Eijck, van M.W.; Roth, W.-M.
The debate on the status of traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) in science curricula is currently centered on a juxtaposition of two incompatible frameworks: multiculturalism and universalism. The aim of this paper is to establish a framework that overcomes this opposition between
The papers in this volume were selected from presentations made in a number of special sessions on Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK), which were held as ... concepts, provide case studies, and confirm once again the importance and, as yet, unrealized potential of TEK in resource and environmental management.
Worldview, Lifeway and Science - Communities that are tied to the land or water for their livelihood, and for whom subsistence guides their cultural lifeway, have knowledges that inform their interactions with the environment. These frameworks, sometimes called Traditional Ecological Knowledges (TEK), are based on generations of observations made and shared within lived life-environmental systems, and are tied to practitioners' broader worldviews. Subsistence communities, including Native American tribes, are well aware of the crises caused by climate change impacts. These communities are working on ways to integrate knowledge from their ancient ways with current observations and methods from Western science to implement appropriate adaptation and resilience measures. In the delta region of south Louisiana, the communities hold worldviews that blend TEK, climate science and faith-derived concepts. It is not incongruent for the communities to intertwine conversations from complex and diverse sources, including the academy, to inform their adaptation measures and their imagined solutions. Drawing on over twenty years of work with local communities, science organizations and faith institutions of the lower bayou region of Louisiana, the presenter will address the complexity of traditional communities' work with diverse sources of knowledge to guide local decision-making and to assist outside partners to more effectively address challenges associated with climate change.
management of plant resource through a community-based and participatory ... traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) and scientific knowledge, with the aim of defining criteria for sustainable ...... resources. World Bank Technical Paper.
Vallejo-Ramos, Mariana; Moreno-Calles, Ana I; Casas, Alejandro
Transformation of natural ecosystems into intensive agriculture is a main factor causing biodiversity loss worldwide. Agroforestry systems (AFS) may maintain biodiversity, ecosystem benefits and human wellbeing, they have therefore high potential for concealing production and conservation. However, promotion of intensive agriculture and disparagement of TEK endanger their permanence. A high diversity of AFS still exist in the world and their potentialities vary with the socio-ecological contexts. We analysed AFS in tropical, temperate, and arid environments, of the Tehuacan Valley, Mexico, to investigate how their capacity varies to conserve biodiversity and role of TEK influencing differences in those contexts. We hypothesized that biodiversity in AFS is related to that of forests types associated and the vigour of TEK and management. We conducted studies in a matrix of environments and human cultures in the Tehuacán Valley. In addition, we reviewed, systematized and compared information from other regions of Mexico and the world with comparable socio-ecological contexts in order to explore possible general patterns. Our study found from 26 % to nearly 90 % of wild plants species richness conserved in AFS, the decreasing proportion mainly associated to pressures for intensifying agricultural production and abandoning traditional techniques. Native species richness preserved in AFS is influenced by richness existing in the associated forests, but the main driver is how people preserve benefits of components and functions of ecosystems. Elements of modern agricultural production may coexist with traditional management patterns, but imposition of modern models may break possible balances. TEK influences decisions on what and how modern techniques may be advantageous for preserving biodiversity, ecosystem integrity in AFS and people's wellbeing. TEK, agroecology and other sciences may interact for maintaining and improving traditional AFS to increase biodiversity
Tamou, C; de Boer, I J M; Ripoll-Bosch, R; Oosting, S J
Pastoralists have traditional ecological knowledge (TEK), which is important for their livelihoods and for policies and interventions. Pastoralism is under pressure, however, which may result in a decline of pastoral lifestyle and its related TEK. We, therefore, addressed the following objectives (i) to inventorise and assess how pastoralists characterise and value soils and forages in their environment, (ii) to analyse how soil, forage and livestock (i.e. cattle) characteristics relate to herding decisions and (iii) to determine whether TEK underlying herding decisions differs across generations. Data were collected through focus groups and individual interviews with 72 pastoralists, belonging to three generations and to three agro-ecological zones. Using a three-point scale (high, medium, low), four grasses and three tree forages were assessed in terms of nutritional quality for milk, meat, health and strength. Using their own visual criteria, pastoralists identified five different soils, which they selected for herding at different times of the year. Pastoralists stated that Pokuri was the best soil because of its low moisture content, whereas Karaal was the worst because forage hardly grows on it. They stated that perennials, such as Andropogon gayanus and Loxoderra ledermannii, were of high nutritional quality, whereas annuals such as Andropogon pseudapricus and Hyparrhenia involucrata were of low nutritional quality. Afzelia africana was perceived of high quality for milk production, whereas Khaya senegalensis had the highest quality for meat, health and strength. Pastoralists first used soil, then forage and finally livestock characteristics in their herding decisions. Pastoralists' TEK was not associated with their generations, but with their agro-ecological zones. This study suggests that pastoralists had common and detailed TEK about soils, forages and livestock characteristics, underlying their herding decisions. To conclude, pastoralists use a holistic
Marla R. Emery; Alexandra Wrobel; Mark H. Hansen; Michael Dockry; W. Keith Moser; Kekek Jason Stark; Jonathan H. Gilbert
Traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) has been proposed as a basis for enhanced understanding of ecological systems and their management. TEK also can contribute to targeted inventories of resources not included in standard mensuration. We discuss the results of a cooperative effort between the Great Lakes Indian Fish and Wildlife Commission (GLIFWC) and USDA Forest...
Serra J. Hoagland
Traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) has been recognized within indigenous communities for millennia; however, traditional ecological knowledge has received growing attention within the western science (WS) paradigm over the past twenty-five years. Federal agencies, national organizations, and university programs dedicated to natural resource management are beginning...
Kimmerer, Robin Wall
Scientific ecological knowledge (SEK) is a powerful discipline for diagnosing and analyzing environmental degradation, but has been far less successful in devising sustainable solutions which lie at the intersection of nature and culture. Traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) of indigenous and local peoples is rich in prescriptions for the…
Full Text Available Abstract Background The integration of traditional ecological knowledge (TEK into formal school curricula may be a key tool for the revitalisation of biocultural diversity, and has the potential to improve the delivery of educational objectives. This paper explores perceptions of the value of TEK to formal education curricula on Malekula Island, Vanuatu. We conducted 49 interviews with key stakeholders (local TEK experts, educators, and officials regarding the use of the formal school system to transmit, maintain, and revitalise TEK. Interviews also gathered information on the areas where TEK might add value to school curricula and on the perceived barriers to maintaining and revitalising TEK via formal education programs. Results Participants reported that TEK had eroded on Malekula, and identified the formal school system as a principal driver. Most interviewees believed that if an appropriate format could be developed, TEK could be included in the formal education system. Such an approach has potential to maintain customary knowledge and practice in the focus communities. Participants identified several specific domains of TEK for inclusion in school curricula, including ethnomedical knowledge, agricultural knowledge and practice, and the reinforcement of respect for traditional authority and values. However, interviewees also noted a number of practical and epistemological barriers to teaching TEK in school. These included the cultural diversity of Malekula, tensions between public and private forms of knowledge, and multiple values of TEK within the community. Conclusions TEK has potential to add value to formal education systems in Vanuatu by contextualising the content and process of curricular delivery, and by facilitating character development and self-awareness in students. These benefits are congruent with UNESCO-mandated goals for curricular reform and provide a strong argument for the inclusion of TEK in formal school systems. Such
Indigenous knowledge is often dismissed as 'traditional and outdated', and hence irrelevant to modern ecological assessment. This theoretical paper critically examines the arguments advanced to elevate modern western ecological knowledge over indigenous ecological knowledge, as well as the sources and uses of ...
Full Text Available Many forest communities possess considerable knowledge of the natural resources they use. Such knowledge can potentially inform scientific approaches to management, either as a source of baseline data to fill information gaps that cannot otherwise be addressed or to provide alternative management approaches from which scientists and managers might learn. In general, however, little attention has been given to the relevance of quantitative forms of such knowledge for resource management. Much discussion has focused on the integration of traditional ecological knowledge (TEK into management, but less attention has been paid to identifying specific areas where it is most useful and where it may be most problematic. We contrasted scientific data with information from TEK in the context of a threat to the sustainable harvesting of a nontimber forest product (NTFP of livelihood importance in southern India, specifically, a fruit tree infected by mistletoe. The efficiency of deriving information from NTFP harvesters compared to scientific field studies was assessed. We further evaluated the potential of TEK to provide novel solutions to the management problem in question, the degree to which TEK could provide quantitative information, and the biases that might be associated with information derived from TEK. TEK complemented previously gathered ecological data by providing concordant and additional information, but also contradicted some results obtained using a scientific approach. TEK also gave a longer-term perspective with regard to NTFP harvesting patterns. Combining information on historical and current harvesting trends for the NTFP with official data suggests that current assessments of sustainability may be inaccurate and that the use of diverse information sources may provide an effective approach to assessing the status of harvested resources.
Kirsten Vinyeta; Kathy. Lynn
Indigenous populations are projected to face disproportionate impacts as a result of climate change in comparison to nonindigenous populations. For this reason, many American Indian and Alaska Native tribes are identifying and implementing culturally appropriate strategies to assess climate impacts and adapt to projected changes. Traditional ecological knowledge (TEK...
Full Text Available Multidisciplinary approaches to conservation have become increasingly important in northern regions. Because many First Nations communities have relied on freshwater fish populations for essential food over millennia, community members often possess traditional ecological knowledge (TEK. We consulted Cree First Nation fishers to collate TEK for one of Canada's most important subsistence fishes (lake trout in Québec's largest lake (Mistassini, 2335 km2. We further integrated TEK with what was regionally known scientifically about the species, toward effective fisheries conservation. Cree fishers described a richer diversity of sympatric lake trout forms than did scientific research that was conducted simultaneously, based on color, size, fin accent patterns, scale texture and depth, and spatial preferences. Traditional ecological knowledge also provided descriptions of lake trout seasonal movements, spawning locations, and reproductive timing that were not captured by scientific research, and highlighted several concerns or temporal changes of import to future management initiatives. Our study highlights the wealth of TEK on harvested species in First Nations communities. It further illustrates how TEK can reveal not only distinctions within species of relevance to natural resource management and taxonomy, but also informs upon the extent of such population differentiation, thereby providing important conservation benefits for remote and northern regions.
Kightley, Eric P; Reyes-García, Victoria; Demps, Kathryn; Magtanong, Ruth V; Ramenzoni, Victoria C; Thampy, Gayatri; Gueze, Maximilien; Stepp, John Richard
We test whether traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) about how to make an item predicts a person's skill at making it among the Tsimane' (Bolivia). The rationale for this research is that the failure to distinguish between knowledge and skill might account for some of the conflicting results about the relationships between TEK, human health, and economic development. We test the association between a commonly-used measure of individual knowledge (cultural consensus analysis) about how to make an arrow or a bag and a measure of individual skill at making these items, using ordinary least-squares regression. The study consists of 43 participants from 3 villages. We find no association between our measures of knowledge and skill (core model, p > 0.5, R2 = .132). While we cannot rule out the possibility of a real association between these phenomena, we interpret our findings as support for the claim that researchers should distinguish between methods to measure knowledge and skill when studying trends in TEK.
Full Text Available We studied a case of failure in applying traditional ecological knowledge (TEK in comanagement as the basis for formal hunting regulations. We based the study on the Porcupine Caribou (Rangifer tarandus Herd "let the leaders pass" policy, established for the Dempster Highway of the Western Canadian Arctic, and identified conditions creating barriers in the successful application of TEK through comanagement. Stated as propositions, identified barriers include: (1 the context-specific nature of TEK limits its application in resource management regulations; (2 changes in traditional authority systems, hunting technology, and the social organization of harvesting caribou affect the effectiveness of TEK approaches in a contemporary social setting; (3 indigenous efforts toward self-government and political autonomy limit regional comanagement consensus in a heterogeneous cultural landscape; (4 the mismatch of agency enforcement of hunting regulations and TEK-based education is problematic. We analyzed the case through four historical phases of caribou management, complementing the study with a literature review of TEK and wildlife comanagement to explain why TEK integration of caribou leaders in regulatory resource management fell short of success. Identifying and understanding the social dynamics related to these barriers make apparent solutions for transforming the comanagement process.
Full Text Available Previous research has shown that social organization may affect the distribution of traditional ecological knowledge (TEK within local communities of natural resource users in multiple ways. However, in this line of research the potential role of informal relationships has mostly been overlooked. In this article, we contribute toward filling this research gap by studying how two types of informal relationships, namely migration partnership and friendship, affect the distribution of TEK within a community of seminomadic pastoralists from the Kutch area, Gujarat, India. Using social network analysis, we map three networks, migration, men friendship, and women friendship, and compare with similarity-based quantitative approaches the clusters extracted from these networks in relation to four domains of TEK: knowledge about soils, about ethnoveterinary practices, about sheep breeds, and in ethnobotany. Our results show that (1 migration clusters are associated to significant variations in three TEK domains, while (2 friendship clusters are associated to minor variations. We relate these results to the importance of common practical experiences involved by joint migration. Moreover, kin relations are shown to strongly underlie friendship and migration relations, and as such appear as a potential driver of the dynamics of the local TEK system. We conclude by advocating for a better inclusion of such informal relationships in future research on local TEK dynamics, following recent developments in studies on natural resource governance.
Full Text Available Despite worldwide advances in science and technology, human well-being of the rich and poor has been threatened by food insecurity. Due to socio-economic and environmental pressures on agriculture, developing countries have faced a shortage of food access and degraded quality of food resources. We argue that traditional ecological knowledge (TEK, when appropriately used and adapted could play a significant role in addressing food security for rural, smallholder farmers. Data were collected in two rural farming communities located in the drought-prone and poverty-stricken Northeast Region of Thailand. Both were situated in diverse ecological settings: one characterized as a subsistent, lowland rice farming community and the other, the upland, all of which were dominated by cash crops. We employed a combined data collection method including in-depth interviews, participant observations, and household surveys to examine household-based food acquisition patterns. We found that the lowland subsistence farming community was endowed with a higher level of TEK and showed a stronger indication of food security than the upland cash-crop focused community. Furthermore, under environmental change, local villagers drew upon TEK to support their way of life. TEK also helped villagers to adapt to new environmental and socio-economic changes, to sustain ecosystem services and agricultural activities, and to build a secure and safe food system. This finding suggests that over-promotion of export-oriented agriculture could leave smallholder farmers and disadvantaged populations in a vulnerable situation. Their food security could be enhanced by the conservation of community-based natural resources with respect given to the role of TEK.
Yasraf Amir Piliang
tanda-tanda yang membentuk apa yang disebut sebagai ‘teks’. Analisis teks, menurut Roland Barthes, akan menghasilkan makna denotatif, yakni makna tanda yang bersifat eksplisit, dan makna konotatif, yaitu makna tanda lapis kedua yang bersifat implisit.
Vila-Viçosa Carlos M
Full Text Available Abstract Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK and folklore are repositories of large amounts of information about the natural world. Ideas, perceptions and empirical data held by human communities regarding local species are important sources which enable new scientific discoveries to be made, as well as offering the potential to solve a number of conservation problems. We documented the gecko-related folklore and TEK of the people of southern Portugal, with the particular aim of understanding the main ideas relating to gecko biology and ecology. Our results suggest that local knowledge of gecko ecology and biology is both accurate and relevant. As a result of information provided by local inhabitants, knowledge of the current geographic distribution of Hemidactylus turcicus was expanded, with its presence reported in nine new locations. It was also discovered that locals still have some misconceptions of geckos as poisonous and carriers of dermatological diseases. The presence of these ideas has led the population to a fear of and aversion to geckos, resulting in direct persecution being one of the major conservation problems facing these animals. It is essential, from both a scientific and conservationist perspective, to understand the knowledge and perceptions that people have towards the animals, since, only then, may hitherto unrecognized pertinent information and conservation problems be detected and resolved.
Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) and folklore are repositories of large amounts of information about the natural world. Ideas, perceptions and empirical data held by human communities regarding local species are important sources which enable new scientific discoveries to be made, as well as offering the potential to solve a number of conservation problems. We documented the gecko-related folklore and TEK of the people of southern Portugal, with the particular aim of understanding the main ideas relating to gecko biology and ecology. Our results suggest that local knowledge of gecko ecology and biology is both accurate and relevant. As a result of information provided by local inhabitants, knowledge of the current geographic distribution of Hemidactylus turcicus was expanded, with its presence reported in nine new locations. It was also discovered that locals still have some misconceptions of geckos as poisonous and carriers of dermatological diseases. The presence of these ideas has led the population to a fear of and aversion to geckos, resulting in direct persecution being one of the major conservation problems facing these animals. It is essential, from both a scientific and conservationist perspective, to understand the knowledge and perceptions that people have towards the animals, since, only then, may hitherto unrecognized pertinent information and conservation problems be detected and resolved. PMID:21892925
Dianne C. Newell
Full Text Available The pressure on traditional ecological knowledge (TEK to solve socio-economic issues globally begs the question: What is the state of TEK today, given the economic, social, and cultural ruptures it has endured during the past 200 years? The author traces how historical collaborative work between ethnographic pairings of “insiders” and “outsiders” created partnerships between some prominent anthropologists and local Indigenous research collaborators. Indeed, most of the ground-breaking anthropological work of Franz Boas and others concerning Canada’s Pacific Northwest coast culture area depended on collaborations with George Hunt and other trained Indigenous field workers. Much of their long-standing fieldwork data collection and writings involved their female relatives and anonymous women’s collaboration, lending an accumulated, but unacknowledged, thoroughness to present-day TEK. Future policy concerning collaboration between non-Indigenous academics and Indigenous communities should take into account the lessons to be learned from these historical practices.
Monroy-Ortiz, Columba; García-Moya, Edmundo; Romero-Manzanares, Angélica; Luna-Cavazos, Mario; Monroy, Rafael
This research integrates Traditional and Formal Ecological Knowledge (TEK / FEK) of a Tropical Dry Forest in central Mexico, in order to assess harvesting and conservation of the non-timber forest species. We were interested in: knowing the structure and diversity of the forest community; identifying which are the tree resources of common interest to the users through participatory workshops. A further interest was to identify those resources which are important to local people in terms of preservation; explaining the relationship of the species with some environmental factors; and visualizing which management practices endanger or facilitate the conservation of species. Studied areas were defined and labelled on a map drawn by local informants, where they indicated those plant species of common interest for preservation. Ethnobotanical techniques were used to reveal the TEK and assess harvesting and conservation of the species. With the FEK through community and population ecology, we detected the importance of five environmental factors, obtained various ecological indicators of the vegetation, and studied the population structure of the relevant species. The FEK was analyzed using descriptive and multivariate statistics. As a result, low density and small basal area of trees were registered. Species richness and diversity index were similar to other natural protected areas in Mexico. Tree species harvested shown an asymmetric distribution of diameters. Harvesting, elevation, and accessibility were the most influential factors on tree density. FEK demonstrated that TEK is helpful for the assessment of forest harvesting. Ecological analysis complemented the local knowledge detecting that Lysiloma tergemina is a species non-identified for the people as interesting, although we discover that it is a threatened species by over-harvesting. Haematoxylum brasiletto was identified as important for conservation due to its scarcity and medicinal use. Our results advanced
Dominique A. Henri
Full Text Available In recent decades, traditional ecological knowledge (TEK has played an increasing role in wildlife management and biodiversity conservation in Canada and elsewhere. This study examined the potential contribution that Inuit TEK (which is one aspect of Inuit Qaujimajatuqangit or Inuit traditional knowledge could offer to detect and monitor avian cholera and other disease-related mortality among Northern Common Eiders (Somateria mollissima borealis breeding in the eastern Canadian Arctic. Avian cholera is an infectious disease (Pasteurella multocida that has been a major conservation issue because of its potential to cause high rates of disease and mortality in several bird species in repeating epizootics; it has spread geographically in North America since the 1940s. In 2004, Inuit hunters from Ivujivik, Nunavik, Québec, were the first to detect avian disease outbreaks among Northern Common Eiders nesting in northeastern Hudson Bay and western Hudson Strait. Laboratory analysis of bird tissues confirmed avian cholera in that region. From 2007 to 2009, we collected Inuit TEK about mortality among Common Eiders and other bird species north and west of where the outbreaks were first detected. During interviews in the communities of Kimmirut, Cape Dorset, Coral Harbour, and Igloolik, Nunavut, Canada (n = 40, Inuit participants reported seeing a total of 8 Common Eiders and 41 specimens of other bird species either sick or dead in northern Hudson Strait, Hudson Bay, and Foxe Basin. Most of the observed disease and mortality events were at sea, on sea ice, or on small nesting islands. Such events probably would have gone undetected by biologists, who were mainly monitoring avian cholera outbreaks on large nesting islands in that region. Inuit participants readily recalled details about the timing, location, and numbers of sick and dead birds that they observed. Some reported signs of disease that were consistent with avian cholera. Inuit also revealed
Full Text Available Increased interest in indigenous ecological knowledge (IEK has led to concern that it is vulnerable amidst social and ecological change. In response, multiple authors have recommended the establishment of programs for the maintenance and revitalization of IEK systems. However, few studies have analyzed the methods, opportunities, and challenges of these programs. This is a critical gap, as IEK maintenance is challenging and will require layered and evidence-based solutions. We seek to build a foundation for future approaches to IEK maintenance. First, we present a systematic literature review of IEK maintenance programs (n = 39 and discuss the opportunities and challenges inherent in five broad groups of published approaches. Second, we use two case studies from the Republic of Vanuatu to illustrate these challenges in more depth. The first case study takes a community-based approach, which has inherent strengths (e.g., localized organization. It has, however, faced practical (e.g., funding and epistemological (changing modes of knowledge transmission challenges. The second case study seeks to facilitate IEK transmission within the formal school system. Although this model has potential, it has faced significant challenges (e.g., lack of institutional linkages. We conclude that supporting and strengthening IEK is important but that serious attention is needed to account for the social, situated, and dynamic nature of IEK. In closing, we use the review and case studies to propose four principles that may guide adaptive and flexible approaches for the future maintenance of IEK systems.
Full Text Available Tulisan ini membicarakan bagaimanakah fenomena ketimpangan sosial digambarkan dalam teks-teks sastra Indonesia mutakhir dan relasi antara potret ketimpangan sosial tersebut dengan realitas. Untuk menjawab dua persoalan tersebut digunakan pendekatan sosiologi sastra dan semiotika. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa di antara ketiga teks sastra yang diteliti, yakni “Sajak Burung-Burung Kondor”, teks drama Konglomerat Burisrawa, dan novel Larung sebagai representasi teks-teks sastra Indonesia mutakhir terdapat benang merah tematik, yakni fenomena ketimpangan sosial. Fenomena ketimpangan sosial dalam “Sajak Burung-Burung Kondor” disampaikan secara langsung dengan mengoposisikan perbedaan nasib yang dialami oleh dua kelas sosial. Fenomena ketimpangan sosial dalam Konglomerat Burisrawa disampaikan dalam bentuk komedi satir yang tidak bersifat langsung. Fenomena ketimpangan sosial dalam Larung disampaikan untuk memperkuat ilustrasi cerita utama yang berfokus pada kisah-kisah romantik dan epik tokoh-tokohnya dalam memperjuangkan prinsip-prinsip hidup. Makna atas penggambaran fenomena ketimpangan sosial dalam ketiga teks sastra tersebut adalah sebagai refleksi literer atas fakta sosial yang ada. Abstract: This paper will discuss two main issues of how the phenomenon of social inequality depicted in the Indonesian literary texts to date and the relationship between the portrait of social inequality with current realities. To answer there two questions, the sociology of literature and semiotics are used. Results show that among the three literary texts studied, namely the “Burung-Burung Kondor Rhyme”, dramatic text of Konglomerat Burisrawa, and novel Larung as a representation of Indonesian literary texts there are advanced thematic thread about the phenomenon of social inequality. The phenomenon of social inequality in the “Rhyme of Burung-Burung Kondor” is communicated directly by contrasting it with the fate differences experienced by
Brenda L. Parlee
Full Text Available Drawing on the traditional ecological knowledge (TEK of the Lesser Slave Lake Cree, this paper shares understanding of how resource development has affected water, fish, forests, and wildlife as well as the well-being of Cree communities in the Lesser Slave Lake region of Alberta, Canada. In addition to descriptive observations of change, the narratives point to social-ecological thresholds or tipping points in the relationship of Cree harvesters to local lands and resources. Specifically, the study speaks to the echoing effects of ecological loss and degradation on traditional livelihood practices over the last 100 years highlighting the complexity of cumulative effects as well as the challenges of balancing resource development in the region with alternative land uses including those valued by Alberta's Aboriginal peoples.
Catherine A. Gagnon
Full Text Available The benefits and challenges of integrating traditional ecological knowledge and scientific knowledge have led to extensive discussions over the past decades, but much work is still needed to facilitate the articulation and co-application of these two types of knowledge. Through two case studies, we examined the integration of traditional ecological knowledge and scientific knowledge by emphasizing their complementarity across spatial and temporal scales. We expected that combining Inuit traditional ecological knowledge and scientific knowledge would expand the spatial and temporal scales of currently documented knowledge on the arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus and the greater snow goose (Chen caerulescens atlantica, two important tundra species. Using participatory approaches in Mittimatalik (also known as Pond Inlet, Nunavut, Canada, we documented traditional ecological knowledge about these species and found that, in fact, it did expand the spatial and temporal scales of current scientific knowledge for local arctic fox ecology. However, the benefits were not as apparent for snow goose ecology, probably because of the similar spatial and temporal observational scales of the two types of knowledge for this species. Comparing sources of knowledge at similar scales allowed us to gain confidence in our conclusions and to identify areas of disagreement that should be studied further. Emphasizing complementarities across scales was more powerful for generating new insights and hypotheses. We conclude that determining the scales of the observations that form the basis for traditional ecological knowledge and scientific knowledge represents a critical step when evaluating the benefits of integrating these two types of knowledge. This is also critical when examining the congruence or contrast between the two types of knowledge for a given subject.
Elle, Morten; Jensen, Jesper Ole
The book describes the history of urban ecology in Denmark, criterias for 'good' urban ecology and a vast number of methods and technologies that have the potential of making the built environment more sustainable - based on the present knowledge and experience....
Dylan J. Fraser
Full Text Available Despite their dual importance in the assessment of endangered/threatened species, there have been few attempts to integrate traditional ecological knowledge (TEK and evolutionary biology knowledge (EBK at the population level. We contrasted long-term aboriginal TEK with previously obtained EBK in the context of seasonal migratory habits and population biology of a salmonid fish, brook charr, (Salvelinus fontinalis inhabiting a large, remote postglacial lake. Compilation of TEK spanning four decades involved analytical workshops, semidirective interviews, and collaborative fieldwork with local aboriginal informants and fishing guides. We found that TEK complemented EBK of brook charr by providing concordant and additional information about (1 population viability; (2 breeding areas and migration patterns of divergent populations; and (3 the behavioral ecology of populations within feeding areas; all of which may ultimately affect the maintenance of population diversity. Aboriginal concerns related to human pressures on this species, not revealed by EBK, also help to focus future conservation initiatives for divergent populations and to encourage restoration of traditional fishing practices. However, relative to EBK, the relevance of TEK to salmonid biodiversity conservation was evident mainly at a smaller spatial scale, for example, that of individual rivers occupied by populations or certain lake sectors. Nevertheless, EBK was only collected over a 4-yr period, so TEK provided an essential long-term temporal window to evaluate population differences and persistence. We concluded that, despite different conceptual underpinnings, spatially and temporally varying TEK and EBK both contribute to the knowledge base required to achieve sustainability and effective biodiversity conservation planning for a given species. Such integration may be particularly relevant in many isolated regions, where intraspecific diversity can go unrecognized due to sparse
Geertsema, W.; Rossing, W.A.H.; Landis, D.A.; Bianchi, F.J.J.A.; van Rijn, P.C.J.; Schaminée, J.H.J.; Tscharntke, T.; van der Werf, W.
Ecological intensification of agriculture (EI) aims to conserve and promote biodiversity and the sustainable use of associated ecosystem services to support resource-efficient production. In many cases EI requires fundamental changes in farm and landscape management as well as the organizations and
Stewart, C.R. Jr.; Joubert, W.D.; Overbey, D.R.; Stewart, K.A.
The TEK11 graphics library was written for use on PDP-11 minicomputers running the RT-11 operating system to drive Tektronix 4010 graphics display terminals. Library subroutines are coded in FORTRAN and assembly language. The library includes routines to draw axes, either linear or semilog, to plot data in terms of logical values without first scaling to screen coordinates, to label graphs, and to plot in a maximum of four regions on the screen. Modes of plotting may be point plot with any character at the point, vector plot, or bar plot. Two features, automatic scaling and windowing, permit the researcher to use computer graphics without spending time first to learn about scaling or ''Tek points'' and preparing long parameter lists for subroutines. Regions on the screen are defined by specifying minima and maxima logical coordinates, i.e., 0 K or milliseconds, and a region number. After definition, a region may be activated for plotting by calling REGN with the region number as an argument
van Eijck and Roth's utilitarian science education: why the recalibration of science and traditional ecological knowledge invokes multiple perspectives to protect science education from being exclusive
Mueller, Michael P.; Tippins, Deborah J.
This article is a philosophical analysis of van Eijck and Roth's (2007) claim that science and traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) should be recalibrated because they are incommensurate, particular to the local contexts in which they are practical. In this view, science maintains an incommensurate status as if it is a "fundamental" basis for the relative comparison of other cultural knowledges, which reduces traditional knowledge to a status of in relation to the prioritized (higher)-status of natural sciences. van Eijck and Roth reject epistemological Truth as a way of thinking about sciences in science education. Rather they adopt a utilitarian perspective of cultural-historical activity theory to demonstrate when traditional knowledge is considered science and when it is not considered science, for the purposes of evaluating what should be included in U.S. science education curricula. There are several challenges for evaluating what should be included in science education when traditional knowledges and sciences are considered in light of a utilitarian analysis. Science as diverse, either practically local or theoretically abstract, is highly uncertain, which provides opportunities for multiple perspectives to enlarge and protect the natural sciences from exclusivity. In this response to van Eijck and Roth, we make the case for considering dialectical relationships between science and TEK in order to ensure cultural diversity in science education, as a paradigm. We also emphasize the need to (re)dissolve the hierarchies and dualisms that may emerge when science is elevated in status in comparison with other knowledges. We conclude with a modification to van Eijck and Roth's perspective by recommending a guiding principle of cultural diversity in science education as a way to make curriculum choices. We envision this principle can be applied when evaluating science curricula worldwide.
knowledge has been used in the management of wildlife resources in the two areas. ... Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), the United Nations Environment ..... In general, it is believed that cutting down trees will disturb the pattern of rainfall. ... determine and monitor animal distribution in the Luangwa GMA and the ...
Thomas, W. J.; van Cooten, S.; Wrege, B.; Wildcat, D.
Native American or American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) students come from diverse communities with indigenous knowledges, perspectives and worldviews. These communities and the students they send into our nation's education systems have cultural connectivity to oral histories, documents, and artwork that details climate cycles and weather events prior to colonization through eras of forced relocation and assimilation. Today, these students are the trailblazers as tribal governments exercise their ownership rights to natural resources and the welfare of their citizens as sovereign nations. In universities, especially tribal colleges, our nation's indigenous students are bridge builders. Through the lens of Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK), these students have a unique yet overlooked perspective to merge mainstream research with indigenous knowledge systems to develop practical sustainable solutions for local, regional and international resource management issues. The panel will discuss barriers, such as underdeveloped geophysical science curricula at tribal colleges, that limit the pool of indigenous geoscience graduates and examine possible strategies such as entry point opportunities and partnerships, mentoring, and community relevant research experiences, to eliminate barriers that limit the influx of TEK in resiliency planning.
Pérez, Margarita García; Keegan, Liam; Okawa, Masanori
We measure the running of the twisted gradient flow coupling in the Twisted Eguchi-Kawai (TEK) model, the SU(N) gauge theory on a single site lattice with twisted boundary conditions in the large N limit.
Reyes-García, Victoria; Luz, Ana C; Gueze, Maximilien; Paneque-Gálvez, Jaime; Macía, Manuel J; Orta-Martínez, Martí; Pino, Joan
Empirical research provides contradictory evidence of the loss of traditional ecological knowledge across societies. Researchers have argued that culture, methodological differences, and site-specific conditions are responsible for such contradictory evidences. We advance and test a third explanation: the adaptive nature of traditional ecological knowledge systems. Specifically, we test whether different domains of traditional ecological knowledge experience different secular changes and analyze trends in the context of other changes in livelihoods. We use data collected among 651 Tsimane' men (Bolivian Amazon). Our findings indicate that different domains of knowledge follow different secular trends. Among the domains of knowledge analyzed, medicinal and wild edible knowledge appear as the most vulnerable; canoe building and firewood knowledge seem to remain constant across generations; whereas house building knowledge seems to experience a slight secular increase. Our analysis reflects on the adaptive nature of traditional ecological knowledge, highlighting how changes in this knowledge system respond to the particular needs of a society in a given point of time.
Full Text Available This essay makes a case for centering the questions of ecological knowledge in order to understand how environmental governance and resource access are being remade in the frontier ecologies of Asia. These frontiers, consisting of the so-called uplands and coastal zones, are increasingly subject to new waves of extractive and conservation activities, prompted in part by rising values attached to these ecologies by new actors and actor coalitions. Drawing on recent writings in science and technology studies, we examine the coproduction (Jasanoff 2004 of ecological knowledge and governance at this conjuncture of neoliberal interventions, land grabs, and climate change. We outline the complex ways through which the involvement of new actors, new technologies, and practices of boundary work, territorialisation, scale-making, and expertise transform the dynamics of the coproduction of knowledge and governance. Drawing on long term field research in Asia, the articles in this special section show that resident peoples are often marginalised from the production and circulation of ecological knowledge, and thus from environmental governance. While attentive to the entry of new actors and to the shifts in relations of authority, control, and decision-making, the papers also present examples of how this marginalisation can be challenged, by highlighting the limits of boundary-work and expertise in such frontier ecologies.
This data cartridge works on several StorageTek systems. The goal is to provide cartridge compatibility across several system. It has been designed for space saving and ultra-high capacity tape. It permit to fulfill high-volume backup, archiving, and disaster recovery.
Magliocca, Nicholas R.; Ellis, Erle C.; Allington, Ginger R.H.; de Bremond, Ariane; Dell'Angelo, Jampel; Mertz, Ole; Messerli, Peter; Meyfroidt, Patrick; Seppelt, Ralf; Verburg, Peter H.
Concerns over rapid widespread changes in social-ecological systems and their consequences for biodiversity, ecosystem functioning, food security, and human livelihoods are driving demands for globally comprehensive knowledge to support decision-making and policy development. Claims of regional or
Full Text Available Scientists are increasingly called upon to integrate across ecological and social disciplines to tackle complex coupled human and natural system (CHANS problems. Integration of these disciplines is challenging and many scientists do not have experience with large integrated research projects. However, much can be learned about the complicated process of integration from such efforts. We document some of these lessons from a National Science Foundation-funded CHANS project (Forests, People, Fire and present considerations for developing and engaging in coupled human and natural system projects. Certainly we are not the first to undertake this endeavor, and many of our findings complement those of other research teams. We focus here on the process of coming together, learning to work as an integrated science team, and describe the challenges and opportunities of engaging stakeholders (agency personnel and citizen communities of interests in our efforts. Throughout this project our intention was to foster dialogue among diverse interests and, thus, incorporate this knowledge into uncovering primary social and ecological drivers of change. A primary tool was an agent-based model, Envision, that used this information in landscape simulation, visualization models, and scenario development. Although integration can be an end in itself, the proof of value in the approach can be the degree to which it provides new insights or tools to CHANS, including closer interaction among multiple stakeholders, that could not have been reached without it.
Full Text Available Problem of this research is the unfamiliarity of the topics in TOEFL test. Many of the topics are talking about American and Europe. They are about American science, American history, American economic system, American culture and European culture. The topics above are not familiar to the students of State Islamic College because they seldom study about the topic. To answer the TOEFL tes it will be better for us to have background knowledge about the topics of the reading. If we are familiar with the topic, it will help us to be easy in answering and understanding about the text. This research used Research & Development (R&D approach. The sample of the try out test for developing these questions are the sixth semester English students of STAIN Batusangkar. The data were analyzed by using Kappa model to differenciate the items difficulties, items differenciation, trapping model, validity and reliability. The product of this research then revised for three times. Then, the product is also commented and analyzed by the experts. After analyzing the revision of the product, the result finally getting ready to be used for a test.
Ternjej, Ivancica; Mihaljevic, Zlatko
Ecology is a science that studies the mutual interactions between organisms and their environment. The fundamental subject of interest in ecology is the individual. Topics of interest to ecologists include the diversity, distribution and number of particular organisms, as well as cooperation and competition between organisms, both within and among ecosystems. Today, ecology is a multidisciplinary science. This is particularly true when the subject of interest is the ecosystem or biosphere, which requires the knowledge and input of biologists, chemists, physicists, geologists, geographists, climatologists, hydrologists and many other experts. Ecology is applied in a science of restoration, repairing disturbed sites through human intervention, in natural resource management, and in environmental impact assessments.
Oracle StorageTek T10000T2 cartridge has total capacity of 5 TB. It is actually manufactured by Fuji Film, uses Barium Ferrite (BaFe) particles technology data store, but is also equipped with RFID chip. There is over 1 km of tape inside of the cartridge with 3584 data tracks and it supports over 25000 load/unload cycles. The archival life is estimated to be around 30 years and uncorrected bit error rate is 10-19. CERN however usually migrates data to newer technologies roughly every 5 years in order to keep the footprint under control.
Дуднікова, І. І.
The paper analyzes the theoretical and methodological foundations of human ecology is an interdisciplinary perspective direction and synthesis of scientific knowledge in the context of which analyzes the problems of man and nature, man and society, global issues lyudstva. Meta research - to analyze human ecology as a new research direction for what roanalizovano conditions of human ecology and the problems that it rozlyadaye; The main problems of human ecology; uncover ways and ways to increa...
Putra, A.; Rahmat, A.; Redjeki, S.
This research aims to find out how much the content of sustainable development exist in the content of environmental knowledge and plant ecology courses. The focus indicators of sustainable development indicators is the environment. This research is a qualitative research type with qualitative descriptive approach. The analyzed variables are only 2 courses, which are environmental knowledge and plants ecology. The results showed that the syllabus contents analysis of environmental knowledge and plants ecology courses in private Lembaga Pendidikan Tenaga Kependidikan (LPTK) in the province of Nusa Tenggara Barat is already good enough and the sustainable development contents is very large, almost all syllabus contents has already prioritize the sustainable development load of both the subject of environmental knowledge and plants ecology, although there are still some syllabus contents that was not includes sustainable development load, but the percentage is quite small, especially in the course of Plant Ecology.
Dubé, Monique G; Wilson, Julie E; Waterhouse, Jon
This article is the second in a 2-part series assessing the accumulated state of the transboundary Yukon River (YR) basin in northern Canada and the United States. The determination of accumulated state based on available long-term (LT) discharge and water quality data is the first step in watershed cumulative effect assessment in the absence of sufficient biological monitoring data. Long-term trends in water quantity and quality were determined and a benchmark against which to measure change was defined for 5 major reaches along the YR for nitrate, total and dissolved organic carbon (TOC and DOC, respectively), total phosphate (TP), orthophosphate, pH, and specific conductivity. Deviations from the reference condition were identified as "hot moments" in time, nested within a reach. Significant increasing LT trends in discharge were found on the Canadian portion of the YR. There were significant LT decreases in nitrate, TOC, and TP at the Headwater reach, and significant increases in nitrate and specific conductivity at the Lower reach. Deviations from reference condition were found in all water quality variables but most notably during the ice-free period of the YR (May-Sept) and in the Lower reach. The greatest magnitudes of outliers were found during the spring freshet. This study also incorporated traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) into its assessment of accumulated state. In the summer of 2007 the YR Inter Tribal Watershed Council organized a team of people to paddle down the length of the YR as part of a "Healing Journey," where both Western Science and TEK paradigms were used. Water quality data were continuously collected and stories were shared between the team and communities along the YR. Healing Journey data were compared to the LT reference conditions and showed the summer of 2007 was abnormal compared to the LT water quality. This study showed the importance of establishing a reference condition by reach and season for key indicators of water
Gosselin, Frédéric; Cordonnier, Thomas; Bilger, Isabelle; Jappiot, Marielle; Chauvin, Christophe; Gosselin, Marion
The role of ecological science in environmental management has been discussed by many authors who recognize that there is a persistent gap between ecological science and environmental management. Here we develop theory through different perspectives based on knowledge types, research categories and research-management interface types, which we combine into a common framework. To draw out insights for bridging this gap, we build our case by:We point out the complementarities as well as the specificities and limitations of the different types of ecological research, ecological knowledge and research-management interfaces, which is of major importance for environmental management and research policies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Don E. Russell
Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false SV X-NONE X-NONE While quantitative analyses have traditionally been used to measure overall caribou herd health, qualitative observational data can also provide timely information that reflects what people on the land are observing. The Arctic Borderlands Ecological Knowledge Co-op (ABEKC monitors ecological change in the range of the Porcupine Caribou Herd (PCH. The community-based monitoring component of the Co-op’s mandate involves the gathering of local knowledge through interviews with local experts in a number of communities.We analyzed the responses to interviews collected during 2000–2007 related to caribou availability, harvest success, meeting needs and caribou health during fall and spring. Interviews revealed 1 caribou greater availability during the survey period, 2 an increasing trend in the proportion of harvesters that met their needs 3 no trend in animals harvested or proportion of successful hunters and 4 improving overall caribou health throughout the period.There was no population estimate for the herd between 2001 and 2010. In 2001, 123,000 caribou were estimated in the herd. Based on an estimated 178,000 in 1989, a declining trend of ~ 3% annually occurred at least until 2001. In the interim agencies and boards feared the herd continued to decline and worked towards and finalized a Harvest Management Plan for the herd. In contrast, from the Co-op interviews all indications suggested improving herd conditions throughout most of the decade. A successful survey in 2010 determined the herd had grown to 169,000 animals. We conclude that the community-based interviews provided a valid, unique information source to better understand caribou ecology and express community perceptions of overall herd status and could provide a valuable contribution to management decision making. We recommend that ABEKC results become standard input into Porcupine Caribou harvest management decisions and serve as a
Angla Florensy Sauhenda
Asesmen merupakan suatu proses untuk memperoleh dan mengumpulkan informasi tentang hasil belajar siswa. Berdasarkan hasil observasi ditemukan bahwa guru tidak dapat menyusun asesmen penugasan menulis teks eksposisi dengan baik dan tepat. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengembangkan asesmen penugasan menulis eksposisi dengan rangsangan masalah autentik. Metode penelitian dan pengembangan yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah dengan menggunakan model pengembangan R2D2. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa asesmen penugasan menulis teks eksposisi dengan rangsangan masalah autentik yang dikembangkan ini layak untuk diimplementasikan dalam pembelajaran menulis teks eksposisi.
Olga M. Naumenko
Full Text Available The problem of internet resources application for forming of pupils ecological knowledge at the study of natural sciences subjects is considered. It is noticed, that distribution of ecological knowledge and development of ecological education became the near-term tasks of school education, taking into account a global ecological crisis. It is therefore important to use in school preparation all possibilities that allow to promote the level of ecological knowledge of students and to influence the same on forming of modern views in relation to environmental preservation. Considerable attention is given to advices for the teachers of natural sciences subjects in relation to methodology of the internet resources use at preparation and realization of practical and laboratory works and other forms of educational-searching activity of students.
is strongly associated with traditional unstabi- ... of reducing cost of housing development and to ... lised-earth floors were used to provide low cost ..... system. Even though some of the buildings have been transformed from TEK blocks into.
The ultimate goal of environmental education is to advance people’s ecological performance, and not only to pass on knowledge. To be able to promote people's ecological behavior, the preceding abilities and dispositions have to be identified. In this dissertation, we conceptualize environmental
Full Text Available This study aims to introduce the potential applicability of traditional ecological knowledge and community forestry in Northeast Asia, including China, Japan, and South Korea. In ancient Northeast Asia, forest policies and practices were based on Fengshui (an old Chinese concept regarding the flow of vital forces, with which forests were managed under community forestry. However, these traditional systems diminished in the twentieth century owing to the decline of traditional livelihood systems and extreme deforestation. Recently, legacies from traditional ecological knowledge and community forestry have been revisited and incorporated into forest policies, laws, and management practices because of growing needs for sustainable forest use in China, Japan, and Korea. This reevaluation of traditional ecological knowledge and community forestry has provided empirical data to help improve forestry systems. Although traditional ecological knowledge and community forestry in Northeast Asia have been scarcely theorized, they play a significant role in modifying forest management practices in the face of socioeconomic changes.
The social and biophysical processes entailed in environmental deterioration are the subject of intense debate in Honduras, one of the poorest countries of Latin America. This book analyses the political ecology of precarious farming in mountainous areas. The author evaluates a rich array
... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-74,850; TA-W-74,850A] StarTek USA, Inc., 244 Dundee Avenue, Greeley, CO; StarTek USA, Inc., 1250 H Street, Greeley, CO; Amended... workers and former workers of StarTek USA, Inc., Greeley, Colorado. The Department's notice of...
Indigenous knowledge is often dismissed as 'traditional and outdated', and hence irrelevant to ... What is more, there has been a consistent bias towards modern .... practices and representations that are developed and maintained by peoples with long histories of ..... “Indigenous Technical Knowledge: Analysis, Implications.
Fam, Dena; Sofoulis, Zoë
Willingness to collaborate across disciplinary boundaries is necessary but not sufficient for project success. This is a case study of a transdisciplinary project whose success was constrained by contextual factors that ultimately favoured technical and scientific forms of knowledge over the cultural intelligence that might ensure technical solutions were socially feasible. In response to Alaskan Water and Sewer Challenge (AWSC), an international team with expertise in engineering, consultative design and public health formed in 2013 to collaborate on a two-year project to design remote area water and sanitation systems in consultation with two native Alaskan communities. Team members were later interviewed about their experiences. Project processes are discussed using a 'Knowledge Ecology' framework, which applies principles of ecosystems analysis to knowledge ecologies, identifying the knowledge equivalents of 'biotic' and 'abiotic' factors and looking at their various interactions. In a positivist 'knowledge integration' perspective, different knowledges are like Lego blocks that combine with other 'data sets' to create a unified structure. The knowledge ecology framework highlights how interactions between different knowledges and knowledge practitioners ('biotic factors') are shaped by contextual ('abiotic') factors: the conditions of knowledge production, the research policy and funding climate, the distribution of research resources, and differential access to enabling infrastructures (networks, facilities). This case study highlights the importance of efforts to negotiate between different knowledge frameworks, including by strategic use of language and precepts that help translate social research into technical design outcomes that are grounded in social reality.
Susan Charnley; A. Paige Fischer; Eric T. Jones
This paper synthesizes the existing literature about traditional and local ecological knowledge relating to biodiversity in Pacific Northwest forests in order to assess what is needed to apply this knowledge to forest biodiversity conservation efforts. We address four topics: (1) views and values people have relating to biodiversity, (2) the resource use and management...
Small-scale fisheries are learning contexts of importance for generating, transferring and updating ecological knowledge of natural environments through everyday work practices. The rich knowledge fishers have of local ecosystems is the result of the intimate relationship fishing communities have had with their natural environments across…
Nancy C. Ratner; Davin L. Holen
Traditional ecological knowledge within specific cultural and geographical contexts was explored during an interactive session at the 8th World Wilderness Congress to identify traditional principles of sustainability. Participants analyzed the traditional knowledge contained in ten posters from Canada and Alaska and identified and discussed the traditional principles...
Full Text Available Efficacy of study as a whole very depend on efficacy of teacher design study items. Difficulty of teacher for the mengkolaborasikan of study scientificly, obliging teacher to manage Iesson items which in it have to there are scientific element (perceiving, enquiring, eksploration, association, and communicate, see clarification at textbook of Geografi limited will very application difficult to to five the element in one Iesson items. Creativity learn very needed to develop the mareri. at, textbook of Geografi used by is student and teacher in school not yet included the overall of problems and phenomenon which can be analysed by student. Clarification at textbook still limited and still relate at cognate aspect of just student. Besides, clarification at textbook not yet can to instruct student learn scientificly. Overcoming the problems, require to the existence of development of textbook matching with requirement of student. Pursuant to assessment of student to enquette the alloted, amount of answer score the got to amount to 551, hence assessment of student to usage of textbook is (551:600 x 100 = 92% from which is expected (100%. obtained data of student at forming items and exploiting of land; ground is 92% with category very good. Comment and suggestion written by student made by consideration to complete textbook. Inferential that textbook needn't again there is reviseing related to overall of component in textbook. Keberhasilan pembelajaran secara keseluruhan sangat tergantung pada keberhasilan guru merancang materi pembelajaran. Kesulitan guru untuk mengkolaborasikan pembelajaran secara saintifik, mengharuskan guru untuk mengelola materi pelajaran yang di dalamnya harus terdapat unsur saintifik (mengamati, menanya, mengeksplorasi, mengasosiasi, dan mengomunikasikan. Melihat penjelasan pada buku teks Geografi yang terbatas akan sangat sulit untuk mengaplikasikan ke lima unsur tersebut dalam satu materi pelajaran. Kreativitas guru sangat
Eric J. Gustafson
This volume perfectly illustrates the truism"we don't know what it is that we don't know." I have been a landscape ecologist for over 20 years, and have even used expert knowledge many times in my own research. Yet I learned something profoundly new in almost every chapter of this collection of primers and case studies focused on the use...
Full Text Available To a greater extent than is often acknowledged, the modern scientific and university-based knowledge system is a creature of the society of the printing press. Until the turn of the twentyfirst century, print was the medium of scholarly communication. Then, quite suddenly at the turn of the twenty-first century, digital text begins to displace print as the primary means of access to the knowledge of academicians. This article explores some of the consequences of this change. To what extent do digital technologies of representation and communication reproduce the knowledge systems of the half-millennium long history of the modern university or do they disrupt and transform them? To answer this question, this article will explore key aspects of contemporary transformations, not just in the textual forms of digital representation, but the emerging social forms that digitisation reflects, affords and supports. This we call the “social web”, a term we use to describe the kinds of relationships to knowledge and culture that are emerging in the era of pervasively interconnected computing. What, then, are the impacts and potentials of these changes on the processes of formation of new knowledge?Más allá de lo que suele admitirse, el moderno sistema de conocimiento científico y universitario es una creación de la sociedad de la imprenta. Antes de llegar el siglo XXI, la imprenta era el canal de comunicación académica. Entonces, de manera bastante repentina con el cambio de siglo, los textos digitales empezaron a sustituir a la imprenta como el medio principal por el que los académicos acceden al conocimiento. Este artículo analiza algunas de las consecuencias de este cambio. ¿Hasta qué punto las tecnologías digitales de representación y comunicación reproducen los sistemas de conocimiento utilizados en el último medio milenio de historia de la moderna universidad? ¿O quizás la interrumpen y la transforman? Para responder a esta
Ianni, Elena; Geneletti, Davide; Ciolli, Marco
This study aims to contribute to the debate on the value and the role of ecological knowledge in modern conservation strategies, with reference to the results of a case study conducted in the community of Montagne, located within a World Heritage site in the Italian Alps. This community is a paradigmatic example of the multiple transformations experienced by cultural landscapes in Alpine areas under the influence of global change. This study seeks to understand whether ecological knowledge is still in place in the community, and what the relationship is between the knowledge transmission and land use and social changes that have occurred in recent decades. To that end, the community is described by identifying the key variables (social, institutional, and ecological) that have historically shaped the landscape and the future priorities of the residents. Forest expansion, the most significant change in land use in the last 60 years, is analyzed using aerial photos; changes in biodiversity-related knowledge in the community are quantified by analyzing the inter-generational differences in plant species recognition. Results are discussed in the context of the current situation of the Montagne community, and the recommendation is made that policies and actions to promote traditional ecological knowledge protection or recovery in Europe be viewed as an important part of the recovery of community sovereignty and vitality. Lastly, concrete actions that can be implemented in our case study are proposed.
Ianni, Elena; Geneletti, Davide; Ciolli, Marco
This study aims to contribute to the debate on the value and the role of ecological knowledge in modern conservation strategies, with reference to the results of a case study conducted in the community of Montagne, located within a World Heritage site in the Italian Alps. This community is a paradigmatic example of the multiple transformations experienced by cultural landscapes in Alpine areas under the influence of global change. This study seeks to understand whether ecological knowledge is still in place in the community, and what the relationship is between the knowledge transmission and land use and social changes that have occurred in recent decades. To that end, the community is described by identifying the key variables (social, institutional, and ecological) that have historically shaped the landscape and the future priorities of the residents. Forest expansion, the most significant change in land use in the last 60 years, is analyzed using aerial photos; changes in biodiversity-related knowledge in the community are quantified by analyzing the inter-generational differences in plant species recognition. Results are discussed in the context of the current situation of the Montagne community, and the recommendation is made that policies and actions to promote traditional ecological knowledge protection or recovery in Europe be viewed as an important part of the recovery of community sovereignty and vitality. Lastly, concrete actions that can be implemented in our case study are proposed.
Emmanuel C. Capinpin, Jr.
Full Text Available The objectives of the present study were to (1 determine the local ecological knowledge (LEK of abalone gatherers through interviews and mentoring, and assess the correspondence between scientific information and LEK, so that areas where local knowledge may be most useful in resource management could be identified, and (2 to empower selected gatherers/farmers with knowledge and technical skills through environmental education to help develop or build their capacity to become sustainable resource managers. The LEK of abalone fishers was determined using three complementary approaches – group interview, individual interview, and mentoring sessions. Local fishers possess a wealth of knowledge about the interactions of species gained through many years of observations, and this knowledge may be useful in guiding biologists in ecological restoration or management regimes. Additionally, the fishers’ LEK, validated by modern scientific ecological findings, could be a source of important and effective ideas in resource management. The knowledge of the abalone gatherers about important abalone fishing grounds should help in pinpointing critical areas that need to be managed. Abalone mariculture in cages should be set up in these areas to routinely create dense breeding populations which can help in enhancing recovery and in providing fishers with a source of additional income. The continued enforcement of marine protected areas and the periodic release or reseeding of abalone in sanctuaries could also be considered viable resource management options. Other recommendations for resource management based on gathered local knowledge and lessons learned from the environmental education (EE seminars are also presented.
Full Text Available Abstract Local knowledge systems are not considered in the conservation of fragile seagrass marine ecosystems. In fact, little is known about the utility of seagrasses in local coastal communities. This is intriguing given that some local communities rely on seagrasses to sustain their livelihoods and have relocated their villages to areas with a rich diversity and abundance of seagrasses. The purpose of this study is to assist in conservation efforts regarding seagrasses through identifying Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK from local knowledge systems of seagrasses from 40 coastal communities along the eastern coast of India. We explore the assemblage of scientific and local traditional knowledge concerning the 1. classification of seagrasses (comparing scientific and traditional classification systems, 2. utility of seagrasses, 3. Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK of seagrasses, and 4. current conservation efforts for seagrass ecosystems. Our results indicate that local knowledge systems consist of a complex classification of seagrass diversity that considers the role of seagrasses in the marine ecosystem. This fine-scaled ethno-classification gives rise to five times the number of taxa (10 species = 50 local ethnotaxa, each with a unique role in the ecosystem and utility within coastal communities, including the use of seagrasses for medicine (e.g., treatment of heart conditions, seasickness, etc., food (nutritious seeds, fertilizer (nutrient rich biomass and livestock feed (goats and sheep. Local communities are concerned about the loss of seagrass diversity and have considerable local knowledge that is valuable for conservation and restoration plans. This study serves as a case study example of the depth and breadth of local knowledge systems for a particular ecosystem that is in peril. Key words: local health and nutrition, traditional ecological knowledge (TEK, conservation and natural resources management, consensus
Garavito-Bermúdez, Diana; Lundholm, Cecilia
The ecological knowledge of those who interact with ecosystems in everyday-life is situated in social and cultural contexts, as well as accumulated, transferred and adjusted through work practices. For them, ecosystems represent not only places for living but also places for working and defining themselves. This paper explores psychological…
Iain J. Davidson-Hunt; Fikret. Berkes
We begin this paper by exploring the shift now occurring in the science that provides the theoretical basis for resource management practice. The concepts of traditional ecological knowledge and traditional management systems are presented next to provide the background for an examination of resilient landscapes that emerge through the work and play of humans. These...
Cámara-Leret, Rodrigo; Paniagua-Zambrana, Narel; Balslev, Henrik
Tropical rainforest ecosystems support the maximum expression of biocultural diversity on Earth and preserving them requires understanding and working with the needs of their inhabitants. Here, we com- bine traditional knowledge with ecological data to quantify cross-scale variation in the ecosys...
Keith M. Reynolds
The USDA Forest Service Pacific Northwest Research Station in Corvallis, Oregon, has developed the ecosystem management decision support (EMDS) system. The system integrates the logical formalism of knowledge-based reasoning into a geographic information system (GIS) environment to provide decision support for ecological landscape assessment and evaluation. The...
Ternes, Maria L F; Gerhardinger, Leopoldo C; Schiavetti, Alexandre
Seahorses are endangered teleost fishes under increasing human pressures worldwide. In Brazil, marine conservationists and policy-makers are thus often skeptical about the viability of sustainable human-seahorse interactions. This study focuses on local ecological knowledge on seahorses and the implications of their non-lethal touristic use by a coastal community in northeastern Brazil. Community-based seahorse-watching activities have been carried out in Maracaípe village since 1999, but remained uninvestigated until the present study. Our goal is to provide ethnoecological understanding on this non-extractive use to support seahorse conservation and management. We interviewed 32 informants through semi-structured questionnaires to assess their socioeconomic profile, their knowledge on seahorse natural history traits, human uses, threats and abundance trends. Seahorse-watching has high socioeconomic relevance, being the primary income source for all respondents. Interviewees elicited a body of knowledge on seahorse biology largely consistent with up-to-date research literature. Most informants (65.5 %) perceived no change in seahorse abundance. Their empirical knowledge often surpassed scientific reports, i.e. through remarks on trophic ecology; reproductive aspects, such as, behavior and breeding season; spatial and temporal distribution, suggesting seahorse migration related to environmental parameters. Seahorse-watching operators were aware of seahorse biological and ecological aspects. Despite the gaps remaining on biological data about certain seahorse traits, the respondents provided reliable information on all questions, adding ethnoecological remarks not yet assessed by conventional scientific surveys. We provide novel ethnobiological insight on non-extractive modes of human-seahorse interaction, eliciting environmental policies to integrate seahorse conservation with local ecological knowledge and innovative ideas for seahorse sustainable use. Our study
G. J.C. Jordaan
Full Text Available Een van die belangrikste oud-Latynse vertalings word gevind in Kodeks Bezae, ’n vyfde-eeuse manuskrip van die vier Evangelies. Kodeks Bezae bevat ’n Griekse teks (D en ’n Latynse teks (d van die Evangelies langs mekaar, die Latynse teks in ’n lettertipe wat baie aan die Griekse majuskelskrif herinner. Wat hierdie dokument so merkwaardig maak, is die feit dat dit die enigste manuskrip is wat ’n Griekse Evangelie-teks uit die Westerse teksfamilie bevat.
C. Dustin Becker
Full Text Available Meeting the desires of individuals while sustaining ecological "public goods" is a central challenge in natural resources conservation. Indigenous communities routinely make common property decisions balancing benefits to individuals with benefits to their communities. Such traditional knowledge offers insight for conservation. Using surveys and field observations, this case study examines aspects of indigenous institutions and ecological knowledge used by rural Ecuadorians to manage a forest commons before and after interacting with two U.S.-based conservation NGOs: Earthwatch Institute and People Allied for Nature. The rural farming community of Loma Alta has legal property rights to a 6842-ha watershed in western Ecuador. This self-governing community curtailed destruction of their moist forest commons, but not without the influence of modern scientific ecological knowledge. When Earthwatch Institute scientists provided evidence that forest clearing would reduce water supply to the community, villagers quickly modified land allocation patterns and set rules of use in the forest establishing the first community-owned forest reserve in western Ecuador. This case demonstrates that synergy between traditional knowledge and western knowledge can result in sustaining both ecosystem services and biodiversity in a forest commons.
Correa, Sandra Liliana; Turbay, Sandra; Velez, Madelene
The inhabitants of the Colombian coastal populations of El Valle, in the Pacific, and Sapzurro, in the Caribbean Darien, have ecological knowledge about coastal ecosystems that is a result of their constant relation with the sea, through fishing and navigation. The sea is a source of food and economical resources, but it is also the sphere where the male personality is forged. The accurate knowledge about mangrove, coral, coral reef, beaches and fishing grounds has been enriched through the dialog between local inhabitants and researchers in the conservation biology field. However, the tensions with researchers and environmental authorities still exist. The paper suggests that local ecological knowledge studies could be a starting point for maintaining a more horizontal dialogue between environmentalist and the populations with livelihoods derived of fishing.
Full Text Available We modeled expert knowledge of arthropod flower-visiting behavioral ecology and represented this in an event-centric domain ontology, which we describe along with the ontology construction process. Two smaller domain ontologies were created...
Nike Esti Kurniawati
Full Text Available Penelitian Bahan ajar teks novel berbahasa Jawa melalui simplifikasi dikembangkan atas persepsi kebutuhan peserta didik dan guru. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan kebutuhan peserta didik dan guru berkaitan dengan pengembangan bahan ajar membaca teks novel melalui simplifikasi, menyusun karakteristik bahan ajar membaca teks novel berbahasa Jawa melalui simplifikasi, membuat model novel yaitu Jemini, Asmarani, dan Para Pawestri Pejuwang karya Suparto Brata sebagai bahan ajar membaca teks novel di SMA, dan memperoleh keefektifan menggunakan bahan ajar membaca teks novel melalui simplifikasi. Pendekatan yang dilakukan dalam penelitian ini adalah pendekatan Research and Development (R&D oleh Borg and Gall yang disesuaikan dengan kebutuhan penelitian. Langkah penelitian Borg and Gall diadaptasi menjadi tujuh tahap, yakni analisis teoretis dan praktis, analisis kebutuhan pengembangan menurut persepsi guru dan peserta didik, penyusunan draf produk, uji ahli, revisi produk, uji keefektifan produk, revisi hasil uji penggunan produk pengembangan. Hasil uji keefektifan yang dilakukan di SMA Negeri 1 Bergas menunjukkan ada peningkatan nilai rata-rata pretes dan postes pembelajaran membaca teks novel melalui simplifikasi. Uji t hitung = 9,734, sedangkan t tabel =2,00. Artinya t hitung > t tabel. Maka dapat dikatakan produk tersebut efektifNovel text teaching materials through simplification Javanese developed on the perception of the needs of learners and teachers.This study aims to determine the needs of the students and teachers associated with the development of teaching materials text reading novels through simplification, compiling the characteristics of teaching materials text reading novels in Java through simplification, models making novel that Jemini, Asmarani, and the Pawestri Pejuwang works soeparto Brata as material instructional text reading novels in high school, and obtain the effectiveness of using text reading novel teaching
Ternes, Maria L. F.; Gerhardinger, Leopoldo C.; Schiavetti, Alexandre
Background Seahorses are endangered teleost fishes under increasing human pressures worldwide. In Brazil, marine conservationists and policy-makers are thus often skeptical about the viability of sustainable human-seahorse interactions. This study focuses on local ecological knowledge on seahorses and the implications of their non-lethal touristic use by a coastal community in northeastern Brazil. Community-based seahorse-watching activities have been carried out in Maraca?pe village since 19...
Idhun Prasetyo Riyadi
Full Text Available The UI GreenMetric is a university world ranking for universities to assess and compare campus sustainability efforts. UI GreenMatric's ultimate goal is to assess how committed the universities are to environmental management in the campus area. Sebelas Maret University is ranked 76th in the world and 5th in the national level. Measurement of the ecological literacy ability of the students of Sebelas Maret University received low results on attitude and knowledge aspects. Measurement of attitude aspect using NEP scale got an average result equal to 62% while measurement of knowledge aspect using a scale of ecology concept gets an average result equal to 56%. This paper intends to discuss the relationship between attitude and knowledge aspects of students at Sebelas Maret University. Quantitative regression analysis is used to look at the relationship between the two aspects of ecological literacy on lecture activities and student attitude observation. Improved environmental management in the campus area can be done by improving the concept of students first because it can affect how students behave.
M. F. Shellyana Junaedi
Full Text Available This study examines the causal effect of existing relationship amongst green purchasing, which are attitudinal and behavioral approaches, consumer values, ecological affect, ecological knowledge, and green purchase intention. The survey result provides a reasonable support for the validity of the proposed model. Specifically, the finding from structural equation model confirms the influence of consumer values orientation, ecological affect, and ecological knowledge on their attitudes towards green purchase intention. The implication of this research is relevant to Indonesian government and green marketers to fine-tune their environmental programs.
Turreira Garcia, Nerea; Theilade, Ida; Meilby, Henrik
the distribution, transmission and loss of traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) concerning WEPs used by a Mayan community of Guatemala and to enumerate such plants. Methods: The case study was carried out in a semi-isolated community where part of the population took refuge in the mountains in 1982...... key informants. Information about the theoretical dimension of knowledge was gathered through free listing and a questionnaire survey, while practical skills were assessed using a plant identification test with photographs. All villagers older than 7 years participated in the research (n = 62......% of the cases, which led to increased knowledge of plants and ability to recognise them. Conclusions: The WEP survey may serve as a reference point and as a useful compilation of knowledge for the community for their current and future generations. This study shows that the elder and the refugees living...
Full Text Available Abstract: The aim research was to analyze the student readability of translated textbooks Chemistry on concept Acids and Bases. Neutralization and Titration, and Weak Acid-Base Equilibrium were the sub concepts analyzed in this research . Descriptive method used in this research. The subjects were students majoring in chemistry education as many as 23 people. The instruments that used in this study were readability instrument based on student’s response and writing ideas. Data were collected through self-learning which students study textbooks translation, fill the readability questionnaire, then write down the main idea. The results show the readabilitiy of translated textbooks Chemistry on concept Acids and Bases was on medium level with the percentage of students who choose that level was 47.8%. Most of the students were able to write down the main idea of the translated text books Chemistry on concept Acids and Bases with a percentage of 61.45%.Abstrak: Penelitian dilakukan dengan tujuan menganalisis keterbacaan mahasiswa terhadap buku teks terjemahan Chemistry materi Asam dan Basa. Konsep yang diteliti dibatasi pada sub pokok bahasan Netralisasi dan Titrasi, dan Kesetimbangan Asam-Basa Lemah. Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah metode penelitian deskriptif. Subyek penelitian adalah mahasiswa jurusan pendidikan kimia sebanyak 23 orang. Instrumen yang digunakan berupa instrumen keterbacaan berdasarkan respons pembaca dan penulisan ide pokok. Pengambilan data dilakukan melalui pembelajaran mandiri yaitu mahasiswa mempelajari buku teks terjemahan, mengisi angket keterbacaan, kemudian menuliskan ide pokok. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan buku teks terjemahan Chemistry pokok bahasan Asam dan Basa memiliki keterbacaan sedang dengan persentase mahasiswa yang memilih kategori keterbacaan tersebut sebesar 47,8%. Sebagian besar mahasiswa mampu menuliskan ide pokok pada buku teks terjemahan Chemistry pokok bahasan Asam dan Basa dengan persentase
Full Text Available The debate about the quality of fishers' ecological knowledge (FEK and its value to fisheries management has long been present in the literature. This study sought to understand the role of FEK in a particular fisheries management decision in the U.S. and to evaluate the extent that different stakeholder groups recognized and used FEK in fisheries policy creation. The 1998 implementation of the Western Gulf of Maine Area Closure (WGoMAC was a management response to the rapid decline in the Gulf of Maine cod (Gadus morhua stock. Using structured surveys and semistructured interviews, we collected information from major stakeholder groups that were active during the creation of the area closure: New England Fishery Management Council (NEFMC members, Groundfish Advisory Panel members, Groundfish Plan Development Team members, and Maine groundfishers. Results indicated that 95% of respondents believed that fishers possess ecological knowledge that could be useful in the fishery management process. In the case of the WGoMAC creation, 62% of respondents indicated that FEK played a role in the decision, even though 85% recognized obstacles to the use of FEK in the management process. Interviews demonstrated that FEK was able to improve upon the spatial resolution of scientific data by identifying seasonal migration patterns of prespawning cod and behavioral differences between juvenile and adult cod. This information was a product of a peer-reviewed process among groundfishers and it was used to fine-tune the exact location of the closure. These findings suggest that there are ways to incorporate FEK into fishery management for the purposes of stock and habitat conservation. Additionally, the benefit of having ecological information that spans different spatial scales for fishery management was observed in this study. By combining the knowledge systems of fishers and fisheries scientists, managers were able to capture ecological information at a finer
Jorje Ignacio Zalles
Full Text Available From a natural sciences perspective, efforts directed at the conservation of biodiversity are based upon what is known as conservation biology. Given its epistemological assumptions, conservation biology faces obstacles in the incorporation of wisdom originating in local ecological knowledge, that which a local population has gained about the local environment which it is surrounded by and due to its direct contact with this local environment, instead of the result of a product of a positivist scientific inquiry. Post-normal science has emerged in recent decades as an alternative for public management that aims to complement the search for knowledge by means of empirical approaches through the inclusion of understandings based on the everyday experiences and the subjective interpretation of natural phenomena, transcending the compartmentalization associated with scientific traditions born out of modernity. This article discusses the integration of local ecological knowledge and conservation biology from the perspective of post normal science, illustrating different forms of intercultural communication that would make the requisite dialogue of knowledges possible.
Sue E. Jackson
Full Text Available Studies that apply indigenous ecological knowledge to contemporary resource management problems are increasing globally; however, few of these studies have contributed to environmental water management. We interviewed three indigenous landowning groups in a tropical Australian catchment subject to increasing water resource development pressure and trialed tools to integrate indigenous and scientific knowledge of the biology and ecology of freshwater fish to assess their water requirements. The differences, similarities, and complementarities between the knowledge of fish held by indigenous people and scientists are discussed in the context of the changing socioeconomic circumstances experienced by indigenous communities of north Australia. In addition to eliciting indigenous knowledge that confirmed field fish survey results, the approach generated knowledge that was new to both science and indigenous participants, respectively. Indigenous knowledge influenced (1 the conceptual models developed by scientists to understand the flow ecology and (2 the structure of risk assessment tools designed to understand the vulnerability of particular fish to low-flow scenarios.
Full Text Available Using a combination of traditional ecological knowledge and science to monitor populations can greatly assist co-management for sustainable customary wildlife harvests by indigenous peoples. Case studies from Canada and New Zealand emphasize that, although traditional monitoring methods may often be imprecise and qualitative, they are nevertheless valuable because they are based on observations over long time periods, incorporate large sample sizes, are inexpensive, invite the participation of harvesters as researchers, and sometimes incorporate subtle multivariate cross checks for environmental change. A few simple rules suggested by traditional knowledge may produce good management outcomes consistent with fuzzy logic thinking. Science can sometimes offer better tests of potential causes of population change by research on larger spatial scales, precise quantification, and evaluation of population change where no harvest occurs. However, science is expensive and may not always be trusted or welcomed by customary users of wildlife. Short scientific studies in which traditional monitoring methods are calibrated against population abundance could make it possible to mesh traditional ecological knowledge with scientific inferences of prey population dynamics. This paper analyzes the traditional monitoring techniques of catch per unit effort and body condition. Combining scientific and traditional monitoring methods can not only build partnership and community consensus, but also, and more importantly, allow indigenous wildlife users to critically evaluate scientific predictions on their own terms and test sustainability using their own forms of adaptive management.
to wider skills and experience. - Retention of key staff through personal development. - Knowledge and experience transfer. Now is the time in the industry to make the most of the available resource and work together to ensure the required growth through training and development of all workers. The infrastructure required to make this resource exchange possible is available and proven many times. This paper will talk through the story of the development of the ReTek Exchange in the UK and how the same system can be used elsewhere in the world. (author)
Bargues, Emilie; Landivar, Diego
Through an exploratory approach mobilizing a 'mapping controversies methodology', this article analyses the role of training institutions in producing, distributing and criticizing knowledge related to ecological transition. The current work deals with the case of biomass production and activity, a central sector in French ecological transition. The analysis of semantic and unstructured data crawled from 3900 web sites highlights the major issues of controversy, the actors of the controversy, the points of agreement/disagreement among actors, and the particular position of training organizations in the knowledge structure. We find that these organizations are strongly correlated to official and scientific knowledge and less related to critical and marginal knowledge
Heidi L. Ballard
Full Text Available Natural resource management decisions can be based on incomplete knowledge when they lack scientific research, monitoring, and assessment and/or simultaneously fail to draw on local ecological knowledge. Many community-based forestry organizations in the United States attempt to address these knowledge gaps with an integrated ecological stewardship approach that balances ecological, social, and economic goals. This paper examines the use and integration of local knowledge and conventional science in ecological stewardship and monitoring by seven community-based forestry demonstration projects. Through document reviews and interviews with both participants and partners of all of these community-based organizations, we found that all the community-based forestry groups incorporated local ecological knowledge into many aspects of their management or monitoring activities, such as collaboratively designing monitoring programs with local ranchers, forest workers, and residents; involving local people in collecting data and interpreting results; and documenting the local ecological knowledge of private forest landowners, long-time residents, and harvesters of nontimber forest products. We found that all the groups also used conventional science to design or conduct ecological assessments, monitoring, or research. We also found evidence, in the form of changes in attitudes on the part of local people and conventional scientists and jointly produced reports, that the two types of knowledge were integrated by all groups. These findings imply that community-based forestry groups are redistributing the power of conventional science through the use of diverse knowledge sources. Still, several obstacles prevented some local, traditionally under-represented groups from being significantly involved in monitoring and management decisions, and their knowledge has not yet been consistently incorporated.
Thyholt, Marit; Dokka, Tor Helge; Schild, Peter; Grini, Catherine; Mysen, Mads; Sartori, Igor
The National Office of Building Technology and Administration (BE) desired to review the consequences of different levels of ambition for requirements for heat gaining from vent air, as well as a possible requirement for energy efficient design of building fronts. In addition the energy scope in the regulation (TEK2007) should be adjusted according to the final establishment of a new calculation standard (Norwegian Standard - NS 3031:2007). A statement on these subjects has been carried out at SINTEF Byggforsk, and is described in this report. Adjustments of framework regulations.There are only minor differences between adjusted calculations according to NS 3031 and the original energy framework calculations, i.e. the difference for net energy need amounts to the size of 0 to 6 percent. Heat gain.The report shows that it is possible - both from techical and financial considerations - to increase the requirement level for heat gain from vent air for most categories of buildings. This implies a sharpening of the annual median temperature efficiency from 70 % to 80 %, for all building categories, except from hospitals, institutions and light industry/workshops. A possible sharpening of regulations for heat gain in houses has not been evaluated. Depending on building category a sharpening of regulations for heat gain from vent air will imply that net energy need will be reduced on a scale of 20 to 30 kWh/m2 per annum. The report demonstrates that despite a possible sharpening of the requirements on energy efficiency for heat recovery devices does not prevent the use of large areas of windows and window panes. Vulnerability analyses show that deviations from the prerequisites in the basis for the energy framework concerning air quantities and air temperatures give the possibility of weakening the building's heating characteristics. Building fronts. Different methods for added requirements for building fronts have been examined. The aim has been to find methods and
"Traditional" wetland physical assessment modules do not adequately identify Tribal cultural values of wetlands and thus wetlands may not be adequately protected for cultural uses. This Swinomish Wetlands Cultural Assessment Project has developed a cultural resource scoring module that can be incorporated into wetland assessments to better inform wetland protections. Local native knowledge was gathered about the traditional uses of 99 native wetland plant species. A cultural scoring matrix was developed based on the presence of traditionally used plants in several use categories including: construction, ceremonial, subsistence, medicinal, common use, plant rarity, and place of value for each wetland. The combined score of the cultural and physcial modules provides an overall wetland score that relates to proscribed buffer protection widths. With this local native knowledge incorporated into wetland assessments, we are protecting and preserving Swinomish Reservation wetlands for both cultural uses and ecological functionality through the Tribe's wetland protection law.
Márcio Luiz Vargas Barbosa Filho
Full Text Available Despite the serious threats that affect shark species living along the central coast of Brazil, knowledge about the life history of these animals is still scarce. The present study describes the knowledge and perceptions of fishermen from southern Bahia, Brazil, on the trophic interactions of sharks. The objective of this work was to generate information that contributes to a better understanding of the life history of sharks from this poorly known region. In 2012, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 65 fishermen, with over 15 years of experience, about fisheries and aspects of shark feeding behavior. The study found that the participants have comprehensive ethno-ecological knowledge about shark feeding habits, describing 39 types of items as components of the diets of these animals. They are also able to recognize the favored items in the diet of each ethnospecies of shark. Similar studies about shark feeding habits along the Brazilian coast should be developed. This will generate more detailed knowledge and/or new scientific hypotheses about the interspecific relationships of these predators and their prey.
Titis Angga Rini
Full Text Available The assessment instruments have an important role to support process of authentic assessing student learning. The result of needs analysis show that there is a lack of writing assessment instruments used in primary school. The purpose of this research is to develop authentic original text writing assessment instruments for elementary school students. This research adapted the assessment development model from O'Malley & Pierce (1996. This development research produces factual writing assignments for students with assessment rubrics, and a grading guide for teachers. This product is eligible in terms of validity, reliability, legibility, and practicality as a means of writing assessment. Instrumen asesmen autentik berperan penting untuk menunjang proses asesmen pembelajaran siswa di sekolah. Hasil analisis kebutuhan menunjukkan bahwa terdapat keterbatasan instrumen asesmen menulis yang digunakan di SD. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengembangkan instrumen asesmen autentik menulis teks faktual untuk siswa kelas IV. Penelitian pengembangan ini mengadaptasi model pengembangan asesmen autentik O’Malley & Pierce (1996. Penelitian pengembangan ini menghasilkan produk yang terdiri atas buku tugas menulis teks faktual untuk siswa dengan rubrik penilaiannya dan buku panduan asesmen untuk guru yang layak dari segi validitas, reliabilitas, keterbacaan, penyajian, dan kepraktisan sebagai instrumen asesmen autentik menulis.
Hanna Erixon Aalto
Full Text Available If we are to promote urban sustainability and resilience, social-ecological knowledge must be better integrated in urban planning and design projects. Due to gaps in the two cultures of thinking that are associated with the disciplines of ecology and design, such integration has, however, proven to be challenging. In mainstream practice, ecologists often act as sub-consultants; they are seldom engaged in the creative and conceptual phases of the process. Conversely, research aiming to bridge the gap between design and ecology has tended to be dominated by a relatively static and linear outlook on what the design process is, and what it could be. Further, few concrete examples of the co-production of ecological and design knowledge exist. In this paper, we give an account of a transdisciplinary design proposal for Albano Resilient Campus in Stockholm, discussing how design—seen as a process and an assemblage of artifacts—can act as a framework for co-producing knowledge and operationalizing concepts of resilience and ecosystem services. Through a design-based and action-oriented approach, we discuss how such a collaborative design process may integrate ecological knowledge into urban design through three concrete practices: (a iterative prototyping; (b generative matrix models; and, (c legible, open-ended, comprehensive narratives. In the conclusion, we sketch the contours of a social-ecological urbanism, speculating on possible broader and changed roles for ecologists, designers, and the associated actors within this framework.
Baird, Donald J; Baker, Christopher J O; Brua, Robert B; Hajibabaei, Mehrdad; McNicol, Kearon; Pascoe, Timothy J; de Zwart, Dick
The trait approach has already indicated significant potential as a tool in understanding natural variation among species in sensitivity to contaminants in the process of ecological risk assessment. However, to realize its full potential, a defined nomenclature for traits is urgently required, and significant effort is required to populate databases of species-trait relationships. Recently, there have been significant advances in the area of information management and discovery in the area of the semantic web. Combined with continuing progress in biological trait knowledge, these suggest that the time is right for a reevaluation of how trait information from divergent research traditions is collated and made available for end users in the field of environmental management. Although there has already been a great deal of work on traits, the information is scattered throughout databases, literature, and undiscovered sources. Further progress will require better leverage of this existing data and research to fill in the gaps. We review and discuss a number of technical and social challenges to bringing together existing information and moving toward a new, collaborative approach. Finally, we outline a path toward enhanced knowledge discovery within the traits domain space, showing that, by linking knowledge management infrastructure, semantic metadata (trait ontologies), and Web 2.0 and 3.0 technologies, we can begin to construct a dedicated platform for TERA science. Copyright © 2010 SETAC.
Huggins, D. R.
Drowning in data and starving for knowledge, agricultural decision makers require evidence-based information to enlighten sustainable intensification. The agro-ecological footprint of the Cook Agronomy Farm (CAF) Long-Term Agro-ecosystem Research (LTAR) site is embedded within 9.4 million ha of diverse land uses primarily cropland (2.9 million ha) and rangeland (5.3 million ha) that span a wide annual precipitation gradient (150 mm through 1400 mm) with diverse social and natural capital (see Figure). Sustainable intensification hinges on the development and adoption of precision agro-ecological practices that rely on meaningful spatio-temporal data relevant to land use decisions at within-field to regional scales. Specifically, the CAF LTAR will provide the scientific foundation (socio-economical and bio-physical) for enhancing decision support for precision and conservation agriculture and synergistic cropping system intensification and diversification. Long- and short-term perspectives that recognize and assess trade-offs in ecosystem services inherent in any land use decision will be considered so as to promote the development of more sustainable agricultural systems. Presented will be current and future CAF LTAR research efforts required for the development of sustainable agricultural systems including cropping system cycles and flows of nutrients, water, carbon, greenhouse gases and other biotic and abiotic factors. Evaluation criteria and metrics associated with long-term agro-ecosystem provisioning, supporting, and regulating services will be emphasized.
The book turns to the freshment, the teacher, for preparation of ecological topics for lessons, but also to pupils of the secondary stage II, and the main course ecology. The book was knowingly held simple with the restriction to: the ecosystem and its abiotic basic functions, simple articles on population biology, bioceonotic balance ith the questions of niche formation and the life form types coherent with it, of the substance and energy household, the production biology and space-wise and time-wise differentations within an ecological system form the main points. A central role in the volume is given to the illustrations. Their variety is to show and deepen the coherences shown. (orig./HP) [de
Thomas N E Gray
Full Text Available Pressures on freshwater biodiversity in Southeast Asia are accelerating yet the status and conservation needs of many of the region's threatened fish species are unclear. This impacts the ability to implement conservation activities and to understand the effects of infrastructure developments and other hydrological changes. We used Local Ecological Knowledge from fishing communities on the Mekong River in the Siphandone waterscape, Lao PDR to estimate mean and mode last capture dates of eight rare or culturally significant fish species in order to provide conservation monitoring baselines. One hundred and twenty fishermen, from six villages, were interviewed. All eight species had been captured, by at least one of the interviewees, within the waterscape within the past year. However the mean and mode last capture dates varied between the species. Larger species, and those with higher Red List threat status, were caught less recently than smaller species of less conservation concern. The status of the Critically Endangered Pangasius sanitwongsei (mean last capture date 116.4 months is particularly worrying suggesting severe population decline although cultural issues may have caused this species to have been under-reported. This highlights that studies making use of Local Ecological Knowledge need to understand the cultural background and context from which data is collected. Nevertheless we recommend our approach, of stratified random interviews to establish mean last capture dates, may be an effective methodology for monitoring freshwater fish species of conservation concern within artisanal fisheries. If fishing effort remains relatively constant, or if changes in fishing effort are accounted for, differences over time in mean last capture dates are likely to represent changes in the status of species. We plan to repeat our interview surveys within the waterscape as part of a long-term fish-monitoring program.
Naah, John-Baptist S N; Guuroh, Reginald T
Recording local ecological knowledge (LEK) is a useful approach to understanding interactions of the complex social-ecological systems. In spite of the recent growing interest in LEK studies on the effects of climate and land use changes, livestock mobility decisions and other aspects of agro-pastoral systems, LEK on forage plants has still been vastly under-documented in the West African savannas. Using a study area ranging from northern Ghana to central Burkina Faso, we thus aimed at exploring how aridity and socio-demographic factors drive the distributional patterns of forage-related LEK among its holders. With stratified random sampling, we elicited LEK among 450 informants in 15 villages (seven in Ghana and eight in Burkina Faso) via free list tasks coupled with ethnobotanical walks and direct field observations. We performed generalized linear mixed-effects models (aridity- and ethnicity-based models) and robust model selection procedures. Our findings revealed that LEK for woody and herbaceous forage plants was strongly influenced by the ethnicity-based model, while aridity-based model performed better for LEK on overall forage resources and crop-related forage plants. We also found that climatic aridity had negative effect on the forage-related LEK across gender and age groups, while agro- and floristic diversity had positive effect on the body of LEK. About 135 species belonging to 95 genera and 52 families were cited. Our findings shed more light on how ethnicity and environmental harshness can markedly shape the body of LEK in the face of global climate change. Better understanding of such a place-based knowledge system is relevant for sustainable forage plants utilization and livestock production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Christina N Service
Full Text Available Range shifts among wildlife can occur rapidly and impose cascading ecological, economic, and cultural consequences. However, occurrence data used to define distributional limits derived from scientific approaches are often outdated for wide ranging and elusive species, especially in remote environments. Accordingly, our aim was to amalgamate indigenous and western scientific evidence of grizzly bear (Ursus arctos horribilis records and detail a potential range shift on the central coast of British Columbia, Canada. In addition, we test the hypothesis that data from each method yield similar results, as well as illustrate the complementary nature of this coupled approach. Combining information from traditional and local ecological knowledge (TEK/LEK interviews with remote camera, genetic, and hunting data revealed that grizzly bears are now present on 10 islands outside their current management boundary. LEK interview data suggested this expansion has accelerated over the last 10 years. Both approaches provided complementary details and primarily affirmed one another: all islands with scientific evidence for occupation had consistent TEK/LEK evidence. Moreover, our complementary methods approach enabled a more spatially and temporally detailed account than either method would have afforded alone. In many cases, knowledge already held by local indigenous people could provide timely and inexpensive data about changing ecological processes. However, verifying the accuracy of scientific and experiential knowledge by pairing sources at the same spatial scale allows for increased confidence and detail. A similarly coupled approach may be useful across taxa in many regions.
Full Text Available Abstract Some smokeless tobacco products, such as Swedish snus, are today considered to be associated with substantially fewer health hazards than cigarettes. This risk differential has contributed to the scientific debate about the possibilities of harm reduction within the tobacco area. Although current manufacturing methods for snus build on those that were introduced more than a century ago, the low levels of unwanted substances in modern Swedish snus are largely due to improvements in production techniques and selection of raw materials in combination with several programs for quality assurance and quality control. These measures have been successively introduced during the past 30-40 years. In the late 1990s they formed the basis for a voluntary quality standard for Swedish snus named GothiaTek®. In recent years the standard has been accepted by the members of the trade organization European Smokeless Tobacco Council (ESTOC so it has now evolved into an industrial standard for all smokeless tobacco products in Europe. The initial impetus for the mentioned changes of the production was quality problems related to microbial activity and formation of ammonia and nitrite in the finished products. Other contributing factors were that snus came under the jurisdiction of the Swedish Food Act in 1971, and concerns that emerged in the 1960s and 1970s about health effects of tobacco, and the significance of agrochemical residues and other potential toxicants in food stuffs. This paper summarizes the historical development of the manufacture of Swedish snus, describes the chemical composition of modern snus, and gives the background and rationale for the GothiaTek® standard, including the selection of constituents for which the standard sets limits. The paper also discusses the potential future of this voluntary standard in relation to current discussions about tobacco harm reduction and regulatory science in tobacco control.
Ida Bagus Gede Widnyana Putra
Full Text Available Ketersediaan dokumen teks bahasa Bali yang meningkat jumlahnya membuat proses pencarian informasi pada dokumen teks berbahasa Bali menjadi semakin sulit. Mengklasifikasikanya secara manual menjadi tidak efisien mengingat peningkatan jumlah dokumen yang semakin banyak. Pada penelitian ini dikembangkan sebuah aplikasi yang dapat mengklasifikasikan teks bahasa Bali ke dalam kategori yang ditentukan. Aplikasi ini menggunakan metode klasifikasi Naive Bayes Classifier (NBC dan metode Information Gain(IG untuk seleksi fitur. Aplikasi ini diuji dengan teknik cross validation. Hasilnya adalah nilai rata-rata akurasi dari 10 fold cross validation sebesar 95,22%.
Mariana G Bender
Full Text Available In the last decades, a number of studies based on historical records revealed the diversity loss in the oceans and human-induced changes to marine ecosystems. These studies have improved our understanding of the human impacts in the oceans. They also drew attention to the shifting baseline syndrome and the importance of assessing appropriate sources of data in order to build the most reliable environmental baseline. Here we amassed information from artisanal fishermen's local ecological knowledge, fisheries landing data and underwater visual census to assess the decline of fish species in Southeastern Brazil. Interviews with 214 fishermen from line, beach seine and spearfishing revealed a sharp decline in abundance of the bluefish Pomatomus saltatrix, the groupers Epinephelus marginatus, Mycteroperca acutirostris, M. bonaci and M. microlepis, and large parrotfishes in the past six decades. Fisheries landing data from a 16-year period support the decline of bluefish as pointed by fishermen's local knowledge, while underwater visual census campaigns show reductions in groupers' abundance and a sharp population decline of the Brazilian endemic parrotfish Scarus trispinosus. Despite the marked decline of these fisheries, younger and less experienced fishermen recognized fewer species as overexploited and fishing sites as depleted than older and more experienced fishermen, indicating the occurrence of the shifting baseline syndrome. Here we show both the decline of multigear fisheries catches - combining anecdotal and scientific data - as well as changes in environmental perceptions over generations of fishermen. Managing ocean resources requires looking into the past, and into traditional knowledge, bringing historical baselines to the present and improving public awareness.
Guilherme Francisco Waterloo Radomsky
Full Text Available This article approaches biodiversity and traditional knowledge, having the notion of risk as its background. The data presented come from an ethnographic study carried out among a network of ecological farmers, Ecovida, in Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. Ecovida is an agro-ecological network of farm producers, consumers and intermediaries. The paper aims to show that in the global context of the advent of the intellectual property regime, especially the provisions on cultivars (plant variety and seed breeding, biodiversity and farming traditional knowledge, as well as their modes of plant breeding, suffer a double "erosion": the decrease on the availability of crop varieties; and it creates a uniformity and depleting of local knowledge. The potential standardization of seeds and knowledge entices new risks to both rural production and social sustainability. Our argument is that all these social actors -- that compose the so called ecological network -- in their activities, seeking to carry on the multiplication and variability of seeds and promote the diversity of knowledge, are also creating collective strategies of social resistance vis a vis nature and knowledge modes of control. As a political outcome of the collective efforts, the network of participatory certification works revealing the risk homogenization and corporate control over crop production.
Orr, Jonathan J.; Hulse-Killacky, Diana
Concepts of voice, meaning, mutual construction of knowledge, and transfer of learning are presented in this paper as critical ingredients that support the teaching of group work from an ecological perspective. Examples of these concepts are given to illustrate their application in group work classes. (Contains 1 table.)
Stark, Christina M.; Graham-Kiefer, Meredith L.; Devine, Carol M.; Dollahite, Jamie S.; Olson, Christine M.
Objective: To assess the impact of an online continuing education course on the knowledge, skills, and self-efficacy of nutrition professionals to use an ecological approach to prevent childhood obesity. Design: Quasi-experimental design using intervention and delayed intervention comparison groups with pre/post-course assessments. Setting: Online…
Braga, Heitor O; Azeiteiro, Ulisses M; Oliveira, Henrique M F; Pardal, Miguel A
European sardines are an important fishing resource in the North Atlantic. Recognized for its great commercial and economic value in southern Europe, this resource currently has low stock indices. From this perspective, fishers' local ecological knowledge (LEK) is appreciated as an auxiliary tool in the management of sardines in this region. Our goal is to evaluate the LEK and attitudes towards the conservation of Sardina pilchardus in the typical fishing village of Peniche, Portugal. From June to September 2016, we carried out 87 semi-structured interviews. The four main points of the interviews were interviewee profile, fishing structure, fishermen's LEK and attitudes towards sardine conservation. The interviews were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed using a 3-point Likert scale. An LEK index and an attitude index were generated. Comparison analyses and correlations were made between the indices and variables of the interviewee profile and the fishing structure. The mean LEK index was 0.55 and was classified as moderate. The attitudes index in relation to conservation was 0.76 and was classified as positive. This index had a positive and significant correlation with the LEK index and a significant negative correlation with the fishermen's age. When the LEK index was compared with the educational level, significant differences were observed only between class A and class C. The result showed that the differences in the attitudes index were statistically significant when the three educational classes were compared. The fishermen of Peniche in Portugal present moderate informal knowledge about the biology and ecology of sardines. Attitudes towards conservation were predominantly positive. Fishermen with greater LEK, with a higher educational level and at a younger age presented more positive attitudes in relation to environmental conservation issues in the present case of the sardine population. The LEK is not necessarily related to the educational level of
Joshua A. Drew
Full Text Available Conservation biology and environmental anthropology are disciplines that are both concerned with the identification and preservation of diversity, in one case biological and in the other cultural. Both conservation biology and the study of traditional ecoloigcal knowledge function at the nexus of the social and natural worlds, yet historically there have been major impediments to integrating the two. Here we identify linguistic, cultural, and epistemological barriers between the two disciplines. We argue that the two disciplines are uniquely positioned to inform each other and to provide critical insights and new perspectives on the way these sciences are practiced. We conclude by synthesizing common themes found in conservation success stories, and by making several suggestions on integration. These include cross-disciplinary publication, expanding memberships in professional societies and conducting multidisciplinary research based on similar interests in ecological process, taxonomy, or geography. Finally, we argue that extinction threats, be they biological or cultural/linguistic are imminent, and that by bringing these disciplines together we may be able to forge synergistic conservation programs capable of protecting the vivid splendor of life on Earth.
Bordron, Philippe; Latorre, Mauricio; Cortés, Maria-Paz; González, Mauricio; Thiele, Sven; Siegel, Anne; Maass, Alejandro; Eveillard, Damien
Following the trend of studies that investigate microbial ecosystems using different metagenomic techniques, we propose a new integrative systems ecology approach that aims to decipher functional roles within a consortium through the integration of genomic and metabolic knowledge at genome scale. For the sake of application, using public genomes of five bacterial strains involved in copper bioleaching: Acidiphilium cryptum, Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans, Leptospirillum ferriphilum, and Sulfobacillus thermosulfidooxidans, we first reconstructed a global metabolic network. Next, using a parsimony assumption, we deciphered sets of genes, called Sets from Genome Segments (SGS), that (1) are close on their respective genomes, (2) take an active part in metabolic pathways and (3) whose associated metabolic reactions are also closely connected within metabolic networks. Overall, this SGS paradigm depicts genomic functional units that emphasize respective roles of bacterial strains to catalyze metabolic pathways and environmental processes. Our analysis suggested that only few functional metabolic genes are horizontally transferred within the consortium and that no single bacterial strain can accomplish by itself the whole copper bioleaching. The use of SGS pinpoints a functional compartmentalization among the investigated species and exhibits putative bacterial interactions necessary for promoting these pathways. © 2015 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Caplat, Paul; Coutts, Shaun R
Recently Prévot-Julliard and colleagues presented a concept paper on biological conservation strategies using exotic species as a case study. They emphasized the difficulty of integrating conservation into a broad picture that accounts for public perception as well as scientific knowledge. We support this general call for better integration of society in conservation research, but we believe that the original framework might misguide conservation practices if wrongly interpreted. Our objective is to complement their paper and correct a few misleading points, by showing that (1) for regions of high endemicity "reservation" may be the best conservation practice, and does not prevent public participation, (2) aiming for broad societal agreement is valuable, but in some cases risky, and always complex, and (3) calling a harmful invasive species harmful shouldn't be an issue. The Australian context provides us with many cases of the labeling of exotic species as harmful or not, using inputs from scientists, industry, and the public. Integration of social and scientific points of view can only improve conservation on the ground if it allows managers to use the ecological, economic and social impacts of exotic species to prioritize conservation actions in an operative way.
Gudeta W. Sileshi
Full Text Available Despite their well-known role as pests, termites also provide essential ecosystem services. In this paper, we undertook a comprehensive review of studies on human-termite interactions and farmers' indigenous knowledge across Sub-Saharan Africa in an effort to build coherent principles for termite management. The review revealed that local communities have comprehensive indigenous knowledge of termite ecology and taxonomy, and apply various indigenous control practices. Many communities also have elaborate knowledge of the nutritional and medicinal value of termites and mushrooms associated with termite nests. Children and women also widely consume termite mound soil for nutritional or other benefits encouraged by indigenous belief systems. In addition, subsistence farmers use termites as indicators of soil fertility, and use termite mound soil in low-risk farming strategies for crop production. In the past, chemical control of termites has been initiated without empirical data on the termite species, their damage threshold, and the social, ecological, or economic risks and trade-offs of the control. This review has provided new insights into the intimate nature of human-termite interactions in Africa and the risks of chemical control of termites to human welfare and the environment. We recommend that management of termites in future should be built on farmers' indigenous knowledge and adequate understanding of the ecology of the local termite species.
Wiwit Lili Sokhipah
Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini adalah (1 menentukan keefektifan penggunaan model show not tell pada pembelajaran keterampilan menulis teks eksposisi berdasarkan minat peserta didik SMK Kelas X, (2 menentukan keefektifan penggunaan model mind map pada pembelajaran keterampilan menulis teks eksposisi berdasarkan minat peserta didik SMK kelas X, (3 menentukan keefektifan interaksi show not tell dan mind map pada pembelajaran keterampilan menulis teks eksposisi berdasarkan minat peserta didik SMK kelas X. Penelitian ini adalah quasi experimental design (pretes-postes control group design. Dalam desain ini terdapat dua kelompok eksperimen yakni penerapan model show not tell dalam pembelajaran keterampilan menulis teks eksposisipeserta didik dengan minat tinggi dan penerapan model mind map dalam pembelajaran keterampilan menulis teks eksposisi peserta didik dengan minat rendah. Hasil penelitian adalah (1 model show not tell efektif digunakan dalam membelajarkan menulis teks eksposisi bagi peserta didik yang memiliki minat tinggi, (2 model mind map efektif digunakan dalam membelajarkan menulis teks eksposisi bagi peserta didik yang memiliki minat rendah, dan (3 model show not tell lebih efektif digunakan dalam membelajarkan menulis teks eksposisi bagi peserta didik yang memiliki minat tinggi, sedangkan model mind map efektif digunakan dalam membelajarkan teks eksposisi pagi peserta didik yang memiliki minat rendah.
Zhou, Wen-Yong; Song, Ze-Qian
The competitiveness of Supply Chain (SC) correlates intimately with its knowledge operation (KO). In order to realize better assessment value, this paper constructed an evaluation framework on knowledge operation of SC and a detailed index system. According to theory of ecology, expounded the evaluation orientation and future research direction from view of comprehensiveness and adaptability. Additionally, a case about Toyota recall-gate was analyzed. Through research, it provides two dimensions of results evaluating orientation which may help enterprise make right decision upon SC.
Full Text Available Researchers in conservation biology and restoration ecology often work in partnership with local actors to increase the practical relevance of the knowledge they produce. Although an academic mode of knowledge production is essential in research for a better understanding of biological systems, it often fails to produce frameworks and methodologies having practical relevance that can be used in conservation and restoration programs. The involvement of researchers in collective plans of action is supposed to contribute to the production of a more contextualized form of knowledge. In this paper, we report our experience of partnership research in an ecological restoration project. We show that changing our mode of knowledge production to one that produces knowledge having more practical relevance requires a particular spectrum of partners and reflexive communication between all the partners. We advocate the need for participatory approaches that favor collective and reflexive processes of problem finding and problem solving in conservation and restoration projects. Putting such processes into practice is not only a challenge for researchers but also for their partners, and presupposes a profound transformation of their roles.
Full Text Available Artikel ini membahas empat koreografer Minangkabau yaitu Gusmiati Suid, Huriah Adam, Syofyani Bustamam, dan Syahril dari perspektif matrilineal dan patrilineal. Teks matrilineal tidak hanya dipandang dari sisi genealogis, tetapi juga dari sudut pandang budaya. Berdasarkan penelitian disimpulkan bahwa partisipasi perempuan di luar wilayah domestiknya terbias dalam seni tari. Perempuan tidak dinantikan hanya untuk menyemarakkan dengan tebaran pesona keindahan ragawi. Ia mampu menjadi sumber ide dan tema, pelaku, pencipta, pengatur, dan penyelenggara, atau sarana mobilitas seni pertunjukan. Keempat koreografer lahir dan dibesarkan di Minangkabau akan tetapi berkiprah di tiga wilayah yang berbeda. Gusmiati Suid di Jakarta, Huriah Adam di Sumatera Barat, Syofyani di Padang, dan Syahril di Padangpanjang. Sebagai koreografer yang lahir dan dibesarkan dalam kultur Minangkabau tentu keempat koreografer ini ikut merasakan betapa dilematis posisi perempuan dalam masyarakat Minangkabau. This article discusses about four choreographers of Minangkabau, among others are Gusmiati Suid, Huriah Adam, Syoyani Bustamam, and Syahril seen from the perspective of matrilineal and Patrilineal. The matrilineal text cannot only be seen from the genealogical side but it can be viewed from the cultural standpoint. Based on the research result it can be concluded that women participation outside their domestic area is also biased in dance performing arts. Women are not only expected to embellish with their scattering of physical enchanting beauty. They can be the source of ideas and themes, the actress,the creator,the manager, and the event organizer, or the mean of performing arts mobility. These four choreographers were born and grown up in Minangkabau, however, they have actively expanded their career in three different places. Gusmiati Suid’ s career is in Jakarta, Huriah Adam is in West Sumatra , Syoyani is in Padang, and Syahril is in Padangpanjang. As the
Full Text Available Semantic heterogeneity hampers efforts to find, integrate, analyse and interpret ecological data. An application case-study is described, in which the objective was to automate the integration and interpretation of heterogeneous, flower...
Oteros Rozas, E.; Ontillera-Sánchez, R.; Sanosa, P.; Gómez-Baggethun, E.; Reyes-García, V.; González, J.A.
Mobility is a millenary human strategy to deal with environmental change. An outstanding example of mobility is transhumance, an ancient pastoralist practice consisting of the seasonal migration of livestock between ecological regions following peaks in pasture productivity. The maintenance of
Bhat Jahangeer A; Kumar Munesh; Bussmann Rainer W
Abstract Background Himalayan forests are the most important source of medicinal plants and with useful species for the local people. Kedarnath Wildlife Sanctuary (KWLS) is situated in the interior part of the Garhwal Himalayan region. The presented study was carried out in Madhmeshwar area of KWLS for the ecological status of medicinal plants and further focused on the ethnomedicinal uses of these plants in the study area. Methods Ecological information about ethnomedicinal plants were colle...
Hayman, D T S; Bowen, R A; Cryan, P M; McCracken, G F; O’Shea, T J; Peel, A J; Gilbert, A; Webb, C T; Wood, J L N
Bats are hosts to a range of zoonotic and potentially zoonotic pathogens. Human activities that increase exposure to bats will likely increase the opportunity for infections to spill over in the future. Ecological drivers of pathogen spillover and emergence in novel hosts, including humans, involve a complex mixture of processes, and understanding these complexities may aid in predicting spillover. In particular, only once the pathogen and host ecologies are known can the impacts of anthropogenic changes be fully appreciated. Cross-disciplinary approaches are required to understand how host and pathogen ecology interact. Bats differ from other sylvatic disease reservoirs because of their unique and diverse lifestyles, including their ability to fly, often highly gregarious social structures, long lifespans and low fecundity rates. We highlight how these traits may affect infection dynamics and how both host and pathogen traits may interact to affect infection dynamics. We identify key questions relating to the ecology of infectious diseases in bats and propose that a combination of field and laboratory studies are needed to create data-driven mechanistic models to elucidate those aspects of bat ecology that are most critical to the dynamics of emerging bat viruses. If commonalities can be found, then predicting the dynamics of newly emerging diseases may be possible. This modelling approach will be particularly important in scenarios when population surveillance data are unavailable and when it is unclear which aspects of host ecology are driving infection dynamics. PMID:22958281
Hayman, D.T.; Bowen, R.A.; Cryan, P.M.; McCracken, G.F.; O'Shea, T.J.; Peel, A.J.; Gilbert, A.; Webb, C.T.; Wood, J.L.
Bats are hosts to a range of zoonotic and potentially zoonotic pathogens. Human activities that increase exposure to bats will likely increase the opportunity for infections to spill over in the future. Ecological drivers of pathogen spillover and emergence in novel hosts, including humans, involve a complex mixture of processes, and understanding these complexities may aid in predicting spillover. In particular, only once the pathogen and host ecologies are known can the impacts of anthropogenic changes be fully appreciated. Cross-disciplinary approaches are required to understand how host and pathogen ecology interact. Bats differ from other sylvatic disease reservoirs because of their unique and diverse lifestyles, including their ability to fly, often highly gregarious social structures, long lifespans and low fecundity rates. We highlight how these traits may affect infection dynamics and how both host and pathogen traits may interact to affect infection dynamics. We identify key questions relating to the ecology of infectious diseases in bats and propose that a combination of field and laboratory studies are needed to create data-driven mechanistic models to elucidate those aspects of bat ecology that are most critical to the dynamics of emerging bat viruses. If commonalities can be found, then predicting the dynamics of newly emerging diseases may be possible. This modelling approach will be particularly important in scenarios when population surveillance data are unavailable and when it is unclear which aspects of host ecology are driving infection dynamics.
Sauer, J.; Schramme, S.; Rüttinger, B.
This article presents a study that examines multiple effects of using different means of computer-mediated communication and knowledge elicitation methods during a product design process. The experimental task involved a typical scenario in product design, in which a knowledge engineer consults two experts to generate knowledge about a design issue. Employing a 3x2 between-subjects design, three conference types (face-to-face, computer, multivedia) and two knowledge elicitation methods (struc...
Full Text Available Local ecological knowledge (LEK can shed light on ecosystem change, especially in under-researched areas such as South Africa's Wild Coast. However, for ecosystem planning purposes, it is necessary to assess the accuracy and validity of LEK, and determine where such knowledge is situated in a community, and how evenly it is spread. Furthermore, it is relevant to ask: does LEK add value to science, and how do science and local knowledge complement one another? We assessed change in woodland and forest cover in the Nqabara Administrative Area on South Africa's Wild Coast between 1974 and 2001. The inhabitants of Nqabara are "traditional" Xhosa-speaking people who are highly dependent on natural resources for their livelihoods. More recently, however, infrastructural development has influenced traditional lifestyles at Nqabara, although poverty remains high and formal education levels low. We assessed LEK about changes in woodland and forest cover over the past 30 years by interviewing 11 local "experts," who were recognized as such by the Nqabara community, and 40 senior members of randomly selected households in each village. We also analyzed land-cover change, using orthorectified aerial photos taken in 1974 and 2001. Forest and woodland cover had increased by 49% between 1974 and 2001. The 11 "experts" had a nuanced understanding of these changes and their causes. Their understanding was not only remarkably consistent with that of scientists, but it added considerable value to scientific understanding of the ultimate causes of land-cover change in the area. The experts listed combinations of several causal factors, operating at different spatial and temporal scales. The 40 randomly selected respondents also knew that forest and woodland cover had increased, but their understanding of the causes, and the role of fire in particular, was somewhat simplistic. They could identify only three causal factors and generally listed single factors rather
Selim, Serdar; Sonmez, Namik Kemal; Onur, Isin; Coslu, Mesut
Connection of similar landscape patches with ecological corridors supports habitat quality of these patches, increases urban ecological quality, and constitutes an important living and expansion area for wild life. Furthermore, habitat connectivity provided by urban green areas is supporting biodiversity in urban areas. In this study, possible ecological connections between landscape patches, which were achieved by using Expert classification technique and modeled with probabilistic connection index. Firstly, the reflection responses of plants to various bands are used as data in hypotheses. One of the important features of this method is being able to use more than one image at the same time in the formation of the hypothesis. For this reason, before starting the application of the Expert classification, the base images are prepared. In addition to the main image, the hypothesis conditions were also created for each class with the NDVI image which is commonly used in the vegetation researches. Besides, the results of the previously conducted supervised classification were taken into account. We applied this classification method by using the raster imagery with user-defined variables. Hereupon, to provide ecological connections of the tree cover which was achieved from the classification, we used Probabilistic Connection (PC) index. The probabilistic connection model which is used for landscape planning and conservation studies via detecting and prioritization critical areas for ecological connection characterizes the possibility of direct connection between habitats. As a result we obtained over % 90 total accuracy in accuracy assessment analysis. We provided ecological connections with PC index and we created inter-connected green spaces system. Thus, we offered and implicated green infrastructure system model takes place in the agenda of recent years.
Kozulia, T.V.; Kozulia, M.M.
The mathematical model of natural-technogenic objects is substantiated in the article. Natural-technogenic object of research is defined in form of a system model, which includes the economic, ecological and social components and processes system occurring in the selected systems and in their interaction. Basis for introduction systematic analysis methods for consistent problematic environmental safety tasks solution under conditions of uncertainty has been formed. The complex methods system includes entropy theory provisions on the objects state evaluation, the comparator identification method, substantively substantiated for solving complex environment quality assessment problems. An example of ecological state technogenically loaded landscape-geochemical complexes on the proposed methodological support studied in the work.
Researchers considering children's traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) highlighted the importance of examining children's daily activities as empirical contexts for its acquisition. Many of them evaluated children's TEK acquisition linearly as gain or loss, and paid less attention to the adaptive nature of this knowledge system and the social relationships arising from its acquisition processes. This study approaches children's TEK acquisition considering these abovementioned aspects. I utilize pastoral Maasai girls' firewood collection as a case study, and analyze the personal, interpersonal and cultural institutional aspects of girls' Ethnobotanical knowledge (EK) acquisition within this chore. Participant observation and unstructured interviews were used for data collection. I joined 12 girls (6 to 15 years old) on day trips for firewood collection, and documented their participation and performance during this chore. I observed interactions among girls and between girls and women concerning this activity, and investigated girls' perceptions of local wood species via their descriptions. I also informally interviewed 15 women, between 20 and 80 years old on their evaluation of the wood species to be used as firewood. Current diet change and gender-age roles in chore participation in Maasai society require females to continually participate in firewood collection. Within this social context, girls intensively participated in day trips of firewood collection during the long-term vacation in the dry season. They collected a sizable amount from 24 plant species, and generated EK through personal sensual experiences, such as fragrance, hardness, and heaviness of different wood species. They acquired local taxonomy and terminology of different wood species, and learned others preferences for wood species used as fuel through interpersonal communication. These personal and interpersonal aspects, together with current diet change and division of labor within gender
Page, S.; Hoscilo, A.; Wösten, J.H.M.; Jauhiainen, J.; Silvius, M.J.; Rieley, J.; Ritzema, H.P.; Tansey, K.; Graham, L.; Vasander, H.; Limin, S.
Studies of restoration ecology are well established for northern peatlands, but at an early stage for tropical peatlands. Extensive peatland areas in Southeast Asia have been degraded through deforestation, drainage and fire, leading to on- and off-site environmental and socio-economic impacts of
Athanasiou, Kyriacos; Papadopoulou, Penelope
In this study, we explored some of the factors related to the acceptance of evolution theory among Greek university students training to be teachers in early childhood education, using conceptual ecology for biological evolution as a theoretical framework. We examined the acceptance of evolution theory and we also looked into the relationship…
Thomas, Evert; Valdivia, Jheyson; Alcázar Caicedo, Carolina; Quaedvlieg, Julia; Wadt, Lucia Helena O; Corvera, Ronald
Understanding the factors that underlie the production of non-timber forest products (NTFPs), as well as regularly monitoring production levels, are key to allow sustainability assessments of NTFP extractive economies. Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa, Lecythidaceae) seed harvesting from natural forests is one of the cornerstone NTFP economies in Amazonia. In the Peruvian Amazon it is organized in a concession system. Drawing on seed production estimates of >135,000 individual Brazil nut trees from >400 concessions and ethno-ecological interviews with >80 concession holders, here we aimed to (i) assess the accuracy of seed production estimates by Brazil nut seed harvesters, and (ii) validate their traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) about the variables that influence Brazil nut production. We compared productivity estimates with actual field measurements carried out in the study area and found a positive correlation between them. Furthermore, we compared the relationships between seed production and a number of phenotypic, phytosanitary and environmental variables described in literature with those obtained for the seed production estimates and found high consistency between them, justifying the use of the dataset for validating TEK and innovative hypothesis testing. As expected, nearly all TEK on Brazil nut productivity was corroborated by our data. This is reassuring as Brazil nut concession holders, and NTFP harvesters at large, rely on their knowledge to guide the management of the trees upon which their extractive economies are based. Our findings suggest that productivity estimates of Brazil nut trees and possibly other NTFP-producing species could replace or complement actual measurements, which are very expensive and labour intensive, at least in areas where harvesters have a tradition of collecting NTFPs from the same trees over multiple years or decades. Productivity estimates might even be sourced from harvesters through registers on an annual basis
Full Text Available Understanding the factors that underlie the production of non-timber forest products (NTFPs, as well as regularly monitoring production levels, are key to allow sustainability assessments of NTFP extractive economies. Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa, Lecythidaceae seed harvesting from natural forests is one of the cornerstone NTFP economies in Amazonia. In the Peruvian Amazon it is organized in a concession system. Drawing on seed production estimates of >135,000 individual Brazil nut trees from >400 concessions and ethno-ecological interviews with >80 concession holders, here we aimed to (i assess the accuracy of seed production estimates by Brazil nut seed harvesters, and (ii validate their traditional ecological knowledge (TEK about the variables that influence Brazil nut production. We compared productivity estimates with actual field measurements carried out in the study area and found a positive correlation between them. Furthermore, we compared the relationships between seed production and a number of phenotypic, phytosanitary and environmental variables described in literature with those obtained for the seed production estimates and found high consistency between them, justifying the use of the dataset for validating TEK and innovative hypothesis testing. As expected, nearly all TEK on Brazil nut productivity was corroborated by our data. This is reassuring as Brazil nut concession holders, and NTFP harvesters at large, rely on their knowledge to guide the management of the trees upon which their extractive economies are based. Our findings suggest that productivity estimates of Brazil nut trees and possibly other NTFP-producing species could replace or complement actual measurements, which are very expensive and labour intensive, at least in areas where harvesters have a tradition of collecting NTFPs from the same trees over multiple years or decades. Productivity estimates might even be sourced from harvesters through registers on an
Shava, Soul; Krasny, Marianne E.; Tidball, Keith G.; Zazu, Cryton
In light of globalising trends toward urbanisation and resettlement, we explore how agricultural knowledges may be adapted and applied among relocated people. Although indigenous and related forms of practice-based knowledge may be temporarily lost as people adopt commercial agricultural practices and switch to non-agricultural livelihoods, they…
Deny Tri Ardianto
Full Text Available Komik Tintin memperlihatkan onomatopoea yang dimanfaatkan untuk memperjelas makna. Onomatopoea memberikan “celah” sebagai pembuka makna teks dengan melihat gagasan yang lain dalam teks. Pembacaan yang dilakukan atas onomatopoea adalah pembacaan dekonstruksi. Masalah utama dari hal itu adalah apakah makna dalam teks dengan mendasarkan pada bagian terpinggir dari teks seperti onomatopoea. Objek material dari tulisan ini komik terjemahan dari Tintin edisi Petualangan Tintin Penerbangan 714 ke Sidney. Objek formalnya adalah makna dari teks Tintin. Data yang digunakan adalah onomatopoea dalam teks, gagasan yang muncul dari teks, isi cerita dan lain-lain. Teknik interpretasi data dilakukan dengan mendasarkan pada prosedur pembacaan dekonstruksi. Hasil yang diperoleh menunjukkan bahwa onomatopoea menjadi pembuka makna teks melalui serangkaian oposisi seperti onomatopoea versus narasi teks, onomatopoea versus visual, dan narasi teks versus visual. Onomatopoea mengikat sekuen sebelum dan sesudahnya dan meluruhkan narasi teks serta visual yang “tidak penting” disekitar onomatopoea. Gagasan interteks yang muncul adalah melanjutkan proyek rasionalisme, bias kolonial dan keunggulan ras, serta meluruhnya gagasaan tersebut melalui kritik atas materialisme. Hal itu ditunjukkan melalui teks-teks petualangan, konflik ideologis, hingga hero yang super seperti pada era Romantisme Eropa. Tintin comic utilizes onomatopoeia to clarify meaning. Onomatopoeia gives a "window" as an opening to the meaning intended in the text by relating to other context in it. Onomatopoeia reading is a deconstructive reading. The main problem of this type of reading is whether the meaning in the text is based on the marginalized part of the text such as onomatopoeia. The material object of this paper is a comic translation of Tintin's Adventure entitled Tintin Flight 417 to Sidney. The formal object of this paper is the meaning of the text in the comic. The data of this research
Miles C. C. Holmes
Full Text Available Indigenous Ecological Knowledge (IEK is deeply encoded in social processes. Our research shows that from an Indigenous perspective, IEK is a way of living whose core aim is to sustain the healthy functioning of people and country through relationships of reciprocity. However, IEK is often portrayed more prosaically as a body of knowledge about the environment. We introduce a framework, called ngurra-kurlu, that enables appreciation of indigenous perspectives on IEK. The framework was identified from the collaborative work of the authors with Warlpiri aboriginal elders in the Tanami Desert region of central Australia. Ngurra-kurlu facilitates cross-cultural understanding by distilling, from a complex cultural system, the five distinct conceptual categories that comprise IEK: law, skin, ceremony, language, and country. The framework enables engagement with nuanced environmental knowledge because it synthesizes, for cross-cultural audiences, all the key areas of knowledge and practice in which IEK is located. In particular, the framework highlights how social systems mediate the transmission, deployment, and regulation of environmental knowledge in on-ground situations, including collaborative natural resource management. Although the framework was generated in relation to one indigenous group, the epistemological structure of Warlpiri IEK is relevant throughout Australia, and the framework can be applied internationally to the emerging interest in fostering ecosystem stewardship in which the cultural connections between people and place are an integral part of ecosystems management.
Background Himalayan forests are the most important source of medicinal plants and with useful species for the local people. Kedarnath Wildlife Sanctuary (KWLS) is situated in the interior part of the Garhwal Himalayan region. The presented study was carried out in Madhmeshwar area of KWLS for the ecological status of medicinal plants and further focused on the ethnomedicinal uses of these plants in the study area. Methods Ecological information about ethnomedicinal plants were collected using random quadrats in a random sampling technique along an altitudinal gradient in the KWLS. Information on medicinal properties of plants encountered in the present study was generated by questionnaire survey and was also compared with relevant literature. Results A total of 152 medicinally important plant species were reported, in which 103 were found herbs, 32 shrubs and 17 were tree species which represented 123 genera of 61 families. A total of 18 plant species fell into the rare, endangered (critically endangered) and vulnerable status categories. Conclusion The present study documented the traditional uses of medicinal plants, their ecological status and importance of these plants in the largest protected area of Garhwal Himalaya. This study can serve as baseline information on medicinal plants and could be helpful to further strengthen the conservation of this important resource. PMID:23281594
Bhat, Jahangeer A; Kumar, Munesh; Bussmann, Rainer W
Himalayan forests are the most important source of medicinal plants and with useful species for the local people. Kedarnath Wildlife Sanctuary (KWLS) is situated in the interior part of the Garhwal Himalayan region. The presented study was carried out in Madhmeshwar area of KWLS for the ecological status of medicinal plants and further focused on the ethnomedicinal uses of these plants in the study area. Ecological information about ethnomedicinal plants were collected using random quadrats in a random sampling technique along an altitudinal gradient in the KWLS. Information on medicinal properties of plants encountered in the present study was generated by questionnaire survey and was also compared with relevant literature. A total of 152 medicinally important plant species were reported, in which 103 were found herbs, 32 shrubs and 17 were tree species which represented 123 genera of 61 families. A total of 18 plant species fell into the rare, endangered (critically endangered) and vulnerable status categories. The present study documented the traditional uses of medicinal plants, their ecological status and importance of these plants in the largest protected area of Garhwal Himalaya. This study can serve as baseline information on medicinal plants and could be helpful to further strengthen the conservation of this important resource.
Bhat Jahangeer A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Himalayan forests are the most important source of medicinal plants and with useful species for the local people. Kedarnath Wildlife Sanctuary (KWLS is situated in the interior part of the Garhwal Himalayan region. The presented study was carried out in Madhmeshwar area of KWLS for the ecological status of medicinal plants and further focused on the ethnomedicinal uses of these plants in the study area. Methods Ecological information about ethnomedicinal plants were collected using random quadrats in a random sampling technique along an altitudinal gradient in the KWLS. Information on medicinal properties of plants encountered in the present study was generated by questionnaire survey and was also compared with relevant literature. Results A total of 152 medicinally important plant species were reported, in which 103 were found herbs, 32 shrubs and 17 were tree species which represented 123 genera of 61 families. A total of 18 plant species fell into the rare, endangered (critically endangered and vulnerable status categories. Conclusion The present study documented the traditional uses of medicinal plants, their ecological status and importance of these plants in the largest protected area of Garhwal Himalaya. This study can serve as baseline information on medicinal plants and could be helpful to further strengthen the conservation of this important resource.
Full Text Available The present work involves integration of the simulation stage of design of a VLSI circuit and its testing stage. The SPICE simulator, TEK LV500 ASIC Design Verification System, and TekWaves, a test program generator for LV500, were integrated. A software interface in ‘C’ language in UNIX ‘solaris 1.x’ environment has been developed between SPICE and the testing tools (TekWAVES and LV500. The function of the software interface developed is multifold. It takes input from either SPICE2G.6 or SPICE 3e.1. The output generated by the interface software can be given as an input to either TekWAVES or LV500. A graphical user interface has also been developed with OPENWlNDOWS using Xview tool kit on SUN workstation. As an example, a two phase clock generator circuit has been considered and usefulness of the software demonstrated. The interface software could be easily linked with VLSI design such as MAGIC layout editor.
Full Text Available Istilah jender dianggap sebagai diferensiasi pria-wanita.Perbedaan ini muncul karena realitas budaya yang dibangunoleh masyarakat. Konsep ini bertentangan dengan seks, yangmembedakan istilah pria-wanita secara biologis. Dengandemikian, perbedaan seks adalah konstruksi Allah, dan tidakdapat dikaji kembali. Di sisi lain, perbedaan jender adalahkonstruksi sosial dan dapat dikaji kembali (qâbil li al- niqasy.Oleh karena itu, konsep relasi pria-wanita selaludiperdebatkan dalam hal baik dalam studi teks atau dalamkonteks realitas di masyarakat. Artikel ini menguraikanpembentukan relasi pria-wanita dari perspektif teks,konstruksi budaya dan hari ini realitasnya. Dalam konteks ini,banyak tafsiran terhadap teks-teks sumber hukum Islam (al-Qur`an dan al-Hadits justru menguatkan budaya patrilineal.Tradisi yang bias jender ini mengakar kuat dalam masyarakat.Walaupun demikian, hal yang tidak bisa diingkari adalahperubahan realitas. Saat ini mulai tampak bahwa peran-peranyang secara budaya dikonsepsikan untuk laki-laki justrudilakukan oleh perempuan. Fenomena ini merupakan wujudperubahan realitas, yang akan memunculkan budaya baruyang egaliter.
Full Text Available Urban dwellers often have little knowledge of local ecosystems, but community groups that actively manage local ecosystems can acquire a rich ecological knowledge. Understanding the knowledge transfer process within community groups contributes to the continuous improvement of urban ecosystem management. In this paper, we address three main questions: (1 How is ecological knowledge acquisition linked to boundary and intra-group interactions? (2 Does holding knowledge mean the involvement in actual management activities? (3 Does the aging of community group members threaten the continuity of activities? We selected satoyama woodlands (seminatural woodlands in peri-urban Tokyo, Japan as a study site. We used a mixed method approach that combined a qualitative interview with a quantitative questionnaire. We found that boundary interactions were particularly important at the start of an urban ecological management process, to obtain basic knowledge relating to management activities. Intra-group interaction contributed to knowledge transfer after the starting period. We found that participants possessing considerable ecological knowledge do not necessarily participate in management activities. Findings also indicated that the aging of group members in groups established for more than 10 years was an area of concern for the continuity of group activities. New members did not necessarily solve this aging issue. We conclude that further measures and actions are needed to ensure long-term knowledge transfer among the participants of community groups in urban ecosystem management.
Johnston, Daniel T; Furness, Robert W; Robbins, Alexandra M C; Tyler, Glen; Taggart, Mark A; Masden, Elizabeth A
The black guillemot Cepphus grylle has been identified as a species likely to interact with marine renewable energy devices, specifically tidal turbines, with the potential to experience negative impacts. This likelihood is primarily based on the species being a diving seabird, and an inshore, benthic forager often associating with tidal streams. These behavioural properties may bring them into contact with turbine blades, or make them susceptible to alterations to tidal current speed, and/or changes in benthic habitat structure. We examine the knowledge currently available to assess the potential impacts of tidal stream turbines on black guillemot ecology, highlight knowledge gaps and make recommendations for future research. The key ecological aspects investigated include: foraging movements, diving behaviour, seasonal distribution, other sources of disturbance and colony recovery. Relating to foraging behaviour, between studies there is heterogeneity in black guillemot habitat use in relation to season, tide, diurnal cycles, and bathymetry. Currently, there is also little knowledge regarding the benthic habitats associated with foraging. With respect to diving behaviour, there is currently no available research regarding how black guillemots orientate and manoeuvre within the water column. Black guillemots are considered to be a non-migratory species, however little is known about their winter foraging range and habitat. The effect of human disturbance on breeding habitat and the metapopulation responses to potential mortalities are unknown. It is clear further understanding of black guillemot foraging habitat and behaviour is needed to provide renewable energy developers with the knowledge to sustainably locate tidal turbines and mitigate their impacts. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Homan, J Michael
The 2009 Janet Doe Lecture reflects on the continuing value and increasing return on investment of librarian-mediated services in the constantly evolving digital ecology and complex knowledge environment of the health sciences. The interrelationship of knowledge, decision making based on knowledge, technology used to access and retrieve knowledge, and the important linkage roles of expert librarian intermediaries is examined. Professional experiences from 1969 to 2009, occurring during a time of unprecedented changes in the digital ecology of librarianship, are the base on which the evolving role and value of librarians as knowledge coaches and expert intermediaries are examined. Librarian-mediated services linking knowledge and critical decision making in health care have become more valuable than ever as technology continues to reshape an increasingly complex knowledge environment.
Full Text Available The food sovereignty movement initiated in 1996 by a transnational organization of peasants, La Via Campesina, representing 148 organizations from 69 countries, became central to self-determination and decolonial mobilization embodied by Indigenous peoples throughout the world. Utilizing the framework of decolonization and sustainable self-determination, this article analyzes the concept of food sovereignty to articulate an understanding of its potential for action in revitalizing Indigenous food practices and ecological knowledge in the United States and Canada. The food sovereignty movement challenged the hegemony of the globalized, neoliberal, industrial, capital-intensive, corporate-led model of agriculture that created destructive economic policies that marginalized small-scale farmers, removed them from their land, and forced them into the global market economy as wage laborers. Framed within a larger rights discourse, the food sovereignty movement called for the right of all peoples to healthy and culturally appropriate food and the right to define their own food and agricultural systems. “Indigenizing” food sovereignty moves beyond a rights based discourse by emphasizing the cultural responsibilities and relationships Indigenous peoples have with their environment and the efforts being made by Indigenous communities to restore these relationships through the revitalization of Indigenous foods and ecological knowledge systems as they assert control over their own foods and practices.
Full Text Available In this paper, BV-2 mouse small glial cell inflammation model induced by LPS is established. The experiment used 0.1-10 μM of telmisartan and Tek-1 to incubate with small glial cell and used telmisartan and Tek-1 to incubate with PPAR gamma special heterosexual antagonistic anti-agent GW9662. The article used ELISA method to dectect TNF-a effect on small glial cell for telmisartan and Tek-1. The article used real-time quantitative PCR method to dectect mRNA level expression effect of CD11b, CD16 and iNOS on small glial cell for telmisartan and Tek-1 and used Western Blot method to dectect MAPKs signal pathway and NF-κb signal turned guide pathway effect on small glial cell for telmisartan and Tek-1. Results show that Tek-1 had high affinity with AT1 receptor and inhibited intracellular calcium ion activation which can be for the AT1 receptor antagonists. Meanwhile, Tek-1 can partially activate PPAR gamma compared with full agonists of rosiglitazone.
Oladayo Ramon Ibrahim
Full Text Available In pre-colonial times, African people survived by acquiring and preserving community knowledge of the environment and the relationships between human and non-human elements. The paper is based primarily on secondary data, and examines the relationships between African people, especially Yoruba people of southwestern Nigeria and the land and how understanding this relationship can help our quest for a more effective and sustainable regional planning. The study investigates the indigenous Yoruba Ecological Thoughts and Beliefs and how these affected the ways people have interacted with the environment. The result shows that there is a lot that modern planning can gain from the culture-environmental relationships of the indigenous people. Indigenous knowledge is the cornerstone of several convergent trends in social science thinking and development administration practice. With the failure of grand theories of development, social sciences focus on middle-range theories that are site – and time-specific (indigenous knowledge. Both traditional knowledge and modern science and technology should be complementary in the development process and should be properly integrated. People are the subject of development. Development is supposed to suit the people and not the people to suit development. If Africa does not learn this lesson now, all our efforts at the development will be in vain, because Africa is ultimately only as strong as its communities are.
John Bussey; Mae A. Davenport; Marla R. Emery; Clint Carroll
This article explores the generation, transmission, and nature of ecological knowledge used by tribal and nontribal natural resource management agency personnel who collectively manage a 666,542-acre forest in northern Minnesota. Using key informant interviews and an adapted grounded theory analysis, we documented the forms of knowledge participants expressed in their...
Biesmeijer, K.; Knoben, N.
The biggest social problems that we need to find answers to in the coming decades will concern food, water, economy, climate and quality of life, health and well-being. Although these are global issues, Dutch knowledge institutions are in a great position to make a major contribution to finding
Full Text Available Traditional knowledge about how reindeer utilize forage resources was expected to be crucial to reindeer herders. Seventeen Sami reindeer herders in four reindeer herding communities in Sweden (“samebyar” in Swedish were interviewed about plants species considered to be important reindeer food plants in scientific literature. Among 40 plant species, which the informants were asked to identify and indicate whether and when they were grazed by reindeer, they identified a total of 21 plant taxa and five plant groups. They especially recognised species that were used as human food by the Sami themselves, but certain specific forage plants were also identified. Detailed knowledge of vascular plants at the species level was surprisingly general, which may indicate that knowledge of pasture resources in a detailed species level is not of vital importance. This fact is in sharp contradiction to the detailed knowledge that Sami people express for example about reindeer (as an animal or snow (as physical element. The plausible explanation is that observations of individual plant species are unnecessarily detailed information in large-scale reindeer pastoralism, because the animals graze freely under loose herding and border surveillance.
Kaitlyn J. Rathwell
Full Text Available The role of art and artistic processes is one fruitful yet underexplored area of social-ecological resilience. Art and art making can nurture Indigenous knowledge and at the same time bridge knowledge across generations and cultures (e.g., Inuit and scientific. Experiences in two Inuit communities in northern Canada (Cape Dorset and Pangnirtung, Nunavut provide the context in which we empirically examine the mechanisms through which art and art making may bridge knowledge systems about social-ecological change. Art making and artworks create continuity between generations via symbols and skill development (e.g., seal skin stretching for a modern artistic mural and by creating mobile and adaptive boundary objects that function as a shared reference point to connect different social worlds. Our results indicate how art and artistic processes may bridge knowledge systems through six mechanisms, and in so doing contribute to social-ecological resilience during change and uncertainty. These mechanisms are (1 embedding knowledge, practice and belief into art objects; (2 sharing knowledge using the language of art; (3 sharing of art making skills; (4 art as a contributor to monitoring social-ecological change; (5 the role of art in fostering continuity through time; and (6 art as a site of knowledge coproduction.
Souza, Arlene Oliveira; Chaves, Maria do Perpétuo Socorro Rodrigues; Barbosa, Reinaldo Imbrozio; Clement, Charles Roland
Invasive plants can impact biodiversity as well as the lives of native human populations. Natural ecosystems represent sources of natural resources essential for the subsistence and socio-cultural continuity of these social groups. Approximately 30,000 ha of Acacia mangium were planted for commercial purposes in savanna areas surrounding indigenous lands in Roraima State, Brazil, at the end of the 1990s. We examined the local ecological knowledge of indigenous Wapichana and Macuxi Amerindians, members of the Arawak and Carib linguistic families, respectively, concerning A. mangium Willdenow (Fabaceae) in a savanna ecosystem ("Lavrado") to attempt to understand its propagation beyond the limits of the commercial plantations and contribute to mitigating its impacts on socio-ecological systems. The present study was undertaken in the Moskow, São Domingos, and Malacacheta communities in the Moskow and Malacacheta Indigenous Lands (ILs) in the Serra da Lua region of Roraima State, in the northern Brazilian Amazon region. Interviews were conducted with a total of 94 indigenous individuals of both sexes, with ages between 18 and 76, and low levels of formal schooling, with an average time of permanence in the area of 21 years; some still spoke only their native languages. The interviews focused on their ecological knowledge of the invasive, non-native A. mangium and their uses of it. The informants affirmed that A. mangium negatively impacted the local fauna and flora, making their subsistence more difficult and altering their daily routines. Among the problems cited were alterations of water quality (71.3%), negative impacts on crops (60.6%), negative impacts on the equilibrium of the local fauna (52.1%), increased farm labor requirements (41.5%), and restriction of access to indigenous lands (23.4%). There were no significant differences between the opinions of men and women, nor between community leaders and nonleaders. Most of the interviewees (89%) felt that A
Olivero, Jesús; Ferri, Francisco; Acevedo, Pelayo; Lobo, Jorge M; Fa, John E; Farfán, Miguel Á; Romero, David; Real, Raimundo
Remote sensing and traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) can be combined to advance conservation of remote tropical regions, e.g. Amazonia, where intensive in situ surveys are often not possible. Integrating TEK into monitoring and management of these areas allows for community participation, as well as for offering novel insights into sustainable resource use. In this study, we developed a 250 m resolution land-cover map of the Western Guyana Shield (Venezuela) based on remote sensing, and used TEK to validate its relevance for indigenous livelihoods and land uses. We first employed a hyper-temporal remotely sensed vegetation index to derive a land classification system. During a 1 300 km, eight day fluvial expedition in roadless areas in the Amazonas State (Venezuela), we visited six indigenous communities who provided geo-referenced data on hunting, fishing and farming activities. We overlaid these TEK data onto the land classification map, to link land classes with indigenous use. We characterized land classes using patterns of greenness temporal change and topo-hydrological information, and proposed 12 land-cover types, grouped into five main landscapes: 1) water bodies; 2) open lands/forest edges; 3) evergreen forests; 4) submontane semideciduous forests, and 5) cloud forests. Each land cover class was identified with a pulsating profile describing temporal changes in greenness, hence we labelled our map as "The Forest Pulse". These greenness profiles showed a slightly increasing trend, for the period 2000 to 2009, in the land classes representing grassland and scrubland, and a slightly decreasing trend in the classes representing forests. This finding is consistent with a gain in carbon in grassland as a consequence of climate warming, and also with some loss of vegetation in the forests. Thus, our classification shows potential to assess future effects of climate change on landscape. Several classes were significantly connected with agriculture, fishing
Matias, Denise Margaret S; Borgemeister, Christian; von Wehrden, Henrik
One of the traditional livelihood practices of indigenous Tagbanuas in Palawan, Philippines is wild honey hunting and gathering from the giant honey bee (Apis dorsata F.). In order to analyze the linkages of the social and ecological systems involved in this indigenous practice, we conducted spatial, quantitative, and qualitative analyses on field data gathered through mapping of global positioning system coordinates, community surveys, and key informant interviews. We found that only 24% of the 251 local community members surveyed could correctly identify the giant honey bee. Inferential statistics showed that a lower level of formal education strongly correlates with correct identification of the giant honey bee. Spatial analysis revealed that mean NDVI of sampled nesting tree areas has dropped from 0.61 in the year 1988 to 0.41 in 2015. However, those who correctly identified the giant honey bee lived in areas with high vegetation cover. Decreasing vegetation cover limits the presence of wild honey bees and this may also be limiting direct experience of the community with wild honey bees. However, with causality yet to be established, we recommend conducting further studies to concretely model feedbacks between ecological changes and local knowledge.
Angelstam, Per; Elbakidze, Marine; Axelsson, Robert; Dixelius, Malcolm; Törnblom, Johan
There are multiple challenges regarding use and governance of landscapes' goods, functions and intangible values for ecosystem health and human well-being. One group of challenges is to measure and assess principal sustainability dimensions through performance targets, so stakeholders have transparent information about states and trends. Another group is to develop adaptive governance at multiple levels, and management of larger geographical areas across scales. Addressing these challenges, we present a framework for transdisciplinary research using multiple landscapes as place-based case studies that integrates multiple research disciplines and non-academic actors: (1) identify a suite of landscapes, and for each (2) review landscape history, (3) map stakeholders, use and non-use values, products and land use, (4) analyze institutions, policies and the system of governance, (5) measure ecological, economic, social and cultural sustainability, (6) assess sustainability dimensions and governance, and finally (7) make comparisons and synthesize. Collaboration, communication and dissemination are additional core features. We discuss barriers bridges and bridges for applying this approach.
Full Text Available Monitoring the distribution and abundance of hunted wildlife is critical to achieving sustainable resource use, yet adequate data are sparse for most tropical regions. Conventional methods for monitoring hunted forest-vertebrate species require intensive in situ survey effort, which severely constrains spatial and temporal replication. Integrating local ecological knowledge (LEK into monitoring and management is appealing because it can be cost-effective, enhance community participation, and provide novel insights into sustainable resource use. We develop a technique to monitor population depletion of hunted forest wildlife in the Brazilian Amazon, based on the local ecological knowledge of rural hunters. We performed rapid interview surveys to estimate the landscape-scale depletion of ten large-bodied vertebrate species around 161 Amazonian riverine settlements. We assessed the explanatory and predictive power of settlement and landscape characteristics and were able to develop robust estimates of local faunal depletion. By identifying species-specific drivers of depletion and using secondary data on human population density, land form, and physical accessibility, we then estimated landscape- and regional-scale depletion. White-lipped peccary (Tayassu pecari, for example, were estimated to be absent from 17% of their putative range in Brazil's largest state (Amazonas, despite 98% of the original forest cover remaining intact. We found evidence that bushmeat consumption in small urban centers has far-reaching impacts on some forest species, including severe depletion well over 100 km from urban centers. We conclude that LEK-based approaches require further field validation, but have significant potential for community-based participatory monitoring as well as cost-effective, large-scale monitoring of threatened forest species.
Schneider, D W
Stephen Forbes's "The Lake as a Microcosm" is one of the founding documents of the science of ecology in the United States. By tracing the connections between scientists and local fishermen underlying the research on floodplain lakes presented in "The Lake as a Microcosm," this essay shows how the birth of ecology was tied to local knowledge and the local politics of environmental transformation. Forbes and the other scientists of the Illinois Natural History Survey relied on fishermen for manual labor, expertise in catching fish, and knowledge of the natural history of the fishes. As Forbes and his colleagues worked in close contact with fishermen, they also adopted many of their political concerns over the privatization of the floodplain and became politically active in supporting their interests. The close connection between scientists and local knowledge forced the ecologists to reframe the boundaries of ecology as objective or political, pure or applied, local or scientific.
Lima, Daniele Cristina de Oliveira; Ramos, Marcelo Alves; da Silva, Henrique Costa Hermenegildo; Alves, Angelo Giuseppe Chaves
The rapid assessment of biodiversity making use of surveys of local knowledge has been successful for different biological taxa. However, there are no reports on the testing of such tools for sampling insect fauna. The present study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of different ethnobiological techniques for rapid sampling of insect fauna. Field research for the conventional survey of insect fauna was conducted on a private farm (9 ° 43'38.95 "S, 37 ° 45'11.97" W) , where there was intensive cultivation of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. (Moench)). The survey of local entomological knowledge was conducted among all the producers of okra living in the rural villages Pereira, Santa Luzia, and Nassau de Souza, within the Jacaré Curituba irrigated settlement scheme. The combined use of the techniques "free list" and projective interviews was analyzed, using two types of visual stimuli: stock photos and an entomological box. During the conventional survey of insect fauna, the species Bemisia tabaci biotype B, Aphis gossypii, Phenacoccus sp., Icerya purchasi and Lagria villosa were the primary pests found in the okra crop. Regarding the survey of insect pests, the results were convergent in both techniques (conventional sampling and free list). Comparing the interview with visual stimuli (pictures) and specimen witnesses (entomological box) revealed that the latter was more effective. Techniques based on the recording and analysis of local knowledge about insects are effective for quick sampling of pest insects, but ineffective in sampling predator insects. The utilization of collected insects, infested branches, or photos of the symptoms of damage caused by pests in projective interviews is recommended.
Conde, Bruno Esteves; Ticktin, Tamara; Fonseca, Amanda Surerus; Macedo, Arthur Ladeira; Orsi, Timothy Ongaro; Chedier, Luciana Moreira; Rodrigues, Eliana; Pimenta, Daniel Sales
Information on the knowledge, uses, and abundance of natural resources in local communities can provide insight on conservation status and conservation strategies in these locations. The aim of this research was to evaluate the uses, knowledge and conservation status of plants in two Quilombolas (descendants of slaves of African origin) communities in the Atlantic rainforest of Brazil, São Sebastião da Boa Vista (SSBV) and São Bento (SB). We used a combination of ethnobotanical and ecological survey methods to ask: 1) What ethnobotanical knowledge do the communities hold? 2) What native species are most valuable to them? 3) What is the conservation status of the native species used? Thirteen local experts described the names and uses of 212 species in SSBV (105 native species) and 221 in SB (96 native species). Shannon Wiener diversity and Pielou's Equitability indices of ethnobotanical knowledge of species were very high (5.27/0.96 and 5.28/0.96, respectively). Species with the highest cultural significance and use-value indexes in SSBV were Dalbergia hortensis (26/2.14), Eremanthus erythropappus (6.88/1), and Tibouchina granulosa (6.02/1); while Piptadenia gonoacantha (3.32/1), Sparattosperma leucanthum (3.32/1) and Cecropia glaziovii (3.32/0.67) were the highest in SB. Thirty-three native species ranked in the highest conservation priority category at SSBV and 31 at SB. D. hortensis was noteworthy because of its extremely high cultural importance at SSBV, and its categorization as a conservation priority in both communities. This information can be used towards generating sustainable use and conservation plans that are appropriate for the local communities.
Full Text Available Many scarab beetles spend the majority of their lives belowground as larvae, feeding on grass roots. Many of these larvae are significant pests, causing damage to crops and grasslands. Damage by larvae of the greyback cane beetle (Dermolepida albohirtum, for example, can cause financial losses of up to AU$40 million annually to the Australian sugarcane industry. We review the ecology of some scarab larvae in Australasia, focusing on three subfamilies; Dynastinae, Rutelinae and Melolonthinae, containing key pest species. Although considerable research on the control of some scarab pests has been carried out in Australasia, for some species, the basic biology and ecology remains largely unexplored. We synthesize what is known about these scarab larvae and outline key knowledge gaps to highlights future research directions with a view to improve pest management. We do this by presenting an overview of the scarab larval host plants and feeding behavior; the impacts of abiotic (temperature, moisture and fertilization and biotic (pathogens, natural enemies and microbial symbionts factors on scarab larvae and conclude with how abiotic and biotic factors can be applied in agriculture for improved pest management, suggesting future research directions.Several host plant microbial symbionts, such as arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and endophytes, can improve plant tolerance to scarabs and reduce larval performance, which have shown promise for use in pest management. In addition to this, several microbial scarab pathogens have been isolated for commercial use in pest management with particularly promising results. The entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae caused a 50% reduction in cane beetle larvae while natural enemies such as entomopathogenic nematodes have also shown potential as a biocontrol. Continued research should focus on filling the gaps in the knowledge of the basic ecology and feeding behavior of scarab larval species within Australasia
Reynald Karisma Wibowo
Full Text Available Tugas Akhir merupakan dokumen yang merepresentasikan penelitian dan riset yang dilakukan oleh mahasiswa jenjang Strata Satu. Untuk menghasilkan Tugas Akhir yang berkualitas di butuhkan penelitian yang kompeten, salah satu faktornya adalah originalitas. Kemampuan mahasiswa untuk menciptakan penelitian yang original menjadi faktor penting. Teks plagiasi adalah bentuk plagiasi yang paling sering dijumpai. Deteksi plagiarisme dibedakan menjadi dua berdasarkan tugasnya yaitu secara intrinsik dan ekstrinsik. Algoritma winnowing merupakan metode deteksi plagiarisme secara ekstrinsik. Metode ini merupakan ekstensi dari metode Rabin-Karp Fingerprint dengan menambahkan fitur window pada proses agar hasil deteki lebih optimal. Penelitian ini menerapkan algoritma winnowing untuk mendeteksi kemiripn teks pada dokumen tugas akhir mahasiswa Universitas Dian Nuswantoro. Kata Kunci: Tugas akhir, deteksi plagiasi, plagiarisme, winnowing, rolling hash, jaccard coefficient.
Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui aktivitas dan hasil siswa SMK dalam memproduksi teks eksplanasi kompleks dengan menggunakan model pembelajaran berbasis proyek.Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah metode eksperimen semu dengan menggunakan nonequivalent control group design.Populasi yang dipilih yaitu siswa kelas XI SMK 1 PGRI Palimanan yang berjumlah 306 siswa.Sampel yang digunakan adalah kelas XI TKJ 3 sebagai kelas eksperimen dan kelas XI MM 1 sebagai kelas kontrol.Teknik pengumpulan data dengan menggunakan instrumen tes dan lembar observasi.Berdasarkan hasil penelitian dapat dibuktikan bahwa pembelajaran berbasis proyek efektif. Hal ini dapat dilihat dari hasil tes awal dengan nilai rata-rata 58, mengalami peningkatan pada tes akhir dengan nilai rata-rata 78,5.Berdasarkan hasil pengolahan data nilai lebih besar dari pada taraf signifikansi 5% yaitu >1,998.Hasil observasi aktivitas siswa menunjukkan kriteria baik dengan rata-rata 70,3%. Dengan demikian, dapat disimpulkan bahwa pembelajaran memproduksi teks eksplanasi kompleks dengan menggunakan model pembelajaran berbasis proyek untuk siswa SMK efektif dan dapat meningkatkan aktivitas belajar siswa. Kata Kunci: Model Pembelajaran Berbasis Proyek, Memproduksi Teks Eksplanasi Kompleks
Full Text Available Keyword cognitive strategies are the ability to remember and use a word that can represent concepts, ideas, reading content, and post content. Writing is one of different skills with other language skills. Writing has a distinctive character that sets it apart from other skills. The active, productive, and stringing of words in written form, provides a distinctive feature of the language, medium, and variety of languages it uses. Keyword cognitive strategies used by students in writing text description appear in the process of writing and the results of his work. Description text as one of the pouring container ideas in the form of process of writing and writing works of students who use keyword cognitive strategy in writing description text. Strategi kognitif kata kunci merupakan kemampuan mengingat dan menggunakan sebuah kata yang dapat mewakili konsep, gagasan, isi bacaan, dan isi tulisan. Menulis merupakan salah satu keterampilan yang berbeda dengan keterampilan berbahasa yang lain. Menulis memiliki karakter khas yang membedakannya dari keterampilan lain. Sifat aktif, produktif, dan merangkai kata dalam bentuk tulisan, memberikan ciri khusus dalam hal kecaraan, medium, dan ragam bahasa yang digunakannya. Strategi kognitif kata kunci yang digunakan siswa dalam penulisan teks deskripsi tampak pada proses menulis dan hasil karyanya. Teks deskripsi sebagai salah satu wadah penuangan gagasan dalam bentuk proses menulis dan tulisan karya siswa yang menggunakan strategi kognitif kata kunci dalam menulis teks deskripsi.
Full Text Available Planning activities are inherently technical, political and organizational exercises, being both constructions of action optimization over time and “social” organizations promoting action. Thus, they require organization and consensus. In this context, the concept of processes that develop based on diffused interactions between different agents appears useful and rather effective. Cognitive agents and reactive agents coexist in a system of relations and interactions. This allows the context in which environmental management and/or planning processes take place to be modeled in its essential parts. Scholars and researchers have often wondered if behavioral proxies of the environment-agent can be singled out for possible inclusion in a multi-agent system (MAS layout. This challenge is of particular interest today, considering the potential offered by the spread of intelligent sensor networks, able to represent and model various “behaviors” of the environment-agent. Today’s growing interest in research in the field of planning is enhanced by an awareness of the complexity issue embedded in planning. In this framework, this paper is realized as a pilot study on the knowledge of sound and soundscapes as elements characterizing the environment-agent in the context of environmental planning processes. The study reflects a contextual difficulty of collecting extensive data in uneasy conditions: nevertheless it reports results and suggestions useful in an innovative MAS-oriented perspective.
Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendeskripsikan variasi keluasan makna interpersonal pada teks “Laskar Pelangi” berbahasa Indonesia, Inggris, dan Melayu serta faktor-faktor yang mendorong terjadinya tingkat variasi keluasan makna tersebut. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian deskriptif kualitatif dengan objek penelitian adalah variasi keluasan makna interpersonal yang terealisasi dalam sistem gramatika MOOD pada tiap klusa dari ketiga teks multitranslasi. Data dianalisis dengan teknik hubung banding dengan membandingkan masing-masing klausa dari ketiga teks tersebut. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan tingginya tingkat variasi keluasan makna interpersonal pada T1:T2, sebesar 23,89, dan rendahnya tingkat variasi tersebut pada T1:T3, sebesar 2,82. Tingginya tingkat variasi disebabkan penambahan klausa pada T2, pengaruh skrip cerita film, faktor tujuan, serta faktor pembaca T2. Rendahnya tingkat variasi disebabkan persamaan akar bahasa dan budaya antara T1 dan T3 serta faktor tujuan penerjemahan. _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ THE INTERPERSONAL MEANING BREADTH VARIATIONS ON MULTILINGUAL TRANSLATION TEKS “LASKAR PELANGI” IN BAHASA INDONESIA, ENGLISH, AND MALAY Abstract This study is aimed to describe the interpersonal meaning breadth variations on multilingual translation teks “Laskar Pelangi” in bahasa Indonesia, English, and Malay also to explore the motivating factors that occur inside those variations. This study was a descriptive qualitative research study. The object was interpersonal meaning breadth variations that were showed by the MOOD grammatical system in the clauses of the multilingual translation texts. The data were analyzed by comparing the realization of functional elements of the MOOD grammatical system in each clause of the text. The results of this study show that variations in interpersonal meaning breadth of T1:T2 are high, 23.89 whereas the
Lucas P. Rutina
Full Text Available Botswana is one of the countries in Southern Africa that pay compensation for human properties damaged by wildlife. Before compensation is paid, a thorough investigation on determining wildlife species that have caused the damage is mandatory. Because of insufficient resources by the Department of Wildlife and National Parks, the initial investigation is carried out by herders. Three basic indicators are used to determine carnivore predation; sighting the carnivore at the kill, tracks of the predator and examining the carcasses. In this study, we tested herders’ knowledge on the above three indicators. The study was conducted in a communal area around Makgadikgadi and Nxai national parks, Botswana, where the main activities practiced by the local communities is pastoral farming. In general, there was a significant association between reported and perceived incidents of predation for all carnivores at all distances from protected areas. Herders were able to identify the large carnivores visually. But they had difficulties in identifying carnivore tracks and kill characteristics. The results demonstrate the importance of involvement of local communities in human–wildlife conflict management. However, more education regarding identification of carnivore tracks and kill behaviour is needed for herders in the study area. Conservation implications: Based on the results of this study, this calls for a change in the management of human–wildlife conflict (HWC and administration of the compensation scheme. Decentralising HWC to local communities using existing government structures that exist at local level will not only supplement the inadequate resources by the Department of Wildlife and National Parks (DWNP to effectively mitigate the problem, but also empower local communities’ participation in wildlife management.
Yat Yen; Zhanqi Wang; Yumin Shi; Bunly Soeung
The fast and steady economic growth and social changes in recent years in Cambodia have brought rapid expansion and restructuring to its cities. These phenomena have brought numerous challenges including threats to urban green spaces (UGS’s). This study addresses problems of UGS’s by investigating the knowledge and perceptions of young residents of Phnom Penh (YRPPs) toward UGS’s in relation to the following: (1) basic knowledge of YRPPs on ecological services (KES) of UGS’s; (2) perceptions ...
Hashimoto-Martell, Erin A.; McNeill, Katherine L.; Hoffman, Emily M.
This study explores the impact of an urban ecology program on participating middle school students' understanding of science and pro-environmental attitudes and behaviors. We gathered pre and post survey data from four classes and found significant gains in scientific knowledge, but no significant changes in student beliefs regarding the…
J. Morgan Grove; Rinku Roy Chowdhury; Daniel Childers
To promote sustainability and resilience, the role of co-design, co-production, and dissemination of social-ecological knowledge is of growing interest and importance. Although the antecedents for this approach are decades old, the integration of science and practice to advance sustainability and resilience is different from earlier approaches in several ways. In this...
Saynes-Vásquez, Alfredo; Caballero, Javier; Meave, Jorge A; Chiang, Fernando
Global changes that affect local societies may cause the loss of ecological knowledge. The process of cultural change in Zapotec communities of the Oaxacan Isthmus intensified during the first years of the 20th century due to industrial and agro-industrial modernization projects and an increase in the level of formal schooling. Based on the case of the Oaxacan Isthmus, this study assesses the relationship between cultural change and the loss of traditional ecological knowledge (TEK). Three hundred male heads of family were interviewed from three municipalities in the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, Oaxaca, Mexico selected to span a wide range of cultural change. Each participant was shown herbarium specimens and photographs of a sample of 30 species drawn from a pool of 94 representing local plant diversity. Visual recognition of each species, knowledge of plant form, generic name, specific name, and local uses were scored. The sum of the five scores provided an index of global knowledge which we used as a proxy for TEK. Analysis of variance revealed differences between groups of economic activities. We collected socio-demographic data from the interviewees such as age, level of schooling, and competency in the local language. With these data we ran a principal component analysis and took the first axis as an index of cultural change, and correlated it with the scores obtained each respondent. We found statistically significant differences between groups of people with different economic activities, as well as a highly significant negative relationship between the Index of cultural change and ecological knowledge at all levels, with regression coefficients between 81.2% and 88.3%, indicating that cultural change is affecting traditional botanical knowledge. Our results shown that cultural change, as indicated by occupational activity, level of formal schooling, and competence in the indigenous language, is negatively associated with the loss of Zapotec ethnobotanical
Catherine, Quiblier; Susanna, Wood; Isidora, Echenique-Subiabre; Mark, Heath; Aurélie, Villeneuve; Jean-François, Humbert
Benthic cyanobacteria are found globally in plethora of environments. Although they have received less attention than their planktonic freshwater counterparts, it is now well established that they produce toxins and reports of their involvement in animal poisonings have increased markedly during the last decade. Most of the known cyanotoxins have been identified from benthic cyanobacteria including: the hepatotoxic microcystins, nodularins and cylindrospermopsins, the neurotoxic saxitoxins, anatoxin-a and homoanatoxin-a and dermatotoxins, such as lyngbyatoxin. In most countries, observations of toxic benthic cyanobacteria are fragmented, descriptive and in response to animal toxicosis events. Only a limited number of long-term studies have aimed to understand why benthic proliferations occur, and/or how toxin production is regulated. These studies have shown that benthic cyanobacterial blooms are commonly a mixture of toxic and non-toxic genotypes and that toxin concentrations can be highly variable spatially and temporally. Physiochemical parameters responsible for benthic proliferation vary among habitat type with physical disturbance (e.g., flow regimes, wave action) and nutrients commonly identified as important. As climatic conditions change and anthropogenic pressures on waterways increase, it seems likely that the prevalence of blooms of benthic cyanobacteria will increase. In this article we review current knowledge on benthic cyanobacteria: ecology, toxin-producing species, variables that regulate toxin production and bloom formation, their impact on aquatic and terrestrial organisms and current monitoring and management strategies. We suggest research needs that will assist in filling knowledge gaps and ultimately allow more robust monitoring and management protocols to be developed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Messalina Lovenia Salampessy
Full Text Available Local ecological knowledge is closely linked to decision-making process for planting tree. The aims of this study are to describe and explain local community’s decision-making process in the selection of shading trees on their lands according to their understanding and knowledge. This study used case study approach. Data was collected through in-depth interviews and observations. The results of the study showed that to manage traditional agroforestry, the community planted nutmeg (Myristica fragrans as the main crop species and selected the covering trees, such as walnuts (Canarium sp. and durian (Durio sp.. The reasons in selecting shading trees were as follows: the suitability of biophysical condition; supporting nutmeg growth; ease of maintenance and harvesting activities; parental inheritance; yield diversity; and ease of marketing activities. Learning from the study, the government and relevant stakeholders are expected touse local ecological knowledge to support the development of community forestry.
Marsi, N.; Majlis, B. Y.; Mohd-Yasin, F.; Hamzah, A. A.; Mohd Rus, A. Z.
This project presents the fabrication of MEMS employing a cubic silicon carbide (3C- SiC) on silicon wafer using newly developed ProTEK PSB as biotechnology photosensitive protection mask. This new biotechnology can reduce the number of processes and simplify the process flow with minimal impact on overall undercut performance. The 680 pm thick wafer is back-etched, leaving the 3C-SiC thin film with a thickness of 1.0 μm as the flexible diaphragm to detect pressure. The effect of the new coating of ProTEK PSB on different KOH solvents were investigated depending on various factors such as development time, final cure temperature and the thickness of the ProTEK PSB deposited layer. It is found that 6.174 μm thickness of ProTEK PSB offers some possibility of reducing the processing time compared to silicon nitride etch masks in KOH (55%wt, 80°C). The new ProTEK PSB biotechnology photosensitive protection mask indicates good stability and sustains its performance in different treatments under KOH and IPA for 8 hours. This work also revealed that the fabrication of MEMS sensors using the new biotechnology photosensitive protection mask provides a simple assembly approach and reduces manufacturing costs. The MEMS sensor can operate up to 500 °C as indicated under the sensitivity of 0.826 pF/MPa with nonlinearity and hysteresis of 0.61% and 3.13%, respectively.
Gómez-Baggethun, Erik; Mingorría, Sara; Reyes-García, Victoria; Calvet, Laura; Montes, Carlos
Researchers and conservation managers largely agree on the relevance of traditional ecological knowledge for natural resource management in indigenous communities, but its prevalence and role as societies modernize are contested. We analyzed the transmission of traditional knowledge among rural local people in communities linked to protected areas in Doñana, southwestern Spain. We studied changes in knowledge related to local practices in agriculture and livestock farming among 198 informants from three generations that cover the period in which the area transited from an economy strongly dependent on local ecosystem services to a market economy with intensified production systems. Our results suggest an abrupt loss of traditional agricultural knowledge related to rapid transformations and intensification of agricultural systems, but maintenance of knowledge of traditional livestock farming, an activity allowed in the protected areas that maintains strong links with local cultural identity. Our results demonstrate the potential of protected areas in protecting remaining bodies of traditional ecological knowledge in developed country settings. Nevertheless, we note that strict protection in cultural-landscape-dominated areas can disrupt transmission of traditional knowledge if local resource users and related practices are excluded from ecosystem management.
Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendeskripsikan tingkat keterbacaan wacana dalam buku teks BSE bahasa Indonesia, mendeskripsikan tingkat keterbacaan wacana dalam buku teks NONBSE, dan mendeskripsikan perbedaan tingkat keterbacaan wacana antara buku teks BSE dengan buku teks NONBSE setelah diukur dengan alat ukur uji keterbacaan teknik cloze. Jenis penelitian ini adalah penelitian analisis konten. Menggunakan populasi dan sampel buku dan sekolah. Teknik pengumpulan data dengan mengerjakan lembar jawab tes cloze secara objektif. Teknik analisis data dengan mengoreksi lembar tes cloze. Hasil penelitian ini: (1 persentase rerata skor keterbacaan BSE 1 57,60% dan persentase rerata skor keterbacaan BSE 2 59,64%; (2 persentase rerata skor keterbacaan NONBSE 56,55%; (3 hasil uji keterbacaan wacana pada buku BSE dan NONBSE menunjukkan sama-sama menunjukkan presentase yang berada pada kategori instruksional. Kata Kunci: keterbacaan wacana, teknik cloze THE READABILITY DISCOURSES IN INDONESIAN LANGUAGE TEXTBOOKS GRADE V OF PUBLIC ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS IN WONOGIRI DISTRICT Abstract This study aims to describe the readability levels of the discourses in electronic school books (ESBs of the Indonesian language, to describe the readability levels of the discourses in non-electronic school books (NONESBs, and to describe the difference in the readability levels of the discourses between ESBs and NONESBs after they are assessed by the cloze technique as a readability measurement instrument. The type of study was a content analysis. The research population and sample of the book and school.. The data were collected by asking respondents to do the cloze test objectively. They were analyzed by checking the cloze test sheet in accordance with the answer keys for further analysis. The results of the study are as follows. (1 on the ESB 1 produced an average readability score percentage of 57, 60% and on the ESB 2 produced an average readability score percentage of 59
Tyler D Eddy
Full Text Available Over-exploited fisheries are a common feature of the modern world and a range of solutions including area closures (marine reserves; MRs, effort reduction, gear changes, ecosystem-based management, incentives and co-management have been suggested as techniques to rebuild over-fished populations. Historic accounts of lobster (Jasus frontalis on the Chilean Juan Fernández Archipelago indicate a high abundance at all depths (intertidal to approximately 165 m, but presently lobsters are found almost exclusively in deeper regions of their natural distribution. Fishers' ecological knowledge (FEK tells a story of serial depletion in lobster abundance at fishing grounds located closest to the fishing port with an associated decline in catch per unit effort (CPUE throughout recent history. We have re-constructed baselines of lobster biomass throughout human history on the archipelago using historic data, the fishery catch record and FEK to permit examination of the potential effects of MRs, effort reduction and co-management (stewardship of catch to restore stocks. We employed a bioeconomic model using FEK, fishery catch and effort data, underwater survey information, predicted population growth and response to MR protection (no-take to explore different management strategies and their trade-offs to restore stocks and improve catches. Our findings indicate that increased stewardship of catch coupled with 30% area closure (MR provides the best option to reconstruct historic baselines. Based on model predictions, continued exploitation under the current management scheme is highly influenced by annual fluctuations and unsustainable. We propose a community-based co-management program to implement a MR in order to rebuild the lobster population while also providing conservation protection for marine species endemic to the Archipelago.
Lavariega Nolasco, Mario César; Briones-Salas, Miguel; Mazas-Teodocio, Amado; Durán-Medina, Elvira
As well as being of global cultural importance (from local tribal folklore to being an iconic species for conservation), the tapir plays an important role in its ecosystem as a herbivore and seed disperser. However, the ecology and ethnozoology of the endangered Baird's tapir in the north of Oaxaca, Mexico is poorly understood. We used camera traps to estimate its relative abundance and density and to describe the activity patterns of the northernmost population of Baird's tapir in the Sierra Madre de Oaxaca. Local knowledge concerning the tapir was also documented, along with the conservation strategies undertaken by the 2 indigenous communities that own the land where the study site is located. Only adult tapirs were photographed, and these were active 14 h per day, but were mainly nocturnal and crepuscular. The estimated relative abundance (12.99 ± 2.24 events/1000 camera days) and density values (0.07-0.24 individuals/km(2) ) were both similar to those found in another site in Mexico located within a protected area. Semi-structured interviews revealed that people have a basic understanding of the eating habits, activity and main predators of the tapir. There were reports of hunting, although not among those respondents who regularly consume bush meat. Thus, the relative abundance and density estimates of tapir at the study site could be related to the favorable condition of the forest and the absence of hunting and consumption of tapir meat. Fortunately, the local people are conducting initiatives promoting the conservation of this ungulate and its habitat that combine to constitute a regional trend of habitat and wildlife protection. © 2016 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Full Text Available The Goliath grouper, Epinephelus itajara, a large-bodied (~ 2.5 m TL, > 400 kg and critically endangered fish (Epinephelidae, is highly vulnerable to overfishing. Although protected from fishing in many countries, its exploitation in Mexico is unregulated; a situation that puts its populations at risk. Fishery records of E. itajara are scarce, which prevents determination of its fishery status. This work aimed to elucidate the E. itajara fishery in the northern Yucatan Peninsula by 1 analyzing available catch records and 2 interviewing veteran fishermen (local ecological knowledge from two traditional landing sites: Dzilam de Bravo and Puerto Progreso. Historic fishery records from two fishing cooperatives were analyzed in order to elucidate the current situation and offer viable alternatives for conservation and management. Catches have decreased severely. Local knowledge obtained from fishermen represented a very important source of information for reconstructing the fisheries history of this species. Conservation measures that incorporate regional and international regulations on critically endangered fish species are suggested. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (3: 557-566. Epub 2009 September 30.La cherna, Epinephelus itajara, un mero (Epinephelidae corpulento (~ 2.5 m TL, > 400 kg y amenazado, es altamente vulnerable a la sobrepesca. Si bien es protegido en varios países, en México su explotación no está regulada; situación que pone a su población en riesgo. Sus registros pesqueros son escasos, lo que impide determinar su condición pesquera. Este trabajo intentó ilustrar la pesquería en el norte de la Península de Yucatán usando procedimientos que involucraron analizar registros y entrevistar a pescadores veteranos (conocimiento ecológico tradicional de dos sitios de desembarque: Dzilam de Bravo y Puerto Progreso. Se analizaron registros pesqueros históricos de dos cooperativas pesqueras para determinar la situación actual y ofrecer
Cooke, Steven J; Martins, Eduardo G; Struthers, Daniel P; Gutowsky, Lee F G; Power, Michael; Doka, Susan E; Dettmers, John M; Crook, David A; Lucas, Martyn C; Holbrook, Christopher M; Krueger, Charles C
Freshwater fish move vertically and horizontally through the aquatic landscape for a variety of reasons, such as to find and exploit patchy resources or to locate essential habitats (e.g., for spawning). Inherent challenges exist with the assessment of fish populations because they are moving targets. We submit that quantifying and describing the spatial ecology of fish and their habitat is an important component of freshwater fishery assessment and management. With a growing number of tools available for studying the spatial ecology of fishes (e.g., telemetry, population genetics, hydroacoustics, otolith microchemistry, stable isotope analysis), new knowledge can now be generated and incorporated into biological assessment and fishery management. For example, knowing when, where, and how to deploy assessment gears is essential to inform, refine, or calibrate assessment protocols. Such information is also useful for quantifying or avoiding bycatch of imperiled species. Knowledge of habitat connectivity and usage can identify critically important migration corridors and habitats and can be used to improve our understanding of variables that influence spatial structuring of fish populations. Similarly, demographic processes are partly driven by the behavior of fish and mediated by environmental drivers. Information on these processes is critical to the development and application of realistic population dynamics models. Collectively, biological assessment, when informed by knowledge of spatial ecology, can provide managers with the ability to understand how and when fish and their habitats may be exposed to different threats. Naturally, this knowledge helps to better evaluate or develop strategies to protect the long-term viability of fishery production. Failure to understand the spatial ecology of fishes and to incorporate spatiotemporal data can bias population assessments and forecasts and potentially lead to ineffective or counterproductive management actions.
Background The use of ethnoecological tools to evaluate possible damage and loss of biodiversity related to the populations of species under some degree of threat may represent a first step towards integrating the political management of natural resources and conservation strategies. From this perspective, this study investigates fishermen’s ecological knowledge about sea turtles and attitudes towards the conservation and bycatch in Ilhéus, Southern Bahia, Brazil. Methods Fishermen experts semi-structured interviews were performed using snowball sampling method. The interviews consisted of a series of questions relating to the fishermen’s profile, structure and work equipment, the local ecological knowledge of fishermen about sea turtles and bycatch, a projective test, attitudes towards turtle conservation and beliefs and taboos regarding turtles. Indicators for quantitative comparisons of respondents in terms of their broad knowledge and attitudes towards turtle conservation were created. Correlation analyses were made between indicators of knowledge and attitude as well as the relationship between education level and knowledge and attitudes. Results Thirty experts were interviewed for the study. The local ecological knowledge and attitudes of fishermen towards the conservation of sea turtles were respectively medium (0.43) and moderate (0.69) according to experts (based on Likert scale and Cronbach’s Alpha). Potential areas of spawning were reported from Barra Grande to Una covering the entire coast of Ilhéus. Methods for identifying the animal, behavior, and popular names were described by fishermen. The most recent captures of turtles were attributed to fishing line, but according to the respondents, lobster nets and shrimp traps are more likely to capture turtles. Knowledge and attitudes were weakly inversely correlated (r = −0.38, p = 0.04), and the education level of the respondent showed a positive correlation with positive attitudes
Tämä opinnäytetyö käsittelee Slovenian Istrian ruokakulttuurin pääpiirteitä ja niihin vaikuttaneita tekijöitä. Työssä tuodaan esille Slovenian Istrian alueelle tyypillisimmät raaka-aineet, perinneruuat ja ruuan valmistustavat. Työn tarkoituksena on selvittää tämän pienen alueen ruokaerikoisuuksia ja niiden tarjoamia makuelämyksiä. Opinnäytetyö pohjautuu kirjallisiin ja sähköisiin lähteisiin, omiin kokemuksiin ja havainnointiin opiskelijavaihdon aikana sekä kirjailija Alberto Pucerin haastatt...
Full Text Available Traditional ecological knowledge is an integrated part of the African people and indeed the Rwandese for cultural purpose. Buhanga sacred forest is a relict forest of tremendous ecological importance to Rwandan society located in Musanze District. The aim of this study was to assess the traditional ecological knowledge and belief in the utilisation of some important plant species for the conservation of Buhanga sacred forest. Ecological information about ethnomedicinal and traditional practices were collected following structured questionnaire through interview involving eight traditional healers and three focus group discussions. Data were collected from the natural habitats, home gardens, farmlands and roadsides of Buhanga sacred forest. A total of 45 botanical taxa belonging to 28 families were reported to be used by the local community. Species such as Brillantaisia cicatricosa and Senna septemtrionalis were the popular species cited by traditional healers to treat human and animal diseases and ailments, respectively. The results of the study indicated that because of the cultural norms and values associated with the sacred forest, this has led to non-exploitation. The study presents key sites and plant species in which their use and belief can lead to their conservation. However, not only is it imperative to conserve traditional local knowledge for biocultural conservation motives but there is also need to train traditional healers on how to domesticate indigenous species as conservation measure because some species have become susceptible to extinction. Conservation implications: Highlighting indigenous species investigated in this research will provide a powerful tool for ensuring biodiversity conservation through community participation in a country of high population density in Africa. Some plant species that provided satisfactory Local Health Traditions among communities surrounding Buhanga can contribute as good material for further
... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-82,346] Whirlpool Corporation, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Aerotek/Tek Systems (Subcontractor of IBM Corporation) and Jones Lang... firm. The workers were engaged in production of refrigerators and trash compactors as well as...
Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui apakah buku teks ekonomi SMA kelas X yang digunakan di Kabupaten Semarang sudah memenuhi standar kelayakan isi buku teks ekonomi menurut BSNP. Dan manfaat penelitian ini dapat memilih dan mempertimbankan dalam memilih buku teks pelajaran untuk refrensi belajar baik pihak siswa, guru dan pihak sekolahPenelitian ini dilakuakan terhadap isi buku teks pelajaran yang dianalisis secara kualitatif. Sehingga penelitian ini disebut penelitian deskriptif kualitatif. Teknik penelitian yang di gunakan adalah adalah teknik triangulasi. Analisis buku teks ekonomi untuk SMA kelas X melibatkan 5 orang penilai, yaitu 5 guru ekonomi. Dari 5 SMAN yang mengunakan buku teks pelajaran ekonomi dengan pengarang Alam S. dan penerbit Esis. Teknik pengumpulan data dengan lembar penilaian buku teks ekonomi dari BSNP dan menggunakan teknik wawancara terhadap dua guru ekonomi untuk memperkuat hasil dari penilaian dari buku teks ekonomi kelas X.Data yang diperoleh dalam penelitian ini berupa hasil penilaian yang berupa skor penilian dan hasil wawancara. Berdasarkan hasil analisis dapat disimpulkan bahwa buku ekonomi SMA Kelas X karangan Alam S. yang digunakan di Kabupaten Semarang sudah memenuhi standar kelayakan isi menurut BSNP. Buku teks ekonomi untuk SMA Kelas X karangan Alam S. dapat digunakan sebagai sumber belajar dalam pembelajaran ekonomi di SMA kelas X. Selain itu, perlu diadakan penelitian lebih lanjut untuk menganalisis buku teks ekonomi lain yang digunakan di Kabupaten Semarang.. The purpose of this research was to know whether textbooks high school economics class X used in Semarang Regancy already meet the standards of eligibility of the contents of the textbook economics according to BSNP. Analysis of economic text books for high school classes X involves 5 persons appraisers, i.e. 5 economics teacher. From 5 SMAN using textbook economics lessons with author and Publisher Alam S. Esis.. Data collection techniques
Berling, Trine Villumsen
Scientific knowledge in international relations has generally focused on an epistemological distinction between rationalism and reflectivism over the last 25 years. This chapter argues that this distinction has created a double distinction between theory/reality and theory/practice, which works...... and reflectivism. Bourdieu, on the contrary, lets the challenge to the theory/reality distinction spill over into a challenge to the theory/practice distinction by thrusting the scientist in the foreground as not just a factor (discourse/genre) but as an actor. In this way, studies of IR need to include a focus...... as a ghost distinction structuring IR research. While reflectivist studies have emphasised the impossibility of detached, objective knowledge production through a dissolution of the theory/reality distinction, the theory/practice distinction has been left largely untouched by both rationalism...
Full Text Available The fast and steady economic growth and social changes in recent years in Cambodia have brought rapid expansion and restructuring to its cities. These phenomena have brought numerous challenges including threats to urban green spaces (UGS’s. This study addresses problems of UGS’s by investigating the knowledge and perceptions of young residents of Phnom Penh (YRPPs toward UGS’s in relation to the following: (1 basic knowledge of YRPPs on ecological services (KES of UGS’s; (2 perceptions of YRPPs on the current state of UGS’s (PUGS’s in Phnom Penh; (3 demand of YRPPs for UGS’s in the city (DUGS; and (4 associations between KES, PUGS’s, social profiles (SoPs, and DUGS. A questionnaire was designed to solicit knowledge from 554 respondents randomly selected from the study area. The findings revealed that 83.1% of total respondents strongly recognized ecological services of UGS’s. Four subgroups of ecological services, namely microclimate (89.7%, environmental quality and functions (83.8%, recreational and public health services (88.5%, and economic benefits (70.4% were all rated highly. Because the current state of UGS’s was very poor (68.4%, demand for UGS’s was high (94.43%. Public toilets (84.7% and rubbish bins (75.6% were both rated the poorest. The PUGS’s were significantly associated with KES (r = 0.307, F (3, 543 = 18.83, p < 0.001. This study offers a deep understanding about knowledge and demand of YRPPs for UGS’s.
Finger, David; Petursdottir, Thorunn
Human kind has always been curios and motivated to understand and quantify environmental processes in order to predict and anticipate the evolution of vital ecosystem services. Even the very first civilizations used empirical correlations to predict outcomes of rains and subsequent harvest efficiencies. Along with the insights into the functioning of ecosystems, humans also became aware that their anthropogenic activities can have positive and negative impact on ecosystem services. In recent years, geosciences have brought forward new sophisticated observations and modeling tools, with the aim to improve predictions of ecological developments. At the same time, the added value of linking ecological factors to the surrounding social structure has received a growing acceptance among scientists. A social-ecological system approach brings in a holistic understanding of how these systems are inevitably interlinked and how their sustainability can be better maintained. We claim that the biggest challenge for geoscience in the coming decades will be to link these two disciplines in order to establish adequate strategies to preserve natural ecosystems and their services, parallel to their utilization. We will present various case studies from more than a decade of research, ranging from water quality in mountain lakes, climate change impacts on water availability and declining fishing yields in freshwaters and discuss how the studies outcomes could be given added value by interpreting them via social-ecological system analysis. For instance, sophisticated field investigations revealed that deep water mixing in lake Issyk-Kul, Kirgizstan, is intensively distributing pollutants in the entire lake. Although fishery is an important sector in the region, the local awareness of the importance of water quality is low. In Switzerland, strict water protection laws led to ologotrophication of alpine lakes, reducing fishing yields. While local fishermen argued that local fishery is
Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengkaji empat nilai di dalam teks pappaseng, yakni acca (kecakapan, lempu (kejujuran, warani (keberanian, dan getteng (keteguhan yang dapat diserap menjadi konsep karakter ideal konselors. Penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan kualitatif dengan data, analisis dan interpretasinya mengikuti kaidah-kaidah hermeneutika Gadamerian. Temuan penelitian menunjukkan (1 nilai acca (kecakapan mengacu pada aspek kecerdasan dan kompetensi yang ditandai dengan ciri sikap penuh pertimbangan, terampil berkomunikasi dan menyelesaikan masalah, berpikir logis, teguh terhadap kejujuran, (2 nilai lempu (kejujuran mengacu pada aspek keterampilan hubungan interpersonal dengan ciri meliputi dapat dipercaya, menghormati hak orang lain, rendah hati, prososial dan taat kepada Tuhan, (3 nilai warani (keberanian mengacu pada aspek kekuatan mental konselor dengan ciri sikap kesiapan diri dan kestabilan emosi, dan (4 nilai getteng (keteguhan mengacu pada komitmen konselor terhadap pengambangan profesi dengan ciri konsisten.
Full Text Available This development research can produce a Critical Reading model for argumentation text learning in class X SMA/SMK. The Critical Reading Model has nine stages, reading skimming; Make inquiries; Facts and opinions; Happy alignment; Main idea development framework; Tap refill content; Prevention of spelling errors, inaccurate choice of words, ineffectiveness of sentences, and inaccuracy of paragraph development; Conclude; And verification This development research uses the Dick and Carey procedures. The validation of the products carried out on three aspects, namely (a the feasibility of the concept of the model, (b the feasibility of the model steps, and (c the feasibility of the model on the level of understanding. Meanwhile, field testing was conducted to determine the feasibility and response of learners to the application of the model. Based on validation and field test results, it can be concluded that Critical Reading Model is suitable to be applied in learning to read critical argument text. Penelitian pengembangan ini dilaksanakan untuk menghasilkan model Membaca Kritis dalam pembelajaran teks argumentasi. Model Membaca Kritis memiliki sembilan tahap, yaitu (1 membaca skimming; (2 membuat pertanyaan; (3 mengidentifikasi fakta dan opini; (4 mengidentifikasi keselarasan; (5 mengidentifikasi pengembangan ide pokok; (6 mengidentifikasi ketepatan hubungan isi; (7 mengidentifikasi kesalahan ejaan, ketidaktepatan pilihan kata, dan ketidakefektifan kalimat, dan ketidaktepatan pengembangan paragraf; (8 menyimpulkan; (9 memverifikasi. Penelitian pengembangan ini menggunakan model Dick and Carey. Validasi produk yang dilakukan meliputi tiga aspek, yakni (a kelayakan konsep model, (b kelayakan langkah-langkah model, dan (c kelayakan model terhadap tingkat pemahaman. Sementara itu, uji coba produk dilakukan terhadap sembilan tahap model pembelajaran. Berdasarkan hasil validasi dan uji produk dapat disimpulkan bahwa model Membaca Kritis layak diterapkan
de Assis Renato Linhares
Full Text Available Agriculture in the mountain region of Rio de Janeiro State is characterized by intensive soil use and input. Such mountainous environments are vulnerable to climate events; thus, the current article presents a report on methods applied to exchange academic and traditional knowledge. The aim is to expand farmers’ perception about the need of implementing agro-ecological practices, mainly soil management practices, which are important for agricultural sustainability in mountainous environments. The study was conducted in a Nova Friburgo family production unit, in the mountain region of Rio de Janeiro State (Brazil. It consisted of implementing three observation and soil organic-matter management units. The idea was to reduce the incidence of clubroot of crucifers disease caused by Plasmidiophora brassicae. The soil fauna was discussed with local farmers, with emphasis on the association between ecological processes and soil management. The present study improved the discussion with farmers and the need of introducing other innovative conservation practices such as no-tillage system and participatory research based on agro-ecological propositions.
Background Ethnobotany in South-Eastern Europe is gaining the interest of several scholars and stakeholders, since it is increasingly considered a key point for the re-evaluation of local bio-cultural heritage. The region of Gollobordo, located in Eastern Albania and bordering the Republic of Macedonia, is of particular interest for conducting ethnobiological studies, since it remained relatively isolated for the larger part of the 20th Century and is traditionally inhabited by a majority of ethnic Macedonians and a minority of Albanians (nowadays both sharing the Muslim faith). Methods An ethnobotanical survey focused on local food, medicinal, and veterinary plant uses was conducted with 58 participants using open and semi-structured interviews and via participant observation. Results We recorded and identified 115 taxa of vascular plants, which are locally used for food, medicinal, and veterinary purposes (representing 268 total plant reports). The Macedonian Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) was greater than the Albanian TEK, especially in the herbal and ritual domains. This phenomenon may be linked to the long socio-cultural and linguistic isolation of this group during the time when the borders between Albania and the former Yugoslavia were completely closed. Moreover, the unusual current food utilisation of cooked potatoes leaves, still in use nowadays among Macedonians, could represent the side effect of an extreme adaptation that locals underwent over the past century when the introduction of the potato crop made new strategies available for establishing stable settlements around the highest pastures. Additionally, the difference in use of Helichrysum plicatum, which is popular in the local Macedonian folk medicine but absent among Albanians, confirms the particular significance of this taxon as it relates to the yellow colour of its flowers in South Slavic folklore. Conclusion Botanical studies with an ethnographic approach are crucial for
Full Text Available Deforestation and forests fragmentation in Argentina and particularly in Santiago del Estero have favored the loss of biodiversity in recent decades. Ethnobiological studies in the province have shown the presence of peasant families in relict of dry forests, who subsist through multiple use strategy (MUS. As it is necessary to develop conservation strategies that include local knowledge and recognize children and adolescents as key players, we conducted a study on the local botanical knowledge of children and adolescents, inquiring about how many and which uses of plant species they know. Field ethnobotanic techniques were used, among them ludic techniques and participative preparation of a territorial map. Children and adolescents recognized 36 plant species. Three principal microenvironments, tours and spaces that function as meeting places outside the households were identified. Finally, a discussion on the inclusion of knowledge of children in school settings is presented, to strengthen a process of teaching and learning, and an education that fosters the conservation of biocultural diversity.
The Field Workshop 'Ecological Stability of Landscape - Ecological Infrastructure - Ecological Management' was held within a State Environmental Programme financed by the Federal Committee for the Environment. The objectives of the workshop were to present Czech and Slovak approaches to the ecological stability of the landscape by means of examples of some case studies in the field, and to exchange ideas, theoretical knowledge and practical experience on implementing the concept of ecological infrastructure in landscape management. Out of 19 papers contained in the proceedings, 3 items were inputted to the INIS system. (Z.S.)
Full Text Available Although many efforts have been made to control Listeria monocytogenes in the food industry, growing pervasiveness amongst the population over the last decades has made this bacterium considered to be one of the most hazardous foodborne pathogens. Its outstanding biocide tolerance capacity and ability to promiscuously associate with other bacterial species forming multispecies communities have permitted this microorganism to survive and persist within the industrial environment. This review is designed to give the reader an overall picture of the current state-of-the-art in L. monocytogenes sessile communities in terms of food safety and legislation, ecological aspects and biocontrol strategies.
Rumbiak, W. A.; Wambrauw, E. V.
The Tepera in Jayapura Regency have a traditional ecological concept of managing their natural resources which evolved over generations. The spatial concept of their resources management is recorded visually on mental maps. The existing conditions of the landscape, forest, coastal area, and sea are considered heritage and have economic, ecological, and cultural values. The people have their own perspectives on the relationship between the resources management, cultural values, gender perspectives, and development. Thus, this research aims to identify the gender perspective in the natural resource management and environmental services; and to analyse the sustainable pattern of the land use and cultural zoning in the resources management. The methodology comprises grounded research and Participatory Action Research. This research has three findings, i.e., the tribe named the landscape; they have developed a zoning system to manage the forest traditionally; and there is a difference in perception between men and women regarding the type of forest and landscape related to food and traditional medicine sources. Therefore, it is important to incorporate the concept of managing the environment and the cultural zones of the Tepera in the programs of the local government to direct the development in sustainable way. In addition, the female participation in managing the environment should be improved, especially related to domestic aspects.
Le Heron, Richard
The challenges of managing marine ecosystems for multiple users, while well recognised, has not led to clear strategies, principles or practice. The paper uses novel workshop based thought-experiments to address these concerns. These took the form of trans-disciplinary Non-Sectarian Scenario Experiments (NSSE), involving participants who agreed to put aside their disciplinary interests and commercial and institutional obligations. The NSSE form of co-production of knowledge is a distinctive addition to the participatory and scenario literatures in marine resource management (MRM). Set in the context of resource use conflicts in New Zealand, the workshops assembled diverse participants in the marine economy to co-develop and co-explore the making of socio-ecological knowledge and identify capability required for a new generation of multi-use oriented resource management. The thought-experiments assumed that non-sectarian navigation of scenarios will resource a step-change in marine management by facilitating new connections, relationships, and understandings of potential marine futures. Two questions guided workshop interactions: what science needs spring from pursuing imaginable possibilities and directions in a field of scenarios, and what kinds of institutions would aid the generation of science knowledge, and it application to policy and management solutions. The effectiveness of the thought- experiments helped identify ways of dealing with core problems in multi-use marine management, such as the urgent need to cope with ecological and socio-economic surprise, and define and address cumulative impacts. Discussion focuses on how the workshops offered fresh perspectives and insights into a number of challenges. These challenges include building relations of trust and collective organisation, showing the importance of values-means-ends pathways, developing facilitative legislation to enable initiatives, and the utility of the NSSEs in informing new governance and
Full Text Available The original aim of complex problem solving (CPS research was to bring the cognitive demands of complex real-life problems into the lab in order to investigate problem solving behavior and performance under controlled conditions. Up until now, the validity of psychometric intelligence constructs has been scrutinized with regard to its importance for CPS performance. At the same time, different CPS measurement approaches competing for the title of the best way to assess CPS have been developed. In the first part of the paper, we investigate the predictability of CPS performance on the basis of the Berlin Intelligence Structure Model and Cattell’s investment theory as well as an elaborated knowledge taxonomy. In the first study, 137 students managed a simulated shirt factory (Tailorshop; i.e., a complex real life-oriented system twice, while in the second study, 152 students completed a forestry scenario (FSYS; i.e., a complex artificial world system. The results indicate that reasoning – specifically numerical reasoning (Studies 1 and 2 and figural reasoning (Study 2 – are the only relevant predictors among the intelligence constructs. We discuss the results with reference to the Brunswik symmetry principle. Path models suggest that reasoning and prior knowledge influence problem solving performance in the Tailorshop scenario mainly indirectly. In addition, different types of system-specific knowledge independently contribute to predicting CPS performance. The results of Study 2 indicate that working memory capacity, assessed as an additional predictor, has no incremental validity beyond reasoning. We conclude that (1 cognitive abilities and prior knowledge are substantial predictors of CPS performance, and (2 in contrast to former and recent interpretations, there is insufficient evidence to consider CPS a unique ability construct. In the second part of the paper, we discuss our results in light of recent CPS research, which predominantly
Süß, Heinz-Martin; Kretzschmar, André
The original aim of complex problem solving (CPS) research was to bring the cognitive demands of complex real-life problems into the lab in order to investigate problem solving behavior and performance under controlled conditions. Up until now, the validity of psychometric intelligence constructs has been scrutinized with regard to its importance for CPS performance. At the same time, different CPS measurement approaches competing for the title of the best way to assess CPS have been developed. In the first part of the paper, we investigate the predictability of CPS performance on the basis of the Berlin Intelligence Structure Model and Cattell’s investment theory as well as an elaborated knowledge taxonomy. In the first study, 137 students managed a simulated shirt factory (Tailorshop; i.e., a complex real life-oriented system) twice, while in the second study, 152 students completed a forestry scenario (FSYS; i.e., a complex artificial world system). The results indicate that reasoning – specifically numerical reasoning (Studies 1 and 2) and figural reasoning (Study 2) – are the only relevant predictors among the intelligence constructs. We discuss the results with reference to the Brunswik symmetry principle. Path models suggest that reasoning and prior knowledge influence problem solving performance in the Tailorshop scenario mainly indirectly. In addition, different types of system-specific knowledge independently contribute to predicting CPS performance. The results of Study 2 indicate that working memory capacity, assessed as an additional predictor, has no incremental validity beyond reasoning. We conclude that (1) cognitive abilities and prior knowledge are substantial predictors of CPS performance, and (2) in contrast to former and recent interpretations, there is insufficient evidence to consider CPS a unique ability construct. In the second part of the paper, we discuss our results in light of recent CPS research, which predominantly utilizes the
Sewry, Nicola; Verhagen, Evert; Lambert, Mike; van Mechelen, Willem; Brown, James
Rugby has a high injury incidence and therefore BokSmart introduced the Safe Six injury prevention programme in 2014 in an attempt to decrease this incidence. In 2015, BokSmart used a 'targeted marketing approach' to increase the awareness and knowledge of the Safe Six . Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the change in the knowledge of coaches and players of the Safe Six programme, compared with the launch year, following a 'targeted marketing approach'. Ecological cross-sectional questionnaire study SETTING: The 2014-2016 South African rugby union youth week tournaments. Questionnaires were completed by 4502 players and coaches who attended any of the four youth week tournaments during 2014-2016. Logistic regression (adjusted OR, 95% CI) was performed in comparison to year prior to targeted marketing, separately for coaches and players, for changes in awareness and knowledge. The awareness of the Safe Six increased significantly for players in 2015 (1.74 times (95% CI 1.49 to 2.04)) and in 2016 (1.54 times (95% CI 1.29 to 1.84)). Similarly for coaches, there was a 3.55 times (95% CI 1.23 to 9.99) increase in 2015 and a 10.11 times (95% CI 2.43 to 42.08) increase in 2016 compared with 2014. Furthermore, a player was significantly more likely to be aware of the Safe Six if his coach was aware of the programme (psocial media were the largest contributors to knowledge in coaches and players. While the 'targeted marketing approach' was associated with an increase in awareness, future studies should determine if this translates into behavioural change. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Upon regaining the right to direct education at the local level, the North Slope Borough (NSB) of Alaska incorporated Inupiat educational philosophies into the educational system. The NSB in partnership with the University of Alaska Fairbanks established Ilisagvik College, the only tribal college in Alaska. Ilisagvik College seeks to broaden science, technology, engineering, and mathematical education on the North Slope. Incorporation of place-based and informal lessons with traditional ecological knowledge engages students in education. Ilisagvik hosted a 2-week climate change program from 2012 - 2015 for high school and middle school students that examined climate science and the effects of a warming climate on the local environment from a multitude of perspectives from scientists, Inupiat Elders, and instructor-led field trips. Pre-assessments and post-assessments using the Student Assessment of Learning Gains tool measured students' interests and conceptual understanding. Students developed and enhanced their understanding of science concepts and, at the end of the program, could articulate the impact of climatic changes on their local environment. Similarly, methods to incorporate Indigenous knowledge into research practices have been achieved, such as incorporating field trips and discussion with Elders on the importance of animal migration, whale feeding patterns, and the significance of sea-ice conditions, which are important community concerns.
Wood, Christine Virginia
This article examines the evolving connections between local conditions and knowledge processes in women's and gender studies, a research field in the social sciences and humanities. Data are historical records from five early-adopting women's and gender studies units in the United States and interviews with affiliated professors. In their formative years, these programs were consistent in their intellectual content. Scholars across sites defined the purpose of women's studies similarly: to address the lack of research on women and social problems of sex inequality. Gradually, scholars incorporated a range of analytic categories into women's studies' agenda, including gender identities and masculinities, leading to diverse understandings and redefinitions of the central objects of analysis. Analytic shifts are reflected in differences in the institutional and intellectual composition of programs and departments. To explain how local departmental conditions affect the conception of core objects of study in gender research, the author builds on the literature on knowledge ecologies and introduces the concept of the "supple object." © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Dannieli Firme Herbst
Full Text Available This research investigates local ecological knowledge of fishers in communities along a latitudinal gradient in the coast of the Santa Catarina State, regarding the life cycle of mullets Mugil liza (migration, feeding, and reproductive behavior. Our sampling encompassed eight Santa Catarina coastal cities (nine artisanal fishing sites and engaged 45 key informants (28- 86 years of age through semi-structured interviews from August/2011 to March/2012. This fish species feeds and grows in lagoon and estuarine systems, migrating to the sea for reproduction, and spawning. Fishers acknowledged the Patos Lagoon and the Plata River as the main source of mullet schools. Migration occurs from South to North and the routes vary according to climatic and oceanographic conditions (e.g., low temperatures, south winds, rainfall, currents, salinity. These conditions influence the abundance of mullets (and therefore fisheries success, their migration and stops in locations such as beaches, rocky shores, and islands. According to fishers, mullet spawning occurs throughout the coast of the Santa Catarina State and they feed in lagoons and riverine systems but also out at sea during migration. In conclusion, fishers possess a detailed knowledge about mullet life cycle and they identify intra and interannual variations in migration routes, a pattern that should be considered in managing the fishery.
Celentano, Danielle; Rousseau, Guillaume Xavier; Engel, Vera Lex; Façanha, Cristiane Lima; Oliveira, Elivaldo Moreira de; Moura, Emanoel Gomes de
Riparian forests provide ecosystem services that are essential for human well-being. The Pepital River is the main water supply for Alcântara (Brazil) and its forests are disappearing. This is affecting water volume and distribution in the region. Promoting forest restoration is imperative. In deprived regions, restoration success depends on the integration of ecology, livelihoods and traditional knowledge (TEK). In this study, an interdisciplinary research framework is proposed to design riparian forest restoration strategies based on ecological data, TEK and social needs. This study takes place in a region presenting a complex history of human relocation and land tenure. Local populations from seven villages were surveyed to document livelihood (including 'free-listing' of agricultural crops and homegarden tree species). Additionally, their perceptions toward environmental changes were explored through semi-structured interviews (n = 79). Ethnobotanical information on forest species and their uses were assessed by local-specialists (n = 19). Remnants of conserved forests were surveyed to access ecological information on tree species (three plots of 1,000 m2). Results included descriptive statistics, frequency and Smith’s index of salience of the free-list results. The local population depends primarily on slash-and-burn subsistence agriculture to meet their needs. Interviewees showed a strong empirical knowledge about the environmental problems of the river, and of their causes, consequences and potential solutions. Twenty-four tree species (dbh > 10 cm) were found at the reference sites. Tree density averaged 510 individuals per hectare (stdv = 91.6); and 12 species were considered the most abundant (density > 10ind/ha). There was a strong consensus among plant-specialists about the most important trees. The species lists from reference sites and plant-specialists presented an important convergence. Slash-and-burn agriculture is the main source of livelihood
Golden, Abigail S; Naisilsisili, Waisea; Ligairi, Isikele; Drew, Joshua A
Harnessing the traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) of local communities has the potential to enhance conservation planning in developing regions. Marine protected areas (MPAs) that incorporate traditional beliefs about reef tenure are generally more successful in reaching conservation goals and ensuring the participation of local fishermen on vulnerable tropical reef systems. Fiji possesses a unique system of traditional reef management in which local clans or villages, called mataqali, control individual units of a reef, known as qoliqoli, and make independent management decisions based on traditional beliefs and conservation concerns. This is an example of a system, known as customary marine tenure, which has attracted interest from conservation scientists hoping to set up MPAs in vulnerable regions. As one example of this grassroots participation, Nagigi village on the Fijian island of Vanua Levu has expressed interest in setting up an MPA in part of its qoliqoli because of concerns about overfishing. In response to this interest, we took a two-pronged approach to assessing Nagigi's fishery status and conservation needs, first conducting a fishery-independent species survey using destructive sampling and then focusing on fisheries targets identified through fisher interviews. These interviews allowed us to identify heavily targeted species, assess villagers' understanding of reef dynamics over 30 or 40 years of fisheries expansion, and evaluate village support and expectations for a proposed conservation program. Based on our findings we recommend a temporary closure to be in effect for at least three years, allowing one of the more important fishery targets, Lethrinus harak (Forsskål, 1775; Lethrinidae), to complete at least one generation within the reserve. The methodology of matching the proposed marine protected area with the life histories and ecologies of heavily targeted species identified through fisherman and -woman interviews can offer a template
Abigail S Golden
Full Text Available Harnessing the traditional ecological knowledge (TEK of local communities has the potential to enhance conservation planning in developing regions. Marine protected areas (MPAs that incorporate traditional beliefs about reef tenure are generally more successful in reaching conservation goals and ensuring the participation of local fishermen on vulnerable tropical reef systems. Fiji possesses a unique system of traditional reef management in which local clans or villages, called mataqali, control individual units of a reef, known as qoliqoli, and make independent management decisions based on traditional beliefs and conservation concerns. This is an example of a system, known as customary marine tenure, which has attracted interest from conservation scientists hoping to set up MPAs in vulnerable regions. As one example of this grassroots participation, Nagigi village on the Fijian island of Vanua Levu has expressed interest in setting up an MPA in part of its qoliqoli because of concerns about overfishing. In response to this interest, we took a two-pronged approach to assessing Nagigi's fishery status and conservation needs, first conducting a fishery-independent species survey using destructive sampling and then focusing on fisheries targets identified through fisher interviews. These interviews allowed us to identify heavily targeted species, assess villagers' understanding of reef dynamics over 30 or 40 years of fisheries expansion, and evaluate village support and expectations for a proposed conservation program. Based on our findings we recommend a temporary closure to be in effect for at least three years, allowing one of the more important fishery targets, Lethrinus harak (Forsskål, 1775; Lethrinidae, to complete at least one generation within the reserve. The methodology of matching the proposed marine protected area with the life histories and ecologies of heavily targeted species identified through fisherman and -woman interviews can
Ecology (from the Greek words οιχοσ, "house" and λογια "study of") is the science of the "house", since it studies the environments where we live. There are three main ways of thinking about Ecology: Ecology as the study of interactions (between humans and the environment, between humans and living beings, between all living beings, etc.), Ecology as the statistical study of interactions, Ecology as a faith, or rather as a science that requires a metaphysical view. The history of Ecology shows us how this view was released by the label of "folk sense" to gain the epistemological status of science, a science that strives to be interdisciplinary. So, the aim of Ecology is to study, through a scientific methodology, the whole natural world, answering to very different questions, that arise from several fields (Economics, Biology, Sociology, Philosophy, etc.). The plurality of issues that Ecology has to face led, during the Twentieth-century, to branch off in several different "ecologies". As a result, each one of these new approaches chose as its own field a more limited and specific portion of reality.
Tiago Pereira Brito
Full Text Available This study aimed to register the ecological knowledge of fishermen from the municipality of São João de Pirabas, Pará, Brazil, regarding the occurrence of sea turtles on the Pará state coast, as well as measure their incidental capture when fishing; to do this, 50 semi-structured interviews were conducted with local fishermen. Fishing was practiced mostly by adult men, who used 7 fishing arts (gillnetting, hook and line, longline, fish corrals, net of tide canals, casting net, and basket trap, mainly aimed at catching king mackerel (Scomberomorus cavalla, serra Spanish mackerel (S. brasiliensis, king weakfish (Macrodon ancylodon, weakfish (Cynoscion spp., hake (Cynoscion spp., catfish (Bagre bagre, and mullet (Mugil spp.. Fishermen observed in the region 5 turtle species, with a more frequent occurrence of Chelonia mydas (100%, Dermochelys coriacea (66%, and Eretmochelys imbricata (46%; the less frequent species are Caretta caretta (16% and Lepidochelys olivacea (8%. The spawning areas of the 3 most common species demonstrate the significance of the Pará state coast for their conservation. Incidental capture was reported by 76% of fishermen, mainly occurring in net, longlines, and fish corrals. Usually, captured animals were released, although there is consumption of sea turtle meat and eggs by fishermen.
Lily O. Rodríguez
Full Text Available Building resilient sustainable social-ecological systems (SES requires communities to enhance their adaptive capacities. Communal participative land-use planning (Zonificación Participativa Comunal—ZPC is a tool designed for communities to integrating local and scientific knowledge to sustainably organize and manage their SES. Between 2006 and 2011, a ZPC was developed with communities in the buffer zone of Cordillera Azul National Park (Peru, where rapid demographic changes are converting pre-montane seasonally dry forest into agricultural land. Herein, we analyse how the ZPC enhanced adaptive capacity, enabling the SES to cope with environmental, political and economic changes. Based on qualitative, semi-structured interviews, communities are analysed along their capacities in the dimensions social capital, learning, adaptive management and governance. An analysis of yearly high-resolution forest cover data supports our findings. Deforestation activities in biologically sensitive zones decreased rapidly during the time of the ZPC implementation. We find that particularly the long-term presence of the bridging institution and the continuous testing and reflection of the integrated “hybrid knowledge” enabled communities to develop adaptive capacities. The analysis of ZPC our results reveals the enabling conditions for promoting the learning process to develop a sustainable land-use management in the context of migration and rapid changes.
Aigo, Juana; Ladio, Ana
families. In addition, we found that Mapuche people differentiate fish species mainly by morphological, organoleptic and ecological attributes. Current consumption of fish by Mapuche communities is sporadic, in accordance with bibliography and ancient tales. Several fishing tools are used, including modern elements. Our data enable us to characterise dynamic traditional knowledge in these communities, which is flexible in nature and adaptable to new situations, demonstrated by the incorporation not only of new species but also new fishing tools. It also seems that new significances become absorbed in synchrony with the advance or arrival of exotic and invasive species. For the Mapuche, the presence of the white man heralded by exotic trouts speaks of how a recent event, such as the introduction of the salmonids, is already incorporated into Mapuche symbolism. Mapuche traditional knowledge and cosmovision on the use of fish and waters, a vision which promotes respect and the avoidance of actions that could disturb the beings (animals and sacred or mythological characters) that inhabit and take care of them should be fostered as part of management plans of regional natural resources. This paper contributes to the broader literature on freshwater resource management by providing empirical evidence of the critical role of local perceptions in promoting the sustainable management of natural resources.
Bjørn, Mona Chor
such vegetation, based on concepts and theories in plant community ecology. If these communities are based on local forbs there is a continuum in anthropogenic intervention from designed and intensively maintained to semi-natural herbaceous vegetation. Results from a large field experiment show that, after three...... colonised by grasses and eventually woody species. This thesis adds useful basic knowledge in plant community ecology and species-specific growth, which are relevant to research and planning in landscape architecture and ecology....
Cem Mehmet BAYDUR
Full Text Available Buying a house is an important decision whether it is for investment or for accommodation. Every decision of investment means taking risks. When buying a flat is taken into consideration, it could be clearly seen that there is considerable difference between financially capitalized price and market price of it. In this article, I will be shown that this difference arises from growth expectation in future cash flows. In this article the buying decisions of three different groups of investors are investigated depending on their attitude towards risk taking, based on the growth expectation. Samples of this research are taken from Kötekli and Akçaova, districts of Muğla. The article discusses the actual growth expectations of investors and their buying decisions.
Full Text Available WERE THERE IN THE OLD PRUSSIAN LANGUAGE ANY VERBS ANALOGOUS TO LITH. tekė́ti, tẽka VERBAL TYPE?SummaryThe article seeks to determine whether the Old Prussian language could have had verbs analogous to the Lithuanian type ending in -ėti in the infinitive, -a in the present tense and -ėjo in the past tense. Vytautas Mažiulis’ Prussian Etymological Dictionary directly attributes only one reconstructed verb to this type, *skelētvei, *skela ‘to owe, to be at fault’, and indirectly connects several suffixal verb forms, *peldētvei ‘to earn; to obtain’, *kabētvei ‘to hang’, *bīlet ‘to tell’ and *kalsēt ‘to ring’. The OPr. verbs under discussion, however, belong to another verbal type (with variable suffix - inf. -ī-, praes./praet. -ā-/-ē-.The tekė́ti, tẽka verbal type arose from the past tense stem, *-ē, of root verbs with the addition of thematic personal endings, i.e., a secondary stem *-i̯ā (*tekēi̯ā. The past tense stem *-ēi̯ā suffix *-ē was then introduced into the infinitive (*tekti > *tek-ē-ti. The Prussian language added plural personal endings to vowel suffixes athematically (directly after the suffix vowel, and because the first, second and third person singular usually had a zero ending – the final vowel was that of the suffix (see Kaukienė 2000b, 58 f.. Therefore there was no basis for tekė́ti, tẽka verbs to arise.Hence we may conclude that tekė́ti, tẽka verbal type is an East Baltic innovation.
Vladimir Antonio Silva
Full Text Available Lands (broader concept than soils, including all elements of the environment: soils, geology, topography, climate, water resources, flora and fauna, and the effects of anthropogenic activities of the state of Minas Gerais are in different soil, climate and socio-economics conditions and suitability for the production of agricultural goods is therefore distinct and mapping of agricultural suitability of the state lands is crucial for planning guided sustainability. Geoprocessing uses geographic information treatment techniques and GIS allows to evaluate geographic phenomena and their interrelationships using digital maps. To evaluate the agricultural suitability of state lands, we used soil maps, field knowledge, forest inventories and databases related to Ecological-Economic Zoning (EEZ of Minas Gerais, to develop a map of land suitability in GIS. To do this, we have combined the maps of soil fertility, water stress, oxygen deficiency, vulnerability to erosion and impediments to mechanization. In terms of geographical expression, the main limiting factor of lands is soil fertility, followed by lack of water, impediments to mechanization and vulnerability to erosion. Regarding agricultural suitability, the group 2 (regular suitability for crops is the most comprehensive, representing 45.13% of the state. For management levels A and B, low and moderate technological level, respectively, the most expressive suitability class is the regular, followed by the restricted class and last, the adequate class, while for the management level C (high technological level the predominant class is the restricted. The predominant most intensive use type is for crops, whose area increases substantially with capital investment and technology (management levels B and C.
Käyhkö, Jukka; Horstkotte, Tim; Vehmas, Jarmo; Forbes, Bruce
The area allocated for reindeer husbandry in Finland, Sweden and Norway covers approximately 40 % of each country. As the livelihood requires large, relatively unfragmented territories while being marginal in terms of direct income, land-use conflicts between various livelihoods and activities, such as forestry, agriculture, mining, energy production, tourism, and nature protection are common phenomena in the region. Simultaneously, rapid societal change, urban exodus and fading traditions as well as climate warming and subsequent ecosystem change may put the livelihood at stake. We have probed potential futures of reindeer husbandry in Northern Fennoscandia using the Social-Ecological System (SES) approach, knowledge co-production in stakeholder-scientist workshops in all three countries, and scenario building based on quantitative data and narratives. Regarding the future of the livelihood, we have identified some crucial components in the SES that are influential in determining the direction of development. We produced four potential pathways of future development and demonstrate that important factors controlling the direction of development include governance and actor relations. Governance is often considered distant and opaque by local stakeholders, fostering conflicts in land allocation, while unclear regulations at local level reinforce emerging conflict situations leading to distrust and restrained communication between the actors. Regionally, these conflicts may lead to decreased resilience and threaten the future of the livelihood altogether. Therefore, research should focus on supporting the reform process of institutional arrangements and governance mechanisms, and fostering co-design and co-production processes that ease distrust and improve resilience of the livelihood in multifunctional landscapes.
The SpinTek rotary microfilter is being considered as an alternative to crossflow filtration. Prior testing evaluated the vendor's standard design for a 1-disk and 3-disk design. We noted several areas of improvement during the testing of the two filter systems that can be included in the 25-disk plant size unit.This report outlines several potential enhancements and improvements to the vendor's standard design which would extend the lifetime of the unit and increase the ability to perform maintenance for units deployed in radioactive service. The enhancements proposed in this report can be implemented to the current design with minimal impact to the cost and schedule of the purchase of the standard unit. An example of this is the replacement of the current mechanical seal with a bellows seal. The improvements proposed will require an extensive redesign of components found in the current system such as the filter chamber
Fungi are widespread in nature and have conquered nearly every ecological niche. Fungi occur not only in terrestrial but also in freshwater and marine environments. Moreover, fungi are known as a rich source of secondary metabolites. Despite these facts, the ecological role of many of these metabolites is still unknown and the chemical ecology of fungi has not been investigated systematically so far. This review intends to present examples of the various chemical interactions of fungi with other fungi, plants, bacteria and animals and to give an overview of the current knowledge of fungal chemical ecology.
Bredeweg, B.; Salles, P.; Neumann, M.; Recknagel, F.
Representing qualitative ecological knowledge is of great interest for ecological modelling. QR provides means to build conceptual models and to make qualitative knowledge explicit, organized and manageable by means of symbolic computing. This chapter discusses the main characteristics of QR using
ulfa, warni atul
Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh penerapan Model Pembelajaran Berbasis Masalah terhadap kemampuan menulis teks eksposisi oleh siswa kelas X SMA Negeri 1 Babalan tahun pembelajaran 2013/2014. Populasi penelitian ini adalah seluruh siswa kelas X SMA Negeri 1 Babalan, yang berjumlah 200 orang dan yang menjadi sampel penelitian sebanyak 40 orang. Pengambilan sampel dilakukan dengan cara menentukan satu kelas yang dijadikan wakil populasi dengan menggunakan teknik Random Sampling...
Penelitian ini bertujuan menyelidiki pengaruh strategi SQ4R tipe bantuan multimedia versus buku teks, pengetahuan awal dan gaya belajar terhadap hasil belajar bahasa Inggris Teknik. Subjek penelitian adalah 96 mahasiswa Teknik Sipil dan Mesin Politeknik Negeri Ambon tahun akademik 2011-2012. Desain eksperimen menggunakan kuasi versi factorial (2 x 2 x 2) pre test-post test non-equivalent control group design. Analisis data menggunakan statistik Three Ways ANOVA. Pengujian hipotesis dilakuk...
Siregar, Khairani; A, Abdurrahman
Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh penggunaan model pembelajaranThink Pair Share terhadap kemampuan menenukan gagasan Utama teks deskripsi oleh siswa kelas VII SMP Negeri 3 Kisaran tahun pembelajaran 2016/2017. Populasi penelitian ini berjumlah 266 siswa. Dari 266 siswa, ditetapkan 32 siswa yang diambil secara acak. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah metode eksperimen one-group pre-test post-test design.Instrumen yang digunakan untuk menjaring data adalah tes u...
Tato diplomová práce se zabývá stanovením vybraných vonných látek v kosmetických prostředcích. Úvodem je popsán výskyt, metody získávání a využití těchto látek. Jsou nepostradatelnou součástí především kosmetických výrobků, avšak u citlivých jedinců mohou vyvolat alergickou reakci. O příčinách vzniku a průběhu těchto nežádoucích projevů je v teoretické části také pojednáno. Je známo několik stovek až tisíc vonných látek používaných v parfumérském průmyslu, z nichž je 26 ustanoveno evropskými ...
McCullum, A. J. K.; Schmidt, C.; Palacios, S. L.; Ly, V.
NASA's Indigenous Capacity Building Initiative is aimed to provide remote sensing training, mentoring, and research opportunities to the indigenous community. A key programmatic goal is the co-production of place-based trainings where participants have the opportunity to address specific natural resource research and management issues facing their tribal lands. Three primary strategies have been adopted to engage with our tribal partners, these include: (1) the use of existing tribal networks and conferences such as the National Tribal GIS Conference, (2) coordination with other federal agencies such as the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) and tribal liaisons at regional Climate Science Centers, and (3) connecting with tribes directly. Regional partner visits with tribes, such as meetings with the Samish Indian Nation, are integral to cultivate trusting, collaborative, and sustained partnerships and an understanding of how Earth Observations can be applied to the unique set of challenges and goals each tribe faces. As the program continues to grow, we aim to increase our incorporation of Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) into technical methods and to develop trainings tailored to thematic areas of interest to specific tribes. Engagement and feedback are encouraged to refine our approaches to increase capacity within the indigenous community to utilize NASA Earth Observations.
El-Sawah, Sondoss; Guillaume, Joseph H.A.; Filatova, Tatiana; Rook, Josefine; Jakeman, Anthony J.
This paper aims to contribute to developing better ways for incorporating essential human elements in decision making processes for modelling of complex socio-ecological systems. It presents a step-wise methodology for integrating perceptions of stakeholders (qualitative) into formal simulation
Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui validitas tes cloze (CL dan tes-C (C sebagai alat ukur kemampuan membaca teks bahasa Inggris dengan tes Reading Comprehension (RC dari TOEFL sebagai tolok ukur dan mengetahui validitas penilaian diri (PD dengan mengacu pada ketiga tes tersebut. Populasi penelitian meliputi mahasiswa yang mengambil mata kuliah Reading I, III, dan V pada semester gasal tahun akademik 2006/2007 di Program Studi Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris, Fakultas Bahasa dan Seni, Universitas Negeri Yogyakarta. Sampel penelitian terdiri atas 121 mahasiswa yang dipilih dengan menggunakan teknik sampel acak gugus. Data kemampuan membaca dikumpulkan dengan tes RC, CL dan C. Data PD dikumpulkan dengan tiga kuesioner PD yang menggunakan model Likert. Data penelitian dianalisis dengan menggunakan teknik korelasi Pearson product moment. Hasil analisis data menunjukkan bahwa ada korelasi yang positif antara skor tes RC dan skor tes CL, antara skor tes RC dan tes C, dan antara skor PD dan ketiga skor tes membaca tersebut. Kata kunci: tes reading comprehension, tes cloze, tes-c, penilaian diri, validitas
Korina, Leeja C.; Habiyaremye, Alexis
With the impending threat of global climate change, the last decades have witnessed an increasing recognition of the potential contribution of indigenous knowledge to tackling global challenges of environmental sustainability. The sources and wisdom of indigenous knowledge have however much more to
Full Text Available Mass media construd dakwah discourses in text forms. The texts of dakwah discourses in mass media need to be analyzed and discourse analysis can reveal the discourse of dakwah texls in mass media. The discourse analysis of Teun A. Van Djik covers: 1 text analysis, that is, how to analyze texf structures by applying linguistic analysis to explain and get the meaning of a text; 2 social cognition analysis, that is how a text was created by the author; and 3 social analysis, that is how a text is related to social strudure and knowledge of the society.
Richard Ansong Omari; Sonoko Dorothea Bellingrath-Kimura; Elsie Sarkodee Addo; Yosei Oikawa; Yoshiharu Fujii
Efforts to improve soil productive capacity aimed at boosting crop production in the Northern Ghana has primarily focused on field-based experiments with little documentation on farmer practice and local indigenous knowledge of soil management. A sample group of 114 farmers from five farming communities in the Guinea Savannah was interviewed to evaluate their indigenous knowledge of crop production practices in the context of soil health, fertilization management, and crop yield. Data were co...
Cuozzo, Frank P; Sauther, Michelle L
Teeth have long been used as indicators of primate ecology. Early work focused on the links between dental morphology, diet, and behavior, with more recent years emphasizing dental wear, microstructure, development, and biogeochemistry, to understand primate ecology. Our study of Lemur catta at the Beza Mahafaly Special Reserve, Madagascar, has revealed an unusual pattern of severe tooth wear and frequent tooth loss, primarily the result of consuming a fallback food for which these primates are not dentally adapted. Interpreting these data was only possible by combining our areas of expertise (dental anatomy [FC] and primate ecology [MS]). By integrating theoretical, methodological, and applied aspects of both areas of research, we adopted the term "dental ecology"-defined as the broad study of how teeth respond to the environment. Specifically, we view dental ecology as an interpretive framework using teeth as a vehicle for understanding an organism's ecology, which builds upon earlier work, but creates a new synthesis of anatomy and ecology that is only possible with detailed knowledge of living primates. This framework includes (1) identifying patterns of dental pathology and tooth use-wear, within the context of feeding ecology, behavior, habitat variation, and anthropogenic change, (2) assessing ways in which dental development and biogeochemical signals can reflect habitat, environmental change and/or stress, and (3) how dental microstructure and macro-morphology are adapted to, and reflect feeding ecology. Here we define dental ecology, provide a short summary of the development of this perspective, and place our new work into this context. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Candler, C.; Olson, R.; Deroy, S.
This document is a report supported by specific information gathered by the Athabasca Chipewyan First Nation (ACFN) and the Mikisew Cree First Nation (MCFN), and takes part in an Athabasca River Use and Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) study conducted in 2010. The main objective was to provide a written submission, based on evidence, in order to effectively notify the crown about plans for managing industrial water withdrawals from the lower Athabasca River. The First Nations used the same methods, wrote their community reports as distinguished stand-alone documents and made the choice to present the ACFN and MCFN data in parallel with each other within the same document. The study provides information on the knowledge and uses of the Athabasca River by the community members. Context and background for the study can be found in the part A. It comprises a short discussion of the Treaty No.8 of 1899, the latter confirming the rights of First Nation people. The importance of boat transportation for the community members is mentioned, and a summary of the methods is given. The results of the ACFN and MCFN studies are given in part B and C. The reduction of the quantity and quality of the river has affected the practice of ACFN and MCFN aboriginal and treaty rights. The community perceptions of the changes of the river and how it has influenced their lifestyle is discussed. Some uses of the Athabasca river have been lost because of concerns regarding contamination associated with oil sands operations. The last part of the document provides an analysis of results and suggests two thresholds that define the ability of ACFN and MCFN members to practice their rights and access their territories. This document ends with recommendations for implementation of these thresholds. 22 refs., 12 maps.
Candler, C.; Olson, R.; Deroy, S. [Firelight Group Research Cooperative, Victoria, BC (Canada)
This document is a report supported by specific information gathered by the Athabasca Chipewyan First Nation (ACFN) and the Mikisew Cree First Nation (MCFN), and takes part in an Athabasca River Use and Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) study conducted in 2010. The main objective was to provide a written submission, based on evidence, in order to effectively notify the crown about plans for managing industrial water withdrawals from the lower Athabasca River. The First Nations used the same methods, wrote their community reports as distinguished stand-alone documents and made the choice to present the ACFN and MCFN data in parallel with each other within the same document. The study provides information on the knowledge and uses of the Athabasca River by the community members. Context and background for the study can be found in the part A. It comprises a short discussion of the Treaty No.8 of 1899, the latter confirming the rights of First Nation people. The importance of boat transportation for the community members is mentioned, and a summary of the methods is given. The results of the ACFN and MCFN studies are given in part B and C. The reduction of the quantity and quality of the river has affected the practice of ACFN and MCFN aboriginal and treaty rights. The community perceptions of the changes of the river and how it has influenced their lifestyle is discussed. Some uses of the Athabasca river have been lost because of concerns regarding contamination associated with oil sands operations. The last part of the document provides an analysis of results and suggests two thresholds that define the ability of ACFN and MCFN members to practice their rights and access their territories. This document ends with recommendations for implementation of these thresholds. 22 refs., 12 maps.
Full Text Available Abstrak Tulisan ini didasari sebuah anggapan bahwa bahasa tidak berada di ruang hampa sosial.Maka, bahasa pada dasarnya bukan hanya untaian kata yang hanya bersifat linguistik, tetapi bersifat sosial. Karenanya, bahasa dipahami sebagai tindakan sosial.Implikasinya, bahasa bukan hanya bermatra linguistik, tetapi juga bermatra sosial. Van Dijk menjadi salah satu model yang dapat digunakan sebagai alat untuk menganalisis wacana secara kritis. Penelitian analisis wacana kritis model van Dijk mempertimbangkan teks, konteks, kognisi sosial, dan analisis/konteks sosial. Untuk mengungkap hal itu, langkah yang dapat dilakukan adalah: mengungkap struktur makro (tematik, suprstruktur (skematik, dan struktur mikro yang terdiri atas semantik, sintaksis, stilitistik, dan retorika. Untuk mengungkap hal itu, di sini digunakan metode simak dan catat dengan menjadikan Suara Merdeka dan Kompassebagai sumber datanya. Hasilnya pertama,SM cenderung berideologi kasar, provokatif, dan konotatif/figuratif. Hal itu, tampak pada pilihan kata/kalimat kata yang cenderung kasar, seperti mengancam,menyerang, memanggil paksa, menyeret, menembak.Sementara, harian K cenderung berideologi idealisme pers yang objektif, netral, dan berimbang. Kedua, dari dimensi kekuasaan (simbolik, harian SM cenderung menjadi “oposisi” dan “oposan”sebagai pihak yang di-dominan-kan, sedang pihak pemerintah sebagai pihak yang “dimarginalkan”. Sementara, harian K menempatkan pihak yang dominan/marginal lebih didasarkan pada kondisi objektif di lapangan yang berbasis data dan keterangan yang dari narasumber yang cenderung netral, seperti pengamat, warga, dan akademisi; tidak didasarkan pada keterangan yang cenderung subjektif, seperti dari para politisi.Ketiga, dari sisi analisis sosial dan kognisi sosial; SM lebih tampak sebagai cerminan tagline-nya yaitu lokal (yaitu “perekat komunitas Jawa Tengah”, sedangkan harian K lebih “mengabdi” pada rakyat seperti tampak pada
Kristin L. Laidre
Full Text Available In Greenland, polar bears (Ursus maritimus are nutritional, economic, and cultural subsistence resources for Inuit. Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK collected from subsistence hunters can provide important insights and improve management decisions when collected systematically. We report on the results of a TEK survey of subsistence polar bear hunters living in the areas around Tasiilaq and Ittoqqortoormiit, East Greenland. Twenty-five full-time polar bear hunters were interviewed between December 2014 and March 2015 in a conversation-style interview, where a local interviewer fluent in the East Greenlandic dialect asked a series of 55 predetermined questions. The primary goals were to (1 gather Inuit perspectives on polar bear subsistence quotas and hunting strategies, (2 understand how climate change is affecting the polar bear subsistence hunt, and (3 document observed changes in polar bear distribution, abundance, and biology. Approximately 40% of the Tasiilaq respondents had caught between 10 and 19 polar bears in their lifetime, while 67% of Ittoqqortoormiit respondents reported lifetime catches of ≥20 bears. In both areas, polar bears were most commonly hunted between February and April. Hunters noted large changes to the climate in the areas where they hunt polar bears. Most hunters reported loss of sea ice, receding glaciers, unstable weather, and warmer temperatures. In Tasiilaq 73% of the hunters said climate changes had affected the polar bear hunt and in Ittoqqortoormiit about 88% of respondents reported the same. Hunters indicated that sea ice loss has created more areas of open water so dog sledges have become unsafe for hunting transportation compared to 10–15 years ago (reported by 100% of hunters in Tasiilaq and 80% in Ittoqqortoormiit. In Ittoqqortoormiit, the distance traveled during polar bear hunting trips has decreased dramatically. In both areas hunters noted that more polar bears are coming into their
It is not enough to convey knowledge, insights and attitudes if education in ecology is to have fruitful effects. Space and opportunity for action and creativity must be provided in addition. This includes personal consumer habits (eating, transport, hygiene, leisure activities etc.); an individual workplace - in this case school - that can be shaped according to ecological needs. Beyond this, ecological maturation should not be confined to, but should transcend school, for instance in youth groups, citizens' committees, political parties. If school does not inspire action - including action outside school -then education in ecology could be smothered by the Midas effect, where all life is reduced to material, to the curriculum in this case. This book presents ecological projects that have been tried at schools. They aim at an education in ecology that is oriented to the pupil and open to experience. They could be an incentive for colleagues to conduct similar projects at their schools. The projects work from the pupils' own experience and aim at concrete action and activities in his or her own environment. They should encourage teachers to venture outside the classroom with the pupils and teach ecology where it takes place. (orig.) [de
Elsawah, Sondoss; Guillaume, Joseph H A; Filatova, Tatiana; Rook, Josefine; Jakeman, Anthony J
This paper aims to contribute to developing better ways for incorporating essential human elements in decision making processes for modelling of complex socio-ecological systems. It presents a step-wise methodology for integrating perceptions of stakeholders (qualitative) into formal simulation models (quantitative) with the ultimate goal of improving understanding and communication about decision making in complex socio-ecological systems. The methodology integrates cognitive mapping and agent based modelling. It cascades through a sequence of qualitative/soft and numerical methods comprising: (1) Interviews to elicit mental models; (2) Cognitive maps to represent and analyse individual and group mental models; (3) Time-sequence diagrams to chronologically structure the decision making process; (4) All-encompassing conceptual model of decision making, and (5) computational (in this case agent-based) Model. We apply the proposed methodology (labelled ICTAM) in a case study of viticulture irrigation in South Australia. Finally, we use strengths-weakness-opportunities-threats (SWOT) analysis to reflect on the methodology. Results show that the methodology leverages the use of cognitive mapping to capture the richness of decision making and mental models, and provides a combination of divergent and convergent analysis methods leading to the construction of an Agent Based Model. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Our present knowledge in the field of dynamical systems, information theory, probability theory and other similar domains indicates that the human brain is a complex dynamical system working in a strong chaotic regime in which random processes play important roles. In this environment our mental life develops. To choose a logically ordered sequence from a random or almost random stream of thoughts is a difficult and energy consuming task. The only domain in which we are able to do this with a full success is mathematics. Leibniz’s life ambition was to extend this success, with the help of what he called characteristica universalis, to other areas of human activity. The belief that this is possible lies at the basis of Leibniz’s rationalist system. Reasoning within his system, Leibniz claimed that also fundamental laws of physics can be deduced from the “first principles”. Just as linguistic or conceptual units are at the basis of the charactersistica universalis, his monads are responsible for physical activity of material bodies. When this rationalistic strategy is applied to the philosophy of space and time, it leads to their radically relational conception. Leibniz’s rationalistic approach to philosophy and science arouses out sympathy but it was Newton’s mathematical-empirical method that turned out to be effective in human endeavour to understand the functioning of the physical world. Successes of the Newtonian method compel us to revise our concept of rationality.
Full Text Available A Gus Dur’s terminological reference ‘Sub-Culture’ to Pesantren indicates that this institution is closely related to society. It is because of a fact that pesantren has been developed from, by, and for society. From its initial function as literate society, a center for reduction of social illiteracy, until as cultural literacy, a castle of socio-cultural defense, this institution has became an archipelago-based-islamic institution and a center of Muslim civilization in its intelectual roots of tradition, including al-turats, genealogical lineage of science, etc. At-turats (kitab kuning serves as a medium of networking ulama’ in the spreading of islamic knowledge. The tradition of at-turats and the moral relationship between teachers and students has became social ground of pesantren building. This relationship has been embedded into the tradition of at-turats in order to maintain the genealogical linkage of science transmission (sanad. Instead of contradictionary, these elements are complementary for maintaining Pesantren as ‘sub-culture’.
Full Text Available To reconnect the Islamic religious sciences with science world needed a multi-disciplinary group involving Islamic scholars want any worldly Muslim scholars. Koran can be a source of inspiration or a source of known science knowledge without having to be stuck on a wall of separation between the proclamation creator of the science of Islamic and non-Islamic. Interpretation is not just an attempt to read the text, but it should be a transformation efforts and solutions to social problems of life. It required a tool, namely the nature of philosophy or theory and social sciences related to the study of interpretation in question. Then the development of the concept of “methodology sanctification Islam” is an attractive offer for the efforts to realize the interpretation of verses epistemology social, or can also be referred to as “Integrative Epistemology Social Interpretation” (IESI. IESI can be used as a tool for social interpretation of the verses and it is a further development of integrative interpretation
Wike, L.D.; Shipley, R.W.; Bowers, J.A.
The purpose of this Document is to provide a source of ecological information based on the exiting knowledge gained from research conducted at the Savannah River Site. This document provides a summary and synthesis of ecological research in the three main ecosystem types found at SRS and information on the threatened and endangered species residing there
Wike, L.D.; Shipley, R.W.; Bowers, J.A. [and others
The purpose of this Document is to provide a source of ecological information based on the exiting knowledge gained from research conducted at the Savannah River Site. This document provides a summary and synthesis of ecological research in the three main ecosystem types found at SRS and information on the threatened and endangered species residing there.
Vicente, Kim J.; Rasmussen, Jens
A theoretical framework for designing interfaces for complex human-machine systems is proposed. The framework, called ecological interface design (EID), is based on the skills, rules, knowledge taxonomy of cognitive control. The basic goal of EID is twofold: first, not to force processing...
Christopher A. Armatas; Tyron J. Venn; Brooke B. McBride; Alan E. Watson; Steve J. Carver
The field of adaptive management has been embraced by researchers and managers in the United States as an approach to improve natural resource stewardship in the face of uncertainty and complex environmental problems. Integrating multiple knowledge sources and feedback mechanisms is an important step in this approach. Our objective is to contribute to the...
Christensen, Andreas Aagaard; Brandt, Jesper; Svenningsen, Stig Roar
Landscape ecology is an interdisciplinary field of research and practice that deals with the mutual association between the spatial configuration and ecological functioning of landscapes, exploring and describing processes involved in the differentiation of spaces within landscapes......, and the ecological significance of the patterns which are generated by such processes. In landscape ecology, perspectives drawn from existing academic disciplines are integrated based on a common, spatially explicit mode of analysis developed from classical holistic geography, emphasizing spatial and landscape...... pattern analysis and ecological interaction of land units. The landscape is seen as a holon: an assemblage of interrelated phenomena, both cultural and biophysical, that together form a complex whole. Enduring challenges to landscape ecology include the need to develop a systematic approach able...
Bang, J. C.; Trampe, W.
Our aim and knowledge-constitutive interest is to identify some central aspects of an ecological theory of language. In our understanding of building an integrative ecological theory of language, it seems useful to look first for roots of a special ecological understanding of language. Here...
Christensen, Andreas Aagaard; Brandt, Jesper; Svenningsen, Stig Roar
, and the ecological significance of the patterns which are generated by such processes. In landscape ecology, perspectives drawn from existing academic disciplines are integrated based on a common, spatially explicit mode of analysis developed from classical holistic geography, emphasizing spatial and landscape...... to translate positivist readings of the environment and hermeneutical perspectives on socioecological interaction into a common framework or terminology....
Theresia Intan Putri Hartiana
Full Text Available Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk melihat bagaimana Harian Jawa Pos dan Sindo membentuk citra Perusahaan Daerah Taman Satwa (PDTS Kebun Binatang Surabaya (KBS dikonstruksikan dalam berita krisis kematian Michael. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah framing Entman dengan merujuk pada pemberian definisi, penelasan, evaluasi, dan rekomendasi acana untuk melihat penekanan pada kerangka berpikir terhadap peristiwa yang dicanangkan. Citra PDTS KBS dalam Harian Jawa Pos memperlihatkan adanya kondisi Kebun Binatang Surabaya sudah tidak layak bagi satwanya dan kesengajaan keterlibatan orang dalam menjadi penyebab kematian Singa KBS mati tergantung. Citra PDTS KBS oleh Koran Sindo ditampilkan sebagai pihak yang harus bertanggungjawab atas kelalaian dan kecerobohannya dalam memelihara satwa sehingga mengakibatkan terjadi kematian satwa yang tidak wajar. Hal tersebut terlihat dari analisis makrostruktur teks yang memaparkan bahwa kepolisian dilibatkan untuk menyelidiki singa yang mati tergantung akibat kelalaian PDTS KBS dalam pengelolaan satwa. Pemberitaan yang dimunculkan oleh media massa patut menjadi perhatian oleh praktisi Public Relations. Berita yang dikonstruksi negatif secara terus menerus dapat memberikan pengaruh negatif pula di dalam benak pembaca. Beberapa pernyataan negatif yang muncul dalam teks pemberitaan dapat dijadikan sebagai dasar perencanaan bagi humas PDTS KBS dalam penanganan krisis dan perbaikan citra setelah krisis.
Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan menyelidiki pengaruh strategi SQ4R tipe bantuan multimedia versus buku teks, pengetahuan awal dan gaya belajar terhadap hasil belajar bahasa Inggris Teknik. Subjek penelitian adalah 96 mahasiswa Teknik Sipil dan Mesin Politeknik Negeri Ambon tahun akademik 2011-2012. Desain eksperimen menggunakan kuasi versi factorial (2 x 2 x 2 pre test-post test non-equivalent control group design. Analisis data menggunakan statistik Three Ways ANOVA. Pengujian hipotesis dilakukan pada taraf signifikansi 5% atau á=0,5 menggunakan SPSS 17.0 for windows. Hasil penelitian menunjukan bahwa (1 Ada perbedaan yang signifikan hasil belajar antara kelompok strategi SQ4R tipe bantuan multimedia dan buku teks, (2 ada perbedaan yang signifikan hasil belajar antara kelompok pengetahuan awal tinggi dan rendah, (3 tidak ada perbedaan yang signifikan antara pembelajar diverger dan assimilator, (4 tidak ada pengaruh interaksi antara strategi SQ4R tipe bantuan dengan pengetahuan awal terhadap hasil belajar, (5 tidak ada pengaruh interaksi antara strategi SQ4R tipe bantuan dengan gaya belajar terhadap hasil belajar, (6 ada pengaruh interaksi an-tara pengetahuan awal dengan gaya belajar terhadap hasil belajar, dan, (7 ada pengaruh interaksi antara strategi SQ4R tipe bantuan, pengetahuan awal dan gaya belajar terhadap hasil belajar. Kata kunci: strategi SQ4R tipe bantuan, multimedia, pengetahuan awal, gaya belajar, hasil belajar
... Knowledge of Alaska Natives (TEK), scientific papers and other research, the biology and ecology of the Cook... of Alaska, local governments, and private concerns. These all contribute to a conservation ethic...
Richard Ansong Omari
Full Text Available Efforts to improve soil productive capacity aimed at boosting crop production in the Northern Ghana has primarily focused on field-based experiments with little documentation on farmer practice and local indigenous knowledge of soil management. A sample group of 114 farmers from five farming communities in the Guinea Savannah was interviewed to evaluate their indigenous knowledge of crop production practices in the context of soil health, fertilization management, and crop yield. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews and responses for each category were calculated using simple proportions. Farmers’ fertilization practice was primarily influenced by fertilization resource availability and crop yield response. The results showed that inorganic fertilization was the commonest fertilization type among farmers. Farmer local indicators of soil health were predominantly limited to visually observable signs such as presence or absence of indicator plants, growth vigor of plants, soil color, and tilth, texture, and compaction. Non-tactile and visible indicators, notably soil chemical composition and presence of soil microorganisms, was rarely used. The listed indicators were congruent with scientific reports, although some knowledge gaps, particularly on the use of indicator plants, were identified. The use of indicator plants as determinants of healthy or non-healthy soils appeared to be influenced by the ease of control of weeds, its utilitarian benefits, benefits to the soil, and threats on cultivated crops. Famers were well informed about the decreasing crop yield. Fertilization practices and limitations in soil management practices with proposed capacity building approaches aimed at enhancing productive capacities of cultivated farmlands are discussed.
Full Text Available The social-ecological systems framework was designed to provide a common research tool for interdisciplinary investigations of social-ecological systems. However, its origin in institutional studies of the commons belies its interdisciplinary ambitions and highlights its relatively limited attention to ecology and natural scientific knowledge. This paper considers the biophysical components of the framework and its epistemological foundations as it relates to the incorporation of knowledge from the natural sciences. It finds that the mixture of inductive and deductive reasoning associated with socially-oriented investigations of these systems is lacking on the ecological side, which relies upon induction alone. As a result the paper proposes the addition of a seventh core sub-system to the social-ecological systems framework, ecological rules, which would allow scholars to explicitly incorporate knowledge from the natural sciences for deductive reasoning. The paper shows, through an instructive case study, how the addition of ecological rules can provide a more nuanced description of the factors that contribute to outcomes in social-ecological systems.
Conhecimento ecológico tradicional no fragmento da planície de inundação do alto rio Paraná: percepção ecológica dos pescadores Upper Paraná River floodplain fishermen’s traditional ecological knowledge: fishermen’s ecological feeling
Adriana Rosa Carvalho
Full Text Available O conhecimento ecológico é uma sabedoria popular empírica acumulada pela prática de atividades em ambientes naturais. Alterações nos ecossistemas afetam o estoque dos recursos naturais explorados, bem como a prática tradicional deles dependente. Neste trabalho, é apresentado o conhecimento ecológico tradicional dos pescadores da planície de inundação do alto rio Paraná, regiões de Porto Rico (PR e Porto São José, Estado do Paraná. Um breve relato da teoria de fragmentação de habitats é apresentado, visto que esse ambiente está fragmentado pela construção de barragens de hidrelétricas. Três frases e um provérbio que revelam a dinâmica dos processos ecológicos dentre os pescadores foram anotados e confrontados com o conhecimento científico já reunido sobre a região. As frases demonstram uma interpretação popular em consonância com as descobertas científicas na planície. Essa sabedoria está ameaçada pela fragmentação da planície e pela perda da tradição, devido ao abandono da atividade pesqueira.The ecological knowledge is an empiric popular wisdom stored by the fishermen’s natural environmental practice. Changes in ecosystem affect the explored natural resources as well as the traditional practice dependent on them. This paper aims at presenting the upper Paraná river floodplain fishermen’s traditional ecological knowledge from Porto Rico (PR and Porto São José (PR regions. A brief comment on fragmentation theory is presented because of the floodplain fragmentation imposed by the construction of hydroelectric dams. Three phrases and one proverb, which reveal the dynamics of the fishermen’s ecological process, were registered and confronted with the scientific knowledge of the region. The phrases show a popular and traditional interpretation in agreement with the upper Paraná river floodplain scientific discoveries. The ecosystem fragmentation and loss of tradition, due to the fishery practice
At Itaipu, on the Rio Parana, Brazil and Paraguay are constructing the world's largest hydro-electric power plant with a capacity seven times as high as that of Assuan. An information system is intended to give fair warning in case of threatening ecological conditions. The computer-supported alarm system had four objectives: 1. presentation of the present ecological situation; 2. evaluation of the ecological risks; 3. warning about ecological deficits; 4. suggestions for establishing ecological stability. In a first step the available inventory data concerning soil, topography, vegetation and water were evaluated by expert groups according to their risk grade (0-4) and ecological weight (1-10). The product of these evaluations indicates the ecological deficit (0-40). At a threshold value of 30, the information system automatically signals ecological alarm and locates the centre of danger via computer-plotted maps and tables. The necessary data are supplied periodically by selected measurement stations. Quantification of ecological facts enables the persons who are responsible for decisions at Itaipu to recognize, avoid, or diminish elements of danger even if they have little or no ecological knowledge. The file of data that has been compiled so far should be extended parallel with the development in the Itaipu area. With the help of factor analysis connections of cause and effect can be detected in this extremely complex reservoir system which has hardly been explored yet.
Friberg, Nikolai; Carl, J. D.
Foreword: This proceeding is based on a set of papers presented at the second Nordic Benthological Meeting held in Silkeborg, November 13-14, 1997. The main theme of the meeting was biodiversity in benthic ecology and the majority of contributions touch on this subject. In addition, the proceeding...... contains papers which cover other themes thus continuing with the spirit of the meetings in the Nordic Benthological Society (NORBS) by being an open forum for exchanging knowledge on all aspects of benthic ecology. Overall, we feel the proceeding contains a wide selection of very interesting papers...... representing the state-of-the-art of benthic ecology research within, and to a lesser degree, outside the Nordic countries. We wish to thank all the authors for their inspirational contributions to the proceeding, but we feel that a special thanks is due to the invited speakers for their readiness to produce...
This book presents the proceedings of a workshop on community ecology organized at Davis, in April, 1986, sponsored by the Sloan Foundation. There have been several recent symposia on community ecology (Strong et. al., 1984, Diamond and Case, 1987) which have covered a wide range of topics. The goal of the workshop at Davis was more narrow: to explore the role of scale in developing a theoretical approach to understanding communities. There are a number of aspects of scale that enter into attempts to understand ecological communities. One of the most basic is organizational scale. Should community ecology proceed by building up from population biology? This question and its ramifications are stressed throughout the book and explored in the first chapter by Simon Levin. Notions of scale have long been important in understanding physical systems. Thus, in understanding the interactions of organisms with their physical environment, questions of scale become paramount. These more physical questions illustrate the...
Roč. 77, č. 4 (2017), s. 361-372 ISSN 1210-5538 Institutional support: RVO:68378033 Keywords : Jindřich Malátek * Ivo Loos * postwar architecture * theory of architecture and heritage care * Transgas Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage
EFSA Scientific Committee (Scientific Committee); Topping, Christopher John
knowledge and data retrieved from the literature. Finally, the information presented in this opinion was reviewed by experts from the relevant EFSA Panels, European risk assessment bodies and through an open consultation requesting input from stakeholders. A conceptual framework was developed to address...... recognises the importance of more integrated ERAs considering both the local and landscape scales, as well as the possible co-occurrence of multiple potential stressors that fall under the remit of EFSA, which are important when addressing ecological recovery. In this scientific opinion, the Scientific...... Committee gathered scientific knowledge on the potential for the recovery of non-target organisms for the further development of ERA. Current EFSA guidance documents and opinions were reviewed on how ecological recovery is addressed in ERA schemes. In addition, this scientific opinion is based on expert...
Passmore, P.; Zimakov, L.; Rozhkov, M.
The 3rd Generation Seismic Recorder, Model 130-01, has been designed to be easier to use - more compact, lighter in weight, lower power, and requires less maintenance than other recorders. Not only is the hardware optimized for field deployments, soft- ware tools as well have been specially developed to support both field and base station operation. The 130's case is a clamshell design, inherently waterproof, with easy access to all user features on the top of the unit. The 130 has 6 input/output connectors, an LCD display, and a removable lid on top of the case. There are two Channel input connectors on a 6-channel unit (only one on a 3-channel unit), a Terminal connector for setup and control, a Net connector combining Ethernet and Serial PPP for network access, a 12 VDC Power connector, and a GPS receiver connector. The LCD display allows the user to monitor the status of various sub systems within the 130 without having a terminal device attached. For storing large amounts of data the IBM MicrodriveTM is offered. User setup, control and status monitoring is done either with a Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) (Palm OS compatible) using our Palm Field Controller (PFC) software or from a PC/workstation using our REF TEK Network Controller (RNC) GUI interface. StarBand VSAT is the premier two-way, always-on, high-speed satellite Internet ser- vice. StarBand means high-speed Internet without the constraints and congestion of land-based cable or telephone networks. StarBand uses a single satellite dish antenna for receiving and for sending dataUno telephone connection is needed. The hardware ° cost is much less than standard VSAT equipment with double or single hop transmis- sion. REF TEK protocol (RTP) provides end-to-end error-correcting data transmission and command/control. StarBandSs low cost VSAT provides two-way, always-on, high speed satellite Internet data availability. REF TEK and StarBand create the most ad- vanced real-time seismological data acquisition
Hounshell, Paul B.; Hampton, Carolyn
This 35-item, multiple-choice Marine Education Knowledge Inventory was developed for use in upper elementary/middle schools to measure a student's knowledge of marine science. Content of test items is drawn from oceanography, ecology, earth science, navigation, and the biological sciences (focusing on marine animals). Steps in the construction of…
David P. Robertson; R. Bruce Hull
Public ecology exists at the interface of science and policy. Public ecology is an approach to environmental inquiry and decision making that does not expect scientific knowledge to be perfect or complete. Rather, public ecology requires that science be produced in collaboration with a wide variety of stakeholders in order to construct a body of knowledge that will...
Koprivsek, Maja; Brilly, Mitja
is not enough to make a shelter for stream invertebrates. It serves as a shelter only for microorganisms, but the stream invertebrates have to avoid the swift flow or adapt to flow with adaptations described above. To understand what conditions are subject to aquatic organisms and how to adapt, it is essential. Both, knowledge of fluid dynamics in natural watercourses and ecology are needed to understand to what conditions the stream invertebrates are exposed and how they cope with them. Some investigations of near bed flow will be performed on the Glinšica stream. The acoustic Doppler velocimeter SonTek will be adapted to measure so close to the bed as possible. It is expected we should be able to measure the velocities just 0,5 cm above the bed surface. We intend to measure the velocities on a natural and on a regulated reach and then compare the results.
by a more theoretical debate and increased interaction between the heterodox schools of ecological economics and post-Keynesian economics. In addition, both the degrowth community and the research community organized around sustainable transitions of socio-technical systems have contributed to discussions...... on how to reconcile environmental and social concerns. Based on this broad variety of pieces in a jigsaw puzzle, a new ecological macroeconomics is emerging, but the contours are still vague. This chapter seeks to outline some of this topography and to add a few pieces of its own by highlighting the need...... to shift resources from consumption to investment and describing the role of consumer-citizens in such a change. The chapter starts by identifying the problems and challenges for an ecological macroeconomics. The next section outlines some of the shortcomings of traditional macroeconomics...
Oceanographic Currents and Local Ecological Knowledge Indicate, and Genetics Does Not Refute, a Contemporary Pattern of Larval Dispersal for The Ornate Spiny Lobster, Panulirus ornatus in the South-East Asian Archipelago.
Hoc Tan Dao
Full Text Available Here we utilize a combination of genetic data, oceanographic data, and local ecological knowledge to assess connectivity patterns of the ornate spiny lobster Panulirus ornatus (Fabricius, 1798 in the South-East Asian archipelago from Vietnam to Australia. Partial mitochondrial DNA control region and 10 polymorphic microsatellites did not detect genetic structure of 216 wild P. ornatus samples from Australia, Indonesia and Vietnam. Analyses show no evidence for genetic differentiation among populations (mtDNA control region sequences ΦST = -0.008; microsatellite loci FST = 0.003. A lack of evidence for regional or localized mtDNA haplotype clusters, or geographic clusters of microsatellite genotypes, reveals a pattern of high gene flow in P. ornatus throughout the South-East Asian Archipelago. This lack of genetic structure may be due to the oceanography-driven connectivity of the pelagic lobster larvae between spawning grounds in Papua New Guinea, the Philippines and, possibly, Indonesia. The connectivity cycle necessitates three generations. The lack of genetic structure of P. ornatus population in the South-East Asian archipelago has important implications for the sustainable management of this lobster in that the species within the region needs to be managed as one genetic stock.
This volume contains three critical contributions on the application of modern technology from the ethical point of view. The peaceful use of nuclear power is rejected as a technical error, which is overwhelming humanity. Ethical bases of a preventive technological policy and ecological aims are developed for the 21st century, in economy, technology, politics, and consciousness. (HSCH) [de
Christiansen, Ellen Tove
in the 1960ties, and chosen here because it integrates cultural and psychological trajectories in a theory of living settings. The pedagogical-didactical paradigm comprises three distinct information ecologies, named after their intended outcome: the problem-setting, the exploration-setting, and the fit...
Heuschele, Jan; Selander, Erik
for the functioning of the marine food web, much is still unknown. We synthesize current knowledge about chemical ecology of copepods including foraging, survival and reproduction. We also compile information on the sensory apparatus and new analytical approaches that may facilitate the identification of signal...... molecules. The review illustrates the importance of chemical interactions in many aspects of copepod ecology and identifies gaps in our knowledge, such as the lack of identified infochemicals and electrophysiological studies to confirm the function of sensory structures. We suggest approaches...
La costra biológica del suelo: Avances recientes en el conocimiento de su estructura y función ecológica Biological soil crusts: Recent advances in our knowledge of their structure and ecological function
ANDREA P CASTILLO-MONROY
estructura y funcionamiento de los ecosistemas en los que se encuentran.Biological soil crusts (BSCs result from an intimate association between soil particles and cyanobacteria, algae, microfungi, lichens, and bryophytes. These crusts are widespread in many type of soils and in almost all plant communities where sunlight can reach the soil surface. However, BSCs are particulary dominant in environments with low productivity such as arid, semi-arid, alpine and polar areas. Biological soil crusts affect soil nutrient cycling, influence the local hidrological cycle, increase soil stability, and affect the establisment and performance of vascular plants. The knowledge on the biology, ecology and physiology of BSCs has substantially increased in recent years. However, there are important gaps in our knowledge concerning the influence of BSCs on biogeochemical cycles, particularly of phosphorus and carbon, as well as on many aspects related to biotic interactions among BSC components, and between these components and microorganisms, vascular plants and invertebrates. It is necessary to expand current research efforts to other parts of the world, as most studies have been conducted mainly in arid and semi-arid areas of USA, Israel, Australia and China. Of particular concern is the lack of studies from Central and South America, despite BSCs must be a key biotic component in countries such as Chile, Argentina, Peru and Mexico. With the aim of increasing the interest of the scientific community of Spanish-speaking countries about this important group of organisms, in this review we illustrate recent advances on the importance of BSCs to maintain the structure and functioning of those ecosystems in which they are present. We also highlight the main gaps in our knowledge on the ecology of these organisms, and discuss key areas for future research.
Les documents réunis dans ce volume ont été choisis parmi les exposés donnés ... Les documents choisis représentent un éventail de perspectives sur la nature du SET. ... Le CRDI félicite la première cohorte de chercheuses en science des ...
Courchamp, Franck; Dunne, Jennifer A; Le Maho, Yvon; May, Robert M; Thébaud, Christophe; Hochberg, Michael E
The primary reasons for conducting fundamental research are satisfying curiosity, acquiring knowledge, and achieving understanding. Here we develop why we believe it is essential to promote basic ecological research, despite increased impetus for ecologists to conduct and present their research in the light of potential applications. This includes the understanding of our environment, for intellectual, economical, social, and political reasons, and as a major source of innovation. We contend that we should focus less on short-term, objective-driven research and more on creativity and exploratory analyses, quantitatively estimate the benefits of fundamental research for society, and better explain the nature and importance of fundamental ecology to students, politicians, decision makers, and the general public. Our perspective and underlying arguments should also apply to evolutionary biology and to many of the other biological and physical sciences. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Using facts and examples, this didactically structures textbook gives an insight into the extent and consequences of the damage to the environment, with the subjects - fundamentals of ecology; - population and food problems; - the energy problem; - economic growth; scarcity of resources, recycling; - ground, water, and air pollution, - city and traffic problems; - work protection and medical care; - political alternatives and 'soft technologies'. The analysis of the political and economic reasons is combined with social and technical alternatives from which demands to be made and measures to be taken can be derived for individuals, citizens' interest groups, political groups and trade unions. Teaching models intend to help teachers to work on specific problems of ecology. (orig.) [de
Hoag, Colin Brewster; Bertoni, Filippo; Bubandt, Nils Ole
landscapes, this article argues, are the result of unheralded multispecies collaboration that can be traced empirically by attending ethnographically to multispecies forms of “gain-making,” the ways in which humans and other species leverage difference to find economic and ecological opportunity....... in the 1970s, when prevailing perceptions were that the entire mining area was a polluted wasteland, the AFLD Fasterholt waste and recycling plant has since changed in response to new EU waste management regulations, as well as the unexpected proliferation of non-human life in the area. Based on field...... research at this site—an Anthropocene landscape in the heartland of an EU-configured welfare state — this article is a contribution to the multispecies ethnography and political ecology of wastelands. We argue that “waste” is a co-species, biopolitical happening — a complex symbolic, political, biological...
Ramm, Hans Henrik
Technology and knowledge make up the knowledge capital that has been so essential to the oil and gas industry's value creation, competitiveness and internationalization. Report prepared for the Norwegian Oil Industry Association (OLF) and The Norwegian Society of Chartered Technical and Scientific Professionals (Tekna), on the Norwegian petroleum cluster as an environment for creating knowledge capital from human capital, how fiscal and other framework conditions may influence the building of knowledge capital, the long-term perspectives for the petroleum cluster, what Norwegian society can learn from the experiences in the petroleum cluster, and the importance of gaining more knowledge about the functionality of knowledge for increased value creation (author) (ml)
Studies on marine ecology included marine pollution; distribution patterns of Pu and Am in the marine waters, sediments, and organisms of Bikini Atoll and the influence of physical, chemical, and biological factors on their movements through marine biogeochemical systems; transfer and dispersion of organic pollutants from an oil refinery through coastal waters; transfer of particulate pollutants, including sediments dispersed during construction of offshore power plants; and raft culture of the mangrove oysters
The main effort of the Terrestrial Ecology Division has been redirected to a comprehensive study of the Espiritu Santo Drainage Basin located in northeastern Puerto Rico. The general objective are to provide baseline ecological data for future environmental assessment studies at the local and regional levels, and to provide through an ecosystem approach data for the development of management alternatives for the wise utilization of energy, water, and land resources. The interrelationships among climate, vegetation, soils, and man, and their combined influence upon the hydrologic cycle will be described and evaluated. Environmental management involves planning and decision making, and both require an adequate data base. At present, little is known about the interworkings of a complete, integrated system such as a drainage basin. A literature survey of the main research areas confirmed that, although many individual ecologically oriented studies have been carried out in a tropical environment, few if any provide the data base required for environmental management. In view of rapidly changing socio-economic conditions and natural resources limitations, management urgently requires data from these systems: physical (climatological), biological, and cultural. This integrated drainage basin study has been designed to provide such data. The scope of this program covers the hydrologic cycle as it is affected by the interactions of the physical, biological, and cultural systems
The present research deals with the flora, phytosociology and ecology of riparian forests. The overall objective of this research is to contribute to a better knowledge of the flora, diversity and ecology of riparian forests in
Synthesis of diverse knowledge is a central part of all sciences, but especially those such as ecology and environmental sciences which draw information from many disciplines. Research and education in ecology are intrinsically synthetic, and synthesis is increasingly needed to find solutions for en...
Du Plessis, C
Full Text Available system, i.e. an ecological worldview. This paper briefly outlines the key characteristics of this alternative, ecological worldview as it is emerging from the interactions between a wide range of knowledge sources, in order to develop a theoretical basis...
Siebenhüner, Bernd; Rodela, Romina; Ecker, Franz
Social learning studies emerged as part of the ecological economics research agenda rather recently. Questions of how human societies and organisations learn and transition on the basis of environmental knowledge relate to the core ideas of ecological economics with its pluralistic understanding
Ecological functions of earthworms in soil
Walter S. Andriuzzi
Earthworms are known to play an important role in soil structure and fertility, but there are still big knowledge gaps on the functional ecology of distinct earthworm species, on their
Jeremy J. James; Brenda S. Smith; Edward A. Vasquez; Roger L. Sheley
Land managers have long identified a critical need for a practical and effective framework for designing restoration strategies, especially where invasive plants dominate. A holistic, ecologically based, invasive plant management (EBIPM) framework that integrates ecosystem health assessment, knowledge of ecological processes, and adaptive management into a successional...
Full Text Available Current knowledge and thinking on the ecology of the Mediterranean type sclerophyll shrublands and heath lands of the southern and south-western Cape is reviewed in 13 concise syntheses. The Fynbos Biome is defined and characterized in terms...
The term 'historical ecology' has been used with various meanings since the first half of the 20th century. Studies labelled as historical ecology have been produced in at least four academic disciplines: history, ecology, geography and anthropology. Although all those involved seem to agree that historical ecology concerns the historical interconnectedness of nature and human culture, this field of study has no unified methodology, specialized institutional background and common publication forums. Knowledge of the development of historical ecology is also limited. As a result, the current multitude of definitions of historical ecology is accompanied by divergent opinions as to where the origins of the field are to be sought. In this review, I follow the development of historical ecology from the 18th century to the present. In the first part, I briefly describe some early examples of historical ecological investigations, followed by a description of the various scientific strands in the 20th century that contributed to the formation of historical ecology. In the second part, I discuss the past five decades of historical ecological investigations in more detail, focusing mostly (but not exclusively) on works that their respective authors identified as historical ecology. I also examine the appearance and interconnectedness of the two main trends (ecological and anthropological) in historical ecological research. In the last part, I attempt to outline the future of historical ecology based on common features in existing research. It appears that at present historical ecology is at a crossroads. With rapidly growing interest in historical ecological research, it may move towards institutionalization or remain an umbrella term. © 2014 The Authors. Biological Reviews © 2014 Cambridge Philosophical Society.
Brook Weld Muller
Full Text Available This essay describes strategic approaches to graphic representation associated with critical environmental engagement and that build from the idea of works of architecture as stitches in the ecological fabric of the city. It focuses on the building up of partial or fragmented graphics in order to describe inclusive, open-ended possibilities for making architecture that marry rich experience and responsive performance. An aphoristic approach to crafting drawings involves complex layering, conscious absence and the embracing of tension. A self-critical attitude toward the generation of imagery characterized by the notion of ‘loose precision’ may lead to more transformative and environmentally responsive architectures.
Patel, C K
Industrial ecology addresses issues that will impact future production, use, and disposal technologies; proper use of the concept should reduce significantly the resources devoted to potential remediation in the future. This cradle-to-reincarnation production philosophy includes industrial processes that are environmentally sound and products that are environmentally safe during use and economically recyclable after use without adverse impact on the environment or on the net cost to society. This will require an industry-university-government round table to set the strategy and agenda for progress. PMID:11607254
Title: The occurrence of doping substances in the environment of fitness Objectives: The main objective of this thesis is to determine attitudes, opinions and knowledge of visitors to the problem of doping, nutrition and support resources. Another aim is to look at what information the management of safety offered nutrition and supportive environment for bars fitness centers have. Methods: The thesis used the method of sociological survey and interview. Survey method was used to determine the...
Full Text Available Does the trend in which electronic media are gradually becoming extension of human body have to move towards full enslavement of a human and his personality, or the same human will unpredictably, with the aid of his personal media literacy, exit the whirls of media and technological censorships? Personality crisis is closely related to the crisis of language no matter how contradicted to global ideology of transnational transhumanism it may seem. Considering the fact that recent media presentations of the world are based on commercialization of environmentalism, philosophical and aesthetic thought appears as an important subject of ecology. As media mediates, the scenery of civilized living increasingly becomes more appealing even though it derives from commercial and political background. Consequently, the future of humanity depends by large on the philosophy of media. Media have to truly ecologise returning the humanum to its essence making it into the extension of the natural world.
Deborah Oughton started with a view of the work in progress by the ICRP TG 94 on ethics, from the historical context and the principles-based ethics in RP, to continue with an overview of the ethical theories and with the main area of elaboration which concerns the common values, to conclude with considerations about the implementation in different area such as biomedicine, nuclear safety and workers, ecological aspects, and environmental health and society. By reading again the ICRP and IAEA publications on the ethical aspects in the protection of environment from the effects of ionizing radiation, the presentation covers the various and different cultures within the history of environmental ethics, the perception of Nature and the theories of environmental ethics, in particular by focusing on anthropocentrism, biocentrism and ecocentrism, as philosophical worldwide views, and on conservation, biodiversity, sustainability, environmental justice and human dignity, as primary principles of environmental protection. The influence of western Christianity, with a view of man dominating over every creeping thing on earth, and of the non-western ideas, the human perception of Nature has been analyzed and discussed to conclude that, in reality then, the anthropocentrism, biocentrism and ecocentrism, as reflected in many cultures and religions, they all support the need to protect the environment and to recognise and preserve the diversity. Three challenges were then discussed in the presentation: the ecosystem approach and ecological economics, for example in the case of Fukushima by asking what is the economic cost of marine contamination; the ecosystem changes with attention to what harms, as in the case of the environment in the contaminated areas around Chernobyl; and the environmental consequences of remediation, which can be considered a source of controversy for environmental ethics and policy
Faria, Rui; Renaut, Sebastien; Galindo, Juan; Pinho, Catarina; Melo-Ferreira, José; Melo, Martim; Jones, Felicity; Salzburger, Walter; Schluter, Dolph; Butlin, Roger
The role of natural selection in promoting reproductive isolation has received substantial renewed interest within the last two decades. As a consequence, the study of ecological speciation has become an extremely productive research area in modern evolutionary biology. Recent innovations in sequencing technologies offer an unprecedented opportunity to study the mechanisms involved in ecological speciation. Genome scans provide significant insights but have some important limitations; efforts are needed to integrate them with other approaches to make full use of the sequencing data deluge. An international conference 'Advances in Ecological Speciation' organized by the University of Porto (Portugal) aimed to review current progress in ecological speciation. Using some of the examples presented at the conference, we highlight the benefits of integrating ecological and genomic data and discuss different mechanisms of parallel evolution. Finally, future avenues of research are suggested to advance our knowledge concerning the role of natural selection in the establishment of reproductive isolation during ecological speciation. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Wolf, Jason B.; Mutic, Joshua J.; Kover, Paula X.
Studying the genetic basis of traits involved in ecological interactions is a fundamental part of elucidating the connections between evolutionary and ecological processes. Such knowledge allows one to link genetic models of trait evolution with ecological models describing interactions within and between species. Previous work has shown that connections between genetic and ecological processes in Arabidopsis thaliana may be mediated by the fact that quantitative trait loci (QTL) with ‘direct...
Khan, M K; Sajid, M S; Khan, M N; Iqbal, Z; Arshad, M; Hussain, A
This paper provides an estimation of the point prevalence of fascioliasis and its economic impact in terms of increased milk yield after chemotherapy of a bovine population from the district of Toba Tek Singh, Punjab, Pakistan. A total of 2400 cattle and buffaloes were examined quantitatively using the McMaster egg-counting technique. Infected cattle and buffaloes (50 of each) were randomly selected and each divided into two groups of 25 animals. Groups A (buffaloes) and C (cattle) were treated with oxyclozanide (orally, 16.6 mg kg- 1 body weight). Groups B and D served as negative controls for buffaloes and cattle, respectively. Pre- and post-treatment milk yield was recorded to determine if there were any changes in milk yield after treatment. Of 2400 faecal samples analysed, 654 (27.25%) were positive for Fasciola spp. with a mean number of eggs per gram (EPG) of 503.2. The point prevalence and worm burden of fascioliasis was significantly higher (OR = 2.13; P < 0.05) in buffaloes (34.58%; 415/1200; mean EPG maximum likelihood = 521.4) as compared to that of cattle (19.92%; 239/1200; mean EPG maximum likelihood = 415.8). Among the parasite species, F. gigantica (19.88%; 477/2400) was predominant (OR = 3.12; P < 0.05) as compared to F. hepatica (7.38%; 177/2400). An average daily increase of 0.67 and 0.87 litres of milk, with 0.41% and 0.37% more fat per animal, was observed in oxyclozanide-treated buffaloes and cattle, respectively. The economic value of reduced production of infected animals was estimated as US$0.33 and 0.32 per animal per day for cattle and buffaloes, respectively.
Full Text Available Kingdom of Riau in the 19th century recognized by many historians as the center of culture and intellectual development. While at the same time, the kingdom of Riau no longer holds hegemony and succeeding in politics, economy and trade, but they have a tradition of excellence in the form of writing that many writers with works of quality that is not only in the field of literature and language alone but also in the fields of religion, history, socio-political, legal, and cultural. Although the tools for writing like paper and ink difficulty encountered in those days, and must be imported from European countries, but the author and the author's Riau while still concentrating on the activities making up the reef. For instance, Raja Ali Haji (1808-1873 is the third descendant of Raja Haji Fi Sabilillah most productive in writing activities. One of his works, entitled The Book of Knowledge of Language, Slang Dictionary Pahang Malay Johor Riau linga which was completed in 1858 is a Malay Dictionary Malay First Nature books can even be regarded as Malay Einsiklopedi containing approximately 2000 sentences basic and advanced script written as Bustanul Katibin which intends to foster Malay language became the language of the standard on its own. The manuscript of the book, now the mistress Foundation Indrasakti in Penyengat. In connection with that paper will review the history of the manuscript and are contained in the text.
Humberto G Ferrón
Full Text Available Thelodonts are an enigmatic group of Paleozoic jawless vertebrates that have been well studied from taxonomical, biostratigraphic and paleogeographic points of view, although our knowledge of their ecology and mode of life is still scant. Their bodies were covered by micrometric scales whose morphology, histology and the developmental process are extremely similar to those of extant sharks. Based on these similarities and on the well-recognized relationship between squamation and ecology in sharks, here we explore the ecological diversity and lifestyles of thelodonts. For this we use classic morphometrics and discriminant analysis to characterize the squamation patterns of a significant number of extant shark species whose ecology is well known. Multivariate analyses have defined a characteristic squamation pattern for each ecological group, thus establishing a comparative framework for inferring lifestyles in thelodonts. We then use this information to study the squamation of the currently described 147 species of thelodonts, known from both articulated and disarticulated remains. Discriminant analysis has allowed recognizing squamation patterns comparable to those of sharks and links them to specific ecological groups. Our results suggest a remarkable ecological diversity in thelodonts. A large number of them were probably demersal species inhabiting hard substrates, within caves and crevices in rocky environments or reefs, taking advantage of the flexibility provided by their micromeric squamations. Contrary to classical interpretations, only few thelodonts were placed among demersal species inhabiting sandy and muddy substrates. Schooling species with defensive scales against ectoparasites could be also abundant suggesting that social interactions and pressure of ectoparasites were present in vertebrates as early the Silurian. The presence of species showing scales suggestive of low to moderate speed and a lifestyle presumably associated
Full Text Available Disease ecology is a new approach to the understanding of the spread and dynamics of pathogens in natural and man-made environments. Defining and describing the ecological niche of the pathogens is one of the major tasks for ecological theory, as well as for practitioners preoccupied with the control and forecasting of established and emerging diseases. Niche theory has been periodically revised, not including in an explicit way the pathogens. However, many progresses have been achieved in niche modeling of disease spread, but few attempts were made to construct a theoretical frame for the ecological niche of pathogens. The paper is a review of the knowledge accumulated during last decades in the niche theory of pathogens and proposes an ecological approach in research. It quest for new control methods in what concerns forest plant pathogens, with a special emphasis on fungi like organisms of the genus Phytophthora. Species of Phytophthora are the most successful plant pathogens of the moment, affecting forest and agricultural systems worldwide, many of them being invasive alien organisms in many ecosystems. The hyperspace of their ecological niche is defined by hosts, environment and human interference, as main axes. To select most important variables within the hyperspace, is important the understanding of the complex role of pathogens in the ecosystems as well as for control programs. Biotic relationships within ecosystem of host-pathogen couple are depicted by ecological network and specific metrics attached to this. The star shaped network is characterized by few high degree nodes, by short path lengths and relatively low connectivity, premises for a rapid disturbance spread.
Full Text Available Disease ecology is a new approach to the understanding of the spread and dynamics of pathogens in natural and man-made environments. Defining and describing the ecological niche of the pathogens is one of the major tasks for ecological theory, as well as for practitioners preoccupied with the control and forecasting of established and emerging diseases. Niche theory has been periodically revised, not including in an explicit way the pathogens. However, many progresses have been achieved in niche modeling of disease spread, but few attempts were made to construct a theoretical frame for the ecological niche of pathogens. The paper is a review of the knowledge accumulated during last decades in the niche theory of pathogens and proposes an ecological approach in research. It quest for new control methods in what concerns forest plant pathogens, with a special emphasis on fungi like organisms of the genus Phytophthora. Species of Phytophthora are the most successful plant pathogens of the moment, affecting forest and agricultural systems worldwide, many of them being invasive alien organisms in many ecosystems. The hyperspace of their ecological niche is defined by hosts, environment and human interference, as main axes. To select most important variables within the hyperspace, is important for the understanding of the complex role of pathogens in the ecosystems as well as for control programs. Biotic relationships within ecosystem of host-pathogen couple are depicted by ecological network and specific metrics attached to this. The star shaped network is characterized by few high degree nodes, by short path lengths and relatively low connectivity, premises for a rapid disturbance spread.
Samuel A. Cushman
Full Text Available Entropy and the second law of thermodynamics are the central organizing principles of nature, but the ideas and implications of the second law are poorly developed in landscape ecology. The purpose of this Special Issue “Entropy in Landscape Ecology” in Entropy is to bring together current research on applications of thermodynamics in landscape ecology, to consolidate current knowledge and identify key areas for future research. The special issue contains six articles, which cover a broad range of topics including relationships between entropy and evolution, connections between fractal geometry and entropy, new approaches to calculate configurational entropy of landscapes, example analyses of computing entropy of landscapes, and using entropy in the context of optimal landscape planning. Collectively these papers provide a broad range of contributions to the nascent field of ecological thermodynamics. Formalizing the connections between entropy and ecology are in a very early stage, and that this special issue contains papers that address several centrally important ideas, and provides seminal work that will be a foundation for the future development of ecological and evolutionary thermodynamics.
Baume, G.; Coronel, C.; De Bórtoli, B.; Ennis, A. I.; Fernández Lajús, E.; Filócomo, A.; Gamen, R.; Higa, R.; Pessi, P. J.; Putkuri, C.; Rodriguez, C.; Unamuno, A.
In the framework of the activities of the subject ``Astronomia Observacional'' of FCAG (UNLP), several photometric and spectroscopic observations have been made using the Jorge Sahade telescope at the Complejo Astronomico El Leoncito. These data have allowed the estimation of the extinction coefficients in bands. They were compared with previous values, verifying a secular increase in the last years. In addition, some parameters and characteristics of the REOSC spectrograph working at simple dispersion (DS) mode and for its CCD detector Tek1024 were estimated.
Kalimat M. Alilova
Full Text Available Aim. The aim of the research is to study environmental problems related to the decline of culture, the importance of philosophy in overcoming private and personal interests as well as the unilateral approach of man in his relationship to nature. The study shows how philosophy can participate in the formation of ecological culture, a new ecological consciousness in man, while ecological culture is called upon to resist technocratic stereotypes and the course of history was aimed at preventing the biosphere from becoming deserted. Discussion. On the basis of the analysis of literary sources, we used the method of socio-cultural and socio-natural approaches based on the possibility of philosophy to introduce a new life into culture, new ecological values and new ecological principles. To solve these problems, environmental philosophy develops new theories. Representatives of different cultures, ethnic groups, nations, religions must learn to coexist with each other. We consider philosophy as a means of teaching rapprochement between peoples and creating new opportunities for understanding and improving the environmental situation. Cultural development makes it possible to assess the level of a man’s knowledge of nature, himself and the world around him. Ecological culture is a way of connecting man with nature on the basis of deeper knowledge and understanding. Philosophy says that you cannot move away from nature and be lauded over it since this will destroy culture. Rational doctrines tend to put a person above other living beings so the synthesis of philosophy with culture can have a positive ecological meaning. Conclusion. The findings obtained can be recommended for practical use in schools, starting from primary school, as well as in secondary special educational institutions and universities. It is necessary to work on the motivation and values of people, develop a common and ecological culture. Only a cultured person can move from
creators and carriers. By contrast, the explicit knowledge approach emphasizes processes for articulating knowledge held by individuals, the design of organizational approaches for creating new knowledge, and the development of systems (including information systems) to disseminate articulated knowledge...
The interactions between an orthodox Christian worldview and environmental attitudes and beliefs; for the purpose of developing better instructional practice in support of environmental/ecological attitudes and knowledge
Keys, Robert S.
Students bring with them to the classroom a wide variety of beliefs and attitudes about the environment and its associated issues. One worldview belief structure prominently discussed in ecological discussions is the worldview of orthodox Christianity. This study uses both quantitative and qualitative measures to analyze the degree to which the orthodox Christian worldview of students influences their environmental attitudes and beliefs. Surveys were conducted with 281 undergraduate pre-service elementary teaching students enrolled in a science methods course to determine the degree to which orthodox Christian worldviews and ecological worldviews interact with one another. From this pool of students, 16 students representing both positive and neutral-negative orthodox Christian worldviews and ecological worldviews were interviewed to determine how orthodox Christian students may differ from non-orthodox Christian students in their attitudes and beliefs about the environment. Analysis revealed that students with orthodox Christian worldview beliefs do not as a general rule use their orthodox Christian worldview beliefs in the discussion of their environmental beliefs and attitudes. Exceptions to this may occur when environmental issues touch on orthodox Christian worldview beliefs which have a bearing on matters of origin, life purpose, or destiny. These interactions between ecological and orthodox Christian worldviews have implications for the teaching of environmental issues to students in that the orthodox Christian worldview of students is not likely to hinder the appropriation of concepts associated with environmental issues. However, moving students with an orthodox Christian worldview to a view where they become actively involved in environmental issue resolution may require educators to situate curriculum in such a way as to invoke the students' orthodox Christian worldview beliefs.
This book presents the state of the art technologies and solutions to tackle the critical challenges faced by the building and development of the WSN and ecological monitoring system but also potential impact on society at social, medical and technological level. This book is dedicated to Sensing systems for Sensors, Wireless Sensor Networks and Ecological Monitoring. The book aims at Master and PhD degree students, researchers, practitioners, especially WSN engineers involved with ecological monitoring. The book will provide an opportunity of a dedicated and a deep approach in order to improve their knowledge in this specific field.
''The ecological atlas'' translates expert knowledge in a way that makes it accessable to the general public. In 37 double sided maps in four colours it gives information about the health of our planet and the quality of human life. Under 8 different angles: (the earth's habitat, food and drinking water, housing, energy, industry, armament, consumer needs and 'green politics'). ''The ecological atlas'' describes the effects of worldwide ecological effects: climatic disasters, the greenhouse effect, the hole in the ozone layer, destruction of the tropical rainforests, the effects of extensive farming and increasing urbanization. Pages of comprehensive commentaries complement the maps and aid understanding of their problem areas. (orig./DG) [de
The Knowledge Grid is an intelligent and sustainable interconnection environment that enables people and machines to effectively capture, publish, share and manage knowledge resources. It also provides appropriate on-demand services to support scientific research, technological innovation, cooperative teamwork, problem solving, and decision making. It incorporates epistemology and ontology to reflect human cognitive characteristics; exploits social, ecological and economic principles; and adopts techniques and standards developed during work toward the future web. This book presents its methodology, theory, models and applications systematically for the first time.
Full Text Available Since the collapse of the Celtic Tiger, the socio-economic particularity of neoliberal capitalism in its Irish manifestation has increasingly been critiqued, but little attention has been paid to neoliberalism as ecology within Ireland. This article conducts an exploratory survey of the characteristics of the Irish neoliberal ecological regime during and after the Celtic Tiger, identifying the opening of new commodity frontiers (such as fracking, water, agro-biotechnology, and biopharma constituted in the neoliberal drive to appropriate and financialize nature. I argue for the usefulness of applying not only the tools of world-systems analysis, but also Jason W. Moore’s world-ecological paradigm, to analysis of Ireland as a semi-periphery. What is crucial to a macro-ecological understanding of Ireland’s role in the neoliberal regime of the world-ecology is the inextricability of its financial role as a tax haven and secrecy jurisdiction zone from its environmental function as a semi-peripheral pollution and water haven. We can adapt Jason W. Moore’s slogan that “Wall Street…becomes a way of organizing all of nature, characterized by the financialization of any income-generating activity” (Moore 2011b: 39 to say that to say that the “IFSC is a way of organizing nature,” with pernicious consequences for water, energy, and food systems in Ireland. Financial service centers and pharmaceutical factories, plantations and cattle ranches, tax havens and pollution havens, empires and common markets are all forms of environment-making that constellate human relations and extra-human processes into new ecological regimes. More expansive, dialectical understandings of “ecology” as comprising the whole of socio-ecological relations within the capitalist world-ecology—from farming to pharma to financialization—are crucial to forming configurations of knowledge able not only to take account of Ireland’s role in the environmental
in the light of the new Danish school reform. How can different learning institutions contribute to a “joint” ecology of learning? What would the benefits be from this in terms of young people’s literacies? On what theoretical basis can such an ecology and co-creation take place? And what kind of didactics...
Sylvan, Richard; Bennett, David
Contrasted are the philosophies of Deep Ecology and ancient Chinese. Discusses the cosmology, morality, lifestyle, views of power, politics, and environmental philosophies of each. Concludes that Deep Ecology could gain much from Taoism. (CW)
.... The goals of the Cyber Ecology project were to: (1) enable and demonstrate the discovery of noel IA technologies for the detection and mitigation of damage due to cyber attack through the application of ecological models, (2...
Zucca, Carol; And Others
Presents a model that integrates high school science with the needs of the local scientific community. Describes how a high school ecology class conducted scientific research in fire ecology that benefited the students and a state park forest ecologist. (MKR)
Responses to change in the behavior of ecological systems are largely governed by interactions at different levels. Research is essential and is to be necessarily designed to gain insights into various interactions at the community level. Sustainable resource management is only possible if conservation of biodiversity can be accomplished by properly using the knowledge discovered. It is well known that the United States Department of Agriculture provides technical information, resources, and data necessary to assist the researchers in addressing their conservation needs. Conservation aims to protect, preserve and conserve the earth's natural resources. These include, but not limited to the conservation of soil, water, minerals, air, plants and all living beings. The United States Department of Agriculture also encourages farmers and ranchers to voluntarily address threats to soil and water. Protection of wetlands and wildlife habitat has been on the radar screen of conservation experts for a very long time. The main objective has always been to help farmers and landowners conform and comply with federal and state environmental laws. During the implementation phase, farmers should be encouraged to make beneficial, cost-effective changes to methods of irrigation systems. In some cases, the hydrologic regime of the project area can be thought of as principally an issue of river flow regimes for floodplain forests. In this presentation, the author tries to focus on the impact of hydrology and conservation ecology on global warming. He also discusses the impact of hydrology and conservation ecology global air concerns such as greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere. References: Chow, V. T, D. R. Maidment, and L. W. Mays. 1988. Applied Hydrology. McGraw-Hill, Inc. U.S. Soil Conservation Service. Technical Release 55: Urban Hydrology for Small Watersheds. USDA (U.S. Department of Agriculture). June 1986. Lehner, B. and P. Döll (2004). Development and validation
Victor Selman; Jerry Selman
Unorthodox ways currently used in colleges to accelerate the velocity of learning are reviewed. To augment persuasion and articulation ability of business school students, stand-up comedy is used (University of Chicago). Song writing, storytelling and improvisation (VanderbiltUniversity-Owens Management), and for Shakespearean motivation for other management skills at the corporate execu-tive level (Northrup Grumman). Food chow-down, before and during classes, including pizza and chocolate ca...
Martinez Alier, Joan
The discussion about ecological debt is important keeping in mind historical foreign trade, where natural resources exploitation and primary production exported didn't assessment the ecological damage or the environmental values of the interchange. This essay shows the debate of ecological debt on greenhouse emission, enterprise environmental debit, unequal international trade, toxic waste export, and b io piracy ; in order to present the necessity of a new ecological and equitable world economy
Eric J. Gustafson
Ecological restoration has increased in prominence in recent years as environmental policies have slowed the rate of environmental degradation in many parts of the world and practitioners have looked for active ways to reverse the damage. Because of the vast number of types and contexts of degraded ecological systems, the field of ecological restoration is still very...
Knowledge sharing and knowledge transfer are important to knowledge communication. However when groups of knowledge workers engage in knowledge communication activities, it easily turns into mere mechanical information processing despite other ambitions. This article relates literature of knowledge...... communication and knowledge creation to an intervention study in a large Danish food production company. For some time a specific group of employees uttered a wish for knowledge sharing, but it never really happened. The group was observed and submitted to metaphor analysis as well as analysis of co...
The first of the four papers in this symposium, "Knowledge Management and Knowledge Dissemination" (Wim J. Nijhof), presents two case studies exploring the strategies companies use in sharing and disseminating knowledge and expertise among employees. "A Theory of Knowledge Management" (Richard J. Torraco), develops a conceptual…
Antwis, Rachael E; Griffiths, Sarah M; Harrison, Xavier A; Aranega-Bou, Paz; Arce, Andres; Bettridge, Aimee S; Brailsford, Francesca L; de Menezes, Alexandre; Devaynes, Andrew; Forbes, Kristian M; Fry, Ellen L; Goodhead, Ian; Haskell, Erin; Heys, Chloe; James, Chloe; Johnston, Sarah R; Lewis, Gillian R; Lewis, Zenobia; Macey, Michael C; McCarthy, Alan; McDonald, James E; Mejia-Florez, Nasmille L; O'Brien, David; Orland, Chloé; Pautasso, Marco; Reid, William D K; Robinson, Heather A; Wilson, Kenneth; Sutherland, William J
Microbial ecology provides insights into the ecological and evolutionary dynamics of microbial communities underpinning every ecosystem on Earth. Microbial communities can now be investigated in unprecedented detail, although there is still a wealth of open questions to be tackled. Here we identify 50 research questions of fundamental importance to the science or application of microbial ecology, with the intention of summarising the field and bringing focus to new research avenues. Questions are categorised into seven themes: host-microbiome interactions; health and infectious diseases; human health and food security; microbial ecology in a changing world; environmental processes; functional diversity; and evolutionary processes. Many questions recognise that microbes provide an extraordinary array of functional diversity that can be harnessed to solve real-world problems. Our limited knowledge of spatial and temporal variation in microbial diversity and function is also reflected, as is the need to integrate micro- and macro-ecological concepts, and knowledge derived from studies with humans and other diverse organisms. Although not exhaustive, the questions presented are intended to stimulate discussion and provide focus for researchers, funders and policy makers, informing the future research agenda in microbial ecology. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Full Text Available Text on text on text: intertextuality in Ingrid Winterbach’s Niggie This article focuses on the creative adaptation of Anglo-Boer War material in Ingrid Winterbach’s (formerly Lettie Viljoen “Niggie” (“Cousin” (2002 with specific reference to the historiographical-metafictional element and intertextual game with texts written during or shortly after the Anglo-Boer War in Dutch, such as Totius’ “Vier-en-sestig dae te velde: ’n oorlogsdagboek” (“Sixty four days afield: a war diary” (1977 and in English, “Woman’s endurance” (1904 by A.D.L. and Deneys Reitz’s “Commando: a Boer journal of the Boer War” (1932. The intertextuality of more recent texts such as “Op soek na generaal Mannetjies Mentz” (“In Search of General Mannetjies Mentz” (1998 by Christoffel Coetzee, Klaas Steytler’s “Ons oorlog” (“Our war” (2000 and Etienne Leroux’s “Magersfontein, O! Magersfontein” (1976 will also be discussed. A literary analysis is done of the novel “Niggie”, with specific focus on the nature and function of Anglo-Boer War material in Winterbach’s text. The question is posed why is there such a sustained focus and creative adaptation of Anglo-Boer War texts in Winterbach’s oeuvre, especially in “Belemmering” (“Impediment” (1990; “Karolina Ferreira” (1993; “Buller se plan” (“Buller’s plan” (1999 and “Niggie” (“Cousin” (2002? How does she adapt this material? What is the function of this process and in what way does this novel impact on the reader a century after the war?
This paper provides a perspective on what knowledge is, why knowledge is important, and how we might encourage good knowledge behaviours. A knowledge management framework is described, and although the framework is project management-centric the basic principles are transferrable to other contexts. From a strategic perspective, knowledge can be considered an asset that has the potential to provide a competitive advantage provided that it has intrinsic value, it is not easily accessible by ...
Michener, William H.; Jones, Matthew B.
Ecology is evolving rapidly and increasingly changing into a more open, accountable, interdisciplinary, collaborative and data-intensive science. Discovering, integrating and analyzing massive amounts of heterogeneous data are central to ecology as researchers address complex ques- tions at scales from the gene to the biosphere. Ecoinfor- matics offers tools and approaches for managing ecological data and transforming the data into informa- tion and knowledge. Here, we review the state-of-the...
Brown, Bryson; Peacock, Kent A
The most pressing problems facing humanity today - over-population, energy shortages, climate change, soil erosion, species extinctions, the risk of epidemic disease, the threat of warfare that could destroy all the hard-won gains of civilization, and even the recent fibrillations of the stock market - are all ecological or have a large ecological component. in this volume philosophers turn their attention to understanding the science of ecology and its huge implications for the human project. To get the application of ecology to policy or other practical concerns right, humanity needs a clear and disinterested philosophical understanding of ecology which can help identify the practical lessons of science. Conversely, the urgent practical demands humanity faces today cannot help but direct scientific and philosophical investigation toward the basis of those ecological challenges that threaten human survival. This book will help to fuel the timely renaissance of interest in philosophy of ecology that is now oc...
Crielaard, J.P.; Wubben, E.F.M.; Omta, S.W.F.
Today’s issues, like sustainable growth, are demanding for leaders, employees, knowledge and organisational innovation. Leadership literature until now is restrained by a hierarchical bias. This study takes an Ecologic System Model, and tests the contribution of shared leadership, self-directive
A new and exciting discipline of human ecology is in the making. It has not, perhaps fortunately, found its bearings yet and remains to date overly dependent upon the limitations of sociology, biology, engineering and the sciences for its general theory, approaches, and philosophy. A new discipline with a world view and focussed on the human being and his habitat will hopefully emerge from a rich dialectic among scientists, humanists and policy makers educated and experienced in a variety of fields and committed to man's welfare. This new discipline and its practitioner must always be open to the revelations their knowledge will bring to man through the environmental processes. The implications of public policy, science and technology of industrial and post-industrial nations are all in need of considered re-examination by us all. Since their early application in these western societies we have witnessed the general downgrading of the world's environment. An ungrading in social priorities for the development of adequate housing, jobs, medical care and education which is almost always lower in rank than they should be is needed. The role of local groups, involving a well-informed and participating citizenship, in this process of changing priorities will always remain of prime importance, but no long-range goal in a rapidly-changing landscape is possible without broad national and local planning which contains ways and means of implementation.
Industrial ecology education is being developed and delivered predominantly within the domains of engineering and management. Such an approach could prove somewhat limiting to the broader goal of developing industrial ecology as an integrated knowledge base inclusive of diverse disciplines, contributing to sustainable development. This paper…
Knowledge of breeding ecology is required for many conservation interventions. The Seychelles Black Parrot Coracopsis barklyi, endemic to the island of Praslin, is vulnerable to extinction. We aimed to improve understanding of C. barklyi breeding ecology to aid conservation planning. We present the results of four years of ...
Ecological production functions (EPFs) link ecosystems, stressors, and management actions to ecosystem services (ES) production. Although EPFs are acknowledged as being essential to improve environmental management, their use in ecological risk assessment has received relatively little attention. Ecological production functions may be defined as usable expressions (i.e., models) of the processes by which ecosystems produce ES, often including external influences on those processes. We identify key attributes of EPFs and discuss both actual and idealized examples of their use to inform decision making. Whenever possible, EPFs should estimate final, rather than intermediate, ES. Although various types of EPFs have been developed, we suggest that EPFs are more useful for decision making if they quantify ES outcomes, respond to ecosystem condition, respond to stressor levels or management scenarios, reflect ecological complexity, rely on data with broad coverage, have performed well previously, are practical to use, and are open and transparent. In an example using pesticides, we illustrate how EPFs with these attributes could enable the inclusion of ES in ecological risk assessment. The biggest challenges to ES inclusion are limited data sets that are easily adapted for use in modeling EPFs and generally poor understanding of linkages among ecological components and the processes that ultimately deliver the ES. We conclude by advocating for the incorporation into E
Holdt Christensen, Peter
The concept of knowledge management has, indeed, become a buzzword that every single organization is expected to practice and live by. Knowledge management is about managing the organization's knowledge for the common good of the organization -but practicing knowledge management is not as simple...... as that. This article focuses on knowledge sharing as the process seeking to reduce the resources spent on reinventing the wheel.The article introduces the concept of time sensitiveness; i.e. that knowledge is either urgently needed, or not that urgently needed. Furthermore, knowledge sharing...... is considered as either a push or pull system. Four strategies for sharing knowledge - help, post-it, manuals and meeting, and advice are introduced. Each strategy requires different channels for sharing knowledge. An empirical analysis in a production facility highlights how the strategies can be practiced....
Full Text Available Bulgaria is an unexplored and attractive tourist destination offering diverse and matchless opportunities in tourist activities. One opportunity could be the ecologically tourism based on natural sightseeing tours and visiting beautiful sites, experiencing customs and rites. Tourism can preserve the environment as well help rise locals’ standard of living. Introducing ecological educational paths (with correctly defined goals, helps achieve new knowledge, foster already taught ideas in school and acquire new skills. Well educated and theoretically prepared specialists who are united in the idea of “correct tourism” and by sending clear messages can help give a lift to Bulgarian ecological tourism.
Research is organized around two major programs: thermal and aquatic stress and mineral cycling. These programs are strengthened by a previously established foundation of basic ecological knowledge. Research in basic ecology continues to be a major component of all SREL environmental programs. Emphasis in all programs has been placed upon field-oriented research relating to regional and local problems having broad ecological significance. For example, extensive research has been conducted in the Par Pond reservoir system and the Savannah River swamp, both of which have received thermal effluent, heavy metals, and low levels of radioisotopes. Furthermore, the availability of low levels of plutonium and uranium in both terrestrial and aquatic environments on the Savannah River Plant (SRP) has provided an unusual opportunity for field research in this area. The studies seek to document the effects, to determine the extent of local environmental problems, and to establish predictable relationships which have general applicability. In order to accomplish this objective it has been imperative that studies be carried out in the natural, environmentally unaffected areas on the SRP as a vital part of the overall program. Progress is reported in forty-nine studies.
José Eustáquio Diniz Alves
Full Text Available Pope Jorge Mario Bergoglio released the "Encyclical Laudato Si': on the care of common home" on June 18, 2015, the same day that the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA has shown that the temperature of Earth continues increasing and that May of 2015 was Earth's warmest month, since 1880. By endorsing the scientific knowledge in relation to anthropogenic factors on global warming and by defending actions to confront the causes of climate change and ecosystem degradation, the Holy See has taken a key step to put Catholics at the forefront of global ecological struggle and to encourage the signing of the global treaty to replace the Kyoto Protocol at the 21st Conference of the Parties (COP-21, that will take place in December in Paris. But the encyclical of Pope Francis proposes a larger task that is to protect the poorest of the poor countries, addressing jointly the human environment and the natural environment from the perspective of an integral ecology. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the advances and limitations of the propositions of the encyclical Laudato Si ' and to expand the dialogue on gender relations and deep ecology.
Foss, Nicolai Juul; Mahnke, Volker
Knowledge management has emerged as a very successful organization practice and has beenextensively treated in a large body of academic work. Surprisingly, however, organizationaleconomics (i.e., transaction cost economics, agency theory, team theory and property rightstheory) has played no role...... in the development of knowledge management. We argue thatorganizational economics insights can further the theory and practice of knowledge managementin several ways. Specifically, we apply notions of contracting, team production,complementaries, hold-up, etc. to knowledge management issues (i.e., creating...... and integrationknowledge, rewarding knowledge workers, etc.) , and derive refutable implications that are novelto the knowledge management field from our discussion....
Full Text Available . Based on expert knowledge at three scales, we analysed South Africa's opportunity to active adaptive management and to unlock investments that enhance functional ecological infrastructure. Barriers included lack of trust among actors, limited...
Kirkeby, Inge Mette
Although serious efforts are made internationally and nationally, it is a slow process to make our physical environment accessible. In the actual design process, architects play a major role. But what kinds of knowledge, including research-based knowledge, do practicing architects make use of when...... designing accessible environments? The answer to the question is crucially important since it affects how knowledge is distributed and how accessibility can be ensured. In order to get first-hand knowledge about the design process and the sources from which they gain knowledge, 11 qualitative interviews...... were conducted with architects with experience of designing for accessibility. The analysis draws on two theoretical distinctions. The first is research-based knowledge versus knowledge used by architects. The second is context-independent knowledge versus context-dependent knowledge. The practitioners...
Full Text Available The article considers the important problem of searching and introducing innovative forms and methods of ecological upbringing and environmental education in the educational process of the medical educational establishment. Medical workers first face the negative impact of environmental problems on human health, therefore formation of high level of their environmental awareness and culture, ability to apply knowledge of medical ecology while performing their professional duties is an important condition for their qualitative vocational training. The aim of the article is to analyze the benefits of creating an environmental squad in the medical educational establishment with a purpose to create a high level of the studets’ environmental awareness, environmental culture and expositive behavior. The experience of the environmental squad Cherkasy medical academy to attract students to the ecological and elucidative and environmental protection, scientific research ecologically oriented. Effective methods and forms of environmental squad’s work in spreading ecological knowledge are characterized, the main topics of scientific research work are presented. Stages of forming ecological awareness and ecological culture of future doctors have been analyzed, while working in the environmental squad, from expanding and systematization of ecological knowledge to the development of ecological style of thinking and environmentally safe behavior. The results of the study led to the conclusion that activity of such structure as an ecological squad in the medical educational establishment provides improved ecological upbringing and environmental education and allows training of medical specialists, who understand the danger of a complicated ecological situation for human health, will promote healthy lifestyle, help reduce the negative impact of harmful factors on the health of patients, as well as a conscious citizen, which is a patriot of his country, take
Full Text Available The article presents research on ecological buildings and their influence on the constructional sphere. The aim of the paper is to reveal the essence of ecological architecture showing substantial progress and its potential to stimulate architectural and technological growth. The article also describes relations between the ideas of ecological buildings and the ‘passive house’ concepts and aspects of development as well as describes the possibilities of improving building sustainability and energy efficiency. Article in Lithuanian
Castiblanco R, Carmenza
Ecological Economics arise as a scientific discipline aimed to integrate concepts of economics, ecology, thermodynamics, ethic and other natural and social sciences in order to incorporate a biophysical and integrated perspective of the inter dependences between economies and environment, from a plural conception and a methodology beyond disciplines. Ecological Economics studies the black box of economic processes usually excluded of the traditional economics: thermodynamics and ecology. Although it is relatively a new field of study, it has been strengthening its theoretical framework with scientific basis and analytic principles that lead to its identification as a new discipline that show a whole new paradigm. The scope of this article is to show the conceptual and methodological bases, the main founders, approaches and central debates of this new discipline. This brief introduction is a preamble to the papers of the meeting Ecological Economics: a perspective for Colombia included in this number, that took place on September 22 - 27 of 2007, at the National University of Colombia at Bogota. During tree days national and international experts, professors, researchers, workers of environmental sector and people interested on environmental issues joined together to know the conceptual and methodological achievements reached of this discipline; as well as to analyse and evaluate the environmental problems of the country, from the systemic, interdisciplinary and general perspective that it promotes
Bødker, Susanne; Klokmose, Clemens Nylandsted
We increasingly interact with multiple interactive artifacts with overlapping capabilities during our daily activities. It has previously been shown that the use of an interactive artifact cannot be understood in isolation, but artifacts must be understood as part of an artifact ecology, where...... artifacts influence the use of others. Understanding this interplay becomes more and more essential for interaction design as our artifact ecologies grow. This paper continues a recent discourse on artifact ecologies. Through interviews with iPhone users, we demonstrate that relationships between artifacts...... in artifact ecologies cannot be understood as static, instead they evolve dynamically over time. We provide activity theory-based concepts to explain these dynamics....
Suter, Glenn W; Barnthouse, L. W. (Lawrence W)
Ecological risk assessment is commonly applied to the regulation of chemicals, the remediation of contaminated sites, the monitoring of importation of exotic organisms, the management of watersheds...
Knowledge spaces offer a rigorous mathematical foundation for various practical systems of knowledge assessment. An example is offered by the ALEKS system (Assessment and LEarning in Knowledge Spaces), a software for the assessment of mathematical knowledge. From a mathematical standpoint, knowledge spaces generalize partially ordered sets. They are investigated both from a combinatorial and a stochastic viewpoint. The results are applied to real and simulated data. The book gives a systematic presentation of research and extends the results to new situations. It is of interest to mathematically oriented readers in education, computer science and combinatorics at research and graduate levels. The text contains numerous examples and exercises and an extensive bibliography.
Sofka, Wolfgang; de Faria, Pedro; Shehu, Edlira
Most firms use secrecy to protect their knowledge from potential imitators. However, the theoretical foundations for secrecy have not been well explored. We extend knowledge protection literature and propose theoretical mechanisms explaining how information visibility influences the importance...... of secrecy as a knowledge protection instrument. Building on mechanisms from information economics and signaling theory, we postulate that secrecy is more important for protecting knowledge for firms that have legal requirements to reveal information to shareholders. Furthermore, we argue that this effect...... and a firm's investment in fixed assets. Our findings inform both academics and managers on how firms balance information disclosure requirements with the use of secrecy as a knowledge protection instrument....
Aswani, Shankar; Lauer, Matthew
When sudden catastrophic events occur, it becomes critical for coastal communities to detect and respond to environmental transformations because failure to do so may undermine overall ecosystem resilience and threaten people's livelihoods. We therefore asked how capable of detecting rapid ecological change following massive environmental disruptions local, indigenous people are. We assessed the direction and periodicity of experimental learning of people in the Western Solomon Islands after a tsunami in 2007. We compared the results of marine science surveys with local ecological knowledge of the benthos across 3 affected villages and 3 periods before and after the tsunami. We sought to determine how people recognize biophysical changes in the environment before and after catastrophic events such as earthquakes and tsunamis and whether people have the ability to detect ecological changes over short time scales or need longer time scales to recognize changes. Indigenous people were able to detect changes in the benthos over time. Detection levels differed between marine science surveys and local ecological knowledge sources over time, but overall patterns of statistically significant detection of change were evident for various habitats. Our findings have implications for marine conservation, coastal management policies, and disaster-relief efforts because when people are able to detect ecological changes, this, in turn, affects how they exploit and manage their marine resources. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.
DeClerck, Fabrice A J; Fanzo, Jessica; Palm, Cheryl; Remans, Roseline
Malnutrition affects a large number of people throughout the developing world. Approaches to reducing malnutrition rarely focus on ecology and agriculture to simultaneously improve human nutrition and environmental sustainability. However, evidence suggests that interdisciplinary approaches that combine the knowledge bases of these disciplines can serve as a central strategy in alleviating hidden hunger for the world's poorest. To describe the role that ecological knowledge plays in alleviating hidden hunger, considering human nutrition as an overlooked ecosystem service. We review existing literature and propose a framework that expands on earlier work on econutrition. We provide novel evidence from case studies conducted by the authors in western Kenya and propose a framework for interdisciplinary collaboration to alleviate hidden hunger, increase agricultural productivity, and improve environmental sustainability. Our review supports the concept that an integrated approach will impact human nutrition. We provide evidence that increased functional agrobiodiversity can alleviate anemia, and interventions that contribute to environmental sustainability can have both direct and indirect effects on human health and nutritional well-being. Integrated and interdisciplinary approaches are critical to reaching development goals. Ecologists must begin to consider not only how their field can contribute to biodiversity conservation, but also, the relationship between biodiversity and provisioning of nontraditional ecosystem services such as human health. Likewise, nutritionists and agronomists must recognize that many of the solutions to increasing human wellbeing and health can best be achieved by focusing on a healthy environment and the conservation of ecosystem services.
Charles University in Prague Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové Department of Pharmaceutical Botany and Ecology Candidate: Daniela Hulcová Consultant: Prof. RNDr. Lubomír Opletal, CSc. Title of Diploma Thesis: Biological aktivity of plants metabolites. XXVII. Alkaloids of Fumaria officinalis L. and their effect on acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase The summary ethanolic and diethylether extract were prepared from the herbs of a plant Fumaria officinalis L. We have obtained 201 ...
Flores-Sanchez, D.; Kleine Koerkamp-Rabelista, J.; Navarro-Garza, H.; Lantinga, E.A.; Groot, J.C.J.; Kropff, M.J.; Rossing, W.A.H.
Enhanced utilization of ecological processes for food and feed production as part of the notion of ecological intensification starts from location-specific knowledge of production constraints. A diagnostic systems approach which combined social-economic and production ecological methods at farm and
Full Text Available The present study covers the knowledge management (KM in institutions of higher technical education (IHTEs from the perspective of thought leaders and junior academia to identify whether there is a difference of opinion regarding KM strategies, including knowledge technologies, knowledge acquisition, knowledge storage, knowledge dissemination, and KM-based framework for research and curriculum development (CD. Data have been collected through structured questionnaire from 141 respondents covering 30 higher educational institutions in India, including national- and state-level institutions—Designations of the targeted respondents in the IHTEs have been categorized into (a senior academia, that is, professors, heads, and associate professors occupying senior management positions, considered to be the institute overseers and thought leaders of KM and (b junior academia consisting of assistant professors and lecturers who are using and also contributing to the KM system. ANOVA has been used to see whether there is a significant difference of opinion among the two groups of knowledge users. The results of the study highlight a significant difference among the two groups regarding knowledge technologies, knowledge acquisition, knowledge storage, and knowledge dissemination. But, there is a consensus regarding KM-based framework for research and CD.
Full Text Available Access to credible building product performance information throughout the design and construction process is critical to enable project development, vet product selections, ensure as-built quality, and successfully complete construction. This is common knowledge and part of common practice for nearly all parties involved in design and construction. The sources of such information can range from vernacular to formal – from common practice to special reference. The focus of this paper is one of the more formal or specialized information sources, performance testing, as well as how such performance testing information can be better used. This paper’s goals are to familiarize the reader with performance testing and to depict a new kind of valuable informational tool (digital ecology. Reference to pertinent nomenclature, description of a real world example, and detailed description of such an informational tool’s values will be provided.The major content of this paper was developed during project-based work and firm-funded internal research at point b design, ltd. over approximately the previous 4 years. The phrase ‘digital ecology’ as herein used is a new concept proposed by the author. The analysis contained in this paper could be applied to the field of operations and maintenance as it is herein applied to design and construction; however, operations and maintenance is beyond the scope of this paper and may be addressed in future papers. It is my hope that this paper will contribute to tangible and real improvements of the built environment via continued, positive development within academic and professional practice.
Distribución potencial del Pinus martinezii: un modelo espacial basado en conocimiento ecológico y análisis multicriterio Potential distribution of Pinus martinezii: an spatial model based in ecological knowledge and muticriteria analysis
Full Text Available El modelado de la distribución potencial y actual de las especies se ha convertido en un área de investigación muy activa; generalmente se basa en el concepto de nicho ecológico y se apoya en el uso de programas de cómputo. El objetivo principal de esta investigación fue elaborar un modelo de distribución potencial de Pinus martinezii en la cuenca del lago de Cuitzeo, utilizando información ambiental y datos de presencia de la especie, lo que requirió identificar los factores ambientales que determinan la distribución de P. martinezii, y elaborar un perfil bioclimático de la especie. El modelo se apoyó en un análisis multicriterio dentro de un sistema de información geográfica. Los atributos se agruparon en 3 criterios: geopedológicos, morfométricos y climáticos. De acuerdo con el mapa que se obtuvo, en la cuenca hay 2 zonas principales de distribución potencial de P. martinezii y algunas regiones aisladas donde no se encontraron poblaciones. El modelo espacial constituye una herramienta importante para planificar labores de conservación y reforestación; asimismo, puede utilizarse para planificar exploraciones en busca de nuevas poblaciones de P. martinezii que no han sido registradas, o identificar sitios donde esta especie pueda reintroducirse.The modeling of potential and current distribution of species has become a very active research area. Generally, modeling is based on the concept of ecological niche, and is supported by the use of computer programs. The main objective of this project was to develop a potential distribution model of Pinus martinezii in the Cuitzeo Lake basin using data of environmental variables, and presence of the target species. To this purpose, the environmental factors that determine the distribution of P. martinezii were identified, and a bioclimatic profile of the species was made. The modeling was based on a spatial multicriteria analyisis. The attributes were grouped into 3 criteria
Progress is reported on the following: analysis of ecological impacts of construction and operation of nuclear power plants; fossil energy environmental project; ecological analysis of geothermal energy development; HUD modular integrated utility systems; expansion of uranium enrichment facilities at Portsmouth; environmental standard review plans; environmental assessment of cooling reservoirs; and analysis of fish impingement at power plants in the southeastern United States
Menard, M.; Bischoff, J.
The green movement challenges workers' unions and socialists. Who are the 'Greens', and what do they want. Where do their theoretical fundamentals come from. Will an ecological economy be able to function. Are the 'Greens' leftists or dreamers fighting against progress. Arguments for trade unionists and socialists in the ecological controversy. (orig.) [de
Kroodsma, R.L.; Craig, R.B.; Hildebrand, S.G.
Progress is reported on the following: assessment of nuclear power plants; ecological analysis of uranium mining, milling, and fuel fabrication; environmental impact statements concerning uranium enrichment facilities; site evaluations for storage of radioactive wastes; ecological analysis of geothermal energy development; enhanced oil recovery; environmental monitoring plan for modular integrated utility systems; and fossil energy environmental project
Morrison, James W., Ed.; Hall, James A., Ed.
This collection of study units focuses on the study of the ecology of land habitats. Considered are such topics as map reading, field techniques, forest ecosystem, birds, insects, small mammals, soils, plant ecology, preparation of terrariums, air pollution, photography, and essentials of an environmental studies program. Each unit contains…
Selected for this listing of children's books are fiction and non-fiction books which add to an understanding of ecology, broadly considered here as the study of the interrelationships of organisms to each other and their environment. General ecology, natural resources, man and his environment, evolution and adaptation, appreciation, survival,…
Evans, Matthew R; Bithell, Mike; Cornell, Stephen J; Dall, Sasha R X; Díaz, Sandra; Emmott, Stephen; Ernande, Bruno; Grimm, Volker; Hodgson, David J; Lewis, Simon L; Mace, Georgina M; Morecroft, Michael; Moustakas, Aristides; Murphy, Eugene; Newbold, Tim; Norris, K J; Petchey, Owen; Smith, Matthew; Travis, Justin M J; Benton, Tim G
Human societies, and their well-being, depend to a significant extent on the state of the ecosystems that surround them. These ecosystems are changing rapidly usually in response to anthropogenic changes in the environment. To determine the likely impact of environmental change on ecosystems and the best ways to manage them, it would be desirable to be able to predict their future states. We present a proposal to develop the paradigm of predictive systems ecology, explicitly to understand and predict the properties and behaviour of ecological systems. We discuss the necessary and desirable features of predictive systems ecology models. There are places where predictive systems ecology is already being practised and we summarize a range of terrestrial and marine examples. Significant challenges remain but we suggest that ecology would benefit both as a scientific discipline and increase its impact in society if it were to embrace the need to become more predictive.
Hastings, Alan; Petrovskii, Sergei; Morozov, Andrew
The international conference 'Models in population dynamics and ecology 2010: animal movement, dispersal and spatial ecology' took place at the University of Leicester, UK, on 1-3 September 2010, focusing on mathematical approaches to spatial population dynamics and emphasizing cross-scale issues. Exciting new developments in scaling up from individual level movement to descriptions of this movement at the macroscopic level highlighted the importance of mechanistic approaches, with different descriptions at the microscopic level leading to different ecological outcomes. At higher levels of organization, different macroscopic descriptions of movement also led to different properties at the ecosystem and larger scales. New developments from Levy flight descriptions to the incorporation of new methods from physics and elsewhere are revitalizing research in spatial ecology, which will both increase understanding of fundamental ecological processes and lead to tools for better management.
Kerr, Aphra; O Riain, Sean
We examine a number of key questions regarding this knowledge economy. First, we look at the origin of the concept as well as early attempts to define and map the knowledge economy empirically. Second, we examine a variety of perspectives on the socio-spatial organisation of the knowledge economy and approaches which link techno-economic change and social-spatial organisation. Building on a critique of these perspectives, we then go on to develop a view of a knowledge economy that is conteste...
Full Text Available In the knowledge-based economy, a company performs a set of activities focused on knowledge: identifying necessary knowledge, buying knowledge, learning, acquiring knowledge, creating knowledge, storing knowledge, sharing knowledge, using knowledge, protection of knowledge, capitalizing knowledge. As a result, a new function emerge: the knowledge function. In the knowledge-based companies, not every knowledge has the same impact. The analysis of the actual situations in the most developed and highly performing companies - based in knowledge, outlines the occurrence of a new category of knowledge – strategic knowledge. Generating this category of knowledge is a new category of challenge for the scientific system.
He, Xingyuan; Zeng, Dehui
Applied ecology is evolved into a principal part of modern ecology that rapidly develops. The major stimulus for the development of applied ecology roots in seeking the solutions for the problems of human populations, resources and environments. Through four decades, the science of applied ecology has been becoming a huge group of disciplines. The future for the applied ecology should concern more with human-influenced and managed ecosystems, and acknowledge humans as the components of ecosystems. Nowadays and in future, the top-priorities in applied ecology should include following fields: sustainable ecosystems and biosphere, ecosystem services and ecological design, ecological assessment of genetically modified organisms, ecology of biological invasions, epidemical ecology, ecological forecasting, ecological process and its control. The authors believe that the comprehensive and active research hotspots coupled some new traits would occur around these fields in foreseeable future.
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine how the spanning of inter-organizational weak ties and technological boundaries influences knowledge brokering. Design/methodology/approach – The paper is based on original fieldwork and employs a case study research design, investigating a Danish...... HTSF’s inter-organizational activities. Findings – The findings show how an inter-organizational search that crosses technological boundaries and is based on a network structure of weak ties can imply a reduced risk of unwanted knowledge spill-over. Research limitations/implications – By not engaging...... in strong tie collaborations a knowledge brokering organization can reduce the risk of unwanted knowledge spill-over. The risks and opportunities of knowledge spill-over furthermore rely on the nature of the technology involved and to what extent technological boundaries are crossed. Practical implications...
The workshop on Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation Strategies for Arctic Indigenous Communities is one stage in developing positions and providing input from the perspectives of Arctic Peoples in preparation for the Indigenous Peoples' Global Summit on Climate Change that will take place in April, 2009, in Anchorage, Alaska. The Summit, organized by the Inuit Circumpolar Council with oversight of an International Steering Committee, will bring together hundreds of indigenous Peoples around the world. This Workshop intended to bring together Arctic Indigenous Peoples to deliver and to share information, academic research, case studies based on traditional knowledge and researchers knowledgeable in traditional knowledge and/or policy issues drawn from traditional knowledge. The following themes were discussed: 1) Traditional knowledge research and education; 2) Laws and lawmaking; 3) Food and health; 4) Organisation; 5) Communications and advocacy. (ln)
Hahn, Aria S; Konwar, Kishori M; Louca, Stilianos; Hanson, Niels W; Hallam, Steven J
A revolution is unfolding in microbial ecology where petabytes of 'multi-omics' data are produced using next generation sequencing and mass spectrometry platforms. This cornucopia of biological information has enormous potential to reveal the hidden metabolic powers of microbial communities in natural and engineered ecosystems. However, to realize this potential, the development of new technologies and interpretative frameworks grounded in ecological design principles are needed to overcome computational and analytical bottlenecks. Here we explore the relationship between microbial ecology and information science in the era of cloud-based computation. We consider microorganisms as individual information processing units implementing a distributed metabolic algorithm and describe developments in ecoinformatics and ubiquitous computing with the potential to eliminate bottlenecks and empower knowledge creation and translation. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Reader with published articles within the field of ecological economics, mostly from 1997 - 2007......Reader with published articles within the field of ecological economics, mostly from 1997 - 2007...
In the following, I will analyze two articles called Complex Adaptive Systems EcologyI & II (Molin & Molin, 1997 & 2000). The CASE-articles are some of the more quirkyarticles that have come out of the Molecular Microbial Ecology Group - a groupwhere I am currently making observational studies....... They are the result of acooperation between Søren Molin, professor in the group, and his brother, JanMolin, professor at Department of Organization and Industrial Sociology atCopenhagen Business School. The cooperation arises from the recognition that bothmicrobial ecology and sociology/organization theory works...
This e-book is written in the Wolfram' CDF format (download free CDF player from Wolfram.com) The objective of this e-book is to introduce the population ecological concepts for measuring and predicting the ecological success of plant species. This will be done by focusing on the measurement...... and statistical modelling of plant species abundance and the relevant ecological processes that control species abundance. The focus on statistical modelling and likelihood function based methods also means that more algorithm based methods, e.g. ordination techniques and boosted regression tress...
The rise of social media and web 2.0 technologies over the last few years has impacted many communication functions. One influence is organizational bloggers as knowledge mediators on government agency practices. The ways in which these organizational bloggers in their roles as experts are able...... to change, facilitate, and enable communication about a broad range of specialized knowledge areas, in a more open interactional institutional communication environment than traditional media typically offer, give rise to a set of new implications as regards the mediation of expert knowledge to the target...
Mental health nurses routinely hand over clinical knowledge at intershift reports. In the present study, field descriptions from prolonged fieldwork and transcripts of audio recordings of handovers were analysed discursively drawing on ethnomethodology and conversation analysis. The analysis...... identified linguistic and social conventions for handing over clinical knowledge; in particular, differences were identified between non-interactional and interactional handovers. The interactional handovers were relatively more substantial but did also bring forth obvious signs of uncertainty regarding...... exact clinical situations. Handing over caused a silencing of the least powerful nurses' voices, generated uncertainty, and promoted knowledge about the patients' clinical situation that was not necessarily precise or up-to-date....
Halme, Panu; Allen, Katherine A.; Aunins, Ainars
we introduce northern forests as an ecosystem, discuss the historical and recent human impact and provide a brief status report on the ecological restoration projects and research already conducted there. Based on this discussion, we argue that before any restoration actions commence, the ecology......The alarming rate of ecosystem degradation has raised the need for ecological restoration throughout different biomes and continents. North European forests may appear as one of the least vulnerable ecosystems from a global perspective, since forest cover is not rapidly decreasing and many...... on Biological Diversity. Several northern countries are now taking up this challenge by restoring forest biodiversity with increasing intensity. The ecology and biodiversity of boreal forests are relatively well understood making them a good model for restoration activities in many other forest ecosystems. Here...
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This coverage provides information for the first level of the Ecological Classification System. The boundaries of the polygons of this coverage were derived from...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains ecological information collected on the major adult spawning and juvenile habitats of market squid off California and the US Pacific Northwest....
Bartell, S.M.; Gardner, R.H.; O'Neill, R.V.
Ecological risk assessment, the process that evaluates the likelihood that adverse ecological effects may occur or are occurring as a result of exposure to one or more stressors, is being developed by the US EPA as a tool for decision making. This book presents one approach to risk assessment-that of applying laboratory toxicity data within an ecosystem model to predict the potential ecological consequences of toxic chemicals. Both Standard Water Column Model (SWACOM), using zooplankton and fish, and Monte Carlo simulations are discussed in detail, along with quantitative explanations for many responses. Simplifying assumptions are explicitly presented. The final chapter discusses strengths, weaknesses, and future directions of the approach. The book is appropriate for anyone who does or uses ecological risk assessment methodologies
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — SWFSC is currently conducting a study of green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) trophic ecology in the eastern Pacific. Tissue samples and stable carbon and stable...
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This coverage provides information for the second level of the Ecological Classification System. The boundaries of the polygons of this coverage were derived from...
The analysis of the ecological Movement in France is presented: its organisation, its topics, its position with respect to the main political trends. The accent is put in particular on the antinuclear contestation [fr
Full Text Available The level of marine environmental management is a key factor in the successful implementation of marine power strategies. The improvement in management levels of marine environments requires innovation in marine management. In other words, the transformation of marine environmental management into marine ecological environment management must be done in order to achieve sustainable development of the marine economy. As an environmental economic policy that combines both administrative and market measures, ecological compensation mechanisms have significant advantages in marine ecological environment management. Based on the study of the current development of ecological compensation mechanisms in China, through the analysis of the connotation of marine ecological civilization, existing marine ecological protection practices and marine environmental management methods, this paper posits that the current marine ecological environment management in China should be established on the basis of ecological compensation mechanisms. At present, a lack of laws and regulations for overall marine ecological environment management is the key factor restricting the practice of marine ecological environment management. Therefore, it is necessary to explore the current path of marine ecological environment management in China from the perspective of the construction of legal system of ecological compensation law, the establishment of ecological compensation fees, ecological taxes and ecological compensation fund systems, and the clear status for a marine ecological management and supervision body.
Bruni, Luis Emilio
of the qualitative and relational aspects that can only be grasped by considering the semiotic networks operative in complex ecological and cultural systems. In this paper, it is suggested that a biosemiotic approach to ecology may prove useful for the modelling process, which in turn will allow the construction...... of meaningful monitoring systems. It is also contended that a biosemiotic approach may also serve to better integrate our understanding and monitoring of ecosystems into the cultural process of searching for (human) sustainability....
References to Sraffa and to the neo-Ricardian school is something quite customary in ecological economics. By looking at contributions in this area since the beginning of ecological economics and at contributions on environmental problem from the neo-Ricardian school, we see that a connection between both school still has to be made. This connection should be articulated around the initial aim of Sraffa: to develop a new paradigm, competing against the neoclassical one. Only then it will be p...
Schlesinger, William H
Translational ecology--a special discipline aimed to improve the accessibility of science to policy makers--will help hydrogeologists contribute to the solution of pressing environmental problems. Patterned after translational medicine, translational ecology is a partnership to ensure that the right science gets done in a timely fashion, so that it can be communicated to those who need it. © 2013, National Ground Water Association.
Bengtsen, Søren Smedegaard; Shumar, Wesley
), an ‘entrepreneurial ecology for higher education’: Crafting value Drawing on the work of the anthropologist David Graeber (2002), we argue that the notion of craftsmanship may be linked to the generation of value creation and student formation. This approach critiques the commodification of the university where...... people are busy stripping other human values out of a university education so they can focus on knowledge/information as a product to be packaged and sold in a marketplace. As crafters of value, students work from within society (a certain form of production), from within a an ecological mindset....... Lingis argues that academics must speak for those have no longer the ability to speak, or who have been silenced by others. Students must learn to draw forth voices of the silent, the silenced, and the absent. This is not just an ethical responsibility, but the creation of deep knowledge – to build...
Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine; Valentin, Karen; Nielsen, Gritt B.
; on the other hand, the rationale for strengthening mobility through internationalisation is based on an imagination of the potentials of particular locations (academic institutions). Intrigued by this tension between universality and particularity in academic knowledge production, this paper presents...... preliminary findings from a project that study internationalisation of higher education as an agent in the interrelated processes of place-making and knowledge-making. The project is based on three case-studies. In this paper, focus is on PhD students’ change of research environment. This is used as a case......Internationalisation of higher education is premised by a seeming paradox: On the one hand, academic knowledge strives to be universal in the sense that it claims to produce generalizable, valid and reliable knowledge that can be used, critiqued, and redeveloped by academics from all over the world...
Kauffmann, Lene Teglhus
as knowledge based on reflexive practices. I chose ‘health promotion’ as the field for my research as it utilises knowledge produced in several research disciplines, among these both quantitative and qualitative. I mapped out the institutions, actors, events, and documents that constituted the field of health...... of the research is to investigate what is considered to ‘work as evidence’ in health promotion and how the ‘evidence discourse’ influences social practices in policymaking and in research. From investigating knowledge practices in the field of health promotion, I develop the concept of sound knowledge...... result of a rigorous and standardized research method. However, this anthropological analysis shows that evidence and evidence-based is a hegemonic ‘way of knowing’ that sometimes transposes everyday reasoning into an epistemological form. However, the empirical material shows a variety of understandings...
Eisenhauer, Nico; Antunes, Pedro M; Bennett, Alison E; Birkhofer, Klaus; Bissett, Andrew; Bowker, Matthew A; Caruso, Tancredi; Chen, Baodong; Coleman, David C; de Boer, Wietse; de Ruiter, Peter; DeLuca, Thomas H; Frati, Francesco; Griffiths, Bryan S; Hart, Miranda M; Hättenschwiler, Stephan; Haimi, Jari; Heethoff, Michael; Kaneko, Nobuhiro; Kelly, Laura C; Leinaas, Hans Petter; Lindo, Zoë; Macdonald, Catriona; Rillig, Matthias C; Ruess, Liliane; Scheu, Stefan; Schmidt, Olaf; Seastedt, Timothy R; van Straalen, Nico M; Tiunov, Alexei V; Zimmer, Martin; Powell, Jeff R
The ecological interactions that occur in and with soil are of consequence in many ecosystems on the planet. These interactions provide numerous essential ecosystem services, and the sustainable management of soils has attracted increasing scientific and public attention. Although soil ecology emerged as an independent field of research many decades ago, and we have gained important insights into the functioning of soils, there still are fundamental aspects that need to be better understood to ensure that the ecosystem services that soils provide are not lost and that soils can be used in a sustainable way. In this perspectives paper, we highlight some of the major knowledge gaps that should be prioritized in soil ecological research. These research priorities were compiled based on an online survey of 32 editors of Pedobiologia - Journal of Soil Ecology. These editors work at universities and research centers in Europe, North America, Asia, and Australia.The questions were categorized into four themes: (1) soil biodiversity and biogeography, (2) interactions and the functioning of ecosystems, (3) global change and soil management, and (4) new directions. The respondents identified priorities that may be achievable in the near future, as well as several that are currently achievable but remain open. While some of the identified barriers to progress were technological in nature, many respondents cited a need for substantial leadership and goodwill among members of the soil ecology research community, including the need for multi-institutional partnerships, and had substantial concerns regarding the loss of taxonomic expertise.
Ulanowicz, R E
Ecology may indeed be 'deep', as some have maintained, but perhaps much of the mystery surrounding it owes more simply to the dissonance between ecological notions and the fundamentals of the modern synthesis. Comparison of the axioms supporting the Newtonian world view with those underlying the organicist and stochastic metaphors that motivate much of ecosystems science reveals strong disagreements--especially regarding the nature of the causes of events and the scalar domains over which these causes can operate. The late Karl Popper held that the causal closure forced by our mechanical perspective on nature frustrates our attempts to achieve an 'evolutionary theory of knowledge.' He suggested that the Newtonian concept of 'force' must be generalized to encompass the contingencies that arise in evolutionary processes. His reformulation of force as 'propensity' leads quite naturally to a generalization of Newton's laws for ecology. The revised tenets appear, however, to exhibit more scope and allow for change to arise from within a system. Although Newton's laws survive (albeit in altered form) within a coalescing ecological metaphysic, the axioms that Enlightenment thinkers appended to Newton's work seem ill-suited for ecology and perhaps should yield to a new and coherent set of assumptions on how to view the processes of nature.
Full Text Available There has been a notable increase in both consumer knowledge and awareness regarding the ecological benefits of green products and services. Manufacturers now pay more attention to green, environmentally friendly production processes. Two significant tools that can facilitate such a goal are life cycle assessment (LCA and ecological footprint (EF. This study aimed to analyse and determine the damage to the environment, focusing on the canned fruit and vegetable processing. Canned sweet corn (340 g was selected for the case study. All inputs and outputs associated with the product system boundary were collected through field surveys. The acquired inventory was then analysed and evaluated using both LCA and EF methodology. The results were converted into an area of biologically productive land and presented as global hectares (gha. The ecological footprint of one can of sweet corn was calculated as 6.51E-04 gha. The three factors with the highest impact on ecological footprint value were the corn kernels used in the process, the packaging and steam, equivalent to 2.93E-04 gha, 1.19E-04 gha and 1.17E-04 gha respectively. To promote the sustainable development, the company should develop new technology or utilize better management techniques to reduce the ecological footprint of canned food production.
Hald Nielsen, Bo; Nicolajsen, Katrine
For Økonomistyrelsen opstilles en teoretisk model over forudsætningerne for, at mmah er kan anvende knowledge management. Praksis vurderes dernæst i forhold til denne model.......For Økonomistyrelsen opstilles en teoretisk model over forudsætningerne for, at mmah er kan anvende knowledge management. Praksis vurderes dernæst i forhold til denne model....
Hendricks, Vincent Fella
Knowledge is not democratic, it is a regime. That is the clear message from Professor Vincent Hendricks. But do not be discouraged, through hard work and diligence everyone can achieve enlightenment and insight......Knowledge is not democratic, it is a regime. That is the clear message from Professor Vincent Hendricks. But do not be discouraged, through hard work and diligence everyone can achieve enlightenment and insight...
Rocha, J. C.; Malmborg, K.; Gordon, L.
Achieving sustainable development goals requires targeting and monitoring sustainable solutions tailored to different social and ecological contexts. Elinor Ostrom stressed that there is no panaceas or universal solutions to environmental problems, and developed a social-ecological systems' (SES) framework -a nested multi tier set of variables- to help diagnose problems, identify complex interactions, and solutions tailored to each SES arena. However, to our knowledge, the SES framework has only been applied to over a hundred cases, and typically reflect the analysis of local case studies with relatively small coverage in space and time. While case studies are context rich and necessary, their conclusions might not reach policy making instances. Here we develop a data driven method for upscaling Ostrom's SES framework and applied to a context where we expect data is scarce, incomplete, but also where sustainable solutions are badly needed. The purpose of upscaling the framework is to create a tool that facilitates decision making on data scarce environments such as developing countries. We mapped SES by applying the SES framework to poverty alleviation and food security issues in the Volta River basin in Ghana and Burkina Faso. We found archetypical configurations of SES in space given data availability, we study their change over time, and discuss where agricultural innovations such as water reservoirs might have a stronger impact at increasing food security and therefore alleviating poverty and hunger. We conclude outlining how the method can be used in other SES comparative studies.
Møller, Jan Kloppenborg; Carstensen, Jacob; Madsen, Henrik
the physical and biological knowledge of the system, and nonlinearities introduced here can generate regime shifts or enhance the probability of regime shifts in the case of stochastic models, typically characterized by a threshold value for the known driver. A simple model for light competition between...... definition and stability of regimes become less subtle. Ecological regime shifts and their modeling must be viewed in a probabilistic manner, particularly if such model results are to be used in ecosystem management....
Chaffin, Brian C.; Scown, Murray
Governance of coupled social-ecological systems (SESs) and the underlying geomorphic processes that structure and alter Earth's surface is a key challenge for global sustainability amid the increasing uncertainty and change that defines the Anthropocene. Social-ecological resilience as a concept of scientific inquiry has contributed to new understandings of the dynamics of change in SESs, increasing our ability to contextualize and implement governance in these systems. Often, however, the importance of geomorphic change and geomorphological knowledge is somewhat missing from processes employed to inform SES governance. In this contribution, we argue that geomorphology and social-ecological resilience research should be integrated to improve governance toward sustainability. We first provide definitions of engineering, ecological, community, and social-ecological resilience and then explore the use of these concepts within and alongside geomorphology in the literature. While ecological studies often consider geomorphology as an important factor influencing the resilience of ecosystems and geomorphological studies often consider the engineering resilience of geomorphic systems of interest, very few studies define and employ a social-ecological resilience framing and explicitly link the concept to geomorphic systems. We present five key concepts-scale, feedbacks, state or regime, thresholds and regime shifts, and humans as part of the system-which we believe can help explicitly link important aspects of social-ecological resilience inquiry and geomorphological inquiry in order to strengthen the impact of both lines of research. Finally, we discuss how these five concepts might be used to integrate social-ecological resilience and geomorphology to better understand change in, and inform governance of, SESs. To compound these dynamics of resilience, complex systems are nested and cross-scale interactions from smaller and larger scales relative to the system of interest
Van den Boomen, R.; Chaudhuri, N.; Heeb, J.; Jenssen, P.; Kalin, M.; Schönborn, A.; Brüll, A.; Van Bohemen, H.; Costanza, R.; Mitsch, W.J.
With the intention to further promote the field of ecological engineering and the solutions it provides, a workshop on “Benefits of Ecological Engineering Practices” was held 3 Dec 2009. It was conducted by the International Ecological Engineering Society in Paris at the conference “Ecological
Full Text Available We review characteristics of birds in boreal forests in the context of their ecological sustainability under both natural and anthropogenic disturbances. We identify the underlying ecological factors associated with boreal bird populations and their variability, review the interactions between boreal bird populations and disturbance, and describe some tools on how boreal bird populations may be conserved in the future. The boreal system has historically been an area with extensive disturbance such as fire, insect outbreaks, and wind. In addition, the boreal system is vulnerable to global climate change as well as increasing pressure on forest and water resources. Current knowledge indicates that birds play an important role in boreal forests, and sustaining these populations affords many benefits to the health of boreal forests. Many issues must be approached with caution, including the lack of knowledge on our ability to mimic natural disturbance regimes with management, our lack of understanding on fragmentation due to logging activity, which is different from permanent conversion to other land uses such as agriculture or residential area, and our lack of knowledge on what controls variability in boreal bird populations or the linkage between bird population fluctuations and productivity. The essential role that birds can provide is to clarify important ecological concerns and variables that not only will help to sustain bird populations, but also will contribute to the long-term health of the boreal forest for all species, including humans.
Wehi, Priscilla M
Traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) is central to indigenous worldviews and practices and is one of the most important contributions that indigenous people can bring to conservation management partnerships. However, researchers and managers may have difficulty accessing such knowledge, particularly where knowledge transmission has been damaged. A new methodological approach analyzes ancestral sayings from Maori oral traditions for ecological information about Phormium tenax, a plant with high cultural value that is a dominant component in many threatened wetland systems, and frequently used in restoration plantings in New Zealand. Maori ancestral sayings record an association with nectar-feeding native parrots that has only rarely been reported, as well as indications of important environmental parameters (rainfall and drought) for this species. These sayings provide evidence of indigenous management that has not been reported from interviews with elders, including evidence of fire use to create Phormium cultivations. TEK in Maori ancestral sayings imply landscape-scale processes in comparison to intensive, small-scale management methods often reported in interviews. TEK in ancestral sayings can be used to generate new scientific hypotheses, negotiate collaborative pathways, and identify ecological management strategies that support biodiversity retention. TEK can inform restoration ecology, historical ecology, and conservation management of species and ecosystems, especially where data from pollen records and archaeological artifacts are incomplete.
Deng, Ye; Jiang, Yi-Huei; Yang, Yunfeng; He, Zhili; Luo, Feng; Zhou, Jizhong
Understanding the interaction among different species within a community and their responses to environmental changes is a central goal in ecology. However, defining the network structure in a microbial community is very challenging due to their extremely high diversity and as-yet uncultivated status. Although recent advance of metagenomic technologies, such as high throughout sequencing and functional gene arrays, provide revolutionary tools for analyzing microbial community structure, it is still difficult to examine network interactions in a microbial community based on high-throughput metagenomics data. Here, we describe a novel mathematical and bioinformatics framework to construct ecological association networks named molecular ecological networks (MENs) through Random Matrix Theory (RMT)-based methods. Compared to other network construction methods, this approach is remarkable in that the network is automatically defined and robust to noise, thus providing excellent solutions to several common issues associated with high-throughput metagenomics data. We applied it to determine the network structure of microbial communities subjected to long-term experimental warming based on pyrosequencing data of 16 S rRNA genes. We showed that the constructed MENs under both warming and unwarming conditions exhibited topological features of scale free, small world and modularity, which were consistent with previously described molecular ecological networks. Eigengene analysis indicated that the eigengenes represented the module profiles relatively well. In consistency with many other studies, several major environmental traits including temperature and soil pH were found to be important in determining network interactions in the microbial communities examined. To facilitate its application by the scientific community, all these methods and statistical tools have been integrated into a comprehensive Molecular Ecological Network Analysis Pipeline (MENAP), which is open
The Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) is a research unit of the University of Georgia (UGA) that is managed in conjunction with the University's Institute of Ecology. The laboratory's overall mission is to acquire and communicate knowledge of ecological processes and principles. SREL conducts basic and applied ecological research, as well as education and outreach programs, under an M ampersand O contract with the US Department of Energy at the Savannah River Site. Significant accomplishments were made during the year ending July 31, 1994 in the areas of research, education and service. Reviewed in this document are research projects in the following areas: Environmental Operations Support (impacted wetlands, streams, trace organics, radioecology, database synthesis, wild life studies, zooplankton, safety and quality assurance); wood stork foraging and breeding ecology; defence waste processing facility; environmental risk assessment (endangered species, fish, ash basin studies); ecosystem alteration by chemical pollutants; wetlands systems; biodiversity on the SRS; Environmental toxicology; environmental outreach and education; Par Pond drawdown studies in wildlife and fish and metals; theoretical ecology; DOE-SR National Environmental Research Park; wildlife studies. Summaries of educational programs and publications are also give
The Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) is a research unit of the University of Georgia (UGA) that is managed in conjunction with the University`s Institute of Ecology. The laboratory`s overall mission is to acquire and communicate knowledge of ecological processes and principles. SREL conducts basic and applied ecological research, as well as education and outreach programs, under an M&O contract with the US Department of Energy at the Savannah River Site. Significant accomplishments were made during the year ending July 31, 1994 in the areas of research, education and service. Reviewed in this document are research projects in the following areas: Environmental Operations Support (impacted wetlands, streams, trace organics, radioecology, database synthesis, wild life studies, zooplankton, safety and quality assurance); wood stork foraging and breeding ecology; defence waste processing facility; environmental risk assessment (endangered species, fish, ash basin studies); ecosystem alteration by chemical pollutants; wetlands systems; biodiversity on the SRS; Environmental toxicology; environmental outreach and education; Par Pond drawdown studies in wildlife and fish and metals; theoretical ecology; DOE-SR National Environmental Research Park; wildlife studies. Summaries of educational programs and publications are also give.
A timely and strong contribution to a topic where there has been little existing ... She has worked extensively in Canada's North and is former research ... the DCI's 1989-91 Fort Good Hope TEK pilot project and the Fort Good Hope workshop.
Walker, Alexander Muir
Information that is not made explicit is nonetheless embedded in most of our standard procedures. In its simplest form, embedded information may take the form of prior knowledge held by the researcher and presumed to be agreed to by consumers of the research product. More interesting are the settings in which the prior information is held unconsciously by both researcher and reader, or when the very form of an "effective procedure" incorporates its creator's (unspoken) understanding of a problem. While it may not be productive to exhaustively detail the embedded or tacit knowledge that manifests itself in creative scientific work, at least at the beginning, we may want to routinize methods for extracting and documenting the ways of thinking that make "experts" expert. We should not back away from both expecting and respecting the tacit knowledge the pervades our work and the work of others.
Ghilarov, A M
For laymen, the word 'ecology' has become naturally surrounded with mythological mist. The influence of mythological thinking on ecology as a science is not so evident, but it certainly exists and in some aspects it can hardly be overestimated. The idea of the organism as a model or matrix for shaping new knowledge about populations, communities and ecosystems is extremely important in the maintenance of mythological thinking in modern ecology. We may even consider the organismic ideas as a vehicle of mythology in modern ecology. to this article, the problem is illustrated with limnology - an advanced branch of ecology in which it is easier to see the connections and contradictions between the dominant approaches. Copyright © 1992. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Ratzke, Christoph; Denk, Jonas; Gore, Jeff
The growth and survival of organisms often depend on interactions between them. In many cases, these interactions are positive and caused by a cooperative modification of the environment. Examples are the cooperative breakdown of complex nutrients in microbes or the construction of elaborate architectures in social insects, in which the individual profits from the collective actions of her peers. However, organisms can similarly display negative interactions by changing the environment in ways that are detrimental for them, for example by resource depletion or the production of toxic byproducts. Here we find an extreme type of negative interactions, in which Paenibacillus sp. bacteria modify the environmental pH to such a degree that it leads to a rapid extinction of the whole population, a phenomenon that we call ecological suicide. Modification of the pH is more pronounced at higher population densities, and thus ecological suicide is more likely to occur with increasing bacterial density. Correspondingly, promoting bacterial growth can drive populations extinct whereas inhibiting bacterial growth by the addition of harmful substances-such as antibiotics-can rescue them. Moreover, ecological suicide can cause oscillatory dynamics, even in single-species populations. We found ecological suicide in a wide variety of microbes, suggesting that it could have an important role in microbial ecology and evolution.
Full Text Available This is a brief survey of Marx and Engels’ views on ecology, from the viewpoint of their relevance for 21th Century ecosocialism. While there are some serious limitations in the way both consider the “development of productive forces”, there are powerfull insights in their discussion of the destructive consequences of capitalist expansion for the environment - an expansion that generates a disastrous metabolic rift in the exchanges between human societies and nature. Some ecological Marxists distinguish between “first stage ecosocialists” - who believe that Marx analyses on ecological issues are too incomplete and dated to be of real relevance today - and “second stage ecosocialists” that emphasize the contemporary methodological significance of Marx’s ecological critique of capitalism. This paper tries to argue for a third position (which probably could be accepted by several people of the two groups above: Marx and Engels discussion on ecological issues is incomplete and dated, but inspite these shortcomings, it has real relevance and methodological significance today.
Kogon, E.; Jungk, R.
Subjects: The ecology problem - world wide. Sectoral balances: The examples of energy, transportation, chemistry, agriculture and food industry, water supply. Destruction of nature and human discord. Conservatives in our political parties and their views on environmental protection. Alliance between reds and 'greens', integration between reds and greens. The Rhine initiative. Lead respects no borders, experiences of citizens' action groups in Lothringia and the Saar district. International airport Munich-II/comments by a protestant. 'Give priority to life'/A hearing on environmental protection. 4:96 - 'greens' in the Bremen Senate. Policy in a hard-hearing world/psychology of citizens' action groups. Critical ecological research and scientific establishment. Full productivity and ecology. The deluge to follow/Hints on how to build an ark. Symbiosis is more than coexistence/Ecologists' social theory. Throwing in two hundred elementary particles/on the way to an ecological concept of science. Scientific journals. Alternative literature. Teaching model for a teaching subject 'ecology'. (orig.) [de
Getz, Wayne M.; Marshall, Charles R.; Carlson, Colin J.; Giuggioli, Luca; Ryan, Sadie J.; Romañach, Stephanie; Boettiger, Carl; Chamberlain, Samuel D.; Larsen, Laurel; D'Odorico, Paolo; O'Sullivan, David
Critical evaluation of the adequacy of ecological models is urgently needed to enhance their utility in developing theory and enabling environmental managers and policymakers to make informed decisions. Poorly supported management can have detrimental, costly or irreversible impacts on the environment and society. Here, we examine common issues in ecological modelling and suggest criteria for improving modelling frameworks. An appropriate level of process description is crucial to constructing the best possible model, given the available data and understanding of ecological structures. Model details unsupported by data typically lead to over parameterisation and poor model performance. Conversely, a lack of mechanistic details may limit a model's ability to predict ecological systems’ responses to management. Ecological studies that employ models should follow a set of model adequacy assessment protocols that include: asking a series of critical questions regarding state and control variable selection, the determinacy of data, and the sensitivity and validity of analyses. We also need to improve model elaboration, refinement and coarse graining procedures to better understand the relevancy and adequacy of our models and the role they play in advancing theory, improving hind and forecasting, and enabling problem solving and management.
Worthington, E. B.
This essay attempts to reconstruct the evolution of Ecology as the scientific basis for environmental conservation and human progress, as seen through the eyes of a biologist who has exercised that science during a number of tasks in various parts of the world over most of the twentieth century. From its beginnings in evolutionary thinking during the nineteenth century, ecology emerged from natural history at the beginning of the twentieth. At first the running was made by botanists; but this was soon followed by zoologists, who dealt with more mobile communities. The first quarter-century was mainly exploratory; the second was mainly descriptive (although biological exploration was still dominant in the tropics). The third quarter saw ecology developing into an experimental science, and, as the environmental revolution got into its stride, ecology became organized both nationally and internationally. Although the term is now often misused and sometimes misunderstood by laymen, the last quarter-century is seeing the wide application of ecology in environmental and human affairs, and this gives some assurance that the twenty-first century will not become one of chaos.
Garavito-Bermúdez, Diana; Lundholm, Cecilia; Crona, Beatrice
This paper addresses a systemic approach for the study of fishers' ecological knowledge in order to describe fishers' ways of knowing and dealing with complexity in ecosystems, and discusses how knowledge is generated through, e.g. apprenticeship, experiential knowledge, and testing of hypotheses. The description and analysis of fishers'…
Rustamova Fakhrida Nazim
Full Text Available The article describes the formation of ecological culture and education of schoolchildren. The main goal of environmental education in schools - to bring conservationists, environmental knowledge to teach children to be compassionate, to love and protect nature, carefully dispose of its wealth. It is desirable that when teaching ecology students and pupils used a variety of games. This will have a positive impact on their environmental education.
The chapter aims to develop conceptions of practical knowledge, relevant to skills and Bildung in engineering science. The starting point is Francis Bacon’s ideas of new science, developed 400 years ago. It is argued that Bacon’s vision has become dogmatized during the course of history, whereas....... Furthermore, and still with reference to truth, utility, and goodness, it is claimed that unification of skills and Bildung should include the ability to deal with complexity. A second-order complexity challenges the search for adequacy between; a) the complexity of knowledge-creation; and b) the complexity...
Full Text Available Currently world faces the dilemma – ecological economy or economic(al ecology. The researchers produce hundreds of surveys on the topic. However the analyses of recent most cited simulations had shown the diversity of results. Thus, for some states the Kuznets environmental curve has place, for others – no. Same could be said about different years for the same state. It provokes the necessity of drawing new group analyses to reveal the tendencies and relationships between economic and environmental factors. Most flexible and mirror factor of environmental sustainability is the volume of CO2 emissions. The econometric analysis was used for detecting the economic impact on this indicator at the global level and in the spectra of group of states depending on their income. The hypothesis of the existence of environmental Kuznets curve for the analysed data is rejected. Real GDP per capita impact on carbon dioxide emissions is considered only at the global level. The impact of openness of the economy is weak. Rejection happened also to the hypothesis that for the developed countries there is a reverse dependence between the environmental pollution and economic openness. Indicator “energy consumption per capita” impacts on greenhouse gas emissions only in countries with high income. Whereby it should be noted that the more developed a country is, the more elastic is this influence. These results have a potential usage for environmental policy regulation and climate strategy.
Thomas, J.M.; Eberhardt, L.L.
Quantitative problems in accomplishing ecological impact assessment with particular reference to defining population effects are discussed with some comments on the two approaches most commonly used, e.g., the experimental and simulation models. Some alternatives are suggested because both methods will probably fail to detect real population effects mostly due to poor understanding of ecosystems or because of the limitations inherent in field census methods. Most judgments of ecological impact are not quantitatively defensible but are qualitative, subjective, or political in nature. An examination of aggregates of data from various nuclear power plant sites may be one way to obtain enough replication to judge ecological impact. Thus, currently available data from such studies as well as appropriate demographic, vegetation, census, and bibliographic material could offer an interesting challenge to computer professionals if such an undertaking were contemplated. Present research programs at PNL and computer involvement are described. Future possibilities and directions are discussed. (U.S.)
Borcard, Daniel; Legendre, Pierre
This new edition of Numerical Ecology with R guides readers through an applied exploration of the major methods of multivariate data analysis, as seen through the eyes of three ecologists. It provides a bridge between a textbook of numerical ecology and the implementation of this discipline in the R language. The book begins by examining some exploratory approaches. It proceeds logically with the construction of the key building blocks of most methods, i.e. association measures and matrices, and then submits example data to three families of approaches: clustering, ordination and canonical ordination. The last two chapters make use of these methods to explore important and contemporary issues in ecology: the analysis of spatial structures and of community diversity. The aims of methods thus range from descriptive to explanatory and predictive and encompass a wide variety of approaches that should provide readers with an extensive toolbox that can address a wide palette of questions arising in contemporary mul...
The US Fish and Wildlife Service has initiated the production of a comprehensive ecological inventory map series for use as a major new planning tool. Important species data along with special land use designations are displayed on 1:250,000 scale topographic base maps. Sets of maps have been published for the Atlantic and Pacific coastal areas of the United States. Preparation of a map set for the Gulf of Mexico is underway at the present time. Potential application of ecological inventory map series information to a typical land disposal facility could occur during the narrowing of the number of possible disposal sites, the design of potential disposal site studies of ecological resources, the preparation of the environmental report, and the regulatory review of license applications. 3 figures, 3 tables
Blevis, Eli; Bødker, Susanne; Flach, John
The aim of the workshop is to provide a forum for researchers and practitioners to discuss the present and future of ecological perspectives in HCI. The participants will reflect on the current uses and interpretations of “ecology” and related concepts in the field. The workshop will assess the p...... the potential of ecological perspectives in HCI for supporting rich and meaningful analysis, as well as innovative design, of interactive technologies in real-life contexts......The aim of the workshop is to provide a forum for researchers and practitioners to discuss the present and future of ecological perspectives in HCI. The participants will reflect on the current uses and interpretations of “ecology” and related concepts in the field. The workshop will assess...
Kallis, Giorgos [ICREA Researcher, ICTA, Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona, ETSE, QC/3095, 08193 Bellatera, Barcelona (Spain); Norgaard, Richard B. [Energy and Resources Group, University of California at Berkeley, 310 Barrows Hall, Berkeley, CA, 94720-3050 (United States)
This paper maps a coevolutionary research agenda for ecological economics. At an epistemological level coevolution offers a powerful logic for transcending environmental and social determinisms and developing a cross-disciplinary approach in the study of socio-ecological systems. We identify four consistent stories emerging out of coevolutionary studies in ecological economics, concerning: environmental degradation and development failure in peripheral regions; the lock-in of unsustainable production-consumption patterns; the vicious cycle between human efforts to control undesirable micro-organisms and the evolution of these organisms; and the adaptive advantages of other-regarding, cooperative behaviors and institutions. We identify challenges in the conceptualization of coevolutionary relationships in relation to: the interaction between different hierarchical levels of evolution; the role of space and social power; uneven rates of change and crises. We conclude with the political implications of a coevolutionary perspective based on the premises of pragmatism. (author)
-organizational search strategy that spans technological boundaries and involves the formation and search among weak ties. The findings show how knowledge brokering is influenced by the make-up of the technology involved, the technological distance between the two parties and why weak ties are less likely to collaborate...
The great icons of industrial and architectural design are cornerstones of our material culture. They are referred to again and again in education, research and cultural debate, and as such they have become nodal points of human discourse. The knowledge embedded in such artefacts has often been...... referred to as ‘silent knowledge’....
Witzke, Anne Sophie
The discourse of ecology and sustainability has gained critical traction in recent years. But how are these concepts framed within the space, language and idea of the exhibition? This panel discussion, moderated by Steven Lam and conducted by email in July 2012, sought to unpack the claims...... and limits of the ecological, looking specifically at various international case studies, within the practice of curatorial and exhibition studies. The discussion begins with a reflection on ‘DON'T/PANIC’ in Durban and ‘Rethink – Contemporary Art and Climate Change’ in Copenhagen, exhibitions that were...
as a result of this invasion and its ecological and economic impacts. In 2005, when M. leidyi was sighted in Northern Europe for the first time, similar consequences were feared. The aim of my PhD project was to understand the potential impact of M. leidyi on the Baltic Sea ecosystem and constrains on its...... in high and intermediate saline areas in Northern Europe. While the ecological impact of M. leidyi in the central Baltic appears to be limited concern, the environment in other European waters should be more favourable to their populations. In these areas, it is suggested that M. leidyi constitutes...
Norton, Bryan G
A post-positivist understanding of ecological science and the call for an "ecological ethic" indicate the need for a radically new approach to evaluating environmental change. The positivist view of science cannot capture the essence of environmental sciences because the recent work of "reflexive" ecological modelers shows that this requires a reconceptualization of the way in which values and ecological models interact in scientific process. Reflexive modelers are ecological modelers who believe it is appropriate for ecologists to examine the motives for their choices in developing models; this self-reflexive approach opens the door to a new way of integrating values into public discourse and to a more comprehensive approach to evaluating ecological change. This reflexive building of ecological models is introduced through the transformative simile of Aldo Leopold, which shows that learning to "think like a mountain" involves a shift in both ecological modeling and in values and responsibility. An adequate, interdisciplinary approach to ecological valuation, requires a re-framing of the evaluation questions in entirely new ways, i.e., a review of the current status of interdisciplinary value theory with respect to ecological values reveals that neither of the widely accepted theories of environmental value-neither economic utilitarianism nor intrinsic value theory (environmental ethics)-provides a foundation for an ecologically sensitive evaluation process. Thus, a new, ecologically sensitive, and more comprehensive approach to evaluating ecological change would include an examination of the metaphors that motivate the models used to describe environmental change.
Macusi, Edison D.; Abreo, Neil A.S.; Babaran, Ricardo P.
The Fishing Industry in the Philippines plays an important role in the food and employment need of Filipino fishers. By using anchored Fish Aggregating Devices (FADs or payao), the Philippine tuna fisheries was transformed into a million-dollar industry. Minimal studies on exploitation rates and
Cowley-Durst, Barbara; Christensen, Hal D.; Degler, Duane; Weidner, Douglas; Feldstein, Michael
Five knowledge management (KM) experts discuss answers to six fundamental issues of KM that address: a definition of knowledge and KM; relationship between business and KM; whether technology has helped the knowledge worker; relationship between learning, performance, knowledge, and community; the promise of knowledge ecology or ecosystem and…
The most valuable resource available to any organization today is its knowledge asset which is stored in processes and information systems, corporate data warehouses, employees’ brains, copyrights and patents. Knowledge management is the process of capturing, distributing, and effectively using this knowledge. The factors affecting Knowledge Management can be listed as follows: organizational culture, knowledge manager, the evolution of knowledge, knowledge polution and technology.
Mauz, I.; Peltola, T.; Granjou, C.; Bommel, van S.; Buijs, A.E.
Long-Term Socio-Ecological Research (LTSER) has been introduced to change the current approach to ecology and turn it into a big science. LTSER Platforms are currently being created across Europe. They are expected to enhance ecology's capacity to produce useful knowledge for facing global
Li, Yun-Kai; Gong, Yi; Chen, Xin-Jun
Cephalopods play an important role in marine food webs, however, knowledge about their complex life history, especially their feeding ecology, remains limited. With the rapidly increasing use of stable isotope analysis (SIA) in ecology, it becomes a powerful tool and complement of traditional methods for investigating the trophic ecology and migration patterns of invertebrates. Here, after summarizing the current methods for trophic ecology investigation of cephalopods, applications of SIA in studying the trophic ecology of cephalopods were reviewed, including the key issues such as standardization of available tissues for SIA analyzing, diet shift and migration patterns of cephalopods, with the aim of advancing its application in the biology of cephalopods in the future.
Knowledge on Sclerocarya birrea subsp. caffra with emphasis on its importance as a non-timber forest product in South and southern Africa: a summary: Part 1: Taxonomy, ecology and role in rural livelihoods: review paper.
Johnson, Letitia K.; Ryan, Michael
In this course guide to the teaching of urban ecology, six learning activities on the following topics are outlined: (1) city location and growth; (2) an in-depth study of New Orleans; (3) city shape and structure; (4) size and spacing of cities; (5) cities with special functions; (6) local community study. Educational objectives for each activity…
Kennedy, Clive Russell
... of these habitats that enable them to cope with and overcome these difficulties. The third section is concerned with population ecology, and emphasises that although individual parasites have to face and overcome particular problems, parasitism is essentially a dynamic relationship between two species populations.
Gomez Giraldo, Luis Jair
The present article examines the transformation that the construction of the theoretical body of ecology as a science has been going through since it first appeared in the XIX century within the logic of classical science until recent developments comprised within complex systemic. Mainly departing from the analysis from thermodynamics of irreversible phenomena
Anaya, Juan-Manuel; Ramirez-Santana, Carolina; Alzate, Maria A; Molano-Gonzalez, Nicolas; Rojas-Villarraga, Adriana
Autoimmune diseases (ADs) represent a heterogeneous group of disorders that affect specific target organs or multiple organ systems. These conditions share common immunopathogenic mechanisms (i.e., the autoimmune tautology), which explain the clinical similarities they have among them as well as their familial clustering (i.e., coaggregation). As part of the autoimmune tautology, the influence of environmental exposure on the risk of developing ADs is paramount (i.e., the autoimmune ecology). In fact, environment, more than genetics, shapes immune system. Autoimmune ecology is akin to exposome, that is all the exposures - internal and external - across the lifespan, interacting with hereditary factors (both genetics and epigenetics) to favor or protect against autoimmunity and its outcomes. Herein, we provide an overview of the autoimmune ecology, focusing on the immune response to environmental agents in general, and microbiota, cigarette smoking, alcohol and coffee consumption, socioeconomic status (SES), gender and sex hormones, vitamin D, organic solvents, and vaccines in particular. Inclusion of the autoimmune ecology in disease etiology and health will improve the way personalized medicine is currently conceived and applied.
Satchell, J E
The article is dedicated to the problems of combining mass tourism in certain countries of Western Europe and environmental protection (OOS) requirements. The ecological damage from recreation is examined and the throughput of the medium is evaluated. The author proposes development of regulable, managable and controllable recreation use of natural resources and landscapes using selective advertising of the recreation sites.
Kowalchuk, G.A.; Bruijn, de F.J.; Head, I.M.; Akkermans, A.D.L.
The field of microbial ecology has been revolutionized in the past two decades by the introduction of molecular methods into the toolbox of the microbial ecologist. This molecular arsenal has helped to unveil the enormity of microbial diversity across the breadth of the earth's ecosystems, and has
Haught, John F.
Examines eschatology as the heart of Christian faith, suggesting that an appreciation of an eschatological interpretation of the cosmos enables acceptance of nature's transience and a grounding for an ecological ethic. Maintains that recent scientific developments present a promising, rather than pessimistic, picture of the universe. Holds that…
Groth, Sanne Krogh; Samson, Kristine
. The article concludes that the ways in which recent sound installations work with urban ecologies vary. While two of the examples blend into the urban environment, the other transfers the concert format and its mode of listening to urban space. Last, and in accordance with recent soundscape research, we point...
Kuhlisch, Constanze; Pohnert, Georg
Chemical ecology elucidates the nature and role of natural products as mediators of organismal interactions. The emerging techniques that can be summarized under the concept of metabolomics provide new opportunities to study such environmentally relevant signaling molecules. Especially comparative tools in metabolomics enable the identification of compounds that are regulated during interaction situations and that might play a role as e.g. pheromones, allelochemicals or in induced and activated defenses. This approach helps overcoming limitations of traditional bioassay-guided structure elucidation approaches. But the power of metabolomics is not limited to the comparison of metabolic profiles of interacting partners. Especially the link to other -omics techniques helps to unravel not only the compounds in question but the entire biosynthetic and genetic re-wiring, required for an ecological response. This review comprehensively highlights successful applications of metabolomics in chemical ecology and discusses existing limitations of these novel techniques. It focuses on recent developments in comparative metabolomics and discusses the use of metabolomics in the systems biology of organismal interactions. It also outlines the potential of large metabolomics initiatives for model organisms in the field of chemical ecology.
Hampton, Stephanie E.; Galloway, Aaron W. E.; Powers, Stephen M.; Ozersky, Ted; Woo, Kara H.; Batt, Ryan D.; Labou, Stephanie G.; O'Reilly, Catherine M.; Sharma, Sapna; Lottig, Noah R.; Stanley, Emily H.; North, Rebecca L.; Stockwell, Jason D.; Adrian, Rita; Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A.; Arvola, Lauri; Baulch, Helen M.; Bertani, Isabella; Bowman, Larry L., Jr.; Carey, Cayelan C.; Catalan, Jordi; Colom-Montero, William; Domine, Leah M.; Felip, Marisol; Granados, Ignacio; Gries, Corinna; Grossart, Hans-Peter; Haberman, Juta; Haldna, Marina; Hayden, Brian; Higgins, Scott N.; Jolley, Jeff C.; Kahilainen, Kimmo K.; Kaup, Enn; Kehoe, Michael J.; MacIntyre, Sally; Mackay, Anson W.; Mariash, Heather L.; Mckay, Robert M.; Nixdorf, Brigitte; Noges, Peeter; Noges, Tiina; Palmer, Michelle; Pierson, Don C.; Post, David M.; Pruett, Matthew J.; Rautio, Milla; Read, Jordan S.; Roberts, Sarah L.; Ruecker, Jacqueline; Sadro, Steven; Silow, Eugene A.; Smith, Derek E.; Sterner, Robert W.; Swann, George E. A.; Timofeyev, Maxim A.; Toro, Manuel; Twiss, Michael R.; Vogt, Richard J.; Watson, Susan B.; Whiteford, Erika J.; Xenopoulos, Marguerite A.
Winter conditions are rapidly changing in temperate ecosystems, particularly for those that experi-ence periods of snow and ice cover. Relatively little is known of winter ecology in these systems,due to a historical research focus on summer ‘growing seasons’. We executed the ﬁrst global
Full Text Available Autoimmune diseases (ADs represent a heterogeneous group of disorders that affect specific target organs or multiple organ systems. These conditions share common immunopathogenic mechanisms (i.e., the autoimmune tautology, which explain the clinical similarities they have among them as well as their familial clustering (i.e., coaggregation. As part of the autoimmune tautology, the influence of environmental exposure on the risk of developing ADs is paramount (i.e., the autoimmune ecology. In fact, environment, more than genetics, shapes immune system. Autoimmune ecology is akin to exposome, that is all the exposures - internal and external - across the lifespan, interacting with hereditary factors (both genetics and epigenetics to favor or protect against autoimmunity and its outcomes. Herein we provide an overview of the autoimmune ecology, focusing on the immune response to environmental agents in general, and microbiota, cigarette smoking, alcohol and coffee consumption, socioeconomic status, gender and sex hormones, vitamin D, organic solvents and vaccines in particular. Inclusion of the autoimmune ecology in disease etiology and health will improve the way personalized medicine is currently conceived and applied.
Xuan, Le Van; Ngoc, Nguyen Khac; Lan, Nguyen Tri; Viet, Nguyen Ai
After almost 30 years of development, it is not controversial issue that the so–called Tsallis entropy provides a useful approach to studying the complexity where the non–additivity of the systems under consideration is frequently met. Also, in the ecological research, Tsallis entropy, or in other words, q –entropy has been found itself as a generalized approach to define a range of diversity indices including Shannon–Wiener and Simpson indices. As a further stage of development in theoretical research, a thermodynamic theory based on Tsallis entropy or diversity indices in ecology has to be constructed for ecological systems to provide knowledge of ecological macroscopic behaviors. The standard method of theoretical physics is used in the manipulation and the equivalence between phenomenological thermodynamics and ecological aspects is the purpose of the ongoing research. The present work is in the line of the authors research to implement Tsallis non–extensivity approach to obtain the most important thermodynamic quantities of ecological systems such as internal energy U q and temperature T q based on a given modeled truncated Boltzmann distribution of the Whittaker plot for a dataset. These quantities have their own ecological meaning, especially the temperature T q provides the insight of equilibrium condition among ecological systems as it is well–known in 0th law of thermodynamics. (paper)
Van Xuan, Le; Khac Ngoc, Nguyen; Lan, Nguyen Tri; Viet, Nguyen Ai
After almost 30 years of development, it is not controversial issue that the so-called Tsallis entropy provides a useful approach to studying the complexity where the non-additivity of the systems under consideration is frequently met. Also, in the ecological research, Tsallis entropy, or in other words, q-entropy has been found itself as a generalized approach to define a range of diversity indices including Shannon-Wiener and Simpson indices. As a further stage of development in theoretical research, a thermodynamic theory based on Tsallis entropy or diversity indices in ecology has to be constructed for ecological systems to provide knowledge of ecological macroscopic behaviors. The standard method of theoretical physics is used in the manipulation and the equivalence between phenomenological thermodynamics and ecological aspects is the purpose of the ongoing research. The present work is in the line of the authors research to implement Tsallis non-extensivity approach to obtain the most important thermodynamic quantities of ecological systems such as internal energy Uq and temperature Tq based on a given modeled truncated Boltzmann distribution of the Whittaker plot for a dataset. These quantities have their own ecological meaning, especially the temperature Tq provides the insight of equilibrium condition among ecological systems as it is well-known in 0th law of thermodynamics.
Scott, M.J.; Bilyard, G.R.; Link, S.O.; Ricci, P.F.; Seely, H.E.; Ulibarri, C.A.; Westerdahl, H.E.
Ecological resources are resources that have functional value to ecosystems. Frequently, these functions are overlooked in terms of the value they provide to humans. Environmental economics is in search of an appropriate analysis framework for such resources. In such a framework, it is essential to distinguish between two related subsets of information: (1) ecological processes that have intrinsic value to natural ecosystems; and (2) ecological functions that are values by humans. The present study addresses these concerns by identifying a habitat that is being displaced by development, and by measuring the human and ecological values associated with the ecological resources in that habitat. It is also essential to determine which functions are mutually exclusive and which are, in effect, complementary or products of joint production. The authors apply several resource valuation tools, including contingent valuation methodology (CVM), travel cost methodology (TCM), and hedonic damage-pricing (HDP). One way to derive upper-limit values for more difficult-to-value functions is through the use of human analogs, because human-engineered systems are relatively inefficient at supplying the desired services when compared with natural systems. Where data on the relative efficiencies of natural systems and human analogs exist, it is possible to adjust the costs of providing the human analog by the relative efficiency of the natural system to obtain a more realistic value of the function under consideration. The authors demonstrate this approach in an environmental economic case study of the environmental services rendered by shrub-steppe habitats of Benton County, Washington State.
Van Bocxlaer, Bert
Ecological processes, non-ecological processes or a combination of both may cause reproductive isolation and speciation, but their specific roles and potentially complex interactions in evolutionary radiations remain poorly understood, which defines a central knowledge gap at the interface of microevolution and macroevolution. Here I examine genome scans in combination with phenotypic and environmental data to disentangle how ecological and non-ecological processes contributed to population differentiation and speciation in an ongoing radiation of Lanistes gastropods from the Malawi Basin. I found a remarkable hierarchical structure of differentiation mechanisms in space and time: neutral and mutation-order processes are older and occur mainly between regions, whereas more recent adaptive processes are the main driver of genetic differentiation and reproductive isolation within regions. The strongest differentiation occurs between habitats and between regions, i.e. when ecological and non-ecological processes act synergistically. The structured occurrence of these processes based on the specific geographical setting and ecological opportunities strongly influenced the potential for evolutionary radiation. The results highlight the importance of interactions between various mechanisms of differentiation in evolutionary radiations, and suggest that non-ecological processes are important in adaptive radiations, including those of cichlids. Insight into such interactions is critical to understanding large-scale patterns of organismal diversity. © 2017 The Author(s).
Ecological periodic tables are repositories of reliable information on quantitative, predictably recurring (periodic) habitat–community patterns and their uncertainty, scaling and transferability. Their reliability derives from their grounding in sound ecological principle...
The Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) is a research unit of the University of Georgia (UGA). The overall mission of the Laboratory is to acquire and communicate knowledge of ecological processes and principles. SREL conducts basic and applied ecological research, as well as education and outreach programs, under a contract with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina. Significant accomplishments were made during the past year in the areas of research, education and service. The Laboratory's research mission was fulfilled with the publication of two books and 143 journal articles and book chapters by faculty, technical and students, and visiting scientists. An additional three books and about 80 journal articles currently are in press. Faculty, technician and students presented 193 lectures, scientific presentations, and posters to colleges and universities, including minority institutions. Dr. J Vaun McArthur organized and conducted the Third Annual SREL Symposium on the Environment: New Concepts in Strewn Ecology: An Integrative Approach. Dr. Michael Newman conducted a 5-day course titled Quantitative Methods in Ecotoxicology, and Dr. Brian Teppen of The Advanced Analytical Center for Environmental Sciences (AACES) taught a 3-day short course titled Introduction to Molecular Modeling of Environmental Systems. Dr. I. Lehr Brisbin co-hosted a meeting of the Crocodile Special Interest Group. Dr. Rebecca Sharitz attended four symposia in Japan during May and June 1996 and conducted meetings of the Executive Committee and Board of the International Association for Ecology (ENTECOL)
The Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) is a research unit of the University of Georgia (UGA). The overall mission of the Laboratory is to acquire and communicate knowledge of ecological processes and principles. SREL conducts basic and applied ecological research, as well as education and outreach programs, under a contract with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina. Significant accomplishments were made during the past year in the areas of research, education and service. The Laboratory`s research mission was fulfilled with the publication of two books and 143 journal articles and book chapters by faculty, technical and students, and visiting scientists. An additional three books and about 80 journal articles currently are in press. Faculty, technician and students presented 193 lectures, scientific presentations, and posters to colleges and universities, including minority institutions. Dr. J Vaun McArthur organized and conducted the Third Annual SREL Symposium on the Environment: New Concepts in Strewn Ecology: An Integrative Approach. Dr. Michael Newman conducted a 5-day course titled Quantitative Methods in Ecotoxicology, and Dr. Brian Teppen of The Advanced Analytical Center for Environmental Sciences (AACES) taught a 3-day short course titled Introduction to Molecular Modeling of Environmental Systems. Dr. I. Lehr Brisbin co-hosted a meeting of the Crocodile Special Interest Group. Dr. Rebecca Sharitz attended four symposia in Japan during May and June 1996 and conducted meetings of the Executive Committee and Board of the International Association for Ecology (ENTECOL).
The problems of the ecology of human are considered. The notion of ''the ecology of human'' is discussed from the viewpoint of human rights and responsibilities in reference to the environment. The ecological factors affecting the men and the ecosystems as a whole are considered. It is emphasized that the ecological problems should be solved not only globally, but also for concrete ecosystems with consideration for their specific features. (author)
Durao, Frederico; Dolog, Peter; Grolin, Daniel
The Knowledge model for project management serves several goals:Introducing relevant concepts of project management area for software development (Section 1). Reviewing and understanding the real case requirements from the industrial perspective. (Section 2). Giving some preliminary suggestions...... for usage in KIWI system (Sections 3). This document is intended for technological partners to understand how for example the software development concepts can be applied to a semantic wiki framework....
Shove, E. [Lancaster Univ., Centre for the Study of Environmental Change (United Kingdom)
James Thurber`s grandmother `lived the latter years of her life in the horrible suspicion that electricity was dripping invisibly all over the house`. The idea that electricity might leak from empty light sockets is both bizarre and at the same time strangely plausible. Delivered in a variety of forms, gas, electricity, oil, coal, wood etc.; energy permits countless services and is embodied in almost everything we find around us. Both everywhere, and nowhere, it remains a mysterious if not magical feature of everyday life. So the image of leaking light sockets is appealing not just because it is a quaintly ridiculous idea conjured up by a confused old lady but because it precisely articulates lingering uncertainty about the intangible qualities of this most pervasive resource. Taking the invisibility of energy as a point of departure, this paper explores the different kind of knowledge we have of energy use. Although the technologies of domestic energy measurement are familiar enough, we know what a meter looks like and we all get energy bills, it still requires an act of faith to believe in the `reality` of energy consumption. Those who have learned the official languages of energy efficiency have access to richer vocabularies of revealing terminology and can talk more confidently in terms of kilowatts, U values and the rest. But how do these different knowledge relate, and how do different ways of knowing energy influence perceptions of the possibilities and problems of energy conservation? In exploring these issues, the paper re-examines theories of energy and knowledge implicit in energy policy and energy related research. (au) 22 refs.
Sørensen, Ole Henning
The knowledge test is about competing temporal and spatial expressions of the politics of technological development and national prosperity in contemporary society. The discussion is based on literature of national systems of innovation and industrial networks of various sorts. Similarities...... and differences in the disparate theories are discussed through a critical perspective on metaphor, time, space, agency and technology. It is asserted that the process of globalization is leading to a new production of space-time perceptions and practices where localization and globalization is becoming...... increasingly important. National space is being contested and nation states need to perform differently....
Hatice Handan ÖZTEMİZ
Full Text Available Öz: Bu çalışmada ilk olarak bir üçüncü parti lojistik (3PL firmasının performansı çok boyutlu performans yöntemlerinden Dengelenmiş Skor Kart (BSC ile ölçülmüştür. BSC’ de yer alan 24 ölçüt, uzman görüşü alınarak Analitik Ağ Süreci (ANP analizi ile ağırlıklandırılmıştır. Ölçütlerin kutupluluğu baz alınarak azalması ve artması beklenen iki adet tek skor elde edilmiştir. Firmanın beklenen performans hedef skorlarına ulaşabilme olasılığını hesaplamak için Markov zincirleri analizi yapılmıştır. Sonuç olarak, % 90 ve üstü zamanında teslimat oranları hedefindeki firma beklentisi % 84 olasılıkla ulaşılabilir bulunmuştur. Abstract: In this study, firstly a third party logistics (3PL company’s performance was measured by the multi-dimensional performance method of the Balanced Scorecard (BSC. According to experts opinion, 24 criterias are located in BSC was weighted by Analytic Network Process (ANP analysis. Two scores were obtained that are expected to decrease and increase according to the polarity of criterias. In order to estimate the probablity of reaching expected company’s performance target score, Markov Chains was performed. As a result of the analysis the firms expectations on the 90% and over timely delivery rate can be obtained with the probablity of 84 %.
This article is about politics of difference and sameness that accompany the enactment of globality. Is is about the dynamic of the imperial globality and its global regime of coloniality as one of the most salient features of the modern colonial world system in the early twenty first century. It is also, in a literal sense, about the geopolitics of knowledge. It develops its argument, in part, borrowing from Joan Martinez Alier's definition of political ecology as the study of ecological distribution conflicts. It argues that a Eurocentric globality has an obligatory counterpart in the systematic act of encubrimiento del otro. Kinds of global coloniality Six concepts are key to understand this argument: place, capital, nature, development e identity, Colombia is a theater of this imperial globality
Robert L. Deal; Constance A. Harrington
In March 23-25, 2005, an international symposium on red alder was held at the University of Washington Center for Urban Horticulture in Seattle, WA. The symposium was entitled "Red alder: A State of Knowledge" and brought together regional experts to critically examine the economic, ecological and social values of red alder. The primary goal of the symposium...
Reyes-García, Victoria; Díaz-Reviriego, Isabel; Duda, Romain; Fernández-Llamazares, Álvaro; Gallois, Sandrine; Guèze, Maximilien; Napitupulu, Lucentezza; Pyhälä, Aili
We assess the consistency of measures of individual local ecological knowledge obtained through peer evaluation against three standard measures: identification tasks, structured questionnaires, and self-reported skills questionnaires. We collected ethnographic information among the Baka (Congo), the Punan (Borneo), and the Tsimane' (Amazon) to…
Coutts, Christopher; Forkink, Annet; Weiner, Jocelyn
This paper explores the conceptualization of the natural environment in an evolving ecological public health paradigm. The natural environment has long been recognized as essential to supporting life, health, and wellbeing. Our understanding of the relationship between the natural environment and health has steadily evolved from one of an undynamic environment to a more sophisticated understanding of ecological interactions. This evolution is reflected in a number of ecological public health models which demonstrate the many external and overlapping determinants of human health. Six models are presented here to demonstrate this evolution, each model reflecting an increasingly ecological appreciation for the fundamental role of the natural environment in supporting human health. We conclude that after decades of public health's acceptance of the ecological paradigm, we are only now beginning to assemble knowledge of sophisticated ecological interdependencies and apply this knowledge to the conceptualization and study of the relationship between the natural environment and the determinants of human health.
Lewinsohn, Thomas M; Attayde, José Luiz; Fonseca, Carlos Roberto; Ganade, Gislene; Jorge, Leonardo Ré; Kollmann, Johannes; Overbeck, Gerhard E; Prado, Paulo Inácio; Pillar, Valério D; Popp, Daniela; da Rocha, Pedro L B; Silva, Wesley Rodrigues; Spiekermann, Annette; Weisser, Wolfgang W
Ecological science contributes to solving a broad range of environmental problems. However, lack of ecological literacy in practice often limits application of this knowledge. In this paper, we highlight a critical but often overlooked demand on ecological literacy: to enable professionals of various careers to apply scientific knowledge when faced with environmental problems. Current university courses on ecology often fail to persuade students that ecological science provides important tools for environmental problem solving. We propose problem-based learning to improve the understanding of ecological science and its usefulness for real-world environmental issues that professionals in careers as diverse as engineering, public health, architecture, social sciences, or management will address. Courses should set clear learning objectives for cognitive skills they expect students to acquire. Thus, professionals in different fields will be enabled to improve environmental decision-making processes and to participate effectively in multidisciplinary work groups charged with tackling environmental issues.
Rogério P. de Andrade
Full Text Available O artigo discute a natureza do conhecimento em um ambiente sócio-econômico caracterizado por incerteza genuína. O ponto de partida é considerar que ambientes incertos tornam o conhecimento falível e contingente. O conhecimento é falível tanto em virtude de interações no espaço que acontecem ao mesmo tempo (complexidade, como devido à passagem do tempo. O artigo enfatiza dois tipos de conhecimento: “knowledge how” e “knowledge that”. O primeiro consiste em um tipo de conhecimento acerca do modo como fazemos algo e o segundo em um tipo de conhecimento acerca do porque fazemos algo. Uma forma que os agentes encontram para lidar com a condição de conhecimento falível é recorrer a convenções (Keynes e regras (Hayek. Convenções e regras são uma espécie de reservatório de uma forma de conhecimento social e intersubjetiva que os agentes podem adquirir, armazenar e comunicar uns com os outros. Elas fornecem em parte a informação necessária para o desempenho de suas atividades cotidianas.
Full Text Available Facebook already familiar among students, thus giving rise to problems in the form of formulation of the problem. How harness, effectiveness studies, and student learning outcomes associated with social media media (facebook in improving the learning skills to produce historical narrative text in class XII IPS 1SMAN 3 Bojonegoro academic year 2015/2016? The method in use is the method of data collection in the form of questionnaires and interviews, and observations during the study (good attitude, knowledge and skills. Results of the research in this paper indicate that Facebook utilize media based learning as e-learning will be developed along technology. The learned very look fabulous. Students of class XII IPS -1 amounted to 32 students. Students who scored above 79 to as many as 27 students or equal to 84.4%. This means that students experiencing learning completeness. While students who scored below 79 or 78 down as much as 5 students, equivalent to 15.6%. Means there are five students who did not complete the work TCS.Saran in this study should be a teacher, the use of FB as a learning medium based e-learning, especially in order to improve the achievement of learning outcomes.
Basic research on biodiversity has concentrated on individual species-naming new species, studying distribution patterns, and analyzing their evolutionary relationships. Yet biodiversity is more than a collection of individual species; it is the combination of biological entities and processes that support life on Earth. To understand biodiversity we must catalog it, but we must also assess the ways species interact with other species to provide functional support for the Tree of Life. Ecological interactions may be lost well before the species involved in those interactions go extinct; their ecological functions disappear even though they remain. Here, I address the challenges in studying the functional aspects of species interactions and how basic research is helping us address the fast-paced extinction of species due to human activities.
The US Ecology computer data system was instituted March 1, 1982. This system was designed to manage the increasing flow of paperwork and data associated with the receipt and disposal of low-level radioactive waste at Richland, Washington and Beatty, Nevada. The system was modified and upgraded in 1984 to accommodate a revised shipping manifest pursuant to the requirements of 10 CFR 20.311. The data system is used to generate various reports for both internal and external distribution. The computer system is located at US Ecology's corporate headquarters in Louisville, Kentucky. Remote access terminals are located at the disposal sites. The system is supported by a Wang VS-100 processor. In addition to supporting the radwaste data system, the system supports a chemical waste data base, word processing, and electronic mail. The management and operation of this data base are described. 19 figures
Dorothee M. Meister
Full Text Available From educational gaming through portable e-readers to cell phones, media are interpenetrating educational spaces and activities. Accordingly, understanding media in environmental or ecological terms has become increasingly important for education internationally. In North America, for example, the centenary of McLuhan’s birth has focused attention on approaches to media – whether oral, textual, electronic or digital– as a kind of environment in which education takes place. In parts of Europe, the so-called mediatic turn – following on the linguistic and iconic turns – has similarly emphasized the role of media as a condition for the possibility of educational activities and programs. With a few exceptions1 the papers in this special issue were first presented at the conference «Educational Media Ecologies: International Perspectives» which took place at the University of Paderborn, Germany, on March 27–28, 2012.2 The event was an interdisciplinary and transatlantic endeavor to bring together a wide range of perspectives on various issues relevant to educational media ecologies,3 and on related debates on mediation, medialization, mediatization, and mediality.4 The purpose of this volume, like the conference, is to foster and deepen international dialogue in the area of educational media. Areas of research and scholarship relevant to this dialogue include educational media, media literacy, educational philosophy, and media and cultural studies. The contributions, described below, put conceptual issues as well as social practices and applications at the center of the debate. Klaus Rummler opens the issue by clarifying the concept of ecology itself. Referencing a range of work over the past 50 years, Rummler describes how ecological models have been cast in sociological, semiotic, cultural, mediatic and other terms, and he explains the implications of these various perspectives for the study of educational contexts. Rummler also
Describes the differences which divide the social ecology movement and the Deep Ecology Movement. Discusses how each views population ecology, politics, natural resources, and ecological living. Calls for a unified ecological movement. (CW)
The ecological crisis will happen on 2030. A combination of climatic change, energy problems, increase in population, will mix up. The author debates about true questions on the economy: how to get quickly towards renewable energies use, how much will it cost, must we generalize the carbon tax, what about economic giant as India and China, what about the technology development to solve the crisis? (A.L.B.)
Rodríguez, Sergio; Lago, Alberto; Villodas, Aritz; Picón, Artzai
The dredging is a process that intrinsically damages the aquatic environment. Suctioning part of the aquatic bottom surface suppose not only change the ecosystem but it endanger the life of the animal and plant species. Nowadays, there is doing a lot of efforts to improve the ecological aspect of the dredging process. In this work, we propose the introduction of machine vision techniques to obtain this improvement, using hyperspectral imaging. The performed tests show that is p...
Full Text Available I should like to submit to you a simple, basic thesis--that what we are accustomed to calling the "ecological crisis" is not a product of a conflict between human needs and the needs of nature but of a flawed perception of what our needs in truth are. It is, I believe, a crisis of our humanity rather than one of nature or technology, and so requires not only technological but also humanistic answers.
In this chapter of the book author deals with the ecological aspects of the Gabcikovo-Nagymaros Project (GNP) as well as other projects on the European rivers. Ground water levels profiles are presented. Effects of the GNP on the forests, flora, and fauna are discussed. The conditions for delta region protection are presented. Chemical and radioactive contamination, as well as their synergistic effects are discussed
M. R. Arpentieva
Full Text Available The article is devoted to theoretical analysis of the problems of ecological tourism as a component of the theory and practice of recreational geography (geography, nature. The article reveals the essence and characteristics of ecotourism identifying its issues and determining the direction and tasks of its development. Special attention is paid to types and objects of ecological tourism, main problems and aspects of its development in the context of recreational geography and tourism are highlighted, such as the lack of an overall national concept for the development of rural tourism or the lack of clearly articulated public policies. There are neither standards and regulations applicable to rural tourism nor qualified personnel, knowledge and experience in the service sector of foreign and domestic tourists.There are no regulatory legal acts in the field of rural and ecological tourism which is aggravated by the unwillingness and inability to efficiently use private recreation resources. One of the key problems connected with the development of domestic tourism, including such types as agrotourism (“green tourism”, coupled with the experience of participation in rural works, and rural tourism as a whole, attracting people to rural life. The business problems of development of ecological tourism as an independent tourism industry cannot and should not be addressed to without strategic analysis and forecasting varied (including negative consequences of tourist activity for society, culture and environment as well as without and without the development and implementation of forms of ecological tourism aimed at harmonizing nature and culture of nature management by the population.
Full Text Available The paper explores the strategic role that urban biodiversity and ecosystem services management, natural infrastructure and adaptive governance approaches can play in making our economies and societies more resilient and in linking human societies and the natural environment. Resilience – a concept that entered the debate on urban governance – means the ability of urban systems, considered as linear-systems, to react to external disturbances by returning to some socio-ecological equilibrium steady-state by overcoming a crisis period (Gunderson & al. 2010, Newman & al. 2009. In this view, green infrastructures can assume a strategic role in restoring and enhancing the ecological and environmental livability in urban areas. Starting from the International and European context, the paper discusses innovative programs and interdisciplinary projects and practices (some cases in Turin Metropolitan Area to demonstrate how green infrastructures can increase the adaptive capacity of urban systems in term of resilience. They can contribute to increase the ability of European cities to adapt to climate change and to reduce their ecological footprints, to enhance security and life quality.
Full Text Available This paper outlines a synthesis of ecological economics with econophysics and other complexity approaches to economics. Arguably, the resulting “ecological econophysics” will be scientifically sounder than mainstream economics and much better suited to addressing a major challenge of our times: the development of democratically-based policies to reduce economic throughput to an environmentally sustainable level without triggering economic crises and without excluding part of the world’s population, i.e., to implement degrowth. Degrowth will need major structural changes, which leads us to question whether there are limits to the malleability of the economic system’s architecture. A fundamental limit will be encountered if, as suggested by the physics of complexity, long-lasting complex systems always occur midway between an ordered and a disordered state. There is much evidence that this hypothesis holds and that the current economic system satisfies this condition. However, this does not mean that the problems posed by this system should be unavoidable. Ecological econophysics gives clues to identifying alternative economic systems that would also function between order and chaos, but which would have radically different implications for environmental sustainability and social justice.
Cheng, P.; Choi, C.J.; Chen, Shu; Eldomiaty, T.I.; Millar-Schijf, Carla C.J.M.
Abstract: Suggests another dimension of research in, and application of, knowledge management. This theoretical paper adopts a conceptual, multi-disciplinary approach. First, knowledge can be stored and transmitted via institutions. Second, knowledge "subnetworks" or smaller groupings within larger
Full Text Available Trade-offs are manifestations of the complex dynamics in interdependent social-ecological systems. Addressing trade-offs involves challenges of perception due to the dynamics of interdependence. We outline the challenges associated with addressing trade-offs and analyze knowledge coproduction as a practice that may contribute to tackling trade-offs in social-ecological systems. We discuss this through a case study in coastal Kenya in which an iterative knowledge coproduction process was facilitated to reveal social-ecological trade-offs in the face of ecological and socioeconomic change. Representatives of communities, government, and NGOs attended two integrative workshops in which methods derived from systems thinking, dialogue, participatory modeling, and scenarios were applied to encourage participants to engage and evaluate trade-offs. Based on process observation and interviews with participants and scientists, our analysis suggests that this process lead to increased appreciation of interdependences and the way in which trade-offs emerge from complex dynamics of interdependent factors. The process seemed to provoke a reflection of knowledge assumptions and narratives, and management goals for the social-ecological system. We also discuss how stakeholders link these insights to their practices.
Kristiansen, Ib; Jongman, Rob H.G.; Kulvik, Mart
renewed. Within the framework of nature conservation, the notion of an ecological network has become increasingly important. Throughout Europe, regional and national approaches are in different phases of development, which are all based on recent landscape ecological principles. Ecological networks......In the context of European integration, networks are becoming increasingly important in both social and ecological sense. Since the beginning of the 1990s, societal and scientific exchanges are being restructured as the conceptual approaches towards new nature conservation strategies have been....... This complex interaction between cultural and natural features results in quite different ways for the elaboration of ecological networks and greenways....
Brown, J.H.; Roughgarden, J.
To forecast the ecological impact of global change, research initiatives are needed on the explicit role of humans in ecological systems, and on how ecological processes functioning at different spatial and temporal scales are coupled. Furthermore, to synthesize the results of ecological research for Congress, policymakers, and the general public, a new agency, called the United States Ecological Survey (USES) is urgently required. Also, a national commitment to environmental health, as exemplified by establishing a National Institutes of the Environment (NIE), should be a goal
Wernhuar Tarng; Nien - Yin Lu; Yi - Syuan Shih; Hsin - Hun Liou
The campus ecological pond is an effective tool to a ssist science teaching since it allows students to obtain knowledge of aquatic biology in freshwater environments by practical observation. In this study, a v irtual campus ecological pond was developed for applications in science education in elementary sc hools. The system integrates real ecological situations of aquatic environments into learning activities to enh ance the learning interest and motivation of stude...
Lyles, Marjorie; Pedersen, Torben; Petersen, Bent
The study explores what factors influence the reduction of managers' perceivedknowledge gaps in the context of the environments of foreign markets. Potentialdeterminants are derived from traditional internationalization theory as well asorganizational learning theory, including the concept...... of absorptive capacity. Building onthese literature streams a conceptual model is developed and tested on a set of primarydata of Danish firms and their foreign market operations. The empirical study suggeststhat the factors that pertain to the absorptive capacity concept - capabilities ofrecognizing......, assimilating, and utilizing knowledge - are crucial determinants ofknowledge gap elimination. In contrast, the two factors deemed essential in traditionalinternationalization process theory - elapsed time of operations and experientiallearning - are found to have no or limited effect.Key words...
Gimenez, Olivier; Buckland, Stephen T.; Morgan, Byron J. T.; Bez, Nicolas; Bertrand, Sophie; Choquet, Rémi; Dray, Stéphane; Etienne, Marie-Pierre; Fewster, Rachel; Gosselin, Frédéric; Mérigot, Bastien; Monestiez, Pascal; Morales, Juan M.; Mortier, Frédéric; Munoz, François; Ovaskainen, Otso; Pavoine, Sandrine; Pradel, Roger; Schurr, Frank M.; Thomas, Len; Thuiller, Wilfried; Trenkel, Verena; de Valpine, Perry; Rexstad, Eric
The desire to predict the consequences of global environmental change has been the driver towards more realistic models embracing the variability and uncertainties inherent in ecology. Statistical ecology has gelled over the past decade as a discipline that moves away from describing patterns towards modelling the ecological processes that generate these patterns. Following the fourth International Statistical Ecology Conference (1–4 July 2014) in Montpellier, France, we analyse current trends in statistical ecology. Important advances in the analysis of individual movement, and in the modelling of population dynamics and species distributions, are made possible by the increasing use of hierarchical and hidden process models. Exciting research perspectives include the development of methods to interpret citizen science data and of efficient, flexible computational algorithms for model fitting. Statistical ecology has come of age: it now provides a general and mathematically rigorous framework linking ecological theory and empirical data. PMID:25540151
Gimenez, Olivier; Buckland, Stephen T; Morgan, Byron J T; Bez, Nicolas; Bertrand, Sophie; Choquet, Rémi; Dray, Stéphane; Etienne, Marie-Pierre; Fewster, Rachel; Gosselin, Frédéric; Mérigot, Bastien; Monestiez, Pascal; Morales, Juan M; Mortier, Frédéric; Munoz, François; Ovaskainen, Otso; Pavoine, Sandrine; Pradel, Roger; Schurr, Frank M; Thomas, Len; Thuiller, Wilfried; Trenkel, Verena; de Valpine, Perry; Rexstad, Eric
The desire to predict the consequences of global environmental change has been the driver towards more realistic models embracing the variability and uncertainties inherent in ecology. Statistical ecology has gelled over the past decade as a discipline that moves away from describing patterns towards modelling the ecological processes that generate these patterns. Following the fourth International Statistical Ecology Conference (1-4 July 2014) in Montpellier, France, we analyse current trends in statistical ecology. Important advances in the analysis of individual movement, and in the modelling of population dynamics and species distributions, are made possible by the increasing use of hierarchical and hidden process models. Exciting research perspectives include the development of methods to interpret citizen science data and of efficient, flexible computational algorithms for model fitting. Statistical ecology has come of age: it now provides a general and mathematically rigorous framework linking ecological theory and empirical data.
Full Text Available The most valuable resource available to any organization today is its knowledge asset which is stored in processes and information systems, corporate data warehouses, employees’ brains, copyrights and patents. Knowledge management is the process of capturing, distributing, and effectively using this knowledge. The factors affecting Knowledge Management can be listed as follows: organizational culture, knowledge manager, the evolution of knowledge, knowledge polution and technology.
Plantas medicinais: transmissão do conhecimento nas famílias de agricultores de base ecológica no Sul do RS Plantas medicinales: transmisión de conocimientos en las familias de agricultores de base ecológica en el Sur de RS Medicinal plants: knowledge transmission in families of ecological farmers in souther Rio Grande do Sul
parte de las familias es predominantemente oral, realizada a través de la convivencia diaria entre sus miembros y compartidas con los demás miembros de la comunidad en la cual están insertos.The aim of this study was to investigate the process of knowledge transmission related to medicinal plants among family generations in the context of ecological farmers in Southern Rio Grande do Sul. This qualitative study was conducted with eight farming families, comprising 19 respondents living in the municipalities of Pelotas, Morro Redondo, Canguçu and Arroio do Padre. The interviews took place from January to May 2009. Data analysis was performed using the hermeneutic-dialectic method. The family was referred to as the main source in the transmission of knowledge about medicinal plants. Most subjects reported first completing treatment with medicinal plants, to then seek formal health service. The construction of knowledge related to medicinal plants by the families is predominantly oral, and takes place by the daily contact between its members and is shared with other members of the community to which they belong.
Smanski, Michael J; Schlatter, Daniel C; Kinkel, Linda L
Technological improvements have accelerated natural product (NP) discovery and engineering to the point that systematic genome mining for new molecules is on the horizon. NP biosynthetic potential is not equally distributed across organisms, environments, or microbial life histories, but instead is enriched in a number of prolific clades. Also, NPs are not equally abundant in nature; some are quite common and others markedly rare. Armed with this knowledge, random 'fishing expeditions' for new NPs are increasingly harder to justify. Understanding the ecological and evolutionary pressures that drive the non-uniform distribution of NP biosynthesis provides a rational framework for the targeted isolation of strains enriched in new NP potential. Additionally, ecological theory leads to testable hypotheses regarding the roles of NPs in shaping ecosystems. Here we review several recent strain prioritization practices and discuss the ecological and evolutionary underpinnings for each. Finally, we offer perspectives on leveraging microbial ecology and evolutionary biology for future NP discovery.
Xiao, Duning; Xie, Fuju; Wei, Jianbing
The eco-construction on regional and landscape scale is the one which can be used to specific landscape and intercrossing ecosystem in specific region including performing scientific administration of ecosystem and optimizing environmental function. Recently, the government has taken a series of significant projects into action, such as national forest protection item, partly forest restoration, and adjustment of water, etc. Enforcing regional eco-construction and maintaining the ecology security of the nation have become the strategic requisition. In various regions, different eco-construction should be applied, for example, performing ecological safeguard measure in ecological sensitive zone, accommodating the ecological load in ecological fragile zone, etc., which can control the activities of human being, so that, sustainable development can be reached. Facing opportunity and challenge in the development of landscape ecology, we have some key topics: landscape pattern of ecological security, land use and ecological process, landscape changes under human activity stress, quantitative evaluation of the influence on human being activities, evaluation of zonal ecological security and advance warning of ecological risk, and planning and optimizing of model in landscape eco-construction.
Establishment of a National ecological network to conserve biodiversity. Pros and cons of ecological corridors Establishment of a National ecological network to conserve biodiversity. Pros and cons of ecological corridors
Laurent Bergès, Philip Roche and Catherine Avon
Full Text Available Ecological corridors are a fundamental element in the National ecological network approved by the Grenelle environmental agreement in order to reduce ecosystem damage caused by fragmentation of the natural habitat zones of species. How can their effectiveness be evaluated? This article sums up current knowledge on their pros and cons.Fragmentation of natural habitats is considered one of the main causes of biodiversity loss. One of the proposed solutions to limit the effects of fragmentation is to restore ecological connectivity by creating ecological corridors between zones containing natural habitats. The concept remains controversial among scientists, but now serves as the basis for one of the operational projects of the Grenelle environmental agreements in the form of the National ecological network. After examining the ecological concepts justifying the political goal and presenting the various ecological roles of corridors, we briefly discuss their overall advantages and disadvantages. Then, we look closely at the methodological difficulties in detecting a corridor effect. Finally, we recommend a close partnership between research and policy to design biodiversity monitoring and evaluation systems in the different land-management plans.
O. Roger Anderson
Full Text Available Marine and estuarine microbial biofilms are ubiquitously distributed worldwide and are increasingly of interest in basic and applied sciences because of their unique structural and functional features that make them remarkably different from the biota in the plankton. This is a review of some current scientific knowledge of naturally occurring microbial marine and estuarine biofilms including prokaryotic and microeukaryotic biota, but excluding research specifically on engineering and applied aspects of biofilms such as biofouling. Because the microbial communities including bacteria and protists are integral to the fundamental ecological and biogeochemical processes that support biofilm communities, particular attention is given to the structural and ecological aspects of microbial biofilm formation, succession, and maturation, as well as the dynamics of the interactions of the microbiota in biofilms. The intent is to highlight current state of scientific knowledge and possible avenues of future productive research, especially focusing on the ecological and biogeochemical dimensions.
Jansch, S.; Rombke, J.; Didden, W.A.M.
In many soils worldwide, enchytraeids (Annelida: Oligochaeta) play a major role in soil functions like the decomposition of organic matter. In addition, standardized sampling methods are available and taxonomic as well as ecological knowledge is rapidly increasing (in particular, ecological profiles
Ernesto Ruelas Inzunza; Stephen W. Hoffman; Laurie J. Goodrich
Available information on the ecology of neotropical migrants during the winter season and especially during migration is far behind the existing knowledge of birds during the breeding season. This paper presents a stopover ecology case study. We document the occurrence of species, outline the prevailing weather patterns during spring and fall migration seasons, and...
Walls, Susan; Mitchell, Joseph C.
In commemoration of the 100th anniversary of the British Ecological Society, Sutherland et al. (2013) identified 100 questions of fundamental significance in “pure” (i.e., not applied) ecology. A somewhat unexpected outcome of these authors’ exercise was the realization that, after 100 years of comprehensive, intensive scientific research, there remained “profound knowledge
Harris, Cornelia; Berkowitz, Alan R.; Alvarado, Angelita
Does working with first- and second-hand ecological data improve students' knowledge of ecological ideas, motivation and engagement in science, data exploration, and citizenship skills (students' ability to make informed decisions)? We have been exploring this question with high school science teachers in New York State for the past year using a…
We show that the progress of technological knowledge is an inherently ecological process, wherein the growth rate of each technology domain depends on dynamics occurring in "other" technology domains. We identify two sources of ecological interdependence among technology domains. First, there are symbiotic interdependencies, implying…
Garmestani, Ahjond S.; Allen, Craig R.
Environmental law envisions ecological systems as existing in an equilibrium state, reinforcing a rigid legal framework unable to absorb rapid environmental changes and innovations in sustainability. For the past four decades, “resilience theory,” which embraces uncertainty and nonlinear dynamics in complex adaptive systems, has provided a robust, invaluable foundation for sound environmental management. Reforming American law to incorporate this knowledge is the key to sustainability. This volume features top legal and resilience scholars speaking on resilience theory and its legal applications to climate change, biodiversity, national parks, and water law.
Leonard F. Ruggiero; Keith B. Aubry; Steven W. Buskirk; Gary M. Koehler; Charles J. Krebs; Kevin S. McKelvey; John R. Squires
Once found throughout the Rocky Mountains and forests of the northern states, the lynx now hides in pockets of its former range while feeding mostly on small animals like snowshoe hares. A team of government and university scientists review the newest scientific knowledge of this unique cat's history, distribution, and ecology. The chapters on this web site...
“Science is organized knowledge.” Immanuel Kant (1724–1804) Ecological periodic tables are an information organizing system with categorical habitat types as elements and predictably recurring (periodic) properties of a target biotic community, such as its relative species rich...
Our understanding of some phenolic compounds in the last few decades has greatly improved. However, their biological, ecological and agronomical significance in the rhizosphere of most symbiotic legumes is much less clear. Further understanding of these biomolecules will increase our knowledge of their contribution in ...
Owing to their secretive nature and inaccessible habitat,little is known about its ecology and distribution. Due toits endangered status and high aesthetic value, the snow leopardis considered as an 'umbrella species' for wildlife conservationin the Indian Himalayas. This article summarizes thecurrent knowledge on snow ...
region of the world, which he called a “biome”, had a natural plant .... 143) sums up the current world view in ecology quite bluntly: The idea ..... considerations of spatial scale, however, management practices .... not have the seed bank to respond to a historically ... predictive knowledge about the workings of natural systems ...
A transition towards intensification of smallholder banana systems requires that the full range of ecosystem services provided by AEI practices are recognized and valued by farmers. Therefore, empowering farmers with knowledge on their agro-ecological systems and locally adapting AEI practices is essential for realization ...
Bocxlaer, Van B.; Strong, E.E.
The anatomy, functional morphology and evolutionary ecology of the Viviparidae, and the subfamily Bellamyinae in particular, are incompletely known. Partly as a result, genealogical relationships within the family remain poorly understood. Because of this lack in knowledge, few informed hypotheses
Hizikias, E.B.; Aynekulu, E.; Mekuria, W.; Endale, D.
An ethnomedicinal study was conducted to document the indigenous medicinal plant knowledge on the management, use, and ecology of locally important medicinal plants in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. Ethnobotanical data were collected from 250 people, using semi-structured questionnaires, field
The discussion on the different development paths towards a future energy supply is conducted not only with technical, economic, and ecological arguments but also with political, socio-cultural and philosophical ones. It is also concerned with the construction of social reality, a reorganisation of the relationship between nature and society. This descriptive and analytical study carefully contemplates the contents of the different positions and arguments in the energy controversy. It thereby closes a gap which has continued to exist until now in spite of the numerous publications in point. (orig.) [de
Studies on ecological effects of coal combustion included the following: episodic air pollution stress; interaction of gaseous pollutants and acid precipitation; and brimstone: preliminary results from SO 2 effects on forest growth. Studies on fate and transport of contaminants included deposition of aerosol-associated trace elements to a deciduous forest; hydrologic source areas; and environmental behavior of mercury. The environmental research park is described and forest resource management is discussed. Ecosystem analysis studies included hydrology of Walker branch; water budget of an oak-hickory forest; nutrient release from decaying wood; transpiration of the tulip poplar; and atmospheric CO 2 and its interaction with biospheric changes
As the designers of the WWf building in Zeist, The Netherslands a CO2-neutral, self-sufficient office complex, RAU has set the bar for sustainable research and design. Guesteditor Terri Peters visited the firm's studio in Amsterdam to talk to principal Thomas Rau. As Peters relates, Rau prefers t...... to put on the dwindling supply of raw materials rather than the immidiate problems of energy consumption for which there are solutions within reach. With the emphasis on a more far-reaching approach, he places buildings in a wider context of ecological thinking and systems....
Bengtsen, Søren Smedegaard
heavily from the support from informal and extra-curricular researcher communities and non-formal support systems even beyond the institution in the private and societal lifeworlds. The chapter describes and analyses such forms of organizational and existential darkness within doctoral education...... and professionalization of doctoral education, with Graduate schools increasing in size and organizational complexity. Paradoxically, we see in contemporary research into doctoral students’ learning experiences that the students do not favour the formalized support systems and supervision, but on the contrary draw most......, and discusses how institutions and doctoral programmes could use such sprawling spaces for learning to build doctoral ecologies and to strengthening existentially based pedagogies within doctoral education....
The author sketches the critical relation between ecology and basic law - critical in more than one sense. He points out the incompatibility of constitutional states and atomic states which is due to constitutional order being jeopardised by nuclear policy. He traces back the continuously rising awareness of pollution and the modern youth movement to their common root i.e. the awakening, the youth movement of the turn of the century. Eventually, he considers an economical, political, and social decentralization as a feasible alternative which would considerably relieve our basic living conditions from the threatening forms of civilization prevailing. (HSCH) [de
The sand lizard (Lacerta agilis) is a rare, elusive and cryptic reptile species of conservation importance in the UK. Knowledge of its ecology and behaviour has limited the development of a reliable and effective methodology for population monitoring; this threatens to compromise conservation effort. The behaviour of sand lizards varies seasonally, with sex and with environmental conditions, none of which are fully understood. This aim of this thesis is to further our ecological knowledge of ...
Conhecimento ecológico local de pescadores da Baía Babitonga, Santa Catarina, Brasil: peixes da família Serranidae e alterações no ambiente marinho = Local ecological knowledge of fishermen from Babitonga Bay, Santa Catarina, Brazil: fishes from the Serranidae family and marine environmental changes
Leopoldo Cavaleri Gerhardinger
Full Text Available Investigamos aspectos gerais do Conhecimento Ecológico Local (CEL depescadores de espinhel e pesca subaquática sobre sete espécies de peixes marinhos da família Serranidae (habitat de ocorrência, tamanho máximo e denominação popular e as principais alterações percebidas no ambiente marinho na Baía Babitonga, Estado de Santa Catarina,Brasil. Em termos gerais, o CEL sobre os peixes corrobora a literatura em ictiologia, trazendo informações originais em escala local. Pescadores de comunidades vizinhas e/ou praticantes de diferentes artes de pesca podem desenvolver denominações e um corpo deCEL diferenciado sobre os recursos pesqueiros de uma mesma área. Verificamos que a legislação que institui a moratória da pesca de Epinephelus itajara desconsidera as denominações locais da espécie, impossibilitando a sua interpretação pelos pescadores locais e gerando conflitos na aplicação da lei. As principais alterações ambientais registradas foram: diminuição da abundância dos recursos pesqueiros em geral (especialmente do Parambijú Rachycentron canadum, e os efeitos da interrupção antrópica do “Canal do Linguado” na hidrologia e sedimentologia da Baía Babitonga (assoreamento e aumento da turbidez da água.General aspects of the Local Ecological Knowledge (LEK of long-line and spear fishermen on seven fish species of the Serranidae family (habitat use, maximum size and popular names and on the main marine environmental changes were investigated in Babitonga Bay, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. In general, LEK on fishes corroborates theichthyology literature, bringing original information in a local scale. Neighbor fishermen communities can develop different local species nomenclature and different LEK for fishery resources at the same area. We have verified that the fishing ban legislation on Epinephelus itajara in Brazil does not consider local species denominations, turning impossible its interpretation by local
Odum, Howard T.
Using an energy systems language that combines energetics, kinetics, information, cybernetics, and simulation, Ecological and General Systems compares models of many fields of science, helping to derive general systems principles. First published as Systems Ecology in 1983, Ecological and General Systems proposes principles of self-organization and the designs that prevail by maximizing power and efficiency. Comparisons to fifty other systems languages are provided. Innovative presentations are given on earth homeostasis (Gaia); the inadequacy of presenting equations without network relationships and energy constraints; the alternative interpretation of high entropy complexity as adaptive structure; basic equations of ecological economics; and the energy basis of scientific hierarchy.
Raubenheimer, David; Simpson, Steven J.; Mayntz, David
requirements: it should be nutritionally explicit, organismally explicit, and ecologically explicit. 4. We evaluate against these criteria four existing frameworks (Optimal Foraging Theory, Classical Insect Nutritional Ecology, the Geometric Framework for nutrition, and Ecological Stoichiometry), and conclude...... in its own right? 2. We suggest that the distinctive feature of nutritional ecology is its integrative nature, and that the field would benefit from more attention to formalizing a theoretical and quantitative framework for developing this. 3. Such a framework, we propose, should satisfy three minimal...
Prosser, James I; Bohannan, Brendan J M; Curtis, Tom P; Ellis, Richard J; Firestone, Mary K; Freckleton, Rob P; Green, Jessica L; Green, Laura E; Killham, Ken; Lennon, Jack J; Osborn, A Mark; Solan, Martin; van der Gast, Christopher J; Young, J Peter W
Microbial ecology is currently undergoing a revolution, with repercussions spreading throughout microbiology, ecology and ecosystem science. The rapid accumulation of molecular data is uncovering vast diversity, abundant uncultivated microbial groups and novel microbial functions. This accumulation of data requires the application of theory to provide organization, structure, mechanistic insight and, ultimately, predictive power that is of practical value, but the application of theory in microbial ecology is currently very limited. Here we argue that the full potential of the ongoing revolution will not be realized if research is not directed and driven by theory, and that the generality of established ecological theory must be tested using microbial systems.
Sun, Zhong-yu; Ren, Hai
Ecological memory (EM) is defined as the capability of the past states or experiences of a community to influence the present or future ecological responses of the community. As a relatively new concept, EM has received considerable attention in the study of ecosystem structure and function, such as community succession, ecological restoration, biological invasion, and natural resource management. This review summarized the definition, components, and categories of EM, and discussed the possible mechanisms and affecting factors of EM. Also, the potential applications of EM were proposed, in order to further understand the mechanisms of community succession and to guide ecological restoration.
Conventional forest and natural resource management tend to overshadow local forest management practices and ecological knowledge on which rural communities base their survival and livelihood strategies. This article examines how rural communities conceptualize nature, what forest knowledge systems they use and ...
objective is to assess the relevance of indigenous knowledge in agriculture. ... transmit the knowledge to the youths and researchers to document it and government to protect it. ... mechanisms to protect the earth's biological diversity. ... and other development agencies to embrace Agenda 21 as .... ecological characteristics.
Martin, W.E.; Raines, Gilbert E.; Bloom, S.G.; Levin, A.A.
Radionuclides produced by nuclear excavation detonations and released to the environment may enter a variety of biogeochemical cycles and follow essentially the same transfer pathways as their stable-element counterparts. Estimation of potential internal radiation doses to individuals and/or populations living in or near fallout-contaminated areas requires analysis of the food-chain and other ecological pathways by which radionuclides released to the environment may be returned to man. A generalized materials transfer diagram, applicable to the forest, agricultural, freshwater and marine ecosystems providing food and water to the indigenous population of Panama and Colombia in regions that could be affected by nuclear excavation of a sea-level canal between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, is presented. Transfer mechanisms effecting the movement of stable elements and radionuclides in terrestrial ecosystems are discussed, and methods used to simulate these processes by means of mathematical models are described to show how intake values are calculated for different radionuclides in the major ecological pathways leading to man. These data provide a basis for estimating potential internal radiation doses for comparison with the radiation protection criteria established by recognized authorities; and this, in turn, provides a basis for recommending measures to insure the radiological safety of the nuclear operation plan. (author)
Martin, W E; Raines, Gilbert E; Bloom, S G; Levin, A A [Battelle Memorial Institute, CoIumbus, OH (United States)
Radionuclides produced by nuclear excavation detonations and released to the environment may enter a variety of biogeochemical cycles and follow essentially the same transfer pathways as their stable-element counterparts. Estimation of potential internal radiation doses to individuals and/or populations living in or near fallout-contaminated areas requires analysis of the food-chain and other ecological pathways by which radionuclides released to the environment may be returned to man. A generalized materials transfer diagram, applicable to the forest, agricultural, freshwater and marine ecosystems providing food and water to the indigenous population of Panama and Colombia in regions that could be affected by nuclear excavation of a sea-level canal between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, is presented. Transfer mechanisms effecting the movement of stable elements and radionuclides in terrestrial ecosystems are discussed, and methods used to simulate these processes by means of mathematical models are described to show how intake values are calculated for different radionuclides in the major ecological pathways leading to man. These data provide a basis for estimating potential internal radiation doses for comparison with the radiation protection criteria established by recognized authorities; and this, in turn, provides a basis for recommending measures to insure the radiological safety of the nuclear operation plan. (author)
With the increase of standard of living of the people, the criteria for a comfortable, secure and foremost a healthy manner of living also increase. Thus arise the stressed importance and necessity of more attention for the issues of protection of the environment, for a better life of future generations, as well as for global problems which do not recognize borders. Republic of Macedonia also contributes in this direction within the frame of its possibilities. The creation of the National Ecological Action Plan /NEAP/, is currently being carried out by the Ministry of Construction, Urbanism and Ecology of Republic Macedonia, financed by the World Bank. The most significant part of the material prepared by the author in this project has been presented, also discussed in detail and worked through with the representatives of the World Bank because of the importance of the energy sector for the development of a state. An energy balance of Macedonia until the end of 1995 is presented here, as well as quantities of harmful effluents emitted through these transformations of energy. (author). 24 tabs., 2 ills
Full Text Available The trends of the society for the continuous growth, combined with the demographic changes, today have led to the important ecological problems on a global scale, which include, among others: the increased use of non-renewable natu-ral resources, an increase of the greenhouse gas emissions, contamination of soil, water, air and the progressive degra-dation of ecosystems. In the face of such serious threats the global initiatives of all countries are important to limit the results of the excessive consumption. The aim of the article is to present the methods of measurement of the consump-tion level of natural resources by the societies and the examination of relationships between the level of development of the societies and the use of resources. The popular measure – the ecological footprint – was used as a measurement method for the consumption of the today’s generations in relation to the regenerative possibilities of the natural envi-ronment. On the other hand, as the assessment method for the level of development of societies – the Human Develop-ment Index (HDI, including three basic areas: the life expectancy, GDP level per capita and education was used. The results of the research indicate that the current trend of the unlimited consumption of the highly developed countries takes place at the expense of the future generations.
The dietary life of humans varies with the environment where they live and has been changing with time. It has become possible to examine such changes by using stable carbon and nitrogen isotope composition as a chemical tool. The present report outlines recent developments in the application of this tool and compares the dietary ecologies of various human groups from the viewpoint of isotope geochemistry. The history of the application of this tool to dietary analysis is summarized first, and features of the carbon and nitrogen isotope composition in animals and their relations with the food chain are outlined. The dietary ecology of the current people is then discussed in relation to the isotope composition in food, the isotope composition in hair of the current people, and determination of food habit of specific groups of people from such isotope compositions. For prediction of dietary composition, the report presents a flow chart for an algorism which is based on the Monte Carlo method. It also outlines processes for analyzing food habits of people in the prehistoric age, focusing on distribution of isotope composition in humans over the world. (N.K.)