WorldWideScience

Sample records for ecological restoration treatments

  1. Short-term ecological consequences of collaborative restoration treatments in ponderosa pine forests of Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer S. Briggs; Paula J. Fornwalt; Jonas A. Feinstein

    2017-01-01

    Ecological restoration treatments are being implemented at an increasing rate in ponderosa pine and other dry conifer forests across the western United States, via the USDA Forest Service’s Collaborative Forest Landscape Restoration (CFLR) program. In this program, collaborative stakeholder groups work with National Forests (NFs) to adaptively implement and monitor...

  2. Ecological restoration [book review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric J. Gustafson

    2010-01-01

    Ecological restoration has increased in prominence in recent years as environmental policies have slowed the rate of environmental degradation in many parts of the world and practitioners have looked for active ways to reverse the damage. Because of the vast number of types and contexts of degraded ecological systems, the field of ecological restoration is still very...

  3. Short-term ecological consequences of collaborative restoration treatments in ponderosa pine forests of Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Jenny S.; Fornwalt, Paula J.; Feinstein, Jonas A.

    2017-01-01

    Ecological restoration treatments are being implemented at an increasing rate in ponderosa pine and other dry conifer forests across the western United States, via the USDA Forest Service’s Collaborative Forest Landscape Restoration (CFLR) program. In this program, collaborative stakeholder groups work with National Forests (NFs) to adaptively implement and monitor ecological restoration treatments intended to offset the effects of many decades of anthropogenic stressors. We initiated a novel study to expand the scope of treatment effectiveness monitoring efforts in one of the first CFLR landscapes, Colorado’s Front Range. We used a Before/After/Control/Impact framework to evaluate the short-term consequences of treatments on numerous ecological properties. We collected pre-treatment and one year post-treatment data on NF and partner agencies’ lands, in 66 plots distributed across seven treatment units and nearby untreated areas. Our results reflected progress toward several treatment objectives: treated areas had lower tree density and basal area, greater openness, no increase in exotic understory plants, no decrease in native understory plants, and no decrease in use by tree squirrels and ungulates. However, some findings suggested the need for adaptive modification of both treatment prescriptions and monitoring protocols: treatments did not promote heterogeneity of stand structure, and monitoring methods may not have been robust enough to detect changes in surface fuels. Our study highlights both the effective aspects of these restoration treatments, and the importance of initiating and continuing collaborative science-based monitoring to improve the outcomes of broad-scale forest restoration efforts.

  4. Challenges of ecological restoration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halme, Panu; Allen, Katherine A.; Aunins, Ainars

    2013-01-01

    we introduce northern forests as an ecosystem, discuss the historical and recent human impact and provide a brief status report on the ecological restoration projects and research already conducted there. Based on this discussion, we argue that before any restoration actions commence, the ecology......The alarming rate of ecosystem degradation has raised the need for ecological restoration throughout different biomes and continents. North European forests may appear as one of the least vulnerable ecosystems from a global perspective, since forest cover is not rapidly decreasing and many...... on Biological Diversity. Several northern countries are now taking up this challenge by restoring forest biodiversity with increasing intensity. The ecology and biodiversity of boreal forests are relatively well understood making them a good model for restoration activities in many other forest ecosystems. Here...

  5. Ecological Restoration: Guidance from Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joy Zedler

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A review of the science and practice of ecosystem restoration led me to identify key ecological theories and concepts that are relevant to planning, implementing, and sustaining restoration efforts. From experience with actual restoration projects, I provide guidance for improving the restoration process. Despite an abundance of theory and guidance, restoration goals are not always achieved, and pathways toward targets are not highly predictable. This is understandable, since each restoration project has many constraints and unique challenges. To improve restoration progress, I advise that sites be designed as experiments to allow learning while doing. At least the larger projects can be restored in phases, each designed as experimental treatments to test alternative restoration approaches. Subsequent phases can then adopt one or more of the treatments that best achieved goals in earlier phases while applying new tests of other restoration measures. Both science and restoration can progress simultaneously. This phased, experimental approach (called “adaptive restoration” is an effective tool for improving restoration when monitoring, assessment, interpretation and research are integrated into the process.

  6. Ecological restoration: Biodiversity and conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas Rios, Orlando

    2011-01-01

    In this essay the principal concepts and methods applied on projects aimed at ecological restoration are reviewed, with emphasis on the relationship between conservation, biodiversity and restoration. The most common definitions are provided and the steps to take into account to develop projects on ecological restoration, which will be determined by the level of degradation of the ecosystem to be intervened.

  7. Linking restoration ecology with coastal dune restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lithgow, D.; Martínez, M. L.; Gallego-Fernández, J. B.; Hesp, P. A.; Flores, P.; Gachuz, S.; Rodríguez-Revelo, N.; Jiménez-Orocio, O.; Mendoza-González, G.; Álvarez-Molina, L. L.

    2013-10-01

    Restoration and preservation of coastal dunes is urgently needed because of the increasingly rapid loss and degradation of these ecosystems because of many human activities. These activities alter natural processes and coastal dynamics, eliminate topographic variability, fragment, degrade or eliminate habitats, reduce diversity and threaten endemic species. The actions of coastal dune restoration that are already taking place span contrasting activities that range from revegetating and stabilizing the mobile substrate, to removing plant cover and increasing substrate mobility. Our goal was to review how the relative progress of the actions of coastal dune restoration has been assessed, according to the ecosystem attributes outlined by the Society of Ecological Restoration: namely, integrity, health and sustainability and that are derived from the ecological theory of succession. We reviewed the peer reviewed literature published since 1988 that is listed in the ISI Web of Science journals as well as additional references, such as key books. We exclusively focused on large coastal dune systems (such as transgressive and parabolic dunefields) located on natural or seminatural coasts. We found 150 articles that included "coastal dune", "restoration" and "revegetation" in areas such as title, keywords and abstract. From these, 67 dealt specifically with coastal dune restoration. Most of the studies were performed in the USA, The Netherlands and South Africa, during the last two decades. Restoration success has been assessed directly and indirectly by measuring one or a few ecosystem variables. Some ecosystem attributes have been monitored more frequently (ecosystem integrity) than others (ecosystem health and sustainability). Finally, it is important to consider that ecological succession is a desirable approach in restoration actions. Natural dynamics and disturbances should be considered as part of the restored system, to improve ecosystem integrity, health and

  8. Effects of ecological restoration alternative treatments on nonnative plant species establishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael T. Stoddard; Christopher M. McGlone; Peter Z. Fule

    2008-01-01

    Disturbances generated by forest restoration treatments have the potential for enhancing the establishment of nonnative species thereby impeding long-term native plant recovery. In a ponderosa pine forest next to the Fort Valley Experimental Forest, Arizona, we examined the establishment of nonnative species after three alternative treatments with different intensities...

  9. Ecological benefits of passive wetland treatment systems designed for acid mine drainage: With emphasis on watershed restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCleary, E.C.; Kepler, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    Western Pennsylvania has been a large source of coal for much of the US since the late 1800's. During the extraction of the coal resources, acid mine drainage (AMD) often resulted. AMD from abandoned discharges has effectively rendered thousands of kilometers of streams lifeless in the Appalachian coal region. Restoration of these streams has been limited in previous years primarily because of the lack of cost-effective treatment for AMD. Conventional treatment can treat AMD effectively but is costly to operate and maintain and is effective only when receiving human attention. Passive wetland treatment systems have proven to be the only realistic AMD treatment strategy, in terms of watershed restoration activities. If ecosystem health is the reason for implementing effluent standards then it can be reasonably argued that passive wetland treatment systems supply the most effective overall treatment, even if they do not meet one or more of the current effluent standards. Recent advancements in passive wetland treatment system technology have provided a management tool that could be used to treat the majority of AMD discharges cost-effectively, and when used strategically could reasonably be employed to restore the thousands of kilometers of AMD-affected streams in the coal regions of Appalachia. Secondary benefits that have been observed with passive wetland treatment systems suggest that these systems may be providing for accelerated ecological recovery independent of regulated effluent standards

  10. Evaluating forest product potential as part of planning ecological restoration treatments on forested landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. James Barbour; Ryan Singleton; Douglas A. Maguire

    2007-01-01

    As landscape-scale assessments and modeling become a more common method for evaluating alternatives in integrated resource management, new techniques are needed to display and evaluate outcomes for large numbers of stands over long periods. In this proof of concept, we evaluate the potential to provide financial support for silvicultural treatments by selling timber...

  11. Contribution of genetics to ecological restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijangos, Jose Luis; Pacioni, Carlo; Spencer, Peter B S; Craig, Michael D

    2015-01-01

    Ecological restoration of degraded ecosystems has emerged as a critical tool in the fight to reverse and ameliorate the current loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services. Approaches derived from different genetic disciplines are extending the theoretical and applied frameworks on which ecological restoration is based. We performed a search of scientific articles and identified 160 articles that employed a genetic approach within a restoration context to shed light on the links between genetics and restoration. These articles were then classified on whether they examined association between genetics and fitness or the application of genetics in demographic studies, and on the way the studies informed restoration practice. Although genetic research in restoration is rapidly growing, we found that studies could make better use of the extensive toolbox developed by applied fields in genetics. Overall, 41% of reviewed studies used genetic information to evaluate or monitor restoration, and 59% provided genetic information to guide prerestoration decision-making processes. Reviewed studies suggest that restoration practitioners often overlook the importance of including genetic aspects within their restoration goals. Even though there is a genetic basis influencing the provision of ecosystem services, few studies explored this relationship. We provide a view of research gaps, future directions and challenges in the genetics of restoration. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Integrating ecological restoration into CDM forestry projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Maohua; Haapanen, Toni; Singh, Ram Babu; Hietala, Reija

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Concerns and issues in sustainability of CDM forestry projects are reviewed. • Ecological restoration is suggested to be integrated in the CDM framework. • As an ecosystem supporting service, soil restoration on degraded land is of primary importance. • Regenerating forests naturally rather than through monoculture plantations is suggested. • Potential social impacts of ecological restoration are discussed. - Abstract: The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) is proposed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and promote sustainable development. CDM forestry projects should contribute to mitigation of climate change through afforestation and reforestation (A/R) activities on degraded land in developing countries. However, like other types of CDM projects, the forestry projects have encountered a number of concerns and critiques. Appropriate approaches and concrete aims to achieve long-term sustainability have been lacking, and reforms have therefore been called for. The aims of this paper are to examine the published information relevant to these concerns, and frame appropriate approaches for a more sustainable CDM. In this review, as a first step to tackle some of these issues, ecological restoration is suggested for integration into the CDM framework. Essentially, this involves the restoration of ecosystem supporting service (soil restoration), upon which forests regenerate naturally rather than establishing monoculture plantations. In this way, forestry projects would bring cost-effective opportunities for multiple ecosystem services. Potential approaches, necessary additions to the monitoring plans, and social impacts of ecological restoration in CDM projects are discussed

  13. A Policy Analysis Perspective on Ecological Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Baker

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Using a simple stages model of the policy process, we explore the politics of ecological restoration using an array of examples drawn across sector, different size and scale, and from different countries. A policy analysis perspective reveals how, at both the program and project levels, ecological restoration operates within a complex and dynamic interplay between technical decision making, ideologies, and interest politics. Viewed through the stages model, restoration policy involves negotiating nature across stages in the policy making process, including agenda setting, policy formulation, implementation, and evaluation. The stages model is a useful heuristic devise; however, this linear model assumes that policy makers approach the issue rationally. In practice, ecological restoration policy takes place in the context of different distributions of power between the various public and private actors involved at the different stages of restoration policy making. This allows us to reiterate the point that ecological restoration is best seen not only as a technical task but as a social and political project.

  14. Ecological restoration of southwestern ponderosa pine ecosystems: A broad perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Craig D.; Savage, Melissa; Falk, Donald A.; Suckling, Kieran F.; Swetnam, Thomas W.; Schulke, Todd; Stacey, Peter B.; Morgan, Penelope; Hoffman, Martos; Klingel, Jon T.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to promote a broad and flexible perspective on ecological restoration of Southwestern (U.S.) ponderosa pine forests. Ponderosa pine forests in the region have been radically altered by Euro-American land uses, including livestock grazing, fire suppression, and logging. Dense thickets of young trees now abound, old-growth and biodiversity have declined, and human and ecological communities are increasingly vulnerable to destructive crown fires. A consensus has emerged that it is urgent to restore more natural conditions to these forests. Efforts to restore Southwestern forests will require extensive projects employing varying combinations of young-tree thinning and reintroduction of low-intensity fires. Treatments must be flexible enough to recognize and accommodate: high levels of natural heterogeneity; dynamic ecosystems; wildlife and other biodiversity considerations; scientific uncertainty; and the challenges of on-the-ground implementation. Ecological restoration should reset ecosystem trends toward an envelope of “natural variability,” including the reestablishment of natural processes. Reconstructed historic reference conditions are best used as general guides rather than rigid restoration prescriptions. In the long term, the best way to align forest conditions to track ongoing climate changes is to restore fire, which naturally correlates with current climate. Some stands need substantial structural manipulation (thinning) before fire can safely be reintroduced. In other areas, such as large wilderness and roadless areas, fire alone may suffice as the main tool of ecological restoration, recreating the natural interaction of structure and process. Impatience, overreaction to crown fire risks, extractive economics, or hubris could lead to widespread application of highly intrusive treatments that may further damage forest ecosystems. Investments in research and monitoring of restoration treatments are essential to refine

  15. Optimization of intervention levels in ecological restoration

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Walker, L. R.; Hölzer, N.; Marrs, R.; del Moral, R.; Prach, Karel

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 2 (2014), s. 187-192 ISSN 1402-2001 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP505/11/0256 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : succession * vegetation * restoration Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.548, year: 2014

  16. Ecological restoration of litter in mined areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teresinha Gonçalves Bizuti, Denise; Nino Diniz, Najara; Schweizer, Daniella; de Marchi Soares, Thaís; Casagrande, José Carlos; Henrique Santin Brancalion, Pedro

    2016-04-01

    The success of ecological restoration projects depends on going monitoring of key ecological variables to determine if a desired trajectory has been established and, in the case of mining sites, nutrient cycling recovery plays an utmost importance. This study aimed to quantify and compare the annual litter production in native forests, and in restoration sites established in bauxite mines. We collected samples in 6 native forest remnants and 6 year-old restoration sites every month for a period of one year, in the city of Poços de Caldas/MG, SE Brazil. 120 wire collectors were used (0,6x0,6) and suspended 30cm above the soil surface. The material was dried until constant weight, weighed and fractionated in leaves, branches and reproductive material. The average annual litter production was 2,6 Mg ha-1 in native forests and 2,1 in forest in restoration sites, differing statistically. Litter production was higher in the rainy season, especially in September. Among the litter components, the largest contributor to total production was the fraction leaves, with 55,4% of the total dry weight of material collected, followed by reproductive material which contributed 24,5% and branches, with 20%. We conclude that the young areas in restoration process already restored important part, but still below the production observed in native areas.

  17. Big Canyon Creek Ecological Restoration Strategy.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, Lynn; Richardson, Shannon

    2007-10-01

    He-yey, Nez Perce for steelhead or rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), are a culturally and ecologically significant resource within the Big Canyon Creek watershed; they are also part of the federally listed Snake River Basin Steelhead DPS. The majority of the Big Canyon Creek drainage is considered critical habitat for that DPS as well as for the federally listed Snake River fall chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) ESU. The Nez Perce Soil and Water Conservation District (District) and the Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resources Management-Watershed (Tribe), in an effort to support the continued existence of these and other aquatic species, have developed this document to direct funding toward priority restoration projects in priority areas for the Big Canyon Creek watershed. In order to achieve this, the District and the Tribe: (1) Developed a working group and technical team composed of managers from a variety of stakeholders within the basin; (2) Established geographically distinct sub-watershed areas called Assessment Units (AUs); (3) Created a prioritization framework for the AUs and prioritized them; and (4) Developed treatment strategies to utilize within the prioritized AUs. Assessment Units were delineated by significant shifts in sampled juvenile O. mykiss (steelhead/rainbow trout) densities, which were found to fall at fish passage barriers. The prioritization framework considered four aspects critical to determining the relative importance of performing restoration in a certain area: density of critical fish species, physical condition of the AU, water quantity, and water quality. It was established, through vigorous data analysis within these four areas, that the geographic priority areas for restoration within the Big Canyon Creek watershed are Big Canyon Creek from stream km 45.5 to the headwaters, Little Canyon from km 15 to 30, the mainstem corridors of Big Canyon (mouth to 7km) and Little Canyon (mouth to 7km). The District and the Tribe

  18. [Progress and prospects on evaluation of ecological restoration: a review of the 5th World Conference on Ecological Restoration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jing-Yi; Zhao, Wen-Wu

    2014-09-01

    The 5th World Conference on Ecological Restoration was held in Madison, Wisconsin, USA on October 6-11, 2013. About 1200 delegates from more than 50 countries attended the conference, and discussed the latest developments in different thematic areas of ecological restoration. Discussions on evaluation of ecological restoration were mainly from three aspects: The construction for evaluation indicator system of ecological restoration; the evaluation methods of ecological restoration; monitoring and dynamic evaluation of ecological restoration. The meeting stressed the importance of evaluation in the process of ecological restoration and concerned the challenges in evaluation of ecological restoration. The conference had the following enlightenments for China' s research on evaluation of ecological restoration: 1) Strengthening the construction of comprehensive evaluation indicators system and focusing on the multi-participation in the evaluation process. 2) Paying more attentions on scale effect and scale transformation in the evaluation process of ecological restoration. 3) Expanding the application of 3S technology in assessing the success of ecological restoration and promoting the dynamic monitoring of ecological restoration. 4) Carrying out international exchanges and cooperation actively, and promoting China's international influence in ecological restoration research.

  19. The ecological - Societal underpinnings of Everglades restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklar, Fred H.; Chimney, M.J.; Newman, S.; McCormick, P.; Gawlik, D.; Miao, S.; McVoy, C.; Said, W.; Newman, J.; Coronado, C.; Crozier, G.; Korvela, M.; Rutchey, K.

    2005-01-01

    The biotic integrity of the Florida Everglades, a wetland of immense international importance, is threatened as a result of decades of human manipulation for drainage and development. Past management of the system only exacerbated the problems associated with nutrient enrichment and disruption of regional hydrology. The Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP) now being implemented by Federal and State governments is an attempt to strike a balance between the needs of the environment with the complex management of water and the seemingly unbridled economic growth of southern Florida. CERP is expected to reverse negative environmental trends by "getting the water right", but successful Everglades restoration will require both geochemical and hydrologic intervention on a massive scale. This will produce ecological trade-offs and will require new and innovative scientific measures to (1) reduce total phosphorus concentrations within the remaining marsh to 10 ??g/L or lower; (2) quantify and link ecological benefits to the restoration of depths, hydroperiods, and flow velocities; and (3) compensate for ecological, economic, and hydrologic uncertainties in the CERP through adaptive management. ?? The Ecological Society of America.

  20. The potential of territory in ecological restoration. The use of GIS tools for ecological restoration prioritization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corzo Ramirez, Liliana; Jerena, Erik; Rubio Mendoza, Rodrigo

    2012-01-01

    This paper develops a proposal for interdisciplinary dialogue through the use of GIS (Geographic Information System) tools for the construction of a methodology to identify the ecological restoration potential ERP in urban edge areas that are part of the Main Ecological Structure of Bogota, according to land management plans. These areas subscribe their own socio-environmental problems particular to their own sign of the interaction between nature and culture. Methodological steps for identification of PER are described: biotic, physical and social characterization, identification and spatialization of variables and weighted overlay for the calculation of the final potential. Then, carry out the discussion on the scope and limitations of using GIS tools and methodological possibility for interaction between disciplines such as biology, physical geography and sociology during the process of ecological restoration.

  1. Importance of including cultural practices in ecological restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehi, Priscilla M; Lord, Janice M

    2017-10-01

    Ecosystems worldwide have a long history of use and management by indigenous cultures. However, environmental degradation can reduce the availability of culturally important resources. Ecological restoration aims to repair damage to ecosystems caused by human activity, but it is unclear how often restoration projects incorporate the return of harvesting or traditional life patterns for indigenous communities. We examined the incorporation of cultural use of natural resources into ecological restoration in the context of a culturally important but protected New Zealand bird; among award-winning restoration projects in Australasia and worldwide; and in the peer-reviewed restoration ecology literature. Among New Zealand's culturally important bird species, differences in threat status and availability for hunting were large. These differences indicate the values of a colonizing culture can inhibit harvesting by indigenous people. In Australasia among award-winning ecological restoration projects, restored areas beyond aesthetic or recreational use, despite many projects encouraging community participation. Globally, restoration goals differed among regions. For example, in North America, projects were primarily conservation oriented, whereas in Asia and Africa projects frequently focused on restoring cultural harvesting. From 1995 to 2014, the restoration ecology literature contained few references to cultural values or use. We argue that restoration practitioners are missing a vital component for reassembling functional ecosystems. Inclusion of sustainably harvestable areas within restored landscapes may allow for the continuation of traditional practices that shaped ecosystems for millennia, and also aid project success by ensuring community support. © 2017 Society for Conservation Biology.

  2. Ecological restoration success is higher for natural regeneration than for active restoration in tropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouzeilles, Renato; Ferreira, Mariana S; Chazdon, Robin L; Lindenmayer, David B; Sansevero, Jerônimo B B; Monteiro, Lara; Iribarrem, Alvaro; Latawiec, Agnieszka E; Strassburg, Bernardo B N

    2017-11-01

    Is active restoration the best approach to achieve ecological restoration success (the return to a reference condition, that is, old-growth forest) when compared to natural regeneration in tropical forests? Our meta-analysis of 133 studies demonstrated that natural regeneration surpasses active restoration in achieving tropical forest restoration success for all three biodiversity groups (plants, birds, and invertebrates) and five measures of vegetation structure (cover, density, litter, biomass, and height) tested. Restoration success for biodiversity and vegetation structure was 34 to 56% and 19 to 56% higher in natural regeneration than in active restoration systems, respectively, after controlling for key biotic and abiotic factors (forest cover, precipitation, time elapsed since restoration started, and past disturbance). Biodiversity responses were based primarily on ecological metrics of abundance and species richness (74%), both of which take far less time to achieve restoration success than similarity and composition. This finding challenges the widely held notion that natural forest regeneration has limited conservation value and that active restoration should be the default ecological restoration strategy. The proposition that active restoration achieves greater restoration success than natural regeneration may have arisen because previous comparisons lacked controls for biotic and abiotic factors; we also did not find any difference between active restoration and natural regeneration outcomes for vegetation structure when we did not control for these factors. Future policy priorities should align the identified patterns of biophysical and ecological conditions where each or both restoration approaches are more successful, cost-effective, and compatible with socioeconomic incentives for tropical forest restoration.

  3. High value of ecological information for river connectivity restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Suresh; O'Hanley, Jesse R.; Gerken, Jonathon; Ashline, Joshua; Bradley, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    ContextEfficient restoration of longitudinal river connectivity relies on barrier mitigation prioritization tools that incorporate stream network spatial structure to maximize ecological benefits given limited resources. Typically, ecological benefits of barrier mitigation are measured using proxies such as the amount of accessible riverine habitat.ObjectivesWe developed an optimization approach for barrier mitigation planning which directly incorporates the ecology of managed taxa, and applied it to an urbanizing salmon-bearing watershed in Alaska.MethodsA novel river connectivity metric that exploits information on the distribution and movement of managed taxon was embedded into a barrier prioritization framework to identify optimal mitigation actions given limited restoration budgets. The value of ecological information on managed taxa was estimated by comparing costs to achieve restoration targets across alternative barrier prioritization approaches.ResultsBarrier mitigation solutions informed by life history information outperformed those using only river connectivity proxies, demonstrating high value of ecological information for watershed restoration. In our study area, information on salmon ecology was typically valued at 0.8–1.2 M USD in costs savings to achieve a given benefit level relative to solutions derived only from stream network information, equating to 16–28% of the restoration budget.ConclusionsInvesting in ecological studies may achieve win–win outcomes of improved understanding of aquatic ecology and greater watershed restoration efficiency.

  4. Ecological restoration across the Mediterranean Basin as viewed by practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Alice; Oliveira, Graça; Mexia, Teresa; Valdecantos, Alejandro; Zucca, Claudio; Costantini, Edoardo A C; Abraham, Eleni M; Kyriazopoulos, Apostolos P; Salah, Ayman; Prasse, Ruediger; Correia, Otília; Milliken, Sarah; Kotzen, Benz; Branquinho, Cristina

    2016-10-01

    Restoration efforts in the Mediterranean Basin have been changing from a silvicultural to an ecological restoration approach. Yet, to what extent the projects are guided by ecological restoration principles remains largely unknown. To analyse this issue, we built an on-line survey addressed to restoration practitioners. We analysed 36 restoration projects, mostly from drylands (86%). The projects used mainly soil from local sources. The need to comply with legislation was more important as a restoration motive for European Union (EU) than for non-EU countries, while public opinion and health had a greater importance in the latter. Non-EU countries relied more on non-native plant species than EU countries, thus deviating from ecological restoration guidelines. Nursery-grown plants used were mostly of local or regional provenance, whilst seeds were mostly of national provenance. Unexpected restoration results (e.g. inadequate biodiversity) were reported for 50% of the projects and restoration success was never evaluated in 22%. Long term evaluation (>6years) was only performed in 31% of cases, and based primarily on plant diversity and cover. The use of non-native species and species of exogenous provenances may: i) entail the loss of local genetic and functional trait diversity, critical to cope with drought, particularly under the predicted climate change scenarios, and ii) lead to unexpected competition with native species and/or negatively impact local biotic interactions. Absent or inappropriate monitoring may prevent the understanding of restoration trajectories, precluding adaptive management strategies, often crucial to create functional ecosystems able to provide ecosystem services. The overview of ecological restoration projects in the Mediterranean Basin revealed high variability among practices and highlighted the need for improved scientific assistance and information exchange, greater use of native species of local provenance, and more long

  5. Ecological restoration success is higher for natural regeneration than for active restoration in tropical forests

    OpenAIRE

    Crouzeilles, Renato; Ferreira, Mariana S.; Chazdon, Robin L.; Lindenmayer, David B.; Sansevero, Jerônimo B. B.; Monteiro, Lara; Iribarrem, Alvaro; Latawiec, Agnieszka E.; Strassburg, Bernardo B. N.

    2017-01-01

    Is active restoration the best approach to achieve ecological restoration success (the return to a reference condition, that is, old-growth forest) when compared to natural regeneration in tropical forests? Our meta-analysis of 133 studies demonstrated that natural regeneration surpasses active restoration in achieving tropical forest restoration success for all three biodiversity groups (plants, birds, and invertebrates) and five measures of vegetation structure (cover, density, litter, biom...

  6. Drivers of Ecological Restoration: Lessons from a Century of Restoration in Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ása L. Aradóttir

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the main drivers for ecological restoration in Iceland from 1907 to 2010 and assessed whether the drivers have changed over time and what factors might explain the changes, if any. Our study was based on a catalogue of 100 restoration projects, programs, and areas, representing 75% to 85% of all restoration activities in Iceland. Catastrophic erosion was an early driver for soil conservation and restoration efforts that still ranked high in the 2000s, reflecting the immense scale of soil erosion and desertification in Iceland. Socioeconomic drivers such as farming and the provision of wood products were strong motivators of ecological restoration over most of the 20th century, although their relative importance decreased with time as the number and diversity of drivers increased. In the 1960s and 1970s, the construction of hard infrastructure, and moral values such as improving the aesthetics of the countryside and "repaying the debt to the land" emerged as motivations for restoration actions. In the late 1990s, the United Nations Climate Change Convention became a driver for restoration, and the importance of nature conservation and recreation increased. Technological development and financial incentives did not show up as drivers of ecological restoration in our study, although there are some indications of their influence. Furthermore, policy was a minor driver, which might reflect weak policy instruments for ecological restoration and some counteractive policies.

  7. The relationship between ecological restoration and the ecosystem services concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasha Alexander

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ecological restoration and the mainstreaming of the concept of ecosystem services will be critical if global society is to move toward sustainability. Conference of the Parties 21 (COP21 of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and COP12 of the Convention on Biological Diversity should help foster support for vastly increased investment in the better management and restoration of natural capital. Large-scale restoration demonstrably improves ecological functioning to sustain both biodiversity and human well-being. However, much progress is needed to improve the effectiveness and cost efficiency of any restoration. The ecosystem services concept provides a framework for identifying the types of restorative interventions needed to target different forms and degrees of degradation, and achieve goals related to both ecosystem health and delivery of services to people. Moreover, it can strengthen the argument for, and planning of, large-scale restoration and conservation of natural capital. We use case studies from four continents to help demonstrate how the interconnection between ecological restoration and the ecosystem services concept is being utilized in land-use planning and enlightened ecosystem management. We offer ways in which this relationship can be better understood and communicated to support the scaling up of restoration activities to the landscape and regional scales across the full spectrum of land uses and ecosystem types.

  8. How economics can further the success of ecological restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iftekhar, Md Sayed; Polyakov, Maksym; Ansell, Dean; Gibson, Fiona; Kay, Geoffrey M

    2017-04-01

    Restoration scientists and practitioners have recently begun to include economic and social aspects in the design and investment decisions for restoration projects. With few exceptions, ecological restoration studies that include economics focus solely on evaluating costs of restoration projects. However, economic principles, tools, and instruments can be applied to a range of other factors that affect project success. We considered the relevance of applying economics to address 4 key challenges of ecological restoration: assessing social and economic benefits, estimating overall costs, project prioritization and selection, and long-term financing of restoration programs. We found it is uncommon to consider all types of benefits (such as nonmarket values) and costs (such as transaction costs) in restoration programs. Total benefit of a restoration project can be estimated using market prices and various nonmarket valuation techniques. Total cost of a project can be estimated using methods based on property or land-sale prices, such as hedonic pricing method and organizational surveys. Securing continuous (or long-term) funding is also vital to accomplishing restoration goals and can be achieved by establishing synergy with existing programs, public-private partnerships, and financing through taxation. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  9. Estimating the Size and Impact of the Ecological Restoration Economy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd BenDor

    Full Text Available Domestic public debate continues over the economic impacts of environmental regulations that require environmental restoration. This debate has occurred in the absence of broad-scale empirical research on economic output and employment resulting from environmental restoration, restoration-related conservation, and mitigation actions - the activities that are part of what we term the "restoration economy." In this article, we provide a high-level accounting of the size and scope of the restoration economy in terms of employment, value added, and overall economic output on a national scale. We conducted a national survey of businesses that participate in restoration work in order to estimate the total sales and number of jobs directly associated with the restoration economy, and to provide a profile of this nascent sector in terms of type of restoration work, industrial classification, workforce needs, and growth potential. We use survey results as inputs into a national input-output model (IMPLAN 3.1 in order to estimate the indirect and induced economic impacts of restoration activities. Based on this analysis we conclude that the domestic ecological restoration sector directly employs ~ 126,000 workers and generates ~ $9.5 billion in economic output (sales annually. This activity supports an additional 95,000 jobs and $15 billion in economic output through indirect (business-to-business linkages and increased household spending.

  10. Prioritizing ecological restoration among sites in multi-stressor landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neeson, Thomas M; Smith, Sigrid D P; Allan, J David; McIntyre, Peter B

    2016-09-01

    Most ecosystems are impacted by multiple local and long-distance stressors, many of which interact in complex ways. We present a framework for prioritizing ecological restoration efforts among sites in multi-stressor landscapes. Using a simple model, we show that both the economic and sociopolitical costs of restoration will typically be lower at sites with a relatively small number of severe problems than at sites with numerous lesser problems. Based on these results, we propose using cumulative stress and evenness of stressor impact as complementary indices that together reflect key challenges of restoring a site to improved condition. To illustrate this approach, we analyze stressor evenness across the world's rivers and the Laurentian Great Lakes. This exploration reveals that evenness and cumulative stress are decoupled, enabling selection of sites where remediating a modest number of high-intensity stressors could substantially reduce cumulative stress. Just as species richness and species evenness are fundamental axes of biological diversity, we argue that cumulative stress and stressor evenness constitute fundamental axes for identifying restoration opportunities in multi-stressor landscapes. Our results highlight opportunities to boost restoration efficiency through strategic use of multi-stressor datasets to identify sites that maximize ecological response per stressor remediated. This prioritization framework can also be expanded to account for the feasibility of remediation and the expected societal benefits of restoration projects. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  11. Ecological restoration alters microbial communities in mine tailings profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Jia, Zhongjun; Sun, Qingye; Zhan, Jing; Yang, Yang; Wang, Dan

    2016-04-29

    Ecological restoration of mine tailings have impact on soil physiochemical properties and microbial communities. The surface soil has been a primary concern in the past decades, however it remains poorly understood about the adaptive response of microbial communities along the profile during ecological restoration of the tailings. In this study, microbial communities along a 60-cm profile were investigated in a mine tailing pond during ecological restoration of the bare waste tailings (BW) with two vegetated soils of Imperata cylindrica (IC) and Chrysopogon zizanioides (CZ) plants. Revegetation of both IC and CZ could retard soil degradation of mine tailing by stimulation of soil pH at 0-30 cm soils and altered the bacterial communities at 0-20 cm depths of the mine tailings. Significant differences existed in the relative abundance of the phyla Alphaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Firmicutes and Nitrospira. Slight difference of bacterial communities were found at 30-60 cm depths of mine tailings. Abundance and activity analysis of nifH genes also explained the elevated soil nitrogen contents at the surface 0-20 cm of the vegetated soils. These results suggest that microbial succession occurred primarily at surface tailings and vegetation of pioneering plants might have promoted ecological restoration of mine tailings.

  12. Southwest Ecological Restoration Institutes (SWERI) Biophysical Monitoring Workshop Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph Seidenberg; Judy Springer; Tessa Nicolet; Mike Battaglia; Christina Vothja

    2009-01-01

    On October 15-16, 2009, the Southwest Ecological Restoration Institutes (SWERI) hosted a workshop in which the participants would 1) build a common understanding of the types of monitoring that are occurring in forested ecosystems of the Southwest; 2) analyze and agree on an efficient, yet robust set of biophysical variables that can be used by land mangers and...

  13. Ecological restoration alters microbial communities in mine tailings profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Jia, Zhongjun; Sun, Qingye; Zhan, Jing; Yang, Yang; Wang, Dan

    2016-04-01

    Ecological restoration of mine tailings have impact on soil physiochemical properties and microbial communities. The surface soil has been a primary concern in the past decades, however it remains poorly understood about the adaptive response of microbial communities along the profile during ecological restoration of the tailings. In this study, microbial communities along a 60-cm profile were investigated in a mine tailing pond during ecological restoration of the bare waste tailings (BW) with two vegetated soils of Imperata cylindrica (IC) and Chrysopogon zizanioides (CZ) plants. Revegetation of both IC and CZ could retard soil degradation of mine tailing by stimulation of soil pH at 0-30 cm soils and altered the bacterial communities at 0-20 cm depths of the mine tailings. Significant differences existed in the relative abundance of the phyla Alphaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Firmicutes and Nitrospira. Slight difference of bacterial communities were found at 30-60 cm depths of mine tailings. Abundance and activity analysis of nifH genes also explained the elevated soil nitrogen contents at the surface 0-20 cm of the vegetated soils. These results suggest that microbial succession occurred primarily at surface tailings and vegetation of pioneering plants might have promoted ecological restoration of mine tailings.

  14. A modelling framework for improving plant establishment during ecological restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plants seeded during ecological restoration projects often perish en masse, and researchers are currently searching for traits promoting increased survival. In this study of a big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt.) ecosystem, we found survivorship rankings of seeded grass species varied across 3...

  15. Hydrodynamic and Ecological Assessment of Nearshore Restoration: A Modeling Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Zhaoqing; Sobocinski, Kathryn L.; Heatwole, Danelle W.; Khangaonkar, Tarang; Thom, Ronald M.; Fuller, Roger

    2010-01-01

    Along the Pacific Northwest coast, much of the estuarine habitat has been diked over the last century for agricultural land use, residential and commercial development, and transportation corridors. As a result, many of the ecological processes and functions have been disrupted. To protect coastal habitats that are vital to aquatic species, many restoration projects are currently underway to restore the estuarine and coastal ecosystems through dike breaches, setbacks, and removals. Information on physical processes and hydrodynamic conditions are critical for the assessment of the success of restoration actions. Restoration of a 160- acre property at the mouth of the Stillaguamish River in Puget Sound has been proposed. The goal is to restore native tidal habitats and estuary-scale ecological processes by removing the dike. In this study, a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model was developed for the Stillaguamish River estuary to simulate estuarine processes. The model was calibrated to observed tide, current, and salinity data for existing conditions and applied to simulate the hydrodynamic responses to two restoration alternatives. Responses were evaluated at the scale of the restoration footprint. Model data was combined with biophysical data to predict habitat responses at the site. Results showed that the proposed dike removal would result in desired tidal flushing and conditions that would support four habitat types on the restoration footprint. At the estuary scale, restoration would substantially increase the proportion of area flushed with freshwater (< 5 ppt) at flood tide. Potential implications of predicted changes in salinity and flow dynamics are discussed relative to the distribution of tidal marsh habitat.

  16. Ecological risks of DOE`s programmatic environmental restoration alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    This report assesses the ecological risks of the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Environmental Restoration Program. The assessment is programmatic in that it is directed at evaluation of the broad programmatic alternatives outlined in the DOE Implementation Plan. It attempts to (1) characterize the ecological resources present on DOE facilities, (2) describe the occurrence and importance of ecologically significant contamination at major DOE facilities, (3) evaluate the adverse ecological impacts of habitat disturbance caused by remedial activities, and (4) determine whether one or another of the programmatic alternatives is clearly ecologically superior to the others. The assessment focuses on six representative facilities: the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL); the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP); the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), including the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Y-12 plant, and K-25 plant; the Rocky Flats Plant; the Hanford Reservation; and the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant.

  17. Ecological risks of DOE's programmatic environmental restoration alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    This report assesses the ecological risks of the Department of Energy's (DOE) Environmental Restoration Program. The assessment is programmatic in that it is directed at evaluation of the broad programmatic alternatives outlined in the DOE Implementation Plan. It attempts to (1) characterize the ecological resources present on DOE facilities, (2) describe the occurrence and importance of ecologically significant contamination at major DOE facilities, (3) evaluate the adverse ecological impacts of habitat disturbance caused by remedial activities, and (4) determine whether one or another of the programmatic alternatives is clearly ecologically superior to the others. The assessment focuses on six representative facilities: the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL); the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP); the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), including the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Y-12 plant, and K-25 plant; the Rocky Flats Plant; the Hanford Reservation; and the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant

  18. Effect of Ecological Restoration on Body Condition of a Predator.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel González-Tokman

    Full Text Available Ecological restoration attempts to recover the structure and function of ecosystems that have been degraded by human activities. A crucial test of ecosystem recovery would be to determine whether individuals in restored environments are as healthy as those in conserved environments. However, the impact of restoration on physiology of terrestrial animals has never been tested. Here, we evaluated the effect of two restoration methods on body condition measured as body size, body mass, lipid and muscle content of the spider Nephila clavipes in a tropical dry forest that has suffered chronic disturbance due to cattle grazing. We used experimental plots that had been excluded from disturbance by cattle grazing during eight years. Plots were either planted with native trees (i. e. maximal intervention, or only excluded from disturbance (i. e. minimal intervention, and were compared with control conserved (remnants of original forest and disturbed plots (where cattle is allowed to graze. We predicted (1 better body condition in spiders of conserved and restored sites, compared to disturbed sites, and (2 better body condition in plots with maximal intervention than in plots with minimal intervention. The first prediction was not supported in males or females, and the second prediction was only supported in females: body dry mass was higher in planted than in conserved plots for spiders of both sexes and also higher that in disturbed plots for males, suggesting that plantings are providing more resources. We discuss how different life histories and environmental pressures, such as food availability, parasitism, and competition for resources can explain our contrasting findings in male and female spiders. By studying animal physiology in restoration experiments it is possible to understand the mechanistic basis of ecological and evolutionary processes that determine success of ecological restoration.

  19. EnviroAtlas - Candidate Areas for Ecological Restoration for the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset shows the candidate areas for ecological restoration, identified as close but geographically disjunct vegetated regions. Ecological...

  20. 77 FR 65167 - Blacksmith Ecological Restoration Project, Eldorado National Forest, Placer and El Dorado...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Blacksmith Ecological Restoration Project, Eldorado... comments to 7600 Wentworth Springs Rd., Georgetown, CA 95634 Attention: Blacksmith Ecological Restoration... (PSD). In preparation for prescribed fire, perimeter line construction would be needed where roads...

  1. Remote sensing for restoration ecology: Application for restoring degraded, damaged, transformed, or destroyed ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reif, Molly K; Theel, Heather J

    2017-07-01

    Restoration monitoring is generally perceived as costly and time consuming, given the assumptions of successfully restoring ecological functions and services of a particular ecosystem or habitat. Opportunities exist for remote sensing to bolster the restoration science associated with a wide variety of injured resources, including resources affected by fire, hydropower operations, chemical releases, and oil spills, among others. In the last decade, the role of remote sensing to support restoration monitoring has increased, in part due to the advent of high-resolution satellite sensors as well as other sensor technology, such as lidar. Restoration practitioners in federal agencies require monitoring standards to assess restoration performance of injured resources. This review attempts to address a technical need and provides an introductory overview of spatial data and restoration metric considerations, as well as an in-depth review of optical (e.g., spaceborne, airborne, unmanned aerial vehicles) and active (e.g., radar, lidar) sensors and examples of restoration metrics that can be measured with remotely sensed data (e.g., land cover, species or habitat type, change detection, quality, degradation, diversity, and pressures or threats). To that end, the present article helps restoration practitioners assemble information not only about essential restoration metrics but also about the evolving technological approaches that can be used to best assess them. Given the need for monitoring standards to assess restoration success of injured resources, a universal monitoring framework should include a range of remote sensing options with which to measure common restoration metrics. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:614-630. Published 2016. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Published 2016. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  2. American wild celery (Vallisneria americana): Ecological considerations for restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korschgen, C.E.; Green, W.L.

    1988-01-01

    The success of vegetation management programs for waterfowl is dependent on knowing the physical and physiological requirements of target species. Lakes and riverine impoundments that contain an abundance of the American wildcelery (Vallisneria americana ) have traditionally been favored by canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria ) and other waterfowl as feeding areas during migration. Information on the ecology of American wildcelery is summarized to serve as a guide for potential wetland restoration projects. Techniques are described for transplanting winter buds. Management programs that employ these techniques should define objectives clearly and evaluate the water regime carefully before initiating major restoration.

  3. Restoration in its natural context : how ecological momentary assessment can advance restoration research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beute, F.; de Kort, Y.A.W.; IJsselsteijn, W.A.

    2016-01-01

    More and more people use self-tracking technologies to track their psychological states, physiology, and behaviors to gain a better understanding of themselves or to achieve a certain goal. Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) also offers an excellent opportunity for restorative environments

  4. An inventory of continental U.S. terrestrial candidate ecological restoration areas based on landscape context

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Wickham; Kurt Riitters; Peter Vogt; Jennifer Costanza; Anne Neale

    2017-01-01

    Landscape context is an important factor in restoration ecology, but the use of landscape context for site prioritization has not been as fully developed.We used morphological image processing to identify candidate ecological restoration areas based on their proximity to existing natural vegetation. We identified 1,102,720 candidate ecological restoration areas across...

  5. Restoration in Its Natural Context: How Ecological Momentary Assessment Can Advance Restoration Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Femke Beute

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available More and more people use self-tracking technologies to track their psychological states, physiology, and behaviors to gain a better understanding of themselves or to achieve a certain goal. Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA also offers an excellent opportunity for restorative environments research, which examines how our physical environment (especially nature can positively influence health and wellbeing. It enables investigating restorative health effects in everyday life, providing not only high ecological validity but also opportunities to study in more detail the dynamic processes playing out over time on recovery, thereby bridging the gap between laboratory (i.e., short-term effects and epidemiological (long-term effects research. We have identified four main areas in which self-tracking could help advance restoration research: (1 capturing a rich set of environment types and restorative characteristics; (2 distinguishing intra-individual from inter-individual effects; (3 bridging the gap between laboratory and epidemiological research; and (4 advancing theoretical insights by measuring a more broad range of effects in everyday life. This paper briefly introduces restorative environments research, then reviews the state of the art of self-tracking technologies and methodologies, discusses how these can be implemented to advance restoration research, and presents some examples of pioneering work in this area.

  6. Cultural Keystone Species: Implications for Ecological Conservation and Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Garibaldi

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Ecologists have long recognized that some species, by virtue of the key roles they play in the overall structure and functioning of an ecosystem, are essential to its integrity; these are known as keystone species. Similarly, in human cultures everywhere, there are plants and animals that form the contextual underpinnings of a culture, as reflected in their fundamental roles in diet, as materials, or in medicine. In addition, these species often feature prominently in the language, ceremonies, and narratives of native peoples and can be considered cultural icons. Without these "cultural keystone species," the societies they support would be completely different. An obvious example is western red-cedar (Thuja plicata for Northwest Coast cultures of North America. Often prominent elements of local ecosystems, cultural keystone species may be used and harvested in large quantities and intensively managed for quality and productivity. Given that biological conservation and ecological restoration embody human cultures as crucial components, one approach that may improve success in overall conservation or restoration efforts is to recognize and focus on cultural keystone species. In this paper, we explore the concept of cultural keystone species, describe similarities to and differences from ecological keystone species, present examples from First Nations cultures of British Columbia, and discuss the application of this concept in ecological restoration and conservation initiatives.

  7. Restoration treatments in urban park forests drive long-term changes in vegetation trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lea R; Handel, Steven N

    2016-04-01

    Municipalities are turning to ecological restoration of urban forests as a measure to improve air quality, ameliorate urban heat island effects, improve storm water infiltration, and provide other social and ecological benefits. However, community dynamics following urban forest restoration treatments are poorly documented. This study examines the long-term effects of ecological restoration undertaken in New York City, New York, USA, to restore native forest in urban park natural areas invaded by woody non-native plants that are regional problems. In 2009 and 2010, we sampled vegetation in 30 invaded sites in three large public parks that were restored 1988-1993, and 30 sites in three large parks that were similarly invaded but had not been restored. Data from these matched plots reveal that the restoration treatment achieved its central goals. After 15-20 years, invasive species removal followed by native tree planting resulted in persistent structural and compositional shifts, significantly lower invasive species abundance, a more complex forest structure, and greater native tree recruitment. Together, these findings indicate that successional trajectories of vegetation dynamics have diverged between restored forests and invaded forests that were not restored. In addition, the data suggest that future composition of these urban forest patches will be novel assemblages. Restored and untreated sites shared a suite of shade-intolerant, quickly-growing tree species that colonize disturbed sites, indicating that restoration treatments created sites hospitable for germination and growth of species adapted to high light conditions and disturbed soils. These findings yield an urban perspective on the use of succession theory in ecological restoration. Models of ecological restoration developed in more pristine environments must be modified for use in cities. By anticipating both urban disturbances and ecological succession, management of urban forest patches can be

  8. Restoration ecology: two-sex dynamics and cost minimization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferenc Molnár

    Full Text Available We model a spatially detailed, two-sex population dynamics, to study the cost of ecological restoration. We assume that cost is proportional to the number of individuals introduced into a large habitat. We treat dispersal as homogeneous diffusion in a one-dimensional reaction-diffusion system. The local population dynamics depends on sex ratio at birth, and allows mortality rates to differ between sexes. Furthermore, local density dependence induces a strong Allee effect, implying that the initial population must be sufficiently large to avert rapid extinction. We address three different initial spatial distributions for the introduced individuals; for each we minimize the associated cost, constrained by the requirement that the species must be restored throughout the habitat. First, we consider spatially inhomogeneous, unstable stationary solutions of the model's equations as plausible candidates for small restoration cost. Second, we use numerical simulations to find the smallest rectangular cluster, enclosing a spatially homogeneous population density, that minimizes the cost of assured restoration. Finally, by employing simulated annealing, we minimize restoration cost among all possible initial spatial distributions of females and males. For biased sex ratios, or for a significant between-sex difference in mortality, we find that sex-specific spatial distributions minimize the cost. But as long as the sex ratio maximizes the local equilibrium density for given mortality rates, a common homogeneous distribution for both sexes that spans a critical distance yields a similarly low cost.

  9. Restoration ecology: two-sex dynamics and cost minimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnár, Ferenc; Caragine, Christina; Caraco, Thomas; Korniss, Gyorgy

    2013-01-01

    We model a spatially detailed, two-sex population dynamics, to study the cost of ecological restoration. We assume that cost is proportional to the number of individuals introduced into a large habitat. We treat dispersal as homogeneous diffusion in a one-dimensional reaction-diffusion system. The local population dynamics depends on sex ratio at birth, and allows mortality rates to differ between sexes. Furthermore, local density dependence induces a strong Allee effect, implying that the initial population must be sufficiently large to avert rapid extinction. We address three different initial spatial distributions for the introduced individuals; for each we minimize the associated cost, constrained by the requirement that the species must be restored throughout the habitat. First, we consider spatially inhomogeneous, unstable stationary solutions of the model's equations as plausible candidates for small restoration cost. Second, we use numerical simulations to find the smallest rectangular cluster, enclosing a spatially homogeneous population density, that minimizes the cost of assured restoration. Finally, by employing simulated annealing, we minimize restoration cost among all possible initial spatial distributions of females and males. For biased sex ratios, or for a significant between-sex difference in mortality, we find that sex-specific spatial distributions minimize the cost. But as long as the sex ratio maximizes the local equilibrium density for given mortality rates, a common homogeneous distribution for both sexes that spans a critical distance yields a similarly low cost.

  10. Measures to restore metallurgical mine wasteland using ecological restoration technologies: A case study at Longnan Rare Earth Mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Yunzhang; Gu, Ruizhi; Guo, Ruikai; Zhang, Xueyan

    2017-01-01

    Whereas mining activities produce the raw materials that are crucial to economic growth, such activities leave extensive scarring on the land, contributing to the waste of valuable land resources and upsetting the ecological environment. The aim of this study is therefore to investigate various ecological technologies to restore metallurgical mine wastelands. These technologies include measures such as soil amelioration, vegetation restoration, different vegetation planting patterns, and engineering technologies. The Longnan Rare Earth Mine in the Jiangxi Province of China is used as the case study. The ecological restoration process provides a favourable reference for the restoration of a metallurgical mine wasteland.

  11. Integrated models to support multiobjective ecological restoration decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Hannah; Rumpff, Libby; Yen, Jian D L; Robinson, Doug; Wintle, Brendan A

    2017-12-01

    Many objectives motivate ecological restoration, including improving vegetation condition, increasing the range and abundance of threatened species, and improving species richness and diversity. Although models have been used to examine the outcomes of ecological restoration, few researchers have attempted to develop models to account for multiple, potentially competing objectives. We developed a combined state-and-transition, species-distribution model to predict the effects of restoration actions on vegetation condition and extent, bird diversity, and the distribution of several bird species in southeastern Australian woodlands. The actions reflected several management objectives. We then validated the models against an independent data set and investigated how the best management decision might change when objectives were valued differently. We also used model results to identify effective restoration options for vegetation and bird species under a constrained budget. In the examples we evaluated, no one action (improving vegetation condition and extent, increasing bird diversity, or increasing the probability of occurrence for threatened species) provided the best outcome across all objectives. In agricultural lands, the optimal management actions for promoting the occurrence of the Brown Treecreeper (Climacteris picumnus), an iconic threatened species, resulted in little improvement in the extent of the vegetation and a high probability of decreased vegetation condition. This result highlights that the best management action in any situation depends on how much the different objectives are valued. In our example scenario, no management or weed control were most likely to be the best management options to satisfy multiple restoration objectives. Our approach to exploring trade-offs in management outcomes through integrated modeling and structured decision-support approaches has wide application for situations in which trade-offs exist between competing

  12. Atraumatic restorative treatment in atypical cavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Simino Carvalho

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The atraumatic restorative treatment has been widely divulged among professionals in the area of Pediatric Dentistry. This restorative technique is included in the philosophy of Minimal Intervention and is considered one of the most conservative treatments, because only the layer of infected dentin caries is removed. Moreover, the atraumatic restorative treatment has been shown to be less painful than conventional approaches, and local anesthesia is rarely required. After the removal of the infected dentin, the cavities are filled with glass ionomer cement, a material that has antimicrobial capacity, good marginal sealing and constant fluorine release and recharge. In spite of the increasing number of studies about atraumatic restorative treatment, only studies related to restorations in occlusal cavities have shown scientific evidences about the technique. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of atraumatic restorative treatment in cavities with 3 or more surfaces involved, by means of a clinical case report of a patient with extensive dstruction in primary teeth, who was submitted to atraumatic restorative treatment, and observe the result of the treatment after one year of clinical and radiographic control.

  13. Fruit color preference by birds and applications to ecological restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. L. Gagetti

    Full Text Available Abstract Ecological restoration aims to retrieve not only the structure but also the functionality of ecosystems. Frugivorous birds may play an important role in this process due to their efficiency in seed dispersal. Color perception in these animals is highly developed, and then the colors of fleshy fruits may provide important clues for choosing plant species for restoration plans. This study aims to integrate bird color preferences and restoration of degraded areas, with an objective to evaluate the potential attractiveness to birds by colored fruits. We carried out an experiment with 384 artificial fruits made of edible modeling clay with the following colors: black, blue, green and red, with 96 fruits of each color in six sites, including four restored areas and two second-growth forest fragments. We also tested the possible effect of light intensity on fruit consumption by color. A total of 120 (38.6% were assumed to be consumed by birds, and the fruit consumption varied in response to the location and light incidence. Consumption of black and blue fruits was not related to site by chance. Notwithstanding, red and black fruits were consumed significantly more than any other colors, emphasizing bird preference to these colors, regardless of location. Enrichment with shade tolerant shrubs or forest species with black or red fruits may be an alternative way to manage established restorations. In recently established or new restorations, one may introduce pioneer shrubs or short-lived forest species which have blue fruits, but also those having black or red ones.

  14. Dental lesions and restorative treatment in molars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghiu Irina-Maria

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This article review specific clinical issues of the molar teeth, as well as the therapeutic approach of their pathology. The dental pathology we face in the group of molars is related to: dental caries, dental trauma (crown and crown-root fractures, dental wear phenomena. The therapeutic approach of the molar teeth is represented by: restoration of the loss of hard dental tissues; endodontic treatments of pulpal and periapical complications; surgical treatment. The restorative treatments in molars are: direct restorations, with or without supplementary anchorage for obturations; inlay, onlay; prosthetic crown.

  15. Ecological restoration should be redefined for the twenty-first century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, David M

    2017-09-24

    Forty years ago, ecological restoration was conceptualized through a natural science lens. Today, ecological restoration has evolved into a social and scientific concept. The duality of ecological restoration is acknowledged in guidance documents on the subject but is not apparent in its definition. Current definitions reflect our views about what ecological restoration does but not why we do it. This viewpoint does not give appropriate credit to contributions from social sciences, nor does it provide compelling goals for people with different motivating rationales to engage in or support restoration. In this study, I give a concise history of the conceptualization and definition of ecological restoration, and I propose an alternative definition and corresponding viewpoint on restoration goal-setting to meet twenty-first century scientific and public inquiry.

  16. Ecological restoration, ecosystem services, and land use: a European perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Tolvanen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This special feature provides an overview on how the ecosystem service concept has been and can be incorporated into the science, practice, and policies of ecological restoration (ER and evidence-based land-use. It includes an edited selection of eleven invited and peer-reviewed papers based on presentations given during the 9th European Conference on Ecological Restoration in 2014. The focus is on Europe, but many contributors also make appraisals and recommendations at the global scale. Based on the contributors' papers, and our own overview of the promise of ecological restoration in the existing international treaties, coalitions, and conventions, we propose that the following actions could contribute to the positive impacts of ER on biodiversity maintenance, ecosystem functioning, progressive mainstreaming the concepts of both ER and ecosystem services, significant mitigation and offsetting of anthropogenic climate change, and lasting enhancement of both ecosystem and human health: •\tER should be incorporated into land use planning, wherever needed, and the synergies and trade-offs of different land use scenarios should be assessed in terms of their impacts on ecosystem services. •\tThe discourse of ER should be enlarged, wherever it is needed, to include multifunctional land use that simultaneously supports sustainable production systems, built environments, and the quality and quantity of diverse ecosystem services. This approach will generate ecological, social, and economic benefits in the long run. •\tMonitoring and evaluation of ER projects should be a continuous process involving careful selection of indicators chosen with the full range of stakeholders in mind, and a sufficiently long-term perspective to catch the progress of long-term or highly dynamic ecosystem processes. •\tScientists should actively participate in policy and land management discussions in order to give their views on the potential outcomes of decisions.

  17. Where to restore ecological connectivity? Detecting barriers and quantifying restoration benefits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad H McRae

    Full Text Available Landscape connectivity is crucial for many ecological processes, including dispersal, gene flow, demographic rescue, and movement in response to climate change. As a result, governmental and non-governmental organizations are focusing efforts to map and conserve areas that facilitate movement to maintain population connectivity and promote climate adaptation. In contrast, little focus has been placed on identifying barriers-landscape features which impede movement between ecologically important areas-where restoration could most improve connectivity. Yet knowing where barriers most strongly reduce connectivity can complement traditional analyses aimed at mapping best movement routes. We introduce a novel method to detect important barriers and provide example applications. Our method uses GIS neighborhood analyses in conjunction with effective distance analyses to detect barriers that, if removed, would significantly improve connectivity. Applicable in least-cost, circuit-theoretic, and simulation modeling frameworks, the method detects both complete (impermeable barriers and those that impede but do not completely block movement. Barrier mapping complements corridor mapping by broadening the range of connectivity conservation alternatives available to practitioners. The method can help practitioners move beyond maintaining currently important areas to restoring and enhancing connectivity through active barrier removal. It can inform decisions on trade-offs between restoration and protection; for example, purchasing an intact corridor may be substantially more costly than restoring a barrier that blocks an alternative corridor. And it extends the concept of centrality to barriers, highlighting areas that most diminish connectivity across broad networks. Identifying which modeled barriers have the greatest impact can also help prioritize error checking of land cover data and collection of field data to improve connectivity maps. Barrier detection

  18. Benefits of using a Social-Ecological Systems Approach to Conceptualize and Model Wetlands Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using a social-ecological systems (SES) perspective to examine wetland restoration helps decision-makers recognize interdependencies and relations between ecological and social components of coupled systems. Conceptual models are an invaluable tool to capture, visualize, and orga...

  19. Ecological and Social Dimensions of Ecosystem Restoration in the Nordic Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar Hagen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available An international overview of the extent and type of ecological restoration can offer new perspectives for understanding, planning, and implementation. The Nordic countries, with a great range of natural conditions but historically similar social and political structures, provide an opportunity to compare restoration approaches and efforts across borders. The aim of this study was to explore variation in ecological restoration using the Nordic countries as an example. We used recent national assessments and expert evaluations of ecological restoration. Restoration efforts differed among countries: forest and peatland restoration was most common in Finland, freshwater restoration was most common in Sweden, restoration of natural heathlands and grasslands was most common in Iceland, restoration of natural and semi-cultural heathlands was most common in Norway, and restoration of cultural ecosystems, mainly abandoned agricultural land, was most common in Denmark. Ecological restoration currently does not occur on the Faroe Islands. Economic incentives influence ecological restoration and depend on laws and policies in each country. Our analyses suggest that habitat types determine the methods of ecological restoration, whereas socio-economic drivers are more important for the decisions concerning the timing and location of restoration. To improve the understanding, planning, and implementation of ecological restoration, we advocate increased cooperation and knowledge sharing across disciplines and among countries, both in the Nordic countries and internationally. An obvious advantage of such cooperation is that a wider range of experiences from different habitats and different socio-economic conditions becomes available and thus provides a more solid basis for developing practical solutions for restoration methods and policies.

  20. Soil Quality in Mining Areas Undergoing Ecological Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinarowski, Marcela; Casagrande, José Carlos; Bizuti, Denise T. G.; Silva, Luiz Gabriel; Soares, Marcio Roberto; Brancalion, Pedro H. S.

    2014-05-01

    Mining is one of the anthropogenic activities most impactful to natural resources, and can profoundly affect the resilience of ecosystems depending on the level of soil degradation. Ecological restoration has generated promising results even in situations of degradation as intense as those of mining. The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of the soil in areas explored by the bauxite extraction undergoing restoration: recently mined, seven years, 20 years and native forest. The studied areas are located in the municipality of Poços de Caldas-MG, belonging to ALCOA Alumínio. The mined-out areas for seven and twenty years were uncompressed and received topsoil, liming and fertilization with nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. Samples for chemical analyses of soil fertility were carried out at depths of 0-5, 5-10, 10-20, 20-40 and 40-60 cm. Soil quality was evaluated by pondered additive model. The parameters were considered organic matter (0.6) and bases saturation (0.4) for soil fertility function (0.6) and calcium (0.5) and aluminum saturation (0.5) for the function root development (0.4) - (the numbers in parentheses represent the weights attributed). Despite the high content, only the organic matter was not a parameter enough to classify the soil quality, once the native forest has very low base saturation (7%). The soil quality index(SQI) obtained allowed to classify the areas, being the first restored 20 years ago with SQI equal to 0.7 followed of the restored 7 years ago, native forest and newly mined with SQIs equal to 0.6, 04 and 0.3, respectively. The native tropical forests have low soil fertility, keeping by the cycling of nutrients. This demonstrates the need for the degraded areas, especially the mined, are uncompressed to allow storage of water and root development, in addition to the replacement of nutrients and soil acidity correction, especially high levels of aluminum saturation (66%) and low calcium (3 mmolcdm-3).

  1. Research on fast ecological restoration technology of high and steep rocky slope of highway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xin

    2017-08-01

    Along with the development of the western region, the traffic construction in mountainous areas is booming. In the infrastructure, it produced a large number of secondary bare land. Soil erosion is serious. Based on the literature search and analysis of the domestic and international slope ecological restoration technology, this paper proposes a fast and efficient adaptive highway high steep rock slope ecological restoration technology (it has been authorized by the national patent). And it states the systemic structure, working principle and key construction technology. The ecological restoration technique combines the growth characteristics of the vegetation and the characteristics of the rock mass, which not only improves the survival rate of plants, but also stable slope. The results of this study make up for the shortcomings of the existing ecological restoration technology of slope. Compared with the prior art, which have obvious advantages and suitable for the ecological restoration of high steep rock slope.

  2. Oral environment control before restorative treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Matos Vieira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to describe caries disease treatment, by means of a clinical case report, with a view to promoting the patient’s health before definitive restorative treatments, considering that treatment should include changes in the patient’s dietary and hygiene habits, and not be restricted only to restoring lesions, as well as the establishment of an individualized treatment plan for each patient. Iodine-based antimicrobial solution was applied, instructions about oral hygiene and dietary habit changes were provided. The stepwise excavation technique was performed in tooth 15, mass excavation followed by the application of glass ionomer cement in the other teeth that presented carious lesions. White stain lesions were remineralized, and cicatrizes and fissures in the posterior teeth were sealed. After health was reestablished, the temporary restorations were replaced by definitive restorations. Changes in the treatment philosophy of caries disease, based on changes in the patient’s habits and removal of foci of infection have been presented with the object of producing an effective change in this paradigm, in order to increase the longevity of teeth with less operative intervention.

  3. Restoring lepidopteran diversity in a tropical dry forest: relative importance of restoration treatment, tree identity and predator pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizet Solis-Gabriel

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Tropical dry forests (TDFs have been widely transformed by human activities worldwide and the ecosystem services they provide are diminishing. There has been an urgent call for conservation and restoration of the degraded lands previously occupied by TDFs. Restoration experiences aim to recover species diversity and ecological functions. Different restoration strategies have been used to maximize plant performance including weeding, planting or using artificial mulching. In this investigation, we evaluated whether different restoration practices influence animal arrival and the reestablishment of biotic interactions. We particularly evaluated lepidopteran larvae diversity and caterpillar predation on plants established under different restoration treatments (mulching, weeding and control in the Pacific West Coast of México. This study corroborated the importance of plant host identity for lepidopteran presence in a particular area. Lepidopteran diversity and herbivory rates were not affected by the restoration treatment but they were related to tree species. In contrast, caterpillar predation marks were affected by restoration treatment, with a greater number of predation marks in control plots, while caterpillar predation marks among plant species were not significantly different. This study highlights the importance of considering the introduction of high plant species diversity when planning TDF restoration to maximize lepidopteran diversity and ecosystem functioning.

  4. Restoring lepidopteran diversity in a tropical dry forest: relative importance of restoration treatment, tree identity and predator pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solis-Gabriel, Lizet; Mendoza-Arroyo, Wendy; Boege, Karina; Del-Val, Ek

    2017-01-01

    Tropical dry forests (TDFs) have been widely transformed by human activities worldwide and the ecosystem services they provide are diminishing. There has been an urgent call for conservation and restoration of the degraded lands previously occupied by TDFs. Restoration experiences aim to recover species diversity and ecological functions. Different restoration strategies have been used to maximize plant performance including weeding, planting or using artificial mulching. In this investigation, we evaluated whether different restoration practices influence animal arrival and the reestablishment of biotic interactions. We particularly evaluated lepidopteran larvae diversity and caterpillar predation on plants established under different restoration treatments (mulching, weeding and control) in the Pacific West Coast of México. This study corroborated the importance of plant host identity for lepidopteran presence in a particular area. Lepidopteran diversity and herbivory rates were not affected by the restoration treatment but they were related to tree species. In contrast, caterpillar predation marks were affected by restoration treatment, with a greater number of predation marks in control plots, while caterpillar predation marks among plant species were not significantly different. This study highlights the importance of considering the introduction of high plant species diversity when planning TDF restoration to maximize lepidopteran diversity and ecosystem functioning.

  5. ENDODONTIC TREATMENT AND POST-CORE RESTORATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evi Hafifah

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Endodontic root canal treatment is to maintain the tooth as long as possible in the arch’s width in a good functional status. In order to reach that goal, all irritation to the pulp should be eliminated so that the tooth has a healthy periodontal tissue support. A female patient, aged 37 years, came for her upper front tooth which had been restored with a pin crown a year ago. One month ago she had a swelling accompanied with throbbing pain. There was no history of general diseases and her oral hygiene was good. Clinically 11 was restored with a pin crown and the radiographic picture showed a narrow pulp chamber, normal roots with normal canals, thickened periodontium, broken laminar dura, and diffuse periapical rarefaction. The tooth was diagnosed with pulpal necrosis. A conventional root canal treatment was performed followed by the insertion of a post core crown. The result showed a satisfactory treatment plan, a good restoration, successful treatment in this case was due to the role of the dentist to create healthy soft and hard tissues in the oral cavity before restoration, and also due to patient cooperation.

  6. Conceptualizing and communicating ecological river restoration: Chapter 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Robert B.; Berkley, Jim

    2011-01-01

    We present a general conceptual model for communicating aspects of river restoration and management. The model is generic and adaptable to most riverine settings, independent of size. The model has separate categories of natural and social-economic drivers, and management actions are envisioned as modifiers of naturally dynamic systems. The model includes a decision-making structure in which managers, stakeholders, and scientists interact to define management objectives and performance evaluation. The model depicts a stress to the riverine ecosystem as either (1) deviation in the regimes (flow, sediment, temperature, light, biogeochemical, and genetic) by altering the frequency, magnitude, duration, timing, or rate of change of the fluxes or (2) imposition of a hard structural constraint on channel form. Restoration is depicted as naturalization of those regimes or removal of the constraint. The model recognizes the importance of river history in conditioning future responses. Three hierarchical tiers of essential ecosystem characteristics (EECs) illustrate how management actions typically propagate through physical/chemical processes to habitat to biotic responses. Uncertainty and expense in modeling or measuring responses increase in moving from tiers 1 to 3. Social-economic characteristics are shown in a parallel structure that emphasizes the need to quantify trade-offs between ecological and social-economic systems. Performance measures for EECs are also hierarchical, showing that selection of measures depend on participants’ willingness to accept uncertainty. The general form is of an adaptive management loop in which the performance measures are compared to reference conditions or success criteria and the information is fed back into the decision-making process.

  7. ATRAUMATIC RESTORATIVE TREATMENT IN TEMPORARY DENTITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana PETCU

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Atraumatic restorative treatment (ART is a minimally invasive method of treatment of dental caries that uses only hand tools. ART was originally developed in Tanzania in the 1980’s as part of an oral health program, created by the need to find a method of teeth preservation in people of all ages from disadvantaged communities, where resources like water, electricity and conventional dental equipment were rarely available

  8. Application of Laser Irradiation for Restorative Treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoudi, Amin; Sanei, Maryam; Badrian, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, lasers are widely used in many fields of medicine. Also, they can be applied at many branches of dental practice such as diagnosis, preventive procedures, restorative treatments, and endodontic therapies. Procedures like caries removal, re-mineralization, and vital pulp therapy are the most noticeable effects of laser irradiation which has gained much attention among clinicians. With controlled and appropriate wavelength, they can help stimulating dentinogenesis, controlling pulpal hemorrhage, sterilization, healing of collagenic proteins, formation of a fibrous matrix, and inducing hard tissue barrier. Nevertheless, there are many controversies in literatures regarding their effects on the quality of bonded restorations. It hampered a wide application of lasers in some aspects of restorative dentistry and requirements to identify the best way to use this technology. The aim of this mini review is to explain special characteristics of laser therapy and to introduce the possible applications of laser devices for dental purposes.

  9. Ecological engineering alternatives for remediation and restoration of a drastically disturbed landscape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nairn, R W; Hare, L; Mercer, M; Dresback, K; Pepple, K; Kirchner, A; Cseak, D; Lossing, J; Durham, C; Chen, B

    1999-07-01

    As part of a Fall 1998 Environmental Science graduate seminar in Ecological Engineering at the University of Oklahoma, students were asked to submit a proposal for the holistic and sustainable restoration of the Tar Creek Superfund Site, Ottawa county, Oklahoma. the Tar Creek site is a portion of an abandoned lead and zinc mining area known as the Tri-State Mining District (OL, KS and MO) and includes approximately 104 square kilometers of disturbed land surface and contaminated water resources in extreme northeastern Oklahoma. Approximately 94 million cubic meters of contaminated water currently exist in the underground voids. In 1979, acidic, metal-rich waters began to discharge into Tar Creek from natural springs, bore holes and mine shafts. In addition, approximately 37 million cubic meters of processed mine waste materials (chat) litter their surface in large piles. Approximately 324 hectares of contaminated tailings settling ponds also exist on site. Student submitted proposals addressed the following four subject areas: passive treatment options for stream water quality improvement, surface reclamation and revegetation, stream habitat restoration and joint ecological and economic sustainability. Proposed designs for passive treatment of the contaminated mine drainage included unique constructed wetland designs that relief on a combination of biological and geochemical processes, use of microbial mats for luxury metal uptake, enhanced iron oxidation via windmill-based aeration and fly ash injection. proposed surface reclamation methods included minimal regrading following by biosolid, ash and other organic amendment applications and several phytoremediation techniques, especially the use of hyperaccumulators. The stream and riparian restoration portion of the proposals focused on chat removal, phytoremediation and species reintroduction. proposed joint ecological and economic sustainability ventures included development of recreational facilities, mining

  10. An appraisal of adaptive management planning and implementation in ecological restoration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nagarkar, Mita; Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    Adaptive management has been defined and redefined in the context of natural resource management, yet there are few examples of its successful application in ecological restoration. Although the 2009 Delta Reform Act now legally requires adaptive management for all restoration efforts in the Sacr......Adaptive management has been defined and redefined in the context of natural resource management, yet there are few examples of its successful application in ecological restoration. Although the 2009 Delta Reform Act now legally requires adaptive management for all restoration efforts...

  11. Atraumatic restorative treatment and minimal intervention dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frencken, J E

    2017-08-11

    Too many people worldwide suffer from the consequences of untreated dentine carious lesions. This finding reflects the inability of the currently used traditional mode of treatments to manage such lesions. A change is needed. Dental training institutions should depart from the traditional 'drill and fill' treatments and embrace the holistic oral healthcare approach that is minimal intervention dentistry (MID) and includes within it minimally invasive operative skills. Dental caries is, after all, a preventable disease. The atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) concept is an example of MID. ART consists of a preventive (ART sealant) and a restorative (ART restoration) component. ART sealants using high-viscosity glass-ionomer (HVGIC) have a very high dentine carious lesion preventive effect. The survival rate of these sealants is not significantly different from that of sealants produced with resin. The survival rate of ART/HVGIC restorations matches those of amalgam and resin composite in single- and multiple-surface cavities in primary teeth and in single-surface cavities in permanent teeth. The principles of carious tissue removal within a cavity recommended by the International Caries Consensus Collaboration are in line with those of treating a cavity using ART. Owing to its good performance and the low levels of discomfort/pain and dental anxiety associated with it, ART and/or other evidence-based atraumatic care procedures should be the first treatment for a primary dentine carious lesion. Only if the use of ART is not indicated should other more invasive and less-atraumatic care procedures be used in both primary and permanent dentitions.

  12. Application of Laser Irradiation for Restorative Treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Davoudi, Amin; Sanei, Maryam; Badrian, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, lasers are widely used in many fields of medicine. Also, they can be applied at many branches of dental practice such as diagnosis, preventive procedures, restorative treatments, and endodontic therapies. Procedures like caries removal, re-mineralization, and vital pulp therapy are the most noticeable effects of laser irradiation which has gained much attention among clinicians. With controlled and appropriate wavelength, they can help stimulating dentinogenesis, controlling pulpal ...

  13. Restorative treatment decisions of Croatian university teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baraba, Anja; Doméjean, Sophie; Jurić, Hrvoje; Espelid, Ivar; Tveit, Anne B; Anić, Ivica

    2012-12-01

    This study aimed to identify differences in diagnostic criteria and restorative treatment among Croatian university teachers. The questionnaire was distributed to 120 Croatian university teachers in Zagreb and Rijeka. Responses were collected from 59 (49.2%) university teachers. Treatment thresholds for hypothetical approximal and occlusal caries, as well as most favored types of restorative techniques and materials were assessed. The majority (34%) of the respondents would intervene for an approximal caries lesion at the enamel-dentin junction. The leading strategy for occlusal caries was postponing operative treatment until the caries lesion was in the outer third of dentin and removing caries tissue only. Composite resin was the predominant material of choice for restoration of approximal and occlusal caries (70% and 81% respectively). More than half (54%) of Croatian university teachers believed the radiographs underestimated the depth of the caries lesion compared with clinical finding. Findings of this study should be a guideline for Croatian university teachers for a more consistent and modern teaching on the subject of caries management.

  14. Environmental restoration and biological contamination: ecological and legal aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademir Reis

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Environmental restoration is a pressing current need. However, protected areas have been exposed to biological contamination risks because the traditional techniques of restoration frequently use exotic species. This causes some concern, since biological contamination is the second major cause of species extinction in the world. It is important to use only native species in restoration projects in order to promote an effective environmental restoration without the risk of contamination. This paper discusses some issues concerning environmental restoration, biological contamination and the need for clearer laws.

  15. Ecological and social dimensions of ecosystem restoration in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagen, Dagmar; Svavarsdottir, Kristin; Nilsson, Christer

    2013-01-01

    An international overview of the extent and type of ecological restoration can offer new perspectives for understanding, planning, and implementation. The Nordic countries, with a great range of natural conditions but historically similar social and political structures, provide an opportunity...... and among countries, both in the Nordic countries and internationally. An obvious advantage of such cooperation is that a wider range of experiences from different habitats and different socio-economic conditions becomes available and thus provides a more solid basis for developing practical solutions...... to compare restoration approaches and efforts across borders. The aim of this study was to explore variation in ecological restoration using the Nordic countries as an example. We used recent national assessments and expert evaluations of ecological restoration. Restoration efforts differed among countries...

  16. Shortleaf pine restoration and ecology in the Ozarks: proceedings of a symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    John M. Kabrick; Daniel C. Dey; David Gwaze

    2007-01-01

    Contains 27 papers and 14 extended abstracts from the symposium "Shortleaf pine restoration and ecology in the Ozarks" held November 7-9, 2006, at the University Plaza Hotel and Convention Center in Springfield, MO.

  17. Study on monitoring ecological restoration in Jiuli mining area by SAR image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Na; Chen, Fu; Tang, Qian

    2011-10-01

    The ecological restoration in mining area is one of the study hot spots in the field of resources and environment at present. The vegetation biomass is used as the ecological restoration evaluation index in mining area in the paper. The synthetic aperture radar image after ecological restoration in mining area is used to classify different kinds of vegetation covers. Integrating the field data and the data of L band, the average total backward scattering coefficient which corresponds to the synthetic aperture radar image is calculated and the relation model between the average total backward scattering coefficient and vegetation biomass is established. At last the vegetation biomass is assessed in Jiuli mining area. The results show that the vegetation biomass characteristics which are assessed by using synthetic aperture radar image data and the field data of vegetation biomass characteristics have better consistency in Jiuli mining area. The effects of ecological restoration can be evaluated by using this relation model effectively and accurately.

  18. A systematic review of ecological attributes that confer resilience to climate change in environmental restoration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britta L Timpane-Padgham

    Full Text Available Ecological restoration is widely practiced as a means of rehabilitating ecosystems and habitats that have been degraded or impaired through human use or other causes. Restoration practices now are confronted by climate change, which has the potential to influence long-term restoration outcomes. Concepts and attributes from the resilience literature can help improve restoration and monitoring efforts under changing climate conditions. We systematically examined the published literature on ecological resilience to identify biological, chemical, and physical attributes that confer resilience to climate change. We identified 45 attributes explicitly related to climate change and classified them as individual- (9, population- (6, community- (7, ecosystem- (7, or process-level attributes (16. Individual studies defined resilience as resistance to change or recovery from disturbance, and only a few studies explicitly included both concepts in their definition of resilience. We found that individual and population attributes generally are suited to species- or habitat-specific restoration actions and applicable at the population scale. Community attributes are better suited to habitat-specific restoration at the site scale, or system-wide restoration at the ecosystem scale. Ecosystem and process attributes vary considerably in their type and applicability. We summarize these relationships in a decision support table and provide three example applications to illustrate how these classifications can be used to prioritize climate change resilience attributes for specific restoration actions. We suggest that (1 including resilience as an explicit planning objective could increase the success of restoration projects, (2 considering the ecological context and focal scale of a restoration action is essential in choosing appropriate resilience attributes, and (3 certain ecological attributes, such as diversity and connectivity, are more commonly considered to

  19. A systematic review of ecological attributes that confer resilience to climate change in environmental restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timpane-Padgham, Britta L; Beechie, Tim; Klinger, Terrie

    2017-01-01

    Ecological restoration is widely practiced as a means of rehabilitating ecosystems and habitats that have been degraded or impaired through human use or other causes. Restoration practices now are confronted by climate change, which has the potential to influence long-term restoration outcomes. Concepts and attributes from the resilience literature can help improve restoration and monitoring efforts under changing climate conditions. We systematically examined the published literature on ecological resilience to identify biological, chemical, and physical attributes that confer resilience to climate change. We identified 45 attributes explicitly related to climate change and classified them as individual- (9), population- (6), community- (7), ecosystem- (7), or process-level attributes (16). Individual studies defined resilience as resistance to change or recovery from disturbance, and only a few studies explicitly included both concepts in their definition of resilience. We found that individual and population attributes generally are suited to species- or habitat-specific restoration actions and applicable at the population scale. Community attributes are better suited to habitat-specific restoration at the site scale, or system-wide restoration at the ecosystem scale. Ecosystem and process attributes vary considerably in their type and applicability. We summarize these relationships in a decision support table and provide three example applications to illustrate how these classifications can be used to prioritize climate change resilience attributes for specific restoration actions. We suggest that (1) including resilience as an explicit planning objective could increase the success of restoration projects, (2) considering the ecological context and focal scale of a restoration action is essential in choosing appropriate resilience attributes, and (3) certain ecological attributes, such as diversity and connectivity, are more commonly considered to confer

  20. Restoration ecology: A new forest management paradigm, or another merit badge for foresters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael R. Wagner; William M. Block; Brian W. Geils; Karl F Wenger

    2000-01-01

    Focusing on the Southwest but raising questions that are more broadly applicable, we compare ecological restoration with conventional management regimes -- multiple-use management, ecosystem management, and managing for specific resourse objectives. That restoration assumes a holistic prespective and active intervention does not distinguish it from other approaches to...

  1. Human health and ecological risks from environmental restoration and waste management activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pehlman, P.A.; Wollert, D.A.; Phillippi, R.H.

    1994-01-01

    This paper summarizes the methodologies for estimating human health and ecological risks resulting from Environmental Restoration and Waste Management activities across the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. DOE is currently assessing these activities as part of the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (EM-PEIS)

  2. Endozoochory by free-ranging, large herbivores : Ecological correlates and perspectives for restoration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mouissie, Albert; Vos, P; Verhagen, HMC; Bakker, JP

    2005-01-01

    Seed dispersal via ingestion and defecation by large herbivores provides a possible aid for ecological restoration of plant communities, by connecting source communities of target species with habitat restoration sites. It is also a possible threat due to invasion of weeds, grasses or exotic

  3. Incorporating resilience and cost in ecological restoration strategies at landscape scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Stefanes

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The restoration of deforested or degraded areas can contribute to biodiversity conservation and global resilience given the current and projected impacts of climate change. In recent years, a robust array of ecological restoration frameworks have been generated to address restoration challenges at large scales in different ecosystems around the world. Unfortunately, the costs associated with restoration at such scales greatly challenges the implementation of such frameworks. We used landscape ecology principles with multicriteria optimization of landscape resilience and agricultural productivity as a way to mitigate the trade-offs between production and restoration. We used the Cerrado biome in Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil, as a case study to apply our framework. We compared three scenarios: minimal legal compliance (MLC; selection by ecological resilience (SER; and selection by restoration cost (SRC. Our results show that increasing the restoration target from MLC (25% to SER (30% means moving from 968,316 to 1592 million hectares, which can represent a huge opportunity cost for agricultural lands. However, because costs and resilience are not homogeneously distributed throughout landscapes, we can select areas of intermediate ecological resilience and low cost, for the same restoration area target. This process can reduce potential conflicts and make restoration a more viable process. Our results also reveal some areas that can be particularly important for reconciling agriculture and landscape restoration. Those areas combined high and intermediate resilience and an above average profitability. This could mean that increasing restoration in this area could be very expensive, assuming that our proxy roughly represents the restoration implementation cost. However, there is another important message here, that some areas can be productive at the same time that they maintain levels of resilience above the legal compliance, which facilitates

  4. Potential ?Ecological Traps? of Restored Landscapes: Koalas Phascolarctos cinereus Re-Occupy a Rehabilitated Mine Site

    OpenAIRE

    Cristescu, Romane H.; Banks, Peter B.; Carrick, Frank N.; Fr?re, C?line

    2013-01-01

    With progressively increasing anthropogenic habitat disturbances, restoration of impacted landscapes is becoming a critical element of biodiversity conservation. Evaluation of success in restoration ecology rarely includes faunal components, usually only encompassing abiotic and floral components of the ecosystems. Even when fauna is explicitly included, it is usually only species presence/absence criteria that are considered. If restoration is to have a positive outcome, however, populations...

  5. Impacts of cattle on ecological restoration of coastal forests in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Livestock from communities bordered by dune mining, urban areas and commercial forestry in northern KwaZulu-Natal spend substantial time foraging in the coastal forest that the mining company is obliged to restore. A survey of livestock owners and an experimental study of impacts of cattle on restoration processes were ...

  6. Analyzing ecological restoration strategies for water and soil conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota da Silva, Jonathan; Silva, Marx Leandro Naves; Guimarães, João Luis Bittencourt; Sousa Júnior, Wilson Cabral; Figueiredo, Ricardo de Oliveira; da Rocha, Humberto Ribeiro

    2018-01-01

    The choice of areas for nature conservation involves the attempt to maximize the benefits, whether by carrying out an economic activity or by the provision of Ecosystem Services. Studies are needed to improve the understanding of the effect of the extent and position along the watershed of restored areas on soil and water conservation. This study aimed to understand how different restoration strategies might reflect in soil conservation and sediment retention. Using InVEST tool, sediment transport was simulated in a small 12 km2 watershed (Posses River, in Southeast Brazil), where one of first Brazilian Payment for Ecosystem Services (PES) projects is being carried out, comparing different hypothetical restoration strategies. With 25% of restoration, sediment export decreased by 78% for riparian restoration, and 27% for the steepest slopes restoration. On the other hand, the decrease in soil loss was lower for riparian restoration, with a 16% decrease, while the steepest slopes restoration reduced it by 21%. This mismatch between the reduction of sediment export and soil loss was explained by the fact that forest not only reduces soil loss locally but also traps sediment arriving from the upper parts of the watershed. While the first mechanism is important to provide soil stability, decreasing the risk of landslip, and to maintain agricultural productivity, the second can improve water quality and decrease the risk of silting, with positive effects on the water reservoirs at the outlet of the watershed. This suggests that Riparian and the Steepest Slopes restoration strategies are complementary in the sense of preventing sediments from reaching the water bodies as well as protecting them at their origin (with the reduction of erosion), so it will be advisable to consider the two types of restoration. PMID:29425214

  7. Analyzing ecological restoration strategies for water and soil conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Sandra Isay; Mota da Silva, Jonathan; Silva, Marx Leandro Naves; Guimarães, João Luis Bittencourt; Sousa Júnior, Wilson Cabral; Figueiredo, Ricardo de Oliveira; Rocha, Humberto Ribeiro da

    2018-01-01

    The choice of areas for nature conservation involves the attempt to maximize the benefits, whether by carrying out an economic activity or by the provision of Ecosystem Services. Studies are needed to improve the understanding of the effect of the extent and position along the watershed of restored areas on soil and water conservation. This study aimed to understand how different restoration strategies might reflect in soil conservation and sediment retention. Using InVEST tool, sediment transport was simulated in a small 12 km2 watershed (Posses River, in Southeast Brazil), where one of first Brazilian Payment for Ecosystem Services (PES) projects is being carried out, comparing different hypothetical restoration strategies. With 25% of restoration, sediment export decreased by 78% for riparian restoration, and 27% for the steepest slopes restoration. On the other hand, the decrease in soil loss was lower for riparian restoration, with a 16% decrease, while the steepest slopes restoration reduced it by 21%. This mismatch between the reduction of sediment export and soil loss was explained by the fact that forest not only reduces soil loss locally but also traps sediment arriving from the upper parts of the watershed. While the first mechanism is important to provide soil stability, decreasing the risk of landslip, and to maintain agricultural productivity, the second can improve water quality and decrease the risk of silting, with positive effects on the water reservoirs at the outlet of the watershed. This suggests that Riparian and the Steepest Slopes restoration strategies are complementary in the sense of preventing sediments from reaching the water bodies as well as protecting them at their origin (with the reduction of erosion), so it will be advisable to consider the two types of restoration.

  8. Analyzing ecological restoration strategies for water and soil conservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Isay Saad

    Full Text Available The choice of areas for nature conservation involves the attempt to maximize the benefits, whether by carrying out an economic activity or by the provision of Ecosystem Services. Studies are needed to improve the understanding of the effect of the extent and position along the watershed of restored areas on soil and water conservation. This study aimed to understand how different restoration strategies might reflect in soil conservation and sediment retention. Using InVEST tool, sediment transport was simulated in a small 12 km2 watershed (Posses River, in Southeast Brazil, where one of first Brazilian Payment for Ecosystem Services (PES projects is being carried out, comparing different hypothetical restoration strategies. With 25% of restoration, sediment export decreased by 78% for riparian restoration, and 27% for the steepest slopes restoration. On the other hand, the decrease in soil loss was lower for riparian restoration, with a 16% decrease, while the steepest slopes restoration reduced it by 21%. This mismatch between the reduction of sediment export and soil loss was explained by the fact that forest not only reduces soil loss locally but also traps sediment arriving from the upper parts of the watershed. While the first mechanism is important to provide soil stability, decreasing the risk of landslip, and to maintain agricultural productivity, the second can improve water quality and decrease the risk of silting, with positive effects on the water reservoirs at the outlet of the watershed. This suggests that Riparian and the Steepest Slopes restoration strategies are complementary in the sense of preventing sediments from reaching the water bodies as well as protecting them at their origin (with the reduction of erosion, so it will be advisable to consider the two types of restoration.

  9. Manager Perspectives on Communication and Public Engagement in Ecological Restoration Project Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    We argue that public engagement is crucial to achieving lasting ecological success in aquatic restoration efforts, and that the most effective public engagement mechanisms are what we term iterative mechanisms. Here we look to a particular social-ecological system – the restorati...

  10. Ecological restoration of central European mining sites: a summary of a multi-site analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Prach, Karel; Řehounková, Klára; Řehounek, J.; Konvalinková, Petra

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 2 (2011), 263-268 ISSN 0142-6397 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600050702 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : ecological restoration * mining * succession Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.677, year: 2011

  11. Understanding and planning ecological restoration of plant-pollinator networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devoto, Mariano; Bailey, Sallie; Craze, Paul; Memmott, Jane

    2012-04-01

    Theory developed from studying changes in the structure and function of communities during natural or managed succession can guide the restoration of particular communities. We constructed 30 quantitative plant-flower visitor networks along a managed successional gradient to identify the main drivers of change in network structure. We then applied two alternative restoration strategies in silico (restoring for functional complementarity or redundancy) to data from our early successional plots to examine whether different strategies affected the restoration trajectories. Changes in network structure were explained by a combination of age, tree density and variation in tree diameter, even when variance explained by undergrowth structure was accounted for first. A combination of field data, a network approach and numerical simulations helped to identify which species should be given restoration priority in the context of different restoration targets. This combined approach provides a powerful tool for directing management decisions, particularly when management seeks to restore or conserve ecosystem function. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  12. Prioritization of forest restoration projects: Tradeoffs between wildfire protection, ecological restoration and economic objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin C. Vogler; Alan A. Ager; Michelle A. Day; Michael Jennings; John D. Bailey

    2015-01-01

    The implementation of US federal forest restoration programs on national forests is a complex process that requires balancing diverse socioecological goals with project economics. Despite both the large geographic scope and substantial investments in restoration projects, a quantitative decision support framework to locate optimal project areas and examine...

  13. Prioritization of Forest Restoration Projects: Tradeoffs between Wildfire Protection, Ecological Restoration and Economic Objectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin C. Vogler

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of US federal forest restoration programs on national forests is a complex process that requires balancing diverse socioecological goals with project economics. Despite both the large geographic scope and substantial investments in restoration projects, a quantitative decision support framework to locate optimal project areas and examine tradeoffs among alternative restoration strategies is lacking. We developed and demonstrated a new prioritization approach for restoration projects using optimization and the framework of production possibility frontiers. The study area was a 914,657 ha national forest in eastern Oregon, US that was identified as a national priority for restoration with the goal of increasing fire resiliency and sustaining ecosystem services. The results illustrated sharp tradeoffs among the various restoration goals due to weak spatial correlation of forest stressors and provisional ecosystem services. The sharpest tradeoffs were found in simulated projects that addressed either wildfire risk to the urban interface or wildfire hazard, highlighting the challenges associated with meeting both economic and fire protection goals. Understanding the nature of tradeoffs between restoration objectives and communicating them to forest stakeholders will allow forest managers to more effectively design and implement economically feasible restoration projects.

  14. Using Green Water Farm to Improve Ecological Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Hsiou Chang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Artificial Floating Islands (AFIs are human-made floating structures capable of supporting aquatic vegetation. Previous studies pointed out that most AFIs use aquatic plants to carry out improvement of water quality and ecological conservation. This study proposed a modified AFI system, named Green Water Farm (GWF, to increase the practical application value of traditional AFIs, and added a special design to create an environment that allows for terrestrial plants (including vegetables and flowers to grow and to carry out improvement of water quality and ecological conservation. The research site was located at the waterfront of Li-tze Lake in Pitou Township, Taiwan. A GWF was established to evaluate the improvement of water quality and ecological conservation. During one year, water quality and ecological conservation assessments were recorded to investigate the performance of GWF system. The research results showed that GWF could improve water quality and ecological conservation. In addition, the results of this study can provide useful information for more food sources for humans and animals, and increase biodiversity and ecological conservation.

  15. Ecological restoration and church forests in northern Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongers, F.J.J.M.; Wassie, A.; Sterck, F.J.; Bekele Ayele, T.; Teketay, D.

    2006-01-01

    Disturbance of ecosystems by humans is of all times. The extent, however, has increased drastically over the last decades, leading to many degraded areas. Restoration of these areas is highly needed and should be based on sound knowledge of successional pathways of existing ecosystems and how people

  16. Atraumatic restorative treatment versus conventional restorative treatment for managing dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorri, Mojtaba; Martinez-Zapata, Maria José; Walsh, Tanya; Marinho, Valeria Cc; Sheiham Deceased, Aubrey; Zaror, Carlos

    2017-12-28

    Dental caries is a sugar-dependent disease that damages tooth structure and, due to loss of mineral components, may eventually lead to cavitation. Dental caries is the most prevalent disease worldwide and is considered the most important burden of oral health. Conventional treatment methods (drill and fill) involve the use of rotary burs under local anaesthesia. The need for an electricity supply, expensive handpieces and highly trained dental health personnel may limit access to dental treatment, especially in underdeveloped regions.To overcome the limitations of conventional restorative treatment, the Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART) was developed, mainly for treating caries in children living in under-served areas of the world where resources and facilities such as electricity and trained manpower are limited. ART is a minimally invasive approach which involves removal of decayed tissue using hand instruments alone, usually without use of anaesthesia and electrically driven equipment, and restoration of the dental cavity with an adhesive material (glass ionomer cement (GIC), composite resins, resin-modified glass-ionomer cement (RM-GICs) and compomers). To assess the effects of Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART) compared with conventional treatment for managing dental caries lesions in the primary and permanent teeth of children and adults. Cochrane Oral Health's Information Specialist searched the following databases: Cochrane Oral Health's Trials Register (to 22 February 2017), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (the Cochrane Library, 2017, Issue 1), MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 22 February 2017), Embase Ovid (1980 to 22 February 2017), LILACS BIREME Virtual Health Library (Latin American and Caribbean Health Science Information database; 1982 to 22 February 2017) and BBO BIREME Virtual Health Library (Bibliografia Brasileira de Odontologia; 1986 to 22 February 2017). The US National Institutes of Health Trials Registry (Clinical

  17. Potential 'ecological traps' of restored landscapes: koalas Phascolarctos cinereus re-occupy a rehabilitated mine site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristescu, Romane H; Banks, Peter B; Carrick, Frank N; Frère, Céline

    2013-01-01

    With progressively increasing anthropogenic habitat disturbances, restoration of impacted landscapes is becoming a critical element of biodiversity conservation. Evaluation of success in restoration ecology rarely includes faunal components, usually only encompassing abiotic and floral components of the ecosystems. Even when fauna is explicitly included, it is usually only species presence/absence criteria that are considered. If restoration is to have a positive outcome, however, populations in restored habitats should exhibit comparable survival and reproductive rates to populations found in undisturbed surroundings. If a species recolonises restored areas but later experiences decreased fitness, restored areas could become ecological sinks or traps. We investigated this possibility in a case study of koalas Phascolarctos cinereus occupying rehabilitated mining areas on North Stradbroke Island, Australia. Our holistic approach compared rehabilitated and undisturbed areas on the basis of their vegetation characteristics, of koalas' body condition, roosting trees, diet, as well as predator index. Koalas using rehabilitated areas appeared to be able to access an adequate supply of roosting and fodder trees, were in good condition and had high reproductive output. We did not find any significant differences in predator density between rehabilitated areas and undisturbed surroundings. The results presented in this study showed there was no evidence that the post-mining rehabilitated areas constitute ecological sinks or traps. However, to reach a definitive conclusion as to whether areas rehabilitated post-mining provide at least equivalent habitat to undisturbed locations, additional research could be undertaken to assess foliar nutrient/water/toxin differences and predation risk in rehabilitated areas compared with undisturbed areas. More generally, the evaluation of whether restoration successfully produces a functional ecological community should include criteria

  18. Potential 'ecological traps' of restored landscapes: koalas Phascolarctos cinereus re-occupy a rehabilitated mine site.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romane H Cristescu

    Full Text Available With progressively increasing anthropogenic habitat disturbances, restoration of impacted landscapes is becoming a critical element of biodiversity conservation. Evaluation of success in restoration ecology rarely includes faunal components, usually only encompassing abiotic and floral components of the ecosystems. Even when fauna is explicitly included, it is usually only species presence/absence criteria that are considered. If restoration is to have a positive outcome, however, populations in restored habitats should exhibit comparable survival and reproductive rates to populations found in undisturbed surroundings. If a species recolonises restored areas but later experiences decreased fitness, restored areas could become ecological sinks or traps. We investigated this possibility in a case study of koalas Phascolarctos cinereus occupying rehabilitated mining areas on North Stradbroke Island, Australia. Our holistic approach compared rehabilitated and undisturbed areas on the basis of their vegetation characteristics, of koalas' body condition, roosting trees, diet, as well as predator index. Koalas using rehabilitated areas appeared to be able to access an adequate supply of roosting and fodder trees, were in good condition and had high reproductive output. We did not find any significant differences in predator density between rehabilitated areas and undisturbed surroundings. The results presented in this study showed there was no evidence that the post-mining rehabilitated areas constitute ecological sinks or traps. However, to reach a definitive conclusion as to whether areas rehabilitated post-mining provide at least equivalent habitat to undisturbed locations, additional research could be undertaken to assess foliar nutrient/water/toxin differences and predation risk in rehabilitated areas compared with undisturbed areas. More generally, the evaluation of whether restoration successfully produces a functional ecological community

  19. Adopting an ecological view of metropolitan landscape: the case of "three circles" system for ecological construction and restoration in Beijing area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng; Zhang, Xin-shi

    2004-01-01

    Ecological construction and restoration for sustainable development are now a driving paradigm. It is increasingly recognized that ecological principles, especially landscape ecology theory, are not only necessary but also essential to maintain the long-term sustainability worldwide. Key landscape ecology principles-element, structure and process, dynamics, heterogeneity, hierarchies, connectivity, place and time were reviewed, and use Beijing area as a case study to illustrate how these principles might be applied to ecological construction and restoration, to eventually achieve sustainability. An example to more effectively incorporate the ecological principles in sustainable planning in China was presented.

  20. Oak conservation and restoration on private forestlands: negotiating a social-ecological landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoot, Tricia G; Schulte, Lisa A; Rickenbach, Mark

    2010-01-01

    In the midwestern United States, oak (Quercus spp.) forests are considered critical habitat for conserving biodiversity and are a declining resource. Ecological conditions, such as deer herbivory and competition from more mesic broad-leaved deciduous species, have been linked to poor oak regeneration. In the Midwest, where up to 90% of forestland is privately owned, a greater understanding of social dimensions of oak regeneration success is especially critical to designing effective restoration strategies. We sought to determine factors that serve as direct and indirect constraints to oak restoration and identify policy mechanisms that could improve the likelihood for restoration success. We conducted in-depth qualitative interviews with 32 natural resource professionals working in the Midwest Driftless Area. We found that most professionals anticipate that oak will remain only a component of the future forest. Furthermore, they identified the general unwillingness of landowners to adopt oak restoration practices as a primary driving force of regional forest change. The professionals pointed to interdependent ecological and social factors, occurring at various scales (e.g., economic cost of management, deer herbivory, and exurban residential development) as influencing landowner oak restoration decisions. Professionals emphasized the importance of government cost-share programs and long-term personal relationships to securing landowner acceptance of oak restoration practices. However, given finite societal resources, ecologically- and socially-targeted approaches were viewed as potential ways to optimize regional success.

  1. Seedling ecology and restoration of blackbrush (Coleogyne ramosissima) in the Mojave Desert, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lisa C.; Schwinning, Susanne; Esque, Todd C.

    2014-01-01

    Increases in fire frequency are disrupting many ecological communities not historically subjected to fire. In the southwestern United States, the blackbrush (Coleogyne ramosissima) community is among the most threatened, often replaced by invasive annual grasses after fire. This long-lived shrub is vulnerable because it recruits sporadically, partially due to mast seeding and the absence of a seed bank. The goal of this study was to evaluate if shrub restoration can be enhanced by identifying and ameliorating recruitment limitations. Specifically, we tested the effect of encapsulating seeds in predation-deterring “seed balls.” We also tested the effects of nurse plants and mammalian exclusion cages on seedling emergence, growth, and survivorship. These experiments were conducted in a full-factorial design across three sites differing in elevation. Over 2 years, 13% of all planted seeds emerged and the effect of seed balls was overwhelmingly negative because of low emergence. Nurse plants had overall positive effects at Low Elevation, but negative effects at Mid- and High Elevation. Emergence and survival were highest in caged plots everywhere, and effect sizes increased with elevation. Interactions between the cage and the nurse plant treatments indicated that nurse plants tended to attract mammalian predators, lowering emergence and seedling survivorship, particularly at higher elevations. Findings conform to the stress-gradient hypothesis in that interactions among seedlings and mature plants shifted from facilitation to competition as environmental stress decreased with increasing elevation, suggesting that they are transferable to ecologically similar communities elsewhere. Knowledge of site-specific recruitment limitations can help minimize ineffective restoration efforts.

  2. Combining ecosystem services assessment with structured decision making to support ecological restoration planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, David M; Mazzotta, Marisa; Bousquin, Justin

    2018-04-10

    Accounting for ecosystem services in environmental decision making is an emerging research topic. Modern frameworks for ecosystem services assessment emphasize evaluating the social benefits of ecosystems, in terms of who benefits and by how much, to aid in comparing multiple courses of action. Structured methods that use decision analytic-approaches are emerging for the practice of ecological restoration. In this article, we combine ecosystem services assessment with structured decision making to estimate and evaluate measures of the potential benefits of ecological restoration with a case study in the Woonasquatucket River watershed, Rhode Island, USA. We partnered with a local watershed management organization to analyze dozens of candidate wetland restoration sites for their abilities to supply five ecosystem services-flood water retention, scenic landscapes, learning opportunities, recreational opportunities, and birds. We developed 22 benefit indicators related to the ecosystem services as well as indicators for social equity and reliability that benefits will sustain in the future. We applied conceptual modeling and spatial analysis to estimate indicator values for each candidate restoration site. Lastly, we developed a decision support tool to score and aggregate the values for the organization to screen the restoration sites. Results show that restoration sites in urban areas can provide greater social benefits than sites in less urban areas. Our research approach is general and can be used to investigate other restoration planning studies that perform ecosystem services assessment and fit into a decision-making process.

  3. Morphological, hydrological, biogeochemical and ecological changes and challenges in river restoration - the Thur River case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirmer, M.; Luster, J.; Linde, N.; Perona, P.; Mitchell, E. A. D.; Barry, D. A.; Hollender, J.; Cirpka, O. A.; Schneider, P.; Vogt, T.; Radny, D.; Durisch-Kaiser, E.

    2014-06-01

    River restoration can enhance river dynamics, environmental heterogeneity and biodiversity, but the underlying processes governing the dynamic changes need to be understood to ensure that restoration projects meet their goals, and adverse effects are prevented. In particular, we need to comprehend how hydromorphological variability quantitatively relates to ecosystem functioning and services, biodiversity as well as ground- and surface water quality in restored river corridors. This involves (i) physical processes and structural properties, determining erosion and sedimentation, as well as solute and heat transport behavior in surface water and within the subsurface; (ii) biogeochemical processes and characteristics, including the turnover of nutrients and natural water constituents; and (iii) ecological processes and indicators related to biodiversity and ecological functioning. All these aspects are interlinked, requiring an interdisciplinary investigation approach. Here, we present an overview of the recently completed RECORD (REstored CORridor Dynamics) project in which we combined physical, chemical, and biological observations with modeling at a restored river corridor of the perialpine Thur River in Switzerland. Our results show that river restoration, beyond inducing morphologic changes that reshape the river bed and banks, triggered complex spatial patterns of bank infiltration, and affected habitat type, biotic communities and biogeochemical processes. We adopted an interdisciplinary approach of monitoring the continuing changes due to restoration measures to address the following questions: How stable is the morphological variability established by restoration? Does morphological variability guarantee an improvement in biodiversity? How does morphological variability affect biogeochemical transformations in the river corridor? What are some potential adverse effects of river restoration? How is river restoration influenced by catchment-scale hydraulics

  4. Analysis of the arboreal diversity in restorated after-fire areas in the ecological park Chipinque, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alanis Rodriguez, Eduardo; Jimenez Perez, Javier; Pando Moreno, Marisela; Aguirre Calderon, Oscar A; Trevino Garza, Eduardo J; Canizales Velazquez, Pamela A

    2010-01-01

    This research assessed the diversity of the arboreal component of areas, with and without ecological restoration, after being impacted by a wildfire in the Ecological Park Chipinque (PECh), in Northeastern Mexico. Two areas were analyzed, one facing northeast and the other Northwest in the Sierra Madre Oriental, in each facing were assessed two areas, one of them where there were not practices of ecological restoration (control) and other one in which these practices were carried out. Within each area, four sites were selected. Plots were 10 m x 10 m, in a mixed ecosystem pine-oak, ranging in height from 1000 to 1150 m above sea level; all trees with a diameter equal to 0.10 m ≥1.5 cm were assessed, and were obtained parameters of height (h) and diameter (d0.10). The diversity was estimated using the Shannon index (H') and Margalef (Da) and an analysis of Bray-Curtis was used to determine the diversity according to the similarity-dissimilarity between the ecosystems of both exposures. To evaluate the vertical distribution of species Pretzsch index was estimated, and species were distributed in different zones of altitude. The family Fagaceae was the predominant group in both areas. According to the analysis of diversity, sampled areas showed a decrease on richness and diversity. The species with the highest ecological weight in both aspects (NE and NO) and in both treatments (with and without restoration) was Quercus rysophylla; while Pinus pseudostrobus was the second specie in the restored areas due to the re-vegetation practices.

  5. Mechanical performance of encapsulated restorative glass-ionomer cements for use with Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molina, G.F.; Cabral, R.J.; Mazzola, I.; Lascano, L.B.; Frencken, J.E.F.M.

    2013-01-01

    The Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART) approach was suggested to be a suitable method to treat enamel and dentine carious lesions in patients with disabilities. The use of a restorative glass-ionomer with optimal mechanical properties is, therefore, very important. OBJECTIVE: To test the

  6. Ecological restoration of an old-growth longleaf pine stand utilizing prescribed fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Morgan Varner; John S. Kush; Ralph S. Meldahl

    2000-01-01

    Ecological restoration using prescribed fire has been underway for 3 years in an uncut, old-growth longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) stand located in south Alabama. The longleaf pine ecosystem requires frequent (once every 1-10 years) surface fire to prevent succesion to later several stages. Before this study began, this stand had not burned in >...

  7. Restoration Ecology of Lowland tropical Peatlands in Southeast Asia: Current Knowledge and Future Research Directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Page, S.; Hoscilo, A.; Wösten, J.H.M.; Jauhiainen, J.; Silvius, M.J.; Rieley, J.; Ritzema, H.P.; Tansey, K.; Graham, L.; Vasander, H.; Limin, S.

    2009-01-01

    Studies of restoration ecology are well established for northern peatlands, but at an early stage for tropical peatlands. Extensive peatland areas in Southeast Asia have been degraded through deforestation, drainage and fire, leading to on- and off-site environmental and socio-economic impacts of

  8. Occurrence, composition and ecological restoration of organic pollutants in water environment of South Canal, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y. Z.; Lin, C.; Zhou, X. S.; Zhang, Y.; Han, C. G.

    2017-08-01

    Ecological restoration of polluted river water was carried out in South Canal by adding microbial water purifying agents and biological compound enzymes. The objective of present study was to investigate the ecological restoration effect of organic pollutants by this efficient immobilized microbial technologies, analysis the occurrence and composition of organic pollutants including fifteen persistent organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), seventeen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and eighteen organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) both in natural water environment and ecological restoration area of South Canal, China. Results showed that the total concentrations of OCPs ranged from 1.11 to 1.78 ng·L-1, PAHs from 52.76 to 60.28 ng·L-1, and OPPs from 6.51 to 17.50 ng·L-1. Microbial water purifying agents and biological compound enzymes essentially had no effects on biological degradation of OCPs and PAHs in the river, but could remove OPPs with degradation rates ranging from 19.6% to 62.8% (35.2% in average). Degradation mechanisms of microbial water purifying agents and biological compound enzymes on OCPs, PAHs and OPPs remained to be further studied. This technology has a certain value in practical ecological restoration of organic pollutants in rivers and lakes.

  9. A strategy for maximizing native plant material diversity for ecological restoration, germplasm conservation and genecology research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berta Youtie; Nancy Shaw; Matt Fisk; Scott Jensen

    2012-01-01

    One of the most important steps in planning a restoration project is careful selection of ecologically adapted native plant material. As species-specific seed zone maps are not available for most species in the Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis (Wyoming big sagebrush) ecoregion in the Great Basin, USA, we are employing a provisional seed zone map based on annual...

  10. A criteria and indicators monitoring framework for food forestry embedded in the principles of ecological restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyeone; Higgs, Eric

    2018-02-02

    Food forestry is a burgeoning practice in North America, representing a strong multifunctional approach that combines agriculture, forestry, and ecological restoration. The Galiano Conservancy Association (GCA), a community conservation, restoration, and educational organization on Galiano Island, British Columbia in Canada, recently has created two food forests on their protected forested lands: one with primarily non-native species and the other comprising native species. These projects, aimed at food production, education, and promotion of local food security and sustainability, are also intended to contribute to the overall ecological integrity of the landscape. Monitoring is essential for assessing how effectively a project is meeting its goal and thus informing its adaptive management. Yet, presently, there are no comprehensive monitoring frameworks for food forestry available. To fill this need, this study developed a generic Criteria and Indicators (C&I) monitoring framework for food forestry, embedded in ecological restoration principles, by employing qualitative content analysis of 61 literature resources and semi-structured interviews with 16 experts in the fields of food forestry and ecological restoration. The generic C&I framework comprises 14 criteria, 39 indicators, and 109 measures and is intended to guide a comprehensive and systematic assessment for food forest projects. The GCA adapted the generic C&I framework to develop a customized monitoring framework. The Galiano C&I monitoring framework has comprehensive suite of monitoring parameters, which are collectively address multiple values and goals.

  11. USER MANUAL: A Practical Guide to Inoculation with Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in Ecological Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-05

    Cetraspora, Gig : Gigaspora, Cla: Claroideoglomus, Glo: Glomus, Fun: Funneliformis, Sep: Septoglomus, Rhi: Rhizoglomus, Amb: Ambispora, Arc: Archaeospora...Lester, A. Livengood, A. Davis, and L. Yonavjak. 2015. Estimating the Size and Impact of the Ecological Restoration Economy . PloS one 10:e0128339

  12. Do the Principles of Ecological Restoration Cover EU LIFE Nature Cofunded Projects in Denmark?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Morsing

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Ecological restoration is becoming a main component in nature management; hence, its definitions and interpretations of the underlying principles are widely discussed. In Denmark, restoration has been implemented for decades, and the LIFE Nature program has contributed to several large-scale projects. Our aim was to indicate tendencies in Danish nature policy by analyzing a representative sample of nature management projects. Using qualitative document analyses of official reports, we investigated how well 13 LIFE Nature cofinanced projects undertaken in Denmark fit with the principles of ecological restoration, as formulated in the nine attributes of the Society for Ecological Restoration's Primer on Ecological Restoration, and based on the five myths of ecological restoration. Objectives of the analyzed projects were divided into three categories: conservation of a single or a group of species; restoration of set-aside areas, mainly on abandoned agricultural land; and habitat management of Natura 2000 areas. Despite this grouping, improvement in living conditions for certain species associated with specific nature types was in focus in all projects. No projects considered or fulfilled all nine attributes. It seems that attributes associated with fundamental requirements for the existence of target species or habitats were more often fulfilled than attributes associated with continuity of the ecosystem as a whole, which indicated a focus on ecosystem structures rather than on processes. We found that the two assumptions of a predictable single endpoint (the myth of the Carbon Copy and that nature is controllable (the myth of Command and Control were notably frequent in the Danish projects. Often, the target ecosystem was associated with a semicultural landscape, and management focused on keeping the vegetation low and preventing overgrowth of colonizing trees. The results indicated that nature policy in Denmark and the LIFE Nature program are

  13. EnviroAtlas - Frequency and Density of Candidate Areas for Ecological Restoration by 12-digit HUC for the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset shows the number and density of candidate areas for ecological restoration in each 12-digit HUC. Ecological restoration may become a more...

  14. Valuing fire planning alternatives in forest restoration: using derived demand to integrate economics with ecological restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rideout, Douglas B; Ziesler, Pamela S; Kernohan, Nicole J

    2014-08-01

    Assessing the value of fire planning alternatives is challenging because fire affects a wide array of ecosystem, market, and social values. Wildland fire management is increasingly used to address forest restoration while pragmatic approaches to assessing the value of fire management have yet to be developed. Earlier approaches to assessing the value of forest management relied on connecting site valuation with management variables. While sound, such analysis is too narrow to account for a broad range of ecosystem services. The metric fire regime condition class (FRCC) was developed from ecosystem management philosophy, but it is entirely biophysical. Its lack of economic information cripples its utility to support decision-making. We present a means of defining and assessing the deviation of a landscape from its desired fire management condition by re-framing the fire management problem as one of derived demand. This valued deviation establishes a performance metric for wildland fire management. Using a case study, we display the deviation across a landscape and sum the deviations to produce a summary metric. This summary metric is used to assess the value of alternative fire management strategies on improving the fire management condition toward its desired state. It enables us to identify which sites are most valuable to restore, even when they are in the same fire regime condition class. The case study site exemplifies how a wide range of disparate values, such as watershed, wildlife, property and timber, can be incorporated into a single landscape assessment. The analysis presented here leverages previous research on environmental capital value and non-market valuation by integrating ecosystem management, restoration, and microeconomics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Implications of a valuation study for ecological and social indicators associated with Everglades restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeteram, Nadia A; Engel, Victor; Mozumder, Pallab

    2018-06-15

    The Everglades of south Florida, although degraded, imparts vital ecosystem benefits, including contributions to high quality drinking water supplies and habitat for a number of threatened and endangered species. Restoration of the Everglades can improve the provision of these benefits but also may impose tradeoffs with competing societal demands. This study focuses on understanding public preferences for Everglades restoration and estimating the willingness to pay (WTP) values for restored ecosystem services (ES) through the implementation of a discrete choice experiment (DCE). We collected data from 2302 respondents from the general public from an online survey designed to elicit WTP values for selected ecological and social attributes associated with Everglades restoration scenarios. We compare the findings to results from earlier studies (Milon et al., 1999; Milon and Scrogin, 2005), which also estimated WTP values among Floridians for Everglades restoration. For some attributes, WTP for Everglades restoration appears to have slightly increased while for others WTP appears to have decreased. We estimated statewide aggregate WTP values for components of species population restoration up to $2B over 10 years. Several factors impeded a direct comparison of current and historical WTP values, including time elapsed, different samples and sampling methods- which may have implications for integrating ecosystem service valuation studies into water management decisions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Classical Ecological Restoration and its Current Challenges: Assisted Migration as an Adaptation Strategy to Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar A. Gómez-Ruiz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Ecological restoration is a very active area in ecology and of great importance for ecosystems management. Despite of being a relatively young discipline, the classical concepts of restoration seem, at present, impractical considering the great challenges generated by modification and destruction of ecosystems. This is due to anthropic activities (deforestation, change of land use, pollution and global climate change. In the classic definition of restoration, the objective is to recover the degraded ecosystem to the same conditions of a historical reference state. However, nowadays the ecosystems return to a state prior to the disturbances seems unviable, because the thresholds of resilience have already been overcome. Additionally, climate change is causing environmental changes at an unprecedented rate. For this reason, ecological restoration needs to unite efforts of diverse actors to recover ecosystems that can be sustainable and functional in the future, where the species could be able to tolerate the environmental conditions that will exist in the long term. Assisted migration has been proposed as a conservation strategy; it is defined as the translocation of species to new locations outside their known range of distribution. In the current context of loss of diversity and ecosystems, this strategy could be fundamental for the formation of new communities that can later become novel ecosystems where species that are fundamental to the dynamics of ecosystems can persist and, at the same time, recover function, structure and resilience.

  17. Acacia saligna’s soil legacy effects persist up to ten years after clearing: Implications for ecological restoration

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nsikani, M. M.; Novoa, Ana; van Wilgen, B. W.; Keet, J.-H.; Gaertner, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 8 (2017), s. 880-889 ISSN 1442-9985 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36079G Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : ecological impact * enzyme activities * invader control * restoration Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 1.708, year: 2016

  18. Ecological restoration and effect investigation of a river wetland in a semi-arid region, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, S.; Jiang, X.; Liu, Y.; Fu, Y.; Zhao, Q.

    2015-05-01

    River wetlands are heavily impacted by human intervention. The degradation and loss of river wetlands has made the restoration of river ecosystems a top priority. How to rehabilitate rivers and their services has been a research focus. The main goal of it is to restore the river wetland ecosystems with ecological methods. The Gudong River was selected as a study site in Chaoyang city in this study. Based on the analysis of interference factors in the river wetland degradation, a set of restoration techniques were proposed and designed for regional water level control, including submerged dikes, ecological embankments, revegetation and dredging. The restoration engineering has produced good results in water quality, eco-environment, and landscape. Monthly reports of the Daling River show that the water quality of Gudong River was better than Grade III in April 2013 compared with Grade V in May 2012. The economic benefit after restoration construction is 1.71 million RMB per year, about 1.89 times that before. The ratio of economic value, social value and eco-environmental value is 1:4:23.

  19. [Ecological relationships among artificial vegetations during their restoration in Antaibao mining area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guilian; Zhang, Jintun; Guo, Xiaoyu

    2005-01-01

    By the methods of TWINSPAN, DCA and DCCA, and from the aspects of the relations between plant species, communities and environmental factors, this paper studied the ecological relationships among artificial vegetations during their restoration in Antaibao mining area. 63 collected quadrates were classified into 12 community types by TWINSPAN, and the distribution of the communities could comprehensively reflect the influence of environmental factors. DCA ordination indicated that soil water content, which was increased with restoration time, was the main factor restricting the distribution of the communities. DCCA ordination showed that soil organic matter content was the decisive factor to the development of communities.

  20. System dynamic modelling to assess economic viability and risk trade-offs for ecological restoration in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crookes, D J; Blignaut, J N; de Wit, M P; Esler, K J; Le Maitre, D C; Milton, S J; Mitchell, S A; Cloete, J; de Abreu, P; Fourie nee Vlok, H; Gull, K; Marx, D; Mugido, W; Ndhlovu, T; Nowell, M; Pauw, M; Rebelo, A

    2013-05-15

    Can markets assist by providing support for ecological restoration, and if so, under what conditions? The first step in addressing this question is to develop a consistent methodology for economic evaluation of ecological restoration projects. A risk analysis process was followed in which a system dynamics model was constructed for eight diverse case study sites where ecological restoration is currently being pursued. Restoration costs vary across each of these sites, as do the benefits associated with restored ecosystem functioning. The system dynamics model simulates the ecological, hydrological and economic benefits of ecological restoration and informs a portfolio mapping exercise where payoffs are matched against the likelihood of success of a project, as well as a number of other factors (such as project costs and risk measures). This is the first known application that couples ecological restoration with system dynamics and portfolio mapping. The results suggest an approach that is able to move beyond traditional indicators of project success, since the effect of discounting is virtually eliminated. We conclude that systems dynamic modelling with portfolio mapping can guide decisions on when markets for restoration activities may be feasible. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Assessment of restorative treatment of patients with amelogenesis imperfecta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chiung-Fen; Hu, Jan Ching Chun; Estrella, Maria Regina Padilla; Peters, Mathilde C; Bresciani, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess restorative treatment outcomes in the mixed dentition of amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) patients and determine the postrehabilitation oral health status and satisfaction of the patients. Clinical and radiographic examinations were performed on eight AI patients, who had 74 restorations placed in permanent incisors and molars, to allow evaluation of the integrity of the restorations and periodontal status post-treatment. Subjects completed a survey regarding esthetics, function, and sensitivity. Among the 74 restorations evaluated, seven were lost; of the remaining restorations, 31 were posterior, and 36 were anterior. Ten were rated clinically unacceptable. Teeth with stainless steel crowns had a moderate gingival index (mean=2.3) and plaque index (mean=2.0) scores. Widening of the periodontal ligament and pulp canal obliteration were common radiographic findings. Subject's recall of satisfaction regarding esthetics (P=.002) and sensitivity (brushing-P=.03; eating-P=.01) showed a statically significant difference before and after treatment. During mixed dentition, teeth with amelogenesis imperfecta may be restored with conventional treatment modalities. Direct restorations should be considered "interim" with multiple repairs anticipated. Post-treatment, gingival inflammation and plaque accumulation were observed. Subjects were satisfied with their appearance and reported a decrease of hypersensitivity.

  2. Observations on the germination of three species of Citharexylum Jacq. used for ecological restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Suarez, Bibiana

    2011-01-01

    High-quality plant material is needed to allow the development of large-scale projects in ecological restoration. For this reason, three native species from the Andean forest were prioritized to study their germination: Citharexylum montanum, Citharexylum sulcatum and Citharexylum subflavescens. Pyrenes of these species were subjected to different pre-germination methods such as: scarification and hydration, hydration for 96 hours and hydration for 72 hours respectively for each species mentioned.The total percentage of germination, day of initiation of germination and mean germination time (MGT) were assessed for each species. As a result, total germination percentage was low for all species; C. subflavescens was the species that presented the highest value (41.3%). Only the treatment of scarification and hydration applied to C. montanum favored the germination percentage. The fastest time for germination initiation was 20 days for the species C. subflavescens and C. montanum. Due to the fact that the three species showed heterogeneous germination, the mean germination time (MGT) was high for all species. The observations suggest that physical scarification prior to hydration promotes both the percentage and the day of initiation of germination in Citharexylum.

  3. Nurse plant theory and its application in ecological restoration in lower subtropics of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai Ren; Long Yang; Nan Liu

    2008-01-01

    Nurse plants are those that facilitate the growth and development of other plant species (target species) beneath their canopy because they offer benign microhabitats that are more favorable for seed germination and/or seedling recruitment than their surrounding envi-ronment. Nurse plants have been mainly used to restore vegetation in arid and sub-arid zones in recent years. Based on summarizing the definition of nurse plant and target plant, we review the nursing effect mechanisms, ecological factors that influence nursing effect, relationships between nurse plant and ecological restoration. This review also brings forward possible pairs of nurse and target species at lower subtropical areas. Furthermore, we provide the potential tendency in nurse plant research and application.

  4. Inhabiting the Delta: A Landscape Approach to Transformative Socio-Ecological Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett Milligan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available doi: https://doi.org/10.15447/sfews.2017v15iss3art3Current legislation and plans for the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta (Delta call for large-scale restoration of aquatic and terrestrial habitats, which will require significant changes in waterways, land uses, and cultural patterns. These re-made landscapes will be subject to a variety of new human uses, which Delta planning and adaptive management literature has yet to adequately consider. Failing to account for human uses and evolving place values can lead to diminished performance and public support for Delta restoration efforts. Our empirical study examined restored and naturalized Delta landscapes using an integrative landscape approach that seeks to reconcile multiple goals and land-use agendas that span ecological, social, economic, and political domains. The research design consisted of six overlapping methods that included a planning, policy, and law review specific to the Delta; surveys and interviews with approximately 100 land managers, scientists, land-owners, law-enforcement personnel, agency representatives, and Delta residents; nine case studies of restored and naturalized delta landscapes; GIS mapping; and extensive field work. Findings derived from the synthesis of these methods show that human uses of the Delta’s re-wilded landscapes are diverse and pervasive. Given the infrastructural and urbanized context of the region, these environments are subject to multiple and sometimes conflicting uses, perceptions, and place values. Though these myriad uses cannot be fully predicted or controlled (nor should they be, findings showed that more proactive and inclusive planning for human uses can encourage or discourage particular uses while also building constituency, support, and active engagement in ecological restoration efforts. We conclude that reconciling human uses with ecological recovery in the Delta will require a more localized, multi-functional, and creative approach to

  5. Restoring Complexity to Industrially Managed Timberlands: The Mill Creek Interim Management Recommendations and Early Restoration Thinning Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan Porter; Valerie Gizinski; Ruskin Hartley; Sharon Hendrix Kramer

    2007-01-01

    The Mill Creek Property was a commercial timberland acquired by the State of California to protect and restore local and regional ecological values and provide opportunities for compatible recreation. Interim Management Recommendations (IMR) were developed to guide protection, restoration, and public access of the Property until the California Department of Parks and...

  6. Application of restoration ecology principles to the practice of limestone quarry rehabilitation in Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khater, C.; Arnaud, M.

    2007-01-01

    Restoration ecology is an emerging science dealing with applied ecology and aiming at ''helping nature to recreate itself''. This comprehensive paper presents the findings and main results related to the analysis of natural vegetation dynamics on abandoned limestone quarries in Mediterranean environment. It aims to answer three basic questions: where, when and how should intervention by ecological restoration be achieved in abandoned limestone quarries. Results show that quarries are heterogeneous ecosystems and interventional strategies should be planned according to the different landforms observed. Quarry faces potentially host a particular saxicolous flora often composed of rare and endemic species, intervention is not recommended, unless required by urban planning issues. Intervention on platforms can be very expensive (substratum fracturing) and involves heavy engineering works. Restoration on quarry embankments aims at orienting and accelerating natural regeneration processes in order to shortcut the first stages naturally dominated by annuals and ruderal species. 27 species suitable for revegetation purposes have been identified for the different bioclimatic levels in Lebanon. They respond to two major criteria: availability in the natural surroundings (indigenous species) and adaptability to local conditions (pioneer adapted species). In conclusion, this paper suggests future openings for a development field integrating economical opportunities on solid scientific bases. (author)

  7. Restoring fish ecological quality in estuaries: Implication of interactive and cumulative effects among anthropogenic stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teichert, Nils; Borja, Angel; Chust, Guillem; Uriarte, Ainhize; Lepage, Mario

    2016-01-15

    Estuaries are subjected to multiple anthropogenic stressors, which have additive, antagonistic or synergistic effects. Current challenges include the use of large databases of biological monitoring surveys (e.g. the European Water Framework Directive) to help environmental managers prioritizing restoration measures. This study investigated the impact of nine stressor categories on the fish ecological status derived from 90 estuaries of the North East Atlantic countries. We used a random forest model to: 1) detect the dominant stressors and their non-linear effects; 2) evaluate the ecological benefits expected from reducing pressure from stressors; and 3) investigate the interactions among stressors. Results showed that largest restoration benefits were expected when mitigating water pollution and oxygen depletion. Non-additive effects represented half of pairwise interactions among stressors, and antagonisms were the most common. Dredged sediments, flow changes and oxygen depletion were predominantly implicated in non-additive interactions, whereas the remainder stressors often showed additive impacts. The prevalence of interactive impacts reflects a complex scenario for estuaries management; hence, we proposed a step-by-step restoration scheme focusing on the mitigation of stressors providing the maximum of restoration benefits under a multi-stress context. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ternjej, Ivancica; Mihaljevic, Zlatko

    2017-10-01

    Ecology is a science that studies the mutual interactions between organisms and their environment. The fundamental subject of interest in ecology is the individual. Topics of interest to ecologists include the diversity, distribution and number of particular organisms, as well as cooperation and competition between organisms, both within and among ecosystems. Today, ecology is a multidisciplinary science. This is particularly true when the subject of interest is the ecosystem or biosphere, which requires the knowledge and input of biologists, chemists, physicists, geologists, geographists, climatologists, hydrologists and many other experts. Ecology is applied in a science of restoration, repairing disturbed sites through human intervention, in natural resource management, and in environmental impact assessments.

  9. Environmental risk evaluation of the use of mine spoils and treated sewage sludge in the ecological restoration of limestone quarries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordán, M. M.; Pina, S.; García-Orenes, F.; Almendro-Candel, M. B.; García-Sánchez, E.

    2008-07-01

    The ecologic restoration criteria in areas degraded from extraction activities require making use of their mine spoils. These materials do not meet fertility conditions to guarantee restoration success and therefore, need the incorporation of organic amendments to obtain efficient substratum. Reducing the deficiencies in the organic material and restoration material nutrients with the contribution of treated sewage sludge is proposed in this work. This experiment was based on a controlled study using columns. The work was conducted with two mine spoils, both very rich in calcium carbonate. The first mineral, of poor quality, came from the formation of aggregates of crushed limestone ( Z). The other residual material examined originated in limestone extraction, formed by the levels of interspersed non-limestone materials and the remains of stripped soils ( D). Two treatments were undertaken (30,000 and 90,000 kg/ha of sewage sludge), in addition to a control treatment. The water contribution was carried out with a device that simulated either short-duration rain or a flooding irrigation system in order to cover the surface and then percolate through the soil. The collection of leached water took place 24 h after the applications. Different parameters of the leached water were determined, including pH, electrical conductivity, nitrate anions, ammonium, phosphates, sulphates and chlorides. The values obtained for each irrigation application are discussed, and the nitrate values obtained were very elevated.

  10. Periodontal and restorative considerations with clear aligner treatment to establish a more favorable restorative environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Robert L

    2009-06-01

    Although standard fixed appliances are better suited to control difficult tooth movement in three planes of space, clear aligner orthodontic treatment may be requested by patients because of the superior esthetics compared with conventional fixed appliances when clear aligners can be considered. Several clinical trials have shown improved periodontal status during orthodontic treatment with clear aligners while fixed appliances have almost always been associated with increased inflammation and mild periodontal breakdown despite preventive measures performed during treatment. There have been no reports of decalcification and only one reported case of root resorption with clear aligners, whereas with fixed appliances, numerous incidents of both decalcification and root resorption have been reported. In addition, studies have also shown significantly less pain from soft-tissue injuries and muscle soreness from parafunctional habits with computer-aided clear aligners. Restorative advantages include improved esthetics and comfort during treatment for better case acceptance and the ability to bleach teeth throughout treatment. Improving tooth alignment with orthodontic treatment with fixed or clear appliances increases the clinician's potential capability to perform more conservative restorative procedures, requiring less tooth structure removal and less endodontic involvement because of better tooth positions. In those cases in which clear aligner appliances may be appropriate, less damage may occur to existing porcelain restorations than might transpire from bonding of fixed appliances and their removal, as well as potentially reduced tooth wear during treatment. This article presents three case reports that demonstrate the periodontal and restorative aspects of treatment using the computer-aided clear appliances, which have either eliminated the need for certain restorative procedures or created a better periodontal and tooth position environment for performing these

  11. Identifying plant traits: a key aspect for suitable species selection in ecological restoration of semiarid slopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochet, Esther; García-Fayos, Patricio

    2017-04-01

    In the context of ecological restoration, one of the greatest challenges for practitioners and scientists is to select suitable species for revegetation purposes. In semiarid environments where restoration projects often fail, little attention has been paid so far to the contribution of plant traits to species success. The objective of this study was to (1) identify plant traits associated with species success on four roadside situations along an erosion-productivity gradient, and (2) to provide an ecological framework for selecting suitable species on the basis of their morphological and functional traits, applied to semiarid environments. We analyzed the association of 10 different plant traits with species success of 296 species surveyed on the four roadside situations in a semiarid region (Valencia, Spain). Plant traits included general plant traits (longevity, woodiness) and more specific root-, seed- and leaf-related traits (root type, sprouting ability, seed mucilage, seed mass, seed susceptibility to removal, specific leaf area and leaf dry matter content). All of them were selected according to the prevailing limiting ecogeomorphological processes acting along the erosion-productivity gradient. We observed strong shifts along the erosion-productivity gradient in the traits associated to species success. At the harshest end of the gradient, the most intensely eroded and driest one, species success was mainly associated to seed resistance to removal by runoff and to resistance to drought. At the opposite end of the gradient, the most productive one, species success was associated to a competitive-ruderal plant strategy (herbaceous successful species with high specific leaf area and low leaf dry matter content). Our study provides an ecologically-based approach for selecting suitable native species on the basis or their morphological and functional traits and supports a differential trait-based selection of species as regards roadslope type and aspect. In

  12. The Evaluation of Disturbed Grassland After the Ecological Restoration and Phytoremediation in the Low Tatras National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ján Novák

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available At present the grasslands in the conservation areas are often degraded folowing the abandonment of the pasture and it is necessary to restore them. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the grasslands after the ecological restoration and phytoremediation by different methods. In 2004 the experiment was established on degraded sites at locality Low Tatras National Park (1 126 m a.s.l. with three treatments (U – unmanaged control, C – managed by cutting, CS – managed by seeding and cutting. In 2013 on C treatment we noticed the increase of the number of species (threefold, the increase of the coverage of plants (twofold and also the significant increase of the species diversity in comparison with the year 2004. On CS treatment the species diversity has decreased slightly but the forage value has increased more than twofold since 2004. U treatment has remained without changes. The results show the method of seeding the autochthonous species is highly appropriate to increase the forage value of grassland. Spearman correlations between environmental factors (p ≤ 0.05 prove the effect of treatment on the amount of P-soil, P-fyt, K-soil and K-fyt, which show strong negative correlation with the time. On the other hand number of species and EGQ (The evaluation of the grassland qualitycorrelate with time positively (p ≤ 0.05. The restoration by the mowing is recommended on sites, where the increase of diversity is important. Legumes, C, grasses, K-soil, EGQ, number of species, P-soil, time, dry matter hit the variability of the species significantly (to 96.80% of the total variability. The strongest effect on the overall variability of species had legumes, which is 61% of the total variability. Cutting explain 26% of the variability. The soil in the Low Tatras National Park was recovered to the original state through the reduction of soil nutrient – phytoremediation.

  13. Mine tailings composition in a historic site: implications for ecological restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, R

    2013-02-01

    Ecological restoration, using tolerant plant species and nutrient additions, is a low-cost option to decrease environmental risks associated with mine tailings. An attempt was previously made to establish such a vegetation cover on an abandoned tailings facility in Southern Ireland. Historically, the tailings site has been prone to dusting and is a potential source of contamination to the surrounding environment. The site was examined to determine the success of the previous restoration plan used to revegetate the site and to determine its suitability for further restoration. Three distinct floristic areas were identified (grassland, poor grassland and bare area) based on herbage compositions and elemental analysis. Surface and subsurface samples were taken to characterise tailings from within these areas of the tailings site. The pH of bare surface tailings (pH, 2.7) was significantly more acidic (p tailings being hostile to plant growth. Total metal concentrations in tailings were high (c. 10,000 mg kg(-1) for Pb and up to 20,000 mg kg(-1) for Zn). DTPA-extractable Zn and Pb were 16 and 11 % of the total amount, respectively. Metal content in grasses growing on some areas of the tailings were elevated and demonstrated the inability of the tailings to support sustainable plant growth. Due to the inherently hostile characteristics of these areas, future restoration work will employ capping with a barrier layer.

  14. River Continuity Restoration and Diadromous Fishes: Much More than an Ecological Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouineau, H.; Carter, C.; Rambonilaza, M.; Beaufaron, G.; Bouleau, G.; Gassiat, A.; Lambert, P.; le Floch, S.; Tétard, S.; de Oliveira, E.

    2018-04-01

    Ecosystem fragmentation is a serious threat to biodiversity and one of the main challenges in ecosystem restoration. River continuity restoration (RCR) has often targeted diadromous fishes, a group of species supporting strong cultural and economic values and especially sensitive to river fragmentation. Yet it has frequently produced mixed results and diadromous fishes remain at very low levels of abundance. Against this background, this paper presents the main challenges for defining, evaluating and achieving effective RCR. We first identify challenges specific to disciplines. In ecology, there is a need to develop quantitative and mechanistic models to support decision making, accounting for both direct and indirect impacts of river obstacles and working at the river catchment scale. In a context of dwindling abundances and reduced market value, cultural services provided by diadromous fishes are becoming increasingly prominent. Methods for carrying out economic quantification of non-market values of diadromous fishes become ever more urgent. Given current challenges for rivers to meet all needs sustainably, conflicts arise over the legitimate use of water resources for human purposes. Concepts and methods from political science and geography are needed to develop understandings on how the political work of public authorities and stakeholders can influence the legitimacy of restoration projects. Finally, the most exciting challenge is to combine disciplinary outcomes to achieve a multidisciplinary approach to RCR. Accordingly, the co-construction of intermediary objects and diagrams of flows of knowledge among disciplines can be first steps towards new frameworks supporting restoration design and planning.

  15. Atraumatic restorative treatment and minimal intervention dentistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frencken, J.E.F.M.

    2017-01-01

    Too many people worldwide suffer from the consequences of untreated dentine carious lesions. This finding reflects the inability of the currently used traditional mode of treatments to manage such lesions. A change is needed. Dental training institutions should depart from the traditional 'drill and

  16. A systematic approach for watershed ecological restoration strategy making: An application in the Taizi River Basin in northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengdi; Fan, Juntao; Zhang, Yuan; Guo, Fen; Liu, Lusan; Xia, Rui; Xu, Zongxue; Wu, Fengchang

    2018-05-15

    Aiming to protect freshwater ecosystems, river ecological restoration has been brought into the research spotlight. However, it is challenging for decision makers to set appropriate objectives and select a combination of rehabilitation acts from numerous possible solutions to meet ecological, economic, and social demands. In this study, we developed a systematic approach to help make an optimal strategy for watershed restoration, which incorporated ecological security assessment and multi-objectives optimization (MOO) into the planning process to enhance restoration efficiency and effectiveness. The river ecological security status was evaluated by using a pressure-state-function-response (PSFR) assessment framework, and MOO was achieved by searching for the Pareto optimal solutions via Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm II (NSGA-II) to balance tradeoffs between different objectives. Further, we clustered the searched solutions into three types in terms of different optimized objective function values in order to provide insightful information for decision makers. The proposed method was applied in an example rehabilitation project in the Taizi River Basin in northern China. The MOO result in the Taizi River presented a set of Pareto optimal solutions that were classified into three types: I - high ecological improvement, high cost and high benefits solution; II - medial ecological improvement, medial cost and medial economic benefits solution; III - low ecological improvement, low cost and low economic benefits solution. The proposed systematic approach in our study can enhance the effectiveness of riverine ecological restoration project and could provide valuable reference for other ecological restoration planning. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Integrated monitoring and assessment of soil restoration treatments in the Lake Tahoe Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grismer, M E; Schnurrenberger, C; Arst, R; Hogan, M P

    2009-03-01

    Revegetation and soil restoration efforts, often associated with erosion control measures on disturbed soils, are rarely monitored or otherwise evaluated in terms of improved hydrologic, much less, ecologic function and longer term sustainability. As in many watersheds, sediment is a key parameter of concern in the Tahoe Basin, particularly fine sediments less than about ten microns. Numerous erosion control measures deployed in the Basin during the past several decades have under-performed, or simply failed after a few years and new soil restoration methods of erosion control are under investigation. We outline a comprehensive, integrated field-based evaluation and assessment of the hydrologic function associated with these soil restoration methods with the hypothesis that restoration of sustainable function will result in longer term erosion control benefits than that currently achieved with more commonly used surface treatment methods (e.g. straw/mulch covers and hydroseeding). The monitoring includes cover-point and ocular assessments of plant cover, species type and diversity; soil sampling for nutrient status; rainfall simulation measurement of infiltration and runoff rates; cone penetrometer measurements of soil compaction and thickness of mulch layer depths. Through multi-year hydrologic and vegetation monitoring at ten sites and 120 plots, we illustrate the results obtained from the integrated monitoring program and describe how it might guide future restoration efforts and monitoring assessments.

  18. Orthodontic treatment in adults: restoring smile esthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leopoldino Capelozza Filho

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The search for orthodontic treatment by adult patients is increasing. This demand may be explained by many reasons, but the most important was the change in the concept of normality, allowing the selection of simpler and more conservative and consistent therapeutic objectives. This conceptual evolution, combined with the technological advances allowed an improvement in orthodontic management, making it more effective, fast and comfortable. The promotion of awareness of the society on the advantages of this treatment and the increase in esthetic demands, with an increasingly longer and active social, affective and professional life, creates a context in which the need for Orthodontics is absolutely established for the adult individuals. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this article is to report the nuances in diagnosis and orthodontic treatment of an adult patient, in a different perspective. Within this approach, the objective is to recover the shape, i.e. to establish occlusal conditions that would probably be present if the patient had been assisted at the proper time, namely during growth and tooth irruption.INTRODUÇÃO: a procura de tratamento ortodôntico por pacientes adultos é cada vez maior. Essa demanda pode ser justificada por vários fatores, mas o mais relevante foi a mudança do conceito de normal, permitindo a opção por metas terapêuticas mais conservadoras, simples e consistentes. Essa evolução conceitual, mais os avanços tecnológicos, permitiram melhora no manejo ortodôntico, tornando-o mais efetivo, rápido e confortável. A conscientização, por parte da sociedade, das vantagens desse tratamento e o aumento da exigência estética entre os adultos, com uma vida social, afetiva e profissional cada vez mais longa e ativa, cria um contexto onde fica absolutamente estabelecida a necessidade de uma Ortodontia para os indivíduos adultos. OBJETIVO: o objetivo desse artigo foi relatar as nuances de diagnóstico e

  19. Quantifying the "So what?" of Restoration: A Framework for Evaluating the Ecological and Socio-economic Outcomes of Restoration Activities in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkel, J. R.; Dausman, A.; Cowan, J.; Sutter, B.

    2017-12-01

    Healthy and sustainable ecosystems are essential for thriving and resilient coastal communities. As a result of settlements following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, the Gulf Coast Ecosystem Restoration Council (Council) and other funding entities, will receive billions of dollars over the next 15 years for restoration projects and programs. These and future restoration efforts present an opportunity to improve the function of coastal wetlands in the Gulf of Mexico, and potentially address long-standing barriers to ecosystem health and resilience in the region. In its Comprehensive Plans, the Council has committed to science-based decision-making, collaboration among its eleven state and federal members, and close coordination with other Gulf restoration and conservation funding efforts including NRDA, NFWF and other federal programs to leverage resources and integrate complementary restoration efforts. To help fulfill these commitments the Council is exploring methods and tools to collect and assess data to evaluate and report on both ecological and socio-economic outcomes of restoration projects. Application of these tools in coordination with restoration partners, will demonstrate the cascading benefits of ecosystem restoration in a quantifiable way, and can help decision-makers increase investments in ecosystem restoration that will support the long-term sustainability of coastal systems. An understanding of ecosystem function and services can also provide a transparent lens for communicating the results of successful ecosystem restoration projects to the public (helping answer the "So what?" of ecosystem restoration). As the Council moves forward making decisions based on the best available science, improving ecosystem functioning and services will play a role in project and program selection and will result in more resilient ecosystems. This will enable the Council to help communities enhance their ability to recover from natural and manmade disasters and

  20. Woodland restoration in Scotland: ecology, history, culture, economics, politics and change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Richard

    2009-07-01

    In the latter half of the 20th century, native pine woodlands in Scotland were restricted to small remnant areas within which there was little regeneration. These woodlands are important from a conservation perspective and are habitat for numerous species of conservation concern. Recent developments have seen a large increase in interest in woodland restoration and a dramatic increase in regeneration and woodland spread. The proximate factor enabling this regeneration is a reduction in grazing pressure from sheep and, particularly, deer. However, this has only been possible as a result of a complex interplay between ecological, political and socio-economic factors. We are currently seeing the decline of land management practices instituted 150-200 years ago, changes in land ownership patterns, cultural revival, and changes in societal perceptions of the Scottish landscape. These all feed into the current move to return large areas of the Scottish Highlands to tree cover. I emphasize the need to consider restoration in a multidisciplinary framework which accounts not just for the ecology involved but also the historical and cultural context.

  1. Provision of Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART) restorations to Chinese pre-school children--a 30-month evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, E C; Holmgren, C J

    2001-01-01

    The objectives of this study were: to provide restorations using the ART approach to pre-school children in Southern China in a kindergarten environment, using a high-strength glass-ionomer restorative material; to assess the acceptability of this approach and to evaluate on a longitudinal basis the restorations placed. A total of 170 ART restorations were placed in 95 children, aged 5.1 +/- 0.7 years, by seven final-year dental students using standard ART procedures and hand instruments. The restorations were evaluated every six months thereafter by two calibrated independent examiners using explorers and mouth-mirrors. 93% of the children reported that they did not feel pain during treatment and 86% were willing to receive ART restorations again. The cumulative 12- and 30-month survival rates of Class I restorations were 91% and 79%, respectively. The corresponding figures for Class V restorations were 79% and 70%, while those for Class II restorations were 75% and 51%. The failure rates of Class III and IV restorations were high with more than half of them scored as missing within the first year. The ART approach was shown to be acceptable to Chinese pre-school children for providing restorative dental care outside the traditional clinical setting. The success rates were high for Class I and V restorations in primary teeth, modest for Class II, and low for Class III and IV restorations.

  2. Achieving ecological restoration by working with local people: a Chinese scholar seeks win-win paths

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    Heran Zheng

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Environmental degradation and poverty are linked, and this means that conservation and poverty reduction must be tackled together. However, finding a successful integrated strategy has been an elusive goal. We describe the career of a Chinese scholar, Shixiong Cao, whose persistent efforts to find and follow win-win paths have led to ecological restoration accompanied by long-term benefits for local residents. Cao's story illustrates how development that combines environmental and economic perspectives can both help people to escape the poverty trap and restore degraded environments. His experience demonstrates that when environmental managers find solutions that can mitigate or eliminate poverty through the development of green enterprises, they can combine them with environmental restoration efforts to produce long-term sustainable solutions. In this paper, we share Cao's 28 years of experience because we believe that his scientific and practical spirit, and his belief that it is necessary to work directly with the people affected by environmental projects, will inspire other scholars and practitioners to achieve similar successes.

  3. Effects of national ecological restoration projects on carbon sequestration in China from 2001 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Fei; Hu, Huifeng; Sun, Wenjuan; Zhu, Jiaojun; Liu, Guobin; Zhou, Wangming; Zhang, Quanfa; Shi, Peili; Liu, Xiuping; Wu, Xing; Zhang, Lu; Wei, Xiaohua; Dai, Limin; Zhang, Kerong; Sun, Yirong; Xue, Sha; Zhang, Wanjun; Xiong, Dingpeng; Deng, Lei; Liu, Bojie; Zhou, Li; Zhang, Chao; Zheng, Xiao; Cao, Jiansheng; Huang, Yao; He, Nianpeng; Zhou, Guoyi; Bai, Yongfei; Xie, Zongqiang; Tang, Zhiyao; Wu, Bingfang; Fang, Jingyun; Liu, Guohua; Yu, Guirui

    2018-04-17

    The long-term stressful utilization of forests and grasslands has led to ecosystem degradation and C loss. Since the late 1970s China has launched six key national ecological restoration projects to protect its environment and restore degraded ecosystems. Here, we conducted a large-scale field investigation and a literature survey of biomass and soil C in China's forest, shrubland, and grassland ecosystems across the regions where the six projects were implemented (∼16% of the country's land area). We investigated the changes in the C stocks of these ecosystems to evaluate the contributions of the projects to the country's C sink between 2001 and 2010. Over this decade, we estimated that the total annual C sink in the project region was 132 Tg C per y (1 Tg = 10 12 g), over half of which (74 Tg C per y, 56%) was attributed to the implementation of the projects. Our results demonstrate that these restoration projects have substantially contributed to CO 2 mitigation in China.

  4. The influence of hyperthyroidism on implant restoration treatment outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhandi Sidjaja

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available There is limited information about bone implant restoration treatment on edentulous patient with hyperthyroidism. This clinical report is presenting the making of dental bone implant restoration on patient with hyperthyroidism history. A 60 years old male patient with hyperthyroidism came to Prosthodontic Clinic Faculty of Dentistry University of Indonesia to improve his ailing denture. After comprehensive evaluation we treated the patient with Implant-Tissue-Supported Overdenture (4 Implants for rehabilitating upper edentulous jaw, and 2 Implant-Tooth-Supported Fixed Partial Denturesfor rehabilitating Kennedy class II lower edentulous jaw respectively. Short term clinical and radiographic evaluation based on Buser’s criteria showed positive result. (Med J Indones 2006; 15:191-5Keywords: Hyperthyroidsm, implant restoration

  5. Insights into invasion and restoration ecology: Time to collaborate towards a holistic approach to tackle biological invasions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirijam Gaertner

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study is to provide an integrated framework for the management of alien plant invasions, combining insights and experiences from the fields of invasion and restoration ecology to enable more effective management of invasive species. To determine linkages between the scientific outputs of the two disciplines we used an existing data base on restoration studies between 2000 and 2008 and did a bibliometric analysis. We identified the type of restoration applied, determined by the aim of the study, and conducted a content analysis on 208 selected studies with a link to biological invasions (invasion-restoration studies. We found a total of 1075 articles on ecosystem restoration, with only eight percent of the studiesthe main objective to control alien invasions. The content analysis of 208 invasion-restoration studies showed that the majority of the studies focused on causes of degradation other than alien invasions. If invaders were referred to as the main driver of degradation, the prevalent cause for degradation was invaders outcompeting and replacing native species. Mechanical control of alien plant invasions was by far the most common control method used. Measures that went beyond the removal of alien plants were implemented in sixty-five percent of the studies.Although invasion control was not as common as other types of restoration, a closer look at the sub-group of invasion-restoration studies shows a clear link between restoration and invasion ecology. Concerns, as identified in the literature review, are firstly that restoration activities mostly focus on controlling the invader while other underlying causes for degradation are neglected, and secondly that the current approach of dealing with alien invasions lacks a combination of theoretical and practical aspects. We suggest that closer collaboration between invasion and restoration ecologists can help to improve the management of alien plant invasions. We conclude with a

  6. Public support for river restoration. A mixed-method study into local residents' support for and framing of river management and ecological restoration in the Dutch floodplains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buijs, Arjen E

    2009-06-01

    . People using these frames challenge safety arguments for river restoration and highlight potential threats to sense of place and to agriculture. In the areas surveyed, the project initiator's focus on biodiversity and safety did not resonate very well among the local community, because of their diverging views on nature. Practical implications of the study include the need to incorporate public perception into river restoration projects and the potential for project initiators to form strategic alliances with local residents to promote ecological restoration in combination with river restoration.

  7. Community occupancy responses of small mammals to restoration treatments in ponderosa pine forests, northern Arizona, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalies, E L; Dickson, B G; Chambers, C L; Covington, W W

    2012-01-01

    In western North American conifer forests, wildfires are increasing in frequency and severity due to heavy fuel loads that have accumulated after a century of fire suppression. Forest restoration treatments (e.g., thinning and/or burning) are being designed and implemented at large spatial and temporal scales in an effort to reduce fire risk and restore forest structure and function. In ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests, predominantly open forest structure and a frequent, low-severity fire regime constituted the evolutionary environment for wildlife that persisted for thousands of years. Small mammals are important in forest ecosystems as prey and in affecting primary production and decomposition. During 2006-2009, we trapped eight species of small mammals at 294 sites in northern Arizona and used occupancy modeling to determine community responses to thinning and habitat features. The most important covariates in predicting small mammal occupancy were understory vegetation cover, large snags, and treatment. Our analysis identified two generalist species found at relatively high occupancy rates across all sites, four open-forest species that responded positively to treatment, and two dense-forest species that responded negatively to treatment unless specific habitat features were retained. Our results indicate that all eight small mammal species can benefit from restoration treatments, particularly if aspects of their evolutionary environment (e.g., large trees, snags, woody debris) are restored. The occupancy modeling approach we used resulted in precise species-level estimates of occupancy in response to habitat attributes for a greater number of small mammal species than in other comparable studies. We recommend our approach for other studies faced with high variability and broad spatial and temporal scales in assessing impacts of treatments or habitat alteration on wildlife species. Moreover, since forest planning efforts are increasingly focusing on

  8. Potential ‘Ecological Traps’ of Restored Landscapes: Koalas Phascolarctos cinereus Re-Occupy a Rehabilitated Mine Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristescu, Romane H.; Banks, Peter B.; Carrick, Frank N.; Frère, Céline

    2013-01-01

    With progressively increasing anthropogenic habitat disturbances, restoration of impacted landscapes is becoming a critical element of biodiversity conservation. Evaluation of success in restoration ecology rarely includes faunal components, usually only encompassing abiotic and floral components of the ecosystems. Even when fauna is explicitly included, it is usually only species presence/absence criteria that are considered. If restoration is to have a positive outcome, however, populations in restored habitats should exhibit comparable survival and reproductive rates to populations found in undisturbed surroundings. If a species recolonises restored areas but later experiences decreased fitness, restored areas could become ecological sinks or traps. We investigated this possibility in a case study of koalas Phascolarctos cinereus occupying rehabilitated mining areas on North Stradbroke Island, Australia. Our holistic approach compared rehabilitated and undisturbed areas on the basis of their vegetation characteristics, of koalas' body condition, roosting trees, diet, as well as predator index. Koalas using rehabilitated areas appeared to be able to access an adequate supply of roosting and fodder trees, were in good condition and had high reproductive output. We did not find any significant differences in predator density between rehabilitated areas and undisturbed surroundings. The results presented in this study showed there was no evidence that the post-mining rehabilitated areas constitute ecological sinks or traps. However, to reach a definitive conclusion as to whether areas rehabilitated post-mining provide at least equivalent habitat to undisturbed locations, additional research could be undertaken to assess foliar nutrient/water/toxin differences and predation risk in rehabilitated areas compared with undisturbed areas. More generally, the evaluation of whether restoration successfully produces a functional ecological community should include criteria

  9. Techniques and management strategies for environmental restoration and their ecological consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez, J.; Vazquez, C.; Meckbach, R.; Wilkins, B.; Rafferty, B.; Holm, E.; Badie, M.; Burton, O.

    2000-01-01

    justification a the justification and optimisation principles in intervention. The project TEMAS is involved in this problem, relevant for radiological protection, contributing to the establishment of soundly based restoration for local environments depending on their own characteristics and improving the treatment of interventions which are normally treated in a generic way. (Author)

  10. Environmental management: Integrating ecological evaluation, remediation, restoration, natural resource damage assessment and long-term stewardship on contaminated lands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, Joanna

    2008-01-01

    Ecological evaluation is essential for remediation, restoration, and Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA), and forms the basis for many management practices. These include determining status and trends of biological, physical, or chemical/radiological conditions, conducting environmental impact assessments, performing remedial actions should remediation fail, managing ecosystems and wildlife, and assessing the efficacy of remediation, restoration, and long-term stewardship. The objective of this paper is to explore the meanings of these assessments, examine the relationships among them, and suggest methods of integration that will move environmental management forward. While remediation, restoration, and NRDA, among others, are often conducted separately, it is important to integrate them for contaminated land where the risks to ecoreceptors (including humans) can be high, and the potential damage to functioning ecosystems great. Ecological evaluations can range from inventories of local plants and animals, determinations of reproductive success of particular species, levels of contaminants in organisms, kinds and levels of effects, and environmental impact assessments, to very formal ecological risk assessments for a chemical or other stressor. Such evaluations can range from the individual species to populations, communities, ecosystems or the landscape scale. Ecological evaluations serve as the basis for making decisions about the levels and kinds of remediation, the levels and kinds of restoration possible, and the degree and kinds of natural resource injuries that have occurred because of contamination. Many different disciplines are involved in ecological evaluation, including biologists, conservationists, foresters, restoration ecologists, ecological engineers, economists, hydrologist, and geologists. Since ecological evaluation forms the basis for so many different types of environmental management, it seems reasonable to integrate management options

  11. Ecological restoration of peatlands in steppe and forest-steppe areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minayeva, Tatiana; Sirin, Andrey; Dugarjav, Chultem

    2016-04-01

    Peatlands in the arid and semi-arid regions of steppe and forest steppe belt of Eurasia have some specific features. That demands the special approach to their management and restoration. The distribution of peatlands under conditions of dry climate is very limited and they are extremely vulnerable. Peatlands in those regions are found in the highlands where temperate conditions still present, in floodplains where they can get water from floods and springs, or in karst areas. Peatlands on watersheds present mainly remains from the more humid climate periods. Water and carbon storage as well as maintenance of the specific biodiversity are the key ecosystem natural functions of peatlands in the steppe and forest steppe. The performance of those functions has strong implications for people wellness and livelihood. Anyhow, peatlands are usually overlooked and poorly represented in the systems of natural protected areas. Land management plans, mitigation and restoration measures for ecosystems under use do not usually include special measures for peatlands. Peatlands'use depends on the traditional practices. Peat extraction is rather limited in subhumid regions but still act as one of the threats to peatlands. The most of peatlands are used as pastures and grasslands. In densely populated areas large part of peatlands are transformed to the arable lands. In many cases peatlands of piedmonts and highlands are affected by industrial developments: road construction, mining of subsoil resources (gold, etc.). Until now, the most of peatlands of steppe and forest steppe region are irreversibly lost, what also effects water regime, lands productivity, biodiversity status. To prevent further dramatic changes the ecological restoration approach should be introduced in the subhumid regions. The feasibility study to assess the potential for introducing ecological restoration techniques for peatlands in the arid and semi-arid conditions had been undertaken in steppe and forest

  12. Atraumatic restorative treatment and its use in public health dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzely Das Saliba Moimaz

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In many countries, including Brazil, strictly curative traditional dentistry was unable to establish improved Oral Health indices, because in addition to the high prevalence of dental caries, both patients and professionals encounter economic barriers; the latter are frequently unable to obtain the equipment required for providing dental assistance. Atraumatic Restorative Treatment was proposed as a new approach to caries treatment, as the goal was to attend needy populations that lived under conditions without electrical power supply, as well as to reduce costs. This type of treatment also seeks to respect one of the main current concepts of dental practice, which is to create a favorable environment that halts the caries disease process by means of minimum intervention and maximum preservation of dental structures. In addition to the curative aspect of cavity preparations and restorations, there are the added advantages of concern focused on health promotion, education and patient motivation. In view of the above explanation, the purpose of this article is to expound and discuss the main aspect related to this type of restorative treatment linked to Public Health, by means of a literature review.

  13. Assessing the grass Schizachyrium gracile for capacity to ecologically restore the polluted soils of ecosystems in a bauxite mining area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastor, J.; Alexis, S.; Hernandez, A. J.

    2009-07-01

    Abandoned bauxite mines in the tropical forest of the Dominican Republics only biosphere reserve are leaving behind extensive areas and landfills, whose negative impacts need restoring because of the ecological interest of the sites they occupy. Given that any realistic recovery program should be based on knowledge of the ecological succession, in this report we present the results derived from the study of two populations of a pioneer species of these ecosystems. (Author)

  14. Assessing the grass Schizachyrium gracile for capacity to ecologically restore the polluted soils of ecosystems in a bauxite mining area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastor, J.; Alexis, S.; Hernandez, A. J.

    2009-01-01

    Abandoned bauxite mines in the tropical forest of the Dominican Republics only biosphere reserve are leaving behind extensive areas and landfills, whose negative impacts need restoring because of the ecological interest of the sites they occupy. Given that any realistic recovery program should be based on knowledge of the ecological succession, in this report we present the results derived from the study of two populations of a pioneer species of these ecosystems. (Author)

  15. Mechanical performance of encapsulated restorative glass-ionomer cements for use with Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Gustavo Fabián; Cabral, Ricardo Juan; Mazzola, Ignacio; Lascano, Laura Brain; Frencken, Jo E

    2013-01-01

    The Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART) approach was suggested to be a suitable method to treat enamel and dentine carious lesions in patients with disabilities. The use of a restorative glass-ionomer with optimal mechanical properties is, therefore, very important. To test the null-hypotheses that no difference in diametral tensile, compressive and flexural strengths exists between: (1) The EQUIA system and (2) The Chemfil Rock (encapsulated glass-ionomers; test materials) and the Fuji 9 Gold Label and the Ketac Molar Easymix (hand-mixed conventional glass-ionomers; control materials); (3) The EQUIA system and Chemfil Rock. Specimens for testing flexural (n = 240) and diametral tensile (n=80) strengths were prepared according to standardized specifications; the compressive strength (n=80) was measured using a tooth-model of a class II ART restoration. ANOVA and Tukey B tests were used to test for significant differences between dependent and independent variables. The EQUIA system and Chemfil Rock had significantly higher mean scores for all the three strength variables than the Fuji 9 Gold Label and Ketac Molar Easymix (α=0.05). The EQUIA system had significant higher mean scores for diametral tensile and flexural strengths than the Chemfil Rock (α=0.05). The two encapsulated high-viscosity glass-ionomers had significantly higher test values for diametral tensile, flexural and compressive strengths than the commonly used hand-mixed high-viscosity glass-ionomers.

  16. Lake Restoration in Terms of Ecological Resilience: a Numerical Study of Biomanipulations under Bistable Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Amemiya

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available An abstract version of the comprehensive aquatic simulation model (CASM is found to exhibit bistability under intermediate loading of nutrient input, supporting the alternative-stable-states theory and field observations for shallow lakes. Our simulations of biomanipulations under the bistable conditions reveal that a reduction in the abundance of zooplanktivorous fish cannot switch the system from a turbid to a clear state. Rather, a direct reduction of phytoplankton and detritus was found to be most effective to make this switch in the present model. These results imply that multiple manipulations may be effective for practical restorations of lakes. We discuss the present results of biomanipulations in terms of ecological resilience in multivariable systems or natural systems.

  17. Habitat Re-Creation (Ecological Restoration) as a Strategy for Conserving Insect Communities in Highly Fragmented Landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuey, John A

    2013-12-05

    Because of their vast diversity, measured by both numbers of species as well as life history traits, insects defy comprehensive conservation planning. Thus, almost all insect conservation efforts target individual species. However, serious insect conservation requires goals that are set at the faunal level and conservation success requires strategies that conserve intact communities. This task is complicated in agricultural landscapes by high levels of habitat fragmentation and isolation. In many regions, once widespread insect communities are now functionally trapped on islands of ecosystem remnants and subject to a variety of stressors associated with isolation, small population sizes and artificial population fragmentation. In fragmented landscapes ecological restoration can be an effective strategy for reducing localized insect extinction rates, but insects are seldom included in restoration design criteria. It is possible to incorporate a few simple conservation criteria into restoration designs that enhance impacts to entire insect communities. Restoration can be used as a strategy to address fragmentation threats to isolated insect communities if insect communities are incorporated at the onset of restoration planning. Fully incorporating insect communities into restoration designs may increase the cost of restoration two- to three-fold, but the benefits to biodiversity conservation and the ecological services provided by intact insect communities justify the cost.

  18. Iron-mediated stabilization of soil carbon amplifies the benefits of ecological restoration in degraded lands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Lucas C R; Doane, Timothy A; Corrêa, Rodrigo S; Valverde, Vinicius; Pereira, Engil I P; Horwath, William R

    2015-07-01

    Recent observations across a 14-year restoration chronosequence have shown an unexpected accumulation of soil organic carbon in strip-mined areas of central Brazil. This was attributed to the rapid plant colonization that followed the incorporation of biosolids into exposed regoliths, but the specific mechanisms involved in the stabilization of carbon inputs from the vegetation remained unclear. Using isotopic and elemental analyses, we tested the hypothesis that plant-derived carbon accumulation was triggered by the formation of iron-coordinated complexes, stabilized into physically protected (occluded) soil fractions. Confirming this hypothesis, we identified a fast formation of microaggregates shortly after the application of iron-rich biosolids, which was characterized by a strong association between pyrophosphate-extractable iron and plant-derived organic matter. The formation of microaggregates preceded the development of macroaggregates, which drastically increased soil carbon content (-140 Mg C/ha) a few years after restoration. Consistent with previous theoretical work, iron-coordinated organic complexes served as nuclei for aggregate formation, reflecting the synergistic effect of biological, chemical, and physical mechanisms of carbon stabilization in developing soils. Nevertheless, iron was not the only factor affecting soil carbon content. The highest carbon accumulation was observed during the period of highest plant diversity (> 30 species; years 3-6), declining significantly with the exclusion of native species by invasive grasses (years 9-14). Furthermore, the increasing dominance of invasive grasses was associated with a steady decline in the concentration of soil nitrogen and phosphorus per unit of accumulated carbon. These results demonstrate the importance of interdependent ecological and biogeochemical processes, and the role of soil-plant interactions in determining the success of restoration efforts. In contrast with previous but

  19. Process-Based Ecological River Restoration: Visualizing Three-Dimensional Connectivity and Dynamic Vectors to Recover Lost Linkages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Mathias. Kondolf

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Human impacts to aquatic ecosystems often involve changes in hydrologic connectivity and flow regime. Drawing upon examples in the literature and from our experience, we developed conceptual models and used simple bivariate plots to visualize human impacts and restoration efforts in terms of connectivity and flow dynamics. Human-induced changes in longitudinal, lateral, and vertical connectivity are often accompanied by changes in flow dynamics, but in our experience restoration efforts to date have more often restored connectivity than flow dynamics. Restoration actions have included removing dams to restore fish passage, reconnecting flow through artificially cut-off side channels, setting back or breaching levees, and removing fine sediment deposits that block vertical exchange with the bed, thereby partially restoring hydrologic connectivity, i.e., longitudinal, lateral, or vertical. Restorations have less commonly affected flow dynamics, presumably because of the social and economic importance of water diversions or flood control. Thus, as illustrated in these bivariate plots, the trajectories of ecological restoration are rarely parallel with degradation trajectories because restoration is politically and economically easier along some axes more than others.

  20. Community based ecological restoration of peatland in Central Mongolia for climate change mitigation and adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minayeva, Tatiana; Chultem, Dugarjav; Grootjans, Ab; Yamkhin, Jambaljav; Sirin, Andrey; Suvorov, Gennady; Batdorj, Oyunbileg; Tsamba, Batdorj

    2017-04-01

    understanding of functional particularities of peatland ecosystem and restoration efforts are not effective. Following the baseline study the concept for ecosystem restoration project had been developed. The approach was to merge community based solution with scientific approaches. Restoration in subhumid conditions should avoid creation of open water surfaces, like channels or reservoirs, and deal with integrative ecosystem management. The restoration concept involved fencing of springs, preventing erosion and enhancing water accumulation in soil by cascades of small dams and other small scale ecological solutions. At the same time to meet the needs of local herders, it was decided to repair the dam, constructed by herders, even if it has little value for peatland restoration. The engineering design is now ready and will be implemented next months. The last part of the pilot is monitoring. The parameters determined in the baseline study are included in monitoring program to help to evaluate: carbon sequestration rate, GHG emission reduction, water retention, soil humidity, pasture productivity, social integrity and impact on livelihoods.

  1. Ecological restoration of groundwater-dependent vegetation in the arid Ejina Delta: evidences from satellite evapotranspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kai, Lu; Garcia, Monica; Yu, Jingjie; Zhang, Yichi; Wang, Ping; Wang, Sheng; Liu, Xiao

    2017-04-01

    The ecological water conveyance project (EWCP) in the Ejina delta, a typical hyper-arid area of China, aimed to restore degraded phreatophytic ecosystems. We assessed the degree of ecosystem recovery using as an ecohydrological indicator a ratio between actual and potential evapotranspiration derived from MODIS since the beginning of the project in 2001. The selected indicator was the Temperature Vegetation Dryness Index (TVDI) which was validated with Eddy covariance (EC) data confirming its applicability to monitor groundwater dependent vegetation. The spatial analyses of the evapotranspiration ratio show drying trends (2000-2015) which are stronger and also cover larger extensions than the wetting trends. Thus, the condition of key riparian areas relying mostly on surface water improved since the project began. However, groundwater dependent ecosystems located in lower river Xihe reaches present drying trends. It seems that despite of the runoff supplemented by the EWCP project, there is nowadays more inequality in the access to water by groundwater dependent ecosystems in the Ejina Delta. The study shows that energy-evaporation indices, relying on radiometric satellite temperature like the TVDI, can detect degradation signals that otherwise might go undetected by NDVI analyses especially in arid regions, where vegetation indices are greatly affected by the soil background signals. Additionally, they can provide timely information to water managers on how much water to allocate for a sustainable restoration program.

  2. Soil magnetic susceptibility: A quantitative proxy of soil drainage for use in ecological restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimley, D.A.; Wang, J.-S.; Liebert, D.A.; Dawson, J.O.

    2008-01-01

    Flooded, saturated, or poorly drained soils are commonly anaerobic, leading to microbially induced magnetite/maghemite dissolution and decreased soil magnetic susceptibility (MS). Thus, MS is considerably higher in well-drained soils (MS typically 40-80 ?? 10-5 standard international [SI]) compared to poorly drained soils (MS typically 10-25 ?? 10-5 SI) in Illinois, other soil-forming factors being equal. Following calibration to standard soil probings, MS values can be used to rapidly and precisely delineate hydric from nonhydric soils in areas with relatively uniform parent material. Furthermore, soil MS has a moderate to strong association with individual tree species' distribution across soil moisture regimes, correlating inversely with independently reported rankings of a tree species' flood tolerance. Soil MS mapping can thus provide a simple, rapid, and quantitative means for precisely guiding reforestation with respect to plant species' adaptations to soil drainage classes. For instance, in native woodlands of east-central Illinois, Quercus alba , Prunus serotina, and Liriodendron tulipifera predominantly occur in moderately well-drained soils (MS 40-60 ?? 10-5 SI), whereas Acer saccharinum, Carya laciniosa, and Fraxinus pennsylvanica predominantly occur in poorly drained soils (MS Urbana, IL, U.S.A.). Through use of soil MS maps calibrated to soil drainage class and native vegetation occurrence, restoration efforts can be conducted more successfully and species distributions more accurately reconstructed at the microecosystem level. ?? 2008 Society for Ecological Restoration International.

  3. The role of social learning for social-ecological systems in Korean village groves restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunju Lee

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, social learning has been recognized as a means to foster adaptation to changing conditions, and more broadly, social-ecological systems resilience. However, the discussion of social learning and social-ecological resilience in different cultural contexts is limited. In this study we introduce the Korean Village Groves Restoration Project (VGRP through the lens of social learning, and discuss implications of the VGRP for resilience in villages impacted by industrialization and decline of traditional forest resources. We conducted open-ended interviews with VGRP leaders, government and NGO officials, and residents in four villages in South Korea, and found that villages responded to ecosystem change in ways that could be explained by the characteristics of social learning including interaction, integration, systems orientation, and reflection. However, the processes of learning varied among the four villages, and were associated with different levels of learning and different learning outcomes related to changes in village grove management and governance. The cultural and historical context can be used to help understand social learning processes and their outcomes in the Korean cases.

  4. The need for future wetland bird studies: scales of habitat use as input for ecological restoration and spatial water management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Platteeuw, M.; Foppen, R.P.B.; Eerden, van M.R.

    2010-01-01

    All over Europe, wetlands have decreased in size, lost their original dynamics and became fragmented as the consequence of an ever increasing human land use. These processes have resulted in losses of nature values, among which declines in marshland bird populations. Ecological restoration of

  5. Land use changes and its driving forces in hilly ecological restoration area based on gis and rs of northern china

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Peng; Niu, Xiang; Wang, Bing; Zheng, Yunlong

    2015-01-01

    Land use change is one of the important aspects of the regional ecological restoration research. With remote sensing (RS) image in 2003, 2007 and 2012, using geographic information system (GIS) technologies, the land use pattern changes in Yimeng Mountain ecological restoration area in China and its driving force factors were studied. Results showed that: (1) Cultivated land constituted the largest area during 10 years, and followed by forest land and grass land; cultivated land and unused land were reduced by 28.43% and 44.32%, whereas forest land, water area and land for water facilities and others were increased. (2) During 2003–2007, forest land change showed the largest, followed by unused land and grass land; however, during 2008–2012, water area and land for water facilities change showed the largest, followed by grass land and unused land. (3) Land use degree was above the average level, it was in the developing period during 2003–2007 and in the degenerating period during 2008–2012. (4) Ecological Restoration Projects can greatly change the micro topography, increase vegetation coverage, and then induce significant changes in the land use distribution, which were the main driving force factors of the land use pattern change in the ecological restoration area. PMID:26047160

  6. Asymmetric ecological and economic responses for rangeland restoration: A case study of tree thickening in Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecological and economic thresholds are important considerations when making decisions about safeguarding or restoring degraded rangelands. When degradation levels have passed a threshold, most managers figure it is either time to take action or too late to take action depending on the particular c...

  7. Restorative treatment thresholds: factors influencing the treatment thresholds and modalities of general dentists in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalaf, Mai E; Alomari, Qasem D; Ngo, Hien; Doméjean, Sophie

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the thresholds at which general dentists in Kuwait would restore approximal and occlusal carious lesions and examined the demographic characteristics of the dentists in relation to their decision making. The study population consisted of a random sample of 185 general dentists practicing in the Ministry of Health of Kuwait. A survey questionnaire was administered. The questionnaire presented different stages and locations of carious lesions; the participants were asked to identify the stage at which a restoration is required under different conditions, the preparation technique, and their choice of restorative material. For approximal carious lesions, 74 (40%) of the participants reported that they would restoratively intervene when the carious lesion reached the outer third of the dentin. A total of 91 (49.2%) reported the use of traditional class II restorations. For occlusal carious lesions, 128 (69.2%) said they would intervene when lesions reached the middle third of the dentin. 146 (78.9%) said they would remove the carious tissue only in their preparation. For both approximal and occlusal lesions, the participants preferred resin composite as the material for restoration. The respondents tended to delay restorative intervention until dentinal penetration of the caries. Resin restorative materials were used in conservatively prepared cavities. Participants chose a conservative approach for occlusal lesions but still believed in a traditional approach when it concerned approximal lesions. Experience, university dental education, and participation in continuous education courses were most significantly related to restorative treatment. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Cumulative effects of restoration efforts on ecological characteristics of an open water area within the Upper Mississippi River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, B.R.; Shi, W.; Houser, J.N.; Rogala, J.T.; Guan, Z.; Cochran-Biederman, J. L.

    2011-01-01

    Ecological restoration efforts in large rivers generally aim to ameliorate ecological effects associated with large-scale modification of those rivers. This study examined whether the effects of restoration efforts-specifically those of island construction-within a largely open water restoration area of the Upper Mississippi River (UMR) might be seen at the spatial scale of that 3476ha area. The cumulative effects of island construction, when observed over multiple years, were postulated to have made the restoration area increasingly similar to a positive reference area (a proximate area comprising contiguous backwater areas) and increasingly different from two negative reference areas. The negative reference areas represented the Mississippi River main channel in an area proximate to the restoration area and an open water area in a related Mississippi River reach that has seen relatively little restoration effort. Inferences on the effects of restoration were made by comparing constrained and unconstrained models of summer chlorophyll a (CHL), summer inorganic suspended solids (ISS) and counts of benthic mayfly larvae. Constrained models forced trends in means or in both means and sampling variances to become, over time, increasingly similar to those in the positive reference area and increasingly dissimilar to those in the negative reference areas. Trends were estimated over 12- (mayflies) or 14-year sampling periods, and were evaluated using model information criteria. Based on these methods, restoration effects were observed for CHL and mayflies while evidence in favour of restoration effects on ISS was equivocal. These findings suggest that the cumulative effects of island building at relatively large spatial scales within large rivers may be estimated using data from large-scale surveillance monitoring programs. Published in 2010 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Release of suppressed red spruce using canopy gap creation—Ecological restoration in the Central Appalachians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rentch, J.S.; Ford, W. Mark; Schuler, T.S.; Palmer, J.; Diggins, Corinne A.

    2016-01-01

    Red spruce (Picea rubens) and red spruce-northern hardwood mixed stands once covered as much as 300,000 ha in the Central Appalachians, but now comprise no more than 21,000 ha. Recently, interest in restoration of this forest type has increased because red spruce forests provide habitat for a number of rare animal species. Our study reports the results of an understory red spruce release experiment in hardwood-dominated stands that have a small component of understory red spruce. In 2005, 188 target spruce were identified in sample plots at six locations in central West Virginia. We projected a vertical cylinder above the crown of all target spruces, and in 2007, we performed a release treatment whereby overtopping hardwoods were treated with herbicide using a stem injection technique. Release treatments removed 0–10% (Control), 11–50% (Low), 51–89% (Medium), and ≤90% (High) of the basal area of overtopping trees. We also took canopy photographs at the time of each remeasurement in 2007, 2010, and 2013, and compared basal removal treatments and resulting 2010 canopy openness and understory light values. The high treatment level provided significantly greater six-year dbh and height growth than the other treatment levels. Based on these results, we propose that a tree-centered release approach utilizing small canopy gaps that emulate the historical, gap-phase disturbance regime provides a good strategy for red spruce restoration in hardwood forests where overstory spruce are virtually absent, and where red spruce is largely relegated to the understory.

  10. River habitat assessment for ecological restoration of Wei River Basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tao; Wang, Shuo; Li, Xiaoping; Wu, Ting; Li, Li; Chen, Jia

    2018-04-11

    As an important composition component of river ecosystems, river habitats must undergo quality assessment to potentially provide scientific basis for river ecological restoration. Substrate composition, habitat complexity, bank erosion degree, river meandering degree, human activity intensity, vegetation buffer width, water quality, and water condition were determined as indicators for river habitat assessment. The comprehensive habitat quality index (CHQI) was established for the Wei River Basin. In addition, the indicator values were determined on the basis of a field investigation at 12 national hydrological stations distributed across the Wei, Jing, and Beiluo Rivers. The analytic hierarchy process was used to determine the indicator weights and thus distinguish the relative importance of the assessment indicator system. Results indicated that the average CHQIs for the Wei, Jing, and Beiluo Rivers were 0.417, 0.508, and 0.304, respectively. The river habitat quality for the three rivers was well. As for the whole river basin, the river habitat quality for 25% of the cross section was very well, the other 25% was well, and the 50% remaining was in critical state. The river habitat quality of the Jing River was better than that of the Wei and Beiluo Rivers.

  11. Natural radionuclides in soils of a forest fragment of Atlantic Forest under ecological restoration process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, F.S.; Lira, M.B.; Souza, E.M.; França, E.J.

    2017-01-01

    The natural radioactive isotopes come from the radioactive series of the 238 U (Uranium Series), the 235 U (Actinium Series) and the 232 Th (Thorium Series) series, or they can occur in isolation as is the case with the 40 K. Primordial radionuclides such as 40 K, 232 Th, 235 U and 238 U exist since the formation of the earth, being found in appreciable amounts in nature and in some cases may present a mass activity above the acceptable of environmental radiation. The objective of this work was to evaluate the mass activity of 40 K, 226 Ra and 228 Ra in the soils of a fragment of Atlantic Forest under ecological restoration process located in the Municipality of Paulista, PE, Brazil. Soil samples (0 - 15 cm) were collected under the projection of the treetops of the most abundant trees in the region. After drying and comminution, analytical portions of 40 g were transferred to polyethylene petri dishes, sealed and stored for 30 days to ensure secular equilibrium. Radioactivity was quantified by High Resolution Gamma Spectrometry - EGAR. The mean physical activities of 40 K, 226 Ra and 228 Ra were 12, 15 and 20 Bq kg -1 , respectively, for the surface soil of the Parque Natural Municipal Mata do Frio. The values found were lower than those found in mangroves in the state of Pernambuco and those considered normal for soils worldwide

  12. Linking plant ecology and long-term hydrology to improve wetland restoration success

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.V. Caldwell; M.J. Vepraskas; J.D. Gregory; R.W. Skaggs; R.L. Huffman

    2011-01-01

    Although millions of dollars are spent restoring wetlands, failures are common, in part because the planted vegetation cannot survive in the restored hydrology. Wetland restoration would be more successful if the hydrologic requirements of wetland plant communities were known so that the most appropriate plants could be selected for the range of projected hydrology at...

  13. Assessing Vegetation Cover Dynamics Induced by Policy-Driven Ecological Restoration and Implication to Soil Erosion in Southern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jien Zhang

    Full Text Available In the aftermath of the severe droughts and floods at the end of the 20th century, the Chinese government launched several ecological restoration projects, including the Natural Forest Protection Program in 1998 and the Grain-for-Green Program in 1999, to promote afforestation and reforestation to reduce surface runoff and consequent soil erosion nationwide. However, it is still unclear how vegetation has changed in southern China since the launch of these programs. In this study, we used the MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI to analyze the vegetation cover dynamics in southern China from 2000 to 2009 and evaluate the resulting effects of controlling soil erosion. Our observations indicate that 5.3% of the study area significantly increased and 0.98% significantly decreased in EVI value (p < 0.05. The spring EVI had largest increase in space. The conversions of croplands on steep slopes to forests resulting from national policies led to significant increases in EVI. The increase in EVI was not driven by annual average temperature and annual precipitation. By referencing ecological restoration statistical data and field observations, we showed that ecological restoration programs significantly improved vegetation cover in southern China. Increase in the area of farmland-converted forestlands has reduced soil erosion based upon monitoring sediment yields at hydrologic stations in the Yangtze River. This study displays the spatial patterns of trend in vegetation growth since the beginning of the 21st century in southern China and highlights the important role of China's afforestation program.

  14. Rethinking Partnerships with the Aim of Producing Knowledge with Practical Relevance: a Case Study in the Field of Ecological Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héloïse Gonzalo-Turpin

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Researchers in conservation biology and restoration ecology often work in partnership with local actors to increase the practical relevance of the knowledge they produce. Although an academic mode of knowledge production is essential in research for a better understanding of biological systems, it often fails to produce frameworks and methodologies having practical relevance that can be used in conservation and restoration programs. The involvement of researchers in collective plans of action is supposed to contribute to the production of a more contextualized form of knowledge. In this paper, we report our experience of partnership research in an ecological restoration project. We show that changing our mode of knowledge production to one that produces knowledge having more practical relevance requires a particular spectrum of partners and reflexive communication between all the partners. We advocate the need for participatory approaches that favor collective and reflexive processes of problem finding and problem solving in conservation and restoration projects. Putting such processes into practice is not only a challenge for researchers but also for their partners, and presupposes a profound transformation of their roles.

  15. Ecological Restoration Programs Induced Amelioration of the Dust Pollution in North China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, X.; Tie, X.; Li, G.; Junji, C.

    2017-12-01

    With Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) land cover product (MCD12Q1), we quantitatively evaluate the ecological restoration programs (ERP) induced land cover change in China by calculating gridded the land use fraction (LUF). We clearly capture two obvious vegetation (grass and forest) protective barriers arise between the dust source region DSR and North China Plain NCP from 2011 to 2013. The WRF-DUST model is applied to investigate the impact of ERPs on dust pollution from 2 to 8 March 2016, corresponding to a national dust storm event over China. Despite some model biases, the WRF-DUST model reasonably reproduced the temporal variations of dust storm event, involving IOA of 0.96 and NMB of 2% for DSR, with IOA of 0.83 and NMB of -15% for downwind area of NCP. Generally, the WRF-DUST model well capture the spatial variations and evolutions of dust storm events with episode-average [PMC] correlation coefficient (R) of 0.77, especially the dust storm outbreak and transport evolution, involving daily average [PMC] R of 0.9 and 0.73 on 4-5 March, respectively. It is found that the ERPs generally reduce the dust pollution in NCP, especially for BTH, involving upper dust pollution control benefits of -15.3% (-21.0 μg m-3) for BTH, and -6.2% (-9.3 μg m-3) for NCP. We are the first to conduct model sensitivity studies to quantitatively evaluate the impacts of the ERPs on the dust pollution in NCP. And our narrative is independently based on first-hand sources, whereas government statistics.

  16. Mapping Ecological Processes and Ecosystem Services for Prioritizing Restoration Efforts in a Semi-arid Mediterranean River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabucchi, Mattia; O'Farrell, Patrick J.; Notivol, Eduardo; Comín, Francisco A.

    2014-06-01

    Semi-arid Mediterranean regions are highly susceptible to desertification processes which can reduce the benefits that people obtain from healthy ecosystems and thus threaten human wellbeing. The European Union Biodiversity Strategy to 2020 recognizes the need to incorporate ecosystem services into land-use management, conservation, and restoration actions. The inclusion of ecosystem services into restoration actions and plans is an emerging area of research, and there are few documented approaches and guidelines on how to undertake such an exercise. This paper responds to this need, and we demonstrate an approach for identifying both key ecosystem services provisioning areas and the spatial relationship between ecological processes and services. A degraded semi-arid Mediterranean river basin in north east Spain was used as a case study area. We show that the quantification and mapping of services are the first step required for both optimizing and targeting of specific local areas for restoration. Additionally, we provide guidelines for restoration planning at a watershed scale; establishing priorities for improving the delivery of ecosystem services at this scale; and prioritizing the sub-watersheds for restoration based on their potential for delivering a combination of key ecosystem services for the entire basin.

  17. Mapping ecological processes and ecosystem services for prioritizing restoration efforts in a semi-arid Mediterranean river basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabucchi, Mattia; O'Farrell, Patrick J; Notivol, Eduardo; Comín, Francisco A

    2014-06-01

    Semi-arid Mediterranean regions are highly susceptible to desertification processes which can reduce the benefits that people obtain from healthy ecosystems and thus threaten human wellbeing. The European Union Biodiversity Strategy to 2020 recognizes the need to incorporate ecosystem services into land-use management, conservation, and restoration actions. The inclusion of ecosystem services into restoration actions and plans is an emerging area of research, and there are few documented approaches and guidelines on how to undertake such an exercise. This paper responds to this need, and we demonstrate an approach for identifying both key ecosystem services provisioning areas and the spatial relationship between ecological processes and services. A degraded semi-arid Mediterranean river basin in north east Spain was used as a case study area. We show that the quantification and mapping of services are the first step required for both optimizing and targeting of specific local areas for restoration. Additionally, we provide guidelines for restoration planning at a watershed scale; establishing priorities for improving the delivery of ecosystem services at this scale; and prioritizing the sub-watersheds for restoration based on their potential for delivering a combination of key ecosystem services for the entire basin.

  18. Impact of Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART) on the treatment profile in pilot government dental clinics in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikwilu, Emil Namakuka; Frencken, Jo; Mulder, Jan

    2009-06-08

    The predominant mode of treatment in government dental clinics in Tanzania has been tooth extraction because the economy could not support the conventional restorative care which depends on expensive equipment, electricity and piped water systems. Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART) was perceived as a suitable alternative. A 3.5-year study was designed to document the changes in the treatment profiles ascribed to the systematic introduction of ART in pilot government dental clinics. Dental practitioners who were working in 13 government dental clinics underwent a 7-day ART training. Treatment record data on teeth extracted and teeth restored by the conventional and ART approaches were collected from these clinics for the three study periods. The mean percentage of ART restorations to total treatment, ART restorations to total restorations, and total restorations to total treatments rendered were computed. Differences between variables were determined by ANOVA, t-test and Chi-square. The mean percentage of ART restorations to total treatment rendered was 0.4 (SE = 0.5) and 11.9 (SE = 1.1) during the baseline and second follow-up period respectively (ANOVA mixed model; P ART restorations to total restorations rendered at baseline and 2nd follow-up period was 8.4% and 88.9% respectively (ANOVA mixed model; P ART restorations, 96.6% willing to receive ART restoration again in future, and 94.9% willing to recommend ART treatment to their close relatives. ART introduction in pilot government dental clinics raised the number of teeth saved by restorative care. Countrywide introduction of the ART approach in Tanzania is recommended.

  19. Quantifying the effect of ecological restoration on soil erosion in China's Loess Plateau region: an application of the MMF approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Changbin; Qi, Jiaguo; Feng, Zhaodong; Yin, Runsheng; Guo, Biyun; Zhang, Feng; Zou, Songbing

    2010-03-01

    Land degradation due to erosion is one of the most serious environmental problems in China. To reduce land degradation, the government has taken a number of conservation and restoration measures, including the Sloping Land Conversion Program (SLCP), which was launched in 1999. A logical question is whether these measures have reduced soil erosion at the regional level. The objective of this article is to answer this question by assessing soil erosion dynamics in the Zuli River basin in the Loess Plateau of China from 1999 to 2006. The MMF (Morgan, Morgan and Finney) model was used to simulate changes in runoff and soil erosion over the period of time during which ecological restoration projects were implemented. Some model variables were derived from remotely sensed images to provide improved land surface representation. With an overall accuracy rate of 0.67, our simulations show that increased ground vegetation cover, especially in forestlands and grasslands, has reduced soil erosion by 38.8% on average from 1999 to 2006. During the same time period, however, the change in rainfall pattern has caused a 13.1% +/- 4.3% increase in soil erosion, resulting in a net 25.7% +/- 8.5% reduction in soil erosion. This suggests that China's various ecological restoration efforts have been effective in reducing soil loss.

  20. Vegetation Succession on Degraded Sites in the Pomacochas Basin (Amazonas, N Peru—Ecological Options for Forest Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helge Walentowski

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The Andes of northern Peru are still widely covered with forests, but increasingly suffer from habitat fragmentation. Subsequent soil degradation often leads to the abandonment of overused forests and pastures. Ecological knowledge on the restoration potential, e.g., on dependencies of soil conditions and altitude, is scarce. Therefore, we compared soil and vegetation patterns along nine transects within the upper Pomacochas Basin, which is an important biodiversity corridor along the Andes, between remaining forests, succession sites and pastures. Anthropogenic successional and disturbance levels, geological substrate, and altitude have the most important ecological impacts on vegetation and tree species composition. Species responded to sandstone versus calcareous substrates, but also to depths of the organic soil layer, and light conditions. The absence of organic layers under pastures contrasted with the accumulation of thick organic layers under forest cover. Vegetation composition at succession sites revealed certain starting points (herbal stage, bush stage, or secondary forest for restoration that will determine the length of regeneration paths. Pre-forest patches of Alchornea sp. and Parathesis sp. may act as habitat stepping stones for expeditiously restoring biocorridors for wildlife. The key findings can contribute to the sustainable use and conservation of biodiversity in a fragile ecoregion.

  1. [Ecological security of wastewater treatment processes: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sai; Hua, Tao

    2013-05-01

    Though the regular indicators of wastewater after treatment can meet the discharge requirements and reuse standards, it doesn't mean the effluent is harmless. From the sustainable point of view, to ensure the ecological and human security, comprehensive toxicity should be considered when discharge standards are set up. In order to improve the ecological security of wastewater treatment processes, toxicity reduction should be considered when selecting and optimizing the treatment processes. This paper reviewed the researches on the ecological security of wastewater treatment processes, with the focus on the purposes of various treatment processes, including the processes for special wastewater treatment, wastewater reuse, and for the safety of receiving waters. Conventional biological treatment combined with advanced oxidation technologies can enhance the toxicity reduction on the base of pollutants removal, which is worthy of further study. For the process aimed at wastewater reuse, the integration of different process units can complement the advantages of both conventional pollutants removal and toxicity reduction. For the process aimed at ecological security of receiving waters, the emphasis should be put on the toxicity reduction optimization of process parameters and process unit selection. Some suggestions for the problems in the current research and future research directions were put forward.

  2. Ecological outcomes and evaluation of success in passively restored Southeastern depressional wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diane De Steven; Rebecca R. Sharitz; Christopher D. Barton

    2010-01-01

    Depressional wetlands may be restored passively by disrupting prior drainage to recover original hydrology and relying on natural revegetation. Restored hydrology selects for wetland vegetation; however, depression geomorphology constrains the achievable hydroperiod, and plant communities are influenced by hydroperiod and available species pools. Such constraints can...

  3. Effect of ecological restoration programs on dust concentrations in the North China Plain: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Xin; Tie, Xuexi; Li, Guohui; Cao, Junji; Feng, Tian; Zhao, Shuyu; Xing, Li; An, Zhisheng

    2018-05-01

    In recent decades, the Chinese government has made a great effort in initiating large-scale ecological restoration programs (ERPs) to reduce the dust concentrations in China, especially for dust storm episodes. Using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) land cover product, the ERP-induced land cover changes are quantitatively evaluated in this study. Two obvious vegetation protective barriers arise throughout China from the southwest to the northeast, which are well known as the Green Great Wall (GGW). Both the grass GGW and forest GGW are located between the dust source region (DSR) and the densely populated North China Plain (NCP). To assess the effect of ERPs on dust concentrations, a regional transport/dust model (WRF-DUST, Weather Research and Forecast model with dust) is applied to investigate the evolution of dust plumes during a strong dust storm episode from 2 to 8 March 2016. The WRF-DUST model generally performs reasonably well in reproducing the temporal variations and spatial distributions of near-surface [PMC] (mass concentration of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter between 2.5 and 10 µm) during the dust storm event. Sensitivity experiments have indicated that the ERP-induced GGWs help to reduce the dust concentration in the NCP, especially in BTH (Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei). When the dust storm is transported from the upwind DSR to the downwind NCP, the [PMC] reduction ranges from -5 to -15 % in the NCP, with a maximum reduction of -12.4 % (-19.2 µg m-3) in BTH and -7.6 % (-10.1 µg m-3) in the NCP. We find the dust plumes move up to the upper atmosphere and are transported from the upwind DSR to the downwind NCP, accompanied by dust decrease. During the episode, the forest GGW is nonsignificant in dust concentration control because it is of benefit for dry deposition and not for emission. Conversely, the grass GGW is beneficial in controlling dust erosion and is the dominant reason for [PMC] decrease in the NCP

  4. Effect of ecological restoration programs on dust concentrations in the North China Plain: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Long

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, the Chinese government has made a great effort in initiating large-scale ecological restoration programs (ERPs to reduce the dust concentrations in China, especially for dust storm episodes. Using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS land cover product, the ERP-induced land cover changes are quantitatively evaluated in this study. Two obvious vegetation protective barriers arise throughout China from the southwest to the northeast, which are well known as the Green Great Wall (GGW. Both the grass GGW and forest GGW are located between the dust source region (DSR and the densely populated North China Plain (NCP. To assess the effect of ERPs on dust concentrations, a regional transport/dust model (WRF-DUST, Weather Research and Forecast model with dust is applied to investigate the evolution of dust plumes during a strong dust storm episode from 2 to 8 March 2016. The WRF-DUST model generally performs reasonably well in reproducing the temporal variations and spatial distributions of near-surface [PMC] (mass concentration of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter between 2.5 and 10 µm during the dust storm event. Sensitivity experiments have indicated that the ERP-induced GGWs help to reduce the dust concentration in the NCP, especially in BTH (Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei. When the dust storm is transported from the upwind DSR to the downwind NCP, the [PMC] reduction ranges from −5 to −15 % in the NCP, with a maximum reduction of −12.4 % (−19.2 µg m−3 in BTH and −7.6 % (−10.1 µg m−3 in the NCP. We find the dust plumes move up to the upper atmosphere and are transported from the upwind DSR to the downwind NCP, accompanied by dust decrease. During the episode, the forest GGW is nonsignificant in dust concentration control because it is of benefit for dry deposition and not for emission. Conversely, the grass GGW is beneficial in controlling dust erosion and is the

  5. Transient Social-Ecological Stability: the Effects of Invasive Species and Ecosystem Restoration on Nutrient Management Compromise in Lake Erie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric D. Roy

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Together, lake ecosystems and local human activity form complex social-ecological systems (SESs characterized by feedback loops and discontinuous change. Researchers in diverse fields have suggested that complex systems do not have single stable equilibria in the long term because of inevitable perturbation. During this study, we sought to address the general question of whether or not stable social-ecological equilibria exist in highly stressed and managed lacustrine systems. Using an integrated human-biophysical model, we investigated the impacts of a species invasion and ecosystem restoration on SES equilibrium, defined here as a compromise in phosphorus management among opposing stakeholders, in western Lake Erie. Our integrated model is composed of a calibrated ecological submodel representing Sandusky Bay, and a phosphorus management submodel that reflects the societal benefits and costs of phosphorus regulation. These two submodels together form a dynamic feedback loop that includes freshwater ecology, ecosystem services, and phosphorus management. We found that the invasion of dreissenid mussels decreased ecosystem resistance to eutrophication, necessitating increased phosphorus management to preserve ecosystem services and thus creating the potential for a shift in social-ecological equilibrium. Additionally, our results suggest that net benefits in the region following the invasion of dreissenids may never again reach the pre-invasion level if on-site phosphorus control is the sole management lever. Further demonstrating transient system stability, large-scale wetland restoration shifted points of management compromise to states characterized by less on-site phosphorus management and higher environmental quality, resulting in a significant increase in net benefits in the region. We conclude that lacustrine SESs are open and dynamic, and we recommend that future models of these systems emphasize site-specific perturbation over

  6. Soil amendments improve microbial ecology parameters of "topsoil inoculum" used in post-mining restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaresan, Deepak; Munoz-Rojas, Miriam; Moreira-Grez, Benjamin; Kariman, Khalil; Whiteley, Andrew

    2017-04-01

    Mine operations generate substantial volumes of waste substrates, which are crushed and/or chemically treated waste rock from which ores are extracted. Establishment of rehabilitated landforms using post-mining substrates (i.e. waste rocks, tailings) that typically exhibit extreme conditions (such as high pH, nutrient deficiency, excessive salinity and metal toxicity) can be a major environmental problem and a critical issue during mine closure operations. More importantly, mine sites are located predominantly in arid or semi-arid lands where our understanding of basic ecosystem processes and microbial interactions with native plants (e.g. Eucalyptus spp., Acacia spp., Grevillea spp. in Western Australia) are limited. Despite the wide acknowledgement on the impact of microbial functional diversity on overall soil and plant health, no detailed attention has been paid to understand the role of belowground microbial functional diversity in the context of mine rehabilitation strategies. In this research, we investigated the role of nitrogen-based and microbial consortia amendments on improving the microbial ecology parameters of "topsoil inoculum" and subsequently its cascading effect on seedling establishment and plant morphology of Acacia ancistrocarpa, a legume native to the Pilbara and other regions of Western Australia and commonly used in arid zone restoration. The study was conducted under controlled environmental conditions in potted plants using topsoil retrieved from previously stockpiled material as growth media. A morphological assessment was undertaken to measure shoot length, shoot weight, root length, root area and root weight. Soil chemical properties, e.g. carbon, nitrogen and trace metals concentrations were determined Microbial activity was measured with the 1-day CO2 test, which determines soil microbial respiration rate based on the measurement of the CO2 burst produced after moistening dry soil (Muñoz-Rojas et al., 2016). Bacterial and archaeal

  7. Survey of comprehensive restorative treatment for children under general anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yai-Tin Lin

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: Although general anesthesia provides an optimal condition for treating children with high caries risk, high failure rates of composite restorations were noted. Indirect pulp capping and ferric sulfate pulpotomy followed by stainless steel crown restorations are successful techniques and can be used to treat deep carious lesions.

  8. Ecological outcomes and evaluation of success in passively restored southeastern depressional wetlands.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Steven, Diane; Sharitz, Rebecca R.; Barton, Christopher, D.

    2010-11-01

    Abstract: Depressional wetlands may be restored passively by disrupting prior drainage to recover original hydrology and relying on natural revegetation. Restored hydrology selects for wetland vegetation; however, depression geomorphology constrains the achievable hydroperiod, and plant communities are influenced by hydroperiod and available species pools. Such constraints can complicate assessments of restoration success. Sixteen drained depressions in South Carolina, USA, were restored experimentally by forest clearing and ditch plugging for potential crediting to a mitigation bank. Depressions were assigned to alternate revegetation methods representing desired targets of herbaceous and wet-forest communities. After five years, restoration progress and revegetation methods were evaluated. Restored hydroperiods differed among wetlands, but all sites developed diverse vegetation of native wetland species. Vegetation traits were influenced by hydroperiod and the effects of early drought, rather than by revegetation method. For mitigation banking, individual wetlands were assessed for improvement from pre-restoration condition and similarity to assigned reference type. Most wetlands met goals to increase hydroperiod, herb-species dominance, and wetland-plant composition. Fewer wetlands achieved equivalence to reference types because some vegetation targets were incompatible with depression hydroperiods and improbable without intensive management. The results illustrated a paradox in judging success when vegetation goals may be unsuited to system constraints.

  9. Eco-experiential quality of urban forests: Combining ecological, restorative and aesthetic perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Hauru, Kaisa

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis I combined perspectives from urban forest ecology, environmental psychology and empirical aesthetics to determine whether ecologically beneficial urban forest planning and management can also be experientially good. The thesis consists of four interrelated papers, three of which are empirical research papers and the fourth a theoretical review article. All empirical work was performed in boreal forests in Helsinki, the capital of Finland. In the ecological part of the thes...

  10. A Proposal on the Restoration of Nostoc flagelliforme for Sustainable Improvement in the Ecology of Arid Steppes in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Gao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nostoc flagelliforme, a filamentous nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium, is widely distributed in arid steppes of the west and northwestern parts of China. However, as a food delicacy this species has been overexploited from 1970 to 2000. Moreover, overgrazing, land reclamation and the removal of medicinal herbs have caused severely reduced vegetation coverage there. In this communication, a badly damaged but slowly rehabilitating N. flagelliforme-inhibiting steppe is described, and the rehabilitation of desertified steppes by the renewed growth of N. flagelliforme is proposed. The restoration of this dominant nitrogen supplier would be an ecologically sustainable solution for supplementing current measures already taken in the desertified regions. In addition, a goal of 50%–60% vegetation coverage is proposed by the N. flagelliforme restoration.

  11. Two-year survival rates of proximal atraumatic restorative treatment restorations in relation to glass ionomer cements and postrestoration meals consumed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemoli, A.M.; Opinya, G.N.; van Amerongen, W.E.; Mwalili, S.M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of 3 glass ionomer cement (GIC) brands and the postrestoration meal consumed on the survival rate of proximal atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) restorations. Methods: A total of 804 proximal restorations were placed in primary

  12. Assessing ecological restoration potential in Enrique Olaya Herrera National Park Titulo corto: Determinación del potencial de restauración ecológica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Carolina Bohorquez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Enrique Olaya Herrera National Park (c.a. 237 ha is a protected area located in the eastern hills of Bogotá in a strategic ecological location. It forms part of the city’s Main Ecological Structure that maintains valuable landscapes in the region. However, the area is subject to a variety of ecological pressures and constraints that have contributed to its degradation. Based on landscape ecology theories, this study zoned the park according to its restoration potential with the objective of setting base-lines for the planning of restoration projects. Firstly, we characterized the physical, biotic and socio-dynamic components of the territory. Secondly, we selected the variables necessary for the evaluation and spacing of the restoration potential of each of these components. Finally, following the evaluation and weighting of the obtained potentials, and using GIS analysis, we determined which areas have high, medium or low ecological restoration potential, generating a 1:5000-scale cartography for the whole study area. The spacing of these landscape units is one of the main concepts of landscape ecology that allows the identification of priorities in projects that need rigorous planning and investment of technical and human resources. By doing this, it will likely contribute to the success of ecosystem restoration projects.

  13. Lessons of an experience on peasant participation in an ecological restoration process at Las Orquideas National Natural Park, Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turbay Ceballos, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    The formulation of strategies for conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity are a focus for discussion in protected areas overlapping with family farms. The purpose of this study was to identify the factors affecting farmer participation in an ecological restoration project promoted by Las Orquideas National Natural Park, located west of the department of Antioquia. The results reveal that the people is afraid of expropriation and distrusts technicians, and that there are communication failures, economic and cultural obstacles to limit cattle farming and social restrictions to intensify the exploitation of labor force demanded by new technologies proposed by the Park.

  14. Mangrove Restoration Areas in Salt River Bay National Historical Park and Ecological Preserve

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Apart from two 100 m test plots, mangrove restoration activities were conducted between 1999 and 2001. Each year, thousands of red mangrove propagules were planted...

  15. Approach and Strategy for Performing Ecological Risk Assessments for the Department of Energy Oak Ridge Field Office Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suter, G.W. II

    1992-01-01

    This technical memorandum provides guidance for planning and performing ecological risk assessments (ERAs) on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). This work was performed under Work Breakdown Structure 1.4.12.2.3.04.07.02 (Activity Data Sheet 8304) and meets an Environmental Restoration Program milestone for FY 95. The strategy discussed in this report is consistent with the overall strategy for site management and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) compliance developed for the ORR and relevant U.S. Environmental Protection Agency documents and guidance. The general approach and strategy presented herein was developed for the ORR, but it could be applicable to other complex CERCLA sites that possess significant ecological resources.

  16. Ecological Restoration of Antibiotic-Disturbed Gastrointestinal Microbiota in Foregut and Hindgut of Cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Shoukun; Jiang, Tao; Yan, Hui; Guo, Chunyan; Liu, Jingjing; Su, Huawei; Alugongo, Gibson M.; Shi, Haitao; Wang, Yajing; Cao, Zhijun; Li, Shengli

    2018-01-01

    Antibiotically disturbed gastrointestinal microbiota needs a long period time to be restored to normal, which may cause a series of problems to the host. The understanding of restoration of the biased microbiota by antibiotics remains largely unknown. Here, we investigated the microbiota shift in foregut (rumen) and hindgut (rectum) of lactating cows after antibiotics exposure as well as after antibiotics withdrawal with (Microbiota transplantation, MT group) or without (Control, CON group) microbiota transplantation. We were able to demonstrate that microbiota in both foregut and hindgut significantly changed after 3 or 14 days of antibiotics exposure, and the changes persisted over long period of time (>18 days) after withdrawing the antibiotics. We further observed a faster restoration of microbiota in both foregut and hindgut of MT group than CON group, microbiota in foregut was mainly benefited from microbiota transplantation by restoring the alpha-diversity as well as within-group similarity, while microbiota in hindgut was primarily benefited from microbiota transplantation by reestablishing the co-occurrence network (nodes number, edges number, density, modularity as well as closeness centrality). These results together expanded our understanding of restoration of the biased microbiota by antibiotics, and may also be instructive to deal with the delayed microbiota restoration at least in cows. PMID:29594071

  17. Development of a zoning-based environmental-ecological-coupled model for lakes to assess lake restoration effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Mengjia; Zou, Changxin; Zhao, Yanwei

    2017-04-01

    coupled models have been applied to simulate the spatial variation trends of ecological condition under ecological water supplement as an example to reflect the application effect in lake restoration and management. The simulation results indicate that the models can provide a useful tool for lake restoration and management. The simulated spatial variation trends can provide a foundation for establishing permissible ranges for a selected set of water quality indices for a series of management measures such as watershed pollution load control and ecological water transfer. Meanwhile, the coupled models can help us to understand processes taking place and the relations of interaction between components in the lake ecosystem and external conditions. Taken together, the proposed models we established show some promising applications as middle-scale or large-scale lake management tools for pollution load control and ecological water transfer. These tools quantify the implications of proposed future water management decisions.

  18. Tuberculosis treatment raises total cholesterol level and restores ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    2013-10-09

    Oct 9, 2013 ... and restores high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL- ... cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglycerides (TG) were determined .... However, we found a strong negative correlation (r = - 0.96,.

  19. Ecological restoration experiments (1992-2007) at the G.A. Pearson Natural Area, Fort Valley Experimental Forest (P-53)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margaret M. Moore; Wallace Covington; Peter Z. Fulé; Stephen C. Hart; Thomas E. Kolb; Joy N. Mast; Stephen S. Sackett; Michael R. Wagner

    2008-01-01

    In 1992 an experiment was initiated at the G. A. Pearson Natural Area on the Fort Valley Experimental Forest to evaluate long-term ecosystem responses to two restoration treatments: thinning only and thinning with prescribed burning. Fifteen years of key findings about tree physiology, herbaceous, and ecosystem responses are presented.

  20. A field-trial of two restorative materials used with atraumatic restorative treatment in rural Turkey: 24-month results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ertugrul Ercan

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical performance of high-strength glass ionomer cement (HSGIC and resin-modified glass ionomer (RMGIC in single and multiple surface carious cavities in the field conditions. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A split-mouth design, including ninety-one fillings placed on contra lateral molar pairs of 37 children, was used in permanent dentition. As filling materials, a HSGIC (Ketac Molar/3M ESPE and a RMGIC (Vitremer/ 3M ESPE were used with the Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART. Baseline and 6, 12 and 24-month evaluations of the fillings were made with standard-ART and USPHS criteria by two examiners with kappa values of 0.92 and 0.87 for both criteria. RESULTS: According to the USPHS criteria, the retention rates of RMGIC and HSGIC restorations were 100% and 80.9% for single surface, and 100% and 41.2% for multiple surface restorations after 24 months, respectively. Irrespective of surface number, RMGIC was significantly superior to HSGIC (p= 0.004, according to both standard-ART and USPHS criteria. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that RMGIC may be an alternative restorative technique in comparison to high-strength GIC applications in ART-field-trials. However, further clinical and field trials are needed to support this conclusion.

  1. Effect of ecological restoration and climate change on ecosystems: a case study in the Three-Rivers Headwater Region, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chong; Zhang, Linbo

    2016-06-01

    The Three-Rivers Headwater Region (TRHR) is the headwater of the Yangtze River Basin (YARB), Yellow River Basin (YRB), and Lancang River Basin (LRB); it is known as China's 'Water Tower' owing to its important supply of freshwater. In order to assess ecosystem changes in the TRHR during 2000-2012, we systematically and comprehensively evaluated a combination of model simulation results and actual observational data. The results showed the following: (1) Ecosystem pattern was relatively stable during 2000-2010, with a slight decrease in farmland and desert areas, and a slight increase in grassland and wetland/water-body areas. (2) A warmer and wetter climate, and ecological engineering, caused the vegetation cover and productivity to significantly improve. (3) Precipitation was the main controlling factor for streamflow. A significant increase in precipitation during 2000-2012 resulted in an obvious increase in annual and seasonal streamflow. Glacier melting also contributed to the streamflow increase. (4) The total amount of soil conservation increased slightly from 2000 to 2012. The increase in precipitation caused rainfall erosivity to increase, which enhanced the intensity of soil erosion. The decrease in wind speed decreased wind erosion and the frequency of sandstorms. (5) The overall habitat quality in the TRHR was stable between 2000 and 2010, and the spatial pattern exhibited obvious heterogeneity. In some counties that included nature reserves, habitat quality was slightly higher in 2010 than in 2000, which reflected the effectiveness of the ecological restoration. Overall, the aforementioned ecosystem changes are the combined results of ecological restoration and climate change, and they are likely a local and temporary improvement, rather than a comprehensive and fundamental change. Therefore, more investments and efforts are needed to preserve natural ecosystems.

  2. Reestablishing natural succession on acidic mine spoils at high elevations: long-term ecological restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray W. Brown; Michael C. Amacher; Walter F. Mueggler; Janice Kotuby-Amacher

    2003-01-01

    Methods for restoring native plant communities on acidic mine spoils at high elevations were evaluated in a "demonstration area" in the New World Mining District of southern Montana. Research plots installed in 1976 were assessed for 22 years and compared with adjacent native reference plant communities. A 1.5-acre (0.61-ha) area of mine spoils was shaped and...

  3. Natural forest regeneration and ecological restoration in human-modified tropical landscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martínez-Ramos, Miguel; Pingarroni, Aline; Rodríguez-Velázquez, Jorge; Toledo-Chelala, Lilibeth; Zermeño-Hernández, Isela; Bongers, Frans

    2016-01-01

    In human-modified tropical landscapes (HMLs) the conservation of biodiversity, functions and services of forest ecosystems depends on persistence of old growth forest remnants, forest regeneration in abandoned agricultural fields, and restoration of degraded lands. Understanding the impacts of

  4. A demonstration project to test ecological restoration of a pinyon-juniper ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    David W. Huffman; Michael T. Stoddard; Peter Z. Fule; W. Wallace Covington; H. B. Smith

    2008-01-01

    To test an approach for restoring historical stand densities and increasing plant species diversity of a pinyon-juniper ecosystem, we implemented a demonstration project at two sites (CR and GP) on the Grand Canyon-Parashant National Monument in northern Arizona. Historical records indicated that livestock grazing was intensive on the sites beginning in the late 1800s...

  5. Evaluating the ecological economic success of riparian restoration projects in Arizona (Abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary B. Snider

    2000-01-01

    The past 4 years the Arizona Water Protection Fund provided more than $25 million to individuals and organizations for stream and riparian restoration projects in Arizona. Information which increases the awareness of the value of Arizona's riparian systems is crucial to the incorporation of ecosystem services into decision-making frameworks, which are largely...

  6. Impacts of hemlock decline and ecological considerations for hemlock stand restoration following hemlock woolly adelgid outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah Z. Jonas; Weimin Xi; John D. Waldron; Robert N. Coulson

    2012-01-01

    We present a synthesis of current knowledge and information of hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA, Adelges tsugae Annand) impact on hemlock forests and conceptual framework of restoring damaged hemlock stands by HWA infestation. Native to Asia, HWA has been thriving in the eastern United States since the early 1950s and has become a serious pathological agent of both eastern...

  7. Release of Suppressed Red Spruce Using Canopy Gap Creation--Ecological Restoration in the Central Appalachians

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.S. Rentch; W.M. Ford; Thomas Schuler; Jeff Palmer; C.A. Diggins

    2016-01-01

    Red spruce (Picea rubens) and red spruce-northern hardwood mixed stands once covered as much as 300,000 ha in the Central Appalachians, but now comprise no more than 21,000 ha. Recently, interest in restoration of this forest type has increased because red spruce forests provide habitat for a number of rare animal species. Our study reports the...

  8. Ecological Restoration of Coastal Sage Scrub and Its Potential Role in Habitat Conservation Plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BOWLER

    2000-07-01

    Extensive acreage loss of coastal sage scrub (CSS), isolation of surviving stands, and the federal listing of several animal species with obligate relationships to this plant community, particularly the threatened California gnatcatcher (Polioptila californica), have led to attempts to create CSS to mitigate habitat lost to urban development and other causes. Many of these creations lie within habitat conservation plan (HCP) sites, and they could play a more prominent role by being repositories for plants taken from a single site having site-specific genetics. Among others, one technique that increases initial resemblance to natural stands uses digitized, to-scale photography, which has been ground-truthed to verify vascular plant associations, which appear as mosaics on a landscape. A combination of placing patches of salvaged, mature canopy plants within larger matrices of imprinted or container plant plots appears to significantly enhance immediate use by CSS obligate bird species, accelerate "spread" or expansion of CSS, and can also introduce many epiphytic taxa that otherwise would be slow or unable to occupy developing CSS creations. Reptile, amphibian, butterfly, and rodent diversity in a salvaged canopy restoration case study at the University of California, Irvine, showed CSS species foraging and inhabiting transplanted canopy patches. Using restoration techniques to expand existing CSS stands has more promise than creating isolated patches, and the creation of canopies resembling CSS mid-fire cycle stands is now common. Gnatcatchers and other birds use restorations for foraging and occasional nesting, and in some cases created stands along "biological corridors" appear to be useful to bird movement. Patches of transplanted sage scrub shrubs along habitat edges appear to break up linear edge effects. There are no data on which long-term survival, succession, or postfire behavior can be predicted for CSS restoration sites, and postfire community changes

  9. Effect of Different Surface Treatments on the Bond Strength of Repaired Resin Restorations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engy Fahmy Ismaiel Fekry Abaza

    2010-01-01

    In the last decade, growing demands by patients for mercury-free esthetic restorations had markedly increased the use of resin composites in restorative dentistry. However, despite the continuing development of resin composites with improved properties, several factors, such as discoloration, color mismatch, wear; chipping or bulk fracture might present clinical problems (Mjor and Gordan. 2002, Vichi et al. 2004 and Kolbeck et al. 2006). As a result, the clinician should decide whether to replace or simply repair these restorations. Total replacement of the restoration might be regarded as over-treatment since in most cases, large portions of the restorations might be clinically and radio graphically considered free of failure. Moreover, complete removal of the restoration inevitably resulted in weakening of the tooth, unnecessary removal of intact dental tissues, more money and time consuming. For these reasons, the repair of the restoration instead of its removal would be a favorable procedure (Lucena-Martin et al. 2001, Frankenberger et al. 2003 a and Oztas et al. 2003). The key element in the determination of successful repair procedures was the adequate bond strength between the existing resin composite and the new one. Various methods have been suggested to improve the bond strength of the repaired resin restorations (Tezvergil et al. 2003 and Bonstein et al. 2005). Mechanical and/or chemical treatments had been investigated for preparation of the aged resin restorations to be repaired (Tezvergil et al. 2003, Ozcan et al. 2005 and Hannig et al. 2006). These treatments were introduced to counteract the problems of aged resin restorations which were limited amount of residual free radicals available for reaction with the repair material, contaminated surface, and highly cross-linked resin matrix ( Dall Oca et al. 2006 and Papacchini et al. 2007 a) Previous studies emphasized that mechanical treatments are the most important factor in obtaining optimal repair

  10. Climate change as an ecosystem architect: implications to rare plant ecology, conservation, and restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constance I. Millar

    2003-01-01

    Recent advances in earth system sciences have revealed significant new information relevant to rare plant ecology and conservation. Analysis of climate change at high resolution with new and precise proxies of paleotemperatures reveals a picture over the past two million years of oscillatory climate change operating simultaneously at multiple timescales. Low-frequency...

  11. Excessive reliance on afforestation in China's arid and semi-arid regions: Lessons in ecological restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shixiong; Chen, Li; Shankman, David; Wang, Chunmei; Wang, Xiongbin; Zhang, Hong

    2011-02-01

    Afforestation is a primary tool for controlling desertification and soil erosion in China. Large-scale afforestation, however, has complex and poorly understood consequences for the structure and composition of future ecosystems. Here, we discuss the potential links between China's historical large-scale afforestation practices and the program's effects on environmental restoration in arid and semi-arid regions in northern China based on a review of data from published papers, and offer recommendations to overcome the shortcomings of current environmental policy. Although afforestation is potentially an important approach for environmental restoration, current Chinese policy has not been tailored to local environmental conditions, leading to the use of inappropriate species and an overemphasis on tree and shrub planting, thereby compromising the ability to achieve environmental policy goals. China's huge investment to increase forest cover seems likely to exacerbate environmental degradation in environmentally fragile areas because it has ignored climate, pedological, hydrological, and landscape factors that would make a site unsuitable for afforestation. This has, in many cases, led to the deterioration of soil ecosystems and decreased vegetation cover, and has exacerbated water shortages. Large-scale and long-term research is urgently needed to provide information that supports a more effective and flexible environmental restoration policy.

  12. How ecological restoration alters ecosystem services: an analysis of carbon sequestration in China's Loess Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiaoming; Fu, Bojie; Lu, Nan; Zeng, Yuan; Wu, Bingfang

    2013-10-03

    Restoring disturbed and over-exploited ecosystems is important to mitigate human pressures on natural ecosystems. China has launched an ambitious national ecosystem restoration program called Grain to Green Program (GTGP) over the last decade. By using remote sensing techniques and ecosystem modelling, we quantitatively evaluated the changes in ecosystem carbon sequestration since China's GTGP program during period of 2000-2008. It was found the NPP and NEP in this region had steadily increased after the initiative of the GTGP program, and a total of 96.1 Tg of additional carbon had been sequestered during that period. Changes in soil carbon storage were lagged behind and thus insignificant over the period, but was expected to follow in the coming decades. As a result, the Loess Plateau ecosystem had shifted from a net carbon source in 2000 to a net carbon sink in 2008. The carbon sequestration efficiency was constrained by precipitation, and appropriate choices of restoration types (trees, shrubs, and grasses) in accordance to local climate are critical for achieving the best benefit/cost efficiency.

  13. INFLUENCE OF ECOLOGICAL GROUP COMPOSITION, PLANTATION SPACING AND ARRANGEMENT IN THE RESTORATION OF RIPARIAN FOREST ON RESERVOIR SHORES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Augusto Vieira Soares

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to assess the effect of spacing, arrangement and ecological group composition of planted seedlings on the restoration process of artificial reservoir shores in southeastern Brazil. The assessments were performed 12 years after the settlement of the experiment in which five mixed stand models were tested. First, a general evaluation of the stand was performed when we surveyed the overstory and understory, seed bank and soil for chemical analysis.Then, the restoration indicators survival of planted trees, basal area and density of the tree community, litter accumulated on the soil and canopy closure index were utilized to compare the plantation models and to assess the influence the experimental factors on these parameters. In the general analysis, we found that the studied stand presents low diversity, poor regeneration, and seed bank dominated mostly by one planted exotic tree species and weeds, which may jeopardize the self- maintenance of the stand in the future. The factor that most influenced the models was the ecological group composition with the best performance found for models in which both pioneer and non-pioneer groups were used. Probably, the plantation arrangement and spacing did not have greater influence due to both plant mortality and natural regeneration that has developed to this age. Hence, it is not recommended the use of only pioneer species in the implantation of riparian forest and the proportion of 50% pioneers and 50% non-pioneers using as much species as possible is indicated for areas that might present constraints for the natural regeneration.

  14. Restoring fire as an ecological process in shortgrass prairie ecosystems: initial effects of prescribed burning during the dormant and growing seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockway, Dale G; Gatewood, Richard G; Paris, Randi B

    2002-06-01

    Prior to Anglo-European settlement, fire was a major ecological process influencing the structure, composition and productivity of shortgrass prairie ecosystems on the Great Plains. However during the past 125 years, the frequency and extent of grassland fire has dramatically declined as a result of the systematic heavy grazing by large herds of domestic cattle and sheep which reduced the available levels of fine fuel and organized fire suppression efforts that succeeded in altering the natural fire regime. The greatly diminished role of recurrent fire in these ecosystems is thought to be responsible for ecologically adverse shifts in the composition, structure and diversity of these grasslands, leading specifically to the rise of ruderal species and invasion by less fire-tolerant species. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ecological effects of fire season and frequency on the shortgrass prairie and to determine the means by which prescribed fire can best be restored in this ecosystem to provide the greatest benefit for numerous resource values. Plant cover, diversity, biomass and nutrient status, litter cover and soil chemistry were measured prior to and following fire treatments on a buffalograss-blue grama shortgrass prairie in northeastern New Mexico. Dormant-season fire was followed by increases in grass cover, forb cover, species richness and concentrations of foliar P, K, Ca, Mg and Mn. Growing-season fire produced declines in the cover of buffalograss, graminoids and forbs and increases in litter cover and levels of foliar P, K, Ca and Mn. Although no changes in soil chemistry were observed, both fire treatments caused decreases in herbaceous production, with standing biomass resulting from growing-season fire approximately 600 kg/ha and dormant-season fire approximately 1200 kg/ha, compared with controls approximately 1800 kg/ha. The initial findings of this long-term experiment suggest that dormant-season burning may be the preferable method

  15. Ecology of endangered damselfly Coenagrion ornatum in post-mining streams in relation to their restoration

    OpenAIRE

    TICHÁNEK, Filip

    2016-01-01

    The thesis explores various aspects of ecology of endangered damselfly Coenagrion ornatum, the specialists for lowland headwaters, in post-mining streams of Radovesicka spoil. The first part of thesis is manuscript which has been already submitted in Journal of Insect Conservation. In the first part, we focused on population estimate of the local population using capture-recapture method, and explored its habitat requirements across life stages and spatial scales. In the next part, I assess m...

  16. Linking hydrology, morphodynamics and ecology to assess the restoration potential of the heavily regulated Sarca River, NE Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolli, Mauro; Zolezzi, Guido; Pellegrini, Stefano; Gelmini, Francesca; Deriu, Micaela

    2017-04-01

    suitability have been assessed by applying a hydraulic-habitat method combined with the streamflow time series. Geomorphological trajectories of the last decades have been reconstructed through the analysis of aerial photos, and the geomorphic effects of flow regime alteration have been assessed in terms of the changes in frequency and duration of gravel-transporting flood events. Results indicate hydropower as one of the drivers of hydro-morphological alteration, with widespread torrent control works in the catchment playing a relevant role in reducing sediment supply. Recent changes in flow management related to the imposition of a Minimum Environmental Flow correspond to significant increase in the continuous duration of suitable habitat events, despite representing only a first step towards a dynamic ecological flow regime. While floods able to drive morphological changes still occurred after regulation, their frequency and duration have dramatically decreased, contributing to channel narrowing and morphological simplification. Overall, the analysis suggests that: (i) morphological river restoration aimed at restoring self-formed morphodynamics can only be effective if designed together with a dynamic geomorphic flow regime, and (ii) dynamic ecological flows should designed with a twofold objective of improving habitat and spawning sites conditions together with recreational uses of the river.

  17. Ecological restoration of Central European mining sites: a summary of a multi-site analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prach, K.; Rehounkova, K.; Rehounek, J.; Konvalinkova, P. [University of South Bohemia, Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic)

    2011-07-01

    Sites disturbed by mining were surveyed in the Czech Republic, central Europe. The sites included spoil heaps from coal mining, sand and gravel pits, extracted peatlands and stone quarries. The following main conclusions emerged: I) potential for spontaneous succession to be used in restoration projects is between 95 and 100% of the total area disturbed; ii) mining sites, if mining is properly designed and then the sites are left to spontaneous succession, often act as refugia for endangered and retreating organisms, and may contribute substantially to local biodiversity.

  18. Microbial ecology of denitrification in biological wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Huijie; Chandran, Kartik; Stensel, David

    2014-11-01

    Globally, denitrification is commonly employed in biological nitrogen removal processes to enhance water quality. However, substantial knowledge gaps remain concerning the overall community structure, population dynamics and metabolism of different organic carbon sources. This systematic review provides a summary of current findings pertaining to the microbial ecology of denitrification in biological wastewater treatment processes. DNA fingerprinting-based analysis has revealed a high level of microbial diversity in denitrification reactors and highlighted the impacts of carbon sources in determining overall denitrifying community composition. Stable isotope probing, fluorescence in situ hybridization, microarrays and meta-omics further link community structure with function by identifying the functional populations and their gene regulatory patterns at the transcriptional and translational levels. This review stresses the need to integrate microbial ecology information into conventional denitrification design and operation at full-scale. Some emerging questions, from physiological mechanisms to practical solutions, for example, eliminating nitrous oxide emissions and supplementing more sustainable carbon sources than methanol, are also discussed. A combination of high-throughput approaches is next in line for thorough assessment of wastewater denitrifying community structure and function. Though denitrification is used as an example here, this synergy between microbial ecology and process engineering is applicable to other biological wastewater treatment processes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Peace on the River? Social-Ecological Restoration and Large Dam Removal in the Klamath Basin, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Gosnell

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to explain the multiple factors that contributed to a 2010 agreement to remove four large dams along the Klamath river in California and Oregon and initiate a comprehensive social-ecological restoration effort that will benefit Indian tribes, the endangered fish on which they depend, irrigated agriculture, and local economies in the river basin. We suggest that the legal framework, including the tribal trust responsibility, the Endangered Species Act, and the Federal Power Act, combined with an innovative approach to negotiation that allowed for collaboration and compromise, created a space for divergent interests to come together and forge a legally and politically viable solution to a suite of social and environmental problems. Improved social relations between formerly antagonistic Indian tribes and non-tribal farmers and ranchers, which came about due to a number of local collaborative processes during the early 2000s, were critical to the success of this effort. Overall, we suggest that recent events in the Klamath basin are indicative of a significant power shift taking place between tribal and non-tribal interests as tribes gain access to decision-making processes regarding tribal trust resources and develop capacity to participate in the development of complex restoration strategies.

  20. DNA barcoding for conservation, seed banking and ecological restoration of Acacia in the Midwest of Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevill, Paul G; Wallace, Mark J; Miller, Joseph T; Krauss, Siegfried L

    2013-11-01

    We used DNA barcoding to address an important conservation issue in the Midwest of Western Australia, working on Australia's largest genus of flowering plant. We tested whether or not currently recommended plant DNA barcoding regions (matK and rbcL) were able to discriminate Acacia taxa of varying phylogenetic distances, and ultimately identify an ambiguously labelled seed collection from a mine-site restoration project. Although matK successfully identified the unknown seed as the rare and conservation priority listed A. karina, and was able to resolve six of the eleven study species, this region was difficult to amplify and sequence. In contrast, rbcL was straightforward to recover and align, but could not determine the origin of the seed and only resolved 3 of the 11 species. Other chloroplast regions (rpl32-trnL, psbA-trnH, trnL-F and trnK) had mixed success resolving the studied taxa. In general, species were better resolved in multilocus data sets compared to single-locus data sets. We recommend using the formal barcoding regions supplemented with data from other plastid regions, particularly rpl32-trnL, for barcoding in Acacia. Our study demonstrates the novel use of DNA barcoding for seed identification and illustrates the practical potential of DNA barcoding for the growing discipline of restoration ecology. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Intensive treatment for adults with anorexia nervosa: The cost of weight restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarda, Angela S; Schreyer, Colleen C; Fischer, Laura K; Hansen, Jennifer L; Coughlin, Janelle W; Kaminsky, Michael J; Attia, Evelyn; Redgrave, Graham W

    2017-03-01

    Weight restoration in anorexia nervosa (AN) is associated with lower relapse risk; however rate of weight gain and percent of patients achieving weight restoration (BMI ≥ 19 at discharge) vary among treatment programs. We compared both cost/pound of weight gained and cost of weight restoration in a hospital-based inpatient (IP)-partial hospitalization (PH) eating disorders program to estimates of these costs for residential treatment. All adult first admissions to the IP-PH program with AN (N = 314) from 2003 to 2015 were included. Cost of care was based on hospital charges, rates of weight gain, and weight restoration data. Results were compared with residential treatment costs extracted from a national insurance claims database and published weight gain data. Average charge/day in the IP-PH program was $2295 for IP and $1567 for PH, yielding an average cost/pound gained of $4089 and $7050, respectively, with 70% of patients achieving weight restoration. Based on published mean weight gain data and conservative cost/day estimates, residential treatment is associated with higher cost/pound, and both higher cost and lower likelihood of weight restoration for most patients. The key metrics used in this study are recommended for comparing the cost-effectiveness of intensive treatment programs for patients with AN. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Research of land reclamation and ecological restoration in the resource-exhausting city : a case study of Huaibei in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, W.; Hu, Z.; Li, J.; Zhang, H.; Hu, J.; Zhang, P.

    2010-01-01

    Eco-city construction is a strong tool which could move a city from traditional industrial civilization to ecological civilization. The city of Huaibet, located in China, has 50 years of coal mining history, and has been listed as a national resource-exhausting city. The city's sustainable development and ecological restoration is encountering extreme challenges. This study used time-space evolution analysis of mining subsidence in order to study the situation of evolution and distribution of subsidence in the area in Huaibet. The purpose of the study was to provide strategic recommendations to assist Huaibei city transform from a resource-exhausting city to an eco-city. Specifically, the paper discussed the direction of eco-reconstruction in Huaibei such as rural eco-agriculture; wetland park or suburban park; and mine park. It also presented a time-space evolution analysis of mining subsidence in Huaibet including the subsidence status of the main city of Huaibet and intensive use of land evaluation and land use measures of the main city of Huaibei. Land reclamation and eco-reconstruction of Huaibet was also examined in the paper. It was concluded that based on land use of all aspects of the evaluation area and city's development plan, an integrated tourism with full use of subsidence land could be developed. 10 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs.

  3. Research of land reclamation and ecological restoration in the resource-exhausting city : a case study of Huaibei in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, W.; Hu, Z.; Li, J.; Zhang, H.; Hu, J.; Zhang, P. [China Univ. Of Mining and Technology, Beijing (China). Inst. of Land Reclamation and Ecological Reconstruction

    2010-07-01

    Eco-city construction is a strong tool which could move a city from traditional industrial civilization to ecological civilization. The city of Huaibet, located in China, has 50 years of coal mining history, and has been listed as a national resource-exhausting city. The city's sustainable development and ecological restoration is encountering extreme challenges. This study used time-space evolution analysis of mining subsidence in order to study the situation of evolution and distribution of subsidence in the area in Huaibet. The purpose of the study was to provide strategic recommendations to assist Huaibei city transform from a resource-exhausting city to an eco-city. Specifically, the paper discussed the direction of eco-reconstruction in Huaibei such as rural eco-agriculture; wetland park or suburban park; and mine park. It also presented a time-space evolution analysis of mining subsidence in Huaibet including the subsidence status of the main city of Huaibet and intensive use of land evaluation and land use measures of the main city of Huaibei. Land reclamation and eco-reconstruction of Huaibet was also examined in the paper. It was concluded that based on land use of all aspects of the evaluation area and city's development plan, an integrated tourism with full use of subsidence land could be developed. 10 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs.

  4. Driving Forces of Dynamic Changes in Soil Erosion in the Dahei Mountain Ecological Restoration Area of Northern China Based on GIS and RS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao; Niu, Xiang; Wang, Bing; Gao, Peng; Liu, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Dynamic change in soil erosion is an important focus of regional ecological restoration research. Here, the dynamic changes of soil erosion and its driving forces in the Dahei Mountain ecological restoration area of northern China were analyzed by LANDSAT TM remote sensing captured via geographic information system (GIS) technologies during three typical periods in 2004, 2008 and 2013. The results showed the following: (1) a decrease in intensive erosion and moderate erosion areas, as well as an increase in light erosion areas, was observed during two periods: one from 2004 to 2008 and the other from 2008 to 2013. (2) Between 2004 and 2008, the variation in the range of slight erosion was the largest (24.28%), followed by light erosion and intensive erosion; between 2008 and 2013, the variation in the range of intensive erosion area was the largest (9.89%), followed by slight erosion and moderate erosion. (3) Socioeconomic impact, accompanied by natural environmental factors, was the main driving force underlying the change in soil erosion within the ecological restoration area. In particular, the socioeconomic factors of per capita forest area and land reclamation rate, as well as the natural environmental factor of terrain slope, significantly influenced soil erosion changes within the ecological restoration area.

  5. Atraumatic restorative treatment in Brazilian schoolchildren: 12 months preliminary clinical results

    OpenAIRE

    Sacramento, Patrícia Almada; Department of Children’s Dentistry – Division of Pediatric Dentistry – Piracicaba Dental School – University of Campinas – Piracicaba – SP – Brazil.; Borges, Ana Flávia Sanches; Department of Operative Dentistry, Endodontics and Dental Materials – Bauru Dental School – University of São Paulo – Bauru – SP – Brazil.; Rodrigues, Raphaela Farias; Department of Operative Dentistry, Endodontics and Dental Materials – Bauru Dental School – University of São Paulo – Bauru – SP – Brazil.; Puppin-Rontani, Regina Maria; Department of Children’s Dentistry – Division of Pediatric Dentistry – Piracicaba Dental School – University of Campinas – Piracicaba – SP – Brazil.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical efficacy between two GICs, Fuji IX (GC Int. Corp.) and Ketac Molar (3M ESPE), used in Atraumatic Restorative Treatments (ART).Materials and Methods: A total of 82 children age between 6 and 9 years old are included in this study. The materials criteria application followed the “split mouth” design, 71 restorations and 98 sealants were carried out with the Fuji IX in the left hemi arches and 70 restorations and 99 sealants were carried out with the Ketac Mol...

  6. Bubble Curtains: Herbivore Exclusion Devices for Ecology and Restoration of Marine Ecosystems?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Bennett

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Herbivorous fishes play a critical role in maintaining or disrupting the ecological resilience of many kelp forests, coral reefs and seagrass ecosystems, worldwide. The increasing rate and scale of benthic habitat loss under global change has magnified the importance of herbivores and highlights the need to study marine herbivory at ecologically relevant scales. Currently, underwater herbivore exclusions (or inclusions have been restricted to small scale experimental plots, in large part due to the challenges of designing structures that can withstand the physical forces of waves and currents, without drastically altering the physical environment inside the exclusion area. We tested the ability of bubble curtains to deter herbivorous fishes from feeding on seaweeds as an alternative to the use of rigid exclusion cages. Kelps (Ecklonia radiata were transplanted onto reefs with high browsing herbivore pressure into either unprotected plots, exclusion cages or plots protected by bubble curtains of 0.785 m2 and 3.14 m2. Remote underwater video was used to compare the behavioral response of fishes to kelps protected and unprotected by bubble curtains. Kelp biomass loss was significantly lower inside the bubble curtains compared to unprotected kelps and did not differ from kelp loss rates in traditional exclusion cages. Consistent with this finding, no herbivorous fishes were observed entering into the bubble curtain at any point during the experiment. In contrast, fish bite rates on unprotected kelps were 1,621 ± 702 bites h−1 (mean ± SE. Our study provides initial evidence that bubble curtains can exclude herbivorous fishes, paving the way for future studies to examine their application at larger spatial and temporal scales, beyond what has been previously feasible using traditional exclusion cages.

  7. [Characterization of High Andean forest edges and implications for their ecological restoration (Colombia)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenegro, Alba Lucía; Vargas Ríos, Orlando

    2008-09-01

    The growth of a forest patch through colonization of the adjacent matrix is mostly determined by the particular characteristics of the edge zone. Knowing how these characteristics are related to a specific edge type and how they influence the regeneration process, is important for High Andean forest edges restoration. This study aimed to characterize three types of High Andean forest edge in Cogua Forest Reserve (Colombia): 1) edge of Chusquea scandens, 2) "paramizado", and 3) old edge, characterized for being in a later successional state. Two forest patches were chosen for each edge type and 13 criteria were analyzed; these were of topographic order, micro-environmental order, vegetation structure and species composition. In each patch the vegetation was evaluated by means of two 60 m transects perpendicular to the edge and along the matrix-edge-interior of the forest gradient. All woody plant species were identified and counted to determine their abundance. Environmental variables (air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and light radiation) were measured in one of the transects. Three of the 13 criteria were of little importance in shaping the type of edge habitat (slope, patch shape and area). The others were closely related with the micro-environmental conditions and in turn with the vegetation structure and composition; this relationship confers particular characteristics to each edge type. The microclimate and floristic edge limits coincided; edges extend between 10 and 20 m into the forest depending on the edge type. The paramizado edge has the smallest environmental self-regulation capacity and is more exposed to fluctuations of the studied variables, because of its greatest exposition to the wind action and loss of the tallest trees (between 10 and 15 m) which regulate the understorey microclimate. This low environmental buffer capacity prevents the establishing of mature forest species (for example, Schefflera sp. and Oreopanax bogotensis

  8. Changes in canopy fuels and fire behavior after ponderosa pine restoration treatments: A landscape perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. P. Roccaforte; P. Z. Fule

    2008-01-01

    (Please note, this is an abstract only) We modeled crown fire behavior and assessed changes in canopy fuels before and after the implementation of restoration treatments in a ponderosa pine landscape at Mt. Trumbull, Arizona. We measured 117 permanent plots before (1996/1997) and after (2003) thinning and burning treatments. The plots are evenly distributed across the...

  9. The ecological restoration and the development of succession in biocentre Hráza near Kroměříž

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miluše Poláková

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A restoration ecology is a branch and also possible approach to the protections of both nature and landscape which completes the conservative trends (conservation biology. An ecological restoration is a practical application of this branch which can be used in the restoration of ecosystems, coenoses, populations or sites disturbed or damaged by human impact.An ecological restoration offers the interesting alternatives to technical reclamations of the localities disturbed by mining. It exploits the natural processes (mainly controlled and spontaneous successions respecting the development of coenoses adequate to the locality. The degree of man assistance in restoration process can be different in accordance to many factors, such as origin of disturbance, time factor of restoration, costs, surroundings of the locality (ecological stability, species pool, estimated resulting dependability, sustainability of final coenoses, future function of the area, etc.The local biocentre Hráza near Kroměříž was established based on the restoration project c. 12 years ago in exhausted gravel-sand pit. Some processes of ecological restoration were used there, pre­do­mi­nan­tly a controlled succession – sowing of meadow plant species and plant transfer. Also regular management and monitoring were initiated. The results of monitoring of meadow phytocoenoses are presented in this paper. The inventory of plant species, abundance (according to Braun-Blanquet’s scale have been observed on the sample plots (established within the frame of controlled succession during the years 2002 – 2009 (here the years 2002 and 2007 are compared. The abundance data of plant species in wetlands phytocoenoses from the same years are also compared. The inventory of forest phytocoenoses has been undertaken in the years 2006 and 2009. The monitoring enables us to rate the general success of the project, the realized achievements of (mainly controlled succession and the

  10. Esthetic smile rehabilitation of anterior teeth by treatment with biomimetic restorative materials: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gouveia TH

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Thayla Hellen Nunes Gouveia, Jéssica Dias Theobaldo, Waldemir Francisco Vieira-Junior, Débora Alves Nunes Leite Lima, Flávio Henrique Baggio Aguiar Department of Restorative Dentistry, Piracicaba Dental School, University of Campinas, Campinas, SP, Brazil Background: In daily clinical practice, esthetics of anterior teeth is a common presenting complaint of patients.Objective: This case report discusses the management of asymmetric smile associated with unsatisfactory extensive composite restorations and describes a clinical protocol using the direct composite resin for smile enhancement to restore the dental harmony of anterior teeth.Methods: The treatment planning was based on a diagnostic wax-up and cosmetic mock-up. After clinical and patient approvals were obtained, the patient was subjected to direct and indirect restorative treatment.Conclusion: Nanocomposites are an effective alternative for anterior teeth restorations. Additionally, good planning enables satisfactory esthetic results, leading to the correction of an inappropriate axial inclination of incisors. Keywords: composite, adhesive, smile, esthetic, restoration

  11. Dentist and practice characteristics associated with restorative treatment of enamel caries in permanent teeth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fellows, Jeffrey L; Gordan, Valeria V; Gilbert, Gregg H

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: Current evidence in dentistry recommends non-surgical treatment to manage enamel caries lesions. However, surveyed practitioners report they would restore enamel lesions that are confined to the enamel. Actual clinical data were used to evaluate patient, dentist, and practice...... characteristics associated with restoration of enamel caries, while accounting for other factors. METHODS: Data from a National Dental Practice-Based Research Network observational study of consecutive restorations placed in previously unrestored permanent tooth surfaces and practice/demographic data from 229...... participating network dentists were combined. ANOVA and logistic regression, using generalized estimating equations (GEE) and variable selection within blocks, were used to test the hypothesis that patient, dentist, and practice characteristics were associated with variations in enamel restorations of occlusal...

  12. Assessing the potential to restore historic grazing ecosystems with tortoise ecological replacements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Christine J; Zuël, Nicolas; Jones, Carl G; Ahamud, Zairabee; Harris, Stephen

    2013-08-01

    The extinction of large herbivores, often keystone species, can dramatically modify plant communities and impose key biotic thresholds that may prevent an ecosystem returning to its previous state and threaten native biodiversity. A potentially innovative, yet controversial, landscape-based long-term restoration approach is to replace missing plant-herbivore interactions with non-native herbivores. Aldabran giant (Aldabrachelys gigantea) and Madagascan radiated (Astrochelys radiata) tortoises, taxonomically and functionally similar to the extinct Mauritian giant tortoises (Cylindraspis spp.), were introduced to Round Island, Mauritius, in 2007 to control the non-native plants that were threatening persistence of native species. We monitored the response of the plant community to tortoise grazing for 11 months in enclosures before the tortoises were released and, compared the cost of using tortoises as weeders with the cost of using manual labor. At the end of this period, plant biomass; vegetation height and cover; and adult, seedling, flower, and seed abundance were 3-136 times greater in adjacent control plots than in the tortoise enclosures. After their release, the free-roaming tortoises grazed on most non-native plants and significantly reduced vegetation cover, height, and seed production, reflecting findings from the enclosure study. The tortoises generally did not eat native species, although they consumed those native species that increased in abundance following the eradication of mammalian herbivores. Our results suggest that introduced non-native tortoises are a more cost-effective approach to control non-native vegetation than manual weeding. Numerous long-term outcomes (e.g., change in species composition and soil seed bank) are possible following tortoise releases. Monitoring and adaptive management are needed to ensure that the replacement herbivores promote the recovery of native plants. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  13. Microbial Communities as Environmental Indicators of Ecological Disturbance in Restored Carbonate Fen-Results of 10 Years of Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mieczan, Tomasz; Tarkowska-Kukuryk, Monika

    2017-08-01

    Interactions between bacteria and protists are essential to the ecosystem ecology of fens. Until now, however, there has been almost no information on how restoration procedures in carbonate fens affect the functioning of microbial food webs. Changes in vegetation patterns resulting from restoration may take years to be observed, whereas microbial processes display effects even after short-term exposure to changes in environmental conditions caused by restoration. Therefore, microbial processes and patterns can be used as sensitive indicators of changes in environmental conditions. The present study attempts to verify the hypothesis that the species richness and abundance of microbial loop components would differ substantially before and after restoration. The effect of restoration processes on the functioning of the food web was investigated for a 10 years in a carbonate-rich fen, before and after restoration. The restoration procedure (particularly the improvement in hydrological conditions) distinctly modified the taxonomic composition and functioning of microbial food webs. This is reflected in the increased abundance and diversity of testate amoeba, i.e. top predators, within the microbial food web and in the pronounced increase in the abundance of bacteria. This study suggests potential use of microbial loop components as bio-indicators and bio-monitoring tools for hydrological status of fens and concentrations of nutrients. Better understanding of what regulates microbial populations and activity in fens and unravelling of these fundamental mechanisms are particularly critical in order to more accurately predict how fens will respond to global change or anthropogenic disturbances.

  14. Radiographic caries diagnosis and restorative treatment decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mileman, P.A.

    1985-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with a single diagnostic technique: the bitewing radiograph, and the way it is used by dentists to decide on patient treatment need for interproximal caries. The variation in caries diagnosis and treatment decisions using bitewing radiographs is described and the radiographic criteria of choice for minimizing over and undertreatment according to a norm are investigated. Three possible diagnostic strategies in interproximal caries diagnosis using a decision analysis approach are described and evaluated, and the effect of the reported diagnostic behaviour and knowledge of practicing Dutch dentists in their use of bitewing radiographs for the diagnosis and treatment of interproximal caries is described and analyzed. (Auth.)

  15. Is the “Ecological and Economic Approach for the Restoration of Collapsed Gullies” in Southern China Really Economic?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengchao Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Collapsed gully erosion constantly plagues the sustainability of rural areas in China. To control collapsed gully erosion, an ecological and economic approach, which uses tree plantation to gain economic benefits and control soil erosion, has been widely applied by local governments in Southern China. However, little is known about the economic feasibility of this new method. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness and economic benefits of the new method. Based on a case study in Changting County, Southeast China, two farms were selected to represent a timber tree plantation and a fruit tree plantation, respectively. The Annual Capital Capitalization Method and Return on Investment (ROI were selected to conduct cost-benefit analysis. In contrast to previous studies, we found that the new approach was far from economic. The value of the newly-built forestland in Sanzhou Village and Tufang Village is 2738 RMB ha−1 and 5477 RMB ha−1, respectively, which are extremely lower than the costs of ecological restoration. Meanwhile, the annual ROI is −3.60% and −8.90%, respectively, which is negative and also far poorer than the average value of forestry in China. The costs of conservation were substantially over the related economic benefits, and the investors would suffer from greater loss if they invested more in the conservation. Low-cost terraces with timber trees had less economic loss compared with the costly terraces with fruit tree plantation. Moreover, the cost efficiency of the new approaches in soil conservation was also greatly poorer than the conventional method. The costs of conserving one ton soil per year for conventional method, new method for planting timber trees, and planting fruit trees were 164 RMB, 696 RMB, and 11,664 RMB, respectively. Therefore, the new collapsed gully erosion control methods are uneconomic and unsuitable to be widely carried out in China in the near future.

  16. RESTORATION PLUS: A COLLABORATIVE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY RESEARCH PROGRAM TO DEVELOP AND EVALUATE ECOSYSTEM RESTORATION AND MANAGEMENT OPTIONS TO ACHIEVE ECOLOGICALLY AND ECONOMICALLY SUSTAINABLE SOLUTIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) is evaluating ecosystem restoration and management techniques to ensure they create sustainable solutions for degraded watersheds. The ORD/NRMRL initiated the Restoration Plus (RePlus) program in 2002, which emphasizes collabora...

  17. Esthetic restorations of maxillary anterior teeth with orthodontic treatment and porcelain laminate veneers: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Ji-Eun; Kim, Sung-Hun; Han, Jung-Suk; Yang, Jae-Ho; Lee, Jai-Bong

    2010-06-01

    If orthodontists and restorative dentists establish the interdisciplinary approach to esthetic dentistry, the esthetic and functional outcome of their combined efforts will be greatly enhanced. This article describes satisfying esthetic results obtained by the distribution of space for restoration by orthodontic treatment and porcelain laminate veneers in uneven space between maxillary anterior teeth. It is proposed that the use of orthodontic treatment for re-distribution of the space and the use of porcelain laminate veneers to alter crown anatomy provide maximum esthetic and functional correction for patients with irregular interdental spacing.

  18. [Paradigm shift in dentistry for children: from restorative to preventive treatment of caries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Amerongen, J P; van Palenstein Helderman, W H

    2010-03-01

    First, the development of dental health care for children in the Netherlands is discussed. Caries prevalence among children has declined sharply. The present situation, however, makes clear that the majority of carious cavities in the temporary dentition remain untreated. This has led to the conclusion that the level of restorative care has to increase. On the basis of new insights in cariology gained in recent decades, the authors of this article argue for abandoning the old paradigm of restorative treatment in favour of prevention in the treatment of caries.

  19. The effect of baking soda when applied to bleached enamel prior to restorative treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tostes, Bhenya Ottoni; Mondelli, Rafael Francisco Lia; Lima-Arsati, Ynara Bosco de Oliveira; Rodrigues, Jose Augusto; Costa, Leonardo Cesar

    2013-08-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the effect of 10% baking soda solution and sodium bicarbonate powder (applied with jets) when applied to bleached enamel prior to restorative treatment. The surfaces of 40 bovine incisors were flattened and divided into 5 groups (n = 8): Group B (bleached and restored, negative control), Group W (bleached, stored in distilled water for 7 days, and restored), Group BSJ (bleached, abraded with baking soda jet for 1 min, and restored), Group BSS (bleached, application of 10% baking soda solution for 5 min, and restored), and Group R (restored, without bleaching, positive control). The samples were bleached in 1 session with 3 applications of 35% HP-based gel and activated with a LED appliance for 9 min each. Resin composite cylinders (2 mm height and 0.8 mm diameter) were made on the enamel surface after the acid etching and a conventional 1-step single vial adhesive application was performed. After storage in distilled water (37 ± 1°C, 24 hr), the microshear bond test was performed (1 mm/min). ANOVA and Tukey tests were applied to compare the results. The mean results of these tests showed that Groups W, BBS, and R were not statistically different. These groups also indicated a higher bond strength when compared with Groups B and BSJ. The application of 10% baking soda solution for 5 min may be an alternative pre-restorative treatment for bleached enamel, but further studies are needed to consider whether or not this treatment may be effectively used in clinical practice.

  20. Treatment of abraded teeth using metal free ceramics and conventional metal-ceramic restorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bošković Mirjana V.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Contemporary reconstructive dentistry is considered to be a bioesthetic discipline, the study of the beauty of living creatures in their original form and functions. A discussion of esthetic dentistry, the sophisticated artificial restorations in the patient mouth, hardly discernible to an observer or expert eye, implies a whole series of qualities. Damage of hard tooth-tissue, which is not caused by caries, is a physiological process present throughout the whole life, but some factors can bring about great losses of the hard tissue. This damage can be caused by a combination of different etiological factors, such as genetical and functional ones. Case report. A patient is coming in dental surgery complaining of a large damage of the hard-tooth tissue, ugly appearance of his teeth, speech dysfunction and masticatory problems. An intraoral view shows the presence of a large teeth-abrasion. The treatment plan simplified the treatment with a combination of metal-ceramic restorations and a new ceramic system IPS e.max (Ivoclar Vivadentm Schaan, Liechtenstien. Conclusion. In this clinical case with presented abrasion the treatment was presented using all-ceramic restorations and classical metal-ceramic restorations to establish good health, function and estehetic. The use of restorations based on zirconium (IPS e.max ZirPress, Ivoclar Vivadent, Schaan, Liechtenstein can produce excellent clinical results in the frontal, as well as in lateral segments.

  1. Molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH: conservative treatment management to restore affected teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Maria Bullio FRAGELLI

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the 12-month clinical performance of glass ionomer restorations in teeth with MIH. First permanent molars affected by MIH (48 were restored with glass ionomer cement (GIC and evaluated at baseline, at 6 and at 12 months, by assessing tooth enamel breakdown, GIC breakdown and caries lesion associations. The data were analyzed using the chi-square test and actuarial survival analysis. The likelihood of a restored tooth remaining unchanged at the end of 12 months was 78%. No statistically significant difference was observed in the association between increased MIH severity and caries at baseline (p > 0.05 for a 6-month period, or between increased MIH severity and previous unsatisfactory treatment at baseline (p > 0.05 for both a 6- and 12-month period. A statistically significant difference was observed in the association between increased MIH severity and extension of the restoration, involving 2 or more surfaces (p < 0.05 at both periods, and between increased MIH severity and caries at baseline (p < 0.05 at a 12-month period. Because the likelihood of maintaining the tooth structures with GIC restorations is high, invasive treatment should be postponed until the child is sufficiently mature to cooperate with the treatment, mainly of teeth affected on just one face.

  2. Molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH): conservative treatment management to restore affected teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragelli, Camila Maria Bullio; Souza, Juliana Feltrin de; Jeremias, Fabiano; Cordeiro, Rita de Cássia Loiola; Santos-Pinto, Lourdes

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the 12-month clinical performance of glass ionomer restorations in teeth with MIH. First permanent molars affected by MIH (48) were restored with glass ionomer cement (GIC) and evaluated at baseline, at 6 and at 12 months, by assessing tooth enamel breakdown, GIC breakdown and caries lesion associations. The data were analyzed using the chi-square test and actuarial survival analysis. The likelihood of a restored tooth remaining unchanged at the end of 12 months was 78%. No statistically significant difference was observed in the association between increased MIH severity and caries at baseline (p > 0.05) for a 6-month period, or between increased MIH severity and previous unsatisfactory treatment at baseline (p > 0.05) for both a 6- and 12-month period. A statistically significant difference was observed in the association between increased MIH severity and extension of the restoration, involving 2 or more surfaces (p MIH severity and caries at baseline (p < 0.05) at a 12-month period. Because the likelihood of maintaining the tooth structures with GIC restorations is high, invasive treatment should be postponed until the child is sufficiently mature to cooperate with the treatment, mainly of teeth affected on just one face.

  3. ECOLOGICALLY ACCEPTABLE WAY OF DEVELOPMENT OF THE NORTH CAUCASIAN FEDERAL DISTRICT AND PLANS FOR RESTORING TEREK RIVER BASIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Abdurakhmanov

    2015-01-01

    aimed at solving clearly defined problems of ecological rehabilitation, restoration of natural resources, socio-economic development of the region. It is important to develop and implement projects for the conservation of biological diversity of the Terek River.

  4. Assessing Vegetation Cover Dynamics Induced by Policy-Driven Ecological Restoration and Implication to Soil Erosion in Southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jien; Wang, Tianming; Ge, Jianping

    2015-01-01

    In the aftermath of the severe droughts and floods at the end of the 20th century, the Chinese government launched several ecological restoration projects, including the Natural Forest Protection Program in 1998 and the Grain-for-Green Program in 1999, to promote afforestation and reforestation to reduce surface runoff and consequent soil erosion nationwide. However, it is still unclear how vegetation has changed in southern China since the launch of these programs. In this study, we used the MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) to analyze the vegetation cover dynamics in southern China from 2000 to 2009 and evaluate the resulting effects of controlling soil erosion. Our observations indicate that 5.3% of the study area significantly increased and 0.98% significantly decreased in EVI value (p soil erosion based upon monitoring sediment yields at hydrologic stations in the Yangtze River. This study displays the spatial patterns of trend in vegetation growth since the beginning of the 21st century in southern China and highlights the important role of China's afforestation program.

  5. Long-term trends in restoration and associated land treatments in the southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, Stella M.; Munson, Seth M.; Pilliod, David S.; Welty, Justin L.; Bradford, John B.; Butterfield, Bradley J.

    2018-01-01

    Restoration treatments, such as revegetation with seeding or invasive species removal, have been applied on U.S. public lands for decades. Temporal trends in these management actions have not been extensively summarized previously, particularly in the southwestern United States where invasive plant species, drought, and fire have altered dryland ecosystems. We assessed long-term (1940–2010) trends in restoration using approximately 4,000 vegetation treatments conducted on Bureau of Land Management lands across the southwestern United States. We found that since 1940, the proportions of seeding and vegetation/soil manipulation (e.g. vegetation removal or plowing) treatments have declined, while the proportions of prescribed burn and invasive species treatments have increased. Treatments in pinyon-juniper and big sagebrush communities declined in comparison to treatments in desert scrub, creosote bush, and riparian woodland communities. Restoration-focused treatment objectives increased relative to resource extraction objectives. Species richness and proportion of native species used in seeding treatments also increased. Inflation-adjusted costs per area rose 750% for vegetation/soil manipulation, 600% for seeding, and 400% for prescribed burn treatments in the decades from 1981 to 2010. Seeding treatments were implemented in warmer and drier years when compared to the climate conditions of the entire study period and warmer and wetter years relative to several years before and after the treatment. These results suggest that treatments over a 70-year period on public lands in the southwestern United States are shifting toward restoration practices that are increasingly large, expensive, and related to fire and invasive species control.

  6. Effects of oral hygiene, residual caries and cervical Marginal-gaps on the survival of proximal atraumatic restorative treatment approach restorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur M Kemoli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although Atraumatic restorative treatment (ART approach has been in existence for a while, the reasons for the poor performance of multisurface ART restorations are not very clear. Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of oral hygiene, residual caries and cervical marginal-gaps on survival of proximal ART restorations. Settings: Two rural divisions in Kenya were selected for the study. Design: A randomized clinical trial. Material and Methods: The 804 children in the study had their baseline- and 2-year dental plaque levels documented. Each child received one proximal restoration in a primary molar using ART approach, together with trained and pre-tested operators/assistants, three glass ionomer cements (GIC-brands and two tooth-isolation methods. The restorations were clinically evaluated soon after placement and after 2 years. Post-restorative bite-wing radiographs taken soon after restoration were also evaluated. Statistical analysis: Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 14 computer programme was used and results tested using Pearson′s correlation, Cox Proportional Hazards regression analysis and Multiple Logistic regression models tests. Results: At baseline and after 2 years, the mean cumulative survival and plaque index changed from 94.4% to 30.8% and 2.34 (Standard Deviation, or SD of 0.46 to 1.92 (SD 2.1 respectively, with higher plaque indices associated with higher restoration failures. Of the 507 radiographs evaluated, 48 (9.5%, 63 (12.4% and 9 (1.8% restorations had residual caries (RC, cervical marginal-gaps (CMG and both RC/CMG respectively. Survival of the restorations with RC/CMG was significantly lower (p = 0.003 compared to those with RC or without RC. Conclusion: Low survival of proximal restorations in the study was associated with the presence of cervical marginal-gaps.

  7. Application of orthodontic treatment for the periodontal and restorative goals in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Kamioka

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There are increasing number of adult patients who started orthodontic treatment in the last decade. As for the patient with the age of 40 years or older in our clinic, it increases 4 times as much as ten years ago. It seems that orthodontic treatment for the elderly person gradually recognized in our society. At the same time, it is considered as one of the factors that the introduction from a dentist increased to facilitate their dental procedures necessary to control dental disease, restore function, and/or enhance appearance. Therefore, in this lecture, I would like to think about how we can make use of orthodontic treatment for adults to have ideal periodontal and restorative goals. In addition, the benefits and risks of adjunctive orthodontic treatment and comprehensive orthodontic treatment would be discussed with the presenting case reports.

  8. Ecological System Influences in the Treatment of Pediatric Chronic Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deirdre E Logan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Family, school and the peer network each shape the chronic pain experience of the individual child, and each of these contexts also represents a domain of functioning often impaired by chronic pain. The goal of the present article is to summarize what is known about these bidirectional influences between children with pain and the social systems that surround them. Case reports that illustrate these complex, transactional forces and their ultimate impact on the child’s pain-related functioning are included. A case involving siblings participating in an intensive interdisciplinary program for functional restoration and pain rehabilitation highlights how parents change through this treatment approach and how this change is vital to the child’s outcomes. Another case involving a child undergoing intensive interdisciplinary treatment illustrates how school avoidance can be treated in the context of pain rehabilitation, resulting in successful return to the regular school environment. Finally, an acceptance and commitment therapy-focused group intervention for children with sickle cell disease and their parents demonstrates the benefits of peer contact as an element of the therapeutic intervention.

  9. From State-controlled to Polycentric Governance in Forest Landscape Restoration: The Case of the Ecological Forest Purchase Program in Yong'an Municipality of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Hexing; Liu, Jinlong; Tu, Chengyue; Fu, Yimin

    2018-07-01

    Forest landscape restoration is emerging as an effective approach to restore degraded forests for the provision of ecosystem services and to minimize trade-offs between conservation and rural livelihoods. Policy and institutional innovations in China illustrate the governance transformation of forest landscape restoration from state-controlled to polycentric governance. Based on a case study of the Ecological Forest Purchase Program in Yong'an municipality, China's Fujian Province, this paper explores how such forest governance transformation has evolved and how it has shaped the outcomes of forest landscape restoration in terms of multi-dimensionality and actor configurations. Our analysis indicates that accommodating the participation of multiple actors and market-based instruments facilitate a smoother transition from state-centered to polycentric governance in forest landscape restoration. Governance transitions for forest landscape restoration must overcome a number of challenges including ensurance of a formal participation forum, fair participation, and a sustainable legislative and financial system to enhance long-term effectiveness.

  10. WIRE project- Soil water repellence in biodiverse semi arid environments: new insights and implications for ecological restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam; Jiménez-Morillo, Nicasio T.; Jordan, Antonio; Zavala, Lorena M.; Stevens, Jason; González-Pérez, Jose Antonio

    2017-04-01

    the canopy of a broad range of plant species composing the dominant vegetation communities of the study areas. Direct analytical pyrolysis (Py-GC/MS) allowed the structural characterization of soil organic matter (SOM) (Jiménez-Morillo et al., 2014). Basic soil physicochemical properties were analysed and soil microbial activity was measured with the 1-day CO2 test, which determine soil microbial respiration rate based on the measurement of the CO2 burst produced after moistening dry soil (Muñoz-Rojas et al., 2016). Results Main results of the project revealed that SWR is strongly correlated to microbial activity, pH and electrical conductivity. In soil samples under Banksia spp., Py-GC/MS analysis showed that SOM had clear signs of alteration (humified) that included a high contribution of stable families like unspecific aromatic compounds and alkane/alkene pairs. However, under Eucalyptus spp. soils showed a less altered SOM with a high relative contribution from lignocellulose (lignin and carbohydrates), together with a low relative content of recalcitrant families. In soil samples from hummock grasslands of the Pilbara region, very low contents of SOM were found. These results point to possible indirect links between organic substances released by roots and soil wettability involving soil microorganisms. Ecological plant strategies and specific adaptations for water uptake in arid and semi-arid ecosystems of WA are likely the main drivers of SWR. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This research has been funded by the University of Western Australia (Research Collaboration Award 2015: 'Soil water repellence in biodiverse semi arid environments: new insights and implications for ecological restoration') and the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (research projects GEOFIRE, CGL2012-38655-C04- 01, and POSTFIRE, CGL 2013-47862-C2-1-R. References Doerr SH, Shakesby RA, Walsh RPD. 2000. Soil water repellency: its causes, characteristics and hydrogeomorphological

  11. Caries experience of Egyptian adolescents: does the atraumatic restorative treatment approach offer a solution?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mobarak, E.H.; Shabayek, M.M.; Mulder, J.; Reda, A.H.; Frencken, J.E.F.M.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence and severity of dental caries amongst Egyptian adolescents and the prevalence of carious lesions treatable through the atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) approach. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Using a convenient sample procedure, two secondary schools with a dental

  12. Twenty-five-year atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) approach: a comprehensive overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frencken, J.E.; Leal, S.C.; Navarro, M.F.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) approach was born 25 years ago in Tanzania. It has evolved into an essential caries management concept for improving quality and access to oral care globally. RESULTS: Meta-analyses and systematic reviews have indicated that the high

  13. Physical-mechanical properties of glass ionomer cements indicated for atraumatic restorative treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonifacio, C.C.; Kleverlaan, C.J.; Raggio, D.P.; Werner, A.; de Carvalho, R.C.R.; van Amerongen, W.E.

    2009-01-01

    Background:  This study evaluated mechanical properties of glass ionomer cements (GICs) used for atraumatic restorative treatment. Wear resistance, Knoop hardness (Kh), flexural (Fs) and compressive strength (Cs) were evaluated. The GICs used were Riva Self Cure (RVA), Fuji IX (FIX), Hi Dense (HD),

  14. Mercury behaviour and C, N, and P biogeochemical cycles during ecological restoration processes of old mining sites in French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couic, Ewan; Grimaldi, Michel; Alphonse, Vanessa; Balland-Bolou-Bi, Clarisse; Livet, Alexandre; Giusti-Miller, Stéphanie; Sarrazin, Max; Bousserrhine, Noureddine

    2018-04-25

    Several decades of gold mining extraction activities in the Amazonian rainforest have caused deforestation and pollution. While ecological rehabilitation is essential for restoring biodiversity and decreasing erosion on deforested lands, few studies note the behaviour or toxicity of trace elements during the rehabilitation process. Our original study focused on the potential use of microbial activity and Hg speciation and compared them with As, Cu, Zn and Cr speciation in assessing the chemical and biological quality of ecological restoration efforts. We sampled two sites in French Guyana 17 years after rehabilitation efforts began. The former site was actively regenerated (R) with the leguminous species Clitoria racemosa and Acacia mangium, and the second site was passively regenerated with spontaneous vegetation (Sv). We also sampled soil from a control site without a history of gold mining (F). We performed microcosm soil experiments for 30 days, where trace element speciation and enzyme activities (i.e., FDA, dehydrogenase, β-glucosidase, urease, alkaline and acid phosphatase) were estimated to characterise the behaviour of trace elements and the soil microbial activity. As bioindicators, the use of soil microbial carbon biomass and soil enzyme activities related to the carbon and phosphorus cycles seems to be relevant for assessing soil quality in rehabilitated and regenerated old mining sites. Our results showed that restoration with leguminous species had a positive effect on soil chemical quality and on soil microbial bioindicators, with activities that tended toward natural non-degraded soil (F). Active restoration processes also had a positive effect on Hg speciation by reducing its mobility. While in Sv we found more exchangeable and soluble mercury, in regenerated sites, Hg was mostly bound to organic matter. These results also suggested that enzyme activities and mercury cycles are sensitive to land restoration and must be considered when evaluating

  15. The Effect of Restoration Treatments on the Spatial Variability of Soil Processes under Longleaf Pine Trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John K. Hiers

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to (1 characterize tree-based spatial patterning of soil properties and understory vegetation in frequently burned (“reference state” and fire-suppressed longleaf pine forests; and (2 determine how restoration treatments affected patterning. To attain these objectives, we used an experimental manipulation of management types implemented 15 years ago in Florida. We randomly located six mature longleaf pine trees in one reference and four restoration treatments (i.e., burn, control, herbicide, and mechanical, for a total of 36 trees. In addition to the original treatments and as part of a monitoring program, all plots were subjected to several prescribed fires during these 15 years. Under each tree, we sampled mineral soil and understory vegetation at 1 m, 2 m, 3 m and 4 m (vegetation only away from the tree. At these sites, soil carbon and nitrogen were higher near the trunk while graminoids, forbs and saw palmetto covers showed an opposite trend. Our results confirmed that longleaf pine trees affect the spatial patterning of soil and understory vegetation, and this patterning was mostly limited to the restoration sites. We suggest frequent burning as a probable cause for a lack of spatial structure in the “reference state”. We attribute the presence of spatial patterning in the restoration sites to accumulation of organic materials near the base of mature trees.

  16. Assessment of manual restorative treatment (MRT) with amalgam in high-caries Filipino children: results after 2 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monse-Schneider, B; Heinrich-Weltzien, R; Schug, D; Sheiham, A; Borutta, A

    2003-04-01

    The atraumatic restorative treatment (ART), using only hand instruments and glass-ionomer cement as adhesive material is recommended for restorative dental treatment in disadvantaged communities lacking electricity and sophisticated dental equipment. Research is required on more durable restorative materials appropriate for populations with high-caries experience. The aim of the study was to evaluate, under field conditions, the applicability and effectiveness of an encapsulated amalgam as restorative material in ART prepared cavities in permanent teeth of children with high-caries rates. As the definition of ART restricts the manual treatment to adhesive materials the approach used is called the manual restorative treatment (MRT). Two dentists and two trained healthcare workers, using hand instruments and an encapsulated amalgam that was mixed with a manually driven triturator, placed a total of 934 restorations in the permanent dentition in 466 children. Due to irregular school attendance of Filipino children only 611 restorations could be evaluated by one independent dentist. The average age at reassessment of restorations was 27 +/- 4.5 months. 93.3% of the restorations were acceptable. The failure rate of occlusal surface restorations was 5.6% compared with 13.6% of buccal surface fillings. The survival rate of large occlusal restorations was 95.1% compared with 93.7% for small restorations. The survival of MRT restorations was not influenced by the experience and professional level of the operator. Amalgam is a suitable MRT material, especially for extensive occlusal lesions in high-caries populations. Studies of longer duration are needed to confirm this finding.

  17. Municipal wastewater treatment in Mexico: current status and opportunities for employing ecological treatment systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurita, Florentina; Roy, Eric D; White, John R

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the current status of municipal wastewater (MWW) treatment in Mexico, as well as to assess opportunities for using ecological treatment systems, such as constructed wetlands. In 2008, Mexico had 2101 MWW treatment plants that treated only 84 m3/s of wastewater (208 m3/s ofMWW were collected in sewer systems). Unfortunately, most treatment plants operate below capacity owing to a lack of maintenance and paucity of properly trained personnel. The main types of treatment systems applied in Mexico are activated sludge and waste stabilization ponds, which treat 44.3% and 18% of the MWW collected, respectively. As in many other developing nations around the world, there is a great need in Mexico for low-cost, low-maintenance wastewater treatment systems that are both economically and environmentally sustainable. In 2005, 24.3 million Mexicans lived in villages of less than 2500 inhabitants and 14.1 million lived in towns with 2500-15,000 inhabitants. An opportunity exists to extend the use of ecological treatment systems to these low population density areas and considerably increase the percentage of MWW that is treated in Mexico. Small-scale and medium-size constructed wetlands have been built successfully in some states, primarily during the past five years. Several barriers need to be overcome to increase the adoption and utilization of ecological wastewater technology in Mexico, including: a lack of knowledge about this technology, scarce technical information in Spanish, and the government's concentration on constructing MWW treatment plants solely in urban areas.

  18. Restoring forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobs, Douglass F.; Oliet, Juan A.; Aronson, James

    2015-01-01

    of land requiring restoration implies the need for spatial prioritization of restoration efforts according to cost-benefit analyses that include ecological risks. To design resistant and resilient ecosystems that can adapt to emerging circumstances, an adaptive management approach is needed. Global change......, in particular, imparts a high degree of uncertainty about the future ecological and societal conditions of forest ecosystems to be restored, as well as their desired goods and services. We must also reconsider the suite of species incorporated into restoration with the aim of moving toward more stress resistant...... and competitive combinations in the longer term. Non-native species may serve an important role under some circumstances, e.g., to facilitate reintroduction of native species. Propagation and field establishment techniques must promote survival through seedling stress resistance and site preparation. An improved...

  19. Cleidocranial Dysplasia Case Report: Remodeling of Teeth as Aesthetic Restorative Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Fernandes da Cunha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD, is an autosomal dominant disorder with a prevalence of 1 in 1,000,000 individuals. It is generally characterized by orofacial manifestations, including enamel hypoplasia, retained primary teeth, and impacted permanent and supernumerary teeth. The successful treatment involving a timing intervention (orthodontic-maxillofacial surgeons-restorative is already described. However, the restorative treatment might improve the aesthetic final result in dentistry management for patients with cleidocranial dysplasia. Objective. Therefore, this clinical report presents a conservative restorative management (enamel microabrasion, dental bleaching, and direct composite resin for aesthetic solution for a patient with CCD. Clinical Considerations. The cosmetic remodeling is a conservative, secure, and low cost therapy that can be associated with other procedures such as enamel microabrasion and dental bleaching to achieve optimal outcome. Additionally, the Golden Proportion can be used to guide dental remodeling to improve the harmony of the smile and the facial composition. Conclusions. Thus, dentists must know and be able to treat dental aesthetic problems in cleidocranial dysplasia patients. The intention of this paper is to describe a restorative approach with the cosmetic remodeling teeth (by grinding or addicting material associated with enamel microabrasion and dental bleaching to reestablish the form, shape, and color of smile for patients with cleidocranial dysplasia.

  20. Ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalusche, D.

    1978-01-01

    The book turns to the freshment, the teacher, for preparation of ecological topics for lessons, but also to pupils of the secondary stage II, and the main course ecology. The book was knowingly held simple with the restriction to: the ecosystem and its abiotic basic functions, simple articles on population biology, bioceonotic balance ith the questions of niche formation and the life form types coherent with it, of the substance and energy household, the production biology and space-wise and time-wise differentations within an ecological system form the main points. A central role in the volume is given to the illustrations. Their variety is to show and deepen the coherences shown. (orig./HP) [de

  1. Importance of orthodontic movement in interdisciplinary treatment for restoring esthetics and functional occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henrique Guimarães

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes interdisciplinary treatment conducted in adult patients, 49-year-old, with periodontal problems, losses and dental inclination, occlusal trauma, localized bone loss, and necessity of rehabilitation with dental implants. Alignment and leveling of the teeth, the molars uprighting with cantilever, and space closure were performed the treatment was facilitated by periodic periodontal control. The resultant occlusion was stable throughout a 5-year retention period. In conclusion, interdisciplinary treatment combined with periodontics, orthodontics, implantodontist, and restorative dentistry was useful for improving the patient′s oral health, function, and esthetics.

  2. In vitro comparison of coronal microleakage of four temporary restorative materials used in endodontic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahi Sh.

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and Aim: The use of proper temporary restorative materials between appointments is critical in successful root canal treatment. The purpose of this study was to compare the coronal microleakage of four temporary restorative materials including Zonalin, Zamherir, Coltosol and IRM. "nMaterials and Methods: In this in vitro study, standard access cavities were prepared in 120 intact extracted maxillary and mandibular human first molars. Canal preparation was carried out by the step-back technique, and obturation was performed with gutta-percha and AH26 sealer using the lateral condensation technique. Teeth were randomly divided into 4 experimental groups of 25 teeth each and two positive and negative control groups, each containing 10 teeth. In each experimental group the access cavity was restored with one of the tested materials (Zamherir, Zonalin, IRM and Coltosol. In the negative control group the access cavity was filled entirely with sticky wax and in the positive control group no restorative material was applied. Dye penetration technique was used to evaluate microleakage which was measured under a stereomicroscope. Data were analyzed with one way ANOVA and post hoc Tukey tests. P<0.05 was considered as the limit of significance. "nResults: Dye penetration was observed in all groups. Zonalin and Coltosol had the highest and the lowest dye penetration respectively, with a statistically significant difference (p<0.001. There was no significant difference in dye penetration between IRM, and either Coltosol or Zamherir (p>0.05. "nConclusion: The results of this study showed that using Coltosol as a temporary restorative material can provide a better coronal seal in endodontic treatments

  3. Experience with water treatment and restoration technologies during and after uranium mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benes, V.; Mitas, J.; Rihak, I.

    2002-01-01

    DIAMO, state owned enterprise, has a wide experience in uranium mining with the use of classical deep mining, acid in situ leaching and uranium ore processing. The sandstone deposits in Straz block have been exploited since 1968. Geological and hydrogeological conditions of the deposits and the short distance between the deep mine and ISL wellfields requires pumping huge amounts of fresh and/or acid mine water, their treatment and subsequent discharge into streams. DIAMO developed and applied several technologies for different types of wastewater treatment from the start of mining. Practically all of these technologies are used in the current phase of uranium deposit restoration after mining. It is possible to apply these technologies both in the production phase and during the restoration of underground water. In some cases, it is very desirable to combine two or several of them. (author)

  4. Collaborative implementation for ecological restoration on US public lands: implications for legal context, accountability, and adaptive management

    Science.gov (United States)

    William H. Butler; Ashley Monroe; Sarah McCaffrey

    2015-01-01

    The Collaborative Forest Landscape Restoration Program (CFLRP), established in 2009, encourages collaborative landscape scale ecosystem restoration efforts on United States Forest Service (USFS) lands. Although the USFS employees have experience engaging in collaborative planning, CFLRP requires collaboration in implementation, a domain where little prior experience...

  5. Evidence-based dentistry for planning restorative treatments: barriers and potential solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afrashtehfar, K I; Eimar, H; Yassine, R; Abi-Nader, S; Tamimi, F

    2017-11-01

    Evidence-based dentistry (EBD) can help provide the best treatment option for every patient, however, its implementation in restorative dentistry is very limited. This study aimed at assessing the barriers preventing the implementation of EBD among dental undergraduate and graduate students in Montreal, and explore possible solutions to overcome these barriers. A cross-sectional survey was conducted by means of a paper format self-administrated questionnaire distributed among dental students. The survey assessed the barriers and potential solutions for implementation of an evidence-based practice. Sixty-one students completed the questionnaire. Forty-one percent of respondents found evidence-based literature to be the most reliable source of information for restorative treatment planning, however, only 16% used it. They considered that finding reliable information was difficult and they sometimes encountered conflicting information when consulting different sources. Dental students had positive attitudes towards the need for better access to evidence-based literature to assist learning and decision making in restorative treatment planning and to improve treatment outcomes. Even for dentists trained in EBD, online searching takes too much time, and even though it can provide information of better quality than personal intuition, it might not be enough to identify the best available evidence. Even though dental students are aware of the importance of EBD in restorative dentistry they rarely apply the concept, mainly due to time constraints. For this reason, implementation of EBD would probably require faster access to evidence-based knowledge. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Performance of atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) depending on operator-experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Rainer A; Gaengler, Peter; Markovic, Ljubisa; Zimmer, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Oral health care is not of major interest in developing countries because of lack of infrastructure and professional manpower. Therefore, atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) was introduced by the World Health Organization to be performed by dental auxiliary personnel. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of ART depending on operator-experience in The Republic of The Gambia. One hundred twenty-eight newly inserted restorations were followed up for 12 months using the clinical ART index in a prospective and blinded study design. The patients were randomly assigned to operators. The clinical performance was compared among three groups: trainees, experienced Community Oral Health Workers (COHW), and professional dentists. The difference in success rates was calculated at a 95 percent confidence interval. There was a statistically significant difference between trainees and dentists in performing leakage/gap-free one-surface restorations (P 0.05). Finally, both groups--experienced COHWs and dentists--performed restorations not showing statistically significant differences (P > 0.05). For The Republic of The Gambia--especially for areas with underdeveloped medical infrastructure--training and assignment to perform ART can be recommended for auxiliary dental staff of Community Oral Health Workers.

  7. Treatment phases in management of a comprehensive restorative case. A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlSamh, Duaa Abo; Endo, Cert End

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this case report was to emphasize the value of preforming patient's treatment plan into phases of treatment and encouraging colleagues to apply such phases in the clinical practice for the management of complex restorative cases. Traditional approach to treatment planning has certain merits. However, new treatment approach should improve oral health rather than react to presenting problems and therefore, dentists should aim to convert their irregular attendee to a regular attendee with treatment plan directed to enhance oral health, prevent disease, improve esthetic and free the patient from pain and discomfort. In this report, a complex restorative case of a 16-year-old female patient was managed for comprehensive dental therapy in the form of treatment plan which was divided into phases by way of a ''staircase'' approach with one clinical step being dependent on the previous step. The whole treatment was completed in three months and the results were satisfactory and patient became a highly motivated person with more self-confidence. (author)

  8. Temporary restorative treatment in children and adolescents with amelogenesis imperfecta: Scoping review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristhian Cisneros

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI is a group of disorders that affect the enamel of the teeth, either in quality or quantity. This alteration causes sensitivity and is associated with factors that could affect the strength of the adhesive bond of the restorative material. Aim: To review the literature regarding the most used temporary restorative treatment in children and adolescents with AI. Methods: This scoping review aimed to include case reports, literature reviews and original studies that evaluated restorative materials for the teeth of children and adolescents with AI. Editorials, meeting abstracts and letters to the editor were excluded. The following electronic databases were used: Medline (Ovid, PubMed, Ebsco, Scopus (Elsevier and Web of Science (Thomson Reuters. Manual searches in the reference lists of the included articles were also carried out. Finally, a search in Google Scholar restricted to the first 100 hits was performed. Duplicates were eliminated upon identification. The search covered a period between the years of 2011 and 2016. PRISMA guidelines were used for reporting the review. The evidence ranking was carried out by means of the Oxford criteria. Results: Six articles met the eligibility criteria and were included in this scoping review. Three articles were case reports, one was a review and two were original studies. For the treatment of AI, direct or indirect composite resins were the most commonly used material of choice in the retrieved studies because they demonstrate greater longevity, aesthetics and function compared to the other materials used. Conclusions: Among children and adolescents with AI, the temporary restorative treatment that demonstrated better long-term results in permanent teeth was the direct and indirect composite resins. However, high quality studies should be conducted to confirm the results presented herein.

  9. [Preventive dentistry 9. Non-Restorative Cavity Treatment: advanced insight or controversial?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruythuysen, R J M; van Strijp, A J P

    2018-01-01

    Non-Restorative Cavity Treatment (NRCT) is not as popular in paediatric dentistry as it should be. Substantial quantitative and qualitative evidence concerning the treatment has now been published that testifies to the success of the treatment. Some healthcare providers apply the method successfully, while others have no trust in this non-invasive cavity treatment and continue to favour the restoration of carious lesions. Reasons given for this are, among others, that NRCT is too bothersome, the patient's (or the patient's parents') compliance is low and the reimbursement is inadequate. Children, however, benefit from oral healthcare providers who take the position that a child has a right to an etiological treatment that addresses the source of the caries process and that NRCT offers a uniquely viable treatment option for this purpose. This approach fits within the parameters established by professional ethics and the law. Apart from oral healthcare providers, all agencies involved in the profession and beyond have the moral and social obligation to do justice to the implied question of the child regarding this shift in oral healthcare.

  10. Clinical evaluation of combined surgical/ restorative treatment of gingival recession-type defects using different restorative materials: A randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sila Cagri Isler

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/purpose: An ideal therapeutic procedure for the treatment of gingival recession associated with an NCCL has presented a challenge to clinicians. Various dental materials and surgical approaches have been used to manage gingival recessions associated with NCCLs for the most predictable combined surgical/restorative treatment. The objective of this study was to evaluate the treatment of gingival recessions associated with non-carious cervical lesions (NCCL using a modified coronally advanced flap (MCAF in combination with a connective tissue graft (CTG on restored root surfaces. Materials and methods: Twenty-three systemically healthy subjects, who were positive for the presence of three cervical lesions associated with gingival recessions in three different adjacent teeth, were enrolled in the study. The NCCL were each restored prior to surgery by using one of three different materials: nanofilled composite resin (NCR, resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGI or giomer. The gingival recession defects were treated by CTG. Results: Inter-group differences were not statistically significant for probing depth (PD, relative recession height (rRH, relative clinical attachment level (rCAL, keratinized tissue width (KTW or keratinized tissue thickness (KTT (p > 0.05 among the groups at any time. The mean percentage of defect coverage was 71.18 ± 23.16% for NCR + CTG group; 71.33 ± 22.33% for RMGI + CTG group; and 64.23 ± 20.33% for giomer + CTG group at 1 year postoperatively (p > 0.05. Conclusion: The combined surgical/restorative treatments provided successful clinical results. Giomer + CTG may be less effective compared to other groups for treatment of gingival recession associated with NCCL. Keywords: cervical lesions, connective tissue grafts, gingival recession, restorative materials

  11. Restoration ecology and invasive riparian plants: An introduction to the special section on Tamarix spp. in western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafroth, Patrick B.; Briggs, Mark K.

    2008-01-01

    River systems around the world are subject to various perturbations, including the colonization and spread of non-native species in riparian zones. Riparian resource managers are commonly engaged in efforts to control problematic non-native species and restore native habitats. In western North America, small Eurasian trees or shrubs in the genus Tamarixoccupy hundreds of thousands of hectares of riparian lands, and are the targets of substantial and costly control efforts and associated restoration activities. Still, significant information gaps exist regarding approaches used in control and restoration efforts and their effects on riparian ecosystems. In this special section of papers, eight articles address various aspects of control and restoration associated with Tamarix spp. These include articles focused on planning restoration and revegetation; a synthetic analysis of past restoration efforts; and several specific research endeavors examining plant responses, water use, and various wildlife responses (including birds, butterflies, and lizards). These articles represent important additions to the Tamarix spp. literature and contain many lessons and insights that should be transferable to other analogous situations in river systems globally.

  12. Assessment of the Effect of Orthodontic Treatment on the Periodontal Health of Endodontically Restored Tooth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalaluddin, Md; Goyal, Vinod; Naqvi, Zuber A; Gupta, Bhaskar; Asnani, Mohil M; Sonigra, Hitesh M

    2017-07-01

    Intorduction: Patients usually undergo orthodontic treatment for achieving ideal interocclusal relationship between the dental tissue and bony tissue along with improving the speech, mastication, and facial esthetic appearance. Literature quotes paucity in the studies evaluating the effect of orthodontic treatment on the periodontal health of endodontically treated teeth. Hence, we planned the present study to assess the effect of orthodontic treatment on the periodontal health of endodonti-cally restored tooth. The present study included assessment of 80 patients who underwent orthodontic treatment. All the patients were divided broadly into two study groups: groups I and II. Group I included patients with the absence of endodontically treated teeth, while group II included patients which maxillary central incisors were resorted endodontically. Examination of the periodontal health of the patients was done using the community periodontal index of treatment need (CPITN) around the selected teeth. All the values were recorded during the preorthodontic time, postorthodontic time, and after the first 6 months of starting of the orthodontic treatment. All the results were recorded separately and analyzed. In the groups I and II, 28 and 25 patients respectively, had score of 1, while 10 patients in group I and 12 patients in group II had score of 2. Nonsignificant results were obtained while comparing the CPITN score in between the two study groups when measured at the pre-, intra-, and postortho time. In patients undergoing orthodontic treatment, having endodontically resorted teeth, no difference exists in relation to the periodontal health. Orthodontic treatment can be safely carried in patients with endodontically restored teeth.

  13. A policy-driven large scale ecological restoration: quantifying ecosystem services changes in the Loess Plateau of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Yihe; Fu, Bojie; Feng, Xiaoming; Zeng, Yuan; Liu, Yu; Chang, Ruiying; Sun, Ge; Wu, Bingfang

    2012-01-01

    As one of the key tools for regulating human-ecosystem relations, environmental conservation policies can promote ecological rehabilitation across a variety of spatiotemporal scales. However, quantifying the ecological effects of such policies at the regional level is difficult. A case study was conducted at the regional level in the ecologically vulnerable region of the Loess Plateau, China, through the use of several methods including the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE), hydrological modeling and multivariate analysis. An assessment of the changes over the period of 2000-2008 in four key ecosystem services was undertaken to determine the effects of the Chinese government's ecological rehabilitation initiatives implemented in 1999. These ecosystem services included water regulation, soil conservation, carbon sequestration and grain production. Significant conversions of farmland to woodland and grassland were found to have resulted in enhanced soil conservation and carbon sequestration, but decreased regional water yield under a warming and drying climate trend. The total grain production increased in spite of a significant decline in farmland acreage. These trends have been attributed to the strong socioeconomic incentives embedded in the ecological rehabilitation policy. Although some positive policy results have been achieved over the last decade, large uncertainty remains regarding long-term policy effects on the sustainability of ecological rehabilitation performance and ecosystem service enhancement. To reduce such uncertainty, this study calls for an adaptive management approach to regional ecological rehabilitation policy to be adopted, with a focus on the dynamic interactions between people and their environments in a changing world.

  14. Natural vegetal regeneration as a basis for the development of strategies for ecological restoration in three Protected Biotopes in the Maya Biosphere Reserve, Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manolo José García Vettorazzi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The natural ecosystems of the Maya Biosphere Reserve contain high levels of biodiversity providing environmental goods and services to society, so their conservation is strategic for local and regional development. However, there is a increasing tendency to disturb these ecosystems as a result of human activities, so is necessary to develop strategies that minimize the negative impacts and allow the recovery of degraded natural ecosystems. Existing information on the functioning of essential ecological processes of local ecosystems is sparse and is scattered, limiting the development of strategies. It was proposed to study the dynamics of natural regeneration of vegetation as a basis for defining strategies of ecological restoration in three Protected Biotopes in Peten and adjacent areas, by characterizing the structure and composition of vegetation in six categories of natural regeneration and forest without recent disturbance. Two modified Whitaker 0.1 ha plots were plotted by category and seed bank samples were collected. With this information a conceptual framework of natural regeneration was developed for application in restoration strategies at local and landscape scales.

  15. The influence of location of local anesthesia and complexity/duration of restorative treatment on children's behavior during dental treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidovich, Esti; Wated, Alham; Shapira, Joseph; Ram, Diana

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the region of local anesthetic injection and the complexity and duration of restorative treatment were associated with children's behavior during and immediately after dental treatment. This study examined 90 children, divided into two age groups (2-3.5 years old and >3.5-5.5 years old), who underwent dental treatment while lightly sedated. The region of local anesthesia (maxillary infiltration or mandibular block), complexity and duration of treatment, and behavior during and after treatment were assessed. Children's behavior during and after dental treatment, within and between age groups, was not found to be associated with the region of local anesthesia or complexity of treatment. For both age groups, more children exhibited negative behaviors during treatment when procedures exceeded 30 minutes. For younger children, more negative behaviors were also observed after longer vs shorter procedures. Treatment duration, not the region of local anesthesia or complexity of treatment, was associated with children's behavior during and after dental procedures.

  16. Benefits and costs of ecological restoration: Rapid assessment of changing ecosystem service values at a U.K. wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peh, Kelvin S-H; Balmford, Andrew; Field, Rob H; Lamb, Anthony; Birch, Jennifer C; Bradbury, Richard B; Brown, Claire; Butchart, Stuart H M; Lester, Martin; Morrison, Ross; Sedgwick, Isabel; Soans, Chris; Stattersfield, Alison J; Stroh, Peter A; Swetnam, Ruth D; Thomas, David H L; Walpole, Matt; Warrington, Stuart; Hughes, Francine M R

    2014-10-01

    Restoration of degraded land is recognized by the international community as an important way of enhancing both biodiversity and ecosystem services, but more information is needed about its costs and benefits. In Cambridgeshire, U.K., a long-term initiative to convert drained, intensively farmed arable land to a wetland habitat mosaic is driven by a desire both to prevent biodiversity loss from the nationally important Wicken Fen National Nature Reserve (Wicken Fen NNR) and to increase the provision of ecosystem services. We evaluated the changes in ecosystem service delivery resulting from this land conversion, using a new Toolkit for Ecosystem Service Site-based Assessment (TESSA) to estimate biophysical and monetary values of ecosystem services provided by the restored wetland mosaic compared with the former arable land. Overall results suggest that restoration is associated with a net gain to society as a whole of $199 ha(-1)y(-1), for a one-off investment in restoration of $2320 ha(-1). Restoration has led to an estimated loss of arable production of $2040 ha(-1)y(-1), but estimated gains of $671 ha(-1)y(-1) in nature-based recreation, $120 ha(-1)y(-1) from grazing, $48 ha(-1)y(-1) from flood protection, and a reduction in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions worth an estimated $72 ha(-1)y(-1). Management costs have also declined by an estimated $1325 ha(-1)y(-1). Despite uncertainties associated with all measured values and the conservative assumptions used, we conclude that there was a substantial gain to society as a whole from this land-use conversion. The beneficiaries also changed from local arable farmers under arable production to graziers, countryside users from towns and villages, and the global community, under restoration. We emphasize that the values reported here are not necessarily transferable to other sites.

  17. Ecological restoration of mineland with particular reference to the metalliferous mine wasteland in China: A review of research and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, M S

    2006-03-15

    Despite a principal contributor to the rapid economic growth, the mining industry in China produced a large amount of wasteland and caused water pollution and soil erosion as well as other environmental damages. In 2002, this industry generated 265.4 Mt tailings, 130.4 Mt gangue and 107.8 Mt smelting slags. The degraded land associated with mining is estimated to be 3.2 Mha by the end of 2004, deteriorating the land shortage of China. Restoration of mine wasteland began in late 1970s but the restoration process was sluggish. The overall restoration rate (the ratio of reclaimed land area to the total degraded land area) of mine wasteland was some 10-12% with a higher rate for coal mine spoils but a lower rate for metal-mined derelict land. From 1994 to 2004, 149 research papers were published about the restoration of China's mining wasteland, of which 70 were on metal-mined land and 61 on the non-metal-mined land. Although 37 institutions in China were involved in the restoration research, only a few remained active and productive. Metal-mined derelict land is often more metal toxic and deficient of macronutrients and is tougher for revegetation. Many substrate amelioration techniques were proposed and tolerant plant species were tested for use of reclamation of the metal-mined tailings. Five hyperaccumulator species have been reported in China for the potential use in phytoremediation. However, these accomplishments were all at laboratory or small-scale field demonstration stage and still far from the practical use in reality. To accelerate the restoration and utilization of mine wasteland, several recommendations are put forward in this review. Above these suggestions, the commitment and efficiency of the government at all levels are vital.

  18. [Laser therapy and famotidine in complex restorative treatment of primary chronic gastroduodenitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filimonov, R M; Musaeva, O M

    2003-01-01

    Primary chronic gastroduodenitis (PCG) is one of the most frequent diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. Timely and efficient treatment of patients with PCG promotes ulcer prevention. In this connection, an urgent problem of restorative medicine is to develop medical programs with active introduction of pharmacophysiotherapeutic complexes, in particular, laser therapy and anti-secretory preparation (famotidine) that increase therapeutic efficacy of treatment of this disease. To this end, we give results of treatment of 50 patients with primary chronic gastroduodenitis (26 having undergone laser therapy only, and 24 having had a combination of laser therapy and famotidine), which demonstrated that the complex action method has a more adequate effect on pathogenetic components in this disease than monotherapy.

  19. Influence of microbial community diversity and function on pollutant removal in ecological wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yaohui; Huo, Yang; Liao, Kailingli; Qu, Jiuhui

    2017-10-01

    Traditional wastewater treatments based on activated sludge often encounter the problems of bulking and foaming, as well as malodor. To solve these problems, new treatment technologies have emerged in recent decades, including the ecological wastewater treatment process, which introduces selected local plants into the treatment system. With a focus on the underlying mechanisms of the ecological treatment process, we explored the microbial community biomass, composition, and function in the treatment system to understand the microbial growth in this system and its role in pollutant removal. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that ecological treatment significantly decreased influent bacterial quantity, with around 80% removal. 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed that the ecological treatment also altered the bacterial community structure of the wastewater, leading to a significant change in Comamonadaceae in the effluent. In the internal ecological system, because most of microbes aggregate in the plant rhizosphere and the sludge under plant roots, we selected two plant species (Nerium oleander and Arundo donax) to study the characteristics of rhizosphere and sludge microbes. Metagenomic results showed that the microbial community composition and function differed between the two species, and the microbial communities of A. donax were more sensitive to seasonal effects. Combined with their greater biomass and abundance of metabolic genes, microbes associated with N. oleander showed a greater contribution to pollutant removal. Further, the biodegradation pathways of some micropollutants, e.g., atrazine, were estimated.

  20. Ecosystems, ecological restoration, and economics: does habitat or resource equivalency analysis mean other economic valuation methods are not needed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, W Douglass; Wlodarz, Marta

    2013-09-01

    Coastal and other area resources such as tidal wetlands, seagrasses, coral reefs, wetlands, and other ecosystems are often harmed by environmental damage that might be inflicted by human actions, or could occur from natural hazards such as hurricanes. Society may wish to restore resources to offset the harm, or receive compensation if this is not possible, but faces difficult choices among potential compensation projects. The optimal amount of restoration efforts can be determined by non-market valuation methods, service-to-service, or resource-to-resource approaches such as habitat equivalency analysis (HEA). HEA scales injured resources and lost services on a one-to-one trade-off basis. Here, we present the main differences between the HEA approach and other non-market valuation approaches. Particular focus is on the role of the social discount rate, which appears in the HEA equation and underlies calculations of the present value of future damages. We argue that while HEA involves elements of economic analysis, the assumption of a one-to-one trade-off between lost and restored services sometimes does not hold, and then other non-market economic valuation approaches may help in restoration scaling or in damage determination.

  1. The pollination ecology of Hedysarum boreale Nutt. (Fabaceae) and evaluation of its pollinating bees for restoration seed production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katharine A. Swoboda

    2007-01-01

    Federal land managers desire a consistent and cost-effective source of Hedysarum boreale Nutt. seed for rangeland restoration in the Great Basin and adjacent ecosystems. The breeding biology of H. boreale was assessed via hand pollination experiments at 2 sites in Cache County, Utah, USA in 2003. H. boreale was found to be self-compatible, but did not produce fruit and...

  2. Ecological, political and social challenges of prescribed fire restoration in east Texas pineywoods ecosystems: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandra Rideout; Brian P. Oswald; Michael H. Legg

    2003-01-01

    The effectiveness of prescribed fire restoration of forested sites in three state parks in east Texas, USA was studied. Two sites consisted of mixed shortleaf (Pinus echinata Mill.) or loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) and broadleaf overstoreys. The third site was a longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.)/little...

  3. Cheap and Cheerful Stream Restoration - An Example of System Wide Woody Addition Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheaton, J. M.; Bennett, S. N.; Bouwes, N.; Camp, R.

    2012-12-01

    Stream restoration has been plagued with high price tags, limited spatial extents, and questionable effectiveness in light of largely absent monitoring efforts. One prominent example is the placement of large woody debris (LWD) structures and engineered log jams that are frequently employed to promote heterogeneity of instream habitat. Ironically, many of these treatments attempt to lock in place and over-engineer the woody structures as opposed to allowing them to adjust and rearrange themselves as natural LWD would have. We are in the midst of a large scale restoration experiment using LWD to recover ESA-listed steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) populations in the Asotin Creek Watershed of Southeast Washington. The project is an Intensively Monitored Watershed (IMW) where the restoration treatment and monitoring use a hierarchal staircase design maximizing the power to detect a population level response in steelhead. We are treating over 12 km of stream with enough LWD input (> 200 pieces per km) to mimic the historic background wood loading and encourage the stream to reshape and regularly rework itself leaving. We are using hundreds of structures we call DWS (dynamic woody structures), which generally consist of a series of wooden fence posts driven into the stream bed and complex LWD anchored between them to invoke a specific hydrogeomorphic response. The real advantage of these DWS are their cost. They can be installed quickly (15-30 minutes each) and cheaply (adjust. This dynamic switching between alternative stable states, we postulate will maintain a diversity of habitat types, and support increased steelhead production. In the short-term, we have a host of explicit design hypotheses about the physical and biotic response and a multi-scalar monitoring program geared to test each of these. We will present findings from a preliminary pilot project on three of the study creeks, which was subjected to a major flood, and tests many of these hypotheses

  4. Growing season soil moisture following restoration treatments of varying intensity in semi-arid ponderosa pine forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, F. C.; Springer, A. E.; Sankey, T.; Masek Lopez, S.

    2014-12-01

    Forest restoration projects are being planned for large areas of overgrown semi-arid ponderosa pine forests of the Southwestern US. Restoration involves the thinning of smaller trees and prescribed or managed fire to reduce tree density, restore a more natural fire regime, and decrease the risk of catastrophic wildfire. The stated goals of these projects generally reduced plant water stress and improvements in hydrologic function. However, little is known about how to design restoration treatments to best meet these goals. As part of a larger project on snow cover, soil moisture, and groundwater recharge, we measured soil moisture, an indicator of plant water status, in four pairs of control and restored sites near Flagstaff, Arizona. The restoration strategies used at the sites range in both amount of open space created and degree of clustering of the remaining trees. We measured soil moisture using 30 cm vertical time domain reflectometry probes installed on 100 m transects at 5 m intervals so it would be possible to analyze the spatial pattern of soil moisture. Soil moisture was higher and more spatially variable in the restored sites than the control sites with differences in spatial pattern among the restoration types. Soil moisture monitoring will continue until the first snow fall, at which point measurements of snow depth and snow water equivalent will be made at the same locations.

  5. Ecosystem Restoration: Fact or Fancy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    John A. Stanturf; Callie J. Schweitzer; Stephen H. Schoenholtz; James P. Barnett; Charles K. McMahon; Donald J. Tomszak

    1998-01-01

    Ecological restoration is generally accepted as the reestablishment of natural ecological processes that produce certain dynamic ecosystem properties of structure, function, and processes. But restore to what? The most frequently used conceptual model for the restoration process is the shift of conditions from some current (degraded) dynamic state to some past dynamic...

  6. Approach and strategy for performing ecological risk assessments for the Department of Energy Oak Ridge Field Office Environmental Restoration Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suter, G.W. II; Redfearn, A.; White, R.K.; Shaw, R.A.

    1992-07-01

    This document is intended to supplement exiting US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) guidance for ecological risk assessment at hazardous waste sites by providing guidance that is more specific and more tailored to US Department of Energy sites than the guidance available from the EPA. However, it is a conceptual strategy document and does not include specific guidance on data, assumptions, and models. That detailed guidance is under development and will be presented in subsequent documents. Ecological risk assessments are equal to human health risk assessments in regulatory importance and can use many of the same data and some of the same estimation methods. However, they also have peculiar data needs and methods. Ecological risk assessments begin with an initial scoping phase, termed hazard definition, that characterizes the sources, the potentially environment, and the assessment endpoints. In the subsequent measurement and estimation phase, in which data are obtained concerning source of the endpoint biota to the contaminants and the effects of those exposures, and assumptions and models are used to relate the data to the desired exposure and effects parameters. Finally, in an integration phase, termed risk characterization, the various exposure and effects estimates are combined to infer the existence, cause, magnitude, and extent of effects of contaminants on the ecological endpoints. This phase is much more complicated for ecological risk assessments than for human health assessments because more types of data are available. Ecological risk assessments estimate effects using laboratory toxicity test results, like human health assessments, but also use results of ambient toxicity tests and biological surveys

  7. Equivalency of Galápagos giant tortoises used as ecological replacement species to restore ecosystem functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Elizabeth A; Gibbs, James P; Cayot, Linda J; Tapia, Washington

    2013-08-01

    Loss of key plant-animal interactions (e.g., disturbance, seed dispersal, and herbivory) due to extinctions of large herbivores has diminished ecosystem functioning nearly worldwide. Mitigating for the ecological consequences of large herbivore losses through the use of ecological replacements to fill extinct species' niches and thereby replicate missing ecological functions has been proposed. It is unknown how different morphologically and ecologically a replacement can be from the extinct species and still provide similar functions. We studied niche equivalency between 2 phenotypes of Galápagos giant tortoises (domed and saddlebacked) that were translocated to Pinta Island in the Galápagos Archipelago as ecological replacements for the extinct saddlebacked giant tortoise (Chelonoidis abingdonii). Thirty-nine adult, nonreproductive tortoises were introduced to Pinta Island in May 2010, and we observed tortoise resource use in relation to phenotype during the first year following release. Domed tortoises settled in higher, moister elevations than saddlebacked tortoises, which favored lower elevation arid zones. The areas where the tortoises settled are consistent with the ecological conditions each phenotype occupies in its native range. Saddlebacked tortoises selected areas with high densities of the arboreal prickly pear cactus (Opuntia galapageia) and mostly foraged on the cactus, which likely relied on the extinct saddlebacked Pinta tortoise for seed dispersal. In contrast, domed tortoises did not select areas with cactus and therefore would not provide the same seed-dispersal functions for the cactus as the introduced or the original, now extinct, saddlebacked tortoises. Interchangeability of extant megaherbivores as replacements for extinct forms therefore should be scrutinized given the lack of equivalency we observed in closely related forms of giant tortoises. Our results also demonstrate the value of trial introductions of sterilized individuals to test

  8. What can and should be legalized in ecological restoration? O que pode e deveria ser legalizado na restauração ecológica?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Aronson

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available After listing the five key elements of ecological restoration, ecology, economics, social values, cultural values, and politics, I celebrate the fact that in Brazil there is legislation on how to perform ecological restoration of degraded tropical forests, as well as an ongoing dialogue among legislators and scientists about this legislation, and also a lively debate among scientists as the best way forward, referring to articles by Brancalion et al. (2010 and Durigan et al. (2010 in this issue of Revista Árvore. Legislators elsewhere, especially megadiversity countries, should take note. I do not take sides in the debate; I think both groups of authors make very good points. Instead I call on the scientists and legislators concerned with restoration to ponder five strategic tools: A. Start with clear concepts. B. Decide where you want to go and why. C. Negotiate who should benefit & how, and who should pay, how, & why. D. Work out how an honest cost-benefit analysis of restoration would look, regardless of the biome in which you are working. Finally, figure out how to make the restoration immediately attractive for private landowners. Otherwise, they will not cooperate as fully as they could or should, and restoration efforts will not achieve its full potential.Depois de listar os cinco elementos chave da restauração ecológica - ecologia, economia, valores sociais, valores culturais e política, eu celebro o fato de que no Brasil há uma legislação sobre como conduzir a restauração ecológica de florestas tropicais degradadas, bem como o diálogo em andamento entre legisladores e cientistas sobre essa legislação, e também o intenso debate entre cientistas sobre a melhor forma de avançar, referindo aos artigos de Brancalion et al. (2010 e Durigan et al. (2010 nessa edição da Revista Árvore. Legisladores de todas as regiões, especialmente de países de megadiversidade, devem tomar nota. Eu não tomei partido por um dos lados no

  9. Topical Rosiglitazone Treatment Improves Ulcerative Colitis by Restoring Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-gamma Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, G.; Brynskov, Jørn

    2010-01-01

    and functional activity in human colonic epithelium and explored the potential of topical treatment with rosiglitazone (a PPAR gamma ligand) in patients with ulcerative colitis. METHODS: Spontaneous and rosiglitazone-mediated PPAR gamma and adipophillin expression (a gene transcriptionally activated by PPAR...... for 14 days. RESULTS: PPAR gamma expression was fourfold reduced in epithelial cells from inflamed compared with uninflamed mucosa and controls. Adipophillin levels were decreased in parallel. Rosiglitazone induced a concentration-dependent increase in adipophillin levels and restored PPAR gamma activity...... in epithelial cells from inflamed mucosa in vitro. Rosiglitazone enema treatment was well tolerated and reduced the Mayo ulcerative colitis score from 8.9 to 4.3 (P levels in the epithelial cells of the patients, indicating PPAR...

  10. Translucency changes of direct esthetic restorative materials after curing, aging and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Keun Lee

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article was to review the changes in translucency of direct esthetic restorative materials after curing, aging and treatment. As a criterion for the evaluation of clinical translucency changes, visual perceptibility threshold in translucency parameter difference (ΔTP of 2 was used. Translucency changes after curing were perceivable depending on experimental methods and products (largest ΔTP in resin composites = 15.9. Translucency changes after aging were reported as either relatively stable or showed perceivable changes by aging protocols (largest ΔTP in resin composites = -3.8. Translucency changes after curing, aging and treatment were perceivable in several products and experimental methods. Therefore, shade matching of direct esthetic materials should be performed considering these instabilities of translucency in direct esthetic materials.

  11. Survey of subsurface treatment technologies for environmental restoration sites at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGrath, Lucas K.; Ho, Clifford Kuofei; Wright, Jerome L.

    2003-08-01

    This report provides a survey of remediation and treatment technologies for contaminants of concern at environmental restoration (ER) sites at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico. The sites that were evaluated include the Tijeras Arroyo Groundwater, Technical Area V, and Canyons sites. The primary contaminants of concern at these sites include trichloroethylene (TCE), tetrachloroethylene (PCE), and nitrate in groundwater. Due to the low contaminant concentrations (close to regulatory limits) and significant depths to groundwater ({approx}500 feet) at these sites, few in-situ remediation technologies are applicable. The most applicable treatment technologies include monitored natural attenuation and enhanced bioremediation/denitrification to reduce the concentrations of TCE, PCE, and nitrate in the groundwater. Stripping technologies to remove chlorinated solvents and other volatile organic compounds from the vadose zone can also be implemented, if needed.

  12. Ponderosa Pine Forest Restoration Treatment Longevity: Implications of Regeneration on Fire Hazard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wade T. Tinkham

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Restoration of pine forests has become a priority for managers who are beginning to embrace ideas of highly heterogeneous forest structures that potentially encourages high levels of regeneration. This study utilizes stem-mapped stands to assess how simulated regeneration timing and magnitude influence longevity of reduced fire behavior by linking growth and yield model outputs to a crown fire prediction model. Treatment longevity was assessed as return time to within 10% of pre-treatment predicted wind speeds for the onset of passive (Torching and active (Crowning crown fire behavior. Treatment longevity in terms of Torching and Crowning was reduced 5 years for every 550 and 150 seedlings ha−1, respectively. Introducing regeneration as a single pulse further reduced Torching treatment longevity 10 years compared to other regeneration distributions. Crowning treatment longevity increased at higher site indices, where a 6 m increase in site index increased longevity 4.5 year. This result was contrary to expectations that canopy openings after treatments would close faster on higher productivity sites. Additionally, Torching longevity was influenced by the rate of crown recession, were reducing the recession rate decreased longevity in areas with higher site indices. These dependencies highlight a need for research exploring stand development in heterogeneous sites.

  13. Fish movement ecology in high gradient headwater streams: Its relevance to fish passage restoration through stream culvert barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Robert L.; Dunham, Jason B.

    2007-01-01

    Restoration of fish passage through culvert barriers has emerged as a major issue in the Pacific Northwest and nationwide, in part, because of their potential influence on fish movement. Movement is an essential mechanism by which mobile animals acquire the resources necessary for the successful completion of their life-cycles. In this report, we provide a brief review of some essential characteristics of animal movement and examples from a focal group of fishes in Washington State: salmon, trout, and char. We begin by outlining some basic characteristics of animal movement and then apply that foundation to the case of salmonid fishes. Next we consider the consequences of disrupting fish movement with human-constructed barriers, such as culverts. Finally, this body of evidence is summarized, and we propose a short list of what we view as high priority information needs to support more effective restoration of fish passage through culverts.

  14. From loblolly to longleaf: fifth-year results of a longleaf pine restoration study at two ecologically distinct sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin O. Knapp; G. Geoff Wang; Joan L. Walker; Huifeng Hu

    2015-01-01

    Historical land-use and management practices in the southeastern United States have resulted in the widespread conversion of many upland sites from dominance of longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) to loblolly pine (P. taeda L.) in the time following European settlement. Given the ecological, economic, and cultural...

  15. Social-ecological dynamics of change and restoration attempts in the Chihuahuan Desert grasslands of Janos Biosphere Reserve, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrub encroachment and grassland loss are widespread throughout the US-Mexico borderlands with negative consequences for production of livestock and ecosystem services. In this paper we detail the complex social and ecological phenomena associated with this pattern of degradation in a large area in ...

  16. The Landscape Ecological Impact of Afforestation on the British Uplands and Some Initiatives to Restore Native Woodland Cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bunce Robert G. H.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The majority of forest cover in the British Uplands had been lost by the beginning of the Nineteenth Century, because of felling followed by overgrazing by sheep and deer. The situation remained unchanged until a government policy of afforestation, mainly by exotic conifers, after the First World War up to the present day. This paper analyses the distribution of these predominantly coniferous plantations, and shows how they occupy specific parts of upland landscapes in different zones throughout Britain Whilst some landscapes are dominated by these new forests, elsewhere the blocks of trees are more localised. Although these forests virtually eliminate native ground vegetation, except in rides and unplanted land, the major negative impacts are at the landscape level. For example, drainage systems are altered and ancient cultural landscape patterns are destroyed. These impacts are summarised and possible ways of amelioration are discussed. By contrast, in recent years, a series of projects have been set up to restore native forest cover, as opposed to the extensive plantations of exotic species. Accordingly, the paper then provides three examples of such initiatives designed to restore native forests to otherwise bare landscapes, as well as setting them into a policy context. Whilst such projects cover a limited proportion of the British Uplands they nevertheless restore forest to landscapes at a local level.

  17. RESTORATION OF FERTILITY IN A MAN WITH AZOOSPERMIA DEVELOPED IN RESPONSE TO TREATMENT WITH TESTOSTERONE GEL (A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Korneev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Testosterone replacement therapy (TRT allows to combat the symptoms of age-related androgen deficiency (AAD; however, it may have side effects, including the reduction in sperm count and even complete cessation of spermatogenesis and development of azoospermia. The fertility may not be restored even within 18 month after treatment completion. Russian researcher explored the impact of TRT with gel on the ejaculate parameters in men with hypogonadism and observed no negative effects on spermatogenesis within 3 months after treatment initiation. We describe a clinical case of reversible azoospermia induced by a relatively short course of TRT with gel. Fertilizing capacity of sperm was finally restored, which was confirmed by a clinical pregnancy obtained by in vitro fertilization. Physicians prescribing TRT should inform their patients that such treatment is contraindicated to those men who would like to preserve their fertility and explain that the restoration of fertility will take some time after treatment completion.

  18. Emergency post-fire rehabilitation treatment effects on burned area ecology and long-term restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter R. Robichaud; Sarah A. Lewis; Robert E. Brown; Louise E. Ashmun

    2009-01-01

    The predicted continuation of strong drying and warming trends in the southwestern United States underlies the associated prediction of increased frequency, area, and severity of wildfires in the coming years. As a result, the management of wildfires and fire effects on public lands will continue to be a major land management priority for the foreseeable future....

  19. Nucleation in tropical ecological restoration A nucleação na restauração ecológica de ecossistemas tropicais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademir Reis

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Ecological theories of facilitation and nucleation are proposed as a basis for environmental restoration in tropical ecosystems. The main goal of this paper is to present restoration techniques based on the concept of nucleation, in which small nuclei of vegetation are established within a degraded land. The nucleation techniques (artificial shelters for animals, planting of herbaceous shrub life forms, soil and seed bank translocation, seed rain translocation, soil and seed rain translocation's seedling set, artificial perches, planting of native trees in groups, and ecological stepping-stones with functional groups promote the landscape connectivity on two flows: inward: receiver connectivity and outward: donor connectivity. The nuclei development represents an alternative for restoration by prioritizing the natural processes of succession. This methodology appears to take long to generate vegetation corresponding to tropical climates, but is fundamental in the formation of communities capable of acting, in the future, as a new functional nuclei within the current fragmented landscape. This strategy also encourages greater integration between the theories and projects of ecological restoration for the development of human resources and to benefit the restoration practitioner.As teorias ecológicas da facilitação e nucleação são propostas como base para a restauração ambiental de ecossistemas tropicais. Nesse "Ponto de Vista" apresentam-se técnicas de restauração fundamentadas no conceito de nucleação, onde pequenos núcleos de vegetação são implantados em uma área degradada. As técnicas de nucleação (abrigos artificiais para animais, plantio de espécies herbáceo-arbustivas, transposição de solo e banco de sementes, transposição de chuva de sementes, blocos de mudas procedentes de transposição de solo e chuva de sementes, poleiros artificiais, plantio de árvores nativas em grupos de Anderson, e trampolins ecol

  20. Soil-covered strategy for ecological restoration alters the bacterial community structure and predictive energy metabolic functions in mine tailings profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Sun, Qingye; Zhan, Jing; Yang, Yang; Wang, Dan

    2017-03-01

    Native soil amendment has been widely used to stabilize mine tailings and speed up the development of soil biogeochemical functions before revegetation; however, it remains poorly understood about the response of microbial communities to ecological restoration of mine tailings with soil-covered strategy. In this study, microbial communities along a 60-cm profile were investigated in mine tailings during ecological restoration of two revegetation strategies (directly revegetation and native soil covered) with different plant species. The mine tailings were covered by native soils as thick as 40 cm for more than 10 years, and the total nitrogen, total organic carbon, water content, and heavy metal (Fe, Cu, and Zn) contents in the 0-40 cm intervals of profiles were changed. In addition, increased microbial diversity and changed microbial community structure were also found in the 10-40 cm intervals of profiles in soil-covered area. Soil-covered strategy rather than plant species and soil depth was the main factor influencing the bacterial community, which explained the largest portion (29.96%) of the observed variation. Compared directly to revegetation, soil-covered strategy exhibited the higher relative abundance of Acidobacteria and Deltaproteobacteria and the lower relative abundance of Bacteroidetes, Gemmatimonadetes, Betaproteobacteria, and Gammaproteobacteria. PICRUSt analysis further demonstrated that soil-covered caused energy metabolic functional changes in carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur metabolism. Given all these, the soil-covered strategy may be used to fast-track the establishment of native microbial communities and is conducive to the rehabilitation of biogeochemical processes for establishing native plant species.

  1. Assessment of Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART) on the permanent dentition in a primary care setting in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibiyemi, Olushola; Bankole, Olubunmi Olusola; Oke, Gbemisola Aderemi

    2011-02-01

    To assess the acceptability of ART and to evaluate on a longitudinal basis the survival rate of single surface occlusal ART restorations in the permanent dentition. Longitudinal Study of ART restorations. Primary Oral Health Care Setting. Aged 8-19 years in a low socioeconomic community, Southwestern Nigeria. Ninety-three ART restorations were applied on single surface occlusal caries by a dentist who had undergone training on ART. Six monthly follow-up of patients to evaluate restoration retention and marginal defect was conducted by an independent evaluator. Over 90.0% of the subjects had never undergone dental treatment, yet 63.0% perceived dental treatment as painful. After undergoing the treatment as many as 98.0% admitted that ART was not painful. On the question of their willingness to make recall visits, about 95.0% responded in the affirmative and about 96.0% reported that they would encourage others to come for treatment. The cumulative survival rate of single surface occlusal ART restorations after 2 years was 93.5% (SE=2.3%). ART was shown to be acceptable and effective in the management of single surface occlusal caries in the permanent dentition in these Nigerian children and adolescents outside the traditional clinical setting. © 2011 FDI World Dental Federation.

  2. Social and Ecological Factors Influencing Attitudes Toward the Application of High-Intensity Prescribed Burns to Restore Fire Adapted Grassland Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Toledo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Fire suppression in grassland systems that are adapted to episodic fire has contributed to the recruitment of woody species in grasslands worldwide. Even though the ecology of restoring these fire prone systems back to grassland states is becoming clearer, a major hurdle to the reintroduction of historic fires at a landscape scale is its social acceptability. Despite the growing body of literature on the social aspects of fire, an understanding of the human dimensions of applying high-intensity prescribed burns in grassland and savanna systems is lacking. We used structural equation modeling to examine how landowners' attitudes toward high-intensity prescribed burns are affected by previous experience with burning, perceptions of brush encroachment, land condition, proximity constraints, risk orientation, fire management knowledge and skill, access to fire management equipment, and subjective norms. Our results suggest that experience, risk taking orientation, and especially social norms, i.e., perceived support from others, when implementing prescribed burns play an important role in determining the attitudes of landowners toward the use of high-intensity prescribed burns. Concern over lack of skill, knowledge, and insufficient resources have a moderately negative effect on these attitudes. Our results highlight the importance of targeted engagement strategies to address risk perceptions, subjective norms, and landowner's concerns. With these concerns allayed, it is possible to increase the adoption of high-intensity prescribed burns that lead to landscape-scale grassland restoration and conservation.

  3. Effects of eradication and restoration treatments on Italian thistle (Carduus pycnocephalus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinnis, Thomas; Keeley, Jon

    2011-01-01

    Low elevation grasslands in California long have been dominated by Mediterranean grasses, but many areas still have large native forb populations. Alien forbs invade these grasslands, displacing both native and other alien species. Italian thistle is a noxious alien herb that has recently invaded these grasslands, including ungrazed blue oak (Quercus douglassii) and interior live oak (Quercus wislizenii) stands in Sequoia National Park. Here, Italian thistle tends to dominate under oaks and has the potential to substantially alter the foothill ecosystem by displacing native plants and acting as a ladder fuel that can carry fires into the oak canopy. We tested the effects of selectively reducing Italian thistle populations alone and in combination with restoration of native species. Two thistle eradication techniques (clipping and the application of clopyralid herbicide) and two restoration techniques (addition of native forb seeds or planting native grass plugs) were used. After two consecutive years of treatment we found: a) clipping was not effective at reducing Italian thistle populations (clipping reduced Italian thistle density in some areas, but not vegetative cover), b) herbicide reduced both Italian thistle density and vegetative cover for the first two growing seasons after application, but cover rebounded in the third growing season, c) native forb cover and species richness were not significantly affected by clipping or spot-treating with herbicide, d) the grass and forb addition treatments by themselves were not effective at reducing Italian thistle during the course of this study and e) sowing annual forb seeds after clipping resulted in greater forb cover and moderately reduced Italian thistle vegetative cover in the short term.

  4. Responses of soil microbial biomass and bacterial community structure to closed-off management (an ecological natural restoration measures): A case study of Dongting Lake wetland, middle China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Juan; Wu, Haipeng; Zhang, Chang; Zeng, Guangming; Liang, Jie; Guo, Shenglian; Li, Xiaodong; Huang, Lu; Lu, Lunhui; Yuan, Yujie

    2016-09-01

    Soil microbial biomass (SMB) and bacterial community structure, which are critical to global ecosystem and fundamental ecological processes, are sensitive to anthropogenic activities and environmental conditions. In this study, we examined the possible effects of closed-off management (an ecological natural restoration measures, ban on anthropogenic activity, widely employed for many important wetlands) on SMB, soil bacterial community structure and functional marker genes of nitrogen cycling in Dongting Lake wetland. Soil samples were collected from management area (MA) and contrast area (CA: human activities, such as hunting, fishing and draining, are permitted) in November 2013 and April 2014. Soil properties, microbial biomass carbon (MBC), and bacterial community structure were investigated. Comparison of the values of MA and CA showed that SMB and bacterial community diversity of the MA had a significant increase after 7 years closed-off management. The mean value of Shannon-Weiner diversity index of MA and CA respectively were 2.85 and 2.07. The gene copy numbers of 16S rRNA and nosZ of MA were significant higher than those of CA. the gene copy numbers of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and nirK of MA were significant lower than those of CA. However, there was no significant change in the gene copy numbers of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and nirS. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Exploring an Ecologically Sustainable Scheme for Landscape Restoration of Abandoned Mine Land: Scenario-Based Simulation Integrated Linear Programming and CLUE-S Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liping; Zhang, Shiwen; Huang, Yajie; Cao, Meng; Huang, Yuanfang; Zhang, Hongyan

    2016-03-24

    Understanding abandoned mine land (AML) changes during land reclamation is crucial for reusing damaged land resources and formulating sound ecological restoration policies. This study combines the linear programming (LP) model and the CLUE-S model to simulate land-use dynamics in the Mentougou District (Beijing, China) from 2007 to 2020 under three reclamation scenarios, that is, the planning scenario based on the general land-use plan in study area (scenario 1), maximal comprehensive benefits (scenario 2), and maximal ecosystem service value (scenario 3). Nine landscape-scale graph metrics were then selected to describe the landscape characteristics. The results show that the coupled model presented can simulate the dynamics of AML effectively and the spatially explicit transformations of AML were different. New cultivated land dominates in scenario 1, while construction land and forest land account for major percentages in scenarios 2 and 3, respectively. Scenario 3 has an advantage in most of the selected indices as the patches combined most closely. To conclude, reclaiming AML by transformation into more forest can reduce the variability and maintain the stability of the landscape ecological system in study area. These findings contribute to better mapping AML dynamics and providing policy support for the management of AML.

  6. Large-scale dam removal in the northeast United States: documenting ecological responses to the Penobscot River Restoration Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, M. J.; Aponte Clarke, G.; Baeder, C.; McCaw, D.; Royte, J.; Saunders, R.; Sheehan, T.

    2012-12-01

    The Penobscot River Restoration Project aims to improve aquatic connectivity in New England's second largest watershed ( 22,000 km2) by removing the two lowermost, mainstem dams and bypassing a third dam on a principal tributary upstream. Project objectives include: restoring unobstructed access to the entire historic riverine range for five lower river diadromous species including Atlantic and shortnose sturgeon; significantly improving access to upstream habitat for six upper river diadromous species including Atlantic salmon; reconnecting trophic linkages between headwater areas and the Gulf of Maine; restoring fluvial processes to the former impoundments; improving recreational and Penobscot Nation cultural opportunities; and maintaining basin-wide hydropower output. The project is expected to have landscape-scale benefits and the need for a significant investment in long-term monitoring and evaluation to formally quantify ecosystem response has been recognized. A diverse group of federal, state, tribal, NGO, and academic partners has developed a long-term monitoring and evaluation program composed of nine studies that began in 2009. Including American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funding that leveraged partner contributions, we have invested nearly $2M to date in pre- and post-removal investigations that evaluate geomorphology/bed sediment, water quality, wetlands, and fisheries. Given the number of affected diadromous species and the diversity of their life histories, we have initiated six distinct, but related, fisheries investigations to document these expected changes: Atlantic salmon upstream and downstream passage efficiency using passive integrated transponder (PIT) and acoustic telemetry; fish community structure via an index of biotic integrity (IBI); total diadromous fish biomass through hydroacoustics; shortnose sturgeon spawning and habitat use via active and passive acoustic telemetry; and freshwater-marine food web interactions by

  7. Linking research and education: an undergraduate research apprenticeship focusing on geologic and ecological impacts of the Elwha River Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogston, A. S.; Eidam, E.; Webster, K. L.; Hale, R. P.

    2016-02-01

    Experiential learning is becoming well-rooted in undergraduate curriculum as a means of stimulating interest in STEM fields, and of preparing students for future careers in scientific research and communication. To further these goals in coastal sciences, an intensive, research-focused course was developed at the UW Friday Harbor Labs. The course revolved around an active NSF-funded research project concerning the highly publicized Elwha River Restoration project. Between 2008 and 2014, four groups of research "apprentices" spent their academic quarter in residence at a small, coastal marine lab in a learning environment that integrated interdisciplinary lectures, workshops on data analysis and laboratory methods, and the research process from proposal to oceanographic research cruise to publication. This environment helped students gain important skills in fieldwork planning and execution, laboratory and digital data analyses, and manuscript preparation from start to finish—all while elevating their knowledge of integrated earth science topics related to a coastal restoration project. Students developed their own research proposals and pursued their individual interests within the overall research topic, thereby expanding the overall breadth of the NSF-funded research program. The topics of student interest were often beyond the researcher's expertise, which ultimately led to more interdisciplinary findings beyond the quarter-long class. This also provided opportunities for student creativity and leadership, and for collaboration with fellow course participants and with students from many other disciplines in residence at the marine lab. Tracking the outcomes of the diverse student group undertaking this program indicates that these undergraduate (and post-bac) students are generally attending graduate school at a high rate, and launching careers in education, coastal management, and other STEM fields.

  8. Influence of different surface treatments on bond strength of novel CAD/CAM restorative materials to resin cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kömürcüoğlu, Meltem Bektaş; Sağırkaya, Elçin; Tulga, Ayça

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate the effects of different surface treatments on the bond strength of novel CAD/CAM restorative materials to resin cement by four point bending test. The CAD/CAM materials under investigation were e.max CAD, Mark II, Lava Ultimate, and Enamic. A total of 400 bar specimens (4×1.2×12 mm) (n=10) milled from the CAD/CAM blocks underwent various pretreatments (no pretreatment (C), hydrofluoric acid (A), hydrofluoric acid + universal adhesive (Scotchbond) (AS), sandblasting (Sb), and sandblasting + universal adhesive (SbS)). The bars were luted end-to-end on the prepared surfaces with a dual curing adhesive resin cement (Variolink N, Ivoclar Vivadent) on the custom-made stainless steel mold. Ten test specimens for each treatment and material combination were performed with four point bending test method. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey's test. The surface treatment and type of CAD/CAM restorative material showed a significant effect on the four point bending strength (FPBS) ( P CAD/CAM restorative materials was modified after treatments. The surface treatment of sandblasting or HF acid etching in combination with a universal adhesive containing MDP can be suggested for the adhesive cementation of the novel CAD/CAM restorative materials.

  9. 河流水生态修复阈值界定指标体系初步构建%The preliminary structure of definition index system for river water ecological restoration threshold

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于鲁冀; 吕晓燕; 宋思远; 梁静; 王小青

    2013-01-01

      生态阈值存在于各种生态系统中,在查阅国内外相关文献的基础上,通过对生态阈值的理论研究及在森林、草原、湿地、湖泊和河流等方面实践应用进行总结分析,指出生态阈值在河流生态系统研究中的不足之处。针对在高污染负荷下修复退化的水生态系统中,开展生态修复阈值的研究寥寥无几,关于界定河流水生态修复阈值指标体系的研究尚未出现。通过分析阈值在河流水生态修复中的重要性,指出河流水生态修复阈值确定是退化水生态修复的基础,为区域针对性修复水体提供科学依据和决策支持,更是水环境管理发展的迫切需求。在此基础上,从新的角度探讨和提出河流水生态修复阈值概念。河流水生态修复阈值,是依据河流生态系统自然属性和河流功能以及区域社会经济发展的需求来界定退化到何种程度的水生态系统需要进行修复,退化现状程度大于此修复阈值,则需进行人工修复;退化现状程度小于修复阈值,则无需进行修复。通过对指标体系构建原则、筛选方法及阈值计算方法的总结,提出河流水生态修复阈值确定技术路线,采用频度分析法和理论分析法相结合,从影响河流修复的6大要素(物理结构、水文条件、水质状况、水生生物、河流功能和社会经济)初步构建了河流水生态修复阈值界定指标体系及阈值计算方法体系,为下一步河流水生态修复阈值指标体系的定量筛选与阈值计算奠定了基础。%Ecological threshold exists in all kinds of ecological systems. Deficiencies on ecological threshold research in river ecological system were pointed out based on reviewing relevant literatures and analyzing theory researches and practices on forest, grassland, lake, wetland and river ecological threshold. For the restoration of degraded river ecosystems in the high

  10. Caries experience of Egyptian adolescents: does the atraumatic restorative treatment approach offer a solution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobarak, E H; Shabayek, M M; Mulder, J; Reda, A H; Frencken, J E

    2011-01-01

    To assess the prevalence and severity of dental caries amongst Egyptian adolescents and the prevalence of carious lesions treatable through the atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) approach. Using a convenient sample procedure, two secondary schools with a dental clinic were selected (967 students, average age: 13.7 ± 0.8 years, range: 12-15). Dental caries was diagnosed using the ART caries criteria, and plaque and calculus were assessed using the Green and Vermillion criteria amongst students grades 1-3 in the dental clinic by 3 calibrated examiners. The effect of the independent variables gender, age, tooth surface, jaw side (left or right) and type of jaw (mandible/maxilla) on dependent caries experience variables and D(2) and D(3) variables were tested using ANOVA. The prevalence of dental caries including enamel lesion (D(2)MFT) amongst the 967 students was 51.4% and that of dental caries excluding enamel lesions (D(3)MFT) was 38.1%. The mean D(2)MFT and D(3)MFT scores were 1.5 and 0.8, respectively. The percentage of teeth filled and extracted was low. Female students had statistically significantly higher mean D(3)MFT/S and D(2)MFT/S scores than males (p ART was 48% for score 2 and 28% for score 3. Most of the cavitated lesions were found untreated despite the presence of a dental clinic and a dentist on the school premises. The majority of cavitated lesions without pulp involvement could be treated using the preventive and restorative components of the ART approach. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Restoration of metal properties of circulation pump blades by the method of surface ultrasonic impact treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povarov, V. P.; Urazov, O. V.; Bakirov, M. B.; Pakhomov, S. S.; Belunik, I. A.

    2017-10-01

    During the transition period to a market economy, the works producing equipment for the nuclear industry became lame duck companies. The market of heavy industry equipment reduced dramatically, and quality control requirements imposed to goods became lower. Deviations from regulations' requirements and technical specifications for equipment manufacture results in inevitable decrease of reliability during operation but also to failure during check tests. It is not always possible to replace promptly ill-conditioned equipment; in such cases, it is necessary to carry out compensatory measures for restoring working properties up to an acceptable level in order to ensure operational reliability due to the strength improvement of the components of machines and constructions during the whole service life or up to the scheduled date of equipment replacement. This paper is dedicated to development and practical implementation of restorative technology of strengthening ultrasonic treatment used for the metal of the blades of impellers of 16DPA10-28 circulation pumps of 10URS unit pump station located at Novovoronezh NPP-2. The dynamic surface treatment was implemented for compensating the technological defects of the metal of blades. It was revealed that the impact elastic-plastic deformation has a comprehensive compensation effect on the metal of blades in the initial state of delivery and creates the surface-strengthening layer with higher strength properties (strain hardening) of the depth up to 1.5 mm. The surface strain hardening increases the cyclic strength, re-distributes beneficially the residual technological and repair stresses, and heals small surface cracks improving the surface quality. The developed technology was used for treatment of 32 blades of impellers of 10PAC01AP001, 10PAC02AP001, 10PAC03AP001, 10PAC04AP001 circulation pumps. The implemented 100-h full-scale test of the pumps revealed the high efficiency of the developed technology and made it possible

  12. Hypericum perforatum L. treatment restored bone mass changes in swimming stressed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seferos, Nikos; Petrokokkinos, Loukas; Kotsiou, Antonia; Rallis, George; Tesseromatis, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Stress, via corticosteroids release, influences bone mass density. Hypericum perforatum (Hp) a traditional remedy possess antidepressive activity (serotonin reuptake inhibitor) and wound healing properties. Hp preparation contains mainly hypericin, hyperforin, hyperoside and flavonoids exerting oestrogen-mimetic effect. Cold swimming represents an experimental model of stress associating mental strain and corporal exhaustion. This study investigates the Hp effect on femur and mandible bone mass changes in rats under cold forced swimming procedure. 30 male Wistar rats were randomized into three groups. Group A was treated with Methanolic extract of Hp (Jarsin®) via gastroesophageal catheter, and was submitted to cold swimming stress for 10 min/daily. Group B was submitted to cold stress, since group C served as control. Experiment duration was 10 days. Haematocrite and serum free fatty acids (FFA) were estimated. Furthermore volume and specific weight of each bone as well as bone mass density via dual energy X-Ray absorptiometry (DEXA) were measured. Statistic analysis by t-test. Hp treatment restores the stress injuries. Adrenals and bone mass density regain their normal values. Injuries occurring by forced swimming stress in the rats are significantly improved by Hp treatment. Estrogen-like effects of Hp flavonoids eventually may act favorable in bone remodeling.

  13. Levothyroxine treatment restored the decreased circulating fibroblast growth factor 21 levels in patients with hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guang; Liu, Jia; Yang, Ning; Hu, Yanjin; Zhang, Heng; Miao, Li; Yao, Zhi; Xu, Yuan

    2016-06-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is an important endogenous regulator of energy metabolism. Thyroid hormone has been shown to regulate hepatic FGF21 expression in rodents. The goal of this study was to evaluate the plasma FGF21 levels in participants with normal thyroid function, subclinical hypothyroidism, or overt hypothyroidism and to investigate the change of plasma FGF21 levels in patients with overt hypothyroidism after levothyroxine treatment. A total of 473 drug-naive participants were recruited, including 250 healthy control subjects, 116 patients with subclinical hypothyroidism, and 107 patients with overt hypothyroidism. Thirty-eight patients with overt hypothyroidism were assigned to receive levothyroxine treatment. The overt hypothyroidism group had decreased FGF21 levels compared with the control and subclinical hypothyroidism groups (Ptreatment markedly attenuated the increased circulating levels of total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), and homeostasis model assessment index of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in patients with overt hypothyroidism. A significant increase in plasma FGF21 levels was observed after levothyroxine treatment (Ptreatment (FT3: r=0.44; FT4: r=0.53; all Ptreatment ameliorated metabolic disorders and restored the decreased circulating FGF21 levels in patients with overt hypothyroidism. The increase in FGF21 levels after levothyroxine treatment might be partly associated with the amelioration of metabolic disorders in patients with hypothyroidism. Copyright © 2016 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Genome-based microbial ecology of anammox granules in a full-scale wastewater treatment system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speth, D.R.; Zandt, M.H. in 't; Guerrero Cruz, S.; Dutilh, B.E.; Jetten, M.S.M.

    2016-01-01

    Partial-nitritation anammox (PNA) is a novel wastewater treatment procedure for energy-efficient ammonium removal. Here we use genome-resolved metagenomics to build a genome-based ecological model of the microbial community in a full-scale PNA reactor. Sludge from the bioreactor examined here is

  15. Performance Evaluation and Field Application of Porous Vegetation Concrete Made with By-Product Materials for Ecological Restoration Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwang-Hee Kim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of porous vegetation concrete block made from blast furnace slag cement containing industrial by-products such as blast furnace slag aggregate and powder. The blocks were tested for void ratio, compressive strength and freeze-thaw resistance to determine the optimal mixing ratio for the porous vegetation block. An economic analysis of the mixing ratio showed that the economic efficiency increased when blast furnace slag aggregate and cement were used. Porous vegetation concrete blocks for river applications were designed and produced. Hydraulic safety, heavy metal elution and vegetation tests were completed after the blocks were applied in the field. The measured tractive force ranged between 7.0 kg/m2 for fascine revetment (vegetation revetment and 16.0 kg/m2 for stone pitching (hard revetment, which ensured sufficient hydraulic stability in the field. Plant growth was measured after the porous vegetation concrete block was placed in the field. Seeds began to sprout one week after seeding; after six weeks, the plant length exceeded 300 mm. The average coverage ratio reached as high as 90% after six weeks of vegetation. These results clearly indicated that the porous vegetation concrete block was suitable for environmental restoration projects.

  16. Distribution modelling of pre-Columbian California grasslands with soil phytoliths: New insights for prehistoric grassland ecology and restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fick, Stephen E; Evett, Rand R

    2018-01-01

    Historical reconstructions of plant community distributions are useful for biogeographic studies and restoration planning, but the quality of insights gained depends on the depth and reliability of historical information available. For the Central Valley of California, one of the most altered terrestrial ecosystems on the planet, this task is particularly difficult given poor historical documentation and sparse relict assemblages of pre-invasion plant species. Coastal and interior prairies were long assumed to have been dominated by perennial bunchgrasses, but this hypothesis has recently been challenged. We evaluated this hypothesis by creating species distribution models (SDMs) using a novel approach based on the abundance of soil phytoliths (microscopic particles of biogenic silica used as a proxy for long-term grass presence) extracted from soil samples at locations statewide. Modeled historical grass abundance was consistently high along the coast and to a lesser extent in higher elevation foothills surrounding the Central Valley. SDMs found strong associations with mean temperature, temperature variability, and precipitation variability, with higher predicted abundance in regions with cooler, equable temperatures and moderated rainfall, mirroring the pattern for modern perennial grass distribution across the state. The results of this study strongly suggest that the pre-Columbian Central Valley of California was not dominated by grasses. Using soil phytolith data as input for SDMs is a promising new method for predicting the extent of prehistoric grass distributions where alternative historical datasets are lacking.

  17. Interim restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratton, David G; Aquilino, Steven A

    2004-04-01

    Interim restorations are a critical component of fixed prosthodontic treatment, biologically and biomechanically. Interim restoration serves an important diagnostic role as a functional and esthetic try-in and as a blueprint for the design of the definitive prosthesis. When selecting materials for any interim restoration, clinicians must consider physical properties, handling properties, patient acceptance, and material cost. Although no single material meets all the requirements and material classification alone of a given product is not a predictor of clinical performance, bis-acryl materials are typically best suited to single-unit restorations, and poly(methylmethacrylate) interim materials are generally ideal for multi-unit, complex, long-term, interim fixed prostheses. As with most dental procedures, the technique used for fabrication has a greater effect on the final result than the specific material chosen.

  18. Genome-based microbial ecology of anammox granules in a full-scale wastewater treatment system

    OpenAIRE

    Speth, D.R.; Zandt, M.H. in 't; Guerrero Cruz, S.; Dutilh, B.E.; Jetten, M.S.M.

    2016-01-01

    Partial-nitritation anammox (PNA) is a novel wastewater treatment procedure for energy-efficient ammonium removal. Here we use genome-resolved metagenomics to build a genome-based ecological model of the microbial community in a full-scale PNA reactor. Sludge from the bioreactor examined here is used to seed reactors in wastewater treatment plants around the world; however, the role of most of its microbial community in ammonium removal remains unknown. Our analysis yielded 23 near-complete d...

  19. A visual progression of the Fort Valley Restoration Project treatments using remotely sensed imagery (P-53)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph E. Crouse; Peter Z. Fule

    2008-01-01

    The landscape surrounding the Fort Valley Experimental Forest in northern Arizona has changed dramatically in the past decade due to the Fort Valley Restoration Project, a collaboration between the Greater Flagstaff Forest Partnership, Coconino National Forest, and Rocky Mountain Research Station. Severe wildfires in 1996 sparked community concern to start restoration...

  20. The restoration of the vaginal microbiota after treatment for bacterial vaginosis with metronidazole or probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Zongxin; Liu, Xia; Chen, Weiguang; Luo, Yueqiu; Yuan, Li; Xia, Yaxian; Nelson, Karen E; Huang, Shaolei; Zhang, Shaoen; Wang, Yuezhu; Yuan, Jieli; Li, Lanjuan; Xiang, Charlie

    2013-04-01

    Whether or not treatment with antibiotics or probiotics for bacterial vaginosis (BV) is associated with a change in the diversity of vaginal microbiota in women was investigated. One hundred fifteen women, consisting of 30 healthy subjects, 30 BV-positive control subjects, 30 subjects with BV treated with a 7-day metronidazole regimen, and 25 subjects with BV treated with a 10-day probiotics regimen, were analyzed to determine the efficacy and disparity of diversity and richness of vaginal microbiota using 454 pyrosequencing. Follow-up visits at days 5 and 30 showed a greater BV cure rate in the probiotics-treated subjects (88.0 and 96 %, respectively) compared to the metronidazole-treated subjects (83.3 and 70 %, respectively [p = 0.625 at day 5 and p = 0.013 at day 30]). Treatment with metronidazole reduced the taxa diversity and eradicated most of the BV-associated phylotypes, while probiotics only suppressed the overgrowth and re-established vaginal homeostasis gradually and steadily. Despite significant interindividual variation, the microbiota of the actively treated groups or participants constituted a unique profile. Along with the decrease in pathogenic bacteria, such as Gardnerella, Atopobium, Prevotella, Megasphaera, Coriobacteriaceae, Lachnospiraceae, Mycoplasma, and Sneathia, a Lactobacillus-dominated vaginal microbiota was recovered. Acting as vaginal sentinels and biomarkers, the relative abundance of Lactobacillus and pathogenic bacteria determined the consistency of the BV clinical and microbiologic cure rates, as well as recurrent BV. Both 7-day intravaginal metronidazole and 10-day intravaginal probiotics have good efficacy against BV, while probiotics maintained normal vaginal microbiota longer due to effective and steady vaginal microbiota restoration, which provide new insights into BV treatment.

  1. Development of a measure of hypodontia patients' expectations of the process and outcome of combined orthodontic and restorative treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassem, Afnan Ben; Foxton, Richard; Bister, Dirk; Newton, Tim

    2016-12-01

    To devise and assess the psychometric properties of a measure that investigates hypodontia patients' expectations of the process and outcome of combined orthodontic/restorative treatment. Specialised secondary care facility for individuals with hypodontia. Mixed research design with three phases: (a) Thematic analysis of data from individual interviews with 25 hypodontia patients/16 parents to generate the questionnaire items. (b) Questionnaire design, assessment of readability and face/content validity with 10 patients. (c) Survey of 32 new hypodontia patients to determine the internal consistency of the measure. Three main themes related to the treatment process emerged from the qualitative data: 'hypodontia clinic', 'orthodontic treatment' and 'restorative treatment'. Three main themes were also revealed relating to treatment outcome: 'changes in appearance', 'psychosocial changes' and 'functional changes'. A 28 item questionnaire was constructed using a mix of visual analogue scale (VAS) and categorical response format. The Flesch reading ease score of the measure was 78, equivalent to a reading age of 9-10 years. Face and content validity were good. The overall Cronbach's alpha was 0.80 while for the treatment process and treatment outcome subscales it was 0.71 and 0.88 respectively. A patient-based measure of the process and outcome of combined orthodontic/restorative treatment for hypodontia patients has been developed which has good face and construct validity and satisfactory internal consistency. Patient expectations of treatment are important in determining not only their satisfaction with treatment outcomes but also their engagement with the clinical process. This questionnaire is a first step in operationalising the expectations of hypodontia patients through assessment tools that can then determine whether pre-treatment counselling is required and aid the consent and treatment planning process, thus improving the quality of treatment provided by

  2. Metagenomic analysis of an ecological wastewater treatment plant's microbial communities and their potential to metabolize pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcom, Ian N; Driscoll, Heather; Vincent, James; Leduc, Meagan

    2016-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals and other micropollutants have been detected in drinking water, groundwater, surface water, and soil around the world. Even in locations where wastewater treatment is required, they can be found in drinking water wells, municipal water supplies, and agricultural soils. It is clear conventional wastewater treatment technologies are not meeting the challenge of the mounting pressures on global freshwater supplies. Cost-effective ecological wastewater treatment technologies have been developed in response. To determine whether the removal of micropollutants in ecological wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is promoted by the plant-microbe interactions, as has been reported for other recalcitrant xenobiotics, biofilm microbial communities growing on the surfaces of plant roots were profiled by whole metagenome sequencing and compared to the microbial communities residing in the wastewater. In this study, the concentrations of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) were quantified in each treatment tank of the ecological WWTP treating human wastewater at a highway rest stop and visitor center in Vermont. The concentrations of detected PPCPs were substantially greater than values reported for conventional WWTPs likely due to onsite recirculation of wastewater. The greatest reductions in PPCPs concentrations were observed in the anoxic treatment tank where Bacilli dominated the biofilm community. Benzoate degradation was the most abundant xenobiotic metabolic category identified throughout the system. Collectively, the microbial communities residing in the wastewater were taxonomically and metabolically more diverse than the immersed plant root biofilm. However, greater heterogeneity and higher relative abundances of xenobiotic metabolism genes was observed for the root biofilm.

  3. Breeding of early restorer Fuhui 306 and predominant performance of F1 hybrid combinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Wanyi; Liu Yongqiang; Wu Maoli; Xue Xingqiong

    2004-01-01

    Fuhui 306, an early rice restorer with strong restoring ability, short growth period (86 days) and no restriction of separating areas in seed production, was bred by radiation treatment. F 1 hybrid combinations with different mature period were developed when cross with different sterile lines, that combination would be widely applied to meet the requirement of different ecological environment and harvest period. (authors)

  4. The morphology of amputated human teeth and its relation to mechanical properties after restoration treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gugger, Jonas; Krastl, Gabriel; Huser, Marius; Deyhle, Hans; Müller, Bert

    2010-09-01

    The increased susceptibility to fracture of root canal- and post-treated teeth is less affected by alterations of the dentin structure, but seems to crucially depend on the loss of coronal tooth substance. The surface, available for adhesion of the composite material in the root canal and in the coronal part of the tooth, is assumed to be of key importance for the fracture resistance. Thus, an appropriate three-dimensional method should be identified to determine the adhesive surface with necessary precision. For this purpose, severely decayed teeth were simulated decapitating clinical crowns. After root canal filling and post space preparation, impressions of the root canal and the amputation surface were obtained using silicone. Micro computed tomography scans of these impressions were acquired. For one selected specimen, an additional high-resolution scan was recorded at a synchrotron radiation source. Software of ImageLab served for the extraction of the amputation interface, the post surface and the post volume from the tomography data, which have been finally correlated with the Young's modulus and the maximal load derived from mechanical tests. The morphological parameters show a realistic relationship to the mechanical tests performed after the restoration treatments and are consequently important for improving the dental skills.

  5. Localization of Alkaline Phosphatase and Cathepsin D during Cell Restoration after Colchicine Treatment in Primary Cultures of Fetal Rat Hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chida, Kohsuke; Taguchi, Meiko

    2011-01-01

    Localization of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and cathepsin D (CAPD) in primary cultures of fetal rat hepatocytes was examined using double immunofluorescent staining in order to investigate the relationship between lysosome movement and the fate of ALP during cell restoration after microtubule disruption by colchicine. At 3 hr and 24 hr after colchicine treatment, numerous coarse dots containing ALP were observed throughout the cytoplasm, and some of these showed colocalization with CAPD. At 48 hr and 72 hr after colchicine treatment, although most of the dots containing ALP in the cytoplasm disappeared, dots containing CAPD remained. The present results suggest that the denatured ALP proteins remaining in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes during cell restoration after colchicine treatment are digested by lysosomes

  6. [Functional restoration--it depends on an adequate mixture of treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfingsten, M

    2001-12-01

    In the last 50 years conventional treatments have not been able to slow down the expanding chronic low back pain problem. However, nowadays health care has changed according to a broad biopsychosocial model of health, the positive effect of activity on health and healing, emphasis on function rather than pain or impairment, and reliance upon clinical evidence. In search for new solutions "functional restoration" (FR) programs have been developed. They include multidisciplinary treatment of patients in groups, consisting of 6-8 h of treatment a day, lasting 3 to 6 weeks and usually integrating intense physical and ergonomic training, psychological (behavioral) therapy, patient education, and instruction in social- and work-related issues. FR programs have yet to demonstrate their effectiveness in several countries. Controlled studies in the USA were very positive regarding the return-to-work rate, whereas studies in Scandinavian countries did not demonstrate similar results. Possible reasons for the different results concerning back-to-work ratios might be that study design, patient population, content of the program, and other external factors are different and studies as well as effects are therefore not directly comparable. According to several well-controlled studies, the most probable reason for this different effect may be that social and security (health care) systems and cultures differ among countries and that patients with chronic low back pain respond differently to this combination. Sick absenteeism and inability to work may be influenced by many factors besides pain that cannot be addressed by intervention or prevention programs, e.g., job satisfaction, education level, and the compensation systems. It may be that the lower economic benefit during sick leave in the United States leads to favorable results from functional restoration programs. Concerning the prediction of success, several studies have shown that medical background, diagnosis and physical

  7. Ecological restoration and recovery in the wind-blown sand hazard areas of northern China: relationship between soil water and carrying capacity for vegetation in the Tengger Desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, XingRong; Zhang, ZhiShan; Tan, HuiJuan; Gao, YanHong; Liu, LiChao; Wang, XingPing

    2014-05-01

    The main prevention and control area for wind-blown sand hazards in northern China is about 320000 km(2) in size and includes sandlands to the east of the Helan Mountain and sandy deserts and desert-steppe transitional regions to the west of the Helan Mountain. Vegetation recovery and restoration is an important and effective approach for constraining wind-blown sand hazards in these areas. After more than 50 years of long-term ecological studies in the Shapotou region of the Tengger Desert, we found that revegetation changed the hydrological processes of the original sand dune system through the utilization and space-time redistribution of soil water. The spatiotemporal dynamics of soil water was significantly related to the dynamics of the replanted vegetation for a given regional precipitation condition. The long-term changes in hydrological processes in desert areas also drive replanted vegetation succession. The soil water carrying capacity of vegetation and the model for sand fixation by revegetation in aeolian desert areas where precipitation levels are less than 200 mm are also discussed.

  8. The influence of specialty training, experience, discussion and reflection on decision making in modern restorative treatment planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alani, A; Bishop, K; Djemal, S

    2011-02-26

    This study was designed to determine the effect of reflection and discussion of a group of dentists with differing backgrounds and qualifications in the management of failed endodontic treatment. During the Dental Pan-Society plenary session (16-17 November 2007) delegates (n = 393) were asked a series of questions on the management of a case with failed endodontic treatment of four maxillary incisors restored with linked crowns in a patient with a high smile line. The case had been previously posted on the conference website in addition to being presented on the day of the forum. Responses of delegates to predetermined questions and options on the management of the case were recorded using closed-circuit devices for each individual delegate. The questions were repeated after the case was opened up for discussion by the delegates in conjunction with a panel of leading experts. The discussion topics included the factors affecting the outcome of secondary root canal treatment, post-extraction changes and the options for prosthetic replacement including the provision of implants in the aesthetic zone. The initial response of the majority (58%) of delegates favoured extraction and prosthetic rehabilitation over endodontic retreatment of the affected teeth. Following the discussion this figure reduced to 50%. In respect to those individuals who were specialists, extraction was again the preferred option before the discussion for periodontists (74%), prosthodontists (64%) and restorative dentists (65%). This was in contrast to endodontists who preferred endodontic retreatment, with only 30% identifying extraction as the treatment of choice. Following the discussion, the number of periodontists and endodontists who favoured extraction reduced by 3% and 5% respectively, whereas the number of prosthodontists and restorative dentistry specialists who preferred extraction increased by 2% and 4% respectively. Reflection and discussion can make individuals reconsider their

  9. Evaluation of Koontz Lake (North Indiana) Ecological Restoration Options - Comparison of Dredging and Aeration - and Broad Application to USACE Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    necessity of dredging, special water treatment, and maintenance of shipping and stream channels (Glassner-Shwayder 1993). Influxes of sediment have an...eutrophication, harmful algae, invasive plants, and shallowing due to accumulation of sediment and muck. A study was conducted to assist in evaluating... sediments . (The U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center does not endorse any specific products or brands). DISCLAIMER: The contents of this

  10. Tualatin River - Oak Savanna and Associated Habitat Pre-Restoration Invasive Plant Treatment

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — The Tualatin River NWR’s CCP identifies a preferred alternative for site restoration on a 12-acre segment of upland located on the Atfalat’I Unit. This alternative...

  11. Restoration of ailing wetlands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswald J Schmitz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It is widely held that humankind's destructive tendencies when exploiting natural resources leads to irreparable harm to the environment. Yet, this thinking runs counter to evidence that many ecological systems damaged by severe natural environmental disturbances (e.g., hurricanes can restore themselves via processes of natural recovery. The emerging field of restoration ecology is capitalizing on the natural restorative tendencies of ecological systems to build a science of repairing the harm inflicted by humans on natural environment. Evidence for this, for example, comes from a new meta-analysis of 124 studies that synthesizes recovery of impacted wetlands worldwide. While it may take up to two human generations to see full recovery, there is promise, given human will, to restore many damaged wetlands worldwide.

  12. Restorative neuroscience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andres, Robert H; Meyer, Morten; Ducray, Angélique D

    2008-01-01

    There is increasing interest in the search for therapeutic options for diseases and injuries of the central nervous system (CNS), for which currently no effective treatment strategies are available. Replacement of damaged cells and restoration of function can be accomplished by transplantation of...

  13. Modern possibilities of cryobiology in the treatment of infertility, preservation and restoration of fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Avramenko

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Actuality Today, the points of cryotechnology application in assisted reproductive technologies (ART are cryopreservation of semen, embryos, oocytes, ovaries. Research objective Overview of world and national literature displayed a common purpose is a historical fact cryopreservation of biological reproductive material - the formation cryosperm bank , embryos and oocytes banking. In the review of existing methods of cryopreservation. Thus, according to the above meta-analyzes and systematic reviews, the positive outcomes of ART programs have been observed when using vitrification as a method of cryopreservation. The results of the research Due to the high survival rate of embryos after vitrification, to date, ART approach to the problem of the breakdown of the implantation of the embryo in the superovulation stimulation cycles , preimplantation genetic diagnosis of the problems with the definition of a complete set of chromosomes of the embryo, as well as inherited monogenic diseases , problems of multiple pregnancy , prevention of severe ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. Effective technology for vitrification of oocytes allows modern women of reproductive age to plan the timing of their reproductive potential. Also indicated is the best method of method of preserving fertility in women with cancer , an aggressive course of autoimmune diseases , as well as endometriosis. The successes of modern oncology have led to improved survival after cancer treatment , requiring ART methods for conservation and restoration of fertility. In a world of rapidly developing new areas cryotechnology , including cryopreservation of ovarian tissue. The procedure is eksperimetalnoy , but there are positive impressive results. Conclusions From the review of the current literature on the application of cryotechnology in the field of assisted reproduction , it can be concluded that the cryopreservation became an integral part of achieving high performance - birth to a

  14. Prioritizing forest fuels treatments based on the probability of high-severity fire restores adaptive capacity in Sierran forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krofcheck, Daniel J; Hurteau, Matthew D; Scheller, Robert M; Loudermilk, E Louise

    2018-02-01

    In frequent fire forests of the western United States, a legacy of fire suppression coupled with increases in fire weather severity have altered fire regimes and vegetation dynamics. When coupled with projected climate change, these conditions have the potential to lead to vegetation type change and altered carbon (C) dynamics. In the Sierra Nevada, fuels reduction approaches that include mechanical thinning followed by regular prescribed fire are one approach to restore the ability of the ecosystem to tolerate episodic fire and still sequester C. Yet, the spatial extent of the area requiring treatment makes widespread treatment implementation unlikely. We sought to determine if a priori knowledge of where uncharacteristic wildfire is most probable could be used to optimize the placement of fuels treatments in a Sierra Nevada watershed. We developed two treatment placement strategies: the naive strategy, based on treating all operationally available area and the optimized strategy, which only treated areas where crown-killing fires were most probable. We ran forecast simulations using projected climate data through 2,100 to determine how the treatments differed in terms of C sequestration, fire severity, and C emissions relative to a no-management scenario. We found that in both the short (20 years) and long (100 years) term, both management scenarios increased C stability, reduced burn severity, and consequently emitted less C as a result of wildfires than no-management. Across all metrics, both scenarios performed the same, but the optimized treatment required significantly less C removal (naive=0.42 Tg C, optimized=0.25 Tg C) to achieve the same treatment efficacy. Given the extent of western forests in need of fire restoration, efficiently allocating treatments is a critical task if we are going to restore adaptive capacity in frequent-fire forests. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Mortars and treatments in the restoration of the Altarpiece of the High Altar of the Pilar Basilica

    OpenAIRE

    Luxán, M. P.; Dorrego, F.; Sotolongo, R.

    2000-01-01

    The altarpiece of the Assumption of Mary is located in the High Altar of the Pilar Basilica in Zaragoza and is one of the most important works of the Spanish Artistic Heritage. The work, sculptured in alabaster, was carried out between 1509 and 1518 by Damián Forment. The present paper covers the guidelines for the design of repair mortars used to restore the altarpiece. They are based on compatibility criteria with the existing materials and treatments in the altarpiece, according ...

  16. Risk Reduction and Soil Ecosystem Restoration in an Active Oil Producing Area in an Ecologically Sensitive Setting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerry L. Sublette; Greg Thoma; Kathleen Duncan

    2006-01-01

    The empowerment of small independent oil and gas producers to solve their own remediation problems will result in greater environmental compliance and more effective protection of the environment as well as making small producers more self-reliant. In Chapter 1 we report on the effectiveness of a low-cost method of remediation of a combined spill of crude oil and brine in the Tallgrass Prairie Preserve in Osage County, OK. Specifically, we have used hay and fertilizer as amendments for remediation of both the oil and the brine. No gypsum was used. Three spills of crude oil plus produced water brine were treated with combinations of ripping, fertilizers and hay, and a downslope interception trench in an effort to demonstrate an inexpensive, easily implemented, and effective remediation plan. There was no statistically significant effect of treatment on the biodegradation of crude oil. However, TPH reduction clearly proceeded in the presence of brine contamination. The average TPH half-life considering all impacted sites was 267 days. The combination of hay addition, ripping, and a downslope interception trench was superior to hay addition with ripping, or ripping plus an interception trench in terms of rates of sodium and chloride leaching from the impacted sites. Reductions in salt inventories (36 months) were 73% in the site with hay addition, ripping and an interception trench, 40% in the site with hay addition and ripping only, and < 3% in the site with ripping and an interception trench.

  17. Influence of different surface treatments on bond strength of novel CAD/CAM restorative materials to resin cement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kömürcüoğlu, Meltem Bektaş; Sağırkaya, Elçin

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE To evaluate the effects of different surface treatments on the bond strength of novel CAD/CAM restorative materials to resin cement by four point bending test. MATERIALS AND METHODS The CAD/CAM materials under investigation were e.max CAD, Mark II, Lava Ultimate, and Enamic. A total of 400 bar specimens (4×1.2×12 mm) (n=10) milled from the CAD/CAM blocks underwent various pretreatments (no pretreatment (C), hydrofluoric acid (A), hydrofluoric acid + universal adhesive (Scotchbond) (AS), sandblasting (Sb), and sandblasting + universal adhesive (SbS)). The bars were luted end-to-end on the prepared surfaces with a dual curing adhesive resin cement (Variolink N, Ivoclar Vivadent) on the custom-made stainless steel mold. Ten test specimens for each treatment and material combination were performed with four point bending test method. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey's test. RESULTS The surface treatment and type of CAD/CAM restorative material showed a significant effect on the four point bending strength (FPBS) (Pcementation of the novel CAD/CAM restorative materials. PMID:29279763

  18. Direct restorative treatment of anterior weared teeth after re-establishment of occlusal vertical dimension: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humel, Maria M C; Takahashi, Jessica M F K; Paulillo, Luis A M S; Mesquita, Marcelo F; Martins, Luis R M

    2012-12-01

    The loss of posterior teeth resulting in a lack of stability may lead to excessive mandibular load on some points of occlusion of the remaining teeth, causing wear. The rehabilitation of these cases must be carefully planned and the treatment requires a period of adaptation with a new vertical dimension. This case report describes the treatment of a patient with a loss of almost all posterior inferior teeth and a consequential loss of occlusal vertical dimension and accentuated wear of anterior elements.   Provisional removable partial dentures were manufactured and the patient used them for a period of adaptation prior to restoration of the anterior teeth. After the patient's adaptation with the new occlusal dimension, anterior restorations were made using a mycrohibrid resin composite with different color aspects for an optimal stratification. The restorations achieved an aesthetic configuration with ideal function as the final result and the occlusion showed a satisfactory stability for a provisional removable partial dentures. This article presents an anterior direct rehabilitation approach not only as an alternative option, but also as viable and less expensive treatment option with an optimally aesthetic and functional result. © 2012 The Gerodontology Society and John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  19. ramic restorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish R Jain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rehabilitation of a patient with severely worn dentition after restoring the vertical dimension is a complex procedure and assessment of the vertical dimension is an important aspect in these cases. This clinical report describes the full mouth rehabilitation of a patient who was clinically monitored to evaluate the adaptation to a removable occlusal splint to restore vertical dimension for a period 1 month and provisional restorations to determine esthetic and functional outcome for a period of 3 months. It is necessary to recognizing that form follows function and that anterior teeth play a vital role in the maintenance of oral health. Confirmation of tolerance to changes in the vertical dimension of occlusion (VDO is of paramount importance. Articulated study casts and a diagnostic wax-up can provide important information for the evaluation of treatment options. Alteration of the VDO should be conservative and should not be changed without careful consideration.

  20. Molecular Tools for Monitoring the Ecological Sustainability of a Stone Bio-Consolidation Treatment at the Royal Chapel, Granada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadwa Jroundi

    Full Text Available Biomineralization processes have recently been applied in situ to protect and consolidate decayed ornamental stone of the Royal Chapel in Granada (Spain. While this promising method has demonstrated its efficacy regarding strengthening of the stone, little is known about its ecological sustainability.Here, we report molecular monitoring of the stone-autochthonous microbiota before and at 5, 12 and 30 months after the bio-consolidation treatment (medium/long-term monitoring, employing the well-known molecular strategy of DGGE analyses. Before the bio-consolidation treatment, the bacterial diversity showed the exclusive dominance of Actinobacteria (100%, which decreased in the community (44.2% after 5 months, and Gamma-proteobacteria (30.24% and Chloroflexi (25.56% appeared. After 12 months, Gamma-proteobacteria vanished from the community and Cyanobacteria (22.1% appeared and remained dominant after thirty months, when the microbiota consisted of Actinobacteria (42.2% and Cyanobacteria (57.8% only. Fungal diversity showed that the Ascomycota phylum was dominant before treatment (100%, while, after five months, Basidiomycota (6.38% appeared on the stone, and vanished again after twelve months. Thirty months after the treatment, the fungal population started to stabilize and Ascomycota dominated on the stone (83.33% once again. Members of green algae (Chlorophyta, Viridiplantae appeared on the stone at 5, 12 and 30 months after the treatment and accounted for 4.25%, 84.77% and 16.77%, respectively.The results clearly show that, although a temporary shift in the bacterial and fungal diversity was observed during the first five months, most probably promoted by the application of the bio-consolidation treatment, the microbiota tends to regain its initial stability in a few months. Thus, the treatment does not seem to have any negative side effects on the stone-autochthonous microbiota over that time. The molecular strategy employed here is suggested

  1. Ecofunctional Traits and Biomass Production in Leguminous Tree Species under Fertilization Treatments during Forest Restoration in Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto K. Jaquetti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Choosing the correct species and fertilization treatments is a determining factor in the success of forest restoration. Methods: A field study was conducted in a degraded area near the Balbina hydroelectric dam in Amazonas State (AM, Brazil, to evaluate two hypotheses: (i leguminous tree species exhibit differences in growth, leaf nutrient content, and photosynthetic nutrient use efficiencies; and (ii differences in these characteristics depend on the fertilization treatments to which the species have been subjected. Dipteryx odorata, Inga edulis and Schizolobium amazonicum were subjected to the following treatments: (T1 unfertilized control; (T2 post-planting chemical fertilization; (T3 post-planting organic fertilization and (T4 combined chemical and organic post-planting fertilization. Results: In general, I. edulis had the highest absolute growth rate of biomass under all of the fertilization treatments. I. edulis and S. amazonicum showed the highest growth rates under the T4 treatment. D. odorata showed the greatest responses under the T2 and T4 treatments. Native leguminous trees with higher photosynthetic performance and better nutrient use efficiency exhibited greater growth and biomass production. Conclusion: The results suggest that an adequate balance between leguminous species selection and fertilization will aid in the success of forest restoration in Amazonia.

  2. Factors inhibiting the implementation of the Atraumatic Restorative Treatment approach in public oral health services in Gauteng province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Mickenautsch

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate potential barriers to the utilisation of the ART approach in a South African public oral health service. METHOD: 7 barriers were identified: patient load/work load, operator opinion, patient opinion, service management, material supply, clinical ART skill, chair-side assistance. Operators were asked to answer a questionnaire one year after completing the ART training. Responses ranged from 1 = no barrier to 5 = highest barrier. Treatment data per operator were collected during 1 year after training, for both dentitions, including: number of extracted teeth, placed traditional restorations, ART restorations. The restoration/extraction (REX ratio and the proportion of ART restorations (ART% of the total number of restorations were calculated and correlated with the barrier variables. Pearson correlation, ANOVA and 2-tailed t-tests were used in the statistical analyses. RESULTS: Patient load/work load (mean = 2.80: SE = 0.16 was the strongest barrier (p<0.001 and clinical ART skill was the weakest barrier (p<0.001. A significant correlation between material supply and mean REX score was observed in both dentitions. In primary teeth, the ART% correlated significantly with clinical ART skill (r= -0.63; p<0.01. In permanent teeth, statistically significant correlations were observed between ART% and patient load/work load (r = -0.54; p<0.05, patient opinion (r = -0.76; p<0.01, operator opinion (r = -0.53; p<0.05, chair-side assistance (r = -0.57; p<0.05, oral health service management (r = -0.46; p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: 1 year after ART training completion high patient load/work load, followed by insufficient provision of materials/instruments, were the two most inhibiting barriers to the use of ART in the public oral health services. Dentists' perceptions of low clinical skill levels in performing ART confidently inhibited the use of ART in primary teeth in children.

  3. Treatment Outcome and Patient Satisfaction with Two Adjacent Implant-Supported Restorations in the Esthetic Zone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tymstra, Nynke; Meijer, Henny J. A.; Stellingsma, Kees; Raghoebar, Gerry M.; Vissink, Arjan

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical and radiographic parameters as well as the esthetic outcome of two adjacent implant-supported restorations and the surrounding peri-implant mucosa in the maxillary esthetic zone. Ten patients were treated with two adjacent implants in the

  4. Technology development for nuclear fuel cycle waste treatment - Decontamination, decommissioning and environmental restoration (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byung Jik; Won, Hui Jun; Yoon, Ji Sup and others

    1997-12-01

    Through the project of D econtamination, decommissioning and environmental restoration technology development , the following were studied. 1. Development of decontamination and repair technology for nuclear fuel cycle facilities 2. Development of dismantling technology 3. Environmental remediation technology development. (author). 95 refs., 45 tabs., 163 figs

  5. Enhancing behavioral health treatment and crisis management through mobile ecological momentary assessment and SMS messaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brad; Harms, William D; Burres, Stephanie; Korda, Holly; Rosen, Howard; Davis, Jamie

    2012-12-01

    Many veterans returning from service in Afghanistan or Iraq suffer from post-traumatic stress disorder or mild traumatic brain injury. Treating these conditions can be challenging because of high rates of relapse and associated memory impairments. We report on a pilot study that assessed the utility of mobile health (mHealth) technologies, including personal digital assistant-based ecological momentary assessment and two-way interactive text (SMS) messaging, for providing treatment feedback to clinicians, encouraging and motivating veterans throughout treatment, and monitoring participants for relapse after treatment discharge. The results of the pilot suggest that mHealth technologies are feasible adjuncts to traditional mental treatment in the veteran population. Additional work is needed to establish the degree of clinical and economic value.

  6. In vitro and in vivo evaluations of glass-ionomer cement containing chlorhexidine for Atraumatic Restorative Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, Cristiane; Aida, Kelly Limi; Pereira, Jesse Augusto; Teixeira, Gláucia Schuindt; Caldo-Teixeira, Angela Scarparo; Perrone, Luciana Rodrigues; Caiaffa, Karina Sampaio; Negrini, Thais de Cássia; de Castilho, Aline Rogéria Freire; Costa, Carlos Alberto de Souza

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: Addition of chlorhexidine has enhanced the antimicrobial effect of glass ionomer cement (GIC) indicated to Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART); however, the impact of this mixture on the properties of these materials and on the longevity of restorations must be investigated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of incorporating chlorhexidine (CHX) in the in vitro biological and chemical-mechanical properties of GIC and in vivo clinical/ microbiological follow-up of the ART with GIC containing or not CHX. Material and Methods: For in vitro studies, groups were divided into GIC, GIC with 1.25% CHX, and GIC with 2.5% CHX. Antimicrobial activity of GIC was analyzed using agar diffusion and anti-biofilm assays. Cytotoxic effects, compressive tensile strength, microhardness and fluoride (F) release were also evaluated. A randomized controlled trial was conducted on 36 children that received ART either with GIC or GIC with CHX. Saliva and biofilm were collected for mutans streptococci (MS) counts and the survival rate of restorations was checked after 7 days, 3 months and one year after ART. ANOVA/Tukey or Kruskal-Wallis/ Mann-Whitney tests were performed for in vitro tests and in vivo microbiological analysis. The Kaplan-Meier method and Log rank tests were applied to estimate survival percentages of restorations (p<0.05). Results: Incorporation of 1.25% and 2.5% CHX improved the antimicrobial/anti-biofilm activity of GIC, without affecting F release and mechanical characteristics, but 2.5% CHX was cytotoxic. Survival rate of restorations using GIC with 1.25% CHX was similar to GIC. A significant reduction of MS levels was observed for KM+CHX group in children saliva and biofilm 7 days after treatment. Conclusions: The incorporation of 1.25% CHX increased the in vitro antimicrobial activity, without changing chemical-mechanical properties of GIC and odontoblast-like cell viability. This combination improved the in vivo short

  7. Restorative treatment thresholds for occlusal primary caries among dentists in the dental practice-based research network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gordan, Valeria V; Bader, James D; Garvan, Cynthia W

    2010-01-01

    : The investigators surveyed dentists enrolled in a dental practice-based research network who reported performing at least some restorative dentistry. In the survey, dentists were asked to indicate whether they would intervene surgically in a series of cases involving occlusal caries. Each case presentation included...... a photograph of an occlusal surface displaying typical characteristics of caries penetration and a written description of a patient at a specific level of risk of developing caries. Using logistic regression, the authors analyzed associations between surgical treatment with dentists' and practices......' characteristics and patients' caries risk levels. RESULTS: A total of 517 DPBRN practitioner-investigators responded to the questionnaire. Sixty-three percent of the respondents (326 of 517) indicated that in patients at low risk of developing caries, they would surgically restore teeth with lesions located...

  8. Dentin surface treatment using a non-thermal argon plasma brush for interfacial bonding improvement in composite restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritts, Andy Charles; Li, Hao; Yu, Qingsong; Xu, Changqi; Yao, Xiaomei; Hong, Liang; Wang, Yong

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the treatment effects of non-thermal atmospheric gas plasmas on dentin surfaces for composite restoration. Extracted unerupted human third molars were used by removing the crowns and etching the exposed dentin surfaces with 35% phosphoric acid gel. The dentin surfaces were treated by using a non-thermal atmospheric argon plasma brush for various durations. The molecular changes of the dentin surfaces were analyzed using FTIR/ATR and an increase in carbonyl groups on dentin surfaces was detected with plasma treated dentin. Adper Single Bond Plus adhesive and Filtek Z250 dental composite were applied as directed. To evaluate the dentin/composite interfacial bonding, the teeth thus prepared were sectioned into micro-bars as the specimens for tensile test. Student Newman Keuls tests showed that the bonding strength of the composite restoration to peripheral dentin was significantly increased (by 64%) after 30 s plasma treatment. However, the bonding strength to plasma treated inner dentin did not show any improvement. It was found that plasma treatment of peripheral dentin surface up to 100 s gave an increase in interfacial bonding strength, while a prolong plasma treatment of dentin surfaces, e.g., 5 min treatments, showed a decrease in interfacial bonding strength. PMID:20831586

  9. Direct restorative treatment of dental erosion caused by gastroesophageal reflux disease associated with bruxism: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Cristina de Mattos Pimenta; Catelan, Anderson; Briso, André Luiz Fraga; dos Santos, Paulo Henrique

    2011-09-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a gastrointestinal disorder in which stomach acids are chronically regurgitated into the esophagus and oral cavity. Continual exposure of the teeth to these acids can cause severe tooth wear. Dentists are often the first healthcare professionals to diagnose dental erosion in patients with GERD. This article presents a case report of a 27-year-old male smoker with tooth wear and dentin sensitivity caused by GERD associated with bruxism. After diagnosis, a multidisciplinary treatment plan was established. The initial treatment approach consisted of medical follow-up with counseling on dietary and smoking habits, as well as management of the gastric disorders with medication. GERD management and the dental treatment performed for the eroded dentition are described, including diagnosis, treatment planning, and restorative therapy.

  10. Prolonged treatment with N-acetylcysteine and L-arginine restores gonadal function in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masha, A; Manieri, C; Dinatale, S; Bruno, G A; Ghigo, E; Martina, V

    2009-12-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) plays a wide spectrum of biological actions including a positive role in oocyte maturation and ovulation. Free radicals levels have been shown elevated in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and therefore would be responsible for quenching NO that, in turn, would play a role in determining oligo- or amenorrhea connoting PCOS. Eight patients with PCOS displaying oligo-amenorrhea from at least 1 yr underwent a combined treatment with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) (1200 mg/die) plus L-arginine (ARG) (1600 mg/die) for 6 months. Menstrual function, glucose and insulin levels, and, in turn, homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) index were monitored. Menstrual function was at some extent restored as indicated by the number of uterine bleedings under treatment (3.00, 0.18-5.83 vs 0.00, 0.00-0.83; p<0.02). Also, a well-defined biphasic pattern in the basal body temperature suggested ovulatory cycles. The HOMA index decreased under treatment (2.12, 1.46-4.42 vs 3.48, 1.62-5.95; p<0.05). In conclusion, this preliminary, open study suggests that prolonged treatment with NAC+ARG might restore gonadal function in PCOS. This effect seems associated to an improvement in insulin sensitivity.

  11. Genome-based microbial ecology of anammox granules in a full-scale wastewater treatment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speth, Daan R; In 't Zandt, Michiel H; Guerrero-Cruz, Simon; Dutilh, Bas E; Jetten, Mike S M

    2016-03-31

    Partial-nitritation anammox (PNA) is a novel wastewater treatment procedure for energy-efficient ammonium removal. Here we use genome-resolved metagenomics to build a genome-based ecological model of the microbial community in a full-scale PNA reactor. Sludge from the bioreactor examined here is used to seed reactors in wastewater treatment plants around the world; however, the role of most of its microbial community in ammonium removal remains unknown. Our analysis yielded 23 near-complete draft genomes that together represent the majority of the microbial community. We assign these genomes to distinct anaerobic and aerobic microbial communities. In the aerobic community, nitrifying organisms and heterotrophs predominate. In the anaerobic community, widespread potential for partial denitrification suggests a nitrite loop increases treatment efficiency. Of our genomes, 19 have no previously cultivated or sequenced close relatives and six belong to bacterial phyla without any cultivated members, including the most complete Omnitrophica (formerly OP3) genome to date.

  12. Evaluation of efficacy of restorative dental treatment provided under general anesthesia at hospitalized pediatric dental patients of Isfahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Eshghi

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Stainless steel crown restorations had significantly better results vs other posterior restorations. The failure rates of stainless steel crown and anterior composite resin build-up restorations did not correlate with the time of follow-up in comparison of other restorations.

  13. The treatment of female pattern hair loss and other applications of surgical hair restoration in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Jeffrey S

    2004-05-01

    In the specialty of surgical hair restoration, men comprise more than 90% of the patients treated; however, in the last few years the number of women undergoing the procedure has increased significantly. The reasons for this growth are many and include the increase in public awareness of the efficacy of hair transplantation from such sources as the media,the Internet, advertising and word of mouth. More importantly, advances in technique have significantly improved results, increasing the confidence level in women to undergo the procedure and in hair transplant specialists to offer it.

  14. Development of ecologically safety technology for steam-thermal treatment of organic wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juravskij, J [Centre for Science, Technology and Industrial Applications, ` ` Tokema` ` , Minsk (Belarus)

    1997-02-01

    The experience on mitigation of the consequences of the Chernobyl`s nuclear power station accident proves that the treatment of large amounts of organic and mixed wastes containing radionuclides is a very urgent scientific and technical problem. In this connection a search for new ideas and development of highly efficient and ecologically safety technologies for treatment of organic radioactive wastes has been undertaken. This study is based on use of physico-mechanical properties of various organic materials (wood, rubber-containing composites, plastics, biomass) subjected to thermal decomposition in the overheated water steam medium. Under such conditions, there is a possibility, under relatively low temperatures (400 - 500 deg. C), to realize thermal decomposition and considerably (in 8 - 50 times) to reduce the amount of wastes, to obtain the main concentration of radionuclides in the solid residue and to prevent releases of gaseous products containing radionuclides to the environment. (author). 5 figs, 1 tab.

  15. Development of ecologically safety technology for steam-thermal treatment of organic wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juravskij, J.

    1997-01-01

    The experience on mitigation of the consequences of the Chernobyl's nuclear power station accident proves that the treatment of large amounts of organic and mixed wastes containing radionuclides is a very urgent scientific and technical problem. In this connection a search for new ideas and development of highly efficient and ecologically safety technologies for treatment of organic radioactive wastes has been undertaken. This study is based on use of physico-mechanical properties of various organic materials (wood, rubber-containing composites, plastics, biomass) subjected to thermal decomposition in the overheated water steam medium. Under such conditions, there is a possibility, under relatively low temperatures (400 - 500 deg. C), to realize thermal decomposition and considerably (in 8 - 50 times) to reduce the amount of wastes, to obtain the main concentration of radionuclides in the solid residue and to prevent releases of gaseous products containing radionuclides to the environment. (author). 5 figs, 1 tab

  16. Managing fatigue after cancer treatment: development of RESTORE, a web-based resource to support self-management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, C; Calman, L; Grimmett, C; Breckons, M; Cotterell, P; Yardley, L; Joseph, J; Hughes, S; Jones, R; Leonidou, C; Armes, J; Batehup, L; Corner, J; Fenlon, D; Lennan, E; Morris, C; Neylon, A; Ream, E; Turner, L; Richardson, A

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study is to co-create an evidence-based and theoretically informed web-based intervention (RESTORE) designed to enhance self-efficacy to live with cancer-related fatigue (CRF) following primary cancer treatment. A nine-step process informed the development of the intervention: (1) review of empirical literature; (2) review of existing patient resources; (3) establish theoretical framework; (4) establish design team with expertise in web-based interventions, CRF and people affected by cancer; (5) develop prototype intervention; (6) user testing phase 1; (7) refinement of prototype; (8) user testing phase 2; and (9) develop final intervention. Key stakeholders made a critical contribution at every step of intervention development, and user testing, which involved an iterative process and resulted in the final intervention. The RESTORE intervention has five sessions; sessions 1 and 2 include an introduction to CRF and goal setting. Sessions 3-5 can be tailored to user preference and are designed to cover areas of life where CRF may have an impact: home and work life, personal relationships and emotional adjustment. It is feasible to systematically 'co-create' an evidence-based and theory-driven web-based self-management intervention to support cancer survivors living with the consequences of cancer and its treatment. This is the first account of the development of a web-based intervention to support self-efficacy to manage CRF. An exploratory trial to test the feasibility and acceptability of RESTORE is now warranted. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. After ecological restoration of ombrotrophic peatlands: the microbiological viewpoint; Suivi de la restauration ecologique des tourbieres ombrotrophes: le point de vue microbiologique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, R. [University of Laval, Quebec, QC (Canada). Department of Phytology

    2006-01-01

    The goal is to assess peatland restoration at an 11-hectare peatland site at Bois-en-Bel that had been abandoned for 20 years. In 1999, an 8-hectare area was restored. Two hectares, separated by a buffer, were left untreated as a control. In 2003, samples were collected from the restored and control areas and from a nearby natural area. The dynamics of carbon and nitrogen, the effects of nutritive supplements, and production of carbon dioxide and methane were measured. The relationship between these variables and the microorganisms present are evaluated. 30 refs., 4 figs.

  18. The effects of various surface treatments on the shear bond strengths of stainless steel brackets to artificially-aged composite restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslamian, Ladan; Borzabadi-Farahani, Ali; Mousavi, Nasim; Ghasemi, Amir

    2011-05-01

    To compare the shear bond strengths (SBS) of stainless steel brackets bonded to artificially-aged composite restorations after different surface treatments. Forty-five premolar teeth were restored with a nano-hybrid composite (Tetric EvoCeram), stored in deionised water for one week and randomly divided into three equal groups: Group I, he restorations were exposed to 5 per cent hydrofluoric acid for 60 seconds; Group II, the restorations were abraded with a micro-etcher (50 Iim alumina particles); Group III, the restorations were roughened with a coarse diamond bur. Similar premolar brackets were bonded to each restoration using the same resin adhesive and the specimens were then cycled in deionised water between 5 degrees C and 55 degrees C (500 cycles). The shear bond strengths were determined with a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. The teeth and brackets were examined under a stereomicroscope and the adhesive remnants on the teeth scored with the adhesive remnant index (ARI). Specimens treated with the diamond bur had a significantly higher SBS (Mean: 18.45 +/- 3.82 MPa) than the group treated with hydrofluoric acid (Mean: 12.85 +/- 5.20 MPa). The mean SBS difference between the air-abrasion (Mean: 15.36 +/- 4.92 MPa) and hydrofluoric acid groups was not significant. High ARI scores occurred following abrasion with a diamond bur (100 per cent) and micro-etcher (80 per cent). In approximately two thirds of the teeth no adhesive was left on the restoration after surface treatment with hydofluoric acid. Surface treatment with a diamond bur resulted in a high bond strength between stainless steel brackets and artificially-aged composite restorations and was considered to be a safe and effective method of surface treatment. Most of the adhesive remained on the tooth following surface treatment with either the micro-etcher or the diamond bur.

  19. Gene therapies that restore dystrophin expression for the treatment of Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson-Hamm, Jacqueline N.; Gersbach, Charles A.

    2016-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy is one of the most common inherited genetic diseases and is caused by mutations to the DMD gene that encodes the dystrophin protein. Recent advances in genome editing and gene therapy offer hope for the development of potential therapeutics. Truncated versions of the DMD gene can be delivered to the affected tissues with viral vectors and show promising results in a variety of animal models. Genome editing with the CRISPR/Cas9 system has recently been used to restore dystrophin expression by deleting one or more exons of the DMD gene in patient cells and in a mouse model that led to functional improvement of muscle strength. Exon skipping with oligonucleotides has been successful in several animal models and evaluated in multiple clinical trials. Next-generation oligonucleotide formulations offer significant promise to build on these results. All these approaches to restoring dystrophin expression are encouraging, but many hurdles remain. This review summarizes the current state of these technologies and summarizes considerations for their future development. PMID:27542949

  20. Ecological effects of alternative fuel-reduction treatments: highlights of the National Fire and Fire Surrogate study (FFS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    James D. McIver; Scott L. Stephens; James K. Agee; Jamie Barbour; Ralph E. J. Boerner; Carl B. Edminster; Karen L. Erickson; Kerry L. Farris; Christopher J. Fettig; Carl E. Fiedler; Sally Haase; Stephen C. Hart; Jon E. Keeley; Eric E. Knapp; John F. Lehmkuhl; Jason J. Moghaddas; William Otrosina; Kenneth W. Outcalt; Dylan W. Schwilk; Carl N. Skinner; Thomas A. Waldrop; C. Phillip Weatherspoon; Daniel A. Yaussy; Andrew Youngblood; Steve Zack

    2012-01-01

    The 12-site National Fire and Fire Surrogate study (FFS) was a multivariate experiment that evaluated ecological consequences of alternative fuel-reduction treatments in seasonally dry forests of the US. Each site was a replicated experiment with a common design that compared an un-manipulated control, prescribed fire, mechanical and mechanical + fire treatments....

  1. Wetlands Restoration Definitions and Distinctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecological restoration is a valuable endeavor that has proven very difficult to define. The term indicates that degraded and destroyed natural wetland systems will be reestablished to sites where they once existed. But, what wetland ecosystems are we talki

  2. Evaluation of effect of 3D video glasses on perceived pain and unpleasantness induced by restorative dental treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentsen, Bo; Svensson, Peter; Wenzel, Ann

    2001-01-01

    whether distraction induced by video glasses also had an effect on the perceived intensity of pain and unpleasantness during dental treatment. Pain and unpleasantness was evoked by the preparation (drilling) of a minor dental cavity (class I). Twenty-three patients (17 female and six male, age range 20......-49 years) with a need for an occlusal dental restoration in two homologous teeth participated in the study, In this split-mouth design, the patient received the dental treatment wearing 3D video glasses and without video glasses (control situation) in a randomized order. The tooth cavities were prepared...... in accordance with conventional techniques after mounting the video glasses. The patient rated the intensity of pain and unpleasantness on 100 mm visual analogue scales (VASs) after preparation of the first cavity; immediately after, the opposite tooth was prepared and again the volunteer rated the intensity...

  3. Restorative treatment program with physical exercise of patients with dysfunction of the biliary tract.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parhotik I.I.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In the thesis there has been shown that biliary dyskinesia takes a leading position among hepatobiliary diseases. 54 women and 14 men aged between 19 and 64 years old, who suffered from hypo kinetic and hyper kinetic forms of dyskinesia, took part in the research. Based on the character of the functional disorders, it was defined that at hyper kinetic form of dyskinesia the best rehabilitation effects were achieved at the application of physical exercises promoting relaxation of the gallbladder, sphincter and biliary duct musculature combined with the stimulation of bile formation. It was proved that means and methods of motion therapy for patients with hyper kinetic dyskenisia had to be aimed at the restoration of the gallbladder till its full reduction. It was defined that application of different forms of therapeutic physical training considering the type of biliary dyskinesia promoted the improvement of the patients' clinical condition, motor and evacuator function of the biliary ducts.

  4. Site Restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noynaert, L.; Bruggeman, A.; Cornelissen, R.; Massaut, V.; Rahier, A

    2002-04-01

    The objectives, the programme, and the achievements of SCK-CEN's Site Restoration Department for 2001 are described. Main activities include the decommissioning of the BR3 PWR-reactor as well as other clean-up activities, projects on waste minimisation and the management of spent fuel and the flow of dismantled materials and the recycling of materials from decommissioning activities based on the smelting of metallic materials in specialised foundries. The department provides consultancy and services to external organisations and performs R and D on new techniques including processes for the treatment of various waste components including the reprocessing of spent fuel, the treatment of tritium, the treatment of liquid alkali metals into cabonates through oxidation, the treatment of radioactive organic waste and the reconditioning of bituminised waste products.

  5. EFEKTIFITAS PENCEGAHAN KARIES DENGAN A TRAUMATIC RESTORATIVE TREATMENT DAN TUMPATAN GLASS IONOMER CEMENT DALAM PENGENDALIAN KARIES DI BEBERAPA NEGARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdarina Destri Agtini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide caries is still mainly problem in oral and dental diseases. In developing countries 30%-90% of 12-years old children do not get oral and dental treatment. In Indonesia, several programs have been implemented to improve oral and dental health status for all age groups. How over, a few reports/National dental health profile showed that mean DMF-T tend to increase, year 1970 DMF-T=0,70, 1980 DMF-T= 2,30, 1990 DMF-T=2,70, and National Health Research (Riskesdas 2007 DMFT=4,8. In National Health Research 2007, it was revealed 29,8% of active caries found in 12-years old children. If the active caries are not managed further complication will occure that may cause teeth extraction. An early teeth extraction can influence mastication and general health. Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART is a preventive and restorative approach for managing carious lesions ofthe teeth. It constitutes of hand instruments only (no electric drills used for widening cavity openings and for excavating soft decayed tissue from within the cavity, followed by the application of an adhesive dental material, usually a high-viscosity glass-ionomer (GIC filling material, into the cavity and over the adjacent pits and fissures. ART-GIC consepts are minimally invasive, inhibit further progression ofdental caries., preventive, as well as curative. Effectiveness of ART-GIC can be determined by successrate of ART-GIC fillings (F and effect of ART-GIC on both Decayed (D and Performance Treatment Index (PTI. Several studies showed that success rate ART-GIC are varies, around 71%-85%. There is no significant difference of success rate ART-GIC between dentis and dental nurses. The highest rate of Fluor release occurred on the first day after ART-GIC filling. Further more ART-GIC also inhibit new caries, as well as inhibit increased DMF-T. The increasing of F, may influence improvement of PTI (PTI around 50%-52%. Additional can improve dental health services. It is suggested

  6. Strong influence of variable treatment on the performance of numerically defined ecological regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snelder, Ton; Lehmann, Anthony; Lamouroux, Nicolas; Leathwick, John; Allenbach, Karin

    2009-10-01

    Numerical clustering has frequently been used to define hierarchically organized ecological regionalizations, but there has been little robust evaluation of their performance (i.e., the degree to which regions discriminate areas with similar ecological character). In this study we investigated the effect of the weighting and treatment of input variables on the performance of regionalizations defined by agglomerative clustering across a range of hierarchical levels. For this purpose, we developed three ecological regionalizations of Switzerland of increasing complexity using agglomerative clustering. Environmental data for our analysis were drawn from a 400 m grid and consisted of estimates of 11 environmental variables for each grid cell describing climate, topography and lithology. Regionalization 1 was defined from the environmental variables which were given equal weights. We used the same variables in Regionalization 2 but weighted and transformed them on the basis of a dissimilarity model that was fitted to land cover composition data derived for a random sample of cells from interpretation of aerial photographs. Regionalization 3 was a further two-stage development of Regionalization 2 where specific classifications, also weighted and transformed using dissimilarity models, were applied to 25 small scale "sub-domains" defined by Regionalization 2. Performance was assessed in terms of the discrimination of land cover composition for an independent set of sites using classification strength (CS), which measured the similarity of land cover composition within classes and the dissimilarity between classes. Regionalization 2 performed significantly better than Regionalization 1, but the largest gains in performance, compared to Regionalization 1, occurred at coarse hierarchical levels (i.e., CS did not increase significantly beyond the 25-region level). Regionalization 3 performed better than Regionalization 2 beyond the 25-region level and CS values continued to

  7. Limits to understory plant restoration following fuel-reduction treatments in a piñon-juniper woodland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, Miranda D; Zelikova, Tamara J; Barger, Nichole N

    2014-11-01

    National fuel-reduction programs aim to reduce the risk of wildland fires to human communities and to restore forest and rangeland ecosystems to resemble their historical structure, function, and diversity. There are a number of factors, such as seed bank dynamics, post-treatment climate, and herbivory, which determine whether this latter goal may be achieved. Here, we examine the short-term (2 years) vegetation response to fuel-reduction treatments (mechanical mastication, broadcast burn, and pile burn) and seeding of native grasses on understory vegetation in an upland piñon-juniper woodland in southeast Utah. We also examine how wildlife herbivory affects the success of fuel-reduction treatments. Herbaceous cover increased in response to fuel-reduction treatments in all seeded treatments, with the broadcast burn and mastication having greater increases (234 and 160 %, respectively) in herbaceous cover than the pile burn (32 %). In the absence of seeding, herbaceous cover only increased in the broadcast burn (32 %). Notably, fuel-reduction treatments, but not seeding, strongly affected herbaceous plant composition. All fuel-reduction treatments increased the relative density of invasive species, especially in the broadcast burn, which shifted the plant community composition from one dominated by perennial graminoids to one dominated by annual forbs. Herbivory by wildlife reduced understory plant cover by over 40 % and altered plant community composition. If the primary management goal is to enhance understory cover while promoting native species abundance, our study suggests that mastication may be the most effective treatment strategy in these upland piñon-juniper woodlands. Seed applications and wildlife exclosures further enhanced herbaceous cover following fuel-reduction treatments.

  8. Teaching atraumatic restorative treatment in U.S. dental schools: a survey of predoctoral pediatric dentistry program directors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kateeb, Elham T; Warren, John J; Damiano, Peter; Momany, Elizabeth; Kanellis, Michael; Weber-Gasparoni, Karin; Ansley, Tim

    2013-10-01

    The International Dental Federation and World Health Organization have promoted the use of Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART) in modern clinical settings worldwide. In the United States, the practice of ART is not believed to be widely used, which may be a result of little attention given to ART training in predoctoral pediatric dentistry curricula in U.S. dental schools. This study investigated the extent of clinical and didactic instruction on ART provided in U.S. dental schools by surveying the predoctoral pediatric dentistry programs in 2010. Of the fifty-seven directors asked to complete the survey, forty-four responded for a response rate of 77 percent. Of these forty-four programs, 66 percent reported providing clinical training on ART, though only 14 percent provide this training often or very often. The types of ART training provided often or very often included interim treatment (18 percent) and single-surface cavities (14 percent) in primary teeth. However, ART was said to be rarely taught as a definitive treatment in permanent teeth (2 percent). Attitude was a major predictor, for clinical training provided and using professional guidelines in treatment decisions were associated with a positive attitude towards ART. These predoctoral pediatric dentistry programs used ART mainly in primary, anterior, and single-surface cavities and as interim treatment. As ART increases access of children to dental care, the incorporation of the ART approach into the curricula of U.S. dental schools should be facilitated by professional organizations.

  9. Atraumatic Restorative Treatment compared to the Hall Technique for occluso-proximal cavities in primary molars : study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesse, D.; Pinheiro de Araujo, M.; Olegário, I.C.; Innes, N.; Prócida Raggio, D.; Calil Bonifácio, C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: In many parts of the world, school-age children have high dental treatment needs; however, there is often low, or no, dental care provision. Although Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART) was developed to address this, its survival rate in occluso-proximal lesions is low. An

  10. Si-Jun-Zi Decoction Treatment Promotes the Restoration of Intestinal Function after Obstruction by Regulating Intestinal Homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangyang Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal obstruction is a common disease requiring abdominal surgery with significant morbidity and mortality. Currently, an effective medical treatment for obstruction, other than surgical resection or decompression, does not exist. Si-Jun-Zi Decoction is a famous Chinese medicine used to replenish qi and invigorate the functions of the spleen. Modern pharmacological studies show that this prescription can improve gastrointestinal function and strengthen immune function. In this study, we investigated the effects of a famous Chinese herbal formula, Si-Jun-Zi Decoction, on the restoration of intestinal function after the relief of obstruction in a rabbit model. We found that Si-Jun-Zi Decoction could reduce intestinal mucosal injury while promoting the recovery of the small intestine. Further, Si-Jun-Zi Decoction could regulate the intestinal immune system. Our results suggest that Si-Jun-Zi Decoction promotes the restoration of intestinal function after obstruction by regulating intestinal homeostasis. Our observations indicate that Si-Jun-Zi Decoction is potentially a therapeutic drug for intestinal obstruction.

  11. Technical framework for groundwater restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-04-01

    This document provides the technical framework for groundwater restoration under Phase II of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. A preliminary management plan for Phase II has been set forth in a companion document titled ''Preplanning Guidance Document for Groundwater Restoration''. General principles of site characterization for groundwater restoration, restoration methods, and treatment are discussed in this document to provide an overview of standard technical approaches to groundwater restoration

  12. Metagenomic analysis of an ecological wastewater treatment plant?s microbial communities and their potential to metabolize pharmaceuticals

    OpenAIRE

    Balcom, Ian N.; Driscoll, Heather; Vincent, James; Leduc, Meagan

    2016-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals and other micropollutants have been detected in drinking water, groundwater, surface water, and soil around the world. Even in locations where wastewater treatment is required, they can be found in drinking water wells, municipal water supplies, and agricultural soils. It is clear conventional wastewater treatment technologies are not meeting the challenge of the mounting pressures on global freshwater supplies. Cost-effective ecological wastewater treatment technologies have ...

  13. Restorative treatment thresholds for interproximal primary caries based on radiographic images: findings from the Dental Practice-Based Research Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gordan, Valeria V; Garvan, Cynthia W; Heft, Marc W

    2009-01-01

    with restorative intervention in lesions that have penetrated only the enamel surface. This study surveyed dentists from the Dental Practice-Based Research Network (DPBRN) who had reported doing at least some restorative dentistry (n = 901). Dentists were asked to indicate the depth at which they would restore...

  14. Poor quality evidence suggests that failure rates for atraumatic restorative treatment and conventional amalgam are similar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Dominic

    2012-06-01

    The Medline, Cochrane CENTRAL, Biomed Central, Database of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), OpenJ-Gate, Bibliografia Brasileira de Odontologia (BBO), LILACS, IndMed, Sabinet, Scielo, Scirus (Medicine), OpenSIGLE and Google Scholar databases were searched. Hand searching was performed for journals not indexed in the databases. References of included trials were checked. Prospective clinical trials with test and control groups with a follow up of at least one year were included. Data abstraction was conducted independently and clinical and methodologically homogeneous data were pooled using a fixed-effects model. Eighteen trials were included. From these 32 individual dichotomous datasets were extracted and analysed. The majority of the results show no differences between both types of intervention. A high risk of selection-, performance-, detection- and attrition bias was identified. Existing research gaps are mainly due to lack of trials and small sample size. The current evidence indicates that the failure rate of high-viscosity GIC/ART restorations is not higher than, but similar to that of conventional amalgam fillings after periods longer than one year. These results are in line with the conclusions drawn during the original systematic review. There is a high risk that these results are affected by bias, and thus confirmation by further trials with suitably high numbers of participants is needed.

  15. Estimation of the failure risk of a maxillary premolar with different crack depths with endodontic treatment by computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing ceramic restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chun-Li; Chang, Yen-Hsiang; Hsieh, Shih-Kai; Chang, Wen-Jen

    2013-03-01

    This study evaluated the risk of failure for an endodontically treated premolar with different crack depths, which was shearing toward the pulp chamber and was restored by using 3 different computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing ceramic restoration configurations. Three 3-dimensional finite element models designed with computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing ceramic onlay, endocrown, and conventional crown restorations were constructed to perform simulations. The Weibull function was incorporated with finite element analysis to calculate the long-term failure probability relative to different load conditions. The results indicated that the stress values on the enamel, dentin, and luting cement for endocrown restorations exhibited the lowest values relative to the other 2 restoration methods. Weibull analysis revealed that the overall failure probabilities in a shallow cracked premolar were 27%, 2%, and 1% for the onlay, endocrown, and conventional crown restorations, respectively, in the normal occlusal condition. The corresponding values were 70%, 10%, and 2% for the depth cracked premolar. This numeric investigation suggests that the endocrown provides sufficient fracture resistance only in a shallow cracked premolar with endodontic treatment. The conventional crown treatment can immobilize the premolar for different cracked depths with lower failure risk. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Using MODIS-NDVI for the Modeling of Post-Wildfire Vegetation Response as a Function of Environmental Conditions and Pre-Fire Restoration Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant M. Casady

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Post-fire vegetation response is influenced by the interaction of natural and anthropogenic factors such as topography, climate, vegetation type and restoration practices. Previous research has analyzed the relationship of some of these factors to vegetation response, but few have taken into account the effects of pre-fire restoration practices. We selected three wildfires that occurred in Bandelier National Monument (New Mexico, USA between 1999 and 2007 and three adjacent unburned control areas. We used interannual trends in the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI time series data derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS to assess vegetation response, which we define as the average potential photosynthetic activity through the summer monsoon. Topography, fire severity and restoration treatment were obtained and used to explain post-fire vegetation response. We applied parametric (Multiple Linear Regressions-MLR and non-parametric tests (Classification and Regression Trees-CART to analyze effects of fire severity, terrain and pre-fire restoration treatments (variable used in CART on post-fire vegetation response. MLR results showed strong relationships between vegetation response and environmental factors (p < 0.1, however the explanatory factors changed among treatments. CART results showed that beside fire severity and topography, pre-fire treatments strongly impact post-fire vegetation response. Results for these three fires show that pre-fire restoration conditions along with local environmental factors constitute key processes that modify post-fire vegetation response.

  17. Can landscape-level ecological restoration influence fire risk? A spatially-explicit assessment of a northern temperate-southern boreal forest landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas J. Shinneman; Brian J. Palik; Meredith W. Cornett

    2012-01-01

    Management strategies to restore forest landscapes are often designed to concurrently reduce fire risk. However, the compatibility of these two objectives is not always clear, and uncoordinated management among landowners may have unintended consequences. We used a forest landscape simulation model to compare the effects of contemporary management and hypothetical...

  18. [Ecological treatment of bacterial vaginosis and vaginitis with Bio-three].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimura, T

    1998-12-01

    Ecological treatment of bacterial vaginosis and vaginitis with a Bio-three was studied, and the following results were obtained. 1. A total of 16 women with bacterial vaginosis and vaginitis were treated with intravaginal application of 2 g of Bio-three (E. faecalis T-110, C. butyricum TO-A, B. mesentericus TO-A, pH 6.9 +/- 0.3). The effect of the treatment was evaluated 3 days after administration by monitoring the vaginal discharge and bacteriological assessment. 2. The clinical improvement was evaluated and the decreases of vaginal discharge and vaginal redness were significant and vaginal pH was lowered significantly (5.29 +/- 0.24 vs. 4.31 +/- 0.37, p vaginal discharge 35 strains of bacteria were detected, but 3 days after administration, 16/30 strains of Gram-positive bacteria, and 2 strains of Gram-negative bacteria disappeared. As for the overall bacteriological effects, 7/16 cases were eradicated, 1 case was partly eradicated, 6 cases were replaced. These findings indicated that the Bio-three therapy was effective in both clinical and bacteriological responses.

  19. An application of baseflow isolation and passive wetland treatment to watershed restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoover, K.L.; Rightnour, T.A.; Zug, F.R. III

    1999-01-01

    The project site, located in West Virginia, is a reclaimed wood waste disposal area situated on Pennsylvanian coal strata. Following reclamation of the disposal area, flow in the adjacent stream was observed to have elevated iron and manganese concentrations. The source of the groundwater baseflow entering this portion of the stream appeared to be hydrologically related to the landfill by its close proximity. The source of the metals contamination was not determined, but may be related to percolation from the disposal area into the underlying coal strata. The observable contamination was typical of alkaline coal mine drainage and met the criteria for passive wetland treatment. However, the contaminated baseflow entered the stream along the sides and bottom of the channel at several locations over a 100-meter section and could not be collected for accurate characterization of pollutant loading. Treatment of the entire contaminated stream flow to comply with NPDES permit requirements would have been prohibitively expensive, and insufficient space was available for a treatment facility of adequate size within the narrow stream valley. Given these constraints, it was decided to isolate the contaminated baseflow from the surface flow by construction of a lined stream relocation on top of a gravity-drained collection zone in the existing stream channel. The collection zone consists of a bed of coarse aggregate with a central collection pipe discharging to a submerged outlet, which prevents air from entering the collection zone and minimizes the formation of iron precipitates. The relocated stream channel was formed in place on top of the collection zone with compacted earth, and lined with one layer of polypropylene geomembrane covered by two layers of geotextile. Gabion baskets were then placed on top of the liner for stream stabilization and shaping of the final channel. Accurate discharge characterization at the end of the collection pipe allowed the design of a

  20. Monitoring the Effects of Forest Restoration Treatments on Post-Fire Vegetation Recovery with MODIS Multitemporal Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willem J. D. van Leeuwen

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examines how satellite based time-series vegetation greenness data and phenological measurements can be used to monitor and quantify vegetation recovery after wildfire disturbances and examine how pre-fire fuel reduction restoration treatments impact fire severity and impact vegetation recovery trajectories. Pairs of wildfire affected sites and a nearby unburned reference site were chosen to measure the post-disturbance recovery in relation to climate variation. All site pairs were chosen in forested uplands in Arizona and were restricted to the area of the Rodeo-Chediski fire that occurred in 2002. Fuel reduction treatments were performed in 1999 and 2001. The inter-annual and seasonal vegetation dynamics before, during, and after wildfire events can be monitored using a time series of biweekly composited MODIS NDVI (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer - Normalized Difference Vegetation Index data. Time series analysis methods included difference metrics, smoothing filters, and fitting functions that were applied to extract seasonal and inter-annual change and phenological metrics from the NDVI time series data from 2000 to 2007. Pre- and post-fire Landsat data were used to compute the Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR and examine burn severity at the selected sites. The phenological metrics (pheno-metrics included the timing and greenness (i.e. NDVI for the start, peak and end of the growing season as well as proxy measures for the rate of green-up and senescence and the annual vegetation productivity. Pre-fire fuel reduction treatments resulted in lower fire severity, which reduced annual productivity much less than untreated areas within the Rodeo-Chediski fire perimeter. The seasonal metrics were shown to be useful for estimating the rate of post-fire disturbance recovery and the timing of phenological greenness phases. The use of satellite time series NDVI data and derived pheno-metrics show potential for tracking vegetation

  1. Effect of water repellent preservatives and other wood treatments on restoration and durability of millwork

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Sam Williams

    2001-01-01

    This report describes the long-term performance of painted window units that were placed outdoors near Madison, Wisconsin, in 1956. Covered in this report are the effects of the initial water repellent preservative (WRP) treatment during the first 6 years of exposure, a comparison of the water repellent effectiveness (WRE) ofthe WRP with the condition of the windows...

  2. Melatonin Treatment May Be Able to Restore Menstrual Cyclicity in Women With PCOS: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliaferri, Valeria; Romualdi, Daniela; Scarinci, Elisa; Cicco, Simona De; Florio, Christian Di; Immediata, Valentina; Tropea, Anna; Santarsiero, Carla Mariaflavia; Lanzone, Antonio; Apa, Rosanna

    2018-02-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the effects of 6 months of melatonin administration on clinical, endocrine, and metabolic features of women affected by polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). This is a prospective cohort study including 40 normal-weight women with PCOS between January and September 2016, enrolled in an academic research environment. Ultrasonographic pelvic examinations, hirsutism score evaluation, hormonal profile assays, oral glucose tolerance test, and lipid profile at baseline and after 6 months of melatonin administration were performed. Melatonin treatment significantly decreased androgens levels (free androgen index: P < .05; testosterone: P < .01; 17 hydroxyprogesterone: P < .01). Follicle-stimulating hormone levels significantly raised ( P < .01), and anti-Mullerian hormone serum levels significantly dropped after 6 months of melatonin treatment ( P < .01). No significant changes occurred in glucoinsulinemic and lipid parameters after treatment except a significant decrease of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Almost 95% of participants experienced an amelioration of menstrual cycles. Until now, only few data have been published about the role of melatonin in women with PCOS. This is the first study focused on the effects of exogenous oral melatonin administration on the clinical, endocrine, and metabolic characteristics of patients with PCOS. After 6 months of treatment, melatonin seems to improve menstrual irregularities and biochemical hyperandrogenism in women with PCOS through a direct, insulin-independent effect on the ovary. Based on our results, melatonin could be considered a potential future therapeutic agent for women affected by PCOS.

  3. Restoring vaginal microbiota: biological control of bacterial vaginosis. A prospective case-control study using Lactobacillus rhamnosus BMX 54 as adjuvant treatment against bacterial vaginosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recine, Nadia; Palma, Ettore; Domenici, Lavinia; Giorgini, Margherita; Imperiale, Ludovica; Sassu, Carolina; Musella, Angela; Marchetti, Claudia; Muzii, Ludovico; Benedetti Panici, Pierluigi

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the most prevalent lower genital tract infection in reproductive-age women worldwide. BV is an ecological disorder of the vaginal microbiota characterized microbiologically by replacement of the lactobacilli, predominant vaginal microbiota. It is characterized by a high rate of relapse in sexual active women, and these patients show three or more relapses each year. A healthy vagina is characterized by hydrogen peroxide and acid-producing lactobacilli, which are crucial to maintain the physiological vaginal ecosystem and their depletion speeds up bacterial overgrowth with pH elevation, salidase and amine production, leading to the observed signs and symptoms of BV. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of long-term vaginal lactobacilli's implementation in restoring and maintaining vaginal microflora and pH and to collect data about prophylactic approach based on probiotics supplementation with lactobacilli. This is a prospective case-control study, performed between January 2013 and September 2014 at Department of Gynecological Obstetrics and Urologic Sciences of "Sapienza" University of Rome. 250 non-pregnant sexually active women with diagnoses of BV were collected. Patients selected were divided in Group A (125 patients assigned to standard treatment for BV-metronidazole 500 mg orally twice a day for 7 days) and Group B (125 women undergoing the same standard antibiotic regimen followed by vaginal tablets containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus BMX 54). Patients were evaluated after 2, 6, and 9 months (T0, T2, T6, and T9) in term of recurrences rates of BV, vaginal symptoms, re-establishment of healthy vaginal flora, vaginal pH, and treatment tolerability. Vaginal flora was significantly replaced in Group B patients after 2 months comparing with Group A (p = 0.014). These data were confirmed at 6 and 9 months follow-up: patients that underwent prophylactic therapy with NORMOGIN(®) experienced significantly low rate of

  4. Guidance for treatment of variability and uncertainty in ecological risk assessments of contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-06-01

    Uncertainty is a seemingly simple concept that has caused great confusion and conflict in the field of risk assessment. This report offers guidance for the analysis and presentation of variability and uncertainty in ecological risk assessments, an important issue in the remedial investigation and feasibility study processes. This report discusses concepts of probability in terms of variance and uncertainty, describes how these concepts differ in ecological risk assessment from human health risk assessment, and describes probabilistic aspects of specific ecological risk assessment techniques. The report ends with 17 points to consider in performing an uncertainty analysis for an ecological risk assessment of a contaminated site

  5. Resiliency of an Interior Ponderosa Pine Forest to Bark Beetle Infestations Following Fuel-Reduction and Forest-Restoration Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Fettig

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical thinning and the application of prescribed fire are commonly used to restore fire-adapted forest ecosystems in the Western United States. During a 10-year period, we monitored the effects of fuel-reduction and forest-restoration treatments on levels of tree mortality in an interior ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws., forest in California. Twelve experimental plots, ranging in size from 77–144 ha, were established to create two distinct forest structural types: mid-seral stage (low structural diversity; LoD and late-seral stage (high structural diversity; HiD. Following harvesting, half of each plot was treated with prescribed fire (B. A total of 16,473 trees (8.7% of all trees died during the 10-year period. Mortality was primarily attributed to bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae (10,655 trees, specifically fir engraver, Scolytus ventralis LeConte, mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, western pine beetle, D. brevicomis LeConte, pine engraver, Ips pini (Say, and, to a much lesser extent, Jeffrey pine beetle, D. jeffreyi Hopkins. Trees of all ages and size classes were killed, but mortality was concentrated in the smaller-diameter classes (19–29.2 and 29.3–39.3 cm at 1.37 m in height. Most mortality occurred three to five years following prescribed burns. Higher levels of bark beetle-caused tree mortality were observed on LoD + B (8.7% than LoD (4.2%. The application of these and other results to the   management of interior P. ponderosa forests are discussed, with an emphasis on the maintenance of large trees.

  6. Partial Restoration Of Skeletal Strength In Ovariectomized Rats By Treatment With Strontium Salts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov; Andersen, Pernille/Høegh; Christgau, Stephan

    AIM Ovariectomy of female rats induces significant bone-loss by depriving endogenous estrogen production. We assessed whether administration of strontium salts had a therapeutic benefit in this animal model of postmenopausal osteoporosis. INTRODUCTION In most women after menopause, the rate of bone...... loss exceeds the rate of bone formation, resulting in a net decrease in bone mass and ultimately in development of osteoporosis and elevated risk of sustaining fragility fracture. Most approved osteoporosis treatments work by decreasing the rate of bone resorption, however, these treatments also......-M and S-G respectively compared to 671 mg/cm3 in vehicle treated OVX and 750 mg/cm3 SHAM rats). Bone strength analysis revealed a significant increase (p...

  7. [Use of diagnostic templates at stages of prosthetics treatment with implant-retained restorations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvetadze, R Sh; Abramyan, S V; Ivanov, A A; Nubaryan, A P

    The comparative analysis of efficiency of various types of diagnostic templates for planning orthopedic treatment of 50 patients with partial or complete absence of teeth was performed. The patients were divided in 3 groups according to template manufacturing technique. All diagnostic templates made in accordance with clinical conditions allowed transfering digital data of the scheduled prosthetic construction for virtual implantation planning. Advantages and pitfalls of each template type are discussed.

  8. Fetal programming: prenatal testosterone treatment leads to follicular persistence/luteal defects; partial restoration of ovarian function by cyclic progesterone treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikkam, Mohan; Steckler, Teresa L; Welch, Kathleen B; Inskeep, E Keith; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2006-04-01

    Prenatal testosterone (T) excess during midgestation leads to estrous cycle defects and polycystic ovaries in sheep. We hypothesized that follicular persistence causes polycystic ovaries and that cyclic progesterone (P) treatment would overcome follicular persistence and restore cyclicity. Twice-weekly blood samples for P measurements were taken from control (C; n = 16) and prenatally T-treated (T60; n = 14; 100 mg T, im, twice weekly from d 30-90 of gestation) Suffolk sheep starting before the onset of puberty and continuing through the second breeding season. A subset of C and T60 sheep were treated cyclically with a modified controlled internal drug-releasing device for 13-14 d every 17 d during the first anestrus (CP, 7; TP, 6). Transrectal ovarian ultrasonography was performed for 8 d in the first and 21 d in the second breeding season. Prenatal T excess reduced the number, but increased the duration of progestogenic cycles, reduced the proportion of ewes with normal cycles, increased the proportion of ewes with subluteal cycles, decreased the proportion of ewes with ovulatory cycles, induced the occurrence of persistent follicles, and reduced the number of corpora lutea in those that cycled. Cyclic P treatment in anestrus, which produced one third the P concentration seen during luteal phase of cycle, did not reduce the number of persistent follicles, but increased the number of progestogenic cycles while reducing their duration. These findings suggested that follicular persistence might contribute to the polycystic ovarian morphology. Cyclic P treatment was able to only partially restore follicular dynamics, but this may be related to the low replacement concentrations of P achieved.

  9. Restoring large-scale brain networks in PTSD and related disorders: a proposal for neuroscientifically-informed treatment interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth A. Lanius

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Three intrinsic connectivity networks in the brain, namely the central executive, salience, and default mode networks, have been identified as crucial to the understanding of higher cognitive functioning, and the functioning of these networks has been suggested to be impaired in psychopathology, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Objective: 1 To describe three main large-scale networks of the human brain; 2 to discuss the functioning of these neural networks in PTSD and related symptoms; and 3 to offer hypotheses for neuroscientifically-informed interventions based on treating the abnormalities observed in these neural networks in PTSD and related disorders. Method: Literature relevant to this commentary was reviewed. Results: Increasing evidence for altered functioning of the central executive, salience, and default mode networks in PTSD has been demonstrated. We suggest that each network is associated with specific clinical symptoms observed in PTSD, including cognitive dysfunction (central executive network, increased and decreased arousal/interoception (salience network, and an altered sense of self (default mode network. Specific testable neuroscientifically-informed treatments aimed to restore each of these neural networks and related clinical dysfunction are proposed. Conclusions: Neuroscientifically-informed treatment interventions will be essential to future research agendas aimed at targeting specific PTSD and related symptoms.

  10. Effects of sociodemographic, treatment variables, and medical characteristics on quality of life of patients with maxillectomy restored with obturator prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artopoulou, Ioli Ioanna; Karademas, Evangelos C; Papadogeorgakis, Nikolaos; Papathanasiou, Ioannis; Polyzois, Gregory

    2017-12-01

    Restoration of maxillary defects resulting from tumor ablative surgery presents a difficult challenge, with both functional and esthetic issues. Whether rehabilitation with an obturator prosthesis could significantly contribute to improved quality of life in patients with maxillary resection has been scarcely studied, with relatively small study samples. The purpose of this survey study was to assess the overall functioning of the obturator prosthesis and the effect of specific sociodemographic, medical, and treatment variables on obturator functioning and quality of life in patients with maxillectomy. Global quality of life (QOL) and satisfaction with the obturator prosthesis of 57 patients who underwent maxillectomy and prosthetic rehabilitation at the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens were assessed using 3 questionnaires: European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality of Life Questionnaire C30 (QLQ-C30), the EORTC QLQ-HN35, and the obturator functioning scale. The data were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis 1-way ANOVA on ranks, hierarchical multiple regression analysis, and the Spearman rank order correlation (α=.05). Satisfactory functioning of the obturator prosthesis was the most significant predictor of improved QOL (Pmaxillectomy defect (Pmaxillectomy defect had a significant effect on QOL but did not influence the functional outcome. Copyright © 2017 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Treatment with salvianolic acid B restores endothelial function in angiotensin II-induced hypertensive mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Wei Chih; Liu, Jian; Lau, Chi Wai; Murugan, Dharmani Devi; Mustafa, Mohd Rais; Huang, Yu

    2017-07-15

    Salvianolic acid B (Sal B) is one of the most abundant phenolic acids derived from the root of Danshen with potent anti-oxidative properties. The present study examined the vasoprotective effect of Sal B in hypertensive mice induced by angiotensin II (Ang II). Sal B (25mg/kg/day) was administered via oral gavage for 11days to Ang II (1.2mg/kg/day)-infused C57BL/6J mice (8-10weeks old). The vascular reactivity (both endothelium-dependent relaxations and contractions) in mouse arteries was examined by wire myography. The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), protein level and localization of angiotensin AT 1 receptors and the proteins involved in ROS formation were evaluated using dihydroethidium (DHE) fluorescence, lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence, immunohistochemistry and Western blotting, respectively. The changes of ROS generating proteins were also assessed in vitro in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) exposed to Ang II with and without co-treatment with Sal B (0.1-10nM). Oral administration of Sal B reversed the Ang II-induced elevation of arterial systolic blood pressure in mice, augmented the impaired endothelium-dependent relaxations and attenuated the exaggerated endothelium-dependent contractions in both aortas and renal arteries of Ang II-infused mice. In addition, Sal B treatment normalized the elevated levels of AT 1 receptors, NADPH oxidase subunits (NOx-2 and NOx-4) and nitrotyrosine in arteries of Ang II-infused mice or in Ang II-treated HUVECs. In summary, the present study provided additional evidence demonstrating that Sal B treatment for 11days reverses the impaired endothelial function and with a marked inhibition of AT 1 receptor-dependent vascular oxidative stress. This vasoprotective and anti-oxidative action of Sal B most likely contributes to the anti-hypertensive action of the plant-derived compound. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The road to restoring neural circuits for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canter, Rebecca G; Penney, Jay; Tsai, Li-Huei

    2016-11-10

    Alzheimer's disease is a progressive loss of memory and cognition, for which there is no cure. Although genetic studies initially suggested a primary role for amyloid-in Alzheimer's disease, treatment strategies targeted at reducing amyloid-have failed to reverse cognitive symptoms. These clinical findings suggest that cognitive decline is the result of a complex pathophysiology and that targeting amyloid-alone may not be sufficient to treat Alzheimer's disease. Instead, a broad outlook on neural-circuit-damaging processes may yield insights into new therapeutic strategies for curing memory loss in the disease.

  13. Conceptual Site Treatment Plan Laboratory for Energy-Related Health Research Environmental Restoration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, T.E.

    1993-10-01

    The Federal Facilities Compliance Act (the Act) of 1992 waives sovereign immunity for federal facilities for fines and penalties under the provisions of the Resource Recovery and Conservation Act, state, interstate, and local hazardous and solid waste management requirements. However, for three years the Act delays the waiver for violations involving US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. The Act, however, requires that the DOE prepare a Conceptual Site Treatment Plan (CSTP) for each of its sites that generate or store mixed wastes (MWs). The purpose of the CSTP is to present DOE's preliminary evaluations of the development of treatment capacities and technologies for treating a site's MW. This CSTP presents the preliminary capacity and technology evaluation for the Laboratory for Energy-Related Health Research (LEHR). The five identified MW streams at LEHR are evaluated to the extent possible given available information. Only one MW stream is sufficiently well defined to permit a technology evaluation to be performed. Two other MW streams are in the process of being characterized so that an evaluation can be performed. The other two MW streams will be generated by the decommissioning of inactive facilities onsite within the next five years

  14. Conceptual Site Treatment Plan Laboratory for Energy-Related Health Research Environmental Restoration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, T.E.

    1993-10-01

    The Federal Facilities Compliance Act (the Act) of 1992 waives sovereign immunity for federal facilities for fines and penalties under the provisions of the Resource Recovery and Conservation Act, state, interstate, and local hazardous and solid waste management requirements. However, for three years the Act delays the waiver for violations involving US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. The Act, however, requires that the DOE prepare a Conceptual Site Treatment Plan (CSTP) for each of its sites that generate or store mixed wastes (MWs). The purpose of the CSTP is to present DOE`s preliminary evaluations of the development of treatment capacities and technologies for treating a site`s MW. This CSTP presents the preliminary capacity and technology evaluation for the Laboratory for Energy-Related Health Research (LEHR). The five identified MW streams at LEHR are evaluated to the extent possible given available information. Only one MW stream is sufficiently well defined to permit a technology evaluation to be performed. Two other MW streams are in the process of being characterized so that an evaluation can be performed. The other two MW streams will be generated by the decommissioning of inactive facilities onsite within the next five years.

  15. A new separation and treatment method for soil and groundwater restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hitchens, G.D. [Lynntech, Inc., College Station, TX (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Soil and groundwater contamination by organic compounds is a widespread environmental pollution problem. In many cases, contaminated soil is excavated and transported to a landfill or is incinerated to remove contaminants. These remediation practices are expensive, environmentally disruptive, require extensive permitting, and only move contamination from one location to another. Onsite and in situ treatment techniques offer a safer, more cost-effective, and permanent solution. Many soil and groundwater contaminants are highly volatile, enabling the use of methods such as in situ vacuum extraction and air injection for their removal. However, these methods are often difficult to use because of slow volatilization rates and the lack of effective methods to treat the extracted hazardous material. This Phase I Small Business Innovation Research program focuses on developing an in situ soil and groundwater remediation technique that is effective against volatile as well as nonvolatile compounds and that will shorten treatment times. The technique forms the basis of a new catalytic process to degrade extracted contaminants onsite. Key hardware elements on which the new technique is based have been proven in preliminary research. The method has a high potential for public and regulatory acceptance because of its low environment impact.

  16. A new separation and treatment method for soil and groundwater restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hitchens, G.D.

    1997-01-01

    Soil and groundwater contamination by organic compounds is a widespread environmental pollution problem. In many cases, contaminated soil is excavated and transported to a landfill or is incinerated to remove contaminants. These remediation practices are expensive, environmentally disruptive, require extensive permitting, and only move contamination from one location to another. Onsite and in situ treatment techniques offer a safer, more cost-effective, and permanent solution. Many soil and groundwater contaminants are highly volatile, enabling the use of methods such as in situ vacuum extraction and air injection for their removal. However, these methods are often difficult to use because of slow volatilization rates and the lack of effective methods to treat the extracted hazardous material. This Phase I Small Business Innovation Research program focuses on developing an in situ soil and groundwater remediation technique that is effective against volatile as well as nonvolatile compounds and that will shorten treatment times. The technique forms the basis of a new catalytic process to degrade extracted contaminants onsite. Key hardware elements on which the new technique is based have been proven in preliminary research. The method has a high potential for public and regulatory acceptance because of its low environment impact

  17. The Effects of Prostate Cancer Treatment on the Sexual Behavior of Gay and Bisexual Men: Key Results from the "Restore" Study | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speaker | "The Effects of Prostate Cancer Treatment on the Sexual Behavior of Gay and Bisexual Men: Key Results from the 'Restore' Study" will be presented by B.R. Simon Rosser, PhD, MPH, Professor of the Division of Epidemiology & Community Health and Director of HIV/STI Intervention & Prevention Studies at the University of Minnesota School of Public Health in Minneapolis,

  18. Acid Etching as Surface Treatment Method for Luting of Glass-Ceramic Restorations, part 1: Acids, Application Protocol and Etching Effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilija Barjaktarova-Valjakova

    2018-03-01

    CONCLUSION: Acid etching of the bonding surface of glass - ceramic restorations is considered as the most effective treatment method that provides a reliable bond with composite cement. Selective removing of the glassy matrix of silicate ceramics results in a micromorphological three-dimensional porous surface that allows micromechanical interlocking of the luting composite.

  19. Using plant functional traits to guide restoration: A case study in California coastal grassland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandel, Brody Steven; Corbin, Jeffrey; Krupa, Monica

    2011-01-01

    Restoration ecology can benefit greatly from developments in trait-based ecology that enable improved predictions of how the composition of plant communities will respond to changes in environmental conditions. Plant functional traits can be used to guide the restoration of degraded habitats...... generally from the treatments. Carbon addition led to large intraspecific trait shifts, with individuals in C addition plots having smaller, denser leaves and shorter stature. Species' trait plasticity, however, was not related to the community composition response to C addition.   Our study indicates...

  20. A synopsis of short-term response to alternative restoration treatments in sagebrush-steppe: the SageSTEP project

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIver, James; Brunson, Mark; Bunting, Steve; Chambers, Jeanne; Doescher, Paul; Grace, James; Hulet, April; Johnson, Dale; Knick, Steven T.; Miller, Richard; Pellant, Mike; Pierson, Fred; Pyke, David; Rau, Benjamin; Rollins, Kim; Roundy, Bruce; Schupp, Eugene; Tausch, Robin; Williams, Jason

    2014-01-01

    The Sagebrush Steppe Treatment Evaluation Project (SageSTEP) is an integrated long-term study that evaluates ecological effects of alternative treatments designed to reduce woody fuels and to stimulate the herbaceous understory of sagebrush steppe communities of the Intermountain West. This synopsis summarizes results through 3 yr posttreatment. Woody vegetation reduction by prescribed fire, mechanical treatments, or herbicides initiated a cascade of effects, beginning with increased availability of nitrogen and soil water, followed by increased growth of herbaceous vegetation. Response of butterflies and magnitudes of runoff and erosion closely followed herbaceous vegetation recovery. Effects on shrubs, biological soil crust, tree cover, surface woody fuel loads, and sagebrush-obligate bird communities will take longer to be fully expressed. In the short term, cool wet sites were more resilient than warm dry sites, and resistance was mostly dependent on pretreatment herbaceous cover. At least 10 yr of posttreatment time will likely be necessary to determine outcomes for most sites. Mechanical treatments did not serve as surrogates for prescribed fire in how each influenced the fuel bed, the soil, erosion, and sage-obligate bird communities. Woody vegetation reduction by any means resulted in increased availability of soil water, higher herbaceous cover, and greater butterfly numbers. We identified several trade-offs (desirable outcomes for some variables, undesirable for others), involving most components of the study system. Trade-offs are inevitable when managing complex natural systems, and they underline the importance of asking questions about the whole system when developing management objectives. Substantial spatial and temporal heterogeneity in sagebrush steppe ecosystems emphasizes the point that there will rarely be a “recipe” for choosing management actions on any specific area. Use of a consistent evaluation process linked to monitoring may be the

  1. Technologies for lake restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut KLAPPER

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Lakes are suffering from different stress factors and need to be restored using different approaches. The eutrophication remains as the main water quality management problem for inland waters: both lakes and reservoirs. The way to curb the degradation is to stop the nutrient sources and to accelerate the restoration with help of in-lake technologies. Especially lakes with a long retention time need (eco- technological help to decrease the nutrient content in the free water. The microbial and other organic matter from sewage and other autochthonous biomasses, causes oxygen depletion, which has many adverse effects. In less developed countries big reservoirs function as sewage treatment plants. Natural aeration solves problems only partly and many pollutants tend to accumulate in the sediments. The acidification by acid rain and by pyrite oxidation has to be controlled by acid neutralizing technologies. Addition of alkaline chemicals is useful only for soft waters, and technologies for (microbial alkalinization of very acidic hardwater mining lakes are in development. The corrective measures differ from those in use for eutrophication control. The salinization and water shortage mostly occurs if more water is used than available. L. Aral, L. Tschad, the Dead Sea or L. Nasser belong to waters with most severe environmental problems on a global scale. Their hydrologic regime needs to be evaluated. The inflow of salt water at the bottom of some mining lakes adds to stability of stratification, and thus accumulation of hydrogen sulphide in the monimolimnion of the meromictic lakes. Destratification, which is the most used technology, is only restricted applicable because of the dangerous concentrations of the byproducts of biological degradation. The contamination of lakes with hazardous substances from industry and agriculture require different restoration technologies, including subhydric isolation and storage, addition of nutrients for better self

  2. The impaired myocardial ischemic tolerance in adult offspring of diabetic pregnancy is restored by maternal melatonin treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ling; Zhao, Yi-Chao; Liang, Yan; Lin, Xian-Hua; Tan, Ya-Jing; Wu, Dan-Dan; Li, Xin-Zhu; Ye, Bo-Zhi; Kong, Fan-Qi; Sheng, Jian-Zhong; Huang, He-Feng

    2016-10-01

    Diabetic pregnancy, with ever increasing prevalence, adversely affects embryogenesis and increases vasculometabolic disorder risks in adult offspring. However, it remains poorly understood whether maternal diabetes increases the offspring's susceptibility to heart injuries in adulthood. In this study, we observed that cardiac function and structure were comparable between adult offspring born to diabetic mice and their counterparts born to nondiabetic mice at baseline. However, in response to myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MIR), diabetic mother offspring exhibited augmented infarct size, cardiac dysfunction, and myocardial apoptosis compared with control, in association with exaggerated activation of mitochondria- and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-mediated apoptosis pathways and oxidative stress. Molecular analysis showed that the impaired myocardial ischemic tolerance in diabetic mother offspring was mainly attributable to blunted cardiac insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1/Akt signaling. Furthermore, the effect of maternal melatonin administration on offspring's response to MIR was determined, and the results indicated that melatonin treatment in diabetic dams during pregnancy significantly improved the tolerance to MIR injury in their offspring, via restoring cardiac IRS-1/Akt signaling. Taken together, these data suggest that maternal diabetes predisposes offspring to augmented MIR injury in adulthood, and maternal melatonin supplementation during diabetic pregnancy may hold promise for improving myocardial ischemic tolerance in the offspring. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Restoration of tryptophan hydroxylase functions and serotonin content in the Atlantic croaker hypothalamus by antioxidant treatment during hypoxic stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Saydur Rahman

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidants are prototypical scavengers of oxygen-free radicals and have been shown to prevent neuroendocrine dysfunction in vertebrates during oxidative stress. In the present study, we investigated whether antioxidant treatment can reverse hypoxia-induced down-regulation of hypothalamic tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH and serotonergic functions in Atlantic croaker. Hypothalamic neuronal contents of TPH-1 and TPH-2 proteins, serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT and its precursor, 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP as well as hypothalamic TPH-1 and TPH-2 mRNA expression and TPH activity were measured in croaker after exposure to hypoxia and treatment with pharmacological agents. Multiple injections of N-ethylmaleimide, a sulfhydryl alkylating agent, caused comparable decreases in hypothalamic TPHs functions and 5-HT contents to that induced by hypoxia exposure (dissolved oxygen: 1.7 mg/L for 4 weeks which were partially restored by repeated injections with a nitric oxide synthase (NOS-inhibitor and/or vitamin E. Double-labeled immunohistochemical results showed that TPHs and 5-HT neurons were co-expressed with neuronal NOS (nNOS, a neuroenzyme that catalyzes the production of nitric oxide, a free radical, in hypothalamic neurons. These results suggest that hypoxia-induced impairment of TPH and serotonergic functions are mediated by nNOS and involve the generation of free radicals and a decrease in the antioxidant status. This study provides, to our knowledge, the first evidence of a protective role for an antioxidant in maintaining neural TPHs functions and 5-HT regulation in an aquatic vertebrate during hypoxic stress.

  4. Chronic Cardiac-Targeted RNA Interference for the Treatment of Heart Failure Restores Cardiac Function and Reduces Pathological Hypertrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suckau, Lennart; Fechner, Henry; Chemaly, Elie; Krohn, Stefanie; Hadri, Lahouaria; Kockskämper, Jens; Westermann, Dirk; Bisping, Egbert; Ly, Hung; Wang, Xiaomin; Kawase, Yoshiaki; Chen, Jiqiu; Liang, Lifan; Sipo, Isaac; Vetter, Roland; Weger, Stefan; Kurreck, Jens; Erdmann, Volker; Tschope, Carsten; Pieske, Burkert; Lebeche, Djamel; Schultheiss, Heinz-Peter; Hajjar, Roger J.; Poller, Wolfgang Ch.

    2009-01-01

    Background RNA interference (RNAi) has the potential to be a novel therapeutic strategy in diverse areas of medicine. We report on targeted RNAi for the treatment of heart failure (HF), an important disorder in humans resulting from multiple etiologies. Successful treatment of HF is demonstrated in a rat model of transaortic banding by RNAi targeting of phospholamban (PLB), a key regulator of cardiac Ca2+ homeostasis. Whereas gene therapy rests on recombinant protein expression as its basic principle, RNAi therapy employs regulatory RNAs to achieve its effect. Methods and Results We describe structural requirements to obtain high RNAi activity from adenoviral (AdV) and adeno-associated virus (AAV9) vectors and show that an AdV short hairpin RNA vector (AdV-shRNA) silenced PLB in cardiomyocytes (NRCMs) and improved hemodynamics in HF rats 1 month after aortic root injection. For simplified long-term therapy we developed a dimeric cardiotropic AAV vector (rAAV9-shPLB) delivering RNAi activity to the heart via intravenous injection. Cardiac PLB protein was reduced to 25% and SERCA2a suppression in the HF groups was rescued. In contrast to traditional vectors rAAV9 shows high affinity for myocardium, but low affinity for liver and other organs. rAAV9-shPLB therapy restored diastolic (LVEDP, dp/dtmin, Tau) and systolic (fractional shortening) functional parameters to normal range. The massive cardiac dilation was normalized and the cardiac hypertrophy, cardiomyocyte diameter and cardiac fibrosis significantly reduced. Importantly, there was no evidence of microRNA deregulation or hepatotoxicity during these RNAi therapies. Conclusion Our data show, for the first time, high efficacy of an RNAi therapeutic strategy in a cardiac disease. PMID:19237664

  5. Treatment with subthreshold doses of caffeine plus trihexyphenidyl fully restores locomotion and exploratory activity in reserpinized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moo-Puc, Rosa E; Villanueva-Toledo, Jairo; Arankowsky-Sandoval, Gloria; Alvarez-Cervera, Fernando; Góngora-Alfaro, José L

    2004-09-09

    Trihexyphenidyl (THP) is a drug commonly used to reduce parkinsonian symptoms. An important side effect of this agent is memory impairment. Since caffeine enhances the potency of THP to inhibit haloperidol-induced catalepsy, caffeine may be used as an adjuvant of lower doses of THP, in order to improve its antiparkinsonian effects without causing memory disruption. To further assess the synergism between caffeine and THP, both drugs were tested in reserpinized rats, another preclinical model of Parkinson's disease. Four groups of rats (n = 7) were treated with reserpine (5 mg/kg, i.p.). A control group (n = 7) was treated only with the vehicle for reserpine (dimethylsulphoxide). The spontaneous locomotor behavior was tested 24 h later in a box with infrared sensors, 30 min after receiving one of the following treatments: distilled water (1 ml/kg), caffeine (1 mg/kg), THP (0.1 mg/kg) or caffeine plus THP. The levels of horizontal locomotion (14 +/- 5%) and vertical exploration (15 +/- 10%) were significantly lower in reserpinized rats treated with distilled water, compared with the mean activity values (100%) recorded in animals pretreated only with the vehicle for reserpine. The reserpine-induced hypokinesia was neither reversed by caffeine alone nor by THP alone. However, the combination of caffeine plus THP restored locomotion (141 +/- 19%) and vertical exploration (82 +/- 17%) to levels not significantly different to those of non-reserpinized rats. Moreover, the time-course of locomotion and exploration displayed the characteristic habituation over time, in which short-term memory processes are involved. Also, the thigmotaxis index indicated that the combined treatment did not induce anxiety-like behavior. Hence, these results support the proposal that low, subthreshold doses of caffeine plus THP have the potential to alleviate the motor disabilities in parkinsonian patients, with a low risk of causing anxiety or memory impairment.

  6. Focused groundwater discharge of phosphorus to a eutrophic seepage lake (Lake Væng, Denmark): implications for lake ecological state and restoration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kidmose, Jacob; Nilsson, Bertel; Engesgaard, Peter

    2013-01-01

    and borehole data. Discharge was found to be much focused and opposite to expected increase away from the shoreline. The average total phosphorus concentration in discharging groundwater sampled just beneath the lakebed was 0.162 mg TP/l and thereby well over freshwater ecological thresholds (0...... paths through the aquifer–lakebed interface either being overland flow through a seepage face, or focused in zones with very high discharge rates. In-lake springs have measured discharge of up to 7.45 m3 per m2 of lakebed per day. These findings were based on seepage meter measurements at 18 locations...

  7. Contribuição da fauna silvestre em projetos de restauração ecológica no Brasil Contribution of the wildlife in ecological restoration projects in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanuza Helena Campos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O sucesso no processo de restauração e manutenção da dinâmica de um ecossistema é extremamente dependente da capacidade das espécies em promover interações interespecíficas entre as diversas formas de vida. Estas interações criam um cenário favorável à restauração ecológica de ecossistemas degradados. Assim, por meio de revisão de literatura, o objetivo deste trabalho é relatar a contribuição e utilização dos diferentes grupos de animais na execução de projetos de restauração ecológica no Brasil. As aves e mamíferos frugívoros e também outros animais, como os répteis, peixes e insetos, têm se destacado como ferramentas de auxílio aos projetos de restauração ecológica. As técnicas para atração de animais e consequente chegada de propágulos em um ecossistema degradado compreende a utilização de poleiros, que servem de pouso e abrigo para a avifauna e morcegos, e a utilização de abrigos artificiais, que servem para fuga de predadores, descanso e reprodução dos animais. De modo geral, estes estudos são excelentes ferramentas para gerir ações de manejo ambiental em ecossistemas degradados, possibilitando a recuperação da biodiversidade destes ambientes. The success in the process of restoration and maintenance of the dynamics of an ecosystem is highly dependent on the capacity of species to promote interspecific interactions among the various life forms. These interactions create a favorable environment for the ecological restoration of degraded ecosystems. Thus, by review the literature, the objective of this study is to report the contribution and use of different animal groups in carrying out ecological restoration projects in Brazil. The fruit-eating birds and mammals and also other animals such as reptiles, fish and insects have been highlighted as tools to aid environmental ecological restoration projects. Techniques for attracting animals and consequent arrival of seedlings in a degraded

  8. Lake Urmia (Iran): can future socio-ecologically motivated river basin management restore lake water levels in an arid region with extensive agricultural development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazel, Nasim; Berndtsson, Ronny; Bertacchi Uvo, Cintia; Klove, Bjorn; Madani, Kaveh

    2015-04-01

    Lake Urmia, one of the world's largest hyper saline lakes located in northwest of Iran, is a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve and Ramsar site, protected as a national park and, supports invaluable and unique biodiversity and related ecosystem services for the region's 6.5 million inhabitants. Due to increased development of the region's water resources for agriculture and industry and to a certain extent climate change, the lake has started to shrink dramatically since 1995 and now is holding less than 30 percent of its volume. Rapid development in agricultural sector and land-use changes has resulted in immense construction of dams and water diversions in almost all lake feeding rivers, intensifying lake shrinking, increasing salinity and degrading its ecosystem. Recently, lake's cultural and environmental importance and social pressure has raised concerns and brought government attention to the lake restoration plans. Along with poor management, low yield agriculture as the most water consuming activity in the region with, rapid, insufficient development is one of the most influential drivers in the lake desiccation. Part of the lake restoration plans in agricultural sector is to restrict the agricultural areas in the main feeding river basins flowing mostly in the southern part of the lake and decreasing the agricultural water use in this area. This study assess the efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed plans and its influence on the lake level rise and its impacts on economy in the region using a system dynamics model developed for the Lake consist of hydrological and agro-economical sub-systems. The effect of decrease in agricultural area in the region on GDP and region economy was evaluated and compared with released water contribution in lake level rise for a five year simulation period.

  9. Identifying Challenges to Building an Evidence Base for Restoration Practice

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ntshotsho, P

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Global acknowledgement of ecological restoration, as an important tool to complement conservation efforts, requires an effort to increase the effectiveness of restoration interventions. Evidence-based practice is purported to promote effectiveness...

  10. Clinical decisions for anterior restorations: the concept of restorative volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Jorge André; Almeida, Paulo Júlio; Fischer, Alex; Phaxay, Somano Luang

    2012-12-01

    The choice of the most appropriate restoration for anterior teeth is often a difficult decision. Numerous clinical and technical factors play an important role in selecting the treatment option that best suits the patient and the restorative team. Experienced clinicians have developed decision processes that are often more complex than may seem. Less experienced professionals may find difficulties making treatment decisions because of the widely varied restorative materials available and often numerous similar products offered by different manufacturers. The authors reviewed available evidence and integrated their clinical experience to select relevant factors that could provide a logical and practical guideline for restorative decisions in anterior teeth. The presented concept of restorative volume is based on structural, optical, and periodontal factors. Each of these factors will influence the short- and long-term behavior of restorations in terms of esthetics, biology, and function. Despite the marked evolution of esthetic restorative techniques and materials, significant limitations still exist, which should be addressed by researchers. The presented guidelines must be regarded as a mere orientation for risk analysis. A comprehensive individual approach should always be the core of restorative esthetic treatments. The complex decision process for anterior esthetic restorations can be clarified by a systematized examination of structural, optical, and periodontal factors. The basis for the proposed thought process is the concept of restorative volume that is a contemporary interpretation of restoration categories and their application. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. The Ecosystem Functions Model: A Tool for Restoration Planning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hickey, John T; Dunn, Chris N

    2004-01-01

    .... Project teams can use the EFM to visualize existing ecologic conditions, highlight promising restoration sites, and assess and rank alternatives according to the relative enhancement (or decline...

  12. [Ecological memory and its potential applications in ecology: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhong-yu; Ren, Hai

    2011-03-01

    Ecological memory (EM) is defined as the capability of the past states or experiences of a community to influence the present or future ecological responses of the community. As a relatively new concept, EM has received considerable attention in the study of ecosystem structure and function, such as community succession, ecological restoration, biological invasion, and natural resource management. This review summarized the definition, components, and categories of EM, and discussed the possible mechanisms and affecting factors of EM. Also, the potential applications of EM were proposed, in order to further understand the mechanisms of community succession and to guide ecological restoration.

  13. Climate-induced forest dieback as an emergent global phenomenon: Organized oral session at the Ecological Society of America/Society of Ecological Restoration Joint Meeting; San Jose, California, 5-10 August 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Craig D.; Breshears, David D.

    2007-01-01

    An organized oral session at the annual meeting of the Ecological Society of America in San Jose, Calif., posed this question: Is climate-induced drought stress triggering increasing rates and unusual patterns of forest die-off at a global scale? Twenty-nine researchers representing five continents reported on patterns, mechanisms, and projections of forest mortality.Observations include widespread forest dieback or reductions in tree cover and biodiversity in response to drought and warmer temperatures in the African Sahel (Patrick Gonzalez, The Nature Conservancy), Mediterranean and alpine Europe (Jorge Castro, Universidad de Granada), and Argentinean Patagonia (Thomas Kitzberger, Universidad Nacional del Comahue). In contrast, although much Eucalyptus mortality has resulted from recent droughts in Australia, warming trends have been less pronounced in the Southern Hemisphere and it is unclear if contemporary climate-induced tree mortality differs from previous historical drought impacts (Rod Fensham, Queensland Herbarium).

  14. Mortars and treatments in the restoration of the Altarpiece of the High Altar of the Pilar Basilica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luxán, M. P.

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The altarpiece of the Assumption of Mary is located in the High Altar of the Pilar Basilica in Zaragoza and is one of the most important works of the Spanish Artistic Heritage. The work, sculptured in alabaster, was carried out between 1509 and 1518 by Damián Forment. The present paper covers the guidelines for the design of repair mortars used to restore the altarpiece. They are based on compatibility criteria with the existing materials and treatments in the altarpiece, according to research carried out during the recent works of cleaning and restoration. During the previous research, the composition of the original mortars was tested, the aggregate granulometry, and the composition of the organic additives used. The patina of the altarpiece was also analyzed and identified. The original mortars were made up of a mixture of gypsum and lime with the addition of oil or fats. In many cases various types of fibre were detected in the mortar, used to improve its mechanical characteristics. The repair mortars were designed with a composition similar to the originals, with a mixture of gypsum and lime, and their compatibility with the alabaster was studied, while also optimizing the granulometry of the aggregates used.

    El retablo de la Asunción de María está situado en el Altar Mayor de la Basílica del Pilar en Zaragoza y es una de las grandes obras del Patrimonio artístico español. La obra, esculpida en alabastro, fue realizada entre 1509 y ¡518 por Damián Forment. En este trabajo se recogen las directrices para el diseño de los morteros de reparación utilizados en la restauración del retablo. Se basaron en criterios de compatibilidad de los materiales y tratamientos existentes en el retablo, según la investigación realizada durante las obras de la última actuación realizada para la limpieza y restauración. En la investigación realizada se comprobó la composición de los morteros originales, la granulometría de los

  15. Restoration of ecological priority areas in planning of post-mining landscape. Pt. 2. Final report; Schaffung oekologischer Vorrangflaechen bei der Gestaltung der Bergbaufolgelandschaft. T. 2. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiedemann, D.; Haubold-Rosar, M.; Katzur, J.; Landeck, I.; Mueller, L.; Ziegler, H.D.

    1995-11-01

    For the development of biotope- and species-rich man-made landscapes formed by the principles of landscape aesthetics and sustained yield a well-balanced relation of useful, protected and compensating ecosystems is required. The research area includes three surface mining-districts (areas of restoration) and their environment in the Southwest of the Niederlausitzer mining region with an area of 540 km{sup 2}. Working mainpoints are: - analysis of site conditions, of flora and fauna, elaboration of digitised maps (geology, soil, ground water, surface waters, land use, landscape patterns ..) - showing and classifying of priority areas and web structures for nature protection - fundamentals of soil management and soil development - practical design concepts for three example areas and a nature reserve. The aims of nature protection are to be realised by an overlap system of areas in form of big priority areas, integrated web and small structures and an environmentally compatible land use in agriculture, forestry and water management. Required area and specific site conditions are available. Part 2 contains chapter 5 to 8. (orig.) [Deutsch] Fuer die Entwicklung biotop- und artenreicher, nachhaltig nutzbarer und aesthetisch gestalteter Kulturlandschaften ist ein ausgewogenes Verhaeltnis von Nutz-, Schutz- und Ausgleichsoekosystemen erforderlich. Untersuchungsgegenstand sind 3 grosse Tagebaukomplexe (Sanierungstagebaue) und ihr Umland im suedwestlichen Bereich des Niederlausitzer Abbauraumes mit einem Flaechenumfang von 540 km{sup 2}. Vier Schwerpunkte werden bearbeitet: - Analyse der Standortgrundlagen, der Flora und Fauna, Erarbeitung digitalisierter Karten (Geologie, Boden, Grundwasser, Oberflaechengewaesser, Flaechennutzung, Landschaftsstruktur ...) - Ausweisung und Einordnung von Vorrangflaechen und Verbundstrukturen fuer den Naturschutz - Grundlagen der Bodenmanipulation und Bodenentwicklung - Praktische Entwurfskonzepte fuer 3 Beispielsgebiete und ein

  16. Restoration of ecological priority areas in planning of post-mining landscape. Pt. 1. Final report; Schaffung oekologischer Vorrangflaechen bei der Gestaltung der Bergbaufolgelandschaft. T. 1. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiedemann, D.; Haubold-Rosar, M.; Katzur, J.; Landeck, I.; Mueller, L.; Ziegler, H.D.

    1995-11-01

    For the development of biotope- and species-rich man-made landscapes formed by the principles of landscape aesthetics and sustained yield a well-balanced relation of useful, protected and compensating ecosystems is required. The research area includes three surface mining-districts (areas of restoration) and their environment in the Southwest of the Niederlausitzer mining region with an area of 540 km{sup 2}. Working mainpoints are: - analysis of site conditions, of flora and fauna, elaboration of digitised maps (geology, soil, ground water, surface waters, land use, landscape patterns ..) - showing and classifying of priority areas and web structures for nature protection - fundamentals of soil management and soil development - practical design concepts for three example areas and a nature reserve. The aims of nature protection are to be realised by an overlap system of areas in form of big priority areas, integrated web and small structures and an environmentally compatible land use in agriculture, forestry and water management. Required area and specific site conditions are available. Part 1 contains chapter 1 to 4. (orig.) [Deutsch] Fuer die Entwicklung biotop- und artenreicher, nachhaltig nutzbarer und aesthetisch gestalteter Kulturlandschaften ist ein ausgewogenes Verhaeltnis von Nutz-, Schutz- und Ausgleichsoekosystemen erforderlich. Untersuchungsgegenstand sind 3 grosse Tagebaukomplexe (Sanierungstagebaue) und ihr Umland, im suedwestlichen Bereich des Niederlausitzer Abbauraumes mit einem Flaechenumfang von 540 km{sup 2}. Vier Schwerpunkte werden bearbeitet: - Analyse der Standortgrundlagen, der Flora und Fauna, Erarbeitung digitalisierter Karten (Geologie, Boden, Grundwasser, Oberflaechengewaesser, Flaechennutzung, Landschaftsstruktur ...) - Ausweisung und Einordnung von Vorrangflaechen und Verbundstrukturen fuer den Naturschutz - Grundlagen der Bodenmanipulation und Bodenentwicklung - Praktische Entwurfskonzepte fuer 3 Beispielsgebiete und ein

  17. Altitudinal and interannual variation in seedling survival of tree species in central Chile: implications for sclerophyllous forest restoration

    OpenAIRE

    Becerra, Pablo I; Smith-Ramírez, Cecilia; Armesto, Juan J

    2016-01-01

    An important issue in ecological restoration of forest ecosystems is to establish where reforestation is more limited by ecological factors and thus where additional treatments (e.g. irrigation, shading) are more needed. Population growth, density and reproduction in plants have frequently been documented to decrease with altitude, although in semiarid regions, initial increases up to middle elevations and then decreasing upward have been reported. In the semiarid region of central Chile, the...

  18. Everglades Ecological Forecasting II: Utilizing NASA Earth Observations to Enhance the Capabilities of Everglades National Park to Monitor & Predict Mangrove Extent to Aid Current Restoration Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Donnie; Wolfe, Amy; Ba, Adama; Nyquist, Mckenzie; Rhodes, Tyler; Toner, Caitlin; Cabosky, Rachel; Gotschalk, Emily; Gregory, Brad; Kendall, Candace

    2016-01-01

    Mangroves act as a transition zone between fresh and salt water habitats by filtering and indicating salinity levels along the coast of the Florida Everglades. However, dredging and canals built in the early 1900s depleted the Everglades of much of its freshwater resources. In an attempt to assist in maintaining the health of threatened habitats, efforts have been made within Everglades National Park to rebalance the ecosystem and adhere to sustainably managing mangrove forests. The Everglades Ecological Forecasting II team utilized Google Earth Engine API and satellite imagery from Landsat 5, 7, and 8 to continuously create land-change maps over a 25 year period, and to allow park officials to continue producing maps in the future. In order to make the process replicable for project partners at Everglades National Park, the team was able to conduct a supervised classification approach to display mangrove regions in 1995, 2000, 2005, 2010 and 2015. As freshwater was depleted, mangroves encroached further inland and freshwater marshes declined. The current extent map, along with transition maps helped create forecasting models that show mangrove encroachment further inland in the year 2030 as well. This project highlights the changes to the Everglade habitats in relation to a changing climate and hydrological changes throughout the park.

  19. Economic barriers and incentives for biodiversity restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Frapolli, Eduardo; Lindigcisneros, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Costs related with restoration efforts, as well as the economic incentives, are fundamental issues that have not been fully considered from a formal standpoint. Through the analysis of restoration trials in collaboration with an indigenous community in western Mexico, we analyzed economic issues related with the restoration trials themselves, and with the economic context that gives incentives for ecological restoration. We reach to the conclusion that the cost-benefit relationship of the restoration process by itself can be straightforward calculated in some cases, calculating economic benefits accrued from the diversity restored to ecosystem is more difficult. In terms of the incentives for biodiversity restoration, we concluded that in many cases, economic variables out of the control of those involved in restoration are determinant.

  20. Effects of Different Treatments of Pasture Restoration on Soil Trace Gas Emissions in the Cerrados of Central Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planted pastures ( mainly Brachiaria spp) are the most extensive land use in the cerrado (savannas of central Brazil) with an area of approximately 50 x 10(6) ha. The objective of the study was to assess the effects of pasture restoration on the N dynamics ( net N mineralization/...

  1. A survey of pediatric dentists' caries-related treatment decisions and restorative modalities – A web-based survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan S. Halawany

    2017-04-01

    Conclusion: The prevalence of use of composite resin to restore primary teeth was higher compared to glass ionomer cements and amalgam whereas a limited use of esthetic pediatric crowns was found among the sample surveyed. Esthetic pediatric crowns were more utilized by male compared to female participants.

  2. Near Real-time Ecological Forecasting of Peatland Responses to Warming and CO2 Treatment through EcoPAD-SPRUCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y.; Jiang, J.; Stacy, M.; Ricciuto, D. M.; Hanson, P. J.; Sundi, N.; Luo, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Ecological forecasting is critical in various aspects of our coupled human-nature systems, such as disaster risk reduction, natural resource management and climate change mitigation. Novel advancements are in urgent need to deepen our understandings of ecosystem dynamics, boost the predictive capacity of ecology, and provide timely and effective information for decision-makers in a rapidly changing world. Our Ecological Platform for Assimilation of Data (EcoPAD) facilitates the integration of current best knowledge from models, manipulative experimentations, observations and other modern techniques and provides both near real-time and long-term forecasting of ecosystem dynamics. As a case study, the web-based EcoPAD platform synchronizes real- or near real-time field measurements from the Spruce and Peatland Responses Under Climatic and Environmental Change Experiment (SPRUCE), a whole ecosystem warming and CO2 enrichment treatment experiment, assimilates multiple data streams into process based models, enhances timely feedback between modelers and experimenters, and ultimately improves ecosystem forecasting and makes best utilization of current knowledge. In addition to enable users to (i) estimate model parameters or state variables, (ii) quantify uncertainty of estimated parameters and projected states of ecosystems, (iii) evaluate model structures, (iv) assess sampling strategies, and (v) conduct ecological forecasting, EcoPAD-SPRUCE automated the workflow from real-time data acquisition, model simulation to result visualization. EcoPAD-SPRUCE promotes seamless feedback between modelers and experimenters, hand in hand to make better forecasting of future changes. The framework of EcoPAD-SPRUCE (with flexible API, Application Programming Interface) is easily portable and will benefit scientific communities, policy makers as well as the general public.

  3. Crown and crown-root fractures: an evaluation of the treatment plans for management proposed by 154 specialists in restorative dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Mara Antonio Monteiro; Poi, Wilson Roberto; de Castro, José Carlos Monteiro; Panzarini, Sônia Regina; Sonoda, Celso Koogi; Trevisan, Carolina Lunardelli; Luvizuto, Eloá Rodrigues

    2010-06-01

    Traumatic tooth injuries involve function and aesthetics and cause damage that range from minimal enamel loss to complex fractures involving the pulp tissue and even loss of the tooth crown. Technical knowledge and clinical experience are essential to establish an accurate diagnosis and provide a rational treatment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knowledge of Restorative Dentistry specialists about the management of crown and crown-root fractures based on treatment plans proposed by these professionals for these cases. A descriptive questionnaire was mailed to 245 Restorative Dentistry specialists with questions referring to their professional profile and the treatment plans they would propose for the management of crown and crow-root fractures resulting from dental trauma. One hundred and fifty-four questionnaires were returned properly filled. The data were subjected to descriptive statistics and the chi-square test was used to determine the frequency and the level of the significance among the variables. The analysis of data showed that in spite of having a specialist title, all interviewees had great difficulty in planning the treatments. As much as 42.8% of the participants were unable to treat all types of dental trauma. Complicated and uncomplicated crown-root fractures posed the greatest difficulties for the dentists to establish adequate treatment plans because these fractures require multidisciplinary knowledge and approach for a correct case planning and prognosis.

  4. The income elasticity of Willingness-To-Pay (WTP) revisited: A meta-analysis of studies for restoring Good Ecological Status (GES) of water bodies under the Water Framework Directive (WFD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyllianakis, Emmanouil; Skuras, Dimitris

    2016-11-01

    The income elasticity of Willingness-To-Pay (WTP) is ambiguous and results from meta-analyses are disparate. This may be because the environmental good or service to be valued is very broadly defined or because the income measured in individual studies suffers from extensive non-reporting or miss reporting. The present study carries out a meta-analysis of WTP to restore Good Ecological Status (GES) under the Water Framework Directive (WFD). This environmental service is narrowly defined and its aims and objectives are commonly understood among the members of the scientific community. Besides income reported by the individual studies, wealth and income indicators collected by Eurostat for the geographic entities covered by the individual studies are used. Meta-regression analyses show that income is statistically significant, explains a substantial proportion of WTP variability and its elasticity is considerable in magnitude ranging from 0.6 to almost 1.7. Results are robust to variations in the sample of the individual studies participating in the meta-analysis, the econometric approach and the function form of the meta-regression. The choice of wealth or income measure is not that important as it is whether this measure is Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) adjusted among the individual studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Plant succession and approaches to community restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce A. Roundy

    2005-01-01

    The processes of vegetation change over time, or plant succession, are also the processes involved in plant community restoration. Restoration efforts attempt to use designed disturbance, seedbed preparation and sowing methods, and selection of adapted and compatible native plant materials to enhance ecological function. The large scale of wildfires and weed invasion...

  6. Restoring forest ecosystems: the human dimension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce R. Hull; Paul H. Gobster

    2000-01-01

    In the past two decades, ecological restoration has moved from an obscure and scientifically suspect craft to a widely practiced and respected profession with considerable scientific knowledge and refined on-the-ground practices. Concurrently, forest restoration has become a valued skill of forestry professionals and a popular goal for forest management. Politics and...

  7. Can Viral Videos Help Beaver Restore Streams?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, J. M.; Pollock, M. M.; Lewallen, G.; Jordan, C.; Woodruff, K.

    2015-12-01

    Have you watched YouTube lately? Did you notice the plethora of cute animal videos? Researchers, including members of our Beaver Restoration Research team, have been studying the restoration potential of beaver for decades, yet in the past few years, beaver have gained broad acclaim and some much deserved credit for restoration of aquatic systems in North America. Is it because people can now see these charismatic critters in action from the comfort of their laptops? While the newly released Beaver Restoration Guidebook attempts to answer many questions, sadly, this is not one of them. We do, however, address the use of beaver (Castor canadensis) in stream, wetland, and floodplain restoration and discuss the many positive effects of beaver on fluvial ecosystems. Our team, composed of researchers from NOAA National Marine Fisheries Service, US Fish and Wildlife Service, US Forest Service, and Portland State University, has developed a scientifically rigorous, yet accessible, practitioner's guide that provides a synthesis of the best available science for using beaver to improve ecosystem functions. Divided into two broad sections -- Beaver Ecology and Beaver Restoration and Management -- the guidebook focuses on the many ways in which beaver improve habitat, primarily through the construction of dams that impound water and retain sediment. In Beaver Ecology, we open with a discussion of the general effects that beaver dams have on physical and biological processes, and we close with "Frequently Asked Questions" and "Myth Busters". In Restoration and Management, we discuss common emerging restoration techniques and methods for mitigating unwanted beaver effects, followed by case studies from pioneering practitioners who have used many of these beaver restoration techniques in the field. The lessons they have learned will help guide future restoration efforts. We have also included a comprehensive beaver ecology library of over 1400 references from scientific journals

  8. Shifting Restoration Policy to Address Landscape Change, Novel Ecosystems, and Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joy B. Zedler

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Policy to guide ecological restoration needs to aim toward minimizing the causes of ecosystem degradation; where causes cannot be eliminated or minimized, policy needs to shift toward accommodating irreversible landscape alterations brought about by climate change, nitrogen deposition, altered hydrology, degraded soil, and declining biodiversity. The degree to which lost diversity and ecosystem services can be recovered depends on the extent and nature of landscape change. For wetlands that occur at the base of watersheds that have been developed for agriculture or urban centers, the inflows of excess water, sediment, and nutrients can be permanent and can severely challenge efforts to restore historical services, including biodiversity support. In such cases, the historical state of downstream wetlands will not be completely restorable. Wetland restoration policy should promote watershed planning, wherein wetland and upland restoration is prioritized to achieve multiple, specific ecosystem services. For downstream wetlands, it is realistic to aim to enhance nitrogen removal and to establish native plants that are matrix dominants, namely, those that facilitate rather than displace other natives. More ambitious objectives such as maximizing diversity would be suitable for less-altered, upstream wetlands. Policy should also call for adaptive restoration and long-term assessments. For large sites and multiple sites of a given wetland type within a region, experimental tests can determine a wetland's ability to support high levels of ecosystem services. Once projects are underway, long-term monitoring of structural and functional indicators can characterize progress toward each objective. Managers can then learn which targets are unachievable based on data, not just opinion. Where an experimental treatment shows limited progress, practitioners would shift to more promising treatments and targets, thereby adapting restoration efforts to changing

  9. TREE SPECIES DIRECT SOWING FOR FOREST RESTORATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robério Anastácio Ferreira

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The direct sowing to tropical forest restoration can be viable when the ecological and silvicultural aspects of species areknown. This work evaluated the effect of breaking seed dormancy and a physical protector on the initial growth of riparian treespecies. The experiment was carried out in a randomized blocks design, in a factorial (2x2, with four blocks and four plots for eachtreatment. The treatment to break seed dormancy used were: immersion in sulphuric acid for 20 minutes and washing in water for 1hour plus soaking for 24 hours for Trema micrantha; immersion in boiling water (100oC with following soaking until refreshing for24 hours to Senna multijuga and Senna macranthera and pre-soaking in water for 2 hours for Solanum granuloso-leprosum. Thephysical protector used was a transparent plastic cup (500mL. The breaking seed dormancy used was efficient in laboratory, exceptfor S. macranthera. In field conditions, it was efficient only for S. multijuga and S. macranthera. The physical protector did notpresented any benefit for the studied tree species regarding seedlings emergence and survival, but it provided significant differencesin height and base diameter for S. multijuga and in height for S. macranthera after three months. After 24 months, T. micranthapresented the highest values for height and basal diameter. S. macranthera presented the height relative growth and T. micrantha thehighest basal diameter. The studied species can be recommended for ecological forest restoration, using direct sowing.

  10. Civic Ecology: Linking Social and Ecological Approaches in Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasny, Marianne E.; Tidball, Keith G.

    2010-01-01

    Civic ecology refers to the philosophy and science of community forestry, community gardening, watershed enhancement, and other volunteer-driven restoration practices in cities and elsewhere. Such practices, although often viewed as initiatives to improve a degraded environment, also foster social attributes of resilient social-ecological systems,…

  11. Social Science Methods Used in the RESTORE Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynne M. Westphal; Cristy Watkins; Paul H. Gobster; Liam Heneghan; Kristen Ross; Laurel Ross; Madeleine Tudor; Alaka Wali; David H. Wise; Joanne Vining; Moira. Zellner

    2014-01-01

    The RESTORE (Rethinking Ecological and Social Theories of Restoration Ecology) project is an interdisciplinary, multi-institutional research endeavor funded by the National Science Foundation's Dynamics of Coupled Natural Human Systems program. The goal of the project is to understand the links between organizational type, decision making processes, and...

  12. Restoration of ultraviolet-induced unscheduled DNA synthesis of xeroderma pigmentosum cells by the concomitant treatment with bacteriophage T4 endonuclease V and HVJ (Sendai virus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, K.; Sekiguchi, M.; Okada, Y.

    1975-01-01

    Ultraviolet (uv)-induced unscheduled DNA synthesis of xeroderma pigmentosum cells, belonging to complementation groups, A, B, C, D, and E, was restored to the normal level by concomitant treatment of the cells with T4 endonuclease V and uv-inactivated HVJ (Sendai virus). The present results suggest that T4 endonuclease molecules were inserted effectively into the cells by the interaction of HVJ with the cell membranes, the enzyme was functional on human chromosomal DNA which had been damaged by uv irradiation in the viable cells, all the studied groups of xeroderma pigmentosum (variant was not tested) were defective in the first step (incision) of excision repair

  13. A comparative study of shear bond strength between metal and ceramic brackets and artificially aged composite restorations using different surface treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslamian, Ladan; Borzabadi-Farahani, Ali; Mousavi, Nasim; Ghasemi, Amir

    2012-10-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the shear bond strength (SBS) between ceramic brackets (CBs) and resin composite restorations (RCRs) prepared using different surface treatments. The findings were also compared with a similar study that used stainless steel brackets (SSBs). Forty-five premolars were restored with a nano-hybrid composite resin (Tetric EvoCeram) and randomly assigned to three surface treatment groups: group 1, 5 per cent hydrofluoric acid (HF); group 2, air abrasion (50 μm alumina particles); and group 3, diamond bur. Specimens were bonded with CBs (Fascination) and exposed to thermo-cycling (500 cycles). The shear force at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/minute was transmitted to brackets. The adhesive remnant index (ARIs) scores were recorded after bracket failure. The analysis of SBS variance (P 0.05) and bond failure occurred mainly in adhesive-bracket base and resin-adhesive interfaces. The diamond bur surface treatment is recommended as a safe and cost-effective method of bonding CBs to RCRs.

  14. Hair restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawnsley, Jeffrey D

    2008-08-01

    The impact of male hair loss as a personal and social marker of aging is tremendous and its persistence as a human concern throughout recorded history places it in the forefront of male concern about the physical signs of aging. Restoration of the frontal hairline has the visual effect of re-establishing facial symmetry and turning back time. Follicular unit transplantation has revolutionized hair restoration, with its focus on redistributing large numbers of genetically stable hair to balding scalp in a natural distribution. Follicular unit hair restoration surgery is a powerful tool for the facial plastic surgeon in male aesthetic facial rejuvenation because it offers high-impact, natural-appearing results with minimal downtime and risk for adverse outcome.

  15. Morphotype-based characterization of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities in a restored tropical dry forest, Margarita island-Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurie Fajardo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The mycorrhizal component of revegetated areas after ecological restoration or rehabilitation in arid and semiarid tropical areas has been scarcely assessed, particularly those made after mining disturbance. We evaluated and compared the presence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi of a small area of restored tropical dry for est destroyed by sand extraction, with a non-restored area of similar age, at the peninsula of Macanao, Margarita Island (Venezuela. Our study was undertaken in 2009, four years after planting, and the mycorrhizal status was evaluated in four restored plots (8 x 12.5 m (two were previously treated with hydrogel (R2 and R2', and two were left untreated (R1 and R1', and four non-restored plots of similar size (NR1 and NR1' with graminoid physiognomy with some scattered shrubs; and NR2 and NR2', with a more species rich plant community. Apparently the restoration management promoted higher arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF species richness and diversity, particularly in restored soils where the hydrogel was added (R2 treatment. Soil of the NR1 treat ment (with a higher herbaceous component showed the highest spore density, compared to samples of soils under the other treatments. Considering species composition, Claroideoglomus etunicatumand Rhizophagus intraradiceswere found in all treatments; besides, Diversispora spurcaand Funneliformis geosporumwere only found in non-restored plots, while members of the Gigasporaceae (a family associated with little disturbed sites were commonly observed in the plots with restored soils. Mycorrhizal colonization was similar in the restored and non-restored areas, being a less sensitive indicator of the ecosystem recovery. The trend of higher richness and diversity of AMF in the restored plot with hydrogel suggests that this management strategy contributes to accelerate the natural regeneration in those ecosystems where water plays an essential role.

  16. Special Care Dentistry in a Patient with Prader-Willi Syndrome through the Use of Atraumatic Restorative Treatment under General Anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman-Torres, Caio Vinícius Gonçalves; Kussaba, Sérgio Takashi; Bantim, Yasmin Comoti Vita; de Oliveira, Roberta de Barros Antunes Almeida

    2017-01-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome described in 1956 has a genetic origin, affecting both genders, varying in presence and intensity from individual to individual. A precocious diagnosis, before the manifestation of symptoms, has brought some improvement in the quality of life of the carriers in the last years. The objective of this case report was to describe the treatment realized in a 3-year-old boy who presented grade II obesity, difficulty of locomotion, hypotonia, and history of cardiopathy. A dental treatment under general anesthesia was defined, allowing an oral adequation in a single section, in which it was planned the extraction of the element 74 and atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) technique in the other teeth. The precocious intervention in this 3-year-old patient by the therapy realized with ART under general anesthesia was done with success, avoiding unnecessary extractions, preserving dental elements, and maintaining the oral cavity in adequate function.

  17. Special Care Dentistry in a Patient with Prader–Willi Syndrome through the Use of Atraumatic Restorative Treatment under General Anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio Vinícius Gonçalves Roman-Torres

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Prader–Willi syndrome described in 1956 has a genetic origin, affecting both genders, varying in presence and intensity from individual to individual. A precocious diagnosis, before the manifestation of symptoms, has brought some improvement in the quality of life of the carriers in the last years. The objective of this case report was to describe the treatment realized in a 3-year-old boy who presented grade II obesity, difficulty of locomotion, hypotonia, and history of cardiopathy. A dental treatment under general anesthesia was defined, allowing an oral adequation in a single section, in which it was planned the extraction of the element 74 and atraumatic restorative treatment (ART technique in the other teeth. The precocious intervention in this 3-year-old patient by the therapy realized with ART under general anesthesia was done with success, avoiding unnecessary extractions, preserving dental elements, and maintaining the oral cavity in adequate function.

  18. Spontaneous colonization of restored dry grasslands by target species: restoration proceeds beyond sowing regional seed mixtures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Johanidesová, E.; Fajmon, K.; Jongepierová, I.; Prach, Karel

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 70, č. 4 (2015), s. 631-638 ISSN 0142-5242 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : restoration * grasslands * spontaneous colonization Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.617, year: 2015

  19. Effectiveness of conventional treatment using bulk-fill composite resin versus Atraumatic Restorative Treatments in primary and permanent dentition : a pragmatic randomized clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olegário, I.C.; Hesse, D.; Bönecker, M.; Pettorossi Imparato, J.C.; Minatel Braga, M.; Medeiros Mendes, F.; Prócida Raggio, D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Clinical studies are being conducted in less strict conditions in order to establish an adequate scientific basis for decision making. The aim of this pragmatic randomized clinical trial is to evaluate the effectiveness of single and multiple-surfaces restorations performed following the

  20. Restorative justice and victimology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The growth of restorative justice has sparked debate over the future of the criminal justice system, which has historically adopted a retributive, punitive philosophy and advocated for an individualistic, treatment-orientated approach. This approach has over time failed to address the needs of crime victims, communities and.

  1. Dark diversity illuminates the dim side of restoration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moeslund, Jesper Erenskjold; Brunbjerg, Ane Kirstine; Clausen, Kevin Kuhlmann

    Dark diversity consists of the species that are absent from sites where they could potentially thrive despite the fact that they are actually in the regional species pool. Successful ecological restoration requires detailed knowledge of species that are less successful in (re)colonizing restored ...... in future restoration and conservation efforts.......Dark diversity consists of the species that are absent from sites where they could potentially thrive despite the fact that they are actually in the regional species pool. Successful ecological restoration requires detailed knowledge of species that are less successful in (re)colonizing restored...

  2. [Ecology and ecologies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valera, Luca

    2011-01-01

    Ecology (from the Greek words οιχοσ, "house" and λογια "study of") is the science of the "house", since it studies the environments where we live. There are three main ways of thinking about Ecology: Ecology as the study of interactions (between humans and the environment, between humans and living beings, between all living beings, etc.), Ecology as the statistical study of interactions, Ecology as a faith, or rather as a science that requires a metaphysical view. The history of Ecology shows us how this view was released by the label of "folk sense" to gain the epistemological status of science, a science that strives to be interdisciplinary. So, the aim of Ecology is to study, through a scientific methodology, the whole natural world, answering to very different questions, that arise from several fields (Economics, Biology, Sociology, Philosophy, etc.). The plurality of issues that Ecology has to face led, during the Twentieth-century, to branch off in several different "ecologies". As a result, each one of these new approaches chose as its own field a more limited and specific portion of reality.

  3. A Social-Ecological View of Barriers and Facilitators for HIV Treatment Adherence: Interviews with Puerto Rican HIV Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eida M Castro

    Full Text Available To identify perceived barriers and facilitators for HAART adherence among people living with HIV/AIDS in Southern Puerto Rico using a Social Ecological framework.Individual in-depths interviews were conducted with 12 HIV patients with a history of HAART non-adherence. Interviews were audio-taped and transcribed. Content analysis was performed for each transcribed interview by three independent coders using a codebook. Using Atlas TI, super-codes and families were generated to facilitate the categorization tree as well as grounded analyses and density estimates.Most participants reported a monthly income of $500 or less (n = 7, a high school education level (n = 7, being unemployed (n = 9 and being recipients of government health insurance (n = 11. Three out of six women reported living alone with their children and most men informed living with their parents or other relatives (n = 4. For the grounded analyses, the top four sub-categories linked to high number of quotations were mental health barriers (G = 32 followed by treatment regimen (G = 28, health system (G = 24 and interpersonal relations (G = 16. The top four sub-categories linked to high number of codes are treatment regimen (D = 4, health status perception (D = 3, interpersonal relations (D = 3 and health system (D = 3.The results of this study suggest the interconnection of HIV treatment adherence barriers at various system levels. Future studies on HIV treatment barriers should explore these interactions and investigate the possible synergistic effect on non-adherent behavior.

  4. Transparent Restoration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barou, L.; Bristogianni, T.; Oikonomopoulou, F.

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the application of structural glass in restoration and conservation practices in order to highlight and safeguard our built heritage. Cast glass masonry is introduced in order to consolidate a half-ruined historic tower in Greece, by replacing the original parts of the façade

  5. Site Restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noynaert, L.; Bruggeman, A.; Cornelissen, R.; Massaut, V.; Rahier, A

    2001-04-01

    The objectives, the programme, and the achievements of the Site Restoration Department of SCK-CEN in 2000 are summarised. Main activities include the decommissioning of the BR3 PWR-reactor as well as other clean-up activities, projects on waste minimisation and activities related to the management of decommissioning projects. The department provides consultancy and services to external organisations.

  6. Site Restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noynaert, L.; Bruggeman, A.; Cornelissen, R.; Massaut, V.; Rahier, A.

    2001-01-01

    The objectives, the programme, and the achievements of the Site Restoration Department of SCK-CEN in 2000 are summarised. Main activities include the decommissioning of the BR3 PWR-reactor as well as other clean-up activities, projects on waste minimisation and activities related to the management of decommissioning projects. The department provides consultancy and services to external organisations

  7. Environmental Restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeevaert, T.; Vanmarcke, H

    1998-07-01

    The objectives of SCK-CEN's programme on environmental restoration are (1) to optimize and validate models for the impact assessment from environmental, radioactive contaminations, including waste disposal or discharge; (2) to support the policy of national authorities for public health and radioactive waste management. Progress and achievements in 1997 are reported.

  8. Chronic 5-HT4 receptor agonist treatment restores learning and memory deficits in a neuroendocrine mouse model of anxiety/depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darcet, Flavie; Gardier, Alain M; David, Denis J; Guilloux, Jean-Philippe

    2016-03-11

    Cognitive disturbances are often reported as serious invalidating symptoms in patients suffering from major depression disorders (MDD) and are not fully corrected by classical monoaminergic antidepressant drugs. If the role of 5-HT4 receptor agonists as cognitive enhancers is well established in naïve animals or in animal models of cognitive impairment, their cognitive effects in the context of stress need to be examined. Using a mouse model of anxiety/depression (CORT model), we reported that a chronic 5-HT4 agonist treatment (RS67333, 1.5mg/kg/day) restored chronic corticosterone-induced cognitive deficits, including episodic-like, associative and spatial learning and memory impairments. On the contrary, a chronic monoaminergic antidepressant drug treatment with fluoxetine (18mg/kg/day) only partially restored spatial learning and memory deficits and had no effect in the associative/contextual task. These results suggest differential mechanisms underlying cognitive effects of these drugs. Finally, the present study highlights 5-HT4 receptor stimulation as a promising therapeutic mechanism to alleviate cognitive symptoms related to MDD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. 78 FR 56202 - Ecological Restoration Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-12

    ... by the Congress, media, stakeholders, general public, scientific community, and leaders, including... and enjoyable harmony between humans and their environment,'' and fulfill the social, economic, and..., aesthetic, spiritual, and cultural heritage values, recreational experiences, and tourism opportunities...

  10. Native Plant Species Suitable for Ecological Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-10

    8217§ e "’ "’ ~ ::::> ~ ~ 3: 0 ~r c:... E- ~ ::r: ::r: ::r: ::c "’-! . . . . . . . . . Varieties "Aldous," "C:unper," ’’Cinunaron," ’" Pastura " and

  11. Effects of blue diode laser (445 nm) and LED (430-480 nm) radiant heat treatments on dental glass ionomer restoratives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionysopoulos, Dimitrios; Tolidis, Kosmas; Strakas, Dimitrios; Gerasimou, Paris; Sfeikos, Thrasyvoulos; Gutknecht, Norbert

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of two radiant heat treatments on water sorption, solubility and surface roughness of three conventional glass ionomer cements by using a blue diode laser (445 nm) and a light emitting diode (LED) unit (430-480 nm). Thirty disk-shaped specimens were prepared for each tested GIC (Equia Fil, Ketac Universal Aplicap and Riva Self Cure). The experimental groups (n = 10) of the study were as follows: Group 1 was the control group, in Group 2 the specimens were irradiated for 60 s at the top surface using a LED light-curing unit and in Group 3 the specimens were irradiated for 60 s at the top surface using a blue light diode laser. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey post hoc tests at a level of significance of a = 0.05. Radiant heat treatments with both laser and LED devices significantly decreased water sorption and solubility (p tested GICs. Blue diode laser treatment was seemed to be more effective compared to LED treatment for some of the tested materials. There were no changes in surface roughness of the GICs after the treatments (p > 0.05). Among the tested materials there were differences in water sorption and solubility (p 0.05). The use of the blue diode laser for this radiant heat treatment was harmless for the surface of the tested GICs and may be advantageous for the longevity of their restorations.

  12. Assessment of the ecological potential of mine-water treatment wetlands using a baseline survey of macroinvertebrate communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batty, L.C.; Atkin, L.; Manning, D.A.C.

    2005-01-01

    A baseline survey of macroinvertebrate populations in two mine-water treatment wetlands, one treating a net acidic spoil heap discharge and one a net alkaline ferruginous pumped mine water, was undertaken to assess the potential of these systems to provide habitats for faunal communities. Both wetlands were found to be impoverished in comparison to natural wetlands but did sustain a macroinvertebrate community that could support higher organisms. Wetland size and water quality in terms of pH, conductivity and metal concentrations were found to be important factors in determining the quality of the populations supported. Direct toxicity to organisms was unlikely to be the main cause of lower diversity, but the smothering of organisms via the precipitation of iron hydroxides particularly in the early parts of the treatment systems affected macroinvertebrate communities. The presence of areas of open water within the planted systems was found to be important for providing habitats for macroinvertebrates and this should be both a future design and maintenance consideration for environmental managers. - Mine-water treatment wetlands can be engineered to provide habitats for ecological communities

  13. The Controlled Ecological Life Support System Antarctic Analog Project: Prototype Crop Production and Water Treatment System Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubenheim, David L.; Flynn, Michael T.; Bates, Maynard; Schlick, Greg; Kliss, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) Antarctic Analog Project (CAAP), is a joint endeavor between the National Science Foundation, Office of Polar Programs (NSF-OPP) and the NASA. The fundamental objective is to develop, deploy, and operate a testbed of advanced life support technologies at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station that enable the objectives of both the NSF and NASA. The functions of food production, water purification, and waste treatment, recycle and reduction provided by CAAP will improve the quality of life for the South Pole inhabitants, reduce logistics dependence, enhance safety and minimize environmental impacts associated with human presence on the polar plateau. Because of the analogous technical, scientific, and mission features with Planetary missions such as a mission to Mars, CAAP provides NASA with a method for validating technologies and overall approaches to supporting humans. Prototype systems for sewage treatment, water recycle and crop production are being evaluated at Ames Research Center. The product water from sewage treatment using a Wiped-Film Rotating Disk is suitable for input to the crop production system. The crop production system has provided an enhanced level of performance compared with projected performance for plant-based life support: an approximate 50% increase in productivity per unit area, more than a 65% decrease in power for plant lighting, and more than a 75% decrease in the total power requirement to produce an equivalent mass of edible biomass.

  14. High degree reduction and restoration of graphene oxide on SiO2 at low temperature via remote Cu-assisted plasma treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obata, Seiji; Sato, Minoru; Akada, Keishi; Saiki, Koichiro

    2018-06-01

    A high throughput synthesis method of graphene has been required for a long time to apply graphene to industrial applications. Of the various synthesis methods, the chemical exfoliation of graphite via graphene oxide (GO) is advantageous as far as productivity is concerned; however, the quality of the graphene produced by this method is far inferior to that synthesized by other methods, such as chemical vapor deposition on metals. Developing an effective reduction and restoration method for GO on dielectric substrates has been therefore a key issue. Here, we present a method for changing GO deposited on a dielectric substrate into high crystallinity graphene at 550 °C this method uses CH4/H2 plasma and a Cu catalyst. We found that Cu remotely catalyzed the high degree reduction and restoration of GO on SiO2 and the effect ranged over at least 8 mm. With this method, field-effect transistor devices can be fabricated without any post treatment such as a transfer process. This plasma treatment increased electron and hole mobilities of GO to 480 cm2 V‑1 s‑1 and 460 cm2 V‑1 s‑1 respectively; these values were more than 50 times greater than that of conventional reduced GO. Furthermore, the on-site conversion ensured that the shape of the GO sheets remained unchanged after the treatment. This plasma treatment realizes the high throughput synthesis of a desired shaped graphene on any substrate without any residue and damage being caused by the transfer process; as such, it expands the potential applicability of graphene.

  15. Lab of conservation and restoration of paper collections of CNEA: gamma radiation treatment of books and documents affected by microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfaro, Laura; Miranda, Maria V.; Gonzalez, Maria E.; Calvo, Ana M.

    2009-01-01

    In 2005 the CNEA's Laboratory of Conservation and Restoration of Paper Collections was inaugurated at the Ezeiza Atomic Centre. This lab takes advantage of the experience of CNEA in the utilization of the biocide effects of gamma radiation for decontamination and sterilization of different products, mainly medical products. In recent years the application of gamma radiation to the other goods was explored. Gamma radiation can be utilized for disinfection in the case of biological contamination, such as contamination of books and documents by fungi or insects, and in the case of some disasters (inundation or fire controlled with water in libraries and archives) to prevent the growing of fungi and pathogenic bacteria. (author) [es

  16. Predictable repair of provisional restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Barry D; Cooper, Jeril R; Lazarchik, David A

    2009-01-01

    The importance of provisional restorations is often downplayed, as they are thought of by some as only "temporaries." As a result, a less-than-ideal provisional is sometimes fabricated, in part because of the additional chair time required to make provisional modifications when using traditional techniques. Additionally, in many dental practices, these provisional restorations are often fabricated by auxillary personnel who may not be as well trained in the fabrication process. Because provisionals play an important role in achieving the desired final functional and esthetic result, a high-quality provisional restoration is essential to fabricating a successful definitive restoration. This article describes a method for efficiently and predictably repairing both methacrylate and bis-acryl provisional restorations using flowable composite resin. By use of this relatively simple technique, provisional restorations can now be modified or repaired in a timely and productive manner to yield an exceptional result. Successful execution of esthetic and restorative dentistry requires attention to detail in every aspect of the case. Fabrication of high-quality provisional restorations can, at times, be challenging and time consuming. The techniques for optimizing resin provisional restorations as described in this paper are pragmatic and will enhance the delivery of dental treatment.

  17. 75 FR 10204 - Collaborative Forest Landscape Restoration Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... Restoration, 2. Fire Ecology, 3. Fire Management, 4. Rural Economic Development, 5. Strategies for Ecological Adaptation to Climate Change, 6. Fish and Wildlife Ecology, and 7. Woody Biomass and Small-Diameter Tree... will be subject to appropriate conflict of interest statutes and standards of ethical conduct. All SGE...

  18. Restoration of a fractured central incisor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Bradley J

    2012-03-01

    The treatment of a traumatically damaged single central incisor poses significant challenges relative to function and esthetics to the restoring clinician. Providing a good long-term prognosis is paramount when determining whether to maintain or extract a structurally compromised tooth. Successful restoration demands timely and thorough risk assessment along with excellent communication with both the patient and the laboratory fabricating the restoration.

  19. Steps Towards Sustainability and Tools for Restoring Natural Capital: Etang de Berre (southern France) case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aronson, J.; Claeys, F.; Westerberg, V.; Picon, P.; Bernard, G.; Bocognano, J.M.; Groot, de R.S.

    2011-01-01

    Communities, nations, not-for-pro fi t groups, and some mining, infrastructure, and energy corporations are catching on to the fact that the ecological restoration of degraded ecosystems is vital to their search for sustainability and ecological accountability. The science of restoration ecology can

  20. Evaluating impacts using a BACI design, ratios, and a Bayesian approach with a focus on restoration

    OpenAIRE

    Conner, Mary M.; Saunders, W. Carl; Bouwes, Nicolaas; Jordan, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Before-after-control-impact (BACI) designs are an effective method to evaluate natural and human-induced perturbations on ecological variables when treatment sites cannot be randomly chosen. While effect sizes of interest can be tested with frequentist methods, using Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling methods, probabilities of effect sizes, such as a ?20?% increase in density after restoration, can be directly estimated. Although BACI and Bayesian methods are used widely for as...

  1. Botulinum Toxin Type A as Preoperative Treatment for Immediately Loaded Dental Implants Placed in Fresh Extraction Sockets for Full-Arch Restoration of Patients With Bruxism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijiritsky, Eitan; Mortellaro, Carmen; Rudberg, Omri; Fahn, Miri; Basegmez, Cansu; Levin, Liran

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the present report was to describe the use of Botulinum toxin type A as preoperative treatment for immediately loaded dental implants placed in fresh extraction sockets for full-arch restoration of patients with bruxism. Patients with bruxism who were scheduled to receive immediately loaded full-arch implant supported fixed restorations were included in this retrospective clinical report. To reduce the occlusal forces applied in patients with bruxism, Botulinum toxin type A was introduced prior to the implant placement procedure. Patients were followed and implant survival as well as peri-implant bone level was assessed in each periodic follow-up visit. Adverse effects were also recorded. A control group with no use of Botulinum toxin was evaluated as well. A total of 26 patients (13 test and 13 control), with bruxism, aged 59.15 ± 11.43 years on average were included in this retrospective report and received immediately loaded dental implants placed in fresh extraction sockets for full-arch restoration. The test group treatment preceded by Botulinum toxin type A injection. Maxillary arches were supported by 8 to 10 implants while the mandibular arch was supported by 6 implants. All surgeries went uneventfully and no adverse effects were observed. The average follow-up time was 32.5 ± 10.4 months (range, 18-51). In the test group, no implant failures were recorded. One patient presented with 1 to 2 mm bone loss around 4 of the implants; the other implants presented with stable bone level. In the control group 1 patient lost 2 implants and another demonstrated 2 mm bone loss around 3 of the implants. The preoperative use of Botulinum toxin in patients with bruxism undergoing full-arch rehabilitation using immediately loaded dental implants placed in fresh extraction sockets seems to be a technique that deserves attention. Further long-term, large-scale randomized clinical trials will help to determine the additional benefit of this suggested

  2. Effect of ecological surface treatment method on friction strength properties of nettle (urtica dioica) fibre yarns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şansal, S.; Mıstık, S. I.; Fettahov, R.; Ovalı, S.; Duman, M.

    2017-10-01

    Over the last few decades, more attention is given to lignocellulose based fibres as reinforcement material in the polymer composites owing to the environmental pollution caused by the extensive usage of synthetic and inorganic fibres. Developing new natural fibre reinforced composites is the focus of many researches nowadays. They are made from renewable resources and they have less environmental effect in comparison to inorganic fibre reinforced composites. The interest of consumers in eco-friendly natural fibres and textiles has increased in recent years. Unlike inorganic fibres, natural fibres present light weight, high strength/density ratio and are readily available, environmentally friendly and biodegradable. Many different types of natural fibres are exploited for the production of biodegradable polymer composites. The nettle (Urtica dioica L.) is a well-known plant growing on rural sites of Europe, Asia, and North America. Nettle plant contains fibre similar to hemp and flax. However, similar to other natural fibres, nettle fibres are poorly compatible with the thermoplastic matrix of composites, due to their hydrophilic character which reduces mechanical properties of nettle fibre reinforced thermoplastics. In order to improve the fibrematrix adhesion of the natural fibre reinforced composites, surface treatment processes are applied to the lignocellulose fibres. In this study nettle (urtica dioica) fibre yarns were treated with NaOH by using conventional, ultrasonic and microwave energy methods. After treatment processes tensile strength, elongation, friction strength and SEM observations of the nettle fibre yarns were investigated. All treatment processes were improved the tensile strength, elongation and friction strength properties of the nettle fibre yarns. Also higher tensile strength, elongation and friction strength properties were obtained from treated nettle fibre yarns which treated by using microwave energy method.

  3. Enhancing the ecological and operational characteristics of water treatment units at TPPs based on baromembrane technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chichirova, N. D.; Chichirov, A. A.; Filimonova, A. A.; Saitov, S. R.

    2017-12-01

    The innovative baromembrane technologies for water demineralization were introduced at Russian TPPs more than 25 years ago. While being used in the power engineering industry of Russia, these technologies demonstrated certain advantages over the traditional ion-exchange and thermal technologies of makeup water treatment for steam boilers. Water treatment units based on the baromembrane technology are compact, easy to operate, and highly automated. The experience gained from the use of these units shows that their reliability depends directly on preliminary water treatment. The popular water pretreatment technology with coagulation by aluminum oxychloride proved to be inefficient during the seasonal changes of source water quality that occurs at some stations. The use of aluminum coagulant at pH 8 and higher does not ensure the stable and qualitative pretreatment regime: soluble aluminum forms slip on membranes of the ultrafiltration unit, thereby causing pollution and intoxication as well as leading to structural damages or worsening of mechanical properties of the membranes. The problem of increased pH and seasonal changes of the source water quality can be solved by substitution of the traditional coagulant into a new one. To find the most successful coagulant for water pretreatment, experiments have been performed on both qualitative and quantitative analysis of the content of natural organic matters in the Volga water and their structure. We have developed a software program and measured the concentrations of soluble aluminum and iron salts at different pH values of the source water. The analysis of the obtained results has indicated that iron sulfate at pH 6.0-10.2, in contrast to aluminum oxychloride, is not characterized by increased solubility. Thus, the basic process diagrams of water pretreatment based on baromembrane technologies with pretreatment through coagulation by iron salts and wastewater amount reducing from 60-40 to 5-2% have been introduced for

  4. Anaerobic digestion for simultaneous sewage sludge treatment and CO biomethanation: process performance and microbial ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Gang; Wang, Wen; Angelidaki, Irini

    2013-01-01

    Syngas is produced by thermal gasification of both non-renewable and renewable sources including biomass and coal, and it consists mainly of CO, CO2 and H2. In this paper we aim to bio-convert CO in the syngas to CH4. A novel technology for simultaneous sewage sludge treatment and CO biomethanation....... However, the two species were distributed differently in the liquid phase and in the biofilm. Although carboxidotrophic activities test showed that CO was converted by both archaea and bacteria, the bacterial species responsible for CO conversion are unknown....

  5. Ecological surveys of the proposed high explosives wastewater treatment facility region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haarmann, T.

    1995-07-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) proposes to improve its treatment of wastewater from high explosives (HE) research and development activities. The proposed project would focus on a concerted waste minimization effort to greatly reduce the amount of wastewater needing treatment. The result would be a 99% decrease in the HE wastewater volume, from the current level of 6,760,000 L/mo (1,786,000 gal./mo) to 41,200 L/mo (11,000 gal./mo). This reduction would entail closure of HE wastewater outfalls, affecting some wetland areas that depend on HE wastewater effluents. The outfalls also provide drinking water for many wildlife species. Terminating the flow of effluents at outfalls would represent an improvement in water quality in the LANL region but locally could have a negative effect on some wetlands and wildlife species. None of the affected species are protected by any state or federal endangered species laws. The purpose of this report is to briefly discuss the different biological studies that have been done in the region of the project area. This report is written to give biological information and baseline data and the biota of the project area

  6. Ecological surveys of the proposed high explosives wastewater treatment facility region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haarmann, T.

    1995-07-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) proposes to improve its treatment of wastewater from high explosives (HE) research and development activities. The proposed project would focus on a concerted waste minimization effort to greatly reduce the amount of wastewater needing treatment. The result would be a 99% decrease in the HE wastewater volume, from the current level of 6,760,000 L/mo (1,786,000 gal./mo) to 41,200 L/mo (11,000 gal./mo). This reduction would entail closure of HE wastewater outfalls, affecting some wetland areas that depend on HE wastewater effluents. The outfalls also provide drinking water for many wildlife species. Terminating the flow of effluents at outfalls would represent an improvement in water quality in the LANL region but locally could have a negative effect on some wetlands and wildlife species. None of the affected species are protected by any state or federal endangered species laws. The purpose of this report is to briefly discuss the different biological studies that have been done in the region of the project area. This report is written to give biological information and baseline data and the biota of the project area.

  7. EVALUATION OF ECOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT SECURITY IN CONTIGUOUS POVERTY ALLEVIATION AREA OF SICHUAN PROVINCE

    OpenAIRE

    W. Xian; Y. Chen; J. Chen; X. Luo; H. Shao

    2018-01-01

    According to the overall requirements of ecological construction and environmental protection, rely on the national key ecological engineering, strengthen ecological environmental restoration and protection, improve forest cover, control soil erosion, construct important ecological security barrier in poor areas, inhibit poverty alleviation through ecological security in this area from environmental damage to the vicious cycle of poverty. Obviously, the dynamic monitoring of ecological securi...

  8. Sequential treatment with basic fibroblast growth factor and parathyroid hormone restores lost cancellous bone mass and strength in the proximal tibia of aged ovariectomized rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wronski, T.J.; Ratkus, A.M.; Thomsen, Jesper Skovhus

    2001-01-01

    This study was designed to determine whether sequential treatment with basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) can restore lost cancellous bone mass and strength at a severely osteopenic skeletal site in aged ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were...... intravenously (iv) daily with bFGF for 14 days at a dose of 200 microg/kg body weight. At the end of bFGF treatment, one group was killed whereas the other group was subjected to 8 weeks of treatment with synthetic human PTH 1-34 [hPTH(1-34)] consisting of subcutaneous (sc) injections 5 days/week at a dose...... of 80 microg/kg. Another group of OVX rats was treated iv with vehicle for 2 weeks followed by treatment with PTH alone for 8 weeks. Other groups of sham-operated control rats and OVX rats were treated iv and sc with vehicle alone. The right proximal tibia from each rat was processed undecalcified...

  9. Impact of broad-spectrum antimicrobial treatment on the ecology of intestinal flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jen-Jia; Wang, Jann-Tay; Cheng, Aristine; Chuang, Yu-Chung; Sheng, Wang-Huei

    2017-06-28

    Suppression of intestinal flora by broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents facilitated risk of colonization or infection with resistant pathogen. We aimed to investigate the changes in bowel carriage of target resistant microorganisms (TRO) among patients treated with three different classes of Pseudomonas-sparing broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents (ertapenem, moxifloxacin and flomoxef) with anaerobic coverage. Risk factors for developing colonization of TRO were also analyzed. We prospectively enrolled the adult hospitalized patients (>20 years old) who were indicated for at least 7-day course with either of ertapenem, moxifloxacin or flomoxef. Rectal swabs were performed for the patients who received at least 1-day course of study antibiotics during the treatment duration. The TROs included Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacteriaceae, and Acinetobacter baumannii. MacConkey agars with study antibiotics were used to isolate the TROs and evaluate the antimicrobial resistance. The mean age of our study population was 61.6 years, and 58.8% were males. The rates of rectal colonization for Pseudomonas aeruginosa was similar among the study medications (ertapenem 13.2%, flomoxef 20%, moxifloxacin 14.3%, p = 0.809). Compared with ertapenem, flomoxef (odds ratio [OR], 4.30; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.28-14.48, p = 0.019) and moxifloxacin (OR, 6.95; 95% CI, 1.36-35.52, p = 0.019) had higher risk for colonization of ertapenem-resistant Escherichiacoli colonization. The patients who received treatment of ertapenem may have a lower risk of rectal colonization for ertapenem resistant Escherichia coli than those who received flomoxef or moxifloxacin. The rate of Pseudomonas colonization did not differ between the three study Pseudomonas-sparing agents. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Application and microbial ecology of psychrotrophs in domestic wastewater treatment at low temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhenzhen; Ben, Yue; Chen, Zhonglin; Jiang, Anxi; Shen, Jimin; Han, Xiaoyun

    2018-01-01

    The feasibility of a bunch of screened psychrotrophs being applied to low-temperature wastewater treatment was investigated. The screened psychrophillic strains are capable of growth at a broad temperature-range from 0 to 40 °C and exhibit a preferable TTC-dehydrogenase activity at low temperature (4-10 °C). Along the sharply fluctuant temperatures (25-4-25 °C), the screened psychrotrophs (compared with the indigenous mesophiles) demonstrate less fluctuations of COD removal and more rapid recovery after temperature shocks. COD removal of approximate 80% was recorded by single psychrotrophs (while only 10% by single mesophiles) at low temperature (4 °C). Soft polyurethane foam showed better performance for psychrotrophs immobilization, with the optimal filling rate of 30% (v/v) in the bioreactor. The observation shows that the immobilized psychrotrophs demonstrated a relatively high performance on both conventional and emerging organic contaminants removals at low temperature. In order to check the feasibility of the screened psychrotrophs in treating actual domestic wastewater, a pilot-scale ICABR bioreactor was operated firstly at low temperature (4 °C) and then at seasonal varying temperatures (0-30 °C) for one year, the influent COD of 150-600 mg L -1 was efficiently reduced to 40 ± 18 mg L -1 under the conditions of an overall hydraulic retention time of 10 h. Furthermore, psychrotrophs performed stably as the predominant bacteria family during the whole operation. This study provides evidence that microbial intensification with psychrotrophs was a feasible strategy to improve the efficiency of conventional wastewater treatment process at low temperature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Science driven restoration: A candle in a demon haunted world—response to cabin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian P. Giardina; Creighton M. Litton; Jarrod M. Thaxton; Susan Cordell; Lisa J. Hadway; Darren R. Sandquist

    2007-01-01

    Cabin (2007) asks whether formal science is an effective framework and methodology for designing and implementing ecological restoration programs. He argues that beyond certain ancillary benefits, restoration science has little of practical value to offer the practice of restoration. He goes on to suggest that restoration science most often represents an impediment to...

  12. Restoration of lymphocyte proliferation and CTL generation by murine rIL-2 after treatment of allogeneic stimulator cells by ultraviolet B irradiation, heat, or paraformaldehyde

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flye, M.W.; Yu, S.

    1991-01-01

    Following a 5-day mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC), C3H/HeJ (H-2k) splenocytes stimulated with DBA/2 (H-2d) gamma-irradiated splenocytes (2000 rads) are specifically cytotoxic in a 4-hr 51 Cr-release assay to P815 (H-2d) target cells (62 +/- 2% cytolysis) but not to third-party EL4 (H-2b). However, when the DBA/2 stimulator cells were treated with heat inactivation (45 degree C for 1 hr), fixed with 1% paraformaldehyde (15 min), or irradiated with ultraviolet-B light (10(4) J/M2), no cell proliferation or cytolytic activity developed in the MLCs. The levels of IL-1, IL-2, and IL-6 from the supernatants of MLC using stimulators undergoing either of the three treatments were markedly decreased compared with that from gamma-irradiated stimulators. Both cell proliferation and specific cytolysis were restored in a dose-dependent fashion by the addition of murine rIL-2 to the MLCs. If the stimulator cells were first activated with 5 micrograms/ml pokeweed mitogen or lipopolysaccharide for 2 days, the subsequent treatment with heat, paraformaldehyde, or UV-B did not significantly affect the development of cytolysis (54-70% cytolysis). Suppressor cells were not detected when cells from the nonresponsive MLCs (2.5 x 10(6) cells) were added to an MLC freshly prepared with gamma-irradiated stimulator cells, or were injected intraperitoneally (50 x 10(6) cells) into naive mice 2 days before recovery and in vitro sensitization of splenocytes. Therefore, modification of the stimulating alloantigen can prevent the release of cytokines that function as an essential second signal in the development of the proliferative response and subsequent cytolysis. The cytokine found to be essential for restoration of this response is IL-2

  13. Modeling the impacts of wetland restoration in former cranberry farms on nitrogen removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    In population-dense Massachusetts (USA) acquiring historical wetlands for ecological restoration efforts can be difficult and expensive. Retiring cranberry bogs create a rare opportunity to restore historical wetlands. Environmental managers face important decisions about how to ...

  14. South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project: Planning Phase at Southern Eden Landing

    Science.gov (United States)

    This project will complete the design and permits to restore 1,300 acres of tidal wetlands, provide 3.5 miles shoreline protection, and accelerate wetlands restoration at the Eden Landing Ecological Reserve.

  15. Forest restoration as a strategy to mitigate climate impacts on wildfire, vegetation, and water in semiarid forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Frances C; Flatley, William T; Springer, Abraham E; Fulé, Peter Z

    2018-06-25

    Climate change and wildfire are interacting to drive vegetation change and potentially reduce water quantity and quality in the southwestern United States, Forest restoration is a management approach that could mitigate some of these negative outcomes. However, little information exists on how restoration combined with climate change might influence hydrology across large forest landscapes that incorporate multiple vegetation types and complex fire regimes. We combined spatially explicit vegetation and fire modeling with statistical water and sediment yield models for a large forested landscape (335,000 ha) on the Kaibab Plateau in northern Arizona, USA. Our objective was to assess the impacts of climate change and forest restoration on the future fire regime, forest vegetation, and watershed outputs. Our model results predict that the combination of climate change and high-severity fire will drive forest turnover, biomass declines, and compositional change in future forests. Restoration treatments may reduce the area burned in high-severity fires and reduce conversions from forested to non-forested conditions. Even though mid-elevation forests are the targets of restoration, the treatments are expected to delay the decline of high-elevation spruce-fir, aspen, and mixed conifer forests by reducing the occurrence of high-severity fires that may spread across ecoregions. We estimate that climate-induced vegetation changes will result in annual runoff declines of up to 10%, while restoration reduced or reversed this decline. The hydrologic model suggests that mid-elevation forests, which are the targets of restoration treatments, provide around 80% of runoff in this system and the conservation of mid- to high-elevation forests types provides the greatest benefit in terms of water conservation. We also predict that restoration treatments will conserve water quality by reducing patches of high-severity fire that are associated with high sediment yield. Restoration

  16. Review: Mangrove ecosystem in Java: 2. Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PURIN CANDRA PURNAMA

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available R E V I E W:Ekosistem Mangrove di Jawa: 2. RestorasiThe restoration of mangroves has received a lot of attentions world wide for several reasons. Mangrove ecosystem is very important in term of socio-economic and ecology functions. Because of its functions, wide range of people paid attention whenever mangrove restoration taken place. Mangrove restoration potentially increases mangrove resource value, protect the coastal area from destruction, conserve biodiversity, fish production and both of directly and indirectly support the life of surrounding people. This paper outlines the activities of mangrove restoration on Java island. The extensive research has been carried out on the ecology, structure and functioning of the mangrove ecosystem. However, the findings have not been interpreted in a management framework, thus mangrove forests around the world continue to be over-exploited, converted to aquaculture ponds, and polluted. We strongly argue that links between research and sustainable management of mangrove ecosystem should be established.

  17. Fernald restoration: ecologists and engineers integrate restoration and cleanup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woods, Eric; Homer, John

    2002-07-15

    As cleanup workers excavate pits and tear down buildings at the Fernald site in southwest Ohio, site ecologists are working side-by-side to create thriving wetlands and develop the early stages of forest, prairie, and savanna ecosystems to restore natural resources that were impacted by years of site operations. In 1998, the U.S. Department of Energy-Fernald Office (DOE-FN) and its cleanup contractor, Fluor Fernald, Inc., initiated several ecological restoration projects in perimeter areas of the site (e.g., areas not used for or impacted by uranium processing or waste management). The projects are part of Fernald's final land use plan to restore natural resources over 904 acres of the 1,050-acre site. Pete Yerace, the DOE-FN Natural Resource Trustee representative is working with the Fernald Natural Resource Trustees in an oversight role to resolve the state of Ohio's 1986 claim against DOE for injuries to natural resources. Fluor Fernald, Inc., and DOE-FN developed the ''Natural Resource Restoration Plan'', which outlines 15 major restoration projects for the site and will restore injured natural resources at the site. In general, Fernald's plan includes grading to maximize the formation of wetlands or expanded floodplain, amending soil where topsoil has been removed during excavation, and establishing native vegetation throughout the site. Today, with cleanup over 35 percent complete and site closure targeted for 2006, Fernald is entering a new phase of restoration that involves heavily remediated areas. By working closely with engineers and cleanup crews, site ecologists can take advantage of remediation fieldwork (e.g., convert an excavated depression into a wetland) and avoid unnecessary costs and duplication. This collaboration has also created opportunities for relatively simple and inexpensive restoration of areas that were discovered during ongoing remediation. To ensure the survival of the plant material in heavily

  18. Multiple Drug Treatments That Increase cAMP Signaling Restore Long-Term Memory and Aberrant Signaling in Fragile X Syndrome Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Catherine H.; Schoenfeld, Brian P.; Bell, Aaron J.; Hinchey, Joseph; Rosenfelt, Cory; Gertner, Michael J.; Campbell, Sean R.; Emerson, Danielle; Hinchey, Paul; Kollaros, Maria; Ferrick, Neal J.; Chambers, Daniel B.; Langer, Steven; Sust, Steven; Malik, Aatika; Terlizzi, Allison M.; Liebelt, David A.; Ferreiro, David; Sharma, Ali; Koenigsberg, Eric; Choi, Richard J.; Louneva, Natalia; Arnold, Steven E.; Featherstone, Robert E.; Siegel, Steven J.; Zukin, R. Suzanne; McDonald, Thomas V.; Bolduc, Francois V.; Jongens, Thomas A.; McBride, Sean M. J.

    2016-01-01

    Fragile X is the most common monogenic disorder associated with intellectual disability (ID) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Additionally, many patients are afflicted with executive dysfunction, ADHD, seizure disorder and sleep disturbances. Fragile X is caused by loss of FMRP expression, which is encoded by the FMR1 gene. Both the fly and mouse models of fragile X are also based on having no functional protein expression of their respective FMR1 homologs. The fly model displays well defined cognitive impairments and structural brain defects and the mouse model, although having subtle behavioral defects, has robust electrophysiological phenotypes and provides a tool to do extensive biochemical analysis of select brain regions. Decreased cAMP signaling has been observed in samples from the fly and mouse models of fragile X as well as in samples derived from human patients. Indeed, we have previously demonstrated that strategies that increase cAMP signaling can rescue short term memory in the fly model and restore DHPG induced mGluR mediated long term depression (LTD) in the hippocampus to proper levels in the mouse model (McBride et al., 2005; Choi et al., 2011, 2015). Here, we demonstrate that the same three strategies used previously with the potential to be used clinically, lithium treatment, PDE-4 inhibitor treatment or mGluR antagonist treatment can rescue long term memory in the fly model and alter the cAMP signaling pathway in the hippocampus of the mouse model. PMID:27445731

  19. COMBINATION OF APICALLY POSITIONED AND CORONALLY ADVANCED FLAP IN THE TREATMENT OF A COMPLEX MUCOGINGIVAL AND RESTORATIVE PROBLEM. A 3-YEAR FOLLOW-UP. (Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamen Kotsilkov

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The modern Periodontology has various approaches to achieve a complete functional and aesthetic rehabilitation of the mucogingival complex. These techniques include application of flaps with apical or coronal advancement in order to achieve different treatment objectives. Complex cases with different pathology on adjacent teeth require several surgeries thereby increasing treatment time and patient discomfort. New combined approaches are needed to meet the challenges of such cases. OBJECTIVE: This report presents a case with a simultaneous application of a resective and a mucogingival technique in one dental sextant. METHODS: I.C. (36 with a localized chronic periodontitis, Miller Class I gingival recessions (13,14 and subgingival caries lesions (15,16. A combined approach with simultaneous crown lengthening with apically positioned flap for 16,15 and root coverage with enamel matrix derivate and a coronally advanced flap for 14,13 was applied in order to avoid multiple surgical procedures. RESULTS: On the third month after the surgical procedure a complete root coverage (13,14 was achieved. The crown lengthening procedure enabled the restoration of the caries lesions and the placement of new crowns (15,16. The result at the third year demonstrates a stable gingival margin with no recurrence of the gingival recessions. CONCLUSION: The applied combined procedure led to a complete resolution of the existing problems with a single surgery. The simultaneous application of different procedures seems a promising approach aimed to reduce the treatment time and to diminish patient discomfort.

  20. Incorporating climate change projections into riparian restoration planning and design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Laura G.; Reynolds, Lindsay V.; Beechie, Timothy J.; Collins, Mathias J.; Shafroth, Patrick B.

    2015-01-01

    Climate change and associated changes in streamflow may alter riparian habitats substantially in coming decades. Riparian restoration provides opportunities to respond proactively to projected climate change effects, increase riparian ecosystem resilience to climate change, and simultaneously address effects of both climate change and other human disturbances. However, climate change may alter which restoration methods are most effective and which restoration goals can be achieved. Incorporating climate change into riparian restoration planning and design is critical to long-term restoration of desired community composition and ecosystem services. In this review, we discuss and provide examples of how climate change might be incorporated into restoration planning at the key stages of assessing the project context, establishing restoration goals and design criteria, evaluating design alternatives, and monitoring restoration outcomes. Restoration planners have access to numerous tools to predict future climate, streamflow, and riparian ecology at restoration sites. Planners can use those predictions to assess which species or ecosystem services will be most vulnerable under future conditions, and which sites will be most suitable for restoration. To accommodate future climate and streamflow change, planners may need to adjust methods for planting, invasive species control, channel and floodplain reconstruction, and water management. Given the considerable uncertainty in future climate and streamflow projections, riparian ecological responses, and effects on restoration outcomes, planners will need to consider multiple potential future scenarios, implement a variety of restoration methods, design projects with flexibility to adjust to future conditions, and plan to respond adaptively to unexpected change.

  1. An ecological study of skin biopsies and skin cancer treatment procedures in the United States Medicare population, 2000 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, David M; Morgan, Frederick C; Besaw, Robert J; Schmults, Chrysalyne D

    2018-01-01

    Analyses of skin cancer procedures adjusted for population changes are needed. To describe trends in skin cancer-related biopsies and procedures in Medicare beneficiaries. An ecological study of Medicare claims for skin biopsies and skin cancer procedures in 2000 to 2015. Biopsies increased 142%, and skin cancer procedures increased 56%. Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS) utilization increased on the head/neck, hands/feet, and genitalia (increasing from 11% to 27% of all treatment procedures) but was low on the trunk/extremities (increasing from 1% to 4%). Adjusted for increased Medicare enrollment (+36%) between 2000 and 2015, the number of biopsies and MMS procedures performed per 1000 beneficiaries increased (from 56 to 99 and from 5 to 15, respectively), whereas the number of excisions and destructions changed minimally (from 18 to 16 and from 19 to 18, respectively). Growth in biopsies and MMS procedures slowed between each time period studied: 4.3 additional biopsies per year and 0.9 additional MMS procedures per year per 1000 beneficiaries between 2000 and 2007, 2.2 and 0.5 more between 2008 and 2011, and 0.5 and 0.3 more between 2012 and 2015, respectively. Medicare claims-level data do not provide patient-level or nonsurgical treatment information. The increased number of skin cancer procedures performed was largely the result of Medicare population growth over time. MMS utilization increased primarily on high- and medium-risk and functionally and cosmetically significant locations where tissue sparing and maximizing cure are critical. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. River Restoration and Meanders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Mathias Kondolf

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Among the most visually striking river restoration projects are those that involve the creation of a new channel, often in a new alignment and generally with a form and dimensions that are different from those of the preproject channel. These channel reconstruction projects often have the objective of creating a stable, single-thread, meandering channel, even on rivers that were not historically meandering, on rivers whose sediment load and flow regime would not be consistent with such stable channels, or on already sinuous channels whose bends are not symmetrical. Such meandering channels are often specified by the Rosgen classification system, a popular restoration design approach. Although most projects of this type have not been subject to objective evaluation, completed postproject appraisals show that many of these projects failed within months or years of construction. Despite its, at best, mixed results, this classification and form-based approach continues to be popular because it is easy to apply, because it is accessible to those without formal training in fluvial geomorphology, and probably because it satisfies a deep-seated, although unrecognized, cultural preference for single-thread meandering channels. This preference is consistent with 18th-century English landscape theories, which held the serpentine form to be ideal and led to widespread construction of meandering channels on the country estates of the era. The preference for stability in restored channels seems to be widely accepted by practitioners and funders despite the fact that it is antithetical to research showing that dynamically migrating channels have the greatest ecological richness.

  3. Redox biology in normal cells and cancer: restoring function of the redox/Fyn/c-Cbl pathway in cancer cells offers new approaches to cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Mark; Mayer-Pröschel, Margot; Li, Zaibo; Dong, Tiefei; Cui, Wanchang; Pröschel, Christoph; Ambeskovic, Ibro; Dietrich, Joerg; Han, Ruolan; Yang, Yin Miranda; Folts, Christopher; Stripay, Jennifer; Chen, Hsing-Yu; Stevens, Brett M

    2015-02-01

    This review discusses a unique discovery path starting with novel findings on redox regulation of precursor cell and signaling pathway function and identification of a new mechanism by which relatively small changes in redox status can control entire signaling networks that regulate self-renewal, differentiation, and survival. The pathway central to this work, the redox/Fyn/c-Cbl (RFC) pathway, converts small increases in oxidative status to pan-activation of the c-Cbl ubiquitin ligase, which controls multiple receptors and other proteins of central importance in precursor cell and cancer cell function. Integration of work on the RFC pathway with attempts to understand how treatment with systemic chemotherapy causes neurological problems led to the discovery that glioblastomas (GBMs) and basal-like breast cancers (BLBCs) inhibit c-Cbl function through altered utilization of the cytoskeletal regulators Cool-1/βpix and Cdc42, respectively. Inhibition of these proteins to restore normal c-Cbl function suppresses cancer cell division, increases sensitivity to chemotherapy, disrupts tumor-initiating cell (TIC) activity in GBMs and BLBCs, controls multiple critical TIC regulators, and also allows targeting of non-TICs. Moreover, these manipulations do not increase chemosensitivity or suppress division of nontransformed cells. Restoration of normal c-Cbl function also allows more effective harnessing of estrogen receptor-α (ERα)-independent activities of tamoxifen to activate the RFC pathway and target ERα-negative cancer cells. Our work thus provides a discovery strategy that reveals mechanisms and therapeutic targets that cannot be deduced by standard genetics analyses, which fail to reveal the metabolic information, isoform shifts, protein activation, protein complexes, and protein degradation critical to our discoveries. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Several facts concerning health and questions about rehabilitative-restorative treatment of miners of the BAM zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    German, G N

    1985-06-01

    The Yuzhnaya-Yakutiya coal basin containing one of the largest deposits of coking coal (40 billion tons to a depth of 600 m, 60% of this to a depth of 300 m) in the USSR lies in the BAM zone. Average yearly temperature of the region is 7-10 C. Brittle enclosing rock, longterm frozen soil, concentration of coal deposits and machinery in small areas increase vibration, noise, dust and gas in working areas. Surveys revealed predominant illnesses are diseases of the nervous system: osteochondrosis, with secondary neuritis, and radiculitis. Eighty-two percent of miners with osteochondrosis work in occupations with high vibration risk. To prevent disease and rehabilitate miners with degenerative changes of motor apparatus and osteochondrosis, a network of rehabilitation rooms was created at health centers near the workplace. Miners with osteochondrosis, myositis and arthritis receive heat treatments, massage and curative physical culture. A course of treatment is given 2 or 3 times a year. The courses are given after work without interrupting employment. Miners are directed to take vacations every year. Preventive-rehabilitative treatment of miners of the Far North makes it possible to keep highly qualified workers actively employed which is important considering the shortage of miners in these regions. 2 references.

  5. A Multi-Analytical Approach for the Evaluation of the Efficiency of the Conservation-Restoration Treatment of Moroccan Historical Manuscripts Dating to the 16th, 17th, and 18th Centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajji, Latifa; Boukir, Abdellatif; Assouik, Jamal; Kerbal, Abdelali; Kajjout, Mohamed; Doumenq, Pierre; De Carvalho, Maria Luisa

    2015-08-01

    The most critical steps during the conservation-restoration treatment applied in Moroccan libraries are the deacidification using immersion in a saturated aqueous calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) solution and the consolidation of degraded m