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Sample records for ecological sanitation concept

  1. Ecological sanitation concept for the agglomeration area of Leipzig/Bitterfeld/Halle/Merseburg. Report on phase 1. Oekologisches Sanierungskonzept Leipzig/Bitterfeld/Halle/Merseburg. Bericht zu Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-01

    The German Unification Treaty between the Federal Republic of Germany and the former German Democratic Republic stresses the necessity of environmental protection measures in the five new Laender and calls for the establishment of ecological sanitation and development programs for these Laender. This report on the project phase 1 of an 'Ecological sanitation and development concept for the agglomeration area of Leipzig/Halle' contains the foreword of the long version, the short version, and the following 8 contributions of the project partners, either in the form of separate chapters for each sub-project, or as reports of the individual institutions: (1) Water report; (2) Air report; (3) Waste report; (4) Long-standing pollution report; (5) Economic aspects report; (6) Reports on environmental law and its implementation; (7) Regional and communal planning; (8) Urgent environmental problems and projects on the district level. (BBR).

  2. Verslag van de 'Sanitation Challenge: An international conference on new sanitation concepts and models of governance'.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van B.J.M.; Eekert, van M.H.A.; Zeeman, G.; Mels, A.R.

    2008-01-01

    Van 19 tot en met 21 mei vond in Wageningen de `Sanitation Challenge: an international conference on new sanitation concepts and models of governance¿ plaats. Het voornaamste doel was om de verschillende groepen die betrokken zijn bij onderzoek, ontwikkeling en implementatie van (nieuwe) sanitatie

  3. Dry sanitation concepts with inspiration from nature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenau, Torben Anker; Hesselberg, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    design methods that search nature for animals and plants that solve similar problems. The paper describes how four conceptual sanitation solutions for dry toilets solving problems with smell, cleaning and flies can be made in collaboration between a design engineer and a biologist using biomimetic design...... methods. The solutions have the potential to offer significant improvements compared to conventional non-water-based sanitation.......Poor sanitation is a major problem for health and water resources in many developing countries. Inexpensive but also attractive toilets could be a way to fight these problems. However, radical new ideas are needed to identify innovative solutions. Such novel ideas might be found by using systematic...

  4. Ecological Sanitation and nutrient recovery from human urine: How far have we come? A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prithvi Simha

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available To address the shortcomings of modern wastewater treatment, Ecological Sanitation (EcoSan has been advocated as a sustainable approach to promote closed-loop flows of resources and nutrients from sanitation to agriculture. In this study, we discuss the rationale behind its conception and provide a state-of-the-art review on the subject. Through an exhaustive literature analysis of EcoSan systems, its historical developments and programs implemented worldwide we (i validate the potential applicability and feasibility of decentralized, source-based sanitation and (ii depict fundamental problems in EcoSan systems design that have stalled its adoption and proliferation. Specifically, we focus on urine diversion to demonstrate its potential to elegantly separate, collect and concentrate products that we require (nutrients and those that we wish to regulate (pathogens and micropollutants. Since recent research efforts have been devoted to the technological recovery of nutrients from human urine, we believe that we are witnessing a paradigm shift within a paradigm shift as it represents a change in emphasis from ‘split-stream collection and reuse’ to ‘split-stream collection, resource recovery and safe reuse’. Our analysis of various nutrient recovery technologies for human urine indicates that provisioning of urine-diverting toilets tends to reduce sanitary risks; however, to contain and completely eliminate these risks continued research effort is needed to envision and implement integrated technological pathways that ensure simultaneous nutrient recovery, pathogen inactivation and reduction of pharmaceuticals and active substances.

  5. A study of ecological sanitation of human urine by tunnel harvest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study of ecological sanitation of human urine by tunnel harvest and re-use for peri-urban vegetable production in Kano - a pilot scheme. R.A. Habib, I.L. Abdullahi. Abstract. No Abstract. Keywords: Ecology, Urban, Fertilizer, Amaranthus, Lactuca, Urine. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  6. Logistics and ecological sanitation in the city of San Fernando, La Union, Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Mateo, Dave; Gone, Agnes

    2008-01-01

    Access to basic sanitation remains a grave challenge on both global and local scales. This paper examines the logistical aspects of a pioneering ecological sanitation initiative piloting the use of urine-diverting dehydration toilets in two low-income communities in San Fernando city, La Union, Philippines, from January 2005. The San Fernando city government currently faces two challenges. First, how to develop a system that will more efficiently serve not only the communities piloted in the ...

  7. The sanitation value chain: its concept and new research collaboration project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funamizu, N.

    2017-03-01

    Sanitation is essential for promoting health, preventing environment pollution, conserving ecosystem, and recovering and recycling resources. Therefore, it can be said that sanitation is closely related to such current global issues as poverty, urban slum, conservation of ecosystem, and resources management. Namely, the question, “How can we handle the waste from 10 billion people in future?” is a global environmental problem to be solved. In developing world, population is growing rapidly especially in urban slums and they have still high under 5 mortality and poverty issues. It also reported that 2.4 billion people are still using unimproved sanitation facilities, including 946 million people who are still practicing open defecation in 2015 (UN, 2015). On the other hand, depopulation and aging are progressing especially in rural area of developed world. Based on the above mentioned background, new research project on sanitation value chain has started. This is a collaboration project with LIPI, RIHN (Research Institute of Humanity and Nature, Kyoto) and HU (Hokkaido University). The concept of the sanitation value chain and the brief summary of the project are discussed in the keynote presentation. The concept of sanitation value chain proposed in the project : The project is proposing new concept, Sanitation Value Chain, which has the following basic policies: 1) Put values of people/and community in the centre of discussion, and prepare sanitation system to drive this value chain; 2) Design the sanitation system by focusing on incentive for individual users and community; 3) Recognize a sanitation system as an integrated system with social and technical systems; 4) Design the sanitation system by making a good matching between social characteristics and prerequisites of the technologies. The goals of the research are 1) To propose the Sanitation Value Chain as a common solution for both developing and developed countries, 2) To show the validity of the

  8. Ecological sanitation in urban medium density mixed housing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Matsebe, G

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available are unique to the use of Ecosan in urban Medium-Density Mixed-Housing (MDMH). Firstly, decision-making is more complex because consensus needs to be reached among a diverse group of people with a varied level of understanding of ecological and sustainable...

  9. Prospects of Source-Separation-Based Sanitation Concepts: A Model-Based Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tervahauta, T.H.; Trang Hoang,; Hernández, L.; Zeeman, G.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2013-01-01

    Separation of different domestic wastewater streams and targeted on-site treatment for resource recovery has been recognized as one of the most promising sanitation concepts to re-establish the balance in carbon, nutrient and water cycles. In this study a model was developed based on literature data

  10. Oestrogen removal from biological pre-treated wastewater within decentralised sanitation and re-use concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mes, de T.Z.D.; Urmenyi, A.M.; Poot, A.A.; Wessling, M.; Mulder, M.H.V.; Zeeman, G.

    2006-01-01

    Two parallel researches were performed; one focused on the fate of oestrogens in the biological treatment systems within decentralised sanitation and re-use concepts (DESAR), the second related to the development of a suitable specific removal method. A new affinity membrane was developed using

  11. Linking human health, climate change, and food security through ecological-based sanitation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryals, R.; Kramer, S.; Porder, S.; Andersen, G. L.

    2015-12-01

    Ensuring access to clean, safe sanitation for the world's population remains a challenging, yet critical, global sustainability goal. Ecological-based sanitation (EcoSan) technology is a promising strategy for improving sanitation, particularly in areas where financial resources and infrastructure are limiting. The composting of human waste and its use as an agricultural soil amendment can tackle three important challenges in developing countries - providing improved sanitation for vulnerable communities, reducing the spread of intestinal-born pathogens, and returning nutrients and organic matter to degraded agricultural soils. The extent of these benefits and potential tradeoffs are not well known, but have important implications for the widespread adoption of this strategy to promote healthy communities and enhance food security. We quantified the effects of EcoSan on the climate and human health in partnership with Sustainable Organic Integrated Livelihoods (SOIL) in Haiti. We measured greenhouse gas emissions (nitrous oxide, methane, and carbon dioxide) from compost piles that ranged in age from 0 to 14 months (i.e. finished) from two compost facilities managed with or without cement lining. We also measured emissions from a government-operated waste treatment pond and a grass field where waste has been illegally dumped. The highest methane emissions were observed from the anaerobic waste pond, whereas the dump site and compost piles had higher nitrous oxide emissions. Net greenhouse gases (CO2-equivalents) from unlined compost piles were 8x lower than lined compost piles and 20 and 30x lower than the dump and waste pond, respectively. We screened finished compost for fecal pathogens using bacterial 16S sequencing. Bacterial pathogens were eliminated regardless of the type of composting process. Pilot trials indicate that the application of compost to crops has a large potential for increasing food production. This research suggests that EcoSan systems are

  12. Information ecology and the concept of information

    OpenAIRE

    Stodola Jiří

    2011-01-01

    In the paper, the author presents that information ecology can be considered to be a theoretical reaction on the inquiry into the character of the concept of information, especially on the solving of so called Capurro's trilema. The trilema consists in the answering the question of whether information is an univocal, analogical, or equivocal concept. In the paper, there is introduced what does univocity, analogy and equivocity of the concepts mean and there is presented some conceptions accor...

  13. The context and concept of ecological networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongman, R.H.G.

    2004-01-01

    This chapter introduces the reader to the development of concepts of ecological networks in general and the European approach to ecological networks in particular. It shows trends in decline of landscapes and the diversity of approaches to biodiversity conservation and nature conservation planning

  14. Prospects of Source-Separation-Based Sanitation Concepts: A Model-Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cees Buisman

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Separation of different domestic wastewater streams and targeted on-site treatment for resource recovery has been recognized as one of the most promising sanitation concepts to re-establish the balance in carbon, nutrient and water cycles. In this study a model was developed based on literature data to compare energy and water balance, nutrient recovery, chemical use, effluent quality and land area requirement in four different sanitation concepts: (1 centralized; (2 centralized with source-separation of urine; (3 source-separation of black water, kitchen refuse and grey water; and (4 source-separation of urine, feces, kitchen refuse and grey water. The highest primary energy consumption of 914 MJ/capita(cap/year was attained within the centralized sanitation concept, and the lowest primary energy consumption of 437 MJ/cap/year was attained within source-separation of urine, feces, kitchen refuse and grey water. Grey water bio-flocculation and subsequent grey water sludge co-digestion decreased the primary energy consumption, but was not energetically favorable to couple with grey water effluent reuse. Source-separation of urine improved the energy balance, nutrient recovery and effluent quality, but required larger land area and higher chemical use in the centralized concept.

  15. A 'Knowledge Ecologies' Analysis of Co-designing Water and Sanitation Services in Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fam, Dena; Sofoulis, Zoë

    2017-08-01

    Willingness to collaborate across disciplinary boundaries is necessary but not sufficient for project success. This is a case study of a transdisciplinary project whose success was constrained by contextual factors that ultimately favoured technical and scientific forms of knowledge over the cultural intelligence that might ensure technical solutions were socially feasible. In response to Alaskan Water and Sewer Challenge (AWSC), an international team with expertise in engineering, consultative design and public health formed in 2013 to collaborate on a two-year project to design remote area water and sanitation systems in consultation with two native Alaskan communities. Team members were later interviewed about their experiences. Project processes are discussed using a 'Knowledge Ecology' framework, which applies principles of ecosystems analysis to knowledge ecologies, identifying the knowledge equivalents of 'biotic' and 'abiotic' factors and looking at their various interactions. In a positivist 'knowledge integration' perspective, different knowledges are like Lego blocks that combine with other 'data sets' to create a unified structure. The knowledge ecology framework highlights how interactions between different knowledges and knowledge practitioners ('biotic factors') are shaped by contextual ('abiotic') factors: the conditions of knowledge production, the research policy and funding climate, the distribution of research resources, and differential access to enabling infrastructures (networks, facilities). This case study highlights the importance of efforts to negotiate between different knowledge frameworks, including by strategic use of language and precepts that help translate social research into technical design outcomes that are grounded in social reality.

  16. History and Technology of Terra Preta Sanitation

    OpenAIRE

    Sabino De Gisi; Luigi Petta; Claudia Wendland

    2014-01-01

    In order to reach the Millennium Development Goals for significantly reducing the number of people without access to adequate sanitation, new holistic concepts are needed focusing on economically feasible closed-loop ecological sanitation systems rather than on expensive end-of-pipe technologies. An analysis of a former civilization in the Amazon (nowadays Brazil) highlights the possibility to close the loop with a more sustainable lifestyle integrating soil fertility, food security, waste ma...

  17. The Anthropocene concept in ecology and conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corlett, Richard T

    2015-01-01

    The term 'Anthropocene' was first used in the year 2000 to refer to the current time period in which human impacts are at least as important as natural processes. It is currently being considered as a potential geological epoch, following on from the Holocene. While most environmental scientists accept that many key environmental parameters are now outside their Holocene ranges, there is no agreement on when the Anthropocene started, with plausible dates ranging from the Late Pleistocene megafaunal extinctions to the recent globalization of industrial impacts. In ecology, the Anthropocene concept has focused attention on human-dominated habitats and novel ecosystems, while in conservation biology it has sparked a divisive debate on the continued relevance of the traditional biocentric aims. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [Evolution and discrimination of ecological planning and its related conceptions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xuan; Mao, Hui-ping; Niu, Dong-jie; Bao, Cun-kuan

    2013-08-01

    Ecological planning is one of the most important tools in realizing city's sustainable development. The ecological planning in China was started in the 1980s, and on the basis of assimilating the existing theoretical and practical experiences from western countries, basically formed a theoretical system in accordance with the Chinese characteristics and acquired a series of practical results. This paper reviewed the research and development processes of China' s ecological planning. It is considered that the study of our ecological planning was derived from the geographical principles of land resources ecological utilization, the ecological principles of complex ecological system theory, and the combination of these two principles. The ecological planning has experienced three research stages, i. e., single-disciplinary exploration, multi-disciplinary and multi-perspective study (including landscape ecology, ecology and urban planning), and interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary collaboration research. The ecological planning and the related conceptions, primary principles, main academic points, and representatives at each research stage were summarized, and through the discrimination of the basic conceptions of ecological planning and other related plans, it was pointed out that ecological planning is an general conception which includes land ecological planning, urban ecological planning, and eco-city planning, and the principles and theories of ecological planning should be integrated into, led and restricted the present planning system to promote the city's and regional sustainable development.

  19. A socio-ecological analysis of barriers to the adoption, sustainablity and consistent use of sanitation facilities in rural Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemu, Fikralem; Kumie, Abera; Medhin, Girmay; Gebre, Teshome; Godfrey, Phoebe

    2017-09-13

    Despite evidence showing that access to and use of improved sanitation is associated with healthier households and communities, barriers influencing the adoption and sustainablity of sanitation facilities remain unclear. We conducted a qualitative case study to explore barriers influencing the adoption, sustainablity and consistent use of sanitation facilities in rural Ethiopia. A qualitative study was conducted in the rural district of Becho, in central Ethiopia, from June to August 2016. A socio-ecological model and Integrated Behavioural Model (IBM) for a Water Hygiene and Sanitation (WASH) framework were employed to design the study and analyse data. A total of 10 in-depth interviews (IDI) were conducted with latrine adopters (n = 3), latrine non-adopters (n = 3), health extension workers (n = 3) and the district WASH coordinator (n = 1). Eight Focus Group Discussions (FGD) were undertaken with 75 participants, of which 31 were women. The FGDs and IDIs were tape-recorded, transcribed verbatim and translated into English. The analysis was supported using Nvivo version 10 software. Barriers to sustained adoption and use of sanitation facilities were categorized into 1) individual level factors (e.g., past latrine experience, lack of demand and perceived high cost to improved latrines), 2) household level factors (e.g., unaffordability, lack of space and absence of a physically strong family member), 3) community level factors (e.g., lack of access to public latrines, lack of shared rules against open defecation, lack of financial access for the poor), and 4) societal level factors (e.g., lack of strong local leadership, flooding, soil conditions, lack of appropriate sanitation technology, lack of promotion and demand creation for improved latrines). The use of the socio-ecological model and IBM-WASH framework helped to achieve a better understanding of multi-level and multi-dimensional barriers to sustained latrine adoption. The results indicate that

  20. A socio-ecological analysis of barriers to the adoption, sustainablity and consistent use of sanitation facilities in rural Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fikralem Alemu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite evidence showing that access to and use of improved sanitation is associated with healthier households and communities, barriers influencing the adoption and sustainablity of sanitation facilities remain unclear. We conducted a qualitative case study to explore barriers influencing the adoption, sustainablity and consistent use of sanitation facilities in rural Ethiopia. Methods A qualitative study was conducted in the rural district of Becho, in central Ethiopia, from June to August 2016. A socio-ecological model and Integrated Behavioural Model (IBM for a Water Hygiene and Sanitation (WASH framework were employed to design the study and analyse data. A total of 10 in-depth interviews (IDI were conducted with latrine adopters (n = 3, latrine non-adopters (n = 3, health extension workers (n = 3 and the district WASH coordinator (n = 1. Eight Focus Group Discussions (FGD were undertaken with 75 participants, of which 31 were women. The FGDs and IDIs were tape-recorded, transcribed verbatim and translated into English. The analysis was supported using Nvivo version 10 software. Results Barriers to sustained adoption and use of sanitation facilities were categorized into 1 individual level factors (e.g., past latrine experience, lack of demand and perceived high cost to improved latrines, 2 household level factors (e.g., unaffordability, lack of space and absence of a physically strong family member, 3 community level factors (e.g., lack of access to public latrines, lack of shared rules against open defecation, lack of financial access for the poor, and 4 societal level factors (e.g., lack of strong local leadership, flooding, soil conditions, lack of appropriate sanitation technology, lack of promotion and demand creation for improved latrines. Conclusion The use of the socio-ecological model and IBM-WASH framework helped to achieve a better understanding of multi-level and multi-dimensional barriers to

  1. Clarifying integrative research concepts in landscape ecology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tress, G.; Tress, B.; Fry, G.

    2005-01-01

    Integrative research approaches are intensely discussed in landscape ecology, in academia and in research policy. However, confusion over the terminology hampers communication. Many current landscape ecological research projects have difficulties to agree on a common understanding of the core

  2. Towards a concept of community artifact ecology in HCI?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saad-Sulonen, Joanna; Korsgaard, Henrik

    or workplaces do. This has implications on understanding how to research and design HCI for communities but also on refining the ecological perspective in HCI. We look in particular at examples from preliminary research on a local self-organised urban community and discuss what existing concepts in the ecology......In this paper we introduce the concept of community artifact ecology. We argue that taking a community perspective on the concept of artifact ecologies is relevant in HCI because communities are also dealing with multitudes of artifacts, in ways di↵erent that individuals, organizations...

  3. Facilitating Conceptual Change in Students' Understanding of Ecological Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, Ozlem; Tekkaya, Ceren; Geban, Omer

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the effect of conceptual-change-texts-oriented instruction to seventh-grade students' understanding of ecological concepts was investigated. Using information collected through interviews and related literature, the Ecology Concept Test was developed and administered to 58 elementary students in two classes of an elementary school…

  4. The "Ecosystem" Concept in the Political Ecology Discourse

    OpenAIRE

    Bühler, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    In the 20th century, the term "ecosystem" was one of the most important concepts for the biological discipline "ecology." Originally coined by the English botanist Arthur G. Tansley in an article from 1935, it is now a well-established term. The authors of the textbook 'Ecology' write, the ecosystem concept "has become a powerful tool for integrating ecology with other disciplines." But this only addresses the scientific resonance of the term. In the 1970s "ecosystem" also became an important...

  5. Cognitive Ecology: The role of the concept of knowledge in our social cognitive ecology

    OpenAIRE

    Pritchard, Duncan

    2011-01-01

    The articles in this special issue were selected from the 2010 Episteme conference,“Cognitive Ecology: The Role of the Concept of Knowledge in Our Social Cognitive Ecology,” which took place at the University of Edinburgh in June 2010. The overarching purpose of the conference was to explore our epistemic concepts – and the concept of knowledge in particular – from the perspective offered by a social cognitive ecology.

  6. An ecological quantification of the relationships between water, sanitation and infant, child, and maternal mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, June J; Schuster-Wallace, Corinne J; Watt, Susan; Newbold, Bruce K; Mente, Andrew

    2012-01-27

    Water and sanitation access are known to be related to newborn, child, and maternal health. Our study attempts to quantify these relationships globally using country-level data: How much does improving access to water and sanitation influence infant, child, and maternal mortality? Data for 193 countries were abstracted from global databases (World Bank, WHO, and UNICEF). Linear regression was used for the outcomes of under-five mortality rate and infant mortality rate (IMR). These results are presented as events per 1000 live births. Ordinal logistic regression was used to compute odds ratios for the outcome of maternal mortality ratio (MMR). Under-five mortality rate decreased by 1.17 (95%CI 1.08-1.26) deaths per 1000, p < 0.001, for every quartile increase in population water access after adjustments for confounders. There was a similar relationship between quartile increase of sanitation access and under-five mortality rate, with a decrease of 1.66 (95%CI 1.11-1.32) deaths per 1000, p < 0.001. Improved water access was also related to IMR, with the IMR decreasing by 1.14 (95%CI 1.05-1.23) deaths per 1000, p < 0.001, with increasing quartile of access to improved water source. The significance of this relationship was retained with quartile improvement in sanitation access, where the decrease in IMR was 1.66 (95%CI 1.11-1.32) deaths per 1000, p < 0.001. The estimated odds ratio that increased quartile of water access was significantly associated with increased quartile of MMR was 0.58 (95%CI 0.39-0.86), p = 0.008. The corresponding odds ratio for sanitation was 0.52 (95%CI 0.32-0.85), p = 0.009, both suggesting that better water and sanitation were associated with decreased MMR. Our analyses suggest that access to water and sanitation independently contribute to child and maternal mortality outcomes. If the world is to seriously address the Millennium Development Goals of reducing child and maternal mortality, then improved water and sanitation accesses are key

  7. [Towards understanding human ecology in nursing practice: a concept analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Truc; Alderson, Marie

    2010-06-01

    Human ecology is an umbrella concept encompassing several social, physical, and cultural elements existing in the individual's external environment. The pragmatic utility method was used to analyze the "human ecology" concept in order to ascertain the conceptual fit with nursing epistemology and to promote its use by nurses in clinical practice. Relevant articles for the review were retrieved from the MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and CSA databases using the terms "human ecology," "environment," "nursing," and "ecology." Data analysis revealed that human ecology is perceived as a theoretical perspective designating a complex, multilayered, and multidimensional system, one that comprises individuals and their reciprocal interactions with their global environments and the subsequent impact of these interactions upon their health. Human ecology preconditions include the individuals, their environments, and their transactions. Attributes of this concept encompass the characteristics of an open system (e.g., interdependence, reciprocal).

  8. Anaerobic treatment in decentralised and source-separation-based sanitation concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kujawa-Roeleveld, K.; Zeeman, G.

    2006-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of wastewater should be a core technology employed in decentralised sanitation systems especially when their objective is also resource conservation and reuse. The most efficient system involves separate collection and anaerobic digestion of the most concentrated domestic

  9. [The meaning of the concept "ecological hazard"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korovkin, V I; Vorob'ev, A A; Padalkin, V P

    1990-08-01

    Anthropogenic activity transforms the natural media and in the wide sense is a stimulus of further evolution. The late consequences of anthropogenic activity are mainly unpredictable. It is possible to acknowledge anthropogenic activity as ecologically hazardous only when it has a damaging effect on the health of man or interferes with its interests, i.e. while estimating it from egocentric positions. At present ecological hazards are first of all presented by industrial waste.

  10. Upgrading Marine Ecosystem Restoration Using Ecological-Social Concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abelson, Avigdor; Halpern, Benjamin S.; Reed, Daniel C.; Orth, Robert J.; Kendrick, Gary A.; Beck, Michael W.; Belmaker, Jonathan; Krause, Gesche; Edgar, Graham J.; Airoldi, Laura; Brokovich, Eran; France, Robert; Shashar, Nadav; Blaeij, De Arianne; Stambler, Noga; Salameh, Pierre; Shechter, Mordechai; Nelson, Peter A.

    2016-01-01

    Conservation and environmental management are principal countermeasures to the degradation of marine ecosystems and their services. However, in many cases, current practices are insufficient to reverse ecosystem declines. We suggest that restoration ecology, the science underlying the concepts

  11. Thinking about sustainable development: Engaging with societal and ecological concepts

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Marais, Mario A

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available systems challenged the dominance of the stable equilibrium view that underpinned the thinking about sustainable ecological systems and led to the emergence of resilience thinking. The concept of resilient systems has been rapidly adopted in many areas...

  12. [Mental ecology: from dependency disorders concept to systemic health monitoring].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidorov, P I

    2007-01-01

    The author deals with factors and conditions of dependency disorders development, specifies synergic concept of dependency behavior, defines fractals of psychogenesis, somatogenesis and sociogenesis of dependencies. The article covers definitions of mental health and mental ecology, conceptual and structural pattern of systemic ecologic monitoring including mental health monitoring.

  13. [Concept and connotation development of niche and its ecological orientation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Wen-jun; Wang, Xiao-ming

    2016-01-01

    Proceeding from the niche concept; the article commented the main points of each concept's connotation basing on a systematic review of development on niche concepts, and divided the process into four phases including germination, standardization, quantification and perfection, with two main academic schools. Questions and challenges during niche's development and advancement were presented to extract the characteristics and components of niche concept. On these bases, we explored the orientation of niche concept in ecology, and suggested to position it as a macro concept and detail it in specific applications. Further research points and application perspectives were stated in the end.

  14. Fire and fire ecology: Concepts and principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark A. Cochrane; Kevin C. Ryan

    2009-01-01

    Fire has been central to terrestrial life ever since early anaerobic microorganisms poisoned the atmosphere with oxygen and multicellular plant life moved onto land. The combination of fuels, oxygen, and heat gave birth to fire on Earth. Fire is not just another evolutionary challenge that life needed to overcome, it is, in fact, a core ecological process across much...

  15. Research on green building design based on ecological concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Ping Qing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, the protection of the ecological environment and the promotion of green building has been recognized and widely promoted.With the rapid development of the construction industry, Architecture design will inevitably require the resentation of its unique form and charm to reflect the ecological concept and ecological culture, because of the unique nature of the art and the particularity of the environment. To establish the ecological concept of green building design and vigorously develop the green green building has a complementary role to alleviate the pressure on resources,and to speed up the eco city planning design, and to realize the sustainable development of the city, and to protect the urban ecological environmental.

  16. On the Use of the Guild Concept in Plant Ecology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroon, Hans de; Olff, Han

    1995-01-01

    The original defmition of the guild is reiterated and the concept discussed and placed in the context of related concepts such as resources and competition. From this conceptual framework the current use of guilds in studies of plant community ecology is evaluated. We discuss the criteria with which

  17. Traditional Ecological Knowledge: Concepts and Cases | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The papers selected for this volume represent a wide range of perspectives on the nature of TEK. They explore the underlying concepts, provide case studies, and confirm once again the importance and, as yet, unrealized potential of TEK in resource and environmental management. The papers reinforce the conviction that ...

  18. Regeneration of southern hardwoods: some ecological concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    David L. Loftis

    1989-01-01

    Classical concepts of post-disturbance succession through well-defined seral stages to a well-defined ,climax stage( s) are not a useful conceptual framework for predicting species composition of regeneration resulting from the application of regeneration treatments in complex southern hardwood forests. Hardwood regeneration can be better understood, and more useful...

  19. An advanced concept that promises ecological and economic viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, B. R.; Sedgwick, T. A.; Urie, D. M.

    1976-01-01

    The actuality of supersonic commercial service being provided by Concorde is demonstrating to the world the advantages offered by supersonic travel for both business and recreation. Public acceptance will gradually and persistently stimulate interest to proceed with a second generation design that meets updated economic and ecological standards. It is estimated that this concept could operate profitably on world-wide routes with a revenue structure based upon economy fares. Airplanes will meet all present day ecological requirements regarding noise and emissions.

  20. Bridging the sanitation gap between disaster relief and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ka-Man; Ramirez, Claudia; Liu, Weilong; Kirilova, Darina; Vick, David; Mari, Joe; Smith, Rachel; Lam, Ho-Yin; Ostovari, Afshin; Shibakawa, Akifumi; Liu, Yang; Samant, Sidharth; Osaro, Lucky

    2015-10-01

    By interpreting disasters as opportunities to initiate the fulfilment of development needs, realise the vulnerability of the affected community and environment, and extend the legacy of relief funds and effort, this paper builds upon the concept linking relief, rehabilitation and development (LRRD) in the sanitation sector. It aims to use a composite of case studies to devise a framework for a semi-hypothetical scenario to identify critical components and generic processes for a LRRD action plan. The scenario is based on a latrine wetland sanitation system in a Muslim community. Several sub-frameworks are developed: (i) latrine design; (ii) assessment of human waste treatment; (iii) connective sanitation promotion strategy; and (iv) ecological systems and environmental services for sanitation and development. This scenario illustrates the complex issues involved in LRRD in sanitation work and provides technical notes and references for a legacy plan for disaster relief and development. © 2015 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2015.

  1. Upgrading Marine Ecosystem Restoration Using Ecological-Social Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abelson, Avigdor; Halpern, Benjamin S; Reed, Daniel C; Orth, Robert J; Kendrick, Gary A; Beck, Michael W; Belmaker, Jonathan; Krause, Gesche; Edgar, Graham J; Airoldi, Laura; Brokovich, Eran; France, Robert; Shashar, Nadav; de Blaeij, Arianne; Stambler, Noga; Salameh, Pierre; Shechter, Mordechai; Nelson, Peter A

    2016-02-01

    Conservation and environmental management are principal countermeasures to the degradation of marine ecosystems and their services. However, in many cases, current practices are insufficient to reverse ecosystem declines. We suggest that restoration ecology, the science underlying the concepts and tools needed to restore ecosystems, must be recognized as an integral element for marine conservation and environmental management. Marine restoration ecology is a young scientific discipline, often with gaps between its application and the supporting science. Bridging these gaps is essential to using restoration as an effective management tool and reversing the decline of marine ecosystems and their services. Ecological restoration should address objectives that include improved ecosystem services, and it therefore should encompass social-ecological elements rather than focusing solely on ecological parameters. We recommend using existing management frameworks to identify clear restoration targets, to apply quantitative tools for assessment, and to make the re-establishment of ecosystem services a criterion for success.

  2. Ecological sanitation products reuse for agriculture in Sahel: effects on soil properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangare, D.; Sawadogo, B.; Sou/Dakoure, M.; Ouedraogo, D. M. S.; Hijikata, N.; Yacouba, H.; Bonzi, M.; Coulibaly, L.

    2015-03-01

    The sanitary products (i.e toilet compost, urine, and greywater) from resource oriented sanitation are a low-cost alternative to chemical fertilizers and irrigation water for poor communities in dry areas. However, if these products are not managed carefully, increased soil salinity and sodium accumulation could occur. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of these products at different combinations on the properties of cultivated soil and on okra plant productivity. The treatments were: (1) fresh dam water (FDW) as a negative control, (2) FDW plus chemical fertilizer (i.e.NPK) (FDW + NPK) as a positive control, (3) treated greywater (TGW), (4) FDW plus Urine/Toilet Compost (UTC) (FDW + UTC), (5) TGW + UTC, (6) TGW + NPK. Effects on okra productivity were assessed by measuring the fresh fruit yield whereas effects on soil were evaluated through measurements of electrical conductivity (EC), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) and total organic carbon (TOC) at various depths. Results showed that the yields obtained with TGW (0.71 t ha-1) and TGW + UTC (0.67 t ha-1) were significantly higher than the yields obtained with the positive control FDW + NPK (0.22 t ha-1) meaning that the fertilizer value of the sanitary products was higher than that of chemical fertilizer. Concerning effects on soil, SAR values increased significantly in plots treated by TGW (8.86 ± 1.52) and TGW + UTC (10.55 ± 1.85) compared to plots fertilized with FDW (5.61 ± 1.45) and FDW + NPK (2.71 ± 0.67). The TOC of plots treated with TGW + UTC (6.09 ± 0.99 g kg-1) was significantly higher than those of FDW + NPK (4.46 ± 0.22 g kg-1). Combined sanitary products from resource oriented sanitation can be reused as a nutrient source and water for food production, provided that soil salinity is monitored and the soil has high drainage capacity.

  3. Testing fundamental ecological concepts with a Pythium-Prunus pathosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    The study of plant-pathogen interactions has enabled tests of basic ecological concepts on plant community assembly (Janzen-Connell Hypothesis) and plant invasion (Enemy Release Hypothesis). We used a field experiment to (#1) test whether Pythium effects depended on host (seedling) density and/or d...

  4. Relationship between ecological concepts and biosafety in broiler breeder farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CA Santos

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The entrance of poultry products into the trade world requires changes in the configuration of these products, such as programs that ensure their quality and biosafety for the consumers. This article aims at presenting new perception on poultry biosafety programs in broiler breeder farms from an ecological perspective, making these programs more efficient and cost-effective, i.e., more competitive. Using literature review, some convergences were found between ecology concepts and biosafety programs. One of these convergences is understanding the farm as an open ecosystem, integrating through adaptation the natural environment with the exotic environment. This also allows understanding how the production area interacts with the environment as to energy substrate input and output or as to the dissemination of poultry pathogens by vectors outside the farm or from the production area to the environment. This allows building a theoretical reference for further studies on ecological models for the improvement of poultry biosafety programs.

  5. The concept of biotope in marine ecology and coastal management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olenin, Sergej; Ducrotoy, Jean-Paul

    2006-01-01

    The term "biotope" was introduced by a German scientist, Dahl in 1908 as an addition to the concept of "biocenosis" earlier formulated by Möbius (1877). Initially it determined the physical-chemical conditions of existence of a biocenosis ("the biotope of a biocenosis"). Further, both biotope and biocenosis were respectively considered as abiotic and biotic parts of an ecosystem. This notion ("ecosystem = biotope + biocenosis") became accepted in German, French, Russian and other European "continental" ecological literature. The new interpretation of the term ("biotope = habitat + community") appeared in the United Kingdom in the early 1990s while classifying "marine habitats" of the coastal zone. Since then, this meaning was also used in international European environmental documents. This paper examines the evolution of the biotope notion. It is concluded that the contemporary concept is robust and may be used not only for the classification and mapping but also for functional marine ecology and coastal zone management.

  6. Evaluating Farming Practices: Use of Health and Ecological Risk Concepts

    OpenAIRE

    Hayashi, Kiyotada

    2002-01-01

    Methodologies for evaluating farming practices are reviewed to provide systematic perspectives on agri-environmental issues in which diversified research topics have been discussed. As a representative method for selecting farm management systems, multicriteria analysis is surveyed and difficulties in weighting procedure are outlined. To resolve the difficulties, applicability of risk concepts for health and ecological issues is examined. After clarifying relationships between farming practic...

  7. Applying evolutionary concepts to wildlife disease ecology and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Wal, Eric; Garant, Dany; Calmé, Sophie; Chapman, Colin A; Festa-Bianchet, Marco; Millien, Virginie; Rioux-Paquette, Sébastien; Pelletier, Fanie

    2014-08-01

    Existing and emerging infectious diseases are among the most pressing global threats to biodiversity, food safety and human health. The complex interplay between host, pathogen and environment creates a challenge for conserving species, communities and ecosystem functions, while mediating the many known ecological and socio-economic negative effects of disease. Despite the clear ecological and evolutionary contexts of host-pathogen dynamics, approaches to managing wildlife disease remain predominantly reactionary, focusing on surveillance and some attempts at eradication. A few exceptional studies have heeded recent calls for better integration of ecological concepts in the study and management of wildlife disease; however, evolutionary concepts remain underused. Applied evolution consists of four principles: evolutionary history, genetic and phenotypic variation, selection and eco-evolutionary dynamics. In this article, we first update a classical framework for understanding wildlife disease to integrate better these principles. Within this framework, we explore the evolutionary implications of environment-disease interactions. Subsequently, we synthesize areas where applied evolution can be employed in wildlife disease management. Finally, we discuss some future directions and challenges. Here, we underscore that despite some evolutionary principles currently playing an important role in our understanding of disease in wild animals, considerable opportunities remain for fostering the practice of evolutionarily enlightened wildlife disease management.

  8. Ecosystem Services as a Boundary Concept: Arguments from Social Ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Schleyer

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Ecosystem services (ES are defined as the interdependencies between society and nature. Despite several years of conceptual discussions, some challenges of the ES concept are far from being resolved. In particular, the usefulness of the concept for nature protection is questioned, and a strong critique is expressed concerning its contribution towards the neoliberal commodification of nature. This paper argues that these challenges can be addressed by dealing more carefully with ES as a boundary concept between different disciplines and between science and society. ES are neither about nature nor about human wellbeing, but about the mutual dependencies between nature and human wellbeing. These mutual interdependencies, however, create tensions and contradictions that manifest themselves in the boundary negotiations between different scientific disciplines and between science and society. This paper shows that approaches from Social Ecology can address these boundary negotiations and the power relations involved more explicitly. Finally, this implies the urgent need for more inter- and transdisciplinary collaboration in ES research. We conclude (1 that the social–ecological nature of ES must be elaborated more carefully while explicitly focussing on the interdependencies between nature and society; (2 to better implement inter- and transdisciplinary methods into ES research; and (3 that such ES research can—and to some extent already does—substantially enhance international research programmes such as Future Earth.

  9. An Exploratory Study of Elementary Preservice Teachers' Understanding of Ecology Using Concept Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak, Kevin M.; Munson, Bruce H.

    2008-01-01

    Classroom teachers serve a critical role in developing environmentally literate citizens. In this study, the authors assessed K-8 preservice teachers' understanding of basic ecological concepts. Participants (N = 56) constructed concept maps describing the inter-relationships among 16 ecological concepts. The authors analyzed the concept maps to…

  10. The Concept of Ecologically Oriented Progress and Natural Resource Preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasanov, M. A.; Kolotov, K. A.; Demidenko, K. A.; Podgornaya, E. A.; Kadnikova, O. V.

    2017-01-01

    The most important issue of scientific and technological progress is considering the environment challenges of industrial development. It means that the progress must be ecologically oriented and environmentally friendly. The most adequate concept for the approach to the issue of “man - society - nature” relations is the ontology of the noosphere - the idea of a common space for human beings and nature. It presents an ideal example of an optimistic attitude towards the coordination between accelerating the scientific and technological development and natural resource saving. However, to maintain the balance between human needs and environmental processes determined by this concept, it is essential to include the lean production training into technological development of society.

  11. Small scale sanitation technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, W; Ho, G

    2005-01-01

    Small scale systems can improve the sustainability of sanitation systems as they more easily close the water and nutrient loops. They also provide alternate solutions to centrally managed large scale infrastructures. Appropriate sanitation provision can improve the lives of people with inadequate sanitation through health benefits, reuse products as well as reduce ecological impacts. In the literature there seems to be no compilation of a wide range of available onsite sanitation systems around the world that encompasses black and greywater treatment plus stand-alone dry and urine separation toilet systems. Seventy technologies have been identified and classified according to the different waste source streams. Sub-classification based on major treatment methods included aerobic digestion, composting and vermicomposting, anaerobic digestion, sand/soil/peat filtration and constructed wetlands. Potential users or suppliers of sanitation systems can choose from wide range of technologies available and examine the different treatment principles used in the technologies. Sanitation systems need to be selected according to the local social, economic and environmental conditions and should aim to be sustainable.

  12. Competition theory, evolution, and the concept of an ecological niche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alley, T R

    1982-01-01

    This article examines some of the main tenets of competition theory in light of the theory of evolution and the concept of an ecological niche. The principle of competitive exclusion and the related assumption that communities exist at competitive equilibrium - fundamental parts of many competition theories and models - may be violated if non-equilibrium conditions exist in natural communities or are incorporated into competition models. Furthermore, these two basic tenets of competition theory are not compatible with the theory of evolution. Variation in ecologically significant environmental factors and non-equilibrium in population numbers should occur in most natural communities, and such changes have important effects on community relations, niche overlap, and the evolution of ecosystems. Ecologists should view competition as a process occurring within a complex dynamic system, and should be wary of theoretical positions built upon simple laboratory experiments or simplistic mathematical models. In considering the relationship between niche overlap and competition, niche overlap should not be taken as a sufficient condition for competition; many factors may prevent or diminish competition between population with similar resource utilization patterns. The typically opposing forces of intraspecific and interspecific competition need to be simultaneously considered, for it is the balance between them that in large part determines niche boundaries.

  13. Sustainable Agro-Industrial Ecology Concept of the Madura Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widjaya, Joyce Martha; Tanuwidjaja, Gunawan

    2017-07-01

    Madura as one small island in East Java Province, Indonesia faced many challenges due to limited transportation connectivity, limited water resources and karst geology. Due to this reasons, the Government of Indonesia proposed a strategic plan to improve the development of the island to Surabaya, the largest port for the Eastern of Indonesia. It was started with building the Surabaya - Madura (SuraMadu) Bridge with 5.7 km length in 2003. The bridge was finally completed in 2009, improving the traffic flow into the island and development of Madura Island. Unfortunately, the strategy would not be comprehensive without strategic development of the Madura Island, especially in Bangkalan District (Kabupaten Bangkalan). The Central Government has proposed a Green Industry with zero waste and clean energy concept. This industry and port would process the agriculture products from Madura for the export and Eastern part of Indonesia market. Therefore, an industrial ecology concept was needed to achieve the sustainable green industry for Eastern of Indonesia.

  14. Screening of chemical oxidation processes and other methods for decolorization of urine for its re-use as toilet-flush liquid in ecological sanitation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulyas, H; Breuer, K; Lindner, B; Otterpohl, R

    2004-01-01

    Because of its potential use as fertilizer, urine ("yellow water") is a resource originating from sanitation. Its separate collection in no-mix toilets is a beneficial aspect of ecological (source control) sanitation. In order to avoid dilution of the fertilizing nutrients with toilet flush water, the utilization of yellow water as toilet flush liquid seems to be advantageous. To be accepted for this purpose, urine has to be decolorized (and also deodorized). In this study activated carbon adsorption, irradiation with UV light of different wavelengths, the advanced oxidation processes ultrasound, UV/H2O2, and photocatalytic oxidation have failed to decolorize urine. Biological treatment caused brown colour of the treated urine. Only ozonation was successful in colour removal, although it did not affect TOC. In spite of darkening of yellow water during biological treatment (generation of humic substances), smaller ozone doses were required for decolorizing the biologically pre-treated urine than for original urine. Photocatalytic oxidation of biologically treated urine also removed brown colour, but the original yellow colour remained. In ozonated urine, yellow colour was reconstituted unless hydrogen peroxide was added. In addition to colour removal, ozone contributed to deodorization as a consequence of ammonia stripping and probably of phenol oxidation.

  15. Theoretical of the precondition of construction of the concept of continuous ecological education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R V Oparin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In given article the essence, structure, principles, the maintenance of the concept of continuous ecological education in Republic Altai are considered. The basic directions of realization of the concept and expected results are shown.

  16. A framework for quantitative analysis of livestock systems using theoretical concepts of production ecology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linden, van der A.; Oosting, S.J.; Ven, van de G.W.J.; Boer, de I.J.M.; Ittersum, van M.K.

    2015-01-01

    n crop science, widely used theoretical concepts of production ecology comprise a hierarchy in growth defining, limiting, and reducing factors, which determine corresponding potential, limited, and actual production levels. These concepts give insight in theoretically achievable production, yield

  17. Raymond lindeman and the trophic-dynamic concept in ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, R E

    1977-10-07

    Lindeman's classic paper on energy flow in ecosystems was initially rejected for publication in Ecology. Reviewers felt there were insufficient data to support the theoretical model and that theoretical essays were inappropriate for Ecology. The paper was subsequently accepted by Thomas Park, the zoological editor, after correspondence with G. Evelyn Hutchinson who indicated the importance of theory in the development of ecology.

  18. A study of ecological sanitation as an integrated urban water supply system: case study of sustainable strategy for Kuching City, Sarawak, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seng, Darrien Mah Yau; Putuhena, Frederik Josep; Said, Salim; Ling, Law Puong

    2009-03-01

    A city consumes a large amount of water. Urban planning and development are becoming more compelling due to the fact of growing competition for water, which has lead to an increasing and conflicting demand. As such, investments in water supply, sanitation and water resources management is a strong potential for a solid return. A pilot project of greywater ecological treatment has been established in Kuching city since 2003. Such a treatment facility opens up an opportunity of wastewater reclamation for reuse as secondary sources of water for non-consumptive purposes. This paper aims to explore the potential of the intended purposes in the newly developed ecological treatment project. By utilizing the Wallingford Software model, InfoWorks WS (Water Supply) is employed to carry out a hydraulic modeling of a hypothetical greywater recycling system as an integrated part of the Kuching urban water supply, where the greywater is treated, recycled and reused in the domestic environment. The modeling efforts have shown water savings of about 40% from the investigated system reinstating that the system presents an alternative water source worth exploring in an urban environment.

  19. Revisiting life strategy concepts in environmental microbial ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Adrian; Di Lonardo, D Paolo; Bodelier, Paul L E

    2017-03-01

    Microorganisms are physiologically diverse, possessing disparate genomic features and mechanisms for adaptation (functional traits), which reflect on their associated life strategies and determine at least to some extent their prevalence and distribution in the environment. Unlike animals and plants, there is an unprecedented diversity and intractable metabolic versatility among bacteria, making classification or grouping these microorganisms based on their functional traits as has been done in animal and plant ecology challenging. Nevertheless, based on representative pure cultures, microbial traits distinguishing different life strategies had been proposed, and had been the focus of previous reviews. In the environment, however, the vast majority of naturally occurring microorganisms have yet to be isolated, restricting the association of life strategies to broad phylogenetic groups and/or physiological characteristics. Here, we reviewed the literature to determine how microbial life strategy concepts (i.e. copio- and oligotrophic strategists, and competitor-stress tolerator-ruderals framework) are applied in complex microbial communities. Because of the scarcity of direct empirical evidence elucidating the associated life strategies in complex communities, we rely heavily on observational studies determining the response of microorganisms to (a)biotic cues (e.g. resource availability) to infer microbial life strategies. Although our focus is on the life strategies of bacteria, parallels were drawn from the fungal community. Our literature search showed inconsistency in the community response of proposed copiotrophic- and oligotrophic-associated microorganisms (phyla level) to changing environmental conditions. This suggests that tracking microorganisms at finer phylogenetic and taxonomic resolution (e.g. family level or lower) may be more effective to capture changes in community response and/or that edaphic factors exert a stronger effect in community response

  20. [Military ecology and military hygiene: the concept of an interaction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mel'nichenko, P I; Zholus, B I; Makhnenko, A A; Merkushev, I A

    2000-06-01

    At the modern level of society development, on the one hand its Armed Forces are the object that requires the defense from unfavourable effect of environmental factors, on the other hand they are potential source of ecology worsening. The problem of ensuring ecological safety in the army and navy becomes urgent. In order to solve this problem first of all it is necessary to develop the conceptual bases of military ecology. Among all medical sciences the military hygiene by purpose, tasks, subject and objects is the most close to military ecology.

  1. Vegetation change : a reunifying concept in plant ecology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davis, MA; Pergl, J; Truscott, AM; Kollmann, J; Bakker, JP; Domenech, R; Prach, K; Prieur-Richard, AH; Veeneklaas, RM; Pysek, P; del Moral, R; Hobbs, RJ; Collins, SL; Pickett, STA; Reich, PB

    2005-01-01

    Specialization can become detrimental to a discipline if it fosters intellectual isolation. A bibliographic analysis of several research areas in plant ecology (invasion biology, succession ecology, gap/patch dynamics, and global change effects on plants) revealed that plant ecologists do not

  2. Organic wastes from bioenergy and ecological sanitation as soil fertility improver: a field experiment in a tropical Andosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, A.; Nehls, T.; George, E.; Kaupenjohann, M.

    2015-11-01

    Andosols require the regular application of phosphorus (P) to sustain crop productivity. In a practice oriented field experiment at an Andosol site in NW Tanzania, the effects of various soil amendments (standard compost, urine, biogas slurry and CaSa-compost [biochar and sanitized human excreta]) on (i) the productivity of locally grown crop species, on (ii) the plants' nutrient status and on (iii) the soil's physico-chemical properties were studied. None of the amendments had any significant effect on soil moisture, so the observed variation in crop yield and plant nutrition reflected differences in nutrient availability. The application of CaSa-compost increased the level of available P in the top-soil from 0.5 to 4.4 mg kg-1 and the soil pH from 5.3 to 5.9. Treatment with biogas slurry, standard compost and CaSa-compost increased the above-ground biomass of Zea mays by, respectively, 140, 154 and 211 %. The grain yields of maize on soil treated with biogas slurry, standard compost and CaSa-compost were, respectively, 2.63, 3.18 and 4.40 t ha-1, compared to only 1.10 t ha-1 on unamended plots. All treatments enhanced crop productivity and increased the uptake of nutrients into the maize grains. The CaSa-compost was especially effective in mitigating P deficiency and soil acidification. We conclude that all treatments are viable as substitute for synthetic fertilizers. However, further steps are required to integrate the tested soil amendments into farm-scale nutrient management and to balance the additions and removals of nutrients, so that the loop can be closed.

  3. Better BAT to Bolster Ecosystem Resilience : Operationalizing Ecological Governance through the Concept of Best Available Techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giljam, Renske A.

    This article examines to what extent ecological governance can be implemented by extending the concept of Best Available Techniques (BAT) at the European Union level. It therefore firstly analyses what ecological governance would require and what this implies for employing the use of BAT. The

  4. Diet-Induced Thermogenesis in Insects: A Developing Concept in Nutritional Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry M. Trier; William J. Mattson

    2003-01-01

    Diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) is a concept that has been well known in one form or another for more than a century in vertebrate nutrition and physiological ecology. Yet, it is practically unknown in the physiology and nutritional ecology of insects. We suggest that DIT is a ubiquitous mechanism occurring in most if not all organisms and functions to maintain...

  5. Are constructed treatment wetlands sustainable sanitation solutions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langergraber, Guenter

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of sanitation systems is to protect and promote human health by providing a clean environment and breaking the cycle of disease. In order to be sustainable, a sanitation system has to be not only economically viable, socially acceptable and technically and institutionally appropriate, but it should also protect the environment and the natural resources. 'Resources-oriented sanitation' describes the approach in which human excreta and water from households are recognized as resource made available for reuse. Nowadays, 'resources-oriented sanitation' is understood in the same way as 'ecological sanitation'. For resources-oriented sanitation systems to be truly sustainable they have to comply with the definition of sustainable sanitation as given by the Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA, www.susana.org). Constructed treatment wetlands meet the basic criteria of sustainable sanitation systems by preventing diseases, protecting the environment, and being an affordable, acceptable, and simple technology. Additionally, constructed treatment wetlands produce treated wastewater of high quality, which is fostering reuse, which in turn makes them applicable in resources-oriented sanitation systems. The paper discusses the features that make constructed treatment wetlands a suitable solution in sustainable resources-oriented sanitation systems, the importance of system thinking for sustainability, as well as key factors for sustainable implementation of constructed wetland systems.

  6. Organic wastes from bioenergy and ecological sanitation as a soil fertility improver: a field experiment in a tropical Andosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Ariane; Nehls, Thomas; George, Eckhard; Kaupenjohann, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Andosols require the regular application of phosphorus (P) to sustain crop productivity. On an Andosol in NW Tanzania, we studied the short-term effects of amending standard compost, biogas slurry and CaSa compost (containing biochar and sanitized human excreta) on (i) the soil's physico-chemical properties, on (ii) biomass growth and crop productivity, and on (iii) the plants' nutrient status. The practice-oriented experiment design included the intercropping of seven locally grown crop species planted on 9 m2 plots with five repetitions arranged as a Latin rectangle. Differences in plant growth (biomass production and crop yield, e.g., of Zea mays) and crop nutrition (total C, N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Zn, etc.) were related to pH, CEC (cation exchange capacity), total C and the availability of nutrients (N, P, K, etc.) and water (water retention characteristics, bulk density, etc.) in the soil. None of the amendments had any significant effect on soil water availability, so the observed variations in crop yield and plant nutrition are attributed to nutrient availability. Applying CaSa compost increased the soil pH from 5.3 to 5.9 and the level of available P from 0.5 to 4.4 mg per kg. Compared to the control, adding biogas slurry, standard compost and CaSa compost increased the aboveground biomass of Zea mays by, respectively, 140, 154 and 211 %. The grain yields of maize on soil treated with biogas slurry, standard compost and CaSa compost were, respectively, 2.63, 3.18 and 4.40 t ha-1, compared to only 1.10 t ha-1 on unamended plots. All treatments enhanced crop productivity and increased the uptake of nutrients into the maize grains. The CaSa compost was most effective in mitigating P deficiency and soil acidification. We conclude that all treatments are viable as a substitute for synthetic fertilizers. Nevertheless, further steps are required to integrate the tested soil amendments into farm-scale nutrient management and to balance the additions and removals of

  7. Can we define ecosystems? On the confusion between definition and description of ecological concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jax, Kurt

    2007-01-01

    Sound definitions of its basic concepts are fundamental to every scientific discipline. In some instances, like in the case of the ecosystem concept, the question arises if we can define such concepts at all. And if we can define them, how should we choose from the multiple definitions available? And what are the preconditions for a scientifically sound and useful definition? On the basis of the ecosystem concept, this paper illustrates a major, often neglected distinction in the definition of ecological concepts, namely that between defining criteria and additional descriptive statements connected to those definitions. As is demonstrated by examples from the literature, mixing up these categories leads to false inferences about the properties of physical objects (e.g. a particular forest) subsumed by the concept (e.g. the ecosystem). As a further consequence, this inference becomes problematic in terms of theory development and/or the application of ecological concepts for management decisions.

  8. Nutrition ecology--a concept for systemic nutrition research and integrative problem solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Katja; Hoffmann, Ingrid

    2011-01-01

    Many nutrition-related problems (e.g., obesity) are complex and thus characterized by a multitude of components, interrelatedness, associated feedbacks, and dynamics. Nutrition ecology is an innovative concept to deal with complexity and multidimensionality in nutrition science and practice. Along the food supply chain the dimensions health, environment, society, and economy are taken into account simultaneously and coequally. By combining special disciplinary knowledge with methods and principles of research on complexity and knowledge integration, nutrition ecology offers a concept to develop approaches to solving complex nutrition-related problems. Accordingly, the conceptual background and methodological elements of nutrition ecology are presented and discussed.

  9. On the concept of individual in ecology and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, J A J

    2013-03-01

    Part of the art of theory building is to construct effective basic concepts, with a large reach and yet powerful as tools for getting at conclusions. The most basic concept of population biology is that of individual. An appropriately reengineered form of this concept has become the basis for the theories of structured populations and adaptive dynamics. By appropriately delimiting individuals, followed by defining their states as well as their environment, it become possible to construct the general population equations that were introduced and studied by Odo Diekmann and his collaborators. In this essay I argue for taking the properties that led to these successes as the defining characteristics of the concept of individual, delegating the properties classically invoked by philosophers to the secondary role of possible empirical indicators for the presence of those characteristics. The essay starts with putting in place as rule for effective concept engineering that one should go for relations that can be used as basis for deductive structure building rather than for perceived ontological essence. By analysing how we want to use it in the mathematical arguments I then build up a concept of individual, first for use in population dynamical considerations and then for use in evolutionary ones. These two concepts do not coincide, and neither do they on all occasions agree with common intuition-based usage.

  10. The concept of vector in parasitology, ecology of agents, epidemiology and epizootology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenberg, E I; Kryuchechnikov, V N

    1986-01-01

    The concepts of "host" and "vector" are compared in application to arthropods which are capable to transmit pathogens to man and animals. The paper shows that these concepts are not identical. The function of such arthropods as hosts of microorganisms, as well as their possible importance in population ecology, epidemiology and epizootology are discussed. The system of different concepts corresponding to the tasks of these scientific disciplines is also considered.

  11. Assessment of Cognitive Changes in Ecological Concepts, in Mexican Junior High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Rodolfo Torres Ochoa

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was made from a random sample of students of secondary school (basic education, in urban an rural schools of the public sector of the state of Michoacán, Mexico. Significant cognitive changes of basic concepts of Ecology, during the whole academic year were assessed in each one of the three grades which conform this level of education. For such purpose, a group of six fundamental and four complementary concepts was used with which a core concept diagram was elaborated. From this diagram, a 23 task questionnaire was designed and applied as conceptual assessment instrument. The general results show that there are no significant differences, statistically speaking, between the beginning and the end of the academic year, regarding the principal Ecology concepts and other related concepts that were assessed as well. This study included an interpretative phase based in conceptual maps, which results are not included in this article.

  12. The Sustainable Expression of Ecological Concept in the Urban Landscape Environment Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Junyan; Zhou, Tiejun; Xin, Lisen; Tan, Yuetong; Wang, Zhigang

    2018-02-01

    Urbanization is an inevitable trend of development of human society, also the inevitable outcome of economic development and scientific and technological progress, while urbanization process in promoting the development of human civilization, also no doubt, urban landscape has been a corresponding impact. Urban environment has suffered unprecedented damage, the urban population density, traffic congestion, shortage of resources, environmental pollution, ecological degradation, has become the focus of human society. In order to create an environment of ecological and harmonious, beautiful, sustainable development in the urban landscape, This paper discusses the concept of ecological design combined with the urban landscape design and sustainable development of urban landscape design.

  13. AEDT: A new concept for ecological dynamics in the ever-changing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesson, Peter

    2017-05-01

    The important concept of equilibrium has always been controversial in ecology, but a new, more general concept, an asymptotic environmentally determined trajectory (AEDT), overcomes many concerns with equilibrium by realistically incorporating long-term climate change while retaining much of the predictive power of a stable equilibrium. A population or ecological community is predicted to approach its AEDT, which is a function of time reflecting environmental history and biology. The AEDT invokes familiar questions and predictions but in a more realistic context in which consideration of past environments and a future changing profoundly due to human influence becomes possible. Strong applications are also predicted in population genetics, evolution, earth sciences, and economics.

  14. Metagenomics: Concept, methodology, ecological inference and recent advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jagtar; Behal, Arvind; Singla, Neha; Joshi, Amit; Birbian, Niti; Singh, Sukhdeep; Bali, Vandana; Batra, Navneet

    2009-04-01

    Microorganisms constitute two third of the Earth's biological diversity. As many as 99% of the microorganisms present in certain environments cannot be cultured by standard techniques. Culture-independent methods are required to understand the genetic diversity, population structure and ecological roles of the majority of organisms. Metagenomics is the genomic analysis of microorganisms by direct extraction and cloning of DNA from their natural environment. Protocols have been developed to capture unexplored microbial diversity to overcome the existing barriers in estimation of diversity. New screening methods have been designed to select specific functional genes within metagenomic libraries to detect novel biocatalysts as well as bioactive molecules applicable to mankind. To study the complete gene or operon clusters, various vectors including cosmid, fosmid or bacterial artificial chromosomes are being developed. Bioinformatics tools and databases have added much to the study of microbial diversity. This review describes the various methodologies and tools developed to understand the biology of uncultured microbes including bacteria, archaea and viruses through metagenomic analysis.

  15. Rice production model based on the concept of ecological footprint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faiz, S. A.; Wicaksono, A. D.; Dinanti, D.

    2017-06-01

    Pursuant to what had been stated in Region Spatial Planning (RTRW) of Malang Regency for period 2010-2030, Malang Regency was considered as the center of agricultural development, including districts bordered with Malang City. To protect the region functioning as the provider of rice production, then the policy of sustainable food farming-land (LP2B) was made which its implementation aims to protect rice-land. In the existing condition, LP2B system was not maximally executed, and it caused a limited extend of rice-land to deliver rice production output. One cause related with the development of settlements and industries due to the effect of Malang City that converted land-function. Location of research focused on 30 villages with direct border with Malang City. Review was conducted to develop a model of relation between farming production output and ecological footprint variables. These variables include rice-land area (X1), built land percentage (X2), and number of farmers (X3). Analysis technique was regression. Result of regression indicated that the model of rice production output Y=-207,983 + 10.246X1. Rice-land area (X1) was the most influential independent variable. It was concluded that of villages directly bordered with Malang City, there were 11 villages with higher production potential because their rice production yield was more than 1,000 tons/year, while 12 villages were threatened with low production output because its rice production yield only attained 500 tons/year. Based on the model and the spatial direction of RTRW, it can be said that the direction for the farming development policy must be redesigned to maintain rice-land area on the regions on which agricultural activity was still dominant. Because rice-land area was the most influential factor to farming production. Therefore, the wider the rice-land is, the higher rice production output is on each village.

  16. Barcoding a quantified food web: crypsis, concepts, ecology and hypotheses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Alex Smith

    future budworm outbreaks. Integrating standardized barcodes within food webs may ultimately change the face of community ecology. This will be most poignantly felt in food webs that have not yet been quantified. Here, more accurate and precise connections will be within the grasp of any researcher for the first time.

  17. Barcoding a Quantified Food Web: Crypsis, Concepts, Ecology and Hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M. Alex; Eveleigh, Eldon S.; McCann, Kevin S.; Merilo, Mark T.; McCarthy, Peter C.; Van Rooyen, Kathleen I.

    2011-01-01

    budworm outbreaks. Integrating standardized barcodes within food webs may ultimately change the face of community ecology. This will be most poignantly felt in food webs that have not yet been quantified. Here, more accurate and precise connections will be within the grasp of any researcher for the first time. PMID:21754977

  18. Hierarchical concepts in landscape ecology and its underlying disciplines; (the unbearable lightness of a theory?)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klijn, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    The origin and specific nature of hierarchical concepts in landscape ecology and their applicability in both underlying disciplines and integrated studies are analysed. Most perspectives are found in process-functional hierarchies, ruled by flows of energy, matter and organisms, in spatio-temporal

  19. Ditch the niche - is the niche a useful concept in ecology or species distribution modelling?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McInerny, Greg J.; Etienne, Rampal S.

    2012-01-01

    In this first of three papers we examine the use of niche concepts in ecology and especially in species distribution modelling (SDM). This paper deliberately focuses on the lack of clarity found in the term niche. Because its meanings are so diverse, the term niche tends to create confusion and

  20. Effect of Computer-Assisted Instruction on Secondary School Students' Achievement in Ecological Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkemdilim, Egbunonu Roseline; Okeke, Sam O. C.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) on students' achievement in ecological concepts. Quasi-experimental design, specifically the pre-test post test non-equivalent control group design was adopted. The sample consisted of sixty-six (66) senior secondary year two (SS II) biology students, drawn from two…

  1. Concepts of social justice in community psychology: toward a social ecological epistemology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fondacaro, Mark R; Weinberg, Darin

    2002-08-01

    In this paper we address the pervasive tendency in community psychology to treat values like social justice only as general objectives rather than contested theoretical concepts possessing identifiable empirical content. First we discuss how distinctive concepts of social justice have figured in three major intellectual traditions within community psychology: (1) the prevention and health promotion tradition, (2) the empowerment tradition, and most recently, (3) the critical tradition. We point out the epistemological gains and limitations of these respective concepts and argue for greater sensitivity to the context dependency of normative concepts like social justice. More specifically, we point to a pressing need in community psychology for an epistemology that: (1) subsumes both descriptive and evaluative concepts, and (2) acknowledges its own embeddedness in history and culture without thereby reducing all knowledge claims to the status of ideology. Finally, we describe and demonstrate the promise of what we are calling a social ecological epistemology for fulfilling this need.

  2. Sustainability of utility-scale solar energy – critical ecological concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore-O'Leary, Kara A.; Hernandez, Rebecca R.; Johnston, Dave S.; Abella, Scott R.; Tanner, Karen E.; Swanson, Amanda C.; Kreitler, Jason R.; Lovich, Jeffrey E.

    2017-01-01

    Renewable energy development is an arena where ecological, political, and socioeconomic values collide. Advances in renewable energy will incur steep environmental costs to landscapes in which facilities are constructed and operated. Scientists – including those from academia, industry, and government agencies – have only recently begun to quantify trade-offs in this arena, often using ground-mounted, utility-scale solar energy facilities (USSE, ≥1 megawatt) as a model. Here, we discuss five critical ecological concepts applicable to the development of more sustainable USSE with benefits over fossil-fuel-generated energy: (1) more sustainable USSE development requires careful evaluation of trade-offs between land, energy, and ecology; (2) species responses to habitat modification by USSE vary; (3) cumulative and large-scale ecological impacts are complex and challenging to mitigate; (4) USSE development affects different types of ecosystems and requires customized design and management strategies; and (5) long-term ecological consequences associated with USSE sites must be carefully considered. These critical concepts provide a framework for reducing adverse environmental impacts, informing policy to establish and address conservation priorities, and improving energy production sustainability.

  3. Removal of micropollutants in source separated sanitation

    OpenAIRE

    Butkovskyi, A.

    2015-01-01

    Source separated sanitation is an innovative sanitation method designed for minimizing use of energy and clean drinking water, and maximizing reuse of water, organics and nutrients from waste water. This approach is based on separate collection and treatment of toilet wastewater (black water) and the rest of the domestic wastewater (grey water). Different characteristics of wastewater streams facilitate recovery of energy, nutrients and fresh water. To ensure agricultural or ecological reuse ...

  4. Functional ecology of aquatic phagotrophic protists–concepts, limitations, and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weisse, Thomas; Anderson, Ruth; Arndt, Hartmut

    2016-01-01

    Functional ecology is a subdiscipline that aims to enable a mechanistic understanding of patterns and processes from the organismic to the ecosystem level. This paper addresses some main aspects of the process-oriented current knowledge on phagotrophic, i.e. heterotrophic and mixotrophic, protists...... in aquatic food webs. This is not an exhaustive review; rather, we focus on conceptual issues, in particular on the numerical and functional response of these organisms. We discuss the evolution of concepts and define parameters to evaluate predator-prey dynamics ranging from Lotka....... Finally, we discuss limitations of the mechanistic understanding of protist functional ecology resulting from principal unpredictability of nonlinear dynamics. We conclude by defining open questions and identifying perspectives for future research on functional ecology of aquatic phagotrophic protists....

  5. Is there a difference in prevalence of helminths between households using ecological sanitation and those using traditional pit latrines? A latrine based cross sectional comparative study in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumwenda, Save; Msefula, Chisomo; Kadewa, Wilfred; Diness, Yohane; Kato, Charles; Morse, Tracy; Ngwira, Bagrey

    2017-06-09

    Studies have shown that households using sludge from human excreta for agriculture are at an increased risk of soil transmitted helminths. However, while use of ecological sanitation (EcoSan) latrines is increasing in most African countries including Malawi, few studies have been done to check whether use of such sludge could potentially increase the prevalence of helminthic infections among household members as a results of exposure to faecal sludge/compared to use of traditional latrines. A cross sectional study was done targeting households using EcoSan and traditional pit latrines. Samples were collected from both types of latrines in Chikwawa (rural) and Blantyre (urban) districts. These two districts have a high number of EcoSan latrines in southern region of Malawi. 156 latrines were sampled (n = 95 traditional; n = 61 EcoSan), and processed following standard guidelines using modified triple floatation method. Identification of helminth ova (Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworms, Trichuris trichiura, Taenia spp. and Diphyllobothrium latum) was done using standard microscopy methods. The difference between the prevalence and mean concentration of helminths between the two types of latrines was tested using Chi Square and t test respectively. Of the total latrines tested, 85.9% (n = 134) had at least one species of helminth while 84.6% (n = 132) had at least a STH, with 82.0% (n = 50) in EcoSan and 86.3% (n = 82) in traditional pit latrines. There was no significant difference between the prevalence of helminths in EcoSan and traditional pit latrines [χ(2) = 0.43 (1), P = 0.5]. The prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides was significantly higher in EcoSan than in traditional pit latrines [χ(2) = 5.44 (1) p = 0.02] while prevalence of hookworms was significantly higher in traditional pit latrines than in EcoSan latrines [χ(2) = 13.98 (1) p pit latrines [31.2 (95% CI 19.1-43.2)] than in EcoSan latrines [26.4 (95% CI 16.5-36.3)]. There was no

  6. Ecosystem-based fishery management: a critical review of concepts and ecological economic models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Thanh Viet

      An ecosystem approach means different things to different people. As a result the concept of ecosystem-based fishery management is evolving and it has no universal definition or consistent application. As regards ecosystem modeling, most economic models of fishery ignore the linkages to lower...... trophic levels. In particular, environmental data and other bottom-up information is widely disregarded. The objective of this paper is to provide a critical review of concepts and ecological economic models relating to ecosystem-based fishery management....

  7. Jakarta socio-cultural ecology: a sustainable architecture concept in urban neighbourhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijaksono, Sigit; Sasmoko; Indrianti, Y.; Widhoyoko, SA

    2017-12-01

    As a metropolitan city with densely populated and fast residential development Jakarta should be able to implement a concept that is Jakarta socio-cultural ecology Architecture as the basis of settlement development. The concept of Jakarta socio-cultural ecology architecture is characterized by residential development capabilities that reflect and express the indigenous culture, the settlements built by linking the social and economic activities of the people of Jakarta and the settlements built by maintaining the building with the value of existing heritage. The objectives of this research are 1) to find a relevant construct to housing condition in Jakarta which then called Jakarta socio-cultural ecology, and 2) to see the tendency of complex condition of Jakarta socio-cultural ecology settlement. This research uses Neuroresearch method, which is one of mix-method research method as a mixture research method between qualitative research (exploration) and quantitative research method (explanatory and confirmatory). The population of research as well as unit analysis are all settlements in Jakarta. Sampling technique using probability sampling that is with multistage sampling. The results show that nowadays the Jakarta residential complex tends to lead to socio-cultural ecology and rather reflects and expresses the indigenous culture, the residential complex in Jakarta tends to form the building has been linked fully with the social and economic activities of Jakarta society but tends to occasionally maintain buildings with existing heritage values. This study also found that indigenous culture is a significant determinant of the formation of the condition of Jakarta socio-cultural ecology.

  8. [Epidemiology in the study of human ecology - concept and evaluation of a seminar].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schochat, T; Seidel, H J

    2001-01-01

    To assure proper methodology in medical studies epidemiology is the crucial profession. Medical students become acquainted with epidemiology within the course on human ecology. One year ago our department had the opportunity to assume the responsibility of this epidemiological seminar and to establish an activating teaching concept. In a two hour lecture, types of epidemiologic studies, their application, typical measures, strengths and limitations are illustrated on actual examples. The basic concepts of bias, confounding and causal inference are introduced. In a two hour seminar the students read and discuss primary literature on the question "Do allergic diseases increase?" in small groups. The students present the answers on provided questions in the plenum. The results are discussed together. METHOD OF EVALUATION: At the end of each seminar within the course students rate the structural and procedural quality by means of a questionnaire. Compared to the former frontal teaching in epidemiology students rate the activating teaching concept significantly better in respect to lecturing style, discussion moderation, own contribution, contribution of others and course material. Comparison to the seminar "National health reporting system" (different subject, but same teaching concept and same instructor) yielded no significant differences, nor did the comparison between different instructors with the same teaching concept at the same seminar. The structural and procedural quality of the activating teaching concept in epidemiology is rated significantly better than the former frontal teaching concept. This difference is based on conceptual differences and not on different instructors or different subjects.

  9. Cambodia Sanitation Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2015-01-01

    This report synthesizes the technical assistance (TA) “Cambodia Sanitation Marketing” carried out by the World Bank’s Water and Sanitation Program (WSP) from July 2011 to February 2015 in support of developing the rural sanitation market in Cambodia. It documents the results and lessons learned and makes recommendations to government on how - with support of development partners – the effe...

  10. Warehouse Sanitation Workshop Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food and Drug Administration (DHHS/PHS), Washington, DC.

    This workshop handbook contains information and reference materials on proper food warehouse sanitation. The materials have been used at Food and Drug Administration (FDA) food warehouse sanitation workshops, and are selected by the FDA for use by food warehouse operators and for training warehouse sanitation employees. The handbook is divided…

  11. The Ecological Model Web Concept: A Consultative Infrastructure for Decision Makers and Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, G.; Nativi, S.

    2011-12-01

    Rapid climate and socioeconomic changes may be outrunning society's ability to understand, predict, and respond to change effectively. Decision makers want better information about what these changes will be and how various resources will be affected, while researchers want better understanding of the components and processes of ecological systems, how they interact, and how they respond to change. Although there are many excellent models in ecology and related disciplines, there is only limited coordination among them, and accessible, openly shared models or model systems that can be consulted to gain insight on important ecological questions or assist with decision-making are rare. A "consultative infrastructure" that increased access to and sharing of models and model outputs would benefit decision makers, researchers, as well as modelers. Of course, envisioning such an ambitious system is much easier than building it, but several complementary approaches exist that could contribute. The one discussed here is called the Model Web. This is a concept for an open-ended system of interoperable computer models and databases based on making models and their outputs available as services ("model as a service"). Initially, it might consist of a core of several models from which it could grow gradually as new models or databases were added. However, a model web would not be a monolithic, rigidly planned and built system--instead, like the World Wide Web, it would grow largely organically, with limited central control, within a framework of broad goals and data exchange standards. One difference from the WWW is that a model web is much harder to create, and has more pitfalls, and thus is a long term vision. However, technology, science, observations, and models have advanced enough so that parts of an ecological model web can be built and utilized now, forming a framework for gradual growth as well as a broadly accessible infrastructure. Ultimately, the value of a model

  12. Ecological literacy and concepts formation in childhood education through playful activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Célia de Brito Miranda

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the concept formation involved in the study of food chain by utilizing the vygotskian referential and playful activities. The teacher-researcher planned the activities that were experienced by a group of children in an elementary school aged 4 to 5. The topic chosen intended to support ecological literacy and the construction of scientific concepts in children. For the data collect, the study employed diverse instruments of a playful nature, such as theatre, games, drawings, and video-recorded interviews. The study showed a generally positive influence of playful activities to develop a perception of belonging to the food chain and becoming aware of the importance of caring for animals in order to preserve life, as well as an evolution inside the phases proposed by Vygotsky.

  13. A Concept-Map Integrated Dynamic Assessment System for Improving Ecology Observation Competences in Mobile Learning Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Pi-Hsia; Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Su, I-Hsiang; Lin, I-Hua

    2012-01-01

    Observation competence plays a fundamental role in outdoor scientific investigation. The computerized concept mapping technique as a Mindtool has shown the potential for enhancing meaningful learning in science education. The purposes of the present study are to develop a concept map integrated mobile learning design for ecology observation and to…

  14. Cleaner Production and Industrial Ecology; Dynamic Aspects of the Introduction and Dissemination of New Concepts in Industrial Practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.W. Baas (Leo)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis addresses the awareness-raising processes related to the development and dissemination of new concepts such as pollution prevention, cleaner production and industrial ecology. The concepts of Cleaner production and Pollution prevention can both be described as: `the

  15. Study on Ecological Design Concept of Buton Sultanate Cityscape Based on Local Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansyur, A.; Gunawan, A.; Munandar, A.

    2017-10-01

    Buton Sultanate Cityscape was constituted of man-made landscape constructed in the era of Buton Sultanate in 1322. It is one of the Indonesian heritage networks proposed to be the world heritage city. The Sultanate cityscape should have the concept of traditional city and refer to the ecological principles. This research was conducted to analyze elements and spatial patterns of Sultanate cityscape based on the ecological principles (eco-design). Descriptive method was utilized in the research by conducting in-depth interviews with the local custom figures and experts of the local culture, literature reviews, and field observations. The main elements of Buton Sultanate Cityscape consisted of palaces, city square, mosque, cemeteries, and settlements, while the supporting elements located outside the city border include mountains, valleys, rivers, and forests. City square is located in the city center surrounded by the palace, cemetery, and mosque. The main pattern of city circulation pattern has formed a simple figure of human body. Ecological principles can be examined from the housing layout paralleled to the road, direction of most city gates facing the east and forests, and the city wall pattern which is closely related to the religious matter.

  16. Thermoeconomic analysis incorporating the concept of ecological efficiency; Analise termoeconomica incorporando o conceito de eficiencia ecologica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villela, I.A.C. [University of Sao Paulo (EEL/USP), Lorena, SP (Brazil). Coll. of Engineering. Dept. of Environment Science ], Email: iraides@debas.eel.usp.br; Silveira, J.L. [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Dept. of Energy], Email: joseluz@feg.unesp.br

    2009-07-01

    A comparative analysis of the pollution resulting from the natural gas combustion for a thermoelectric power plant (230 MW) by utilizing the combined cycle (CC) and recovering kettle, with no burning and with fuel complementary burning. Initially the CO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} and Particulate Matter emission levels are determined. Later, the thermoelectric power plant environmental impact is evaluated through the utilization of a methodology based on the ecological efficiency ({epsilon}), parameter that integrates in a single coefficient the aspects that define the environmental impact intensity, with basis on the fuel utilized, combustion technology, pollution index and power plant thermodynamic efficiency. The objective is to apply the concept of ecological efficiency in a thermoeconomic analysis method which utilizes function diagram and allows the estimation of the electricity production cost. It is concluded that the use of a system with no complementary burning is better than the one with complementary burning, both from the ecological and the economical points of view. (author)

  17. A new approach to homeostatic regulation: towards a unified view of physiological and ecological concepts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cédric L Meunier

    Full Text Available Stoichiometric homeostasis is the ability of an organism to keep its body chemical composition constant, despite varying inputs. Stoichiometric homeostasis therefore constrains the metabolic needs of consumers which in turn often feed on resources not matching these requirements. In a broader context, homeostasis also relates to the capacity of an organism to maintain other biological parameters (e.g. body temperature at a constant level over ambient environmental variations. Unfortunately, there are discrepancies in the literature and ecological and physiological definitions of homeostasis are disparate and partly contradictory. Here, we address this matter by reviewing the existing knowledge considering two distinct groups, regulators and conformers and, based on examples of thermo- and osmoregulation, we propose a new approach to stoichiometric homeostasis, unifying ecological and physiological concepts. We suggest a simple and precise graphical way to identify regulators and conformers: for any given biological parameter (e.g. nutrient stoichiometry, temperature, a sigmoidal relation between internal and external conditions can be observed for conformers while an inverse sigmoidal response is characteristic of regulators. This new definition and method, based on well-studied physiological mechanisms, unifies ecological and physiological approaches and is a useful tool for understanding how organisms are affected by and affect their environment.

  18. Fire regime: history and definition of a key concept in disturbance ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, Patrik; Pezzatti, Gianni B; Mazzoleni, Stefano; Talbot, Lee M; Conedera, Marco

    2010-06-01

    "Fire regime" has become, in recent decades, a key concept in many scientific domains. In spite of its wide spread use, the concept still lacks a clear and wide established definition. Many believe that it was first discussed in a famous report on national park management in the United States, and that it may be simply defined as a selection of a few measurable parameters that summarize the fire occurrence patterns in an area. This view has been uncritically perpetuated in the scientific community in the last decades. In this paper we attempt a historical reconstruction of the origin, the evolution and the current meaning of "fire regime" as a concept. Its roots go back to the 19th century in France and to the first half of the 20th century in French African colonies. The "fire regime" concept took time to evolve and pass from French into English usage and thus to the whole scientific community. This coincided with a paradigm shift in the early 1960s in the United States, where a favourable cultural, social and scientific climate led to the natural role of fires as a major disturbance in ecosystem dynamics becoming fully acknowledged. Today the concept of "fire regime" refers to a collection of several fire-related parameters that may be organized, assembled and used in different ways according to the needs of the users. A structure for the most relevant categories of parameters is proposed, aiming to contribute to a unified concept of "fire regime" that can reconcile the physical nature of fire with the socio-ecological context within which it occurs.

  19. Sanitation investments in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awunyo-Akaba, Y.; Awunyo-Akaba, J.; Gyapong, M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ghana’s low investment in household sanitation is evident from the low rates of improved sanitation. This study analysed how land ownership, tenancy security and livelihood patterns are related to sanitation investments in three adjacent rural and peri-urban communities in a district...... communities were triangulated with multiple interview material and contextual knowledge on social structures, history of settlement, land use, livelihoods, and access to and perceptions about sanitation. Results: This study shows that the history of settlement and land ownership issues are highly correlated...... with people’s willingness and ability to invest in household sanitation across all communities. The status of being a stranger i.e. migrant in the area left some populations without rights over the land they occupied and with low incentives to invest in sanitation, while indigenous communities were challenged...

  20. GEOEPIDERM – AN ECOLOGICAL CONCEPT THAT INTEGRATES SOIL COVER WITH ASSOCIATED LAND SURFACE COMPONENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Munteanu

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Based on the new concept of the “Epiderm of the Earth” introduced by the 2006 edition of the WRB-SR, the idea of “geoepiderm” has been developed. Besides its holistic meaning, by including both soil and non-soil materials found in the first 2 meters of the land surface, the term “geoepiderm” has a strong ecological sense, by suggesting similarity with the skin of the living organisms, as such, this concept is fully concordant with that of “Gaia” (Living Earth developed by James Lovelock. According to the main pedo-ecological characteristics of the soil and not soil coverings from the earth surface, ten kinds (classes of ‘geoepiderms” have been identified:1 – Protoderma (Entiderma– the primitive (emerging geoepiderm (mainly non-soil materials; five main subtypes: a Regoderma, b Leptoderma, c Areniderma, d Fluviderma and e Gleyoderma, were identified;2 – Cryoderma (Geliderma – geoepiderm of cold, mainly artic and subartic, regions with mean annual soil temperature <00C (often with perennial frozen subsoil - permafrost:3 – Arididerma – geoepiderm of arid regions and salt affected lands with limited or scarce available moisture; two subtypes: a Desertiderma, b Saliderma4 – Inceptiderma (or Juvenilederma – with 2 subtypes: a Cambiderma – a young (incipiently developed geoepiderm and b Andiderma, geoepiderm developed in volcanic materials;5 – Euderma – nutrient rich geoepiderm with two main subtypes: a Cherniderma (or Molliderma and b Luviderma (or Alfiderma;6 – Oligoderma – geoepiderm with low macro-nutrient and weatherable minerals content with 2 subtypes: a Podziderma (or Spodiderma and b Acriderma (or Ultiderma;7 – Ferriderma (Oxiderma or Senilederma – geoepiderm strongly weathered and with iron and aluminium hydroxides enrichment and low weatherable minerals reserve;8 – Vertiderma (Contractilederma – Contractile geoepiderm, developed from swelling clays;9 – Histoderma (Organiderma

  1. Sanitation investments in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awunyo-Akaba, Y.; Awunyo-Akaba, J.; Gyapong, M.

    2016-01-01

    to demand sanitation improvements and therefore landlords feel no obligation or motivation to provide and maintain domestic sanitation facilities. Conclusions: The study states that poor land rights, the history of settlements, in-migration and insecure tenancy are key components that are associated...

  2. Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ternjej, Ivancica; Mihaljevic, Zlatko

    2017-10-01

    Ecology is a science that studies the mutual interactions between organisms and their environment. The fundamental subject of interest in ecology is the individual. Topics of interest to ecologists include the diversity, distribution and number of particular organisms, as well as cooperation and competition between organisms, both within and among ecosystems. Today, ecology is a multidisciplinary science. This is particularly true when the subject of interest is the ecosystem or biosphere, which requires the knowledge and input of biologists, chemists, physicists, geologists, geographists, climatologists, hydrologists and many other experts. Ecology is applied in a science of restoration, repairing disturbed sites through human intervention, in natural resource management, and in environmental impact assessments.

  3. Ecologically sustainable weed management: How do we get from proof-of-concept to adoption?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebman, Matt; Baraibar, Bàrbara; Buckley, Yvonne; Childs, Dylan; Christensen, Svend; Cousens, Roger; Eizenberg, Hanan; Heijting, Sanne; Loddo, Donato; Merotto, Aldo; Renton, Michael; Riemens, Marleen

    2016-07-01

    Weed management is a critically important activity on both agricultural and non-agricultural lands, but it is faced with a daunting set of challenges: environmental damage caused by control practices, weed resistance to herbicides, accelerated rates of weed dispersal through global trade, and greater weed impacts due to changes in climate and land use. Broad-scale use of new approaches is needed if weed management is to be successful in the coming era. We examine three approaches likely to prove useful for addressing current and future challenges from weeds: diversifying weed management strategies with multiple complementary tactics, developing crop genotypes for enhanced weed suppression, and tailoring management strategies to better accommodate variability in weed spatial distributions. In all three cases, proof-of-concept has long been demonstrated and considerable scientific innovations have been made, but uptake by farmers and land managers has been extremely limited. Impediments to employing these and other ecologically based approaches include inadequate or inappropriate government policy instruments, a lack of market mechanisms, and a paucity of social infrastructure with which to influence learning, decision-making, and actions by farmers and land managers. We offer examples of how these impediments are being addressed in different parts of the world, but note that there is no clear formula for determining which sets of policies, market mechanisms, and educational activities will be effective in various locations. Implementing new approaches for weed management will require multidisciplinary teams comprised of scientists, engineers, economists, sociologists, educators, farmers, land managers, industry personnel, policy makers, and others willing to focus on weeds within whole farming systems and land management units. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  4. Eco Grad. Concept for ecological city planning for St. Petersburg, Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nystedt, A.; Sepponen, M.; Teerimo, S.; Nummelin, J.; Virtanen, M.; Lahti, P.

    2010-12-15

    The objective of the EcoGrad project was to develop a design concept of eco-efficient districts in the city of St. Petersburg. The important principles of the creation of this concept included the so-called GOLD principle (GOLD - Globally Optimized, Locally Designed). This meant that local conditions had to be taken into account while applying globally optimized solutions. The EcoGrad concept includes dense city development, a minimal need for travel, a maximum use of public transportation and light vehicles, minimum power consumption, the maximum use of renewable energy sources and ecologically stable solutions concerning waste disposal and sewerage. Social and cultural aspects must also be taken into account. In Russia, the creation of energy efficient sites is still in its early stages. Power supply systems based on renewable energy sources are also hardly known. On the other hand, the Russians are well skilled in placing offices and consumer services next to residencies. Regulations dictate the maximum allowable distances between residential buildings and such services as infant-care groups, kindergartens, schools, ambulatory clinics and stores, fully conforming to the principles of designing ecoefficient city districts. While the project was being implemented, residents were polled. The polls revealed that the absolute majority of them (92%) did not consider the use of renewable energy sources important. Most of them (80%) had not heard of mechanical ventilation. Fresh air is considered important yet less than half of all respondents (40%) are prepared to pay for it. Involving residents in the development process, that is, the so-called LivingLab action is an important component of designing eco-efficient residential areas. In Russia, the participation of residents should be further extended and made a part of the design work. The project concerned three pilot territories for which residential designs were made. The designs included estimates of power

  5. Fifty years of the integrated control concept: the role of landscape ecology in IPM in San Joaquin valley cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodell, Peter B

    2009-12-01

    In defining the integrated control concept, Stern, Smith, van den Bosch and Hagan described 'understanding the ecosystem' as a key underpinning of the concept. In following years, Stern and van den Bosch continued to refine and expand the role of the ecological landscape. They and their colleagues developed cultural practices that took advantage of this understanding to limit the need of pesticide intervention in cotton in the San Joaquin Valley during the 1960s and 1970s. Research and extension activities in the intervening years built upon those fundamental concepts using geospatial tools and analytical techniques to refine current understanding and develop ecological landscape level approaches to manage Lygus hesperus (Knight) in San Joaquin Valley cotton, Gossypium hirsutum (L.) and more recently G. barbadense (L.). The result has been a significant drop in insecticide use against L. hesperus, with less than one application per season during the 1990 s and early 2000s. (c) 2009 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Particulate organic matter distribution along the lower Amazon River: addressing aquatic ecology concepts using fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortillaro, Jean-Michel; Rigal, François; Rybarczyk, Hervé; Bernardes, Marcelo; Abril, Gwenaël; Meziane, Tarik

    2012-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges in understanding the Amazon basin functioning is to ascertain the role played by floodplains in the organic matter (OM) cycle, crucial for a large spectrum of ecological mechanisms. Fatty acids (FAs) were combined with environmental descriptors and analyzed through multivariate and spatial tools (asymmetric eigenvector maps, AEM and principal coordinates of neighbor matrices, PCNM). This challenge allowed investigating the distribution of suspended particulate organic matter (SPOM), in order to trace its seasonal origin and quality, along a 800 km section of the Amazon river-floodplain system. Statistical analysis confirmed that large amounts of saturated FAs (15:0, 18:0, 24:0, 25:0 and 26:0), an indication of refractory OM, were concomitantly recorded with high pCO(2) in rivers, during the high water season (HW). Contrastingly, FAs marker which may be attributed in this ecosystem to aquatic plants (18:2ω6 and 18:3ω3) and cyanobacteria (16:1ω7), were correlated with higher O(2), chlorophyll a and pheopigments in floodplains, due to a high primary production during low waters (LW). Decreasing concentrations of unsaturated FAs, that characterize labile OM, were recorded during HW, from upstream to downstream. Furthermore, using PCNM and AEM spatial methods, FAs compositions of SPOM displayed an upstream-downstream gradient during HW, which was attributed to OM retention and the extent of flooded forest in floodplains. Discrimination of OM quality between the Amazon River and floodplains corroborate higher autotrophic production in the latter and transfer of OM to rivers at LW season. Together, these gradients demonstrate the validity of FAs as predictors of spatial and temporal changes in OM quality. These spatial and temporal trends are explained by 1) downstream change in landscape morphology as predicted by the River Continuum Concept; 2) enhanced primary production during LW when the water level decreased and its residence time

  7. Guide to ship sanitation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2011-01-01

    "The third edition of the Guide to Ship Sanitation presents the public health significance of ships in terms of disease and highlights the importance of applying appropriate control measures"--Back cover...

  8. Marine Sanitation Devices (MSDs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marine sanitation devices treat or retain sewage from vessels, and have performance standards set by the EPA. This page provides information on MSDs, including who must use an MSD, states' roles, types of MSDs and standards.

  9. Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

    This set of teaching aids consists of nine Audubon Nature Bulletins, providing teachers and students with informational reading on various ecological topics. The bulletins have these titles: Schoolyard Laboratories, Owls and Predators, The Forest Community, Life in Freshwater Marshes, Camouflage in the Animal World, Life in the Desert, The…

  10. Improving environmental sanitation, health, and well-being: a conceptual framework for integral interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen-Viet, Hung; Zinsstag, Jakob; Schertenleib, Roland; Zurbrügg, Chris; Obrist, Brigit; Montangero, Agnès; Surkinkul, Narong; Koné, Doulaye; Morel, Antoine; Cissé, Guéladio; Koottatep, Thammarat; Bonfoh, Bassirou; Tanner, Marcel

    2009-06-01

    We introduce a conceptual framework for improving health and environmental sanitation in urban and peri-urban areas using an approach combining health, ecological, and socioeconomic and cultural assessments. The framework takes into account the three main components: i) health status, ii) physical environment, and iii) socioeconomic and cultural environment. Information on each of these three components can be obtained by using standard disciplinary methods and an innovative combination of these methods. In this way, analyses lead to extended characterization of health, ecological, and social risks while allowing the comprehensive identification of critical control points (CCPs) in relation to biomedical, epidemiological, ecological, and socioeconomic and cultural factors. The proposed concept complements the conventional CCP approach by including an actor perspective that considers vulnerability to risk and patterns of resilience. Interventions deriving from the comprehensive analysis consider biomedical, engineering, and social science perspectives, or a combination of them. By this way, the proposed framework jointly addresses health and environmental sanitation improvements, and recovery and reuse of natural resources. Moreover, interventions encompass not only technical solutions but also behavioral, social, and institutional changes which are derived from the identified resilience patterns. The interventions are assessed with regards to their potential to eliminate or reduce specific risk factors and vulnerability, enhance health status, and assure equity. The framework is conceptualized and validated for the context of urban and peri-urban settings in developing countries focusing on waste, such as excreta, wastewater, and solid waste, their influence on food quality, and their related pathogens, nutrients, and chemical pollutants.

  11. Impact of Rainfall on Diarrheal Disease Risk Associated with Unimproved Water and Sanitation

    OpenAIRE

    Bhavnani, Darlene; Goldstick, Jason E.; Cevallos, William; Trueba, Gabriel; Eisenberg, Joseph N. S.

    2014-01-01

    Diarrheal disease remains a leading cause of morbidity in areas with limited access to safe water and sanitation. As water and sanitation interventions continue to be implemented, it will be important to understand the ecological context in which they can prevent diarrhea. We conducted six serial case control studies in Ecuador to estimate the risk of diarrhea from unimproved water and sanitation and the potential for effect modification by rainfall. Unimproved water source and unimproved san...

  12. Advancing Empirical Approaches to the Concept of Resilience: A Critical Examination of Panarchy, Ecological Information, and Statistical Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Kharrazi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite its ambiguities, the concept of resilience is of critical importance to researchers, practitioners, and policy-makers in dealing with dynamic socio-ecological systems. In this paper, we critically examine the three empirical approaches of (i panarchy; (ii ecological information-based network analysis; and (iii statistical evidence of resilience to three criteria determined for achieving a comprehensive understanding and application of this concept. These criteria are the ability: (1 to reflect a system’s adaptability to shocks; (2 to integrate social and environmental dimensions; and (3 to evaluate system-level trade-offs. Our findings show that none of the three currently applied approaches are strong in handling all three criteria. Panarchy is strong in the first two criteria but has difficulty with normative trade-offs. The ecological information-based approach is strongest in evaluating trade-offs but relies on common dimensions that lead to over-simplifications in integrating the social and environmental dimensions. Statistical evidence provides suggestions that are simplest and easiest to act upon but are generally weak in all three criteria. This analysis confirms the value of these approaches in specific instances but also the need for further research in advancing empirical approaches to the concept of resilience.

  13. Predictive Species and Habitat Modeling in Landscape Ecology: Concepts and Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Drew, C. Ashton; Huettmann, Falk; Wiersma, Yolanda F

    2011-01-01

    ... is an excellent example of scholarship under the leadership of some outstanding young landscape ecologists. Focusing on species distribution and habitat modeling, it contributes to landscape ecology theories, methods, and applications in many ways. The book integrates fundamental ecological theories into the model development p...

  14. Ecology and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge, C

    1978-01-01

    Health is commonly conceived as having fixed and universal aims, while conditions interposed by environmental and cultural conditions are often ignored or at least shunted to one side. Rejecting this point of view, the author asserts that health in any society should be defined in terms of ecological reality--that is, in terms of the cultural and environmental variables affecting the population. He also notes that acceptance of this concept does not imply perpetuation of a natural but static situation. Rather, it implies searching for ways to improve the situation without necessarily striving for international goals that may be unsuitable or impossible to achieve. The concept also implies that we should ask how to define a satisfactory health level for a given set of conditions--and then consider how to achieve that level. The search for answers to these questions and subsequent programs based on the results will require a multidisciplinary approach. Within this context two PAHO facilities, the Pan American Center for Human Ecology and Health (ECO) and the Pan American Center and Engineering and Environmental Sciences (CEPIS), can provide strong support for activities in the Americas. Specifically, ECO is in a good position to collaborate on ecological planning, model-building, and research evaluation, while CEPIS is geared to provide advice and assistance in the key field of environmental sanitation.

  15. Toilet Talk: Eliminating Open Defecation and Improved Sanitation in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMichael, Celia

    2017-08-30

    Globally, 2.4 billion people lack adequate sanitation, and open defecation remains common. In this article, I present the qualitative findings from an evaluation of a water, sanitation, and hygiene intervention in remote, mid-West Nepal. The evaluation, conducted in 2014, involved villagers from eight wards in Kotgaun Village Development Committee. Drawing on the concept of the "toilet tripod," I argue as follows: multi-scalar political will provide an important foundation for construction and sustained use of toilets, proximate social pressures contributed significantly to toilet adoption and efforts to eliminate open defecation, and water insecurity constrained improved sanitation and hygiene.

  16. Elaborations on the use of the ecosystem services concept for application in ecological risk assessment for soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, J H; van Wensem, J

    2012-01-15

    This paper describes scientific developments that have raised awareness that changes in ecological risk assessment (ERA) methods are necessary. These changes have also been triggered by developments in environmental policies. This is illustrated by examples for The Netherlands and Europe. The ecosystem services concept seems to gain a central role in developments of new ERA methods. Main reasons for this are the integrative character of the concept, making it possible to integrate over environmental compartments or over environmental assessment methods, the concept's strength as communication tool and the possibility to value ecosystem services in economic terms. A method using ecosystem services in ERA is presented here in more detail, as an example. In this method assessment endpoints are derived from structures and processes in the ecosystem that are considered indispensable for the provision of particular ecosystem services. The approach facilitates fine-tuning ERA to specific land use demands. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Sanitation in informal settlements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Unterrainer, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Estimated over 2 billion people worldwide live without access to proper sanitation, with all its consequences on hygiene, health, gender discrimination and environmental pollution. In India alone, 800.000 people die each year (most of them under 5 years old) of diarrhoea, so easy to prevent...

  18. Acceptance of new sanitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poortvliet, P.M.; Sanders, Liese; Weijma, Jan; Vries, De Jasper R.

    2018-01-01

    Current sanitation systems are inherently limited in their ability to address the new challenges for (waste)water management that arise from the rising demand to restore resource cycles. These challenges include removal of micropollutants, water (re)use, and nutrient recovery. New opportunities

  19. Sense and Sanitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van B.J.M.; Spaargaren, G.

    2010-01-01

    Historically, sanitation infrastructures have been designed to do away with sensory experiences. As in the present phase of modernity the senses are assigned a crucial role in the perception of risks, a paradigm shift has emerged in the infrastructural provision of energy, water and waste services.

  20. Produce Sanitation System Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    was also expected to improve food safety (i.e., reduce microbes) and reduce premature spoilage while minimizing environmental impact and unpleasant...PRECISION REDUCTION VEGETABLES CONTAMINATION TEST AND EVALUATION SAFETY PH FACTOR SANITATION FRESH FOODS MICROORGANISMS ...fruits and vegetables (FF&V) aboard Navy vessels, The sink saves labor associated with the washing of produce in food service operations by

  1. Species sanitation of malaria in the Netherlands East Indies (1913-1942)--an example of applied medical history?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imam, Irawan; Labisch, Alfons

    2006-01-01

    To the World Health Organization malaria remains "one of the world's most important public health concerns". During the post-eradication era of the 1980s there was no clear answer to the following question: what kind of intervention could be effective against malaria in the 'roll-back malaria' programme? In this situation there were also calls for an 'applied history of medicine', since the anti-malaria programmes during the pre-eradication era might help overcome the crisis of finding an appropriate way to fight malaria. At this point the concept of species sanitation was considered. Developed in the 1920s in the former Netherlands East Indies the thrust of this concept is that anopheles, as obligatory vectors of malaria, have species-specific breeding sites; when these sites are sanitised, malaria is deprived of its ecological preconditions. This double question - the history of species sanitation and the possibility of an applied history of medicine - is the starting point of this paper. The results of the historical analysis are that in terms of the biological, technical, economical, social and political conditions, species sanitation remains limited to a few locally specified exceptions. The attempt to find answers in history demonstrates that an evaluation of historical anti-malaria measures can be helpful in determining the fundamental elements of a given situation necessary for an effective malaria control programme.

  2. Functional ecology of aquatic phagotrophic protists–concepts, limitations, and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weisse, Thomas; Anderson, Ruth; Arndt, Hartmut

    2016-01-01

    Functional ecology is a subdiscipline that aims to enable a mechanistic understanding of patterns and processes from the organismic to the ecosystem level. This paper addresses some main aspects of the process-oriented current knowledge on phagotrophic, i.e. heterotrophic and mixotrophic, protists......, food, turbulence) affecting feeding, growth, and survival of protist populations. We briefly consider intraspecific variability of some key parameters and constraints inherent in laboratory microcosm experiments. We then upscale the significance of phagotrophic protists in food webs to the ocean level....... Finally, we discuss limitations of the mechanistic understanding of protist functional ecology resulting from principal unpredictability of nonlinear dynamics. We conclude by defining open questions and identifying perspectives for future research on functional ecology of aquatic phagotrophic protists....

  3. Sustainable and equitable sanitation in informal settlements of Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sustainability and equity are two desirable but ambiguous concepts often used to describe goals for sanitation services internationally and in South Africa. Both concepts are mentioned repeatedly in policy documents and government reports. There is, however, a gap between policy and implementation, and part of the ...

  4. Pitch the niche - taking responsibility for the concepts we use in ecology and species distribution modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McInerny, Greg J.; Etienne, Rampal S.

    2012-01-01

    In a discussion it is often easier to staunchly reject or offer resolute support for an idea. This third paper on the niche concept aims to develop a balanced argument by exploring general principles for determining an appropriate level for pitching the niche concept that will guide better use and

  5. Towards good ecological status of surface waters in Europe--interpretation and harmonisation of the concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiskanen, A S; van de Bund, W; Cardoso, A C; Nóges, P

    2004-01-01

    The Water Framework Directive (WFD) is a new legislative framework to manage, use, protect, and restore surface water and groundwater resources and coastal waters in the European Union (EU). The aim is to ensure sustainable water management and to reach good water quality by 2015. The assessment of the ecological status and setting of the practical management goals require several steps. The process has started with the characterisation of the river basins including identification of surface water bodies and types, and identification of significant anthropogenic pressures and impacts. The water bodies will be classified in five quality classes (high, good, moderate, poor, bad) based on the Ecological Quality Ratio, which is a ratio between reference conditions and measured status of the biological quality elements. The normative criteria for high, good and moderate ecological status described in the WFD need to be made operational because those will be used to set the practical quality targets for surface water management. National ecological assessment systems and classifications will be harmonised through the WFD intercalibration exercise in order to ensure an equal level of ambition in achieving good surface waters status all over Europe.

  6. Ecological knowledge and environmental problem-solving: concepts and case studies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    National Research Council Staff

    1986-01-01

    ... on the Applications of Ecological Theory to Environmental Problems Commission on Life Sciences National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1986 i Copyrightthe cannot be not from book, paper however, version for formatting, original authoritative the typesetting-specific the as from created publication files XML from other this and...

  7. The concept: Restoring ecological structure and process in ponderosa pine forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen F. Arno

    1996-01-01

    Elimination of the historic pattern of frequent low-intensity fires in ponderosa pine and pine-mixed conifer forests has resulted in major ecological disruptions. Prior to 1900, open stands of large, long-lived, fire-resistant ponderosa pine were typical. These were accompanied in some areas by other fire-dependent species such as western larch. Today, as a result of...

  8. Sanitation and Civic Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Peña Barreto

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This research is proposed in order to propose an action plan for environmental sanitation citizen participation in the "Manuela Sáenz" Concentrating National Basic School Parish Municipality City Bolivia Pedraza Barinas state. It is part of the qualitative approach in the form of participatory action research and supported by a narrative descriptive design. The selected scenario for performance of work was the Concentrating National School "Manuela Sáenz" key informants consist of 1 member of the community, 1 member of the community council and one teacher of the institution. The techniques used are observation and depth interview, using as instruments a field notebook and an interview script. For the presentation and analysis of results he was categorized, triangulated and theorized the information obtained, performing a thorough and detailed report on the integrated management of solid waste diagnosis. Subsequently, the proposal called Action Plan for environmental sanitation was developed with citizen participation in concentrated Manuela Saenz National Basic School. Then the proposal where participants expressed the view that activities allowed to obtain very important basic knowledge on environmental sanitation was run.

  9. The Role of Conceptions of Value in Data Practices: A Multi-Case Study of Three Small Teams of Ecological Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akmon, Dharma R.

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation examines the role of conceptions of data's value in data practices. Based on a study of three small teams of scientists carrying out ecological research at a biological station, my study addresses the following main question: How do scientists conceive of the value of their data, and how do scientists enact conceptions of value…

  10. Conceptions of Landscape-Ecological Relevance Emerged in the Czech Botany during the Second Half of Twentieth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovář Pavel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes those substantial theoretical concepts or methods for applications within interdisciplinary or practical uses published by Czech autors (geobotanists = ecological botanists, plant ecologists and ecophysiologists during the second half of the 20th century, that were internationally cited. All selected thematical clusters are of landscape-ecological relevance through various contexts. Examples include the concepts of (potential reconstructed vegetation in maps (R. Neuhäusl, Z. Neuhäuslová, linear vegetation features (corridors in landscape and deductive classification of vegetation (K. Kopecký, analysis of soil seed bank (Z. Kropáč, dependency of macrophyte plant stands on ecodynamics (S. Hejný, dynamic periodicity in segetal vegetation (Z. Kropáč, E. Hadač, S. Hejný, anemo-orographic system explaining species richness in mountain regions (J. Jeník, productivity in grassland ecosystems (M. Rychnovská, J. Květ, elementary landscape units based on homogenity and potential vegetation (E. Hadač, landscape dispensation phenomena (V. Ložek, afforestation of coastal sandy dunes – the Netherlands, and polluted areas - the Czech Republic (J. Fanta, invasive plants and invasions into landscapes (M. Rejmánek.

  11. Linking concepts in the ecology and evolution of invasive plants: network analysis shows what has been most studied and identifies knowledge gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderhoeven, Sonia; Brown, Cynthia S; Tepolt, Carolyn K; Tsutsui, Neil D; Vanparys, Valérie; Atkinson, Sheryl; Mahy, Grégory; Monty, Arnaud

    2010-03-01

    In recent decades, a growing number of studies have addressed connections between ecological and evolutionary concepts in biologic invasions. These connections may be crucial for understanding the processes underlying invaders' success. However, the extent to which scientists have worked on the integration of the ecology and evolution of invasive plants is poorly documented, as few attempts have been made to evaluate these efforts in invasion biology research. Such analysis can facilitate recognize well-documented relationships and identify gaps in our knowledge. In this study, we used a network-based method for visualizing the connections between major aspects of ecology and evolution in the primary research literature. Using the family Poaceae as an example, we show that ecological concepts were more studied and better interconnected than were evolutionary concepts. Several possible connections were not documented at all, representing knowledge gaps between ecology and evolution of invaders. Among knowledge gaps, the concepts of plasticity, gene flow, epigenetics and human influence were particularly under-connected. We discuss five possible research avenues to better understand the relationships between ecology and evolution in the success of Poaceae, and of alien plants in general.

  12. How the Social-Ecological Systems Concept Can Guide Transdisciplinary Research and Implementation: Addressing Water Challenges in Central Northern Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Liehr

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Research aimed at contributing to the further development of integrated water resources management needs to tackle complex challenges at the interface of nature and society. A case study in the Cuvelai-Etosha Basin in Namibia has shown how semi-arid conditions coinciding with high population density and urbanisation present a risk to people’s livelihoods and ecosystem health. In order to increase water security and promote sustainable water management, there is a requirement for problem-oriented research approaches combined with a new way of thinking about water in order to generate evidence-based, adapted solutions. Transdisciplinary research in particular addresses this issue by focusing on the problems that arise when society interacts with nature. This article presents the implementation of a transdisciplinary research approach in the above-mentioned case study. The concept of social-ecological systems (SES plays a key role in operationalising the transdisciplinary research process. Application of the SES concept helps to outline the problem by defining the epistemic object, as well as structure the research process itself in terms of formulating research questions and developing the research design. It is argued here that the SES concept is not merely useful, but also necessary for guiding transdisciplinary sustainability research and implementation. The study from Namibia clearly demonstrates that the introduction of technological innovations such as rainwater and floodwater harvesting plants requires a social-ecological perspective. In particular this means considering questions around knowledge, practices and institutions related to water resources management and includes various societal innovations alongside technologies on the agenda.

  13. The Azteca Chess experience: learning how to share concepts of ecological complexity with small coffee farmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís García-Barrios

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Small-scale coffee farmers understand certain complex ecological processes, and successfully navigate some of the challenges emerging from the ecological complexity on their farms. It is generally thought that scientific knowledge is able to complement farmers' knowledge. However, for this collaboration to be fruitful, the gap between the knowledge frameworks of both farmers and scientists will need to be closed. We report on the learning results of 14 workshops held in Chiapas, Mexico during 2015 in which 117 small-scale coffee farmers of all genders (30% women and ages who had little schooling were exposed by researchers to a natural history narrative, a multispecies network representation, a board game, and a series of graphical quizzes, all related to a nine-species complex ecological network with potential for autonomous control of the ongoing and devastating coffee rust epidemic that was affecting them. Farmers' retention and understanding of direct and indirect bilateral interactions among organisms was assessed with different methods to elucidate the effect of adding Azteca Chess gaming sessions to a detailed and very graphical lecture. Evaluation methods that were better adapted to farmers' conditions improved learning scores and showed statistically significant age effect (players older than 40 had lower retention scores and gaming effect (lower retention of interactions included in the lecture but not in the game. The combination of lecture and game sessions helped participants better understand cascades of trait-mediated interactions. Participants' debriefings confirmed qualitatively that they learned that beneficial organisms and interactions occur on their farms, and that gaming was enjoyable, motivating, and critical to grasp complex interactions. Many of the farmers concluded that the outcome of these interactions is not unique and not always in favor of rust control but is context dependent. Many concluded that there are

  14. Use of the ecosystem services concept in ecological risk assessment of chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Valery E; Calow, Peter

    2013-04-01

    The reason for expressing ecological protection goals in terms of ecosystem services is to make a connection between ecosystems and what people get out of them in terms of marketed goods and nonmarketed welfare. Here our focus will be on how the ecosystem services framework is and can be applied to the ecological risk assessment (ERA) of chemicals. We provide 2 contrasting examples of how the ecosystem services framework is currently being applied in regulatory risk assessment, and we discuss the challenges and knowledge gaps that need to be addressed if such a framework is to substantially improve ERAs and their ability to inform management decisions. We make the point that formulating protection goals in terms of ecosystem services only makes sense if they can be used in managing environmental impacts and if they are useful in informing the risk assessments behind these. Ecosystem services can make a contribution to management by connecting ecosystem structure and process to what is valued, and analyzing risk in this context is a way of making risk assessment more policy- and value-relevant. Using an ecosystem services framework to its fullest potential to support ERA will require the successful development of a suite of coupled Valuation Methods, Ecological Production Functions, and Mechanistic Effect Models that will require the establishment of strong multidisciplinary collaborations among ecologists, computer scientists, social scientists, and possibly others. In addition, buy-in from environmental decision makers and other stakeholders will be crucial. Some progress is being made on the research front, and the implementation of new legislation is providing incentives for developing risk assessment outputs that are much more directly related to environmental protection goals than those used currently. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  15. The ecological model web concept: A consultative infrastructure for researchers and decision makers using a Service Oriented Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Gary

    2010-05-01

    Rapid climate and socioeconomic changes may be outrunning society's ability to understand, predict, and respond to change effectively. Decision makers such as natural resource managers want better information about what these changes will be and how the resources they are managing will be affected. Researchers want better understanding of the components and processes of ecological systems, how they interact, and how they respond to change. Nearly all these activities require computer models to make ecological forecasts that can address "what if" questions. However, despite many excellent models in ecology and related disciplines, there is no coordinated model system—that is, a model infrastructure--that researchers or decision makers can consult to gain insight on important ecological questions or help them make decisions. While this is partly due to the complexity of the science, to lack of critical observations, and other issues, limited access to and sharing of models and model outputs is a factor as well. An infrastructure that increased access to and sharing of models and model outputs would benefit researchers, decision makers of all kinds, and modelers. One path to such a "consultative infrastructure" for ecological forecasting is called the Model Web, a concept for an open-ended system of interoperable computer models and databases communicating using a Service Oriented Architectures (SOA). Initially, it could consist of a core of several models, perhaps made interoperable retroactively, and then it could grow gradually as new models or databases were added. Because some models provide basic information of use to many other models, such as simple physical parameters, these "keystone" models are of particular importance in a model web. In the long run, a model web would not be rigidly planned and built--instead, like the World Wide Web, it would grow largely organically, with limited central control, within a framework of broad goals and data exchange

  16. Towards a new ecological conception of perceptual information : Lessons from a developmental systems perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Withagen, Rob; van der Kamp, John

    Over the last decades or so, empirical studies of perception, action, learning, and development have revealed that participants vary in what variable they detect and often rely on nonspecifying variables. This casts doubt on the Gibsonian conception of information as specification. It is argued that

  17. The Concept of Biological/Ecological interaction: contributions to studies in Epistemology of Biology and Biology Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fúlvia Eloá Maricato

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Epistemology of biology has been the subject of many discussions in the field of Science and Biology education. This study aimed to bring new elaborations to enrich these discussions, highlighting its importance and how this epistemology canbe inserted in Science and Biology education. The presented investigation is anchored on three main pillars:(i some reflections on epistemologyof biology; (iithe importance and vagueness of the concept of biological/ecological interaction in literature; (iii the empirical investigation on epistemologyof biology by this research group. The semiotic analysis allowed us to infer that the research subjects: expressed to understand the importance, amplitude and centrality of this concept to the Biology Knowledge; evolved from a starting vision in which it was only understood the biological interactions with the external environment to one in which we start to understand the biological interactions in several levels of organization thus, advancing from a syncretic/abductive thinking to a deductive reasoning, going through the inductive one; and are concerned on how to teach the studied concept to their future students. This analysisallowed some reflections that can contribute to a creation of a solid epistemology of biology in its many contexts, with the main focus on initial teacher training.

  18. 21 CFR 211.56 - Sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... assigning responsibility for sanitation and describing in sufficient detail the cleaning schedules, methods..., fungicides, fumigating agents, and cleaning and sanitizing agents. Such written procedures shall be designed...

  19. Sanitizers and Disinfectants Guide. Revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Schools Network, Inc., 2012

    2012-01-01

    Sanitizers and disinfectants can play an important role in protecting public health. They are designed to kill "pests," including infectious germs and other microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi. Unfortunately, sanitizers and disinfectants also contain chemicals that are "pesticides." Exposure to persistent toxic…

  20. Sanitation planning in developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerstens, S.M.

    2016-01-01

    Sanitation planning in developing countries: Added value of resource recovery Worldwide 2.5 billion people lack access to sanitation. This impacts human live, the environment and represents a loss of valuable resources that can be regained from wastewater. This study shows that

  1. Transforming "Ecosystem" from a Scientific Concept into a Teachable Topic: Philosophy and History of Ecology Informs Science Textbook Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schizas, Dimitrios; Papatheodorou, Efimia; Stamou, George

    2017-04-01

    This study conducts a textbook analysis in the frame of the following working hypothesis: The transformation of scientific knowledge into school knowledge is expected to reproduce the problems encountered with the scientific knowledge itself or generate additional problems, which may both induce misconceptions in textbook users. Specifically, we describe four epistemological problems associated with how the concept of "ecosystem" is elaborated within ecological science and we examine how each problem is reproduced in the biology textbook utilized by Greek students in the 12th grade and the resulting teacher and student misunderstandings that may occur. Our research demonstrates that the authors of the textbook address these problems by appealing simultaneously to holistic and reductionist ideas. This results in a meaningless and confused depiction of "ecosystem" and may provoke many serious misconceptions on the part of textbook users, for example, that an ecosystem is a system that can be applied to every set of interrelated ecological objects irrespective of the organizational level to which these entities belong or how these entities are related to each other. The implications of these phenomena for science education research are discussed from a perspective that stresses the role of background assumptions in the understanding of declarative knowledge.

  2. Taxonomic identification of algae (morphological and molecular): species concepts, methodologies, and their implications for ecological bioassessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoylov, Kalina M

    2014-06-01

    Algal taxonomy is a key discipline in phycology and is critical for algal genetics, physiology, ecology, applied phycology, and particularly bioassessment. Taxonomic identification is the most common analysis and hypothesis-testing endeavor in science. Errors of identification are often related to the inherent problem of small organisms with morphologies that are difficult to distinguish without research-grade microscopes and taxonomic expertise in phycology. Proposed molecular approaches for taxonomic identification from environmental samples promise rapid, potentially inexpensive, and more thorough culture-independent identification of all algal species present in a sample of interest. Molecular identification has been used in biodiversity and conservation, but it also has great potential for applications in bioassessment. Comparisons of morphological and molecular identification of benthic algal communities are improved by the identification of more taxa; however, automated identification technology does not allow for the simultaneous analysis of thousands of samples. Currently, morphological identification is used to verify molecular taxonomic identities, but with the increased number of taxa verified in algal gene libraries, molecular identification will become a universal tool in biological studies. Thus, in this report, successful application of molecular techniques related to algal bioassessment is discussed. © 2014 Phycological Society of America.

  3. Conception of ecological strategy «Olympic sport for maintainance of nature» during leadthrough of winter Olympic Games 2022 in Ukrainian Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsyganenko O.I.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available An analysis is conducted scientific and to scientifically-methodical literatures on issue of ecological strategy of organization and leadthrough of winter Olympiads. Conception of ecological strategy of organization and leadthrough of winter Olympiad is developed 2022 (Ukraine, Carpathians. It was offered, that ecological strategy of organization and leadthrough of Olympiad had an ecological motto «Olympic sport for the maintainance of nature». Strategy included the ways of decision of problem of negative influence of global change of climate on the olympic winter types of sport. The problems of providing of ecological safety of sporting activity are considered in relation to a man and wild-life. Solution is offered questions of the ecological marketing, management and ecological inlightening. The ecological ground of choice of Lvov is conducted as a city of organizer of winter Olympiad 2022. As a mountain-skier center a mountain-skier complex Borzhava, located in the area Carpathians of Ukraine, is offered.

  4. Combined ecological momentary assessment and global positioning system tracking to assess smoking behavior: a proof of concept study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, John T; Schick, Robert S; Hallyburton, Matt; Dennis, Michelle F; Kollins, Scott H; Beckham, Jean C; McClernon, F Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) methods have provided a rich assessment of the contextual factors associated with a wide range of behaviors including alcohol use, eating, physical activity, and smoking. Despite this rich database, this information has not been linked to specific locations in space. Such location information, which can now be easily acquired from global positioning system (GPS) tracking devices, could provide unique information regarding the space-time distribution of behaviors and new insights into their determinants. In a proof of concept study, we assessed the acceptability and feasibility of acquiring and combining EMA and GPS data from adult smokers with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Participants were adults with ADHD who were enrolled in a larger EMA study on smoking and psychiatric symptoms. Among those enrolled in the latter study who were approached to participate (N = 11), 10 consented, provided daily EMA entries, and carried a GPS device with them during a 7-day assessment period to assess aspects of their smoking behavior. The majority of those eligible to participate were willing to carry a GPS device and signed the consent (10 out of 11, 91%). Of the 10 who consented, 7 participants provided EMA entries and carried the GPS device with them daily for at least 70% of the sampling period. Data are presented on the spatial distribution of smoking episodes and ADHD symptoms on a subset of the sample to demonstrate applications of GPS data. We conclude by discussing how EMA and GPS might be used to study the ecology of smoking and make recommendations for future research and analysis.

  5. El Salvador - Water and Sanitation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The benefits of the water and sanitation sub activity will be measured using a rigorous quasi-experimental impact evaluation methodology. An impact evaluation is a...

  6. The toilet tripod: understanding successful sanitation in rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Kathleen; Louis, Elizabeth

    2014-09-01

    Building toilets and getting people to use them is critical for public health. We deployed a political ecology approach specifically to identify the multi-scalar political, economic, and environmental factors influencing toilet adoption in rural India. The research used ethnographic and technical methods in rural villages of West Bengal and Himachal Pradesh over the period September 2012 to May 2013. The elements of successful sanitation adoption depended on three factors (i.e., toilet tripod): (1) multi-scalar political will on the part of both government and NGOs over the long term; (2) proximate social pressure, i.e., person-to-person contact between rural inhabitants and toilets; (3) political ecology, i.e., assured access to water, compatible soil type, and changing land use. This research contributes to studies of sustainable development and global public health by developing a theory and framework for successful sanitation. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Ecological Factors Influencing Emotional/Behavioral Problems and Self-Concept in Adolescents from Low-Income Families in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Suyon; Yoo, Haewon

    2017-09-01

    In this study, we examined emotional/behavioral problems and self-concept in adolescents from low-income families in Korea; additionally, we identified ecological factors associated with these traits. This descriptive study employed an ecological model to analyze data from the Korean Children and Youth Panel Survey. A nationwide stratified multistage cluster sampling methodology was used. Overall, 2534 first-year middle school students were included in the survey, and the survey was conducted from 2010 to 2016. Hierarchical multiple regression models were generated. The mean score of emotional/behavioral problem has been changed from 2.20 (2011), 2.15 (2013), to 2.11 (2015) out of 4, and the mean score of self-concept has been changed from 2.73 (2012), 2.73 (2014), to 2.77 (2015) out of 4. Factors that influenced emotional/behavioral problems and self-concept among adolescents were health perception and academic achievement (only associated with self-concept) at the intrapersonal level and parenting style, peer attachment (only associated with self-concept), and relationships with teachers at the interpersonal level. These results may be used to inform the development of interventions designed to decrease emotional/behavioral problems and improve positive self-concept in adolescents from low-income families.

  8. Application of threshold concepts to ecological management problems: occupancy of Golden Eagles in Denali National Park, Alaska: Chapter 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Mitchell J.; Martin, Julien; Nichols, James D.; McIntyre, Carol; McCluskie, Maggie C.; Schmutz, Joel A.; Lubow, Bruce L.; Runge, Michael C.; Edited by Guntenspergen, Glenn R.

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter, we demonstrate the application of the various classes of thresholds, detailed in earlier chapters and elsewhere, via an actual but simplified natural resource management case study. We intend our example to provide the reader with the ability to recognize and apply the theoretical concepts of utility, ecological and decision thresholds to management problems through a formalized decision-analytic process. Our case study concerns the management of human recreational activities in Alaska’s Denali National Park, USA, and the possible impacts of such activities on nesting Golden Eagles, Aquila chrysaetos. Managers desire to allow visitors the greatest amount of access to park lands, provided that eagle nesting-site occupancy is maintained at a level determined to be acceptable by the managers themselves. As these two management objectives are potentially at odds, we treat minimum desired occupancy level as a utility threshold which, then, serves to guide the selection of annual management alternatives in the decision process. As human disturbance is not the only factor influencing eagle occupancy, we model nesting-site dynamics as a function of both disturbance and prey availability. We incorporate uncertainty in these dynamics by considering several hypotheses, including a hypothesis that site occupancy is affected only at a threshold level of prey abundance (i.e., an ecological threshold effect). By considering competing management objectives and accounting for two forms of thresholds in the decision process, we are able to determine the optimal number of annual nesting-site restrictions that will produce the greatest long-term benefits for both eagles and humans. Setting a utility threshold of 75 occupied sites, out of a total of 90 potential nesting sites, the optimization specified a decision threshold at approximately 80 occupied sites. At the point that current occupancy falls below 80 sites, the recommended decision is to begin restricting

  9. Restoration Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, William R.; Gilpin, Michael E.; Aber, John D.

    1990-08-01

    This book explores the ecological concepts and ideas involved in the practice of habitat restoration by taking a theoretical approach that will appeal to ecologists concerned with the structure and dynamics of communities. The contributors examine aspects of this new realization and its implications for both ecology and the practice of habitat restoration. What emerges is the outline of a new paradigm for ecological research and the basis for a stronger relationship between theory and practice in this area.

  10. Resignificando los conceptos de la higiene: el surgimiento de una autoridad sanitaria en el Buenos Aires de los años 80 Resignifying hygienic concepts: the establishment of a sanitation authority in Buenos Aires in the 1880s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Alvarez

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo aborda la emergencia de una autoridad sanitaria en la ciudad de Buenos Aires a fines del siglo XIX sobre la base de las ideas del higienismo decimonónico. Se enfocan las innovaciones de tipo científico-técnicas y políticas que se introdujeron y el rol que ejerció el proceso de profesionalización de la medicina en esta institución. La fisonomía que adquirió la política sanitaria en la ciudad de Buenos Aires, entre fines del siglo XIX y las primeras décadas del XX, sirvió para configurar un sistema de normas y arquetipos del cuerpo humano y su bienestar físico y mental.The late nineteenth century saw the establishment of a sanitation authority in Buenos Aires, grounded on the ideas of nineteenth century hygienics. The article focuses on the scientific technical and political innovations that were introduced and on the role that the process of medical professionalization played within this institution. The features of sanitation policy that came to prevail in Buenos Aires at the turn on this century helped shape a system of standards and archetypes regarding the human body and its physical and mental well-being.

  11. Rational Use of Natural Potential State Dendropark "Аlexandria" of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine in the Concept of Ecological Network in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galkin, S.I.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The article provides information about scientific research and technological activities undertaken to create a socionatural structure – nature trail in the State deontological park «Alexandria» NAS in the concept of development of ecological network in Ukraine. Its purpose and method of research, objectives and purpose, criteria for the building of the trail, the length and the number of constituent elements of ecological trails in the deontological park “Alexandria” are presented. The data on the history of the building of nature trails in Ukraine and the deontological park “Alexandria”, information about objects or parts of the trail, the species composition of introduction collections is given. List of new species in the deontological park that are planted for optimization of introduction and natural plant communities, rare and endangered species of plants and animals, permanent collection sites and a list of technical measures for resettlement ecological trail is presented.

  12. Advanced oxidation process sanitization of eggshell surfaces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gottselig, Steven M; Dunn-Horrocks, Sadie L; Woodring, Kristy S; Coufal, Craig D; Duong, Tri

    2016-01-01

    ... and poultry products. The hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and ultraviolet (UV) light advanced oxidation process is a potentially important alternative to traditional sanitizers and disinfectants for egg sanitation...

  13. Social Perspectives on the Sanitation Challenge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van B.J.M.; Spaargaren, G.; Oosterveer, P.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    In developed countries the sanitation challenge is to initiate a transition from strongly centralized, water-based infrastructure regimes towards more sustainable, source-separation oriented, sanitation regimes. This calls for social scientific research and demonstration on different levels and

  14. Shared sanitation: to include or to exclude?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mara, Duncan

    2016-05-01

    Just over 600 million people used shared sanitation in 2015, but this form of sanitation is not considered 'improved sanitation' or, in the current terminology, 'basic sanitation' by WHO/UNICEF, principally because they are typically unhygienic. Recent research has shown that neighbour-shared toilets perform much better than large communal toilets. The successful development of community-designed, built and managed sanitation-and-water blocks in very poor urban areas in India should be adapted and adopted throughout urban slums in developing countries, with a caretaker employed to keep the facilities clean. Such shared sanitation should be classified as 'basic', sometimes as 'safely-managed', sanitation, so contributing to the achievement of the sanitation target of the Sustainable Development Goals. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. 9 CFR 3.31 - Sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sanitation. 3.31 Section 3.31 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL... Pigs and Hamsters Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.31 Sanitation. (a) Cleaning and sanitation...

  16. 9 CFR 147.21 - Flock sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flock sanitation. 147.21 Section 147... LIVESTOCK IMPROVEMENT AUXILIARY PROVISIONS ON NATIONAL POULTRY IMPROVEMENT PLAN Sanitation Procedures § 147.21 Flock sanitation. To aid in the maintenance of healthy flocks, the following procedures should be...

  17. 9 CFR 147.23 - Hatchery sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hatchery sanitation. 147.23 Section... AGRICULTURE LIVESTOCK IMPROVEMENT AUXILIARY PROVISIONS ON NATIONAL POULTRY IMPROVEMENT PLAN Sanitation Procedures § 147.23 Hatchery sanitation. An effective program for the prevention and control of Salmonella...

  18. 9 CFR 3.131 - Sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sanitation. 3.131 Section 3.131... Mammals Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.131 Sanitation. (a) Cleaning of enclosures. Excreta... being directly sprayed with the stream of water or wetted involuntarily. (b) Sanitation of enclosures...

  19. 29 CFR 1926.27 - Sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sanitation. 1926.27 Section 1926.27 Labor Regulations...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION General Safety and Health Provisions § 1926.27 Sanitation. Health and sanitation requirements for drinking water are contained in subpart D of this part. ...

  20. Developing and Implementing an Instructional Technology Aided Conceptual Change Approach in Teaching Ecology Concepts at Ninth Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Gülcan; Ertepinar, Hamide; Geban, Ömer

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of using conceptual change texts accompanied with small group work on ninth grade students' learning of ecology. The developed texts were constructed to remediation of students' misconceptions with accommodated new ones about ecology. Conceptual change texts were implemented in an…

  1. Programmed Cleaning and Environmental Sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, John C., Ed.

    Maintenance of sanitation in buildings, plants, offices, and institutions; the selection of cleaning materials for these purposes; and the organization and supervision of the cleaning program are becoming increasingly complex and needful of a higher cost of handling. This book describes these problems and gives helpful information and guidance for…

  2. Hydrothermal carbonization as innovative technology in sustainable sanitation in Tanzania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, Ariane [Engineers Without Boarders (Germany), Berlin (DE). Project ' ' Carbonization as Sanitation' ' (CaSa)

    2011-07-01

    The need for sustainable systems is apparent as climate change and other adverse anthropogenic activities continue to negatively affect the soil fertility in Africa. One of the indicators of the loss of soil fertility is the continuous decrease in soil organic matter, which is the major building block of a fertile soil. This is mainly attributed to the inappropriate practice of human-beings of taking more substances from the ecosystem than the amount replaced. As the soil fertility is increasingly lost, food insecurity, due to dropped productivity of the soil, is becoming a critical issue in many areas of Africa, Tanzania is not any different in this respect. On the other hand, most people in rural areas of Africa still lack possibilities to cover their daily energy needs in a more sustainable way and many people mainly rely on firewood. This, in turn, has an adverse impact on the climate and the soil, causing a local viscous circle of poor soil and productivity conditions. Moreover, the sanitation coverage of those areas is very low and there is a need for appropriate sanitation systems. Therefore, the aim of this project is, to conduct research on the possibility of establishing a self-sustaining system for the rural areas of Kagera, Tanzania, to address the three basic issues: sanitation, energy supply and soil fertility. The system consists of a small-scale biogas digester, a urine diverting dehydrating toilet (UDDT) and an adaptive hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) unit. Biogas is produced from crop residues and other domestic organic waste. The fermentation residues and the dehydrated fecal matter from the UDDT is then treated with HTC. The carbonised and sanitized residue is then applied as soil amendment to improve the soil fertility as manifested by the Terra Preta in the Amazon. This holistic approach is a new development in ecological sanitation. Therefore, a comprehensive sustainability assessment including environmental, economic and socio

  3. Adopt or Adapt: Sanitation Technology Choices in Urbanizing Malawi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard M Chunga

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a mixed-methods study examining adaptation strategies that property owners in low-income, rapidly urbanizing areas in Malawi adopt to address the limitations of pit latrines, the most common method of disposing human excreta. A particular challenge is lack of space for constructing new latrines as population density increases: traditional practice has been to cap full pits and simply move to a new site, but increasing demands on space require new approaches to extend the service life of latrines. In this context, we collected data on sanitation technology choices from January to September 2013 through 48 in-depth interviews and a stated preference survey targeting 1,300 property owners from 27 low-income urban areas. Results showed that property owners with concern about space for replacing pit latrines were 1.8 times more likely to select pit emptying service over the construction of new pit latrines with a slab floor (p = 0.02 but there was no significant association between concern about space for replacing pit latrines and intention to adopt locally promoted, novel sanitation technology known as ecological sanitation (ecosan. Property owners preferred to adapt existing, known technology by constructing replacement pit latrines on old pit latrine locations, reducing the frequency of replacing pit latrines, or via emptying pit latrines when full. This study highlights potential challenges to adoption of wholly new sanitation technologies, even when they present clear advantages to end users. To scale, alternative sanitation technologies for rapidly urbanising cities should offer clear advantages, be affordable, be easy to use when shared among multiple households, and their design should be informed by existing adaptation strategies and local knowledge.

  4. Adopt or Adapt: Sanitation Technology Choices in Urbanizing Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chunga, Richard M; Ensink, Jeroen H J; Jenkins, Marion W; Brown, Joe

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a mixed-methods study examining adaptation strategies that property owners in low-income, rapidly urbanizing areas in Malawi adopt to address the limitations of pit latrines, the most common method of disposing human excreta. A particular challenge is lack of space for constructing new latrines as population density increases: traditional practice has been to cap full pits and simply move to a new site, but increasing demands on space require new approaches to extend the service life of latrines. In this context, we collected data on sanitation technology choices from January to September 2013 through 48 in-depth interviews and a stated preference survey targeting 1,300 property owners from 27 low-income urban areas. Results showed that property owners with concern about space for replacing pit latrines were 1.8 times more likely to select pit emptying service over the construction of new pit latrines with a slab floor (p = 0.02) but there was no significant association between concern about space for replacing pit latrines and intention to adopt locally promoted, novel sanitation technology known as ecological sanitation (ecosan). Property owners preferred to adapt existing, known technology by constructing replacement pit latrines on old pit latrine locations, reducing the frequency of replacing pit latrines, or via emptying pit latrines when full. This study highlights potential challenges to adoption of wholly new sanitation technologies, even when they present clear advantages to end users. To scale, alternative sanitation technologies for rapidly urbanising cities should offer clear advantages, be affordable, be easy to use when shared among multiple households, and their design should be informed by existing adaptation strategies and local knowledge.

  5. Ekološke sledi kot pomemben element geografskih zasnov za pripravo lokalnega programa varstva okolja = Ecological footprints as important element of geographical concepts for the preparation of the local environmental action plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Rozman

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Local environmental action plans are integral documents that enable more efficient planningand solving of environmental problems. Ecological footprints can represent the importantpart of geographical concepts for the preparation of the local environmental action plan.The calculation of ecological footprints has shown that at the moment, Ormož municipalitydoes not follow the sustainable development. Municipality’s ecological footprints exceedthe capabilities of its bioproductive areas. Ecological footprints are 4.3 gha per inhabitant(Slovenia 3.4 gha per inhabitant, while the ecological deficit is 1.11 gha per inhabitant(Slovenia 0.6 gha per inhabitant.

  6. Preventing regime shifts on the Colorado Plateau: Application of ecological threshold concepts to land management decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Investigating the mechanisms responsible for ecological thresholds is essential to understanding processes leading to ecosystem regime shifts. Dryland ecosystems are especially prone to threshold behavior wherein stressor-mediated alteration of patterns and processes can shift systems to alternative...

  7. Discursos sobre a relação saneamento-saúde-ambiente na legislação: uma análise de conceitos e diretrizes Discourses on sanitation-health-environment relationship in the legislation: an analysis of concepts and lines of direction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cezarina Maria Nobre Souza

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram identificados em textos da legislação brasileira diversos discursos que tratam do conceito de saneamento, de saúde e de ambiente, bem como das práticas exercidas no setor de saneamento. Buscou-se com isso verificar se a percepção que os mesmos revelam sobre tais temas se aproxima de uma visão de prevenção de doenças ou de promoção da saúde. Concluiu-se que, relativamente aos conceitos, há predominância de uma visão preventivista; existência de ambigüidades dentro de uma mesma lei; ocorrência de omissões. No que tange às práticas, há predominância de discursos promocionais; ambigüidades e omissões discursivas.Some discourses about concepts of health and environment and about concepts and practices of water supply, sanitation, solid waste management, urban drainage, were identified on Brazilian legislation. The discourses were analyzed based on prevention diseases ideas and health promotion proposal. The results allow saying that, about concepts, most of discourses approach prevention ideas; there are ambiguous visions within the same law and there are omissions. About practices, there are more promotional discourses than preventive discourses; ambiguities and omissions.

  8. Bases of the scientific conception of the “green frame” designing in urban areas for providing ecological safety of the urban environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bespalov, V.; Kotlyarova, E.

    2017-10-01

    In modern conditions of a stable urban areas development special place is occupied by the problem of ecological security of built-up areas, including residential, recreational, industrial areas and objects of transport and engineering infrastructure. The main results of the study are to establish the basis of formation of the concept of choice of energy-efficient technologies and tools of forming an ecologically efficient “green frame” of urban areas on the basis of a single integrated scientific concept. Analysis allowed us to divide the measures for improvement into the following main groups: organizational and planning, engineering and technical and special engineering and environmental. The significance of these results for the construction industry, including transport infrastructure, is to increase the level of environmental safety in the construction and reconstruction of urban areas due to the organization of their improvement on the basis suggested by the authors scientific approach. Its basis is integrated accounting of the natural and climatic features of the landscaping territory, the types and level of environmental impact of negative anthropogenic factors, the features of architectural and planning solutions of the existing or projected on the studied area, the structure and types of green spaces and their functional ecological properties.

  9. Ecological rehabilitation concept Leipzig/Bitterfeld/Halle/Merseburg. Brief report on phase 1. Oekologisches Sanierungskonzept Leipzig/Bitterfeld/Halle/Merseburg. Kurzbericht Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-01

    The unification treaty between the Federal Republic of Germany and the former German Democratic Republic lays special emphasis on the importance of environmental protection within the framework of a general development in the five new federal states and demands the arrangement of ecological rehabilitation and development programmes for these states with the assignment of responsibilities as required by the Basic Law. The report contains the essential results of the first phase of an 'ecological rehabilitation and development concept for the extended area around Leipzig and Halle'. The stock-taking of the environmental situation in five strongly polluted districts of this area with particular attention to the centres of the chemical industry was entered upon with the aim to work out proposals for measures to fend off immediate dangers. Besides the environmental stock-taking and valuation the report contains recommendations for action in the form of ecological, economic, social, legal-administrative and planning measures in order to reach the aims set up in the unification contract. The recommendations for action can contribute to establishing equal environmental conditions of high quality throughout Germany until the year 2000. The annex lists 36 current and planned projects of the 'ecological rehabilitation and development plan' of the Federal Environment Office for the new states. (BBR).

  10. Paper-based plasma sanitizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jingjin; Chen, Qiang; Suresh, Poornima; Roy, Subrata; White, James F.; Mazzeo, Aaron D.

    2017-05-01

    This work describes disposable plasma generators made from metallized paper. The fabricated plasma generators with layered and patterned sheets of paper provide a simple and flexible format for dielectric barrier discharge to create atmospheric plasma without an applied vacuum. The porosity of paper allows gas to permeate its bulk volume and fuel plasma, while plasma-induced forced convection cools the substrate. When electrically driven with oscillating peak-to-peak potentials of ±1 to ±10 kV, the paper-based devices produced both volume and surface plasmas capable of killing microbes. The plasma sanitizers deactivated greater than 99% of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and greater than 99.9% of Escherichia coli cells with 30 s of noncontact treatment. Characterization of plasma generated from the sanitizers revealed a detectable level of UV-C (1.9 nWṡcm-2ṡnm-1), modest surface temperature (60 °C with 60 s of activation), and a high level of ozone (13 ppm with 60 s of activation). These results deliver insights into the mechanisms and suitability of paper-based substrates for active antimicrobial sanitization with scalable, flexible sheets. In addition, this work shows how paper-based generators are conformable to curved surfaces, appropriate for kirigami-like “stretchy” structures, compatible with user interfaces, and suitable for sanitization of microbes aerosolized onto a surface. In general, these disposable plasma generators represent progress toward biodegradable devices based on flexible renewable materials, which may impact the future design of protective garments, skin-like sensors for robots or prosthetics, and user interfaces in contaminated environments.

  11. Paper-based plasma sanitizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jingjin; Chen, Qiang; Suresh, Poornima; Roy, Subrata; White, James F; Mazzeo, Aaron D

    2017-05-16

    This work describes disposable plasma generators made from metallized paper. The fabricated plasma generators with layered and patterned sheets of paper provide a simple and flexible format for dielectric barrier discharge to create atmospheric plasma without an applied vacuum. The porosity of paper allows gas to permeate its bulk volume and fuel plasma, while plasma-induced forced convection cools the substrate. When electrically driven with oscillating peak-to-peak potentials of ±1 to ±10 kV, the paper-based devices produced both volume and surface plasmas capable of killing microbes. The plasma sanitizers deactivated greater than 99% of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and greater than 99.9% of Escherichia coli cells with 30 s of noncontact treatment. Characterization of plasma generated from the sanitizers revealed a detectable level of UV-C (1.9 nW⋅cm -2 ⋅nm -1 ), modest surface temperature (60 °C with 60 s of activation), and a high level of ozone (13 ppm with 60 s of activation). These results deliver insights into the mechanisms and suitability of paper-based substrates for active antimicrobial sanitization with scalable, flexible sheets. In addition, this work shows how paper-based generators are conformable to curved surfaces, appropriate for kirigami-like "stretchy" structures, compatible with user interfaces, and suitable for sanitization of microbes aerosolized onto a surface. In general, these disposable plasma generators represent progress toward biodegradable devices based on flexible renewable materials, which may impact the future design of protective garments, skin-like sensors for robots or prosthetics, and user interfaces in contaminated environments.

  12. 21 CFR 120.6 - Sanitation standard operating procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sanitation standard operating procedures. 120.6... Provisions § 120.6 Sanitation standard operating procedures. (a) Sanitation controls. Each processor shall have and implement a sanitation standard operating procedure (SSOP) that addresses sanitation...

  13. 9 CFR 416.12 - Development of Sanitation SOP's.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Development of Sanitation SOP's. 416... ACT SANITATION § 416.12 Development of Sanitation SOP's. (a) The Sanitation SOP's shall describe all... direct contamination or adulteration of product(s). (b) The Sanitation SOP's shall be signed and dated by...

  14. Impact of rainfall on diarrheal disease risk associated with unimproved water and sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhavnani, Darlene; Goldstick, Jason E; Cevallos, William; Trueba, Gabriel; Eisenberg, Joseph N S

    2014-04-01

    Diarrheal disease remains a leading cause of morbidity in areas with limited access to safe water and sanitation. As water and sanitation interventions continue to be implemented, it will be important to understand the ecological context in which they can prevent diarrhea. We conducted six serial case control studies in Ecuador to estimate the risk of diarrhea from unimproved water and sanitation and the potential for effect modification by rainfall. Unimproved water source and unimproved sanitation increased the adjusted odds of diarrhea (odds ratio [OR] = 3.6, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 1.7-7.8 and OR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.2-2.5, respectively). The OR associated with an unimproved water source was highest after maximum rainfall (OR = 6.8, 95% CI = 1.9-24.5), whereas the OR associated with unimproved sanitation was highest after minimal rainfall (OR = 2.9, 95% CI = 1.3-6.6). Our finding that use of safe water sources and improved sanitation facilities are most protective under opposing rainfall conditions highlights the need for integrated interventions to reduce the burden of diarrheal disease.

  15. Estudo de caso das condições de abastecimento de água e esgotamento sanitário dos moradores da estação ecológica de Fernandes Pinheiro (PR / Case about water supply and wastewater services of residents from the ecological station of Fernandes Pinheiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cecília Rosinski de Lima Gomes

    2011-04-01

    participates as a tool for collective actions of health care. After checking health problems in a family group who were residents in rural area in Paraná, in ecological station in Fernandes Pinheiro city, this current work was supposed to identify the relation between the occurrence of parasitological infectious diseases and some aspects of basic sanitation system present in the studied area. It was checked physical factors, water supplying and sanitation sewage for 4 families of this population. This study was descriptive-observational and was supposed to relate the precarious situation to the basic sanitation with the prevalence of diarrhea in involved individuals. For the development of this present study, interviews were performed, visits in field, lab analysis and bibliographic review. Those proceedings became possible to check the interrelation among the health indicator diarrhea and the water contamination from wells and river. The obtained results indicated the occurrence of 27 % of prevalence of diarrhea, being the major part among children, besides contamination in water through excretion, due to the lack of protection factors in caption locations and the absence of practice in water disinfection. The completion of this research should motivate an accomplishment for the involved actors in this problem, whether it is in the public organ from the city or the population, which can be implemented preventive action and infra-structure to outcome improvements in public health care.

  16. Improving the integration of recreation management with management of other natural resources by applying concepts of scale from ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayde c. Morse; Troy E. Hall; Linda E. Kruger

    2008-01-01

    In this article, we examine how issues of scale affect the integration of recreation management with the management of other natural resources on public lands. We present two theories used to address scale issues in ecology and explore how they can improve the two most widely applied recreation-planning frameworks. The theory of patch dynamics and hierarchy theory are...

  17. Water and Sanitation Standards in Humanitarian Action

    OpenAIRE

    Murat ERSEL

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY: The right to water and sanitation is an inextricable human right. Water and sanitation are critical determinants for survival in the initial stages of a disaster. An adequate amount of safe water is necessary to prevent death from dehydration, to reduce the risk of water-related disease and to provide for consumption, cooking and personal and domestic hygienic requirements. The main objective of WASH – (Water supply, Sanitation and Hygenie promotion) programmes in disasters is to red...

  18. Shared sanitation: to include or to exclude?

    OpenAIRE

    Mara, Duncan

    2016-01-01

    Just over 600 million people used shared sanitation in 2015, but this form of sanitation is not considered ‘improved sanitation’ or, in the current terminology, ‘basic sanitation’ by WHO/UNICEF, principally because they are typically unhygienic. Recent research has shown that neighbour-shared toilets perform much better than large communal toilets. The successful development of community-designed, built and managed sanitation-and-water blocks in very poor urban areas in India should be adapte...

  19. The Role of Negative Affect and Self-Concept Clarity in Predicting Self-Injurious Urges in Borderline Personality Disorder Using Ecological Momentary Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scala, J Wesley; Levy, Kenneth N; Johnson, Benjamin N; Kivity, Yogev; Ellison, William D; Pincus, Aaron L; Wilson, Stephen J; Newman, Michelle G

    2018-01-01

    Deficits in identity as well as negative affect have been shown to predict self-injurious and suicidal behaviors in individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD). However, less is known about the interactive effects of these two predictors. We examined the moderating effect of a particular component of identity, self-concept, on the relationship between negative affect and self-injurious urges utilizing ecological momentary assessments. Outpatients diagnosed with either BPD (n = 36) or any anxiety disorder but no BPD (n = 18) completed surveys throughout the day over a 21-day period. Higher levels of momentary negative affect predicted greater subsequent urges to self-injure, but only when self-concept clarity was low (z = -3.60, p clarity has a protective effect against self-injurious urges in light of high negative affect, and that this effect may be transdiagnostic.

  20. Sanitation facilities and hygiene practices in a semi-urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alasia Datonye

    behaviour in the study community were poor. Hygiene education and social marketing of sanitation facilities are hereby advised. Keywords: Sanitation facility; hygiene practices; Semi-. Urban community; Nigeria. Correspondence: Dr B. Ordinioha. INTRODUCTION. Water and sanitation projects are synergistic in producing.

  1. Evolutionary refugia and ecological refuges: key concepts for conserving Australian arid zone freshwater biodiversity under climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jenny; Pavlova, Alexandra; Thompson, Ross; Sunnucks, Paul

    2013-07-01

    Refugia have been suggested as priority sites for conservation under climate change because of their ability to facilitate survival of biota under adverse conditions. Here, we review the likely role of refugial habitats in conserving freshwater biota in arid Australian aquatic systems where the major long-term climatic influence has been aridification. We introduce a conceptual model that characterizes evolutionary refugia and ecological refugees based on our review of the attributes of aquatic habitats and freshwater taxa (fishes and aquatic invertebrates) in arid Australia. We also identify methods of recognizing likely future refugia and approaches to assessing the vulnerability of arid-adapted freshwater biota to a warming and drying climate. Evolutionary refugia in arid areas are characterized as permanent, groundwater-dependent habitats (subterranean aquifers and springs) supporting vicariant relicts and short-range endemics. Ecological refugees can vary across space and time, depending on the dispersal abilities of aquatic taxa and the geographical proximity and hydrological connectivity of aquatic habitats. The most important are the perennial waterbodies (both groundwater and surface water fed) that support obligate aquatic organisms. These species will persist where suitable habitats are available and dispersal pathways are maintained. For very mobile species (invertebrates with an aerial dispersal phase) evolutionary refugia may also act as ecological refugees. Evolutionary refugia are likely future refugia because their water source (groundwater) is decoupled from local precipitation. However, their biota is extremely vulnerable to changes in local conditions because population extinction risks cannot be abated by the dispersal of individuals from other sites. Conservation planning must incorporate a high level of protection for aquifers that support refugial sites. Ecological refuges are vulnerable to changes in regional climate because they have

  2. Environmental assessment for the satellite power system-concept development and evaluation program-microwave health and ecological effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Potential health and ecological effects of the microwave beam from the microwave power transmission system (MPTS) of the satellite power system (SPS) are discussed. A detailed critical review of selected scientific articles from the published literature on the biological effects of nonionizing electromagnetic radiation is provided followed by an assessment of the possible effects of the SPS, based on exposure values for the reference system.

  3. Environmental assessment for the satellite power system-concept development and evaluation program-microwave health and ecological effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-11-01

    This report is concerned with the potential health and ecological effects of the microwave beam from the microwave power transmission system (MPTS) of the satellite power system (SPS). The report is written in the form of a detailed critical review of selected scientific articles from the published literature on the biological effects of nonionizing electromagnetic radiation, followed by an assessment of the possible effects of the SPS, based on exposure values for the reference system (US DOE and NASA, 1978).

  4. Christ-centred ethical behaviour and ecological crisis: What resources do the concepts of order in creation and eschatological hope offer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinus P. de Wit

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The ecological crisis, as well as a limited ethical response, forces a reflection on the transformative potential of Christian ethics on an idolatrous society largely shaped by a dominant economic culture. The aim of the article was to explore how the concepts of creation order and eschatological hope may be helpful in the understanding and formulation of a Christ-centred ethical response to the ecological crisis. A review of the relevant literature was presented, limited to insights from Reformational philosophy and eco-theology into the concepts of creation order and eschatology. The main internal tensions of using the concepts of creation order and eschatological hope as resources in Christ-centred eco-ethics were highlighted and discussed. Some implications for the further explanation and development of Christ-centred eco-ethics are outlined.Christosentriese etiese gedrag en ekologiese krisis: Watter hulpbronne bied die konsepte van orde in die skepping en eskatologiese hoop? Die ekologiese krisis, asook ’n beperkte etiese antwoord hierop, dwing ’n besinning oor die vernuwende potensiaal van Christelike etiek vir ’n afgodiese samelewing wat grootliks gevorm is deur ’n dominante ekonomiese kultuur. Die doel van hierdie artikel was om te ondersoek hoe die konsepte van orde in die skepping en eskatologiese hoop nuttig kan wees in die verstaan en die formulering van ’n Christus- gesentreerde etiese antwoord op die ekologiese krisis. ’n Oorsig van die relevante literatuur, beperk tot insigte uit die Reformatoriese filosofie en ekoteologie oor die konsepte van orde in die skepping en eskatologie, is aangebied. Die belangrikste interne spanningsvelde in die gebruik van die konsepte skeppingsorde en eskatologiese hoop in ’n Christus-gesentreerde eko-etiek is uitgelig en bespreek. Sekere implikasies vir die verdere verduideliking en die ontwikkeling van ’n Christus-gesentreerde eko-etiek is beskryf.

  5. Exploring Community Sanitation Preferences for Environmental

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Sanitation has been" identified as an essential aspect of development as it affects the quality of life and productivity of the population. But sanitation facilities are only sustainable when people make their own choices and contribution towards obtaining and maintaining them. This paper therefore examines ...

  6. Assessment of a Foodservice Management Sanitation Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Charlotte C.; Casey, Ralph

    1979-01-01

    This study determined the extent to which a course in foodservice sanitation using National Institute for the Foodservice Industry materials affected the postcourse sanitation inspection scores in selected establishments. Both experimental and control establishments had significantly higher inspection scores after the course than they had prior to…

  7. 46 CFR 97.15-10 - Sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sanitation. 97.15-10 Section 97.15-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 97.15-10 Sanitation. (a) It shall be the duty of the master and chief engineer...

  8. 36 CFR 13.1232 - Sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sanitation. 13.1232 Section 13.1232 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Developed Area § 13.1232 Sanitation. Within the BCDA, washing dishes or cooking utensils at locations other...

  9. Occupational skin diseases and prevention among sanitation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Little research has been focused on the health status or the occupational protection awareness of sanitation workers. The policy recommendations on the occupational safety and health of sanitation workers based on the scientific research are also insufficient in developing countries like China. Objective: To ...

  10. Removal of micropollutants in source separated sanitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butkovskyi, A.

    2015-01-01

    Source separated sanitation is an innovative sanitation method designed for minimizing use of energy and clean drinking water, and maximizing reuse of water, organics and nutrients from waste water. This approach is based on separate collection and treatment of toilet wastewater (black water) and

  11. 46 CFR 196.15-10 - Sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sanitation. 196.15-10 Section 196.15-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS OPERATIONS Test, Drills, and Inspections § 196.15-10 Sanitation. (a) It shall be the duty of the master and chief engineer...

  12. Sanitation & Safety for Child Feeding Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida State Dept. of Health and Rehabilitative Services, Tallahassee.

    In the interest of promoting good health, sanitation, and safety practices in the operation of child feeding programs, this bulletin discusses practices in personal grooming and wearing apparel; the purchasing, storage, handling, and serving of food; sanitizing equipment and utensils; procedures to follow in case of a food poisoning outbreak; some…

  13. 46 CFR 109.203 - Sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sanitation. 109.203 Section 109.203 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 109.203 Sanitation. (a) The master or person in charge shall insure that the accommodation...

  14. 43 CFR 423.34 - Sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sanitation. 423.34 Section 423.34 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Sanitation. (a) You must not bring or improperly dispose of refuse on Reclamation facilities, lands, and...

  15. 36 CFR 331.7 - Sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sanitation. 331.7 Section 331.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY REGULATIONS..., KENTUCKY AND INDIANA § 331.7 Sanitation. (a) Garbage, trash, rubbish, litter, or any other waste material...

  16. 46 CFR 78.17-25 - Sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sanitation. 78.17-25 Section 78.17-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 78.17-25 Sanitation. (a) It shall be the duty of the master and chief engineer to see that the...

  17. Enhancing governance for sanitation marketing in DRC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaver, D.C.

    2015-01-01

    This report is one of the results of the ‘Sanitation Marketing in Equateur Province’ project in RDC, in which Wageningen UR and Oxfam Great Britain (Oxfam GB) work together.

    • It Describes the characteristics of different governance arrangements that address sanitation problems in Gemena

  18. 9 CFR 3.56 - Sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sanitation. 3.56 Section 3.56 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL... Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.56 Sanitation. (a) Cleaning of primary enclosures. (1) Primary...

  19. Occupational skin diseases and prevention among sanitation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    protective equipments and personal history of skin disease were assessed by questionnaires. Results: Compared with administrative staff, sanitation workers had much more occupational dermatological problems and had a much higher rate of harmful ultraviolet ray exposure. Young sanitation workers were more aware of ...

  20. The Ecosystem Concept and Linking Models of Physical-Chemical Processes to Ecological Responses: Introduction and Annotated Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-01

    interactions between components at the intervening levels are also incorporated. For example, a model of leaf photosynthesis scaled directly to the whole...D. L. DeAngelis, J. B. Waide, and T. F. H. Allen. 1986. A hierarchical concept of ecosystems. Monographs in Biology, No. 23. Princeton, NJ

  1. Linking energy-sanitation-agriculture: Intersectional resource management in smallholder households in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Ariane; Rotter, Vera Susanne

    2017-07-15

    In order to create sustainable systems for resource management, residues from cooking and ecological sanitation (EcoSan) can be employed in recycling-driven soil fertility management. However, the link between energy, sanitation, and agricultural productivity is often neglected. Hence, the potential self-sufficient nature of many smallholdings in sub-Saharan Africa is underexploited. To compare those cooking and sanitation technologies most commonly used in north-western Tanzania with locally developed alternatives, with respect to (i) resource consumption, (ii) potential to recover resources, and (iii) environmental emissions. This study examines technologies at the household level, and was carried out using material flow analysis (MFA). The specific bioenergy technologies analysed include: three-stone fires; charcoal burners; improved cooking stoves (ICS), such as rocket and microgasifier stoves; and biogas systems. The specific sanitation alternatives studied comprise: pit latrines; two approaches to EcoSan; and septic systems. The use of ICS reduces total resource consumption; using charcoal or biogas does not. The residues from microgasifiers were analysed as having a substantial recovery potential for carbon (C) and phosphorus (P). The fact that input substrates for biogas digesters are post-agricultural in nature means that biogas slurry is not considered an 'untapped resource' despite its ample nutrient content. Exchanging pit latrines for water-based sanitation systems places heavy pressure on already scarce water resources for local smallholders. In contrast, the implementation of waterless EcoSan facilities significantly promotes nutrient recovery and reduces environmental emissions, particularly through greenhouse gas emission and nutrient leaching. Recycled outputs from the triple energy-sanitation-agriculture nexus display complementary benefits: residues from cooking can be used to restore organic matter in soils, while sanitation residues contribute

  2. Tree Beings in Tibet: Contemporary Popular Concepts of klu and gnyan as a Result of Ecological Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Kocurek

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the perception of trees in Tibet. It focuses on ideas on supernatural beings believed to dwell in trees, particularly klu and gnyan, which form a part of the popular or so called nameless religion. The study is based on fieldwork undertaken in the Tibetan areas of India and Nepal (the Spiti valley and Dolpo among people of Dolpo origin living elsewhere and Tibetans in exile from different regions of Tibet. Gathered narratives and reappearing myth patterns are presented and discussed. The findings from the fieldwork are compared with the idea of tree beings found in ritual texts studied by Western scholars. The difference between these two sources are striking: popular traditions associate trees mainly with klu, whereas the ritual texts with gnyan. To explain the possible cause of this discrepancy, contemporary theories about the ecological history of the Tibetan Plateau are employed.

  3. Development of sanitation technologies in African context : how could we make it more sustainable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakouré, M. S.; Traoré, M. B.; Sossou, S. K.; Maïga, A. H.

    2017-03-01

    Access to sanitation technologies remains one of the biggest challenges in sub-Saharan Africa. To overcome this gap, a sanitation project called “Ameli-EAUR” translated from French as improvement of water and sanitation in urban and rural areas, was implemented in Burkina Faso for 5 years (2010-2016). The technologies from the project were designed on the basis of agro-sanitation concept, leading to package containing a composting toilet, a grey water treatment facility and a set of urine collection and treatment. The study aimed to evaluate of Ameli-EAUR project, one year after the end, and identify some key factors of sustainability of technologies. As methodology, a survey and a technical diagnostic of implemented technologies were done. The results showed that, the pilot families stopped using all the technologies one year after the end of the project. However, two main lessons can be learnt: (1) in term of efficiency and effectiveness of the project the technology of composting toilet was not robust enough, leading to a rapid abandonment after the project (2) in term of impact and sustainability, the economic incentive of the resource oriented sanitation concept was very weak compared to the needed workload. The technologies development in this kind of project should be carried on and associated with a more inclusive system driven by economic incentive.

  4. Concepts of ecological construction. Seminar volume of the Central Information Bureau for Environmental Consulting in Bavaria. Vol. 6; Oekologisches Bauen. Seminarband der Zentralen Informationsstelle Umweltberatung Bayern. Bd. 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohmanns, B. [comp.; Koller, U. [comp.; Klemmer, A. [comp.; Haury, H.J. [comp.

    1995-09-01

    On 11 May 1995 the Central Information Bureau for Environmental Consulting in Bavaria held its sixth seminar. The seminar was dedicated to the subject `Concepts of Ecological Construction`. It attracted some 80 representatives of environmental consulting offices and other authorities assigned to environmental consulting tasks. Leading scientists from research institutions and the administration presented the current state of research into the ecological aspects of construction and planning. The lecturers dealt with diverse topics ranging from building site selection over questions on energy to aspects of building materials and illustrated the new possibilities of environmentally adapted construction by reference to practical examples. (orig./HW) [Deutsch] Am 11. Mai 1995 veranstaltete die Zentrale Informationsstelle, Umweltberatung Bayern ihr sechstes Seminar. Thema der Seminarveranstaltung, an der rund 80 Vertreterinnen und Vertreter von Umweltberatungsstellen und anderen mit Umweltberatung beauftragten Behoerden teilnahmen, war `Oekologisches Bauen`. Fuehrende Wissenschaftler und Wissenschaftlerinnen aus Forschung und Behoerden stellten den aktuellen Stand der Forschung oekologischer Aspekte des Bauens und Planens dar. Beginnend mit Kriterien fuer die Standortsuche von Bauvorhaben ueber Energiefragen und Aspekte oekologischer Baustoffe fuehrten die Referentinnen und Referenten schliesslich auch an praktischen Beispielen neue Moeglichkeiten des umweltgerechten Bauens vor. (orig./HW)

  5. Designing sustainable sanitation in urban planning proposed for Changzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerstens, S M; de Mes, T Z D; Lue, B

    2009-01-01

    China is undergoing rapid urbanization and economic development. This requires a new approach on spatial planning and environmental infrastructure. In the presented project an example of this approach is given for the city of Changzhou (China) where a new residential area (Qinglong district) will be developed for 100.000 inhabitants. Key issue within the formulation of sustainable sanitation concepts is the integration and management of water, waste and energy in such a way that they will become beneficial to the establishment of the envisaged green city. Starting point was the closing of material cycles focusing on possibilities to recover and reuse valuable resources and energy from "waste" produced in an urban setting. Four different scenarios focusing on water, nutrient and energy recovery were compared with the baseline wastewater management practice. Besides environmental benefits, the economical benefits of sustainable sanitation concepts are attractive, the break even point with the baseline scenario, is already after 5 years, provided that recovered resources will be sold for a marketable price. We believe that presented concepts are applicable for a wide range of new urban development initiatives in China and similar rapidly developing densely populated regions worldwide.

  6. Human security and access to water, sanitation, and hygiene: exploring the drivers and nexus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Obani, P.; Gupta, J.; Pahl-Wostl, C.; Badhuri, A.; Gupta, J.

    2016-01-01

    Water security challenges are mostly covered in the literature on the food and energy nexus. This chapter however adopts a broader conception of water security in relation to lack of access to water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH), and argues that the human rights approach could be instrumental in

  7. 9 CFR 590.552 - Cleaning and sanitizing requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... determination. (b) Sanitizing. (1) Sanitizing shall be accomplished by such methods as approved by the... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cleaning and sanitizing requirements..., Processing, and Facility Requirements § 590.552 Cleaning and sanitizing requirements. (a) Cleaning. (1...

  8. 9 CFR 416.14 - Maintenance of Sanitation SOP's.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maintenance of Sanitation SOP's. 416... ACT SANITATION § 416.14 Maintenance of Sanitation SOP's. Each official establishment shall routinely evaluate the effectiveness of the Sanitation SOP's and the procedures therein in preventing direct...

  9. 49 CFR 229.137 - Sanitation, general requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sanitation, general requirements. 229.137 Section... Cab Equipment § 229.137 Sanitation, general requirements. (a) Sanitation compartment. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, all lead locomotives in use shall be equipped with a sanitation...

  10. Economic Assessment of Sanitation Interventions in Lao People's Democratic Republic

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2013-01-01

    Access to improved sanitation is a major concern in the Lao People s Democratic Republic. Only 63 percent of the population of the country had access to improved sanitation facilities in 2010. Sanitation conditions are worse in rural areas. This study aims to generate evidence on the costs and benefits of sanitation improvements Lao PDR.

  11. 49 CFR 229.139 - Sanitation, servicing requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sanitation, servicing requirements. 229.139... Cab Equipment § 229.139 Sanitation, servicing requirements. (a) The sanitation compartment of each... present that prevents waste from evacuating the bowl. (c) The sanitation compartment of each occupied...

  12. Transforming Life: A Broad View of the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease Concept from an Ecological Justice Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Susan L; Logan, Alan C

    2016-11-03

    The influential scientist Rene J. Dubos (1901-1982) conducted groundbreaking studies concerning early-life environmental exposures (e.g., diet, social interactions, commensal microbiota, housing conditions) and adult disease. However, Dubos looked beyond the scientific focus on disease, arguing that " mere survival is not enough ". He defined mental health as fulfilling human potential, and expressed concerns about urbanization occurring in tandem with disappearing access to natural environments (and elements found within them); thus modernity could interfere with health via "missing exposures". With the advantage of emerging research involving green space, the microbiome, biodiversity and positive psychology, we discuss ecological justice in the dysbiosphere and the forces-financial inequity, voids in public policy, marketing and otherwise-that interfere with the fundamental rights of children to thrive in a healthy urban ecosystem and learn respect for the natural environment. We emphasize health within the developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD) rubric and suggest that greater focus on positive exposures might uncover mechanisms of resiliency that contribute to maximizing human potential. We will entrain our perspective to socioeconomic disadvantage in developed nations and what we have described as "grey space"; this is a mental as much as a physical environment, a space that serves to insidiously reinforce unhealthy behavior, compromise positive psychological outlook and, ultimately, trans-generational health. It is a dwelling place that cannot be fixed with encephalobiotics or the drug-class known as psychobiotics.

  13. Transforming Life: A Broad View of the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease Concept from an Ecological Justice Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan L. Prescott

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The influential scientist Rene J. Dubos (1901–1982 conducted groundbreaking studies concerning early-life environmental exposures (e.g., diet, social interactions, commensal microbiota, housing conditions and adult disease. However, Dubos looked beyond the scientific focus on disease, arguing that “mere survival is not enough”. He defined mental health as fulfilling human potential, and expressed concerns about urbanization occurring in tandem with disappearing access to natural environments (and elements found within them; thus modernity could interfere with health via “missing exposures”. With the advantage of emerging research involving green space, the microbiome, biodiversity and positive psychology, we discuss ecological justice in the dysbiosphere and the forces—financial inequity, voids in public policy, marketing and otherwise—that interfere with the fundamental rights of children to thrive in a healthy urban ecosystem and learn respect for the natural environment. We emphasize health within the developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD rubric and suggest that greater focus on positive exposures might uncover mechanisms of resiliency that contribute to maximizing human potential. We will entrain our perspective to socioeconomic disadvantage in developed nations and what we have described as “grey space”; this is a mental as much as a physical environment, a space that serves to insidiously reinforce unhealthy behavior, compromise positive psychological outlook and, ultimately, trans-generational health. It is a dwelling place that cannot be fixed with encephalobiotics or the drug-class known as psychobiotics.

  14. Economic impacts of sanitation in Southeast Asia : summary

    OpenAIRE

    anonymous

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the major health, water, environmental, tourism and other welfare impacts associated with poor sanitation in Cambodia, Indonesia, the Philippines and Vietnam. By examining the economic impacts of poor sanitation, and the potential gains from improved sanitation, this study provides important evidence to support further investments in sanitation. The goal of this report is to show decision makers at the country and regional levels how the negative impacts of poor sanitation...

  15. Environmental assessment for the satellite power system concept development and evaluation program: nonmicrowave health and ecological effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, M R

    1980-11-01

    A Concept Development and Evaluation Program is being carried out for a proposed Satellite Power System (SPS). For purposes of this evaluation, a preliminary reference system has been developed. SPS, as described in the reference system, would collect solar energy on satellites in geosychronous orbit in space. The energy would be converted to microwaves and beamed to an earth-receiving antenna (rectenna). One task in the environmental part of the program is the assessment of the nonmicrowave effects on health and the environment. These effects would result from all phases of SPS development and operation. This report covers the current knowledge regarding these effects, and is based on the reference system. The assessment is summarized as to scope, methodology, impacts of terrestrial development, launch and recovery of spacecraft, space activities (including health effects of the space environment, ionizing radiation, electromagnetic exposure, spacecraft charging and environmental interactions, occupational hazards, etc.) and construction and operation of rectenna (ground receiving station).

  16. A more ecological waste management concept for the Duesseldorf district; Moeglichkeiten der Oekologisierung der Siedlungsabfallentsorgung im Regierungsbezirk Duesseldorf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehoust, G.; Dopfer, J.; Gebhardt, P.; Gaertner, S.; Schilling, A. [Oeko-Institut, Inst. fuer Angewandte Oekologie e.V., Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Hennebrueder, W. [NABU e.V. (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    The Duesseldorf regional section of BUND, Landesverband NW e.V. authorized the Oeko-Institut e.V., Freiburg, to investigate conceptual alternatives to the conventional waste management concept of the Duesseldorf government. The project was supported by NABU NRW e.V., Das Bessere Muellkonzept NRW e.V., and Buendnis 90/Die Gruenen NRW. A waste management for the Duesseldorf district was developed in which the focus is on preventing waste production and on recycling. The concept supports the BMU goal, i.e. complete and environment-friendly disposal of all kinds of household refuse. [German] Am 16. April 1998 hat die Bezirksregierung Duesseldorf den neuen 'Abfallwirtschaftsplan - Teilplan Siedlungsabfaelle', vorgelegt. Mit Verweis auf die Bestimmungen der TA Siedlungsabfall setzt die Bezirksregierung auch weiterhin auf die Muellverbrennung als zentrale Komponente zur Behandlung von Siedlungsabfaellen, obgleich das MURL ausdruecklich auch andere Behandlungsverfahren - speziell die mechanisch-biologische Restabfallbehandlung (MBA) - als genehmigungsfaehig anerkennt. Inzwischen arbeiten auch das BMU und UBA an der Oeffnung der TA-Siedlungsabfall fuer die MBA. Eine Abkehr vom bisherigen abfallwirtschaftlichen Denken ist auf der Ebene der Bezirksregierung bisher jedoch nicht erkennbar. Die Regionalgruppe Duesseldorf des BUND, Landesverband NW e.V. beauftragte daher das Oeko-Institut e.V., im Rahmen dieses Gutachtens Wege aufzuzeigen, die eine Abkehr von der konventionellen Abfallwirtschaftsplanung der Bezirksregierung Duesseldorf deutlich werden lassen. Unterstuetzt wurde das Projekt durch den NABU NRW e.V., Das Bessere Muellkonzept NRW e.V. und den Oeko-Fonds von Buendnis 90/Die Gruenen NRW. Am Beispiel des Regierungsbezirks Duesseldorf wird ein oekologisches Abfallwirtschaftskonzept fuer das Jahr 2005 vorgestellt, dessen Schwerpunkt auf Massnahmen zur Abfallvermeidung und -verwertung liegt. Damit wird ein Weg aufgezeigt, der wesentlich zu der Umsetzung des vom

  17. Water and Sanitation Standards in Humanitarian Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat ERSEL

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY: The right to water and sanitation is an inextricable human right. Water and sanitation are critical determinants for survival in the initial stages of a disaster. An adequate amount of safe water is necessary to prevent death from dehydration, to reduce the risk of water-related disease and to provide for consumption, cooking and personal and domestic hygienic requirements. The main objective of WASH – (Water supply, Sanitation and Hygenie promotion programmes in disasters is to reduce the transmission of faeco-oral diseases and exposure to disease-bearing vectors through the promotion of: good hygiene practices, the provision of safe drinking water, the reduction of environmental health risks, the conditions that allow people to a healthy life with dignity, comfort and security. Keywords: Water, sanitation, disasters, humanitarian response, hygenie promotion, drainage, vector control, waste disposition

  18. Canadian shellfish sanitation program: manual of operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1992-01-01

    This manual outlines the authorities (acts and regulations), policies and procedures which apply to the Canadian program and which will be used to evaluate regional activities associated with the shellfish Sanitation Program...

  19. Gender, Sanitation, and Political Leadership in India

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Yu Jung

    2015-01-01

    Why do governments sometimes fail to provide essential services that are fundamental to development and the well-being of their citizens? I investigate the role of gender, of both policy makers and of beneficiaries, in the variation of access to sanitation in rural India. I argue that politicians' gender can help explain why some elected officials are more responsive in providing sanitation services than others in terms of the quality and quantity of latrines. Given the close association betw...

  20. Information Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ellen Tove

    2006-01-01

    The paper describes a pedagogical didactical paradigm for teaching student-designers how to deal with context issues. Form/context-relationships are conceptualized as information ecologies and described as behavioral settings using a key concept developed by social psychologist R.A. Baker...... in the 1960ties, and chosen here because it integrates cultural and psychological trajectories in a theory of living settings. The pedagogical-didactical paradigm comprises three distinct information ecologies, named after their intended outcome: the problem-setting, the exploration-setting, and the fit......-setting. It is specified how context issues can be treated within each of these information ecologies. The paper concludes by discussing the outcome of applying this paradigm with respect to the student-designers’ competence as reflective practitioners....

  1. The concept of Dessak: development of environmental decision support for radio-ecologically sensitive areas in Kuwait

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shuhaibar, B.; Jakes, J. [Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research (Kuwait); Semioshkina, N. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Muenchen - HMGU (Germany); Voigt, G. [International Atomic Energy Agency (International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA))

    2014-07-01

    The Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research (KISR) is implementing the 'Nuclear Program for Peaceful Applications (NPPA)', a research program focused on supporting the promotion of applications in nuclear techniques and methods in various sectors and industries of Kuwait. One of the components of this program is the establishment of research and training facilities to support the protection of the population and the environment and to reduce the risk of harmful exposures. One major component of the NPPA it the development of an environmental decision support system (EDSS) for radio-ecologically sensitive areas in Kuwait (DESSAK). The aim of this project is to be able to integrate information in a spatial and temporal resolution which will then be combined with radioecological transfer models. This allows for the identification of critical pathways to protect the environment and humans from unexpectedly elevated and routine releases of radioactivity during the operation of a nuclear power plant, research reactor or any other nuclear application. The sensitivity of the Arabian Gulf region, with its very special marine and terrestrial environmental conditions, is a driving force to keep balance between the industrial use and the preservation of nature for a sustainable development and exploitation of natural resources. This specifically applies to regions where in the past no nuclear activities have been conducted e.g. Kuwait, and which are now considered for any activity involving the nuclear fuel cycle. The situation in Kuwait specifically is to be considered as challenging: with the introduction of nuclear activities which might include the building of a Neutron Generating Facility (NGF), the necessary measures need to be established e.g. the legal and administrative formalities for nuclear safety and security, the human and administrative capabilities and capacities, and so on. In addition, a number of neighbouring or regional countries have already

  2. Is it possible to sanitize athletes' shoes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, Gabriele; Burgassi, Sandra; Russo, Carmela; Ceriale, Emma; Quercioli, Cecilia; Meniconi, Cosetta

    2015-02-01

    Footwear should be designed to avoid trauma and injury to the skin of the feet that can favor bacterial and fungal infections. Procedures and substances for sanitizing the interior of shoes are uncommon but are important aspects of primary prevention against foot infections and unpleasant odor. To evaluate the efficacy of a sanitizing technique for reducing bacterial and fungal contamination of footwear. Crossover study. Mens Sana basketball team. Twenty-seven male athletes and 4 coaches (62 shoes). The experimental protocol required a first sample (swab), 1/shoe, at time 0 from inside the shoes of all athletes before the sanitizing technique began and a second sample at time 1, after about 4 weeks, April 2012 to May 2012, of daily use of the sanitizing technique. The differences before and after use of the sanitizing technique for total bacterial count at 36 °C and 22 °C for Staphylococcus spp, yeasts, molds, Enterococcus spp, Pseudomonas spp, Escherichia coli , and total coliform bacteria were evaluated. Before use of the sanitizing technique, the total bacterial counts at 36 °C and 22 °C and for Staphylococcus spp were greater by a factor of 5.8 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.42, 9.84), 5.84 (95% CI = 3.45, 9.78), and 4.78 (95% CI = 2.84, 8.03), respectively. All the other comparisons showed a reduction in microbial loads, whereas E coli and coliforms were no longer detected. No statistically significant decrease in yeasts (P = .0841) or molds (P = .6913) was recorded probably because of low contamination. The sanitizing technique significantly reduced the bacterial presence in athletes' shoes.

  3. Ecological Cities, Illustrated by Chinese Examples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P. van Dijk (Meine Pieter)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractA number of ecological initiatives have received support from the Chinese government. They range from alternative building methods (emphasizing the need to insulate the house better) to using alternative ways of dealing with drinking water and sanitation. The question considered in this

  4. Traditional Ecological Knowledge of Stem Concepts in Informal and Place-Based Western Educational Systems: Lessons from the North Slope, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas-Figueroa, Linda

    Upon regaining the right to direct education at the local level, the North Slope Borough (NSB) of Alaska incorporated Inupiat educational philosophies into the educational system. The NSB in partnership with the University of Alaska Fairbanks established Ilisagvik College, the only tribal college in Alaska. Ilisagvik College seeks to broaden science, technology, engineering, and mathematical education on the North Slope. Incorporation of place-based and informal lessons with traditional ecological knowledge engages students in education. Ilisagvik hosted a 2-week climate change program from 2012 - 2015 for high school and middle school students that examined climate science and the effects of a warming climate on the local environment from a multitude of perspectives from scientists, Inupiat Elders, and instructor-led field trips. Pre-assessments and post-assessments using the Student Assessment of Learning Gains tool measured students' interests and conceptual understanding. Students developed and enhanced their understanding of science concepts and, at the end of the program, could articulate the impact of climatic changes on their local environment. Similarly, methods to incorporate Indigenous knowledge into research practices have been achieved, such as incorporating field trips and discussion with Elders on the importance of animal migration, whale feeding patterns, and the significance of sea-ice conditions, which are important community concerns.

  5. Assessing Women's Negative Sanitation Experiences and Concerns: The Development of a Novel Sanitation Insecurity Measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Bethany A; Clasen, Thomas; Yount, Kathryn M; Cooper, Hannah L F; Hadley, Craig; Haardörfer, Regine

    2017-07-11

    Lack of access to acceptable sanitation facilities can expose individuals, particularly women, to physical, social, and mental health risks. While some of the challenges have been documented, standard metrics are needed to determine the extent to which women have urination- and defecation-related concerns and negative experiences. Such metrics also are needed to assess the effectiveness of interventions to mitigate them. We developed a sanitation insecurity measure to capture the range and frequency of women's sanitation-related concerns and negative experiences. Research was conducted in rural Odisha, India with women across various life course stages to reflect a range of perspectives. This paper documents the mixed data collection methods and the exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses we employed to arrive at a final measure. The final sanitation insecurity measure includes 50 items across seven factors that reflect the physical environment, the social environment, and individual-level constraints. Most factor scores were significantly higher for unmarried women and for women who lacked access to functional latrines, indicating social and environmental influence on experiences. This measure will enable researchers to evaluate how sanitation insecurity affects health and to determine if and how sanitation interventions ameliorate women's concerns and negative experiences associated with sanitation.

  6. Water and Sanitation Standards in Humanitarian Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersel, Murat

    2015-10-01

    The right to water and sanitation is an inextricable human right. Water and sanitation are critical determinants for survival in the initial stages of a disaster. An adequate amount of safe water is necessary to prevent death from dehydration, to reduce the risk of water-related disease and to provide for consumption, cooking and personal and domestic hygienic requirements. The main objective of WASH - (Water supply, Sanitation and Hygenie promotion) programmes in disasters is to reduce the transmission of faeco-oral diseases and exposure to disease-bearing vectors through the promotion of: good hygiene practices, the provision of safe drinking water, the reduction of environmental health risks, the conditions that allow people to a healthy life with dignity, comfort and security.

  7. Non-Thermal Sanitation By Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ORBITEC's Non-Thermal Sanitation by Atmospheric Pressure Plasma technology sanitizes fresh fruits and vegetables without the use of consumable chemicals and without...

  8. The effects of analogy-based instruction on concept learning and retention in a non-formal coral reef ecology program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brylske, Alexander Frederick

    While a number of instructional models focus on the use of analogies, research into their effectiveness in enhancing comprehension and retention of scientific concepts, particularly involving adult learners, has been limited. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of using the common teaching strategy for comparing the function of a coral reef to that of a city by using an analogy-based instructional model termed FAR. The training program entitled "Marine Resource Management for Dive Professionals" (MRMDP) was developed for this study. It was targeted to professionals in the recreational scuba industry to improve their understanding of coal reef ecology, as well as orient them to pertinent marine resource management issues, and promote environmentally-responsible attitudes and diving practices among their clients. A quasi-experimental pre-post-delayed posttest control group design was used to explore five research questions and corresponding hypotheses. A 55-item researcher-developed test of coral reef ecology was administered pre and post instruction. The delayed posttest was self-administered by the subjects three weeks after course completion. Data on seven experiential variables hypothesized as research factors were collected. Ten MRMPD courses were taught in seven nations, involving 194 subjects (85 subjects in four control courses, 109 in six treatment course). The results were analyzed using multiple regression/correlation (MRC) techniques to determine: (1) any significant relationship between pretest performance and experiential variables, (2) treatment versus control group posttest performance, and (3) treatment versus control group delayed posttest performance. Within the treatment group, learning gains and retention were determined by t-test analysis. Results indicated: (1) all research factors except one were significant predictors of pretest scores in the presence of the covariate; (2) no significant difference was found between

  9. The Soul is Willing but...: Exploring Community Sanitation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sanitation has been identified as an essential aspect of development as it affects the quality of life and productivity of the population. But sanitation facilities are only sustainable when people make their own choices and contribution towards obtaining and maintaining them. This paper therefore examines sanitation ...

  10. Decentralization and basic services provision: water and sanitation in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P. van Dijk (Meine Pieter)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractHow does decentralization reform affect the provision of basic services, particularly water and sanitation in Ghana? We deal in particular the delivery of water and sanitation, given the importance of water and sanitation. Conclusions are drawn concerning the policy implications for the

  11. 25 CFR 141.17 - Health and sanitation requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Health and sanitation requirements. 141.17 Section 141.17... THE NAVAJO, HOPI AND ZUNI RESERVATIONS General Business Practices § 141.17 Health and sanitation... sale any goods that are banned for health or sanitation reasons from retail sale by any Federal agency...

  12. Sanitation facilities and hygiene practices in a semi-urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Water and sanitation projects are synergistic in producing health effects; while there has been massive investment in water projects as part of the effort to achieve the Millennium Development Goal on access to water and sanitation; the same cannot be said for sanitation projects. This study examined the state ...

  13. Water and sanitation committees for sustainable service delivery in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The achievement of the targets in terms of water and sanitation coverage in Ghana depends to a large extent on the establishment of institutions like Water and Sanitation Committees (WATSAN) for effective operation and maintenance of the water and sanitation facilities. This paper is based on the assessment of WATSAN ...

  14. 9 CFR 147.22 - Hatching egg sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hatching egg sanitation. 147.22... AGRICULTURE LIVESTOCK IMPROVEMENT AUXILIARY PROVISIONS ON NATIONAL POULTRY IMPROVEMENT PLAN Sanitation Procedures § 147.22 Hatching egg sanitation. Hatching eggs should be collected from the nests at frequent...

  15. 46 CFR 131.940 - Marine sanitation device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marine sanitation device. 131.940 Section 131.940... Miscellaneous § 131.940 Marine sanitation device. Each vessel with installed toilet facilities must have a marine sanitation device in compliance with 33 CFR part 159. ...

  16. 46 CFR 121.704 - Marine sanitation devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marine sanitation devices. 121.704 Section 121.704... MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous § 121.704 Marine sanitation devices. A vessel with installed toilet facilities must have a marine sanitation device that complies with 33 CFR part 159. ...

  17. 25 CFR 91.13 - Health, sanitation, and sewerage disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Health, sanitation, and sewerage disposal. 91.13 Section... INDIAN VILLAGES, OSAGE RESERVATION, OKLAHOMA § 91.13 Health, sanitation, and sewerage disposal. Health, sanitation, and sewerage disposal problems within the village reserves shall be subject to and controlled by...

  18. 18 CFR 1304.401 - Marine sanitation devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Marine sanitation... Miscellaneous § 1304.401 Marine sanitation devices. No person operating a commercial boat dock permitted under... equipped with a marine sanitation device (MSD) unless such MSD is in compliance with all applicable...

  19. Water and sanitation committees for sustainable Bruimoh and Jagri

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT ~. The achievement of the targets in terms of water and sanitation coverage in Ghana depends to a large extent on the establishment of'institntions like Water and Sanitation Committees (WA TSAN). ' for eflective operation'and maintenance of they water and sanitation facilities. This paper is based.

  20. Terra Preta sanitation: re-discovered from an ancient Amazonian civilisation - integrating sanitation, bio-waste management and agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Factura, H; Bettendorf, T; Buzie, C; Pieplow, H; Reckin, J; Otterpohl, R

    2010-01-01

    The recent discovery of the bio-waste and excreta treatment of a former civilisation in the Amazon reveals the possibility of a highly efficient and simple sanitation system. With the end product that was black soil they converted 10% of former infertile soil of the region: Terra Preta do Indio (black soil of the Indians). These soils are still very fertile 500 years after this civilisation had disappeared. Deriving from these concepts, Terra Preta Sanitation (TPS) has been re-developed and adopted. TPS includes urine diversion, addition of a charcoal mixture and is based on lactic-acid-fermentation with subsequent vermicomposting. No water, ventilation or external energy is required. Natural formation processes are employed to transform excreta into lasting fertile soil that can be utilised in urban agriculture. The authors studied the lacto-fermentation of faecal matter with a minimum of 4 weeks followed by vermicomposting. The results showed that lactic-acid fermentation with addition of a charcoal mixture is a suitable option for dry toilets as the container can be closed after usage. Hardly any odour occured even after periods of several weeks. Lactic-acid fermentation alone without addition of bulking agents such as paper and sliced-cut wood to raise the C/N ratio is creating a substrate that is not accepted by worms.

  1. Development of Ecological Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrius Keizikas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents research on ecological buildings and their influence on the constructional sphere. The aim of the paper is to reveal the essence of ecological architecture showing substantial progress and its potential to stimulate architectural and technological growth. The article also describes relations between the ideas of ecological buildings and the ‘passive house’ concepts and aspects of development as well as describes the possibilities of improving building sustainability and energy efficiency. Article in Lithuanian

  2. Enviromental Sanitation and National Development | Bichi | Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in Sabon Gari Local Government Area of Kaduna state to determine the level of environmental sanitation, and its effects on productivity as measured by school absenteeism and work days lost. The study used a pre-tested structured questionnaire to determine housing ...

  3. Activities in water supply and sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The Economic and Social Council for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) held a regional workshop in Thailand in 1992 to demonstrate how women's involvement at all levels of environmentally sound and sustainable water supply and sanitation programs and projects could be made more effective, easier, and productive. Using the same modules, with the support of other organizations such as the Department of Development Support and Management Services, ESCAP conducted four more workshops in the Philippines, Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR), Vietnam, and Thailand in 1995. In the Philippines, the National Commission on the Role of Filipino Women expressed its intention to adapt the modules for the country. In the Lao PDR, three project ideas were proposed which would assist the Lao Women Union in gaining knowledge on the planning, implementation, operation, and management of water supply and sanitation projects at the national, regional and project levels. In Vietnam, three main directions for action were identified for the promotion of close and active cooperation between the Rural Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation Centres and the system of the Women Union of Vietnam. In Thailand, the National Committee on Health and Environment of the National Commission on Women's Affairs expressed its willingness to seek budgetary allocation for the promotion of women's role in water supply and sanitation.

  4. 9 CFR 355.13 - Sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sanitation. 355.13 Section 355.13 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... them susceptible of being readily and thoroughly cleaned. (f) Trucks and receptacles used for inedible...

  5. EDITORIAL Sanitation: the backbone of public health

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although improvement in sanitation has been recognized as one of the key achievements in bringing a phenomenal. change in the overall health status of populations in the industrialized world sanitary conditions remained grossly unsatisfactory in many developing countries. Many of the countries in the world that have.

  6. 29 CFR 1926.51 - Sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Sanitation. (a) Potable water. (1) An adequate supply of potable water shall be provided in all places of... cups shall be provided. (6) Potable water means water which meets the quality standards prescribed in... shall be no cross-connection, open or potential, between a system furnishing potable water and a system...

  7. Sanitation in the Shell Egg Processing Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the past, most of the regulations regarding egg processing are concerned with quality rather than safety. Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) will be required by retailers or by the federal government. GMPs (Good Manufacturing Practices) and SSOPs (Sanitation Standard Operating P...

  8. Sanitation of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Niels Jørgen

    1998-01-01

    A sanitation programme for stamping-out viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS) was implemented in Denmark in 1965. The programme has resulted in a dramatic reduction in the number of infected rainbow trout farms, from approximate to 400 to 26. The programme is carried out on a voluntary basis...

  9. 36 CFR 327.9 - Sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... disposal of such wastes, human and animal waste included, on the project is prohibited. (b) It is a... or litter of any kind shall be presumed to be responsible for proper disposal. Such presumption will... § 327.9 Sanitation. (a) Garbage, trash, rubbish, litter, gray water, or any other waste material or...

  10. [Environmental sanitation and mortality associated with waterborne diseases in children under 5 years of age in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellido, Jaime Gregorio; Barcellos, Christovam; Barbosa, Flavia dos Santos; Bastos, Francisco Inacio

    2010-08-01

    Determine and evaluate the relationship between the variables for water conditions, environmental sanitation, and mortality in children under 5 years of age associated with a group of waterborne diseases. An exploratory ecological study was conducted based on data obtained from the 2000 national demographic census and the Unified Health System for the 558 microregions of Brazil. The model used multiple linear regression analysis. Mortality associated with waterborne diseases in children under 5 years of age was considered to be the response variable. Water conditions, sanitation, and level of education were considered to be explanatory variables. A direct relationship was observed between inadequate sanitation in the dwelling (e.g., sewage disposal via rudimentary gutters and pits, the disposal of waste in uncultivated land or public areas) and mortality in children under 5 years of age associated with waterborne diseases. An inverse relationship was found between level of education and mortality associated with waterborne diseases in these children. The greatest health hazards related to poor sanitation were found in the microregions with a high concentration of low-income population with limited education. The general sanitation conditions and other factors related to dwelling quality and infrastructure are major determinants of mortality. Coverage of the water services, which reach 90% of households in Brazil, was not in itself found to be an important factor in the reduction of the mortality studied.

  11. Environmental Sanitation Crisis: More than just a health issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Peter A.

    2008-01-01

    The global environmental sanitation crisis cannot be denied: well over a century after the sanitary revolution in 19th century Europe, 40% of the world’s population still lacks access to improved sanitation. Important lessons from the past must be applied today if the crisis is to be averted. Sanitation has suffered from a lack of prioritization for as long as it has remained the poor relation to water supply. The International Year of Sanitation 2008 provides an opportunity to separate the two and give sanitation the emphasis it requires. The economic argument for sanitation must be articulated and non-health incentives for improved sanitation exploited. Environmental sanitation results in a multitude of socio-economic benefits and can contribute positively to all the Millennium Development Goals. Community-led bottom-up approaches, rather than supply-led or technology-driven approaches, are most effective in increasing and sustaining access to sanitation but need to be implemented at scale. Targeted strategies for urban and school sanitation are also required. Evidence-based advocacy can help develop the political will that is now needed to ensure sufficient public sector investment, leadership, legislation and regulation to ensure that the fundamental human right of access to sanitation is realized. PMID:21572832

  12. Environmental Sanitation Crisis: More than just a health issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter A. Harvey

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The global environmental sanitation crisis cannot be denied: well over a century after the sanitary revolution in 19th century Europe, 40% of the world’s population still lacks access to improved sanitation. Important lessons from the past must be applied today if the crisis is to be averted. Sanitation has suffered from a lack of prioritization for as long as it has remained the poor relation to water supply. The International Year of Sanitation 2008 provides an opportunity to separate the two and give sanitation the emphasis it requires. The economic argument for sanitation must be articulated and non-health incentives for improved sanitation exploited. Environmental sanitation results in a multitude of socio-economic benefits and can contribute positively to all the Millennium Development Goals. Community-led bottom-up approaches, rather than supply-led or technology-driven approaches, are most effective in increasing and sustaining access to sanitation but need to be implemented at scale. Targeted strategies for urban and school sanitation are also required. Evidence-based advocacy can help develop the political will that is now needed to ensure sufficient public sector investment, leadership, legislation and regulation to ensure that the fundamental human right of access to sanitation is realized.

  13. Environmental Sanitation Crisis: More than just a health issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Peter A

    2008-09-16

    THE GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL SANITATION CRISIS CANNOT BE DENIED: well over a century after the sanitary revolution in 19th century Europe, 40% of the world's population still lacks access to improved sanitation. Important lessons from the past must be applied today if the crisis is to be averted. Sanitation has suffered from a lack of prioritization for as long as it has remained the poor relation to water supply. The International Year of Sanitation 2008 provides an opportunity to separate the two and give sanitation the emphasis it requires. The economic argument for sanitation must be articulated and non-health incentives for improved sanitation exploited. Environmental sanitation results in a multitude of socio-economic benefits and can contribute positively to all the Millennium Development Goals. Community-led bottom-up approaches, rather than supply-led or technology-driven approaches, are most effective in increasing and sustaining access to sanitation but need to be implemented at scale. Targeted strategies for urban and school sanitation are also required. Evidence-based advocacy can help develop the political will that is now needed to ensure sufficient public sector investment, leadership, legislation and regulation to ensure that the fundamental human right of access to sanitation is realized.

  14. [Ecology and ecologies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valera, Luca

    2011-01-01

    Ecology (from the Greek words οιχοσ, "house" and λογια "study of") is the science of the "house", since it studies the environments where we live. There are three main ways of thinking about Ecology: Ecology as the study of interactions (between humans and the environment, between humans and living beings, between all living beings, etc.), Ecology as the statistical study of interactions, Ecology as a faith, or rather as a science that requires a metaphysical view. The history of Ecology shows us how this view was released by the label of "folk sense" to gain the epistemological status of science, a science that strives to be interdisciplinary. So, the aim of Ecology is to study, through a scientific methodology, the whole natural world, answering to very different questions, that arise from several fields (Economics, Biology, Sociology, Philosophy, etc.). The plurality of issues that Ecology has to face led, during the Twentieth-century, to branch off in several different "ecologies". As a result, each one of these new approaches chose as its own field a more limited and specific portion of reality.

  15. Sustainable ecological systems: Implementing an ecological approach to land management

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Wallace Covington; Leonard F. DeBano

    1994-01-01

    This conference brought together scientiests and managers from federal, state, and local agencies, along with private-sector interests, to examine key concepts involving sustainable ecological systems, and ways in which to apply these concepts to ecosystem management. Session topics were: ecological consequenses of land and water use changes, biology of rare and...

  16. To the bottom of carbon processing at the seafloor: towards integration of geological, geochemical and ecological concepts (Vladimir Ivanovich Vernadsky Medal Lecture)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middelburg, Jack J.

    2017-04-01

    Marine sediments are a habitat for organisms, govern the partitioning of material being buried or recycled, and act as filter for the paleorecord. Processes in the surface sediment layer determine whether carbon is recycled within the biosphere (short-term cycle) or transferred to the geosphere (long-term cycle) and as such it function as key interface in the System Earth. Scientists from various disciplines with their own interests, paradigms and techniques have studied this pivotal role of the seafloor in processing material deposited. Marine geologists and paleoceanographers study sediments with the primary aim to extract information on past environmental conditions using down-core measurements of substances delivered to the seafloor and that have survived the processing at the seafloor. Biogeochemists quantify the fate of material delivered, in particular how much of the material is eventually buried and when and in what form is the remaining recycled to the water column, because recycling of key nutrients (e.g. N, P, Si, Fe) sustain primary production. Organic geochemists investigate how organic matter delivered to the seafloor is degraded, transformed or preserved using changes in the composition at the molecular level. Ecologists focus on the organisms, i.e. the actors consuming, producing and transporting the material deposited. Although these disciplines often study the same material, e.g. organic matter delivered to the seafloor, they focus on different aspect ignoring key concepts, findings and approaches from other disciplines. For example, ecologists and biogeochemist studying carbon flow at the seafloor normally ignore detailed molecular information available from organic geochemistry. Bioturbation, particle transport and mixing at the seafloor, is often ignored by paleocanographers, and biogeochemists have developed advanced transport-reaction models in which the actors, the animals, mix the particles but do so without consuming organic matter, their

  17. Bioethanol from lignocellulose. An ecological and economic assessment of selected concepts; Bioethanol aus Lignozellulose. Eine oekologische und oekonomische Bewertung ausgewaehlter Konzepte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meisel, Kathleen; Zech, Konstantin [DBFZ Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum gemeinnuetzige GmbH, Leipzig (Germany); Mueller-Langer, Franziska

    2014-08-01

    Against the background of an increased use of residual and waste materials in this paper the specific GHG emissions and production costs of different lignocellulosic based bioethanol concepts are assessed and compared to a conventional wheat based bioethanol concept and to the fossil reference. In order to find the best concept regarding both the environment and the economics the GHG emissions and production costs are compared and the GHG mitigation costs are calculated. Concept 5 (reference concept with C5 sugar to bioethanol and a natural gas-/biogasboiler) could be a good compromise between the both targets. Furthermore this concept has lower GHG emissions and lower production costs compared to the conventional wheat based bioethanol concept.

  18. School environment and sanitation in rural India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J P Majra

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Context : A school child educated about the benefits of sanitation and good hygiene behavior is a conduit for carrying those messages far beyond the school walls, bringing lasting improvement to community hygienic practices. Aims : To study the status of school environment and sanitation in rural India. Settings and Design: Government schools in rural Karnataka, cross sectional study. Materials and Methods: Twenty schools were randomly selected for the study. Informed consent was taken from the Heads of the schools. A pre tested close ended questionnaire was used to get the information. The minimum standards for sanitation of the school and its environment in India were used as the guiding principles to evaluate the appropriateness/ adequacy of the various attributes. Statistical analysis used: Percentages and proportions. Results : Out of 20 schools selected, one fourth of the schools were located/ sited at inappropriate places. Only half of the schools had appropriate/ adequate structure. Eighteen (90% of the schools were overcrowded. Ventilation and day light was adequate for 12(60% and 14(70% of the schools respectively. Cleanliness of school compound/classrooms was adequate in 80% of the schools. There were no separate rooms for serving the midday meals in any of the schools under study. Eighteen (90% of the schools were having drinking water points. Liquid and solid waste disposal was insanitary in six (30% and eight (40% of the schools respectively. Only half of the schools had adequate latrines for boys and 60% for girls. Only two (10% of the schools had adequate hand washing points with soap. Conclusions : Environment and sanitation facilities at many of the schools are not fully satisfactory.

  19. Towellette Sanitation System for Mobile Kitchen Trailers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    plants . Wipex towellettes are not approved for food contact surfaces at the present concentration of its active ingredient. Table 3. Properties of...polysaccharides, and other materials produced by iniaroorganisms, as well as food debris (12,13,15,16), Because biofilms are persistent and very...1992. Effect of cleaners and sanitizers on Listeria monocytoaenes attached to product contact surfaces. J. Food Protection 55:246-251. 14. Reed, G.H

  20. Sustainable sanitation technology options for urban slums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katukiza, A Y; Ronteltap, M; Niwagaba, C B; Foppen, J W A; Kansiime, F; Lens, P N L

    2012-01-01

    Poor sanitation in urban slums results in increased prevalence of diseases and pollution of the environment. Excreta, grey water and solid wastes are the major contributors to the pollution load into the slum environment and pose a risk to public health. The high rates of urbanization and population growth, poor accessibility and lack of legal status in urban slums make it difficult to improve their level of sanitation. New approaches may help to achieve the sanitation target of the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 7; ensuring environmental sustainability. This paper reviews the characteristics of waste streams and the potential treatment processes and technologies that can be adopted and applied in urban slums in a sustainable way. Resource recovery oriented technologies minimise health risks and negative environmental impacts. In particular, there has been increasing recognition of the potential of anaerobic co-digestion for treatment of excreta and organic solid waste for energy recovery as an alternative to composting. Soil and sand filters have also been found suitable for removal of organic matter, pathogens, nutrients and micro-pollutants from grey water. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The association between Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in children and Helicobacter pylori as the marker for sanitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hishamuddin Pengiran

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Greaves “delayed infection” hypothesis suggested that Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL in children is caused by a lack of exposure to infection in infancy, which may be due higher standards of sanitation. We have conducted an ecologic analysis of the relationship between sanitation, using Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori as the marker, and the incidence of childhood ALL in 127 cancer registries from 28 countries. Results There were inverse associations between H. pylori prevalence and ALL incidence rates in children. These associations were minor and only significant for ALL incidence rates for all cancer registries. They became non-significant and smaller in magnitude when the population source and/or the GNP per capita were added to the relationship. Furthermore, these results were unchanged when the associations were examined using the Generalized Estimating Equations. Conclusions Although the findings showed lower prevalence of H. pylori and improved sanitation is associated with increased incidence of childhood ALL, they do not conclusively support Greaves “delayed infection” hypothesis.

  2. The roles of water, sanitation and hygiene in reducing schistosomiasis: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Jack E T; Croll, David; Harrison, Wendy E; Utzinger, Jürg; Freeman, Matthew C; Templeton, Michael R

    2015-03-13

    Schistosomiasis is a disease caused by infection with blood flukes of the genus Schistosoma. Transmission of, and exposure to, the parasite result from faecal or urinary contamination of freshwater containing intermediate host snails, and dermal contact with the same water. The World Health Assembly resolution 65.21 from May 2012 urges member states to eliminate schistosomiasis through preventive chemotherapy (i.e. periodic large-scale administration of the antischistosomal drug praziquantel to school-aged children and other high-risk groups), provision of water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) and snail control. However, control measures focus almost exclusively on preventive chemotherapy, while only few studies made an attempt to determine the impact of upgraded access to safe water, adequate sanitation and good hygiene on schistosome transmission. We recently completed a systematic review and meta-analysis pertaining to WASH and schistosomiasis and found that people with safe water and adequate sanitation have significantly lower odds of a Schistosoma infection. Importantly though, the transmission of schistosomiasis is deeply entrenched in social-ecological systems, and hence is governed by setting-specific cultural and environmental factors that determine human behaviour and snail populations. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of the literature, which explores the transmission routes of schistosomes, particularly focussing on how these might be disrupted with WASH-related technologies and human behaviour. Additionally, future research directions in this area are highlighted.

  3. The concept of life and its significance in the construction of the new ecosystem ecology of Bernard Patten, Sven Jørgensen and Milan Straskraba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schizas, Dimitris G; Stamou, George P

    2006-01-01

    In a series of articles, three system ecologists, B. Patten, S. Jørgensen and M. Straskraba attempt to construct a new ecosystem ecology. In this effort, an innovative ecological definition of life that originates from the cognitive domain is prevalent. To be more specific, living entities are defined as those who make models of reality. Through the exploration of this definition, we will try to point out the ontological and the epistemological characteristics of the new ecology. These characteristics facilitate the integration of physicochemical, biological and human systems into a common framework. Indeed, system ecologists attempt to unify the inorganic and the organic world, including human beings, under a universal evolutionary scheme. This scheme is organized around an innovative scientific hypothesi, namely the exergy storage hypothesis.

  4. Landscape ecology in North America: past, present, and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monica G. Turner

    2005-01-01

    Landscape ecology offers a spatially explicit perspective on the relationships between ecological patterns and processes that can be applied across a range of scales. Concepts derived from landscape ecology now permeate ecological research across most levels of ecological organization and many scales. Landscape ecology developed rapidly after ideas that originated in...

  5. Environmental Sanitation Crisis: More than just a health issue

    OpenAIRE

    Harvey, Peter A.

    2008-01-01

    The global environmental sanitation crisis cannot be denied: well over a century after the sanitary revolution in 19th century Europe, 40% of the world’s population still lacks access to improved sanitation. Important lessons from the past must be applied today if the crisis is to be averted. Sanitation has suffered from a lack of prioritization for as long as it has remained the poor relation to water supply. The International Year of Sanitation 2008 provides an opportunity to separate the t...

  6. Beliefs, Behaviors, and Perceptions of Community-Led Total Sanitation and Their Relation to Improved Sanitation in Rural Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph Lawrence, J.; Yeboah-Antwi, Kojo; Biemba, Godfrey; Ram, Pavani K.; Osbert, Nicolas; Sabin, Lora L.; Hamer, Davidson H.

    2016-01-01

    Inadequate hygiene and sanitation remain leading global contributors to morbidity and mortality in children and adults. One strategy for improving sanitation access is community-led total sanitation (CLTS), in which participants are guided into self-realization of the importance of sanitation through activities called “triggering.” This qualitative study explored community members' and stakeholders' sanitation, knowledge, perceptions, and behaviors during early CLTS implementation in Zambia. We conducted 67 in-depth interviews and 24 focus group discussions in six districts in Zambia 12–18 months after CLTS implementation. Triggering activities elicited strong emotions, including shame, disgust, and peer pressure, which persuaded individuals and families to build and use latrines and handwashing stations. New sanitation behaviors were also encouraged by the hierarchical influences of traditional leaders and sanitation action groups and by children's opinions. Poor soil conditions were identified as barriers to latrine construction. Taboos, including prohibition of different generations of family members, in-laws, and opposite genders from using the same toilet, were barriers for using sanitation facilities. CLTS, through community empowerment and ownership, produced powerful responses that encouraged construction and use of latrines and handwashing practices. These qualitative data suggest that CLTS is effective for improving sanitation beliefs and behaviors in Zambia. PMID:26787149

  7. [Ecological monitoring in agro-ecological systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baĭkov, B D

    1983-01-01

    The fundamental principles of the ecologic monitoring in the antropogenic ecosystems are dealt with. Analyzed are the structure and function of the agroecologic systems, and, on the basis of the particular aspects established a concept is developed of the ecologic control at autoecologic and biocoenologic level. An analysis is likewise made of the ecologic sequelae resulting from the chemical war launched by the American aggressors in Vietnam and the specific trends therefrom in the substantiation of the ecologic monitoring. Stated is the necessity of profound investigations to establish the bioaccumulation of dioxine, a poisonous agent which was contained in herbicides and defoliants used in the war, and which was distinguished by exclusively high toxicity, producing teratogenic and cancerogenic effects and possessing high resistance in the environment.

  8. Lactic Acid Fermentation, Urea and Lime Addition : Promising Faecal Sludge Sanitizing Methods for Emergency Sanitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, C.; Malambo, D.H.; Gonzalez Perez, M.E.; Nobela, H.N.; De Pooter, L.; Spit, J.; Hooijmans, C.M.; Van de Vossenberg, J.; Greya, W.; Thole, B.; Van Lier, J.B.; Brdjanovic, D.

    2015-01-01

    In this research, three faecal sludge sanitizing methods—lactic acid fermentation, urea treatment and lime treatment—were studied for application in emergency situations. These methods were investigated by undertaking small scale field trials with pit latrine sludge in Blantyre, Malawi. Hydrated

  9. The sanitation situation: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, S

    1993-10-15

    In India, interviews with and observations of members of 100 households with a latrine were done in the towns of Satna and Khandwa, in Madhya Pradesh State, to examine the sanitation situation, to evaluate the maintenance and performance of the 2 pit pour-flush water seal (PF) latrines of poor households, and to recommend actions to improve the sanitation situation. The upper caste Hindus and Muslims tended to use the PF latrines, while the low caste Hindus tended not to use them. Few dry latrines existed in Satna. More than 75% of the households used the PF latrines, especially in Khandwa. The latrines generally were in disrepair, because more families did not receive either instruction or back-up latrine maintenance. Other apparent reasons for poor maintenance were limited water, illiteracy, limited knowledge of how the PF latrine works, poor construction, excreta adhering to the squatting pan, rain entering the leach pits through the squatting pan causing overflow of the pits contents, clogged outlets and Y-junctions, difficulty in emptying the pits, and collapsed brick drains. Children did not use the latrines in more than 50% of households were the latrines were used. Uncomfortable seats were the reason the children chose to defecate in the open. These findings led the author to recommend that the government adopt laws addressing sanitation in low-cost housing settlements, slums, and other areas. A PF latrine must be constructed for each new building. Dry or bucket latrines must be connected to sewers, if available. Leach pits must be constructed for converting latrines into PF latrines. There should be a ban on new dry or bucket latrines. The government should provide the local authorities the power to enforce these regulations. PF latrines should be free for the poor.

  10. Water Supply or ‘Beautiful Latrines’? Microcredit for Rural Water Supply and Sanitation in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Reis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Around half of the Mekong Delta’s rural population lacks year-round access to clean water. In combination with inadequate hygiene and poor sanitation this creates a high risk of diseases. Microcredit schemes are a popular element in addressing such problems on the global policy level. The present paper analyses the contradictory results of such a microcredit programme for rural water supply and sanitation in the context of the Mekong Delta, Vietnam, through a qualitative study primarily based on semi-structured interviews in rural communes of Can Tho City. We come to the conclusion that the programme has a positive effect regarding the safer disposal of human excreta as well as surface water quality, but a marginal impact on poverty reduction as it only reaches better-off households already having access to clean water. The paper shows how the outcome of rural water supply and sanitation policies are strongly influenced by the local ecological, technological, and social settings, in particular by stakeholders’ interests. The authors challenge the assumption that water supply and sanitation should be integrated into the same policy in all circumstances. ----- Etwa die Hälfte der ländlichen Bevölkerung des Mekong-Deltas hat nicht das ganze Jahr über Zugang zu sauberem Wasser. Zusammen mit unzureichender Hygiene und mangelnder sanitärer Grundversorgung erhöht diese Situation das Krankheitsrisiko. Auf globaler Ebene sind Mikrokreditprogramme eine gefragte Strategie, um diese Probleme zu behandeln. Der vorliegende Artikel analysiert die widersprüchlichen Ergebnisse eines solchen Mikrokreditprogramms für ländliche Wasser- und sanitäre Grundversorgung im Mekong-Delta in Vietnam im Rahmen einer qualitativen Studie, die auf halbstrukturierten Interviews im Raum Can Tho City basiert. Die Studie kommt zu dem Schluss, dass das Programm eine positive Wirkung in Bezug auf die sichere Entsorgung von Fäkalien und die Qualität des Regenwassers

  11. Ecological Schoolyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danks, Sharon Gamson

    2000-01-01

    Presents design guidelines and organizational and site principles for creating schoolyards where students can learn about ecology. Principles for building schoolyard ecological systems are described. (GR)

  12. [Water and sanitation in disaster situations.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Kjær Mackie; Meyrowitsch, Dan Wolf; Konradsen, Flemming

    2010-01-01

    When implementing water and sanitation in a disaster situation, it is of crucial importance that the intervention is grounded in the local cultural and socioeconomic context. The assistance provided in the response phase should facilitate short and long-term recovery and sustainable development...... of the affected community. The new model for disaster management which comprises an integrated continuous risk reduction phase, calls for a cross-disciplinary approach which combines the known life-saving response methods with modern development practices. Udgivelsesdato: 2010-Jan...

  13. Ecological Perspectives in HCI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blevis, Eli; Bødker, Susanne; Flach, John

    The aim of the workshop is to provide a forum for researchers and practitioners to discuss the present and future of ecological perspectives in HCI. The participants will reflect on the current uses and interpretations of “ecology” and related concepts in the field. The workshop will assess...... the potential of ecological perspectives in HCI for supporting rich and meaningful analysis, as well as innovative design, of interactive technologies in real-life contexts...

  14. DNA-Based Taxonomy in Ecologically Versatile Microalgae: A Re-Evaluation of the Species Concept within the Coccoid Green Algal Genus Coccomyxa (Trebouxiophyceae, Chlorophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malavasi, Veronica; Škaloud, Pavel; Rindi, Fabio; Tempesta, Sabrina; Paoletti, Michela; Pasqualetti, Marcella

    2016-01-01

    Coccomyxa is a genus of unicellular green algae of the class Trebouxiophyceae, well known for its cosmopolitan distribution and great ecological amplitude. The taxonomy of this genus has long been problematic, due to reliance on badly-defined and environmentally variable morphological characters. In this study, based on the discovery of a new species from an extreme habitat, we reassess species circumscription in Coccomyxa, a unicellular genus of the class Trebouxiophyceae, using a combination of ecological and DNA sequence data (analyzed with three different methods of algorithmic species delineation). Our results are compared with those of a recent integrative study of Darienko and colleagues that reassessed the taxonomy of Coccomyxa, recognizing 7 species in the genus. Expanding the dataset from 43 to 61 sequences (SSU + ITS rDNA) resulted in a different delimitation, supporting the recognition of a higher number of species (24 to 27 depending on the analysis used, with the 27-species scenario receiving the strongest support). Among these, C. melkonianii sp. nov. is described from material isolated from a river highly polluted by heavy metals (Rio Irvi, Sardinia, Italy). Analyses performed on ecological characters detected a significant phylogenetic signal in six different characters. We conclude that the 27-species scenario is presently the most realistic for Coccomyxa and we suggest that well-supported lineages distinguishable by ecological preferences should be recognized as different species in this genus. We also recommend that for microbial lineages in which the overall diversity is unknown and taxon sampling is sparse, as is often the case for green microalgae, the results of analyses for algorithmic DNA-based species delimitation should be interpreted with extreme caution.

  15. Sanitation health risk and safety planning in urban residential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is concluded that sustainable sanitation safety planning is imperative in every developing nation's urban neighborhood. It is therefore recommended that sanitation standards should be set through consultative process; and monitoring should be participatory and multi-dimensional in approach. Keywords: Health Risk ...

  16. Integrated Water, Sanitation and Solid Waste Management in Small ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Inadequate water and sanitation services are having an negative effect on human health and polluting Lake Victoria in East Africa. At the request of the governments of Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda, UN-Habitat has undertaken an initiative to provide water and sanitation services in the region and protect the Lake basin.

  17. Multistakeholder Partnerships in the Water and Sanitation Sector ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Multistakeholder Partnerships in the Water and Sanitation Sector within Urban Policies in Latin America and the Caribbean. According to the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB), an estimated 7% of urban Latin Americans lack access to clean water and another 13%, to sanitation services. This project aims to ...

  18. 21 CFR 1240.95 - Sanitation of water boats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sanitation of water boats. 1240.95 Section 1240.95... DISEASES Source and Use of Potable Water § 1240.95 Sanitation of water boats. No vessel engaged in interstate traffic shall obtain water for drinking and culinary purposes from any water boat unless the tanks...

  19. Providing Sanitation for the Urban Poor in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okot-Okumu, J.; Oosterveer, P.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    After presenting background information on urbanization in Uganda, the chapter provides an overview of sanitation in the urban centres, where different social classes reside in separate zones. Factors determining sanitation provision and the use of sanitary facilities particularly in the informal

  20. Integrated Water, Sanitation and Solid Waste Management in Small ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Integrated Water, Sanitation and Solid Waste Management in Small Urban Centres around Lake Victoria (Kenya). Inadequate water and sanitation services are having an negative effect on human health and polluting Lake Victoria in East Africa. At the request of the governments of Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda, ...

  1. 46 CFR 184.704 - Marine sanitation devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marine sanitation devices. 184.704 Section 184.704 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) VESSEL CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous § 184.704 Marine sanitation...

  2. Dutch Elm Disease Control: Intensive Sanitation and Survey Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    William N., Jr. Cannon; Jack H. Barger; David P. Worley

    1977-01-01

    Recent research has shown that prompt removal of diseased elms reduces the incidence of Dutch elm disease more than sanitation practice that allows diseased elms to remain standing into the dormant season. The key to prompt removal is repeated surveys to detect diseased elms as early as possible. Intensive sanitation can save more elms and cost less than the more...

  3. Exposure-response relationship of neighbourhood sanitation and children's diarrhoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Youngmee Tiffany; Lou, Wendy; Cheng, Yu-Ling

    2017-07-01

    To assess the association of neighbourhood sanitation coverage with under-five children's diarrhoeal morbidity and to evaluate its exposure-response relationship. We used the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) of 29 developing countries in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, conducted between 2010 and 2014. The primary outcome was two-week incidence of diarrhoea in children under 5 years of age (N = 269014). We conducted three-level logistic regression analyses and applied cubic splines to assess the trend between neighbourhood-level coverage of improved household sanitation and diarrhoeal morbidity. A significant association between neighbourhood-level coverage of improved household sanitation and diarrhoeal morbidity (OR [95% CI] = 0.68 [0.62-0.76]) was found. Exposure-relationship analyses results showed improved sanitation coverage threshold at 0.6. We found marginal degree of association (OR [95% CI] = 0.82 [0.77-0.87]) below the threshold, which, beyond the threshold, sharply increased to OR of 0.44 (95% CI: 0.29-0.67) at sanitation coverage of 1 (i.e. neighbourhood-wide use of improved household sanitation). Similar exposure-response trends were identified for urban and rural subgroups. Our findings suggest that neighbourhood sanitation plays a key role in reducing diarrhoeal diseases and that increase in sanitation coverage may only have minimal impact on diarrhoeal illness, unless sufficiently high coverage is achieved. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. The status of hygiene and sanitation practice among rural model ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2mikitser

    Objective: to assess the status and maintenance of hygiene and sanitation practices among rural model families of the. Health Extension Program. ... improving sanitation and the simple act of washing hands at critical times (before eating, after ... and its sustainability after model family graduation is important. The purpose of ...

  5. Domestic Water Supply, Sanitation and Health in Rural Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diseases associated with water and sanitation still top the top ten causes of morbidity and mortality. A Chi-square analysis shows a significant association between water sources and ... Other diseases related to poor \\Valer. sanitation and hygiene ..... processing, marketing and commercial transportation, tourism and small-.

  6. Water, sanitation and hygiene in community based care ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inadequate access to water influences sanitation and hygiene, and this affects the work of CHW. Government needs to respond promptly to the water and sanitation needs of marginalized communities with limited resources. The findings of the study had implications for policy on WASH and community-based care in low ...

  7. Hygiene, sanitation, and water: what needs to be done?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandy Cairncross

    Full Text Available In the final article in a four-part PLoS Medicine series on water and sanitation, Sandy Cairncross and colleagues outline what needs to be done to make significant progress in providing more and better hygiene, sanitation, and water for all.

  8. Assessment of community led total sanitation uptake in rural Kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Community Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) is an innovative community led drive to set up pit latrines in rural Kenya with an aim of promoting sustainable sanitation through behaviour change. It's a behaviour change approach based on social capital that triggers households to build pit latrines without subsidy.

  9. 9 CFR 305.3 - Sanitation and adequate facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sanitation and adequate facilities. 305.3 Section 305.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... OF VIOLATION § 305.3 Sanitation and adequate facilities. Inspection shall not be inaugurated if an...

  10. 36 CFR 2.14 - Sanitation and refuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sanitation and refuse. 2.14 Section 2.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.14 Sanitation and refuse. (a) The following are...

  11. Occupational skin diseases and prevention among sanitation workers in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yuehua; Wang, Xinggang; Wu, Jianbo; Xu, Li

    2015-09-01

    Little research has been focused on the health status or the occupational protection awareness of sanitation workers. The policy recommendations on the occupational safety and health of sanitation workers based on the scientific research are also insufficient in developing countries like China. To study the incidence of dermatoses and the relevance with occupational exposure, protection awareness and protective measures among sanitation workers for better management and protection of the sanitation workers. 273 sanitation workers and 113 administrative staff from 11 streets of Wuhan were recruited. Dermatological problems were evaluated and recorded by physical examination. Occupational exposure, protection awareness, the use of protective equipments and personal history of skin disease were assessed by questionnaires. Compared with administrative staff, sanitation workers had much more occupational dermatological problems and had a much higher rate of harmful ultraviolet ray exposure. Young sanitation workers were more aware of occupational self-protection and a relatively higher rate of them using protective equipments compared with old ones. Exposure to multiple health hazards and the poor use of protective equipments are related to skin diseases in sanitation workers. Prejob training of self-protection and the use of protective equipments are recommended.

  12. 36 CFR 1002.14 - Sanitation and refuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sanitation and refuse. 1002.14 Section 1002.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 1002.14 Sanitation and refuse. (a) The following are prohibited: (1) Disposing of...

  13. Privatization of Water and Sanitation Services in Kenya: Challenges ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Public sector utilities in developing countries have often not been efficient in providing access to reliable water and sanitation services. Worldwide, over 1 billion people lack access to improved water sources and 2.6 billion lack access to appropriate sanitation.1 Countries across the world are increasingly looking to the ...

  14. An investigation into the perceived sanitation challenges in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is a dearth of information on studies that have sought to examine qualitatively the sanitation challenges that rural communities experience. In this regard, an exploratory qualitative study was conducted to determine the perceived structural, economic, educational, social and technological sanitation challenges in the ...

  15. 29 CFR 1915.97 - Health and sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Health and sanitation. 1915.97 Section 1915.97 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... § 1915.97 Health and sanitation. The provisions of this section shall apply to ship repairing...

  16. Assessing users' experience of shared sanitation facilities: A case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite significant financial investment, the effective implementation and sustained use of water and sanitation (WATSAN) technologies remains a chimera, with one billion people using unimproved water facilities and two and a half billion not benefitting from adequate sanitation. The poor success rate of WATSAN ...

  17. Water demand characteristics of shared water and sanitation facilities

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    demand can be used for future hydraulic modelling of these, and other, communal ablution facilities. Keywords: informal settlements; communal sanitation; hydraulic modelling. INTRODUCTION. Sanitation is a basic need and the lack of improved facilities has significant effects on environmental and public health,.

  18. Quantitative plant ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Christian

    2014-01-01

    This e-book is written in the Wolfram' CDF format (download free CDF player from Wolfram.com) The objective of this e-book is to introduce the population ecological concepts for measuring and predicting the ecological success of plant species. This will be done by focusing on the measurement...... and statistical modelling of plant species abundance and the relevant ecological processes that control species abundance. The focus on statistical modelling and likelihood function based methods also means that more algorithm based methods, e.g. ordination techniques and boosted regression tress...

  19. ENTEROCOCCI AND THEIR ABILITY LIVE OUT ACTIVITY OF SANITATION DETERGENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Kročko

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the effect of temperature decrease of sanitation solutions (35 °C in condition of organic load (1% reconstituted powdered milk and varying hardness of the water used for solution preparation (0 °, 15 °, 30 ° and 45 ° on the ability to randomly selected strains of enterococci survive exposure to acidic and alkaline sanitation solution (0.5% concentration, contact time 15 minutes in model experiments. Increasing water hardness also increases the number surviving enterococci. Presence of organic loads and lower temperatures decreased the sanitation effect of the test solutions. The tested strains showed different tolerances to applied sanitation solutions. We found a weaker powerful of acid sanitation solution on base phosphoric acid after its application.doi: 10.5219/166

  20. WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT : AN ANALYSIS OF THE MUNICIPAL PLAN OF BASIC SANITATION XANGRILÁ/ RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Barbosa de Souza

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to analyze the way how is the regionalization and management of water resources from the Municipal Plan analysis Sewerage Shangri-La (PMSBX, which in itself shows the importance of the subject, even before the outbreak of the recent water crisis in 2014 in São Paulo, at which water management has become widely discussed. The main objective is to study the legislation and documents related to water resources, especially in relation to water regionalization, participation and conflict resolution. Thus, this aims to bring the discussion laws and concepts, considering its importance, especially in times of globalization, as well as answer the question that underlies this study: "What are the interrelationships between the National Basic Sanitation Policy (Law No. 11.445, of January 5, 2007, the National Basic Sanitation Plan and Sanitation Municipal Basic Plan for Xangri-Lá/RS?". The method used in the research is based on analysis of legislation and documents created by civil society, which are important on the subject, checking how the governance, management and water regionalization are given in Brazilian context, gaucho and regional. From a preliminary analysis can point out that the legislation, as well as the documents investigated, even in the solidification phase, run through by several challenges to its effective implementation.

  1. Sanitation policy and spatial planning in urban East Africa: Diverging sanitation spaces and actor arrangements in Kampala and Kisumu

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Letema, S.C.; Vliet, van B.J.M.; Lier, van J.B.

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses sanitation policies and spatial planning in Kampala (Uganda) and Kisumu (Kenya) from colonial times to date and their implications for the sitting of sanitation technologies and involving actors. During colonial times, a strict spatial duality was maintained between immigrants

  2. Sanitation subsidies. Encouraging sanitation investment in the developing world: a cluster-randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiteras, Raymond; Levinsohn, James; Mobarak, Ahmed Mushfiq

    2015-05-22

    Poor sanitation contributes to morbidity and mortality in the developing world, but there is disagreement on what policies can increase sanitation coverage. To measure the effects of alternative policies on investment in hygienic latrines, we assigned 380 communities in rural Bangladesh to different marketing treatments-community motivation and information; subsidies; a supply-side market access intervention; and a control-in a cluster-randomized trial. Community motivation alone did not increase hygienic latrine ownership (+1.6 percentage points, P = 0.43), nor did the supply-side intervention (+0.3 percentage points, P = 0.90). Subsidies to the majority of the landless poor increased ownership among subsidized households (+22.0 percentage points, P Subsidies also reduced open defecation by 14 percentage points (P < 0.001). Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  3. Safely Managed Sanitation for All Means Fecal Sludge Management for At Least 1.8 Billion People in Low and Middle Income Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berendes, David M; Sumner, Trent A; Brown, Joe M

    2017-03-07

    Although global access to sanitation is increasing, safe management of fecal waste is a rapidly growing challenge in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The goal of this study was to evaluate the current need for fecal sludge management (FSM) in LMICs by region, urban/rural status, and wealth. Recent Demographic and Health Survey data from 58 countries (847 685 surveys) were used to classify households by sanitation facility (facilities needing FSM, sewered facilities, ecological sanitation/other, or no facilities). Onsite piped water infrastructure was quantified to approximate need for wastewater management and downstream treatment. Over all surveyed nations, 63% of households used facilities requiring FSM, totaling approximately 1.8 billion people. Rural areas had similar proportions of toilets requiring FSM as urban areas. FSM needs scaled inversely with wealth: in the poorest quintile, households' sanitation facilities were almost 170 times more likely to require FSM (vs sewerage) than in the richest quintile. About one out of five households needing FSM had onsite piped water infrastructure, indicating domestic or reticulated wastewater infrastructure may be required if lacking for safe management of aqueous waste streams. FSM strategies must be included in future sanitation investment to achieve safe management of fecal wastes and protect public health.

  4. Algicidal and sanitizing properties of Armazide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ANTONIDES, H J; TANNER, W S

    1961-11-01

    Algicidal and sanitizing properties of Armazide, a new swimming pool additive, consisting of 12% w/v each of dodecylamine hydrochloride, trimethyl alkyl ammonium chloride, and methyl alkyl dipolyoxypropylene ammonium methyl sulfate in solution, were evaluated by laboratory techniques against algae and sewage. Results indicated it to be highly effective in low concentrations especially in conjunction with low concentrations of chlorine. Swimming pool field tests were found to confirm the laboratory findings. Various treatment levels and methods are described for swimming pools using treatments based upon the actual condition of the pool and water. The use of the product permitted a reduction in chlorine residual in pools resulting in greatly reduced requirements for chlorinating chemicals along with absence of irritation, odor, and other undesirable results usually associated with standard pool chlorination methods.

  5. Algicidal and Sanitizing Properties of Armazide1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonides, H. J.; Tanner, W. S.

    1961-01-01

    Algicidal and sanitizing properties of Armazide, a new swimming pool additive, consisting of 12% w/v each of dodecylamine hydrochloride, trimethyl alkyl ammonium chloride, and methyl alkyl dipolyoxypropylene ammonium methyl sulfate in solution, were evaluated by laboratory techniques against algae and sewage. Results indicated it to be highly effective in low concentrations especially in conjunction with low concentrations of chlorine. Swimming pool field tests were found to confirm the laboratory findings. Various treatment levels and methods are described for swimming pools using treatments based upon the actual condition of the pool and water. The use of the product permitted a reduction in chlorine residual in pools resulting in greatly reduced requirements for chlorinating chemicals along with absence of irritation, odor, and other undesirable results usually associated with standard pool chlorination methods. PMID:13861802

  6. Enhanced primary treatment of concentrated black water and kitchen residues within DESAR concept using two types of anaerobic digesters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kujawa-Roeleveld, K.; Elmitwalli, T.A.; Zeeman, G.

    2006-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of concentrated domestic wastewater streams - black or brown water, and solid fraction of kitchen waste is considered as a core technology in a source separation based sanitation concept (DESAR - decentralised sanitation and reuse). A simple anaerobic digester can be implemented

  7. Construction, sanitation and energy saving; Bauen - Sanieren und Energiesparen in Backnang

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    The contribution under consideration concerns to construction, sanitation and energy saving in Backnang (Federal Republic of Germany). Beside a lot of advertisements, this contribution reports on: (1) Sanitation and energy saving preserve environment and purse; (2) Sanitation measures and saving potentials (Sanitation of building envelopes; modernization of the facility management); (3) Energy standard of buildings; (4) Examples of sanitation; (5) Funding programs at federal, regional and local level. Furthermore, contact persons and addresses are given.

  8. Sound ecologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duffy, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Discussions about what constitutes ‘the rural’ invariably focus on notions of spatial location – of inhabiting spaces apart from that of the metropolitan. Deeply embedded in our images of what it means to be Australian, nonetheless our intellectual framing of ‘the rural’ as something outback and beyond has significant implications for our relations with these spaces. The relatively recent phenomenon of sea- and tree-changes has struck many unawares, and not simply because a good latté is so hard to find. Although a frivolous remark, such an apparent lack does shift our focus to a bodily scale of the rural; how is rural place re/made through our experiences of it? This article originates out of on-going research that explores the practice of listening and sound and the ways in which the body can draw attention to the intuitive, emotional, and psychoanalytical processes of subjectivity and place-making. Drawing on Nigel Thrift’s concept of an ecology of place, I suggest that contemporary heightened concerns with regards to loss and lack in rural Australia has led to a nascent emotional economy – one in which individual and intimate connections to the rural require a rethinking of how we live community and belonging. In such a terrain, what does it mean to be rural?

  9. Adopt or Adapt: Sanitation Technology Choices in Urbanizing Malawi

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chunga, Richard M; Ensink, Jeroen H J; Jenkins, Marion W; Brown, Joe

    2016-01-01

    .... In this context, we collected data on sanitation technology choices from January to September 2013 through 48 in-depth interviews and a stated preference survey targeting 1,300 property owners...

  10. The application of appropriate technologies and systems for sustainable sanitation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Duncker, Louiza C

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development, which encompasses sustainable sanitation, is defined as development that is appropriate, has the specific objectives of accelerated growth, targeted interventions and community mobilisation to eradicate poverty and focuses...

  11. Broad Spectrum Sanitizing Wipes with Food Additives Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Microcide proposes to develop novel multipurpose non-toxic sanitizing wipes that are aqueous based, have shelf life of 3-5 years, have broad spectrum microbicidal...

  12. Use of sanitizing products: safety practices and risk situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Aurélia Rocha da Silva

    2014-03-01

    Conclusions: risk practices such as inadequate storage, manufacturing, and use of sanitizing products by the population evidence the need for public health policies, including educational measures, as a means of preventing accidents.

  13. GENDER MAIN STREAMING IN WATER SUPPLY AND SANITATION PROJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona FRONE

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available As we have stated in the previous year conference paper, the human right to water and sanitation entitles everyoneto water and sanitation services which are available, accessible, affordable, acceptable and safe. Developmentprograms for water and sanitation services, as many other socio-economic development programs have often beenassumed to be neutral in terms of gender. However, sometimes there can be failures in the implementation andharnessing of such projects because of errors arising from lack of adequate integration of gender equality. In thispaper are highlighted some aspects and issues of gender mainstreaming in water supply and sanitation developmentprojects, including conclusions from a case study conducted by an NGO in a commune of Romania and ownrecommendations.

  14. The status of hygiene and sanitation practice among rural model ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The status of hygiene and sanitation practice among rural model families of the Health Extension Program (HEP) in Wolayta and Kembata Tembaro Zones of Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples' Region of Ethiopia.

  15. Sustainable development of water resources, water supply and environmental sanitation.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Austin, LM

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available , Colombo, Sri Lanka, 2006 SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF WATER RESOURCES, WATER SUPPLY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SANITATION Operational safety of urine diversion toilets in Durban, South Africa L M Austin, South Africa There are approximately 50 000...

  16. Non-Thermal Sanitation By Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ORBITEC proposes to develop a non-thermal technology based on atmospheric-pressure (AP) cold plasma to sanitize foods, food packaging materials, and other hardware...

  17. An assessment of environmental sanitation in an urban community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    factors such as water, soil and air pollution, poor housing conditions ... excreta and sewage management; food sanitation; sanitary inspection ... On a global scale, the ... Corrections provided by these experts were taken note of before the final ...

  18. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF TYPE I MARINE SANITATION DEVICES

    Science.gov (United States)

    This performance test was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of two Type I Marine Sanitation Devices (MSDs): the Electro Scan Model EST 12, manufactured by Raritan Engineering Company, Inc., and the Thermopure-2, manufactured by Gross Mechanical Laboratories, Inc. Performance...

  19. Basic sanitation policy in Brazil: discussion of a path.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Ana Cristina A de; Costa, Nilson do Rosário

    2016-01-01

    This article demonstrates that the position of dominance enjoyed by state sanitation companies dictates the public policy decision-making process for sanitation in Brazil. These companies' hegemony is explained here through the analysis of a path that generated political and economic incentives that have permitted its consolidation over time. Through the content analysis of the legislation proposed for the sector and the material produced by the stakeholders involved in the approval of new regulations for the sector in 2007, the study identifies the main sources of incentive introduced by the adoption of the National Sanitation Plan, which explain certain structural features of the current sanitation policy and its strong capacity to withstand the innovations proposed under democratic rule.

  20. How to integrate water, sanitation, and hygiene into HIV programmes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bery, Renuka; Rosenbaum, Julia

    2010-01-01

    "Water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) practices are essential for maintaining health, yet most countries and donors have not included WASH in national policies and programmes for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV...

  1. Spectroscopic imaging technologies for online food safety and sanitation inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Environmental Microbial and Food Safety Laboratory, ARS, USDA is one of the leading groups for the development of optoelectronic sensing technologies and methodologies for food quality, safety, and sanitation inspection. High throughput hyperspectral and multispectral imaging techniques use Ram...

  2. The role of the CSIR/WRC Sanitation Technology Demonstration Centre in creating awareness, sharing information and in decision-making regarding sanitation technologies

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mema, V

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The CSIR and the Water Research Commission (WRC) have envisioned a Sanitation Technology Demonstration Centre to provide a cutting-edge environment for bringing to light old and new, as well as promising sanitation technologies. The purpose...

  3. Role of the CSIR/WRC Sanitation Technology Demonstration Centre in creating awareness, sharing information and in decision-making regarding sanitation technologies

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mema, V

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The CSIR and the Water Research Commission (WRC) have envisioned a Sanitation Technology Demonstration Centre to provide a cutting-edge environment for bringing to light old and new, as well as promising sanitation technologies. The purpose...

  4. SANitation CHoice Involving Stakeholders : a participatory multi-criteria method for drainage and sanitation system selection in developing cities applied in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buuren, van J.C.L.

    2010-01-01

    Keywords: sanitation; drainage; planning; multi-criteria decision analysis; stakeholder dialogues, developing countries The poor living in slums and other unplanned urban areas in developing countries have no access to adequate drainage and sanitation provisions with grave consequences to their

  5. Modelling Water-Sanitation Relationship in Edo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipa O. Idogho

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available An effective understanding of water and sanitation supply in developing states such as Edo-state is a veritable tool in addressing uneven distribution of these utilities. This research study focuses on the evaluation of water and sanitation supply in the state using baseline and demand responsiveness approaches to capture data on water and sanitation supplies in all the 18 local government areas in the State. Variables such as coverage of access or no access to water and sanitation supply, sources of water and incidences of water-related diseases were captured and technically analysed. The output of the analysis revealed that 62% representing 1,346, 649, population could not access portable water, while 38% corresponding to 813,199 could fairly access portable water in 1993. However, coverage for safe drinking water between 1993 and 2002 in Edo-State is not significant at 95% confidence interval. In addition, 72% (2,009,566 population did not have any access to sanitation; while 28% (777,210 population had fair supply of sanitation. The regions with poor sanitation and water index are Etsako central, Etsako west, Esan west, Esan north-west, while Oredo, Akoko-Edo, Egor and Owan east have improved sanitation and water index. The results obtained also indicate widespread of water and sanitation related diseased in the State with the recorded highest cases of Schistosomaisis (134, 361:43%; Typhoid (81,981:27%; Cholera (62,191:20% and Diarrhea (29,893:10% respectively. Water harvesting is the major source of water supply in the Edo-state with 69.8% in Etsako West, 65.6% in Esan north East 65.5% in Etsako central while Oredo and Akoko-Edo had 5.9% and 4.3% respectively. Protected water supply from pipe borne water and borehole were noticeable in Oredo with 54.2%, 19.9% and Akoko-Edo with 5.2% and 6.0 respectively. The result on social sector expenditure shows that water and sanitation had least allocation of 18.4%, while Education, Health and

  6. [Ecological memory and its potential applications in ecology: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhong-yu; Ren, Hai

    2011-03-01

    Ecological memory (EM) is defined as the capability of the past states or experiences of a community to influence the present or future ecological responses of the community. As a relatively new concept, EM has received considerable attention in the study of ecosystem structure and function, such as community succession, ecological restoration, biological invasion, and natural resource management. This review summarized the definition, components, and categories of EM, and discussed the possible mechanisms and affecting factors of EM. Also, the potential applications of EM were proposed, in order to further understand the mechanisms of community succession and to guide ecological restoration.

  7. Supplying rural Kazakhstan with safe water and sanitation

    OpenAIRE

    Tussupova, Kamshat

    2016-01-01

    Access to safe drinking water and sanitation is essential for both individual and population health as well as for quality of life and dignity. The UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) require nations to ensure adequate water supply and sanitation for all. For Kazakhstan, this means that rural areas will need a much stronger attention as they have been rather neglected in efforts to comply with the previous UN Millenium Development Goals (MDGs). A new massive drinking water program in Kaza...

  8. Use of sanitizing products: safety practices and risk situations

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Aurélia Rocha da Silva; Raquel Souza Passos; Luiz Alberto Simeoni; Francisco de Assis Rocha Neves; Elisa de Carvalho

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: to evaluate the handling and risk factors for poisoning and/or digestive tract injuries associated with the use of sanitizing products at home. Methods: interviews were conducted in 419 households from different regions, collecting epidemiological data from residents and risk habits related to the use and storage of cleaning products. Results: sanitizing products considered to be a health risk were found in 98% of the households where the research was conducted, and in 54% o...

  9. Use of sanitizing products: safety practices and risk situations

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Ana Aurélia Rocha da; Passos, Raquel Souza; Simeoni, Luiz Alberto; Neves, Francisco de Assis Rocha; Carvalho, Elisa de

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES:to evaluate the handling and risk factors for poisoning and/or digestive tract injuries associated with the use of sanitizing products at home.METHODS:interviews were conducted in 419 households from different regions, collecting epidemiological data from residents and risk habits related to the use and storage of cleaning products.RESULTS:sanitizing products considered to be a health risk were found in 98% of the households where the research was conducted, and in 54% of cases, th...

  10. Use of sanitizing products: safety practices and risk situations

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Ana Aurélia Rocha da; Passos, Raquel Souza; Simeoni, Luiz Alberto; Neves, Francisco de Assis Rocha; Carvalho, Elisa de

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: to evaluate the handling and risk factors for poisoning and/or digestive tract injuries associated with the use of sanitizing products at home. METHODS: interviews were conducted in 419 households from different regions, collecting epidemiological data from residents and risk habits related to the use and storage of cleaning products. RESULTS: sanitizing products considered to be a health risk were found in 98% of the households where the research was conducted, and in 54...

  11. Study of food security based on the concept of virtual water trade and ecological water foot print (Case study: Khorasan Razavi Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Arabi Yazdi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Khorasan Razavi province with the total precipitations of less than 225 mm/year and total area of irrigated area of 1087466 hectare is considered as one of the most important agricultural region in Iran. This province has also important role in local and national economy. Lack of Perennial River and little amount of surface water has caused 1.06 billion cubic meter of over withdrawn from ground water resources. For this reason 35 ground water basins out of 39 have been banned for more exploitation. 12 basins are also in a very critical condition. Since virtual water trade has been accepted as a tool for combating water scarcity, this research project was conducted to study the import-export of virtual water as well as its balance, and ecological water foot print in this province. Khorasan Razavi, has imported 771.7 mcm and exported 434 mcm of virtual water through international agricultural crops trade. Net virtual water of Khorasan Razavi was about 338 mcm in 2006. Agricultural water footprint of Iran in 2006 has estimated to be about 9.6 bcm or 1740 m3/yr/cap. The results show that water resources situation in this province is not in a good condition and in a near future providing food security will be faced with problems if not any solution be implemented

  12. Factors that Influence the Effectiveness of Sanitation Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Haddad, Marilu; Ingram, Maia

    2015-01-01

    Local governments in both Mexico and the U.S. spend considerable money on public services, which do not always bring the expected results. For instance, a large part of the public budget is destined to solve social and health problems, such as public sanitation. Government has attacked the problem by providing public sanitation infrastructure (such as garbage and recycling receptacles) and by using social ad campaigns. However, these efforts do not always affect the habits of residents and bring the desired changes in city sanitation. This article presents a case study that used a participatory method to address an innovative city sanitation effort: The Clean City Program in Puebla, Mexico. This program adopted social marketing techniques, a discipline born in the 70s when the principles and practices developed to sell products and services started to be applied to sell ideas, attitudes, or behaviors. Social marketing programs have been adopted by governments to change attitudes and behavior in areas such as public services. The article first describes the context and strategies of the program, which included the use of the promotora model to engage community members. The researchers then make use of qualitative data gathered throughout program planning and implementation to evaluate the impact of the social marketing programs and its effectiveness. The article analyzes social, educational, economic, demographic, and cultural factors that influence the effectiveness of sanitation programs and presents recommendations for strategies to engage community members in community sanitation programs. PMID:26389106

  13. Factors that Influence the Effectiveness of Sanitation Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Haddad, Marilu; Ingram, Maia

    2015-01-01

    Local governments in both Mexico and the U.S. spend considerable money on public services, which do not always bring the expected results. For instance, a large part of the public budget is destined to solve social and health problems, such as public sanitation. Government has attacked the problem by providing public sanitation infrastructure (such as garbage and recycling receptacles) and by using social ad campaigns. However, these efforts do not always affect the habits of residents and bring the desired changes in city sanitation. This article presents a case study that used a participatory method to address an innovative city sanitation effort: The Clean City Program in Puebla, Mexico. This program adopted social marketing techniques, a discipline born in the 70s when the principles and practices developed to sell products and services started to be applied to sell ideas, attitudes, or behaviors. Social marketing programs have been adopted by governments to change attitudes and behavior in areas such as public services. The article first describes the context and strategies of the program, which included the use of the promotora model to engage community members. The researchers then make use of qualitative data gathered throughout program planning and implementation to evaluate the impact of the social marketing programs and its effectiveness. The article analyzes social, educational, economic, demographic, and cultural factors that influence the effectiveness of sanitation programs and presents recommendations for strategies to engage community members in community sanitation programs.

  14. Factors that influence the effectiveness of sanitation programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilu eFernandez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Local governments in both Mexico and the U.S. spend considerable money on public services, which do not always bring the expected results. For instance, a large part of the public budget is destined to solve social and health problems such as public sanitation. Government has attacked the problem by providing public sanitation infrastructure (such as garbage and recycling receptacles and the use of social ad campaigns. However, these efforts do not always impact the habits of residents and bring the desired changes in city sanitation.This paper presents a case study that used a participatory method to address an innovative city sanitation effort: The Clean City Program in Puebla, Mexico. This program adopted social marketing techniques, a discipline born in the 70s when the principles and practices developed to sell products and services started to be applied to sell ideas, attitudes or behaviors. Social marketing programs have been adopted by governments to change attitudes and behavior in areas such as public services.The paper first describes the context and strategies of the program which included the use of the promotora model to engage community members. The researchers then make use of qualitative data gathered throughout program planning and implementation to evaluate the impact of the social marketing programs and its effectiveness. The paper analyses social, educational, economic, demographic and cultural factors that influence the effectiveness of sanitation programs and presents recommendations for strategies to engage community members in community sanitation programs.

  15. Improving Sanitation and Health in Rural Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubenheim, David L.

    2013-01-01

    In rural Alaskan communities personal health is threatened by energy costs and limited access to clean water, wastewater management, and adequate nutrition. Fuel-­-based energy systems are significant factors in determining local accessibility to clean water, sanitation and food. Increasing fuel costs induce a scarcity of access and impact residents' health. The University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF) School of Natural Resources and Agricultural Sciences (SNRAS), NASA's Ames Research Center, and USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS) have joined forces to develop high-efficiency, low­-energy consuming techniques for water treatment and food production in rural circumpolar communities. Methods intended for exploration of space and establishment of settlements on the Moon or Mars will ultimately benefit Earth's communities in the circumpolar north. The initial phase of collaboration is completed. Researchers from NASA Ames Research Center and SNRAS, funded by the USDA­-ARS, tested a simple, reliable, low-energy sewage treatment system to recycle wastewater for use in food production and other reuse options in communities. The system extracted up to 70% of the water from sewage and rejected up to 92% of ions in the sewage with no carryover of toxic effects. Biological testing showed that plant growth using recovered water in the nutrient solution was equivalent to that using high-purity distilled water. With successful demonstration that the low energy consuming wastewater treatment system can provide safe water for communities and food production, the team is ready to move forward to a full-scale production testbed. The SNRAS/NASA team (including Alaska students) will design a prototype to match water processing rates and food production to meet rural community sanitation needs and nutritional preferences. This system would be operated in Fairbanks at the University of Alaska through SNRAS. Long­-term performance will be validated and operational needs of the

  16. Quantifying ecological thresholds from response surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heather E. Lintz; Bruce McCune; Andrew N. Gray; Katherine A. McCulloh

    2011-01-01

    Ecological thresholds are abrupt changes of ecological state. While an ecological threshold is a widely accepted concept, most empirical methods detect them in time or across geographic space. Although useful, these approaches do not quantify the direct drivers of threshold response. Causal understanding of thresholds detected empirically requires their investigation...

  17. Lactic Acid Fermentation, Urea and Lime Addition: Promising Faecal Sludge Sanitizing Methods for Emergency Sanitation

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Catherine; Malambo, Dennis Hanjalika; Gonzalez Perez, Maria Eliette; Nobela, Happiness Ngwanamoseka; de Pooter, Lobke; Spit, Jan; Hooijmans, Christine Maria; van de Vossenberg, Jack; Greya, Wilson; Thole, Bernard; van Lier, Jules B.; Brdjanovic, Damir

    2015-01-01

    In this research, three faecal sludge sanitizing methods—lactic acid fermentation, urea treatment and lime treatment—were studied for application in emergency situations. These methods were investigated by undertaking small scale field trials with pit latrine sludge in Blantyre, Malawi. Hydrated lime was able to reduce the E. coli count in the sludge to below the detectable limit within 1 h applying a pH > 11 (using a dosage from 7% to 17% w/w, depending faecal sludge alkalinity), urea tre...

  18. Modelling cholera epidemics: the role of waterways, human mobility and sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mari, L; Bertuzzo, E; Righetto, L; Casagrandi, R; Gatto, M; Rodriguez-Iturbe, I; Rinaldo, A

    2012-02-07

    We investigate the role of human mobility as a driver for long-range spreading of cholera infections, which primarily propagate through hydrologically controlled ecological corridors. Our aim is to build a spatially explicit model of a disease epidemic, which is relevant to both social and scientific issues. We present a two-layer network model that accounts for the interplay between epidemiological dynamics, hydrological transport and long-distance dissemination of the pathogen Vibrio cholerae owing to host movement, described here by means of a gravity-model approach. We test our model against epidemiological data recorded during the extensive cholera outbreak occurred in the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa during 2000-2001. We show that long-range human movement is fundamental in quantifying otherwise unexplained inter-catchment transport of V. cholerae, thus playing a key role in the formation of regional patterns of cholera epidemics. We also show quantitatively how heterogeneously distributed drinking water supplies and sanitation conditions may affect large-scale cholera transmission, and analyse the effects of different sanitation policies.

  19. Rethinking sanitation: panacea or Pandora's box.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esrey, S A

    2000-01-01

    In the 19th century, sanitation solutions were designed and built on the premises that human excreta was a waste suitable only for disposal and that the environment was capable of assimilating the waste. The prevailing view last century was that vapors from smells caused disease, and the best way to deal with excreta was to convey it to rivers and streams where it could be diluted and cleansed. Times have changed, the premises are outdated, and current solutions contribute, either directly or indirectly, to many of the problems faced by society today: water pollution, scarcity of fresh water, food insecurity, destruction and loss of soil fertility, loss of biodiversity, depletion of the ozone layer, and global warming. A common denominator of all these problems is how society deals with its wastes, specifically how it deals with human excrement. We have to rethink past premises, design and build new systems, and contribute to the solving of society's most pressing problems. The panacea of the 19th century is turning out to be the pandora's box of the 21st century.

  20. Sanitation in self-service automatic washers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buford, L E; Pickett, M S; Hartman, P A

    1977-01-01

    The potential for microbial transfer in self-service laundry washing machines was investigated by obtaining swab samples from the interior surfaces of commercial machines and wash water samples before and after disinfectant treatment. Three disinfectants (chlorine, a quaternary ammonium product, and a phenolic disinfectant) were used. Four self-service laundry facilities were sampled, with 10 replications of the procedure for each treatment at each location. Although washers were set on a warmwater setting, the wash water temperatures ranged from 24 to 51 degrees C. The quaternary ammonium product seemed most effective, averaging a 97% microbial kill; chlorine was the second most effective, with a 58% kill, and the phenolic disinfectant was least effective, with only a 25% kill. The efficacies of the chlorine and phenolic disinfectants were reduced at low water temperatures commonly experienced in self-service laundries. Interfamily cross-contamination in self-service facilities is a potential public health problem, which is aggravated by environmental conditions, such as water temperature and the practices of the previous users of the equipment. Procedural changes in laundering are recommended, including the use of a disinfectant to maintain adequate levels of sanitation.

  1. Art, Ecology and Institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Witzke, Anne Sophie

    2013-01-01

    The discourse of ecology and sustainability has gained critical traction in recent years. But how are these concepts framed within the space, language and idea of the exhibition? This panel discussion, moderated by Steven Lam and conducted by email in July 2012, sought to unpack the claims...... and limits of the ecological, looking specifically at various international case studies, within the practice of curatorial and exhibition studies. The discussion begins with a reflection on ‘DON'T/PANIC’ in Durban and ‘Rethink – Contemporary Art and Climate Change’ in Copenhagen, exhibitions that were...

  2. Landscape Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Andreas Aagaard; Brandt, Jesper; Svenningsen, Stig Roar

    2017-01-01

    Landscape ecology is an interdisciplinary field of research and practice that deals with the mutual association between the spatial configuration and ecological functioning of landscapes, exploring and describing processes involved in the differentiation of spaces within landscapes......, and the ecological significance of the patterns which are generated by such processes. In landscape ecology, perspectives drawn from existing academic disciplines are integrated based on a common, spatially explicit mode of analysis developed from classical holistic geography, emphasizing spatial and landscape...... pattern analysis and ecological interaction of land units. The landscape is seen as a holon: an assemblage of interrelated phenomena, both cultural and biophysical, that together form a complex whole. Enduring challenges to landscape ecology include the need to develop a systematic approach able...

  3. Lactic Acid Fermentation, Urea and Lime Addition: Promising Faecal Sludge Sanitizing Methods for Emergency Sanitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Anderson

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this research, three faecal sludge sanitizing methods—lactic acid fermentation, urea treatment and lime treatment—were studied for application in emergency situations. These methods were investigated by undertaking small scale field trials with pit latrine sludge in Blantyre, Malawi. Hydrated lime was able to reduce the E. coli count in the sludge to below the detectable limit within 1 h applying a pH > 11 (using a dosage from 7% to 17% w/w, depending faecal sludge alkalinity, urea treatment required about 4 days using 2.5% wet weight urea addition, and lactic acid fermentation needed approximately 1 week after being dosed with 10% wet weight molasses (2 g (glucose/fructose/kg and 10% wet weight pre-culture (99.8% pasteurised whole milk and 0.02% fermented milk drink containing Lactobacillus casei Shirota. Based on Malawian prices, the cost of sanitizing 1 m3 of faecal sludge was estimated to be €32 for lactic acid fermentation, €20 for urea treatment and €12 for hydrated lime treatment.

  4. Lactic Acid Fermentation, Urea and Lime Addition: Promising Faecal Sludge Sanitizing Methods for Emergency Sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Catherine; Malambo, Dennis Hanjalika; Perez, Maria Eliette Gonzalez; Nobela, Happiness Ngwanamoseka; de Pooter, Lobke; Spit, Jan; Hooijmans, Christine Maria; de Vossenberg, Jack van; Greya, Wilson; Thole, Bernard; van Lier, Jules B; Brdjanovic, Damir

    2015-10-29

    In this research, three faecal sludge sanitizing methods-lactic acid fermentation, urea treatment and lime treatment-were studied for application in emergency situations. These methods were investigated by undertaking small scale field trials with pit latrine sludge in Blantyre, Malawi. Hydrated lime was able to reduce the E. coli count in the sludge to below the detectable limit within 1 h applying a pH > 11 (using a dosage from 7% to 17% w/w, depending faecal sludge alkalinity), urea treatment required about 4 days using 2.5% wet weight urea addition, and lactic acid fermentation needed approximately 1 week after being dosed with 10% wet weight molasses (2 g (glucose/fructose)/kg) and 10% wet weight pre-culture (99.8% pasteurised whole milk and 0.02% fermented milk drink containing Lactobacillus casei Shirota). Based on Malawian prices, the cost of sanitizing 1 m³ of faecal sludge was estimated to be €32 for lactic acid fermentation, €20 for urea treatment and €12 for hydrated lime treatment.

  5. Ecological and economic effect of the new waste management concept of the city of Zuerich; Oekologische und oekonomische Auswirkungen der neuen Abfallbewirtschaftung in der Stadt Zuerich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunner, U. [Abfuhrwesen der Stadt Zuerich (Switzerland); Zuercher, D. [INFRAS, Zurich (Switzerland); Seiler, B. [INFRAS, Zurich (Switzerland); Schwank, O. [INFRAS, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1996-05-01

    In Switzerland as in Europe, growing environmental awareness in the public and among decision-makers at municipal waste management departments has resulted in more environmentally-friendly disposal. The aim of the Swiss waste management paradigm is to avoid, utilize and recycle waste. The environmental law demands separate collection of glass, paper, metals and biogenous wastes as well as of hazardous wastes (for instance, used oil, solvents, batteries, etc.); a technical ordinance lays down rules for its implementation by the cantons and communities.- Under pressure from the rapidly growing amounts of waste during the eighties, the city of Zuerich developed a new waste management concept, which was approved by plebiscite in 1990. Its centrepiece is the introduction of adequate waste disposal fees (specific fees for bags and containers) beginning January 1st 1993, the extension of the system for the collection of recycling materials, and the intensification of information work (district waste calendar). (orig.) [Deutsch] In der Schweiz wie in Europa hat die Umweltsensibilisierung der Bevoelkerung und der Entscheidungstraeger bei den kommunalen Abfallbetrieben zu einer umweltgerechteren Entsorgung gefuehrt. Ziel des schweizerischen Abfalleitbildes ist es, Abfaelle zu vermeiden, zu verwerten und zu rezyklieren. Im Rahmen der Umweltschutzgesetzgebung wurde die getrennte Sammlung von Glas, Papier, Metallen und biogenen Abfaellen sowie von Sonderabfaellen (z.B. Altoel, Loesungsmittel, Batterien etc.) postuliert und durch eine technische Veordnung weitgehend an die Kantone und Gemeinden delegiert. Die Stadt Zuerich hat unter dem Druck des waehrend der 1980er Jahre rasch wachsenden Abfallberges ein neues Abfallkonzept entwickelt, welches 1990 in einer Volksabstimmung gutgeheissen worden ist. Kernstueck dieses Konzeptes war die Einfuehrung einer verursachergerechten Entsorgungsgebuehr (Sack- und Containergebuehren) auf den 1. Januar 1993, der Ausbau der Sammlung von

  6. Ecological Innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, Vincent; Gremmen, Bart

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we critically reflect on the concept of biomimicry. On the basis of an analysis of the concept of biomimicry in the literature and its philosophical origin, we distinguish between a strong and a weaker concept of biomimicry. The strength of the strong concept of biomimicry is

  7. Effect of hand sanitizer use on elementary school absenteeism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, B; Ali, Y; Fendler, E; Dolan, M; Donovan, S

    2000-10-01

    Several studies have indicated a connection between handwashing and illness-related absenteeism in school settings. The difficulty of ensuring consistent and effective handwashing among student populations has also been noted. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of the use of an alcohol gel hand sanitizer in the classroom to help decrease the illness-related absentee rate for elementary school students. This study involved 5 individual school districts, 16 individual schools, and more than 6000 students in Delaware, Ohio, Tennessee, and California. Individual schools in each district were paired into product and control groups. In the product group schools, an alcohol gel hand sanitizer was used by the students and staff when entering and leaving the classroom. Absenteeism due to infection was recorded, and the data were statistically analyzed. The overall reduction in absenteeism due to infection in the schools included in this study was 19.8% for schools that used an alcohol gel hand sanitizer compared with the control schools (P teacher population (n = 246) showed that teacher absenteeism decreased 10.1% (trend) in the schools where sanitizer was used. Elementary school absenteeism due to infection is significantly reduced when an alcohol gel hand sanitizer is used in the classroom as part of a hand hygiene program.

  8. Towards Sustainable Urban Water and Sanitation Services: Barriers and Bridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peder Hjorth

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The Mar del Plata International Water Conference provided the first global assessment of the water sector. It was found that in most developing countries the state of water supply and sanitation services were deplorable. Consequently, a call for concerted action to improve coverage and efficiency of the water supply and sanitation sector was launched. This call resulted in the International Water Supply and Sanitation Decade (1981–1990. The Decade provided important lessons concerning effective methodologies to improve the state of the WSS sector. The paper discusses why the poor state of the water supply and sanitation conditions still tend to be the greatest development failure during the 20th century. The recipe for success was there, and the money was there. So, why were governments and big donors like the World Bank refusing to apply the lessons from the Decade? The basic conditions for success are spelled out, and some successful cases are used to illustrate these. The conclusion is that change is possible but that civil society organizations have to be empowered to make governments "feel the heat" and spend more money on water and sanitation, and to spend it more wisely.

  9. Polydiacetylene sensor interaction with food sanitizers and surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yueyuan; Northcutt, Julie; Hanks, Tim; Miller, Ian; Pennington, Bill; Jelinek, Raz; Han, Inyee; Dawson, Paul

    2017-04-15

    Polydiacetylene (PDA) vesicles are of interest as biosensors, particularly for pathogenic bacteria. As part of a food monitoring system, interaction with food sanitizers/surfactants was investigated. PDA vesicles were prepared by inkjet-printing, photopolymerized and characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and UV/Vis spectroscopy. The optical response of PDA vesicles at various concentrations verses a fixed sanitizer/surfactant concentration was determined using a two variable factorial design. Sanitizer/surfactant response at various concentrations over time was also measured. Results indicated that only Vigilquat and TritonX-100 interacted with PDA vesicles giving visible colour change out of 8 sanitizers/surfactants tested. PDA vesicle concentration, sanitizer/surfactant concentration, and time all had a significant (P<0.0001) effect on colour change. As they are highly sensitive to the presence of Vigilquat and TritonX-100, PDA sensors could be used to detect chemical residues as well as for detection of various contaminants in the food industry. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Soil Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killham, Ken

    1994-04-01

    Soil Ecology is designed to meet the increasing challenge faced by today's environmental scientists, ecologists, agriculturalists, and biotechnologists for an integrated approach to soil ecology. It emphasizes the interrelations among plants, animals, and microbes, by first establishing the fundamental physical and chemical properties of the soil habitat and then functionally characterizing the major components of the soil biota and some of their most important interactions. The fundamental principles underpinning soil ecology are established and this then enables an integrated approach to explore and understand the processes of soil nutrient (carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus) cycling and the ecology of extreme soil conditions such as soil-water stress. Two of the most topical aspects of applied soil ecology are then selected. First, the ecology of soil pollution is examined, focusing on acid deposition and radionuclide pollution. Second, manipulation of soil ecology through biotechnology is discussed, illustrating the use of pesticides and microbial inocula in soils and pointing toward the future by considering the impact of genetically modified inocula on soil ecology.

  11. Shipshape: sanitation inspections on cruise ships, 1990-2005, Vessel Sanitation Program, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Elaine H; Blanton, Curtis J; Otto, Charles

    2008-03-01

    In the course of a successful collaboration between the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the cruise ship industry on reducing common-source outbreaks, CDC's Vessel Sanitation Program (VSP) has expanded its training, education, and cruise ship inspection programs. The study reported here evaluated 15 years of ship sanitation inspection data from the National Center for Environmental Health and assessed performance in specific sanitation categories from 1996 to 2005. During the period 1990-2005, scores from cruise ship environmental sanitation inspections steadily improved. The percentage of inspections with violations decreased among five of nine categories. Those five categories were Washing Facilities, Contact Surfaces, Facility Maintenance, Food Handling, and Communicable Disease Practices. Inspection violations increased proportionally in the categories of Swimming Pools and Water System Protection/Chart Recording. Overall continued good performance in most sanitation categories is likely attributable to on-site training during inspections, improvements in ship construction, and a switch from hot-holding temperatures to time limits as a public health control for foods on display.

  12. [Modified Delphi method in the constitution of school sanitation standard].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xunqiang; Liang, Ying; Tan, Hongzhuan; Gong, Wenjie; Deng, Jing; Luo, Jiayou; Di, Xiaokang; Wu, Yue

    2012-11-01

    To constitute school sanitation standard using modified Delphi method, and to explore the feasibility and the predominance of Delphi method in the constitution of school sanitation standard. Two rounds of expert consultations were adopted in this study. The data were analyzed with SPSS15.0 to screen indices of school sanitation standard. Thirty-two experts accomplished the 2 rounds of consultations. The average length of expert service was (24.69 ±8.53) years. The authority coefficient was 0.729 ±0.172. The expert positive coefficient was 94.12% (32/34) in the first round and 100% (32/32) in the second round. The harmonious coefficients of importance, feasibility and rationality in the second round were 0.493 (PDelphi method is a rapid, effective and feasible method in this field.

  13. Microwave Sanitization of Color Additives Used in Cosmetics: Feasibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasnow, S. B.; Smith, J. L.

    1975-01-01

    Microwave exposure has been explored as a method of microbiologically sanitizing color additives used in cosmetic products. Selected microbiologically unacceptable cosmetic color additives, D&C red no. 7 Ca lake (certified synthetic organic color), carmine (natural organic color not subject to certification), and chromium hydroxide green (inorganic color not subject to certification), were submitted to microwave exposure. Gram-negative bacteria were eliminated, as verified by enrichment procedures, and levels of gram-positive bacteria were reduced. Generally, analytical and dermal safety studies indicated no significant alterations in physical, chemical, and toxicological properties of the colors. Sanitization was also successfully performed on other colors (D&C red no. 9 Ba lake, D&C red no. 12 Ba lake, D&C green no. 5, and FD&C red no. 4); initial physical and chemical tests were satisfactory. Results indicated that this method of sanitization is feasible and warrants further investigation. PMID:1164010

  14. Recurrent lactic acidosis secondary to hand sanitizer ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M E Wilson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to their ability to decrease the spread of infection, hand sanitizers are now ubiquitous in health care settings. We present the case of a 50-year-old woman who was admitted with acute alcohol intoxication and had near complete recovery in 12 hrs. Subsequently, she was found unresponsive on the floor of her hospital room on two separate occasions. Evaluations revealed repeatedly elevated levels of ethanol, acetone, and lactate as well as increased anion gap and hypotension, requiring intensive care unit evaluation and intubation for airway protection. During the second episode, she was found next to an empty bottle of ethanol-based hospital hand sanitizer. She confirmed ingesting hand sanitizer in order to become intoxicated.

  15. Resource recovery and reuse as an incentive for a more viable sanitation service chain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Krishna C. Rao; Miriam Otoo; Pay Drechsel and Munir A. Hanjra

    2017-01-01

    .... An expected game changer in sanitation service provision is a business model where benefits accrued via RRR can support upstream sanitation services despite the multitude of private and public stake...

  16. Meeting drinking water and sanitation targets of MDGs. Water use & competition in sub-Saharan Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek van der, Marjolijn

    2006-01-01

    Access to safe drinking water and improved sanitation is of vital importance for human beings. Improving the access to safe drinking water and improved sanitation in developing countries is therefore one of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) to be me

  17. Utilization of Sanitizing Wipes on Selected Coated Nonstick Food Contact Surfaces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Powers, Edmund

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study was to find alternatives to military field sanitation methods that will reduce the amount of greywater produced during sanitation operations and the logistical requirements...

  18. Evaluation of Rural Sanitation Alternatives in Nepal Using Decision Support System (DSS) Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Rupakheti, Sanjib

    2013-01-01

    A society´s health depends on the access to proper and hygiene sanitation. Half of the population still do not have access to proper sanitation in Nepal; therefore government and non-government organizations are facilitating sanitation access to all the population. Decades ago, open defecation and pit latrines toilet were the only options as sanitation system to the people. But now, various types of toilets system known as dry toilets, septic tanks, centralized sewerage system and biogas inte...

  19. Relationship Between Sanitation Access and Poverty Rate: a Case Study in Central Java Province

    OpenAIRE

    Saleh, Samsubar; Rizki, Bhimo

    2007-01-01

    The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) shows the inter¬dependent relationship between sanitation and poverty rate. In addition, the development and improvement of sanitation aspect will indirectly reduce poverty. This study is aimed to investigate the relationship between sanitation and poverty in several cases occurring in all regencies/municipalities in the central Java Province.The results show that the factors affecting sanitation are the per capita gross regional domestic product (PGRDP...

  20. [Environmental virology and sanitation in Brazil: a narrative review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Tatiana; Miagostovich, Marize Pereira

    2014-07-01

    Sanitation services play a critical role in controlling transmission of numerous waterborne pathogens, especially viruses that cause acute gastroenteritis and hepatitis. The viral agents with the greatest public health impact are hepatitis A virus, rotaviruses and noroviruses, adenoviruses, and enteroviruses, contaminating many Brazilian aquatic ecosystems. Heavy circulation of viruses in the environment has been related to inadequate local sanitary conditions, including incomplete coverage of services or inefficacy of conventional technologies in eliminating or reducing the viral load in water or sewage. This study reviews the relations between virology, health, and sanitation, emphasizing the epidemiology of waterborne viral infections and their public health impact.

  1. OVERCOMING POVERTY TRAP: THE CASE OF WATER & SANITATION IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilda Leilani Masniarita Pohan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Overcoming Poverty Trap : The Case of  Water & Sanitation in Indonesia. Poverty trap is a cycle in which poor individuals exhibit low health quality due to malnutrition and limited access to health related facilities. Poor health causes low productivity which eventually cycles back to low income. Indonesia significantly reduced poverty from 15.6% in 1990 to 3.3% in 2010. However, this achievement is not conveyed equally across regions. Using data form RAND Corporation, estimations showed that access to sanitation and clean water play a crucial role in improving one’s health quality.   Keywords: poverty trap, productivity, income, health facility.

  2. Does global progress on sanitation really lag behind water? An analysis of global progress on community- and household-level access to safe water and sanitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Cumming

    Full Text Available Safe drinking water and sanitation are important determinants of human health and wellbeing and have recently been declared human rights by the international community. Increased access to both were included in the Millennium Development Goals under a single dedicated target for 2015. This target was reached in 2010 for water but sanitation will fall short; however, there is an important difference in the benchmarks used for assessing global access. For drinking water the benchmark is community-level access whilst for sanitation it is household-level access, so a pit latrine shared between households does not count toward the Millennium Development Goal (MDG target. We estimated global progress for water and sanitation under two scenarios: with equivalent household- and community-level benchmarks. Our results demonstrate that the "sanitation deficit" is apparent only when household-level sanitation access is contrasted with community-level water access. When equivalent benchmarks are used for water and sanitation, the global deficit is as great for water as it is for sanitation, and sanitation progress in the MDG-period (1990-2015 outstrips that in water. As both drinking water and sanitation access yield greater benefits at the household-level than at the community-level, we conclude that any post-2015 goals should consider a household-level benchmark for both.

  3. Does global progress on sanitation really lag behind water? An analysis of global progress on community- and household-level access to safe water and sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumming, Oliver; Elliott, Mark; Overbo, Alycia; Bartram, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    Safe drinking water and sanitation are important determinants of human health and wellbeing and have recently been declared human rights by the international community. Increased access to both were included in the Millennium Development Goals under a single dedicated target for 2015. This target was reached in 2010 for water but sanitation will fall short; however, there is an important difference in the benchmarks used for assessing global access. For drinking water the benchmark is community-level access whilst for sanitation it is household-level access, so a pit latrine shared between households does not count toward the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) target. We estimated global progress for water and sanitation under two scenarios: with equivalent household- and community-level benchmarks. Our results demonstrate that the "sanitation deficit" is apparent only when household-level sanitation access is contrasted with community-level water access. When equivalent benchmarks are used for water and sanitation, the global deficit is as great for water as it is for sanitation, and sanitation progress in the MDG-period (1990-2015) outstrips that in water. As both drinking water and sanitation access yield greater benefits at the household-level than at the community-level, we conclude that any post-2015 goals should consider a household-level benchmark for both.

  4. Industrial Design and Ecological Balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan-Horia Chinda

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the direct link between the Industrial Production process of prodfucts ad the Ecological disaster we are witnessing today. The main contribution is the definition of the industrial designer's role in this process and the multiple ways the designer can influence and avoid the ecological imbalance. From the design concept to materials and processing, from packing and recycling to transportation, the author clearly defines the designer's complex involvement and offers solutions.

  5. Sanitizing, caring and civilizing: the medical discourse for schools in the state of Paraná (1920-1937

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Müller Larocca

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the investigation of medical discourses referring to school sanitation, this study addresses the spread of the Hygiene science in the State of Paraná, southern Brazil, between 1920 and 1937. Discourses to schools present in many sources, mainly periodicals, Archivos Paranaenses de Medicina and Revista Medica do Parana, pointed out the perception of medicine underpinned by Hygiene, in which doctors advocated a new social function: educators. By discussing intervention in schools and their users, doctors intended to "care for, protect and sanitize infancy", a task aiming to insert the territory of Paraná in the national process of hygienic and social sanitation. It is a historical research study, inspired by Norbert Elias' ideas of Civilizing Process. Thus, its purpose is to recognize civility proposals in the medical discourses created to the schools of the State of Paraná. Educational conceptions in the studied period evolved from knowledge, prescriptions and discourses on Hygiene science and its greatest advocates - the doctors.

  6. Does Clean Water Make You Dirty? Water Supply and Sanitation in the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Water supply investments in developing countries may inadvertently worsen sanitation if clean water and sanitation are substitutes. This paper examines the negative correlation between the provision of piped water and household sanitary behavior in Cebu, the Philippines. In a model of household sanitation, a local externality leads to a sanitation…

  7. Keeping Kids Safe: A Guide for Safe Food Handling & Sanitation for Child Care Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food Safety and Inspection Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    Because children under age 5 are susceptible to food-borne illnesses and children in diapers present special sanitation and health problems, food safety and sanitation are emerging as important issues for child care providers. This booklet is designed to give providers and parents a quick and easy reference for food safety and sanitation. The…

  8. a study of access to sanitation profiles of rural upland and coastal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global Journal

    and unimproved sanitation facilities. Sanitation facilities include piped-sewer system, septic tank, ventilated-improved (VIP) latrine, pit latrine with slab and composting toilet. However, unimproved sanitation facilities include pit latrine without slab/open pit, bucket hanging toilet/hanging latrine, no facilities or bush or field.

  9. 9 CFR 147.14 - Procedures to determine status and effectiveness of sanitation monitored program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... effectiveness of sanitation monitored program. 147.14 Section 147.14 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND... status and effectiveness of sanitation monitored program. The following monitoring procedures 10 may be... sanitation program. (1) Culture the surface of cased eggs periodically for fecal contaminating organisms as...

  10. 21 CFR 111.360 - What are the requirements for sanitation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the requirements for sanitation? 111.360... for Manufacturing Operations § 111.360 What are the requirements for sanitation? You must conduct all manufacturing operations in accordance with adequate sanitation principles. ...

  11. 75 FR 952 - Draft Marine Sanitation Device Discharge Regulations for the Florida Keys National Marine...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-07

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 15 CFR Part 922 Draft Marine Sanitation Device Discharge... of biodegradable effluent incidental to vessel use and generated by marine sanitation devices, and to require marine sanitation devices be locked to prevent discharges into the sanctuary. DATES: Three...

  12. Ecological diversity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pielou E. C

    1975-01-01

    The richness and variety-in a word, the diversity-of natural ecological communities have never been more highly valued than they are now, as they become increasingly threatened by the environmental crisis...

  13. Cognitive ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, Edwin

    2010-10-01

    Cognitive ecology is the study of cognitive phenomena in context. In particular, it points to the web of mutual dependence among the elements of a cognitive ecosystem. At least three fields were taking a deeply ecological approach to cognition 30 years ago: Gibson's ecological psychology, Bateson's ecology of mind, and Soviet cultural-historical activity theory. The ideas developed in those projects have now found a place in modern views of embodied, situated, distributed cognition. As cognitive theory continues to shift from units of analysis defined by inherent properties of the elements to units defined in terms of dynamic patterns of correlation across elements, the study of cognitive ecosystems will become an increasingly important part of cognitive science. Copyright © 2010 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  14. Community Ecology

    CERN Document Server

    1988-01-01

    This book presents the proceedings of a workshop on community ecology organized at Davis, in April, 1986, sponsored by the Sloan Foundation. There have been several recent symposia on community ecology (Strong et. al., 1984, Diamond and Case, 1987) which have covered a wide range of topics. The goal of the workshop at Davis was more narrow: to explore the role of scale in developing a theoretical approach to understanding communities. There are a number of aspects of scale that enter into attempts to understand ecological communities. One of the most basic is organizational scale. Should community ecology proceed by building up from population biology? This question and its ramifications are stressed throughout the book and explored in the first chapter by Simon Levin. Notions of scale have long been important in understanding physical systems. Thus, in understanding the interactions of organisms with their physical environment, questions of scale become paramount. These more physical questions illustrate the...

  15. Concepts in Environmental Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Sally

    Presented is a discussion of the components and concepts of an ecology typical of the coastal southeastern United States. Principles presented are applicable to other areas. The discussion includes several major sections: the environment, wildlife management, freshwater ecosystems, and the estuarine environment. Numerous figures and illustrations…

  16. Foundations of Socio-Cultural Ecology: Consequences for Media Education and Mobile Learning in Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Klaus Rummler

    2014-01-01

    This conceptual paper offers insights to the foundations of Socio-Cultural Ecology and relates this concept to traditional concepts of Ecology e.g. media ecology or Bronfenbrenner’s ecological model of child development. It will further discuss the term «ecology» as a relation between learners and their surrounding physical and structural world, e. g. an ecology of resources or the classroom as an ecological system. Thirdly more recent concepts in ecology will be considered e. g. Digital Medi...

  17. Temporal ecology in the Anthropocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolkovich, E M; Cook, B I; McLauchlan, K K; Davies, T J

    2014-11-01

    Two fundamental axes - space and time - shape ecological systems. Over the last 30 years spatial ecology has developed as an integrative, multidisciplinary science that has improved our understanding of the ecological consequences of habitat fragmentation and loss. We argue that accelerating climate change - the effective manipulation of time by humans - has generated a current need to build an equivalent framework for temporal ecology. Climate change has at once pressed ecologists to understand and predict ecological dynamics in non-stationary environments, while also challenged fundamental assumptions of many concepts, models and approaches. However, similarities between space and time, especially related issues of scaling, provide an outline for improving ecological models and forecasting of temporal dynamics, while the unique attributes of time, particularly its emphasis on events and its singular direction, highlight where new approaches are needed. We emphasise how a renewed, interdisciplinary focus on time would coalesce related concepts, help develop new theories and methods and guide further data collection. The next challenge will be to unite predictive frameworks from spatial and temporal ecology to build robust forecasts of when and where environmental change will pose the largest threats to species and ecosystems, as well as identifying the best opportunities for conservation. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  18. Water demand characteristics of shared water and sanitation facilities

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The provision of communal water and sanitation facilities has been mandated by the South African Government as an interim measure for informal settlement upgrading. These services form the first step in the upgrading process and are essential in meeting the basic needs of the community. The eThekwini municipality is ...

  19. 21 CFR 123.11 - Sanitation control procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... records are subject to the requirements of § 123.9. (d) Relationship to HACCP plan. Sanitation controls may be included in the HACCP plan, required by § 123.6(b). However, to the extent that they are monitored in accordance with paragraph (b) of this section they need not be included in the HACCP plan, and...

  20. Barriers facing local governance in the implementation of sanitation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All interviews were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim and content analytical approach was employed to analyze the data. Findings: Results from this study identified several major barriers facing the implementation of sanitation and hygiene promotion services at the local government authorities. These include ...

  1. Water supply, sanitation and health risks in Douala, Cameroon

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJL

    highlight problems for which, it would firstly be necessary to attack in the research of the improvement strategies for hygiene conditions in the populations of an urban environment. Key words: Environment, sanitation, water, diseases, Douala. INTRODUCTION ... constitutes the principal cause of the overpopulation in.

  2. Relationships in Data Sanitization: A Study in Scarlet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishop, Matt; Cummins, Justin; Peisert, Sean; Singh, Anhad; Bhumiratana, Bhume; Agarwal, Deborah A.; Frincke, Deborah A.; Hogarth, Michael

    2010-09-23

    Data anonymization and sanitization are essential components to using and sharing data, but most approaches to performing those actions either fail to take into account all of the stakeholders, are ad hoc, or both. In this paper, we discuss a means of doing so.

  3. The status of school sanitation facilities in some selected primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: The inadequate sanitation facility in schools poses a health risk that would impact students' potential to attend education. Hence, a coordinated effort among all concerned school to safeguard the school environment should be considered as one part of the path for reaching the MDG goals with respect to at least ...

  4. Sustainable and equitable sanitation in informal settlements of Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is, however, a gap between policy and implementation, and part of the problem lies in the challenge of reconciling the pressure to deliver .... Qualitative. *In South Africa, informal settlement users typically do not pay for water and sanitation services although backyard dwellers in formal settlements may do so.

  5. Analyzing sanitation characteristics in the urban slums of East Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szanto, G.L.; Letema, S.C.; Tukahirwa, J.; Mgana, S.; Oosterveer, P.J.M.; Buuren, van J.C.L.

    2012-01-01

    Urban slums in East Africa exhibit deplorable sanitary conditions. Despite (inter)national efforts, slum sanitation provision remains inadequate and the projected population growth forecasts a worsening of this crisis. The core of the problem is that available knowledge about the local feasibility

  6. 56 original article the influence of environmental sanitation practices

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Oboro VO

    2006-05-19

    May 19, 2006 ... THE INFLUENCE OF ENVIRONMENTAL SANITATION PRACTICES. AND HYGIENE ON THE INCIDENCE OF DIARRHOEA – THE CASE. OF KOFORIDUA MUNICIPALITY, GHANA. Asenso-Mensah, Emmanuel; Awoyemi, Ademola O. and Browne, E. N. L.. Department of Community Health, School of ...

  7. Sanitation in wilderness: Balancing minimum tool policies and wilderness values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul R. Lachapelle

    2000-01-01

    Officials with the four wilderness managing agencies are faced with balancing wilderness preservation values and the minimum tool policies of their respective agencies. One example is the management of sanitation, particularly human waste and the often intrusive infrastructure that accompanies its treatment and disposal. Because the treatment and disposal of human...

  8. Sanitation in School Housekeeping, A Training Course for School Custodians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. School Plant Management Section.

    The most efficient and modern methods for cleaning and sanitizing school facilities are presented for the benefit of school custodians. Careful attention to the total school environment can be supportive of the general education program and at the same time make a sound contribution to the health and health education. Topics discussed include--(1)…

  9. An assessment of environmental sanitation in an urban community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inadequate environmental sanitation has been recognized as a public health hazard worldwide. In some Nigerian cities, living with waste as part of the natural environment has become a way of life. This study examined the sanitary condition of an urban community in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. It used a cross sectional ...

  10. Market Sanitation: A Case Study of Oregbeni Market Benin - City ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Poor market sanitation is an intractable problem in Nigeria and has contributed to the spread of infectious diseases and environmental degradation. This study was undertaken to determine the awareness and practice of solid waste management in market places among market users. It involved 180 store owners and ...

  11. Sanitation Health Risk and Safety Planning in Urban Residential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sultan

    infrastructure provision and related services are poor, especially from lack of efficient management system .... Disease Transmission Routes Related to Sanitation li'amework. ATBU Journal of Environmental Technology 10, 1, June .... storage; transportation; treatment and reuse. This approach has in recent years become.

  12. Sanitation under challenge: contributions from the social sciences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van B.J.M.; Spaargaren, G.; Oosterveer, P.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews the contribution the social sciences can make to the challenge of providing access to sustainable sanitation services and infrastructures for billions of people, in both the over- and underdeveloped parts of the world. The paper reviews and discusses three particular social

  13. An assessment of water, sanitation and hygiene (wash) practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An assessment of water, sanitation and hygiene (wash) practices and quality of routinely collected data in Machakos County Kenya. D.M. Kavoo, S.H. Ali, A.B. Kihara, R.J. Kosgei, H Tweya, W Kizito, Omondi Ogutu, C.N. Tauta ...

  14. A new approach to nationwide sanitation planning for developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerstens, S.M.; Spiller, M.; Leusbrock, I.; Zeeman, G.

    2016-01-01

    Many developing countries struggle to provide wastewater and solid waste services. The backlog in access has been partly attributed to the absence of a functional sanitation planning framework. Various planning tools are available; however a comprehensive framework that directly links a

  15. Investigation into sanitation options for rural Kien Giang Province, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracey Main

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This project was developed during a three month internship with Habitat for Humanity Vietnam (HFHV supported by the Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology (RMIT Engineers Without Borders Australia (EWB Development Scholarship for 2010/2011. During discussions with HFHV staff, several areas of concern with regards to sanitation and hygiene practices in rural Kien Giang Province were raised. These included the widespread use of drop toilets over waterways, poor hygiene practices in impoverished households and in schools, lack of sanitation options for HFHV construction programmes and no facilities for emptying existing septic tanks of accumulated sludge. This article evaluates existing sanitation technologies for introduction into HFHV’s construction programme in Kien Giang Province. It was determined that for onsite disposal of sanitation system products, the double dehydration vault, the composting chamber and the urine collection tank were appropriate technologies. Pit latrines or variations thereof were deemed inappropriate because of the high watertables. Anaerobic reactor systems were deemed inappropriate as they accumulate pathogenic sludge and effluent for which there is currently no appropriate treatment that meets the project design criteria. As onsite disposal system demand may be low due to cultural and social taboos, an investigation and discussion into offsite treatment was also undertaken. It was determined that a co-composting facility would be the most appropriate offsite treatment technology.

  16. Design and implementation of participatory hygiene and sanitation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    disease Transmission Routes and Barriers (FTRB), and Tippy Tap6. Sanitation ladder (set of pictures showing various methods of excreta disposal) was selected for problem identification. Participants arranged pictures in form of ladder, from the worst practice/latrine to the best; identifying their own situation and looking at.

  17. Assessment of community led total sanitation uptake in rural Kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    led drive to set up pit latrines in rural kenya with an aim of promoting sustainable sanitation through behaviour change. it's a behaviour change approach based on social capital that triggers households to build pit latrines without subsidy. the. Ministry of Health introduced the CLTS campaign in 2007 and the first road map to.

  18. Hygiene and sanitation among ethnic minorities in Northern Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rheinländer, Thilde; Samuelsen, Helle; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2010-01-01

    a sense of marginalization among the EMGs, which had great impact on how they perceive and respond to government sanitation interventions. The enclosed latrines promoted by authorities are met with reluctance by the EMGs due to cultural perceptions of the body as permeable and therefore, vulnerable...

  19. The status of school sanitation facilities in some selected primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    believed that schools are part of this goal. A nationwide survey undertaken on school Water and. Hand Washing Sanitation (WASH) facilities in Ethiopia indicated a very low coverage, 32.5% in drinking water facilities (5). The same survey reported that the disparity in access by male and female pupils (latrine to students'.

  20. Focus Cities : Economic Incentives for Improving Water, Sanitation ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Since 2001 Indonesia has been undergoing large-scale decentralization, transferring various responsibilities to regional and local governments. Local governments are now responsible for water and sanitation infrastructure, yet most lack the resources and technical expertise to tackle the challenge. Jakarta's largest slum ...

  1. Influence of sanitation on the physico-chemical and microbiological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was carried out in order to evaluate the effect of chlorinated and ozonized water on the physico-chemical characteristics of broccoli, produced under organic and conventional cultivation procedures. Organic and conventional broccolis were subjected to two sanitation treatments, using chlorine and ozone, ...

  2. Design and implementation of participatory hygiene and sanitation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The study is a continuation of a research carried out in Luweero district in Uganda1. It investigated whether PHAST was a suitable tool for reducing transmission of soil transmitted helminths. PHAST means Participatory Hygiene and Sanitation Transformation; a participatory approach that uses visual tools to ...

  3. 56 original article the influence of environmental sanitation practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Oboro VO

    2006-05-19

    May 19, 2006 ... THE INFLUENCE OF ENVIRONMENTAL SANITATION PRACTICES. AND HYGIENE ON THE INCIDENCE OF DIARRHOEA – THE CASE. OF KOFORIDUA MUNICIPALITY, GHANA. Asenso-Mensah, Emmanuel; Awoyemi, Ademola O. and Browne, E. N. L.. Department of Community Health, School of ...

  4. Sanitation and hygiene status of butcheries in Kampala district ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is a growing trend in the consumption of animal products such as meat in the developing world especially due to a growing population, urbanization and rising incomes. This poses a risk of food borne illnesses from meat consumption due to poor sanitation and hygiene. The purpose of this study was to assess the ...

  5. Food hygiene and sanitation in infants and young children: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper has three related aims. Firstly, it aims to profile the current food hygiene and safety needs of children under the age of five in South Africa. Secondly, to reflect the importance of domestic hygiene, access to water and sanitation in reducing the transmission of gastrointestinal pathogens while feeding infants and ...

  6. 155 Sanitation Indicators in the Rural Communities of the South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2012-01-24

    Jan 24, 2012 ... increase in their personal income from rural employment, but mainly from occasional remittances from family members living within and outside. Nigeria and few retired civil servants who opted to finally settle in their villages. In fact, the policy on rural sanitation generally lacks clarity and focus; and today ...

  7. Addressing the Sanitation Challenge in Poor Urban Areas (East Africa)

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This action-research project will attempt to address the gender, social, technical and environmental challenges related to sanitation infrastructure (toilets) in two small towns in Kenya (Naivasha) and Uganda (Masaka). Researchers will identify and test alternative, affordable options that are responsive to gender needs and ...

  8. Hygiene and sanitation requirements in Danish biogas plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bendixen, H.J.

    1997-08-01

    According to Danish regulations, systematic pathogen reducing treatment is required, when industrial by-products and waste products, and urban waste, ie garbage from households and sewage sludge, are processed, before being used - without restrictions - as fertilizers on agricultural land. An adequate pathogen reducing effect (PRE) can be achieved in the digestion tanks and sanitation tanks of the biogas plants, provided they are operated correctly and respect the criteria of the official requirements. The FS-method is a microbiological indicator method based on faecal streptococci (enterococci) (FS). It may be used to check the sanitation effect achieved by the treatment in a tank. The effect is expressed numerically by the log{sub 10}-reduction of the numbers of FS measured in the biomass before and after treatment. The PRE was examined in 10 large-scale biogas plants during a period of 2-3 years. It was demonstrated that properly directed and well-functioning thermophilic digestion tanks ensure the removal of most pathogenic microorganisms from organic waste and slurry. The removal of pathogens by the treatment in mesophilic digestion tanks is incomplete. Systematic studies of the processes of inactivation of bacteria and virus in slurry and in animal tissues gave evidence that the PRE is enhanced in the microbiological environment of thermophilic digestion tanks. The sanitation criteria, ie combinations of temperature/time, for the processing of biomass in digestion tanks and sanitation tanks in biogas plants are specified. (au) 19 refs.

  9. Hygiene and sanitation risk factors of diarrhoeal disease among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Diarrhoea diseases are among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in under-five-children (U-5C) in Nigeria. Inadequate safe water, sanitation, and hygiene account for the disease burden. Cases of diarrhoea still occur in high proportion in the study area despite government-oriented interventions.

  10. The use of sanitation products in milk and cheese production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Kalit

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Considering hygienic conditions in cheese production the aim of thispaper was to investigate the influence of using some sanitation* products in milk and cheese production on family farms. This investigation was a part of the project “Improving the quality of Tounj cheese produced on family farms”. By use of the sanitation products, during milk production, significant (P<0.01 decrease of geometrical mean of total bacterial count from 3.54 x 105 to 8 x 103 in mL of milk, as well as significant (P<0.01 decrease of geometric mean of somatic cell count from 3.1 x 105 to 2.4 x 105 in mL of milk was observed. The ratio of hygienically unacceptable cheeses, according to the Regulations of microbial standards for foods (NN 46/94., significantly (P<0.01 decreased as well. Because of the new requests and standards, the sanitation products are more in use in both milk and cheese production on family farms. Investigated sanitation products were suitable for use in milk and Tounj cheese production.

  11. 77 FR 12843 - Fees for Sanitation Inspections of Cruise Ships

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Fees for Sanitation Inspections of Cruise Ships AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Department of Health and Human Services... cruise ships. VSP operates under the authority of the Public Health Service Act (42 U.S.C. 264, ``Control...

  12. 77 FR 50511 - Fees for Sanitation Inspections of Cruise Ships

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Fees for Sanitation Inspections of Cruise Ships AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Department of Health and Human Services... prevent and control the introduction, transmission, and spread of gastrointestinal illnesses on cruise...

  13. 78 FR 51728 - Fees for Sanitation Inspections of Cruise Ships

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Fees for Sanitation Inspections of Cruise Ships AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Department of Health and Human Services... cooperative activity with the cruise ship industry. VSP helps the cruise ship industry prevent and control the...

  14. Book Reviews Concepts of Ecosystem Ecology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    problems and issues facing ecosystem science on terra firma, and were very informative from my primarily aquatic perspective. (Yes. I'm also guilty of this artificial dichotomy). From an African context, however, I was greatly surprised by Risser's apparently total neglect of fire as an abiotic factor in grassland ecosystems.

  15. Museum as ecology: A case study analysis of an ambient intelligent museum guide

    OpenAIRE

    Wakkary, Ron; Evernden, Dale

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores the usefulness of the ecology concept as an analytical framework for designing interactive technology in museums. We aim to describe and evaluate an ecological approach to understanding museums and to examine information and cultural ecologies as analytical tools for guiding the design of interactive systems. We focus on two related concepts of ecology, cultural ecology (Bell 2002) and information ecology (Nardi and O'Day 1999). Utilizing each of the two frameworks, we ana...

  16. Ensuring sustainability of non-networked sanitation technologies: an approach to standardization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkl, Markus; Brunner, Norbert; Feil, Magdalena; Hauser, Andreas

    2015-06-02

    Non-networked sanitation technologies use no sewer, water or electricity lines. Based on a review of 45 commercially distributed technologies, 12 (representing three concepts) were selected for a detailed audit. They were located in six countries of Africa and Asia. The safety of users was generally assured and the costs per use were not excessive, whereas costs were fully transparent for only one technology surveyed. A main drawback was insufficient quality of the byproducts from on-site treatment, making recycling in agriculture a hygienic and environmental risk. Further, no technology was sufficiently mature (requiring e.g. to shift wastes by hand). In order to promote further development and give producers of mature products a competitive advantage, the paper proposes a certification of technologies to confirm the fulfillment of basic requirements to make them attractive for future users.

  17. Curricula without Boundaries: Developing an Ecological Connection for Higher Education Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chia-Ling

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to address the concept of higher education curricula and its practice from an ecological perspective. First, the significance of ecology is investigated based on two streams of thought; the ecological concept of the university proposed by Ronald Barnett; and the text, "The Three Ecologies" authored by the Italian…

  18. Book review, Sanità animale, Salvatore Montinaro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Graziani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Un manuale strutturato per fornire un quadro d'insieme della materia e chiarire il metodo logico con il quale trovare i riferimenti scientifici e normativi necessari per affrontare il lavoro di tutti i giorni: così viene presentato Sanità animale, un volume che rispetto ai pochi testi analoghi sul mercato, si distingue per l'utilizzo parco di stralci normativi, comunque sistematicamente citati, in modo da renderne agevole la consultazione. L'attenzione maggiore è spostata verso l'analisi scientifica e normativa delle problematiche affrontate, delle peculiarità delle singole malattie e dei principi d'intervento sul campo. Il medico veterinario Salvatore Montinaro, forte dell'esperienza maturata in diverse amministrazioni (Regione, ASL, IZS riesce nell'intento di descrivere in maniera semplice, ma completa e dettagliata, il funzionamento della sanità animale e della lotta alle malattie diffusive animali. Come esplicita nell'introduzione del capitolo Norme Veterinarie e SSN: "Non si cercherà in questa sede di ripercorrere la storia della veterinaria pubblica, dal codice di Hammurabi in poi: ci si limiterà piuttosto a uno sguardo retrospettivo nella storia recente, finalizzato a identificare in modo sistematico, partendo dal generale per arrivare al particolare, i principali punti di riferimento che caratterizzano il quadro normativo della sanità pubblica veterinaria". Anche per questo il manuale è indirizzato soprattutto a coloro che già lavorano, o che intendono lavorare, nei servizi veterinari di sanità animale delle Aziende Sanitarie Locali, ponendosi come un testo "professionale" e un sussidio tecnico da avere a portata di mano. Salvatore Montinaro, classe 1967, svolge la sua attività professionale come dirigente del servizio veterinario di sanità animale della ASL di Nuoro, inoltre, fa parte del gruppo di esperti comunitari del TAIEX ed è consulente tecnico della FAO.

  19. Water and sanitation in schools: a systematic review of the health and educational outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasper, Christian; Le, Thanh-Tam; Bartram, Jamie

    2012-08-01

    A systematic review of the literature on the effects of water and sanitation in schools was performed. The goal was to characterize the impacts of water and sanitation inadequacies in the academic environment. Published peer reviewed literature was screened and articles that documented the provision of water and sanitation at schools were considered. Forty-one peer-reviewed papers met the criteria of exploring the effects of the availability of water and/or sanitation facilities in educational establishments. Chosen studies were divided into six fields based on their specific foci: water for drinking, water for handwashing, water for drinking and handwashing, water for sanitation, sanitation for menstruation and combined water and sanitation. The studies provide evidence for an increase in water intake with increased provision of water and increased access to water facilities. Articles also report an increase in absenteeism from schools in developing countries during menses due to inadequate sanitation facilities. Lastly, there is a reported decrease in diarrheal and gastrointestinal diseases with increased access to adequate sanitation facilities in schools. Ensuring ready access to safe drinking water, and hygienic toilets that offer privacy to users has great potential to beneficially impact children's health. Additional studies that examine the relationship between sanitation provisions in schools are needed to more adequately characterize the impact of water and sanitation on educational achievements.

  20. Towards “Sustainable” Sanitation: Challenges and Opportunities in Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Andersson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available While sanitation is fundamental for health and wellbeing, cities of all sizes face growing challenges in providing safe, affordable and functional sanitation systems that are also sustainable. Factors such as limited political will, inadequate technical, financial and institutional capacities and failure to integrate safe sanitation systems into broader urban development have led to a persistence of unsustainable systems and missed opportunities to tackle overlapping and interacting urban challenges. This paper reviews challenges associated with providing sanitation systems in urban areas and explores ways to promote sustainable sanitation in cities. It focuses on opportunities to stimulate sustainable sanitation approaches from a resource recovery perspective, generating added value to society while protecting human and ecosystem health. We show how, if integrated within urban development, sustainable sanitation has great potential to catalyse action and contribute to multiple sustainable development goals.

  1. Concept of ecological corridors and agroforestal systems applied for the implementation of PETROBRAS punctual and linear projects: case study of COMPERJ (Rio de Janeiro Petrochemical Complex); Conceito de corredores ecologicos e sistemas agroflorestais aplicados a implantacao de empreendimentos pontuais e lineares em ambito PETROBRAS: estudo de caso do COMPERJ (Complexo Petroquimico do Rio de Janeiro)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Secron, Marcelo B.; Mesquita, Ivan D.; Soares, Luiz Felipe R.; Almeida, Ronaldo Bento G. de; Fernandes, Renato; Dellamea, Giovani S. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Nunes, Rodrigo T.; Pereira Junior, Edson Rodrigues [SEEBLA, Servicos de Engenharia Emilio Baumgart Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The land use and human occupation realized with an indiscriminate form across many parts of the world, including Brazil, have been causing destruction of great amount of forest mass and green areas. These actions results an isolation of a forest reminder fragment, and in such case, along the time, these fragments become weak and debilitated, characterizing general biodiversity loss or its extinction, in a worse case. This study presents basic concepts of ecological corridors and agroforestal systems, showing the case study that will be implemented in COMPERJ (Rio de Janeiro Petrochemical Complex), pointing the aspects that can be applied for PETROBRAS to offset impacts (biodiversity offsets concept) of punctual and linear projects. (author)

  2. Strategy for ecologic control in fighting Varroa destructor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stanimirović Zoran; Ćirković Dragan; Pejin Ivana I; Pejović Dejan

    2007-01-01

    .... The concept of ecologic control of Varroa destructor in honey bee colonies implies the complementary use of adequate biotechnical and biophysical measures and treatments using preparations based...

  3. Metabolomics in chemical ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlisch, Constanze; Pohnert, Georg

    2015-07-01

    Chemical ecology elucidates the nature and role of natural products as mediators of organismal interactions. The emerging techniques that can be summarized under the concept of metabolomics provide new opportunities to study such environmentally relevant signaling molecules. Especially comparative tools in metabolomics enable the identification of compounds that are regulated during interaction situations and that might play a role as e.g. pheromones, allelochemicals or in induced and activated defenses. This approach helps overcoming limitations of traditional bioassay-guided structure elucidation approaches. But the power of metabolomics is not limited to the comparison of metabolic profiles of interacting partners. Especially the link to other -omics techniques helps to unravel not only the compounds in question but the entire biosynthetic and genetic re-wiring, required for an ecological response. This review comprehensively highlights successful applications of metabolomics in chemical ecology and discusses existing limitations of these novel techniques. It focuses on recent developments in comparative metabolomics and discusses the use of metabolomics in the systems biology of organismal interactions. It also outlines the potential of large metabolomics initiatives for model organisms in the field of chemical ecology.

  4. A comparative study of ecological specialization estimators

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Poisot, Timothée; Canard, Elsa; Mouquet, Nicolas; Hochberg, Michael E

    2012-01-01

    1.  Ecological specialization is a unifying concept in the biological sciences. While there are reliable ways to characterize specificity at individual and community levels, the evaluation of population and species...

  5. An ecological aesthetic for forest landscape management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul H. Gobster

    1999-01-01

    Although aesthetics and ecological sustainability are two highly regared values of forest landscapes, practices developed to manage forests for these values can sometimes conflict with one another. In this paper I argue that such conflicts are rooted in our conception of forest aesthetics as scenery, and propose that a normative, "ecological aesthetic" based...

  6. promoting sustainability by curtailing ecological footprints of

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The need to regulate land use and the exploitation of natural resources has led to the concept of sustainability, and by extension, ecological footprint (the total amount of land required by an individual to grow his/her needs). This paper examines ecological footprint savings in urban growth and housing development in ...

  7. Ecological forestry: Much more than retention harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian J. Palik; Anthony W. D' Amato

    2017-01-01

    We read with interest the recent Journal of Forestry article on "Conceptual Ambiguities and Practical Challenges of Ecological Forestry: A Critical Review" (Batavia and Nelson 2016). In it, Batavia and Nelson do a good job of bringing attention to the concept of ecological forestry, and we agree that a clear understanding of what it is...

  8. The Ecological Psychology of the Small Town.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Duane I.

    1989-01-01

    Uses principles of ecological theory to predict architectural needs of a small town. Examines Barker's concept of undermanning which led to six hypotheses regarding small-town behavior and corresponding design recommendations. Concludes that psychology of small-town resident is unique because of special ecological demands placed on the people.…

  9. The Amazing Ecology of Terrestrial Isopods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Christopher; Postema, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Ecology is the study of how organisms interact with their environment, and the best place to see these interactions is outside in natural habitats. Pillbugs (roly-polies) provide an excellent opportunity for students to learn ecological concepts through inquiry. Because of their fascinating behaviors, pillbugs are ideal organisms to introduce…

  10. Ecological ethics and creation faith

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Körtner

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Over past decades a concept of ecological ethics has taken root, which is often equated with environmental ethics. Church and theology have also responded to the environmental crisis. In the last third of the past century an intense discourse about the concerns and extent of a so called creation ethics was conducted. In connection with the question of a creation ethics, and the global responsibility of humans for the biosphere of our planet, the topic of creation has also gained new attention in dogmatics. In this way, ecology has also become a topic of systematic theology. The article focuses on the debate in the German speaking context. Occasionally, a quasi-religious elevation of ecology to the status of a doctrine of salvation is observable. Because theology always also has a function of critique of religion, it must also critically engage the sometimes open and sometimes hidden religious contents and claims of eco-ethical concepts. For this purpose, the first step of the present contribution is to more precisely determine the concepts of creation and nature. Thereafter, the problem of anthropocentrism is analysed. In a further step, the concept of sustainability is analysed. In conclusion, the main features of a responsibility-ethics model of ecological ethics are outlined.

  11. Urban ecological footprints in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clancy, Joy S.

    2008-01-01

    Africa's rate of urbanization is the highest in the world. This is relevant to ecologists working in Africa because urban growth is strongly associated with habitat destruction, and also creates new fields of study. The ecological footprint concept is used to illustrate how urban settlements in

  12. Sex, Ecology, and the Epicene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsham, G. S.

    The concept of gender in language encompasses three ideas: (1) sex, or classification as masculine, feminine, or neuter; (2) epicene, a proform (substitute word) whose referent is masculine or feminine; and (3) ecology, the relationship between organisms and their environment. Gender classification in language indicates that original speakers of…

  13. Trash Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Georgia J.

    2004-01-01

    A hands on activity involving density, frequency and biomass using transects, quadrats and a local good deed by cleaning up the neighborhood while practicing important techniques in ecology is detailed. The activity is designed for KCC-STEP, whose primary goal is to expand the scientific knowledge and research experiences of their students, who…

  14. Ecological restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher D. Barton; John I. Blake; Donald W. Imm

    2005-01-01

    The long history of human settlement, agriculture, and industry at the Savannah River Site (SRS) has created extensive opportunities for ecological restoration. Two hundred years of farming, drainage, dam construction, stream channeling, fire protection, subsistence hunting and fishing, exotic animal and plant introduction, and selective timber harvesting have caused...

  15. Visual ecology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cronin, Thomas W; Johnsen, Sönke; Marsahll, N. Justin; Warrant, Eric

    2014-01-01

    ... ecology. . Physiology, Comparative. . Eye- Evolution. I. Title. QP.C  .'- dc British Library Cataloging-in-Publication Data is available This book...

  16. Ecological modernization of sustainable buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Ole; Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten

    2008-01-01

    This article will examine how the contemporary development of sustainable buildings has been influenced by the concept of ecological modernisation. Ecological modernisation is a policy concept describing how environmental considerations are increasingly being integrated into modern society......'s institutions through e.g. new types of co-operation and new applications of economic and market dynamics. The article is based on recent examples from politics and practice in the construction sector in Denmark, where sustainable buildings have gone through great changes - from being primarily isolated cases...... of governance, standardisation and visibility, the conclusion is that in many ways ecological modernisation has penetrated in Danish sustainable buildings and has contributed to a positive development. However, there are aspects of sustainable consumption that this development does not relate to, including...

  17. The Role of Perceived Social Norms in Rural Sanitation: An Explorative Study from Infrastructure-Restricted Settings of South Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotný, Josef; Kolomazníková, Jana; Humňalová, Helena

    2017-07-17

    The perception of social sanitation norms (PSSNs) around unacceptability of open defecation has been a key aspect of recent sanitation interventions. However, underlying mechanisms through which "reconstructed" PSSNs affect sanitation outcomes have been a black box. This explorative cross-sectional study examines direct and indirect links between PSSNs and sanitation safety using data from structured interviews and observations in 368 households in rural South Ethiopia. In addition to a positive association between PSSNs and sanitation safety, we propose and examine the following two mechanisms: First, we confirm a potentially adverse feedback of PSSNs on future sanitation safety by enhancing the emotional satisfaction with current sanitation practice (satisfaction independent of the functionality of sanitation facilities). Second, inspired by the social amplification/attenuation of risk framework, we demonstrate that PSSNs work as a "social filter" that can amplify or attenuate the effects of other variables targeted in sanitation interventions such as perceived health-related and non-health risks and benefits associated with open defecation and private latrine ownership, respectively, and factual hygiene and sanitation knowledge. These findings imply that PSSNs are not only important per se, but they are also important instrumentally because sanitation outcomes depend upon the capacity of social influences to shape the perception of sanitation risks and benefits and sanitation-related awareness in desirable ways. The mechanisms outlined in this paper as well as the sustainability of sanitation outcomes depend on whether and how social sanitation norms are internalized.

  18. Why do households invest in sanitation in rural Benin: Health, wealth, or prestige?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Elena; Günther, Isabel

    2014-10-01

    Seventy percent of the rural population in sub-Saharan Africa does not use adequate sanitation facilities. In rural Benin, as much as 95% of the population does not use improved sanitation. By analyzing a representative sample of 2000 rural households, this paper explores why households remain without latrines. Our results show that wealth and latrine prices play the most decisive role for sanitation demand and ownership. At current income levels, sanitation coverage will only increase to 50% if costs for construction are reduced from currently 190 USD to 50 USD per latrine. Our analysis also suggests that previous sanitation campaigns, which were based on prestige and the allure of a modern lifestyle as motives for latrine construction, have had no success in increasing sanitation coverage. Moreover, improved public health, which is the objective of public policies promoting sanitation, will not be effective at low sanitation coverage rates. Fear at night, especially of animals, and personal harassment, are stated as the most important motivational factors for latrine ownership and the intention to build one. We therefore suggest changing the message of sanitation projects and introduce new low-cost technologies into rural markets; otherwise, marketing strategies will continue to fail in increasing sanitation demand.

  19. Great Lakes management: Ecological factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonzogni, W. C.; Robertson, A.; Beeton, A. M.

    1983-11-01

    Although attempts to improve the quality of the Great Lakes generally focus on chemical pollution, other factors are important and should be considered Ecological factors, such as invasion of the lakes by foreign species, habitat changes, overfishing, and random variations in organism populations, are especially influential. Lack of appreciation of the significance of ecological factors stems partly from the inappropriate application of the concept of eutrophication to the Great Lakes. Emphasis on ecological factors is not intended to diminish the seriousness of pollution, but rather to point out that more cost-effective management, as well as more realistic expectations of management efforts by the public, should result from an ecosystem management approach in which ecological factors are carefully considered.

  20. Child rights, right to water and sanitation, and human security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pink, Ross

    2012-06-15

    The article explores the intersection between child rights, water scarcity, sanitation, and the human security paradigm. The recognition of child rights has been advanced through the 1989 Convention on the Rights of the Child and other international legal instruments, while water rights are increasingly affirmed in international law and through the historic July 2010 United Nations General Assembly resolution that strengthened the legal foundation for water security and human rights. Yet there remains a development gap in terms of child access to clean and secure water sources for basic human development needs. The human security paradigm provides a legal and humanitarian foundation for the extension of child rights related to water and sanitation. Copyright © 2012 Pink.

  1. Use of Propolis in the Sanitization of Lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xesús Feás

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to determine the effectiveness of propolis in reducing the microbial load in ready-to-eat (RTE and fresh whole head (FWH lettuces (Lactuca sativa L. type Batavia. Two sanitizing solutions were employed: sodium hypochlorite (SH and propolis (PS, during 15 and 30 min. Tap water (TW was used as a control. Regarding the mean reduction on aerobic mesophiles, psychrotrophic and fecal coliforms, the SH and PS treatments showed the same pattern of variation. In all cases, PS was slightly more effective in the microbiological reduction in comparison with commercial SH. Reductions between two and three log cycles were obtained with PS on aerobic mesophiles and psychrotrophic counts. The information obtained in the present study can be used to evaluate the potential use of propolis as product for sanitizing other vegetables and for developing other food preservation technologies, with impact on human health.

  2. Use of propolis in the sanitization of lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feás, Xesús; Pacheco, Lazaro; Iglesias, Antonio; Estevinho, Leticia M

    2014-07-09

    The present study aimed to determine the effectiveness of propolis in reducing the microbial load in ready-to-eat (RTE) and fresh whole head (FWH) lettuces (Lactuca sativa L.) type Batavia. Two sanitizing solutions were employed: sodium hypochlorite (SH) and propolis (PS), during 15 and 30 min. Tap water (TW) was used as a control. Regarding the mean reduction on aerobic mesophiles, psychrotrophic and fecal coliforms, the SH and PS treatments showed the same pattern of variation. In all cases, PS was slightly more effective in the microbiological reduction in comparison with commercial SH. Reductions between two and three log cycles were obtained with PS on aerobic mesophiles and psychrotrophic counts. The information obtained in the present study can be used to evaluate the potential use of propolis as product for sanitizing other vegetables and for developing other food preservation technologies, with impact on human health.

  3. Evaluation of 6 Methods for Aerobic Bacterial Sanitization of Smartphones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Mia T; Madden, Carolyn M; Ma, Eric J; Fox, James G

    2018-01-01

    Smartphones are ubiquitous devices that offer a variety of useful applications for human and veterinary medical professionals and the biomedical research community. Smartphones can serve as fomites and potentially transmit pathogens, including bacterial species such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The goal of this study was to evaluate 6 methods to decrease aerobic bacterial colonies on smartphones, including two 254-nm UVC devices, 70% ethanol spray, quaternary ammonium disinfectant spray, sodium hypochlorite-impregnated wipes, and delicate-task wipes. All methods were individually effective at decreasing aerobic bacterial counts after sanitization. In addition, 254-nm UVC devices providing a dose of 60 mJ/cm2, with UVC bulbs exposing both sides of the smartphone, were an effective nonliquid method for smartphone sanitization.

  4. Use of Propolis in the Sanitization of Lettuce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feás, Xesús; Pacheco, Lazaro; Iglesias, Antonio; Estevinho, Leticia M.

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to determine the effectiveness of propolis in reducing the microbial load in ready-to-eat (RTE) and fresh whole head (FWH) lettuces (Lactuca sativa L.) type Batavia. Two sanitizing solutions were employed: sodium hypochlorite (SH) and propolis (PS), during 15 and 30 min. Tap water (TW) was used as a control. Regarding the mean reduction on aerobic mesophiles, psychrotrophic and fecal coliforms, the SH and PS treatments showed the same pattern of variation. In all cases, PS was slightly more effective in the microbiological reduction in comparison with commercial SH. Reductions between two and three log cycles were obtained with PS on aerobic mesophiles and psychrotrophic counts. The information obtained in the present study can be used to evaluate the potential use of propolis as product for sanitizing other vegetables and for developing other food preservation technologies, with impact on human health. PMID:25007823

  5. Improving Sanitation Project Management for Unsewered Rural Communities in Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M MAHI

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The hydraulic potential in Morocco is limited, droughts are more frequent, resulting of climate change, and increasing water demand relating to the population growth and socio-economic development. Morocco has invested in the urban sanitation sector through the establishment of the National Liquid Sanitation Program. In rural Area, the intervention in this sector remains limited due to various constraints. In order to support the efforts of establishment of the National Rural Assainissment Program (PNAR, we conducted a case study that recommended the treatment of wastewater by an innovative process used for the first time in Morocco. We realized, first, a pilot experiment at the douar (Unstructured Village Talat Marghen within the rural Municipality of Aghouatim a few km from Marrakech. The innovative aspect of the project is managerial proposes covering the different technical aspects, management and institutional innovation, to meet the various constraints that characterize the rural areas.

  6. Water, sanitation and hygiene in Haiti: past, present, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelting, Richard; Bliss, Katherine; Patrick, Molly; Lockhart, Gabriella; Handzel, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    Haiti has the lowest rates of access to improved water and sanitation infrastructure in the western hemisphere. This situation was likely exacerbated by the earthquake in 2010 and also contributed to the rapid spread of the cholera epidemic that started later that same year. This report examines the history of the water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) sector in Haiti, considering some factors that have influenced WASH conditions in the country. We then discuss the situation sine the earthquake and subsequent cholera epidemic, and the responses to those events. Finally, drawing on Haiti's National Plan of Action for the Elimination of Cholera in Haiti 2013-2022, we suggest some actions that could help bring about long-term WASH improvements for the future. Because the current WASH situation has evolved over decades of limited attention and resources, it will take a long-term, sustained effort to improve the situation.

  7. Interrompendo rotas, higienizando pessoas: técnicas sanitárias e seres humanos na ação de guardas e visitadoras sanitárias Interrupting routes, hygienizing people: sanitary techniques and human beings in the actions of sanitary guards and educators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Costa Teixeira

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O interesse maior deste artigo é compreender as conexões entre o manejo das tecnologias sanitárias e o manejo das pessoas, por meio das chamadas ações educativas vinculadas aos objetivos orientadores das técnicas implantadas. Com este objetivo, analiso a conformação de dois profissionais centrais à atuação do Serviço Especial de Saúde (1942-1960 e que parecem expressar em sua própria existência o vínculo indissolúvel entre concepções técnicas e concepções de ser humano: o guarda sanitário e a visitadora sanitária. Por meio dos manuais e programas de cursos utilizados na formação desses profissionais, busco compreender valores e concepções sobre o processo saúde/doença e as relações entre ser humano e ambiente vigentes à época, bem como acerca do próprio exercício das funções de guardas e educadoras sanitárias.The main interest of this article lies in understanding the connections between managing sanitation technologies and managing people by means of so-called health education interventions towards the same purpose and aim. It analyzes the training of two categories of professionals who were of crucial importance for the actions of the Special Service of Health (1942-1960 and whose existence as such seems to express the indissoluble link between the concepts technique and human being: sanitation guards and sanitation educators. By investigating the instruction manuals and course programs, this study aims at grasping the values and ideas about the health/disease process and the relationship between the human being and the environment valid at that time, as well as at understanding the functions of the sanitation guards and educators.

  8. Concept Maps

    OpenAIRE

    Schwendimann, Beat Adrian

    2014-01-01

    A concept map is a node-link diagram showing the semantic relationships among concepts. The technique for constructing concept maps is called "concept mapping". A concept map consists of nodes, arrows as linking lines, and linking phrases that describe the relationship between nodes. Two nodes connected with a labeled arrow are called a proposition. Concept maps are versatile graphic organizers that can represent many different forms of relationships between concepts. The relationship between...

  9. Applying franchising principles to improving water and sanitation services reliability

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wall, K

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available to improving water and sanitation services reliability K WALL CSIR Built Environment PO Box 395, Pretoria, 0001, South Africa Email: kwall@csir.co.za ABSTRACT CSIR research has found that franchising partnerships could alleviate and address many... business, whereafter it supports and disciplines the business. See Figure 1. The key is the incentive, to franchisor and franchisee alike, to provide improved service consistency, reliability and quality control. (You know what you will be getting...

  10. New Sanitation Westland; Nieuwe Sanitatie Westland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wortmann, E. [Elannet Cyber Company, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2010-04-15

    In 2005 the Innovation Network launched the 'Zonneterp' project (City Greenhouse). This is a design for a residential area and greenhouses with a profound synergy between the two. The greenhouse has a function in the energy and water supply of the residential buildings and the houses supply fertilizer to the greenhouses. One of the pillars of the Zonneterp is the wastewater system from which 'black' water and food wastes ('green' water) are collected via a separate system. Use is made of vacuum toilets to concentrate the waste flow as much as possible. The black and green water is then fermented from which biogas is extracted. This biogas is used for generation of electricity and domestic hot water within the Zonneterp. The CO2 from the biogas is led as a fertilizer into the greenhouses. The waste water is purified decentrally and used as nutrient-rich water for the greenhouses. In this report, the options for implementation of this concept in the 'Poelzone' in the Westland area (a rural, agricultural area in the western part of the Netherlands) are elaborated [Dutch] In 2005 lanceerde InnovatieNetwerk de Zonneterp. Dit is een ontwerp voor een woonwijk en tuinbouwkas met een vergaande synergie tussen beide. De kas heeft een functie in de energie- en watervoorziening van de woningen en de woningen leveren meststoffen aan de kas. Een van de pijlers van de Zonneterp is het afvalwatersysteem waarbij zwart water en etensresten (groen water) uit de woningen via een aparte voorziening worden ingezameld. Om deze stroom zo geconcentreerd mogelijk te houden wordt gebruik gemaakt van vacuümtoiletten. Het zwart en groen water wordt vervolgens vergist, waarbij o.a. biogas ontstaat. Dit biogas wordt binnen de Zonneterp gebruikt voor opwekking van elektriciteit en bereiding van warm tapwater. De CO2 uit het biogas wordt als meststof in de kas geleid. Het afvalwater wordt decentraal gezuiverd, waarna het als nutriëntrijk gietwater in de

  11. Emergence Unites Ecology and Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald L. Trosper

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The effort to combine analysis of ecosystems and social systems requires a firm theoretical basis. When humans are present in an ecosystem, their actions affect emergent structures; this paper examines forms of emergence that account for the presence of humans. Humans monitor and regulate ecosystems based on their cultural systems. Cultural systems consist of concepts linked in complicated ways that can form consistent world views, can contain inconsistencies, and may or may not accurately model the properties of a social-ecological system. Consequently, human monitoring and regulating processes will differ, depending on cultural systems. Humans, as agents, change or maintain pre-existing material and cultural emergent structures. The presentation is illustrated with a case study of fire-prone forests. The paper shows that explicit attention to emergence serves very well in unifying the following requirements for social-ecological analysis: coherent and observable definitions of sustainability; ways to link ecological and social phenomena; ways to understand cultural reasons for stability and instability in dynamic social-ecological systems; and ways to include human self-evaluation and culture within dynamic models of social-ecological systems. Analysis of cultural emergent structures clarifies many differences in assumptions among the fields of economics, sociology, political science, ecology, and ecological economics. Because it can be readily applied to empirical questions, the framework provides a good way to organize policy analysis that is not dominated by one or another discipline.

  12. Identifying the impediments and enablers of ecohealth for a case study on health and environmental sanitation in Hà Nam, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Vi; Nguyen-Viet, Hung; Pham-Duc, Phuc; Stephen, Craig; McEwen, Scott A

    2014-01-01

    To date, research has shown an increasing use of the term "ecohealth" in literature, but few researchers have explicitly described how it has been used. We investigated a project on health and environmental sanitation (the conceptual framework of which included the pillars of ecohealth) to identify the impediments and enablers of ecohealth and investigate how it can move from concept to practice. A case study approach was used. The interview questions were centred on the nature of interactions and the sharing of information between stakeholders. The analysis identified nine impediments and 15 enablers of ecohealth. Three themes relating to impediments, in particular-integration is not clear, don't understand, and limited participation-related more directly to the challenges in applying the ecohealth pillars of transdisciplinarity and participation. The themes relating to enablers-awareness and understanding, capacity development, and interactions-facilitated usage of the research results. By extracting information on the environmental, social, economic, and health aspects of environmental sanitation, we found that the issue spanned multiple scales and sectors. The challenge of how to integrate these aspects should be considered at the design stage and throughout the research process. We recommend that ecohealth research teams include a self-investigation of their processes in order to facilitate a comparison of moving from concept to practice, which may offer insights into how to evaluate the process.

  13. Sustainability of water, sanitation and hygiene interventions in Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabogal, Raquel I; Medlin, Elizabeth; Aquino, Gonzalo; Gelting, Richard J

    The American Red Cross and U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention collaborated on a sustainability evaluation of post-hurricane water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) interventions in Central America. In 2006 and 2009, we revisited six study areas in rural El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua to assess sustainability of WASH interventions finalized in 2002, after 1998's Hurricane Mitch. We used surveys to collect data, calculate indicators and identify factors that influence sustainability. Regional sustainability indicator results showed there was a statistically significant decline in access to water. The presence of sanitation facilities had not changed since the beginning of the project; however, maintenance and use of latrines declined but continued to meet the goal of 75% use after 7 years. The hygiene indicator, hand washing, initially declined and then increased. Declines in water access were due to operational problems related to storm events and population changes. Sanitation facilities were still present and sometimes used even though they reached or surpassed their original design life. Changes in hygiene practices appeared related to ongoing hygiene promotion from outside organizations. These results provide useful input for making WASH programs more sustainable and informing future, more in-depth research into factors influencing sustainability.

  14. Use of sanitizing products: safety practices and risk situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Aurélia Rocha da Silva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: to evaluate the handling and risk factors for poisoning and/or digestive tract injuries associated with the use of sanitizing products at home. METHODS: interviews were conducted in 419 households from different regions, collecting epidemiological data from residents and risk habits related to the use and storage of cleaning products. RESULTS: sanitizing products considered to be a health risk were found in 98% of the households where the research was conducted, and in 54% of cases, they were stored in places easily accessible to children. Lye was found in 19%, followed by illicit products in 39% of homes. In 13% of households, people produced soap, and in 12% they stored products in non-original containers. The use of illicit products and the manufacture of handmade soap were associated with lower educational level of the household owners and with the regions and socioeconomic classes with lower purchasing power. CONCLUSIONS: risk practices such as inadequate storage, manufacturing, and use of sanitizing products by the population evidence the need for public health policies, including educational measures, as a means of preventing accidents.

  15. Sanitation procedure affects biochemical and nutritional changes of shredded carrots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Cruz, Saúl; Islas-Osuna, María A; Sotelo-Mundo, Rogerio R; Vázquez-Ortiz, Francisco; González-Aguilar, Gustavo A

    2007-03-01

    Fresh-cut vegetables are considered convenient but with less nutritional quality compared to raw natural produce. Carrots are highly appreciated because of their carotene and antioxidant nutrients, but processing requires an appropriate sanitation procedure that ensures microbiological safety to consumers. The effect of the sanitation processing on the nutritional composition of shredded carrots was studied. Treatments tested were tap water, 200 ppm sodium hypochlorite (Cl), 40 ppm peroxyacetic acid (PA), and 100, 250, and 500 ppm acidified sodium chlorite (ASC). Measured parameters were oxygen radical absorbing capacity (ORAC), total phenolics and carotenoids, sugars, and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and peroxidase (POD) activity. Shredded carrots sanitized with ASC retained higher levels of sugars, carotene, and antioxidant capacity. ASC also delayed the PAL and POD activity. These results show the importance of evaluating nutritional parameters during processing stages, since minimal processing does not necessarily imply loss of nutritional value. Furthermore, the availability of fresh-cut produce may increase the intake of nutrients, with a positive effect on health.

  16. Water, sanitation and hygiene for the prevention of diarrhoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairncross, Sandy; Hunt, Caroline; Boisson, Sophie; Bostoen, Kristof; Curtis, Val; Fung, Isaac C H; Schmidt, Wolf-Peter

    2010-04-01

    Ever since John Snow's intervention on the Broad St pump, the effect of water quality, hygiene and sanitation in preventing diarrhoea deaths has always been debated. The evidence identified in previous reviews is of variable quality, and mostly relates to morbidity rather than mortality. We drew on three systematic reviews, two of them for the Cochrane Collaboration, focussed on the effect of handwashing with soap on diarrhoea, of water quality improvement and of excreta disposal, respectively. The estimated effect on diarrhoea mortality was determined by applying the rules adopted for this supplement, where appropriate. The striking effect of handwashing with soap is consistent across various study designs and pathogens, though it depends on access to water. The effect of water treatment appears similarly large, but is not found in few blinded studies, suggesting that it may be partly due to the placebo effect. There is very little rigorous evidence for the health benefit of sanitation; four intervention studies were eventually identified, though they were all quasi-randomized, had morbidity as the outcome, and were in Chinese. We propose diarrhoea risk reductions of 48, 17 and 36%, associated respectively, with handwashing with soap, improved water quality and excreta disposal as the estimates of effect for the LiST model. Most of the evidence is of poor quality. More trials are needed, but the evidence is nonetheless strong enough to support the provision of water supply, sanitation and hygiene for all.

  17. Sustainability of water, sanitation and hygiene interventions in Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medlin, Elizabeth; Aquino, Gonzalo; Gelting, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    The American Red Cross and U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention collaborated on a sustainability evaluation of post-hurricane water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) interventions in Central America. In 2006 and 2009, we revisited six study areas in rural El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua to assess sustainability of WASH interventions finalized in 2002, after 1998’s Hurricane Mitch. We used surveys to collect data, calculate indicators and identify factors that influence sustainability. Regional sustainability indicator results showed there was a statistically significant decline in access to water. The presence of sanitation facilities had not changed since the beginning of the project; however, maintenance and use of latrines declined but continued to meet the goal of 75% use after 7 years. The hygiene indicator, hand washing, initially declined and then increased. Declines in water access were due to operational problems related to storm events and population changes. Sanitation facilities were still present and sometimes used even though they reached or surpassed their original design life. Changes in hygiene practices appeared related to ongoing hygiene promotion from outside organizations. These results provide useful input for making WASH programs more sustainable and informing future, more in-depth research into factors influencing sustainability. PMID:26413262

  18. Use of human urine in phytoplankton production as a tool for ecological sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, B B; Rana, S; Bag, S K

    2012-01-01

    Measurements of primary productivity of phytoplankton and enumeration of the counts of coliform and heterotrophic bacteria (HB) were made in the water of 12 experimental tanks used for 3 treatments and control in triplicate as follows: (a) fresh human urine (0.02%), (b) stored human urine (0.02%), (c) mixed urine of fresh and stored human urine (0.02%) and (d) control without input of urine. The gross primary productivity of phytoplankton was highest in the stored urine treated tanks (508 mg C m(-2) h(-1)) followed by fresh urine (353 mg C m(-2) h(-1)), mixed urine (303 mg C m(-2) h(-1)) and control (215 mg C m(-2) h(-1)). Similar was the response of net primary production of phytoplankton. The mean count of HB observed in stored urine fed tanks was significantly higher (59-184%) than the remaining urine fed treatments. The mean count of Escherichia coli did not differ from urine treated tanks to control implying the good quality of water. The concentration of dissolved oxygen of water (7.6 to 12.8 mg L(-1)) in these tanks remained satisfactory for aquaculture. The mean concentration of ammonium-N observed in fresh urine treated tanks was more than 10 times higher than the remaining treatments employed. In contrast, the level of phosphate and electrical conductivity in the stored urine treated tanks were significantly higher than the remaining treatments. It is proposed that stored urine with a significantly reduced load of E. coli might be an effective low cost liquid fertilizer for algal biomass production.

  19. Water, sanitation, hygiene, and soil-transmitted helminth infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric C Strunz

    2014-03-01

    of hookworm infection (OR 0.29, 95% CI 0.18-0.47 and infection with any STH (OR 0.30, 95% CI 0.11-0.83. Handwashing, both before eating (OR 0.38, 95% CI 0.26-0.55 and after defecating (OR 0.45, 95% CI 0.35-0.58, was associated with lower odds of A. lumbricoides infection. Soap use or availability was significantly associated with lower infection with any STH (OR 0.53, 95% CI 0.29-0.98, as was handwashing after defecation (OR 0.47, 95% CI 0.24-0.90. Observational evidence constituted the majority of included literature, which limits any attempt to make causal inferences. Due to underlying heterogeneity across observational studies, the meta-analysis results reflect an average of many potentially distinct effects, not an average of one specific exposure-outcome relationship. CONCLUSIONS: WASH access and practices are generally associated with reduced odds of STH infection. Pooled estimates from all meta-analyses, except for two, indicated at least a 33% reduction in odds of infection associated with individual WASH practices or access. Although most WASH interventions for STH have focused on sanitation, access to water and hygiene also appear to significantly reduce odds of infection. Overall quality of evidence was low due to the preponderance of observational studies, though recent randomized controlled trials have further underscored the benefit of handwashing interventions. Limited use of the Joint Monitoring Program's standardized water and sanitation definitions in the literature restricted efforts to generalize across studies. While further research is warranted to determine the magnitude of benefit from WASH interventions for STH control, these results call for multi-sectoral, integrated intervention packages that are tailored to social-ecological contexts.

  20. The Sanitation Hygiene Infant Nutrition Efficacy (SHINE) Trial: Rationale, Design, and Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, Jean H; Jones, Andrew D; Manges, Amee; Mangwadu, Goldberg; Maluccio, John A; Mbuya, Mduduzi N N; Moulton, Lawrence H; Ntozini, Robert; Prendergast, Andrew J; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J; Tielsch, James M

    2015-12-15

    Child stunting and anemia are intractable public health problems in developing countries and have profound short- and long-term consequences. The Sanitation Hygiene Infant Nutrition Efficacy (SHINE) trial is motivated by the premise that environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) is a major underlying cause of both stunting and anemia, that chronic inflammation is the central characteristic of EED mediating these adverse effects, and that EED is primarily caused by high fecal ingestion due to living in conditions of poor water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH). SHINE is a proof-of-concept, 2 × 2 factorial, cluster-randomized, community-based trial in 2 rural districts of Zimbabwe that will test the independent and combined effects of protecting babies from fecal ingestion (factor 1, operationalized through a WASH intervention) and optimizing nutritional adequacy of infant diet (factor 2, operationalized through an infant and young child feeding [IYCF] intervention) on length and hemoglobin at 18 months of age. Within SHINE we will measure 2 causal pathways. The program impact pathway comprises the series of processes and behaviors linking implementation of the interventions with the 2 child health primary outcomes; it will be modeled using measures of fidelity of intervention delivery and household uptake of promoted behaviors and practices. We will also measure a range of household and individual characteristics, social interactions, and maternal capabilities for childcare, which we hypothesize will explain heterogeneity along these pathways. The biomedical pathway comprises the infant biologic responses to the WASH and IYCF interventions that ultimately result in attained stature and hemoglobin concentration at 18 months of age; it will be elucidated by measuring biomarkers of intestinal structure and function (inflammation, regeneration, absorption, and permeability); microbial translocation; systemic inflammation; and hormonal determinants of growth and anemia

  1. Sanitation safety planning as a tool for achieving safely managed sanitation systems and safe use of wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Mirko S; Jackson, Darryl; Sutherland, David; Lim, Jose Marie U; Srikantaiah, Vishwanath; Fuhrimann, Samuel; Medlicott, Kate

    2017-09-01

    Increasing water stress and growing urbanization force a greater number of people to use wastewater as an alternative water supply, especially for irrigation. Although wastewater irrigation in agriculture has a long history and substantial benefits, without adequate treatment and protective measures on farms and in markets, use of wastewater poses risks to human health and the environment. Against this background, the World Health Organization (WHO) published Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater, excreta and greywater in agriculture and aquaculture, in 2006. The Sanitation safety planning: manual for safe use and disposal of wastewater, greywater and excreta - a step-by-step risk-based management tool for sanitation systems - was published by WHO in 2016 to put these guidelines into practice. Sanitation safety planning (SSP) can be applied to all sanitation systems, to ensure the systems are managed to meet health objectives. This paper summarizes the pilot-testing of the SSP manual in India, Peru, Portugal, Philippines, Uganda and Viet Nam. Also reviewed are some of the key components of the manual and training, and an overview of SSP training and dissemination efforts and opportunities for implementation in the WHO South-East Asia Region. Lessons learnt during the piloting phase show how reducing health risks can be surprisingly easy, even in a low-income setting, especially when combining many smaller measures. The SSP approach can make an important contribution towards Sustainable Development Goal target 6.3, by reducing pollution, eliminating dumping and minimizing the release of hazardous chemicals and materials, thereby halving the proportion of untreated wastewater and substantially increasing recycling and safe reuse globally.

  2. Improving access to water supply and sanitation in urban India: microfinance for water and sanitation infrastructure development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jenna; White, Gary; Damodaron, Said; Thorsten, Rich

    2008-01-01

    This article summarises initial findings of a study to explore the potential of providing micro-financing for low-income households wishing to invest in improved water supply and sanitation services. Through in-depth interviews with more than 800 households in the city of Hyderabad in India, we conclude that, even if provided with market (not concessional) rates of financing, a substantial proportion of poor households would invest in water and sewer network connections. Copyright IWA Publishing 2008.

  3. HUMAN ECOLOGY IN DISSERTATION STUDIES OF 2005-2012

    OpenAIRE

    G. S. Rozenberg; G. M. Abdurahmanov; N. G. Lifirenko; D. V. Lifirenko

    2012-01-01

    There are discussed the defended PhD studies of 2005-2012 in some way related to the problems of human ecology. There was made a conclusion about the necessity to correct the concepts of "human ecology" in the specialty passport, consolidating the research area of ecology.

  4. Forest economics, natural disturbances and the new ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas P. Holmes; Robert J. Huggett; John M. Pye

    2008-01-01

    The major thesis of this chapter is that the economic analysis of forest disturbances will be enhanced by linking economic and ecologic models. Although we only review a limited number of concepts drawn generally from mathematical and empirical ecology, the overarching theme we present is that ecological models of forest disturbance processes are complex and not...

  5. A conceptual model of people's approach to sanitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avvannavar, Santosh M. [Center for Sustainable Technologies, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore-560012, Karnataka (India)], E-mail: santosh@astra.iisc.ernet; Mani, Monto [Center for Sustainable Technologies, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore-560012, Karnataka (India)

    2008-02-01

    Sanitation is a term primarily used to characterize the safe and sound handling (and disposal) of human excreta - or simply, people's approach to take-care of their (unavoidable) primal urge. According to the recent Human Development Report 2006 Global access to proper sanitation stands at approximately 58% with 37% being a conservative estimate both for South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. Various multi-million dollar sanitation programmes the world over have had little success, often due to inadequate understanding of people's sanitation approach. Sanitation approach includes the perception, feel and practices involved in satisficing the primal need to defecate and urinate (and their disposal). This paper presents a structure to understand the nature of psycho-socio-economic influences that determine societal approach to sanitation. Societies across the globe have evolved imbibing diverse influences attributed to the local environment, religion, cultural practices, war, etc. While a civilization's living environment reflects these influences in their built-environment characteristics, the influences are often deep-rooted and can be traced to the way the community members satisfice their need to defecate and urinate (sanitation approach). The objective of this paper is to trace the various approaches that diverse societies/civilizations, over time, across the world have had towards sanitation, and present a structure to articulate and understand determining factors. Sanitation also involves other domestic (solid and liquid) waste disposal but in the context of this paper the scope of sanitation has been restricted to human excreta alone. The structure presented and discussed in this paper would be useful in understanding a community better in terms of providing appropriate sanitation. It is hoped that this structure be considered as a basis for further refinement and detailed research into each of the factors determining people's sanitation

  6. Guidelines for assessing the risk to groundwater from on-site sanitation

    OpenAIRE

    Lawrence, A.R.; Macdonald, D. M. J.; Howard, A.G.; Barrett, M.H.; Pedley, S.; Ahmed, K. M.; Nalubega, M.

    2001-01-01

    There has been encouraging progress with access to safe drinking water and sanitation in both rural and urban areas since the United Nations Water Decade of the 1980s. However, more than 1 billion people around the world still lack access to safe water supplies and more than 2.4 billion are without adequate sanitation. A substantial majority of these people live in Asia where the lack of sanitation provision is particularly acute. In Africa, over one third of the population still ...

  7. Rural Sanitation Situation in Bangladesh : Some Experiences and Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Chowdhury, Masudul Hoq; Mamun, Abdullah Al; Maharjan, Keshav Lall

    2014-01-01

    Maintaining sanitation is important for well-being and dignity of people, and its consideration in water supply system is very important because majority of human diseases are water borne. These diseases might have enormous loss on economic and social sectors. Bangladesh being a highly populated country with inefficient waste management system, sanitation in drinking water supply has been a serious issue. This study reviewed existing literatures about the sanitation concerns in Bangladesh foc...

  8. Water quality and Sanitation status: A study on Char land of Bhuapur upazila under Tangail district

    OpenAIRE

    Islam, M.S.; Sarker, B.C.; Mahmud, N.A.; Saifullah, A.S.M.

    2013-01-01

    The study was aimed to review the damage of sanitation facilities; since Char land’s dwellers faces manifold challenges concerning sanitation, hygiene and water during flood. It also explored the possibilities of overcoming the negative impacts of floods on sources of safe drinking water and sanitation. The study result shows that, about 54% of the overall latrines were included ring slab with water seal, pit latrine, bush or hanging toilet of the flood affected people during the flood. Aroun...

  9. User perceptions of shared sanitation among rural households in Indonesia and Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Kali B; Karver, Jonathan; Kullman, Craig; Graham, Jay P

    2014-01-01

    The practice of sharing sanitation facilities does not meet the current World Health Organization/UNICEF definition for what is considered improved sanitation. Recommendations have been made to categorize shared sanitation as improved sanitation if security, user access, and other conditions can be assured, yet limited data exist on user preferences with respect to shared facilities. This study analyzed user perceptions of shared sanitation facilities in rural households in East Java, Indonesia, and Bangladesh. Cross-sectional studies of 2,087 households in East Java and 3,000 households in Bangladesh were conducted using questionnaires and observational methods. Relative risks were calculated to analyze associations between sanitation access and user perceptions of satisfaction, cleanliness, and safety. In East Java, 82.4% of households with private improved sanitation facilities reported feeling satisfied with their place of defecation compared to 68.3% of households with shared improved facilities [RR 1.19, 95% CI 1.09, 1.31]. In Bangladesh, 87.7% of households with private improved facilities reported feeling satisfied compared to 74.5% of households with shared improved facilities [RR 1.15, 95% CI 1.10, 1.20]. In East Java, 79.5% of households who reported a clean latrine also reported feeling satisfied with their place of defecation; only 38.9% of households who reported a dirty latrine also reported feeling satisfied [RR 1.74, 95% CI 1.45, 2.08]. Simple distinctions between improved and unimproved sanitation facilities tend to misrepresent the variability observed among households sharing sanitation facilities. Our results suggest that private improved sanitation is consistently preferred over any other sanitation option. An increased number of users appeared to negatively affect toilet cleanliness, and lower levels of cleanliness were associated with lower levels of satisfaction. However, when sanitation facilities were clean and shared by a limited number

  10. Resilience Through Ecological Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazia Brunetta

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores the strategic role that urban biodiversity and ecosystem services management, natural infrastructure and adaptive governance approaches can play in making our economies and societies more resilient and in linking human societies and the natural environment. Resilience – a concept that entered the debate on urban governance – means the ability of urban systems, considered as linear-systems, to react to external disturbances by returning to some socio-ecological equilibrium steady-state by overcoming a crisis period (Gunderson & al. 2010, Newman & al. 2009. In this view, green infrastructures can assume a strategic role in restoring and enhancing the ecological and environmental livability in urban areas. Starting from the International and European context, the paper discusses innovative programs and interdisciplinary projects and practices (some cases in Turin Metropolitan Area to demonstrate how green infrastructures can increase the adaptive capacity of urban systems in term of resilience. They can contribute to increase the ability of European cities to adapt to climate change and to reduce their ecological footprints, to enhance security and life quality.

  11. Ecological modernisation: origins, dilemmas and future directions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou; Massa, Ilmo

    2000-01-01

    modernization, and for an associated ecological tax reform, was promoted by scientists outside of the economics profession, but helped breathe new life into the dormant discipline of environmental economics. In recent years, much of the debate on the opportunities of ecological modernization have been ‘captured......’ by economists, who tend to perceive it in the vein of conventional efficiency measures. In view of the serious environmental problems facing the global community in the 21st century, ecological modernization as a concept, in our opinion, only makes sense if reserved for a reference to more radical structural...... changes that promote ecological consistency rather than ordinary efficiency....

  12. Sanitation, Stress, and Life Stage: A Systematic Data Collection Study among Women in Odisha, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristyna R S Hulland

    Full Text Available Emerging evidence demonstrates how inadequate access to water and sanitation is linked to psychosocial stress, especially among women, forcing them to navigate social and physical barriers during their daily sanitation routines. We examine sanitation-related psychosocial stress (SRPS across women's reproductive lives in three distinct geographic sites (urban slums, rural villages, and rural tribal villages in Odisha, India. We explored daily sanitation practices of adolescent, newly married, pregnant, and established adult women (n = 60 and identified stressors encountered during sanitation. Responding to structured data collection methods, women ranked seven sanitation activities (defecation, urination, menstruation, bathing, post-defecation cleaning, carrying water, and changing clothes based on stress (high to low and level of freedom (associated with greatest freedom to having the most restrictions. Women then identified common stressors they encountered when practicing sanitation and sorted stressors in constrained piles based on frequency and severity of each issue. The constellation of factors influencing SRPS varies by life stage and location. Overall, sanitation behaviors that were most restricted (i.e., menstruation were the most stressful. Women in different sites encountered different stressors, and the level of perceived severity varied based on site and life stage. Understanding the influence of place and life stage on SRPS provides a nuanced understanding of sanitation, and may help identify areas for intervention.

  13. Sanitation, Stress, and Life Stage: A Systematic Data Collection Study among Women in Odisha, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulland, Kristyna R S; Chase, Rachel P; Caruso, Bethany A; Swain, Rojalin; Biswal, Bismita; Sahoo, Krushna Chandra; Panigrahi, Pinaki; Dreibelbis, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Emerging evidence demonstrates how inadequate access to water and sanitation is linked to psychosocial stress, especially among women, forcing them to navigate social and physical barriers during their daily sanitation routines. We examine sanitation-related psychosocial stress (SRPS) across women's reproductive lives in three distinct geographic sites (urban slums, rural villages, and rural tribal villages) in Odisha, India. We explored daily sanitation practices of adolescent, newly married, pregnant, and established adult women (n = 60) and identified stressors encountered during sanitation. Responding to structured data collection methods, women ranked seven sanitation activities (defecation, urination, menstruation, bathing, post-defecation cleaning, carrying water, and changing clothes) based on stress (high to low) and level of freedom (associated with greatest freedom to having the most restrictions). Women then identified common stressors they encountered when practicing sanitation and sorted stressors in constrained piles based on frequency and severity of each issue. The constellation of factors influencing SRPS varies by life stage and location. Overall, sanitation behaviors that were most restricted (i.e., menstruation) were the most stressful. Women in different sites encountered different stressors, and the level of perceived severity varied based on site and life stage. Understanding the influence of place and life stage on SRPS provides a nuanced understanding of sanitation, and may help identify areas for intervention.

  14. Initiatives of Ecological Responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Sergeevich Volodin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Preservation of environment is one of the global problems for the mankind. The concept of sustainable development presented at the governmental level in 1987 urged to fix at the interstate level the basic principles of development of humanity in harmony with the nature. The Charter signed in 1991 “Business and sustainable development” proclaimed a new stage of development of world entrepreneurship – business had to become ecologicallyoriented and to form the ecologically-oriented demand. In recent years it is possible to state the huge growth of technologies of effective environmental management, energy saving and energy efficiency. The leading world corporations include reduction of the ecological aspects in priority strategic objectives, as much as possible promoting transition to the use of green technologies. “Green” experience of the Western companies showed that reduction of influence on environment is not only the task of the state, but also the effective instrument to increase competitiveness of the organization. Besides the growth of favorable perception of the company by consumers, it receives considerable decrease in prime cost of the made production or the rendered services due to effective and economical use of natural resources. Russia is among the first countries who accepted the concept of sustainable development at the legislative level, nevertheless, only recently we can note that technologies of rational environmental management, energy saving and energy efficiency became one of priority problems of its development. In the present article the advanced methods of the state and private initiatives in the field of ecological responsibility are considered, and the methods of overcoming the new challenges are offered.

  15. Governance, Sustainability and Decision Making in Water and Sanitation Management Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Alejandro Iribarnegaray

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We explore the connections between the concepts of governance and sustainability and discuss their possible roles in water and sanitation management systems (WSMS. We see governance as a decision-making process that drives the relationship between social institutions and the public affairs of a given society. We understand sustainability as a combination of spatial, temporal, and personal aspects, and we argue that this definition is more comprehensive than the traditional triple bottom line of economy, environment, and society. We combined these two concepts into a new conceptual framework of “governance for sustainability” that is theoretically sound and arguably appropriate to understand local WSMS. To illustrate this framework, we developed and estimated a Sustainable Water Governance Index (SWGI for the city of Salta, Argentina. This aggregated index was calculated with data from literature, information from the city’s water company and other local institutions, field visits, and interviews. The SWGI for Salta obtained an overall score of 49 on a 0–100 scale, which fell into the “danger” range. We discuss the advantages and limitations of the method and conclude that aggregated indices such as the SWGI, complemented with contextual information, can be a helpful decision-making tool to promote more sustainable WSMS.

  16. Determination of the Terms Used in the Titles of Ecology Publications and Analysis of their Temporal Chance

    OpenAIRE

    Sevgi, Orhan

    2014-01-01

    Ecology studies in recent years have become widespread in numerous fields. Therefore, new topics, concepts and terminology appear in ecology resources. Trend setting in ecological studies and so the studies to investigate changes of use of concept and terms from past to present are remarkable in recent years. Terms used in the titles of the publications of two important ecological sciences journals such as "Journal of Ecology" and "Ecology" and their changes have been anal...

  17. Barriers to adaptive reasoning in community ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLachlan, Athol J; Ladle, Richard J

    2011-08-01

    Recent high-profile calls for a more trait-focused approach to community ecology have the potential to open up novel research areas, generate new insights and to transform community ecology into a more predictive science. However, a renewed emphasis on function and phenotype also requires a fundamental shift in approach and research philosophy within community ecology to more fully embrace evolutionary reasoning. Such a subject-wise transformation will be difficult due to at least four factors: (1) the historical development of the academic discipline of ecology and its roots as a descriptive science; (2) the dominating role of the ecosystem concept in the driving of contemporary ecological thought; (3) the practical difficulties associated with defining and identifying (phenotypic) adaptations, and; (4) scaling effects in ecology; the difficulty of teasing apart the overlapping and shifting hierarchical processes that generate the observed environment-trait correlations in nature. We argue that the ability to predict future ecological conditions through a sufficient understanding of ecological processes will not be achieved without the placement of the concept of adaptation at the centre of ecology, with influence radiating outwards through all the related (and rapidly specializing) sub-disciplines. © 2010 The Authors. Biological Reviews © 2010 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  18. From Civic Conservation to the Age of Ecology: The Rise and Synthesis of Ecological Ideas in the American High School Science Curriculum, 1900-1980

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laubach, Stephen A.

    2013-01-01

    Ecological ideas have been manifested in diverse ways in American high schools since the early twentieth century. Core scientific concepts in ecology--the study of the relationship between organisms and their environment--include adaptations, plant succession, ecosystem ecology, and population ecology. This dissertation argues, however, that there…

  19. Creative Ecologies: Developing and Managing New Concepts of Creative Economy Kūrybos ekologijos: naujų kūrybos ekonomikos koncepcijų plėtojimas ir valdymas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Stankevičienė

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The idea of creativity is becoming more and more relevant and is ob­served in various fields, such as contemporary economics, technology and science. This article is based on the creative ecology theory which has emerged from the creative economy theory developed by economist John Howkins. According to him, it is fundamental to understand the current crisis in the natural environment and economy, and the balance of creativity and control required in our response. The article is based on three research questions: 1 what are the fundamental prin­ciples of creativity and the process of sustainable creation; 2 how can one de­velop high quality ideas and turn them into reality; 3 is it possible for the reckless consuming society to share sustainable creative products and how could this be achieved. Creative economy is a rapidly growing sector of world market. Howkins (2010 uses the creative ecologies theory to analyse human creativity and abilities to create. Creative ecology is presented as “a niche where diverse individuals ex­press themselves in a systemic and adaptive way, using ideas to produce new ideas; and where others support this endeavour even if they don’t understand it”. Four as­pects (diversity, change, learning, adaptation of ecological thinking are presented as directly related to creativity and innovations, thus extremely important to any contemporary organisation seeking leadership in the creative economy. Looking into the new concept of creativity, authors of the article came to the conclusion that a sustainable relationship

  20. Ecological approach in constructing residential areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdanović Ružica

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available As a concept sustainable development has evolved over the past two decades from a concept closely associated with the biophysical environment to become much more complex, embracing social, cultural, economic political and esthetic phenomenon, which are invariably in mutual interaction, so they influence sustainability of natural environment. The very notion of "sustainable" we are meeting today in almost all significance areas of human activities. Contemporary planning, projecting and building techniques undoubtedly implied integration of goals of environmental prevention with goals of socio-economic development, all with respecting the esthetic standards. This paper represents experience from foreign praxis. Project defines and resolves objectives from social, economical, morphological and ecological aspects. Most important is aspect of Ecological Optimisation, which consists of main components: energy use optimization, water concept, exemplary waste management concept and ecological soil management.

  1. Reflections on Public Health: Captain Hart and Sanitation

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2006-10-01

    This podcast consists of segments of an interview conducted by Capt. Kathleen McDuffie, CDC, with Capt. Russell Hart, a 100 year old retired sanitary engineer of the U.S. Public Health Service Commissioned Corps as he reflects on his work in environmental sanitation and the development of local health departments. The interview was conducted in 2006.  Created: 10/1/2006 by Coordinating Center for Health Information and Service (CCHIS), National Center for Health Marketing (NCHM).   Date Released: 1/7/2009.

  2. Evolution of Water Supply, Sanitation, Wastewater, and Stormwater Technologies Globally

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas N. Angelakis

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an outline of history of hydro-technologies in the west and the east. It is an overview of the special issue on “the evolution of hydro-technologies globally”, in which the key topics regarding the history of water and sanitation worldwide, and its importance to future cities are presented and discussed. It covers a wide range of relevant historical issues, and is presented in three categories: productivity assessment, institutional framework and mechanisms, and governance aspects. This paper concludes by discussing the challenges on future research in this field of study.

  3. Concepts of formal concept analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žáček, Martin; Homola, Dan; Miarka, Rostislav

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this article is apply of Formal Concept Analysis on concept of world. Formal concept analysis (FCA) as a methodology of data analysis, information management and knowledge representation has potential to be applied to a verity of linguistic problems. FCA is mathematical theory for concepts and concept hierarchies that reflects an understanding of concept. Formal concept analysis explicitly formalizes extension and intension of a concept, their mutual relationships. A distinguishing feature of FCA is an inherent integration of three components of conceptual processing of data and knowledge, namely, the discovery and reasoning with concepts in data, discovery and reasoning with dependencies in data, and visualization of data, concepts, and dependencies with folding/unfolding capabilities.

  4. The beauty of sensory ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otálora-Luna, Fernando; Aldana, Elis

    2017-08-10

    Sensory ecology is a discipline that focuses on how living creatures use information to survive, but not to live. By trans-defining the orthodox concept of sensory ecology, a serious heterodox question arises: how do organisms use their senses to live, i.e. to enjoy or suffer life? To respond to such a query the objective (time-independent) and emotional (non-rational) meaning of symbols must be revealed. Our program is distinct from both the neo-Darwinian and the classical ecological perspective because it does not focus on survival values of phenotypes and their functions, but asks for the aesthetic effect of biological structures and their symbolism. Our message recognizes that sensing apart from having a survival value also has a beauty value. Thus, we offer a provoking and inspiring new view on the sensory relations of 'living things' and their surroundings, where the innovating power of feelings have more weight than the privative power of reason.

  5. Cost, energy, global warming, eutrophication and local human health impacts of community water and sanitation service options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoen, Mary E; Xue, Xiaobo; Wood, Alison; Hawkins, Troy R; Garland, Jay; Ashbolt, Nicholas J

    2017-02-01

    We compared water and sanitation system options for a coastal community across selected sustainability metrics, including environmental impact (i.e., life cycle eutrophication potential, energy consumption, and global warming potential), equivalent annual cost, and local human health impact. We computed normalized metric scores, which we used to discuss the options' strengths and weaknesses, and conducted sensitivity analysis of the scores to changes in variable and uncertain input parameters. The alternative systems, which combined centralized drinking water with sanitation services based on the concepts of energy and nutrient recovery as well as on-site water reuse, had reduced environmental and local human health impacts and costs than the conventional, centralized option. Of the selected sustainability metrics, the greatest advantages of the alternative community water systems (compared to the conventional system) were in terms of local human health impact and eutrophication potential, despite large, outstanding uncertainties. Of the alternative options, the systems with on-site water reuse and energy recovery technologies had the least local human health impact; however, the cost of these options was highly variable and the energy consumption was comparable to on-site alternatives without water reuse or energy recovery, due to on-site reuse treatment. Future work should aim to reduce the uncertainty in the energy recovery process and explore the health risks associated with less costly, on-site water treatment options. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Integrating Disease Control Strategies: Balancing Water Sanitation and Hygiene Interventions to Reduce Diarrheal Disease Burden

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eisenberg, Joseph N.S; Scott, James C; Porco, Travis

    2007-01-01

    ... intervention.Results. We found that the benefits of a water quality intervention depend on sanitation and hygiene conditions. When sanitation conditions are poor, water quality improvements may have minimal impact regardless of amount of water contamination. If each transmission pathway alone is sufficient to maintain diarrheal disease, single-pathway ...

  7. Economic Assessment of Faecal Sludge Management and Sewer-Based Sanitation System in Maputo, Mozambique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esguerra, J.L.; Marques Arsénio, A.; Scholten, L.; Hu, M.

    2017-01-01

    The provision of sanitation service requires fulfilment of system processes including containment, conveyance, treatment, and disposal/reuse—or the sanitation value chain (Trémolet, 2011; Blackett et al., 2014; Tilley et al., 2014) as shown in Figure 1. The conveyance process is further divided into

  8. Inactivation of E.coli 0157:H7 and Salmonella enterica on strawberries by sanitizing solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    A recent foodborne outbreak of E. coli O157:H7 in Oregon associated with the consumption of fresh strawberries highlights the need for effective sanitizing washes, suitable for the inactivation of pathogens on fresh produce. Sanitizing solutions were screened for decontaminating E. coli O157:H7 (E...

  9. Water and sanitation provision in eThekwini Municipality: a spatially differentiated approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sutherland, C.; Hordijk, M.; Lewis, B.; Meyer, C.; Buthelezi, S.

    2014-01-01

    The rescaling of responsibilities in water governance in South Africa has enabled strong water services authorities, such as the eThekwini Water and Sanitation Unit (EWS) in eThekwini Municipality, to play a leading role in shaping water and sanitation policy in South Africa. Yet water governance in

  10. Legal pluralism in the area of human rights: water and sanitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Obani, P.; Gupta, J.

    2014-01-01

    Access to clean drinking water and adequate sanitation and hygiene facilities is crucial to achieving social and environmental sustainability. We examine the global human water and sanitation right from a legal pluralism perspective to see if it is indifferent to, competes with, accommodates, or is

  11. Sanitation services for the informal settlements of Cape Town, South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mels, A.R.; Castellano, D.; Braadbaart, O.D.; Veenstra, S.; Dijkstra, I.; Meulman, B.; Singels, A.; Wilsenach, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Sanitation coverage in the informal settlements of Cape Town is severely lagging behind. A recent inventory showed that the main barriers to the implementation of proper sanitation systems are unsuitability of the location of many settlements (more than 40% of the sites are located on private land,

  12. Health Implications of Sanitation in a Public Abattoir in Port Harcourt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TNHJOURNALPH

    Keywords: Public Abattoir; Sanitation;. Port Harcourt. Correspondence: Dr KE. Douglas. Email: drohambelel@yahoo.com. INTRODUCTION. Sanitation is the formulation and application of measures designed to protect public health or disposal of waste[l]. The World Health. Organization (WHO), defined environmental.

  13. Innovations in sanitation for sustainable urban growth; modernized mixtures in an east african context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Letema, S.; Van Vliet, B.; Van Lier, J.B.

    2012-01-01

    Urbanisation of poverty and informality in East Africa poses a threat to public health and environmental protection, perpetuating social exclusion and inequalities, while it creates service gaps. Neither conventional on-site sanitation nor modern centralised off-site sanitation provisions are

  14. 75 FR 72655 - Marine Sanitation Device Discharge Regulations for the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-26

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 15 CFR Part 922 RIN 0648-AX58 Marine Sanitation Device... sanitation devices (MSDs) approved under the Clean Water Act (CWA), and by requiring that MSDs be secured to prevent discharges of treated and untreated sewage. This action builds upon the Environmental Protection...

  15. Water and Sanitation in Urban Slum: A Case from Bandung Municipality, West Java, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nastiti, A.; Primasuri, W.A.; Setiani, B.; Sudradjat, A.; Latifah, I.; Roosmini, D.; Smits, A.J.M.; Meijerink, S.V.

    2014-01-01

    Providing equal access among urban quintiles is the main challenge in urban water and sanitation sector. This paper tries to depict the choice and behavior regarding drinking water and sanitation of 127 slum households in Bandung Municipality. Issues explored using close-ended questionnaires are

  16. Drinking water quality: stakes of control and sanitation in the town of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... treatment, no device is constructed. The difficulties of supplying safe drinking water and the precarious conditions of sanitation seemed to be the origin of many water borne-diseases in this city. Keywords: Water supply points, Individual toilet sanitation, Conventional network, Alternative suppliers, Water borne-diseases.

  17. East Asia and the Pacific Region Urban Sanitation Review : Philippines Country Study

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2013-01-01

    This Philippines country study forms part of the East Asia and the Pacific region urban sanitation review that focuses on three of the emerging middle income countries of East Asia: Indonesia, Philippines, and Vietnam. The regional review aims to develop a strategic framework to help guide national urban sanitation programs and their implementation in these emerging middle income countries...

  18. A Kinetic Study Using Evaporation of Different Types of Hand-Rub Sanitizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinhas, Allan R.

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol-based hand-rub sanitizers are the types of products that hospital professionals use very often. These sanitizers can be classified into two major groups: those that contain a large quantity of thickener, and thus are a gel, and those that contain a small quantity of thickener, and thus remain a liquid. In an effort to create a laboratory…

  19. Sanitation and risks of waterborne diseases in Aholouyèmè in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2016-04-30

    Apr 30, 2016 ... It can be cited bad garbage management, absence of latrine, lack of sanitation around wells, non-respect of hygienic rules. Key words: Aholouyèmè, sanitation, pathologies, drinking water, risks. INTRODUCTION AND JUSTIFICATION. The problem of drinking water is critical in African countries in general ...

  20. Water, sanitation and hygiene in South Sudan: what needs to be ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    latrine (VIP), pit latrine with slab or composting toilet. [8]. Objectives. The objectives of this paper are to review the evidence base for investments in water and sanitation, and to propose some policy recommendations in order to increase access to safe water and sanitation to the people of South Sudan. The evidence based ...