrhythmia atrial fibrillation. Also, the HSR is annihilated in atrial fibrillation, and induction of HSR mitigates sensitization of cells to this disease. Therefore, we hypothesized active RhoA to suppress the HSR resulting in sensitization of cells for proteotoxic stimuli.Stimulation of RhoA activity significantly suppressed the proteotoxic stress-induced HSR in HL-1 atrial cardiomyocytes as determined with a luciferase reporter construct driven by the HSF1 regulated human HSP70 (HSPA1A promoter and HSP protein expression by Western Blot analysis. Inversely, RhoA inhibition boosted the proteotoxic stress-induced HSR. While active RhoA did not preclude HSF1 nuclear accumulation, phosphorylation, acetylation, or sumoylation, it did impair binding of HSF1 to the hsp genes promoter element HSE. Impaired binding results in suppression of HSP expression and sensitized cells to proteotoxic stress.These results reveal that active RhoA negatively regulates the HSR via attenuation of the HSF1-HSE binding and thus may play a role in sensitizing cells to proteotoxic stimuli.

  4. A study of ecological red-line area partitioning in the Chishui River Basin in Guizhou

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S. F.; An, Y. L.

    2016-08-01

    Maintaining ecosystem balance and realizing the strategic goal of sustainable development are key objectives in the field of environmental sciences. Accordingly, drawing ecological red lines in sensitive and vulnerable environmental areas and important ecological function areas, determining the distribution range of ecological red-line areas, providing scientific guidance for developmental activities, and effectively managing the ecological environment are significant work tasks supported by policy guidance from the State Council and from knowledge gained in educational circles. Taking the Chishui River Basin in Guizhou as the study object, this research selected water and soil loss sensitivity, as well as assessments of karst rocky desertification sensitivity as background assessments of the eco-environment. Furthermore, the functions of soil conservation, water conservation, and biodiversity protection were integrated with exploitation-prohibited areas, and an organic combination of ecological needs and social service functions was created. Spatial comprehensive overlay analysis and processing revealed that the combination marked nine major ecological red-line areas in a total area of 5,030.58 km2, which occupied 44.16% of the total basin area. By combining the current eco-environmental situation of the Chishui River Basin with the marked out red-line areas, this research proposed corresponding ecological red-line area management suggestions. These suggestions are expected to provide a scientific foundation for eco-environmental protection and subsequent scientific research in Chishui River Basin.

  5. The Effects of Materialism and Consumer Ethics on Ecological Behavior: An Empirical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hülya Bakırtaş

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available World populations have increased day by day. Thus, production volume of companies have increased depend on increasing population. Besides, fashion and/or technologyinfluence consumer’s goods or services purchasing decision. Consequently, the type and the number of product produced have increased and natural resources both more are being used and depleted. At this point has come to the fore the consumer’s environmental concern and ecological behavior and has gained importance. Studies about environmentalconcern in marketing began depending on living of some problems in the early 1970s. Environmental concern concept assesses in terms of both individual concern and socialconcern. Individual concern states to abuse of the environment of individual consumers while social concern states perceived need for social, political, and legal changes to protect the environment. There is a positive relationship between environmental concern and ecological behavior. This study was examined the relationship between materialism,consumer ethics, environmental concern and ecological consumer behavior. This study was carried out between dates of September and November 2013. To test thehypotheses of the study, regression analysis has been used. Results show that consumer ethics has positive impact on both environmental concern and ecological behaviour ofconsumer. Besides, materialism has negative impact on ecological behaviour.Keywords: Environmental concern, consumer ethics, materialism, ecological behavior.

  6. Affect Regulation and Purging: An Ecological Momentary Assessment Study in Purging Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Haedt-Matt, Alissa A.; Keel, Pamela K.

    2015-01-01

    Research suggests that affect may play an important role in the propensity to purge among women with Purging Disorder (PD). However, prior work has been constrained to cross-sectional or laboratory designs which impact temporal interpretations and ecological validity. This study examined the role of negative affect (NA) and positive affect (PA) in triggering and maintaining purging in PD using ecological momentary assessment. Women with PD (N=24) made multiple daily ratings of affect and beha...

  7. Assessing Landscape Ecological Risk in a Mining City: A Case Study in Liaoyuan City, China

    OpenAIRE

    Jian Peng; Minli Zong; Yi'na Hu; Yanxu Liu; Jiansheng Wu

    2015-01-01

    Landscape ecological risk assessment can effectively identify key elements for landscape sustainability, which directly improves human wellbeing. However, previous research has tended to apply risk probability, measured by overlaying landscape metrics to evaluate risk, generally lacking a quantitative assessment of loss and uncertainty of risk. This study, taking Liaoyuan City as a case area, explores landscape ecological risk assessment associated with mining cities, based on probability of ...

  8. Ecological speciation in the tropics: Insights from comparative genetic studies in Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano B Beheregaray

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Evolution creates and sustains biodiversity via adaptive changes in ecologically relevant traits. Ecologically mediated selection contributes to genetic divergence both in the presence or absence of geographic isolation between populations, and is considered an important driver of speciation. Indeed, the genetics of ecological speciation is becoming increasingly studied across a variety of taxa and environments. In this paper we review the literature of ecological speciation in the tropics. We report on low research productivity in tropical ecosystems and discuss reasons accounting for the rarity of studies. We argue for research programs that simultaneously address biogeographical and taxonomic questions in the tropics, while effectively assessing relationships between reproductive isolation and ecological divergence. To contribute towards this goal, we propose a new framework for ecological speciation that integrates information from phylogenetics, phylogeography, population genomics and simulations in evolutionary landscape genetics (ELG. We introduce components of the framework, describe ELG simulations (a largely unexplored approach in ecological speciation, and discuss design and experimental feasibility within the context of tropical research. We then use published genetic datasets from populations of five codistributed Amazonian fish species to assess the performance of the framework in studies of tropical speciation. We suggest that these approaches can assist in distinguishing the relative contribution of natural selection from biogeographic history in the origin of biodiversity, even in complex ecosystems such as Amazonia. We also discuss on how to assess ecological speciation using ELG simulations that include selection. These integrative frameworks have considerable potential to enhance conservation management in biodiversity rich ecosystems and to complement historical biogeographic and evolutionary studies of tropical biotas.

  9. Ecological speciation in the tropics: insights from comparative genetic studies in Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beheregaray, Luciano B; Cooke, Georgina M; Chao, Ning L; Landguth, Erin L

    2014-01-01

    Evolution creates and sustains biodiversity via adaptive changes in ecologically relevant traits. Ecologically mediated selection contributes to genetic divergence both in the presence or absence of geographic isolation between populations, and is considered an important driver of speciation. Indeed, the genetics of ecological speciation is becoming increasingly studied across a variety of taxa and environments. In this paper we review the literature of ecological speciation in the tropics. We report on low research productivity in tropical ecosystems and discuss reasons accounting for the rarity of studies. We argue for research programs that simultaneously address biogeographical and taxonomic questions in the tropics, while effectively assessing relationships between reproductive isolation and ecological divergence. To contribute toward this goal, we propose a new framework for ecological speciation that integrates information from phylogenetics, phylogeography, population genomics, and simulations in evolutionary landscape genetics (ELG). We introduce components of the framework, describe ELG simulations (a largely unexplored approach in ecological speciation), and discuss design and experimental feasibility within the context of tropical research. We then use published genetic datasets from populations of five codistributed Amazonian fish species to assess the performance of the framework in studies of tropical speciation. We suggest that these approaches can assist in distinguishing the relative contribution of natural selection from biogeographic history in the origin of biodiversity, even in complex ecosystems such as Amazonia. We also discuss on how to assess ecological speciation using ELG simulations that include selection. These integrative frameworks have considerable potential to enhance conservation management in biodiversity rich ecosystems and to complement historical biogeographic and evolutionary studies of tropical biotas.

  10. Ecological Optimization and Parametric Study of an Irreversible Regenerative Modified Brayton Cycle with Isothermal Heat Addition

    OpenAIRE

    Vivek Tiwari; Subhash Chandra Kaushik; Sudhir Kumar Tyagi

    2003-01-01

    Abstract: An ecological optimization along with a detailed parametric study of an irreversible regenerative Brayton heat engine with isothermal heat addition have been carried out with external as well as internal irreversibilities. The ecological function is defined as the power output minus the power loss (irreversibility) which is ambient temperature times the entropy generation rate. The external irreversibility is due to finite temperature difference between the heat engine and the exter...

  11. Toward a Network Perspective of the Study of Resilience in Social-Ecological Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan R. J. McAllister

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Formal models used to study the resilience of social-ecological systems have not explicitly included important structural characteristics of this type of system. In this paper, we propose a network perspective for social-ecological systems that enables us to better focus on the structure of interactions between identifiable components of the system. This network perspective might be useful for developing formal models and comparing case studies of social-ecological systems. Based on an analysis of the case studies in this special issue, we identify three types of social-ecological networks: (1 ecosystems that are connected by people through flows of information or materials, (2 ecosystem networks that are disconnected and fragmented by the actions of people, and (3 artificial ecological networks created by people, such as irrigation systems. Each of these three archytypal social-ecological networks faces different problems that influence its resilience as it responds to the addition or removal of connections that affect its coordination or the diffusion of system attributes such as information or disease.

  12. Study of Panjin Wetlands Along Bohai Coast (Ⅱ): Ecological Water Requirement of Shuangtaizi Estuarine Wetland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Tieliang; ZHOU Linfei; ZHAO Be; YANG Peiqi

    2009-01-01

    Shuangtaizi estuarine wetland along the Bohai Sea coast, the biggest bulrush wetland in the world, has been listed in The Record of Important International Wetland Conservation District'. Taking the year of 2 000 as an example, the minimum, the most suitable and the maximum ecological water requirement of Shuangtaizi estuarine wetland are calculated in this paper based on both ecological theory and Geological Information System technology. In addition, the remote sensing technique is adopted in the data acquisition process. Moreover, the total water requirement and the unit area water requirement for different wetland types are obtained. The result is very important for water resources planning, ecological conservation and regional agriculture structure ad-justment in Shuangtaizi. Meanwhile, this study can serve as a useful example for calculating the ecological water requirement in other similar estuarine wetlands.

  13. Ecological Footprint of Research University Students: A Pilot Case Study in Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    See Tan Ang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ecological footprint (EF is potential to be applied in universities to assist building management units to coordinate in order to reduce environmental impact and to achieve sustainable resource consumption from its main activities including teaching-learning, research and operations. As many Malaysian universities declare to become sustainability campus, the adoption of ecological footprint in measuring campus sustainability will provide insight and better understanding about the performance of campus sustainability efforts. The main concept of ecological footprint which convert levels of consumption into the amount of land needed, will able to reveal the average student performance and impacts towards the campus. Further, a study is conducted to determine the average ecological footprint level of students in research universities Malaysia considering students formed the majority of the community in a campus. A pilot study has been conducted in Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM among students staying in hostel together with staffs from UTM Office of Student Affairs and Alumni (HEMA and UTM Office of Asset and Development (PHB. Then, Redefining Progress (RP ecological footprint online calculator is used in computing the ecological footprint of UTM students.

  14. Ecological risk assessment guidance for preparation of remedial investigation/feasibility study work plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pentecost, E.D.; Vinikour, W.S. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1993-08-01

    This guidance document (1) provides instructions on preparing the components of an ecological work plan to complement the overall site remedial assessment investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) work plan and (2) directs the user on how to implement ecological tasks identified in the plan. Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA), as amended by the Superfired Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA), an RI/FS work plan win have to be developed as part of the site-remediation scoping the process. Specific guidance on the RI/FS process and the preparation of work plans has been developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA 1988a). This document provides guidance to US Department of Energy (DOE) staff and contractor personnel for incorporation of ecological information into environmental remediation planning and decision making at CERCLA sites. An overview analysis of early ecological risk assessment methods (i.e., in the 1980s) at Superfund sites was conducted by the EPA (1989a). That review provided a perspective of attention given to ecological issues in some of the first RI/FS studies. By itself, that reference is of somewhat limited value; it does, however, establish a basis for comparison of past practices in ecological risk with current, more refined methods.

  15. Ecological risk assessment guidance for preparation of remedial investigation/feasibility study work plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This guidance document (1) provides instructions on preparing the components of an ecological work plan to complement the overall site remedial assessment investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) work plan and (2) directs the user on how to implement ecological tasks identified in the plan. Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA), as amended by the Superfired Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA), an RI/FS work plan win have to be developed as part of the site-remediation scoping the process. Specific guidance on the RI/FS process and the preparation of work plans has been developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA 1988a). This document provides guidance to US Department of Energy (DOE) staff and contractor personnel for incorporation of ecological information into environmental remediation planning and decision making at CERCLA sites. An overview analysis of early ecological risk assessment methods (i.e., in the 1980s) at Superfund sites was conducted by the EPA (1989a). That review provided a perspective of attention given to ecological issues in some of the first RI/FS studies. By itself, that reference is of somewhat limited value; it does, however, establish a basis for comparison of past practices in ecological risk with current, more refined methods

  16. Investigating Cooperative Behavior in Ecological Settings: An EEG Hyperscanning Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petti, Manuela; He, Eric J.; De Giusti, Vittorio; He, Bin; Astolfi, Laura; Babiloni, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    The coordinated interactions between individuals are fundamental for the success of the activities in some professional categories. We reported on brain-to-brain cooperative interactions between civil pilots during a simulated flight. We demonstrated for the first time how the combination of neuroelectrical hyperscanning and intersubject connectivity could provide indicators sensitive to the humans’ degree of synchronization under a highly demanding task performed in an ecological environment. Our results showed how intersubject connectivity was able to i) characterize the degree of cooperation between pilots in different phases of the flight, and ii) to highlight the role of specific brain macro areas in cooperative behavior. During the most cooperative flight phases pilots showed, in fact, dense patterns of interbrain connectivity, mainly linking frontal and parietal brain areas. On the contrary, the amount of interbrain connections went close to zero in the non-cooperative phase. The reliability of the interbrain connectivity patterns was verified by means of a baseline condition represented by formal couples, i.e. pilots paired offline for the connectivity analysis but not simultaneously recorded during the flight. Interbrain density was, in fact, significantly higher in real couples with respect to formal couples in the cooperative flight phases. All the achieved results demonstrated how the description of brain networks at the basis of cooperation could effectively benefit from a hyperscanning approach. Interbrain connectivity was, in fact, more informative in the investigation of cooperative behavior with respect to established EEG signal processing methodologies applied at a single subject level. PMID:27124558

  17. Investigating Cooperative Behavior in Ecological Settings: An EEG Hyperscanning Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toppi, Jlenia; Borghini, Gianluca; Petti, Manuela; He, Eric J; De Giusti, Vittorio; He, Bin; Astolfi, Laura; Babiloni, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    The coordinated interactions between individuals are fundamental for the success of the activities in some professional categories. We reported on brain-to-brain cooperative interactions between civil pilots during a simulated flight. We demonstrated for the first time how the combination of neuroelectrical hyperscanning and intersubject connectivity could provide indicators sensitive to the humans' degree of synchronization under a highly demanding task performed in an ecological environment. Our results showed how intersubject connectivity was able to i) characterize the degree of cooperation between pilots in different phases of the flight, and ii) to highlight the role of specific brain macro areas in cooperative behavior. During the most cooperative flight phases pilots showed, in fact, dense patterns of interbrain connectivity, mainly linking frontal and parietal brain areas. On the contrary, the amount of interbrain connections went close to zero in the non-cooperative phase. The reliability of the interbrain connectivity patterns was verified by means of a baseline condition represented by formal couples, i.e. pilots paired offline for the connectivity analysis but not simultaneously recorded during the flight. Interbrain density was, in fact, significantly higher in real couples with respect to formal couples in the cooperative flight phases. All the achieved results demonstrated how the description of brain networks at the basis of cooperation could effectively benefit from a hyperscanning approach. Interbrain connectivity was, in fact, more informative in the investigation of cooperative behavior with respect to established EEG signal processing methodologies applied at a single subject level.

  18. Investigating Cooperative Behavior in Ecological Settings: An EEG Hyperscanning Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jlenia Toppi

    Full Text Available The coordinated interactions between individuals are fundamental for the success of the activities in some professional categories. We reported on brain-to-brain cooperative interactions between civil pilots during a simulated flight. We demonstrated for the first time how the combination of neuroelectrical hyperscanning and intersubject connectivity could provide indicators sensitive to the humans' degree of synchronization under a highly demanding task performed in an ecological environment. Our results showed how intersubject connectivity was able to i characterize the degree of cooperation between pilots in different phases of the flight, and ii to highlight the role of specific brain macro areas in cooperative behavior. During the most cooperative flight phases pilots showed, in fact, dense patterns of interbrain connectivity, mainly linking frontal and parietal brain areas. On the contrary, the amount of interbrain connections went close to zero in the non-cooperative phase. The reliability of the interbrain connectivity patterns was verified by means of a baseline condition represented by formal couples, i.e. pilots paired offline for the connectivity analysis but not simultaneously recorded during the flight. Interbrain density was, in fact, significantly higher in real couples with respect to formal couples in the cooperative flight phases. All the achieved results demonstrated how the description of brain networks at the basis of cooperation could effectively benefit from a hyperscanning approach. Interbrain connectivity was, in fact, more informative in the investigation of cooperative behavior with respect to established EEG signal processing methodologies applied at a single subject level.

  19. Ecological risk caused by land use change in the coastal zone: a case study in the Yellow River Delta High-Efficiency Ecological Economic Zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    China's coastal zone plays an important role in ecological services production and social-economic development; however, extensive and intensive land resource utilization and land use change have lead to high ecological risk in this area during last decade. Regional ecological risk assessment can provide fundamental knowledge and scientific basis for better understanding of the relationship between regional landscape ecosystem and human activities or climate changes, facilitating the optimization strategy of land use structure and improving the ecological risk prevention capability. In this paper, the Yellow River Delta High-Efficiency Ecological Economic Zone is selected as the study site, which is undergoing a new round of coastal zone exploitation and has endured substantial land use change in the past decade. Land use maps of 2000, 2005 and 2010 were generated based on Landsat images by visual interpretation method, and the ecological risk index was then calculated. The index was 0.3314, 0.3461 and 0.3176 in 2000, 2005 and 2010 respectively, which showed a positive transition of regional ecological risk in 2005

  20. Influence of HSF1 Gene Knockout on Mouse Growth and Reproduction%热休克因子1基因剔除对小鼠生长繁殖的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈广文; 刘喜玲; 刘可

    2009-01-01

    目的 观察HSF1基因剔除对小鼠生长、繁殖的影响.方法 用HSF1基因剔除纯合子、杂合子和野生型小鼠建立交配对,HSF1基因正常繁殖组(简称HSF1正常组)30对、HSF1基因缺陷繁殖组(简称HSF1缺陷组)72对.观察母鼠产仔数、生产胎数、每胎产仔数、成年鼠体重.结果 HSF1缺陷组母鼠平均产仔数(13.00±11.50)较少,与HSF1正常组(26.46±16.02)比较差异有显著性(P0.05).HSF1缺陷组成年小鼠平均体重(20.53±4.62)较轻,与HSF1正常组(23.06±3.39)比较差异有显著性(P<0.01).结论 HSF1基因剔除小鼠被广泛应用于研究HSF1功能,但HSF1基因剔除对生殖、生长和健康状态的影响不容忽视.

  1. Ecological Compensation Mechanism of Agricultural Water Resources: An Empirical Study in Zhejiang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qichang Hu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ecological compensation is a new area in the field of resources environment. In this study, we set an empirical analysis model about ecological compensation mechanism and analyze influential factors based on agricultural perspective. The result shows that: first, loss of development opportunities is the most important factor that will affect ecological compensation, the regression coefficient is 0.071; sec, environmental protection cost is the most significant variable in ecological compensation, the sig value is 0.007 and the regression coefficient is positive; third, public awareness has high coefficient value as 0.048, means that public awareness plays a positive effect. Overall, the regression model of the empirical results with the above assumptions, under the 10% significant level, the loss of development opportunities; environmental protection cost; the compensation standard; public awareness of the value of ecological environment variable are significantly variables that affecting ecological compensation and the effects of other variables are not obvious. On this basis, we put forward relevant suggestions.

  2. Ecology of Urban Bees: A Review of Current Knowledge and Directions for Future Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon W. Frankie

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban bee ecology is an emerging field that holds promise for advancing knowledge of bee community dynamics and promoting bee conservation. Published studies of bee communities in urban and suburban habitats are fewer than those documenting bees in agricultural and wildland settings. As land lost to urbanization is predicted to increase in coming years the necessity of studying urban bee populations is growing. We reviewed 59 publications on urban bee ecology with the following goals, to assess current knowledge, to highlight areas in need of further research, and to suggest applications of study findings to bee conservation. Identified trends in urban areas included the following, negative correlation between bee species richness and urban development, increase in abundance of cavity-nesters in urban habitats, and scarcity of floral specialists. Future directions for studying urban bee ecology include incorporation of landscape-scale assessments, conducting manipulative experiments and actively designing urban bee habitats.

  3. AtHsfA2 modulates expression of stress responsive genes and enhances tolerance to heat and oxidative stress in Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Chunguang; CHEN Qijun; GAO Xinqi; QI Bishu; CHEN Naizhi; XU Shouming; CHEN Jia; WANG Xuechen

    2005-01-01

    There is increasing evidence for considerable interlinking between the responses to heat stress and oxidative stress, and recent researches suggest heat shock transcription factors (Hsfs) play an important role in linking heat shock with oxidative stress signals. In this paper, we present evidence that AtHsfA2 modulated expression of stress responsive genes and enhanced tolerance to heat and oxidative stress in Arabidopsis. Using Northern blot and quantitative RT-PCR analysis, we demonstrated that the expression of AtHsfA2 was induced by not only HS but also oxidative stress. By functional analysis of AtHsfA2 knockout mutants and AtHsfA2 overexpressing transgenic plants, we also demonstrated that the mutants displayed reduced the basal and acquired thermotolerance as well as oxidative stress tolerance but the overexpression lines displayed increased tolerance to these stress. The phenotypes correlated with the expression of some Hsps and APX1, ion leakage, H2O2 level and degree of oxidative injuries. These results showed that, by modulated expression of stress responsive genes, AtHsfA2 enhanced tolerance to heat and oxidative stress in Arabidopsis. So we suggest that AtHsfA2 plays an important role in linking heat shock with oxidative stress signals.

  4. HSF1抑制热应激所致RAW264.7巨噬细胞凋亡%HSF1 inhibits heat stress-induced apoptosis in Raw264.7 macrophages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鄂顺梅; 肖卫民; 王慷慨; 王秋鹏; 刘梅冬; 刘可; 肖献忠

    2006-01-01

    目的:探讨热休克因子1(heat shock factor 1, HSF1)对热应激所致Raw264.7巨噬细胞凋亡的影响.方法:采用热应激(42.5 ℃±0.5 ℃)处理稳定表达小鼠HSF1基因的Raw264.7巨噬细胞1 h,37 ℃分别恢复6,9,12,24 h,采用流式细胞术,hoechst33258染色和DNA琼脂糖凝胶电泳检测细胞凋亡.结果:流式细胞术结果显示,热应激后对照组(转空载体)细胞凋亡核百分率较热应激前明显升高,9 h达峰值(约为60%),此时荧光染色可见30%的细胞出现核固缩,凋亡小体等典型的凋亡形态学改变;并于热应激后6,9,12 h均能检测到清晰的DNA梯状条带.与转空载体对照组相比,HSF1过表达能显著降低热应激所致凋亡及明显抑制DNA的断裂.结论:HSF1可以抑制热应激所致的Raw264.7巨噬细胞凋亡.

  5. Future ecological studies of Brazilian headwater streams under global-changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Callisto

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper results from discussions triggered during the "Stream Ecology Symposium" that took place at the XIII Congress of the Brazilian Society of Limnology in September of 2011 in Natal, Brazil. Based on our experiences, we have raised several questions regarding ecological studies of headwater streams facing threats under global-changes and proposed numerous subjects to be addressed in future studies in Brazil. These studies deal with the necessity of knowing species biology and the elaboration of models to assess changes (which implies the availability of time-series or large-scale data sets; the ecology of riparian zones and the interchange of materials and energy across the land-water boundaries; forest conversions and standardized sampling strategies and data treatment to assess global change.

  6. EVOLVEMENT AND CONTROL OF VULNERABLE ECOLOGICAL REGION--A Case Study in Ongniud Banner and Aohan Banner, Inner Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RAN Sheng-hong; JIN Jian-jun

    2004-01-01

    The evolvement of a vulnerable ecological region is a dynamic process, which is affected by various factors. During the evolvement process, human activities have a decisive effect. The purpose of studying vulnerable ecological region is to control human economic activities and to develop a negative feedback modulation mechanism.This paper established a model of vulnerable ecological region's evolvement by considering four synthetic variables.These synthetic variables are ecological carrying capacity, ecological resilience, economic development intensity, and economic development velocity. Finally, Ongniud Banner and Aohan Banner in North China were taken as study cases to simulate the evolvement processes of vulnerable ecological regions under different conditions of economic development. The results show that human activities have an important influence on the evolvement trend of vulnerable ecological region.

  7. Studying stress responses in the post-genomic era: its ecological and evolutionary role

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jesper G Sørensen; Volker Loeschcke

    2007-04-01

    Most investigations on the effects of and responses to stress exposures have been performed on a limited number of model organisms in the laboratory. Here much progress has been made in terms of identifying and describing beneficial and detrimental effects of stress, responses to stress and the mechanisms behind stress tolerance. However, to gain further understanding of which genes are involved in stress resistance and how the responses are regulated from an ecological and evolutionary perspective there is a need to combine studies on multiple levels of biological organization from DNA to phenotypes. Furthermore, we emphasize the importance of studying ecologically relevant traits and natural or semi-natural conditions to verify whether the results obtained are representative of the ecological and evolutionary processes in the field. Here, we will review what we currently know about thermal adaptation and the role of different stress responses to thermal challenges in insects, particularly Drosophila. Furthermore, we address some key questions that require future attention.

  8. Estimating survival rates in ecological studies with small unbalanced sample sizes: an alternative Bayesian point estimator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Damgaard

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Increasingly, the survival rates in experimental ecology are presented using odds ratios or log response ratios, but the use of ratio metrics has a problem when all the individuals have either died or survived in only one replicate. In the empirical ecological literature, the problem often has been ignored or circumvented by different, more or less ad hoc approaches. Here, it is argued that the best summary statistic for communicating ecological results of frequency data in studies with small unbalanced samples may be the mean of the posterior distribution of the survival rate. The developed approach may be particularly useful when effect size indexes, such as odds ratios, are needed to compare frequency data between treatments, sites or studies.

  9. Ecological studies of small vertebrates in Pu-contaminated study areas of NTS and TTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ecological studies of vertebrates in plutonium-contaminated areas of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) were initiated in March 1972, and have continued to date. In September 1973, standard census methods were also employed to derive a qualitative and quantitative inventory of vertebrate biota of four Nevada Applied Ecology Group (NAEG) study areas of the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). A checklist of vertebrates of NAEG study areas of NTS and TTR is presented. Data are presented on vertebrate composition, relative abundance, and seasonal status in the study areas. Concentrations of 239Pu and 241Am were determined in pelt or skin, GI tract, and carcass of 13 lizards and 16 mammals resident on Clean Slate 2, TTR, and Area 11, NTS. A total of 71 animals were collected for radioanalysis. However, the data were not available at the time this report was written. Pu tissue burdens were highest in lizards from Area 11 GZ. Maximum values obtained in nCi/g ash were 30.9, 42.2, and 0.43 for the pelt, GI tract, and carcass, respectively. Maximum 239Pu values in tissues of small rodents from Area 11 (not from GZ) were 11.4, 6.49, and 0.20 nCi/g ash for pelt, GI tract, and carcass, respectively. Pu/Am ratios were relatively consistent in tissue samples of lizards and small mammals from Area 11 (approximately 6:1, Pu/Am). Pu/Am ratios were not consistent in vertebrates of Clean Slate 2, TTR, and appeared to be lower in carcass (28:1, Pu/Am in mammals) than GI tract (9:1, Pu/Am in mammals). Although this trend was more conspicuous in mammals, it was also evident in reptiles. (auth)

  10. Air pollution and case fatality of SARS in the People's Republic of China: an ecologic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Shun-Zhang

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS has claimed 349 lives with 5,327 probable cases reported in mainland China since November 2002. SARS case fatality has varied across geographical areas, which might be partially explained by air pollution level. Methods Publicly accessible data on SARS morbidity and mortality were utilized in the data analysis. Air pollution was evaluated by air pollution index (API derived from the concentrations of particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide and ground-level ozone. Ecologic analysis was conducted to explore the association and correlation between air pollution and SARS case fatality via model fitting. Partially ecologic studies were performed to assess the effects of long-term and short-term exposures on the risk of dying from SARS. Results Ecologic analysis conducted among 5 regions with 100 or more SARS cases showed that case fatality rate increased with the increment of API (case fatality = - 0.063 + 0.001 * API. Partially ecologic study based on short-term exposure demonstrated that SARS patients from regions with moderate APIs had an 84% increased risk of dying from SARS compared to those from regions with low APIs (RR = 1.84, 95% CI: 1.41–2.40. Similarly, SARS patients from regions with high APIs were twice as likely to die from SARS compared to those from regions with low APIs. (RR = 2.18, 95% CI: 1.31–3.65. Partially ecologic analysis based on long-term exposure to ambient air pollution showed the similar association. Conclusion Our studies demonstrated a positive association between air pollution and SARS case fatality in Chinese population by utilizing publicly accessible data on SARS statistics and air pollution indices. Although ecologic fallacy and uncontrolled confounding effect might have biased the results, the possibility of a detrimental effect of air pollution on the prognosis of SARS patients deserves further investigation.

  11. Studies on some ecological aspects of Balanus amphitrite (Cirripedia: Thoracica)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desai, D.V.

    The year round breeding capability of Balanus amphitrite indicates a potential for continuous recruitment. The recruitment pattern however indicated a lull during monsoon. The study site experiences increased land run off lowering the salinity...

  12. ECOLOGICAL PROBLEMS OF RESTORATED TRADITIONAL SETTLEMENTS: A CASE STUDY IN KALEİÇİ (ANTALYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hacer MUTLU DANACI

    2011-12-01

    show that historical urban fabric of the city is faced with the danger of losing its ecological feature.In this study, Antalya-Kaleiçi historical urban settlement which was built in the context of the ecological design criteria and which has conventional houses that achieved to reach our day has been discussed. When houses with historical fabric which are experiencing a function shift to ensure sustainability in today's conditions are analyzed in terms of ecological design criteria, we will mention the sustainability of the criteria obtained in terms of availability and the problems faced with the restoration.

  13. Incorporating ecological risk assessment into remedial investigation/feasibility study work plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    This guidance document (1) provides instructions on preparing the components of an ecological work plan to complement the overall site remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) work plan and (2) directs the user on how to implement ecological tasks identified in the plan. Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA), as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA), and RI/FS work plan will have to be developed as part of the site-remediation scoping process. Specific guidance on the RI/FS process and the preparation of work plans has been developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA 1988a). This document provides guidance to US Department of Energy (DOE) staff and contractor personnel for incorporation of ecological information into environmental remediation planning and decision making at CERCLA sites.

  14. Incorporating ecological risk assessment into remedial investigation/feasibility study work plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This guidance document (1) provides instructions on preparing the components of an ecological work plan to complement the overall site remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) work plan and (2) directs the user on how to implement ecological tasks identified in the plan. Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA), as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA), and RI/FS work plan will have to be developed as part of the site-remediation scoping process. Specific guidance on the RI/FS process and the preparation of work plans has been developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA 1988a). This document provides guidance to US Department of Energy (DOE) staff and contractor personnel for incorporation of ecological information into environmental remediation planning and decision making at CERCLA sites

  15. Study on Ecological Remediation for Water and Soil Conservation of a Small Watershed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chunjuan; ZHANG; Xueying; HE

    2013-01-01

    Taking the waterhead area of the middle line project for diverting water from the south to the north,Hanjiang watershed in Shiquan, as an example,ecological remediation of the small watershed was studied from aspects of necessity,practicability,plans and aims. The ecological restoration for soil and water conservation in Hanjiang River basin can not only control soil erosion and effectively protect water resources to provide clean water for people living in the lower reaches of Hanjiang mainstream,but also increase farmers’ income and protect environment, which is both typical and exemplary.

  16. Mesocosm soil ecological risk assessment tool for GMO 2nd tier studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Annibale, Alessandra; Maraldo, Kristine; Larsen, Thomas;

    Ecological Risk Assessment (ERA) of GMO is basically identical to ERA of chemical substances, when it comes to assessing specific effects of the GMO plant material on the soil ecosystem. The tiered approach always includes the option of studying more complex but still realistic ecosystem level...... effects in 2nd tier caged experimental systems, cf. the new GMO ERA guidance: EFSA Journal 2010; 8(11):1879. We propose to perform a trophic structure analysis, TSA, and include the trophic structure as an ecological endpoint to gain more direct insight into the change in interactions between species, i.e...

  17. Assessment of ecological security based on soil and water conservation: a case study from Gansu Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z. J.; Tian, Q.; Song, L. L.

    2016-08-01

    In this study, the analytic hierarchy process (ahp), ecological security index(S) and PSR model were used to evaluate Gansu's ecological security based on the large number of survey data. The results indicated that Gansu's ecological security index increased from 0.31 in 1986 to 0.66 in 2013, which reflected ecological security was in sensitive state (0.7༞S≥⃒0.5). The main reason was that national policy on protecting the ecological environment has played a crucial role, especially the national project of returning farmland to forest and grass carried out in recent years. Moreover, the environmental issues such as the higher PM2.5, sand storms and climate extremes, had significantly improved people's environmental awareness in the study area. The regional difference of ecological security index was significant in Gansu Provinces, and the part of Yangtze river basin was higher than the part of Yellow River basin, whiles the in-land river basin was the lowest value. In a world, Gansu's ecological security had improved in recent years, but there was strong need for paying more attention to policy for ecological environment protection and increasing the propaganda to ensure the Gansu's ecological security in the future. This study will provide a scientific basis for the sustainable development of regional social economy and ecological environment.

  18. Correlation between Trichomonas vaginalis and Concurrency: An Ecological Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Chris R; Hamilton, Deven T

    2016-01-01

    Objective. There is a large variation in the prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) between different countries and between racial groups within countries. Sexual partner concurrency may play a role. We investigate the correlation between the prevalence of sexual partner concurrency and TV prevalence. Methods. Spearman's correlation to assess relationship between TV prevalence in women and point prevalence of concurrency in men in (1) 11 countries with comparable data (concurrency data from WHO Survey and TV prevalence data from Global Burden of Disease estimates) and (2) three racial groups in the United States (Add Health Study). Results. The prevalence of TV and concurrency was positively correlated in the international (rho = 0.84, P = 0.001) and USA study (rho = 1.0, P < 0.001). Conclusion. Prospective longitudinal studies that include measures of partner behavior are required to definitively establish the role of concurrency in the spread of TV.

  19. An Ecological Study of Gray Goose Marsh, Alviso California

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The area of our study is located in the heart of the 300m wide strip of land just north of Triangle Marsh, known as Gray Goose Marsh. This land used to be part of...

  20. The socio-ecological impacts of small dams: A case study of Mushandike Sanctuary, Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gwazani, R.; Gandiwa, E.; Gandiwa, P.; Mhaka, V.; Hungwe, T.; Muza, M.

    2012-01-01

    Demand and supply of water over space and time is being influenced by changes in land use, population growth, industrial development and construction of dams. In this study, we focus on Mushandike dam located in Mushandike Sanctuary, Zimbabwe, and evaluate the socio-ecological impacts associated wit

  1. Undertaking an Ecological Approach to Advance Game-Based Learning: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Mamta; Foster, Aroutis

    2014-01-01

    Systematic incorporation of digital games in schools is largely unexplored. This case study explored the ecological conditions necessary for implementing a game-based learning course by examining the interaction between three domains (the innovator, the innovation, and the context). From January-April 2012, one in-service teacher learned and…

  2. Energize It! An Ecologically Integrated Approach to the Study of the Digestive System and Energy Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derting, Terry L.

    1992-01-01

    Develops a research-oriented method of studying the digestive system that integrates species' ecology with the form and function of this system. Uses problem-posing, problem-probing, and peer persuasion. Presents information for mammalian systems. (27 references) (MKR)

  3. Daily Emotional Dynamics in Depressed Youth: A Cell Phone Ecological Momentary Assessment Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silk, Jennifer S.; Forbes, Erika E.; Whalen, Diana J.; Jakubcak, Jennifer L.; Thompson, Wesley K.; Ryan, Neal D.; Axelson, David A.; Birmaher, Boris; Dahl, Ronald E.

    2011-01-01

    This study used a new cell phone ecological momentary assessment approach to investigate daily emotional dynamics in 47 youths with major depressive disorder (MDD) and 32 no-psychopathology controls (CON) (ages 7-17 years). Information about emotional experience in the natural environment was obtained using answer-only cell phones, while MDD…

  4. The Cultural Ecology of Scholar-Practitioner Leaders: An Ethnographic Study of Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenlink, Patrick M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this critical ethnographic study was to examine the nature and meaning of cultural ecology in relation to preparing scholar-practitioner leaders. The ethnography focused on how the discourses and practices within the disciplinary setting of leadership preparation shape the identity of social scholar-practitioner leaders. The…

  5. Mood disorders in everyday life : A systematic review of experience sampling and ecological momentary assessment studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aan het Rot, M.; Hogenelst, Koen; Schoevers, R.A.

    2012-01-01

    In the past two decades, the study of mood disorder patients using experience sampling methods (ESM) and ecological momentary assessment (EMA) has yielded important findings. In patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), the dynamics of their everyday mood have been associated with various aspec

  6. College of Science graduate student awarded National Institutes of Health fellowship to study disease ecology

    OpenAIRE

    Doss, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Camille Harris of Ridgeland, Miss., a graduate student in biological sciences, has been awarded a prestigious National Institutes of Health (NIH) Graduate Research Fellowship for her study of forest disturbance and its ecological impacts on LaCrosse Virus, a mosquito-borne disease that can cause seizures, coma, paralysis, and permanent brain damage in severe cases.

  7. Ecological shortage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Meadows study (Limits to Growth) has made the environmental problem popular, but it has reduced the ecological problem to one of population and raw materials, leaving the conditions of social organisation and developmental policy out of consideration. This means that in spite of the repeated moral appeals, developing countries are left to their natural fate while fear and resignation are spread in the industrial nations. The present study tries to contradict this trend in consideration of interdependences in ecological development. (orig.)

  8. Ecological study of some parasitic helminths of aquatic organisms

    OpenAIRE

    Geets, A.; P. Van Damme; Hamerlynck, O.

    1988-01-01

    Except for Monogenea, most other helminth parasites (Digenea, Cestoda, Nematoda and Acanthocephala) of aquatic organisms have a rather complex life cycle, which includes one or more intermediate hosts. Studies have been carried out on the elucidation of helminth life cycles and on parasite-host relationships. Knowledge of the feeding behaviour of the host is a very useful starting-point for elucidation of the life cycles of its' parasites. Asymphylodora demeli, a trematode of two sympatric go...

  9. Ecological studies in the middle reach of Chesapeake Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passage of estuarine water and phytoplankton through the cooling system of the Calvert Cliffs nuclear power plant in the summer months of 1977-1981 resulted in frequent reductions of phytoplankton densities particularly during periods when flagellated taxa dominated total cell numbers. Entrainment-induced reductions in chlorophyll were observed on only four occasions, however. Phytoplankton productivity as oxygen evolution or 14C-uptake was even more susceptible to the effects of passing through the cooling system. Inhibition of productivitiy was observed during periods dominated by flagellated cells and generally occurred with ambient water temperature ≥ 250C. Results from track autoradiography employed in 1981 indicated that carbon fixation in the commonly observed flagellate Cryptomonas acuta was significantly depressed during July, August and September. In contrast, the dinoflagellate Prorocentrum minimum and the diatoms Cyclotella caspia and Thalassionema nitzschioides were not affected by entrainment. Although entrainment affects Cryptomonas and flagellate-dominated assemblages in the summer there are no detectable effects of power plant operations on cell densities or productivity in flagellate-dominated waters in the vicinity of the power plant. Transitory exposure of estuarine zooplankton to the elevated temperatures of CCNPP entrainment and discharge plumes was generally non-lethal. In the species selected for study the survival rate after entrainment was 65 to 100%. The effects of temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen levels upon entrained organisms were also analyzed. (orig.)

  10. Ecological study on mangrove forest in East Coast of North Sumatra

    OpenAIRE

    ONRIZAL; CECEP KUSMANA

    2008-01-01

    Ecological studies on mangrove forest in East Coast of North Sumatra have been carried out with field work in transect method and laboratory analyses. This study would be covered on floristic composition, abrasion, green belt, soil properties, and water quality of mangroves. Land system map and landsat TM imagery (year 1996 coverage) as main material in this study were used and overlay to determine training area. Based on vegetation inventory found that 20 mangrove species and by vegetation a...

  11. Observations on Introduced Species Maintenance and Reproduction Characteristic of BALB/c-HSF1 Knock-out Mice%BALB/c-HSF1基因剔除小鼠的引种、保种与繁殖特性的观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁志刚; 陈广文; 俞远京; 肖献忠

    2002-01-01

    对引入的BALB/c-HSF1基因剔除小鼠近一年的繁殖、生长发育情况进行了系统观察,并就三种繁殖方式的繁殖鼠交配率、受胎率、分娩率、胎间隔及哺乳期仔鼠成活率进行了比较.结果表明,与野生型(HSF1+/+)动物比较,HSF1的缺乏对动物的繁殖有一定影响;胎间隔与动物的胎次无明显的相关性,而生长曲线与BALB/c的生长曲线类似,这种现象可能与HSF1基因剔除小鼠有BALB/c的血缘有关.

  12. Cognitive ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, Edwin

    2010-10-01

    Cognitive ecology is the study of cognitive phenomena in context. In particular, it points to the web of mutual dependence among the elements of a cognitive ecosystem. At least three fields were taking a deeply ecological approach to cognition 30 years ago: Gibson's ecological psychology, Bateson's ecology of mind, and Soviet cultural-historical activity theory. The ideas developed in those projects have now found a place in modern views of embodied, situated, distributed cognition. As cognitive theory continues to shift from units of analysis defined by inherent properties of the elements to units defined in terms of dynamic patterns of correlation across elements, the study of cognitive ecosystems will become an increasingly important part of cognitive science.

  13. The Analysis of Social Ecology and Physical Development Process of Cities (Towns Case Study: Alvand City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heshmati Ahmad

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims the analysis of immigration influence on Alvand city resident's economical and living situation and its subsequent effects on Alvand city's social structure and its ecology and even its adjacency to industrial Alborz city. This analysis focuses on Alvand city's physical development using the software techniques such as GIS and using population data resulted from immigration which effects its physical development. We have increasingly witnessed the job-looking based immigrations since 1966 to 2006 which appeared differently in social, physical and spatial structure. This alternation and newly different situation has been seen apparently. The president's economic situation and immigration issue which considered as the most essential factor resulting in the ecology movements concerning Alvand city's circumstances. Such a factor could be seen in cultural varieties in Alvand city. This study also analyzes the ecological factors such as the immigration, economical situation, ecological movements and its influence on physical development using the descriptive and correlational methods to prove whether there is a logical relation among varieties providing that this statement is confirmed, this relation will be able to describe and explain the correlations in the different forms. The results show that immigration has influenced the spatial distribution of social groups and physical development of Alvand city.

  14. The ecological footprint method on a farm level – a case study on a UK organic farm with parallel cropping

    OpenAIRE

    Schmutz, Dr Ulrich; Firth, Chris; Lewis, Kevin; Lillywhite, Mr Robert

    2008-01-01

    There is increasing interest in the farming community to understand and improve their ecological footprint and reduce CO2-carbon emissions. This case study compares the ecological footprint of organic and conventional cabbage, celeriac, sugar beet and winter wheat crops on a UK commercial, parallel cropping, farm. Results show lower ecological footprints and energy ratios in all organic crops. However, CO2-emissions per unit yield are only lower if the fertility building is not considered. In...

  15. Ecological study on littoral and infralittoral isopods from Ubatuba, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Setubal Pires

    1981-06-01

    Full Text Available The isopod species of rocky shores and shallow infralittoral zone from Enseada do Flamengo, Ubatuba, were studied. The sampling was done during Autumn (1965 and during Autumn and Springtime (1975 at six stations classified according to wave exposure. The intensity of the waves and the type of substratum showed to be important factors influencing distribution, abundance and diversity of the fauna. The highest density of isopods occurred in Dictyota ciliolata. A relation between species diversity and the degree of wave action was disclosed. Species diversity rised from exposed to moderately exposed sites and decreased with the increase in shelter.No presente trabalho, foram estudados os padrões de distribuição vertical e horizontal da fauna de Isopoda de costões rochosos, bem como sua abundância relativa nos vários substratos investigados, visando ao conhecimento de alguns aspectos de sua ecologia. As coletas foram realizadas nas zonas litoral e infralitoral da Enseada do Flamengo, Ubatuba, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. As estações de coleta variaram quanto ao grau de exposição às ondas e profundidade. As amostras do litoral foram coletadas em abril e setembro de 1975 e janeiro de 1976, enquanto que as do infralitoral referem-se a abril e maio de 1965. Verificou-se que a exposição às ondas é um fator muito importante na distribuição das espécies, havendo animais que só foram encontrados nas condições ecológicas oferecidas por locais expostos e semi-expostos, e outros que só o foram em locais abrigados. Entretanto, existem espécies que ocorreram nas três situações, sendo geralmente mais abundantes em uma delas em particular. O tipo de substrato mostrou ser outro fator que exerce grande influência na distribuição das espécies. Substratos diferentes, coletados em um mesmo local e submetidos às mesmas condições ambientais, apresentaram variação na composição e abundância relativa da fauna de Isopoda. Esta varia

  16. 过表达HSF1及ASK1基因对H2O2刺激后心肌细胞内ROS水平的影响%The influences of overexpression of HSF1 and ASK1 on ROS levels in H2O2 -treated cardiac myocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张磊; 梁艳艳; 牛玉宏; 姜红; 邹云增; 葛均波

    2007-01-01

    目的 研究热休克因子1(HSF1)及凋亡信号调节激酶1(ASK1)对过氧化氢(H2O2)刺激后心肌细胞内活性氧簇水平(ROS)变化的影响.方法 对不同组培养心肌细胞分别单独转染质粒HSF1,ASK1,及共转染HSF1+ASK1,48h待其充分表达后用1 mmol/LH2O2刺激心肌细胞30m in,检测细胞内ROS水平,并与相应转染后未刺激组及未转染的对照组比较,观察ROS水平的变化.结果 (1)所有H2O2刺激组心肌细胞内ROS水平均高于相同转染条件下的非刺激组(P<0.05);(2)相同H2O2刺激条件下,各组ROS水平:HSF1组低于对照组(P<0.05),ASK1组与对照组无显著差异,HSF1+ASK1组与单转HSF1组相比有升高的趋势;(3)相同H2O2刺激条件下,各组刺激后比刺激前ROS水平增高的幅度:HSF1组低于对照组(P<0.05),ASK1组与对照组无显著差别,HSF1+ASK1组与单转HSF1组相比有升高的趋势.结论 在H2O2刺激条件下,HSF1可通过降低心肌细胞内的ROS水平来发挥细胞保护作用,而ASK1对细胞内ROS水平无影响,但其可干扰HSF1对ROS的抑制作用.

  17. The legacy of biosphere 2 for the study of biospherics and closed ecological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, J. P.; Nelson, M.; Alling, A.

    The unprecedented challenges of creating Biosphere 2, the world's first laboratory for biospherics, the study of global ecology and long-term closed ecological system dynamics, led to breakthrough developments in many fields, and a deeper understanding of the opportunities and difficulties of material closure. This paper will review accomplishments and challenges, citing some of the key research findings and publications that have resulted from the experiments in Biosphere 2. Engineering accomplishments included development of a technique for variable volume to deal with pressure differences between the facility and outside environment, developing methods of atmospheric leak detection and sealing, while achieving new standards of closure, with an annual atmospheric leakrate of less than 10%, or less than 300 ppm per day. This degree of closure permitted detailed tracking of carbon dioxide, oxygen, and trice gases such as nitrous oxide and ethylene over the seasonal variability of two years. Full closure also necessitated developing new approaches and technologies for complete air, water, and wastewater recycle and reuse within the facility. The development of a soil-based highly productive agricultural system was a first in closed ecological systems, and much was learned about managing a wide variety of crops using non-chemical means of pest and disease control. Closed ecological systems have different temporal biogeochemical cycling and ranges of atmospheric components because of their smaller reservoirs of air, water and soil, and higher concentration of biomass, and Biosphere 2 provided detailed examination and modeling of these accelerated cycles over a period of closure which measured in years. Medical research inside Biosphere 2 included the effects on humans of lowered oxygen: the discovery that human productivity can be maintained with good health with lowered atmospheric oxygen levels could lead to major economies on the design of space stations and

  18. In vitro research on the molecular mechanism of the functions of HSF1, HMGB1 and IL-10%HSF1与HMGB1和IL-10作用分子机制的体外研究及意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    艾云智; 陈丹; 罗文福; 张先安; 罗成群

    2012-01-01

    目的:本研究以RAW264.7细胞系为研究对象,烧伤血清刺激建立烧伤细胞模型,在体外研究HSF1的抗炎症机制.方法:Western blot法检测烧伤血清刺激前后RAW264.7细胞中HSF1与NF-κB表达,凝胶阻滞法(EMSA)检测HSF1与炎症因子HMGB1和抗炎症因子IL-10基因启动子区相互作用,同时检测NF-κB是否参与上述的相互作用.结果:正常培养条件下的RAW264.7细胞几乎不表达HSF1,少量表达NF-κB,加入烧伤血清刺激后大量表达HSF1和NF-κB.HSF1与HMGB1和IL-10基因的启动子区HSE有相互作用.NF-κB不参与HSF1与HMGB1和IL-10基因启动子区HSE的结合.结论:HSF1与HMGB1和IL-10的启动子区HSE结合,抑制HMGB1的表达,促进IL-10的表达.在炎症反应中HMGB1和IL-10的表达不直接受NF-κB的调节.

  19. COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATION OF URBAN SPRAWL ON ECOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT USING MULTI-SOURCE DATA: A CASE STUDY OF BEIJING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available With urban population growing and urban sprawling, urban ecological environment problems appear. Study on spatiotemporal characteristics of urban sprawl and its impact on ecological environment is useful for ecological civilization construction. Although a lot of work has been conducted on urban sprawl and its impact on ecological environment, resolution of images to extract urban boundary was relatively coarse and most studies only focused on certain indicators of ecological environment, rather than comprehensive evaluation of urban ecological environmental impact. In this study, high-resolution remote sensing images of Beijing from aerial photography in 2002 and 2013 respectively are employed to extract urban boundary with manual interpretation. Fractional Vegetation Coverage (FVC, Water Density (WD, Impervious Surfaces Coverage (ISC, Net Primary Production (NPP, and Land Surface Temperature (LST are adopted to represent ecological environment. The ecological environment indicators are measured with some general algorithms by combining Landsat images, GIS data and metrological data of 243 day, 2001 and 244 day, 2013. In order to evaluate the impact of urban sprawl on ecological environment, pseudo changes due to metrological variation and other noise in this time period are removed after images calibration. The impact of urban sprawl on ecological environment is evaluated at different scales of urban extent, Beijing ring road and watershed. Results show that Beijing had been undergoing a rapid urbanization from 2002 to 2013, with urban area increase from 600 square kilometres to 987 square kilometres. All ecological environment indicators except LST became terrible in urban sprawl region, with carbon reduction of approximate 40508 tons. The Beiyun River watershed of Beijing degraded seriously since ISC increased to 0.59. Gratifyingly, ecological environment indicators including NDVI, NPP, and LST inside of 4th Ring Road became well.

  20. [Ecological vulnerability of coal mining area: a case study of Shengli Coalfield in Xilinguole of Inner Mongolia, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Zhan-Jun; Li, Yuan; Li, Jun-Sheng; Han, Yu; Xiao, Neng-Wen; Fu, Meng-Di

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, an ecological vulnerability evaluation index system for the Shengli Coalfield in Xilinguole of Inner Mongolia was established, which included 16 factors in ecological sensitivity, natural and social pressure, and ecological recovery capacity, respectively. Based on the expert scoring method and analytic hierarchy process (AHP), an ecological vulnerability model was built for the calculation of the regional ecological vulnerability by means of RS and GIS spatial analysis. An analysis of the relationships between land use and ecological vulnerability was also made, and the results were tested by spatial auto-correlation analysis. Overall, the ecological vulnerability of the study area was at medium-high level. The exploitation of four opencast areas in the Coalfield caused a significant increase of ecological vulnerability. Moreover, due to the effects of mine drained water and human activities, the 300 -2000 m around the opencast areas was turning into higher ecologically fragile area. With further exploitation, the whole Coalfield was evolved into moderate and heavy ecological vulnerability area, and the coal resources mining was a key factor in this process. The cluster analysis showed that the spatial distribution of the ecological vulnerability in the study area had reasonable clustering characteristics. To decrease the population density, control the grazing capacity of grassland, and regulate the ratios of construction land and cultivated land could be the optimal ways for resolving the natural and social pressure, and to increase the investment and improve the vegetation recovery coefficient could be the fundamental measures for decreasing the ecological vulnerability of the study area. PMID:24066564

  1. Comprehensive Evaluation of Urban Sprawl on Ecological Environment Using Multi-Source Data: a Case Study of Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Ning, Xiaogang; Zhu, Weiwei; Li, Fei

    2016-06-01

    With urban population growing and urban sprawling, urban ecological environment problems appear. Study on spatiotemporal characteristics of urban sprawl and its impact on ecological environment is useful for ecological civilization construction. Although a lot of work has been conducted on urban sprawl and its impact on ecological environment, resolution of images to extract urban boundary was relatively coarse and most studies only focused on certain indicators of ecological environment, rather than comprehensive evaluation of urban ecological environmental impact. In this study, high-resolution remote sensing images of Beijing from aerial photography in 2002 and 2013 respectively are employed to extract urban boundary with manual interpretation. Fractional Vegetation Coverage (FVC), Water Density (WD), Impervious Surfaces Coverage (ISC), Net Primary Production (NPP), and Land Surface Temperature (LST) are adopted to represent ecological environment. The ecological environment indicators are measured with some general algorithms by combining Landsat images, GIS data and metrological data of 243 day, 2001 and 244 day, 2013. In order to evaluate the impact of urban sprawl on ecological environment, pseudo changes due to metrological variation and other noise in this time period are removed after images calibration. The impact of urban sprawl on ecological environment is evaluated at different scales of urban extent, Beijing ring road and watershed. Results show that Beijing had been undergoing a rapid urbanization from 2002 to 2013, with urban area increase from 600 square kilometres to 987 square kilometres. All ecological environment indicators except LST became terrible in urban sprawl region, with carbon reduction of approximate 40508 tons. The Beiyun River watershed of Beijing degraded seriously since ISC increased to 0.59. Gratifyingly, ecological environment indicators including NDVI, NPP, and LST inside of 4th Ring Road became well.

  2. Historical ecology provides new insights for ecosystem management: Eastern Baltic cod case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacKenzie, Brian; Ojaveer, Henn; Eero, Margit

    2011-01-01

    A recent historical marine ecological case study (cod in the eastern Baltic Sea) is used to show how long-term data and knowledge of fluctuations can contribute to revisions of fishery management policy. The case study first developed new longer analytical time series of spawner biomass and recru......A recent historical marine ecological case study (cod in the eastern Baltic Sea) is used to show how long-term data and knowledge of fluctuations can contribute to revisions of fishery management policy. The case study first developed new longer analytical time series of spawner biomass...... and recruitment back to the 1920s, which extended knowledge of population dynamics into a time period when ecosystem state was characterized by temporally varying combinations of exploitation, climate-hydrographic conditions, marine mammal predation and eutrophication. Recovery of spatially resolved historical...

  3. Applications of C and N stable isotopes to ecological and environmental studies in seagrass ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepoint, Gilles [Centre MARE, Laboratoire d' Oceanologie, Institut de Chimie, B6, Universite de Liege, B-4000 Liege (Belgium)]. E-mail: g.lepoint@ulg.ac.be; Dauby, Patrick [Centre MARE, Laboratoire d' Oceanologie, Institut de Chimie, B6, Universite de Liege, B-4000 Liege (Belgium); Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique, rue Vautier, B1000 Brussels (Belgium); Gobert, Sylvie [Centre MARE, Laboratoire d' Oceanologie, Institut de Chimie, B6, Universite de Liege, B-4000 Liege (Belgium)

    2004-12-01

    Stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen are increasingly used in marine ecosystems, for ecological and environmental studies. Here, we examine some applications of stable isotopes as ecological integrators or tracers in seagrass ecosystem studies. We focus on both the use of natural isotope abundance as food web integrators or environmental tracers and on the use of stable isotopes as experimental tools. As ecosystem integrators, stable isotopes have helped to elucidate the general structure of trophic webs in temperate, Mediterranean and tropical seagrass ecosystems. As environmental tracers, stable isotopes have proven their utility in sewage impact measuring and mapping. However, to make such environmental studies more comprehensible, future works on understanding of basic reasons for variations of N and C stable isotopes in seagrasses should be encouraged. At least, as experimental tracers, stable isotopes allow the study of many aspects of N and C cycles at the scale of a plant or at the scale of the seagrass ecosystem.

  4. Applications of C and N stable isotopes to ecological and environmental studies in seagrass ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepoint, Gilles; Dauby, Patrick; Gobert, Sylvie

    2004-12-01

    Stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen are increasingly used in marine ecosystems, for ecological and environmental studies. Here, we examine some applications of stable isotopes as ecological integrators or tracers in seagrass ecosystem studies. We focus on both the use of natural isotope abundance as food web integrators or environmental tracers and on the use of stable isotopes as experimental tools. As ecosystem integrators, stable isotopes have helped to elucidate the general structure of trophic webs in temperate, Mediterranean and tropical seagrass ecosystems. As environmental tracers, stable isotopes have proven their utility in sewage impact measuring and mapping. However, to make such environmental studies more comprehensible, future works on understanding of basic reasons for variations of N and C stable isotopes in seagrasses should be encouraged. At least, as experimental tracers, stable isotopes allow the study of many aspects of N and C cycles at the scale of a plant or at the scale of the seagrass ecosystem. PMID:15556172

  5. Studying the complexity of change: toward an analytical framework for understanding deliberate social-ecological transformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele-Lee Moore

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Faced with numerous seemingly intractable social and environmental challenges, many scholars and practitioners are increasingly interested in understanding how to actively engage and transform the existing systems holding such problems in place. Although a variety of analytical models have emerged in recent years, most emphasize either the social or ecological elements of such transformations rather than their coupled nature. To address this, first we have presented a definition of the core elements of a social-ecological system (SES that could potentially be altered in a transformation. Second, we drew on insights about transformation from three branches of literature focused on radical change, i.e., social movements, socio-technical transitions, and social innovation, and gave consideration to the similarities and differences with the current studies by resilience scholars. Drawing on these findings, we have proposed a framework that outlines the process and phases of transformative change in an SES. Future research will be able to utilize the framework as a tool for analyzing the alteration of social-ecological feedbacks, identifying critical barriers and leverage points and assessing the outcome of social-ecological transformations.

  6. Designing principles of an ecological water storage basin on coastal saline: a case study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ping-ping; YIN Cheng-qing; QU Jiu-hui; ZHANG Guang-yun; FENG Wen-qing; LIU Jun-xin; ZHONG Zhi

    2005-01-01

    The degradation of water source environment becomes serious problems accompanying with rapid urbanization in China.Ecological engineering provides ecologically sound and cost-effective solution to solving this problem. As a case study, a 15 hm2 ecological water storage basin for a water plant was designed and constructed on the TEDA area in Tianjin City. Located on saline, the construction of this project has to face serious difficulties, such as high salinity, scarce seed banks of macrophytes, and strong winds. Freshwater replacement, soil emendation and macrophytes planting at the basinshore, wooden water breaker and plastic membrane installation and other measures were conducted for the assistance of plant community establishment. The result showed that the chloride concentration in the basin water decreased from 11600 mg/L to less than 100 mg/L, and the chloride content in the basin sediment decreased from 2.1% to0.35 % after freshwater soaking. The introduced macrophytes of 8 species all survived and 11 other macrophytes species were occurred in the basin. A new ecosystem was created with increased biological diversity in the original saline, and the water quality was improved. This ecological water storage basin also provided a pleasing landscape for local people.

  7. Study on the Characteristics of Ecological Water Requirement in Maijishan Scenic Spot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinyong PU; Xiaowei LI

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] This study aimed to explore the characteristics of ecological water requirement in Maijishan Scenic Spot. [Methed] The characteristics of ecologi- cal water requirement in Maijishan Scenic Spot were analyzed based on,the data of soil humidity and meteorology of the spot. [Result] The result showed that the actual annual ecological water requirement in the spot was 678×10^6 m^3, and the proportion of soil water and evapotranspiration were 21% and 79%, respectively; the minimum annual ecological water requirement quota in the spot was 480.27×10^6 m^3, and the proportion of soil water and evapotranspiration were 16% and 84%, respectively; the minimum annual suitable ecological water requirement quota in the spot was 624.22×10^6 m^3, and the proportion of soil water and evapotranspiration were 18% and 82%, respectively. The precipitation was 614×10^6 m^3, and consumptive water surplus reached up to 78×10^6 m^3. The years when the precipitation was higher than the evapotranspiration accounted for 76%. Since 1980s, the evapotranspiration showed a linearly increasing trend. The precipitation was higher than the evapotranspiration from Jun. to Oct. and less than the evapotranspiration from Nov. to Dec. and Jan. to May. Evapotranspiration water requirement was regulated by soil water. The dis- parity between precipitation and evapotranspiration was huge in spring, thus having certain influence on waterfalls and streams in the spot. [Conclusion] The results of this study provided a basis for the rational use and long-term planning of the water sources in Maijishan Scenic Spot.

  8. Bioinformatics Analysis of Coding Regions of Hsf2 Gene among Species%不同物种Hsf2基因编码区生物信息分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马建青; 李祥龙; 周荣艳; 李兰会; 任玉红

    2012-01-01

    The genetic diversity of the CDS of Hsf2 gene from 14 species, including Homo sapiens ,Pan troglodytes ,Nomascus leucogency ,Macaca mulatta ,Callithrix jacchus ,Oryctolagus cuniculus, Ailuropoda melanoleuca ,Sus scrofa ,Bos Taurus ,Loxodonta Africana ,Rattus norveg-icus ,Mus musculus , Cavia porcellus and Cricetulus qriseus were analyzed using the method of comparative genomics' and bioinformatics. The characteristics of composition of nucleic acid sequences and amino acid sequences were also analyzed. The results showed that a total of 203 polymorphic sites, including 68 single polymorphic sites, the percentage was about 9. 81%, that could be sorted into 17 haplotypes were detected from 40 sequences of 14 species. Comparing with its CDS and the structure of protein conservative within species, it comes to relative diversity in Hsf2 for nucleotide among species. The amino acid sequences of Hsf2 presented hydrophilic,theoretical PI was less than 7 mostly. The nature of polypeptide was acid and the instability index of polypeptide was between 51. 90 and 58. 13,indicating that the polypeptide was not stable.%采用比较基因组学和生物信息学方法,分析了人、黑猩猩、长臂猿、猕猴、狨、欧洲兔、大熊猫、野猪、牛、非洲象、褐家鼠、小家鼠、荷兰猪和灰仓鼠共14个物种的热休克转录因子2(或称热激因子2,heat shock transcription factor 2,HSF2)基因编码区(CDS)的遗传多样性,并对该基因的氨基酸序列、组成成分等进行预测和推断.结果表明,在来自14个物种的40条基因序列中共检测到多态位点数203个,其中有单一多态位点68个,百分率约为9.81%,检测到单体型17种,Hsf2基因CDS在种内表现较为保守,种间则表现有较丰富的遗传多样性.Hsf2的氨基酸序列表现为亲水性,理论等电点大多小于7,表现为酸性;肽链的不稳定系数在51.90~58.13,表明多肽不稳定.

  9. Relationships between black tea consumption and key health indicators in the world: an ecological study

    OpenAIRE

    Beresniak, Ariel; Duru, Gerard; Berger, Genevieve; Bremond-Gignac, Dominique

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate potential statistical relationships between black tea consumption and key health indicators in the world. The research question is: Does tea consumption is correlated with one or more epidemiological indicators? Design Ecological study using a systematic data-mining approach in which the unit of the analysis is a population of one country. Setting Six variables, black tea consumption data and prevalence data of respiratory diseases, infectio...

  10. Correlations between cutaneous malignant melanoma and other cancers: An ecological study in forty European countries

    OpenAIRE

    Pablo Fernandez-Crehuet Serrano; Jose Luis Fernandez-Crehuet Serrano; Mohamed Farouk Allam; Rafael Fernandez-Crehuet Navajas

    2016-01-01

    Background: The presence of noncutaneous neoplasms does not seem to increase the risk of cutaneous malignant melanoma; however, it seems to be associated with the development of other hematological, brain, breast, uterine, and prostatic neoplasms. An ecological transversal study was conducted to study the geographic association between cutaneous malignant melanoma and 24 localizations of cancer in forty European countries. Methods: Cancer incidence rates were extracted from GLOBOCAN datab...

  11. Can Social Theory Adequately Address Nature-Society Issues? Do political ecology and science studies in Geography incorporate ecological change?

    OpenAIRE

    Nightingale, Andrea J.

    2006-01-01

    There has been an expansion of interest in nature-society issues within human geography spurred by the rich, sophisticated analyses of environment-development issues within the Third World. This latter work emerged out of the fusion of cultural ecology and the political economy of resource use, but scholars are increasingly turning towards post-structuralism to engage with the complex, mutual constitution of symbolic and material struggles over land and resources. Yet to some e...

  12. Ecological Divergence, Adaptive Diversification, and the Evolution of Social Signaling Traits: An Empirical Study in Arid Australian Lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Danielle L; Melville, Jane; Joseph, Leo; Keogh, J Scott

    2015-12-01

    Species diversification often results from divergent evolution of ecological or social signaling traits. Theoretically, a combination of the two may promote speciation, however, empirical examples studying how social signal and ecological divergence might be involved in diversification are rare in general and typically do not consider range overlap as a contributing factor. We show that ecologically distinct lineages within the Australian sand dragon species complex (including Ctenophorus maculatus, Ctenophorus fordi, and Ctenophorus femoralis) have diversified recently, diverging in ecologically relevant and social signaling phenotypic traits as arid habitats expanded and differentiated. Diversification has resulted in repeated and independent invasion of distinct habitat types, driving convergent evolution of similar phenotypes. Our results suggest that parapatry facilitates diversification in visual signals through reinforcement as a hybridization-avoidance mechanism. We show that particularly striking variation in visual social signaling traits is better explained by the extent of lineage parapatry relative to ecological or phylogenetic divergence, suggesting that these traits reinforce divergence among lineages initiated by ecologically adaptive evolution. This study provides a rare empirical example of a repeated, intricate relationship between ecological and social signal evolution during diversification driven by ecological divergence and the evolution of new habitats, thereby supporting emergent theories regarding the importance of both ecological and social trait evolution throughout speciation.

  13. Marine Vibrionaceae as a reservoir for bioprospecting and ecology studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giubergia, Sonia

    emerged as an untapped source of biodiversity, and this study investigated the marine bacterial family Vibrionaceae (“vibrios”) for its potential as reservoir of novel biodiversity and of species relevant for the ecology of the marine environment. The characterization of a novel species, Vibrio galatheae...... environment. Studying microbial eco-physiology is important not only for the development of ecological models, but also as foundation for bioprospecting studies, where this knowledge may be used, for example, to elicit silent biosynthetic gene clusters during natural product discovery.......The exploration of biodiversity (“bioprospecting”) provides mankind with an immense pool of novel organisms, molecules and information, which can be exploited for the development of innovative biotechnological processes and new ways to treat diseases. In the past decades, the marine environment...

  14. Theories of practice - new inspiration for ecological economic studies on consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    2009-01-01

    approach has emerged in sociological consumption studies, as part of a general wave of renewed interest in practice theory emanating from a desire to move beyond such dominant dualisms as the structure-actor opposition in sociology. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the practice theory approach......The dynamics behind ever-increasing consumption have long been a core issue of ecological economics. Studies on this topic have traditionally drawn not only on insights from economics, but also from such disciplines as sociology, anthropology and psychology. In recent years, a practice theory...... in relation to studies of everyday life, domestic practices and consumption, and to argue that this approach can be fruitful for ecological economics and other fields interested in the environmental aspects of consumption. The paper emphasizes the immense challenge involved in promoting sustainable...

  15. Role of green structure and ecological services: a case study of bahawalpur city, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cities can make broader contribution to achieve the goals of sustainable development as they are considered major consumers of resources and ecological services. Ecological services provide a range of benefits at local, regional and global levels. Terrestrial ecosystem has different components in urban environment that provides ecological services to its inhabitants. Cities not only benefit from the internal urban ecosystem but also depend upon other ecosystems beyond the city limit. Green structure is an important component in terms of making city more sustainable and habitable. Green structure in urban environment means green infrastructure that is planned and supports sustainable that is planned and supports sustainable urban development. From planning perspective, spatial structure of green space provides a basis for sustainable urban development. In sustainable perspective, green structure more than the sum of green spaces. It is considered as spatial network of open spaces, public and private gardens and parks, sports fields, allotment gardens, woodlands and recreational grounds. Therefore, it is considered as a significant part of built-up environment and major source of ecological services. To structure urban areas of sustainable development, it is necessary to develop a proportion between grey and green cities. Keeping in view, research has been conducted to investigate spatial network of green structure in planned areas of Bahawalpur City of Pakistan. This study analyzes the ecological services generated from the investigated green structures, and helped develop an approach of inter-relation between green environment and urban society. Moreover, strategies for better land-use planning in green and sustainable perspective have been proposed. (author)

  16. Site study plan for ecology, Deaf Smith County Site, Texas: Environmental Field Program: Preliminary Draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-06-01

    The Ecology Site Study Plan describes a field program consisting of studies which include surveys for endangered, threatened, and candidate species; vegetation characterization, including mapping and cover typing, plant succession, wetlands description, and preexisting stresses; and wildlife community characterization, including availability and quality of habitats and descriptions of mammal, bird, reptile, amphibian, and invertebrate populations. The plan for each study describes the need for the study, study design, data management and use, schedule and personnel requirements, and quality assurance. These studies will provide data needed to satisfy requirements contained in, or derived from, the Salt Repository Project Requirements Document (SRP-RD). 83 refs., 3 tabs.

  17. Site study plan for ecology, Deaf Smith County Site, Texas: Environmental Field Program: Preliminary Draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Ecology Site Study Plan describes a field program consisting of studies which include surveys for endangered, threatened, and candidate species; vegetation characterization, including mapping and cover typing, plant succession, wetlands description, and preexisting stresses; and wildlife community characterization, including availability and quality of habitats and descriptions of mammal, bird, reptile, amphibian, and invertebrate populations. The plan for each study describes the need for the study, study design, data management and use, schedule and personnel requirements, and quality assurance. These studies will provide data needed to satisfy requirements contained in, or derived from, the Salt Repository Project Requirements Document (SRP-RD). 83 refs., 3 tabs

  18. Assessing ecological land use and water demand of river systems: a case study in Luanhe River, North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, D. H.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Qin, T. L.

    2012-08-01

    Economic and social development has greatly increased ecological water demand and modified land use of river systems worldwide, causing overall degradation of many of these systems. In this study, theoretical and technical frameworks for regionalization on the eco-environmental function of river systems are formulated and applied to the Luanhe River system. Based on its eco-environmental functions, this river can be regionalized into four types of first-class functional areas: ecological preservation areas, habitat restoration areas, ecological buffer areas and development and utilization areas. Considering the overall eco-environmental functions, we assessed the ecological land use of the Luanhe River system. The total area of basic ecological land use is 876.98 km2; the restrictive ecological land use is 1745.52 km2; ecological land use of the river system returned from farmland is 284.25 km2; and that returned from construction land is 17.35 km2. The average minimum ecological flow of mainstreams in upper and middle reaches of the Luanhe River is 4.896 m3 s-1 based on the habitat method. And the recommended minimum and suitable annual ecological water demand of channels in the lower reaches are 391 million m3 and 819.5 million m3, respectively. The evaporation and seepage consumption and vegetation consumption in riparian zones of the Luanhe River system are approximately 132.6 million m3 and 145.3 million m3 per year, respectively. Our results suggest that is crucial to regulate the instream ecological water use of the Luanhe River's mainstream starting from the Panjiakou-Daheiting Reservoir system. We recommend accelerating ecological land-use planning and strengthening the regulation of ecological water use on this river system focusing on important lower reaches under the condition of competitive water demand.

  19. 过表达热休克因子1突变体对RAW264.7细胞的影响%The effects of HSF1 mutant over-expression on RAW264.7 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁秋娟; 张华莉; 张玲俐; 涂自智

    2009-01-01

    目的 建立稳定转染热休克因子1(HSF1)显性正性和显性负性突变体的细胞株,并探讨HSF1突变体过表达对细胞生长的影响.方法 用脂质体将真核表达质粒pcDNA3.1(+)-HSF1+和pcDNA3.1(+)-HSF1-分别转染RAW264.7细胞株,G418筛选阳性单克隆,Western blot鉴定高表达的克隆,流式细胞术检测稳定转染HSF1突变体的细胞与转空载体细胞的生长及凋亡情况.结果 建立了稳定表达HSF1显性正性或显性负性突变体的细胞株,并发现转染HSF1突变体细胞能影响正常细胞增殖,但不引起细胞凋亡.结论 HSF1突变体能影响RAW264.7细胞正常生长周期.

  20. Identifying Distinct Quitting Trajectories after an Unassisted Smoking Cessation Attempt: An Ecological Momentary Assessment Study

    OpenAIRE

    Bachmann, Monica S.; Znoj, Hansjörg; Brodbeck, Jeannette

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed at identifying distinct quitting trajectories over 29 days after an unassisted smoking ces- sation attempt by ecological momentary assessment (EMA). In order to validate these trajectories we tested if they predict smoking frequency up to six months later. Methods: EMA via mobile phones was used to collect real time data on smoking (yes/no) after an unassisted quit attempt over 29 days. Smoking frequency one, three and six months after the quit attempt was assesse...

  1. Marine ecological habitat: A case study on projected thermal power plant around Dharamtar creek, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kulkarni, V.A.; Naidu, V.S.; Jagtap, T.G.

    Project, Department of Ocean Development, Govt. of India, New Delhi, India (1998). 219 Journal of Environmental Biology circleshadowdwnMarch 2011circleshadowdwn Case study of marine habitats near projected thermal power plant Efimova, T.A.: Effect of warm...). Kennish, M.J.: Ecology of estuaries: Anthropogenic effects. CRC Press, Inc., Lewis Publishers, 2000 Corporate Blvd., Boca Raton, Florida. (1992). Kennish, M.J.: Pollution impacts on marine biotic communities. CRC Press, Inc., Lewis Publishers, 2000...

  2. A system-wide approach to explaining variation in potentially avoidable emergency admissions: national ecological study

    OpenAIRE

    O'Cathain, Alicia; Knowles, Emma; Maheswaran, Ravi; Pearson, Tim; Turner, Janette; Hirst, Enid; Goodacre, Steve; Nicholl, Jon

    2013-01-01

    Background Some emergency admissions can be avoided if acute exacerbations of health problems are managed by the range of health services providing emergency and urgent care. Aim To identify system-wide factors explaining variation in age sex adjusted admission rates for conditions rich in avoidable admissions. Design National ecological study. Setting 152 emergency and urgent care systems in England. Methods Hospital Episode Statistics data on emergency admissions were used to calculate an a...

  3. Association of UV radiation with Parkinson's disease incidence: A nationwide French ecologic study

    OpenAIRE

    Elbaz, A; Sofiane, K; Wald, Lucien; Dugravot, A.; Singh-Manoux, A.; Moisan, F.; Kravietz, A

    2016-01-01

    International audience Meeting: 20th International Congress Abstract Number: 467 Objective: Using ultraviolet B (UV-B) as a surrogate for vitamin D levels, we conducted a nationwide ecologic study in France in order to examine the association of UV-B exposure with Parkinson's disease (PD) incidence. Background: In addition to regulating calcium homeostasis and bone metabolism, vitamin D is involved in multiple biological pathways. Lower vitamin D is associated with increased mortality, in ...

  4. Case study of building of conservation coalitions to conserve ecological interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gao; Luo, Shihong; Mei, Nianshu; Shen, Dingfang; Sun, Weibang

    2015-12-01

    We engaged experts in various fields of study (pollination ecology, chemical ecology, and ethnobotany), invited community participation, and provided environmental education in an effort to conserve an endangered birthwort (Aristolochia delavayi) and a vulnerable pipevine swallowtail (Byasa daemonius). Scientists studied the uptake and sequestration of the secondary metabolites aristolochic acids from A. delavayi leaves by different stages of pipevine swallowtail as a defense mechanism; low fruit set of the myophilous A. delavayi due to pollinator limitation; and the emission of chemical signals that attract parasitic wasps by the prepupae of B. daemonius. The results of these studies were part of an education program delivered by personnel of non-governmental organizations. The program was devised to deliver information to the public about the health risks of consuming A. delavayi individuals (aristolochic-acid-associated cancers) and to establish a bridge between the public and scientific research. Following delivery of the program, the behavior of residents changed considerably. Community residents were involved in management activities, including participation in a program to promote understanding of ecological interactions between A. delavayi and B. daemonius; designing an in situ conservation site; monitoring A. delavayi and B. daemonius individuals; and promoting the natural fruit set of A. delavayi by scattering animal excrement to attract fly pollinators. The integration of scientific information and community participation appears to have resulted in an increase in abundance of threatened A. delavayi and B. daemonius populations. We believe the involvement of local people in conservation is necessary for successful species conservation. PMID:26372410

  5. Comprehensive evaluation of regional ecological security for land use: a case study of Yanchi County, Ningxia Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    As an Abstract study conception,most researches of ecological security generally are macro-scale theoretical study with a regional,national or global perspective.Micro-scale research mainly concentrates on ecological risk,ecosystem health and ecosystem safety.In order to assess regional ecological security and to accomplish the transition from micro-scale to macro-scale research,a Driving-Function-State-Output-Respond model framework (DFSOR model) is put forward in this paper according to the analyses on regional population,society,economy,resources,environment and ecological risks.In empirical research an index .system is set out to evaluate ecological security of land use.The DFSOR model comprises five group of indicators:(1) driving indicators,which include social population pressure and economic pressure;(2) Junction indicators,which include human function,hydrodynamic function,wind function and gravity function;(3) state indicators,which include soil resources,water resources and land use/land cover;(4) output indicators,which include production output and ecological risk output;(5) response indicators,which are composed of all sorts of policies and measures for improving production of ecosystem.The method and procedure for ecological security evaluation is put forward based on DFSOR model as well.In the case study,Yanchi,the ecotone between agriculture and animal husbandry,is chosen for the study.An index system built to evaluate ecological security based on the evaluation of regional ecological risks which including sandification,water erosion,soil salinization,soil pollution and shortage of water.The comprehens'ive evaluation result shows the regional ecological security index of land use in the research area increase obviously.But it is still in the state of low-graded danger.

  6. A Study of Ecological and Morphological Characters on Tibet Zebu as a New Genetic Resource

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Zhang-ping; CHANG Hong; LI Xiang-yun; SHI Da; Mirnachiren; Chirendoje; CHENG Guo-hong; SUN Wei

    2003-01-01

    Arpijaza, Lekezhi and Zhangmu cattle discovered in cooled region of Tibet are Bos populationswhich have close blood relationship with zebu. Besides studying their distribution, nature environment and ec-ological conditions, the multivariate statistics analysis of three sides (i. e. , body measurement, morphologyand ecology characters)were carried out on three zebu populations from cooled region of Tibet and other threereference populations. The results indicated that there were various ecology types within Tibet zebu popula-tions. Fore two character values were selected as the principal components (occupied 88.15% of total informa-tion amount). The cluster analysis according to two principal component values of each sample displayed thatthree zebu populations from Tibet and two zebu populations from Yunnan emerged in clustering figure alter-nately, Lhasa yellow cattle was independent from the five zebu populations. The study has proved that therewere zebu populations in Tibet cooled region and there was a possibility of blood relationship between the zebupopulations from Tibet and Yunnan.

  7. A theoretical quantitative genetic study of negative ecological interactions and extinction times in changing environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Adam G

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rapid human-induced changes in the environment at local, regional and global scales appear to be contributing to population declines and extinctions, resulting in an unprecedented biodiversity crisis. Although in the short term populations can respond ecologically to environmental alterations, in the face of persistent change populations must evolve or become extinct. Existing models of evolution and extinction in changing environments focus only on single species, even though the dynamics of extinction almost certainly depend upon the nature of species interactions. Results Here, I use a model of quantitative trait evolution in a two-species community to show that negative ecological interactions, such as predation and competition, can produce unexpected results regarding time to extinction. Under some circumstances, negative interactions can be expected to hasten the extinction of species declining in numbers. However, under other circumstances, negative interactions can actually increase times to extinction. This effect occurs across a wide range of parameter values and can be substantial, in some cases allowing a population to persist for 40 percent longer than it would in the absence of the species interaction. Conclusion This theoretical study indicates that negative species interactions can have unexpected positive effects on times to extinction. Consequently, detailed studies of selection and demographics will be necessary to predict the consequences of species interactions in changing environments for any particular ecological community.

  8. Ecological stability of landscape - ecological infrastructure - ecological management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Field Workshop 'Ecological Stability of Landscape - Ecological Infrastructure - Ecological Management' was held within a State Environmental Programme financed by the Federal Committee for the Environment. The objectives of the workshop were to present Czech and Slovak approaches to the ecological stability of the landscape by means of examples of some case studies in the field, and to exchange ideas, theoretical knowledge and practical experience on implementing the concept of ecological infrastructure in landscape management. Out of 19 papers contained in the proceedings, 3 items were inputted to the INIS system. (Z.S.)

  9. Converting redox signaling to apoptotic activities by stress-responsive regulators HSF1 and NRF2 in fenretinide treated cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kankan Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pharmacological intervention of redox balance in cancer cells often results in oxidative stress-mediated apoptosis, attracting much attention for the development of a new generation of targeted therapy in cancer. However, little is known about mechanisms underlying the conversion from oxidative signaling to downstream activities leading cells to death. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We here report a systematic detection of transcriptome changes in response to oxidative signals generated in leukemia cells upon fenretinide treatment, implicating the occurrence of numerous stress-responsive events during the fenretinide induced apoptosis, such as redox response, endoplasmic reticulum stress/unfolded protein response, translational repression and proteasome activation. Moreover, the configuration of these relevant events is primarily orchestrated by stress responsive transcription factors, as typically highlighted by NF-E2-related factor-2 (NRF2 and heat shock factor 1 (HSF1. Several lines of evidence suggest that the coordinated regulation of these transcription factors and thus their downstream genes are involved in converting oxidative signaling into downstream stress-responsive events regulating pro-apoptotic and apoptotic activities at the temporal and spatial levels, typifying oxidative stress-mediated programmed death rather than survival in cancer cells. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study provides a roadmap for understanding oxidative stress-mediated apoptosis in cancer cells, which may be further developed into more sophisticated therapeutic protocols, as implicated by synergistic induction of cell apoptosis using proteasome inhibitors with fenretinide.

  10. Thermal ecology of montane Atelopus (Anura: Bufonidae): A study of intrageneric diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda Solano, Luis Alberto; Navas, Carlos A; Carvajalino-Fernández, Juan Manuel; Amézquita, Adolfo

    2016-05-01

    Harlequin frogs (Bufonidae: Atelopus) are among the most threatened frog genus in the world and reach very high elevations in the tropical Andes and the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta (SNSM). Learning about their thermal ecology is essential to infer sensitivity to environmental changes, particularly climate warming. We report on the activity temperature and thermoregulatory behavior of three high-elevation species of harlequin frogs, Atelopus nahumae, Atelopus laetissimus and Atelopus carrikeri. The first two mentioned live in streams in Andean rain forests, whereas A. carrikeri inhabits paramo streams in the SNSM. We studied the thermal ecology of these species in tree localities differing in altitude, and focused on activity body, operative, substrate and air temperature. A main trend was lower body temperature as elevation increased, so that differences among species were largely explained by differences in substrate temperature. However, this temperature variation was much lower in forest species than paramo species. The Atelopus species included in this work proved to be thermoconformers, a trend that not extended to all congenerics at high elevation. This diversity in thermal ecology poses important questions when discussing the impact of climate warming for high-elevation harlequin frogs. For example, forest species show narrow thermal ranges and, if highly specialized, may be more susceptible to temperature change. Paramo species such as A. carrikeri, in contrast, may be more resilient to temperature change. PMID:27157338

  11. Immunology in wild nonmodel rodents: an ecological context for studies of health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, J A

    2015-05-01

    Transcriptomic methods are set to revolutionize the study of the immune system in naturally occurring nonmodel organisms. With this in mind, the present article focuses on ways in which the use of 'nonmodel' rodents (not the familiar laboratory species) can advance studies into the classical, but ever relevant, epidemiologic triad of immune defence, infectious disease and environment. For example, naturally occurring rodents are an interesting system in which to study the environmental stimuli that drive the development and homeostasis of the immune system and, by extension, to identify where these stimuli are altered in anthropogenic environments leading to the formation of immunopathological phenotypes. Measurement of immune expression may help define individual heterogeneity in infectious disease susceptibility and transmission and facilitate our understanding of infection dynamics and risk in the natural environment; furthermore, it may provide a means of surveillance that can filter individuals carrying previously unknown acute infections of potential ecological or zoonotic importance. Finally, the study of immunology in wild animals may reveal interactions within the immune system and between immunity and other organismal traits that are not observable under restricted laboratory conditions. Potentiating much of this is the possibility of combining gene expression profiles with analytical tools derived from ecology and systems biology to reverse engineer interaction networks between immune responses, other organismal traits and the environment (including symbiont exposures), revealing regulatory architecture. Such holistic studies promise to link ecology, epidemiology and immunology in natural systems in a unified approach that can illuminate important problems relevant to human health and animal welfare and production. PMID:25689683

  12. Trajectories of legitimate peripheral participation: Ethnographic case studies of learning ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Gervase Michael Reynolds

    1999-09-01

    Current reform documents in education call for elementary and high school students to engage in "authentic" scientific practices. In the past several years a number of authors have suggested that science education research and curriculum development could benefit from insights gained by research in the social studies of science that documents and theorizes science as it is actually done. Yet, although practices of laboratory science are well understood and provide a foundation from which educational practices could be drawn, little is known about the practices of the science disciplines which deal with field research and how people are enculturated into those practices. This dissertation is constituted by a series of research papers on different (although inter-related) topics, in which I examine the enculturation into the practices of field ecology and the world-view that is associated with that enculturation. To better understand the practices of field ecology and how they develop, I conducted several projects: (i) a video ethnography of a second-year university ecology class and observations on research experiences undergraduates experience; (ii) ethnographic research with ecologists conducting field research; (iii) observations of graduate student and professional ecologists as they participated in conferences, engaged in interaction in their laboratory and social settings, and presented/discussed their findings in various settings; (iv) interviews with graduate student and professional ecologists discussing their field research experiences; (v) videotaped interviews with practicing researchers and under/graduate science and non-science students as they interpreted various ecology-related inscriptions; (vi) an analysis of the inscriptions and textual information present in the various texts (textbooks and journals) used to teach students about ecology; and, (vii) observations of elementary school students engaged in practices congruent with those of field

  13. Progress Report: Integrated Ecological Studies at Lisbon Bottom Unit, Big Muddy Fish and Wildlife Refuge, Fiscal Year 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey has been carrying out integrated ecological studies at the Lisbon Bottom Unit of the Big Muddy Fish and Wildlife Refuge since 1996. This...

  14. AFSC/NMML: Bowhead Whale Feeding Ecology Study (BOWFEST): Aerial Survey in Chukchi and Beaufort Seas, 2007-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Bowhead Whale Feeding Ecology Study (BOWFEST) was initiated in May 2007 through an Interagency Agreement between the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM)...

  15. ECOLOGICAL EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GABRIELA GYONGY MIHUT

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available While in most emerging and developing countries, the population has a lower ecological footprint in the developed countries have a larger footprint.There is also an alarming contrast between a person perception of her liability for damages to its environment and its actual size. These misconceptions may have their source in the absence of awareness of risks from climate change, culture or religion.The purpose of this study is to analyze the situation at the international and Romanian level and to draw attention on the necessity of un ecological education.

  16. Screen selection of target genes regulated by HSF1 in heat shock response from myocardium of gene knockout mice%从基因敲除小鼠心肌组织中筛选热休克反应中受HSF1调控的靶基因

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘瑛; 袁灿; 张华莉; 王秋鹏; 肖献忠

    2004-01-01

    目的:用cDNA芯片从热休克转录因子1(HSF1)基因敲除小鼠心肌组织中筛选热休克反应受HSF1调控的靶基因.方法:用cDNA芯片检测热休克反应(42℃15min,恢复3h)中HSF1-/-小鼠心肌组织基因表达谱的改变(以HSF1+/+小鼠为对照);用RT-PCR对cDNA芯片筛选结果进行验证;对差异表达的已命名基因进行启动子区转录因子结合位点的分析.结果:共筛选到差异表达基因1142个;其中在HSF1-/-小鼠心肌中表达下调的基因为398个,已命名基因为173个;在HSF1-/-小鼠心肌中表达上调的基因为641个,已命名基因为235个.在HSF1-/-小鼠心肌中表达下调2.5倍的已命名基因中,有5个基因启动子区含有热休克元件(HSE);在HSF1-/-小鼠心肌中表达上调2.5倍的已命名基因中,有6个基因启动子区含有HSE.结论:在热休克反应中,HSF1可对多个基因的表达进行直接或间接的调控.

  17. Development and Application of Real-time Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction for the Detection of Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Related Novel Gene HSF1 Expression%肝细胞癌患者外周血HSF1基因表达的检测及应用价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢鹏; 冯薇; 李霄; 杨平; 寇明文; 胡延忠; 宋振顺

    2012-01-01

    目的:建立检测HSF1 mRNA的real-time PCR的方法,了解肝细胞癌患者外周血中HSF1的表达水平及其与各临床病理特征之间的关系.方法:利用real-time PCR的方法检测20例肝细胞癌患者及20例正常人群外周血中HSF1 mRNA的表达量.结果:肝细胞癌患者外周血中的HSFl mRNA表达量显著高于正常人群(P<0.05);肝细胞癌患者外周血中HSFI mRNA的表达水平在不同性别、肿瘤大小、门静脉侵犯情况、HbsAg水平及AFP水平的患者中的差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);在不同病理分化程度、TNM分期的患者中的差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:real-time PCR技术可以成功检测外周血中HSFl mRNA的表达量,HSF1可能与肝细胞癌的发生发展密切相关.%Objective: To establish a quantitative real-time PCR method for detection of HSF1 gene expression level in human hepatocellular carcinoma and to investigate the relationship between HSFl mRNA expression level and the clinicopathological characters. Methods: Real-time PCR was employed to determine the expression level of HSF1 mRNA in peripheral blood of 20 specimens of human hepatocellular carcinoma patients and normal human. Results: Comparing with normal human, HSF1 present higher expressions in human hepatocellular carcinoma patients (P0.05). There is statistical differences of HSF1 mRNA expression level between the group with different differentiations and TNM stages (P>0.05). Conclusion: The established quantitative real-time PCR method can successfully detect the expression level of HSF1 mRNA, which may be closely related to the occurrence and development of human hepatocellular carcinoma.

  18. Global approach to ecological qualification of industrial products: Leather industry case-study; La qualificazione ecologica dei prodotti industriali: il case-study della produzione conciaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grasso, G. [Ministero degli Affari Esteri, Rome (Italy); Bufalo, G. [Potenza Univ. (Italy). Facolta di Agraria; Manzo, G. [Salerno Univ. (Italy). Facolta di Economia e Commercio

    1994-09-01

    This paper deals with both economic and technical points of view of the arising question of ecological normalization of industrial products, for instance via informative quality marks. This is accomplished introducing adequate definitions of terms and specifications of objectives, based on such ecological criteria as global life-cycle of the product (`from cradle to grave`) and energy and matter complete process balance. In order to explain a concrete analysis of similar labelling and computing procedures, the specific case-study of environmental impact of leather goods was faced up. Regulation and deregulation measures of public policy concerning the environmental questions are also discussed, some emphasis doing on the normalization tools as ecolabel and ecoaudits. Finally economic analysis of ecological products is performed, involving concepts as ecological value, net added value, utilization value and ecological premium-price. Environmental factory costs for pollution control are so firstly changed in ecological quality characteristics and next in competitive market opportunities.

  19. Possibilities of the Integration of the Method of the Ecologically Oriented Independent Scientific Research in the Study Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grizans, Jurijs; Vanags, Janis

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse possibilities of the integration of the method of the ecologically oriented independent scientific research in the study process. In order to achieve the set aim, the following scientific research methods were used: analysis of the conceptual guidelines for the development of environmentally oriented entrepreneurship, interpretation of the experts' evaluation of the ecologically oriented management, analysis of the results of the students' ecologically oriented independent scientific research, as well as monographic and logically constructive methods. The results of the study give an opportunity to make conclusions and to develop conceptual recommendations on how to introduce future economics and business professionals with the theoretical and practical aspects of ecologically oriented management during the study process.

  20. An Ecological Flood Control System in Phoenix Island of Huzhou, China: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Zhuowen Wang; Jun Liu; Cheng Gao

    2013-01-01

    Traditional flood control systems always have a conflict with natural ones, i.e., rivers in cities are usually straight and smooth, whereas natural ones are according to ecological mechanisms. Social and economic developments in the modern world require a new system combining ecological needs and traditional flood control system. Ecological flood control systems were put forward and defined as flood control systems with full consideration of ecological demands for sustainable development. In ...

  1. ECOLOGICAL STUDIES ON ZOOPLANKTON OF THE WEST LAKE AND THE INFLOWS

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Gouguo; Wei, Chongde; Zhou, Hong; Pei, Hongping

    1999-01-01

    Zooplankton ecology of the West Lake and the streams that flow into the lake were investigated during January-December 1995. Protozoans were the predominant group among 252 species of zooplankton, accounting for 50.4% of the total number. Due to the seasonal variations in density and biomass of zooplankton, were studied. Changqiao stream recorded the highest density of zooplankton among seven sampling points, with an average of 10,710 inds./L. The lowest density found was Jinsha stream (886 i...

  2. Study on City Environment, Safety and Health from the Viewpoint of Ecological Risks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Qian-liang

    2011-01-01

    Urban ecological risk analysis is a relatively new study field.Rapid industrial moderni ation and urbanization have significantly improved the living standards of the city.However, as environmental, safety and health issues are causing widespread concern, these problems have potential serious threat on ecosystems and human health.So how to solve many problems arising from city has become a key to sustainable development of human civilization.The present article analyzed the major problems that the city confronts and pointed out the main measures from the aspects of urban environment, safety and health.

  3. Bioremediation in marine ecosystems: a computational study combining ecological modelling and flux balance analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna eTaffi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The pressure to search effective bioremediation methodologies for contaminated ecosystems has led to the large-scale identification of microbial species and metabolic degradation pathways. However, minor attention has been paid to the study of bioremediation in marine food webs and to the definition of integrated strategies for reducing bioaccumulation in species. We propose a novel computational framework for analysing the multiscale effects of bioremediation at the ecosystem level, based on coupling food web bioaccumulation models and metabolic models of degrading bacteria. The combination of techniques from synthetic biology and ecological network analysis allows the specification of arbitrary scenarios of contaminant removal and the evaluation of strategies based on natural or synthetic microbial strains.In this study, we derive a bioaccumulation model of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs in the Adriatic food web, and we extend a metabolic reconstruction of Pseudomonas putida KT2440 (iJN746 with the aerobic pathway of PCBs degradation. We assess the effectiveness of different bioremediation scenarios in reducing PCBs concentration in species and we study indices of species centrality to measure their importance in the contaminant diffusion via feeding links.The analysis of the Adriatic sea case study suggests that our framework could represent a practical tool in the design of effective remediation strategies, providing at the same time insights into the ecological role of microbial communities within food webs.

  4. Students' exposure and career aspirations in ecology: A study using semi-structured interviews to gain knowledge of public school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Heather C.

    Ecology as a field is dominated by white males, McCarter (2003) has noted that women and minorities are underrepresented in the discipline of ecology across the United States. The contribution of this research is to assess and quantify, in a scientific manner, students' exposure, and career aspirations towards ecology; 226 student responses were coded from semi-structured interviews. The main objectives of this study, using student interviews, were the following: (1) assess the importance of exposure to ecology and ecological related topics to: gender, ethnicity, region, grades in science, grades in non-science, grade level, and interest in ecology career. (2) determine if early exposure to ecology (i.e. gained in high school) and ecological related topics is related to an increased interest of students continuing in an ecologically related field and (3) assess if high school students who have been involved in more outdoor related activities such as camping, hiking, hunting, and/or fishing, will be more likely to be interested in an ecological career. Overall, the results indicated that students interviewed for this study generally responded in a positive manner, and were generally interested in ecology. Some students were even interested in pursuing a career in ecology. The study revealed significant differences in the exposure of ecology between school locations, girls and boys, and whites and non-whites. The results of this research and avenues for future research are discussed.

  5. Administrative Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarity, Augustus C., III; Maulding, Wanda

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses how all four facets of administrative ecology help dispel the claims about the "impossibility" of the superintendency. These are personal ecology, professional ecology, organizational ecology, and community ecology. Using today's superintendency as an administrative platform, current literature describes a preponderance of…

  6. Environmental and ecological water requirement of river system: a case study of Haihe-Luanhe river system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In order to reduce the environmental and ecological problems induced by water resources development and utilization, this paper proposes a concept of environmental and ecological water requirement. It is defined as the minimum water amount to be consumed by the natural water bodies to conserve its environmental and ecological functions. Based on the definition, the methods on calculating the amount of environmental and ecological water requirement are determined. In the case study on Haihe-Luanhe river system, the water requirement is divided into three parts, i.e., the basic in-stream flow, water requirement for sediment transfer and water consumption by evaporation of the lakes or everglades. The results of the calculation show that the environmental and ecological water requirement in the river system is about 124×108 m3, including 57×108 m3 for basic in-stream flow, 63×108m3 for sediment transfer and 4×l08m3 for net evaporation loss of lakes. The total amount of environmental and ecological water requirement accounts for 54% of the amount of runoff (228×108 m3). However, it should be realized that the amount of environmental and ecological water requirement must be more than that we have calculated. According to this result, we consider that the rational utilization rate of the runoff in the river systems must not be more than 40%. Since the current utilization rate of the river system, which is over 80%, has been far beyond the limitation, the problems of environment and ecology are quite serious. It is imperative to control and adjust water development and utilization to eliminate the existing problems and to avoid the potential ecological or environmental crisis.

  7. Modeling direct and indirect climate change impacts on ecological networks : a case study on breeding habitat of Dutch meadow birds

    OpenAIRE

    van Dijk, Jerry; Van Der Vliet, Roland E.; De Jong, Harm; Zeylmans Van Emmichoven, Maarten J.; Van Hardeveld, Henk A.; Dekker, Stefan C.; Wassen, Martin J.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Climate change can directly affect habitats within ecological networks, but may also have indirect effects on network quality by inducing land use change. The relative impact of indirect effects of climate change on the quality of ecological networks currently remains largely unknown. Objectives: The objective of this study was to determine the relative impact of direct and indirect effects of climate change on a network of breeding habitat of four meadow bird species (Black-tailed g...

  8. Implementing fire history and fire ecology in fire risk assessment: the study case of Canton Ticino (southern Switzerland)

    OpenAIRE

    CONEDERA, Marco

    2009-01-01

    The understanding of the ecological role of wildfires and the knowledge of its past natural and cultural dynamics in different ecosystems have been recognize as a prerequisite for a sustainable land and ecosystem management. The main objective of this work is to propose a methodological approach for implementing the knowledge derived from studies of fire history, fire ecology, and fire suppression strategies in fire risk analyses in a low-to medium fire-prone region such as the Canton Ticino.

  9. Assessing ecological land use and water demand of river systems: a case study in Luanhe River, North China

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, D. H.; Wang, G; H. Wang; T. L. Qin

    2012-01-01

    Economic and social development has greatly increased ecological water demand and modified land use of river systems worldwide, causing overall degradation of many of these systems. In this study, theoretical and technical frameworks for regionalization on the eco-environmental function of river systems are formulated and applied to the Luanhe River system. Based on its eco-environmental functions, this river can be regionalized into four types of first-class functional areas: ecological pres...

  10. The Transition of Cultural Ecology in Beidong District of Guizhou – A Case Study of Tianzhu Community

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Xing; DONG, Baoling; Zhao, Yingzi

    2014-01-01

    Beidong minorities living together in Qingshui River valley are deeply influenced by Jing and Chu culture. Their ethnic and traditional culture was developed in the process of collision with foreign culture. In the several great social transformations, their cultural ecology was not imbalanced, but evolved and developed. Through the study on local knowledge of cultural ecology including agricultural production, ancestral hall and local-style dwelling house, full-scale drama and Yang Drama, ge...

  11. The role of geographical ecological studies in identifying diseases linked to UVB exposure and/or vitamin D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, William B

    2016-01-01

    Using a variety of approaches, researchers have studied the health effects of solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure and vitamin D. This review compares the contributions from geographical ecological studies with those of observational studies and clinical trials. Health outcomes discussed were based on the author's knowledge and include anaphylaxis/food allergy, atopic dermatitis and eczema, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism, back pain, cancer, dental caries, diabetes mellitus type 1, hypertension, inflammatory bowel disease, lupus, mononucleosis, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson disease, pneumonia, rheumatoid arthritis, and sepsis. Important interactions have taken place between study types; sometimes ecological studies were the first to report an inverse correlation between solar UVB doses and health outcomes such as for cancer, leading to both observational studies and clinical trials. In other cases, ecological studies added to the knowledge base. Many ecological studies include other important risk-modifying factors, thereby minimizing the chance of reporting the wrong link. Laboratory studies of mechanisms generally support the role of vitamin D in the outcomes discussed. Indications exist that for some outcomes, UVB effects may be independent of vitamin D. This paper discusses the concept of the ecological fallacy, noting that it applies to all epidemiological studies. PMID:27195055

  12. Ecological and Social Evaluation of Coastal Tourism Destination Development: A Case Study of Balekambang, East Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luchman Hakim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tourism is an important sector in developing countries to support economic growth, and coastal areas are famous destinations in tourism. The plan and design for Balekambang coastal area as a tourism destination in East Java, Indonesia has been formulated and published. However, it seems lack ecological and social perspectives. This study examines coral reefs structure as one of the ecological parameter and tourist perspectives as social parameter for destination development evaluation. Twenty belt-transects were established along Balekambang coastline, and then divided into three sections, the east, the centre and the west sections. Every belt-transect was 200m in length and consists of 15 plots 1 x 2m. The tourist perspectives to Balekambang were determined using questionnaire among 234 respondents. Based on the Morisita similarity index, the coral reef of east section consists of 2 zones, the centre consists of 5 zones and west section consists of 4 zones. The Shannon diversity index (H’ among zones at every location was ranged. The diversity index of the east section ranged from 2.07 to 2.72, the central section ranged from 1.32 to 4.20, and the west section ranged from 3.13 to 4.20. Zones that were close to the coastline had lowest diversity indices than zones that located far from the coastline. Mostly, tourists stated that Balekambang was interesting, but the object of tourism should be added. Respondent knew there were forest surrounding Balekambang, and it has the possibility to develop as tourism destination. These findings argue that the forest conversion to cottage area that planned by the local government in the west section should be reviewed. It seems forest in the west section should be developed as a forest park to meet tourist needs and redistribute tourist concentration in the coastline. Keywords: Ecological and social evaluation, coastal, tourism, sustainable development, East Java.

  13. Ecological relevance of biomarkers in monitoring studies of macro-invertebrates and fish in Mediterranean rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colin, Nicole; Porte, Cinta; Fernandes, Denise; Barata, Carlos; Padrós, Francesc; Carrassón, Maite; Monroy, Mario; Cano-Rocabayera, Oriol; de Sostoa, Adolfo; Piña, Benjamín; Maceda-Veiga, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Mediterranean rivers are probably one of the most singular and endangered ecosystems worldwide due to the presence of many endemic species and a long history of anthropogenic impacts. Besides a conservation value per se, biodiversity is related to the services that ecosystems provide to society and the ability of these to cope with stressors, including climate change. Using macro-invertebrates and fish as sentinel organisms, this overview presents a synthesis of the state of the art in the application of biomarkers (stress and enzymatic responses, endocrine disruptors, trophic tracers, energy and bile metabolites, genotoxic indicators, histopathological and behavioural alterations, and genetic and cutting edge omic markers) to determine the causes and effects of anthropogenic stressors on the biodiversity of European Mediterranean rivers. We also discuss how a careful selection of sentinel species according to their ecological traits and the food-web structure of Mediterranean rivers could increase the ecological relevance of biomarker responses. Further, we provide suggestions to better harmonise ecological realism with experimental design in biomarker studies, including statistical analyses, which may also deliver a more comprehensible message to managers and policy makers. By keeping on the safe side the health status of populations of multiple-species in a community, we advocate to increase the resilience of fluvial ecosystems to face present and forecasted stressors. In conclusion, this review provides evidence that multi-biomarker approaches detect early signs of impairment in populations, and supports their incorporation in the standardised procedures of the Water Frame Work Directive to better appraise the status of European water bodies.

  14. A comparative ecological study of selected cancers in Kanawha County, West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, R.; Talbott, E.O.; Marsh, G.M.; Case, B.W. (Department of Biostatistics, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States))

    1992-01-01

    This study compares mortality rates for selected causes of death in Kanawha County, West Virginia, to rates reported in a number of geographically defined populations for 1950-1984. Specific conditions selected for study included cancers of the biliary passages and liver, the bladder and other urinary organs, and the central nervous system (CNS), as well as leukemia and aleukemia, lymphosarcoma and reticulosarcoma, Hodgkin's disease, and cancer of all other lymphopoietic tissue. The analysis made use of several techniques for the investigation of ecological data, including the modeling of rates using Poission regression. The primary findings of this study concern two subgroups of cancers of the lymphatic and hematopoietic tissue: (1) leukemia and aleukemia, and (2) lymphosarcoma and reticulosarcoma. For both subgroups of cancers, white male residents of Kanawha County show evidence of significantly elevated mortality rates over the 35-year period of this study.

  15. Effects of ionizing radiations on reticulated polymers associated to nuclear wastes. The HSF-SIMS technique contribution; Effets des radiations ionisantes sur les polymeres reticules associes aux dechets nucleaires. Apport de la technique HSF-SIMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debre, O. [Lyon-1 Univ., 69 - Villeurbanne (France). Inst. de Physique Nucleaire

    1997-06-30

    Among the materials used for confinement of nuclear wastes of low and medium level activity the epoxyde resins are known as matrices which preserve well their properties in an ionizing environment. This work is dedicated to the investigation of the modifications occurring in molecular structure of these materials as well as of the ion exchange resins they incorporate, irradiated in different conditions. The first part deals with the analysis of a commercial reticulated epoxyde resin submitted to a 2 MGy integral dose gamma irradiation under two different dose rate (51 and 900 Gy/h), and under two different environments (air and water). The results obtained with the techniques providing structure information (time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HSF-SIMS) and FT-IR spectrometry) confirm those obtained by techniques sensible to macroscopic properties of material (DMA, DSC), taking into account that no noticeable irradiation effect can be made evident inside the material. On the other hand, an irradiation carried out in air results in a superficial oxidation, due probably to the action of the air radiolysis products. The preliminary results of an ion irradiation followed by an in-situ HSF-SIMS analysis pointed out to a basic difference between the energy amount transferred by gamma photons and fast ions; the last ones being able to induce scissions of the nearby liaisons in the material. The second part of this work is concerned with the ion exchange resins of the type PS-DVB saturated in water and non-active ions, simulating real wastes, irradiated in the same conditions as the epoxyde resins. In contrast to the results on the last one, it appears that the irradiation of these materials results primarily in scissions of the functional groups on which the ions are attached. In addition to this finding it appears that the role of water as carrying outward the attached ions appears to be fundamental 175 refs.

  16. Introduction to Ecological Landscaping: A Holistic Description and Framework to Guide the Study and Management of Urban Landscape Parcels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parwinder Grewal

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Urbanized ecosystems and urban human populations are expanding around the world causing many negative environmental effects. A challenge for achieving sustainable urban social-ecological systems is understanding how urbanized landscapes can be designed and managed to minimize negative outcomes. To this end, an interdisciplinary Ecological Landscaping conference was organized to examine the interacting sociocultural and ecological causes and consequences of landscaping practices and products. This special issue of Cities and the Environment contains a diverse set of articles arising from that conference. In this introductory paper, we describe the meaning of ecological landscaping and a new conceptual framework that helps organize the topic’s complex issues. The essence of ecological landscaping is a holistic systems-thinking perspective for understanding the interrelationships among physical-ecological and sociocultural variables that give rise to the patterns and processes of biodiversity, abiotic conditions, and ecosystem processes within and among individually-managed urban landscape parcels. This perspective suggests that 1 variables not considered part of traditional landscaping and 2 the effects of landscaping within an individual parcel on variables outside of it must both be considered when making design and management decisions about a parcel. To illustrate how these points help create a more holistic, ecological approach to landscaping, a traditional ecosystem model is used to create a framework for discussing how sociocultural and physical-ecological inputs to a landscape parcel affect its characteristics and outputs. As exemplified by papers in this issue, an integrated sociocultural-ecological approach to the study of urban landscaping practices and products is needed to 1 understand why and how humans design and mange urban landscape parcels, 2 describe how the combined characteristics and outputs of many parcels give rise to the

  17. Assessing ecological land use and water demand of river systems: a case study in Luanhe River, North China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. H. Yan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Economic and social development has greatly increased ecological water demand and modified land use of river systems worldwide, causing overall degradation of many of these systems. In this study, theoretical and technical frameworks for regionalization on the eco-environmental function of river systems are formulated and applied to the Luanhe River system. Based on its eco-environmental functions, this river can be regionalized into four types of first-class functional areas: ecological preservation areas, habitat restoration areas, ecological buffer areas and development and utilization areas. Considering the overall eco-environmental functions, we assessed the ecological land use of the Luanhe River system. The total area of basic ecological land use is 876.98 km2; the restrictive ecological land use is 1745.52 km2; ecological land use of the river system returned from farmland is 284.25 km2; and that returned from construction land is 17.35 km2. The average minimum ecological flow of mainstreams in upper and middle reaches of the Luanhe River is 4.896 m3 s−1 based on the habitat method. And the recommended minimum and suitable annual ecological water demand of channels in the lower reaches are 391 million m3 and 819.5 million m3, respectively. The evaporation and seepage consumption and vegetation consumption in riparian zones of the Luanhe River system are approximately 132.6 million m3 and 145.3 million m3 per year, respectively. Our results suggest that is crucial to regulate the instream ecological water use of the Luanhe River's mainstream starting from the Panjiakou-Daheiting Reservoir system. We recommend accelerating ecological land-use planning and strengthening the regulation of ecological water use on this river system focusing on important lower reaches under the condition of competitive water demand.

  18. Importance of thermal ecological studies in environment management around nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In thermal power plants, only about 30% of the heat energy generated is converted to electricity. Remaining heat is released to the environment either to atmosphere or to the nearest water body. During the operation of plants, it is essential to ensure that the release of heated effluent does not lead to any harmful consequences to eco system. Ministry of Environment and Forest (MoEF) has stipulated stringent regulation with respect to temperature of the heated effluent that can be released to the environment. All power plants under DAE are strictly following this stipulation. As a pro-active step, Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) carried out a comprehensive environmental impact assessment studies at Kalpakkam (coastal) site and at Kaiga (inland) site. The studies at Kalpakkam were coordinated by Water and Steam Chemistry Laboratory, Kalpakkam and the studies at Kaiga site was coordinated by Environmental Survey Laboratory, Kaiga. In addition to temperature mapping at the mixing zone, a detailed analysis of influence of heated effluent on water quality, primary productivity, benthic eco system, bio geochemical cycle, fish composition and diversity were carried out by different specialist groups under a coordinated BRNS project. The comprehensive thermal ecological studies clearly indicated that release of heated effluents does not lead to any significant impact on the overall ecosystem of the respective water body at Kalpakkam and Kaiga sites. Data generated in these studies are very useful in the designing suitable out fall system so that ecology of the aquatic body is not disturbed. This paper presents the highlights of the importance of such studies and salient features of the studies. (author)

  19. CHANGES OF HSF mRNA EXPRESSION IN RHESUS MONKEY TESTES DURING GERM CELL APOPTOSIS INDUCED BY HEAT STRESS OR HIGH DOSAGE OF TESTOSTERONE UNDECANOATE%HSF2 mRNA在热应激和大剂量11酸睾酮诱导恒河猴生精细胞凋亡中的表达变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周新昌; 胡召元; 邹如金; 刘以训

    2002-01-01

    为了探讨HSF2 mRNA在热应激和超生理剂量睾酮诱导恒河猴生精细胞凋亡中的表达变化,我们建立了手术诱导单侧隐睾和注射大剂量11酸睾酮(TU)恒河猴动物模型,应用3′末端标记分析(TUNEL)和原位杂交方法,检测睾丸细胞的凋亡信号和HSF2的表达变化.TUNEL结果显示热应激和超生理剂量睾酮能够诱导生精细胞出现凋亡信号,它分别于处理后第5天和第30天达到最强,表明热应激和睾酮干扰精子发生可能是通过生精细胞凋亡的方式来实现的.HSF2 mRNA水平在生精细胞凋亡早期(凋亡信号达到最强以前)略有降低,而在凋亡高峰期之后其表达急剧下降.Hsf2基因与我们以前研究的Hsp70-2基因的表达具有时间上的相关性,表明HSF2蛋白可能调控Hsp70-2基因的表达,而且HSF2可能通过多种方式影响精子的发生以及抑制生精细胞的凋亡.

  20. How plant diversity features change across ecological species groups? A case study of a temperate deciduous forest in northern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FATEMEH BAZDID VAHDATI¹,

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available How plant diversity features change across ecological species groups? A case study of a temperate deciduous forest in northern Iran. Biodiversitas 15: 31-38. Species diversity is one of the most important indices for evaluating the stability and productivity of forest ecosystems. The aim of this research was to recognize ecological species groups and to determine the relationship between environmental variables and the distribution of ecological species groups. For this purpose, 25 400-m2 relevés were sampled using the Braun-Blanquet method. Vegetation was classified using modified Two-Way Indicator Species Analysis (TWINSPAN and resulted in three ecological species groups. Different species diversity indices were applied to quantify diversity of these species groups. ANOVA and Duncan’s tests indicated that all species and environmental variables except altitude changed significantly across the species groups. The results also showed that the group located in the northern aspect and on low slopes had the highest diversity indices compared with groups located in dry aspects and on high slopes. In reality, abundant precipitation (northern aspect ( and soil enrichment (low slopes are principal factors that provide suitable conditions for plant growth and species diversity. Thus, the study of diversity changes in ecological species groups can result in an ecologically precise perspective for managing forest ecosystems.

  1. STUDY ON ECOLOGICAL SPACE OF URBAN AGGLOMERATION--Taking Wuxi City as an Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    From the angle of ecology, urban agglomeration presents relevant types of landscape structure, which in-clude Patch, Corridor and Matrix. There are different landscape features and different problems in different developmentphases. This paper has put forward five basic conditions for security pattern of landscape ecology of urban agglomeration,described quantitatively the features for landscape ecology in Wuxi, and analyzed ecological background of spatial expan-sion and spatial organization of urban development in Wuxi. From the angle of ecological land use and non-ecological landuse, the paper has analyzed the features of land use and ecological distribution of land in the urban area. The spatial mod-el of cities and towns in Wuxi is composed of one metropolis, two urban zones and three development axes. This thesishas planned preliminarily ecological protection network at four levels in the urban region according to four layers. At last,combining landscape ecology with urban space, a tentative security pattern of landscape ecology has been p1anned in Wux-i, namely Source-Buffer Zone and Metropolis, Radiating Routes and Expansion Direction of City, Strategic Point and Interac-tion between Cities and Towns, Inter-Source Linkage-Corridor of a Stable Landscape Structure.

  2. Ecological validity and the study of publics: The case for organic public engagement methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrke, Pat J

    2014-01-01

    This essay argues for a method of public engagement grounded in the criteria of ecological validity. Motivated by what Hammersly called the responsibility that comes with intellectual authority: "to seek, as far as possible, to ensure the validity of their conclusions and to participate in rational debate about those conclusions" (1993: 29), organic public engagement follows the empirical turn in citizenship theory and in rhetorical studies of actually existing publics. Rather than shaping citizens into either the compliant subjects of the cynical view or the deliberatively disciplined subjects of the idealist view, organic public engagement instead takes Asen's advice that "we should ask: how do people enact citizenship?" (2004: 191). In short, organic engagement methods engage publics in the places where they already exist and through those discourses and social practices by which they enact their status as publics. Such engagements can generate practical middle-range theories that facilitate future actions and decisions that are attentive to the local ecologies of diverse publics. PMID:23887250

  3. Gambling, games of skill and human ecology: a pilot study by a multidimensional analysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valera, Luca; Giuliani, Alessandro; Gizzi, Alessio; Tartaglia, Francesco; Tambone, Vittoradolfo

    2015-01-01

    The present pilot study aims at analyzing the human activity of playing in the light of an indicator of human ecology (HE). We highlighted the four essential anthropological dimensions (FEAD), starting from the analysis of questionnaires administered to actual gamers. The coherence between theoretical construct and observational data is a remarkable proof-of-concept of the possibility of establishing an experimentally motivated link between a philosophical construct (coming from Huizinga's Homo ludens definition) and actual gamers' motivation pattern. The starting hypothesis is that the activity of playing becomes ecological (and thus not harmful) when it achieves the harmony between the FEAD, thus realizing HE; conversely, it becomes at risk of creating some form of addiction, when destroying FEAD balance. We analyzed the data by means of variable clustering (oblique principal components) so to experimentally verify the existence of the hypothesized dimensions. The subsequent projection of statistical units (gamers) on the orthogonal space spanned by principal components allowed us to generate a meaningful, albeit preliminary, clusterization of gamer profiles. PMID:26783225

  4. A numerical model study on multi-species harmful algal blooms coupled with background ecological fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qing; ZHU Liangsheng; WANG Dongxiao

    2014-01-01

    Based on systematized physical, chemical, and biological modules, a multi-species harmful algal bloom (HAB) model coupled with background ecological fields was established. This model schematically embod-ied that HAB causative algal species and the background ecological system, quantified as total biomass, were significantly different in terms of the chemical and biological processes during a HAB while the inter-action between the two was present. The model also included a competition and interaction mechanism between the HAB algal species or populations. The Droop equation was optimized by considering tempera-ture, salinity, and suspended material impact factors in the parameterization of algal growth rate with the nutrient threshold. Two HAB processes in the springs of 2004 and 2005 were simulated using this model. Both simulation results showed consistent trends with corresponding HAB processes observed in the East China Sea, which indicated the rationality of the model. This study made certain progress in modeling HABs, which has great application potential for HAB diagnosis, prediction, and prevention.

  5. Gambling, games of skill and human ecology: a pilot study by a multidimensional analysis approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Valera

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present pilot study aims at analyzing the human activity of playing in the light of an indicator of human ecology (HE. We highlighted the four essential anthropological dimensions (FEAD, starting from the analysis of questionnaires administered to actual gamers. The coherence between theoretical construct and observational data is a remarkable proof-of-concept of the possibility of establishing an experimentally motivated link between a philosophical construct (coming from Huizinga's Homo ludens definition and actual gamers' motivation pattern. The starting hypothesis is that the activity of playing becomes ecological (and thus not harmful when it achieves the harmony between the FEAD, thus realizing HE; conversely, it becomes at risk of creating some form of addiction, when destroying FEAD balance. We analyzed the data by means of variable clustering (oblique principal components so to experimentally verify the existence of the hypothesized dimensions. The subsequent projection of statistical units (gamers on the orthogonal space spanned by principal components allowed us to generate a meaningful, albeit preliminary, clusterization of gamer profiles.

  6. LPS致热家兔诱导HSF1聚合对体温及脑内AVP含量的影响%Effect of the polymerization of HSF1 on the febrile response and the content of vasopressin arginine in brain in LPS-induced fever rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金莲锦; 白宁; 曹宇

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨热休克因子1(HSF1)在脂多糖(LPS)致家兔发热过程中的作用及机制.方法 70只家兔随机分为4组:正常对照组(N)、槲皮素组(Q)、脂多糖组(L)和槲皮素+脂多糖组(Q+L).连续观察体温变化; Western blot方法检测不同实验条件下下丘脑HSF1和热休克蛋白70(HSP70)的表达;放射免疫法检测下丘脑及腹中隔区(VSA)精氨酸加压素(AVP)含量的变化.结果 ①各组体温变化最大值(△Tmax)由低至高顺序为:Q组<N组<L组<Q+ L组;其中,Q+L组与L组比较,△T(240~360 min期间)及体温反应指数TRI6均增高(P<0.05).②各组VSA中的AVP含量与体温变化呈正相关(r=0.913,P<0.01).Q+L组与L组比较,VSA中的AVP含量增高(240~360 min期间,P<0.05).③ HSF1三聚体的表达从致热后60 min(体温升高1.32±0.24℃)起逐渐增多,达到体温最高值时(180 min)为对照水平的1.752倍,此后,随着HSF1三聚体表达水平的进一步升高,体温逐渐下降.应用槲皮素(quercetin,Que)可抑制HSF1的聚合,可见当HSF1的聚合被抑制时HSP70表达水平相应降低.结论 发热时温度升高到一定程度可诱导下丘脑HSF1聚合,HSF1的聚合可限控体温的升高程度,而VSA中AVP含量的变化主要与体温升高的幅度有关.

  7. Expression and clinical significance of transcription factor HSF1 in human esophageal squamous carcinoma%转录因子HSF1在食管鳞状细胞癌组织中的表达及其临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯子童; 田辉; 岳韦名; 李林; 李树海; 高存; 司立博; 鲁铭

    2015-01-01

    目的:检测热激因子1(heat-shock factor 1,HSF1)在食管鳞状细胞癌(esophageal squamous cell carcinoma,ESCC)组织中的表达水平,探讨其与ESCC临床病理特征及预后的关系.方法:选取2009年1月至2009年12月在山东大学齐鲁医院胸外科行手术治疗的90例ESCC患者的组织标本及50例相应癌旁组织标本,采用免疫组化法检测ESCC中HSF1蛋白的表达;另取20例2014年9月至2014年11月行手术切除的ESCC组织及癌旁组织标本,采用Real-time PCR法检测HSF1mRNA在ESCC及癌旁组织中的表达.分析HSF1蛋白表达与患者临床病理指标之间的关系,Kaplan-Meier法计算患者的5年生存率,Log-rank法比较患者的生存差别,Cox回归多因素分析判定独立的预后因素.结果:与癌旁组织相比,ESCC组织中HSF1 mRNA及蛋白的表达显著增高(均P<0.01);HSF1蛋白的表达与患者年龄(P=0.453)、性别(P =0.692)、吸烟史(P=o.318)及饮酒史(P =0.367)均无显著相关性,与淋巴结转移(P =0.002)、分化程度(P=0.012)及TNM分期(P =0.024)显著相关.单因素及多因素分析结果显示,HSF1高表达与患者不良预后有关.结论:HSF1在ESCC组织中呈现高表达,与ESCC的恶性进展及不良预后密切相关.

  8. Effects of ionizing radiations on reticulated polymers associated to nuclear wastes. The HSF-SIMS technique contribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the materials used for confinement of nuclear wastes of low and medium level activity the epoxyde resins are known as matrices which preserve well their properties in an ionizing environment. This work is dedicated to the investigation of the modifications occurring in molecular structure of these materials as well as of the ion exchange resins they incorporate, irradiated in different conditions. The first part deals with the analysis of a commercial reticulated epoxyde resin submitted to a 2 MGy integral dose gamma irradiation under two different dose rate (51 and 900 Gy/h), and under two different environments (air and water). The results obtained with the techniques providing structure information (time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HSF-SIMS) and FT-IR spectrometry) confirm those obtained by techniques sensible to macroscopic properties of material (DMA, DSC), taking into account that no noticeable irradiation effect can be made evident inside the material. On the other hand, an irradiation carried out in air results in a superficial oxidation, due probably to the action of the air radiolysis products. The preliminary results of an ion irradiation followed by an in-situ HSF-SIMS analysis pointed out to a basic difference between the energy amount transferred by gamma photons and fast ions; the last ones being able to induce scissions of the nearby liaisons in the material. The second part of this work is concerned with the ion exchange resins of the type PS-DVB saturated in water and non-active ions, simulating real wastes, irradiated in the same conditions as the epoxyde resins. In contrast to the results on the last one, it appears that the irradiation of these materials results primarily in scissions of the functional groups on which the ions are attached. In addition to this finding it appears that the role of water as carrying outward the attached ions appears to be fundamental

  9. Giving Back: Collaborations with Others in Ecological Studies on the Nevada National Security Site - 13058

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Formerly named the Nevada Test Site, the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) was the historical site for nuclear weapons testing from the 1950's to the early 1990's. The site was renamed in 2010 to reflect the diversity of nuclear, energy, and homeland security activities now conducted at the site. Biological and ecological programs and research have been conducted on the site for decades to address the impacts of radiation and to take advantage of the relatively undisturbed and isolated lands for gathering basic information on the occurrence and distribution of native plants and animals. Currently, the Office of the Assistant Manager for Environmental Management of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) oversees the radiological biota monitoring and ecological compliance programs on the NNSS. The top priority of these programs are compliance with federal and state regulations. They focus on performing radiological dose assessments for the public who reside near the NNSS and for populations of plants and animals on the NNSS and in protecting important species and habitat from direct impacts of mission activities. The NNSS serves as an invaluable outdoor laboratory. The geographic and ecological diversity of the site offers researchers many opportunities to study human influences on ecosystems. NNSA/NSO has pursued collaborations with outside agencies and organizations to be able to conduct programs and studies that enhance radiological biota monitoring and ecosystem preservation when budgets are restrictive, as well as to provide valuable scientific information to the human health and natural resource communities at large. NNSA/NSO is using one current collaborative study to better assess the potential dose to the off-site public from the ingestion of game animals, the most realistic pathway for off-site public exposure at this time from radionuclide contamination on the NNSS. A second

  10. Development of geospatial techniques for ecological analysis: A case study of sudden oak death in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qinghua

    With the recent advancement of geospatial techniques (e.g., remote sensing, Geographical Information Systems, and GPS), geodatasets have grown dramatically in size and number and become more widely distributed. This provides ecologists unprecedented opportunities to explore ecological problems at larger spatial scale than before. At the same time, the wealth of data demands improvements in geospatial techniques in order to fully explore the current data capacity. In this dissertation, I sought to refine, combine, and develop new geospatial techniques that when applied to a real-world ecological problem, generated new and more comprehensive understanding of the ecological system examined. First, I refined several commonly used spatial analytical techniques such as paired quadrat variance (PQV) and Ripley's K functions. I clarified some misinterpretations of PQV methods, and proposed a GIS approach in correcting the edge-effect problem associated with the Ripley's K function in irregular-shaped study areas. Second, I combined several methods to better understand spatial patterns: (1) I combined Ripley's K and semivariance to study point patterns, and (2) I combined PQV, two term local quadrat variance, new local variance, and their three-term counterparts to study transect data. Third, I developed a new environmental niche model to model potential niche using presence-only data. Fourth, I developed a hybrid classifier which integrated an object-based and a knowledge-based classification method in mapping dead trees from high spatial resolution images. Finally, these geospatial methods were applied to analyze and model the spread of a new forest disease "sudden oak death" in California at the landscape and regional scales. At the landscape level, I found that topographic factors were the most influential factors in controlling the presence of dead trees, followed by foliar hosts of the disease. At the regional scale, I found that the majority of disease risk would

  11. Giving Back: Collaborations with Others in Ecological Studies on the Nevada National Security Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott A. Wade (NFO); Kathryn S. Knapp (NFO); Cathy A. Wills (NSTec)

    2013-02-24

    Formerly named the Nevada Test Site, the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) was the historical site for nuclear weapons testing from the 1950s to the early 1990s. The site was renamed in 2010 to reflect the diversity of nuclear, energy, and homeland security activities now conducted at the site. Biological and ecological programs and research have been conducted on the site for decades to address the impacts of radiation and to take advantage of the relatively undisturbed and isolated lands for gathering basic information on the occurrence and distribution of native plants and animals. Currently, the Office of the Assistant Manager for Environmental Management of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) oversees the radiological biota monitoring and ecological compliance programs on the NNSS. The top priority of these programs are compliance with federal and state regulations. They focus on performing radiological dose assessments for the public who reside near the NNSS and for populations of plants and animals on the NNSS and in protecting important species and habitat from direct impacts of mission activities. The NNSS serves as an invaluable outdoor laboratory. The geographic and ecological diversity of the site offers researchers many opportunities to study human influences on ecosystems. NNSA/NSO has pursued collaborations with outside agencies and organizations to be able to conduct programs and studies that enhance radiological biota monitoring and ecosystem preservation when budgets are restrictive, as well as to provide valuable scientific information to the human health and natural resource communities at large. NNSA/NSO is using one current collaborative study to better assess the potential dose to the off-site public from the ingestion of game animals, the most realistic pathway for off-site public exposure at this time from radionuclide contamination on the NNSS. A second

  12. [Study on ecological risk assessment technology of fluoride pollution from arid oasis soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Su-Yin; Li, Ping; Wang, Sheng-Li; Nan, Zhong-Ren

    2014-03-01

    According to translocation regulation of fluoride in the typical oasis soil-plant system under field, an ecological risk assessment model of fluoride was established, and this model was used to assess ecological risk to fluoride pollution from suburban oasis soils in Baiyin City, which was specifically expressed with the potential ecological risk of bioavailability (ER(bc)) model to assess ecological risk of fluoride pollution in oasis regions. Results showed that the ecological risk indices of fluoride pollution from this region were 1.37-24.81, the level of risk at most sites was high to very high, the average ecological risk index was 11.28, belonged to very high risk. This indicated that in the suburb soil of Baiyin City needs to be concerned about the remediation of fluoride pollution. PMID:24881399

  13. Pastoralists and the Environmental State : A study of ecological resettlement in Inner Mongolia, China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Qian

    2015-01-01

    China's quest for sustainable development has given birth to a set of contested ‘ecological construction’ programmes. Focusing on ‘ecological resettlement’, a type of policy measure in a programme for restoring degraded grasslands, this thesis sets out a critical analysis in opposition to the dominant technical and managerial approaches to understanding environmentalisation. The aim is to draw out the politics of the formulation, implementation and effects of ecological resettlement at and ac...

  14. Development Situations and Countermeasures of Low Carbon Ecological Circular Agriculture: A Case Study of Nantong City

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Chun-he; Qiao, Qi-cheng; Gu, Wei-bing; Sun, Jia-Feng

    2012-01-01

    Developing the low carbon ecological circular agriculture is an effective approach to realizing low carbon development of agriculture. Through investigation on existing measures and performance of development of low carbon type ecological circular agriculture in Nantong City, we analyzed the potential and problems of Nantong City in developing low carbon type ecological circular agriculture. Finally, with reference to domestic and foreign research achievements and practical experience, we put...

  15. A novel method for identifying settings for well-motivated ecologic studies of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stang, Andreas; Kowall, Bernd; Rusner, Carsten; Trabert, Britton; Bray, Freddie; Schüz, Joachim; McGlynn, Katherine A; Kuss, Oliver

    2016-04-15

    A low within-country variability and a large between-country variability in cancer incidence may indicate that ecologic factors are involved in the etiology of the disease. The aim of this study is to explore the within- and between-country variability of cancer incidence to motivate high-quality ecologic studies. We extracted age-standardized incidence rate estimates (world standard population) from 135 regions for the ten most frequent invasive cancers in Europe for non-Hispanic white populations from Cancer Incidence in Five Continents, Volume X. We fitted weighted multilevel Poisson regression models with random country effects for each cancer and sex. We estimated intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). A high ICC indicates a low within- and a high between-country variability of rates. The two cancer sites with the highest ICC among men were prostate cancer (0.96, 95% CI: 0.92-0.99) and skin melanoma (0.78, 0.64-0.93). Among women, high ICCs were observed for lung cancer (0.84, 0.73-0.95) and breast cancer (0.80, 0.69-0.91). The two most prominent sex differences for ICC occurred for cancers of the head and neck (men: 0.70, 0.55-0.85, women: 0.19, 0.08-0.30) and breast cancer (men: 0.04, 0.01-0.07, women: 0.80, 0.69-0.91). ICCs were relatively low for pancreatic cancer (men: 0.23, 0.10-0.35; women: 0.13, 0.04-0.21) and leukemia (men: 0.12, 0.04-0.21; women: 0.08, 0.02-0.14). For cancers with high ICC for which systematic factors of the health care system, screening and diagnostic activities are not plausible explanations for between-country variations in incidence, cross-country sex-specific ecologic studies may be especially promising.

  16. Radio-ecological studies on the river Lippe (1982-1983)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1982 and 1983 the Laboratory for Radio-ecology of water bodies of the Federal Institute for Fishery performed radio-ecological studies on the river Lippe, on the Datteln-Hamm-Canal and on one section of the Rhine near the city of Wesel in order to enable expert examination of the population's exposure to radiation originating from effluents of the planned Hamm Nuclear Power Plant (HNP). The present-day distribution of artificial and natural radionuclides in water, fish, seston, sediment and in drill cores from the Lippe and the pastures lying within the flood area was examined using radio-chemical methods and the nuclear-radiation measurement technique. The contents of the stable elements of antimony, nickel, cobalt, zinc, manganese, iron, silver and phosphorus in water and fish were determined to obtain some suggestions concerning the behaviour of radionuclides which are expected in the waste water of the HNP but which cannot be found in the environment at present. Concerning uptake and incorporation of radioactive nuclides in the bodies of fish from the Lippe and the Rhine section studied, mean concentration factors could be calculated from the measured values for the state of equilibrium. One single-time emission with the cooling water of the Westfalen nuclear power plant was examined using the inactive tracer of Dysprosium in order to study the behaviour of the emission cloud when running off with the river water. With this examination, complete cross-mixing at 800 m downstream from the cooling-water re-entry building was found at a Lippe downstream flow rate of 22 cbm/s which corresponds to its annual mean. The down-stream flow graph could be described by a dispersion graph showing a marked trailing effect. The cloud-fail values which were higher compared with those of the graph, could possibly be explained by recirculation obtaining with cooling water influx. (orig.)

  17. ECOLOGICAL EDUCATION

    OpenAIRE

    GABRIELA GYONGY MIHUT

    2011-01-01

    While in most emerging and developing countries, the population has a lower ecological footprint in the developed countries have a larger footprint.There is also an alarming contrast between a person perception of her liability for damages to its environment and its actual size. These misconceptions may have their source in the absence of awareness of risks from climate change, culture or religion.The purpose of this study is to analyze the situation at the international and Romanian level an...

  18. Testing low cost OEM CO2 sensors for outdoor ecological studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macintyre, C. M.; Risk, D. A.

    2011-12-01

    IR (Infrared) gas sensors are used extensively in CO2 research but price and power requirement often limits low-cost distributed sensing. In the past three years, sensors have been introduced to the industrial market at prices as low as $100 US for air-handling and automotive application. These inexpensive sensors are small in size, and have low power demand making them potentially ideal for low-cost distributed deployments. However, the sensors are only tested and calibrated for indoor use and for industrial standards and may not show their true potential for outdoor ecological studies. This poster summarizes the results of a sensor inter-comparison test, to document functionality, response time, electrical noise, precision, and accuracy, under varying moistures and temperatures broadly representative of a wide range of outdoor settings. The three selected sensors were placed in a closed loop system with a valving system using a LiCor Li-7000 as reference, controlled by a CR1000 datalogger that controlled CO2 and moisture concentrations content within the cell on the basis of LiCor readings. To achieve different temperatures, the tests were repeated at room temperature, inside a freezer (-18°C) and incubator (40°C). The tests involved repeatedly stepping the sensors from 2000 ppm CO2 to 400 ppm CO2 in 200 ppm or 400 ppm increments, at various moisture contents, and under the various temperature regimes. Vaisala 222 and 343 sensors were also part of the test group as comparators, as both are used widely in ecological research. The OEM sensors displayed good linearity, fast response time, and results comparable to Vaisala probes. In most cases the sensors performed beyond our expectations with notably less electrical noise than the Vaisala sensors and excellent power thriftiness. Some sensors showed better response to extreme moisture and temperature conditions. Provided that suitable protective embodiments were built around them, and that they are deployed in an

  19. HSF1 and NF-κB p65 participate in the process of exercise preconditioning attenuating pressure overload-induced pathological cardiac hypertrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Tongyi [Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, No. 401 Hospital of PLA, Qingdao (China); Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai (China); Zhang, Ben [Centre of Cardiovascular Surgery, Guangzhou General Hospital of Guangzhou Military Region, Guangzhou (China); Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai (China); Yang, Fan; Cai, Chengliang; Wang, Guokun [Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai (China); Han, Qingqi, E-mail: handoctor@gmail.com [Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai (China); Zou, Liangjian, E-mail: zouliangjiansh@gmail.com [Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai (China)

    2015-05-08

    Pathological cardiac hypertrophy, often accompanied by hypertension, aortic stenosis and valvular defects, is typically associated with myocyte remodeling and cardiac dysfunction. Exercise preconditioning (EP) has been proven to enhance the tolerance of the myocardium to cardiac ischemia-reperfusion injury. However, the effects of EP in pathological cardiac hypertrophy are rarely reported. 10-wk-old male Sprague–Dawley rats (n = 80) were randomly divided into four groups: sham, TAC, EP + sham and EP + TAC. Two EP groups were subjected to 4 weeks of treadmill training, and the EP + TAC and TAC groups were followed by TAC operations. The sham and EP + sham groups underwent the same operation without aortic constriction. Eight weeks after the surgery, we evaluated the effects of EP by echocardiography, morphology, and histology and observed the expressions of the associated proteins. Compared with the respective control groups, hypertrophy-related indicators were significantly increased in the TAC and EP + TAC groups (p < 0.05). However, between the TAC and EP + TAC groups, all of these changes were effectively inhibited by EP treatment (p < 0.05). Furthermore, EP treatment upregulated the expression of HSF1 and HSP70, increased the HSF1 levels in the nuclear fraction, inhibited the expression of the NF-κB p65 subunit, decreased the NF-κB p65 subunit levels in the nuclear fraction, and reduced the IL2 levels in the myocardia of rats. EP could effectively reduce the cardiac hypertrophic responses induced by TAC and may play a protective role by upregulating the expressions of HSF1 and HSP70, activating HSF1 and then inhibiting the expression of NF-κB p65 and nuclear translocation. - Highlights: • EP could effectively reduce the cardiac hypertrophic responses induced by TAC. • EP may play a protective role by upregulating the expressions of HSF1 and HSP70 and then activating HSF1. • EP may play a protective role by inhibiting the expression

  20. Radio-ecological studies on the air-soil-vine-wine food chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report summarizes the results of the first three years (1983-85) of the radio-ecological studies on wine which were performed on eight sites from major German wine-growing regions involving red and white wine varieties typical of their region. The radionuclides of tritium, carbon 14, strontium 90, cesium 137, radium 226 and sodium 40 were examined for their contents and presence in the food chain of air-soil-vine-wine in order to determine the pollution situation in grapes and wine and to gain information on their behaviour in the food chain. A number of soil parameters important for nutrient uptake were determined to describe the site. (orig./MG)

  1. On the application of multilevel modeling in environmental and ecological studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, S.S.; Cuffney, T.F.; Alameddine, I.; McMahon, G.; Reckhow, K.H.

    2010-01-01

    This paper illustrates the advantages of a multilevel/hierarchical approach for predictive modeling, including flexibility of model formulation, explicitly accounting for hierarchical structure in the data, and the ability to predict the outcome of new cases. As a generalization of the classical approach, the multilevel modeling approach explicitly models the hierarchical structure in the data by considering both the within- and between-group variances leading to a partial pooling of data across all levels in the hierarchy. The modeling framework provides means for incorporating variables at different spatiotemporal scales. The examples used in this paper illustrate the iterative process of model fitting and evaluation, a process that can lead to improved understanding of the system being studied. ?? 2010 by the Ecological Society of America.

  2. Cranberry extract standardized for proanthocyanidins promotes the immune response of Caenorhabditis elegans to Vibrio cholerae through the p38 MAPK pathway and HSF-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Dinh

    Full Text Available Botanicals are rich in bioactive compounds, and some offer numerous beneficial effects to animal and human health when consumed. It is well known that phytochemicals in cranberries have anti-oxidative and antimicrobial activities. Recently, an increasing body of evidence has demonstrated that cranberry phytochemicals may have potential benefits that promote healthy aging. Here, we use Caenorhabditis elegans as a model to show that water-soluble cranberry extract standardized to 4.0% proanthocyanidins (WCESP, a major component of cranberries, can enhance host innate immunity to resist against Vibrio cholerae (V. cholerae; wild type C6706 (O1 El Tor biotype infection. Supplementation of WCESP did not significantly alter the intestinal colonization of V. cholerae, but upregulated the expression of C. elegans innate immune genes, such as clec-46, clec-71, fmo-2, pqn-5 and C23G10.1. Additionally, WCESP treatment did not affect the growth of V. cholerae and expression of the major bacterial virulence genes, and only slightly reduced bacterial colonization within C. elegans intestine. These findings indicate that the major components of WCESP, including proanthocyanidins (PACs, may play an important role in enhancing the host innate immunity. Moreover, we engaged C. elegans mutants and identified that the p38 MAPK signaling, insulin/IGF-1 signaling (IIS, and HSF-1 play pivotal roles in the WCESP-mediated host immune response. Considering the level of conservation between the innate immune pathways of C. elegans and humans, the results of this study suggest that WCESP may also play an immunity-promoting role in higher order organisms.

  3. A study on traditional knowledge about ecology and environment from Tibetans in Kailash Sacred Landscape(KSL)%A study on traditional knowledge about ecology and environment from Tibetans in Kailash Sacred Landscape(KSL)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luorong Zhandui; Fan Yibin

    2011-01-01

    I. Introduction 1. The Meaning and Purpose of the study "A study on traditional knowledge about ecology and environment from Tibetans in Kailash Sacred landscape(KSL)" is part of a research project entitled "Mount Kailash Sacred Landscape Conservation Initiative".

  4. Occurrence of severe dengue in Rio de Janeiro: an ecological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerusa Gibson

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction This study aimed to analyze the relationship between the incidence of severe dengue during the 2008 epidemic in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and socioeconomic indicators, as well as indicators of health service availability and previous circulation of the dengue virus serotype-3 (DENV-3. Methods In this ecological study, the units of analysis were the districts of Rio de Janeiro. The data were incorporated into generalized linear models, and the incidence of severe dengue in each district was the outcome variable. Results The districts with more cases of dengue fever in the 2001 epidemic and a higher percentage of residents who declared their skin color or race as black had higher incidence rates of severe dengue in the 2008 epidemic [incidence rate ratio (IRR= 1.21; 95% confidence interval (95%CI= 1.05-1.40 and IRR= 1.34; 95%CI= 1.16-1.54, respectively]. In contrast, the districts with Family Health Strategy (FHS clinics were more likely to have lower incidence rates of severe dengue in the 2008 epidemic (IRR= 0.81; 95%CI= 0.70-0.93. Conclusions At the ecological level, our findings suggest the persistence of health inequalities in this region of Brazil that are possibly due to greater social vulnerability among the self-declared black population. Additionally, the protective effect of FHS clinics may be due to the ease of access to other levels of care in the health system or to a reduced vulnerability to dengue transmission that is afforded by local practices to promote health.

  5. Immortalization of embryonic fibroblasts in heat shock transcription factor 1 knockout mouse%HSF1基因敲除小鼠胚胎成纤维细胞的永生化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘梅冬; 张华莉; 龚环宇; 陈广文; 王慷慨; 鄂顺梅; 肖献忠

    2006-01-01

    目的:建立HSF1-/-,HSF1+/+两种基因型小鼠胚胎成纤维永生化细胞系,为HSF1的功能研究提供实验模型.方法:用脂质体介导的基因转染法将pSV3neo质粒导入HSF1-/-,HSF1+/+两种基因型小鼠胚胎成纤维细胞,经G418筛选,抗性克隆扩大培养,建立永生化细胞系;用PCR检测两种细胞株中目的基因的整合,用RT-PCR法鉴定SV40 T基因在转染细胞中的表达;用Western blot检测所建细胞株的诱导型热休克蛋白70的表达情况.结果:有3个细胞克隆已扩大培养稳定传代达6个月,经鉴定SV40 T抗原已整合到两种细胞中且稳定表达, HSF1-/-胚胎成纤维细胞热休克蛋白70的诱导表达消失.结论:成功建立永生化HSF1-/-,HSF1+/+两种基因型小鼠胚胎成纤维细胞.

  6. Two approaches using traits to assess ecological resilience: A case study on earthworm communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, de H.J.; Kramer, K.; Faber, J.H.

    2013-01-01

    The relation between biological diversity and ecosystem functioning is a central theme in ecology. Ecological traits of species are often regarded as a link between structure and function, and trait distributions in a community may change in response to environmental stressors. Likewise, resilience

  7. Methods of studying the functional ecology of protein and organ dynamics in birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piersma, Theunis; Klaassen, Marcel; Adams, N.J.; Slotow, R.H.

    1999-01-01

    Birds are capable of adaptive responses to ecological challenges involving changes in body composition, including both body stores and functional tissues. These physiological adjustments may affect aspects of the birds’ ecology, such as choice of diet and microhabitat or susceptibility to aerial pre

  8. Ecological impact assessment in data-poor systems : A case study on metapopulation persistence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Etienne, RS; Jansen, MJW

    2003-01-01

    Legislation on the protection of biodiversity (e.g., European Union Habitat and Bird Directives) increasingly requires ecological impact assessment of human activities. However, knowledge and understanding of relevant ecological processes and species responses to different types of impact are often

  9. Ecological impact assessment in data-poor systems: a case study on metapopulation persistence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Etienne, R.S.; Vos, C.C.; Jansen, M.J.W.

    2003-01-01

    Legislation on the protection of biodiversity (e.g., European Union Habitat and Bird Directives) increasingly requires ecological impact assessment of human activities. However, knowledge and understanding of relevant ecological processes and species responses to different types of impact are often

  10. Using large-scale climate indices in climate change ecology studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Mads Cedergreen; Post, Eric

    2004-01-01

    Ecological responses, El Niño 3.4, Long-term climate variability, North Atlantic Oscillation, North Pacific Oscillation, Teleconnection patterns......Ecological responses, El Niño 3.4, Long-term climate variability, North Atlantic Oscillation, North Pacific Oscillation, Teleconnection patterns...

  11. Study on the Industrial Ecological Compensation in Inter-basin Regions

    OpenAIRE

    Yachen Liu

    2010-01-01

    Aiming at the inter-basin pollution of water sources, the meaning, the content, and the system of the industrial ecological compensation are proposed in this article and the corresponding inter-basin industrial ecological compensation institution is suggested to be established.

  12. Data Explorations in Ecology: Salt Pollution as a Case Study for Teaching Data Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Cornelia; Berkowitz, Alan R.; Alvarado, Angelita

    2012-01-01

    Does working with first- and second-hand ecological data improve students' knowledge of ecological ideas, motivation and engagement in science, data exploration, and citizenship skills (students' ability to make informed decisions)? We have been exploring this question with high school science teachers in New York State for the past year using a…

  13. Loss of Ecological Value in Farmland during Farmland Conversion:A Case Study of Shaanxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Xiao-ying; LI Fei; GUO Bei

    2012-01-01

    We divide the ecological functions of farmland into five types: soil conservation, water conservation, air purification, maintenance of biological diversity, entertainment and culture. Using the direct method of market evaluation, we establish the assessment model, to calculate the ecological service value of various functions, respectively, and then calculate the total loss of ecological value in farmland. Taking the case of Shaanxi Province, we calculate the total loss of ecological value in farmland in Shaanxi Province during the period 2000-2009 at 6 366.365 3 million yuan. Finally in order to rationally protect farmland, we put forth the following recommendations: correctly understanding the ecological benefit of farmland, and scientifically assessing the value of farmland; optimizing the industrial structure, and promoting intensive use of farmland; taking actions that suit local circumstances, and conducting rational planning of farmland use; strengthening multilateral cooperation, and establishing the common protection accountability mechanism of farmland.

  14. Expression and Transcriptional Activity of HSF1 in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma%热休克转录因子1在人肝细胞癌中的表达及转录活性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    滕洪飞; 宋振顺; 李煜环; 范子扬

    2013-01-01

    目的 观察人肝细胞癌组织及对应癌旁组织中热休克转录因子1 (heat shock transcription factor 1,HSF1)表达量及转录活性.方法 用免疫组织化学方法及Western blot方法测定30例人肝细胞癌组织及对应癌旁组织中HSF1的表达量及磷酸化水平,并比较HSF1的表达量及磷酸化水平在肝细胞癌组织及对应癌旁组织中的差异.结果 免疫组织化学法及Western blot结果显示:①人肝细胞癌组织中HSF1的表达量明显高于对应癌旁组织;②人肝细胞癌组织中HSF1的磷酸化水平明显高于对应癌旁组织.结论 HSF1在人肝细胞癌中的表达量及转录活性明显增高.

  15. Ecological studies related to construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility on the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pechmann, J.H.K.; Scott, D.E.; McGregor, J.H.; Estes, R.A.; Chazal, A.C.

    1993-02-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) was built on the Savannah River Site (SRS) during the mid-1980's. The Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) has completed 12 years of ecological studies related to the construction of the DWPF complex. Prior to construction, the 600-acre site (S-Area) contained a Carolina bay and the headwaters of a stream. Research conducted by the SREL has focused primarily on four questions related to these wetlands: (1) Prior to construction, what fauna and flora were present at the DWPF site and at similar, yet undisturbed, alternative sites (2) By comparing the Carolina bay at the DWPF site (Sun Bay) with an undisturbed control Carolina bay (Rainbow Bay), what effect is construction having on the organisms that inhabited the DWPF site (3) By comparing control streams with streams on the periphery of the DWPF site, what effect is construction having on the peripheral streams (4) How effective have efforts been to lessen the impacts of construction, both with respect to erosion control measures and the construction of refuge ponds'' as alternative breeding sites for amphibians that formerly bred at Sun Bay Through the long-term census-taking of biota at the DWPF site and Rainbow Bay, SREL has begun to evaluate the impact of construction on the biota and the effectiveness of mitigation efforts. Similarly, the effects of erosion from the DWPF site on the water quality of S-Area peripheral streams are being assessed. This research provides supporting data relevant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, the Endangered Species Act of 1973, Executive Orders 11988 (Floodplain Management) and 11990 (Protection of Wetlands), and United States Department of Energy (DOE) Guidelines for Compliance with Floodplain/Wetland Environmental Review Requirements (10CFR1022).

  16. Study on O2-supplying characteristics of Azolla in Controlled Ecological Life Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Min; Deng, Sufang; Yang, Youquang; Huang, Yibing; Liu, Zhongzhu

    Azolla has high growth and propagation rate, strong photosynthetic O2-releasing ability and rich nutrient value. It is able to be used as salad-type vegetable, and can also be cultured on wet bed in multi-layer condition. Hence, it possesses a potential functioning as providing O2, fresh vegetable and absorbing CO2 for Controlled Ecological Life Support System in space. In this study, we try to make clear the O2-providing characteristics of Azolla in controlled close chamber under manned condition in order to lay a foundation for Azolla as a biological component in the next ground simulated experiment and space application. A closed test cham-ber of Controlled Ecological Life Support System and Azolla wet-culturing devices were built to measure the changes of atmospheric O2-CO2 concentration inside chamber under "Azolla-fish -men" coexisting condition. The results showed that, the amount of O2 consumption is 80.49 83.07 ml/h per kilogram fish, the amount of CO2 emissions is 70.49 73.56 ml/(kg • h); O2 consumption of trial volunteers is 19.71 L/h, the volume of respiration release CO2 18.90 L/h .Artificial light intensity of Azolla wet culture under 70009000 Lx, people respiration and Azolla photosynthesis complemented each other, the atmospheric O2-CO2 concentration inside chamber maintained equilibration. Elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations in close chamber have obvious effects on enhancing Azolla net photosynthesis efficiency. This shows that Azolla has strong photosynthetic O2-releasing ability, which equilibrates the O2-CO2 concentration inside chamber in favor of human survival, and then verifies the prospect of Azolla in space application.

  17. Ecological Study, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activity of Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. in Golestan province (Deraznoo Mountain, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazandarani Masoumeh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Many of Ziziphora species have been used in traditional medicine in North of Iran. This work was determined on ecological requirements, antioxidant and antibacterial activity of Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. from Bovanloo region, Iran. Materials and Methods: Aerial parts of plant in blooming were collected from Deraznoo mountain (2500 m in August 2013, ecological and traditional data were recorded. The aqueous and methanol extracts were isolated by maceration, antioxidant capacity were measured by total antioxidant capacity (TAC, reducing power (RP and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH in comparison with butylated hydroxy toluene (BHT and butylated hydroxyanisole BHA antioxidant standard and then their antibacterial activity were studied in vitro against 9 gram positive and negative bacteria by using well method and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC assay. Results: Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. (Z. clinopodioides Lam often grows in sunny environment in Deraznoo mountain (2500 m, with annual rainfall of 334 mm and annual temperature of 10.3°C in temperate cold climate and sandy loam soil with Ec = 0.6 and pH = 6.9. It has been used by the rural people as an antispasm, anti-inflammatory, antifungal , anti-infective, sedative and expectorant agent to treat cold, flu, diarrhea, gasterointestinal disorder and stomach ache. The ethanol extract of plant had high antioxidant activity with IC50 values (32.5 ± 0.4 μg/ml especially in DPPH assay and exhibited good antibacterial activity on Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa with IZ (28.1 ± 0.5, 24.8 ± 0.1, 19.4 ± 1.1 and 14.8 ± 1 mm, respectively with high MIC value of 14.5 μg/ml, respectively. Conclusion: The methanol extract of Z. clinopodioides Lam. have suitable antibacterial and antioxidant activity which can be used as natural anti-infective agent to treat many infectious diseases.

  18. Morphological, hydrological, biogeochemical and ecological changes and challenges in river restoration - the Thur River case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirmer, M.; Luster, J.; Linde, N.; Perona, P.; Mitchell, E. A. D.; Barry, D. A.; Hollender, J.; Cirpka, O. A.; Schneider, P.; Vogt, T.; Radny, D.; Durisch-Kaiser, E.

    2014-06-01

    River restoration can enhance river dynamics, environmental heterogeneity and biodiversity, but the underlying processes governing the dynamic changes need to be understood to ensure that restoration projects meet their goals, and adverse effects are prevented. In particular, we need to comprehend how hydromorphological variability quantitatively relates to ecosystem functioning and services, biodiversity as well as ground- and surface water quality in restored river corridors. This involves (i) physical processes and structural properties, determining erosion and sedimentation, as well as solute and heat transport behavior in surface water and within the subsurface; (ii) biogeochemical processes and characteristics, including the turnover of nutrients and natural water constituents; and (iii) ecological processes and indicators related to biodiversity and ecological functioning. All these aspects are interlinked, requiring an interdisciplinary investigation approach. Here, we present an overview of the recently completed RECORD (REstored CORridor Dynamics) project in which we combined physical, chemical, and biological observations with modeling at a restored river corridor of the perialpine Thur River in Switzerland. Our results show that river restoration, beyond inducing morphologic changes that reshape the river bed and banks, triggered complex spatial patterns of bank infiltration, and affected habitat type, biotic communities and biogeochemical processes. We adopted an interdisciplinary approach of monitoring the continuing changes due to restoration measures to address the following questions: How stable is the morphological variability established by restoration? Does morphological variability guarantee an improvement in biodiversity? How does morphological variability affect biogeochemical transformations in the river corridor? What are some potential adverse effects of river restoration? How is river restoration influenced by catchment-scale hydraulics

  19. Affect Regulation and Purging: An Ecological Momentary Assessment Study in Purging Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haedt-Matt, Alissa A.; Keel, Pamela K.

    2015-01-01

    Research suggests that affect may play an important role in the propensity to purge among women with Purging Disorder (PD). However, prior work has been constrained to cross-sectional or laboratory designs which impact temporal interpretations and ecological validity. This study examined the role of negative affect (NA) and positive affect (PA) in triggering and maintaining purging in PD using ecological momentary assessment. Women with PD (N=24) made multiple daily ratings of affect and behavior for two weeks. Multilevel models examined associations between affect and purging at different levels of analysis, including a novel analytic approach to address the specificity of changes in affect relative to purging behavior by comparing trajectories of change on purge versus non-purge days. For trajectories of affect over time, NA increased before purging and decreased following purging on purge days; however, only the decrease in NA following purging was significantly different from the trajectory of NA on non-purge days. Conversely, PA failed to increase before purging on purge days compared to a matched time-point on non-purge days. These findings suggest unique roles of PA in triggering and NA in maintaining purging in PD and support models in which purging functions to regulate affect. For comparisons of ratings before and after purging, NA increased and PA decreased after purging, highlighting how different analytic strategies produce different findings requiring integration into affect regulation models. These data provide insight into why women with PD purge after consuming normal amounts of food, a crucial first step for developing effective interventions. PMID:25688426

  20. Emotional Reactivity and Regulation in Anxious and Nonanxious Youth: A Cell-Phone Ecological Momentary Assessment Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Patricia Z.; Forbes, Erika E.; Dahl, Ronald E.; Ryan, Neal D.; Siegle, Greg J.; Ladouceur, Cecile D.; Silk, Jennifer S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Reviews have highlighted anxious youths' affective disturbances, specifically, elevated negative emotions and reliance on ineffective emotion regulation strategies. However, no study has examined anxious youth's emotional reactivity and regulation in real-world contexts. Methods: This study utilized an ecological momentary assessment…

  1. A Two-Year Ecological Study of Norway Rats (Rattus norvegicus) in a Brazilian Urban Slum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panti-May, Jesús A; Carvalho-Pereira, Ticiana S A; Serrano, Soledad; Pedra, Gabriel G; Taylor, Josh; Pertile, Arsinoê C; Minter, Amanda; Airam, Vladimir; Carvalho, Mayara; Júnior, Nivison N; Rodrigues, Gorete; Reis, Mitermayer G; Ko, Albert I; Childs, James E; Begon, Mike; Costa, Federico

    2016-01-01

    The Norway or brown rat (Rattus norvegicus) is among the most ubiquitous of rodents. However, the lack of studies describing Norway rat populations from tropical areas have limited our understanding regarding their demography and seasonal dynamics. In this study, we describe seasonal pattern in the abundance, reproductive parameters, and morphometrics of Norway rat populations in Salvador, Brazil. Rodents were trapped over four seasonal trapping periods (2013-2014) from three valleys. A total of 802 Norway rats were trapped over the course of the study over 7653 trap-nights. Norway rat abundance was high, but there was no significant differences between seasons. The reproductive parameters (e.g. frequency of pregnant and lactating females) did not show statistical differences between seasons. Female rats collected in the rainy season were heavier and older than females from the dry season. Salvador rats had a high incidence of pregnancy and birth rate (estimated birth rate of 79 young per year) compared to previous studies. The information generated is critical for the understanding of the ecology of Norway rat, the main reservoir of Leptospira in Salvador. However, future studies examining the effect of rodent control programs aimed at reducing populations, and determining rates of recovery, will further clarify our understanding of population dynamics.

  2. A Two-Year Ecological Study of Norway Rats (Rattus norvegicus in a Brazilian Urban Slum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús A Panti-May

    Full Text Available The Norway or brown rat (Rattus norvegicus is among the most ubiquitous of rodents. However, the lack of studies describing Norway rat populations from tropical areas have limited our understanding regarding their demography and seasonal dynamics. In this study, we describe seasonal pattern in the abundance, reproductive parameters, and morphometrics of Norway rat populations in Salvador, Brazil. Rodents were trapped over four seasonal trapping periods (2013-2014 from three valleys. A total of 802 Norway rats were trapped over the course of the study over 7653 trap-nights. Norway rat abundance was high, but there was no significant differences between seasons. The reproductive parameters (e.g. frequency of pregnant and lactating females did not show statistical differences between seasons. Female rats collected in the rainy season were heavier and older than females from the dry season. Salvador rats had a high incidence of pregnancy and birth rate (estimated birth rate of 79 young per year compared to previous studies. The information generated is critical for the understanding of the ecology of Norway rat, the main reservoir of Leptospira in Salvador. However, future studies examining the effect of rodent control programs aimed at reducing populations, and determining rates of recovery, will further clarify our understanding of population dynamics.

  3. Linking stroke mortality with air pollution, income, and greenness in northwest Florida: an ecological geographical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao K Ranga

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Relatively few studies have examined the association between air pollution and stroke mortality. Inconsistent and inclusive results from existing studies on air pollution and stroke justify the need to continue to investigate the linkage between stroke and air pollution. No studies have been done to investigate the association between stroke and greenness. The objective of this study was to examine if there is association of stroke with air pollution, income and greenness in northwest Florida. Results Our study used an ecological geographical approach and dasymetric mapping technique. We adopted a Bayesian hierarchical model with a convolution prior considering five census tract specific covariates. A 95% credible set which defines an interval having a 0.95 posterior probability of containing the parameter for each covariate was calculated from Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulations. The 95% credible sets are (-0.286, -0.097 for household income, (0.034, 0.144 for traffic air pollution effect, (0.419, 1.495 for emission density of monitored point source polluters, (0.413, 1.522 for simple point density of point source polluters without emission data, and (-0.289,-0.031 for greenness. Household income and greenness show negative effects (the posterior densities primarily cover negative values. Air pollution covariates have positive effects (the 95% credible sets cover positive values. Conclusion High risk of stroke mortality was found in areas with low income level, high air pollution level, and low level of exposure to green space.

  4. Influence of atorvastatin on plasma HSP70 and HSF1 in patients with cute coronary syndrome%阿托伐他汀对急性冠脉综合征患者血浆中HSP70、HSF1的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王水侠; 刑坤

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨阿托伐他汀对急性冠脉综合征(ACS)患者血浆中HSP70、HSF1的影响.方法:选取正常者39例,阿托伐他汀治疗组48例,酶联免疫吸附法(ELISA)测定样本血浆中HSP70、HSF1表达的变化.结果:(1)给药前,阿托伐他汀治疗组血浆中HSP70、HSF1表达明显高于对照组(P<0.05);(2)给药后,阿托伐他汀治疗组患者血浆中HSP70、HSF1表达较给药前升高明显(P<0.01).结论:阿托伐他汀可通过诱导HSP70表达增多发挥抗ACS作用.

  5. Prevalence of asthma symptoms in schoolchildren, and climate in west European countries: an ecologic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnedo-Pena, Alberto; García-Marcos, Luis; Bercedo-Sanz, Alberto; Aguinaga-Ontoso, Inés; González-Díaz, Carlos; García-Merino, Águeda; Busquets-Monge, Rosa; Suárez-Varela, Maria Morales; Batlles-Garrido, Juan; Blanco-Quirós, Alfredo A.; López-Silvarrey, Angel; García-Hernández, Gloria; Fuertes, Jorge

    2013-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to estimate the associations between the prevalence of asthma symptoms in schoolchildren and meteorological variables in west European countries that participated in the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Children (ISAAC), Phase III 1997-2003. An ecologic study was carried out. The prevalence of asthma was obtained from this study from 48 centers in 14 countries, and meteorological variables from those stations closest to ISAAC centers, together with other socioeconomic and health care variables. Multilevel mixed-effects linear regression models were used. For schoolchildren aged 6-7 years, the prevalence rate of asthma decreased with an increase in mean annual sunshine hours, showed a positive association with rainy weather, and warm temperature, and a negative one with relative humidity and physician density (PD). Current wheeze prevalence was stronger in autumn/winter seasons and decreased with increasing PD. Severe current wheeze decreased with PD. For schoolchildren aged 13-14 years, the prevalence rates of asthma and current wheeze increased with rainy weather, and these rates decreased with increased PD. Current wheeze, as measured by a video questionnaire, was inversely associated with sunny weather, and nurse density. Severe current wheeze prevalence was stronger during autumn/winter seasons, decreased with PD, and indoor chlorinated public swimming pool density, and increased with rainy weather. Meteorological factors, including sunny and rainy weather, and PD may have some effect on the prevalence rates of asthma symptoms in children from west European countries.

  6. A gain-of-function mutant p53–HSF1 feed forward circuit governs adaptation of cancer cells to proteotoxic stress

    OpenAIRE

    D. Li(Hunan University, Changsha 410082, People's Republic of China); Yallowitz, A; Ozog, L; Marchenko, N

    2014-01-01

    To overcome proteotoxic stress inherent to malignant transformation, cancer cells induce a range of adaptive mechanisms, with the master transcription factor heat-shock factor 1 (HSF1)-orchestrated response taking center stage. Here we define a novel gain-of-function of mutant p53 (mutp53), whereby mutp53-overexpressing cancer cells acquire superior tolerance to proteotoxic stress. mutp53 via constitutive stimulation of EGFR and ErbB2 signaling hyperactivates the MAPK and PI3K cascades, which...

  7. Ecological baseline studies in Los Alamos and Guaje Canyons County of Los Alamos, New Mexico. A two-year study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foxx, T.S. [comp.

    1995-11-01

    During the summers of 1993 and 1994, the Biological Resource Evaluations Team (BRET) of the Environmental Protection Group (ESH-8) conducted baseline studies within two canyon systems, Los Alamos and Guaje Canyons. Biological data was collected within each canyon to provide background and baseline information for Ecological Risk models. Baseline studies included establishment of permanent vegetation plots within each canyon along the elevational gradient. Then, in association with the various vegetation types, surveys were conducted for ground dwelling insects, birds, and small mammals. The stream channels associated with the permanent vegetation plots were characterized and aquatic macroinvertebrates collected within the stream monthly throughout a six-month period. The Geographic Position System (GPS) in combination with ARC INFO was used to map the study areas. Considerable data was collected during these surveys and are summarized in individual chapters.

  8. Study on Network System Construction of Forest Ecological in Huaining New Town

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANGQingfeng; WUZemin; WANGJianan; HUANGChenglin; LIBao; QIANNimiao

    2004-01-01

    Urban forest is an important composition and the window and soul of modern cities, which has a close relationship with ecological environment and investing environment. So urban forest has been constructed in China. Huaining County could hold of the historical opportunity and come up with the great blueprint of forest ecological network system construction for the new town. This paper mainly introduces the guiding ideas, principles, goals and overall layouts of the construction in the new town, and hope that it will be a model for other county-level forest ecological network system construction in China.

  9. On application of non—extensive statistical mechanics to studying ecological diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Xuan, Le; Lan, Nguyen Tri; Viet, Nguyen Ai

    2016-06-01

    The concept of Tsallis entropy provides an extension of thermodynamics and statistical physics. In the ecology, Tsallis entropy is proposed to be a new class of diversity indices Sq which covers many common diversity indices found in ecological literature. As a new statistical model for the Whittaker plots describing species abundance distribution, the truncated exponential distribution is used to calculate the diversity and evenness indices. The obtained results in new model are graphically compared with those in previous publication in the same field of interests, and shows a good agreement. A further development of a thermodynamic theory of ecological systems that is consistent with entropic approach of statistical physics is motivated.

  10. An ecological approach to prospective and retrospective timing of long durations: a study involving gamers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Tobin

    Full Text Available To date, most studies comparing prospective and retrospective timing have failed to use long durations and tasks with a certain degree of ecological validity. The present study assessed the effect of the timing paradigm on playing video games in a "naturalistic environment" (gaming centers. In addition, as it involved gamers, it provided an opportunity to examine the effect of gaming profile on time estimation. A total of 116 participants were asked to estimate prospectively or retrospectively a video game session lasting 12, 35 or 58 minutes. The results indicate that time is perceived as longer in the prospective paradigm than in the retrospective one, although the variability of estimates is the same. Moreover, the 12-minute session was perceived as longer, proportionally, than the 35- and 58-minute sessions. The study also revealed that the number of hours participants spent playing video games per week was a significant predictor of time estimates. To account for the main findings, the differences between prospective and retrospective timing are discussed in quantitative terms using a proposed theoretical framework, which states that both paradigms use the same cognitive processes, but in different proportions. Finally, the hypothesis that gamers play more because they underestimate time is also discussed.

  11. Ecological study on mangrove forest in East Coast of North Sumatra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ONRIZAL

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Ecological studies on mangrove forest in East Coast of North Sumatra have been carried out with field work in transect method and laboratory analyses. This study would be covered on floristic composition, abrasion, green belt, soil properties, and water quality of mangroves. Land system map and landsat TM imagery (year 1996 coverage as main material in this study were used and overlay to determine training area. Based on vegetation inventory found that 20 mangrove species and by vegetation analyses, we known that Avicennia marina was as dominant tree species of seedling and sapling stage. Tree stage was not found in the area, yet. Environment properties of the mangrove area were suitable for mangrove growth and rehabilitation with the exception of pyrite content in the mangrove soil. Average of mangrove green belt was 25 m with range from 10 to 80 m in KJP (Kajapah land system and 30 m with range 10 to 50 m in PTG (Putting land system. Abrasion rate in the area was very high, i.e. 6 m per year in KJP land system, and 10 m per year in PTG land system.

  12. Ecological studies on the freshwater fishes of the Alligator Rivers region, Northern Territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The tropical climate of the Alligator Rivers Region (ARR) has a distinctive wet-dry cycle , resulting in seasonal flows in the creeks and rivers of its catchments. The present study, begun in August 1978, was aimed at developing an ecological monitoring system that would detect any changes to the freshwater fish communities brought about by recent uranium mining and processing in the lowlands of the ARR. The focus of the synecological studies, was a description of spatial and temporal patterns in the community structure of the fish fauna. Interpretation of these patterns was made possible by the collection of detailed environmental data from the study sites. It was found that of the ARR seasonal changes in environmental conditions were so marked that they often obscured the effects of environmental gradients along a watercourse and differing environmental conditions characteristics of different types of waterbody. Hence it may not be entirely satisfactory to define environmental zones in these catchments based on overall environmental conditions through the whole seasonal cycle, because changes in any one such zone between seasons result in very marked changes in the fish communities of habitats in that zone. 34 refs., 22 tabs., 45 figs., 3 maps

  13. Associations between green space and health in English cities: an ecological, cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honor Bixby

    Full Text Available Green space has been identified as a modifiable feature of the urban environment and associations with physiological and psychological health have been reported at the local level. This study aims to assess whether these associations between health and green space are transferable to a larger scale, with English cities as the unit of analysis. We used an ecological, cross-sectional study design. We classified satellite-based land cover data to quantify green space coverage for the 50 largest cities in England. We assessed associations between city green space coverage with risk of death from all causes, cardiovascular disease, lung cancer and suicide between 2002 and 2009 using Poisson regression with random effect. After adjustment for age, income deprivation and air pollution, we found that at the city level the risk of death from all causes and a priori selected causes, for men and women, did not significantly differ between the greenest and least green cities. These findings suggest that the local health effects of urban green space observed at the neighbourhood level in some studies do not transfer to the city level. Further work is needed to establish how urban residents interact with local green space, in order to ascertain the most relevant measures of green space.

  14. Correlations between cutaneous malignant melanoma and other cancers: An ecological study in forty European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Fernandez-Crehuet Serrano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The presence of noncutaneous neoplasms does not seem to increase the risk of cutaneous malignant melanoma; however, it seems to be associated with the development of other hematological, brain, breast, uterine, and prostatic neoplasms. An ecological transversal study was conducted to study the geographic association between cutaneous malignant melanoma and 24 localizations of cancer in forty European countries. Methods: Cancer incidence rates were extracted from GLOBOCAN database of the International Agency for Research on Cancer. We analyzed the age-adjusted and gender-stratified incidence rates for different localizations of cancer in forty European countries and calculated their correlation using Pearson′s correlation test. Results: In males, significant correlations were found between cutaneous malignant melanoma with testicular cancer (r = 0.83 [95% confidence interval (CI: 0.68-0.89], myeloma (r = 0.68 [95% CI: 0.46-0.81], prostatic carcinoma (r = 0.66 [95% CI: 0.43-0.80], and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL (r = 0.63 [95% CI: 0.39-0.78]. In females, significant correlations were found between cutaneous malignant melanoma with breast cancer (r = 0.80 [95% CI: 0.64-0.88], colorectal cancer (r = 0.72 [95% CI: 0.52-0.83], and NHL (r = 0.71 [95% CI: 0.50-0.83]. Conclusions: These correlations call to conduct new studies about the epidemiology of cancer in general and cutaneous malignant melanoma risk factors in particular.

  15. A Study on Forest Species Diversity and Its Ecological Service Function in the Plateau Area of Western Sichuan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DengYu-Lin; WangYu-kuan; PengPei-hao

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a study on species diversity and its ecological service function in the plateau area in western Sichuan. The results show that species diversity in the plantations on the cutover land has a tendency to increase and that its ecological service function is to be improved with stand age growing. The species diversity in forest communities is also gradually increased on different succession stage till reaching a climax level. But the species diversity in the climax community is slightly decreased before it reaches a relatively constant status. Ecological service function of diversity is gradually strengthened with the progress of succession. In addition, species diversity in a stand in a similar site and at a same age differs among forest types. Species diversity index within a coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest is larger than that within a coniferous forest. Meanwhile, species diversity enriches as the tree density increases.

  16. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE POLYMERIZATION OF HSF1 AND THE EXPRESSION OF IL-1β、TNF-α mRNA OF MONOCYTES IN FEVER RABBITS%家兔发热过程中单核细胞HSF1聚合与IL-1β、TNF-αmRNA表达的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马中女; 曹宇

    2006-01-01

    目的:探讨热休克因子1(HSF1)参与体温调控的作用及其生物学机制.方法:在复制家兔LPS发热模型基础上,检测在发热过程中单核细胞HSF1的表达与IL-1β、TNF-α mRNA表达之间的关系.结果:注射LPS 0.5μg/kg后家兔体温明显升高,在60 min和180 min时出现两个体温高峰;由LPS引起发热过程中单核细胞TNF-α、IL-1β mRNA表达量分别在80 min和160 min达高峰,400 min以内降至基础水平;单核细胞HSF1三聚体含量在体温上升到一定水平,即从注射LPS后160 min开始逐渐增多.LPS致发热时单核细胞HSF1三聚体含量与单核细胞IL-1β、TNF-αmRNA表达量之间呈现负相关关系;而体温与单核细胞IL-1β mRNA表达量呈现正相关动态变化.结论:在LPS致发热时HSF1可能通过抑制IL-1β、TNF-α等内生性致热原基因的表达而限制体温升高.

  17. 热休克因子(HSF1)在乳腺癌中的表达及与预后的关系%Expression of heat shock factor 1 and its relation with prognosis in breast cancer patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐敏; 王树滨; 刘雅洁; 陈亦欣; 郑瑾; 白桦

    2007-01-01

    目的:探讨热休克因子(heat shock factor 1,HSF1)在乳腺癌中的表达,及其在乳腺癌预后中所起的作用.方法:采用免疫组织化学方法检测62例手术切除的乳腺癌组织中HSF1的表达,探讨其与临床病理特征的关系及对预后的影响.结果:HSF,在乳腺癌组织中的阳性表达率为29.0%(18/62).HSF1表达与月经状况存在相关(P=0.004),但与肿瘤大小、淋巴结转移个数以及组织学分级之间均不具相关性.HSF1阴性表达组无病生存期及总生存期均明显优于HSF1阳性表达组(P=0.0057及P=0.0251).Cox回归单因素分析显示淋巴结转移个数、组织学分级、肿瘤大小、HSF1阳性表达及TNM分期与无病生存期及总生存期均明显相关;Cox回归多因素分析表明腋淋巴结转移个数、组织学分级、肿瘤大小与无病生存期及总生存期明显相关,而HSF1阳性表达及TNM分期最终未进入Cox回归模型.结论:HSF1在乳腺癌中有一定程度的表达,且HSF1表达与乳腺癌患者无病生存期及总生存期的缩短有关,有可能成为判断乳腺癌患者预后的指标.

  18. Hydrology Ecology Study Proposed for the Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge 1978

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a proposal and brief outline of a hydrology/ecology project to be done at the Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge. Its objectives are: 1) to examine...

  19. Case Study of Marine Ecological Compensation Criteria Based on Environmental Risk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ji-wei; YANG Zhi-feng; TANG Jun-jian; CHEN Chu-han

    2009-01-01

    This paper forecasted and identified the environmental risks and ecological effect caused by chemical spill by simulating the xylene spill in Xiamen waters. The evaluation objects of ecological damage include four parts: marine ecosystem services, sea water quality, marine biological resources (plankton, benthos, nekton, etc.), and beach habitat. The ecological compensation criterion was confirmed as 1.73 million Yuan per year in the short term and 8.09 million Yuan in the long term. And an ecological compensation mode was suggested to be that if the chemical spill does not occur this year, the compensation will return to the enterprise next year; while if chemical spill occurs, the compensation will not be returned. The encouragement mechanism "returning compensation if no spill" might motivate enterprises to improve the environmental risk management and avoid the risks.

  20. GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION SYSTEMS AND ECOLOGY CASE STUDY – ŢARCU MOUNTAINS (SOUTHERN CARPATHIANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Török – Oance

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The significance of geographic information systems (GIS for environmental managment and resource planning has increased in recent years. Current ecological theory, in particular ecosystem theoy, is characteriyed by a new better understanding of ecosystem patterns and dynamics. This paper describes some of the basic application methods using GIS in connection with ecological factors constrained by relief in Ţarcu Mountains, Southern Carpathians.

  1. Ecological Footprint of Research University Students: A Pilot Case Study in Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    See Tan Ang; Wai Choong Weng; Zen Irina Safitri

    2016-01-01

    Ecological footprint (EF) is potential to be applied in universities to assist building management units to coordinate in order to reduce environmental impact and to achieve sustainable resource consumption from its main activities including teaching-learning, research and operations. As many Malaysian universities declare to become sustainability campus, the adoption of ecological footprint in measuring campus sustainability will provide insight and better understanding about the performance...

  2. SUSTAINABLE LAND USE PLANNING BASED ON ECOLOGICAL HEALTH --Case Study of Beiwenquan Town, Chongqing, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAO Jin-gan; WEI Chao-fu; XIE De-ti

    2005-01-01

    This paper, taking Beiwenquan Town of Beibei, Chongqing as an example, assessed the impacts of land use on ecological health by comprehensive index method, and discussed methodological system of sustainable land use planning based on ecological health. Results indicated that: 1) From 1992 to 2002, land use changes focused on 12 patterns with the total conversion area of 92.11%, which were related to cultivated land, residential and industrial-mining area, and orchard land. Urbanization and economic reconstruction were the leading driving forces. 2) There was obvious difference of the areas ofecotypes driven by land use change in wide valley and mild slope between 1992 and 2002,while there were little or no difference in steep slope and very steep slope. 3) Both of the conditions of ecological health in 1992 and 2002 were sound, and the ecotypes focused on the types of health and sub-health. But, health ecosystem in 1992, with an area of 764.64ha, accounting for 38.51% of the total evaluation area, was better than that in 2002, with an area of 636.10ha, accounting for 34.19% of the total evaluation area. 4) The ecotypes involved into different ranges have already degenerated, due to humankind's disturbance, while the conditions of ecological health in the same ranges in 1992, regardless of stability and reconstruction, were better than that in 2002.5) The planning scenario based on ecological health was accorded with the practice condition of Beiwenquan Town: 388.29ha of cultivated land could meet the Beiwenquan demand of food and byproduct; 1045.26ha of forest land area, the Beiwenquan demand of ecological health; and 1004.73ha of the residential and industrial-mining area, the Beiwenquan building demand. 6) Sustainable land use planning based on ecological health had higher useful value, because it not only stood to ecological theory, but also satisfied the developmental demand of society and economy.

  3. Studying Behavioral Ecology on High School & College Campuses: A Practical Guide to Measuring Foraging Behavior Using Urban Wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Mohammad A. Abu; Emerson, Sara E.; Brown, Joel S.

    2015-01-01

    We present a practical field exercise for ecology and animal behavior classes that can be carried out on campus, using urban wildlife. Students document an animal's feeding behavior to study its interactions with the surrounding environment. In this approach, an animal's feeding behavior is quantified at experimental food patches placed within its…

  4. Support for NATO Advanced Study Institute on molecular ecology of aquatic microbes, August 28--September 9, 1994. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joint, I.

    1995-06-16

    This is a summary paper for a NATO Advanced Study Institute sponsored meeting entitled `The Molecular Ecology of Aquatic Microbes` held in Luccia, Italy from August 28 to September 9, 1994. A full reference book for the proceedings is to be published later.

  5. The Association between Physical Fitness and Academic Achievement in Texas State House Legislative Districts: An Ecologic Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janak, Jud C.; Gabriel, Kelley P.; Oluyomi, Abiodun O.; Peréz, Adriana; Kohl, Harold W.; Kelder, Steven H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The association of physical fitness with cognitive function in children and adolescents is unclear. The purpose of this ecological study was to describe the association between academic achievement, body mass index (BMI), and cardiovascular fitness (CVF) in a large sample of elementary, middle, and high school students in Texas.…

  6. Hurricane Impacts on Ecological Services and Economic Values of Coastal Urban Forest: A Case Study of Pensacola, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    As urbanized areas continue to grow and green spaces dwindle, the importance of urban forests increases for both ecologically derived health benefits and for their potential to mitigate climate change. This study examined pre- and post- hurricane conditions of Pensacola's urban f...

  7. Are tags from Mars and descriptors from Venus? A study on the ecology of educational resource metadata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vuorikari, Riina; Sillaots, Martin; Panzavolta, Silvia; Koper, Rob

    2009-01-01

    Vuorikari, R., Sillaots, M., Panzavolta, S. & Koper, R. (2009). Are tags from Mars and descriptors from Venus? A study on the ecology of educational resource metadata. In M. Spaniol, Q. Li, R. Klamma & R. W. H. Lau (Eds.), Proceedings of the 8th International Conference Advances in Web Based Learnin

  8. Using Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Theory to Understand Community Partnerships: A Historical Case Study of One Urban High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Jack

    2011-01-01

    Although the value of school-community partnerships is unquestioned, the reasons for success and failure are not sufficiently understood. This mixed-methods case study examines 60 years of partnering at one urban high school, using Bronfenbrenner's ecological systems theory to better understand the effect on student development as measured by…

  9. Radon in Drinking Water and Cancer Mortality: An Ecological Study in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is limited information on the health effects of radon in drinking water in spite of their potential exposures. We conducted an ecological study in a small town in Japan where the groundwater with high concentrations of radon is supplied as utilities. A total of 607 cancer deaths were ascertained by vital statistics in that town from 1972 to 1997. Standardized mortality ratios on the basis of national rates were 1.01 (95% confidence interval; 0.93-1.09) for all cancers, 1.10 (0.95-1.28) for stomach cancer, 0.88 (0.70-1.10) for lung cancer, and 1.14 (0.87-1.48) for liver cancer. Mortality from liver cancer was significantly higher than that of two surrounding control cities combined, with a relative risk of 1.40 (1.04-1.89) based on Poisson regression analysis. Lack of information on possible confounders including diet, alcohol drinking, smoking and hepatitis virus infection, is the main limitation of the study, which precludes the evaluation of causal associations

  10. Medico-ecological study and health impact assessment of hydro-electric projects in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of this studies were to determine i) if there was any potential health risks in terms of spread of vector-borne and other communicable diseases resulting from the changes in the environment due to creation of large bodies of water as consequence of the construction of dams, ii) diseases of public health importance in populations affected by such projects. Nine pre-impoundment studies had been carried out and potential impact of the change in environment on discases and health of the affected populations in each areas was evaluated. Risk of infections to the dam construction workers also assessed. Recommendations on mitigation measures were made for each situation so that adequate provisions could be made to improve the health conditions of these populations especially those who would be resettled as a result of impoundment . Prevention and control measures on transmission of infection, including vector control were proposed. The potential medico-ecological hazards encountered by immigrants and visitors to the area on completion of the hydro project were also envisaged

  11. A Clinical Case Study of the use of Ecological Momentary Assessment in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PJ Matt eTilley

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Accurate assessment of obsessions and compulsions is a crucial step in treatment planning for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD. In this pilot study, we sought to determine if the use of Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA could provide additional symptom information beyond that captured during standard assessment of OCD. We studied three adults diagnosed with OCD and compared the number and types of obsessions and compulsions captured using the Yale-Brown Obsessive-compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS compared to EMA. Following completion of the Y-BOCS interview, participants then recorded their OCD symptoms into a digital voice recorder across a twelve-hour period in reply to randomly sent mobile phone SMS prompts. The EMA approach yielded a lower number of symptoms of obsessions and compulsions than the Y-BOCS but produced additional types of obsessions and compulsions not identified by the Y-BOCS. We conclude that the EMA-OCD procedure may represent a worthy addition to the suite of assessment tools used when working with clients who have OCD. Further research with larger samples is required to strengthen this conclusion.

  12. A clinical case study of the use of ecological momentary assessment in obsessive compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilley, P J Matt; Rees, Clare S

    2014-01-01

    Accurate assessment of obsessions and compulsions is a crucial step in treatment planning for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD). In this clinical case study, we sought to determine if the use of Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) could provide additional symptom information beyond that captured during standard assessment of OCD. We studied three adults diagnosed with OCD and compared the number and types of obsessions and compulsions captured using the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) compared to EMA. Following completion of the Y-BOCS interview, participants then recorded their OCD symptoms into a digital voice recorder across a 12-h period in reply to randomly sent mobile phone SMS prompts. The EMA approach yielded a lower number of symptoms of obsessions and compulsions than the Y-BOCS but produced additional types of obsessions and compulsions not previously identified by the Y-BOCS. We conclude that the EMA-OCD procedure may represent a worthy addition to the suite of assessment tools used when working with clients who have OCD. Further research with larger samples is required to strengthen this conclusion.

  13. Chemical mixtures and environmental effects: a pilot study to assess ecological exposure and effects in streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxton, Herbert T.; Reilly, Timothy J.; Kuivila, Kathryn M.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Bradley, Paul M.; Villeneuve, Daniel L.; Mills, Marc A.

    2015-01-01

    Assessment and management of the risks of exposure to complex chemical mixtures in streams are priorities for human and environmental health organizations around the world. The current lack of information on the composition and variability of environmental mixtures and a limited understanding of their combined effects are fundamental obstacles to timely identification and prevention of adverse human and ecological effects of exposure. This report describes the design of a field-based study of the composition and biological activity of chemical mixtures in U.S. stream waters affected by a wide range of human activities and contaminant sources. The study is a collaborative effort by the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Scientists sampled 38 streams spanning 24 States and Puerto Rico. Thirty-four of the sites were located in watersheds impacted by multiple contaminant sources, including industrial and municipal wastewater discharges, crop and animal agricultural runoff, urban runoff, and other point and nonpoint contaminant sources. The remaining four sites were minimally development reference watersheds. All samples underwent comprehensive chemical and biological characterization, including sensitive and specific direct analysis for over 700 dissolved organic and inorganic chemicals and field parameters, identification of unknown contaminants (environmental diagnostics), and a variety of bioassays to evaluate biological activity and toxicity.

  14. Radon in Drinking Water and Cancer Mortality: An Ecological Study in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshinaga, Shinji; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Tokonami, Shinji; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Narazaki, Yukinori; Mizuno, Shoichi; Akiba, Suminori

    2008-08-01

    There is limited information on the health effects of radon in drinking water in spite of their potential exposures. We conducted an ecological study in a small town in Japan where the groundwater with high concentrations of radon is supplied as utilities. A total of 607 cancer deaths were ascertained by vital statistics in that town from 1972 to 1997. Standardized mortality ratios on the basis of national rates were 1.01 (95% confidence interval; 0.93-1.09) for all cancers, 1.10 (0.95-1.28) for stomach cancer, 0.88 (0.70-1.10) for lung cancer, and 1.14 (0.87-1.48) for liver cancer. Mortality from liver cancer was significantly higher than that of two surrounding control cities combined, with a relative risk of 1.40 (1.04-1.89) based on Poisson regression analysis. Lack of information on possible confounders including diet, alcohol drinking, smoking and hepatitis virus infection, is the main limitation of the study, which precludes the evaluation of causal associations.

  15. Spatial distribution of psychotic disorders in an urban area of France: an ecological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignon, Baptiste; Schürhoff, Franck; Baudin, Grégoire; Ferchiou, Aziz; Richard, Jean-Romain; Saba, Ghassen; Leboyer, Marion; Kirkbride, James B; Szöke, Andrei

    2016-01-01

    Previous analyses of neighbourhood variations of non-affective psychotic disorders (NAPD) have focused mainly on incidence. However, prevalence studies provide important insights on factors associated with disease evolution as well as for healthcare resource allocation. This study aimed to investigate the distribution of prevalent NAPD cases in an urban area in France. The number of cases in each neighbourhood was modelled as a function of potential confounders and ecological variables, namely: migrant density, economic deprivation and social fragmentation. This was modelled using statistical models of increasing complexity: frequentist models (using Poisson and negative binomial regressions), and several Bayesian models. For each model, assumptions validity were checked and compared as to how this fitted to the data, in order to test for possible spatial variation in prevalence. Data showed significant overdispersion (invalidating the Poisson regression model) and residual autocorrelation (suggesting the need to use Bayesian models). The best Bayesian model was Leroux's model (i.e. a model with both strong correlation between neighbouring areas and weaker correlation between areas further apart), with economic deprivation as an explanatory variable (OR = 1.13, 95% CI [1.02-1.25]). In comparison with frequentist methods, the Bayesian model showed a better fit. The number of cases showed non-random spatial distribution and was linked to economic deprivation. PMID:27189529

  16. A study of economic development in Tibet of China based on the ecological economic mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Xiaohong; He Jia; Jiang Li

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the issues on keeping the continuous development of Tibetan economy and the relative stability of its ecosystem. Hence, in order to achieve the object, the study analyzes the status quo of economic development in Tibet and the problems of resource exploitation. It especially discusses frailty of Tibetan eco-environment, and evaluates the contradictions between the traditional economic developing mode and the safety of plateau's ecosystem. It concludes that there is an inevitable clash between the development of Tibetan economy and the safety of plateau's eco-system; this problem cannot be avoided by any decision maker. Therefore, the character of Tibetan eco-environment and the requirement of its economic development strategy determine that ecological economy developing mode is the only choice for Tibet. This paper suggests that it should be compensated by the national government to assure that Tibetan economy can keep a higher developing speed. In accordance with the feature of plateau eco-economy system and demand of Tibetan economic development, this paper also suggests several methods to apply the eco-economy developing strategy of Tibet.

  17. Quantitative evaluation of sustainable development based on ecological footprint method: a case study of Tianjin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Since the concept of sustainable development emerged in the late 1980s, more and more countries and regions have been utilizing sustainable development as their developing strategy. But decades have passed without any effective methods available to quantitatively assess sustainable development, Since the ecological footprint evaluation method initiated in 1992, it has become popular in quantitative assessment of sustainable development because of its convenience, easy-understanding, and reliability. As one of the biggest coastal cities in north China and the economic center of the Bohai Coastal Region, Tianjin's gross domestic product (GDP) was 369.762 billion yuan in 2005, accounting for 2.0% of the whole nation's GDP The paper analyzes Tianjin's development with the ecological footprint method, and the results show that Tianjin's ecological footprint and biocapacity in 2005 were 2. 507gha/cap and 0.276gha/cap respectively. The ecological deficit was 2.230gha/cap. And from 1980 to 2005, Tianjin's ecological deficit per 104 yuan GDP decreased; while per capita ecological deficit has been tending to increase rapidly in recent years. All these results demonstrate that Tianjin is in a state of unsustainable development.

  18. What is dental ecology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuozzo, Frank P; Sauther, Michelle L

    2012-06-01

    Teeth have long been used as indicators of primate ecology. Early work focused on the links between dental morphology, diet, and behavior, with more recent years emphasizing dental wear, microstructure, development, and biogeochemistry, to understand primate ecology. Our study of Lemur catta at the Beza Mahafaly Special Reserve, Madagascar, has revealed an unusual pattern of severe tooth wear and frequent tooth loss, primarily the result of consuming a fallback food for which these primates are not dentally adapted. Interpreting these data was only possible by combining our areas of expertise (dental anatomy [FC] and primate ecology [MS]). By integrating theoretical, methodological, and applied aspects of both areas of research, we adopted the term "dental ecology"-defined as the broad study of how teeth respond to the environment. Specifically, we view dental ecology as an interpretive framework using teeth as a vehicle for understanding an organism's ecology, which builds upon earlier work, but creates a new synthesis of anatomy and ecology that is only possible with detailed knowledge of living primates. This framework includes (1) identifying patterns of dental pathology and tooth use-wear, within the context of feeding ecology, behavior, habitat variation, and anthropogenic change, (2) assessing ways in which dental development and biogeochemical signals can reflect habitat, environmental change and/or stress, and (3) how dental microstructure and macro-morphology are adapted to, and reflect feeding ecology. Here we define dental ecology, provide a short summary of the development of this perspective, and place our new work into this context.

  19. Terrestrial Ecology Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, James W., Ed.; Hall, James A., Ed.

    This collection of study units focuses on the study of the ecology of land habitats. Considered are such topics as map reading, field techniques, forest ecosystem, birds, insects, small mammals, soils, plant ecology, preparation of terrariums, air pollution, photography, and essentials of an environmental studies program. Each unit contains…

  20. Defining and measuring ecological specialization

    OpenAIRE

    Devictor, Vincent; Clavel, Joanne; Julliard, Romain; Lavergne, Sébastien; Mouillot, David; Thuiller, Wilfried; Venail, Patrick; Villéger, Sébastien; Mouquet, Nicolas

    2010-01-01

    1.  Ecological specialization is one of the main concepts in ecology and conservation. However, this concept has become highly context-dependent and is now obscured by the great variability of existing definitions and methods used to characterize ecological specialization. 2.  In this study, we clarify this concept by reviewing the strengths and limitations of different approaches commonly used to define and measure ecological specialization. We first show that ecological specialization can e...

  1. The construction of students' knowledge of ecological concepts through the use of structured controversy compared to individual study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beilby, Jerry Paul

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of structured controversy on learning and using ten targeted ecological concepts. Structured controversy, from the cooperative learning model, is a debate-styled instructional strategy used to enhance cognitive processing of concepts by challenging opposite ecological viewpoints. Forty-eight students in a college environmental science course were placed in heterogeneous groups of four by ACT score, gender, and the first exam score. The groups of four were randomly assigned to the treatment group or the individual study (control) group. In a pre- and post-treatment written assessment, the students individually generated a series of propositional statements that they used to support a decision about the use of pesticides. Change in the quality (correct, incorrect, and vague) of propositions was compared between the structured controversy and individual study groups. No significant differences were observed for targeted ecological concepts. However, the control group showed a significant decrease in the number of correct non-target (social, economics, etc.) propositions and an increase in number of incorrect non-target propositions based on pre- to post-treatment data and between control and experimental groups. Although not significant, the structured controversy group maintained the quality of both the ecological and social related concepts. This change in the social-related topics in a science course was an unexpected, but positive, outcome.

  2. Ecological study of the larger black flour beetle in cotton gin trash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nansen, Christian; James, Jacob; Bowling, David; Parajulee, Megha N; Porter, Patrick

    2008-12-01

    The larger black flour beetle Cynaeus angustus (Leconte) thrives in cotton gin trash piles on the Southern High Plains of Texas and sometimes becomes a nuisance after invading public and private structures. For better understanding of the basic larger black flour beetle ecology in gin trash piles, we conducted a series of laboratory and semirealistic field trials. We showed (1) in naturally infested gin trash piles, that similar trap captures were obtained in three cardinal directions; (2) in a laboratory study, late-instar larvae stayed longer in larval stage in moist soil compared with drier soil; (3) in both horizontal and vertical choice experiments, late instars preferred soil with low moisture content; and (4) specifically larger black flour beetle adults, but most larvae as well, responded negatively to high moisture content in gin trash. The results presented are consistent with reports of larger black flour beetle living in decaying yucca palms in deserts and suggest that maintaining gin trash piles with high moisture content may be an important component in an integrated control strategy. PMID:19161678

  3. Non invasive methods for genetic analysis applied to ecological and behavioral studies in Latino-America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana González

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Documenting the presence and abundance of the neotropical mammals is the first step for understanding their population ecology, behavior and genetic dynamics in designing conservation plans. The combination of field research with molecular genetics techniques are new tools that provide valuable biological information avoiding the disturbance in the ecosystems, trying to minimize the human impact in the process to gather biological information. The objective of this paper is to review the available non invasive sampling techniques that have been used in Neotropical mammal studies to apply to determine the presence and abundance, population structure, sex ratio, taxonomic diagnostic using mitochondrial markers, and assessing genetic variability using nuclear markers. There are a wide range of non invasive sampling techniques used to determine the species identification that inhabit an area such as searching for tracks, feces, and carcasses. Other useful equipment is the camera traps that can generate an image bank that can be valuable to assess species presence and abundance by morphology. With recent advances in molecular biology, it is now possible to use the trace amounts of DNA in feces and amplify it to analyze the species diversity in an area, and the genetic variability at intraspecific level. This is particularly helpful in cases of sympatric and cryptic species in which morphology failed to diagnose the taxonomic status of several species of brocket deer of the genus Mazama.

  4. Air Manganese Levels and Chronic Liver Disease Mortality in North Carolina Counties: An Ecological Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John G. Spangler

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Manganese is an essential trace element which is toxic in high doses. Over the past several decades, manganese has replaced lead as the anti-knock agent in gasoline, raising concern about air and road-side contamination with this element. In addition, manganese is absorbed by the liver, making specific populations (e.g., pregnant women, infants and children, and patients with liver disease susceptible to its toxic effects. Using data from the US Census Bureau, the North Carolina State Center for Health Statistics, and the US Environmental Protection Agency, this ecological study evaluated chronic liver disease mortality rates in North Carolina’s 100 counties. It correlated these rates with county-level demographics as well as on-road and non-road air borne manganese concentrations. Median income by county was inversely associated with chronic liver disease mortality, while the logarithmically transformed airborne concentrations of on-road manganese were positively correlated with county-level chronic liver disease mortality. Because environmental manganese near roads is likely to increase over time, these pilot findings potentially have regulatory implications and argue for further research.

  5. Ecological study of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in soil: growth ability, conidia production and molecular detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richini-Pereira Virgínia

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Paracoccidioides brasiliensis ecology is not completely understood, although several pieces of evidence point to the soil as its most probable habitat. The present study aimed to investigate the fungal growth, conidia production and molecular pathogen detection in different soil conditions. Methods Soils samples of clayey, sandy and medium textures were collected from ground surface and the interior of armadillo burrows in a hyperendemic area of Paracoccidioidomycosis. P. brasiliensis was inoculated in soil with controlled humidity and in culture medium containing soil extracts. The molecular detection was carried out by Nested PCR, using panfungal and species specific primers from the ITS-5.8S rDNA region. Results The soil texture does not affect fungus development and the growth is more abundant on/in soil saturated with water. Some soil samples inhibited the development of P. brasiliensis, especially those that contain high values of Exchangeable Aluminum (H+Al in their composition. Some isolates produced a large number of conidia, mainly in soil-extract agar medium. The molecular detection was positive only in samples collected from armadillo burrows, both in sandy and clayey soil. Conclusion P. brasiliensis may grow and produce the infectious conidia in sandy and clayey soil, containing high water content, mainly in wild animal burrows, but without high values of H+Al.

  6. Diet and mortality from common cancers in Brazil: an ecological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosely Sichieri

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available A prospective ecological evaluation of mortality from common malignancies with dietary risk factors and alcohol consumption was carried out among 10 state capitals of Brazil. Regression analysis was used to examine the association of dietary intake with mortality rates of the most common cancers among adults age 30 years and older. Age-adjusted cancer mortality rates varied 2.4 to 3.3 fold across the state capitals. A positive relationship was observed between energy intake and colon, lung, and esophageal cancer (p<=0.02 for each. Colon cancer mortality was positively associated with consumption of total fat, eggs, alcohol, mate tea, cereals, and vegetables (p<=0.01. Lung cancer was positively associated with mate and cereal intake (p<0.05. Stomach cancer was associated with consumption of eggs (p=0.04; and negatively associated with consumption of high fiber foods, fruits, and vitamin A and C (p<=0.05. Esophageal cancer was positively associated with fat intake, mate and cereals (p<=0.05 and negatively associated with vitamin A (p=0.02; prostate cancer was negatively associated with vitamin C (p=0.007. Breast cancer was not associated with any of the factors studied. The marked variation in cancer mortality rates in Brazil may be partially related to the high variation in dietary components or other diet associated factors.

  7. Diet and mortality from common cancers in Brazil: an ecological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sichieri Rosely

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available A prospective ecological evaluation of mortality from common malignancies with dietary risk factors and alcohol consumption was carried out among 10 state capitals of Brazil. Regression analysis was used to examine the association of dietary intake with mortality rates of the most common cancers among adults age 30 years and older. Age-adjusted cancer mortality rates varied 2.4 to 3.3 fold across the state capitals. A positive relationship was observed between energy intake and colon, lung, and esophageal cancer (p<=0.02 for each. Colon cancer mortality was positively associated with consumption of total fat, eggs, alcohol, mate tea, cereals, and vegetables (p<=0.01. Lung cancer was positively associated with mate and cereal intake (p<0.05. Stomach cancer was associated with consumption of eggs (p=0.04; and negatively associated with consumption of high fiber foods, fruits, and vitamin A and C (p<=0.05. Esophageal cancer was positively associated with fat intake, mate and cereals (p<=0.05 and negatively associated with vitamin A (p=0.02; prostate cancer was negatively associated with vitamin C (p=0.007. Breast cancer was not associated with any of the factors studied. The marked variation in cancer mortality rates in Brazil may be partially related to the high variation in dietary components or other diet associated factors.

  8. The value of ecologic studies: mercury concentration in ambient air and the risk of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, K Stephen; Palmer, Raymond F; Stein, Zachary

    2011-01-01

    Ecologic studies of the spatial relationship between disease and sources of environmental contamination can help to ascertain the degree of risk to populations from contamination and to inform legislation to ameliorate the risk. Population risks associated with persistent low-level mercury exposure have recently begun to be of concern and current reports implicate environmental mercury as a potential contributor in the etiology of various developmental and neurodegenerative diseases including autism and Alzheimer's disease. In this demonstration of preliminary findings, we demonstrate for Bexar County Texas and Santa Clara County California, the hypothesis that the spatial structure of the occurrence of autism has a positive co-variation with the spatial structure of the distribution of mercury in ambient air. The relative risk of autism is greater in the geographic areas of higher levels of ambient mercury. We find that the higher levels of ambient mercury are geographically associated with point sources of mercury emission, such as coal-fired power plants and cement plants with coal-fired kilns. Although this does not indicate a cause, these results should not be dismissed, but rather seen as a preliminary step for generating a hypothesis for further investigation. PMID:21905454

  9. The French-German initiative for Chernobyl. Programme 2 study of the radio-ecological consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-03-15

    The data compiled and processed within the framework of the French-German Initiative represent the so far most comprehensive collection of electronic data that has ever been put together on the topic of the 'Study of the radioecological consequences of the Chernobyl accident'.The R.E.D.A.C. database system provides a powerful tool for the reconstruction of the dispersion of radionuclides through ecosystems and food chains and for the interpretation and prediction of their long-term behaviour. This allows the development of effective countermeasures to minimise risks to human health and improve the overall environmental situation. R.E.D.A.C. can also be used for the development and verification of realistic radioecology models. As the data were acquired under realistic conditions, the results can be used directly for model calculations in emergencies. This allows concrete planning, e. g. in connection with the securing of waste, its disposal, and the ecological restoration of waste disposal sites. The data also allow a reconstruction of the radioecological situation in the past, an analysis of the current situation, and predictions of future developments of the accident consequences on a large as well as on a small scale. (N.C.)

  10. Ecological, morphological, and histological studies on Blaps polycresta (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) as biomonitors of cadmium soil pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Wafaa; El-Samad, Lamia M; Mokhamer, El-Hassan; El-Touhamy, Aya; Shonouda, Mourad

    2015-09-01

    Soil pollution in Egypt became far more serious than before due to either the heavy usage of different toxic pesticides or aerosol deposition of industrial pollutants. The present mentioned ground beetle, Blaps polycresta Tschinkel 1975 (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), showed ecological, morphological, and histological alterations in adult insects as biomonitors. Two cultivated sites (reference and polluted) were chosen for sampling the insects. The results indicated a significant increase in soil cadmium concentration of the polluted site leading to sex-specific difference in cadmium accumulation in gonads and alimentary canal of insects that being higher in males than females. The cadmium pollution leads significantly to a decrease in population density, a reduction in body weight, an increase in mortality rate, and an increase in sex ratio of the insects. The results also revealed a striking decrease in body length of the polluted insects with a marked increase in the percentage of deformed gonads and alimentary canal of both sexes. Some histopathological alterations were also recorded in testis, ovary, and midgut of the polluted insects. Our results confirmed that beetles are a good bioindicator for soil pollution, and the different studied parameters could be easily employed as sensitive monitors for cadmium soil pollution.

  11. THE PROBLEM OF STUDYING NEOLOGISMS AND THEIR INFLUENCE ON THE ECOLOGY OF LANGUAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamne Nikolay Leonidovich

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article raises the issues of neology and ecolinguistics. The authors specify the criteria of ecolinguistic approach to studying neologisms based on ecolinguistic monitoring which helps to elicit factors that influence the formation of new words, spheres in which they function in language as well as to define the type of new words and number of loanwords among them. The data under analysis is compiled by about 3 000 new words that appeared in English and Dutch in the last three decades. The authors elicit the main changes in the ecology of the Dutch language on different levels in the stated time frame together with the factors that motivate the formation of neologisms. Among extralinguistic factors the authors list such determinants as the emergence of new realia; scientific and technical advancement; globalization and development of the Internet. To intralinguistic factors the following are referred: linguistic economy; expressiveness of linguistic means; systematization of the vocabulary; unification of linguistic signs; conversion and the shift in stylistic usage of the words can also generate neologisms. Future development of the ecolinguistic approach in neology will help to track the evolution of modern national language and preserve its ecolinguistic balance. The research results can be used in language education, lexicographic practice or state language policy.

  12. Utilizing Underwater Three-Dimensional Modeling to Enhance Ecological and Biological Studies of Coral Reefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, J. H. R.; Delparte, D.; Gates, R. D.; Takabayashi, M.

    2015-04-01

    The structural complexity of coral reefs profoundly affects the biodiversity, productivity, and overall functionality of reef ecosystems. Conventional survey techniques utilize 2-dimensional metrics that are inadequate for accurately capturing and quantifying the intricate structural complexity of scleractinian corals. A 3-dimensional (3D) approach improves the capacity to accurately measure architectural complexity, topography, rugosity, volume, and other structural characteristics that play a significant role in habitat facilitation and ecosystem processes. This study utilized Structure-from-Motion (SfM) photogrammetry techniques to create 3D mesh models for several Hawaiian corals that represent distinct morphological phenotypes. The orthophotos and digital elevation models generated from the SfM process were imported into geospatial analysis software in order to quantify several metrics pertaining to 3D complexity that are known to affect ecosystem biodiversity and productivity. The 3D structural properties of the reconstructed coral colonies were statistically analyzed to determine if the each species represents a unique morpho-functional group. The SfM reconstruction techniques described in this paper can be utilized for an array of research purposes to improve our understanding of how changes in coral composition affect habitat structure and ecological processes in coral reef ecosystems.

  13. Sweetened drink and snacking cues in adolescents: a study using ecological momentary assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenard, Jerry L; Stacy, Alan W; Shiffman, Saul; Baraldi, Amanda N; MacKinnon, David P; Lockhart, Ginger; Kisbu-Sakarya, Yasemin; Boyle, Sarah; Beleva, Yuliyana; Koprowski, Carol; Ames, Susan L; Reynolds, Kim D

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this study was to identify physical, social, and intrapersonal cues that were associated with the consumption of sweetened beverages and sweet and salty snacks among adolescents from lower SES neighborhoods. Students were recruited from high schools with a minimum level of 25% free or reduced cost lunches. Using ecological momentary assessment, participants (N=158) were trained to answer brief questionnaires on handheld PDA devices: (a) each time they ate or drank, (b) when prompted randomly, and (c) once each evening. Data were collected over 7days for each participant. Participants reported their location (e.g., school grounds, home), mood, social environment, activities (e.g., watching TV, texting), cravings, food cues (e.g., saw a snack), and food choices. Results showed that having unhealthy snacks or sweet drinks among adolescents was associated with being at school, being with friends, feeling lonely or bored, craving a drink or snack, and being exposed to food cues. Surprisingly, sweet drink consumption was associated with exercising. Watching TV was associated with consuming sweet snacks but not with salty snacks or sweet drinks. These findings identify important environmental and intrapersonal cues to poor snacking choices that may be applied to interventions designed to disrupt these food-related, cue-behavior linked habits.

  14. NZ28-induced inhibition of HSF1, SP1 and NF-κB triggers the loss of the natural killer cell-activating ligands MICA/B on human tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Daniela; Kühnel, Annett; Tetzlaff, Fabian; Konrad, Sarah; Multhoff, Gabriele

    2015-05-01

    The activity of natural killer (NK) cells is regulated by activating and inhibiting receptors, whereby the C-type lectin natural killer group 2D (NKG2D) receptor serves as the major activating receptor on NK cells which recognizes major histocompatibility class I chain-related proteins A and B (MICA/B). The MICA/B expression has been described to be regulated by the transcription factor heat shock factor 1 (HSF1). Inhibition of heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is known to induce the heat shock response via activation of HSF1 which is associated with tumor development, metastasis and therapy resistance and also with an increased susceptibility to NK cell-mediated lysis. Therefore, we compared the effects of Hsp90 inhibitor NVP-AUY922, HSF1 inhibitor NZ28 and HSF1 knockdown on the sensitivity of lung (H1339) and breast (MDA-MB-231, T47D) cancer cells to NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity and the expression of the NKG2D ligands MICA/B. Although NVP-AUY922 activates HSF1, neither the MICA/B surface density on tumor cells nor their susceptibility to NK cell-mediated lysis was affected. A single knockdown of HSF1 by shRNA decreased the surface expression of MICB but not that of MICA, and thereby, the NK cell-mediated lysis was only partially blocked. In contrast, NZ28 completely blocked the MICA/B membrane expression on tumor cells and thereby strongly inhibited the NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity. This effect might be explained by a simultaneous inhibition of the transcription factors HSF1, Sp1 and NF-κB by NZ28. These findings suggest that new anticancer therapeutics should be investigated with respect to their effects on the innate immune system.

  15. Emerging directions in the study of the ecology and evolution of plant-animal mutualistic networks: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Gu, Hao; Goodale, Eben; Chen, Jin

    2015-01-01

    The study of mutualistic plant and animal networks is an emerging field of ecological research. We reviewed progress in this field over the past 30 years. While earlier studies mostly focused on network structure, stability, and biodiversity maintenance, recent studies have investigated the conservation implications of mutualistic networks, specifically the influence of invasive species and how networks respond to habitat loss. Current research has also focused on evolutionary questions inclu...

  16. Dynamic Analysis of Coupling Relationship between Economic Development and Ecological Environment Based on Entropy Method——A Case Study of Xi an City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to study the coupling relationship between economic development and ecological environment. [Method] Firstly, the evaluation index system for the coupling system of economic development and ecological environment in Xi'an City was established, then the dynamic variation of coupling relationship between economic development and ecological environment in Xi'an City from 2001 to 2010 was analyzed by using entropy method, finally some corresponding suggestions were put forward according ...

  17. Germination ecology in orchids

    OpenAIRE

    TĚŠITELOVÁ, Tamara

    2009-01-01

    Germination ecology of four Epipactis species (E. albensis, E. atrorubens, E. helleborine, E. purpurata) was studied. Habitat preferences of adult plants were analyzed using phytosociological relevés from the Czech Phytosociological Database. A field experiment was carried out to determine course of germination of Epipactis seeds sown in different habitat types. Relationship between ecological preferences and germination ecology, and spatial aspects of seed dispersal and seedling recruitment ...

  18. A 12-year ecological study of hip fracture rates among older Taiwanese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ding-Cheng; Lee, Yow-Shan; Wu, Ya-Ju; Tsou, Hsiao-Hui; Chen, Cheng-Ting; Hwang, Jawl-Shan; Tsai, Keh-Sung; Yang, Rong-Sen

    2013-11-01

    Hip fracture rates in Taiwan are among the highest in the world. The aim of this study was to describe the trends of hip fracture hospitalizations among Taiwanese elderly (aged ≥ 65 years) and the trends of antiosteoporosis medication expenditure from 1999 to 2010. We conducted an ecological study using inpatient health care-utilization data from the Department of Health, and medication expenditure data from the IMS Health, Taiwan. The International Classification of Disease, Clinical Modification, 9th version, code 820 was used to identify hip fracture hospitalizations. Medications included alendronate, calcitonin, ibandronate, raloxifene, strontium ranelate, teriparatide, and zoledronic acid. Year 2010 was assigned as the reference point for age-standardized rates, currency exchange (to the US dollar), and discount rates. Over the 12-year study period, age-standardized hip fracture hospitalizations decreased by 2.7 % annually (p for trend < 0.001) for Taiwanese elders. The decline was more obvious among those aged ≥75 years (6.1 %). However, the number of hip fracture hospitalizations increased from 14,342 to 18,023. Total hospitalization costs increased by US$0.6 ± 0.2 million annually (p for trend = 0.002); however, the per capita costs decreased by US$23.0 ± 8.0 (p for trend = 0.017). The total medication expenditure increased 7.2-fold, from US$8.1 million to US$58.9 million, accounting for an increase in the overall pharmaceutical market by fivefold, from 3.4 to 15.9 ‰ (both p for trend < 0.001). From 1999 to 2010, there was a decline in hip fracture rates among elderly Taiwanese adults with a concomitant increase in antiosteoporosis medication expenditure.

  19. Modeling naturalistic craving, withdrawal, and affect during early nicotine abstinence: A pilot ecological momentary assessment study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujarski, Spencer; Roche, Daniel J O; Sheets, Erin S; Krull, Jennifer L; Guzman, Iris; Ray, Lara A

    2015-04-01

    Despite the critical role of withdrawal, craving, and positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA) in smoking relapse, relatively little is known about the temporal and predictive relationship between these constructs within the first day of abstinence. This pilot study aims to characterize dynamic changes in withdrawal, craving, and affect over the course of early abstinence using ecological momentary assessment. Beginning immediately after smoking, moderate and heavy smoking participants (n = 15 per group) responded to hourly surveys assessing craving, withdrawal, NA, and PA. Univariate and multivariate multilevel random coefficient modeling was used to describe the progression of craving, withdrawal/NA, and PA and to test correlations between these constructs at the subject level over the course of early abstinence. Heavy smokers reported greater craving from 1-4 hr of abstinence and greater withdrawal/NA after 3 or more hours as compared with moderate smokers. Level of withdrawal/NA was strongly positively associated with craving, and PA was negatively correlated with craving; however, the temporal dynamics of these correlations differed substantially. The association between withdrawal/NA and craving decreased over early abstinence, whereas the reverse was observed for PA. These findings can inform experimental studies of nicotine abstinence as well as their clinical applications to smoking cessation efforts. In particular, these results help to elucidate the role of PA in nicotine abstinence by demonstrating its independent association with nicotine craving over and above withdrawal/NA. If supported by future studies, these findings can refine experimental methods and clinical approaches for smoking cessation.

  20. Environmental Air Pollution and Acute Cerebrovascular Complications: An Ecologic Study in Tehran, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabavi, Seyed Massood; Jafari, Batoul; Jalali, Mozhgan Sadat; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Ashrafi, Khosro; Salahesh, Alireza

    2012-01-01

    Background: In this study, we aimed to assess the association between air pollution and cerebrovascular complications in Tehran, one of the most air-polluted cities in the world, among different subgroups of patients with stroke in 2004. Methods: In this ecologic study, we calculated the daily average levels of different air pollutants including CO, NOX, SO2, O3, and PM10 and also humidity and temperature on the day of stroke and 48 hours prior to stroke in 1 491 patients admitted with the diagnosis of stroke in eight referral hospitals in different areas of Tehran. Then, we evaluated the association between the rate of stroke admissions and the level of the selected pollutants, humidity, and temperature on the day of stroke and 48 hours prior to stroke among different subgroups of patients. Results: There was no significant association between the same-day level of the pollutants and the rate of stroke admissions, but an association was seen for their level 48 hours before stroke. These associations differed among different subgroups of age, sex, history of underlying diseases, and type of stroke. Same-day temperature had a reverse association in patients with hemorrhagic stroke and in patients without a history of heart disease or previous stroke. A direct significant association was seen for humidity level 48 hours before stroke in patients with a history of heart disease. Conclusions: It is inferred that air pollution has a direct association with the incidence of stroke and these association differs among different subgroups of patients. The results of this study are not time-dependant and can be generalized to different times and regions. Moreover, these results may be useful for environmental health policy makers. PMID:23112900

  1. Study on Intercepting Method for Nitrogen and Phosphorus in Ecological Ditches and Pond

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO; Jian-ting; DING; Hong-ming; XU; Jie

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The research aimed to reduce emission load of the farmland runoff by using ecological ditches and pond. [Method] N and P intercepting project construction of the ecological ditches and pond in Zhaiji Village, Xiangcheng District, Suzhou City as research object, by repairing 1 834 m3 of original drainage ditches, newly excavating 6 800 m2 of ecological main ditches and 6 000 m2 of artificial purification ecological pond, etc., runoff emission load in real control area of the project was counted. [Result] Annual net loads of the runoff emission for TN and TP were respectively 2 552.22 and 95.00 kg in 33.3 hm2 of farmland. Annual runoff intercepting loads of TN and TP were respectively 1 225.07 and 50.35 kg in ditches. Annual runoff intercepting loads of TN and TP were respectively 1 327.15 and 44.65 kg in ecological pond. In effluent, TN concentration was 6.32 mg/L and was smaller than 15 mg/L. TP concentration was 0.25 mg/L and was smaller than 0.5 mg/L. They both reached level-one A discharge standard. [Conclusion] The research provided theoretical basis for effective control of the agricultural non-point source pollution in Taihu Lake basin.

  2. Towards the use of Structural Loop Analysis to Study System Behaviour of Socio-Ecological Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abram, Joseph; Dyke, James

    2016-04-01

    Maintaining socio-ecological systems in desirable states is key to developing a growing economy, alleviating poverty and achieving a sustainable future. While the driving forces of an environmental system are often well known, the dynamics impacting these drivers can be hidden within a tangled structure of causal chains and feedback loops. A lack of understanding of a system's dynamic structure and its influence on a system's behaviour can cause unforeseen side-effects during model scenario testing and policy implementation. Structural Loop analysis of socio-ecological system models identifies dominant feedback structures during times of behavioural shift, allowing the user to monitor key influential drivers during model simulation. This work carries out Loop Eigenvalue Elasticity Analysis (LEEA) on three system dynamic models, exploring tipping points in lake systems undergoing eutrophication. The purpose is to explore the potential benefits and limitations of the technique in the field of socio-ecology. The LEEA technique shows promise for socio-ecological systems which undergo regime shifts or express oscillatory trends, but shows limited usefulness with large models. The results of this work highlight changes in feedback loop dominance, years prior to eutrophic tipping events in lake systems. LEEA could be used as an early warning signal to impending system changes, complementary to other known early warning signals. This approach could improve our understanding during critical times of a system's behaviour, changing how we approach model analysis and the way scenario testing and policy implementation are addressed in socio-ecological system models.

  3. Island Ecology in Bermuda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulff, Barry L.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Reports on an island ecology course offered by Eastern Connecticut State College providing opportunities for students to study the ecology and natural history of organisms found in a variety of subtropical habitats in Bermuda. Explains student selection criteria, trip preparation, evaluation criteria, daily programs, and habitats studied on the…

  4. Fecal nitrogen concentration as a nutritional quality indicator for European rabbit ecological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Jiménez, Esperanza; Villamuelas, Miriam; Serrano, Emmanuel; Delibes, Miguel; Fernández, Néstor

    2015-01-01

    Measuring the quality of the nutritional resources available to wild herbivores is critical to understanding trophic regulation processes. However, the direct assessment of dietary nutritional characteristics is usually difficult, which hampers monitoring nutritional constraints in natural populations. The feeding ecology of ruminant herbivores has been often assessed by analyzing fecal nitrogen (FN) concentrations, although this method has been less evaluated in other taxa. This study analyzed the suitability of FN as an indicator of ingesta quality in the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus), which is a keystone lagomorph species in Mediterranean ecosystems and of great conservation interest. Firstly, domestic O. cuniculus were used to evaluate under experimental conditions the accuracy of total FN and the metabolic FN as diet quality indicators of forages with characteristics similar to those available under natural conditions. Secondly, the accuracy of Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) to calculate FN was tested using partial least squares regression. Thirdly, a pilot field study was conducted to monitor FN dynamics from wild O. cuniculus in three different habitats during wet and drought periods. A strong association was found between diet type and total FN and metabolic FN (Pseudo-R(2) ≥ 0.89). It was also found that NIRS calibrations were accurate for depicting nitrogen concentrations (R(2) > 0.98 between NIRS and chemical results). Finally, the seasonal FN dynamics measured in the field were consistent with current knowledge on vegetation dynamics and forage limitations in the three habitats. The results support the use of NIRS methods and FN indices as a reliable and affordable approach to monitoring the nutritional quality of rabbit habitats. Potential applications include the assessment of the mechanistic relationships between resource limitations and population abundance, e.g., in relation to natural drought cycles and to habitat interventions

  5. Fecal nitrogen concentration as a nutritional quality indicator for European rabbit ecological studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esperanza Gil-Jiménez

    Full Text Available Measuring the quality of the nutritional resources available to wild herbivores is critical to understanding trophic regulation processes. However, the direct assessment of dietary nutritional characteristics is usually difficult, which hampers monitoring nutritional constraints in natural populations. The feeding ecology of ruminant herbivores has been often assessed by analyzing fecal nitrogen (FN concentrations, although this method has been less evaluated in other taxa. This study analyzed the suitability of FN as an indicator of ingesta quality in the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus, which is a keystone lagomorph species in Mediterranean ecosystems and of great conservation interest. Firstly, domestic O. cuniculus were used to evaluate under experimental conditions the accuracy of total FN and the metabolic FN as diet quality indicators of forages with characteristics similar to those available under natural conditions. Secondly, the accuracy of Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS to calculate FN was tested using partial least squares regression. Thirdly, a pilot field study was conducted to monitor FN dynamics from wild O. cuniculus in three different habitats during wet and drought periods. A strong association was found between diet type and total FN and metabolic FN (Pseudo-R(2 ≥ 0.89. It was also found that NIRS calibrations were accurate for depicting nitrogen concentrations (R(2 > 0.98 between NIRS and chemical results. Finally, the seasonal FN dynamics measured in the field were consistent with current knowledge on vegetation dynamics and forage limitations in the three habitats. The results support the use of NIRS methods and FN indices as a reliable and affordable approach to monitoring the nutritional quality of rabbit habitats. Potential applications include the assessment of the mechanistic relationships between resource limitations and population abundance, e.g., in relation to natural drought cycles and to habitat

  6. Radio-ecological study of the Lodeve mining complex (France) 1981-1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radio-ecological study of the Lodeve mining complex (mine + uranium process plant) was carried out between 1981 and 1985. Four aquatic compartments -water, sediments, vegetals, fish- were studied in eight stations selected on the basis of the existence of two liquid wastes. The measurements essentially concerned radium 226 and uranium 238 but also lead 210 (1985), thorium 232, potassium 40 and cesium 137. Spectrometry γ Ge-Li, emanometry and fluorimetry were used. Only a small brook -Rivernoux- an affluent of the Lergue river, shows radium and uranium activity levels higher than those measured upstream of the site; and this for the four compartments. In water, radium is associated with the solved cationic fraction (66%) and with materials in suspension (21%), whereas uranium is essentially associated with the solved anionic fraction (84%); the radium migration potentialities are therefore lesser than that of uranium. Radium distribution in fish is as follows: flesh (5 to 15%), skeleton (12%), viscera (30%) and skin + fins (30%). Radium concentration (or exchange) factors are always higher than those corresponding to uranium. In general, they are more important in non-influenced zones than in influenced zones (Rivernoux); this implies that radium and uranium evacuated by the mining complex are, at least partly, in non bio-available forms. For water/fish exchange a concentration factor of 100 will be considered for radium. On the basis of this value a weekly consumption of 200 g of fried gudgeon gives an annual committed dose equivalent corresponding to 0.86% of the dose authorized for the public (5.10-3 Sv.an-1)

  7. Study of technical and financial pre-feasibility to produce a natural shampoo and ecological

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of technical and financial pre-feasibility was described for producing natural shampoo, ecological and to determine attributes desired by people in that shampoo. A survey was performed to study which characteristics have improved the hair condition; and from the results a model was developed with which is backing the formulation of the shampoo. The proposed shampoo has had as functionality provide hair shine, moisturize, reconstruct, provide protection and has reduced the static (is anti-frizz) because has used biodegradable and friendly raw materials to the environment. The color is light green and its aroma-herbal will have a white container with green lid and will be marketed in 500mL presentation. The production process is done in six steps: reception, storage and dosing of raw materials, preparation of the surfactant and liquid phase of shampoo (addition of active natural preservatives, dyes and fragrances), preparation of the stabilizing phase, mixed, pH regulation and quality control, packaging and storage. A semi-continuous production system was suggested to be more economical, flexible and easy to sterilize. The equipments used in the process are: a stirred tank of 205L, a stirred tank of 500L and a Semiautomatic packaging each built in stainless steel with sanitary finish by the company TECNOFAR. The tanks were designed in compliance with the typical dimensions of these teams and were sized in order to supply the first 5 years of production. A publicity campaign and marketing is recommended to fulfill sales target and execute the project of a plant to produce shampoo and natural cosmetics

  8. The Evolving Ecological Universe: a Study in the Science and Human Implications of a New World Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goerner, Sally Jo.

    1992-01-01

    This study describes a broad cultural shift and a parallel scientific shift. Scientifically and culturally, Western civilization is moving toward a vision of a living, evolving, ecological universe and away from the Newtonian clockwork-machine universe. In Stephen Pepper's (1946) terms, the shift represents a change in dominant world hypothesis--that is, the dominant metaphor of how the world works. The bulk of the dissertation is a detailed exploration of the scientific shift because science's understanding of how the world works profoundly shapes beliefs in general. The exploration shows how a number of minirevolutions in physics and biology are related and how each supports an evolving ecological vision. The work in these different fields combines to produce a particularly important change in understanding--a vision of evolution as a single overall physical process from molecules to humankind. Ecological science (physics to biology) and the new view of evolution become possible because of a major conceptual shift in physics, the nonlinear revolution. The nonlinear revolution includes three major elements: chaos (modern nonlinear dynamics); self-organization theory (far -from-equilibrium thermodynamics); and the thermodynamics of evolution. Together these elements produce a physical understanding of an evolving, order-producing, universe --that is, a universe that evolves toward higher and higher levels of ordered complexity through interactive ecological dynamics. This very different physical picture of how the world works has important implications for human beliefs in general. A final section of the study explores the ecological shift's implications for humankind. It looks at ecological changes occurring outside the physical sciences (for example, in economics) and at how the radically changed physical sense of how the world works might affect other beliefs. For instance, the new physical view shows a remarkable ability to support and connect many

  9. No effect of unemployment on intimate partner-related femicide during the financial crisis : a longitudinal ecological study in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Torrubiano-Domínguez, J.; Vives-Cases, C; San-Sebastián, Miguel; Sanz-Barbero, B; Goicolea, Isabel; C. Álvarez-Dardet

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Spain's financial crisis has been characterized by an increase in unemployment. This increase could have produced an increase in deaths of women due to intimate partner-related femicides (IPF). This study aims to determine whether the increase in unemployment among both sexes in different regions in Spain is related to an increase in the rates of IPF during the current financial crisis period. METHODS: An ecological longitudinal study was carried out in Spain's 17 regions. Two stu...

  10. Causes of visual impairment and blindness in children in three ecological regions of Nepal: Nepal Pediatric Ocular Diseases Study

    OpenAIRE

    Adhikari S; Shrestha MK; Adhikari K; Maharjan N; Shrestha UD

    2015-01-01

    Srijana Adhikari,1 Mohan K Shrestha,1 Kamala Adhikari,2 Nhukesh Maharjan,1 Ujjowala D Shrestha1 1Pediatric Ophthalmology unit, Tilganaga Institute of Ophthalmology, Gaushala, Kathmandu, Nepal; 2Private consultant, Kathmandu, Nepal Purpose: To study the causes of blindness and visual impairment in children in three ecologically diverse regions of Nepal.Materials and methods: This is a baseline survey report of a 3-year longitudinal population-based study. One district each from the three eco...

  11. "Don't get sick at sea": An Ecological Study of the Fishermen of Pulau Tuba, Langkawi, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Berger, Morten Mack

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Berger, Morten M. (2015). "Don't get sick at sea": An Ecological Study of the Fishermen of Pulau Tuba, Langkawi, Malaysia. Master's thesis in Social Anthropology. Department of Anthropology, University of Oslo. This study is a project based on a fieldwork of 6-months duration at the island of Pulau Tuba in the Langkawi archipelago outside the north-western coast of Malaysia. I've been using anthropological research methods like participant observation and informal interviews for data...

  12. Women and environment. A socio-ecological study for women on the reformation of the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study addresses the following issues: contributions to improve our environment; the impact of pollutants on our health; the pollution of food and water; water quality regulations. Protection of the environment is defined as the sum total of measures that safeguard woman's natural environment and maintain a biological equilibrium. The efficiency of technological solutions to protect the environment is strictly limited by ecological factors. The goal of environmental protection is to ensure the survival of womankind. Just like plants and animals, the human race is part of an ecosystem. Once this system is destroyed, there is nothing technical measures of environmental protection can do to reverse the process. Life on earth depends on the equilibrium between the oxygen produced by chlorophyllous plants and the oxygen consumed by human beings, animals and technological processes. My interviews with young women and children show that women could contribute very much to the melioration of the environment. The majority of women is trying to switch to non-chemically engineered products, which improves the quality of our water. Biological gardening is preferred by a small minority of women only, but many women take the separation of waste very seriously. However, individual actions can do little to solve the problem of pollution caused by road and air traffic. Life in the fast lane condemns us to the use of cars and airplanes. In the foreseeable future, this means more rather than less pollution. With genetic engineering developing at a breathtaking rate, it seems impossible to avoid a large-scale modification of our food and agricultural produce. So far, many Austrian women fail to appreciate the trend towards genetic manipulation. Neither on the farm nor in the food products themselves is it possible to distinguish genetically engineered innovations. However, behind the consumer's back, this revolution of the food industry is pushed through at an ever greater speed

  13. [Application of land economic ecological niche in landscape pattern analysis at county level: A case study of Jinghe County in Xinjiang, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hai-yang; Zhang, Fei; Wang, Juan; Zhou, Mei

    2015-12-01

    The theory of land economic ecological niche was used to analyze the regional landscape pattern in this article, with an aim to provide a new method for the characterization and representation of landscape pattern. The Jinghe County region, which is ecologically fragile, was selected as an example for the study, and the Landsat images of 1990, 1998, 2011 and 2013 were selected as remote sensing data. The land economic ecological niche of land use types calculated by ecostate-ecorole theory, combined with landscape ecology theory, was discussed in application of land economic ecological niche in county landscape pattern analysis. The results showed that, during the study period, the correlations between land economic ecological niche of farmland, construction land, and grassland with the parameters, including landscape patch number (NP), aggregated index (AI), fragmented index (FN) and fractal dimension (FD), were significant. Regional landscape was driven by the changes of land economic ecological niche, and the trend of economic development could be represented by land economic ecological niche change in Jinghe County. Land economic ecological niche was closely related with the land use types which could yield direct economic benefits, which could well explain the landscape pattern characteristics in Jinghe County when combined with the landscape indices.

  14. Indoor radon exposure and lung cancer: a review of ecological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Ji Young; Lee, Jung-Dong; Joo, So Won; Kang, Dae Ryong

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer has high mortality and incidence rates. The leading causes of lung cancer are smoking and radon exposure. Indeed, the World Health Organization (WHO) has categorized radon as a carcinogenic substance causing lung cancer. Radon is a natural, radioactive substance; it is an inert gas that mainly exists in soil or rock. The gas decays into radioactive particles called radon progeny that can enter the human body through breathing. Upon entering the body, these radioactive elements release α-rays that affect lung tissue, causing lung cancer upon long-term exposure thereto. Epidemiological studies first outlined a high correlation between the incidence rate of lung cancer and exposure to radon progeny among miners in Europe. Thereafter, data and research on radon exposure and lung cancer incidence in homes have continued to accumulate. Many international studies have reported increases in the risk ratio of lung cancer when indoor radon concentrations inside the home are high. Although research into indoor radon concentrations and lung cancer incidence is actively conducted throughout North America and Europe, similar research is lacking in Korea. Recently, however, studies have begun to accumulate and report important data on indoor radon concentrations across the nation. In this study, we aimed to review domestic and foreign research into indoor radon concentrations and to outline correlations between indoor radon concentrations in homes and lung cancer incidence, as reported in ecological studies thereof. Herein, we noted large differences in radon concentrations between and within individual countries. For Korea, we observed tremendous differences in indoor radon concentrations according to region and year of study, even within the same region. In correlation analysis, lung cancer incidence was not found to be higher in areas with high indoor radon concentrations in Korea. Through our review, we identified a need to implement a greater variety of

  15. Metabolic ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, Murray M; McCann, Kevin S

    2014-01-01

    Ecological theory that is grounded in metabolic currencies and constraints offers the potential to link ecological outcomes to biophysical processes across multiple scales of organization. The metabolic theory of ecology (MTE) has emphasized the potential for metabolism to serve as a unified theory of ecology, while focusing primarily on the size and temperature dependence of whole-organism metabolic rates. Generalizing metabolic ecology requires extending beyond prediction and application of standardized metabolic rates to theory focused on how energy moves through ecological systems. A bibliometric and network analysis of recent metabolic ecology literature reveals a research network characterized by major clusters focused on MTE, foraging theory, bioenergetics, trophic status, and generalized patterns and predictions. This generalized research network, which we refer to as metabolic ecology, can be considered to include the scaling, temperature and stoichiometric models forming the core of MTE, as well as bioenergetic equations, foraging theory, life-history allocation models, consumer-resource equations, food web theory and energy-based macroecology models that are frequently employed in ecological literature. We conclude with six points we believe to be important to the advancement and integration of metabolic ecology, including nomination of a second fundamental equation, complementary to the first fundamental equation offered by the MTE. PMID:24028511

  16. Prodromal functioning of migraine patients relative to their interictal state--an ecological momentary assessment study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houtveen, Jan H; Sorbi, Marjolijn J

    2013-01-01

    Smartphones were used in an online Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) design to test prodromal functioning relative to the interictal state in migraine patients. Eighty-seven participants completed an electronic diary 4 times daily during 3-6 weeks to monitor their migraine attacks. Twice daily the diary additionally included 16 multi-answer questions covering physical symptoms (30 items), cognitive-affective functioning (25 items) and external factors (25 items). Eight clustered prodromal features were identified in the current study: sensory sensitivity, pain/stiffness, fatigue, cognitive functioning, positive affect, negative affect, effort spent and stressors encountered. Per feature, individual change scores with interictal control days--excluding 24-hour post-attack recovery--were computed for six 12-hour pre-attack time windows covering three prodromal days. Linear mixed model (fixed-effect) analysis established significant increases in sensory sensitivity, pain/stiffness and fatigue, and a tendency for increased negative affect, in the 12 hours prior to the attack. Positive affect and cognitive functioning were impaired both in the 25-36 hour and--more strongly--in the 12-hour time window before the attack. No effects were found for effort spent and stressors encountered. Exploratory (random effect) analysis revealed significant individual differences in the change scores in sensory sensitivity, pain/stiffness, fatigue and negative affect. It is concluded that the prodromal change in migraine--relative to interictal functioning--predominantly exists within the last 12 hours before attack onset. Individual diversity is large, however. Future research should zoom in to identify prodrome development within the 12 pre-attack hours as well as to isolate individual patterns. PMID:23977358

  17. Factors associated with maternal mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa: an ecological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernández Valentín

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal health is one of the major worldwide health challenges. Currently, the unacceptably high levels of maternal mortality are a common subject in global health and development discussions. Although some countries have made remarkable progress, half of the maternal deaths in the world still take place in Sub-Saharan Africa where little or no progress has been made. There is no single simple, straightforward intervention that will significantly decrease maternal mortality alone; however, there is a consensus on the importance of a strong health system, skilled delivery attendants, and women's rights for maternal health. Our objective was to describe and determine different factors associated with the maternal mortality ratio in Sub-Saharan countries. Methods An ecological multi-group study compared variables between many countries in Sub-Saharan Africa using data collected between 1997 and 2006. The dependent variable was the maternal mortality ratio, and Health care system-related, educational and economic indicators were the independent variables. Information sources included the WHO, World Bank, UNICEF and UNDP. Results Maternal mortality ratio values in Sub-Saharan Africa were demonstrated to be high and vary enormously among countries. A relationship between the maternal mortality ratio and some educational, sanitary and economic factors was observed. There was an inverse and significant correlation of the maternal mortality ratio with prenatal care coverage, births assisted by skilled health personnel, access to an improved water source, adult literacy rate, primary female enrolment rate, education index, the Gross National Income per capita and the per-capita government expenditure on health. Conclusions Education and an effective and efficient health system, especially during pregnancy and delivery, are strongly related to maternal death. Also, macro-economic factors are related and could be influencing the others.

  18. Collective trauma in northern Sri Lanka: a qualitative psychosocial-ecological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somasundaram Daya

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complex situations that follow war and natural disasters have a psychosocial impact on not only the individual but also on the family, community and society. Just as the mental health effects on the individual psyche can result in non pathological distress as well as a variety of psychiatric disorders; massive and widespread trauma and loss can impact on family and social processes causing changes at the family, community and societal levels. Method This qualitative, ecological study is a naturalistic, psychosocial ethnography in Northern Sri Lanka, while actively involved in psychosocial and community mental health programmes among the Tamil community. Participatory observation, key informant interviews and focus group discussion with community level relief and rehabilitation workers and government and non-governmental officials were used to gather data. The effects on the community of the chronic, man-made disaster, war, in Northern Sri Lanka were compared with the contexts found before the war and after the tsunami. Results Fundamental changes in the functioning of the family and the community were observed. While the changes after the tsunami were not so prominent, the chronic war situation caused more fundamental social transformations. At the family level, the dynamics of single parent families, lack of trust among members, and changes in significant relationships, and child rearing practices were seen. Communities tended to be more dependent, passive, silent, without leadership, mistrustful, and suspicious. Additional adverse effects included the breakdown in traditional structures, institutions and familiar ways of life, and deterioration in social norms and ethics. A variety of community level interventions were tried. Conclusion Exposure to conflict, war and disaster situations impact on fundamental family and community dynamics resulting in changes at a collective level. Relief, rehabilitation and development

  19. Participatory scenario planning in place-based social-ecological research: insights and experiences from 23 case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Oteros-Rozas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Participatory scenario planning (PSP is an increasingly popular tool in place-based environmental research for evaluating alternative futures of social-ecological systems. Although a range of guidelines on PSP methods are available in the scientific and grey literature, there is a need to reflect on existing practices and their appropriate application for different objectives and contexts at the local scale, as well as on their potential perceived outcomes. We contribute to theoretical and empirical frameworks by analyzing how and why researchers assess social-ecological systems using place-based PSP, hence facilitating the appropriate uptake of such scenario tools in the future. We analyzed 23 PSP case studies conducted by the authors in a wide range of social-ecological settings by exploring seven aspects: (1 the context; (2 the original motivations and objectives; (3 the methodological approach; (4 the process; (5 the content of the scenarios; (6 the outputs of the research; and (7 the monitoring and evaluation of the PSP process. This was complemented by a reflection on strengths and weaknesses of using PSP for the place-based social-ecological research. We conclude that the application of PSP, particularly when tailored to shared objectives between local people and researchers, has enriched environmental management and scientific research through building common understanding and fostering learning about future planning of social-ecological systems. However, PSP still requires greater systematic monitoring and evaluation to assess its impact on the promotion of collective action for transitions to sustainability and the adaptation to global environmental change and its challenges.

  20. Study on ecological impact evaluation for land consolidation based on cloud model: a case study of Miaotan town

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yao-lin; Fan, Min; Yang, Xiao-yu; Liu, Hui

    2008-10-01

    Combining the basic theory of cloud model and the process of ecological impact evaluation for land consolidation, the author constructs the rule of ecological impact evaluation and the cloud models of the antecedent and the consequent, by translating the uncertain factor conditions into quantitative values with the uncertain illation based on cloud model, computes the evaluation factor scores and comprehensive scores of MiaoTan, and then, comparing the results with composite index computation method and fuzzy comprehensive assessment, a feasible method used in Ecological Impact Evaluation for Land Consolidation is proposed.

  1. Urban Environmental Education: Leveraging Technology and Ecology to Engage Students in Studying the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Michael; Vaughn, Meredith Houle; Strauss, Eric; Cotter, Lindsey

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the outcomes of the first year of an intensive, urban ecology focused, summer program for urban high school youth. Students in our program conduct scientific investigations of their urban ecosystems while exploring potential career options in science and technology fields. In conducting their investigations, the students…

  2. Using the Urban Environment to Engage Youths in Urban Ecology Field Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Michael; Lord, Charles; Strauss, Eric; Rosca, Camelia; Langford, Heather; Chavez, Dawn; Deni, Leah

    2006-01-01

    Recent science education reform proponents explicitly put forward the idea that all students, regardless of culture, gender, race, or socioeconomic status, are capable of understanding and doing science. To address this need, the authors have developed and implemented a field-based urban ecology science program to engage traditionally…

  3. Spatial variation in lake benthic macroinvertebrate ecological assessment: a synthesis of European case studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandin, Leif Leonard; Solimini, Angelo G.

    2012-01-01

    Baltic, Atlantic, and Mediterranean). The goal of the papers was to assess the main environmental factors and how they affected benthic macroinvertebrate variation at different ecological scales and thus better our basic understanding of how changes in these environmental variables can be tracked using...

  4. Agronomic and ecological studies on potato production in Southwest China. Seed and crop management.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, W.

    1997-01-01

    Potato is an important crop in sub-tropical Southwest China, where it is double-cropped in diverse ecological systems. Yields are higher at higher elevation. Spring crops show higher yields but lower light use efficiencies than autumn crops, especially at higher altitudes. The gaps between the actua

  5. Estimated Forest Ecological Water Requirements in the Jinghe Watershed-Theory and Case Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Yongtao; Min Qingwen; Li Wenhua; Li Guicai; Jin Liwei

    2006-01-01

    The ecological water requirement of forests is defined as the water resources used to maintain and improve the natural balance of forest ecosystems,which can be expressed by evapotranspiration of trees during the growing season.The relationship of evapotranspiration and soil moisture of forestland with tree growth showed that,if the soil moisture was above the temporary wilting point or the point of growth retardation,the growth of trees can,respectively,be basically or normally sustained.Therefore,they can be taken as the minimum and the suitable ecological water requirements of the forest.These points can be estimated by introducing the soil factor (Ks) and tree species factor (Kt) to potential evapotranspiration with the Penman formula.With geographic information system (GIS),the ecological water requirement for forests in the Jinghe watershed,western China was estimated.The results revealed that the minimum and suitable ecological water requirements of the forests in the Jinghe watershed were approximately 204×107 and 340×107 m,respectively.

  6. Tolerance of suicide, religion and suicide rates : an ecological and individual study in 19 Western countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neeleman, J; Halpern, D; Leon, D; Lewis, G

    1997-01-01

    Background. Negative associations between religion and suicide, in individuals and countries, may be mediated by the degree to which suicide is tolerated. Methods. Linear regression was used to examine ecological associations between suicide tolerance, religion and suicide rates in 19 Western countr

  7. Formalizing agro-ecological knowledge for future-oriented land use studies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hengsdijk, H.

    2001-01-01

    Keywords : agro-ecological engineering, land use system, modeling, uncertainty, temporal variability, Costa Rica, West Africa.Identification and ex-ante assessment of alternative land use systems is increasingly important to

  8. Case Study Sanwich Terns - a probabilistic analysis of the ecological effects of dreding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruchten, van Y.; Hammen, van der T.

    2011-01-01

    Every year, large amounts of sand are extracted from the North Sea to meet the demands for construction activities. Potential ecological effects of these sand mining activities have to be examined and reported in so called Environmental Impact Assessments (EIA’s). In the Netherlands, the potential i

  9. ECOLOGICAL SECURITY EVALUATION OF SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT IN KARST MOUNTAINOUS AREA--A Case Study of Du'an Yao Autonomous County in Guangxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAO Chi-mei; LI Lan; YAN Zhi-qiang; HU Bao-qing

    2004-01-01

    Ecological security is the main task and applied field of present geography, resources and environment sciences and ecology. Ecological security evaluation will efficiently promote ecological security and environmental construction in regional land use. In this thesis, the authors put forward the index system of ecological security evaluation in karst mountainous area on three aspects, the pressure of resources and eco-environment, the quality of resources and eco-environment, and the ability of environmental protection and ecological improvement. Using the evaluation method with single index, based on the case study ofDu'an Yao Autonomous County of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, the system of synthetic regionalization of ecological agricultural economy was formed, which includes three regions, south region with basic security and synthetic agricultural development, east region with critical security and agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry balanced development, mid-west and south region with ecological insecurity and compounded agriculture and forestry management. Meanwhile, for these regions, the countermeasures of sustainable agricultural development were pointed out, which provide the basis and example for ecological regulation and control of sustainable agricultural development in counties ofkarst mountainous area.

  10. Complex adaptive systems ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommerlund, Julie

    2003-01-01

    In the following, I will analyze two articles called Complex Adaptive Systems EcologyI & II (Molin & Molin, 1997 & 2000). The CASE-articles are some of the more quirkyarticles that have come out of the Molecular Microbial Ecology Group - a groupwhere I am currently making observational studies...

  11. A field study of the socio-ecology of the Goeldi's monkey (Callimico goeldii) in northern Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pook, A G; Pook, G

    1981-01-01

    A 5-month field study on both the distribution and ecology of Callimico goeldii was carried out in the seasonally dry rain forest of north-western Bolivia. The species was found to be very sparsely distributed (approximately one group per 4 km2) in isolated groups of about 6 animals throughout the study area. Callimico was found to associate a great deal with two species of Saguinus that inhabit the same region in greater densities. It appears to be a habitat specialist, preferring low-lying and damp, but well-drained, bamboo forest and spending nearly all its time within 3 m of ground level, travelling mainly by vertical clinging and leaping. We believe that this ecological specialisation accounts for the species' discontinuous micro-distribution, and that this in turn is related to Callimico's distinctive pattern of social organisation. PMID:6792016

  12. Association between payments from manufacturers of pharmaceuticals to physicians and regional prescribing: cross sectional ecological study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Shantanu; King, Marissa; Venkatesh, Arjun K; Krumholz, Harlan M; McKee, Douglas; Brown, Douglas; Ross, Joseph S

    2016-01-01

    , or educational materials. As a cross sectional, ecological study, we cannot prove causation between payments to physicians and increased prescribing. Furthermore, our findings should be interpreted only at the regional level. Our study is limited to prescribing by physicians and the two drug classes studied. PMID:27540015

  13. Ecological engineering to control bioclogging: an original field study coupling infiltration and biological measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gette-bouvarot, Morgane; Mermillod-Blondin, Florian; Lassabatere, Laurent; Lemoine, Damien; Delolme, Cécile; Volatier, Laurence

    2014-05-01

    biomass, bacterial abundances, microbial enzymatic activities, EPS composition, and photosynthetic efficiency) with in situ hydraulic conductivity measurements (falling head method, five measures per enclosure at t0 and tf). Our results showed that some treatments could regulate benthic biofilm growth and improve infiltration rate. For instance, V. viviparus treatment resulted in a decrease in chlorophyll-a, EPS sugar and protein contents and an associated increase of infiltration rate, while it decreased in the control treatment. These results are very promising for the future development of ecological engineering solutions to prevent biological clogging in systems dedicated to infiltration. To our knowledge, this study is the first to highlight such potential role of macro-organisms under field conditions.

  14. Ecological Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Alier, Joan

    2001-01-01

    Ecological economics is a relatively new interdisciplinary field concerned with the relationship between economic systems and the biological and physical world. This article covers the following topics: A discussion of views on whether ecological economics is just a field or approach within economics or a new ÒtransdisciplinaryÓ field in its own right; Origin of the name of the field; Core common principles of ecological economics; Comparison with environmental economics; Applications; Histor...

  15. FOREST FIRES AROUND UNITS OF CONSERVATION – A CASE STUDY IN ÁGUAS EMENDADAS ECOLOGICAL STATION, DISTRITO FEDERAL

    OpenAIRE

    Eugênio P. Costa; Nilton C. Fiedler; Marcelo B. Medeiros; Fernando B. Wanderley

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze aspects of fire use on urban areas around Águas Emendadas Ecological Station (ESECAE), in Distrito Federal, and to evaluate the foremost fire occurrences, equipment availability and tools for combatants and beyond decreasing forest fire incidences. The local population in town region around it (considering three kilometers as ray from the station), fire crew members units of conservation and the garrison body of firemen were interviewed in a representative form. Re...

  16. Family- and Genus-Level 16S rRNA-Targeted Oligonucleotide Probes for Ecological Studies of Methanotrophic Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    J. Gulledge; Ahmad, A; Steudler, P. A.; Pomerantz, W. J.; Cavanaugh, Colleen Marie

    2001-01-01

    Methanotrophic bacteria play a major role in the global carbon cycle, degrade xenobiotic pollutants, and have the potential for a variety of biotechnological applications. To facilitate ecological studies of these important organisms, we developed a suite of oligonucleotide probes for quantitative analysis of methanotroph-specific 16S rRNA from environmental samples. Two probes target methanotrophs in the family Methylocystaceae (type II methanotrophs) as a group. No oligonucleotide signature...

  17. Are tags from Mars and descriptors from Venus? A study on the ecology of educational resource metadata

    OpenAIRE

    Vuorikari, Riina; Sillaots, Martin; Panzavolta, Silvia; Koper, Rob

    2009-01-01

    Vuorikari, R., Sillaots, M., Panzavolta, S. & Koper, R. (2009). Are tags from Mars and descriptors from Venus? A study on the ecology of educational resource metadata. In M. Spaniol, Q. Li, R. Klamma & R. W. H. Lau (Eds.), Proceedings of the 8th International Conference Advances in Web Based Learning - ICWL 2009 (pp. 400-409). August, 19-21, 2009, Aachen, Germany. Lecture Notes in Computer Science 5686; Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag.

  18. Studies on the sandfly fauna of Samuel Ecological Station, Porto Velho Municipality, Rondônia State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Alfredo C. R. Azevedo; Sérgio L. Bessa Luz; Maurício L Vilela; Elizabeth F. Rangel

    1993-01-01

    In a study of sandfly species in the Samuel Ecological Station, in Porto Velho, Rondônia State, the following species were identified: Lutzomyia brasiliensis, L. evangelistai, L. gomezi, L. anduzei, L. flaviscutellata, L. richardwardi, L. shawi, L. umbratilis, L. yuilli yuilli, L. dendrophyla, L. puctigeniculata, L. shannoni, L. amazonensis, L. ayrozai, L. carrerai carrerai, L. claustrei, L. davisi and L. lainsoni. L. richardwardi, L. umbratilis and L. c. carrerai were the predominant species...

  19. Oral ingestion of hexavalent chromium through drinking water and cancer mortality in an industrial area of Greece - An ecological study

    OpenAIRE

    Stoltidis Melina; Kouroutou Paraskevi; Christoforidou Eleni; Christophi Costas A; Petralias Athanassios; Linos Athena; Veloudaki Afroditi; Tzala Evangelia; Makris Konstantinos C; Karagas Margaret R

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Hexavalent chromium is a known carcinogen when inhaled, but its carcinogenic potential when orally ingested remains controversial. Water contaminated with hexavalent chromium is a worldwide problem, making this a question of significant public health importance. Methods We conducted an ecological mortality study within the Oinofita region of Greece, where water has been contaminated with hexavalent chromium. We calculated gender, age, and period standardized mortality rati...

  20. An Ecological Study of Food Desert Prevalence and 4th Grade Academic Achievement in New York State School Districts

    OpenAIRE

    Frndak, Seth E.

    2014-01-01

    Background This ecological study examines the relationship between food desert prevalence and academic achievement at the school district level. Design and methods Sample included 232 suburban and urban school districts in New York State. Multiple open-source databases were merged to obtain: 4th grade science, English and math scores, school district demographic composition (NYS Report Card), regional socioeconomic indicators (American Community Survey), school district quality (US Common Cor...

  1. Comparative transcriptome profiling analyses during the lag phase uncover YAP1, PDR1, PDR3, RPN4, and HSF1 as key regulatory genes in genomic adaptation to the lignocellulose derived inhibitor HMF for Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Z Lewis

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is able to adapt and in situ detoxify lignocellulose derived inhibitors such as furfural and HMF. The length of lag phase for cell growth in response to the inhibitor challenge has been used to measure tolerance of strain performance. Mechanisms of yeast tolerance at the genome level remain unknown. Using systems biology approach, this study investigated comparative transcriptome profiling, metabolic profiling, cell growth response, and gene regulatory interactions of yeast strains and selective gene deletion mutations in response to HMF challenges during the lag phase of growth. Results We identified 365 candidate genes and found at least 3 significant components involving some of these genes that enable yeast adaptation and tolerance to HMF in yeast. First, functional enzyme coding genes such as ARI1, ADH6, ADH7, and OYE3, as well as gene interactions involved in the biotransformation and inhibitor detoxification were the direct driving force to reduce HMF damages in cells. Expressions of these genes were regulated by YAP1 and its closely related regulons. Second, a large number of PDR genes, mainly regulated by PDR1 and PDR3, were induced during the lag phase and the PDR gene family-centered functions, including specific and multiple functions involving cellular transport such as TPO1, TPO4, RSB1, PDR5, PDR15, YOR1, and SNQ2, promoted cellular adaptation and survival in order to cope with the inhibitor stress. Third, expressed genes involving degradation of damaged proteins and protein modifications such as SHP1 and SSA4, regulated by RPN4, HSF1, and other co-regulators, were necessary for yeast cells to survive and adapt the HMF stress. A deletion mutation strain Δrpn4 was unable to recover the growth in the presence of HMF. Conclusions Complex gene interactions and regulatory networks as well as co-regulations exist in yeast adaptation and tolerance to the lignocellulose derived

  2. Study on Ecological Evaluation and Ecological Red Line of Huma River%呼玛河生态评价与生态红线的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴晓春; 霍堂斌; 张鸿军; 王天才

    2014-01-01

    The mothod assessmenting river ecosystem system using fish integrity that was used universal in domestic and abroad was analyzed, and the protected gogal of system integrity and biodiversity to evalauate river ecology was proposed. River was divided into the original ecological river, secondary ecological river, Successional ecological river, fragmental ecological river, artificial ecological river and failure ecological river according to the produced problems and results of natural river was stressed by human factors in this paper. The fish as the biological indicator to determine the river ecological evaluation criteria, and considering key habitats of fishes, endangered degree of species, remaining cases of dominant populations. Based on the comprehensive survey report of promoted by the provincial declaration of a national Huma River Nature Reserve and the 2014 actual survey results, Huma River was eventually divided into secondary ecological river type. Its main feature was relatively complete fish population indicator, but in a recession or endangered status, the advantaged fish populations changed, biological diversity has been subjected to stress state in the universality, and key habi-tat river system and spawning grounds was integral, pollution, illegal fishing, dredging and other small projects were major ecological stress factors to Huma River. Under the premise of protecting the integrity of ecosystems, species and ecological diversity, rescue de-lineated Huma River the ecological red line and proposed protection measures.%本文分析了国内外采用鱼类完整性评价河流生态系统的方法,提出确定河流生态评价的系统完整性与生物多样性的保护目标;按自然河流受人为因素胁迫产生的问题与结果,将河流分为原始生态河流、次生生态河流、演替生态河流、片断生态河流、人工生态河流、衰竭生态河道等生态类型。研究提出以鱼类为指示生物,综合鱼类

  3. Age adjustment in ecological studies: using a study on arsenic ingestion and bladder cancer as an example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo How-Ran

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite its limitations, ecological study design is widely applied in epidemiology. In most cases, adjustment for age is necessary, but different methods may lead to different conclusions. To compare three methods of age adjustment, a study on the associations between arsenic in drinking water and incidence of bladder cancer in 243 townships in Taiwan was used as an example. Methods A total of 3068 cases of bladder cancer, including 2276 men and 792 women, were identified during a ten-year study period in the study townships. Three methods were applied to analyze the same data set on the ten-year study period. The first (Direct Method applied direct standardization to obtain standardized incidence rate and then used it as the dependent variable in the regression analysis. The second (Indirect Method applied indirect standardization to obtain standardized incidence ratio and then used it as the dependent variable in the regression analysis instead. The third (Variable Method used proportions of residents in different age groups as a part of the independent variables in the multiple regression models. Results All three methods showed a statistically significant positive association between arsenic exposure above 0.64 mg/L and incidence of bladder cancer in men and women, but different results were observed for the other exposure categories. In addition, the risk estimates obtained by different methods for the same exposure category were all different. Conclusions Using an empirical example, the current study confirmed the argument made by other researchers previously that whereas the three different methods of age adjustment may lead to different conclusions, only the third approach can obtain unbiased estimates of the risks. The third method can also generate estimates of the risk associated with each age group, but the other two are unable to evaluate the effects of age directly.

  4. Geographical variation in glaucoma prescribing trends in England 2008–2012: an observational ecological study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wormald, Richard; Khaw, Peng Tee

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To explore (1) the national trend in population-adjusted prescription rates for glaucoma and ocular hypertension (OHT) in England and (2) any geographical variation in glaucoma/OHT prescribing trends and its association with established risk factors for primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) at the population level. Design Observational ecological study. Setting Primary care in England 2008–2012. Participants All patients who received 1 or more of the 37 778 660 glaucoma/OHT prescription items between 2008 and 2012. Primary and secondary outcome measure methods Glaucoma/OHT prescription statistics for England and its constituent primary care trusts (PCTs) between 2008 and 2012 were divided by annual population estimates to give prescription rates per 100 000 population aged ≥40 years. To examine regional differences, prescription rates and the change in prescription rates between 2008 and 2012 for PCTs were separately entered into multivariable linear regression models with the population proportion aged ≥60 years; the proportion of males; the proportion of West African Diaspora (WAD) ethnicity; PCT funding per capita; Index of Multiple Deprivation 2010 score and its domains. Results Between 2008 and 2012, glaucoma/OHT prescriptions increased from 28 029 to 31 309 items per 100 000 population aged ≥40 years. Between PCTs, nearly a quarter of the variation in prescription rates in 2008 and 2012 could be attributed to age, WAD ethnicity and male gender. The change in prescription rates between 2008 and 2012 was only modestly correlated with age (p=0.003, β=0.234), and income deprivation (p=0.035, β=−0.168). Conclusions Increased population-adjusted glaucoma/OHT prescription rates in the study period were likely due to increased detection of POAG and OHT cases at risk of POAG. Between PCTs, regional variation in overall prescription rates was partly attributable to demographic risk factors for POAG, although the change in

  5. Concern about passive smoking and tobacco control policies in European countries: An ecological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willemsen Marc C

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because of the magnitude of the global tobacco epidemic, the World Health Organisation developed the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC, an international legally binding treaty to control tobacco use. Adoption and implementation of specific tobacco control measures within FCTC is an outcome of a political process, where social norms and public opinion play important roles. The objective of our study was to examine how a country’s level of tobacco control is associated with smoking prevalence, two markers of denormalisation of smoking (social disapproval of smoking and concern about passive smoking, and societal support for tobacco control. Methods An ecological study was conducted, using data from two sources. The first source was the Tobacco Control Scale (TCS from 2011, which quantifies the implementation of tobacco control policies in European Union (EU countries. Data on smoking prevalence, societal disapproval of smoking, concern about passive smoking, and societal support for policy measures were taken from the Eurobarometer survey of 2009. Data from Eurobarometer surveys were aggregated to country level. Data from the 27 European Union member states were used. Results Smoking prevalence rates in 2009 were negatively associated with a country’s TCS 2011 score, although not statistically significant (r = −.25; p = .21. Experience of societal disapproval was positively associated with higher TCS scores, though not significantly (r = .14; p = .48. The same was true for societal support for tobacco control (r = .27; p = .18. The TCS score in 2011 was significantly correlated with concern about passive smoking (r = .42; p =.03. Support for tobacco control measures was also strongly correlated with concern about passive smoking (r = .52, p = .006. Conclusions Smokers in countries with a higher TCS score were more concerned about whether their smoke harms others. Further, support for tobacco control measures

  6. Concern about passive smoking and tobacco control policies in European countries: An ecological study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Because of the magnitude of the global tobacco epidemic, the World Health Organisation developed the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), an international legally binding treaty to control tobacco use. Adoption and implementation of specific tobacco control measures within FCTC is an outcome of a political process, where social norms and public opinion play important roles. The objective of our study was to examine how a country’s level of tobacco control is associated with smoking prevalence, two markers of denormalisation of smoking (social disapproval of smoking and concern about passive smoking), and societal support for tobacco control. Methods An ecological study was conducted, using data from two sources. The first source was the Tobacco Control Scale (TCS) from 2011, which quantifies the implementation of tobacco control policies in European Union (EU) countries. Data on smoking prevalence, societal disapproval of smoking, concern about passive smoking, and societal support for policy measures were taken from the Eurobarometer survey of 2009. Data from Eurobarometer surveys were aggregated to country level. Data from the 27 European Union member states were used. Results Smoking prevalence rates in 2009 were negatively associated with a country’s TCS 2011 score, although not statistically significant (r = −.25; p = .21). Experience of societal disapproval was positively associated with higher TCS scores, though not significantly (r = .14; p = .48). The same was true for societal support for tobacco control (r = .27; p = .18). The TCS score in 2011 was significantly correlated with concern about passive smoking (r = .42; p =.03). Support for tobacco control measures was also strongly correlated with concern about passive smoking (r = .52, p = .006). Conclusions Smokers in countries with a higher TCS score were more concerned about whether their smoke harms others. Further, support for tobacco control measures is higher in

  7. The use of echosounders for long-term studies of the overwintering ecology of sprat (Sprattus sprattus)

    KAUST Repository

    Solberg, Ingrid

    2013-06-01

    Upward-facing echosounders, were used to study the overwintering ecology of sprat during four winters in a Norwegian fjord. The echosounders provided continuous data at a temporal resolution of seconds and enabled studies of individual swimming behavior of sprat in addition to population behavior. The long-term coverage of several winters enabled us to study how the sprat responded to different environmental conditions, like ice-free waters versus ice covered waters and hypoxic conditions versus well-oxygenated waters. The studies unveiled that the overwintering strategies of the sprat are flexible, varying in accordance with environmental conditions. © 2013 IEEE.

  8. Study on Three-layered Grid Conceptual Prototype Using Ecological Network Computing Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Lei; DING Yong-sheng; REN Li-hong

    2004-01-01

    Next generation grid systems where the emphasis shifts to distributed global collaboration, a service-oriented approach and information layer issues exhibit a strong sense of automation. Requirements for these systems resemble the self-organizing and the healing properties of natural ecosystems. Some key ecological concepts and mechanisms are introduced into the design for the third generation grid computing architectures by inspiration of this resemblance. Also, an Ecological Network-based Computing Environment (ENCE) platform is designed in this paper. Based on the ENCE platform, a grid-computing model of three-layered grid conceptual prototype that embeds the ENCE layers is presented from the viewpoint of implementation. The implementation model should be useful to the design of the third generation grid systems.

  9. Study on “Shigang Pattern” of Ecological Modal Village in Taihang Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Liang; WANG Jun-qin

    2012-01-01

    General situation and development conditions of Shigang Village in Shexian County, Hebei Province were introduced, "Shigang Pattern" based on ecotourism was analyzed from 3 perspectives: development objective, overall layout and development pattern. Shigang Village has explored a new rural development road of "eco-agriculture driving tourism industry, and tourism industry in turn promoting modern agriculture" supported by greenhouse vegetable base and Yuquan Water Park. Enlightenment of the construction of ecological model village in Taihang Mountains was obtained as: making plans for instructing scientific decision-making; promoting development of pillar industries based on local conditions; focusing on both material and spiritual civilization, motivating cultural life of the locals; developing advantages and promoting the construction of ecological civilization.

  10. Ecological service assessment of human-dominated freshwater ecosystem with a case study in Yangzhou Prefecture,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Ya-ping; WANG Ru-song; REN Jing-ming; HU Dan; YUAN Shao-jun; WANG Min

    2004-01-01

    Freshwater ecosystems provide a host of services to humanity. These services are now rapidly being lost, not least because of the inability of making the impacts measurable. To overcome this obstacle, assessment frameworks for freshwater ecosystem services are needed. A simple water equivalent framework to assess the ecological services provided by freshwater ecosystems was developed in this study. It translated the occupation of freshwater ecosystem services into biologically freshwater volumes and then compares this consumption to the freshwater throughput, that is, the ecological capacity available in this region. In this way, we use the example of Yangzhou Prefecture, to account the main categories of human occupation of water ecosystem services. The result showed that there is a huge gap between the consumption and the supply of freshwater ecosystem services. This must encourage local government to make land-use and water management decisions both economically rational and environmentally sound.

  11. The Transition of Cultural Ecology in Beidong District of Guizhou–A Case Study of Tianzhu Community

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xing; ZHAO; Baoling; DONG; Yingzi; ZHAO

    2014-01-01

    Beidong minorities living together in Qingshui River valley are deeply influenced by Jing and Chu culture. Their ethnic and traditional culture was developed in the process of collision with foreign culture. In the several great social transformations,their cultural ecology was not imbalanced,but evolved and developed. Through the study on local knowledge of cultural ecology including agricultural production,ancestral hall and local- style dwelling house,full- scale drama and Yang Drama,genealogical system,marriage customs,religious belief,sacrificial rites and funeral rites,it is expected to reveal reasons and rules of transition of Beidong ethnic culture,favorable for correctly understanding cultural connotation and promote cultural and tourism development in ethnic minority areas.

  12. Effects of Urbanization Expansion on Landscape Pattern and Region Ecological Risk in Chinese Coastal City: A Case Study of Yantai City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Applied with remote sensing, GIS, and mathematical statistics, the spatial-temporal evolution characteristics of urbanization expansion of Yantai city from 1974 to 2009 was studied. Based on landscape pattern metrics and ecological risk index, the landscape ecological risk from the landscape pattern dynamics was evaluated. The results showed that the area of urban land increased by 189.77 km2 with average expansion area of 5.42 km2 y−1 from 1974 to 2009. The urbanization intensity index during 2004–2009 was 3.92 times of that during 1974–1990. The land use types of urban land and farmland changed greatly. The changes of landscape pattern metrics for land use patterns indicated that the intensity of human activities had strengthened gradually in study period. The landscape ecological risk pattern of Yantai city shaped half-round rings along the coastline. The ecological risk index decreased with increase of the distance to the coastline. The ratio of high ecological risk to subhigh ecological risk zones in 2009 was 2.23 times of that in 1990. The significant linear relationship of urbanization intensity index and regional ecological risk indicated that the anthropological economic activities were decisive factors for sustainable development of costal ecological environment.

  13. BALB/c-HSF1 Knockout小鼠的主要脏器重量、脏器系数及主要血液生化指标的测定%Measurement of Organ Weight, Organ Coefficients and Blood Indices in HSF1 Knockout Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤百争; 刘惺; 马亚东

    2002-01-01

    目的提供HSF1 Knockout小鼠的脏器重量,脏器系数的生物学特性指标.方法选用成年HSF1 Knockout小鼠50只(雄性21只,雌性29只),分别测定体重和8个主要脏器重量,计算脏器系数,测定其主要血液生化指标,并对雌雄鼠脏器重量,脏器系数进行比较,对血液生化指标进行统计.结果雌雄鼠脾脏系数、肾脏系数差异有显著性(P<0.05),胃系数、脑系数差异有显著性(P<0.01),心脏、肺系数差异不显著(P>0.01).结论应注意HSF1 Knockout小鼠实验时的雌雄鼠胃系数、脑系数的显著性差异;脾脏系数、肾脏系数的明显差异.但可忽视性别对脏器系数的影响.

  14. 番茄HsfA3基因功能验证中相关植物表达载体的构建%Construction of plant expression vectors of tomato HsfA3 gene for functional analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李振军; 张丽丽; 李景富

    2010-01-01

    以pBI121质粒为基本栽体,分别构建了由35S启动子驱动的用于番茄HsfA3基因亚细胞定位(Subcellular location)和遗传转化的植物表达栽体pBI-sl-A3、pBI-A3.将pBI121质粒上的35S启动子进行改造,分别构建了植物表达载体pBI-mini35S、pBI-HSE-mini35S,用于研究热激转录因子HsfA3与热激元件(Heat shockelements,HSEs)的互作.通过冻融法将以上4种重组质粒导入根癌农杆茵LBA4404中,用于后续试验,为进一步研究HsfA3基因在耐热中的功能和分子生物学机制奠定了基础.

  15. Xylitol and its effect on oral ecology : clinical studies in children and adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Lif Holgerson, Pernilla

    2007-01-01

    Xylitol, classified as a natural sugar substitute, has for about 35 years been known as an agent that may act against caries. The mechanism of action; how it inhibits mutans streptococci (MS) and the clinical dose-response relationship are not however fully investigated. The general aim of the investigations was to evaluate the effect of xylitol on oral ecology in children and adolescents. A series of experimental and controlled clinical trials were performed in which samples of saliva and pl...

  16. Comparative studies of ecological niche variation among central and peripheral populations of Mediterranean endemic plants

    OpenAIRE

    Papuga, Guillaume

    2016-01-01

    The Mediterranean basin is a biodiversity hotspot, characterized by its high plant richness and endemism. It is a place of prime interest to test biogeographical hypotheses, such as the centre-periphery hypothesis. Empirical evidences have brought little support to it as a rule, suggesting complex eco-evolutionary mechanisms shape genetic and demographic characteristics. This thesis proposes a new framework that supports a precise evaluation of species history, geography and ecology to invest...

  17. A theoretical quantitative genetic study of negative ecological interactions and extinction times in changing environments

    OpenAIRE

    Jones Adam G

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Rapid human-induced changes in the environment at local, regional and global scales appear to be contributing to population declines and extinctions, resulting in an unprecedented biodiversity crisis. Although in the short term populations can respond ecologically to environmental alterations, in the face of persistent change populations must evolve or become extinct. Existing models of evolution and extinction in changing environments focus only on single species, even th...

  18. Conceptualizing the political ecology of urban infrastructures: insights from technology and urban studies

    OpenAIRE

    Jochen Monstadt

    2009-01-01

    The debate on urban sustainability has now been on the research agenda for a number of years. One element that has, however, been undertheorized and empirically understudied is the crucial importance of networked urban infrastructures for the ecological sustainability of cities. These infrastructures mediate resource flows and vitally shape environmental practices and sociotechnical innovation in cities. It is thus argued that we need adequate conceptual approaches which reflect the complex i...

  19. A STUDY OF EVALUATION OF ECOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF COAL MINING SUBSIDENCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何国清; 顾强

    1990-01-01

    The land disturbance and its ecological impacts are the most significant one in the environmental problems which arise from increase of coal mining, processing and utilization. And the environmental impact assessment as one of the most powerful planning tools has been playing a good part in the environment protection in China. This paper, based on EIA experience,diseribes the methods of identification, prediction and analysis of the impacts of mining subsidence, the operational procedures and mitigating measures likely to take.

  20. [A study on feeding ecology and migration patterns of Dosidicus gigas off Peru using stable isotope analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yi; Chen, Xin-jun; Li, Yun-kai; Han, Meng-jie

    2015-09-01

    As a pelagic cephalopod and one of the main target species of Chinese distant water fishery, jumbo squids (Dosidicus gigas) play a major role in the marine ecosystems of the eastern Pacific. Understanding the feeding ecology and migration patterns of jumbo squids is of importance for better utilizing the resources. The isotopic signatures of gladius, have been proved to be a powerful tool to reveal high resolution and ontogenic variations in individual foraging strategies of squids; which is an archival tissue with no elemental turnover after formation. In this study, the growth equation of gladius proostracum was established based on the age information determined by statolith. Gladius was cut successionally by the growth curve of gladius proostracum, the stable isotopic values of the gladius profiles were determined, and the feeding ecology and migration patterns of jumbo squids during its growth process were investigated. Results showed that the jumbo squids began to migrate after 180 days of postnatal, and their trophic levels tended to decrease throughout the life span. These results demonstrated the feasibility of using continuous sampling hard tissue to study the feeding ecology and habitat transfer of jumbo squids. PMID:26785574

  1. Combined assessment and regulation on ecological land use and water demand of the river system: a case study in Luanhe River, North China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. H. Yan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available With economic and social development, ecological water and land use of the river system were seriously misappropriated, which resulted in overall degradation of the river systems. In this study, theoretical and technical frameworks of regionalisation on the eco-environmental function of the river systems were preliminarily formulated. According to the river eco-environmental functions, Luanhe River was regionalised into four types of first-class functional areas, i.e., ecological preservation areas, habitat restoration areas, ecological buffer areas and development and utilisation areas. Combined with the main functions of all functional areas, ecological land use of the river system in Luanhe River was assessed and planned. The total area of basic ecological land use was 876.98 km2; that of restrictive ecological land use was 1745.52 km2; that of ecological land use of the river system returned from farmland was 284.25 km2; and that returned from construction land was 17.35 km2. Combined with prototype observation experiments, the average minimum ecological flow of mainstreams in upper and middle reaches of the Luanhe River was 4.896 m3 s−1 with the habitat method. The evaporation and seepage consumption of the river system in Luanhe River and vegetation consumption in riparian zones were about 133 million m3 and 145 million m3 per year, respectively. Downwards from the Panjiakou-Daheiting Reservoir system, the mainstream of the Luanhe River was the crucial reach for regulation on instream ecological water use. It was required to speed up ecological land use planning of the river system and strengthen the regulation of ecological water use in important lower reaches of the Luanhe River under the condition of competitive water demand.

  2. Combined assessment and regulation on ecological land use and water demand of the river system: a case study in Luanhe River, North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, D. H.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Qin, T. L.

    2011-10-01

    With economic and social development, ecological water and land use of the river system were seriously misappropriated, which resulted in overall degradation of the river systems. In this study, theoretical and technical frameworks of regionalisation on the eco-environmental function of the river systems were preliminarily formulated. According to the river eco-environmental functions, Luanhe River was regionalised into four types of first-class functional areas, i.e., ecological preservation areas, habitat restoration areas, ecological buffer areas and development and utilisation areas. Combined with the main functions of all functional areas, ecological land use of the river system in Luanhe River was assessed and planned. The total area of basic ecological land use was 876.98 km2; that of restrictive ecological land use was 1745.52 km2; that of ecological land use of the river system returned from farmland was 284.25 km2; and that returned from construction land was 17.35 km2. Combined with prototype observation experiments, the average minimum ecological flow of mainstreams in upper and middle reaches of the Luanhe River was 4.896 m3 s-1 with the habitat method. The evaporation and seepage consumption of the river system in Luanhe River and vegetation consumption in riparian zones were about 133 million m3 and 145 million m3 per year, respectively. Downwards from the Panjiakou-Daheiting Reservoir system, the mainstream of the Luanhe River was the crucial reach for regulation on instream ecological water use. It was required to speed up ecological land use planning of the river system and strengthen the regulation of ecological water use in important lower reaches of the Luanhe River under the condition of competitive water demand.

  3. Linking Ecological and Perceptual Assessments for Environmental Management: a Coral Reef Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A. Dinsdale

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Integrating information from a range of community members in environmental management provides a more complete assessment of the problem and a diversification of management options, but is difficult to achieve. To investigate the relationship between different environmental interpretations, I compared three distinct measures of anchor damage on coral reefs: ecological measures, perceptual meanings, and subjective health judgments. The ecological measures identified an increase in the number of overturned corals and a reduction in coral cover, the perceptual meanings identified a loss of visual quality, and the health judgments identified a reduction in the health of the coral reef sites associated with high levels of anchoring. Combining the perceptual meanings and health judgments identified that the judgment of environmental health was a key feature that both scientific and lay participants used to describe the environment. Some participants in the survey were familiar with the coral reef environment, and others were not. However, they provided consistent judgment of a healthy coral reef, suggesting that these judgments were not linked to present-day experiences. By combining subjective judgments and ecological measures, the point at which the environment is deemed to lose visual quality was identified; for these coral reefs, if the level of damage rose above 10.3% and the cover of branching corals dropped below 17.1%, the reefs were described as unhealthy. Therefore, by combining the information, a management agency can involve the community in identifying when remedial action is required or when management policies are effectively maintaining a healthy ecosystem.

  4. A Study on Tourism Resource Development and Institutional Guarantees for Ecological Security in the Ethnic Areas of Sichuan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Jie; QIN Jianxiong; CAI Xinliang

    2014-01-01

    Following several years of study , we have found that the economically less-developed region of the ethnic minority areas of western Chi-na, namely Sichuan, Yunnan, and Guizhou, is not only an area where rich eco-cultural tourism re-sources are concentrated , but is also an area where the ecological environment is very fragile .Develo-ping local tourism resources has been regarded as an important path of poverty alleviation for the local people.However, excessive exploitation of these resources will directly threaten the local ecological security.Seen from the perspective of the relation-ship between man and nature , in recent years , the development of tourism has had an increasingly more serious impact on the environment in these western ethnic areas-for instance , the numbers of tourists in Jiuzhaigou scenic spot of Sichuan have exceeded its carrying capacity , and has caused soil erosion and water pollution; Lijiang Old Town in Yunnan is facing the problem of over-crowding;and the water in Erhai lake in Dali has been pollu-ted by cruise boats .Seen from the perspective of the relationship between man and society , we find that the protection of culture and environment in western ethnic areas is being threatened by the predatory nature of the development of tourism re-sources-for example , in the ethnic tourism villa-ges of Guizhou , there is a serious problem with the traditional ethnic culture there being vulgarized , faked, and urbanized . This has affected social harmony and stability in the area .Because Sichuan province is located in the upper Yangtze River , the ecological security in its ethnic minority areas is re-lated to the security of the Yangtze valley and even to the whole country .Hence, this article aims to explore the ecological security issues related to the natural ecological environment and the eco-cultural environment during the process of exploiting tourism resources in ethnic minority areas of Sichuan , and to do so from the perspective

  5. Study on the Development of Outdoor Recreation Product Considering the Ecology Aspect in Wana Wisata Curug Cilember (WWCC, Kabupaten Bogor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qurie Purnamasari

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 Recreation development is usually oriented toward on the mass tourism to maximise a number of tourists and rarely put the environmental aspect into consideration.  This created an effect on the sustainability of ecology.  This study’s emphasis is on figuring out an alternative of outdoor recreation product which based on the ecology aspect to support the development of outdoor recreation in the Wana Wisata Curug Cilember (WWCC. This study put the characteristic of tourist and local people into consideration which are describe the product of ecology recreation in order to achieve an ideal product that has not been reached previously and still need more serious effort.  Analysis descriptive with qualitative and quantitative approach is used in this study.  SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats and descriptive statistic are considered for alternative outdoor recreation product while the AHP (Analysis Hierarchy Process has been  used to achieve a priority product for implementation.  The findings suggested a diversification strategy or S-T (Strengths – Threats was chosen to develop the products of recreation in WWCC.  The priority of these products based on the AHP value are as follows: a Water falls (0.2700, b Natural scenery (0.1623, c Camping (0.1405, d Hiking (0.1073, e Theraphy of water fall energy (0.0885,  f Plants viewing (0.0665, g Wildlife viewing (0.0525 and h Outbound (0.0380.   Key words: Outdoor recreation product, ecology, WWCC, Bogor Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4

  6. Ha-ras(val12) induces HSP70b transcription via the HSE/HSF1 system, but HSP70b expression is suppressed in Ha-ras(val12)-transformed cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanhill, A; Levin, V; Hendel, A; Shachar, I; Kazanov, D; Arber, N; Kaminski, N; Engelberg, D

    2006-03-01

    Heat shock proteins (Hsps) are overexpressed in many tumors, but are downregulated in some tumors. To check for a direct effect of Ha-Ras(val12) on HSP70 transcription, we transiently expressed the oncoprotein in Rat1 fibroblasts and monitored its effect on HSP70b promoter-driven reporter gene. We show that expression of Ha-Ras(val12) induced this promoter. Promoter analysis via systematic deletions and point mutations revealed that Ha-Ras(val12) induces HSP70b transcription via heat shock elements (HSEs). Also, Ha-Ras(val12) induction of HSE-mediated transcription was dramatically reduced in HSF1-/- cells. Yet, residual effect of Ha-Ras(val12) that was still measured in HSF1-/- cells suggests that some of the Ha-Ras(val12) effect is Hsf1-independent. When HSF1-/- cells, stably expressing Ha-Ras(val12), were grown on soft agar only small colonies were formed suggesting a role for heat shock factor 1 (Hsf1) in Ha-Ras(val12)-mediated transformation. Although Ha-ras(Val12) seems to be an inducer of HSP70's expression, we found that in Ha-ras(Val12-)transformed fibroblasts expression of this gene is suppressed. This suppression is correlated with higher sensitivity of Ha-ras(val12)-transformed cells to heat shock. We suggest that Ha-ras(Val12) is involved in Hsf1 activation, thereby inducing the cellular protective response. Cells that repress this response are perhaps those that acquire the capability to further proliferate and become transformed clones.

  7. A Study on remote sensing method for drawing up and utilizing ecological and natural map - concentrated on drawing up of Land Cover Classification Map

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun, Sung Woo; Chung, Sung Moon [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    The drawing up of ecological and natural map, which is highly efficient using remote exploration method, was promoted in this study. As the first step of drawing up of ecological and natural map, this study is working on the drawing up of Land Cover using as a base map. Through the detailed and sufficient consideration on GAP analysis of USA, CORINE project of EU, and examples in Korea, it studied and proposed the Land Cover Classification system and method suitable for Korea. It will be helpful to draw up ecological and natural map by providing two strategies and principles for land cover classification. 26 refs., 33 figs., 9 tabs.

  8. Exploring the Mechanisms of Ecological Land Change Based on the Spatial Autoregressive Model: A Case Study of the Poyang Lake Eco-Economic Zone, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hualin Xie

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Ecological land is one of the key resources and conditions for the survival of humans because it can provide ecosystem services and is particularly important to public health and safety. It is extremely valuable for effective ecological management to explore the evolution mechanisms of ecological land. Based on spatial statistical analyses, we explored the spatial disparities and primary potential drivers of ecological land change in the Poyang Lake Eco-economic Zone of China. The results demonstrated that the global Moran’s I value is 0.1646 during the 1990 to 2005 time period and indicated significant positive spatial correlation (p < 0.05. The results also imply that the clustering trend of ecological land changes weakened in the study area. Some potential driving forces were identified by applying the spatial autoregressive model in this study. The results demonstrated that the higher economic development level and industrialization rate were the main drivers for the faster change of ecological land in the study area. This study also tested the superiority of the spatial autoregressive model to study the mechanisms of ecological land change by comparing it with the traditional linear regressive model.

  9. Environmental exposure to mineral fibers in New Caledonia: an ecological study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, F.; Ambrosi, J.

    2013-05-01

    Inhalation of asbestos and other fibrous minerals causes lung cancer and other malignancies, specifically malignant mesothelioma (MM). MM is an aggressive pleural tumor that presents with a median latency period of 30-40 years from initial fiber exposure. Due to occupational exposure, MM incidence is 4-8 times higher in men as compared to women. In New Caledonia (NC), very high incidences of MM and lung cancer were observed in both men and women, suggesting an environmental origin of exposure. Although nickel mining and the traditional use of tremolite-containing whitewash were suspected causes of MM, numerous MM cases have been observed in areas lacking these risk factors. We carried out an ecological study of MM incidence in NC and identified a study area that included those counties having the highest MM incidences as well as counties lacking MM. We conducted epidemiological and environmental investigations for each of the 100 tribes living within this area. Residential history was assessed for each MM case, and samples of each quarry, road, and whitewash were analyzed to determine the nature of any mineral fibers. We analyzed the environmental determinants of MM, including geology, mineralogy, plant cover, land shape and human activities as well as use of whitewash, by using two univariate and multivariate statistical methods: 1) a logistic regression to compare tribes with and without MM cases and calculate the odds ratios, (OR) 2) the Poisson regression to calculate incidence rate ratios (IRR) for each factor. While most MM cases among Caucasians were observed in men with a mean age of 72, indicating occupational exposure, Melanesians exhibited elevated MM incidence in both men and women at a mean age of 60. A sex ratio close to 1 compounded with the relatively young ages of MM cases confirmed environmental causation within the Melanesian population. We found one significant and two secondary spatial clusters of MM in tribal areas. No temporal cluster was

  10. Ecology-driven stereotypes override race stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Keelah E G; Sng, Oliver; Neuberg, Steven L

    2016-01-12

    Why do race stereotypes take the forms they do? Life history theory posits that features of the ecology shape individuals' behavior. Harsh and unpredictable ("desperate") ecologies induce fast strategy behaviors such as impulsivity, whereas resource-sufficient and predictable ("hopeful") ecologies induce slow strategy behaviors such as future focus. We suggest that individuals possess a lay understanding of ecology's influence on behavior, resulting in ecology-driven stereotypes. Importantly, because race is confounded with ecology in the United States, we propose that Americans' stereotypes about racial groups actually reflect stereotypes about these groups' presumed home ecologies. Study 1 demonstrates that individuals hold ecology stereotypes, stereotyping people from desperate ecologies as possessing faster life history strategies than people from hopeful ecologies. Studies 2-4 rule out alternative explanations for those findings. Study 5, which independently manipulates race and ecology information, demonstrates that when provided with information about a person's race (but not ecology), individuals' inferences about blacks track stereotypes of people from desperate ecologies, and individuals' inferences about whites track stereotypes of people from hopeful ecologies. However, when provided with information about both the race and ecology of others, individuals' inferences reflect the targets' ecology rather than their race: black and white targets from desperate ecologies are stereotyped as equally fast life history strategists, whereas black and white targets from hopeful ecologies are stereotyped as equally slow life history strategists. These findings suggest that the content of several predominant race stereotypes may not reflect race, per se, but rather inferences about how one's ecology influences behavior.

  11. Comparative Study of Forestry Ecological Construction Financing%林业生态建设融资方式研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚萍; 张晓辛

    2012-01-01

    通过对比3种可用于林业生态建设的融资模式,即银行专项资金贷款、Private Finance Initiative(PFI)融资、CDM林业碳汇融资各自优劣性,试图找出更完善、更适合林业生态工程建设的融资模式。对国家林业生态系统工程建设融资提供有意义的理论探索以及有价值的对策,为林业这种高持续性、发展性、规模性的产业开辟一条新的融资之路。%In the process of forestry ecological construction, financing problems always exist. This paper compares three financing modes which ean be used in the forestry ecological construction,i, e. Bank special loans,Private Finance Initiative (PFI) financing,CDM forestry carbon financing, and analyses their respective advantages and disadvantages,in order to find out the more perfect and more suitable financing mode for forestry ecological construction. Therefore,this study may open up ~ new financing way for this highly continuous, developing and large--scaled forestry industry, so s to provide a meaningful theoretical exploration and valuable countermeasures for national forest ecosystem construction financing.

  12. Rational allocation of water resources based on ecological groundwater levels:a case study in Jinghui Irrigation District in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H.; Zhou, W. B.; Dong, Q. G.; Liu, B. Y.; Ma, C.

    2016-08-01

    Aimed at the hydrogeological environmental problems caused by over-exploitation and unreasonable utilization of water resources in Jinghui Irrigation District, this paper discusses the ecological groundwater level of the study area and establishes a three-layer optimal allocation model of water resources based on the theory of large scale systems. Then, the genetic algorithm method was employed to optimize the model and obtain the optimal allocation of crop irrigation schedule and water resources under the condition of a 75% assurance rate. Finally, the numerical simulation model of the groundwater was applied to analyze the balance of the groundwater on the basis of the optimal allocation scheme. The results show that the upper limitation of the ecological groundwater in Jinghui Irrigation District ranged from 1.8m to 4.2m, while the lower limitation level ranged from 8m to 28m. By 2020, the condition of the groundwater imbalance that results from adopting the optimal allocation scheme will be much better than that caused by current water utilization scheme. With the exception of only a few areas, the groundwater level in most parts of Jinghui Irrigation District will not exceed the lower limitation of ecological groundwater level.

  13. The importance of neighborhood ecological assets in community dwelling old people aging outcomes: A study in Northern Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice M. Bastos

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Human development is a bidirectional, person-context relational process, but scarce evidence is available about the relation between the individual variability across the life-span and the neighborhood ecological assets. Therefore, it is important that research focus not only on personal characteristics but on ecological assets as well. This way this study aims to analyze the association between neighborhood ecological assets categorized into 4 dimensions: human, physical or institutional, social or collective activity, accessibility, and the individual functioning. A 3% sample of residents aged 65 years and older in 2 downtown and 3 uptown parishes stratified by age and sex was interviewed at home using a protocol that included the Portuguese version of the Barthel Index in basic activities of daily living (BADL, the Lawton Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale (IADL, the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE and the Geriatric Depression Scale-15 items (GDS for evaluating functionality, cognitive performance and depression. The 162 participants were aged on average 75y (sd=7.0, 54% were women and 90% had less than 7 years of education. The majority of participants were independent in BADL (M=90; sd=17.7 and moderately dependent in IADL (M=13, sd=6.0, 20% showed cognitive impairment and a mean score of 8 (sd=2.1 in GDS-15. After controlling for the effect of socio-demographic characteristics, functionality and cognitive performance decreases in persons with worst outdoor mobility. On the other hand depressive symptoms are less common as the number of recreation opportunities, namely associative groups (cultural, educative, professional, increases. These results suggest that aging policies and practices must be ecologically embedded.

  14. Preliminarily study ecological civilization construction under the guidance of Ecological ethics%生态伦理观指导下的生态文明建设初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何颖

    2014-01-01

    生态伦理学是一门新的伦理学,它超越了传统伦理学只关注人与人之间的关系,而是把焦点扩展到人与自然的关系。通过分析生态伦理学与传统伦理学的区别,可以提炼出生态伦理学“新”特点;并且结合党的最新方针政策,初步探讨生态伦理观指导生态文明建设的方法与建议。这对于中国特色社会主义生态文明建设有重要的指导意义。%Ecological ethics is a new ethics,which transcends the traditional ethics focusing on the relationship of people, but the focus is expanded to the relationship between human and nature.In this paper,by analyzing the difference between the ecological ethics and traditional ethics,extracting characteristics of “new”ecological ethics,and combining with the party's poli-cies,it can preliminarily study the methods and suggestions of the construction of ecological civilization which is under the guide of ecological ethic.In a word,this study has important guiding significance for the construction of the Chinese characteristic so-cialism ecological civilization.

  15. [Parasitism and ecological parasitology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balashov, Iu S

    2011-01-01

    Parasitism as one of the life modes is a general biological phenomenon and is a characteristic of all viruses, many taxa of bacteria, fungi, protists, metaphytes, and metazoans. Zooparasitology is focused on studies of parasitic animals, particularly, on their taxonomy, anatomy, life cycles, host-parasite relations, biocoenotic connections, and evolution. Ecological parasitology is a component of ecology, as the scientific study of the relation of living organisms with each other and their surroundings. In the present paper, critical analysis of the problems, main postulates, and terminology of the modern ecological parasitology is given.

  16. Study of the breeding ecology and behaviour of the Svalbard population of light-bellied brent goose Branta bernicla hrota

    OpenAIRE

    Madsen, Jesper; Bregnballe, Thomas; Mehlum, Fridtjof

    1989-01-01

    Nesting ecology and behaviour of the Light-bellied Brent Goose was studied on Lurøya and adjacent islands in the Tusenoyane group, SE Svalbard, from 13 June to 30 July 1987. On Lurøya 38 pairs attempted to nest, and in the whole study area 98 pairs. Estimated median data of laying of first egg was 10 June, and median hatching date 7 July. Mean clutch size in the middle of the incubation period was 4.0 eggs. On Lurtfya nesting success was 25.7%, hatching success 28.6%, and hatchi...

  17. The study of ecological condition on productivity of Tajan River estuary in Mazandaran Province Caspian Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Shapoori, Maryam

    2008-01-01

    This project was done during a one-year period (2006-2007) with the aim of assessing and evaluating the susceptible and vulnerable habitat of Tajan River estuarine region as well as identifying its ecological features. This region consists of Tajan estuarine region as one of the sub-basins of the Caspian Sea basin which covers a surface of 2km2. In this assessment, 6 riverine estuarine and marine stations were chosen in which non-biotic parameters such as temperature, salinity,...

  18. A preliminary study on designing ecological corridors in Xishuangbanna National Nature Reserve with 3S techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    This paper is based on the fieldwork in Xishuang-banna Natioanl Nature Reserve in Yunnan Province of China. GPS data of Asian elephants were collected and analyzed with the remote sensing satellite photos of the region to estimate the landform physiognomy of different colors. We also analyzed a series of ecological factors includ-ing altitude, landform, relief, villages and roads which affected the distribution and movement of Asian elephants. The results suggested the possibility of designing and estab-lishing corridors in Xishuangbanna National Nature Reserve to protect the population of wild elephants in the region.

  19. Bowhead Whale Feeding Ecology Study (BOWFEST): Aerial Survey in Chukchi and Beaufort Seas conducted from 2007-08-23 to 2011-09-16 (NCEI Accession 0131425)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Bowhead Whale Feeding Ecology Study (BOWFEST) was initiated in May 2007 through an Interagency Agreement between the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM)...

  20. Green Turtle Trophic Ecology

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — SWFSC is currently conducting a study of green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) trophic ecology in the eastern Pacific. Tissue samples and stable carbon and stable...

  1. Microarrays in ecological research: A case study of a cDNA microarray for plant-herbivore interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gase Klaus

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microarray technology allows researchers to simultaneously monitor changes in the expression ratios (ERs of hundreds of genes and has thereby revolutionized most of biology. Although this technique has the potential of elucidating early stages in an organism's phenotypic response to complex ecological interactions, to date, it has not been fully incorporated into ecological research. This is partially due to a lack of simple procedures of handling and analyzing the expression ratio (ER data produced from microarrays. Results We describe an analysis of the sources of variation in ERs from 73 hybridized cDNA microarrays, each with 234 herbivory-elicited genes from the model ecological expression system, Nicotiana attenuata, using procedures that are commonly used in ecologic research. Each gene is represented by two independently labeled PCR products and each product was arrayed in quadruplicate. We present a robust method of normalizing and analyzing ERs based on arbitrary thresholds and statistical criteria, and characterize a "norm of reaction" of ERs for 6 genes (4 of known function, 2 of unknown with different ERs as determined across all analyzed arrays to provide a biologically-informed alternative to the use of arbitrary expression ratios in determining significance of expression. These gene-specific ERs and their variance (gene CV were used to calculate array-based variances (array CV, which, in turn, were used to study the effects of array age, probe cDNA quantity and quality, and quality of spotted PCR products as estimates of technical variation. Cluster analysis and a Principal Component Analysis (PCA were used to reveal associations among the transcriptional "imprints" of arrays hybridized with cDNA probes derived from mRNA from N. attenuata plants variously elicited and attacked by different herbivore species and from three congeners: N. quadrivalis, N. longiflora and N. clevelandii. Additionally, the PCA

  2. Study on Fishery Ecological Environment and Fish Species Diversity in Yantan Water Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yaoquan; HAN; Anyou; HE; Li; HUANG; Jun; SHI; Dapeng; WANG; Weijun; WU

    2015-01-01

    Through analysis on water quality,planktonic organism,fish resources,and fish species diversity in Yantan water area,this paper evaluated current situation of quality of fishery ecological environment in Yantan water area. The survey recorded all 52365 fishes and 1410. 2kg catches obtained by fishermen in half a year,and more than 98% catches are small fishes. The Shannon-Weiner diversity index of Yantan water area is 0. 162,Wilhm improvement index is 1. 814,DG- Findex is 0. 083,and the index of fish species diversity is far lower than other water areas. The average quantity per unit of phytoplankton is 1. 0134 million ind. / L,and the average quantity per unit of organisms is 1. 1151 mg / L. The average quantity per unit of zooplankton is 459. 6 ind. / L,and the average quantity per unit of organisms is 0. 6422 mg / L. Evaluation results indicate that water quality and planktonic organism in Yantan water area are basically normal,but fish resources are increasingly exhausted,fish resource composition is not reasonable,and fish species diversity is extremely low. From the perspective of biomanipulation,it is required to restore fishery ecological environment of reservoir area through restoring normal composition of aquatic organisms.

  3. Study on ecological awareness and performance of nursing personnel in dialysis units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Zyga

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: When designing new hospital construction or refurbishment can be adopted green practices both in design and in construction and operation. Objective: To explore the ecological awareness and behavior of nursing staff in a dialysis unit. Methods: This survey involved 90 Registered Nurses and Nurses’ aides of General Hospitals in the Capital (Athens and in province of Greece (Region of Peloponnese. These individuals were given an overall anonymous self-completed questionnaire. Results: The most important finding is that 70.8% considered as mandatory an organized effort to protect the environment in their workplace. Nurses think that greater environmental awareness is obtained 37.1% by using guidelines, 23.6% with relative stimulation, and 20.2% with educational lectures, 10.1% using poster and 6.7% in view educational videos. Finally, the correlations of ecological awareness with demographic characteristics of the sample revealed that older nursing staff with more years of working experience knows about environmental management (p-value=0.012. At the same time, gender (p-value=0,030 and educational level of the nursing staff plays an important role in the knowledge of it (p-value=0,044. Conclusions: To control costs and environmental pollution guidelines for saving energy and water and the use of environmentally friendly materials should be implemented. Thus, hospitals can become more competitive by reducing the amount of natural resources used.  Normal 0 false false false EL X-NONE X-NONE

  4. Morphometric study of phylogenetic and ecologic signals in procyonid (mammalia: carnivora) endocasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Heather E

    2014-12-01

    Endocasts provide a proxy for brain morphology but are rarely incorporated in phylogenetic analyses despite the potential for new suites of characters. The phylogeny of Procyonidae, a carnivoran family with relatively limited taxonomic diversity, is not well resolved because morphological and molecular data yield conflicting topologies. The presence of phylogenetic and ecologic signals in the endocasts of procyonids will be determined using three-dimensional geometric morphometrics. Endocasts of seven ingroup species and four outgroup species were digitally rendered and 21 landmarks were collected from the endocast surface. Two phylogenetic hypotheses of Procyonidae will be examined using methods testing for phylogenetic signal in morphometric data. In analyses of all taxa, there is significant phylogenetic signal in brain shape for both the morphological and molecular topologies. However, the analyses of ingroup taxa recover a significant phylogenetic signal for the morphological topology only. These results indicate support for the molecular outgroup topology, but not the ingroup topology given the brain shape data. Further examination of brain shape using principal components analysis and wireframe comparisons suggests procyonids possess more developed areas of the brain associated with motor control, spatial perception, and balance relative to the basal musteloid condition. Within Procyonidae, similar patterns of variation are present, and may be associated with increased arboreality in certain taxa. Thus, brain shape derived from endocasts may be used to test for phylogenetic signal and preliminary analyses suggest an association with behavior and ecology.

  5. [Matching study on treatment of sewage from highway service area by ecological soil system in Chongqing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Cheng; Yang, Zhi-Min; He, Juan

    2011-04-01

    The osmotic coefficient by clear water and sewage, static adsorption, dynamic and water penetration tests were conducted to determine the parameters, which including materials matching, hydraulic loading, and wet to dry ratio, in the treatment of sewage from highway service area (SHSA) in Chongqing by ecological soil system. The results showed that, according to principles of easier getting, high and stable hydraulic load, large decontamination capability, the materials matching of working layer SHSA was made of 30.67% soil, 61.33% sand and 8.00% cinder in Chongqing, and the supporting layer was consisted of 0.20 m cable and 0.10 m broken stone (height). The total height of the ecological soil system was 1.6 m, at which 1.00, 1.20, 1.40, 1.60 m department of hydraulic loading were 0.344, 0.322, 0.307, 0.298 m x d(-1), respectively. The flooding period of working layer was 1 d and the drying period 1.5 d, i. e, the ratio of wet to dry was 1:1.5.

  6. 霞湾港生态修复研究%Study on Ecological Restoration of Xiawan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈明梅; 姚晔; 李良

    2014-01-01

    Xiawan is located in Qingshuitang industrial region of Zhuzhou City and its industrial pollution causes obvious harm to water ecological environment. Xiawan water pollution is serious, 7 indexes of ammonia nitrogen, suspended solids, COD, BOD, fluoride, total cyanide and TP in water exceed the standard, and the contents of mercury, cadmium, lead, zinc, arsenic, nickel and copper in the port sediment exceed the national soil pollution standards. Xiawan water pollution affects the water quality of Xiang Jiang and endangers the lives and health of residents, also restricts sustainable development of Chang-Zhu-Tan City Group at Xiangjiang River downstream. The governance ideas can be applied such as cutting off the pollution sources of enterprises, cleaning long-term depositing sludge containing heavy metals in Xiawan, developing a scientific and reasonable implement scheme and plan measures and effectively supervising the whole process management by relevant departments of environmental protection. At the same time of physical treatment, takes ecological restoration schemes such as planting artificial vegetation after the dredging solidification landfill, applying ecological restoration design aiming at the plane, cross-sectional and longitudinal river course, establishing wetland protection zone, recovering and reconstructing riparian vegetation, establishing riparian vegetation buffer zone and taking the ecological revetment measures to maximize the recovery of good ecological environment of Xiawan harbor basin.%霞湾港位于湖南省株洲市清水塘工业区,区域内工业污染使其水生态环境受到明显损害。霞湾港中氨氮、悬浮物、化学需氧量、生化需氧量、氟化物、总氰化物及总磷7项指标均超标,且底泥中汞、镉、铅、锌、砷、镍、铜等重金属含量严重超过国家土壤污染标准。霞湾港水污染直接影响到湘江水质,危害居民的生活和健康,也制约了湘江干流下游

  7. Community Ecology

    CERN Document Server

    1988-01-01

    This book presents the proceedings of a workshop on community ecology organized at Davis, in April, 1986, sponsored by the Sloan Foundation. There have been several recent symposia on community ecology (Strong et. al., 1984, Diamond and Case, 1987) which have covered a wide range of topics. The goal of the workshop at Davis was more narrow: to explore the role of scale in developing a theoretical approach to understanding communities. There are a number of aspects of scale that enter into attempts to understand ecological communities. One of the most basic is organizational scale. Should community ecology proceed by building up from population biology? This question and its ramifications are stressed throughout the book and explored in the first chapter by Simon Levin. Notions of scale have long been important in understanding physical systems. Thus, in understanding the interactions of organisms with their physical environment, questions of scale become paramount. These more physical questions illustrate the...

  8. Ecological Modernization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, A.P.J.

    2006-01-01

    The Encyclopedia of Globalization provides a thorough understanding of the theoretical underpinnings of globalization as well as the various historical and analytical interpretations. Consisting of over 400 entries, coverage includes key cultural, ecological, economic, geographical, historical, poli

  9. Study on ecological civilization from perspective of symbiosis between industry and ecology%从产业与生态的共生关系审视生态文明

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张智光

    2014-01-01

    The evolution law of human civilization is researched from the perspective of symbiosis between industry and ecology in order to reveal the essential connotation of ecological civilization. The problems of boundary from industrial civilization to post-industrial civilization, theoretical basis of ecological civilization, interaction between human civilization and ecological security were studied, thus discovering that the essence of human civilization evolution is the symbiotic relationship between industry and ecology. Upon that an integrated tree of symbiotic relationship between industry and ecology systems was established on the basis of symbiosis theory, in which the symbiotic modes were matched with civilization stages. Hereby, the evolution route, symbiotic characteristics and scientific attributes of human civilization and ecological security were researched along the development path of human civilization. It is concluded that the threshold of ecological civilization is industrial commensalism, and so as to achieve win-win mutualism phase of the industrial and ecological. The scientific attribute of the industrial commensalism stage is natural super-biological civilization belonging to disease-prevention ecological civilization, and the scientific attribute of the mutualism stage is artificial super-biological civilization belonging to healthy ecological civilization, when the ecological security reaches a stable healthy stage.%从产业与生态共生关系的视角研究人类文明的演进规律,从而揭示生态文明的本质内涵。通过对工业文明和后工业文明界线、生态文明的理论基础、人类文明与生态安全的相互关系等深入研究,发现产业与生态的共生关系才是人类文明演进规律中的本质属性。于是,根据共生理论构建了产业系统与生态系统的完整共生关系谱系及其与各文明阶段的匹配关系。据此,沿着人类文明的发展轨迹,研究了人类文

  10. Assessment of ecological studies examining the risk of thyroid cancer in children through radiation exposure following the nuclear power plant disaster in Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epidemiological studies can be divided into studies with an individual database (cohort studies, case control studies) and studies with aggregate data (ecological studies). The former have the advantage that they can make use of methods based on risk models and examine dose-effect curves with due consideration to potential confounders, but the drawback of being expensive. Studies based on aggregate data can take account of large case numbers at comparatively low cost. However, ecological studies are also associated with serious methodological problems, especially when the goal is to find causal links (''ecological bias''). Thus it is well known that variations in a confounding factor (such as smoking in a study on lung cancer through radon) can invalidate the results of studies based on aggregate data. On the other hand, the only studies to have produced quantitative results on the risk of acquiring thyroid cancer through 131I exposure during childhood in areas contaminated by the Chernobyl disaster happen to be based on aggregate data. The purpose of the present paper is to examine problems associated with ecological studies which have already been in the focus of many studies of epidemiological methodology in terms of whether they are relevant to studies investigating connections between thyroid cancer and 131I exposure. It also presents the results of several simulation studies which examine the degree of distortion associated with ecological analyses

  11. The ecological economics: An ecological economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ecological Economics arise as a scientific discipline aimed to integrate concepts of economics, ecology, thermodynamics, ethic and other natural and social sciences in order to incorporate a biophysical and integrated perspective of the inter dependences between economies and environment, from a plural conception and a methodology beyond disciplines. Ecological Economics studies the black box of economic processes usually excluded of the traditional economics: thermodynamics and ecology. Although it is relatively a new field of study, it has been strengthening its theoretical framework with scientific basis and analytic principles that lead to its identification as a new discipline that show a whole new paradigm. The scope of this article is to show the conceptual and methodological bases, the main founders, approaches and central debates of this new discipline. This brief introduction is a preamble to the papers of the meeting Ecological Economics: a perspective for Colombia included in this number, that took place on September 22 - 27 of 2007, at the National University of Colombia at Bogota. During tree days national and international experts, professors, researchers, workers of environmental sector and people interested on environmental issues joined together to know the conceptual and methodological achievements reached of this discipline; as well as to analyse and evaluate the environmental problems of the country, from the systemic, interdisciplinary and general perspective that it promotes

  12. Disease Dynamics in Ants: A Critical Review of the Ecological Relevance of Using Generalist Fungi to Study Infections in Insect Societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loreto, R G; Hughes, D P

    2016-01-01

    It is assumed that social life can lead to the rapid spread of infectious diseases and outbreaks. In ants, disease outbreaks are rare and the expression of collective behaviors is invoked to explain the absence of epidemics in natural populations. Here, we address the ecological approach employed by many studies that have notably focused (89% of the studies) on two genera of generalist fungal parasites (Beauveria and Metarhizium). We ask whether these are the most representative models to study the evolutionary ecology of ant-fungal parasite interactions. To assess this, we critically examine the literature on ants and their interactions with fungal parasites from the past 114years (1900-2014). We discuss how current evolutionary ecology approaches emerged from studies focused on the biological control of pest ants. We also analyzed the ecological relevance of the laboratory protocols used in evolutionary ecology studies employing generalist parasites, as well as the rare natural occurrence of these parasites on ants. After a detailed consideration of all the publications, we suggest that using generalist pathogens such as Beauveria and Metarhizium is not an optimal approach if the goal is to study the evolutionary ecology of disease in ants. We conclude by advocating for approaches that incorporate greater realism. PMID:27131328

  13. A STUDY OF THE VALUE SYSTEM OF AUTOMOTIVE SECTOR UNDER THE FOCUS OF THE ECOLOGY OF COMPANIES

    OpenAIRE

    Sérgio Dantas; Marcio Shoiti Kuniyoshi; Martinho Isnardi Ribeiro Almeida

    2015-01-01

    The study presents the results of a survey of a network of auto dealers and their relationship with the players’ member’s value system of an automaker. With a literature review on the ecology of enterprises and value chain system and tried to understand how to give the interactions between members of the same chain. Seeking representation and identify the strength of each level. It was selected for this research an automaker, market leader, in popular new cars. For data collection were develo...

  14. Combining Statistical Tools and Ecological Assessments in the Study of Biodeterioration Patterns of Stone Temples in Angkor (Cambodia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caneva, G.; Bartoli, F.; Savo, V.; Futagami, Y.; Strona, G.

    2016-01-01

    Biodeterioration is a major problem for the conservation of cultural heritage materials. We provide a new and original approach to analyzing changes in patterns of colonization (Biodeterioration patterns, BPs) by biological agents responsible for the deterioration of outdoor stone materials. Here we analyzed BPs of four Khmer temples in Angkor (Cambodia) exposed to variable environmental conditions, using qualitative ecological assessments and statistical approaches. The statistical analyses supported the findings obtained with the qualitative approach. Both approaches provided additional information not otherwise available using one single method. Our results indicate that studies on biodeterioration can benefit from integrating diverse methods so that conservation efforts might become more precise and effective. PMID:27597658

  15. Combining Statistical Tools and Ecological Assessments in the Study of Biodeterioration Patterns of Stone Temples in Angkor (Cambodia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caneva, G; Bartoli, F; Savo, V; Futagami, Y; Strona, G

    2016-01-01

    Biodeterioration is a major problem for the conservation of cultural heritage materials. We provide a new and original approach to analyzing changes in patterns of colonization (Biodeterioration patterns, BPs) by biological agents responsible for the deterioration of outdoor stone materials. Here we analyzed BPs of four Khmer temples in Angkor (Cambodia) exposed to variable environmental conditions, using qualitative ecological assessments and statistical approaches. The statistical analyses supported the findings obtained with the qualitative approach. Both approaches provided additional information not otherwise available using one single method. Our results indicate that studies on biodeterioration can benefit from integrating diverse methods so that conservation efforts might become more precise and effective. PMID:27597658

  16. Incorporating ecology and social system into formal hypotheses to guide field studies of color vision in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunce, John A

    2015-05-01

    The X-linked gene polymorphism responsible for the variable color vision of most Neotropical monkeys and some lemurs is thought to be maintained by balancing selection, such that trichromats have an advantage over dichromats for some ecologically important task(s). However, evidence for such an advantage in wild primate populations is equivocal. The purpose of this study is to refine a hypothesis for a trichromat advantage by tailoring it to the ecology of territorial primates with female natal dispersal, such that dispersing trichromatic females have a foraging and, by extension, survival advantage over dichromats. I then examine the most practical way to test this hypothesis using field data. Indirect evidence in support of the hypothesis may take the form of differences in genotype frequencies among life stages and differences in disperser food item encounter rates. A deterministic evolutionary matrix population model and a stochastic model of food patch encounter rates are constructed to investigate the magnitude of such differences and the likelihood of statistical detection using field data. Results suggest that, although the sampling effort required to detect the hypothesized genotype frequency differences is impractical, a field study of reasonable scope may be able to detect differences in disperser foraging rates. This study demonstrates the utility of incorporating socioecological details into formal hypotheses during the planning stages of field studies of primate color vision. PMID:25690845

  17. Ecological studies on the diversity of terrestrial poisonous snakes "Proteroglyphous” of Jazan region Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (Reptilia: Ophidia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa F. Masood

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The present work was carried out in Jazan region. The region of Jazan in being in the South-Western part of Saudi Arabia between longitudes 420 and 43.80 and latitudes 5, 16o and 17o, and is bounded on the south and east of the Republic of Yemen, Asir area in the north and the Red Sea in the west. The results showed that there are four families of poisonous snakes "Proteroglyphous" living in Jazan region. They are: Family Atractaspididae, Elapidae, Viperidae and Hydrophiidae . This work aimed to unveil ecological problems and throw light on diversity of poisonous snakes in Jazan region and the danger of these species to human life. Despite the fact that these snakes may be harmful to human life in some cases, it may also be useful to him in many aspects of life. Since there are no enough studies on the animal species in the region, this study came to identify the diversity of this animal group. There is no doubt that the study of these species and identifying them will provide some solutions that could make this group as an endless source of biodiversity and at the same time, this study provides information on the feasibility of protection of this species in this region. Discussion of ecological and geographical affinities of this taxa and taxonomic keys of different types in order to facilitate the process of identification will be provided

  18. Predicting performance for ecological restoration: A case study using Spartina altemiflora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, S.E.; Grace, J.B.

    2010-01-01

    The success of population-based ecological restoration relies on the growth and reproductive performance of selected donor materials, whether consisting of whole plants or seed. Accurately predicting performance requires an understanding of a variety of underlying processes, particularly gene flow and selection, which can be measured, at least in part, using surrogates such as neutral marker genetic distances and simple latitudinal effects. Here we apply a structural equation modeling approach to understanding and predicting performance in a widespread salt marsh grass, Spartina alterniflora, commonly used for ecological restoration throughout its native range in North America. We collected source materials from throughout this range, consisting of eight clones each from 23 populations, for transplantation to a common garden site in coastal Louisiana and monitored their performance. We modeled performance as a latent process described by multiple indicator variables (e.g., clone diameter, stem number) and estimated direct and indirect influences of geographic and genetic distances on performance. Genetic distances were determined by comparison of neutral molecular markers with those from a local population at the common garden site. Geographic distance metrics included dispersal distance (the minimum distance over water between donor and experimental sites) and latitude. Model results indicate direct effects of genetic distance and latitude on performance variation among the donor sites. Standardized effect strengths indicate that performance was roughly twice as sensitive to variation in genetic distance as to latitudinal variation. Dispersal distance had an indirect influence on performance through effects on genetic distance, indicating a typical pattern of genetic isolation by distance. Latitude also had an indirect effect on genetic distance through its linear relationship with dispersal distance. Three performance indicators had significant loadings on

  19. [Retrospective seroprevalence study of bovine leptospirosis in Mexico considering the ecological regions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Miguel Angel Luna; Moles y Cervantes, Luis Pedro; Rosas, Dolores Gavaldón; Vasquez, Carmen Nava; García, Félix Salazar

    2005-01-01

    The newly published information about the different ecological regions of Mexico was analyzed aimed at knowing the situation of bovine leptospirosis. A bibliographical search was made and the articles were chosen according to the following inclusion criteria: a) diagnosis technique: microscopic agglutination, b) positive criterion titres of 1:100 or higher, c) time period: 1991-2003, d) publications such as thesis, memoirs of congresses, non-scientific journals and journals with arbitrage, e) location by states. The duplicated information was considered as the exclusion criteria. The results of frequency and of serovarieties of leptospirosis were reported by state, considering the different ecological regions. Reference to 17 states is made. The arid and semi-arid region had a frequency of 37.8 % with a range from 31% to 59%, the prevalent serovars were H-89 strain (hardjo genotype hardjoprajitno), hardjo, wolffi and tarassovi. In the dry tropical region, there was a frequency of 45.9 % with a range from 27 to 72 %. The prevailing serovarieties were wolffi, hardjo and tarassovi. In the humid tropical region , the frequency was 63.8 % with a range between 31.7 and 84.6 %. The predominating serovarieties were H-89 strain (hardjo genotype hardjoprajitno), hardjo, wolffi and tarassovi. In the mild climate, the average frequency of leptospirosis was 39.4 % with a range from 22.1 to 54.3 %. The prevailing serovarieties were Palo Alto strain (icterohaemorrhagiae), Sinaloa ACR strain (portlandvere), bratislava, pyrogenes, pomona, and H-89 strain (hardjoprajitno), hardjo, wolffi and tarassovi. It was concluded that the presence of antobodies against L. interrogans is endemic in the different ecological regions of Mexico and that there is an elevated prevalence of serovarieties hardjo, wolffi y tarassovi; although in the temperate region, the Palo Alto strain (icterohaemorrhagiae), the Sinaloa ACR strain (portland vere) and Bratislava are present, too. Apparently, the

  20. Studies on the Ecology of Fouling Community in Daguanban Reclamation Area of Luoyuan Bay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周时强; 柯才焕; 林大鹏

    2001-01-01

    The test panels have been set for one year in the waters of Daguanban reclamation area of Luoyuan Bay to investigate the ecology of fouling community. 39 species of animals and 8 species of algae have been recorded during the investigation. The main period of settlement extends from May to October. The peak periods of biomass and covered area rate of the panels have been observed from Juneto September Balanus reticulatus, Bugula neritina, Molgula manhattensis, Tubularia mesembryanthemun and Enteromopha interstinalis are the dominant species in the fouling community. Species diversity index, species richness, species evenness and environmental factors are determined, the results of which indicate that water flow speed is the most important factor influencing the species and quantity composition of the fouling community.As to the mariculture production in the reclamation area, the main harmful period ranges from June to September.

  1. The sea urchin, a versatile model for eco-toxicity studies and ecological experimental research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Privitera

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Echinoderm early developmental stages represent a good tool for toxicity testing in different fields, ranging from environment to food contamination, and in full respect of the 3Rs objectives (Reduction, Refinement, Replacement of animal experiments, that will lead to the reduction of vertebrate use for toxicity testing. Further, sea urchins are key species in a wide range of marine habitats, as they are able to structure algal community. Experiments and observations aiming at the  characterization of anthropogenic or climate changes effects on their settlement, population structure, feeding behaviour and reproductive condition, may be useful to describe future scenarios regarding the whole marine community. The present paper represents a short review of the possible applications of eco-toxicity bioassays using Paracentrotus lividus gametes and embryos. Further, examples of ecological researches, involving sea urchins, aiming at the definition of future scenarios will be preserved.

  2. Ecological study for refrigerator use, salt, vegetable, and fruit intakes, and gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Boyoung; Shin, Aesun; Park, Sue K; Ko, Kwang-Pil; Ma, Seung Hyun; Lee, Eun-Ha; Gwack, Jin; Jung, En-Joo; Cho, Lisa Y; Yang, Jae Jeong; Yoo, Keun-Young

    2011-11-01

    We used an ecological approach to determine the correlation between vegetable, fruit and salt intakes, refrigerator use, and gastric cancer mortality in Korean population. Information on fruit and vegetable intakes per capita from the National Health and Nutrition Survey, death certificate data from the National Statistical office, refrigerator per household data from Korean Statistical Information Service, and salt/sodium intake data from a cross-sectional survey were utilized. Correlation coefficients were calculated between vegetable and fruit intakes, refrigerator per household, and gastric cancer mortality and between salt and sodium intakes, and gastric cancer mortality and incidence in the four areas. With 5, 10, and 15 years lag time, refrigerator usage and fruit intake were negatively associated with gastric cancer mortality (p refrigerator use, fruit intake, and gastric cancer mortality and positive associations between salt/sodium intake and gastric cancer mortality and incidence were suggested. PMID:21805052

  3. Control principles of confounders in ecological comparative studies: standardization and regressive modelss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varaksin Anatoly

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The methods of the analysis of research data including the concomitant variables (confounders associated with both the response and the current factor are considered. There are two usual ways to take into account such variables: the first, at the stage of planning the experiment and the second, in analyzing the received data. Despite the equal effectiveness of these approaches, there exists strong reason to restrict the usage of regression method to accounting for confounders by ANCOVA. Authors consider the standardization by stratification as a reliable method to account for the effect of confounding factors as opposed to the widely-implemented application of logistic regression and the covariance analysis. The program for the automation of standardization procedure is proposed, it is available at the site of the Institute of Industrial Ecology.

  4. Integrating Water, Actors, and Structure to Study Socio-Hydro-Ecological Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, R. L.; Armstrong, A.; Baker, M. A.; Bedingfield, S.; Betts, D.; Buahin, C. A.; Buchert, M.; Crowl, T.; Dupont, R.; Endter-Wada, J.; Flint, C.; Grant, J.; Hinners, S.; Horns, D.; Horsburgh, J. S.; Jackson-Smith, D.; Jones, A. S.; Licon, C.; Null, S. E.; Odame, A.; Pataki, D. E.; Rosenberg, D. E.; Runburg, M.; Stoker, P.; Strong, C.

    2014-12-01

    Urbanization, climate uncertainty, and ecosystem change represent major challenges for managing water resources. Water systems and the forces acting upon them are complex, and there is a need to understand and generically represent the most important system components and linkages. We developed a framework to facilitate understanding of water systems including potential vulnerabilities and opportunities for sustainability. Our goal was to produce an interdisciplinary framework for water resources research to address water issues across scales (e.g., city to region) and domains (e.g., water supply and quality, urban and transitioning landscapes). An interdisciplinary project (iUTAH - innovative Urban Transitions and Aridregion Hydro-sustainability) with a large (N=~100), diverse team having expertise spanning the hydrologic, biological, ecological, engineering, social, planning, and policy sciences motivated the development of this framework. The framework was developed through review of the literature, meetings with individual researchers, and workshops with participants. The Structure-Water-Actor Framework (SWAF) includes three main components: water (quality and quantity), structure (natural, built, and social), and actors (individual and organizational). Key linkages include: 1) ecological and hydrological processes, 2) ecosystem and geomorphic change, 3) planning, design, and policy, 4) perceptions, information, and experience, 5) resource access, and 6) operational water use and management. Our expansive view of structure includes natural, built, and social components, allowing us to examine a broad set of tools and levers for water managers and decision-makers to affect system sustainability and understand system outcomes. We validate the SWAF and illustrate its flexibility to generate insights for three research and management problems: green stormwater infrastructure in an arid environment, regional water supply and demand, and urban river restoration

  5. HSF1/HSP70通路抑制c-Jun氨基末端激酶的活化保护UVA诱导的HaCaT细胞凋亡%Protection of HSF1/HSP70 pathway on UVA-induced HaCaT cells apoptosis via inhibiting the activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓雯; 王春波; 李丙华; 韩彦弢

    2012-01-01

    目的 观察热休克转录因子1( HSF1)与热休克蛋白70( HSP70)对紫外线A(UVA)诱导HaCaT细胞凋亡的保护作用及其机制.方法 建立8mJ/cm2 UVA辐射损伤HaCaT细胞的病理模型.将细胞随机分为对照组、8mJ/cm2 UVA照射组、HSP70转录抑制剂组(50 μmol/L槲皮素).Honechst 33258荧光染色观察细胞凋亡;蛋白质印迹法检测UVA辐射HaCaT细胞后p-HSF1和HSP70蛋白的经时变化及UVA辐射后孵育6h JNK(c-Jun氨基末端激酶)、p-JNK的蛋白表达;Real-Time PCR检测HSP70 mRNA的表达.结果 UVA辐射后HaCaT细胞内p-HSF1、HSP70蛋白表达量均出现先增加后减少的时间依赖性趋势,其中p-HSF1于lh开始增加,3h达高峰,HSP70于6h达高峰,24h基本恢复原始水平;UVA辐射前预先加入HSP70转录抑制剂槲皮素能显著抑制HSP70 mRNA的表达,增加p-JNK的表达量,同时Honechst 33258荧光染色观察其与UVA辐射组比较凋亡率明显升高.结论 8mJ/cm2 UVA辐射HaCaT细胞在一定时间内可使HSF1活化致HSP70表达增加.HSFl/HSP70通路对UVA诱导的HaCaT细胞凋亡具有保护作用,其机制与HSP70大量表达后抑制JNK的活化有关.%Objective To investigate the protective effect of heat shock factorl ( HSF1) and heat shock protein70 ( HSP70) on ultraviolet A ( UVA ) -induced HaCaT cells apoptosis and its mechanism. Methods The apoptotic HaCaT cell model was induced by UVA irradiation (8mJ/cm ). The cells were randomly divided into three groups, including a control group, a model group (8mJ/cm UVA) and a HSP70 transcription inhibitor group (50 μmol/L quercetin). The morphologic alteration of apoptotic cells was investigated by using Hoechst 33258 fluorescent staining. Western blotting was used to investigate protein expression levels of phosphorylated HSF1 and HSP70 at different time points, as well as c-Jun N-terminal kinase ( JNK ) andphosphorylated JNK were investigated after incubating for 6 hours following UVA irradiation. HSP70 mRNA was

  6. Understanding the biology and ecology of vulnerable plant species: case study with tetratheca juncea occurring over coal leases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Mulligan; Sean Bellairs; F.V. Bartier; C.L. Gross; D. Bowen

    2001-06-01

    Tetratheca juncea Smith (Tremandraceae) is a vulnerable species listed under the NSW Threatened Species Conservation Act (Schedule 2, TSC Act 1995), and in the Commonwealth Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999.Researchers at the Universities of Queensland, New England and Newcastle established A collaborative research program investigated the reproductive and establishment biology of T juncea. Breeding systems, seed biology and mycorrhizal associations were investigated to determine factors limiting the reproductive output of the species. Native bees necessary for pollination were not detected in 100 hours of observation. The three key ramifications from this study of T. juncea's ecology is that: a pollinator is required for high seed yields; fire is required for germination; and a mycorrhizal partner is required for plant longevity. These findings indicate that translocations of the species cannot be recommended as there is a lack of knowledge about many factors that are critical for the persistence of the species. A fire management plan will need to cater for all obligate ecological requirements. The results of this study have been used to develop a flowchart on the biological procedures that need to be considered when a threatened flora species is found on a site. The results from this study are also considered to be a relevant guide for managing populations of other species of Tetratheca, many of which are also rare or threatened.

  7. Research of land reclamation and ecological restoration in the resource-exhausting city : a case study of Huaibei in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eco-city construction is a strong tool which could move a city from traditional industrial civilization to ecological civilization. The city of Huaibet, located in China, has 50 years of coal mining history, and has been listed as a national resource-exhausting city. The city's sustainable development and ecological restoration is encountering extreme challenges. This study used time-space evolution analysis of mining subsidence in order to study the situation of evolution and distribution of subsidence in the area in Huaibet. The purpose of the study was to provide strategic recommendations to assist Huaibei city transform from a resource-exhausting city to an eco-city. Specifically, the paper discussed the direction of eco-reconstruction in Huaibei such as rural eco-agriculture; wetland park or suburban park; and mine park. It also presented a time-space evolution analysis of mining subsidence in Huaibet including the subsidence status of the main city of Huaibet and intensive use of land evaluation and land use measures of the main city of Huaibei. Land reclamation and eco-reconstruction of Huaibet was also examined in the paper. It was concluded that based on land use of all aspects of the evaluation area and city's development plan, an integrated tourism with full use of subsidence land could be developed. 10 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs.

  8. Application of an integrative hydro-ecological model to study water resources management in the upper and middle parts of the Yellow River basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xianglian LI; Qiong GAO; Tingwu LEI; Xiusheng YANG

    2011-01-01

    This study presents an application of a well-calibrated integrative hydro-ecological model to examine water resources management in the upper and middle parts of the Yellow River basin, an arid and semiarid area in northwestern China. The hydro-ecological model was developed to simulate dynamic and accumulative hydrologic, ecologic, and economic variables at different spatial units. Four water management scenarios based on water use priorities, a business-as-usual scenario, an ecological scenario, an irrigation use efficiency scenario and water use scenario were designed and modeled over the period of 2011-2020 to reflect alternative water management pathways to the future. Water resource conditions were assessed in terms streamfiow, actual evapotranspiration,soil water, groundwater yield, overall water yield, and derived indicator of drought index. Unit crop yield was to assess ecological production, and monetary values of crop productivity and water productivity were used to assess economic output. Scenario analysis results suggested that water stress would continue in the study region under both current water use patterns and ecological scenarios of river flow being fully satisfied. Water use scenarios would result in decreased water availability and ecosystem degradation in the long mn. Improving irrigation use efficiency would be the most efficient approach in securing long-term water and food supply. The simulation results from this study provided useful information for evaluating long-term water resources management strategies, and will contribute to the knowledge of interdisciplinary modeling for water resources management in the study region.

  9. 热休克因子在过氧化氢所致小鼠胚胎成纤维细胞损伤中的作用%Effect of Heat Shock Factor 1 (HSF1) on Hydrogen Peroxide-Mediated Impairment of Mouse Embryonic Fibroblasts (MEFs)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘可; 王浩; 易宇欣; 刘梅冬; 陈广文; 王慷慨; 肖献忠

    2007-01-01

    [目的]探讨热休克因子1(heat shock factor 1,HSF1)对过氧化氢所致小鼠胚胎成纤维细胞(mouse embryonic fibroblasts,MEFs)损伤的影响.[方法]利用HSF1基因敲除(HSF1-/-)小鼠和转基因技术,通过稳定转染SV40大T抗原基因,建立缺失HSF1基因(HSF1-/-纯合子)和含有HSF1基因(HSF1+/+野生型)的永生化MEFs,并采用免疫印迹和基因组DNA PCR技术进行鉴定.向细胞培养基中加入终浓度为0.5 mmol/L的过氧化氢导致细胞损伤,采用甲苯胺兰染色和总蛋白合成能力分析方法来判定致细胞损伤程度(核仁的结构和功能改变).[结果]PCR产物电泳显示在各种基因型MEFs中均含有SV40大T抗原基因,在HSF1-/-MEFs中仅含有替代基因,在HSF1+/+MEFs中仅含HSF1基因,在HSF1-/+MEFs中则含有替代基因和HSF1基因;免疫印迹显示热休克反应(heat shock response,HSR)不能诱导HSF1-/-MEFs中HSP70表达.甲苯胺兰染色和总蛋白合成能力分析显示0.5 mmol/L过氧化氢可引起HSF1+/+MEFs及HSF1-/-MEFs核仁分离及蛋白质合成抑制,与正常对照组相比,P<0.05;HSR能显著抑制过氧化氢所致HSF1+/+MEFs核仁分离及蛋白质合成抑制,与单纯过氧化氢损伤组相比,P<0.05,但HSR对过氧化氢所致HSF1-/-MEFs核仁分离及蛋白质合成抑制没有影响,与单纯过氧化氢损伤组相比,P>0.05.[结论]HSR以一种HSF1依赖方式显著抑制过氧化氢所致细胞核仁结构与功能损伤.

  10. 林窗生态学研究进展%Advances in Studies of Forest Gap Ecology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管云云; 费菲; 关庆伟; 陈斌

    2016-01-01

    Forest gap,though an interference at local scale,is an important driving force forest reqeneration nutrient cycling and ecosystem functioning of forests. By thoroughly reviewing the literature of forest gap studies,this paper was intended to advance the knowledge for both scientific research and forest management. Traditionally,forest gap ecology focuses on the formation and characteristics of gaps,and the consequent impacts on above-ground ecological processes( e. g. microclimate and plant community characteristics ) . Nowadays,a growing body of the research shifts sights to the effects of forest gap on under ground ecological processes ( e. g. fine roots and litter decomposition,soil carbon and nitrogen dynamics,soil enzyme activities) and ecophysiological traits of animals and soil microorganism. However,current knowledge of these new spots is limited by the small spatial and temporal research scales. With the purposes of improving stand structures,ecological services function and process of forests,future work should focus more on the effects of forest gap on under ground ecological processes( e. g. fine roots decomposition and rhizosphere effect,distribution,cycling and immobilization of soil carbon and nitrogen) and ecophysiological traits of organisms. Furthermore,future studies should enlarge their research scales,and should also integrate above-and under ground ecological ecosystem,biotic and abiotic factors,as well as micro-and macro-scales.%林窗是森林生态系统中的一种中小尺度干扰,是促进森林更新、养分循环、功能提高的重要推动力。本文阐述林窗生态学的研究进展与展望,以期为今后的林窗理论研究和森林经营实践提供参考。林窗生态学研究集中于林窗的形成、基本特征以及林窗对森林小气候和植物群落特征等地上结构与过程的影响;近年来,林窗对细根与枯落物分解、土壤碳氮动态及酶活性以及对森林动物和土壤微生物

  11. The role of the Yala swamp lakes in conservation of Lake Victoria region haplochromine cichlids: evidence from molecular genetic and trophic ecology studies

    OpenAIRE

    Abila, R.; Salzburger, W; Ndonga, M.F.; Owiti, D.O.; Barluenga, M.

    2006-01-01

    Lake Kanyaboli (Kenya), a satellite lake of Lake Victoria, has been suggested as a potential refugium for haplochromine cichlids that have gone extinct in Lake Victoria. We employed mitochondrial DNA and microsatellite DNA molecular markers as well as feeding ecology studies to re- evaluate the evolutionary and ecological significance of Lake Kanyaboli haplochromines. The mitochondrial DNA and microsatellite markers revealed high genetic diversity in the endangered Xystichromis phytophagus an...

  12. Combined assessment and regulation on ecological land use and water demand of the river system: a case study in Luanhe River, North China

    OpenAIRE

    D. H. Yan; Wang, G; Wang, H.; T. L. Qin

    2011-01-01

    With economic and social development, ecological water and land use of the river system were seriously misappropriated, which resulted in overall degradation of the river systems. In this study, theoretical and technical frameworks of regionalisation on the eco-environmental function of the river systems were preliminarily formulated. According to the river eco-environmental functions, Luanhe River was regionalised into four types of first-class functional areas, i.e., ecological preservation...

  13. Developments in numerical ecology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legendre, P.; Legendre, L.

    1987-01-01

    From earlier ecological studies it has become apparent that simple univariate or bivariate statistics are often inappropriate, and that multivariate statistical analyses must be applied. Despite several difficulties arising from the application of multivariate methods, community ecology has acquired a mathematical framework, with three consequences: it can develop as an exact science; it can be applied operationally as a computer-assisted science to the solution of environmental problems; and it can exchange information with other disciplines using the language of mathematics.

  14. A Holistic Landscape Description Reveals That Landscape Configuration Changes More over Time than Composition: Implications for Landscape Ecology Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Mimet

    Full Text Available Space-for-time substitution-that is, the assumption that spatial variations of a system can explain and predict the effect of temporal variations-is widely used in ecology. However, it is questionable whether it can validly be used to explain changes in biodiversity over time in response to land-cover changes.Here, we hypothesize that different temporal vs spatial trajectories of landscape composition and configuration may limit space-for-time substitution in landscape ecology. Land-cover conversion changes not just the surface areas given over to particular types of land cover, but also affects isolation, patch size and heterogeneity. This means that a small change in land cover over time may have only minor repercussions on landscape composition but potentially major consequences for landscape configuration.Using land-cover maps of the Paris region for 1982 and 2003, we made a holistic description of the landscape disentangling landscape composition from configuration. After controlling for spatial variations, we analyzed and compared the amplitudes of changes in landscape composition and configuration over time.For comparable spatial variations, landscape configuration varied more than twice as much as composition over time. Temporal changes in composition and configuration were not always spatially matched.The fact that landscape composition and configuration do not vary equally in space and time calls into question the use of space-for-time substitution in landscape ecology studies. The instability of landscapes over time appears to be attributable to configurational changes in the main. This may go some way to explaining why the landscape variables that account for changes over time in biodiversity are not the same ones that account for the spatial distribution of biodiversity.

  15. Benefits of studies of overwintering birds for understanding resident bird ecology and promoting development of conservation capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latta, Steven C; Faaborg, John

    2009-04-01

    Funding of ecological research and monitoring of Neotropical migratory birds on their overwintering grounds has benefited both migratory and permanent-resident species. Using examples from our work in Puerto Rico and the Dominican Republic, we demonstrate that ecological research of overwintering migrants often provides information about the ecology and demography of little-known tropical resident birds. Critically important long-term monitoring in Puerto Rico with a focus on winter residents has provided information on the relationships between annual rainfall and fluctuations in resident bird populations and survival rates. It also has alerted local biologists to declines in resident bird populations, including a decline apparently driven by the entry of a brood parasite. But migrant-focused research may also have had an underappreciated effect on the development of conservation capacity and conservation efforts in host countries. Investments in research on Neotropical migrants overwintering on Hispaniola have resulted in a huge increase in field training of students and wildlife professionals, promoted conservation awareness at local and national levels, played an important role in the growth and professionalization of key environmental organizations, spawned a growing ecotourism industry for bird-watching, and driven national park management planning and conservation efforts for all bird species. We encourage funding organizations and agencies to consider the broader impacts of funding migratory-bird research and monitoring efforts, and we encourage researchers in the tropics to use protocols that provide the most information about all the birds that use the study areas involved and to be aware of important opportunities that they may have to build capacity in host countries.

  16. Calculating Pollution Indices by Heavy Metals in Ecological Geochemistry Assessment and a Case Study in Parks of Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gong Qingjie; Deng Jun; Xiang Yunchuan; Wang Qingfei; Yang Liqiang

    2008-01-01

    Pollution index is a powerful tool for ecological geochemistry assessment. The commonly used pollution indices by heavy metals in soils and sediments were classified as two types of single index and integrated index in an algorithm point of view. Four single indices of contamination factor (or concentration factor), ecological risk factor, enrichment factor, and index of geo-accumulation were illustrated, and the reference values for calculating single indices were distinguished into background levels and threshold pollution values. Eight integrated indices were divided into two groups. One group is suitable for the normal distribution single indices including the sum, average, weighted average,vector modulus, and Nemerow pollution indices, and the other for log-normal distribution including the product, root of product, and weighted power product pollution indices. Using background levels as reference values, five contamination classes were divided, and the terminologies are suggested for the single and integrated indices to unify the assessment results. Software of EGAPI was developed in a single document interface to calculate the four single and eight integrated indices by heavy metals to assess the quality of soil and sediment ecological geochemistry. Pollution indices by heavy metals of Cu,Pb, and Zn in soils in parks of Beijing were calculated using EGAPI software, and these five contamination classes and terminologies suggested in this study were evaluated and used. Results ofintegrated indices of Cu, Pb, and Zn in soils indicated that the soil qualities are unpolluted as a whole and varied from low polluted to unpolluted status from the center to the outskirts of Beijing City.

  17. Wet Grasslands as a Green Infrastructure for Ecological Sustainability: Wader Conservation in Southern Sweden as a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Manton

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Biosphere Reserves aim at being role models for biodiversity conservation. This study focuses on the unsuccessful conservation of waders (Charadrii on wet grasslands in the Kristianstad Vattenrike Biosphere Reserve (KVBR in southern Sweden. Predation on nests and young has been proposed as one reason contributing to the decline of waders. We explored this hypothesis by comparing two landscapes, one with declining (KVBR and one with stable (Östergötland wader populations on managed wet grasslands in southern Sweden. Specifically, we tested three predictions linked to predation on wader nests and young, namely that (1 the relative abundance of avian predators and waders; (2 the avian predator abundance; and (3 the predation rate on artificial wader nests, should all be higher in declining versus stable populations. All predictions were clearly supported. Nevertheless, predation may not be the ultimate factor causing wader population declines. We discuss the cumulative effects of landscape change linked to increased food resources for predators, reduced wet grassland patch size and quality. Holistic analyses of multiple wet grassland landscapes as social-ecological systems as case studies, including processes such as predation and other factors affecting waders, is a promising avenue towards collaborative learning for wet grasslands as a functional green infrastructure. However, if governance and management approaches can be improved is questionable without considerable investment in both ecological and social systems.

  18. Investigations in to Ecological Consequences and Threats from Ethnoecological and Ethnobotanical Practices Across Karakorum Mountain Ranges: A Case Study Berberis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tika Khan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Geomorphologically inaccessible mighty mountain ranges of Karakoram, Hindukush, Himalaya and Pamir have been mother sanctuaries for several ecologically attuned civilizations. Modern changes underway across ethnoecological and ethnobotanical settings among these mountain traditional communities have drastically depreciated folk wisdom and ecological equilibrium. Ethno-climatic agencies have threatened several species and Berberis pseudumbellata subsp. gilgitica has become critically endangered. Present study was an attempt to discover ethnobotanical insights and exploration of threatening factors affecting Berberis species. Survey (n=373 revealed that communities use Berberis meeting various purposes including medicinal (92.2%; SE±0.057; 0.409 MT/annum-a, firewood (19.3%; SE±37.375; 6.589 MT/a, commercial (2.41%; SE±1.692; 0.048 MT/a, cultural (2.41%, fodder (16.08%; SE±11.474; 8.724 MT/a, fencing (19.03%; SE±6.895; 3.352 MT/a and grazing (100%; SE±1.035. Data was analyzed using Pearson correlational coefficient, student t-test and descriptive statistical tools. Study exhibits highly significant relationship (p< 0.000 among different age groups, ethnomedicinal uses and conservation status of Berberis.

  19. Evaluation of agricultural ecological environment in determining the capable areas: A case study of city of Esfahan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedigheh Kiani Salmi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The nature of different activities in production, agriculture as well as distribution and consumption section, called as expansionist activities, largely influence the ability of the land. Production of consumable material, which is required for increasing population in various areas, and their attractions make it possible to earn more profit and it causes a significant pressure on soil and water resources and can threaten environmental pollution and human food security. A self-interested attitude on land resources has led to run short-term programs without considering the ecological capability of the land. These mentioned problems are, significantly intensified particularly in arid and semi-arid areas with severe limitations of water and soil quality and quantity. Therefore, land allocation based on ecological capability and self-purification indexes, used for land use planning, is an appropriate response to meet the deficiencies noted. This paper studies the agricultural capable lands based on land capability. The proposed study uses GIS software capabilities with application of the environmental ability evaluation model, as a holistic approach, to make sustainable development research in the region. The results indicate that suitable lands for agriculture in the whole area in different classes are widespread and with regards to dependency of more than 90 percent of people to agricultural activities, serious attention of authorities is required for providing the appropriate baseline and avoiding land use change to develop this activity.

  20. RNAi抑制人宫颈癌细胞HSF1基因表达增强细胞辐射敏感性的实验研究%Heat shock transcription factor1 gene silenced with RNAi to enhance radio-sensitivity of cervical carcinoma cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘中华; 洪承皎; 张保国

    2008-01-01

    通过RNA(Ribonucleic acid)干扰技术下调人宫颈癌细胞中热休克转录因子HSFI(Heat shock tran-scriprion factor1,HSF1)基因的表达,探讨沉默HSF1基因后,对宫颈癌细胞辐射敏感性的影响.将表达siRNA的HSF1-pSilencer2.1-U6 neo质粒表达载体,采用脂质体转染法转入宫颈癌细胞,用实时荧光定量PCR(Realtime polymerase chain reaction,RT-PCR)检测HSF1mRNA表达水平,流式细胞仪检测蛋白质量,克隆法检测细胞的辐射敏感性.结果发现,与空白组细胞及阴性对照组细胞相比转染HSF1A-pSilencer2.1-U6neo质粒表达载体的细胞HSF1mRNA表达明显下降,同时Hela细胞的辐射敏感性也随着HSF1基因表达的下调而增高.表明siRNA质粒表达载体HSF1A-pSilencer2.1-U6neo转染细胞后可以降低HSF1的表达,可以增强宫颈癌细胞的辐射敏感性,具有良好的临床应用前景.