WorldWideScience

Sample records for ecological baseline studies

  1. Are sawfishes still present in Mozambique? A baseline ecological study

    OpenAIRE

    Ruth H. Leeney

    2017-01-01

    Sawfishes (Pristidae) were formerly abundant in the western Indian Ocean, but current data on sawfish presence and distribution are lacking for most of the region. This paper summarises historical records of sawfishes in Mozambican waters and presents the findings of the first assessment of the presence and status of sawfishes in Mozambique. A countrywide baseline assessment was undertaken between May and July 2014, using interviews with artisanal, semi-industrial and industrial fishers, fish...

  2. Are sawfishes still present in Mozambique? A baseline ecological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth H. Leeney

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Sawfishes (Pristidae were formerly abundant in the western Indian Ocean, but current data on sawfish presence and distribution are lacking for most of the region. This paper summarises historical records of sawfishes in Mozambican waters and presents the findings of the first assessment of the presence and status of sawfishes in Mozambique. A countrywide baseline assessment was undertaken between May and July 2014, using interviews with artisanal, semi-industrial and industrial fishers, fish traders and fisheries monitoring staff as the primary source of information on sawfish distribution, recent catches, socio-economic value and cultural importance. Additional interviews were conducted via email or telephone with individuals running sport fishing operations or who otherwise had considerable experience interacting with the fishing sectors or the marine environment in Mozambique. Where encountered, sawfish rostra were photographed and a series of measurements and associated data were collected. In total, 200 questionnaire surveys and seven interviews with recreational fishing and dive operators were conducted, and 19 rostra were documented from museum archives and private collections, belonging to two sawfish species, the Largetooth Sawfish (Pristis pristis and Green Sawfish (P. zijsron. The most recent captures of sawfishes were reported to have occurred in 2014. Two key sites were identified where both recent encounters were reported and numerous Largetooth Sawfish rostra were documented. Gill nets were the fishing gear most commonly attributed to sawfish catches. Sawfishes did not hold any cultural importance in Mozambique, but they have at least some socio-economic importance to artisanal fishers, primarily through the sale of their fins. The meat did not appear to be held in high regard and was usually consumed locally. Sampling and further research is now required to confirm the presence of sawfishes and to assess the primary threats to

  3. Are sawfishes still present in Mozambique? A baseline ecological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeney, Ruth H

    2017-01-01

    Sawfishes (Pristidae) were formerly abundant in the western Indian Ocean, but current data on sawfish presence and distribution are lacking for most of the region. This paper summarises historical records of sawfishes in Mozambican waters and presents the findings of the first assessment of the presence and status of sawfishes in Mozambique. A countrywide baseline assessment was undertaken between May and July 2014, using interviews with artisanal, semi-industrial and industrial fishers, fish traders and fisheries monitoring staff as the primary source of information on sawfish distribution, recent catches, socio-economic value and cultural importance. Additional interviews were conducted via email or telephone with individuals running sport fishing operations or who otherwise had considerable experience interacting with the fishing sectors or the marine environment in Mozambique. Where encountered, sawfish rostra were photographed and a series of measurements and associated data were collected. In total, 200 questionnaire surveys and seven interviews with recreational fishing and dive operators were conducted, and 19 rostra were documented from museum archives and private collections, belonging to two sawfish species, the Largetooth Sawfish (Pristis pristis) and Green Sawfish (P. zijsron). The most recent captures of sawfishes were reported to have occurred in 2014. Two key sites were identified where both recent encounters were reported and numerous Largetooth Sawfish rostra were documented. Gill nets were the fishing gear most commonly attributed to sawfish catches. Sawfishes did not hold any cultural importance in Mozambique, but they have at least some socio-economic importance to artisanal fishers, primarily through the sale of their fins. The meat did not appear to be held in high regard and was usually consumed locally. Sampling and further research is now required to confirm the presence of sawfishes and to assess the primary threats to sawfishes in those

  4. Ecological baseline studies in Los Alamos and Guaje Canyons County of Los Alamos, New Mexico. A two-year study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foxx, T.S. [comp.

    1995-11-01

    During the summers of 1993 and 1994, the Biological Resource Evaluations Team (BRET) of the Environmental Protection Group (ESH-8) conducted baseline studies within two canyon systems, Los Alamos and Guaje Canyons. Biological data was collected within each canyon to provide background and baseline information for Ecological Risk models. Baseline studies included establishment of permanent vegetation plots within each canyon along the elevational gradient. Then, in association with the various vegetation types, surveys were conducted for ground dwelling insects, birds, and small mammals. The stream channels associated with the permanent vegetation plots were characterized and aquatic macroinvertebrates collected within the stream monthly throughout a six-month period. The Geographic Position System (GPS) in combination with ARC INFO was used to map the study areas. Considerable data was collected during these surveys and are summarized in individual chapters.

  5. Ecological baseline studies at the site of the Barstow 10 MWe pilot solar thermal power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, F.B. (ed.)

    1979-11-01

    Baseline ecological measurements and observations were made in 1978 and 1979 at the site of the Barstow pilot 10 MWe solar thermal power system. The station will be constructed on Southern California Edison's Coolwater property. The climate of the area is typical of the Mojave Desert, with high summer temperatures (monthly means of up to 31/sup 0/C), and low rainfall (annual mean of 94 mm). About 66% of the rain falls in winter and spring. About 75% of winds are from the west-southwest to northwest, and mean monthly wind velocities during spring and summer are around 15 to 20 km hr/sup -1/. Surface soils of the site are sandy, but soils below 3 m are generally well graded sand with some silt and gravel. Some of the soils are highly saline, to an extent precluding plant growth. All soils are alkaline, with pH values as high as 9. Over 130 species of plants have been identified on the site, 18 of which are non-native. Estimated aggregate densities of annual plants range from around 600 to almost 9000 m/sup -2/, depending on sampling locale. Aggregate densities of perennials (including herbaceous species) range from as low as 0.2 to 4.4 m/sup -2/. Creosotebush supports a varied assemblage of sap-feeding and defoliating insects, principally homopterans and orthopterans. Other shrubs are populated with hemipterans, mealybugs, thrips, phytophagous beetles and moth larvae. Common ground-dwelling species are ants, tenebrionid beetles, weevils, various orthopterans, and predatory arachnids. Some 300 different kinds of arthropods were distinguished in samples from the site. The most commonly trapped rodents were kangaroo rats (Dipodomys merriami, D. deserti), pocket mice (Perognathus formosus) and ground squirrels (Spermophilus tereticaudus). Over 60 kinds of birds were observed around the site, many associated with evaporating ponds adjoining the Coolwater Generating Station.

  6. Ecological baseline study of the Yakima Firing Center proposed land acquisition: A status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, L.E.; Beedlow, P.A.; Eberhardt, L.E.; Dauble, D.D.; Fitzner, R.E.

    1989-01-01

    This report provides baseline environmental information for the property identified for possible expansion of the Yakima Firing Center. Results from this work provide general descriptions of the animals and major plant communities present. A vegetation map derived from a combination of on-site surveillance and remotely sensed imagery is provided as part of this report. Twenty-seven wildlife species of special interest (protected, sensitive, furbearer, game animal, etc.), and waterfowl, were observed on the proposed expansion area. Bird censuses revealed 13 raptorial species (including four of special interest: bald eagle, golden eagle, osprey, and prairie falcon); five upland game bird species (sage grouse, California quail, chukar, gray partridge, and ring-necked pheasant); common loons (a species proposed for state listing as threatened); and five other species of special interest (sage thrasher, loggerhead shrike, mourning dove, sage sparrow, and long-billed curlew). Estimates of waterfowl abundance are included for the Priest Rapids Pool of the Columbia River. Six small mammal species were captured during this study; one, the sagebrush vole, is a species of special interest. Two large animal species, mule deer and elk, were noted on the site. Five species of furbearing animals were observed (coyote, beaver, raccoon, mink, and striped skunk). Four species of reptiles and one amphibian were noted. Fisheries surveys were conducted to document the presence of gamefish, and sensitive-classified fish and aquatic invertebrates. Rainbow trout were the only fish collected within the boundaries of the proposed northern expansion area. 22 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Ecological baseline study of the Yakima Firing Center proposed land acquisition: A Preliminary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, L.E.; Beedlow, P.A.; Eberhardt, L.E.; Dauble, D.D.; Fitzner, R.E.

    1988-02-01

    A baseline census was conducted from October 1987 to Janurary 1988 on the property identified for possible expansion of the Yakima Firing Center. These studies provide general descriptions of the major plant communities presentand animal inhabitants during the late fall and winter study period. A vegetation map derived from a combination of onsite surveillance and remotely sensed imagery is also provided as part of this report. Through January 1988, 13 wildlife species of special interest to state and federal agencies, in addition to ducks and geese, were observed on the proposed expansion area. Then raptorial bird species were observed in the area, including bald eagles, golden eagles, and prairie falcons. Upland game bird species, such as sage grouse, California quail, chuckars, and gray (Hungarian) partridge were present. Loggerhead shrikes, a species of special interest, were also observed on the site. Estimates of waterfowl abundance are included for the Priest Rapids Pool of the Columbia River, which includes the proposed river crossing sites. The number of waterfowl on the proposed crossing areas were comparatively low during the winter of 1986 to 1987 and high in 1987 to 1988. Bald eagles ad common loons were observed on the crossing areas. Six small mammal species were captured during this study period;one, the sagebrush vole, is a species of special interest. Two large animal species, mule deer and elk, were noted on the site. Beaver were the only furbearig animals noted to date. Rainbow trout were the only fish species collected within the proposed northern expansion area. The distribution of fall chinook salmon spawning areas was documented within the proposed river crossing areas. 3 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Installation restoration program (irp) remedial investigation/feasibility study, Kotzebue Long Range Radar Station, Alaska. Human health and ecological risk assessment. Final baseline report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    The purpose of the Baseline Human Health and Ecological Risk Assessment Report is to provide an assessment of the risk to human and ecological receptors from exposure to contaminants measured during the 1994 Remedial Investigation at Kotzebue Long Range Radar Station, Alaska.

  9. Baseline ecological risk assessment Salmon Site, Lamar County, Mississippi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    The Salmon Site (SS), formerly the Tatum Dome Test Site, located in Mississippi was the site of two nuclear and two gas explosion tests conducted between 1964 and 1970. A consequence of these testing activities is that radionuclides were released into the salt dome, where they are presently contained. During reentry drilling and other site activities, incidental liquid and solid wastes that contained radioactivity were generated, resulting in some soil, ground water and equipment contamination. As part of the remedial investigation effort, a Baseline Ecological Risk Assessment was conducted at the SS. The purpose is to gauge ecological and other environmental impacts attributable to past activities at the former test facility. The results of this facility-specific baseline risk assessment are presented in this document.

  10. [Calculation on ecological security baseline based on the ecosystem services value and the food security].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ling; Jia, Qi-jian; Li, Chao; Xu, Hao

    2016-01-01

    The rapid development of coastal economy in Hebei Province caused rapid transition of coastal land use structure, which has threatened land ecological security. Therefore, calculating ecosystem service value of land use and exploring ecological security baseline can provide the basis for regional ecological protection and rehabilitation. Taking Huanghua, a city in the southeast of Hebei Province, as an example, this study explored the joint point, joint path and joint method between ecological security and food security, and then calculated the ecological security baseline of Huanghua City based on the ecosystem service value and the food safety standard. The results showed that ecosystem service value of per unit area from maximum to minimum were in this order: wetland, water, garden, cultivated land, meadow, other land, salt pans, saline and alkaline land, constructive land. The order of contribution rates of each ecological function value from high to low was nutrient recycling, water conservation, entertainment and culture, material production, biodiversity maintenance, gas regulation, climate regulation and environmental purification. The security baseline of grain production was 0.21 kg · m⁻², the security baseline of grain output value was 0.41 yuan · m⁻², the baseline of ecosystem service value was 21.58 yuan · m⁻², and the total of ecosystem service value in the research area was 4.244 billion yuan. In 2081 the ecological security will reach the bottom line and the ecological system, in which human is the subject, will be on the verge of collapse. According to the ecological security status, Huanghua can be divided into 4 zones, i.e., ecological core protection zone, ecological buffer zone, ecological restoration zone and human activity core zone.

  11. Baseline fatty acids, food groups, a diet score and 50-year all-cause mortality rates. An ecological analysis of the Seven Countries Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menotti, Alessandro; Kromhout, Daan; Puddu, Paolo Emilio; Alberti-Fidanza, Adalberta; Hollman, Peter; Kafatos, Anthony; Tolonen, Hanna; Adachi, Hisashi; Jacobs, David R.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: This analysis deals with the ecologic relationships of dietary fatty acids, food groups and the Mediterranean Adequacy Index (MAI, derived from 15 food groups) with 50-year all-cause mortality rates in 16 cohorts of the Seven Countries Study. Material and methods: A dietary survey was

  12. FED baseline engineering studies report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sager, P.H.

    1983-04-01

    Studies were carried out on the FED Baseline to improve design definition, establish feasibility, and reduce cost. Emphasis was placed on cost reduction, but significant feasibility concerns existed in several areas, and better design definition was required to establish feasibility and provide a better basis for cost estimates. Design definition and feasibility studies included the development of a labyrinth shield ring concept to prevent radiation streaming between the torus spool and the TF coil cryostat. The labyrinth shield concept which was developed reduced radiation streaming sufficiently to permit contact maintenance of the inboard EF coils. Various concepts of preventing arcing between adjacent shield sectors were also explored. It was concluded that installation of copper straps with molybdenum thermal radiation shields would provide the most reliable means of preventing arcing. Other design studies included torus spool electrical/structural concepts, test module shielding, torus seismic response, poloidal conditions in the magnets, disruption characteristics, and eddy current effects. These additional studies had no significant impact on cost but did confirm the feasibility of the basic FED Baseline concept.

  13. Hydrogeology baseline study Aurora Mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    A baseline hydrogeologic study was conducted in the area of Syncrude`s proposed Aurora Mine in order to develop a conceptual regional hydrogeologic model for the area that could be used to understand groundwater flow conditions. Geologic information was obtained from over 2,000 coreholes and from data obtained between 1980 and 1996 regarding water level for the basal aquifer. A 3-D numerical groundwater flow model was developed to provide quantitative estimates of the potential environmental impacts of the proposed mining operations on the groundwater flow system. The information was presented in the context of a regional study area which encompassed much of the Athabasca Oil Sands Region, and a local study area which was defined by the lowlands of the Muskeg River Basin. Characteristics of the topography, hydrology, climate, geology, and hydrogeology of the region are described. The conclusion is that groundwater flow in the aquifer occurs mostly in a westerly direction beneath the Aurora Mine towards its inferred discharge location along the Athabasca River. Baseflow in the Muskeg River is mostly related to discharge from shallow surficial aquifers. Water in the river under baseflow conditions was fresh, of calcium-carbonate type, with very little indication of mineralization associated with deeper groundwater in the Aurora Mine area. 44 refs., 5 tabs., 31 figs.

  14. Restoring ecological integrity in highly regulated rivers: the role of baseline data and analytical references.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Peter W; Singer, Maia S; Orr, Bruce K; Diggory, Zooey E; Church, Tamara C; Stella, J C

    2011-10-01

    The goal of restoring ecological integrity in rivers is frequently accompanied by an assumption that a comparative reference reach can be identified to represent minimally impaired conditions. However, in many regulated rivers, no credible historical, morphological or process-based reference reach exists. Resilient restoration designs should instead be framed around naturalization, using multiple analytical references derived from empirically-calibrated field- and model-based techniques to develop an integrated ecological reference condition. This requires baseline data which are rarely collected despite increasing evidence for systematic deficiencies in restoration practice. We illustrate the utility of baseline data collection in restoration planning for the highly fragmented and regulated lower Merced River, California, USA. The restoration design was developed using various baseline data surveys, monitoring, and modeling within an adaptive management framework. Baseline data assisted in transforming conceptual models of ecosystem function into specific restoration challenges, defining analytical references of the expected relationships among ecological parameters required for restoration, and specifying performance criteria for post-project monitoring and evaluation. In this way the study is an example of process-based morphological restoration designed to prompt recovery of ecosystem processes and resilience. For the Merced River, we illustrate that project-specific baseline data collection is a necessary precursor in developing performance-based restoration designs and addressing scale-related uncertainties, such as whether periodic gravel augmentation will sustain bed recovery and whether piecemeal efforts will improve ecological integrity. Given the numerous impediments to full, historical, restoration in many river systems, it seems apparent that projects of naturalization are a critical step in reducing the deleterious impacts of fragmented rivers

  15. Baseline ecological footprint of Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coplen, Amy K.; Mizner, Jack Harry,; Ubechel, Norion M.

    2009-01-01

    The Ecological Footprint Model is a mechanism for measuring the environmental effects of operations at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico (SNL/NM). This analysis quantifies environmental impact associated with energy use, transportation, waste, land use, and water consumption at SNL/NM for fiscal year 2005 (FY05). Since SNL/NMs total ecological footprint (96,434 gha) is greater than the waste absorption capacity of its landholdings (338 gha), it created an ecological deficit of 96,096 gha. This deficit is equal to 886,470lha, or about 3,423 square miles of Pinyon-Juniper woodlands and desert grassland. 89% of the ecological footprint can be attributed to energy use, indicating that in order to mitigate environmental impact, efforts should be focused on energy efficiency, energy reduction, and the incorporation of additional renewable energy alternatives at SNL/NM.

  16. Aedes aegypti breeding ecology in Guerrero: cross-sectional study of mosquito breeding sites from the baseline for the Camino Verde trial in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arcadio Morales-Pérez

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the breeding patterns of Aedes aegypti in households and the factors associated with infestation are important for implementing vector control. The baseline survey of a cluster randomised controlled trial of community mobilisation for dengue prevention in Mexico and Nicaragua collected information about the containers that are the main breeding sites, identified possible actions to reduce breeding, and examined factors associated with household infestation. This paper describes findings from the Mexican arm of the baseline survey. Methods In 2010 field teams conducted household surveys and entomological inspections in 11,995 households from 90 representative communities in the three coastal regions of Guerrero State, Mexico. We characterized Ae. aegypti breeding sites and examined the effect of two preventive measures: temephos application in water containers, and keeping the containers covered. We examined associations with household infestation, using bivariate and multivariate analysis adjusted for clustering effects. Results We conducted entomological inspections in 11,995 households. Among 45,353 water containers examined, 6.5% (2958/45,353 were positive for larvae and/or pupae. Concrete tanks (pilas and barrels (tambos together accounted for 74% of pupal productivity. Both covering water containers and inserting temephos were independently associated with a lower risk of presence of larvae or pupae, with the effect of covering (OR 0.22; 95% CIca 0.15–0.27 stronger than that of temephos (OR 0.66; 95% CIca 0.53–0.84. Having more than four water containers was associated with household infestation in both rural areas (OR 1.42; 95% CIca 1.17–1.72 and urban areas (1.81; 1.47–2.25, as was low education of the household head (rural: 1.27; 1.11–1.46, and urban: 1.39; 1.17–1.66. Additional factors in rural areas were: household head without paid work (1.31; 1.08–1.59; being in the Acapulco region (1

  17. Aedes aegypti breeding ecology in Guerrero: cross-sectional study of mosquito breeding sites from the baseline for the Camino Verde trial in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Pérez, Arcadio; Nava-Aguilera, Elizabeth; Balanzar-Martínez, Alejandro; Cortés-Guzmán, Antonio Juan; Gasga-Salinas, David; Rodríguez-Ramos, Irma Esther; Meneses-Rentería, Alba; Paredes-Solís, Sergio; Legorreta-Soberanis, José; Armendariz-Valle, Felipe Gil; Ledogar, Robert J; Cockcroft, Anne; Andersson, Neil

    2017-05-30

    Understanding the breeding patterns of Aedes aegypti in households and the factors associated with infestation are important for implementing vector control. The baseline survey of a cluster randomised controlled trial of community mobilisation for dengue prevention in Mexico and Nicaragua collected information about the containers that are the main breeding sites, identified possible actions to reduce breeding, and examined factors associated with household infestation. This paper describes findings from the Mexican arm of the baseline survey. In 2010 field teams conducted household surveys and entomological inspections in 11,995 households from 90 representative communities in the three coastal regions of Guerrero State, Mexico. We characterized Ae. aegypti breeding sites and examined the effect of two preventive measures: temephos application in water containers, and keeping the containers covered. We examined associations with household infestation, using bivariate and multivariate analysis adjusted for clustering effects. We conducted entomological inspections in 11,995 households. Among 45,353 water containers examined, 6.5% (2958/45,353) were positive for larvae and/or pupae. Concrete tanks (pilas) and barrels (tambos) together accounted for 74% of pupal productivity. Both covering water containers and inserting temephos were independently associated with a lower risk of presence of larvae or pupae, with the effect of covering (OR 0.22; 95% CIca 0.15-0.27) stronger than that of temephos (OR 0.66; 95% CIca 0.53-0.84). Having more than four water containers was associated with household infestation in both rural areas (OR 1.42; 95% CIca 1.17-1.72) and urban areas (1.81; 1.47-2.25), as was low education of the household head (rural: 1.27; 1.11-1.46, and urban: 1.39; 1.17-1.66). Additional factors in rural areas were: household head without paid work (1.31; 1.08-1.59); being in the Acapulco region (1.91; 1.06-3.44); and using anti-mosquito products (1.27; 1

  18. National Cyberethics, Cybersafety, Cybersecurity Baseline Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This article presents findings from a study that explores the nature of the Cyberethics, Cybersafety, and Cybersecurity (C3) educational awareness policies, initiatives, curriculum, and practices currently taking place in the U.S. public and private K-12 educational settings. The study establishes baseline data on C3 awareness, which can be used…

  19. Geochemical baseline studies of soil in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pihlaja, Jouni

    2017-04-01

    The soil element concentrations regionally vary a lot in Finland. Mostly this is caused by the different bedrock types, which are reflected in the soil qualities. Geological Survey of Finland (GTK) is carrying out geochemical baseline studies in Finland. In the previous phase, the research is focusing on urban areas and mine environments. The information can, for example, be used to determine the need for soil remediation, to assess environmental impacts or to measure the natural state of soil in industrial areas or mine districts. The field work is done by taking soil samples, typically at depth between 0-10 cm. Sampling sites are chosen to represent the most vulnerable areas when thinking of human impacts by possible toxic soil element contents: playgrounds, day-care centers, schools, parks and residential areas. In the mine districts the samples are taken from the areas locating outside the airborne dust effected areas. Element contents of the soil samples are then analyzed with ICP-AES and ICP-MS, Hg with CV-AAS. The results of the geochemical baseline studies are published in the Finnish national geochemical baseline database (TAPIR). The geochemical baseline map service is free for all users via internet browser. Through this map service it is possible to calculate regional soil baseline values using geochemical data stored in the map service database. Baseline data for 17 elements in total is provided in the map service and it can be viewed on the GTK's web pages (http://gtkdata.gtk.fi/Tapir/indexEN.html).

  20. Development Of Regional Climate Mitigation Baseline For A DominantAgro-Ecological Zone Of Karnataka, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudha, P.; Shubhashree, D.; Khan, H.; Hedge, G.T.; Murthy, I.K.; Shreedhara, V.; Ravindranath, N.H.

    2007-06-01

    Setting a baseline for carbon stock changes in forest andland use sector mitigation projects is an essential step for assessingadditionality of the project. There are two approaches for settingbaselines namely, project-specific and regional baseline. This paperpresents the methodology adopted for estimating the land available formitigation, for developing a regional baseline, transaction cost involvedand a comparison of project-specific and regional baseline. The studyshowed that it is possible to estimate the potential land and itssuitability for afforestation and reforestation mitigation projects,using existing maps and data, in the dry zone of Karnataka, southernIndia. The study adopted a three-step approach for developing a regionalbaseline, namely: i) identification of likely baseline options for landuse, ii) estimation of baseline rates of land-use change, and iii)quantification of baseline carbon profile over time. The analysis showedthat carbon stock estimates made for wastelands and fallow lands forproject-specific as well as the regional baseline are comparable. Theratio of wasteland Carbon stocks of a project to regional baseline is1.02, and that of fallow lands in the project to regional baseline is0.97. The cost of conducting field studies for determination of regionalbaseline is about a quarter of the cost of developing a project-specificbaseline on a per hectare basis. The study has shown the reliability,feasibility and cost-effectiveness of adopting regional baseline forforestry sectormitigation projects.

  1. Baseline survey of the anatomical microbial ecology of an important food plant: Solanum lycopersicum (tomato)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Research to understand and control microbiological risks associated with the consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables has examined many environments in the farm to fork continuum. An important data gap however, that remains poorly studied is the baseline description of microflora that may be associated with plant anatomy either endemically or in response to environmental pressures. Specific anatomical niches of plants may contribute to persistence of human pathogens in agricultural environments in ways we have yet to describe. Tomatoes have been implicated in outbreaks of Salmonella at least 17 times during the years spanning 1990 to 2010. Our research seeks to provide a baseline description of the tomato microbiome and possibly identify whether or not there is something distinctive about tomatoes or their growing ecology that contributes to persistence of Salmonella in this important food crop. Results DNA was recovered from washes of epiphytic surfaces of tomato anatomical organs; leaves, stems, roots, flowers and fruits of Solanum lycopersicum (BHN602), grown at a site in close proximity to commercial farms previously implicated in tomato-Salmonella outbreaks. DNA was amplified for targeted 16S and 18S rRNA genes and sheared for shotgun metagenomic sequencing. Amplicons and metagenomes were used to describe “native” bacterial microflora for diverse anatomical parts of Virginia-grown tomatoes. Conclusions Distinct groupings of microbial communities were associated with different tomato plant organs and a gradient of compositional similarity could be correlated to the distance of a given plant part from the soil. Unique bacterial phylotypes (at 95% identity) were associated with fruits and flowers of tomato plants. These include Microvirga, Pseudomonas, Sphingomonas, Brachybacterium, Rhizobiales, Paracocccus, Chryseomonas and Microbacterium. The most frequently observed bacterial taxa across aerial plant regions were Pseudomonas and Xanthomonas

  2. Re-shifting the ecological baseline for the overexploited Mediterranean red coral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrabou, J.; Sala, E.; Linares, C.; Ledoux, J. B.; Montero-Serra, I.; Dominici, J. M.; Kipson, S.; Teixidó, N.; Cebrian, E.; Kersting, D. K.; Harmelin, J. G.

    2017-02-01

    Overexploitation leads to the ecological extinction of many oceanic species. The depletion of historical abundances of large animals, such as whales and sea turtles, is well known. However, the magnitude of the historical overfishing of exploited invertebrates is unclear. The lack of rigorous baseline data limits the implementation of efficient management and conservation plans in the marine realm. The precious Mediterranean red coral Corallium rubrum has been intensively exploited since antiquity for its use in jewellery. It shows dramatic signs of overexploitation, with no untouched populations known in shallow waters. Here, we report the discovery of an exceptional red coral population from a previously unexplored shallow underwater cave in Corsica (France) harbouring the largest biomass (by more than 100-fold) reported to date in the Mediterranean. Our findings challenge current assumptions on the pristine state of this emblematic species. Our results suggest that, before intense exploitation, red coral lived in relatively high-density populations with a large proportion of centuries-old colonies, even at very shallow depths. We call for the re-evaluation of the baseline for red coral and question the sustainability of the exploitation of a species that is still common but ecologically (functionally) extinct and in a trajectory of further decline.

  3. Audubon Ecology Study Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

    The materials in the set include a student reader "The Story of Ecology," a leaders' guide, and a large, pictorial wall chart. The student reader is divided into 10 units relating to a definition of ecology, the sun and life, air and the water cycle, major divisions of the earth, plants and food chains, distribution of plants and animals,…

  4. The London low emission zone baseline study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Frank; Armstrong, Ben; Atkinson, Richard; Anderson, H Ross; Barratt, Ben; Beevers, Sean; Cook, Derek; Green, Dave; Derwent, Dick; Mudway, Ian; Wilkinson, Paul

    2011-11-01

    On February 4, 2008, the world's largest low emission zone (LEZ) was established. At 2644 km2, the zone encompasses most of Greater London. It restricts the entry of the oldest and most polluting diesel vehicles, including heavy-goods vehicles (haulage trucks), buses and coaches, larger vans, and minibuses. It does not apply to cars or motorcycles. The LEZ scheme will introduce increasingly stringent Euro emissions standards over time. The creation of this zone presented a unique opportunity to estimate the effects of a stepwise reduction in vehicle emissions on air quality and health. Before undertaking such an investigation, robust baseline data were gathered on air quality and the oxidative activity and metal content of particulate matter (PM) from air pollution monitors located in Greater London. In addition, methods were developed for using databases of electronic primary-care records in order to evaluate the zone's health effects. Our study began in 2007, using information about the planned restrictions in an agreed-upon LEZ scenario and year-on-year changes in the vehicle fleet in models to predict air pollution concentrations in London for the years 2005, 2008, and 2010. Based on this detailed emissions and air pollution modeling, the areas in London were then identified that were expected to show the greatest changes in air pollution concentrations and population exposures after the implementation of the LEZ. Using these predictions, the best placement of a pollution monitoring network was determined and the feasibility of evaluating the health effects using electronic primary-care records was assessed. To measure baseline pollutant concentrations before the implementation of the LEZ, a comprehensive monitoring network was established close to major roadways and intersections. Output-difference plots from statistical modeling for 2010 indicated seven key areas likely to experience the greatest change in concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) (at least 3

  5. Establishing Baseline Key Ecological Functions of Fish and Wildlife for Subbasin Planning, Final Report 2001.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Neil, Thomas A.

    2001-08-01

    As we strive to manage the Columbia River Basin for its sustainable, productive, and diverse ecosystems, we are, in fact, managing these systems to provide an a array of ecological functions upon which these systems are based. These ecological functions avail themselves as an important tool with which to assess our historical and current habitat conditions, as well as proposed future or ideal conditions under differing management scenarios. So what are key ecological functions (KEFs) and which ones are involved? Key ecological functions refer to the major ecological roles played by an organism in its ecosystem that can affect environmental conditions for themselves or other species, or that directly influences other organisms (Marcot and Vander Heyden 2001). Currently, 111 KEFs are identified for fish and wildlife species as a result of Task 1 of this project. Even though the assessment phase of this project encompasses the entire Columbia River Basin, only a subset of KEFs (58) that are associated with the lotic systems, which includes 7 anadromous fish, 20 co-occurring resident fish, and 137 wildlife species linked to salmon are addressed. Since the basin has not be systematically surveyed for each fish and wildlife species, baseline conditions for each KEF are determined by developing basin-wide species range maps using the following information: wildlife-habitat type associations, county and ecoprovince occurrence, literature (like individual state atlases), and expert peer review. This approach produced a set of species range maps that depict a species potential for occurrence given the current or historic conditions. It is this potential occurrence that serves as a baseline condition to determine the key ecological functions. The results offer a framework and a set of baseline assessments that can be done with existing databases. Thus, allowing resource managers the ability to assess future management activities against this norm and guide their activities in

  6. Baseline data from the MSM Neurocog study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Barber

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We present baseline data (follow up due w24–48 from MSM Neurocog - prospective cohort study describing neurocognitive (NC function in men who have sex with men (MSM 18–50y. Objectives Describe prevalence of positive screen for NC impairment (NCI using Brief Neurocognitive Screen (BNCS; follow NC function over time. Data collected Demographics, medical history, current/nadir CD4, current/peak viral load, antiretroviral (ART use, recreational drug/tobacco/alcohol use. Subjects screen for depression (PHQ9, anxiety (GAD7, subjective memory problems (Everyday Memory Questionnaire [EMQ]. PHQ9, GAD7, EMQ, IHDS have fixed numerical cut-offs. BNCS interpreted by calculating composite z score for each subject based on distance from mean in three component tests. Comparing to population norms may overcall NCI. We used participants to construct HIV+ normal ranges after exclusion of anxiety/depression, comparing individuals to this range. 235 screened (205 HIV+, 30 HIV−. In HIV+group 59 (28.8% excluded as GAD7>10, PHQ9>15 or both (2 no data. 144 HIV+ analysed. 124 (86.1% had normal z score (within 1 SD of mean. 20 (13.9% had abnormal z: 7 (35% asymptomatic, 13 (65% symptomatic (analysed together. Not enough cognitive domains assessed by BNCS to formally diagnose HIV-related NCI. BNCS abnormals less likely to be educated at university level/beyond (40% vs. 62.1%, p=0.02 or in skilled work (45% vs. 81.5%, p<0.0001. Current/ex-recreational drug use similar (~80%; no significant association to score. All patients with abnormal z receiving ART; individual agents not associated with abnormality. IHDS correlated with abnormal BNCS (60% abnormal z had abnormal IHDS vs. 15.3% of normal, p<0.0001. No CD4 association with abnormal z (median nadir 244 in both, p=0.38. Of note, group median age was statistically different but actual difference small (normal 41y vs. abnormal 44y p<0.0001; HIV− 33y. BNCS outcome is age-related but stratification of results would

  7. Baseline study of US industry solar exports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobius, T M; Levi, R S; Bereny, J A

    1980-10-01

    This study is a detailed aggregate profile of US solar export activity in 1979 based on a survey of all segments of the solar industry. It identifies the dollar volume of exports by technology: (1) solar heating and cooling products; (2) wind products; (3) photovoltaics; (4) solar thermal electric; (5) OTEC and biomass; and (6) support products and services. The study offers to government and industry groups, for the first time, comprehensive information with which to formulate export goals and assistance measures based on the current realities of the solar export marketplace. Specific and aggregate recommendations which can lead to identification of realistic solar export opportunities and development of solar export markets are included.

  8. Canadian consumer battery baseline study : final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-02-15

    This report provided information about the estimated number of consumer and household batteries sold, re-used, stored, recycled, and disposed each year in Canada. The report discussed the ways in which different batteries posed risks to human health and the environment, and legislative trends were also reviewed. Data used in the report were obtained from a literature review as well as through a series of interviews. The study showed that alkaline batteries are the most common primary batteries used by Canadians, followed by zinc carbon batteries. However, lithium primary batteries are gaining in popularity, and silver oxide and zinc air button cell batteries are also used in applications requiring a flat voltage and high energy. Secondary batteries used in laptop computers, and cell phones are often made of nickel-cadmium, nickel-metal-hydroxide, and lithium ion. Small sealed lead batteries are also commonly used in emergency lighting and alarm systems. Annual consumption statistics for all types of batteries were provided. Results of the study showed that the primary battery market is expected to decline. Total units of secondary batteries are expected to increase to 38.6 million units by 2010. The report also used a spreadsheet model to estimate the flow of consumer batteries through the Canadian waste management system. An estimated 347 million consumer batteries were discarded in 2004. By 2010, it is expected that an estimated 494 million units will be discarded by consumers. The study also considered issues related to lead, cadmium, mercury, and nickel disposal and the potential for groundwater contamination. It was concluded that neither Canada nor its provinces or territories have initiated legislative or producer responsibility programs targeting primary or secondary consumer batteries. 79 refs., 37 tabs., 1 fig.

  9. A Baseline Study of Piermont Marsh as Nekton Habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, M.; Bloomfield, F.; Torres, T.; Ward, J.; Sanders, D.; Lobato, A.

    2011-12-01

    Between 2007 and 2011 we have conducted a study of fish populations and water quality in the Piermont Marsh, a brackish tidal wetland about 40 km north of Manhattan. This 5-year period represents the baseline for an ongoing ecological study of the marsh. The marsh, along with similar wetlands between the Federal Dam at Troy and the Battery, is an important refuge for juvenile fish, and it is believed that estuarine wetland dynamics are critical in population recruitment for coastal fisheries. Piermont Marsh has undergone a rapid transition from a primarily Spartina alternaflora and Spartina pattens setting to one dominated by an invasive genotype of common reed Phragmites australis. The impact of this shift on local fish populations, species diversity, and adult recruitment are not well understood. The long term goal of this study is to tease apart factors in by use of the marsh as a nekton habitat. Fish were collected in unbaited minnow gee traps which were deployed at slack tide and left for 24 hours. Samples were preserved in 10% buffered formalin. All organisms were identified to the lowest practical taxonomic level, enumerated, and measured. Gross weight was recorded for each sample set. Water quality measurements such as temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen were collected concurrently with all sampling events. Sample collections were focused on the tidal creeks crossing the marsh, which provide the primary exchange of water and nutrients between the marsh interior and Hudson River estuary. As expected, most minnows captured were Fundulus heteroclitus. However a wide variety of other nekton, including species that are important to commercial and recreational coastal Atlantic fish stocks, was recorded as well. Comparisons are made between habitats such as erosional and depostional banks, rivulets, and exterior and interior marsh settings. Also involved were transient conditions such as temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen levels, and hydroperiod

  10. A recirculating stream aquarium for ecological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon H. Reeves; Fred H. Everest; Carl E. McLemore

    1983-01-01

    Investigations of the ecological behavior of fishes often require studies in both natural and artificial stream environments. We describe a large, recirculating stream aquarium and its controls, constructed for ecological studies at the Forestry Sciences Laboratory in Corvallis.

  11. Acoustic Behavior, Baseline Ecology and Habitat use of Pelagic Odontocete Species of Concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    signals of Hawaiian insular false killer whales (FKWs) and melon-headed whales (MHWs). 2) Determine baseline acoustic behavior , basic activities...of false killer whales and other species (funded to Cascadia Research Collective). This had the advantage of distributing tagging operational costs...location and (2) how the receiver’s head shapes that signal. A bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), the signaler, and a false killer whale , the receiver

  12. Outcome evaluation of a South African ICU - a baseline study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. To describe the baseline data of patients admitted to the surgical intensive care unit in a tertiary hospital in the Western Cape, and their outcome at discharge from the ICU. Design. Prospective cohort observational study. Setting. Ten-bed closed surgical unit in a university-affiliated tertiary hospital. Sample.

  13. Status and prospect of atmospheric neutrinos and long baseline studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kajita, Takaaki, E-mail: kajita@icrr.u-tokyo.ac.j [ICRR and IPMU, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa-no-ha 5-1-5, Kashiwa Chiba 277-8582 (Japan)

    2010-01-01

    Experimental studies of neutrino oscillations by atmospheric and long baseline experiments are discussed. Present data from these experiments are explained well with 2 flavor {nu}{sub {mu} {yields}} {nu}{sub {tau}} oscillations. Status and prospect for the non-zero {theta}{sub 13} searches are discussed. Once a finite {theta}{sub 13} is discovered, future experiments will study the CP violation and the mass hierarchy. Possible future experiments on these topics are discussed.

  14. Loss of an ecological baseline through the eradication of oyster reefs from coastal ecosystems and human memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alleway, Heidi K; Connell, Sean D

    2015-06-01

    Oyster reefs form over extensive areas and the diversity and productivity of sheltered coasts depend on them. Due to the relatively recent population growth of coastal settlements in Australia, we were able to evaluate the collapse and extirpation of native oyster reefs (Ostrea angasi) over the course of a commercial fishery. We used historical records to quantify commercial catch of O. angasi in southern Australia from early colonization, around 1836, to some of the last recorded catches in 1944 and used our estimates of catch and effort to map their past distribution and assess oyster abundance over 180 years. Significant declines in catch and effort occurred from 1886 to 1946 and no native oyster reefs occur today, but historically oyster reefs extended across more than 1,500 km of coastline. That oyster reefs were characteristic of much of the coastline of South Australia from 1836 to 1910 appears not to be known because there is no contemporary consideration of their ecological and economic value. Based on the concept of a shifted baseline, we consider this contemporary state to reflect a collective, intergenerational amnesia. Our model of generational amnesia accounts for differences in intergenerational expectations of food, economic value, and ecosystem services of nearshore areas. An ecological system that once surrounded much of the coast and possibly the past presence of oyster reefs altogether may be forgotten and could not only undermine progress towards their recovery, but also reduce our expectations of these coastal ecosystems. © 2015 Society for Conservation Biology.

  15. Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ternjej, Ivancica; Mihaljevic, Zlatko

    2017-10-01

    Ecology is a science that studies the mutual interactions between organisms and their environment. The fundamental subject of interest in ecology is the individual. Topics of interest to ecologists include the diversity, distribution and number of particular organisms, as well as cooperation and competition between organisms, both within and among ecosystems. Today, ecology is a multidisciplinary science. This is particularly true when the subject of interest is the ecosystem or biosphere, which requires the knowledge and input of biologists, chemists, physicists, geologists, geographists, climatologists, hydrologists and many other experts. Ecology is applied in a science of restoration, repairing disturbed sites through human intervention, in natural resource management, and in environmental impact assessments.

  16. Acanthoecid choanoflagellates from the Atlantic Arctic Region - a baseline study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Helge Abildhauge; Østergaard, Jette Buch

    2017-01-01

    The examination and statistical analysis of loricate choanoflagellate material collected from Greenland waters during the period 1988-1998 represents a de facto baseline study of heterotrophic nanoflagellates from the Atlantic Arctic Region. The geographic sites sampled are Disko Bay (West...... Greenland) and the high-arctic North-East Water (NEW) and North Water (NOW) polynya. The analyses encompass close to 50 taxa. Some of these are described as new species, i.e. Acanthocorbis glacialis, A. reticulata and Diaphanoeca dilatanda. Two distinct clusters of species that are separated in time...

  17. Organic Contamination Baseline Study on NASA JSC Astromaterial Curation Gloveboxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calaway, Michael J.; Allton, J. H.; Allen, C. C.; Burkett, P. J.

    2013-01-01

    Future planned sample return missions to carbon-rich asteroids and Mars in the next two decades will require strict handling and curation protocols as well as new procedures for reducing organic contamination. After the Apollo program, astromaterial collections have mainly been concerned with inorganic contamination [1-4]. However, future isolation containment systems for astromaterials, possibly nitrogen enriched gloveboxes, must be able to reduce organic and inorganic cross-contamination. In 2012, a baseline study was orchestrated to establish the current state of organic cleanliness in gloveboxes used by NASA JSC astromaterials curation labs that could be used as a benchmark for future mission designs.

  18. Compression phase study of the HiPER baseline target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeyre, X; Nicolai, Ph; Schurtz, G; Olazabal-Loume, M; Breil, J; Maire, P H; Feugeas, J L; Hallo, L; Tikhonchuk, V T [Centre Lasers Intenses et Applications, Universite Bordeaux 1, CNRS, CEA, Universite Bordeaux 1, 351, cours de la Liberation, 33405 Talence (France)

    2008-02-15

    The European High Power laser Energy Research (HiPER) project aims at demonstrating the feasibility of high gain inertial confinement fusion using the fast ignitor approach. A baseline target has been recently developed by Atzeni et al (2007 Phys. Plasmas 14 052702). We study here the robustness of this target during the compression phase and define pulse shape tolerances for a successful fuel assembly. The comparison between a standard and a relaxation pulse shows that the latter allows one to reduce both the laser power contrast and the growth of perturbations due to Rayleigh-Taylor instability. We have found that with 95 kJ of absorbed laser energy one can assemble the fuel with a peak density around 500 g cm{sup -2} and a peak areal density of 1.2 g cm{sup -2}. This implies a total target gain of about 60.

  19. Epidemiological studies on some parasitological and ecological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Epidemiological studies on some parasitological and ecological aspects of ... for S. mansoni and other intestinal parasites using the concentration technique. ... and Biomphilaria species that act as intermediate host for schistosoma were 37 ...

  20. The LIFE Cognition Study: design and baseline characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sink KM

    2014-08-01

    adults at increased risk for incident mobility disability. One LIFE Study objective is to evaluate the effects of a structured physical activity program on changes in cognitive function and incident all-cause mild cognitive impairment or dementia. Here, we present the design and baseline cognitive data. At baseline, participants completed the modified Mini Mental Status Examination, Hopkins Verbal Learning Test, Digit Symbol Coding, Modified Rey–Osterrieth Complex Figure, and a computerized battery, selected to be sensitive to changes in speed of processing and executive functioning. During follow up, participants completed the same battery, along with the Category Fluency for Animals, Boston Naming, and Trail Making tests. The description of the mild cognitive impairment/dementia adjudication process is presented here. Participants with worse baseline Short Physical Performance Battery scores (prespecified at ≤7 had significantly lower median cognitive test scores compared with those having scores of 8 or 9 with modified Mini Mental Status Examination score of 91 versus (vs 93, Hopkins Verbal Learning Test delayed recall score of 7.4 vs 7.9, and Digit Symbol Coding score of 45 vs 48, respectively (all P<0.001. The LIFE Study will contribute important information on the effects of a structured physical activity program on cognitive outcomes in sedentary older adults at particular risk for mobility impairment. In addition to its importance in the area of prevention of cognitive decline, the LIFE Study will also likely serve as a model for exercise and other behavioral intervention trials in older adults. Keywords: exercise, physical activity, older adults, dementia

  1. The ATHENA human papillomavirus study: design, methods, and baseline results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Thomas C; Stoler, Mark H; Behrens, Catherine M; Apple, Raymond; Derion, Toniann; Wright, Teresa L

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the study was to describe baseline data from Addressing the Need for Advanced HPV Diagnostics, a prospective, multicenter US cervical cancer screening trial. A total of 47,208 women aged 21 years or older undergoing routine screening were enrolled; liquid-based cytology and human papillomavirus (HPV) testing were performed. Women with abnormal cytology underwent colposcopy, as did high-risk HPV (hrHPV)-positive women and a random subset of women negative by both tests aged 25 years or older. Verification bias adjustment was applied; 95% confidence intervals were computed by the bootstrap method. The prevalence of cytologic abnormalities was 7.1%. hrHPV, HPV 16, and HPV 18 were detected using the cobas HPV Test in 12.6%, 2.8%, and 1.0% of women, respectively. Both cytologic abnormalities and hrHPV positivity declined with increasing age. The adjusted prevalence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 (CIN2) or greater in women aged 25-34 years was 2.3%, decreasing to 1.5% among older women. The Addressing the Need for Advanced HPV Diagnostics study provides important estimates of the prevalence of cytologic abnormalities, hrHPV positivity, and CIN2 or greater in a US screening population. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Ecological change, sliding baselines and the importance of historical data: lessons from Combining [corrected] observational and quantitative data on a temperate reef over 70 years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Gatti

    Full Text Available Understanding the effects of environmental change on ecosystems requires the identification of baselines that may act as reference conditions. However, the continuous change of these references challenges our ability to define the true natural status of ecosystems. The so-called sliding baseline syndrome can be overcome through the analysis of quantitative time series, which are, however, extremely rare. Here we show how combining historical quantitative data with descriptive 'naturalistic' information arranged in a chronological chain allows highlighting long-term trends and can be used to inform present conservation schemes. We analysed the long-term change of a coralligenous reef, a marine habitat endemic to the Mediterranean Sea. The coralligenous assemblages of Mesco Reef (Ligurian Sea, NW Mediterranean have been studied, although discontinuously, since 1937 thus making available both detailed descriptive information and scanty quantitative data: while the former was useful to understand the natural history of the ecosystem, the analysis of the latter was of paramount importance to provide a formal measure of change over time. Epibenthic assemblages remained comparatively stable until the 1990s, when species replacement, invasion by alien algae, and biotic homogenisation occurred within few years, leading to a new and completely different ecosystem state. The shift experienced by the coralligenous assemblages of Mesco Reef was probably induced by a combination of seawater warming and local human pressures, the latter mainly resulting in increased water turbidity; in turn, cumulative stress may have favoured the establishment of alien species. This study showed that the combined analysis of quantitative and descriptive historical data represent a precious knowledge to understand ecosystem trends over time and provide help to identify baselines for ecological management.

  3. Ecological Change, Sliding Baselines and the Importance of Historical Data: Lessons from Combing Observational and Quantitative Data on a Temperate Reef Over 70 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatti, Giulia; Bianchi, Carlo Nike; Parravicini, Valeriano; Rovere, Alessio; Peirano, Andrea; Montefalcone, Monica; Massa, Francesco; Morri, Carla

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the effects of environmental change on ecosystems requires the identification of baselines that may act as reference conditions. However, the continuous change of these references challenges our ability to define the true natural status of ecosystems. The so-called sliding baseline syndrome can be overcome through the analysis of quantitative time series, which are, however, extremely rare. Here we show how combining historical quantitative data with descriptive ‘naturalistic’ information arranged in a chronological chain allows highlighting long-term trends and can be used to inform present conservation schemes. We analysed the long-term change of a coralligenous reef, a marine habitat endemic to the Mediterranean Sea. The coralligenous assemblages of Mesco Reef (Ligurian Sea, NW Mediterranean) have been studied, although discontinuously, since 1937 thus making available both detailed descriptive information and scanty quantitative data: while the former was useful to understand the natural history of the ecosystem, the analysis of the latter was of paramount importance to provide a formal measure of change over time. Epibenthic assemblages remained comparatively stable until the 1990s, when species replacement, invasion by alien algae, and biotic homogenisation occurred within few years, leading to a new and completely different ecosystem state. The shift experienced by the coralligenous assemblages of Mesco Reef was probably induced by a combination of seawater warming and local human pressures, the latter mainly resulting in increased water turbidity; in turn, cumulative stress may have favoured the establishment of alien species. This study showed that the combined analysis of quantitative and descriptive historical data represent a precious knowledge to understand ecosystem trends over time and provide help to identify baselines for ecological management. PMID:25714413

  4. Ecological change, sliding baselines and the importance of historical data: lessons from Combining [corrected] observational and quantitative data on a temperate reef over 70 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatti, Giulia; Bianchi, Carlo Nike; Parravicini, Valeriano; Rovere, Alessio; Peirano, Andrea; Montefalcone, Monica; Massa, Francesco; Morri, Carla

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the effects of environmental change on ecosystems requires the identification of baselines that may act as reference conditions. However, the continuous change of these references challenges our ability to define the true natural status of ecosystems. The so-called sliding baseline syndrome can be overcome through the analysis of quantitative time series, which are, however, extremely rare. Here we show how combining historical quantitative data with descriptive 'naturalistic' information arranged in a chronological chain allows highlighting long-term trends and can be used to inform present conservation schemes. We analysed the long-term change of a coralligenous reef, a marine habitat endemic to the Mediterranean Sea. The coralligenous assemblages of Mesco Reef (Ligurian Sea, NW Mediterranean) have been studied, although discontinuously, since 1937 thus making available both detailed descriptive information and scanty quantitative data: while the former was useful to understand the natural history of the ecosystem, the analysis of the latter was of paramount importance to provide a formal measure of change over time. Epibenthic assemblages remained comparatively stable until the 1990s, when species replacement, invasion by alien algae, and biotic homogenisation occurred within few years, leading to a new and completely different ecosystem state. The shift experienced by the coralligenous assemblages of Mesco Reef was probably induced by a combination of seawater warming and local human pressures, the latter mainly resulting in increased water turbidity; in turn, cumulative stress may have favoured the establishment of alien species. This study showed that the combined analysis of quantitative and descriptive historical data represent a precious knowledge to understand ecosystem trends over time and provide help to identify baselines for ecological management.

  5. Palaeoecological records of coral community development on a turbid, nearshore reef complex: baselines for assessing ecological change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J. A.; Perry, C. T.; Smithers, S. G.; Morgan, K. M.; Santodomingo, N.; Johnson, K. G.

    2017-09-01

    Understanding past coral community development and reef growth is crucial for placing contemporary ecological and environmental change within appropriate reef-building timescales. On Australia's Great Barrier Reef (GBR), coral reefs situated within coastal inner-shelf zones are a particular priority. This is due to their close proximity to river point sources, and therefore susceptibility to reduced water quality discharged from coastal catchments, many of which have been modified following European settlement (ca. 1850 AD). However, the extent of water-quality decline and its impacts on the GBR's inner-shelf reefs remain contentious. In this study, palaeoecological coral assemblage records were developed for five proximal coral reefs situated within a nearshore turbid-zone reef complex on the central GBR. A total of 29 genera of Scleractinia were identified from the palaeoecological inventory of the reef complex, with key contributions to reef-building made by Acropora, Montipora, and Turbinaria. Discrete intervals pre- and post-dating European settlement, but associated with equivalent water depths, were identified using Bayesian age-depth modelling, enabling investigation of competing ideas of the main drivers of nearshore coral assemblage change. Specifically, we tested the hypotheses that changes in the composition of nearshore coral assemblages are: (1) intrinsically driven and linked to vertical reef development towards sea level, and (2) the result of changes in water quality associated with coastal river catchment modification. Our records found no discernible evidence of change in the generic composition of coral assemblages relative to European settlement. Instead, two distinctive depth-stratified assemblages were identified. This study demonstrates the robust nature of nearshore coral communities under reported water-quality decline and provides a useful context for the monitoring and assessment of ecological change on reefs located within the most

  6. [Regional ecological planning and ecological network construction: a case study of "Ji Triangle" Region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Han, Zeng-Lin; Tong, Lian-Jun

    2009-05-01

    By the methods of in situ investigation and regional ecological planning, the present ecological environment, ecosystem vulnerability, and ecological environment sensitivity in "Ji Triangle" Region were analyzed, and the ecological network of the study area was constructed. According to the ecological resources abundance degree, ecological recovery, farmland windbreak system, environmental carrying capacity, forestry foundation, and ecosystem integrity, the study area was classified into three regional ecological function ecosystems, i. e., east low hill ecosystem, middle plain ecosystem, and west plain wetland ecosystem. On the basis of marking regional ecological nodes, the regional ecological corridor (Haerbin-Dalian regional axis, Changchun-Jilin, Changchun-Songyuan, Jilin-Songyuan, Jilin-Siping, and Songyuan-Siping transportation corridor) and regional ecological network (one ring, three links, and three belts) were constructed. Taking the requests of regional ecological security into consideration, the ecological environment security system of "Ji Triangle" Region, including regional ecological conservation district, regional ecological restored district, and regional ecological management district, was built.

  7. Sensor Technology Baseline Study for Enabling Condition Based Maintenance Plus in Army Ground Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    for enabling condition based maintenance plus in Army ground vehicles. The sensor study was driven from Failure Mode Effects Analysis ( FMEA ...of Tables Table 1. Sensor technology baseline study based on engine FMEA report. ...................................5 Table 2. Sensor technology...baseline study based on transmission FMEA report. .........................8 Table 3. Sensor technology baseline study based on alternator FMEA report

  8. Studies on ecology of diatoms

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Patil, J.

    fiberglass panels and 15 glass slides were retrieved every alternate day for a period of four days and were transported to the laboratory in an insulated cool-box containing seawater. For the study, two different types of tools (nylon brush and ceramic...?tzing Cy. ga +++++ 16 Diploneis smithii (de Brebisson)Wm. Smith D. sp ++++ 17 Fragilariopsis oceanica (Cleve) Hasle F.oc +++++ 18 Grammatophora marina (Lyngbye) K?tzing Gr. ma +++++ 19 G. serpentina Ehrenberg Gr. se ++++ 20 Gyrosigma sp. Gy. sp + + 21...

  9. Determination of Baseline Periods of Record for Selected Streamflow-Gaging Stations in New Jersey for Determining Ecologically Relevant Hydrologic Indices (ERHI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esralew, Rachel A.; Baker, Ronald J.

    2008-01-01

    Hydrologic changes in New Jersey stream basins resulting from human activity can affect the flow and ecology of the streams. To assess future changes in streamflow resulting from human activity an understanding of the natural variability of streamflow is needed. The natural variability can be classified using Ecologically Relevant Hydrologic Indices (ERHIs). ERHIs are defined as selected streamflow statistics that characterize elements of the flow regime that substantially affect biological health and ecological sustainability. ERHIs are used to quantitatively characterize aspects of the streamflow regime, including magnitude, duration, frequency, timing, and rate of change. Changes in ERHI values can occur as a result of human activity, and changes in ERHIs over time at various stream locations can provide information about the degree of alteration in aquatic ecosystems at or near those locations. New Jersey streams can be divided into four classes (A, B, C, or D), where streams with similar ERHI values (determined from cluster analysis) are assigned the same stream class. In order to detect and quantify changes in ERHIs at selected streamflow-gaging stations, a 'baseline' period is needed. Ideally, a baseline period is a period of continuous daily streamflow record at a gaging station where human activity along the contributing stream reach or in the stream's basin is minimal. Because substantial urbanization and other development had already occurred before continuous streamflow-gaging stations were installed, it is not possible to identify baseline periods that meet this criterion for many reaches in New Jersey. Therefore, the baseline period for a considerably altered basin can be defined as a period prior to a substantial human-induced change in the drainage basin or stream reach (such as regulations or diversions), or a period during which development did not change substantially. Index stations (stations with minimal urbanization) were defined as streamflow

  10. The Danish Alzheimer Intervention Study: Rationale, Study Design and Baseline Characteristics of the Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldemar, G.; Waldorff, F.B.; Buss, D.V.

    2011-01-01

    There is a lack of appropriately designed trials investigating the efficacy of psychosocial interventions for patients with mild dementia and their family caregivers. This paper reports the rationale and design of the Danish Alzheimer Disease Intervention Study and baseline characteristics...

  11. Ecotoxicity of mercury to Folsomia candida and Proisotoma minuta (Collembola: Isotomidae) in tropical soils: Baseline for ecological risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buch, Andressa Cristhy; Niemeyer, Júlia Carina; Fernandes Correia, Maria Elizabeth; Silva-Filho, Emmanoel Vieira

    2016-05-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a highly toxic nonessential trace metal. Despite its natural occurrence in the Earth's Crust, its concentrations have been steadily increasing in the environment due to anthropogenic sources. Recent studies have showed great concern about soil fauna, once the potential adverse effects of mercury concentrations in the environment of these invertebrates are still poorly understood, especially when linked to forest soils and tropical biota. Different collembolan species can show distinct toxicity effects to the contaminants, impairing its developing lifelong and affecting its diversity and abundance in the environment. Laboratory studies were performed to evaluate the ecotoxicity of Hg(II) to collembolan species collected in Brazil, Proisotoma minuta (autochthonous) and Folsomia candida (allochthonous), as a tool to predict effects in ecological risk assessment of tropical regions. Behavioral, acute and chronic tests were carried under temperatures of 20°C and 24°C using two test soils, natural and artificial, spiked with increasing mercury concentrations. F. candida was more sensitive to mercury contamination than P. minuta, presenting the most restrictive values of EC50 and LC50. Reproduction was a considerably more sensitive endpoint than avoidance and mortality. The 28-day lower EC50 values were found in chronic tests for F. candida in natural soil to 24°C (3.32mgHgkg(-1)), while for P. minuta was in tropical artificial soil to 20°C (4.43mgHgkg(-1)). There were similarity for each collembolan species to respond at the Hg(II) effects when exposed at 20°C and 24°C. F. candida can be suitable as a bioindicator species to mercury ecotoxicity tests in tropical forest soils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Entropy and the City. GHG Emissions Inventory: a Common Baseline for the Design of Urban and Industrial Ecologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Pezzagno

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available From a thermodynamic point of view, the attribution of the adjective sustainable to an open system like the city is, at least, very problematic. The biosphere is a closed system, kept far from the thermodynamic equilibrium by the flow of energy coming from the sun. The biosphere maintains and increases its internal order dispersing entropy, generated by all the internal processes, as thermal infrared radiation. But then, the elegant picture of sustainability given by thermodynamics can not be applied to open systems, and notably to the city, without raising both theoretical and practical problems. The city is almost by definition a place of consumption and of degradation of potentials, kept in local equilibrium by external flows of matter and energy, but at the same time plays a key role in shaping and maintaining the global flows of matter, energy, and information, and this role must be taken into account when interpreting thermodynamic-based descriptions. The urban capital probably represents the greatest investment made by mankind. Materials have been harvested from the earth crust and from the natural systems, and have been concentrated and ordered in the city. But the "city" is not the infrastructure: it's concept of a different logical type. The city is a further level of organization that produces services of higher level. The urban infrastructure is necessary, but not sufficient to produce the city services. The city is the most important social and health "device". A proper accounting must consider the city-performance of the urban infrastructure, beyond the mere, local energy and carbon efficiency. In this context, local GHG accounting is proposed as a rather simple and useful basis to ground process-wise studies and projects, including the creation of effective local industrial ecologies, in a continuous city-making effort toward higher sustainability.

  13. Setting an ecological baseline prior to the bottom-up establishment of a marine protected area in Santorini island, Aegean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. SALOMIDI

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Since 2010, a bottom-up initiative has been launched in Santorini Island (Aegean Sea, Eastern Mediterranean for the establishment of the first fully-protected marine protected area in the Cyclades, aiming at improving fisheries and enhancing responsible recreational uses at sea. Following discussions with local small-scale fishers and divers, two sites along the southern and southeastern coasts of the island were suggested as suitable to this end. In 2012, a baseline study was conducted at these areas to assess their state and provide an ecological snapshot that would enable sound designation and monitoring. Several ad hoc indices and metrics were applied, taking into account structural and functional features of the upper infralittoral algae and Posidonia oceanica beds. An integrated assessment of the infralittoral fish assemblages and their associated benthic communities was also performed. Our most important findings were: (i the low total fish biomass and the absence of adult top predators, indicating overfishing; (ii the overgrazing effects of the overabundant alien herbivore spinefoot fishes (Siganus spp., as reflected by the abnormal structure of the algal communities; (iii the scarcity of signs of pollution or other direct anthropogenic pressures, as indicated by the good environmental status of the P. oceanica meadows and the upper infralittoral vegetation; and (iv the presence of a rich diversity of species and habitats, especially along the Akrotiri Peninsula and the wider volcanic Caldera. These findings provide useful insights on strengths and weaknesses of the study area and are discussed together with their implications for protection and management.

  14. REPORT OF THE US LONG BASELINE NEUTRINO EXPERIMENT STUDY.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BARGER,V.; FINLEY, D.; LAUGHTON, C.; PORDES, S.; MARCHIONNI, A.; RAMEIKA, R.; SAOULIDOU, N.; ZWASKA, R.; BISHAI, M.; DIWAN, M.; DIERCKXSENS, M.; KIRK, H.; KAHN, S.; SIMOS, N.; MARCIANO, W.; PARSA, Z.; VIREN, B.; ET AL.

    2007-01-01

    This report provides the results of an extensive and important study of the potential for a U.S. scientific program that will extend our knowledge of neutrino oscillations well beyond what can be anticipated from ongoing and planned experiments worldwide. The program examined here has the potential to provide the U.S. particle physics community with world leading experimental capability in this intensely interesting and active field of fundamental research. Furthermore, this capability is not likely to be challenged anywhere else in the world for at least two decades into the future. The present study was initially commissioned in April 2006 by top research officers of Brookhaven National Laboratory and Fermilab and, as the study evolved, it also provides responses to questions formulated and addressed to the study group by the Neutrino Scientific Advisory Committee (NuSAG) of the U.S. DOE and NSF. The participants in the study, its Charge and history, plus the study results and conclusions are provided in this report and its appendices. A summary of the conclusions is provided in the Executive Summary.

  15. A baseline study on inorganic chemicals and microbial contaminants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: Inorganic chemicals and microorganisms are common in human environments and at high levels poisoning from the chronic effects have occasionally occurred. The purpose of this study was therefore to investigate whether the levels of inorganic chemicals and microbial contaminants in boreholes and open wells ...

  16. A comparative study of baseline algorithms of face recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehmood, Zahid; Ali, Tauseef; Khattak, Shahid; Khan, Samee U.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present a comparative study of two well-known face recognition algorithms. The contribution of this work is to reveal the robustness of each FR algorithm with respect to various factors, such as variation in pose and low resolution of the images used for recognition. This evaluation

  17. A baseline limnological study of Wagendrift Dam (Thukela basin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This man-made lake showed a typical monomictic pattern of summer stratification (November through April) and holomictic winter circulation (May to October). Water quality was chemically good (Department of Water Affairs and Forestry records), with little evidence of nutrient enrichment. Water clarity during the study was ...

  18. MRI in clinically asymptomatic neuropathic leprosy feet: a baseline study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, M.; Slim, E. J.; Akkerman, E. M.; Faber, W. R.

    2001-01-01

    This study was undertaken to analyze the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in the clinically asymptomatic neuropathic feet of leprosy patients. Since in the literature no MRI data are available concerning the asymptomatic neuropathic foot in leprosy, the interpretation of MRI examinations in

  19. China suboptimal health cohort study: rationale, design and baseline characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Youxin; Ge, Siqi; Yan, Yuxiang; Wang, Anxin; Zhao, Zhongyao; Yu, Xinwei; Qiu, Jing; Alzain, Mohamed Ali; Wang, Hao; Fang, Honghong; Gao, Qing; Song, Manshu; Zhang, Jie; Zhou, Yong; Wang, Wei

    2016-10-13

    Suboptimal health status (SHS) is a physical state between health and disease, characterized by the perception of health complaints, general weakness, chronic fatigue and low energy levels. SHS is proposed by the ancient concept of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) from the perspective of preservative, predictive and personalized (precision) medicine. We previously created the suboptimal health status questionnaire 25 (SHSQ-25), a novel instrument to measure SHS, validated in various populations. SHSQ-25 thus affords a window of opportunity for early detection and intervention, contributing to the reduction of chronic disease burdens. To investigate the causative effect of SHS in non-communicable chronic diseases (NCD), we initiated the China suboptimal health cohort study (COACS), a longitudinal study starting from 2013. Phase I of the study involved a cross-sectional survey aimed at identifying the risk/protective factors associated with SHS; and Phase II: a longitudinal yearly follow-up study investigating how SHS contributes to the incidence and pattern of NCD. (1) Cross-sectional survey: in total, 4313 participants (53.8 % women) aged from 18 to 65 years were included in the cohort. The prevalence of SHS was 9.0 % using SHS score of 35 as threshold. Women showed a significantly higher prevalence of SHS (10.6 % in the female vs. 7.2 % in the male, P differed significantly between subjects of SHS (SHS score ≥35) and those of ideal health (SHS score difference in prevalence of SHS might partly explain the gender difference of incidence of certain chronic diseases. The COACS will enable a thorough characterization of SHS and establish a cohort that will be used for longitudinal analyses of the interaction between the genetic, lifestyle and environmental factors that contribute to the onset and etiology of targeted chronic diseases. The study together with the designed prospective cohort provides a chance to characterize and evaluate the effect of SHS

  20. Exploring Safety Culture in Jordanian Hospitals: A Baseline Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suliman, Mohammad; Aljezawi, Maen; AlBashtawy, Mohammed; Fitzpatrick, Joyce; Aloush, Sami; Al-Awamreh, Khitam

    Medical error is a serious issue in hospitals in Jordan. This study explored Jordanian nurses' perceptions of the culture of safety in their hospitals. The Hospital Survey of Patient Safety Culture translated into Arabic was administered to a convenience sample of 391 nurses from 7 hospitals in Jordan. The positive responses to the 12 dimensions of safety culture ranged from 20.0% to 74.6%. These are lower than the benchmarks of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Jordanian nurses perceive their hospitals as places that need more effort to improve the safety culture.

  1. Future Circular Collider Study FCC-he Baseline Parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Bruning, Oliver; Klein, Max; Pellegrini, Dario; Schulte, Daniel; Zimmermann, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Initial considerations are presented on the FCC-he, the electron-hadron collider con guration within the Future Circular Collider study. This note considers arguments for the choice of the electron beam energy based on physics, ep scattering kinematics and cost. The default con guration for the electron accelerator, as for the LHeC, is chosen to be a multi-turn energy recovery linac external to the proton beam tunnel. The main accelerator parameters of the FCC-he are discussed, assuming the concurrent operation of ep with the 100TeV cms energy pp collider. These are compared with the LHeC design concept, for increased performance as for a Higgs facility using the HL-LHC, and also the high energy HE-LHC ep collider configuration. Initial estimates are also provided for the luminosity performance of electron-ion colliders for the 60 GeV electron ERL when combined with the LHC, the HE-LHC and the FCC ion beams.

  2. Use of octopus as a bioindicator species: Baseline studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holdway, D.A.; Butty, J.S.; Brennan, S.E.; Ahokas, J.T. [RMIT-Univ., Victoria (Australia). Key Centre for Applied and Nutritional Toxicology

    1995-12-31

    The Australian octopus Octopus pallidus, is abundant, territorial, has a large digestive gland. This study was undertaken to assess octopii as a potential bioindicator species by establishing the efficacy of capturing octopi using traplines, and determining the impact of various modifying factors on the activities of digestive gland mixed-function oxidase (MFO) enzymes including ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD), ethoxycoumarin O-deethylase (ECOD) and total P-450. Trap success rates in Port Phillip Bay were 15--28% for the ``potentially contaminated`` site and 85% for the reference site. Cytochrome P-450 showed significant seasonal differences, with no site or sex differences. Mean ({+-} SE) Autumn P-450 values of 74.8 ({+-}5.5) pmol/mg protein were higher than Winter values of 51.2 ({+-}7.6), which were higher than Spring values of 21.8 ({+-}4.0) pmol/mg protein. Summer P-450 values of 61.4 ({+-} 9.8) pmol/mg protein were only different from Spring values. Mean ({+-} SE) Spring ECOD activity of 3.3 ({+-} 0.7) pmol/min/mg protein was lower than Summer, Autumn and Winter ECOD values of 8.9 ({+-} 1.6) 6.5 ({+-} 1.2) and 8.6 ({+-} 2.3) pmol/min/mg protein respectively. Females had roughly half the ECOD activities of males (3.8 {+-} 0.8 compared to 7.4 {+-} 0.9 pmol/min/mg protein). All octopi digestive gland EROD activities were low (roughly 0.2 pmol/min/mg protein) with no sex, site nor seasonal differences. Potential for using octopus as a bioindicator appears promising but sensitivity to chemical exposure has yet to be determined.

  3. Investigation of the effects of construction and stage filling of reservoirs on the environment and ecology: Preproject baseline. [Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggins, R. E. (Principal Investigator); Anderson, J. R.

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results: (1) LANDSAT imagery can be used effectively as a baseline for detection of environmental change, resulting from construction of a major inland reservoir. (2) Forest cover can be observed adequately on two-band composite enlargements at a scale of 1:130,000. (3) Forest cover delineated on LANDSAT enlargements compares accurately with ground truth at a scale of 1:250,000. (4) A dual image mapping technique superimposing winter, summer, and spring scenes using the zoom transfer scope facilitates the determination. (5) The same technique can be used to detect changes in the project area, resulting from construction activities. (6) High altitude aircraft imagery can also be used to interpret changes in land use and forest type. (7) Construction operations can be more clearly detailed on the air photos than on LANDSAT imagery.

  4. Socio-economic baseline study: Case study: Nanggung sub-district, Bogor, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Kusuma, W.; Suseno, B.; Roshetko, James M.

    2007-01-01

    Results of the socio-economic baseline study was summarized and discussed. The objective was to provide socio-economic data as a basis for socio-economic impact assessment of integrated vegetable-agroforestry systems. The study addressed socio-economic data, farm characteristics, gender roles, household income and consumption and labor availability. The study led to information on the physical characteristics of the sample area, the socio-economic characteristics, land 'ownership,' and farmin...

  5. HUMAN ECOLOGY IN DISSERTATION STUDIES OF 2005-2012

    OpenAIRE

    G. S. Rozenberg; G. M. Abdurahmanov; N. G. Lifirenko; D. V. Lifirenko

    2012-01-01

    There are discussed the defended PhD studies of 2005-2012 in some way related to the problems of human ecology. There was made a conclusion about the necessity to correct the concepts of "human ecology" in the specialty passport, consolidating the research area of ecology.

  6. Ecological Feasibility Studies in Restoration Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopfensperger, Kristine N.; Engelhardt, Katharina A. M.; Seagle, Steven W.

    2007-06-01

    The restoration of degraded systems is essential for maintaining the provision of valuable ecosystem services, including the maintenance of aesthetic values. However, restoration projects often fail to reach desired goals for a variety of ecologic, financial, and social reasons. Feasibility studies that evaluate whether a restoration effort should even be attempted can enhance restoration success by highlighting potential pitfalls and gaps in knowledge before the design phase of a restoration. Feasibility studies also can bring stakeholders together before a restoration project is designed to discuss potential disagreements. For these reasons, a feasibility study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of restoring a tidal freshwater marsh in the Potomac River near Alexandria, Virginia. The study focused on science rather than engineering questions, and thus differed in approach from other feasibility studies that are mostly engineering driven. The authors report the framework they used to conduct a feasibility study to inform other potential restoration projects with similar goals. The seven steps of the framework encompass (1) initiation of a feasibility study, (2) compilation of existing data, (3) collection of current site information, (4) examination of case studies, (5) synthesis of information in a handbook, (6) meeting with selected stakeholders, and (7) evaluation of meeting outcomes. By conducting a feasibility study using the seven-step framework, the authors set the stage for conducting future compliance studies and enhancing the chance of a successful restoration.

  7. Occurrence, source and ecological assessment of baseline hydrocarbons in the intertidal marine sediments along the shoreline of Douglas Channel to Hecate Strait in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zeyu; Hollebone, Bruce P; Laforest, Sonia; Lambert, Patrick; Brown, Carl E; Yang, Chun; Shah, Keval; Landriault, Mike; Goldthorp, Michael

    2017-09-15

    The occurrence, source and ecological assessment of baseline hydrocarbons in the intertidal zone along the northern British shoreline were evaluated based on analyzing total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), n-alkanes, petroleum related biomarkers such as terpanes and steranes, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) including non-alkylated and alkylated homologues (APAHs). The TPH levels, n-alkanes, petroleum biomarkers and PAHs in all the sampling sites, except for Masset Harbor/York Point at Gil Island were low, without obvious unresolved complex mixture (UCM) and petroleum contamination input. Specifically, n-alkanes showed a major terrestrial plants input; PAHs with abundant non-alkylated PAHs but minor APAHs showed a major pyrogenic input. However, obvious petroleum-derived hydrocarbons have impacted Masset Harbor. A historical petroleum input was found in York Point at Gil Island, due to the presence of the low level of petroleum biomarkers. Ecological assessment of 13 non-alkylated PAHs in Masset Harbor indicated no potential toxicity to the benthic organisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Baseline Contaminants Study of the Edwin B. Forsythe National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The primary objective of this study was to develop a survey of baseline chemical residue data for sediment and sediment-associated organisms (e.g., forage fish and...

  9. Ecological investigations: vegetation studies, preliminary findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olgeirson, E.R.; Martin, R.B.

    1978-09-01

    The objective of the vegetation studies conducted on the research site is to produce a descriptive data base that can be applied to determinations of carrying capacity of the site and surrounding area. Additional information obtained about parameters that influence vegetation growth and maintenance of soil nutrients, and moisture and temperature regimes help define dynamic relationships that must be understood to effect successful revegetation and habitat rehabilitation. The descriptive vegetation baseline also provides a point of departure for design of future monitoring programs, and predictive models and strategies to be used in dealing with impact mitigation; in turn, monitoring programs and predictive modeling form the bases for making distinctions between natural trends and man-induced perturbations.

  10. SPACE for physical activity - a multicomponent intervention study: study design and baseline findings from a cluster randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristensen Peter L

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the School site, Play Spot, Active transport, Club fitness and Environment (SPACE Study was to develop, document, and assess a comprehensive intervention in local school districts that promote everyday physical activity (PA among 11-15-year-old adolescents. The study is based on a social ecological framework, and is designed to implement organizational and structural changes in the physical environment. Methods/design The SPACE Study used a cluster randomized controlled study design. Twenty-one eligible schools in the Region of Southern Denmark were matched and randomized in seven pairs according to eight matching variables summarized in an audit tool (crow-fly distance from residence to school for 5-6th graders; area household income; area education level; area ethnicity distribution; school district urbanity; condition and characteristics of school outdoor areas; school health policy; and active transport in the local area. Baseline measurements with accelerometers, questionnaires, diaries, and physical fitness tests were obtained in Spring 2010 in 5-6th grade in 7 intervention and 7 control schools, with follow-up measurements to be taken in Spring 2012 in 7-8th grade. The primary outcome measure is objective average daily physical activity and will be supported by analyses of time spent in moderate to vigorous activity and time spent sedentary. Other secondary outcome measures will be obtained, such as, overweight, physical fitness, active commuting to/from school and physical activity in recess periods. Discussion A total of 1348 adolescents in 5-6th grade in the Region of Southern Denmark participated at baseline (n = 14 schools. The response rate was high in all type of measurements (72.6-97.4%. There were no significant differences between intervention and control groups at baseline according to selected background variables and outcome measures: gender (p = .54, age (p = .17, BMI (p = .59, waist

  11. A comparative study of ecological specialization estimators

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Poisot, Timothée; Canard, Elsa; Mouquet, Nicolas; Hochberg, Michael E

    2012-01-01

    1.  Ecological specialization is a unifying concept in the biological sciences. While there are reliable ways to characterize specificity at individual and community levels, the evaluation of population and species...

  12. Ecological Baseline, Fort Hood, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-08-01

    stations. Plumatella repens (Bryozoa) and Orthotrichia sp. (Trichoptera) were found only at one other sta- tion (Station A), and Spongilla sp. ( Porifera ... invertebrates , and are typically found in quiet pools. Gastrcpods collected were all members of the subclass Pulmonata, which breathe by means of a...aquatic invertebrates . The most important species for maintaining the structure and function of Fort od’s aquatic systems are those capable of

  13. Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

    This set of teaching aids consists of nine Audubon Nature Bulletins, providing teachers and students with informational reading on various ecological topics. The bulletins have these titles: Schoolyard Laboratories, Owls and Predators, The Forest Community, Life in Freshwater Marshes, Camouflage in the Animal World, Life in the Desert, The…

  14. Bias magnification in ecologic studies: a methodological investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Webster Thomas F

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As ecologic studies are often inexpensive to conduct, consideration of the magnitude and direction of ecologic biases may be useful in both study design and sensitivity analysis of results. This paper examines three types of ecologic bias: confounding by group, effect measure modification by group, and non-differential exposure misclassification. Methods Bias of the risk difference on the individual and ecologic levels are compared using two-by-two tables, simple equations, and risk diagrams. Risk diagrams provide a convenient way to simultaneously display information from both levels. Results Confounding by group and effect measure modification by group act in the same direction on the individual and group levels, but have larger impact on the latter. The reduction in exposure variance caused by aggregation magnifies the individual level bias due to ignoring groups. For some studies, the magnification factor can be calculated from the ecologic data alone. Small magnification factors indicate little bias beyond that occurring at the individual level. Aggregation is also responsible for the different impacts of non-differential exposure misclassification on individual and ecologic studies. Conclusion The analytical tools developed here are useful in analyzing ecologic bias. The concept of bias magnification may be helpful in designing ecologic studies and performing sensitivity analysis of their results.

  15. Bias magnification in ecologic studies: a methodological investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Thomas F

    2007-07-05

    As ecologic studies are often inexpensive to conduct, consideration of the magnitude and direction of ecologic biases may be useful in both study design and sensitivity analysis of results. This paper examines three types of ecologic bias: confounding by group, effect measure modification by group, and non-differential exposure misclassification. Bias of the risk difference on the individual and ecologic levels are compared using two-by-two tables, simple equations, and risk diagrams. Risk diagrams provide a convenient way to simultaneously display information from both levels. Confounding by group and effect measure modification by group act in the same direction on the individual and group levels, but have larger impact on the latter. The reduction in exposure variance caused by aggregation magnifies the individual level bias due to ignoring groups. For some studies, the magnification factor can be calculated from the ecologic data alone. Small magnification factors indicate little bias beyond that occurring at the individual level. Aggregation is also responsible for the different impacts of non-differential exposure misclassification on individual and ecologic studies. The analytical tools developed here are useful in analyzing ecologic bias. The concept of bias magnification may be helpful in designing ecologic studies and performing sensitivity analysis of their results.

  16. Schema therapy for personality disorders in older adults: a multiple-baseline study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Videler, Arjan C; van Alphen, Sebastiaan P J; van Royen, Rita J J; van der Feltz-Cornelis, Christina M; Rossi, Gina; Arntz, Arnoud

    2017-04-21

    No studies have been conducted yet into the effectiveness of treatment of personality disorders in later life. This study is a first test of the effectiveness of schema therapy for personality disorders in older adults. Multiple-baseline design with eight cluster C personality disorder patients, with a mean age of   69. After a baseline phase with random length, schema therapy was given during the first year, followed by follow-up sessions during six months. Participants weekly rated the credibility of dysfunctional core beliefs. Symptomatic distress, early maladaptive schemas, quality of life and target complaints were assessed every six months and personality disorder diagnosis was assessed before baseline and after follow-up. Data were analyzed with mixed regression analyses. Results revealed significant linear trends during treatment phases, but not during baseline and follow-up. The scores during follow-up remained stable and were significantly lower compared to baseline, with high effect sizes. Seven participants remitted from their personality disorder diagnosis. Schema therapy appears an effective treatment for cluster C personality disorders in older adults. This finding is highly innovative as this is the first study exploring the effectiveness of psychotherapy, in this case schema therapy, for personality disorders in older adults.

  17. The American Cancer Society's Cancer Prevention Study 3 (CPS-3): Recruitment, study design, and baseline characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Alpa V; Jacobs, Eric J; Dudas, Daniela M; Briggs, Peter J; Lichtman, Cari J; Bain, Elizabeth B; Stevens, Victoria L; McCullough, Marjorie L; Teras, Lauren R; Campbell, Peter T; Gaudet, Mia M; Kirkland, Elizabeth G; Rittase, Melissa H; Joiner, Nance; Diver, W Ryan; Hildebrand, Janet S; Yaw, Nancy C; Gapstur, Susan M

    2017-06-01

    Prospective cohort studies contribute importantly to understanding the role of lifestyle, genetic, and other factors in chronic disease etiology. The American Cancer Society (ACS) recruited a new prospective cohort study, Cancer Prevention Study 3 (CPS-3), between 2006 and 2013 from 35 states and Puerto Rico. Enrollment took place primarily at ACS community events and at community enrollment "drives." At enrollment sites, participants completed a brief survey that included an informed consent, identifying information necessary for follow-up, and key exposure information. They also provided a waist measure and a nonfasting blood sample. Most participants also completed a more comprehensive baseline survey at home that included extensive medical, lifestyle, and other information. Participants will be followed for incident cancers through linkage with state cancer registries and for cause-specific mortality through linkage with the National Death Index. In total, 303,682 participants were enrolled. Of these, 254,650 completed the baseline survey and are considered "fully" enrolled; they will be sent repeat surveys periodically for at least the next 20 years to update exposure information. The remaining participants (n = 49,032) will not be asked to update exposure information but will be followed for outcomes. Twenty-three percent of participants were men, 17.3% reported a race or ethnicity other than "white," and the median age at enrollment was 47 years. CPS-3 will be a valuable resource for studies of cancer and other outcomes because of its size; its diversity with respect to age, ethnicity, and geography; and the availability of blood samples and detailed questionnaire information collected over time. Cancer 2017;123:2014-2024. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  18. A role for the ecological study in the developing world

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two potential limitations of observational stud- ies are, however, often overlooked. These are measure ... An obvious limitation of ecological studies is the. 'ecological fallacy', i.e. the possibility that aggregated ..... lowed approximately in this case to show that regional averaging also reduces regression dilution for the logistic.

  19. 40 CFR 159.165 - Toxicological and ecological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Toxicological and ecological studies. 159.165 Section 159.165 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS STATEMENTS OF POLICIES AND INTERPRETATIONS Reporting Requirements for Risk/Benefit Information § 159.165 Toxicological and ecological...

  20. Organic Contamination Baseline Study: In NASA JSC Astromaterials Curation Laboratories. Summary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calaway, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    In preparation for OSIRIS-REx and other future sample return missions concerned with analyzing organics, we conducted an Organic Contamination Baseline Study for JSC Curation Labsoratories in FY12. For FY12 testing, organic baseline study focused only on molecular organic contamination in JSC curation gloveboxes: presumably future collections (i.e. Lunar, Mars, asteroid missions) would use isolation containment systems over only cleanrooms for primary sample storage. This decision was made due to limit historical data on curation gloveboxes, limited IR&D funds and Genesis routinely monitors organics in their ISO class 4 cleanrooms.

  1. The National Environmental Literacy Project: A Baseline Study of Middle Grade Students in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBeth, William; Volk, Trudi L.

    2009-01-01

    The authors discuss environmental literacy in the United States and present a brief summary of the results of a major national study designed to attain a baseline measure of environmental literacy among middle school students in the United States. The authors include events that led up to the study and describe future directions for environmental…

  2. Revised CDM baseline study on fuel use and manure management at household level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buysman, E.; Bryan, S.; Pino, M.

    2010-05-15

    This report presents the revised study of the original CDM baseline study conducted in 2006. The original study was conducted under the authority of the National Biogas Program (NBP), to study the potential GHG mitigation resulting from the adoption of domestic biodigesters. In the beginning of June 2006, a survey amongst 300 randomly selected households with the technical potential for a biodigester was conducted in the NBP's 6-targeted provinces (Kampong Cham, Svay Rieng, Prey Veng, Kampong Speu, Takeo and Kandal) in southeast Cambodia. The revised baseline study includes two additional provinces, Kampot and Kampong Chhnang. The survey showed that a significant proportion of the households have no access to basic sanitation and often have health problems. They consume mainly wood as cooking fuel and the majority use inefficient cooking stoves. The main lighting fuel is kerosene. The GHG emissions were calculated for each type of Animal Waste Management System (AWMS) and the baseline fuel consumption. The main methodology used is the GS-VER biodigester methodology and the IPCC 2006 guidelines to ex-ante estimate baseline, project and the emission reductions. The GHG emission from wood burning is only considered when it originates from a non-renewable source. The NRB analysis determined a NRB share of 70.7% for both collected and purchased wood. Total GHG emission is calculated by combining AWMS and wood fuels emissions. The annual baseline and project emission was estimated to be respectively 5.38 tCO2eq and 0.46 tCO2eq per average household, the emission reductions (ER) are therefore 4.92 tCO2eq/household/year.

  3. Conceptualizing power to study social-ecological interactions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boonstra, Wiebren J

    2016-01-01

    My aim is to conceptualize power using social science theory and to demonstrate why and how the concept of power can complement resilience studies and other analyses of social-ecological interaction...

  4. Socioeconomic position and participation in baseline and follow-up visits: the Inter99 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Anne M; Jørgensen, Torben; Helbech, Bodil; Linneberg, Allan; Pisinger, Charlotta

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this paper was to identify the extent of socioeconomic inequality in participation at baseline and follow-up visits. The Inter99 study is a randomized intervention with the aim of investigating the effects of an individualized lifestyle consultation on ischaemic heart disease (IHD). The study comprised 61,301 persons of which 13,016 were assigned to the intervention group. The rest formed the control group. All those in the intervention group were invited to participate in health examinations, risk assessments, and lifestyle consultations. Participants at high risk of IHD were invited to follow-up visits after 1, 3, and 5 years. Data on five socioeconomic factors were retrieved from nationwide registers. For each socioeconomic factor we estimated the relative risks and relative index of inequality of participation at the baseline visit and among high-risk participants at follow-up visits. In addition, we conducted analyses of trends in socioeconomic inequality in participation across follow-up visits. Participation rates were 53% at baseline and 61-65% at the three follow-up visits. There was strong socioeconomic inequality in participation at baseline, with increasing probability of participation found with increasing level of socioeconomic position. This was smaller at follow-up visits. Except for education and housing tenure, there was an increase in socioeconomic inequality in participation across follow-up visits. We found strong socioeconomic inequality in participation at baseline and follow-up visits. Effort should be made to increase participation in individualized lifestyle interventions among persons of low socioeconomic position. Otherwise, the consequence may be increased socioeconomic inequality in IHD. © The European Society of Cardiology 2012 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  5. Ecology Sports Studies Carried Out in School Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuyu, Xia

    In the 1970 s, people began to care for the environment and concern about the ecology thinking in sports, to study the modern sports facing the ecology problems, to explore "people, sports, environment" the harmonious development of the way. In the paper from the actual conditions of the school briefly discuss the advantages of carrying out 3.3 no complete teaching schemas and the main difficulties it faces, and then propose appropriate measures to provide a theoretical basis for the ecology sports better carried out in school sports.

  6. The radiologic technologists' health study in South Korea. Study design and baseline results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Won Jin [Korea Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Preventive Medicine; Ha, Mina [Dankook Univ. College of Medicine, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Preventive Medicine; Hwang, Seung-sik [Inha Univ. School of Medicine, Incheon (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Social and Preventive Medicine; and others

    2015-08-15

    To describe the study design, methods, and baseline results of a prospective cohort of radiologic technologists which we have initiated in South Korea. The cohort participants were enrolled through a self-administered questionnaire survey administered from April 2012 to May 2013. Survey data were linked with radiation dosimetry, a cancer registry, and health insurance data by personal identification numbers. A nationwide representative survey was also conducted using a stratified random sampling design with face-to-face interviews. A total of 12,387 radiologic technologists were enrolled, which accounted for approximately 63 % of all diagnostic radiologic technologists working in South Korea. For nationwide survey, 585 workers were interviewed using the detailed questionnaire, and buccal cells were also collected by scraping the inside of the cheek. The majority of study subjects were under 50-year-old and male workers. The average annual effective dose of radiation declined both men (from 2.75 to 1.43 mSv) and women (from 1.34 to 0.95 mSv) over the period of 1996-2011. A total of 99 cancers (66 cancers in men and 33 in women) were reported from 1992 to 2010. The standardized incidence ratio of all cancer combined was significantly lower in men (SIR = 0.75, 95 % CI 0.58-0.96) than general population, but the ratios for thyroid cancer were significantly higher than expected among both men and women. This cohort provides comprehensive information on work activities and health status of diagnostic radiologic technologists. In addition, the nationwide representative sample provides unique opportunities compared with previous radiologic technologist studies.

  7. The Childhood and Adolescent Migraine Prevention (CHAMP) Study: A Report on Baseline Characteristics of Participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Scott W; Hershey, Andrew D; Coffey, Christopher S; Chamberlin, Leigh A; Ecklund, Dixie J D; Sullivan, Stephanie M; Klingner, Elizabeth A; Yankey, Jon W; Kashikar-Zuck, Susmita; Korbee, Leslie L; Costigan, Michele L; Riss, Holly H; Porter, Linda L

    2016-04-04

    To describe baseline headache characteristics of children and adolescents participating in a multicenter, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, comparative effectiveness study of amitriptyline, topiramate, and placebo for the prevention of migraine (CHAMP Study). Children and adolescents (age 8-17 years old, inclusive) diagnosed with migraine with or without aura, having headaches at least four times per month were enrolled from 2012 through 2014. The trial involved a baseline period (minimum of 28 days) during which prospective diaries were completed and demographics and headache features obtained. A total of 488 children and adolescents (mean age 14.0 ± 2.4 years) agreed to participate in the trial, with 361 randomized and 127 not randomized. Randomized subjects had a 5.5 ± 3.1 year history of headaches, with 15.1 ± 7.1 headache days per month (based upon retrospective report at screening visit). Prospective diaries reported 11.5 ± 6.1 headache days per 28 day baseline. Across this 28 day period, reported headache days per week were stable (about 3 headache days per week). Recording of individual headache features by diary (n = 4136 headache days) showed characteristics consistent with migraine (mean duration 10.5 ± 8.1 hours, mean severity 6.0 ± 2.1, 60% throbbing, 55% with activity worsening headaches, 55% with photophobia, and 47% with phonophobia). Baseline data from the CHAMP Study suggested that the randomized sample was representative of the real world population of children and adolescents that present for treatment of migraine. Headaches in children and adolescents recorded during a 28 day prospective baseline period in this multi-site comparative effectiveness study did not change over the course of the baseline period, even though a clear diagnosis, recommendation for effective acute treatment, and standardized education about healthy habits occurred prior to the diary collection period. © 2016 American

  8. Integrating Landscape Ecology into Natural Resource Management - Series: Cambridge Studies in Landscape Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jianguo Liu, Edited By; Taylor, William W.

    2002-08-01

    The rapidly increasing global population has dramatically increased the demands for natural resources and has caused significant changes in quantity and quality of natural resources. To achieve sustainable resource management, it is essential to obtain insightful guidance from emerging disciplines such as landscape ecology. This text addresses the links between landscape ecology and natural resource management. These links are discussed in the context of various landscape types, a diverse set of resources and a wide range of management issues. A large number of landscape ecology concepts, principles and methods are introduced. Critical reviews of past management practices and a number of case studies are presented. This text provides many guidelines for managing natural resources from a landscape perspective and offers useful suggestions for landscape ecologists to carry out research relevant to natural resource management. In addition, it will be an ideal supplemental text for graduate and advanced undergraduate ecology courses. Written, and rigorously reviewed, by many of the world's leading landscape ecologists and natural resource managers Contains numerous case studies and insightful guidelines for landscape ecologists and natural resource managers

  9. Burnout among employees in human service work: design and baseline findings of the PUMA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borritz, Marianne; Rugulies, Reiner; Bjorner, Jakob B; Villadsen, Ebbe; Mikkelsen, Ole A; Kristensen, Tage S

    2006-01-01

    To present the theoretical framework, design, methods, and baseline findings of the first Danish study on determinants and consequences of burnout, and the impact of workplace interventions in human service work organizations. A 5-year prospective intervention study comprising 2,391 employees from different organizations in the human service sector: social security offices, psychiatric prison, institutions for severely disabled, hospitals, and homecare services. Data were collected at baseline and at two follow-ups. The authors developed a new burnout tool (the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory) covering work-related, client-related, and personal burnout. The study includes potential determinants of burnout (e.g. the psychosocial work environment, social relations outside work, lifestyle factors, and personality aspects) and consequences of burnout (e.g. poor health, low job satisfaction, turnover, and absenteeism). Here, the focus is on the description of the study population at baseline, including associations of work burnout with psychosocial work environment scales and absence. Response rate at baseline was 80.1%. Midwives and homecare workers had high levels on both work- and client-related burnout. Prison officers had the highest level on client-related burnout. Supervisors and office assistants had low levels on both scales. Work burnout showed the highest correlations with job satisfaction (r = -0.51), quantitative demands (r = 0.48), role-conflicts (r = 0.44), and emotional demands (r = 0.42). Sickness absence was 13.9 vs 6.0 days among participants in the highest and lowest work burnout quartile, respectively. The findings indicate that study design and methods are adequate for the upcoming prospective analyses of aetiology and consequences of burnout and of the impact of workplace interventions.

  10. Baseline dietary glutamic acid intake and the risk of colorectal cancer: The Rotterdam study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana Veloso, Gilson G; Franco, Oscar H; Ruiter, Rikje; de Keyser, Catherina E; Hofman, Albert; Stricker, Bruno C; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C

    2016-03-15

    Animal studies have shown that glutamine supplementation may decrease colon carcinogenesis, but any relation with glutamine or its precursors has not been studied in humans. The primary aim of this study was to assess whether dietary glutamic acid intake was associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) risk in community-dwelling adults. A secondary aim was to evaluate whether the association could be modified by the body mass index (BMI). This study was embedded in the Rotterdam study, which included a prospective cohort from 1990 onward that consisted of 5362 subjects who were 55 years old or older and were free of CRC at the baseline. Glutamic acid was calculated as a percentage of the total protein intake with a validated food frequency questionnaire at the baseline. Incident cases of CRC were pathology-based. During follow-up, 242 subjects developed CRC. Baseline dietary glutamic acid intake was significantly associated with a lower risk of developing CRC (hazard ratio [HR] per percent increase in glutamic acid of protein, 0.78; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.62-0.99). After stratification for BMI, the risk reduction for CRC by dietary glutamic acid was 42% for participants with a BMI ≤ 25 kg/m(2) (HR per percent increase in glutamic acid of protein, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.40-0.85), whereas no association was found in participants with a BMI > 25 kg/m(2) (HR per percent increase in glutamic acid of protein, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.73-1.31). Our data suggest that baseline dietary glutamic acid intake is associated with a lower risk of developing CRC, but this association may be mainly present in nonoverweight subjects. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  11. Baseline predictors of worsening apathy in Parkinson's disease: A prospective longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Natalie; Kandiah, Nagaendran; Acharyya, Sanchalika; Chander, Russell J; Ng, Aloysius; Au, Wing Lok; Tan, Louis C S

    2016-02-01

    Apathy is one of the most common behavioural disorders in Parkinson's disease (PD) and contributes significantly to a reduced quality of life in PD patients. We conducted a prospective longitudinal study of 89 mild PD patients over 18 months, measuring apathy symptoms at 6-monthly intervals using the Starkstein Apathy Scale, as well as measures of motor and non-motor symptoms, cognitive function, and functional disability at baseline. Mixed-effects models were used to characterise the individual trajectories of apathy symptom severity, and linear regression with stepwise elimination procedure was used to select significant baseline predictors. Clinically significant levels of apathy were present in 42.7% of our sample at baseline, with symptom severity remaining relatively stable on average over the course of 18 months. Male gender, lower educational attainment, higher depression symptom severity, more severe functional disability, and the presence of dyskinesias at study entry predicted increasing apathy over the subsequent 18 months. Patients with these factors are at risk for progression of apathy, which may be prevented by treating depression and functional disability. Further studies are needed to address both the specific neurobiological pathways and psychosocial factors underpinning apathy in PD. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. The "Healthy Habits, Healthy Girls" randomized controlled trial for girls: study design, protocol, and baseline results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leme, Ana Carolina Barco; Philippi, Sonia Tucunduva

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the study design, protocol, and baseline results of the "Healthy Habits, Healthy Girls" program. The intervention is being evaluated through a randomized controlled trial in 10 public schools in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Data on the following variables were collected and assessed at baseline and will be reevaluated at 7 and 12 months: body mass index, waist circumference, dietary intake, nutrition, physical activity, social cognitive mediators, physical activity level, sedentary behaviors, self-rated physical status, and overall self-esteem. According to the baseline results, 32.4% and 23.4% of girls were overweight in the intervention and control groups, respectively, and in both groups a higher percentage failed to meet daily recommendations for moderate and vigorous physical activity and maximum screen time (TV, computer, mobile devices). There were no significant differences between the groups for most of the variables, except age (p = 0.000) and waist circumference (p = 0.014). The study showed a gap in the Brazilian literature on protocols for randomized controlled trials to prevent obesity among youth. The current study may thus be an important initial contribution to the field.

  13. Baseline blood trihalomethanes, semen parameters and serum total testosterone: a cross-sectional study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Qiang; Li, Min; Xie, Shao-Hua; Gu, Long-Jie; Yue, Jing; Cao, Wen-Cheng; Zheng, Dan; Liu, Ai-Lin; Li, Yu-Feng; Lu, Wen-Qing

    2013-04-01

    Toxicological studies showed that trihalomethanes (THMs), the most abundant classes of disinfection by-products (DBPs) in drinking water, impaired male reproductive health, but epidemiological evidence is limited and inconsistent. This study aimed to examine the associations of baseline blood THMs with semen parameters and serum total testosterone in a Chinese population. We recruited 401 men seeking semen examination from the Reproductive Center of Tongji Hospital in Wuhan, China between April 2011 and May 2012. Baseline blood concentrations of THMs, including chloroform (TCM), bromodichloromethane (BDCM), dibromochloromethane (DBCM), and bromoform (TBM) were measured using SPME-GC/ECD method. Semen quality and serum total testosterone were analyzed. Multivariable linear regressions were used to assess the associations of baseline blood THM concentrations with semen parameters and serum total testosterone levels. We found that baseline blood THM concentrations were not associated with decrements in sperm motility, sperm straight-line and curvilinear velocity. However, moderate levels of BDCM (β=-0.13 million; 95% CI: -0.22, -0.03) and DBCM (β=-4.74%; 95% CI: -8.07, -1.42) were associated with decreased sperm count and declined sperm linearity compared with low levels, respectively. Suggestive dose-response relationships were also observed between elevated blood TCM or ∑ THMs (sum of TCM, BDCM, DBCM and TBM) concentration and decreased sperm concentration (both p for trend=0.07), and between elevated blood DBCM concentration and decreased serum total testosterone (p for trend=0.07). Our results indicate that elevated THM exposure may lead to decreased sperm concentration and serum total testosterone. However, the effects of THM exposure on male reproductive health still warrant further studies in humans. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Methodology Series Module 7: Ecologic Studies and Natural Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setia, Maninder Singh

    2017-01-01

    In this module, we have discussed study designs that have not been covered in the previous modules - ecologic studies and natural experiments. In an ecologic study, the unit of analysis is a group or aggregate rather than the individual. It may be the characteristics of districts, states, or countries. For example, per capita income across countries, income quintiles across districts, and proportion of college graduates in states. If the data already exist (such as global measures and prevalence of diseases, data sets such as the National Family Health Survey, census data), then ecologic studies are cheap and data are easy to collect. However, one needs to be aware of the "ecologic fallacy." The researcher should not interpret ecologic level results at the individual level. In "natural experiments," the researcher does not assign the exposure (as is the case in interventional studies) to the groups in the study. The exposure is assigned by a natural process. This may be due to existing policies or services (example, one city has laws against specific vehicles and the other city does not); changes in services or policies; or introduction of new laws (such helmet for bikers and seat-belts for cars). We would like to encourage researchers to explore the possibility of using these study designs to conduct studies.

  15. The Ahmed Versus Baerveldt study: design, baseline patient characteristics, and intraoperative complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christakis, Panos G; Tsai, James C; Zurakowski, David; Kalenak, Jeffrey W; Cantor, Louis B; Ahmed, Iqbal I K

    2011-11-01

    To report the design, baseline patient characteristics, and intraoperative complications of the Ahmed Versus Baerveldt (AVB) Study. Multicenter, randomized, clinical trial. Patients were recruited from 7 international clinical sites and treated by 10 surgeons between 2005 and 2009. Inclusion criteria required that patients be at least 18 years of age and have uncontrolled glaucoma refractory to medicinal, laser, and surgical therapy. Eligible patients were randomized to undergo implantation of an Ahmed-FP7 valve (New World Medical, Inc., Rancho Cucamonga, CA) or a Baerveldt-350 implant (Abbott Medical Optics, Inc., Santa Ana, CA) using standardized surgical technique, to be followed for 5 years. The primary outcome measure was failure, defined as intraocular pressure (IOP) out of target range (5-18 mmHg with ≥ 20% reduction from baseline) for 2 consecutive visits after 3 months, vision-threatening complications, additional glaucoma procedures, or loss of light perception. Secondary outcome measures included IOP, medication use, visual acuity, complications, and interventions. A total of 238 patients were enrolled in the study; 124 received the Ahmed-FP7 valve implant and 114 received the Baerveldt-350 implant. The 2 treatment groups did not differ in any baseline characteristics with the exception of sex. The mean age of the study group was 66 ± 16 years, and 55% were women, with a greater proportion in the Baerveldt group (P=0.01). The mean baseline IOP of the study group was 31.4 ± 10.8 on a mean of 3.1 ± 1.0 glaucoma medications. The median Snellen visual acuity was 20/100, mean number of previous laser therapies was 0.9 ± 1.1, and mean number of previous surgeries was 1.7 ± 1.2. Five (4%) patients in the Ahmed group and 4 (4%) patients in the Baerveldt group experienced significant intraoperative complications. Aqueous drainage devices are being increasingly used for glaucoma refractory to conventional treatment, and the AVB Study compares the 2 most

  16. Baseline study on the prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in specific ready-to-eat foods

    OpenAIRE

    German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment

    2013-01-01

    As part of an EU-wide baseline study, the Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR) has evaluated and assessed 2540 study results on the presence of Listeria monocytogenes in the three product groups smoked and gravad fish, soft and semi-soft cheese, and heattreated meat products. The samples were tested by the competent authorities in the federal state in the period from 1 January 2010 to 31 December 2011.1 As regards the proportion of positive samples and the presence of serotypes,...

  17. The Ahmed Baerveldt Comparison Study: Methodology, Baseline Patient Characteristics, and Intraoperative Complications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Keith; Gedde, Steven J.; Budenz, Donald L.; Feuer, William J.; Schiffman, Joyce

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The Ahmed Baerveldt Comparative (ABC) Study compares the long-term outcomes and complications of the Ahmed Glaucoma Valve (AGV), model FP7, and the Baerveldt Glaucoma Implant (BGI), model 101–350. Design Multicenter randomized controlled clinical trial. Participants 276 glaucoma patients at 16 clinical centers worldwide, aged 18–85 years with inadequately controlled intraocular pressure (IOP ≥ 18 mm Hg) in whom placement of an aqueous shunt was planned. Methods Study patients were randomized to undergo implantation of an AGV or a BGI. Main Outcome Measure Failure, defined as IOP > 21 mm Hg or not reduced by 20% below baseline IOP ≤ 5 mm Hg (2 consecuteive visits after 3 months), additional glaucoma surgery, removal of the implant or loss of light perception vision Results A total of 276 patients were enrolled between October 2006 and April 2008, including 143 in the AGV group and 133 in the BGI group. The age of patients enrolled was 63 ± 14 years (mean ± standard deviation, SD), and 52% were male. The baseline IOP was 31.5 ± 11.8 mmHg (mean ± SD). Except for a 13% higher prevalence of hypertension in the AGV group, no significant differences in baseline demographic or ocular characteristics were observed between the study groups. Intraoperative complications occurred in 11 (8%) patients in the AGV group and 16 (12%) patients in the BGI group (p = 0.31). Conclusions The ABC study should yield valuable prospective data comparing two commonly used aqueous shunts in clinical practice. PMID:20932581

  18. The Ahmed Baerveldt Comparison Study methodology, baseline patient characteristics, and intraoperative complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Keith; Gedde, Steven J; Budenz, Donald L; Feuer, William J; Schiffman, Joyce

    2011-03-01

    The Ahmed Baerveldt Comparison (ABC) Study compares the long-term outcomes and complications of the Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV; model FP7; New World Medical, Los Ranchos, CA) and the Baerveldt glaucoma implant (BGI; model 101-350; Abbott Medical Optics, Abbott Park, IL). Multicenter, randomized, controlled clinical trial. Two hundred seventy-six glaucoma patients at 16 clinical centers worldwide who were 18 to 85 years of age with inadequately controlled intraocular pressure (IOP; ≥18 mmHg) in whom placement of an aqueous shunt was planned. Study patients were randomized to undergo implantation of an AGV or a BGI. Failure, defined as IOP >21 mmHg or not reduced by 20% less than baseline or IOP ≤5 mmHg (2 consecutive visits after 3 months), additional glaucoma surgery, removal of the implant, or loss of light perception vision. A total of 276 patients were enrolled between October 2006 and April 2008, including 143 in the AGV group and 133 in the BGI group. The mean age±standard deviation (SD) of patients enrolled was 63±14 years, and 52% were male. The mean baseline IOP±SD was 31.5±11.8 mmHg. Except for a 13% higher prevalence of hypertension in the AGV group, no significant differences in baseline demographic or ocular characteristics were observed between the study groups. Intraoperative complications occurred in 11 (8%) patients in the AGV group and in 16 (12%) patients in the BGI group (P = 0.31). The ABC Study should yield valuable prospective data comparing 2 commonly used aqueous shunts in clinical practice. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparative morphological and ecological studies of two Stachys ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, comparative morphological and ecological studies of Stachys balansae and S. carduchorum were investigated. Morphologically, general views of taxa and micromorphological features of the trichomes were studied. S. balansae differs from S. carduchorum in its leaves sericeouspilose on the upper surface and ...

  20. Emotional Impulsivity and Emotional and Behavioral Difficulties Among Children With ADHD: An Ecological Momentary Assessment Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Paul J; Factor, Perry I

    2015-09-01

    Children with ADHD often demonstrate impulsive shifts in emotion, characterized by sudden and intense shifts in affect. This study examined the effects of emotional impulsivity over time on the emotional and behavioral functioning of children with ADHD using ecological momentary assessment (EMA). Twenty-seven 8- to 12-year-old children with ADHD, and their parents, completed baseline measures of the children's emotional and behavioral functioning. Parents and children then completed an EMA protocol, whereby they each rated the child's affect three times daily for 28 days. Hierarchical regression analyses strongly supported the relation of greater EMA-derived emotional impulsivity to children's increased emotional and behavioral difficulties. These effects were evident across reporters and were maintained after controlling for baseline emotion dysregulation. Overall, this study demonstrated the utility of EMA-based assessments and suggested that emotional impulsivity may play an important role in the emotional and behavioral functioning of children with ADHD. © 2012 SAGE Publications.

  1. The selective vitamin D receptor activator for albuminuria lowering (VITAL) study: study design and baseline characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambers Heerspink, H J; Agarwal, R; Coyne, D W

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with diabetic nephropathy are at high risk for further progressive renal function loss. Treatments that decrease albuminuria have been linked with renal and cardiovascular protection. However, even when taking optimal treatment, residual renal and cardiovascular risk remains....... Inclusion criteria include: a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes, urinary albumin/creatinine ratio (UACR) between 100-3,000 mg/g, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) between 15-90 ml/min/1.73 m(2), serum calcium parathyroid hormone (PTH) between 35-500 pg/ml. RESULTS: Baseline...

  2. Design and baseline data from the Gratitude Research in Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Jeff C; Beale, Eleanor E; Beach, Scott R; Celano, Christopher M; Belcher, Arianna M; Moore, Shannon V; Suarez, Laura; Gandhi, Parul U; Motiwala, Shweta R; Gaggin, Hanna; Januzzi, James L

    2015-09-01

    Positive psychological constructs, especially optimism, have been linked with superior cardiovascular health. However, there has been minimal study of positive constructs in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS), despite the prevalence and importance of this condition. Furthermore, few studies have examined multiple positive psychological constructs and multiple cardiac-related outcomes within the same cohort to determine specifically which positive construct may affect a particular cardiac outcome. The Gratitude Research in Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) study examines the association between optimism/gratitude 2weeks post-ACS and subsequent clinical outcomes. The primary outcome measure is physical activity at 6months, measured via accelerometer, and key secondary outcome measures include levels of prognostic biomarkers and rates of nonelective cardiac rehospitalization at 6months. These relationships will be analyzed using multivariable linear regression, controlling for sociodemographic, medical, and negative psychological factors; associations between baseline positive constructs and subsequent rehospitalizations will be assessed via Cox regression. Overall, 164 participants enrolled and completed the baseline 2-week assessment; the cohort had a mean age of 61.5+/?10.5years and was 84% men; this was the first ACS for 58% of participants. The GRACE study will determine whether optimism and gratitude are prospectively and independently associated with physical activity and other critical outcomes in the 6months following an ACS. If these constructs are associated with superior outcomes, this may highlight the importance of these constructs as independent prognostic factors post-ACS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. STUDY OF SOCIAL-ECOLOGICAL PROBLEMS IN THE CITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Vorobyova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Intensive urban and economic development leads to changes in functional planning of the territory. Comprehensive study of the existing use and ecology of the urban environment is necessary for making decisions on urban space optimization. This study can detect the negative effects of human impact and solve social and economic problems within the city. The socio-ecological assessment of the urban area within the developing zone carried out on the ground of the GIS, developed and compiled by the authors. The database of GIS consists of six blocks, including cartographic and attribute information with characteristics of the environment, functional planning and socio-demographic features of the territory.

  4. Impact of Baseline Assessment Modality on Enrollment and Retention in a Facebook Smoking Cessation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanti, Andrea C; Jacobs, Megan A; Zawistowski, Grace; Brookover, Jody; Stanton, Cassandra A; Graham, Amanda L

    2015-07-16

    Few studies have addressed enrollment and retention methods in online smoking cessation interventions. Fully automated Web-based trials can yield large numbers of participants rapidly but suffer from high rates of attrition. Personal contact with participants can increase recruitment of smokers into cessation trials and improve participant retention. To compare the impact of Web-based (WEB) and phone (PH) baseline assessments on enrollment and retention metrics in the context of a Facebook smoking cessation study. Participants were recruited via Facebook and Google ads which were randomly displayed to adult smokers in the United States over 27 days from August to September 2013. On each platform, two identical ads were randomly displayed to users who fit the advertising parameters. Clicking on one of the ads resulted in randomization to WEB, and clicking on the other ad resulted in randomization to PH. Following online eligibility screening and informed consent, participants in the WEB arm completed the baseline survey online whereas PH participants completed the baseline survey by phone with a research assistant. All participants were contacted at 30 days to complete a follow-up survey that assessed use of the cessation intervention and smoking outcomes. Participants were paid $15 for follow-up survey completion. A total of 4445 people clicked on the WEB ad and 4001 clicked on the PH ad: 12.04% (n=535) of WEB participants and 8.30% (n=332) of PH participants accepted the online study invitation (PFacebook app (66/114, 57.9% WEB vs 17/35, 49% PH) or that completed the 30-day follow-up survey (49/114, 43.0% WEB vs 16/35, 46% PH). A total of $6074 was spent on ads, generating 3,834,289 impressions and resulting in 8446 clicks (average cost $0.72 per click). Per participant enrollment costs for advertising alone were $27 WEB and $87 PH. A more intensive phone baseline assessment protocol yielded a lower rate of enrollment, equivalent follow-up rates, and higher

  5. Retardo estatural em menores de cinco anos: um estudo "baseline" Linear growth retardation in children under five years of age: a baseline study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anete Rissin

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever a prevalência e analisar fatores associados ao retardo estatural em menores de cinco anos. MÉTODOS: Estudo "baseline", que analisou 2.040 crianças, verificando possíveis associações entre o retardo estatural (índice altura/idade The scope of this study was to describe the prevalence of, and analyze factors associated with, linear growth retardation in children. The baseline study analyzed 2040 children under the age of five, establishing a possible association between growth delay (height/age index < 2 scores Z and variables in six hierarchical blocks: socio-economic, residence, sanitary, maternal, biological and healthcare access. Multivariate analysis was performed using Poisson regression with the robust standard error option, obtaining adjusted prevalence ratios with a CI of 95% and the respective significant probability values. Among non-binary variables, there was a positive association with roof type and number of inhabitants per room and a negative association with income per capita, mother's schooling and birth weight. The adjusted analysis also indicated water supply, visit from the community health agent, birth delivery location, internment for diarrhea, or for pneumonia and birth weight as significant variables. Several risk factors were identified for linear growth retardation pointing to the multi-causal aspects of the problem and highlighting the need for control measures by the various hierarchical government agents.

  6. Association between the location of colon polyps at baseline and surveillance colonoscopy: a retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Oliveira

    Full Text Available Introduction: Several factors are used to stratify the probability of polyp recurrence. However, there are no studies correlating the location of the initial polyps and the recurrent ones. The aim of this study was to verify whether the polyp location at the surveillance colonoscopy was correlated with the location of the previously excised polyps at the baseline colonoscopy. Methods: A retrospective study of patients submitted to colonoscopy with presence and excision of all polyps, followed by a surveillance colonoscopy. Polyp location was divided into proximal/distal to splenic flexure and rectum. Characteristics and recurrent rates at the same colon location were also evaluated. Results: Out of the 346 patients who underwent repeated colonoscopy, 268 (77.4% had at least 1 polyp detected. For all the segments there was an increased risk of recurrent polyps in the same location and it was about four times higher in proximal (OR 3.5; CI 2.1-6.0 and distal colon segments (OR 3.8; CI 2.1-6.8, followed by three times higher in the rectum (OR 2.6; CI 1.5-4.6. No difference was found between the rates of recurrence at the same segment, taking into consideration the polyp morphology, size, polypectomy technique employed and histological classification. Conclusion: There seems to be a significant association between polyp location at baseline and surveillance colonoscopy.

  7. Evolutionary and ecological approaches to the study of personality

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Réale, Denis; Dingemanse, Niels J; Kazem, Anahita J N; Wright, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    ... of ideas between the two groups of researchers. Second, we aimed to stimulate cross-fertilization between different scientific fields that study personality, namely behavioural ecology, psychology, genomics, quantitative genetics, neuroendocrinology and developmental biology. Third, we aimed to foster the application of an evolutionary framework to the study of personality.

  8. Rationale, design and baseline results of the Guangxi manganese-exposed workers healthy cohort (GXMEWHC) study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Yingnan; Zou, Yunfeng; Liu, Jing; Chen, Kangcheng; Huang, Damin; Shen, Yuefei; Zhong, Yaoqiu; Liu, Zhihao; Jiang, Bei; Li, Qin; Qing, Li; Zhang, Wei; Chen, Lang; Wang, Fenfen; Xia, Bing; Yang, Li; Yang, Xiaobo

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the relationship between biomarkers of exposure, disease and susceptibility, and early health effects and long-term diseases related to occupational manganese (Mn) exposure. Design Baseline survey of a longitudinal cohort study of workers in a ferromanganese refinery. Participants A total of 1888 individuals (1197 men, 691 women; average seniority 15.34 years) were enrolled in the Guangxi manganese-exposed workers healthy cohort (GXMEWHC) study. Participants were between 18 and 60 years of age (mean 40.31 years), had worked in the ferromanganese refinery for at least 1 year and lived in the local area. Results The GXMEWHC study included a baseline survey. Participants were divided into four groups according to manganese (Mn) cumulative exposure index (Mn-CEI) levels: an internal control group (Mn-CEI <1.0 mg/m3 year), a low exposure group (1.0 mg/m3 year≤Mn-CEI<2.0 mg/m3 year), a medium exposure group (2.0 mg/m3 year≤Mn-CEI<5.0 mg/m3 year) and a high exposure group (Mn-CEI≥5.0 mg/m3 year). Genome-wide association studies of quantitative trait loci and binary trait loci in 500 Mn-exposed workers were performed using Illumina Infinium HumanExome BeadChip arrays. Stored plasma, DNA, hair and urine are available for further study. Participants will be followed up every 3 years. Conclusions The GXMEWHC study provides abundant data for exploring the systemic health effects of occupational Mn exposure using biomarkers of exposure, disease and susceptibility. PMID:24993760

  9. Ecological study on Uyun Layla in Saudi Arabia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    Ecological study on Uyun Layla in Saudi Arabia. Wafaa Mohammed Al-Ghanem. Department of .... decrease in S- is expected in the deserts as found by Al-. Moneyeri et al. (1986). The phosphorous content .... wetlands in Saudi Arabia: The NCWCD system plan for protected areas. In Wetland and Waterfowl Conservation in ...

  10. A mesocosm analytical study on the ecological interactions of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The biotic influences of the biodeposition and bioturbation activities of the freshwater mussel Lamellidens marginalis (Lamarck) on the ecological interactions between certain co-existing benthic invertebrates leading to variations in their population densities were studied through a lake mesocosm experiment. The benthic ...

  11. Studies on the ecology of Saccostrea cucullata (Born, 1778 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aspects of the population ecology of the rock oyster Saccostrea cucullata were studied in Transkei and southern Natal. Population size structure was determined from a survey of 12 sites in Transkei and five in Natal, while data on recruitment, growth and mortality were obtained from photographic monitoring of fixed ...

  12. Studies on the ecology of Saccostrea cucullata (Born, 1778 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1988-05-27

    May 27, 1988 ... Aspects of the population ecology of the rock oyster Saccostrea cucullata were studied in Transkei and southern Natal. Population size structure was determined from a survey of 12 sites in Transkei and five in. Natal, while data on recruitment, growth and mortality were obtained from photographic ...

  13. Ecological studies of Ulva reticulata Forsskal in Chapora bay (Goa)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Untawale, A.G.; Dhargalkar, V.K.

    The patchy occurrence of Ulva reticulata Forskal along the west coast of India lead to its ecological studies. The total annual yield of . reticulata calculated for 3800 sq. m. area of the bay amounts to 6.74 tonnes wet weight and 0.932 tonnes dry...

  14. Ecological sensitivity of the Persian Gulf coastal region (Case study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Coastal area sensitivity evaluation is in fact, the evaluation of an extraordinary ecological rich region. This study has been based on established criteria and values. The aim of this sensitivity evaluation has been to give objectivity to the Bushehr Province coastline region, so as to be able to pinpoint areas requiring ...

  15. Asymptomatic polyvascular abnormalities in community (APAC study in China: objectives, design and baseline characteristics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Zhou

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The population-based "Asymptomatic Polyvascular Abnormalities in Community (APAC Study was designed to examine prevalence and associations of asymptomatic polyvascular abnormalities (APA in a general population. In this report, the objectives, design and baseline data of the APAC study are described. METHODS: The study included 5,440 participants (40.1% women with an age of 40+ years who were randomly selected from the population of the Kailuan Study which included 101,510 employees and retirees of the Kailuan Co. Ltd, a large coal mine industry located in Tangshan, Hebei, China. Exclusion criteria were previous cerebral stroke, transient ischemic attacks and coronary heart disease. In 2010 and 2011, information on potential cardiovascular risk factors was collected and all participants underwent transcranial Doppler sonography, measurement of the ankle brachial index, and bilateral carotid duplex sonography. In a first follow-up examination in 2012/2013, retinal photography and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography were additionally performed. In a planned long-term follow-up, data from clinical examinations and laboratory tests and the occurrence of cardiovascular or cerebrovascular events will be collected to build up a predicting model for the risk of ischemic events. RESULTS: At baseline, mean age of the participants was 55.2 ± 11.8 years, and men showed a significantly (P<0.001 higher prevalence of arterial hypertension (55.5% vs. 36.5% and hyperlipidemia (50.7% vs. 46.0% and a higher blood homocysteine concentration (18.68 ± 10.28 µmol/L versus 11.69 ± 6.40 µmol/L. CONCLUSIONS: The APAC is the first study to prospectively evaluate the relationship between intracranial arterial stenosis, retinal nerve fiber layer changes, retinal microvascular signs, and the eventual development of cerebrovascular or cardiovascular events.

  16. [Mental health in physicians doing the rural and suburban health service in Peru: a baseline study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galán-Rodas, Edén; Gálvez-Buccollini, Juan Antonio; Vega-Galdós, Favio; Osada, Jorge; Guerrero-Padilla, Daisy; Vega-Dienstmaier, Johann; Talledo, Lety; Catacora, Manuel; Fiestas, Fabián

    2011-06-01

    The disadvantageous conditions in which young physicians have to do their rural and sub-urban health service (SERUMS) may put them in a high risk for mental disorders. This study aims to establish the baseline levels of depression and alcohol use problems among those physicians scheduled to complete their SERUMS during the period 2011-2012. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) were administered as screening tests to 493 physicians. Depression scores were met by 26% females and 14.5% males, and alcohol use problem scores were met by 22% females and 26% males. Overall, 39% persons scored for either of both mental health entities. Mental health problems seem to be common among young physicians scheduled to migrate to their SERUMS. These problems must be addressed to avoid greater risks.

  17. The Reversal Intervention for Metabolic Syndrome (TRIMS study: rationale, design, and baseline data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troughton Jacqui

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent attention has focused on strategies to combat the forecast epidemic of type-2 diabetes (T2DM and its major vascular sequelae. Metabolic syndrome (MetS comprises a constellation of factors that increase the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD and T2DM. Our study aims to develop a structured self-management education programme for people with MetS, which includes management of cardiovascular and diabetes risk factors, and to determine its impact. This paper describes the rationale and design of the TRIMS study, including intervention development, and presents baseline data. Methods Subjects recruited from a mixed-ethnic population with MetS were randomised to intervention or control arms. The intervention arm received structured group education based on robust psychological theories and current evidence. The control group received routine care. Follow-up data will be collected at 6 and 12 months. The primary outcome measure will be reversal of metabolic syndrome in the intervention group subjects compared to controls at 12 months follow-up. Results 82 participants (44% male, 22% South Asian were recruited between November 2009 and July 2010. Baseline characteristics were similar for both the intervention (n = 42 and control groups (n = 40. Median age was 63 years (IQR 57 - 67, mean waist size 106 cm (SD ± 11, and prescribing of statins and anti-hypertensives was 51% in each case. Conclusion Results will provide information on changes in diabetes and CVD risk factors and help to inform primary prevention strategies in people with MetS from varied ethnic backgrounds who are at high risk of developing T2DM and CVD. Information gathered in relation to the programme's acceptability and effectiveness in a multi-ethnic population would ensure that our results are widely applicable. Trial registration The study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, study identifier: NCT01043770.

  18. [The Octabaix study. Baseline assessment and 5 years of follow-up].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Assumpta; Formiga, Francesc; Padrós, Gloria; Badia, Teresa; Almeda, Jesús; Octabaix, Grupo Estudio

    This is a review of a prospective, community-based study with a follow-up period of 5years. It is a study of 328 participants aged 85 at baseline, of which 62% were female, 53% widows, and a third of them living alone. High blood pressure was observed in 75.9%, dyslipidaemia in 51.2%, and diabetes in 17.7%. At baseline the median Barthel Index was 95, the Spanish version of the Mini-Mental State Examination was 28, the Charlson index 1, the Mini Nutritional Assessment 25, the Gijón test 10, the visual analogue scale of the Quality of Life Test was 60, and with a mean of 6.1 prescription drugs. A lower quality of life was also associated with female gender, a phenotype of frailty, heart failure, and a high level of social risk. At 5years of follow-up, the mortality rate was high, with 138 (42.1%) of the population sample dying at the end of the period. It represents an annual mortality rate of 8.4%. Thus, a common denominator of this review has been the high importance of functionality and overall comorbidity factors associated with mortality in this very old age group, compared to other more traditional factors in younger populations. Several studies of frailty have also been assessed in this group, as well as falls, nutritional risk, diabetes and successful aging, including important aspects to better understand this population group. Copyright © 2016 SEGG. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Study design and baseline findings from the progression of ocular findings (PROOF) natural history study of dry eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonnell, Peter J; Pflugfelder, Stephen C; Stern, Michael E; Hardten, David R; Conway, Taryn; Villanueva, Linda; Hollander, David A

    2017-12-28

    The aim of this research is to initiate a 5-year natural history study of dry eye disease (DED) using objectively assessed and patient-reported outcomes, to explore the hypothesis that DED is a progressive condition that has substantive and measurable impacts not only on the ocular surface, but on quality of life and visual functioning. Our objective for this report is to examine the baseline data. A multicenter, prospective, controlled, observational study of Level 2 (mild-to-moderate) DED patients based on International Task Force Delphi Panel severity grading, and controls, documented baseline measures (including tear film biomarkers and quality of life). Tear cytokine concentrations were also measured in the tear film. Patients were using artificial tears as needed. Two hundred seventeen DED patients and 67 gender- and age-matched controls were enrolled. A majority were females and Caucasian and groups did not differ significantly in terms of gender, race, or age. Differences between DED and matched controls, at baseline, included mean scores for Ocular Surface Disease Index (31.7 vs 4.1, P vision was reported as moderate/severe/very severe at baseline in 57.6% of DED patients vs.10.5% of normal controls (P vision, productivity, and visits to eye care practitioners in mild to moderate DED patients compared to normal subjects of similar ages and genders. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00833235 on January 30, 2009.

  20. Relationship between volition, physical activity and weight loss maintenance: Study rationale, design, methods and baseline characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dandanell, Sune; Elbe, Anne-Marie; Pfister, Gertrud Ursula

    2017-01-01

    ) for an interdisciplinary prospective study with follow-up. The change in lifestyle and weight loss is promoted via a 3-month intensive lifestyle intervention at a private health school. The intervention consists of supervised training (1–3 hours/day), a healthy hypo-caloric diet (−500 to −700 kCal/day) and education......, and 3 and 12 months after the intervention. Results: At the 12-month followup, three different groups will be established: Clinical weight loss maintenance (> 10% weight loss from baseline), moderate weight loss maintenance (1–10% weight loss) and no weight loss (or weight regain). A linear mixed model...... maintenance. Conclusions: If specific volitional skills are identified as predictors of adherence to physical activity and success in clinical weight loss maintenance, these can be trained in future intensive lifestyle interventions in order to optimize the success rate....

  1. Design and baseline characteristics of the simvastatin and ezetimibe in aortic stenosis (SEAS) study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossebø, Anne B; Pedersen, Terje R; Allen, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    ); 55% were current or previous smokers; and most were overweight (mean body mass index 26.9 kg/m2). At baseline, mean total cholesterol was 5.7+/-1.0 mmol/L (222 mg/dl), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol was 3.6+/-0.9 mmol/L (139 mg/dl), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was 1.5+/-0.4 mmol/L (58...... mg/dl), and triglycerides were 1.4+/-0.7 mmol/L (126 mg/dl). The SEAS Study is the largest randomized trial to date in patients with AS and will allow determination of the prognostic value of aggressive lipid lowering in such patients....

  2. Data from a proteomic baseline study of Assemblage A in Giardia duodenalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha J. Emery

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Eight Assemblage A strains from the protozoan parasite Giardia duodenalis were analysed using label-free quantitative shotgun proteomics, to evaluate inter- and intra-assemblage variation and complement available genetic and transcriptomic data. Isolates were grown in biological triplicate in axenic culture, and protein extracts were subjected to in-solution digest and online fractionation using Gas Phase Fractionation (GPF. Recent reclassification of genome databases for subassemblages was evaluated for database-dependent loss of information, and proteome composition of different isolates was analysed for biologically relevant assemblage-independent variation. The data from this study are related to the research article “Quantitative proteomics analysis of Giardia duodenalis Assemblage A – a baseline for host, assemblage and isolate variation” published in Proteomics (Emery et al., 2015 [1].

  3. Geothermal environmental studies, Heber Region, Imperial Valley, California. Environmental baseline data acquisition. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-02-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has been studying the feasibility of a Low Salinity Hydrothermal Demonstration Plant as part of its Geothermal Energy Program. The Heber area of the Imperial Valley was selected as one of the candidate geothermal reservoirs. Documentation of the environmental conditions presently existing in the Heber area is required for assessment of environmental impacts of future development. An environmental baseline data acquisition program to compile available data on the environment of the Heber area is reported. The program included a review of pertinent existing literature, interviews with academic, governmental and private entities, combined with field investigations and meteorological monitoring to collect primary data. Results of the data acquisition program are compiled in terms of three elements: the physical, the biological and socioeconomic settings.

  4. A Prospective Study of Pravastatin in the Elderly at Risk (PROSPER): Screening Experience and Baseline Characteristics.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ford, Ian

    2002-05-20

    BACKGROUND: PROSPER was designed to investigate the benefits of treatment with pravastatin in elderly patients for whom a typical doctor might consider the prescription of statin therapy to be a realistic option. METHODS: The PROspective Study of Pravastatin in the Elderly at Risk (PROSPER) is a randomised, double blind, placebo-controlled trial to test the hypothesis that treatment with pravastatin (40 mg\\/day) will reduce the risk of coronary heart disease death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, and fatal or non-fatal stroke in elderly men and women with pre-existing vascular disease or with significant risk of developing this condition. RESULTS: In Scotland, Ireland, and the Netherlands, 23,770 individuals were screened, and 5,804 subjects (2,804 men and 3,000 women), aged 70 to 82 years (average 75 years) and with baseline cholesterol 4.0-9.0 mmol\\/l, were randomised. Randomised subjects had similar distributions with respect to age, blood pressure, and body mass index when compared to the entire group of screenees, but had a higher prevalence of smoking, diabetes, hypertension, and a history of vascular disease. The average total cholesterol level at baseline was 5.4 mmol\\/l (men) and 6.0 mmol\\/l (women). CONCLUSIONS: Compared with previous prevention trials of cholesterol-lowering drugs, the PROSPER cohort is significantly older and for the first time includes a majority of women. The study, having achieved its initial goal of recruiting more than 5,500 elderly high-risk men and women, aims to complete all final subject follow-up visits in the first half of 2002 with the main results being available in the fourth quarter of 2002.

  5. Trends and missing parts in the study of movement ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holyoak, Marcel; Casagrandi, Renato; Nathan, Ran; Revilla, Eloy; Spiegel, Orr

    2008-01-01

    Movement is important to all organisms, and accordingly it is addressed in a huge number of papers in the literature. Of nearly 26,000 papers referring to movement, an estimated 34% focused on movement by measuring it or testing hypotheses about it. This enormous amount of information is difficult to review and highlights the need to assess the collective completeness of movement studies and identify gaps. We surveyed 1,000 randomly selected papers from 496 journals and compared the facets of movement studied with a suggested framework for movement ecology, consisting of internal state (motivation, physiology), motion and navigation capacities, and external factors (both the physical environment and living organisms), and links among these components. Most studies simply measured and described the movement of organisms without reference to ecological or internal factors, and the most frequently studied part of the framework was the link between external factors and motion capacity. Few studies looked at the effects on movement of navigation capacity, or internal state, and those were mainly from vertebrates. For invertebrates and plants most studies were at the population level, whereas more vertebrate studies were conducted at the individual level. Consideration of only population-level averages promulgates neglect of between-individual variation in movement, potentially hindering the study of factors controlling movement. Terminology was found to be inconsistent among taxa and subdisciplines. The gaps identified in coverage of movement studies highlight research areas that should be addressed to fully understand the ecology of movement. PMID:19060194

  6. Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study: Baseline Characteristics and Associations with Kidney Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, Alan S.; Appel, Lawrence J.; He, Jiang; Ojo, Akinlolu; Rahman, Mahboob; Townsend, Raymond R.; Xie, Dawei; Cifelli, Denise; Cohan, Janet; Fink, Jeffrey C.; Fischer, Michael J.; Gadegbeku, Crystal; Hamm, L. Lee; Kusek, John W.; Landis, J. Richard; Narva, Andrew; Robinson, Nancy; Teal, Valerie; Feldman, Harold I.

    2009-01-01

    Background and objectives: The Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study was established to examine risk factors for the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in patients with CKD. We examined baseline demographic and clinical characteristics. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: Seven clinical centers recruited adults who were aged 21 to 74 yr and had CKD using age-based estimated GFR (eGFR) inclusion criteria. At baseline, blood and urine specimens were collected and information regarding health behaviors, diet, quality of life, and functional status was obtained. GFR was measured using radiolabeled iothalamate in one third of participants. Results: A total of 3612 participants were enrolled with mean age ± SD of 58.2 ± 11.0 yr; 46% were women, and 47% had diabetes. Overall, 45% were non-Hispanic white, 46% were non-Hispanic black, and 5% were Hispanic. Eighty-six percent reported hypertension, 22% coronary disease, and 10% heart failure. Mean body mass index was 32.1 ± 7.9 kg/m2, and 47% had a BP >130/80 mmHg. Mean eGFR was 43.4 ± 13.5 ml/min per 1.73 m2, and median (interquartile range) protein excretion was 0.17 g/24 h (0.07 to 0.81 g/24 h). Lower eGFR was associated with older age, lower socioeconomic and educational level, cigarette smoking, self-reported CVD, peripheral arterial disease, and elevated BP. Conclusions: Lower level of eGFR was associated with a greater burden of CVD as well as lower socioeconomic and educational status. Long-term follow-up of participants will provide critical insights into the epidemiology of CKD and its relationship to adverse outcomes. PMID:19541818

  7. Stream geomorphic and habitat data from a baseline study of Underwood Creek, Wisconsin, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Benjamin M.; Fitzpatrick, Faith A.; Blount, James D.

    2015-12-07

    Geomorphic and habitat data were collected along Underwood Creek as part of a larger study of stream water quality conditions in the greater Milwaukee, Wisconsin, area. The data were collected to characterize baseline physical conditions in Underwood Creek prior to a potential discharge of wastewater return flow to the stream from the city of Waukesha, Wis. Geomorphic and habitat assessments were conducted in the summer and fall of 2012 by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Milwaukee Metropolitan Sewerage District. The assessments used a transect based, reach scale assessment at a total of eight reaches—six reaches along Underwood Creek and two reaches along the Menomonee River upstream and downstream of its confluence with Underwood Creek. The reach scale assessment was an updated version of the USGS National Water Quality Assessment Program habitat assessment integrated with an intensive geomorphic assessment. Channel cross sections and longitudinal profiles were surveyed along each of the eight reaches, and discharge and water temperature were measured. Additionally, a geomorphic river walk-through was completed along a 10 kilometer reach that spanned the individual assessment reaches and the sections of channel between them. The assessments and river walk-through described channel and bank stability, channel shape and size, sediment and riparian conditions along these areas of Underwood Creek and the Menomonee River. Since the time of the data collection, focus has turned to other Lake Michigan tributary watersheds for possible Waukesha return-flow discharges; however, the data collected for this effort remains a valuable asset for the baseline characterization, design, and prioritization of planned stream rehabilitation activities in Underwood Creek. The data files presented in this report include a variety of formats including geographic information system files, spreadsheets, photos, and scans of field forms.

  8. Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study: baseline characteristics and associations with kidney function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lash, James P; Go, Alan S; Appel, Lawrence J; He, Jiang; Ojo, Akinlolu; Rahman, Mahboob; Townsend, Raymond R; Xie, Dawei; Cifelli, Denise; Cohan, Janet; Fink, Jeffrey C; Fischer, Michael J; Gadegbeku, Crystal; Hamm, L Lee; Kusek, John W; Landis, J Richard; Narva, Andrew; Robinson, Nancy; Teal, Valerie; Feldman, Harold I

    2009-08-01

    The Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study was established to examine risk factors for the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in patients with CKD. We examined baseline demographic and clinical characteristics. Seven clinical centers recruited adults who were aged 21 to 74 yr and had CKD using age-based estimated GFR (eGFR) inclusion criteria. At baseline, blood and urine specimens were collected and information regarding health behaviors, diet, quality of life, and functional status was obtained. GFR was measured using radiolabeled iothalamate in one third of participants. A total of 3612 participants were enrolled with mean age +/- SD of 58.2 +/- 11.0 yr; 46% were women, and 47% had diabetes. Overall, 45% were non-Hispanic white, 46% were non-Hispanic black, and 5% were Hispanic. Eighty-six percent reported hypertension, 22% coronary disease, and 10% heart failure. Mean body mass index was 32.1 +/- 7.9 kg/m(2), and 47% had a BP >130/80 mmHg. Mean eGFR was 43.4 +/- 13.5 ml/min per 1.73 m(2), and median (interquartile range) protein excretion was 0.17 g/24 h (0.07 to 0.81 g/24 h). Lower eGFR was associated with older age, lower socioeconomic and educational level, cigarette smoking, self-reported CVD, peripheral arterial disease, and elevated BP. Lower level of eGFR was associated with a greater burden of CVD as well as lower socioeconomic and educational status. Long-term follow-up of participants will provide critical insights into the epidemiology of CKD and its relationship to adverse outcomes.

  9. Climate studies in the Long-Term Ecological Program

    OpenAIRE

    Greenland, David

    1993-01-01

    Since the inception of the LTER Program in 1980, climate has been studied at individual LTER sites and an LTER Climate Committee has been responsible for inter-site activities. At individual sites, climate studies support ecological research, emphasize inter-site heterogeneity, and often relate to other national monitoring and research programs. In inter-site work, the Climate Committee has produced protocols for meteorological observations, described and compared climates of the first 11 sit...

  10. Evolutionary and ecological approaches to the study of personality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Réale, Denis; Dingemanse, Niels J.; Kazem, Anahita J. N.; Wright, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    This introduction to the themed issue on Evolutionary and ecological approaches to the study of personality provides an overview of conceptual, theoretical and methodological progress in research on animal personalities over the last decade, and places the contributions to this volume in context. The issue has three main goals. First, we aimed to bring together theoreticians to contribute to the development of models providing adaptive explanations for animal personality that could guide empiricists, and stimulate exchange of ideas between the two groups of researchers. Second, we aimed to stimulate cross-fertilization between different scientific fields that study personality, namely behavioural ecology, psychology, genomics, quantitative genetics, neuroendocrinology and developmental biology. Third, we aimed to foster the application of an evolutionary framework to the study of personality. PMID:21078646

  11. The Oporto mixed-longitudinal growth, health and performance study. Design, methods and baseline results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Michele Caroline de; Chaves, Raquel Nichele de; Dos Santos, Fernanda Karina; Gomes, Thayse Natacha Queiroz Ferreira; Santos, Daniel Vilhena E; Borges, Alessandra Silva; Pereira, Sara Isabel Sampaio; Forjaz, Cláudia Lúcia de Moraes; Eisenmann, Joey; Maia, José António Ribeiro

    2017-02-01

    Studies concerning child and adolescent growth, development, performance and health aimed at the multiple interactions amongst this complex set of variables are not common in the Portuguese speaking countries. The aim of this paper is to address the key ideas, methodology and design of the Oporto Growth, Health and Performance Study (OGHPS). The OGHPS is a multidisciplinary mixed-longitudinal study whose main purpose is to examine the multiple interactions among biological, environmental and lifestyle indicators that affect growth, development, health and performance of Portuguese adolescents aged 10-18 years old. This study briefly presents baseline results for growth, physical fitness and lifestyle behaviours for those participating in the cross-sectional sample (n ≈ 8000). Approximately 30% were over-fat or obese. On average, boys were more physically fit and active than girls. Few adolescents meet the guidelines for sleep duration (≈10%) and eating habits (16.2-24.8%), while 76-85% meet the recommended levels of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. The OGHPS has an innovative approach due to its mixed-longitudinal design and the broad array of variables. Furthermore, subsequent analyses of the longitudinal data will enable a detailed exploration of important factors affecting the growth trajectories of health and performance variables and will also help to identify some of the most opportune times for interventions in terms of health behaviours.

  12. Cardiovascular risk factors in a Mexican middle-class urban population. The Lindavista Study. Baseline data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meaney, Alejandra; Ceballos-Reyes, Guillermo; Gutiérrez-Salmean, Gabriela; Samaniego-Méndez, Virginia; Vela-Huerta, Agustín; Alcocer, Luis; Zárate-Chavarría, Elisa; Mendoza-Castelán, Emma; Olivares-Corichi, Ivonne; García-Sánchez, Rubén; Martínez-Marroquín, Yolanda; Ramírez-Sánchez, Israel; Meaney, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this communication is to describe the cardiovascular risk factors affecting a Mexican urban middle-class population. A convenience sample of 2602 middle class urban subjects composed the cohort of the Lindavista Study, a prospective study aimed to determine if conventional cardiovascular risks factors have the same prognosis impact as in other populations. For the baseline data, several measurements were done: obesity indexes, smoking, blood pressure, fasting serum glucose, total cholesterol, HDL-c, LDL-c and triglycerides. This paper presents the basal values of this population, which represents a sample of the Mexican growing urban middle-class. The mean age in the sample was 50 years; 59% were females. Around 50% of the entire group were overweighed, while around 24% were obese. 32% smoked; 32% were hypertensive with a 20% rate of controlled pressure. 6% had diabetes, and 14% had impaired fasting glucose; 66% had total cholesterol ≥ 200 mg/dL; 62% showed HDL-c levels150 mg/dL, and 34% levels of LDL-c ≥ 160 mg/dL. Half of the population studied had the metabolic syndrome. These data show a population with a high-risk profile, secondary to the agglomeration of several cardiovascular risk factors. Copyright © 2012 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  13. A comparative study of long-baseline superbeams within LAGUNA for large $\\theta_{13}$

    CERN Document Server

    Coloma, Pilar; Pascoli, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    The Daya Bay and RENO experiments have recently observed a non-zero $\\theta_{13}$ at more than $5\\sigma$ CL. This has important consequences for future neutrino oscillation experiments. We analyze these within the LAGUNA design study which considers seven possible locations for a European neutrino observatory for proton decay, neutrino, and astroparticle physics. The megaton-scale detector would be an ideal target for a CERN-based neutrino beam with baselines ranging from 130 km to 2300 km. We perform a detailed study to assess the physics reach of the three detector options - a 440 kton water \\v{C}erenkov, a 100 kton liquid argon and a 50 kton liquid scintillator detector - at each of the possible locations, taking into account the recent measurement of $\\theta_{13}$. We study the impact of the beam properties and detector performances on the sensitivity to CP-violation and the mass hierarchy. We find that a liquid argon or water \\v{C}erenkov detector can make a $3\\sigma$ discovery of CP violation for $60%-7...

  14. Adult Spasticity International Registry Study: methodology and baseline patient, healthcare provider, and caregiver characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard E. Francisco

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The main aim of this study was to determine the utilization patterns and effectiveness of onabotulinumtoxinA (Botox® for treatment of spasticity in clinical practice. Design: An international, multicentre, prospective, observational study at selected sites in North America, Europe, and Asia. Patients: Adult patients with newly diagnosed or established focal spasticity, including those who had previously received treatment with onabotulinum-toxin A. Methods: Patients were treated with onabotulinumtoxinA, approximately every 12 weeks, according to their physician’s usual clinical practice over a period of up to 96 weeks, with a final follow-up interview at 108 weeks. Patient, physician and caregiver data were collected. Results: Baseline characteristics are reported. Of the 745 patients enrolled by 75 healthcare providers from 54 sites, 474 patients had previously received onabotulinumtoxinA treatment for spasticity. Lower limb spasticity was more common than upper limb spasticity, with stroke the most common underlying aetiology. The Short-Form 12 (SF-12 health survey scores showed that patients’ spasticity had a greater perceived impact on physical rather than mental aspects. Conclusion: The data collected in this study will guide the development of administration strategies to optimize the effectiveness of onabotulinumtoxinA in the management of spasticity of various underlying aetiologies.

  15. ELF communications system ecological monitoring program. Small vertebrate studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaver, Donald L.; Hill, Richard W.; Hill, Susan D.

    1994-10-01

    The U.S. Navy has completed a program monitoring flora, fauna, and ecological relationships tor possible effects from electromagnetic fields produced by its Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) Communications System. This report documents studies of small mammals and nesting birds conducted near its transmitting antenna in Michigan. From 1982 through 1993 researchers from the Michigan State University (MSU) monitored organismal and population aspects of vertebrates in areas near (treatment) and far (control) from the Michigan antenna. They examined the reproductive, developmental, behavioral, and physiological characteristics of representative vertebrate species. Studied species were the deer mouse, chipmunk, tree swallow, and blackcapped - chickadee. Investigators had also monitored ecological aspects of the mammalian community until 1988 when this study element was discontinued due to highly variable results. In a different project, ornithologists from the University of Minnesota-Duluth monitored the ecological characteristics of the bird community near the ELF System. The MSU research team used several statistical tests to examine data; however, nested analysis of variance was the most often used test. Based on the results of their study, they conclude that the EM fields produced by the Naval Radio Transmitting Facility-Republic, Michigan did not affect small vertebrates.

  16. MAPT STUDY: A MULTIDOMAIN APPROACH FOR PREVENTING ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE: DESIGN AND BASELINE DATA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vellas, B; Carrie, I; Gillette-Guyonnet, S; Touchon, J; Dantoine, T; Dartigues, J F; Cuffi, M N; Bordes, S; Gasnier, Y; Robert, P; Bories, L; Rouaud, O; Desclaux, F; Sudres, K; Bonnefoy, M; Pesce, A; Dufouil, C; Lehericy, S; Chupin, M; Mangin, J F; Payoux, P; Adel, D; Legrand, P; Catheline, D; Kanony, C; Zaim, M; Molinier, L; Costa, N; Delrieu, J; Voisin, T; Faisant, C; Lala, F; Nourhashémi, F; Rolland, Y; Van Kan, G Abellan; Dupuy, C; Cantet, C; Cestac, P; Belleville, S; Willis, S; Cesari, M; Weiner, M W; Soto, M E; Ousset, P J; Andrieu, S

    2014-06-01

    The Multidomain Alzheimer Preventive Trial (MAPT study) was designed to assess the efficacy of isolated supplementation with omega-3 fatty acid, an isolated multidomain intervention (consisting of nutritional counseling, physical exercise, cognitive stimulation) or a combination of the two interventions on the change of cognitive functions in frail subjects aged 70 years and older for a period of 3 years. Ancillary neuroimaging studies were additionally implemented to evaluate the impact of interventions on cerebral metabolism (FDG PET scans) and atrophy rate (MRIs), as well as brain amyloïd deposit (AV45 PET scans). 1680 subjects (mean age: 75.3 years; female: 64.8 %), enrolled by 13 memory clinics, were randomized into one of the following four groups: omega-3 supplementation alone, multidomain intervention alone, omega-3 plus multidomain intervention, or placebo. Participants underwent cognitive, functional and biological assessments at M6, M12, M24 and M36 visits. The primary endpoint is a change of memory function at 3 years, as assessed by the Free and Cued Selective Reminding test. All participants will be followed for 2 additional years after the 3-years intervention (MAPT PLUS extension study). 1/Omega-3 supplementation: two soft capsules daily as a single dose, containing a total of 400 mg docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), i.e., 800 mg docosahexaenoic acid per day, for 3 years. 2/ Multidomain intervention: collective training sessions conducted in small groups (6-8 participants) in twelve 120-minute sessions over the first 2 months (two sessions a week for the first month, and one session a week the second month) then a 60-minute session per month in the following three areas: nutrition, physical activity, and cognition until the end of the 3 years. In addition to the collective sessions, individualized preventive outpatient visits exploring possible risk factors for cognitive decline are performed at baseline, M12 and M24. For cognition, the mean MMSE at

  17. Sediment baseline study of levels and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals in Lake Nicaragua

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheibye, Katrine; Weisser, Johan Juhl; Borggaard, Ole K.

    2014-01-01

    Selected metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed in sediment samples from 24 sites in Lake Nicaragua sampled May 2010 to provide a baseline of pollution levels. Cu exceeded the Consensus-Based Sediment Quality Guideline (CBSQG) Threshold Effect Concentrations (TECs) at 21....... This study concluded that areas of Lake Nicaragua represent an important pollution baseline for future studies in this lake and other tropical lakes....

  18. Brachial plexus 3D reconstruction from MRI with dissection validation: a baseline study for clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Velde, Joris; Bogaert, Stephanie; Vandemaele, Pieter; Huysse, Wouter; Achten, Eric; Leijnse, Joris; De Neve, Wilfried; Van Hoof, Tom

    2016-03-01

    The present study aimed to establish a baseline for detailed 3D brachial plexus reconstruction from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Concretely, the goal was to determine the individual brachial plexus anatomy with maximum detail and accuracy achievable, as yet irrespective of whether the methods used could be economically and practically applied in the clinical setting. Six embalmed cadavers were randomly taken for MRI imaging of the brachial plexus. Detailed two-dimensional (2D) segmentation for all brachial plexus parts was done. The 2D brachial plexus segmentations were 3D reconstructed using Mimics(®) software. Then, these 3D reconstructions were anatomically validated by dissection of the cadavers. After finalising the cadaver experiments, brachial plexus MRIs were obtained in three healthy male volunteers and the same reconstruction procedure as in vitro was followed. A procedure was developed for brachial plexus 3D reconstruction based on MRI without the use of any contrast agent. Anatomical validation of six cadaver brachial plexus reconstructions showed high correspondence with the dissected brachial plexuses. Anatomical variations of the main branches were equally present in the 3D reconstructions generated. However, there were also some differences that related to the difference between the surface anatomy of the nerve and the internal nerve structure. In vivo, it was possible to reconstruct the complete brachial plexus in such a manner that normal-appearing BPs were derived in a reproducible way. This study showed that the described procedure results in accurate and reproducible brachial plexus 3D reconstructions.

  19. The Energy Balance Study: The Design and Baseline Results for a Longitudinal Study of Energy Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, Gregory A.; Shook, Robin P.; Paluch, Amanda E.; Baruth, Meghan; Crowley, E. Patrick; Jaggers, Jason R.; Prasad, Vivek K.; Hurley, Thomas G.; Hebert, James R.; O'Connor, Daniel P.; Archer, Edward; Burgess, Stephanie; Blair, Steven N.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The Energy Balance Study (EBS) was a comprehensive study designed to determine over a period of 12 months the associations of caloric intake and energy expenditure on changes in body weight and composition in a population of healthy men and women. Method: EBS recruited men and women aged 21 to 35 years with a body mass index between 20…

  20. Impact of baseline severity of aortic valve stenosis on effect of intensive lipid lowering therapy (from the SEAS study)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerdts, Eva; Rossebø, Anne Bjørhovde; Pedersen, Terje Rolf

    2010-01-01

    Retrospective studies have suggested a beneficial effect of lipid-lowering treatment on the progression of aortic stenosis (AS) in milder stages of the disease. In the randomized, placebo-controlled Simvastatin and Ezetimibe in Aortic Stenosis (SEAS) study, 4.3 years of combined treatment...... with simvastatin 40 mg and ezetimibe 10 mg did not reduce aortic valve events (AVEs), while ischemic cardiovascular events (ICEs) were significantly reduced in the overall study population. However, the impact of baseline AS severity on treatment effect has not been reported. Baseline and outcomes data in 1...... of AVEs and ICEs increased with increasing baseline severity of AS. In Cox regression analyses, higher baseline peak aortic jet velocity predicted higher rates of AVEs and ICEs in all tertiles (all p values Simvastatin-ezetimibe treatment...

  1. Report on the remedial investigation of Bear Creek Valley at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 6: Appendix G -- Baseline ecological risk assessment report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    This Remedial Investigation (RI) Report characterizes the nature and extent of contamination, evaluates the fate and transport of contaminants, and assesses risk to human health and the environment resulting from waste disposal and other US Department of Energy (DOE) operations in Bear Creek Valley (BCV). BCV, which is located within the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) encompasses multiple waste units containing hazardous and radioactive wastes arising from operations at the adjacent Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The primary waste units discussed in this RI Report are the S-3 Site, Oil Landfarm (OLF), Boneyard/Burnyard (BYBY), Sanitary Landfill 1 (SL 1), and Bear Creek Burial Grounds (BCBG). These waste units, plus the contaminated media resulting from environmental transport of the wastes from these units, are the subject of this RI. This BCV RI Report represents the first major step in the decision-making process for the BCV watershed. The RI results, in concert with the follow-on FS will form the basis for the Proposed Plan and Record of Decision for all BCV sites. This comprehensive decision document process will meet the objectives of the watershed approach for BCV. Appendix G contains ecological risks for fish, benthic invertebrates, soil invertebrates, plants, small mammals, deer, and predator/scavengers (hawks and fox). This risk assessment identified significant ecological risks from chemicals in water, sediment, soil, and shallow ground water. Metals and PCBs are the primary contaminants of concern.

  2. The Harbin Cohort Study on Diet, Nutrition and Chronic Non-communicable Diseases: study design and baseline characteristics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixin Na

    Full Text Available Diet and nutrition have been reported to be associated with many common chronic diseases and blood-based assessment would be vital to investigate the association and mechanism, however, blood-based prospective studies are limited. The Harbin Cohort Study on Diet, Nutrition and Chronic Non-communicable Diseases was set up in 2010. From 2010 to 2012, 9,734 participants completed the baseline survey, including demographic characteristics, dietary intake, lifestyles and physical condition, and anthropometrics. A re-survey on 490 randomly selected participants was done by using the same methods which were employed in the baseline survey. For all participants, the mean age was 50 years and 36% of them were men. Approximately 99.4 % of cohort members donated blood samples. The mean total energy intake was 2671.7 kcal/day in men and 2245.9 kcal/day in women, the mean body mass index was 25.7 kg/m2 in men and 24.6 kg/m2 in women, with 18.4% being obese (≥ 28 kg/m2, 12.7% being diabetic, and 29.5% being hypertensive. A good agreement was obtained for the physical measurements between the baseline survey and re-survey. The resources from the cohort and its fasting and postprandial blood samples collected both at baseline and in each follow-up will be valuable and powerful in investigating relationship between diet, nutrition and chronic diseases and discovering novel blood biomarkers and the metabolism of these biomarkers related to chronic diseases.

  3. Depression in primary care patients with coronary heart disease: baseline findings from the UPBEAT UK study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Walters

    Full Text Available An association between depression and coronary heart disease is now accepted but there has been little primary care research on this topic. The UPBEAT-UK studies are centred on a cohort of primary patients with coronary heart disease assessed every six months for up to four years. The aim of this research was to determine the prevalence and associations of depression in this cohort at baseline.Participants with coronary heart disease were recruited from general practice registers and assessed for cardiac symptoms, depression, quality of life and social problems.803 people participated. 42% had a documented history of myocardial infarction, 54% a diagnosis of ischaemic heart disease or angina. 44% still experienced chest pain. 7% had an ICD-10 defined depressive disorder. Factors independently associated with this diagnosis were problems living alone (OR 5.49, 95% CI 2.11-13.30, problems carrying out usual activities (OR 3.71, 95% CI 1.93-7.14, experiencing chest pain (OR 3.27, 95% CI 1.58-6.76, other pains or discomfort (OR 3.39, 95% CI 1.42-8.10, younger age (OR 0.95 per year 95% CI 0.92-0.98.Problems living alone, chest pain and disability are important predictors of depression in this population.

  4. Does baseline innate immunity change with age? A multi-year study in great tits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, Anke; Eens, Marcel; Van Dongen, Stefan; Müller, Wendt

    2017-06-01

    Throughout their life animals progressively accumulate mostly detrimental changes in cells, tissues and their functions, causing a decrease in individual performance and ultimately an increased risk of death. The latter may be amplified if it also leads to a deterioration of the immune system which forms the most important protection against the permanent threat of pathogens and infectious diseases. Here, we investigated how four baseline innate immune parameters (natural antibodies, complement activity, concentrations of haptoglobin and concentrations of nitric oxide) changed with age in free-living great tits (Parus major). We applied both cross-sectional and longitudinal approaches as birds were sampled for up to three years of their lives. Three out of the four selected innate immune parameters were affected by age. However, the shape of the response curves differed strongly among the innate immune parameters. Natural antibody levels increased during early life until mid-age to decrease thereafter when birds aged. Complement activity was highest in young birds, while levels slightly decreased with increasing age. Haptoglobin levels on the other hand, showed a linear, but highly variable increase with age, while nitric oxide concentrations were unaffected by age. The observed differences among the four studied innate immune traits not only indicate the importance of considering several immune traits at the same time, but also highlight the complexity of innate immunity. Unraveling the functional significance of the observed changes in innate immunity is thus a challenging next step. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The Shanghai Aging Study: study design, baseline characteristics, and prevalence of dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ding; Zhao, Qianhua; Guo, Qihao; Meng, Haijiao; Wang, Bei; Yu, Peimin; Luo, Jianfeng; Zhou, Yan; Yu, Lirong; Zheng, Li; Chu, Shuguang; Mortimer, James A; Borenstein, Amy R; Hong, Zhen

    2014-01-01

    To establish a prospective cohort to enumerate the prevalence, incidence and risk factors for dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) among residents aged ≥60 in an urban community of Shanghai, China. Participants received clinical evaluations including physical measurements, demographic and lifestyle questionnaires, physical and neurologic examinations, and neuropsychological testing. Urine and blood samples were collected, aliquoted, and stored. DNA was extracted for Apolipoprotein (APOE) genotyping. Diagnoses of dementia and MCI were made using standard criteria via consensus diagnosis. Among 3,141 participants aged ≥60, 1,438 (45.8%) were men. The average age of participants was 72.3 years (SD 8.1), and they had an average of 11.6 years (SD 4.4) of education. The most common chronic disease of participants was hypertension (56.4%). The frequencies of APOE-​ε2, ε3 and ε4 were 7.9, 82.7 and 9.4%, respectively. We diagnosed 156 (5.0%, 95% CI 4.3-5.8%) participants with dementia. The prevalence rates of Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia were 3.6% (95% CI 3.0-4.3%) and 0.8% (95% CI 0.5-1.1%). The Shanghai Aging Study is the first prospective community-based cohort study of cognitive impairment in China, with a comparable study design, procedures, and diagnostic criteria for dementia and MCI to most previous cohort studies in developed countries. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Investigating Cooperative Behavior in Ecological Settings: An EEG Hyperscanning Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jlenia Toppi

    Full Text Available The coordinated interactions between individuals are fundamental for the success of the activities in some professional categories. We reported on brain-to-brain cooperative interactions between civil pilots during a simulated flight. We demonstrated for the first time how the combination of neuroelectrical hyperscanning and intersubject connectivity could provide indicators sensitive to the humans' degree of synchronization under a highly demanding task performed in an ecological environment. Our results showed how intersubject connectivity was able to i characterize the degree of cooperation between pilots in different phases of the flight, and ii to highlight the role of specific brain macro areas in cooperative behavior. During the most cooperative flight phases pilots showed, in fact, dense patterns of interbrain connectivity, mainly linking frontal and parietal brain areas. On the contrary, the amount of interbrain connections went close to zero in the non-cooperative phase. The reliability of the interbrain connectivity patterns was verified by means of a baseline condition represented by formal couples, i.e. pilots paired offline for the connectivity analysis but not simultaneously recorded during the flight. Interbrain density was, in fact, significantly higher in real couples with respect to formal couples in the cooperative flight phases. All the achieved results demonstrated how the description of brain networks at the basis of cooperation could effectively benefit from a hyperscanning approach. Interbrain connectivity was, in fact, more informative in the investigation of cooperative behavior with respect to established EEG signal processing methodologies applied at a single subject level.

  7. Variability in baseline laboratory measurements of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladwig, R; Vigo, A; Fedeli, L M G; Chambless, L E; Bensenor, I; Schmidt, M I; Vidigal, P G; Castilhos, C D; Duncan, B B

    2016-08-01

    Multi-center epidemiological studies must ascertain that their measurements are accurate and reliable. For laboratory measurements, reliability can be assessed through investigation of reproducibility of measurements in the same individual. In this paper, we present results from the quality control analysis of the baseline laboratory measurements from the ELSA-Brasil study. The study enrolled 15,105 civil servants at 6 research centers in 3 regions of Brazil between 2008-2010, with multiple biochemical analytes being measured at a central laboratory. Quality control was ascertained through standard laboratory evaluation of intra- and inter-assay variability and test-retest analysis in a subset of randomly chosen participants. An additional sample of urine or blood was collected from these participants, and these samples were handled in the same manner as the original ones, locally and at the central laboratory. Reliability was assessed with the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), estimated through a random effects model. Coefficients of variation (CV) and Bland-Altman plots were additionally used to assess measurement variability. Laboratory intra and inter-assay CVs varied from 0.86% to 7.77%. From test-retest analyses, the ICCs were high for the majority of the analytes. Notably lower ICCs were observed for serum sodium (ICC=0.50; 95%CI=0.31-0.65) and serum potassium (ICC=0.73; 95%CI=0.60-0.83), due to the small biological range of these analytes. The CVs ranged from 1 to 14%. The Bland-Altman plots confirmed these results. The quality control analyses showed that the collection, processing and measurement protocols utilized in the ELSA-Brasil produced reliable biochemical measurements.

  8. Adherence with early infant feeding and complementary feeding guidelines in the Cork BASELINE Birth Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donovan, Sinéad M; Murray, Deirdre M; Hourihane, Jonathan O'B; Kenny, Louise C; Irvine, Alan D; Kiely, Mairead

    2015-10-01

    To describe adherence with infant feeding and complementary feeding guidelines. Prospective study of infant feeding and complementary feeding practices were collected as part of the Cork BASELINE Birth Cohort Study. Cork, Ireland. Data are described for the 823 infants for whom a diary was completed. Breast-feeding was initiated in 81 % of infants, and 34 %, 14 % and 1 % of infants were exclusively breast-fed at hospital discharge, 2 and 6 months, respectively. Stage one infant formula decreased from 71 % at 2 months to 13 % at 12 months. The majority of infants (79 %) were introduced to solids between 17 and 26 weeks and 18 % were given solid foods before 17 weeks. Mothers of infants who commenced complementary feeding prior to 17 weeks were younger (29·8 v. 31·5 years; Pfood was usually baby rice (69 %), infant breakfast cereals (14 %) or fruit/vegetables (14 %). Meals were generally home-made (49 %), cereal-based (35 %), manufactured (10 %), dairy (3 %) and dessert-based (3 %). The median gap between the first-second, second-third, third-fourth and fourth-fifth new foods was 4, 2, 2 and 2 d, respectively. We present the largest prospective cohort study to date on early infant feeding in Ireland. The rate of breast-feeding is low by international norms. Most mothers introduce complementary foods between 4 and 6 months with lengthy gaps between each new food/food product. There is a high prevalence of exposure to infant breakfast cereals, which are composite foods, among the first foods introduced.

  9. Baseline characteristics of depressive disorders in Thai outpatients: findings from the Thai Study of Affective Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wongpakaran T

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tinakon Wongpakaran,1 Nahathai Wongpakaran,1 Manee Pinyopornpanish,1 Usaree Srisutasanavong,1 Peeraphon Lueboonthavatchai,2 Raviwan Nivataphand,2 Nattaporn Apisiridej,3 Donruedee Petchsuwan,3 Nattha Saisavoey,4 Kamonporn Wannarit,4 Ruk Ruktrakul,5 Thawanrat Srichan,5 Sirina Satthapisit,6 Daochompu Nakawiro,7 Thanita Hiranyatheb,7 Anakevich Temboonkiat,8 Namtip Tubtimtong,9 Sukanya Rakkhajeekul,9 Boonsanong Wongtanoi,10 Sitthinant Tanchakvaranont,11 Putipong Bookkamana121Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, 2Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, 3Trang Hospital, Trang, 4Faculty of Medicine, Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, 5Lampang Hospital, Lampang, 6KhonKaen Hospital, Khon Kaen, 7Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, 8Phramongkutklao Hospital, Bangkok, 9Faculty of Medicine Naresuan University, Pitsanulok, 10Srisangwal Hospital, Mae Hong Son, 11Queen Savang Vadhana Memorial Hospital, Chonburi, 12Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai Kingdom of ThailandBackground: The Thai Study of Affective Disorders was a tertiary hospital-based cohort study developed to identify treatment outcomes among depressed patients and the variables involved. In this study, we examined the baseline characteristics of these depressed patients.Methods: Patients were investigated at eleven psychiatric outpatient clinics at tertiary hospitals for the presence of unipolar depressive disorders, as diagnosed by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. The severity of any depression found was measured using the Clinical Global Impression and 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD clinician-rated tools, with the Thai Depression Inventory (a self-rated instrument administered alongside them. Sociodemographic and psychosocial variables were collected, and quality of life was also captured using the health-related quality of life (SF-36v2

  10. [Baseline clinical characteristics and management of patients included in IBERICAN study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, V; Escobar, C; Llisterri, J L; Rodríguez Roca, G; Badimón, J J; Vergara, J; Prieto, M Á; Serrano, A; Cinza, S; Murillo, C

    2015-01-01

    To determine the prevalence and incidence of cardiovascular risk factors and cardiovascular events in Spain, as well as the quality of the follow-up in clinical practice. In this study the baseline data of the first interim analysis of IBERICAN are shown (n=830). IBERICAN is a multicenter, longitudinal and observational population-based study of patients daily attended in primary care setting according to clinical practice in Spain. Subjects between 18 and 85 years daily attended in primary care setting are being included consecutively. Treatment of patients will be performed according only to clinical criteria of investigators. Blood pressure control was defined according to 2013 European guidelines of hypertension; LDL-cholesterol control was defined according to 2012 European guidelines of cardiovascular prevention; diabetes control was defined as HbA1c<7%. Mean age was 57.9±14.1 years. 54.1% of patients had dyslipidemia, 47.5% hypertension, 17.7% diabetes, and 10.8% history of ischemic heart disease. Regarding drugs, despite 55% of hypertensive patients were taking≥2 antihypertensive agents, only 59.9% achieved blood pressure targets; 65.7% of patients with dyslipidemia were taking statins, but only 35.6% attained LDL-cholesterol goals. Only 51.4% of diabetics achieved HbA1c goals. Subjects attended in primary care showed a high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors with a poor control. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  11. Use of traditional and complementary medicine in Malaysia: a baseline study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siti, Z M; Tahir, A; Farah, A Ida; Fazlin, S M Ami; Sondi, S; Azman, A H; Maimunah, A H; Haniza, M A; Siti Haslinda, M D; Zulkarnain, A K; Zakiah, I; Zaleha, W C Wan

    2009-01-01

    The increasing popularity and use of traditional and complementary medicine (TCAM) in both developed and developing countries, including Malaysia, have raised significant public health policy issues. However, currently, there is a paucity of baseline data on such usage by the Malaysian community. This study was conducted to identify and describe the prevalence and frequency of various TCAM modalities that are being used by the Malaysian population by age, gender, marital and working status, educational level and ethnic group for health issues and maintenance. A nationwide interviewer-administered questionnaire survey was conducted in August 2004. An open-ended questionnaire pertaining to TCAM modalities was used to increase the probability of capturing maximum data. This survey implemented a multistage design, stratified by state and urban/rural random sampling, proportionate to the size of the state population and was representative of the Malaysian population. Post-survey classification of modalities was done accordingly. Complex data analysis was carried out using SPSS 13.0. Various TCAM modalities that were used by the Malaysian population were identified and categorised. Biological-based therapies, which included herbal therapy, were most commonly used for health problems (88.9%) and for health maintenance (87.3%). Under this category, herb-based application/herb-based beauty product/herb-based hygiene product group was most commonly used for health issues (23.6%) while pure herbs were the ones most commonly used for health maintenance (29.6%). There was no significant difference across all groups in the usage of biological-based therapies for health issues. The study showed that there is a high prevalence of TCAM use by the Malaysian population, particularly in the use of herb-based therapies for both health issues and health maintenance. Thus, a strict guideline for herbal commercialisation as well as public education is important.

  12. Relationship between volition, physical activity and weight loss maintenance: Study rationale, design, methods and baseline characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandanell, Sune; Elbe, Anne-Marie; Pfister, Gertrud; Elsborg, Peter; W Helge, Jørn

    2017-05-01

    To investigate the relationship between volition, physical activity and weight loss maintenance. We recruited 84 sedentary (maximal oxygen uptake: 25 ± 5 ml/min), overweight and obese (Body mass index (BMI) 38 ± 7 m/h2, fat 44 ± 7 %) women ( n = 55) and men ( n = 29) for an interdisciplinary prospective study with follow-up. The change in lifestyle and weight loss is promoted via a 3-month intensive lifestyle intervention at a private health school. The intervention consists of supervised training (1-3 hours/day), a healthy hypo-caloric diet (-500 to -700 kCal/day) and education in healthy lifestyle in classes/groups. The participants' body weight and composition (Dual Energy X-ray absorptiometry), volitional skills (questionnaire), physical activity level (heart rate accelerometer/questionnaire) and maximal oxygen uptake (indirect calorimetry) are to be monitored before, after, and 3 and 12 months after the intervention. At the 12-month follow-up, three different groups will be established: Clinical weight loss maintenance (> 10% weight loss from baseline), moderate weight loss maintenance (1-10% weight loss) and no weight loss (or weight regain). A linear mixed model analysis will be used to compare levels of volitional skills, physical activity and maximal oxygen uptake over time, between the three groups. Correlational analyses will be used to investigate possible associations between volition, maximal oxygen uptake, physical activity level and weight loss maintenance. If specific volitional skills are identified as predictors of adherence to physical activity and success in clinical weight loss maintenance, these can be trained in future intensive lifestyle interventions in order to optimize the success rate.

  13. South African Breast Cancer and HIV Outcomes Study: Methods and Baseline Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbert Cubasch

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In low- and middle-income, HIV-endemic regions of sub-Saharan Africa, morbidity and mortality from the common epithelial cancers of the developed world are rising. Even among HIV-infected individuals, access to antiretroviral therapy has enhanced life expectancy, shifting the distribution of cancer diagnoses toward non–AIDS-defining malignancies, including breast cancer. Building on our prior research, we recently initiated the South African Breast Cancer and HIV Outcomes study. Methods: We will recruit a cohort of 3,000 women newly diagnosed with breast cancer at hospitals in high (average, 20% HIV prevalence areas, in Johannesburg, Durban, Pietermaritzburg, and Empangeni. At baseline, we will collect information on demographic, behavioral, clinical, and other factors related to access to health care. Every 3 months in year 1 and every 6 months thereafter, we will collect interview and chart data on treatment, symptoms, cancer progression, comorbidities, and other factors. We will compare survival rates of HIV-infected and uninfected women with newly diagnosed breast cancer and their likelihood of receiving suboptimal anticancer therapy. We will identify determinants of suboptimal therapy and context-specific modifiable factors that future interventions can target to improve outcomes. We will explore molecular mechanisms underlying potentially aggressive breast cancer in both HIV-infected and uninfected patients, as well as the roles of pathogens, states of immune activation, and inflammation in disease progression. Conclusion: Our goals are to contribute to development of evidence-based guidelines for the management of breast cancer in HIV-positive women and to improve outcomes for all patients with breast cancer in resource-constrained settings.

  14. The Prevention Education Program (PEP) Nuremberg: design and baseline data of a family oriented intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohrig, E; Geiss, H C; Haas, G M; Schwandt, P

    2001-05-01

    We describe the design and baseline data of the Prevention Education Program (PEP), a home-based and family oriented intervention program, aimed to assess and improve cardiovascular risk factors in school children and their families during an intervention period of 10 y. At study entry all participants were randomized either to an intervention group (screening and intervention program) or to a control group (risk screening, general advice). Cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, elevated lipids, smoking, obesity) as well as dietary behaviour are evaluated yearly using structured interview, physical examination, laboratory analysis, and seven-day dietary protocol. During the years 1993-1998, 3547 adults (age 36.2+/-7 y) and 3495 children (age 6.5+/-2 y) were recruited. Adults show a high prevalence of risk factors: hypertension 21%; active smoking 39%, elevated LDL-cholesterol 19%; and obesity 42%. Children exhibit these risk factors in comparable frequency: hypertension 20%; passive smoking 44%; elevated LDL-cholesterol 17%; and obesity 19%. The analysis of the dietary protocols (1926 adults, 1569 children) shows that both generations adhere to a diet exceeding the recommended fat intake (adults 38% of total energy, children 38%), while carbohydrate intake (adults 43% of total energy intake, children 50%) is reduced compared to NCEP-(step I)-guidelines. The finding, that children show a prevalence of risk factors which is comparable to that found in adults, supports the need for an early beginning of intervention. Since both generations adhere to an unhealthy diet which contributes to cardiovascular risk, dietary intervention may be a promising method in primary prevention of cardiovascular risk.

  15. Inguinal hernia surgery in The Netherlands: a baseline study before the introduction of the Dutch Guidelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Lange, D. H.; Aufenacker, Th J.; Roest, M.; Simmermacher, R. K. J.; Gouma, D. J.; Simons, M. P.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In 2003 the Dutch Guidelines for treatment of inguinal hernia (IH) were published. For treatment of IH in adults, the evidence-based guidelines recommend the use of a mesh repair technique. In order to be able to evaluate the effects of these guidelines, a baseline analysis of inguinal

  16. Baseline identification in stable -isotope studies of temperate lotic systems and implications for calculated trophic positions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Peter Brinkmann; Riis, Tenna; Dylmer, Hans Erik

    2016-01-01

    in the catchment and had a slope deviating from zero for both fish species, despite gut content analysis revealed no such trophic level dependency of land use. This suggests that Baetidae are not good baseline indicators of trophic position, perhaps because their main food item (periphyton) may include nitrogen-fixing...

  17. Baseline study and risk analysis of landfill leachate - Current state-of-the-science of computer aided approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, T E; Alam, A; Gouda, H M; Paul, P; Mair, N

    2017-02-15

    For the successful completion of a risk analysis process, its foundation (i.e. a baseline study) has to be well established. For this purpose, a baseline study needs to be more integrated than ever, particularly when environmental legislation is increasingly becoming stringent and integrated. This research investigates and concludes that no clear evidence of computer models for baseline study has been found in a whole-system and integrated format, which risk assessors could readily and effectively use to underpin risk analyses holistically and yet specifically for landfill leachate. This is established on the basis of investigation of software packages that are particularly closely related to landfills. Holistic baseline study is also defined along with its implications and in the context of risk assessment of landfill leachate. The study also indicates a number of factors and features that need to be added to baseline study in order to render it more integrated thereby enhancing risk analyses for landfill leachate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Study on ecological conservation planning of Xianyue Park in Xiamen City, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Naizhong; Xi, Rong; Ren, Tingyan; Zhao, Peng; Chuai, Zeyao

    2017-08-01

    The paper discusses the current situation and existing problems of ecological restoration and tourist infrastructure development of Xiamen Xianyue Park located in Xiamen Island, China. Issues of ecosystem restoration and landscape improvement, restoring habitats, and ecosystem management system are analyzed. Options of further optimization of the tourist-targeted infrastructure are proposed, which take into account the ecological system and landscape pattern optimization, promotion of ecotourism, and implementation of the ecological management system. The particular solution envisages the park zoning with three primary zones (ecological protection, ecological buffer, and general activity zones) and five secondary ones (scenic landscape, ecotourism, religious activity, buildings and structures, and entertainment zones). By integrating the ecological principles into other land use objectives, taking full advantage of the park ecological and cultural heritage, and improving its ecological management, it is expected to provide the ecological restoration of the park under study and optimize its contribution to the regional economic and social development.

  19. Ecological factors and adolescent marijuana use: results of a prospective study in Santiago, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delva, Jorge; Lee, Wonhyung; Sanchez, Ninive; Andrade, Fernando H; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Sanhueza, Guillermo; Ho, Michelle

    2014-03-21

    Despite the growing evidence that ecological factors contribute to substance use, the relationship of ecological factors and illicit drugs such as marijuana use is not well understood, particularly among adolescents in Latin America. Guided by social disorganization and social stress theories, we prospectively examined the association of disaggregated neighborhood characteristics with marijuana use among adolescents in Santiago, Chile, and tested if these relationships varied by sex. Data for this study are from 725 community-dwelling adolescents participating in the Santiago Longitudinal Study, a study of substance using behaviors among urban adolescents in Santiago, Chile. Adolescents completed a two-hour interviewer administered questionnaire with questions about drug use and factors related to drug using behaviors. As the neighborhood levels of drug availability at baseline increased, but not crime or noxious environment, adolescents had higher odds of occasions of marijuana use at follow up, approximately 2 years later (odds ratio [OR] = 1.39; 95% CI = 1.16-1.66), even after controlling for the study's covariates. No interactions by sex were significant. The findings suggest that "poverty", "crime", and "drug problems" may not be synonyms and thus can be understood discretely. As Latin American countries re-examine their drug policies, especially those concerning decriminalizing marijuana use, the findings suggest that attempts to reduce adolescent marijuana use in disadvantaged neighborhoods may do best if efforts are concentrated on specific features of the "substance abuse environment".

  20. [Ecology and ecologies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valera, Luca

    2011-01-01

    Ecology (from the Greek words οιχοσ, "house" and λογια "study of") is the science of the "house", since it studies the environments where we live. There are three main ways of thinking about Ecology: Ecology as the study of interactions (between humans and the environment, between humans and living beings, between all living beings, etc.), Ecology as the statistical study of interactions, Ecology as a faith, or rather as a science that requires a metaphysical view. The history of Ecology shows us how this view was released by the label of "folk sense" to gain the epistemological status of science, a science that strives to be interdisciplinary. So, the aim of Ecology is to study, through a scientific methodology, the whole natural world, answering to very different questions, that arise from several fields (Economics, Biology, Sociology, Philosophy, etc.). The plurality of issues that Ecology has to face led, during the Twentieth-century, to branch off in several different "ecologies". As a result, each one of these new approaches chose as its own field a more limited and specific portion of reality.

  1. Baseline rationing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Moreno-Ternero, Juan D.; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

    , there exist baselines (to be interpreted as objective entitlements, ideal targets, or past consumption) that might play an important role in the allocation process. The model we present is able to accommodate real-life rationing situations, ranging from resource allocation in the public health care sector......The standard problem of adjudicating conflicting claims describes a situation in which a given amount of a divisible good has to be allocated among agents who hold claims against it exceeding the available amount. This paper considers more general rationing problems in which, in addition to claims...... the family is associated with a standard rule and we show that if the latter obeys some properties reflecting principles of impartiality, priority and solidarity, the former obeys them too....

  2. Association between baseline frailty and driving status over time: a secondary analysis of The National Health and Aging Trends Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Elizabeth G; Durbin, Laura L; Cisewski, Jodi A; Qian, Min; Guralnik, Jack M; Kasper, Judith D; Mielenz, Thelma J

    2017-12-01

    Continued automobile driving is important for the wellbeing and independence of older adults. Frailty has been associated with a variety of negative health outcomes, but studies are lacking on the potential association between frailty and driving status. The present study uses data from The National Health and Aging Trends Study (NHATS) to assess if the presence of frailty is associated with being a current non-driver. NHATS is a nationally representative cohort study of Medicare beneficiaries (aged ≥65) that have been followed since 2011. We examined frailty status at baseline (Fried's frailty phenotype) and driving status over 4 years (from 2011 to 2014) excluding never drivers at baseline. Multivariable Poisson regression was used to obtain incidence rate ratios, adjusting for covariates and clustering. To account for the repeated measures in the data collection, generalized estimating equations (GEE) were employed. A significant association between baseline frailty and driving status was observed at all four time points. At T4, frail participants at baseline had an incidence rate for becoming a current non-driver 1.80 times (or an 80% increase) that of non-frail participants at baseline (adjusted 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.56-2.07). Frailty was associated with an increased rate of being a current non-driver. Based on this association, we posit that screening for and intervening on frailty may help certain older adults who are at risk for becoming a current non-driver to remain on the road longer.

  3. Baseline study on the Integrated Project on Family Planning, Parasite Control and Nutrition in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-01

    Zambia's Integrated Project on Family Planning, Parasite Control, and Nutrition was set up in a government effort to adopt policies and projects to manage population growth. In Zambia, the population is expected to reach 11.5 million people by the year 2000--twice as large as the current population. 2 project areas were chosen to represent both rural and urban settings. Kapata, a typical rural area located on lake Bangweulu in the province of Luapula, was chosen as the 1st project site. The majority of its 15,000 inhabitants are engaged in fishing. In contrast, the Zambia Sugar Company, the 2nd project area is located in Ndola City in urban Kabushi. About 1200 people live within the sugar company compound. In May and July 1985, the integrated project in Zambia conducted a baseline study on these 2 project areas. The average number of members per household in both project areas was more than 5. 74.6% of the women in Kabushi said they were familiar with oral contraceptives (OCs), while only 30% of women in kapata indicated a knowledge of family planning methods. The practice of family planning was very low in both areas. Only 20.9% of the Kabushi respondents said that they practiced family planning (mainly using condoms); 11% of the Kapata respondents indicated the use of a family planning method. In both areas, women of childbearing age indicated that they did not use a contraceptive method cause of the unavailability of contraceptives. Foods rich in protein, carbohydrates, vitamins are minerals are available in the households in both areas. The quantitities and frequencies with which these foods were consumed varied considerablY. The families in Kabushi consumed more protein carbohydrates, and vegetables than the families in Kapata whose diets consisted mainly of cassava and fish. 64% of the mothers in Kabushi breast fed their babies from birth up to 1 year; only 33.3% of the women in Kapata breast fed their babies for the same period. All the families in Kabushi

  4. Studies on the Synergy of TEMPO/GEO-CAPE with GOES-R Advanced Baseline Imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciren, P.; Kondragunta, S.

    2015-12-01

    TEMPO (Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution) is a space-borne UV-spectral radiometer to be flown in a geostationary orbit as part of NASA's Earth Venture program. NASA also is planning a decadal survey mission-The GEOstationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO-CAPE). However, NASA has initiated scientific studies to determine if TEMPO can meet both its and GEO-CAPE's requirements by synergistically retrieving aerosol properties using TEMPO and GOES-R Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) measurements. Because TEMPO does not have a cloud camera or needed spectral channels to identify clouds and a Shortwave IR band to characterize the surface that are essential for aerosol retrievals, GOES-R ABI can supplement those measurements. GOES-R aerosol team conducted a study to determine idealistic position of TEMPO and GOES-R (in its both east and west location) for scene overlap and projection of ABI Shortwave IR (2.25 um) reflectance and cloud mask to TEMPO pixels. The BRDF effect was taken into consideration in determining the spatial coverage of pixels ideal for aerosol retrievals using ABI shortwave IR reflectance in TEMPO pixels to extrapolate reflectance at visible spectral bands. Analysis shows that GOES-R (in its west location, 135W) and TEMPO do not overlap over eastern part of the United States (US) and Atlantic Ocean, while GOES-R (in its east location, 75W) overlaps with TEMPO over most part of the United States (US) except for small part of Pacific Ocean. In addition, retrievals in the early morning and late afternoon are not possible due to BRDF effects rendering the surface reflectance too bright. Cloud mask information from GOES-R observations in both its east and west location seems to be sufficient for TEMPO. In summary, GOES-R ABI Shortwave IR radiances and cloud mask information are adequate to be used with TEMPO measurements to retrieve aerosol optical depth product several times during the sunlit portion of the continental US.

  5. Beyond urban legends: an emerging framework of urban ecology, as illustrated by the Baltimore Ecosystem Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steward T.A. Pickett; Mary L. Cadenasso; J. Morgan Grove; Peter M. Groffman; Lawrence E. Band; Christopher G. Boone; William R., Jr. Burch; Susan B. Grimmond; John Hom; Jennifer C. Jenkins; Neely L. Law; Charles H. Nilon; Richard V. Pouyat; Katalin Szlavecz; Paige S. Warren; Matthew A. Wilson

    2008-01-01

    The emerging discipline of urban ecology is shifting focus from ecological processes embedded within cities to integrative studies of large urban areas as biophysical-social complexes. Yet this discipline lacks a theory. Results from the Baltimore Ecosystem Study, part of the Long Term Ecological Research Network, expose new assumptions and test existing assumptions...

  6. Dog ecology and population studies in Lagos State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambolu, Sunday Emmanuel; Dzikwi, Asabe A; Kwaga, Jacob K P; Kazeem, Haruna M; Umoh, Jarlath U; Hambolu, Dupe A

    2014-02-14

    Dog population dynamics have a major impact upon the effectiveness of rabies control strategies. As such, understanding domestic dog ecology has been recognized as central to the design of effective rabies control programmes. This study was conducted to determine the dog ecology in Lagos State using compound dog count and street dog count in the three senatorial districts (Lagos West, East and Central) of Lagos State from February, 2011 to January, 2012. A total of 546 questionnaires were distributed for the compound dog count and all were completed and returned. Various aspects of dog ecology were determined, including size, sex, breed of the dog population, management of dogs and rabies awareness among the respondents. Out of the 546 compounds surveyed, 518 (94.87%) owned at least one dog. A total of 1,427 dogs were counted from the street counts while a total of 1,447 dogs (2.8 dogs/compound) were counted from the compound count. The dogs comprised of 583 males and 864 females, out of which 64.10% are confined. The dog vaccination coverage in the dog population surveyed was 64.10% and administered majorly (91.30%) by veterinarians. Security (60%) and pets (26%) were the major reasons for keeping dogs. Majority (88.80%) of the respondents were aware of rabies and its mode of transmission, but still believed in the use of concoctions (40.40%), herbs (19.90%) and consumption of the organ of the offending dog (11.50%) for the treatment of rabies. The findings of this study showed a male: female ratio of dog to be 1:1.5 and a dog: human ratio of 1:5.6. There was also a responsible dog ownership as majority of the respondents do confine, vaccinate and provide food for their dogs. Vaccination coverage of the total dog population was however below the 70-80% target recommended by the World Health Organization to achieve herd immunity.

  7. Study of space shuttle orbiter system management computer function. Volume 1: Analysis, baseline design

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    A system analysis of the shuttle orbiter baseline system management (SM) computer function is performed. This analysis results in an alternative SM design which is also described. The alternative design exhibits several improvements over the baseline, some of which are increased crew usability, improved flexibility, and improved growth potential. The analysis consists of two parts: an application assessment and an implementation assessment. The former is concerned with the SM user needs and design functional aspects. The latter is concerned with design flexibility, reliability, growth potential, and technical risk. The system analysis is supported by several topical investigations. These include: treatment of false alarms, treatment of off-line items, significant interface parameters, and a design evaluation checklist. An in-depth formulation of techniques, concepts, and guidelines for design of automated performance verification is discussed.

  8. International Boundary Study. Series A. Limits in the Seas. Number 42, Straight Baselines: Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-05-23

    of July 13, 1971). The Decree established straight baselines adjacent to the mainland and around the Galapagos Islands (Archipelago de Colon ...Punta Valdizan, Isla San Cristobal , and intersecting the northern extension of the straight line joining the southeastern tip of Isla Espanola to...Punta Pitt, Isla San Cristobal ; (d) A straight line from this intersection to the southeastern tip of Isla Espanola; (e) A straight line to Punta Sur

  9. Ecological Factors and Adolescent Marijuana Use: Results of a Prospective Study in Santiago, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Delva

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Despite the growing evidence that ecological factors contribute to substance use, the relationship of ecological factors and illicit drugs such as marijuana use is not well understood, particularly among adolescents in Latin America. Guided by social disorganization and social stress theories, we prospectively examined the association of disaggregated neighborhood characteristics with marijuana use among adolescents in Santiago, Chile, and tested if these relationships varied by sex. Methods: Data for this study are from 725 community-dwelling adolescents participating in the Santiago Longitudinal Study, a study of substance using behaviors among urban adolescents in Santiago, Chile. Adolescents completed a two-hour interviewer administered questionnaire with questions about drug use and factors related to drug using behaviors. Results: As the neighborhood levels of drug availability at baseline increased, but not crime or noxious environment, adolescents had higher odds of occasions of marijuana use at follow up, approximately 2 years later (odds ratio [OR] = 1.39; 95% CI = 1.16–1.66, even after controlling for the study’s covariates. No interactions by sex were significant. Discussion: The findings suggest that “poverty”, “crime”, and “drug problems” may not be synonyms and thus can be understood discretely. As Latin American countries re-examine their drug policies, especially those concerning decriminalizing marijuana use, the findings suggest that attempts to reduce adolescent marijuana use in disadvantaged neighborhoods may do best if efforts are concentrated on specific features of the “substance abuse environment”.

  10. Study on the Change of Landscape and Ecology of Sitou Forestland by Using Remotely Sensed and Ecological Investigation Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chiang; Lee, Chin-Ling; Liao, Huan-Chang; Tien, Pei-Ling; Huang, Yi-Ru; Tseng, Yu-San; Lai, Jing Rong; Shen, Chieh-Wen

    Due to natural disasters and anthropogenic disturbances in recent years, the landscape in Central Taiwan suffered certain kind of changes. In particular, landslides caused by earthquake and heavy rainfall, improper use and development in slope land enlarge and speed up the change of forest landscape. Few studies were focused on the interactions and relationships between change of ecosystem and landscape in Taiwan after natural disturbances in recent years. In this study, a pioneering research is accomplished by using Landscape Indices (LI) derived from FORMOSAT II Satellite imagery and GIS spatial coverage to describe the possible pattern of change between landscape and ecology. Located at the mountainous area in central Taiwan, ranging from 800 to 1,800 meter and comprising 2,349 hectares in size, Sitou Tract of the National Taiwan University Experimental Forest is selected as the study site. Four satellite images through 2004 to 2007 are used to compute LI, and analyzed with ecological investigation collected from five ground sites. The preliminary result shows that by using remotely sensed data and ground investigation, it is feasible to monitor and assess the relationship between change of landscape and ecology in forests. It indicates that the recovery and restoration of vegetation after the human and natural disturbances highly correlates with the value of NDVI (Normalized Differential Vegetation Index), the composition and diversity of birds and insects are highly correlated with the diversity of patches. The values of SHDI (Shannon Diversity Index), SIDI (Simpson Diversity Index), SHEI (Shannon Evenness Index) and SIEI (Simpson Evenness Index) show that the diversity of landscape is growing while the evenness of landscape remains stable between 2004 and 2007. The ecological investigation in 2006 and 2007 indicated that the species and relative abundance is decreasing. The proof for the obvious relationship between the change of ecology and landscape metrics

  11. Comparison of Baseline Wander Removal Techniques considering the Preservation of ST Changes in the Ischemic ECG: A Simulation Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Lenis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The most important ECG marker for the diagnosis of ischemia or infarction is a change in the ST segment. Baseline wander is a typical artifact that corrupts the recorded ECG and can hinder the correct diagnosis of such diseases. For the purpose of finding the best suited filter for the removal of baseline wander, the ground truth about the ST change prior to the corrupting artifact and the subsequent filtering process is needed. In order to create the desired reference, we used a large simulation study that allowed us to represent the ischemic heart at a multiscale level from the cardiac myocyte to the surface ECG. We also created a realistic model of baseline wander to evaluate five filtering techniques commonly used in literature. In the simulation study, we included a total of 5.5 million signals coming from 765 electrophysiological setups. We found that the best performing method was the wavelet-based baseline cancellation. However, for medical applications, the Butterworth high-pass filter is the better choice because it is computationally cheap and almost as accurate. Even though all methods modify the ST segment up to some extent, they were all proved to be better than leaving baseline wander unfiltered.

  12. Environmental baseline study of the Los Medanos Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) project area of New Mexico: a progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, H.G. (ed.)

    1977-09-01

    Exploratory drilling operations are being conducted for a Waste Isolation Pilot Program in southeastern New Mexico. Prior to the establishment of such a program, an environmental study was initiated to serve as a baseline for evaluation of the impact of future activities in the Los Medanos area. Much of this area has been influenced by human activities over a long period, and hence the baseline data only reflects the present, relatively disturbed condition of the environment. The study covers air resources, soils, and biotic resources. 23 tables, 6 figs. (DLC)

  13. The translational study of apathy – an ecological approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flurin eCathomas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Apathy, a quantitative reduction in goal-directed behavior, is a prevalent symptom dimension with a negative impact on functional outcome in various neuropsychiatric disorders including schizophrenia and depression. The aim of this review is to show that interview-based assessment of apathy in humans and observation of spontaneous rodent behavior in an ecological setting can serve as an important complementary approach to already existing task-based assessment, to study and understand the neurobiological bases of apathy. We first discuss the paucity of current translational approaches regarding animal equivalents of psychopathological assessment of apathy. We then present the existing evaluation scales for the assessment of apathy in humans and propose five sub-domains of apathy, namely self-care, social interaction, exploration, work/education and recreation. Each of the items in apathy evaluation scales can be assigned to one of these sub-domains. We then show that corresponding, well-validated behavioral readouts exist for rodents and that, indeed, three of the five human apathy sub-domains have a rodent equivalent. In conclusion, the translational ecological study of apathy in humans and mice is possible and will constitute an important approach to increase the understanding of the neurobiological bases of apathy and the development of novel treatments.

  14. Unmanned Aircraft Systems complement biologging in spatial ecology studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulero-Pázmány, Margarita; Barasona, Jose Ángel; Acevedo, Pelayo; Vicente, Joaquín; Negro, Juan José

    2015-11-01

    The knowledge about the spatial ecology and distribution of organisms is important for both basic and applied science. Biologging is one of the most popular methods for obtaining information about spatial distribution of animals, but requires capturing the animals and is often limited by costs and data retrieval. Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) have proven their efficacy for wildlife surveillance and habitat monitoring, but their potential contribution to the prediction of animal distribution patterns and abundance has not been thoroughly evaluated. In this study, we assess the usefulness of UAS overflights to (1) get data to model the distribution of free-ranging cattle for a comparison with results obtained from biologged (GPS-GSM collared) cattle and (2) predict species densities for a comparison with actual density in a protected area. UAS and biologging derived data models provided similar distribution patterns. Predictions from the UAS model overestimated cattle densities, which may be associated with higher aggregated distributions of this species. Overall, while the particular researcher interests and species characteristics will influence the method of choice for each study, we demonstrate here that UAS constitute a noninvasive methodology able to provide accurate spatial data useful for ecological research, wildlife management and rangeland planning.

  15. Sampling designs for geochemical baseline studies in the Colorado oil shale region: a manual for practical application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klusman, R. W.; Ringrose, C. D.; Candito, R. J.; Zuccaro, B.; Rutherford, D. W.; Dean, W. E.

    1980-06-01

    This manual presents a rationale for sampling designs, and results of geochemical baseline studies in the Colorado portion of the oil-shale region. The program consists of a systematic trace element study of soils, stream sediments, and plants carried out in a way to be conservative of human and financial resources and yield maximum information. Extension of this approach to other parameters, other locations, and to environmental baseline studies in general is a primary objective. A baseline for any geochemical parameter can be defined as the concentration of that parameter in a given medium such as soil, the range of its concentration, and the geographic scale of variability. In air quality studies, and to a lesser extent for plants, the temporal scale of variability must also be considered. In studies of soil, the temporal variablility does not become a factor until such time that a study is deemed necessary to evaluate whether or not there have been changes in baseline levels as a result of development. The manual is divided into five major parts. The first is a suggested sampling protocol which is presented in an outline form for guiding baseline studies in this area. The second section is background information on the physical features of the area of study, trace elements of significance occurring in oil shale, and the sample media used in these studies. The third section is concerned primarily with sampling design and its application to the geochemical studies of the oil shale region. The last sections, in the form of appendices, provide actual data and illustrate in a systematic manner, the calculations performed to obtain the various summary data. The last segment of the appendices is a more academic discussion of the geochemistry of trace elements and the parameters of importance influencing their behavior in natural systems.

  16. Baseline characteristics of patients enrolled in the Exenatide Study of Cardiovascular Event Lowering (EXSCEL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentz, Robert J; Bethel, M Angelyn; Gustavson, Stephanie; Thompson, Vivian P; Pagidipati, Neha J; Buse, John B; Chan, Juliana C; Iqbal, Nayyar; Maggioni, Aldo P; Marso, Steve P; Ohman, Peter; Poulter, Neil; Ramachandran, Ambady; Zinman, Bernard; Hernandez, Adrian F; Holman, Rury R

    2017-05-01

    EXSCEL is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial examining the effect of exenatide once-weekly (EQW) versus placebo on time to the primary composite outcome (cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction or nonfatal stroke) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and a wide range of cardiovascular (CV) risk. Patients were enrolled at 688 sites in 35 countries. We describe their baseline characteristics according to prior CV event status and compare patients with those enrolled in prior glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1RA) outcomes trials. Of a total of 14,752 participants randomized between June 2010 and September 2015, 6,788 (46.0%) patients were enrolled in Europe; 3,708 (25.1%), North America; 2,727 (18.5%), Latin America; and 1,529 (10.4%), Asia Pacific. Overall, 73% had at least one prior CV event (70% coronary artery disease, 24% peripheral arterial disease, 22% cerebrovascular disease). The median (IQR) age was 63 years (56, 69), 38% were female, median baseline HbA1c was 8.0% (7.3, 8.9) and 16% had a prior history of heart failure. Those without a prior CV event were younger with a shorter duration of diabetes and better renal function than those with at least one prior CV event. Compared with prior GLP-1RA trials, EXSCEL has a larger percentage of patients without a prior CV event and a notable percentage who were taking a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor at baseline (15%). EXSCEL is one of the largest global GLP-1RA trials, evaluating the safety and efficacy of EQW with a broad patient population that may extend generalizability compared to prior GLP-1RA trials (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01144338). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. New methodology for studying the structural ecology of occlusal caries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dige, Irene; Grønkjær, Lene; Nyvad, Bente

    Microbiological studies of occlusal dental biofilms have hitherto been hampered by inaccessibility to the sampling site and demolition of the original biofilm architecture. The aim of the present study was to explore the spatial distribution of bacterial taxa in vivo at various stages of occusal...... caries, applying a new methodology involving preparation of embedded hard dental tissue slices for fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and confocal microscopy. 11 extracted teeth were included in the study and classified according to their occlusal caries status (active/inactive/sound; cavitated...... to histological features of lesion penetration. The sites showed distinct differences in the bacterial composition and fluorescence intensity between different ecological niches in occlusal caries. Biofilm observed along the entrance of fissures showed an inner layer of microorganisms organized in palisades often...

  18. The 1993 baseline biological studies and proposed monitoring plan for the Device Assembly Facility at the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodward, B.D.; Hunter, R.B.; Greger, P.D.; Saethre, M.B.

    1995-02-01

    This report contains baseline data and recommendations for future monitoring of plants and animals near the new Device Assembly Facility (DAF) on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The facility is a large structure designed for safely assembling nuclear weapons. Baseline data was collected in 1993, prior to the scheduled beginning of DAF operations in early 1995. Studies were not performed prior to construction and part of the task of monitoring operational effects will be to distinguish those effects from the extensive disturbance effects resulting from construction. Baseline information on species abundances and distributions was collected on ephemeral and perennial plants, mammals, reptiles, and birds in the desert ecosystems within three kilometers (km) of the DAF. Particular attention was paid to effects of selected disturbances, such as the paved road, sewage pond, and the flood-control dike, associated with the facility. Radiological monitoring of areas surrounding the DAF is not included in this report.

  19. Ecology of contemporary childhood: priorities for research perspectivesin foreign studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florova N.B.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Core Collection database of Web of Scienceresource investigated the poorly developed problem of addictivebehaviour of children as a part of the ecological environment of modern childhood. In three clusters-"addictive child", "addiction", "ecological environment of childhood”, (as conditional information data groups, scientific-metric space indices were analyzed, namely -citation and content offull-text publications. We identified the leading trends of research works. They show that the addictioncomponent becomes increasingly important in ecological construct of childhood environment.

  20. Study on Ecological Compensation System and Land Desertification Control

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Zhixiang; Gao, Bingtao

    2009-01-01

    The problems of desertification control in China are analyzed from the perspective of ecological compensation. Firstly, there is no guarantee of ecological compensation system in desertification control. On the basis of knowing land desertification connotation, the western region is taken as an example to analyze the serious consequence brought by land desertification, besides, the connotation and importance of ecological compensation are summarized, as well as the views related to resolve th...

  1. The RecordAF study: design, baseline data, and profile of patients according to chosen treatment strategy for atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Heuzey, Jean-Yves; Breithardt, Günter; Camm, John

    2010-01-01

    in 21 countries across Europe, America, and Asia; recruitment was completed in April 2008. The primary objectives were to prospectively assess the therapeutic success and clinical outcomes in rhythm- and rate-control strategies. The study design and patient baseline data are reported. A total of 5...

  2. Operationalizing clean development mechanism baselines: A case study of China's electrical sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenhof, Paul A.

    The global carbon market is rapidly developing as the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol draws closer and Parties to the Protocol with greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction targets seek alternative ways to reduce their emissions. The Protocol includes the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), a tool that encourages project-based investments to be made in developing nations that will lead to an additional reduction in emissions. Due to China's economic size and rate of growth, technological characteristics, and its reliance on coal, it contains a large proportion of the global CDM potential. As China's economy modernizes, more technologies and processes are requiring electricity and demand for this energy source is accelerating rapidly. Relatively inefficient technology to generate electricity in China thereby results in the electrical sector having substantial GHG emission reduction opportunities as related to the CDM. In order to ensure the credibility of the CDM in leading to a reduction in GHG emissions, it is important that the baseline method used in the CDM approval process is scientifically sound and accessible for both others to use and for evaluation purposes. Three different methods for assessing CDM baselines and environmental additionality are investigated in the context of China's electrical sector: a method based on a historical perspective of the electrical sector (factor decomposition), a method structured upon a current perspective (operating and build margins), and a simulation of the future (dispatch analysis). Assessing future emission levels for China's electrical sector is a very challenging task given the complexity of the system, its dynamics, and that it is heavily influenced by internal and external forces, but of the different baseline methods investigated, dispatch modelling is best suited for the Chinese context as it is able to consider the important regional and temporal dimensions of its economy and its future development

  3. Study on the Neutrino Oscillation with a Next Generation Medium-Baseline Reactor Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Dong Shin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For over fifty years, reactor experiments have played an important role in neutrino physics, in both discoveries and precision measurements. One of the methods to verify the existence of neutrino is the observation of neutrino oscillation phenomena. Electron antineutrinos emitted from a reactor provide the measurement of the small mixing angle θ13, providing rich programs of neutrino properties, detector development, nuclear monitoring, and application. Using reactor neutrinos, future reactor neutrino experiments, more precise measurements of θ12,  Δm122, and mass hierarchy will be explored. The precise measurement of θ13 would be crucial for measuring the CP violation parameters at accelerators. Therefore, reactor neutrino physics will assist in the complete understanding of the fundamental nature and implications of neutrino masses and mixing. In this paper, we investigated several characteristics of RENO-50, which is a future medium-baseline reactor neutrino oscillation experiment, by using the GloBES simulation package.

  4. Studies with staggered starts: multiple baseline designs and group-randomized trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoda, Dale A; Murray, David M; Andridge, Rebecca R; Pennell, Michael L; Hade, Erinn M

    2011-11-01

    Multiple baseline designs (MBDs) have been suggested as alternatives to group-randomized trials (GRT). We reviewed structural features of MBDs and considered their potential effectiveness in public health research. We also reviewed the effect of staggered starts on statistical power. We reviewed the MBD literature to identify key structural features, recent suggestions that MBDs be adopted in public health research, and the literature on power in GRTs with staggered starts. We also computed power for MBDs and GRTs. The features that have contributed to the success of small MBDs in some fields are not likely to translate well to public health research. MBDs can be more powerful than GRTs under some conditions, but those conditions involve assumptions that require careful evaluation in practice. MBDs will often serve better as a complement of rather than as an alternative to GRTs. GRTs may employ staggered starts for logistical or ethical reasons, but this will always increase their duration and will often increase their cost.

  5. Baseline studies in the desert ecosystem at East Mesa Geothermal Test Site, Imperial Valley, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romney, E.M.; Wallace, A.; Lunt, O.R.; Ackerman, T.A.; Kinnear, J.E.

    1977-09-01

    Baseline data reported herein for soil, vegetation, and small mammal components of the East Mesa desert ecosystem represent a collection period from October 1975 to September 1977. Inasmuch as changes in salt balance from geothermal brine sources are of potential impact upon the ecosystem, considerable analytical effort was given to the determination of element constituents in soil, plant, and animal samples. A preliminary synthesis of data was done to investigate the heterogeneity of element constituents among the sampled population and to summarize results. Findings indicate that periodic sampling and chemical analysis of vegetation around an industrialized geothermal energy source is probably the best way to monitor the surrounding ecosystem for assuring containment of any resource pollutants.

  6. Smartphone-based ecological momentary assessment for Chinese patients with depression: An exploratory study in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Shan; Li, Min-Shan; Chen, Yen-Lin; Chiang, Jung-Hsien; Chen, Ying-Yeh; Hung, Galen Chin-Lun

    2016-10-01

    Mobile mental health has a potential to improve the recognition and management of Chinese patients with depression. Currently, evidence regarding ecological momentary assessment (EMA) for depressive disorder mostly originates from Western studies. Herein, we examined the validity of smartphone-based EMA for depression in Chinese patients and explored the determinants of use. A smartphone application, iHOPE, was used to perform daily EMA of depression, anxiety, sleep and cognitive performance. Outpatients with depressive disorder were recruited to use iHOPE for 8 weeks. Clinical characteristics and smartphone use patterns were assessed at baseline. We enrolled 59 Chinese patients with depression. In 8 weeks, participants interacted with iHOPE for an average of 10.8 (SD=12.3) days; a trend of decreased frequency of use (p=0.03) was observed. Scores of HAM-D at baseline was associated with, of the first 2 weeks, scores of PHQ-9 (p=0.005), EMA of depression (p=0.003) and anxiety (psmartphone-use variables examined, only limited internet package for smartphone (smartphone-based EMA in Chinese patients with depression. Level of engagement needs to be improved before determining its clinical usefulness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Lead (Pb) Isotope Baselines for Studies of Ancient Human Migration and Trade in the Maya Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Ashley E; Kamenov, George D; Gilli, Adrian; Hodell, David A; Emery, Kitty F; Brenner, Mark; Krigbaum, John

    2016-01-01

    We examined the potential use of lead (Pb) isotopes to source archaeological materials from the Maya region of Mesoamerica. The main objectives were to determine if: 1) geologic terrains throughout the Maya area exhibit distinct lead isotope ratios (206Pb/204Pb, 207Pb/204Pb, and 208Pb/204Pb), and 2) a combination of lead and strontium ratios can enhance sourcing procedures in the Mesoamerica region. We analyzed 60 rock samples for lead isotope ratios and a representative subset of samples for lead, uranium, and thorium concentrations across the Maya region, including the Northern Lowlands of the Mexican Yucatan Peninsula, the Southern Lowlands of Guatemala and Belize, the Volcanic Highlands, the Belizean Maya Mountains, and the Metamorphic Province/Motagua Valley. Although there is some overlap within certain sub-regions, particularly the geologically diverse Metamorphic Province, lead isotopes can be used to distinguish between the Northern Lowlands, the Southern Lowlands, and the Volcanic Highlands. The distinct lead isotope ratios in the sub-regions are related to the geology of the Maya area, exhibiting a general trend in the lowlands of geologically younger rocks in the north to older rocks in the south, and Cenozoic volcanic rocks in the southern highlands. Combined with other sourcing techniques such as strontium (87Sr/86Sr) and oxygen (δ18O), a regional baseline for lead isotope ratios can contribute to the development of lead isoscapes in the Maya area, and may help to distinguish among geographic sub-regions at a finer scale than has been previously possible. These isotope baselines will provide archaeologists with an additional tool to track the origin and movement of ancient humans and artifacts across this important region.

  8. Lead (Pb) Isotope Baselines for Studies of Ancient Human Migration and Trade in the Maya Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamenov, George D.; Gilli, Adrian; Hodell, David A.; Emery, Kitty F.; Brenner, Mark; Krigbaum, John

    2016-01-01

    We examined the potential use of lead (Pb) isotopes to source archaeological materials from the Maya region of Mesoamerica. The main objectives were to determine if: 1) geologic terrains throughout the Maya area exhibit distinct lead isotope ratios (206Pb/204Pb, 207Pb/204Pb, and 208Pb/204Pb), and 2) a combination of lead and strontium ratios can enhance sourcing procedures in the Mesoamerica region. We analyzed 60 rock samples for lead isotope ratios and a representative subset of samples for lead, uranium, and thorium concentrations across the Maya region, including the Northern Lowlands of the Mexican Yucatan Peninsula, the Southern Lowlands of Guatemala and Belize, the Volcanic Highlands, the Belizean Maya Mountains, and the Metamorphic Province/Motagua Valley. Although there is some overlap within certain sub-regions, particularly the geologically diverse Metamorphic Province, lead isotopes can be used to distinguish between the Northern Lowlands, the Southern Lowlands, and the Volcanic Highlands. The distinct lead isotope ratios in the sub-regions are related to the geology of the Maya area, exhibiting a general trend in the lowlands of geologically younger rocks in the north to older rocks in the south, and Cenozoic volcanic rocks in the southern highlands. Combined with other sourcing techniques such as strontium (87Sr/86Sr) and oxygen (δ18O), a regional baseline for lead isotope ratios can contribute to the development of lead isoscapes in the Maya area, and may help to distinguish among geographic sub-regions at a finer scale than has been previously possible. These isotope baselines will provide archaeologists with an additional tool to track the origin and movement of ancient humans and artifacts across this important region. PMID:27806065

  9. Lead (Pb Isotope Baselines for Studies of Ancient Human Migration and Trade in the Maya Region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley E Sharpe

    Full Text Available We examined the potential use of lead (Pb isotopes to source archaeological materials from the Maya region of Mesoamerica. The main objectives were to determine if: 1 geologic terrains throughout the Maya area exhibit distinct lead isotope ratios (206Pb/204Pb, 207Pb/204Pb, and 208Pb/204Pb, and 2 a combination of lead and strontium ratios can enhance sourcing procedures in the Mesoamerica region. We analyzed 60 rock samples for lead isotope ratios and a representative subset of samples for lead, uranium, and thorium concentrations across the Maya region, including the Northern Lowlands of the Mexican Yucatan Peninsula, the Southern Lowlands of Guatemala and Belize, the Volcanic Highlands, the Belizean Maya Mountains, and the Metamorphic Province/Motagua Valley. Although there is some overlap within certain sub-regions, particularly the geologically diverse Metamorphic Province, lead isotopes can be used to distinguish between the Northern Lowlands, the Southern Lowlands, and the Volcanic Highlands. The distinct lead isotope ratios in the sub-regions are related to the geology of the Maya area, exhibiting a general trend in the lowlands of geologically younger rocks in the north to older rocks in the south, and Cenozoic volcanic rocks in the southern highlands. Combined with other sourcing techniques such as strontium (87Sr/86Sr and oxygen (δ18O, a regional baseline for lead isotope ratios can contribute to the development of lead isoscapes in the Maya area, and may help to distinguish among geographic sub-regions at a finer scale than has been previously possible. These isotope baselines will provide archaeologists with an additional tool to track the origin and movement of ancient humans and artifacts across this important region.

  10. Population proteomics: an emerging discipline to study metapopulation ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biron, David G; Loxdale, Hugh D; Ponton, Fleur; Moura, Hercules; Marché, Laurent; Brugidou, Christophe; Thomas, Frédéric

    2006-03-01

    Proteomics research has developed until recently in a relative isolation from other fast-moving disciplines such as ecology and evolution. This is unfortunate since applying proteomics to these disciplines has apparently the potential to open new perspectives. The huge majority of species indeed exhibit over their entire geographic range a metapopulation structure, occupying habitats that are fragmented and heterogeneous in space and/or through time. Traditionally, population genetics is the main tool used to studying metatopulations, as it describes the spatial structure of populations and the level of gene flow between them. In this Viewpoint, we present the reasons why we think that proteomics, because of the level of integration it promotes, has the potential to resolve interesting issues specific to metapopulation biology and adaptive processes.

  11. [Study on the ecological regions of soybean in China. II. Ecological environment and representative varieties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yusheng; Gai, Junyi

    2002-01-01

    Based on the climatic and geographical condition, cropping system and season sowing types and maturity group (MG) types of 256 varieties in test from total cultivating regions of soybean in China, six ecological regions of soybean were suggested. Those are: Northern single cropping, spring planting eco-region(I), Huanghuaihai double cropping, spring and summer planting eco-region(II), Middle and lower Changjiang valley double cropping, spring and summer planting eco-region(III), Central south multiple cropping, spring, summer and autumn planting eco-region(IV), Southwest plateau double cropping, spring and summer planting eco-region(V), and South China tropical multiple cropping, all season planting eco-region(VI). The cultivating environmental condition and representative varieties were shown, and the characteristics of all ecological regions of soybean in China were also discussed in this paper.

  12. [Applications of stable isotope analysis in the trophic ecology studies of cephalopods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun-Kai; Gong, Yi; Chen, Xin-Jun

    2014-05-01

    Cephalopods play an important role in marine food webs, however, knowledge about their complex life history, especially their feeding ecology, remains limited. With the rapidly increasing use of stable isotope analysis (SIA) in ecology, it becomes a powerful tool and complement of traditional methods for investigating the trophic ecology and migration patterns of invertebrates. Here, after summarizing the current methods for trophic ecology investigation of cephalopods, applications of SIA in studying the trophic ecology of cephalopods were reviewed, including the key issues such as standardization of available tissues for SIA analyzing, diet shift and migration patterns of cephalopods, with the aim of advancing its application in the biology of cephalopods in the future.

  13. Components of variance in brain perfusion and the design of studies of individual differences: the baseline study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viviani, Roberto; Sim, Eun-Jin; Lo, Hanna; Richter, Sven; Haffer, Sebastian; Osterfeld, Nadine; Thöne, Jan; Beschoner, Petra

    2009-05-15

    Simple baseline studies correlate average perfusion levels measured at rest with individual variables, or contrast subject groups as in case-control studies. In this methodological work, we summarize some formal properties of the design of these studies, and investigate the sources of variance that characterize data acquired with the arterial spin labeling technique, with the purpose of alerting users to the main sources of variation that determine background variance and affect the power of statistical tests. This design typology is characterized by two variance components: between acquisitions and between subjects. We show that variation between acquisitions is affected by the presence of large vessels and venous sinuses, with potential adverse effects especially in the temporal and insular regions, and provide maps of the number of acquisitions or subjects required to reach the desired estimate precision. Furthermore, we show that the largest source of variation between subjects is captured by global perfusion levels, and can in principle be removed by adjusting the data. Significance levels, however, are not always only improved by the adjustment procedure; we provide an example in the correlation with age, and attempt to explain the consequences of the adjustment with the help of a principal component analysis of the data. We also show the existence of variation between subjects in the perfusion in the territory of the posterior cerebral artery and in hemispheric asymmetry.

  14. Organic Contamination Baseline Study in NASA Johnson Space Center Astromaterials Curation Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calaway, Michael J.; Allen, Carlton C.; Allton, Judith H.

    2014-01-01

    Future robotic and human spaceflight missions to the Moon, Mars, asteroids, and comets will require curating astromaterial samples with minimal inorganic and organic contamination to preserve the scientific integrity of each sample. 21st century sample return missions will focus on strict protocols for reducing organic contamination that have not been seen since the Apollo manned lunar landing program. To properly curate these materials, the Astromaterials Acquisition and Curation Office under the Astromaterial Research and Exploration Science Directorate at NASA Johnson Space Center houses and protects all extraterrestrial materials brought back to Earth that are controlled by the United States government. During fiscal year 2012, we conducted a year-long project to compile historical documentation and laboratory tests involving organic investigations at these facilities. In addition, we developed a plan to determine the current state of organic cleanliness in curation laboratories housing astromaterials. This was accomplished by focusing on current procedures and protocols for cleaning, sample handling, and storage. While the intention of this report is to give a comprehensive overview of the current state of organic cleanliness in JSC curation laboratories, it also provides a baseline for determining whether our cleaning procedures and sample handling protocols need to be adapted and/or augmented to meet the new requirements for future human spaceflight and robotic sample return missions.

  15. Cultural Studies and Media Ecology: Meyrowitz's Medium Theory and Carey's Cultural Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flayhan, Donna P.

    2001-01-01

    Examines work of two communication and media studies scholars, Joshua Meyrowitz and James Carey. Suggests their studies represent media ecology with analyses of the dynamic interaction between communication, consciousness, and culture. Highlights how their work embodies a North American cultural studies approach to media studies (moving away from…

  16. Baseline Characteristics of Participants in the ASPREE (ASPirin in Reducing Events in the Elderly) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, John J; Woods, Robyn L; Nelson, Mark R; Murray, Anne M; Reid, Christopher M; Kirpach, Brenda; Storey, Elsdon; Shah, Raj C; Wolfe, Rory S; Tonkin, Andrew M; Newman, Anne B; Williamson, Jeff D; Lockery, Jessica E; Margolis, Karen L; Ernst, Michael E; Abhayaratna, Walter P; Stocks, Nigel; Fitzgerald, Sharyn M; Trevaks, Ruth E; Orchard, Suzanne G; Beilin, Lawrence J; Donnan, Geoffrey A; Gibbs, Peter; Johnston, Colin I; Grimm, Richard H

    2017-10-12

    There are no primary prevention trials of aspirin with relevant geriatric outcomes in elderly people. ASPirin in Reducing Events in the Elderly (ASPREE) is a placebo-controlled trial of low-dose aspirin that will determine whether 5 years of daily 100-mg enteric-coated aspirin extends disability-free and dementia-free life in a healthy elderly population and whether these benefits outweigh the risks. Set in primary care, this randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial has a composite primary endpoint of death, incident dementia or persistent physical disability. Participants aged 70+ years (non-minorities) or 65+ years (U.S. minorities) were free of cardiovascular disease, dementia, or physical disability and without a contraindication to, or indication for, aspirin. Baseline data include physical and lifestyle, personal and family medical history, hemoglobin, fasting glucose, creatinine, lipid panel, urinary albumin:creatinine ratio, cognition (3MS, HVLT-R, COWAT, SDMT), mood (CES-D-10), physical function (gait speed, grip strength), Katz activities of daily living and quality of life (SF-12). Recruitment ended in December 2014 with 16,703 Australian and 2,411 U.S. participants, a median age of 74 (range 65-98) years and 56% women. Approximately 55% of the U.S. cohort were from minority groups; 9% of the total cohort. Proportions with hypertension, overweight, and chronic kidney disease were similar to age-matched populations from both countries although lower percentages had diabetes, dyslipidemia, and osteoarthritis. Findings from ASPREE will be generalizable to a healthier older population in both countries and will assess whether the broad benefits of daily low-dose aspirin in prolonging independent life outweigh the risks.

  17. Trachoma elimination in remote Indigenous Northern Territory communities: baseline health-promotion study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Fiona D; Baunach, Emma; McKenzie, Rosemary; Taylor, Hugh R

    2014-01-01

    Identify trachoma knowledge, attitudes and practice of staff in clinics, schools and community workplace settings to optimise trachoma-elimination health-promotion programs in the Katherine West Health Board region of the Northern Territory. Prior to the introduction of a suite of health promotion resources the Indigenous Eye Health Unit and Katherine West Health Board conducted a baseline survey of open, multi-choice and closed questions regarding knowledge, attitudes and practices in relation to trachoma with 72 staff members over a 6-month period in 2010-11. Data were analysed for differences between settings. Two significant barriers and one enabling factor were identified. One in five staff members in clinics and 29% of staff members in schools were unaware they lived and worked in a trachoma-endemic area. One-third of school staff and 38% of clinic staff considered it normal for children to have dirty faces. However, the majority of participants felt comfortable talking about hygiene issues with others. The presence of dirty faces in young Indigenous children underpins the continuing prevalence of trachoma. Increasing the awareness of the health effects of children's nasal and ocular secretions and changing community acceptance of dirty faces as the norm will reduce the risk of trachoma and other childhood infections. Staff in clinics, schools and community work settings can play a role in trachoma elimination by actively encouraging clean faces whenever they are dirty and by including face washing in holistic hygiene and health education. Staff in schools may need additional support. Trachoma-elimination health promotion should increase awareness of trachoma prevalence and encourage all who work and live in remote Indigenous communities to take action to promote facial cleanliness and good hygiene practices.

  18. MHD coal-fired flow facility baseline water-quality study. Woods Reservoir, May 1979-April 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, J.

    1980-12-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) Coal-Fired Flow Facility (CFFF) is located on Woods Reservoir at The University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI). Part of the role of UTSI, as participants in the DOE program, is to document environmental aspects of coal-fired MHD. In early 1979, prior to operation of the CFFF, a water quality program was initiated to establish baseline conditions for the reservoir. The study was designed to provide an accurate assessment of water quality which could be used as a basis for comparison to evaluate the impact, if any, of the plant operation on the aquatic environment. Results of a one year baseline study of water quality on Woods Reservoir are presented in this report. The key findings are that this reservoir is a eutrophic lake. Its predominant ions are calcium and bicarbonate and its pH is circumneutral.

  19. Rationale, design, methodology, and baseline data of a population-based study in rural China: the Handan Eye Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yuan Bo; Friedman, David S; Wong, Tien Yin; Wang, Feng Hua; Duan, Xin Rong; Yang, Xiao Hui; Zhou, Qiang; Tao, Qiushan; Zhan, Si Yan; Sun, Lan Ping; Wang, Ning Li

    2009-01-01

    To describe the rationale, design, methodology and baseline characteristics of the Handan Eye Study (HES), a population-based study to determine the prevalence and impact of visual impairment and major ocular diseases in Chinese adults living in a rural region north China. Population-based, cross-sectional study. 6830 Han people aged 30 years and older from 13 villages of Yongnian County, Handan city, Hebei province, China were recruited. The interviews covered demographic, behavioral, and ocular risk factors as well as health-related and vision-related quality of life. Ocular examination included measurement of visual acuity (VA), intraocular pressure, anterior and posterior segment examinations, visual field testing, and anterior segment, fundus and optic disc photography/imaging. Physical examination included measurement of height and weight, blood pressure, electrocardiogram, fasting blood glucose, lipid levels, urea nitrogen and creatinine as well as tests of physical function including walking speed. Of the 7557 individuals eligible for the Handan Eye Study (HES), 6830 (90.4%) subjects participated the study. The majority of participants were female (53.6%), the average (+/- standard deviation) age was 52.3 (+/- 12.3) years, and 100% were self-identified Han people. In contrast to the non-participants, those who participated were more likely to be female, elderly, married, and had more years of education (P < 0.05). The HES successfully examined over 90% of eligible Han Chinese adults aged 30 and older from a rural region of north China. Results from the HES will provide key information about the prevalence, risk factors, impact, and trends of ocular disease in rural regions of China.

  20. Collective trauma in northern Sri Lanka: a qualitative psychosocial-ecological study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Somasundaram, Daya

    2007-01-01

    .... This qualitative, ecological study is a naturalistic, psychosocial ethnography in Northern Sri Lanka, while actively involved in psychosocial and community mental health programmes among the Tamil community...

  1. A baseline study of the health status of the residents in Kalapana, Hawaii, January--June 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, David B.; Arbeit, William, R.

    1988-08-01

    A community health survey was conducted during the first five months of 1987 in Kalapana, Hawaii. Some 676 residents were interviewed during the study, which represents some 82% of all households in the community. The goal was to obtain base-line data on the health status of all community residents and ambient air quality, in order to evaluate any changes in health status of residents after geothermal development in the area.

  2. Identifying Ecological Red Lines: A Case Study of the Coast in Liaoning Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuansheng Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The global decline in estuarine and coastal ecosystems is affecting critical ecosystem services. The spatial agglomeration of population, industries and resources has led to the emergence of regionally-specific ecological problems. Therefore, identifying “ecological red lines”, based on specific natural and environmental features, could help to differentiate the economic development and ecological protection directions or potentials of different regions in future. The aim of this case study is to define the ecological red line in the coastal zone of Liaoning Province, China, by evaluating the ecological importance and environmental stress in its marine and terrestrial ecosystems. For this purpose, the ecological importance of this area was first classified into four conservation indices (species, wetland, water and coast and islands and assigned values of 5, 3 and 1 for indications of high, moderate and minor importance. In the meantime, environmental stress was also classified into four indices (water environment, salinization, soil erosion and erosion of coasts and islands and assigned values of 5, 3 and 1 for indications of high, moderate and low stress, respectively. Then, based on an overlay analysis and evaluation of the above results, we defined two grades of ecological red line zones. Grade I ecological red line zones contain the areas with critical and diverse ecosystem services, areas of high importance for species conservation and nature reserves, as well as ecologically-vulnerable and sensitive areas. It is important in these areas to maintain the biological diversity and to improve the quality of the ecological environment, which should be strictly protected and explicitly controlled. Grade II ecological red line zones display areas with minimum requirements for maintaining the basic needs of a livable environment and human health, moderate to minor levels of ecological importance and high to moderate levels of environmental

  3. Field and Model Study to Define Baseline Conditions of Beached Oil Tar Balls along Florida’s First Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Bacopoulos

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Anecdotal data are currently the best data available to describe baseline conditions of beached oil tar balls on Florida’s First Coast beaches. This study combines field methods and numerical modeling to define a data-driven knowledge base of oil tar ball baseline conditions. Outcomes from the field study include an established methodology for field data collection and laboratory testing of beached oil tar balls, spatial maps of collected samples and analysis of the data as to transport/wash-up trends. Archives of the electronic data, including GPS locations and other informational tags, and collected samples are presented, as are the physical and chemical analyses of the collected samples. The thrust of the physical and chemical analyses is to differentiate the collected samples into highly suspect oil tar balls versus false/non-oil tar ball samples. The numerical modeling involves two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of astronomic tides. Results from the numerical modeling include velocity residuals that show ebb-dominated residual currents exiting the inlet via an offshore, counter-rotating dual-eddy system. The tidally derived residual currents are used as one explanation for the observed transport trends. The study concludes that the port activity in the St. Johns River is not majorly contributing to the baseline conditions of oil tar ball wash-up on Florida’s First Coast beaches.

  4. Residential radon and COPD. An ecological study in Galicia, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa-Lorenzo, Raquel; Ruano-Ravina, Alberto; Ramis, Rebeca; Aragonés, Nuria; Kelsey, Karl T; Carballeira-Roca, Consuelo; Fernández-Villar, Alberto; López-Abente, Gonzalo; Barros-Dios, Juan M

    2017-02-01

    Radon is a human lung carcinogen but it might be linked with other respiratory diseases. We aimed to assess the relationship between residential radon exposure and COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) prevalence and hospital admissions at a municipal level. We designed an ecological study where we included those municipalities with at least three radon measurements. Using mixed Poisson regression models, we calculated the relative risk (RR) for COPD for each 100 Bq/m 3 of increase in radon concentration and also the relative risk for COPD using a cut-off point of 50 Bq/m 3 . We did not have individual data on cigarette smoking and therefore we used a proxy (bladder cancer standardized mortality rate) that has proved to account for tobacco consumption. We performed separate analyses for sex and also sensitivity analysis considering age and rurality. A total of 3040 radon measurements and 49,393 COPD cases were included. The relative risk for COPD prevalence was 0.95 (95% CI: 0.92-0.97) while for hospital admissions the RR was 1.04 (95% CI: 1.00-1.10) for each 100 Bq/m 3 . Relative risks were higher for women compared to men. Using a categorical analysis with a cut-off point of 50 Bq/m 3 , the RR for COPD prevalence was 1.06 (95% CI: 1.02-1.10) and for hospital admissions it was 1.08 (95% CI: 1.00-1.17) for women living in municipalities with more than 50 Bq/m 3 . All risks were also higher for women. No relevant differences were observed for age, rurality or other categories for radon exposure. While the influence of radon on COPD prevalence is unclear depending on the approach used, it seems that residential radon might increase the risk of hospital admissions in COPD patients. Women have a higher risk than men in all situations. Since this is an ecological study, results should be interpreted cautiously.

  5. Genetic and ecological studies of animals in Chernobyl and Fukushima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousseau, Timothy A; Møller, Anders P

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in genetic and ecological studies of wild animal populations in Chernobyl and Fukushima have demonstrated significant genetic, physiological, developmental, and fitness effects stemming from exposure to radioactive contaminants. The few genetic studies that have been conducted in Chernobyl generally show elevated rates of genetic damage and mutation rates. All major taxonomic groups investigated (i.e., birds, bees, butterflies, grasshoppers, dragonflies, spiders, mammals) displayed reduced population sizes in highly radioactive parts of the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. In Fukushima, population censuses of birds, butterflies, and cicadas suggested that abundances were negatively impacted by exposure to radioactive contaminants, while other groups (e.g., dragonflies, grasshoppers, bees, spiders) showed no significant declines, at least during the first summer following the disaster. Insufficient information exists for groups other than insects and birds to assess effects on life history at this time. The differences observed between Fukushima and Chernobyl may reflect the different times of exposure and the significance of multigenerational mutation accumulation in Chernobyl compared to Fukushima. There was considerable variation among taxa in their apparent sensitivity to radiation and this reflects in part life history, physiology, behavior, and evolutionary history. Interestingly, for birds, population declines in Chernobyl can be predicted by historical mitochondrial DNA base-pair substitution rates that may reflect intrinsic DNA repair ability. © The American Genetic Association 2014. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. AUV based study on physical and ecological processes at fronts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tippenhauer, Sandra; Wulff, Thorben; Von Appen, Wilken-Jon

    2017-04-01

    Small-scale processes and their effects get more and more attention when it comes to understanding processes and changes in the (Arctic) ocean. Here we present a study on physical processes and ecological responses at submesoscale frontal systems in the Fram Strait investigated using an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV). The AUV is equipped with physical and biogeochemical sensors such as an acoustic Doppler current profiler, a turbulence probe, a conductivity-temperature-depth probe, and sensors for Oxygen, Nitrate, Chlorophyll a, and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). The study is designed such that the AUV covers tracks of several kilometers length in cross-frontal direction with the front roughly located in the middle of the track. On its way, the AUV records high-resolution vertical or zigzag profiles of the physical and biogeochemical properties in the upper 50 m which includes the euphotic zone. In both, physical and biogeochemical terms, the measurements revealed a complex structure of the water column. At the fronts the distribution of phytoplankton and nutrients was highly inhomogeneous, possibly due to wind-driven frontogenesis or the growth of mixed layer eddies. To set the observations into a larger context we also examine ship-based and satellite data. We investigate how the observed patterns of the potential vorticity and the biogeochemical properties may be formed and which processes could lead to a smoothing of the observed gradients.

  7. Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) conceptual design option study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleson, Melvin; Olson, Richard L.

    1986-01-01

    Results are given of a study to explore options for the development of a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) for a future Space Station. In addition, study results will benefit the design of other facilities such as the Life Sciences Research Facility, a ground-based CELSS demonstrator, and will be useful in planning longer range missions such as a lunar base or manned Mars mission. The objectives were to develop weight and cost estimates for one CELSS module selected from a set of preliminary plant growth unit (PGU) design options. Eleven Space Station CELSS module conceptual PGU designs were reviewed, components and subsystems identified and a sensitivity analysis performed. Areas where insufficient data is available were identified and divided into the categories of biological research, engineering research, and technology development. Topics which receive significant attention are lighting systems for the PGU, the use of automation within the CELSS system, and electric power requirements. Other areas examined include plant harvesting and processing, crop mix analysis, air circulation and atmosphere contaminant flow subsystems, thermal control considerations, utility routing including accessibility and maintenance, and nutrient subsystem design.

  8. Distance makes the difference in thermography for ecological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faye, E; Dangles, O; Pincebourde, S

    2016-02-01

    Surface temperature drives many ecological processes and infrared thermography is widely used by ecologists to measure the thermal heterogeneity of different species' habitats. However, the potential bias in temperature readings caused by distance between the surface to be measured and the camera is still poorly acknowledged. We examined the effect of distance from 0.3 to 80m on a variety of thermal metrics (mean temperature, standard deviation, patch richness and aggregation) under various weather conditions and for different structural complexity of the studied surface types (various surfaces with vegetation). We found that distance is a key modifier of the temperature measured by a thermal infrared camera. A non-linear relationship between distance and mean temperature, standard deviation and patch richness led to a rapid under-estimation of the thermal metrics within the first 20m and then only a slight decrease between 20 and 80m from the object. Solar radiation also enhanced the bias with increasing distance. Therefore, surface temperatures were under-estimated as distance increased and thermal mosaics were homogenized at long distances with a much stronger bias in the warmer than the colder parts of the distributions. The under-estimation of thermal metrics due to distance was explained by atmospheric composition and the pixel size effect. The structural complexity of the surface had little effect on the surface temperature bias. Finally, we provide general guidelines for ecologists to minimize inaccuracies caused by distance from the studied surface in thermography. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Trophic magnification factors: considerations of ecology, ecosystems, and study design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgå, Katrine; Kidd, Karen A; Muir, Derek C G; Berglund, Olof; Conder, Jason M; Gobas, Frank A P C; Kucklick, John; Malm, Olaf; Powell, David E

    2012-01-01

    Recent reviews by researchers from academia, industry, and government have revealed that the criteria used by the Stockholm Convention on persistent organic pollutants under the United Nations Environment Programme are not always able to identify the actual bioaccumulative capacity of some substances, by use of chemical properties such as the octanol-water partitioning coefficient. Trophic magnification factors (TMFs) were suggested as a more reliable tool for bioaccumulation assessment of chemicals that have been in commerce long enough to be quantitatively measured in environmental samples. TMFs are increasingly used to quantify biomagnification and represent the average diet-to-consumer transfer of a chemical through food webs. They differ from biomagnification factors, which apply to individual species and can be highly variable between predator-prey combinations. The TMF is calculated from the slope of a regression between the chemical concentration and trophic level of organisms in the food web. The trophic level can be determined from stable N isotope ratios (δ(15) N). In this article, we give the background for the development of TMFs, identify and discuss impacts of ecosystem and ecological variables on their values, and discuss challenges and uncertainties associated with contaminant measurements and the use of δ(15) N for trophic level estimations. Recommendations are provided for experimental design, data treatment, and statistical analyses, including advice for users on reporting and interpreting TMF data. Interspecies intrinsic ecological and organismal properties such as thermoregulation, reproductive status, migration, and age, particularly among species at higher trophic levels with high contaminant concentrations, can influence the TMF (i.e., regression slope). Following recommendations herein for study design, empirical TMFs are likely to be useful for understanding the food web biomagnification potential of chemicals, where the target is to

  10. A study of the forest and aquatic ecology of the Bitumen belt of Ogun ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study of the forest and aquatic ecology of the Bitumen belt of Ogun state, Nigeria. Z O Opafunso, J O Okunlola. Abstract. A study of the forest and acquatic ecology of the bitumen belt of Ogun State, Nigeria was carried out. The status of the acquatic and wildlife species in the study area was investigated over a period of six ...

  11. An ecological study on suicide and homicide in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bando, Daniel Hideki; Lester, David

    2014-04-01

    The objective was to evaluate correlations between suicide, homicide and socio-demographic variables by an ecological study. Mortality and socio-demographic data were collected from official records of the Ministry of Health and IBGE (2010), aggregated by state (27). The data were analyzed using correlation techniques, factor analysis, principal component analysis with a varimax rotation and multiple linear regression. Suicide age-adjusted rates for the total population, men and women were 5.0, 8.0, and 2.2 per 100,000 inhabitants respectively. The suicide rates ranged from 2.7 in Pará to 9.1 in Rio Grande do Sul. Homicide for the total population, men and women were 27.2, 50.8, and 4.5 per 100,000, respectively. The homicide rates ranged from 13.0 in Santa Catarina to 68.9 in Alagoas. Suicide and homicide were negatively associated, the significance persisted among men. Unemployment was negatively correlated with suicide and positively with homicide. Different socio-demographic variables were found to correlate with suicide and homicide in the regressions. Suicide showed a pattern suggesting that, in Brazil, it is related to high socioeconomic status. Homicide seemed to follow the pattern found in other countries, associated with lower social and economic status.

  12. Fish consumption and cognitive function among older people in the UK: baseline data from the OPAL study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangour, A D; Allen, E; Elbourne, D; Fletcher, A; Richards, M; Uauy, R

    2009-03-01

    Observational epidemiological data suggest that habitual consumption in later life of oily fish, rich in n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPs), is associated with better cognitive function, slower rates of cognitive decline and a lower risk of dementia. In this paper we present data on baseline fish consumption and cognitive function in cognitively healthy older people randomised onto the Older People And n- 3 Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (OPAL) study. In total, 867 older people were recruited to join the OPAL study from 20 general practices in England and Wales. Participants were aged 70-79 years at baseline were free of dementia and diabetes, had a Mini-Mental State Examination score of 24 or greater and did not report daily fish oil supplement consumption. Self-reported habitual fish consumption was assessed at baseline via questions on frequency and type of fish consumption. Cognitive function at baseline was assessed via validated cognitive tests assessing memory, executive function, psychomotor speed and attention, including the Californian Verbal Learning Test (CVLT), the primary outcome of the OPAL study. Reported age at leaving full time education was recorded as a measure of educational achievement and psychological health was measured using the GHQ-30 questionnaire. Unadjusted analysis revealed significant positive associations between reported fish consumption and the CVLT scores with a mean increase of approximately 0.24 words remembered for each increase in level of reported fish consumption. These associations were noticeably attenuated on adjustment for age, gender and reported age at leaving full-time education and did not remain significant on further adjustment for GHQ-30 score. Similar associations were also observed between fish consumption and the global cognitive z-score, memory score, executive function score and delay scores in unadjusted analysis with the associations again attenuated on adjustment. Baseline data

  13. Self-rated health in patients with mild Alzheimer's disease: baseline data from the Danish Alzheimer Intervention Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldorff, Frans Boch; Nielsen, Anni B S; Waldemar, Gunhild

    2010-01-01

    , but the validity and the influence on other factors on SRH among cognitively impaired persons remain unknown. This study reports how patients with mild Alzheimer's disease (AD) report SRH and which factors influence SRH. The study was based on baseline data from 321 home living patients with mild AD who...... participated in the Danish Alzheimer Intervention Study (DAISY). Analysis using the generalized estimating equation (GEE) models revealed that good/excellent SRH among patients with mild AD were associated with longer education, lack of other chronic conditions, higher scores of quality of life (QOL), lower...

  14. Association Between Sleep Characteristics and Incident Dementia Accounting for Baseline Cognitive Status: A Prospective Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokenberger, Kathleen; Ström, Peter; Dahl Aslan, Anna K; Johansson, Anna L V; Gatz, Margaret; Pedersen, Nancy L; Åkerstedt, Torbjörn

    2017-01-01

    Although research has shown that sleep disorders are prevalent among people with dementia, the temporal relationship is unclear. We investigated whether atypical sleep characteristics were associated with incident dementia while accounting for baseline cognitive functioning. Screening Across the Lifespan Twin (SALT) study participants were 11,247 individuals from the Swedish Twin Registry who were at least 65 years at baseline (1998-2002). Sleep and baseline cognitive functioning were assessed via the SALT telephone screening interview. Data on dementia diagnoses came from national health registers. Cox regression was performed to estimate hazard ratios for dementia. After 17 years of follow-up, 1,850 dementia cases were identified. Short (≤6 hours) and extended (>9 hours) time in bed (TIB) compared to the middle reference group (hazard ratio = 1.40, 95% confidence interval = 1.06-1.85; hazard ratio = 1.11, 95% confidence interval = 1.00-1.24, respectively) and rising at 8:00 AM or later compared to earlier rising (hazard ratio = 1.12, 95% confidence interval = 1.01-1.24) were associated with higher dementia incidence. Bedtime, sleep quality, restorative sleep, and heavy snoring were not significant predictors. Findings stratified by baseline cognitive status indicated that the association between short TIB and dementia remained in those cognitively intact at the start. Short and extended TIB and delayed rising among older adults predicted increased dementia incidence in the following 17 years. The pattern of findings suggests that extended TIB and late rising represent prodromal features whereas short TIB appeared to be a risk factor for dementia. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Establishing baseline criteria of cardio-ankle vascular index as a new indicator of arteriosclerosis: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namekata, Tsukasa; Suzuki, Kenji; Ishizuka, Norio; Shirai, Kohji

    2011-08-10

    A cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) has been developed to represent the extent of arteriosclerosis throughout the aorta, femoral artery and tibial artery independent of blood pressure. To practically use CAVI as a diagnostic tool for determining the extent of arteriosclerosis, our study objectives were (1) to establish the baseline CAVI scores by age and gender among cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk-free persons, (2) to compare CAVI scores between genders to test the hypothesis that the extent of arteriosclerosis in men is greater than in women, and (3) to compare CAVI scores between the CVD risk-free group and the CVD high-risk group in order to test the hypothesis that the extent of arteriosclerosis in the CVD high-risk group is greater than in the CVD risk-free group. Study subjects were 32,627 urban residents 20-74 years of age who participated in CVD screening in Japan during 2004-2006. A new device (model VaSera VS-1000) was used to measure CAVI scores. At the time of screening, CVD high-risk persons were defined as those having any clinical abnormalities of CVD, and CVD risk-free persons were defined as those without any clinical abnormalities of CVD. Age-specific average CAVI scores were compared between genders and between the CVD risk-free group and the CVD high-risk group. Student's t-test using two independent samples was applied to a comparison of means between two groups. Average age-specific baseline scores of CAVI in the CVD risk-free group linearly increased in both genders as their age increased. Average age-specific baseline scores of CAVI in the CVD risk-free group were significantly greater among men than among women. Average age-specific baseline scores of CAVI in the CVD risk-free group were significantly smaller than those in the CVD high-risk group in both genders after 40 years of age. The baseline CAVI scores from the CVD risk-free group are useful for future studies as control values. The CAVI method is a useful tool to screen persons

  16. Baseline and lifetime alcohol consumption and risk of differentiated thyroid carcinoma in the EPIC study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sen, Abhijit; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K.; Allen, Naomi E.; Rinaldi, Sabina; Appleby, Paul N.; Almquist, Martin; Schmidt, Julie A.; Dahm, Christina C.; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Rostgaard-Hansen, Agnetha L.; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Baglietto, Laura; Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine; Kühn, Tilman; Katze, Verena A.; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Tsironis, Christos; Lagiou, Pagona; Palli, Domenico; Pala, Valeria; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. B.; Peeters, Petra H.; Hjartåker, Anette; Lund, Eiliv; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Quirós, J. Ramón; Agudo, Antonio; Sánchez, María José; Arriola, Larraitz; Gavrila, Diana; Gurrea, Aurelio Barricarte; Tosovic, Ada; Hennings, Joakim; Sandström, Maria; Romieu, Isabelle; Ferrari, Pietro; Zamora-Ros, Raul; Khaw, Kay Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Riboli, Elio; Gunter, Marc; Franceschi, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Background: Results from several cohort and case-control studies suggest a protective association between current alcohol intake and risk of thyroid carcinoma, but the epidemiological evidence is not completely consistent and several questions remain unanswered. Methods: The association between

  17. Vitamin D status among families in Denmark: Baseline data from the vitmad study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Katja Howarth; Mejborn, Heddie; Tetens, Inge

    2013-01-01

    Background and objectives: The beneficial effect of vitamin D in bone health is acknowledged and the vitamin has also been associated with several chronic diseases. It is therefore relevant to determine the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency in different groups, and vitamin D statuses within...... families have not been studied previously. The objective of the present study was to evaluate serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations among families in Denmark (56 °N) after seasonal UVB peak and to ascertain determining factors. Methods: Cross-sectional study with 755 children and adults (4......-60 y) recruited as families in the VitmaD study. Blood samples were collected in September-October 2010, and vitamin D status was measured as serum 25(OH)D concentration by LC-MS/MS. Vitamin D intake and life style factors were assessed in self-administered questionnaires. Determinants of vitamin D...

  18. Baseline Study Methodology for Future Phases of Research on Nuclear Power Plant Control Room Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Blanc, Katya Lee [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bower, Gordon Ross [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hill, Rachael Ann [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Spielman, Zachary Alexander [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Rice, Brandon Charles [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-07-01

    In order to provide a basis for industry adoption of advanced technologies, the Control Room Upgrades Benefits Research Project will investigate the benefits of including advanced technologies as part of control room modernization This report describes the background, methodology, and research plan for the first in a series of full-scale studies to test the effects of advanced technology in NPP control rooms. This study will test the effect of Advanced Overview Displays in the partner Utility’s control room simulator

  19. Diary of a Dabbler: Ecological Influences on an EFL Teacher's Efforts to Study Japanese Informally

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanave, Christine Pearson

    2012-01-01

    In this diary study, the author draws from journals written over the course of 8 years working as an English instructor at a Japanese university, with the aim of documenting the influences on her desire to invest effort in the self-study of Japanese (what she refers to as the "ecology of effort"). An ecological perspective reveals the…

  20. Site-Specific ecological risk assessment. Case-study 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, John

    The decision supporting and integrating assessment tool, TRIAD, is used site-specific on PAH- and heavy metal contaminated sites in Denmark. The various aspects of the TRIAD approach are used on a set of chemistry-, ecotoxicology- and ecology related data collected among others in the EU project...... “Development of a decision support system for sustainable management of contaminated land by linking bioavailability, ecological risk and ground water pollution of organic pollutants”or in short “LIBERATION”. The presentation includes examples on how to scale and integrate the results from various scientific...... disciplines....

  1. Plastic ingestion by fish in the Southern Hemisphere: A baseline study and review of methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Seon M E; Lavers, Jennifer L; Figueiredo, Bianca

    2016-06-15

    Plastic ingestion is well documented among marine birds and sea turtles but fewer studies have investigated ingestion in fish, particularly in the Southern Hemisphere. We investigated the frequency of plastic ingestion in 21 species of fish and one species of cephalopod. The overall occurrence of plastic ingestion was 0.3%. Two micro-plastic items were recovered from the gastrointestinal tract of a single Antarctic toothfish (Dissostichus mawsoni). Ingestion rates were similar to other studies of fish conducted in both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, however comparisons across species and locations are challenging due to the lack of consistency in the identification and classification of plastic debris. In response, we propose a standardised sampling protocol based on the available literature to provide a stronger basis for comparisons among existing and future studies of plastic ingestion in fish. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Latanoprost and Dorzolamide for the Treatment of Pediatric Glaucoma: The Glaucoma Italian Pediatric Study (Gipsy), Design and Baseline Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaranta, Luciano; Biagioli, Elena; Galli, Francesca; Poli, Davide; Rulli, Eliana; Riva, Ivano; Hollander, Lital; Katsanos, Andreas; Longo, Antonio; Uva, Maurizio G; Torri, Valter; Weinreb, Robert N

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the efficacy of a treatment strategy with latanoprost and dorzolamide in primary pediatric glaucoma patients partially responsive to surgery. Single arm, prospective, interventional multicenter study. Primary pediatric glaucoma patients younger than 13 years after a single surgical procedure with IOP between 22 and 26 mmHg were considered eligible. At baseline, patients were allocated to latanoprost monotherapy once daily. Depending on intraocular pressure (IOP) reduction at first visit, the patients were allocated to one of three groups: continuation of latanoprost monotherapy, addition of dorzolamide twice daily, or switch to dorzolamide three times daily. The same approach for allocation in medication groups was used in all subsequent visits. Patients in the dorzolamide monotherapy group with IOP reduction <20% from baseline were considered non-responders and withdrawn. Study treatment and patient follow-up will continue for 3 years or until treatment failure. The primary endpoint is the percentage of responders. Secondary endpoints are time to treatment failure and frequency of adverse events. A total of 37 patients (69 eyes) were enrolled. The mean age was 4.0 ± 3.8 years, the female/male ratio was 1/1.7, and the majority of patients were Caucasian. Eighty percent of patients had bilateral glaucoma. Goniotomy was the most frequently performed surgery (38.6%), followed by trabeculotomy (22.8%), trabeculectomy (21.1%), and trabeculectomy plus trabeculotomy (17.5%). The baseline IOP was 23.6 ± 1.5 mmHg. The study population is representative of patients frequently encountered after the first surgery for primary pediatric glaucoma. The study will produce evidence on the medium-term efficacy of a defined pharmacological approach.

  3. Study of tunnelling through water-bearing fracture zones. Baseline study on technical issues with NE-1 as reference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanting Chang; Swindell, Robert; Bogdanoff, Ingvar; Lindstroem, Beatrice; Termen, Jens [WSP Sweden, Stockholm (Sweden) ; Starsec, Peter [SGI, Linkoeping (Sweden)

    2005-04-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB) is responsible for the management of Sweden's nuclear waste. SKB is investigating various designs for the construction of an underground deep repository for spent nuclear fuel at 500-600 m depths. For the construction of an access tunnel for such a deep repository, the possibility of encountering a water-bearing fracture zone cannot be discounted. Such a zone named NE-1 (deformation zone in accordance to SKB's terminology) was encountered during the construction of the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) and difficulties with large water inflows were reported. With the aim to assess the feasibility of different technical solutions, SKB commissioned a baseline study into the passage of an access tunnel through a water-bearing fracture zone at three different depths (200 m, 400 m and 600 m). The objectives of this baseline study are to: Increase the knowledge of possible technical solutions for tunnelling through water-bearing fractures zones with the characteristics of the brittle deformation zone NE-1 at different depths, namely 200, 400 and 600 metres; Form a reference document to assist the engineering design and construction work for the passage through such a water-bearing fracture zone; To highlight the engineering parameters that should be obtained to facilitate design for the passage through water-bearing fracture zones.The study has been carried out in the following five stages: A. Compilation of the relevant data for deformation zone NE-1; B. Problem identification and proposal of technical solutions; C. Identification of hazards to be involved in the tunnel excavation; D. Recommendations and conclusions for further investigations; E. Documentation of the results in a final report. The analyses will be expressed in statistical/probabilistic terms where appropriate. In order to specify the precondition that will be valid for this study, a descriptive model of the water-bearing fracture zone is

  4. Indigenous Fruits Utilization In Semi-Arid Zones: A Baseline Study In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study showed that the fruits of about 26 indigenous tree species are used by the locals for varied reasons such as medicinal, fruit and cosmetics while the ... and Tamarindus indica were found to be threatened as a result of perennial fires and charcoal burning vis-a vis the erratic natural regeneration patterns of the ...

  5. Baseline study of the Mokolo and Lephalala rivers in the Waterberg area

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Klerk, A

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted in the Waterberg area to characterize the aquatic macro invertebrate community structure and fish assemblages in the Mokolo and Lephalala rivers prior to the onset of increased mining activities and coal fired power stations...

  6. Applying Behavior Analysis within the Wraparound Process: A Multiple Baseline Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myaard, Michael J.; Crawford, Connie; Jackson, Michell; Alessi, Galen

    2000-01-01

    A study examined the effects of wraparound services on the adjustment of four adolescents with severe emotional disturbances at imminent risk of long-term residential placements. Results indicate significant positive effects in the areas of compliance, appropriate peer interactions, extreme verbal abuse, alcohol/drug use, and physical aggression.…

  7. A baseline study of drug prescribing practices in a Nigerian military ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: In many developing countries, drug costs form an important portion of government and household expenditure. Also, improper use of drugs is a major health hazard and increases treatment costs. However,while the problemof irrational use of drugs isworldwide, it has not been adequately studied especially in ...

  8. Preperimetric Glaucoma Prospective Observational Study (PPGPS: Design, baseline characteristics, and therapeutic effect of tafluprost in preperimetric glaucoma eye.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoko Aizawa

    Full Text Available There is no consensus on the diagnosis or treatment policy for Preperimetric Glaucoma (PPG because the pathogenesis of PPG is not clear at this time. Preperimetric Glaucoma Prospective Observational Study (PPGPS is a first multicenter, prospective, observational study to clarify the pathogenesis of PPG. This article indicates study design, patient baseline characteristics, and analysis focused on optic nerve head (ONH blood flow in PPG, as well as the intraocular pressure (IOP -lowering effect and ONH blood flow-improving effects of Tafluprost.In this study, 122 eyes from 122 subjects (mean age: 53.1 ± 14.3 newly diagnosed as PPG were enrolled. The circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (cpRNFLT was evaluated with optical coherence tomography (OCT. The ONH blood flow was measured with laser speckle flowgraphy. The therapeutic effect of Tafluprost was evaluated at Month 0 (ONH blood flow-improving effect and Month 4 (IOP-lowering effect.The untreated IOP, cpRNFLT, and baseline Mean deviation (MD value was 16.4 ± 2.5 mmHg, 80.4 ± 8.2 μm, and -0.48 ± 1.29 dB, respectively. In the site-specific visual field evaluation using the sector map, there was no appreciable site-specific visual field defect in the eye with PPG. The inferior region of cpRNFLT in 4-quadrant OCT sector analysis and 6 o'clock region in 12-o'clock OCT sector analysis was the highest rate of abnormality in PPG eyes. Topical administration of Tafluprost significantly reduced IOP from 16.4 ± 2.5 mmHg at baseline to 14.5 ± 2.3 mmHg at Month 4 (P < 0.001, paired t-test. In the linear regression analysis, there was a significant relationship between the increase of ONH blood flow and baseline value.PPGPS is a first prospective study focusing on the pathology of PPG. This study is expected to elucidate the pathology of PPG, with evidence useful for determining a treatment strategy for PPG.

  9. Baseline for food waste generation – A case study in Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia cafeterias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alias, A. R.; Mokhlis, N. A. Mohd; Zainun, N. Y.

    2017-11-01

    Increasing population and economy status have contributed to the increasing volume of solid wastes produced in Malaysia and it creates problems on the existing solid waste management system. Ineffective waste management system was one of the issues that often discussed. The purpose of this study was to suggest the best method for managing food waste in Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM) cafeterias. The scope of the study was to identify the type and quantity of waste generated in each cafeteria. The study area was carried out at six cafeteria in UTHM including residential college cafeteria which are Tun Dr. Ismail (TDI), Tun Fatimah (TF) and Tun Syed Nasir (TSN), G3’s cafeteria, Arked, and Dr. Munie’s cafeteria located at the Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering (FKAAS). In this study, food waste was quantified in unit of kilogram (kg). Results of the study showed that total food waste in selected UTHM’s cafeterias was 6197.5 kg for two months. Food waste generated in G3’s cafeteria was the highest value with 1823.5 kg among another cafeteria. This is due to strategic location for students and staff to take meals, the variety of food sold and reasonable price were major factors of generating food waste. Meanwhile, the Dr. Munie's Cafeteria located in FKAAS recorded the least total production of food waste as staffs and students take their meals at others cafeterias. Through literature review, there are list of methods on waste management were identified and composting method was suggested for food waste management in UTHM since the waste was produce in very large quantity.

  10. Effects of physical activity calorie expenditure (PACE) labeling: study design and baseline sample characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viera, Anthony J; Tuttle, Laura; Olsson, Emily; Gras-Najjar, Julie; Gizlice, Ziya; Hales, Derek; Linnan, Laura; Lin, Feng-Chang; Noar, Seth M; Ammerman, Alice

    2017-09-12

    Obesity and physical inactivity are responsible for more than 365,000 deaths per year and contribute substantially to rising healthcare costs in the US, making clear the need for effective public health interventions. Calorie labeling on menus has been implemented to guide consumer ordering behaviors, but effects on calories purchased has been minimal. In this project, we tested the effect of physical activity calorie expenditure (PACE) food labels on actual point-of-decision food purchasing behavior as well as physical activity. Using a two-group interrupted time series cohort study design in three worksite cafeterias, one cafeteria was assigned to the intervention condition, and the other two served as controls. Calories from food purchased in the cafeteria were assessed by photographs of meals (accompanied by notes made on-site) using a standardized calorie database and portion size-estimation protocol. Primary outcomes will be average calories purchased and minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) by individuals in the cohorts. We will compare pre-post changes in study outcomes between study groups using piecewise generalized linear mixed model regressions (segmented regressions) with a single change point in our interrupted time-series study. The results of this project will provide evidence of the effectiveness of worksite cafeteria menu labeling, which could potentially inform policy intervention approaches. Labels that convey information in a more readily understandable manner may be more effective at motivating behavior change. Strengths of this study include its cohort design and its robust data capture methods using food photographs and accelerometry.

  11. Effects of physical activity calorie expenditure (PACE labeling: study design and baseline sample characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony J. Viera

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity and physical inactivity are responsible for more than 365,000 deaths per year and contribute substantially to rising healthcare costs in the US, making clear the need for effective public health interventions. Calorie labeling on menus has been implemented to guide consumer ordering behaviors, but effects on calories purchased has been minimal. Methods In this project, we tested the effect of physical activity calorie expenditure (PACE food labels on actual point-of-decision food purchasing behavior as well as physical activity. Using a two-group interrupted time series cohort study design in three worksite cafeterias, one cafeteria was assigned to the intervention condition, and the other two served as controls. Calories from food purchased in the cafeteria were assessed by photographs of meals (accompanied by notes made on-site using a standardized calorie database and portion size-estimation protocol. Primary outcomes will be average calories purchased and minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA by individuals in the cohorts. We will compare pre-post changes in study outcomes between study groups using piecewise generalized linear mixed model regressions (segmented regressions with a single change point in our interrupted time-series study. The results of this project will provide evidence of the effectiveness of worksite cafeteria menu labeling, which could potentially inform policy intervention approaches. Discussion Labels that convey information in a more readily understandable manner may be more effective at motivating behavior change. Strengths of this study include its cohort design and its robust data capture methods using food photographs and accelerometry.

  12. Comparing epidemiology and baseline characteristic of multiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optica: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskandarieh, Sharareh; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Abdollahpour, Ibrahim; Moghadasi, Abdorreza Naser; Azimi, Amir Reza; Sahraian, Mohammad Ali

    2017-02-01

    Autoimmune syndromes such as Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and Neuromyelitis Optica (NMO) are chronic, demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system which usually affect young adults. Both environmental risk factors and genetic susceptibility have been proposed to explain the etiology of these diseases. The aim of this study was to compare epidemiology and possible risk factors in MS and NMO in Tehran, Iran. A population-based incident case-control study was performed in Tehran based on a study conducted on1513 MS patients from Iranian MS Society registry center of Tehran, from 2014 to 2015, and 83 NMO patients diagnosed with NMO in 2015 at Sina hospital, a tertiary care referral center in Tehran. The random digit dialing (RDD) methods were established to select 400 population-based controls. A checklist was designed to cover the epidemiological variables to estimate the possible risk factors for MS and NMO based on a questionnaire designed for multinational case-control studies of environmental risk factors in multiple sclerosis. Structured face to face interviews with cases, and telephone interviews with controls were conducted by trained interviewers to collect data. The multiple logistic regression analysis was done via SPSS package. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) estimate of MS for females compared to males was (OR =1.47; 95% CI: 1.12, 1.95), and it was (OR=1.54; 95% CI: 1.17, 2.02) for people aged 18-27 years compared to younger ones aged 28-37 years. The adjusted OR estimate of NMO for people aged over 48 years compared to those aged 28-37 years was (OR=3.49; 95% CI: 1.59, 7.64). The point estimates were greater than eight-fold increased risk associated with MS among patients with a positive familial history 8.80 (95% CI: 4.10, 18.90). The results of this study reveal that the risk of MS is significantly higher in female and younger people in comparison to NMO. Having positive family history of MS can increase the risk of MS substantially. The findings of the

  13. Baseline Knowledge of Islam and Muslims: A Study of Australian Government Crisis Communication Officials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate O'Donnell

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the level of knowledge Australian crisis communications officials had about Islam and Muslims. It did so at a time when the Commonwealth Government has warned in the current national security environment that a terrorist attack could be experienced at any time, and where the most serious threat emanated from those holding what the government described as a “deviant” view of Islam. The study identified that Media Liaison Officers (n=72 have low levels of knowledge about this religious faith, and that they were aware of their lack of understanding. These findings raise policy concerns about the extent to which Media Liaison Officers can differentiate between Islam and deviant interpretations of the faith. With the pivotal role that Media Liaison Officers play in crisis communication—including briefing and educating journalists when a terrorist event occurs—these findings present crisis managers with several challenges; including recruitment, training, and ongoing professional development.

  14. Ambient acoustic environments and cetacean signals: baseline studies from humpback whale and gray whale breeding grounds

    OpenAIRE

    Seger, Kerri Dawn

    2016-01-01

    The past two centuries have seen an increased exploitation of marine habitats byhumans, so a growing appreciation of the role ambient noise plays in cetacean studies hasresulted. To achieve a broad acoustical view of understudied areas (namely Mexican waters),this dissertation tackles three overarching principles: (1) parameterizing current baselineambient acoustic environments for subsequent comparisons, (2) determining whether thesounds that animals introduce into their environments can pro...

  15. Perceptions of foreign health aid in East Africa: an exploratory baseline study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lövgren, Shannon L; Taro, Trisa B; Wipfli, Heather L

    2014-12-01

    There is insufficient literature on the perceptions of aid recipients with respect to foreign health aid administration and impact. This study sought to identify perceptions of foreign health aid among individuals, health care workers (HCWs), and policymakers in three East African countries: Kenya, Uganda, and Ethiopia. Each country receives substantial foreign aid and shares regional proximity. A qualitative exploratory study design was adopted and 81 questionnaires were administered to individuals, HCWs and policymakers. Questionnaires ascertained perceptions of foreign aid, health aid and the USA. Responses were compared between groups and across countries. Perceptions of how much foreign aid a community receives varied between individuals ('a little'), HCWs ('some') and policymakers ('a lot'). Respondents were positive towards the USA irrespective of the level of aid they perceived came from the USA. Opinions regarding the impact of aid varied by country and by profession. Aid priorities were similar among all countries and participants, with health care, education and economic development among the primary sectors reported. More research is needed on perceptions of aid recipients. The findings of this pilot study highlight the need for inclusion of these stakeholders in order to better inform decisions regarding foreign aid. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. [Study of human immunodeficiency virus transmission chains in Andalusia: analysis from baseline antiretroviral resistance sequences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Parra, Santiago; Chueca-Porcuna, Natalia; Álvarez-Estevez, Marta; Pasquau, Juan; Omar, Mohamed; Collado, Antonio; Vinuesa, David; Lozano, Ana Belen; García-García, Federico

    2015-11-01

    Protease and reverse transcriptase HIV-1 sequences provide useful information for patient clinical management, as well as information on resistance to antiretrovirals. The aim of this study is to evaluate transmission events, transmitted drug resistance, and to georeference subtypes among newly diagnosed patients referred to our center. A study was conducted on 693 patients diagnosed between 2005 and 2012 in Southern Spain. Protease and reverse transcriptase sequences were obtained for resistance to cART analysis with Trugene(®) HIV Genotyping Kit (Siemens, NAD). MEGA 5.2, Neighbor-Joining, ArcGIS and REGA were used for subsequent analysis. The results showed 298 patients clustered into 77 different transmission events. Most of the clusters were formed by pairs (n=49), of men having sex with men (n=26), Spanish (n=37), and below 45 years of age (73.5%). Urban areas from Granada, and the coastal areas of Almeria and Granada showed the greatest subtype heterogeneity. Five clusters were formed by more than 10 patients, and 15 clusters had transmitted drug resistance. The study data demonstrate how the phylogenetic characterization of transmission clusters is a powerful tool to monitor the spread of HIV, and may contribute to design correct preventive measures to minimize it. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  17. Ecological study of social fragmentation, poverty, and suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitley, Elise; Gunnell, David; Dorling, Daniel; Smith, George Davey

    1999-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the association between suicide and area based measures of deprivation and social fragmentation. Design Ecological study. Setting 633 parliamentary constituencies of Great Britain as defined in 1991. Main outcome measures Age and sex specific mortality rates for suicide and all other causes for 1981-92. Results Mortality from suicide and all other causes increased with increasing Townsend deprivation score, social fragmentation score, and abstention from voting in all age and sex groups. Suicide mortality was most strongly related to social fragmentation, whereas deaths from other causes were more closely associated with Townsend score. Constituencies with absolute increases in social fragmentation and Townsend scores between 1981 and 1991 tended to have greater increases in suicide rates over the same period. The relation between change in social fragmentation and suicide was largely independent of Townsend score, whereas the association with Townsend score was generally reduced after adjustment for social fragmentation. Conclusions Suicide rates are more strongly associated with measures of social fragmentation than with poverty at a constituency level. Key messagesPlace of residence may affect health, and mortality from most common diseases tends to be higher in areas characterised by low socioeconomic positionResearch dating back over 100 years suggests that social fragmentation may influencesuicideIn the 1980s and 1990s, parliamentary constituencies with high levels of social fragmentation had high rates of suicide, independent of deprivationConstituencies with the greatest increases in social fragmentation between 1981 and 1991 also had the greatest increases in suicide rates over the same periodAny targeting of suicide prevention may be more effective if aimed at socially fragmented rather than deprived areas PMID:10521194

  18. Ecological studies on rain forest in Northern Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulz, J.P.

    1960-01-01

    During the years 1955-1957 ecological data were collected in various types of mesophytic forest occurring in the northern half of central Suriname (fig. 1). Physiognomically as well as floristically these forests correspond with the type of vegetation which in the other parts of tropical America

  19. Supercharged Snails for Stream Ecology & Water-Quality Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Arthur J.; Ryon, Michael G.

    2003-01-01

    Gill-breathing freshwater snails (Family "Pleuroceridae") are ecologically important, abundant in many streams in the United States, and easy to collect and maintain under classroom conditions. These snails can be used in classroom tests to demonstrate effects of pollutants on aquatic organisms. In more advanced classes, students can cage the…

  20. Ecological Validity in Eye-Tracking: An Empirical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinner, Patti; Gass, Susan M.; Behney, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Eye-trackers are becoming increasingly widespread as a tool to investigate second language (L2) acquisition. Unfortunately, clear standards for methodology--including font size, font type, and placement of interest areas--are not yet available. Although many researchers stress the need for ecological validity--that is, the simulation of natural…

  1. Studies on the influence of Microcystis aeruginosa on the ecology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-05-04

    May 4, 2009 ... investigating the influence of different levels of M. aeruginosa on the water quality and fish production of carp culture ponds. ... Key words: Cyanobacteria, algal blooms, Microcystis, phytoplankton, zooplankton, fish production, carp culture ponds. ..... The ecology of a temple tank containing a permanent ...

  2. Comparative morphological and ecological studies of two Stachys ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-07

    Dec 7, 2011 ... matter,110-172% of total salt content, 8.02 -24.51% phosphorus and 204-254% potassium. Key words: Morphology, Micromorphology, Ecology, Lamiaceae, Stachys, Turkey. INTRODUCTION. Stachys L., one of the largest genera of the Lamiaceae, contains about 300 species. It is a cosmopolitan genus.

  3. Body weight status of school adolescents in Terengganu, Malaysia: a population baseline study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Aryati; Zulaily, Nurzaime; Abdul Manan, Nor Saidah; Shahril, Mohd Razif; Syed Saadun Tarek Wafa, Sharifah Wajihah Wafa; Mohd Amin, Rahmah; Syed Abdullah, Engku Fadzli Hasan; Ahmed, Amran

    2017-01-05

    Body weight is highly associated with overall health status. Being severely thin or obese may impose the risk of many health problems. Early detection of body mass index (BMI) status may help to reduce the associated comorbidities. Although many studies in the literature have investigated the BMI of school adolescents in Malaysia, the data on status of body weight among school adolescents in suburban states like Terengganu is limited. This study aimed to describe the body weight status of the whole population of school adolescents in all seven districts in Terengganu, Malaysia. Using a cross-sectional study design, body weight and height were measured, and BMI was calculated and classified using WHO BMI-for-age Z-score. Data was obtained using the National Fitness Standard (SEGAK) assessment, which was uploaded in a specific Health Monitoring System (HEMS). From a total of 62,567 school adolescents, 50.7% were boys and 49.3% were girls. Girls had significantly higher BMI than boys in age groups of 13 to 15 and 16 to 17 years old. Among boys and girls, there were significant differences in mean BMI of school adolescents between rural and urban school locations in all age groups (p < 0.001). There were also significant differences in BMI between boys and girls in all districts in Terengganu, except Kemaman and Kuala Terengganu, for all age groups (p < 0.001). Overall, the prevalence of thinness, normal, overweight and obesity were 8.4, 64.6, 15.0 and 12.0%, respectively. There were significant differences between BMI categories and genders in total participants, and within rural and urban school locations (p < 0.05). In all districts except Marang and Dungun, significant difference was also found between BMI categories and genders. The prevalence of thinness, overweight and obesity in Terengganu were substantial. In this study, BMI category was associated with gender, age, school location and district. However, the actual effects of these factors on the

  4. A DECADE-BASELINE STUDY OF THE PLASMA STATES OF EJECTA KNOTS IN CASSIOPEIA A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutherford, John; Dewey, Daniel; Figueroa-Feliciano, Enectali; Heine, Sarah N. T.; Canizares, C. R.; Bastien, Fabienne A.; Sato, Kosuke, E-mail: enectali@mit.edu, E-mail: jmrv@mit.edu [Department of Physics and Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2013-05-20

    We present the analysis of 21 bright X-ray knots in the Cassiopeia A supernova remnant from observations spanning 10 yr. We performed a comprehensive set of measurements to reveal the kinematic and thermal state of the plasma in each knot, using a combined analysis of two high energy resolution High Energy Transmission Grating (HETG) and four medium energy resolution Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) sets of spectra. The ACIS electron temperature estimates agree with the HETG-derived values for approximately half of the knots studied, yielding one of the first comparisons between high resolution temperature estimates and ACIS-derived temperatures. We did not observe the expected spectral evolution-predicted from the ionization age and density estimates for each knot-in all but three of the knots studied. The incompatibility of these measurements with our assumptions has led us to propose a dissociated ejecta model, with the metals unmixed inside the knots, which could place strong constraints on supernova mixing models.

  5. Improving physical activity in arthritis clinical trial (IMPAACT): study design, rationale, recruitment, and baseline data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Rowland W; Semanik, Pamela A; Lee, Jungwha; Feinglass, Joseph; Ehrlich-Jones, Linda; Dunlop, Dorothy D

    2014-11-01

    Over 21 million Americans report an arthritis-attributable activity limitation. Knee osteoarthritis (OA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are two of the most common/disabling forms of arthritis. Various forms of physical activity (PA) can improve a variety of health outcomes and reduce health care costs, but the proportion of the US population engaging in the recommended amount of PA is low and even lower among those with arthritis. The Improving Motivation for Physical Activity in Arthritis Clinical Trial (IMPAACT) is a randomized clinical trial that studied the effects of a lifestyle PA promotion intervention on pain and physical function outcomes. The IMPAACT intervention was based on a chronic care/disease management model in which allied health professionals promote patient self-management activities outside of traditional physician office encounters. The program was a motivational interviewing-based, individualized counseling and referral intervention, directed by a comprehensive assessment of individual patient barriers and strengths related to PA performance. The specific aims of IMPAACT were to test the efficacy of the IMPAACT intervention for persons with arthritis (N=185 persons with RA and 155 persons with knee OA) in improving arthritis-specific and generic self-reported pain and Physical Function outcomes, observed measures of function, and objectively measured and self-reported PA levels. Details of the stratified-randomized study design, subject recruitment, and data collection are described. The results from IMPAACT will generate empiric evidence pertaining to increasing PA levels in persons with arthritis and result in widely applicable strategies for health behavior change. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The use of percentage change from baseline as an outcome in a controlled trial is statistically inefficient: a simulation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vickers Andrew J

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many randomized trials involve measuring a continuous outcome - such as pain, body weight or blood pressure - at baseline and after treatment. In this paper, I compare four possibilities for how such trials can be analyzed: post-treatment; change between baseline and post-treatment; percentage change between baseline and post-treatment and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA with baseline score as a covariate. The statistical power of each method was determined for a hypothetical randomized trial under a range of correlations between baseline and post-treatment scores. Results ANCOVA has the highest statistical power. Change from baseline has acceptable power when correlation between baseline and post-treatment scores is high;when correlation is low, analyzing only post-treatment scores has reasonable power. Percentage change from baseline has the lowest statistical power and was highly sensitive to changes in variance. Theoretical considerations suggest that percentage change from baseline will also fail to protect from bias in the case of baseline imbalance and will lead to an excess of trials with non-normally distributed outcome data. Conclusions Percentage change from baseline should not be used in statistical analysis. Trialists wishing to report this statistic should use another method, such as ANCOVA, and convert the results to a percentage change by using mean baseline scores.

  7. Baseline study of methane emission from anaerobic ponds of palm oil mill effluent treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacob, Shahrakbah; Ali Hassan, Mohd; Shirai, Yoshihito; Wakisaka, Minato; Subash, Sunderaj

    2006-07-31

    The world currently obtains its energy from the fossil fuels such as oil, natural gas and coal. However, the international crisis in the Middle East, rapid depletion of fossil fuel reserves as well as climate change have driven the world towards renewable energy sources which are abundant, untapped and environmentally friendly. Malaysia has abundant biomass resources generated from the agricultural industry particularly the large commodity, palm oil. This paper will focus on palm oil mill effluent (POME) as the source of renewable energy from the generation of methane and establish the current methane emission from the anaerobic treatment facility. The emission was measured from two anaerobic ponds in Felda Serting Palm Oil Mill for 52 weeks. The results showed that the methane content was between 35.0% and 70.0% and biogas flow rate ranged between 0.5 and 2.4 L/min/m(2). Total methane emission per anaerobic pond was 1043.1 kg/day. The total methane emission calculated from the two equations derived from relationships between methane emission and total carbon removal and POME discharged were comparable with field measurement. This study also revealed that anaerobic pond system is more efficient than open digesting tank system for POME treatment. Two main factors affecting the methane emission were mill activities and oil palm seasonal cropping.

  8. 1994 Baseline biological studies for the Device Assembly Facility at the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Townsend, Y.E. [ed.; Woodward, B.D.; Hunter, R.B.; Greger, P.D.; Saethre, M.B.

    1995-02-01

    This report describes environmental work performed at the Device Assembly Facility (DAF) in 1994 by the Basic Environmental Monitoring and Compliance Program (BECAMP). The DAF is located near the Mojave-Great Basin desert transition zone 27 km north of Mercury. The area immediately around the DAF building complex is a gentle slope cut by 1 to 3 m deep arroyos, and occupied by transitional vegetation. In 1994, construction activities were largely limited to work inside the perimeter fence. The DAF was still in a preoperational mode in 1994, and no nuclear materials were present. The DAF facilities were being occupied so there was water in the sewage settling pond, and the roads and lights were in use. Sampling activities in 1994 represent the first year in the proposed monitoring scheme. The proposed biological monitoring plan gives detailed experimental protocols. Plant, lizard, tortoise, small mammal, and bird surveys were performed in 1994. The authors briefly outline procedures employed in 1994. Studies performed on each taxon are reviewed separately then summarized in a concluding section.

  9. Prognostic impact of baseline urinary albumin excretion rate in patients with resistant hypertension: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Paula Moreira; Cortez, Arthur Fernandes; de Souza, Fabio; Mares, Gabriel de Souza; Dos Santos, Bruno Dussoni Moreira; Muxfeldt, Elizabeth Silaid

    2017-12-11

    Moderately increased albuminuria, defined as urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER) between 30 and 300-mg/24-h is a well-known cardiovascular risk factor, especially in diabetic and hypertensive patients. This study aim to analyze the prognostic value of baseline UAER in a still understudied group, patients with resistant hypertension (RHT). This is a prospective observational study, which had enrolled 1048 outpatients with RHT, who were submitted to a clinical-laboratory assessment and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) during the follow-up. Primary endpoints were a composite of fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular events, all-cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality. Survival analysis by multiple Cox regression assessed the associations among endpoints, baseline UAER, glomerular filtration rate (GFR), and ABPM control. After a mean 7.5 years follow-up, 233 patients died, 120 from cardiac death; 215 cardiovascular events occurred, 90 strokes and 116 coronary diseases. UAER above 30-mg/24-h increased above 40% the risk of fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular events, and of all-cause mortality. At these UAER levels, secondary outcomes were associated to increased risk of stroke and risk of end-stage renal disease, but did not affect coronary events. Both the GFR below 60-mL/min and uncontrolled ABPM were related to nearly two-fold raised risk of fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular events, when coupled with UAER above 30-mg/24-h. In conclusion, moderately increased albuminuria predicts cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality in RHT, and its prognostic impact is enhanced in association with a GFR under 60-mL/min and uncontrolled baseline ABPM.

  10. Enhancing organizational capacity to provide cancer control programs among Latino churches: design and baseline findings of the CRUZA Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jennifer D; Torres, Maria Idali; Tom, Laura S; Rustan, Sarah; Leyva, Bryan; Negron, Rosalyn; Linnan, Laura A; Jandorf, Lina; Ospino, Hosffman

    2015-04-09

    Faith-based organizations (FBOs) have been successful in delivering health promotion programs for African Americans, though few studies have been conducted among Latinos. Even fewer have focused on organizational change, which is required to sustain community-based initiatives. We hypothesized that FBOs serving Latinos would be more likely to offer evidence-based strategies (EBS) for cancer control after receiving a capacity enhancement intervention to implement health programs, and designed the CRUZA trial to test this hypothesis. This paper describes the CRUZA design and baseline findings. We identified Catholic parishes in Massachusetts that provided Spanish-language mass (n = 65). A baseline survey assessed organizational characteristics relevant to adoption of health programs, including readiness for adoption, "fit" between innovation and organizational mission, implementation climate, and organizational culture. In the next study phase, parishes that completed the baseline assessment will be recruited to a randomized cluster trial, with the parish as the unit of analysis. Both groups will receive a Program Manual and Toolkit. Capacity Enhancement parishes will also be offered technical support, assistance forming health committees and building inter-institutional partnerships, and skills-based training. Of the 49 parishes surveyed at baseline (75%), one-third (33%) reported having provided at least one health program in the prior year. However, only two program offerings were cancer-specific. Nearly one-fifth (18%) had an active health ministry. There was a high level of organizational readiness to adopt cancer control programs, high congruence between parish missions and CRUZA objectives, moderately conducive implementation climates, and organizational cultures supportive of CRUZA programming. Having an existing health ministry was significantly associated with having offered health programs within the past year. Relationships between health program

  11. Incidence of school failure according to baseline leisure-time physical activity practice: prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rombaldi, Airton J; Clark, Valerie L; Reichert, Felipe F; Araújo, Cora L P; Assunção, Maria C; Menezes, Ana M B; Horta, Bernardo L; Hallal, Pedro C

    2012-12-01

    To evaluate the prospective association between leisure-time physical activity practice at 11 years of age and incidence of school failure from 11 to 15 years of age. The sample comprised >4,300 adolescents followed up from birth to 15 years of age participating in a birth cohort study in Pelotas, Brazil. The incidence of school failure from age 11 to 15 years was calculated by first excluding from the analyses all subjects who experienced a school failure before 11 years of age, and then categorizing as "positive" all those who reported repeating a grade at school from 11 to 15 years of age. Leisure-time physical activity was measured using a validated questionnaire. The incidence of school failure was 47.9% among boys and 38.2% among girls. Adolescents in the top quartile of leisure-time physical activity practice at 11 years of age had a higher likelihood of school failure (OR: 1.36; 95% CI: 1.06, 1.75) compared with the least active adolescents. In adjusted analyses stratified by sex, boys in the top quartile of leisure-time physical activity practice at 11 years of age were also more likely to have failed at school from age 11 to 15 years (OR: 1.60; 95% CI: 1.09, 2.33). Adolescents allocating >1,000 min/wk to leisure-time physical activity were more likely to experience a school failure from 11 to 15 years of age. Although this finding does not advocate against physical activity promotion, it indicates that excess time allocated to physical activity may jeopardize school performance among adolescents. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Incidence of School Failure According to Baseline Leisure-Time Physical Activity Practice: Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rombaldi, Airton J.; Clark, Valerie L.; Reichert, Felipe F.; Araújo, Cora L.P.; Assunção, Maria C.; Menezes, Ana M.B.; Horta, Bernardo L.; Hallal, Pedro C.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the prospective association between leisure-time physical activity practice at 11 years of age and incidence of school failure from 11 to 15 years of age. Methods The sample comprised >4,300 adolescents followed up from birth to 15 years of age participating in a birth cohort study in Pelotas, Brazil. The incidence of school failure from age 11 to 15 years was calculated by first excluding from the analyses all subjects who experienced a school failure before 11 years of age, and then categorizing as “positive” all those who reported repeating a grade at school from 11 to 15 years of age. Leisure-time physical activity was measured using a validated questionnaire. Results The incidence of school failure was 47.9% among boys and 38.2% among girls. Adolescents in the top quartile of leisure-time physical activity practice at 11 years of age had a higher likelihood of school failure (OR: 1.36; 95% CI: 1.06, 1.75) compared with the least active adolescents. In adjusted analyses stratified by sex, boys in the top quartile of leisure-time physical activity practice at 11 years of age were also more likely to have failed at school from age 11 to 15 years (OR: 1.60; 95% CI: 1.09, 2.33). Conclusions Adolescents allocating >1,000 min/wk to leisure-time physical activity were more likely to experience a school failure from 11 to 15 years of age. Although this finding does not advocate against physical activity promotion, it indicates that excess time allocated to physical activity may jeopardize school performance among adolescents. PMID:23283155

  13. Longitudinal cohort survey of women's smoking behaviour and attitudes in pregnancy: study methods and baseline data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orton, Sophie; Bowker, Katharine; Cooper, Sue; Naughton, Felix; Ussher, Michael; Pickett, Kate E; Leonardi-Bee, Jo; Sutton, Stephen; Dhalwani, Nafeesa N; Coleman, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To report the methods used to assemble a contemporary pregnancy cohort for investigating influences on smoking behaviour before, during and after pregnancy and to report characteristics of women recruited. Design Longitudinal cohort survey. Setting Two maternity hospitals, Nottingham, England. Participants 3265 women who attended antenatal ultrasound scan clinics were offered cohort enrolment; those who were 8–26 weeks pregnant and were currently smoking or had recently stopped smoking were eligible. Cohort enrollment took place between August 2011 and August 2012. Primary and secondary outcome measures Prevalence of smoking at cohort entry and at two follow-up time points (34–36 weeks gestation and 3 months postnatally); response rate, participants’ sociodemographic characteristics. Results 1101 (33.7%, 95% CI 32.1% to 35.4%) women were eligible for inclusion in the cohort, and of these 850 (77.2%, 95% CI 74.6% to 79.6%) were recruited. Within the cohort, 57.4% (N=488, 95% CI 54.1% to 60.7%) reported to be current smokers. Current smokers were significantly younger than ex-smokers (p<0.05), more likely to have no formal qualifications and to not be in current paid employment compared to recent ex-smokers (p<0.001). Conclusions This contemporary cohort, which seeks very detailed information on smoking in pregnancy and its determinants, includes women with comparable sociodemographic characteristics to those in other UK cross-sectional studies and cohorts. This suggests that future analyses using this cohort and aimed at understanding smoking behaviour in pregnancy may produce findings that are broadly generalisable. PMID:24833689

  14. Improving palliative care through teamwork (IMPACTT) in nursing homes: Study design and baseline findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temkin-Greener, Helena; Ladwig, Susan; Ye, Zhiqiu; Norton, Sally A; Mukamel, Dana B

    2017-05-01

    The 2014 Institute of Medicine report recommended that healthcare providers caring for individuals with advanced illness have basic palliative care competencies in communication, inter-professional collaboration, and symptom management. Nursing homes, where one in three American decedents live and die, have fallen short of these competency goals. We implemented an intervention study to examine the efficacy of nursing home-based integrated palliative care teams in improving the quality of care processes and outcomes for residents at the end of life. This paper describes the design, rationale, and challenges of a two-arm randomized controlled trial of nursing home-based palliative care teams in 31 facilities. The impact of the intervention on residents' outcomes is measured with four risk-adjusted quality indicators: place of death (nursing home or hospital), number of hospitalizations, and self-reported pain and depression in the last 90-days of life. The effect of the intervention is also evaluated with regard to staff satisfaction and impact on care processes (e.g. palliative care competency, communication, coordination). Both secondary (e.g. the Minimum Data Set) and primary (e.g. staff surveys) data are employed to examine the effect of the intervention. Several challenges in conducting a complex, nursing home-based intervention have been identified. While sustainability of the intervention without research funding is not clear, we surmise that without changes to the payment model that put palliative care services in this care setting on par with the more "skilled" care, it will not be reasonable to expect any widespread efforts to implement facility-based palliative care services. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Weeks Island brine diffuser site study: baseline conditions and environmental assessment technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-12-12

    This technical report presents the results of a study conducted at two alternative brine diffuser sites (A and B) proposed for the Weeks Island salt dome, together with an analysis of the potential physical, chemical, and biological effects of brine disposal for this area of the Gulf of Mexico. Brine would result from either the leaching of salt domes to form or enlarge oil storage caverns, or the subsequent use of these caverns for crude oil storage in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) program. Brine leached from the Weeks Island salt dome would be transported through a pipeline which would extend from the salt dome either 27 nautical miles (32 statute miles) for Site A, or 41 nautical miles (47 statute miles) for Site B, into Gulf waters. The brine would be discharged at these sites through an offshore diffuser at a sustained peak rate of 39 ft/sup 3//sec. The disposal of large quantities of brine in the Gulf could have a significant impact on the biology and water quality of the area. Physical and chemical measurements of the marine environment at Sites A and B were taken between September 1977 and July 1978 to correlate the existing environmental conditions with the estimated physical extent of tthe brine discharge as predicted by the MIT model (US Dept. of Commerce, 1977a). Measurements of wind, tide, waves, currents, and stratification (water column structure) were also obtained since the diffusion and dispersion of the brine plume are a function of the local circulation regime. These data were used to calculate both near- and far-field concentrations of brine, and may also be used in the design criteria for diffuser port configuration and verification of the plume model. Biological samples were taken to characterize the sites and to predict potential areas of impact with regard to the discharge. This sampling focused on benthic organisms and demersal fish. (DMC)

  16. A study of ecological sanitation of human urine by tunnel harvest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study of ecological sanitation of human urine by tunnel harvest and re-use for peri-urban vegetable production in Kano - a pilot scheme. R.A. Habib, I.L. Abdullahi. Abstract. No Abstract. Keywords: Ecology, Urban, Fertilizer, Amaranthus, Lactuca, Urine. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  17. An Exploratory Study of Elementary Preservice Teachers' Understanding of Ecology Using Concept Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak, Kevin M.; Munson, Bruce H.

    2008-01-01

    Classroom teachers serve a critical role in developing environmentally literate citizens. In this study, the authors assessed K-8 preservice teachers' understanding of basic ecological concepts. Participants (N = 56) constructed concept maps describing the inter-relationships among 16 ecological concepts. The authors analyzed the concept maps to…

  18. Adiponectin is associated with cardiovascular disease in male renal transplant recipients: baseline results from the LANDMARK 2 study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mudge David

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adiponectin is a major adipocyte-derived protein with insulin-sensitizing, anti-inflammatory and anti-atherogenic properties. Adiponectin levels correlate inversely with renal function and higher levels are predictive of lower cardiovascular disease (CVD in patients with normal renal function and chronic kidney disease. No data exists on the association between adiponectin and CVD in renal transplant recipients (RTR. Methods Standard biochemistry, clinical data and adiponectin were collected from 137 RTR recruited to the LANDMARK 2 study at baseline. The LANDMARK 2 study is an ongoing randomized controlled study that compares the outcome of aggressive risk factor modification for cardiovascular disease versus standard post-transplant care in renal transplant recipients with impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes mellitus. Results Mean patient age was 53.4 ± 12 years and the median post-transplantation period was 5 (0.5-31.9 years. Mean serum adiponectin level was 12.3 ± 7.1 μg/mL. On univariate analysis, adiponectin was positively associated with female gender (P = 0.01 and serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL concentration (P Conclusion In conclusion, adiponectin is positively correlated with inflammation, dyslipidemia and abnormal glucose tolerance in RTR. Furthermore, hypoadiponectinemia correlated with increased baseline CVD in male RTR.

  19. Gender Differences in HIV Care among Criminal Justice-Involved Persons: Baseline Data from the CARE+ Corrections Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckwith, Curt; Castonguay, Breana Uhrig; Trezza, Claudia; Bazerman, Lauri; Patrick, Rudy; Cates, Alice; Olsen, Halli; Kurth, Ann; Liu, Tao; Peterson, James; Kuo, Irene

    2017-01-01

    HIV-infected individuals recently released from incarceration have suboptimal linkage and engagement in community HIV care. We conducted a study to evaluate an information and communication technology intervention to increase linkage to community care among HIV-infected persons recently involved in the criminal justice (CJ) system. Baseline characteristics including risk behaviors and HIV care indicators are reported and stratified by gender. We recruited HIV-infected individuals in the District of Columbia jail and persons with a recent history of incarceration through community and street outreach. Participants completed a baseline computer-assisted personal interview regarding HIV care and antiretroviral treatment (ART) adherence, substance use, and sexual behaviors. CD4 and HIV plasma viral load testing were performed at baseline or obtained through medical records. Data were analyzed for the sample overall and stratified by gender. Of 110 individuals, 70% were community-enrolled, mean age was 40 (SD = 10.5), 85% were Black, and 58% were male, 24% female, and 18% transgender women. Nearly half (47%) had condomless sex in the three months prior to incarceration. Although drug dependence and hazardous alcohol use were highly prevalent overall, transgender women were more likely to have participated in drug treatment than men and women (90%, 61%, and 50% respectively; p = 0.01). Prior to their most recent incarceration, 80% had an HIV provider and 91% had ever taken ART. Among those, only 51% reported ≥90% ART adherence. Fewer women (67%) had received HIV medications during their last incarceration compared to men (96%) and transgender women (95%; p = 0.001). Although neither was statistically significant, transgender women and men had higher proportions of baseline HIV viral suppression compared to women (80%, 69%, and 48.0% respectively, p>0.05); a higher proportion of women had a CD4 count ≤200 compared to men and transgender women (17%, 8% and 5

  20. Are risk estimates biased in follow-up studies of psychosocial factors with low base-line participation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andersen Johan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low participation in population-based follow-up studies addressing psychosocial risk factors may cause biased estimation of health risk but the issue has seldom been examined. We compared risk estimates for selected health outcomes among respondents and the entire source population. Methods In a Danish cohort study of associations between psychosocial characteristics of the work environment and mental health, the source population of public service workers comprised 10,036 employees in 502 work units of which 4,489 participated (participation rate 45%. Data on the psychosocial work environment were obtained for each work unit by calculating the average of the employee self-reports. The average values were assigned all employees and non-respondent at the work unit. Outcome data on sick leave and prescription of antidepressant medication during the follow-up period (1.4.2007-31.12.2008 was obtained by linkage to national registries. Results Respondents differed at baseline from non-respondents by gender, age, employment status, sick leave and hospitalization for affective disorders. However, risk estimates for sick leave and prescription of antidepressant medication, during follow-up, based on the subset of participants, did only differ marginally from risk estimates based upon the entire population. Conclusions We found no indications that low participation at baseline distorts the estimates of associations between the work unit level of psychosocial work environment and mental health outcomes during follow-up. These results may not be valid for other exposures or outcomes.

  1. Method for Studying a Human Ecology: An Adaptation of the Grounded Theory Tradition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCaslin, Mark L.; Scott, Karen Wilson; Carlson, Nancy Margaret

    2002-01-01

    Constructivist grounded theory is focused on discovery through understanding data in a human ecology. The procedures outlined in this paper are designed to guide the beginning theorist through the process of creating a theory grounded in data that is a product of the human ecology under study. These new procedures extend grounded theory, providing bridges in moving from study phenomenon to design and from analysis to interpretation. Procedures for analyzing the data must be clearly understood before beginning grounded theory methodology. Strategies must be outlined, approaches to the ecology discussed, and awareness of the ecology attained. Following these procedures can lead to a rewarding qualitative research experience and produce new knowledge for understanding the human ecology.

  2. CASE STUDY: Community Based Ecological Mangrove Rehabilitation (CBEMR) in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Ben; Fadillah, Ratna; Nurdin, Yusran; Soulsby, Iona; Ahmad, Rio

    2014-01-01

    While successful examples of large-scale (5 000-10 000 ha) ecological wetland/mangrove rehabilitation projects exist worldwide, mangrove rehabilitation efforts in Indonesia, both large and small, have mainly failed. The majority of projects (both government programs and non-government initiatives) have oversimplified the technical processes of mangrove rehabilitation, favouring the direct planting of a restricted subset of mangrove species (from the family Rhizophoracea), commonly in the lowe...

  3. Study on the Ecological Ethics of Agricultural College Students

    OpenAIRE

    Meng, Zhihong

    2013-01-01

    From the perspective of environmental sociology, a questionnaire survey was conducted on the environmental awareness and behaviors of undergraduates from nearly all fields of majors in Sichuan Agricultural University. According to the investigation results, there are los of problems, for example, the college students generally do not have adequate knowledge about environment and are unclear about the existing national ecological law system; their attitude towards environment is often influenc...

  4. Political Cultural Ecology and the Study of Regions in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábregas Puig, Andrés

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows why Cultural Ecology, understood as a method to explore the relationships between the environment and cultural processes, has deeply influenced a whole generation of Mexican anthropologists as a result of the teachings of Ángel Palerm and Eric Wolf. The practical application of Steward’s theories to the processes of Mexican regional formation, linked to the use of hydraulic technologies as part of both adaptative cultural strategies and the political control of water in the process of food production, shows that Cultural Ecology, understood as cultural management of natural environments, as it happens with Economy, is designed and politically manipulated in the context of deeply unequal societies with unadaptative consequences.

    El artículo muestra por qué la ecología cultural, entendida como un método para indagar en las relaciones entre el medio ambiente y los procesos culturales ha arraigado en una generación de antropólogos mexicanos como consecuencia del magisterio de Ángel Palerm y Eric Wolf. La aplicación práctica de las teorías de Steward a los procesos de formación regional mexicana vinculados a usos políticos de tecnologías hidráulicas como parte, tanto de estrategias culturales de adaptación como de control político del agua en el proceso de producción de alimentos, ha puesto de manifiesto que la ecología cultural, entendida como manejo cultural de entornos naturales, al igual que la economía, es diseñada y manejada políticamente en el contexto de sociedades profundamente desiguales con consecuencias maladaptantes.

  5. Ecological niche transferability using invasive species as a case study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Fernández

    Full Text Available Species distribution modeling is widely applied to predict invasive species distributions and species range shifts under climate change. Accurate predictions depend upon meeting the assumption that ecological niches are conserved, i.e., spatially or temporally transferable. Here we present a multi-taxon comparative analysis of niche conservatism using biological invasion events well documented in natural history museum collections. Our goal is to assess spatial transferability of the climatic niche of a range of noxious terrestrial invasive species using two complementary approaches. First we compare species' native versus invasive ranges in environmental space using two distinct methods, Principal Components Analysis and Mahalanobis distance. Second we compare species' native versus invaded ranges in geographic space as estimated using the species distribution modeling technique Maxent and the comparative index Hellinger's I. We find that species exhibit a range of responses, from almost complete transferability, in which the invaded niches completely overlap with the native niches, to a complete dissociation between native and invaded ranges. Intermediate responses included expansion of dimension attributable to either temperature or precipitation derived variables, as well as niche expansion in multiple dimensions. We conclude that the ecological niche in the native range is generally a poor predictor of invaded range and, by analogy, the ecological niche may be a poor predictor of range shifts under climate change. We suggest that assessing dimensions of niche transferability prior to standard species distribution modeling may improve the understanding of species' dynamics in the invaded range.

  6. Monitoring and evaluating the impact of national school-based deworming in Kenya: study design and baseline results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwandawiro, Charles S; Nikolay, Birgit; Kihara, Jimmy H; Ozier, Owen; Mukoko, Dunstan A; Mwanje, Mariam T; Hakobyan, Anna; Pullan, Rachel L; Brooker, Simon J; Njenga, Sammy M

    2013-07-05

    An increasing number of countries in Africa and elsewhere are developing national plans for the control of neglected tropical diseases. A key component of such plans is school-based deworming (SBD) for the control of soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) and schistosomiasis. Monitoring and evaluation (M&E) of national programmes is essential to ensure they are achieving their stated aims and to evaluate when to reduce the frequency of treatment or when to halt it altogether. The article describes the M&E design of the Kenya national SBD programme and presents results from the baseline survey conducted in early 2012. The M&E design involves a stratified series of pre- and post-intervention, repeat cross-sectional surveys in a representative sample of 200 schools (over 20,000 children) across Kenya. Schools were sampled based on previous knowledge of STH endemicity and were proportional to population size. Stool (and where relevant urine) samples were obtained for microscopic examination and in a subset of schools; finger-prick blood samples were collected to estimate haemoglobin concentration. Descriptive and spatial analyses were conducted. The evaluation measured both prevalence and intensity of infection. Overall, 32.4% of children were infected with at least one STH species, with Ascaris lumbricoides as the most common species detected. The overall prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni was 2.1%, while in the Coast Province the prevalence of S. haematobium was 14.8%. There was marked geographical variation in the prevalence of species infection at school, district and province levels. The prevalence of hookworm infection was highest in Western Province (25.1%), while A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura prevalence was highest in the Rift Valley (27.1% and 11.9%). The lowest prevalence was observed in the Rift Valley for hookworm (3.5%), in the Coast for A. lumbricoides (1.0%), and in Nyanza for T. trichiura (3.6%). The prevalence of S. mansoni was most common in Western

  7. Probing CP violation with non-unitary mixing in long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments: DUNE as a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escrihuela, F. J.; Forero, D. V.; Miranda, O. G.; Tórtola, M.; Valle, J. W. F.

    2017-09-01

    When neutrino masses arise from the exchange of neutral heavy leptons, as in most seesaw schemes, the effective lepton mixing matrix N describing neutrino propagation is non-unitary, hence neutrinos are not exactly orthonormal. New CP violation phases appear in N that could be confused with the standard phase {δ }{CP} characterizing the three neutrino paradigm. We study the potential of the long-baseline neutrino experiment DUNE in probing CP violation induced by the standard CP phase in the presence of non-unitarity. In order to accomplish this we develop our previous formalism, so as to take into account the neutrino interactions with the medium, important in long baseline experiments such as DUNE. We find that the expected CP sensitivity of DUNE is somewhat degraded with respect to that characterizing the standard unitary case. However the effect is weaker than might have been expected thanks mainly to the wide neutrino beam. We also investigate the sensitivity of DUNE to the parameters characterizing non-unitarity. In this case we find that there is no improvement expected with respect to the current situation, unless the near detector setup is revamped.

  8. Human papillomavirus oncogenic mRNA testing for cervical cancer screening: baseline and longitudinal results from the CLEAR study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Jennifer L; Wright, Thomas C; Stoler, Mark H; Cuzick, Jack; Castle, Philip E; Dockter, Janel; Getman, Damon; Giachetti, Cristina

    2015-09-01

    This study determined the longitudinal clinical performance of a high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) E6/E7 RNA assay (Aptima HPV [AHPV]; Hologic, San Diego, CA) compared with an HR-HPV DNA assay (Hybrid Capture 2 [HC2]; Qiagen, Gaithersburg, MD) as an adjunctive method for cervical cancer screening. Women 30 years or older with a negative result for intraepithelial lesions or malignancy cytology (n = 10,860) positive by AHPV and/or HC2 assays and randomly selected women negative by both assays were referred to colposcopy at baseline. Women without baseline cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade 2 or higher (CIN2+) continued into the 3-year follow-up. The specificity of AHPV for CIN2 or lower was significantly greater at 96.3% compared with HC2 specificity of 94.8% (P detection of CIN2+ were similar between the two assays. After 3 years of follow-up, women negative by either human papillomavirus test had a very low risk of CIN2+ (<0.3%) compared with CIN2+ risk in women with positive AHPV results (6.3%) or positive HC2 results (5.1%). These results support the use of AHPV as a safe and effective adjunctive cervical cancer screening method. Copyright© by the American Society for Clinical Pathology.

  9. ROLE OF INTERNET - RESOURCES IN FORMING OF ECOLOGICAL KNOWLEDGE AT THE STUDY OF NATURAL SCIENCES SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga M. Naumenko

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The problem of internet resources application for forming of pupils ecological knowledge at the study of natural sciences subjects is considered. It is noticed, that distribution of ecological knowledge and development of ecological education became the near-term tasks of school education, taking into account a global ecological crisis. It is therefore important to use in school preparation all possibilities that allow to promote the level of ecological knowledge of students and to influence the same on forming of modern views in relation to environmental preservation. Considerable attention is given to advices for the teachers of natural sciences subjects in relation to methodology of the internet resources use at preparation and realization of practical and laboratory works and other forms of educational-searching activity of students.

  10. [Factor structure validity of the social capital scale used at baseline in the ELSA-Brasil study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souto, Ester Paiva; Vasconcelos, Ana Glória Godoi; Chor, Dora; Reichenheim, Michael E; Griep, Rosane Härter

    2016-07-21

    This study aims to analyze the factor structure of the Brazilian version of the Resource Generator (RG) scale, using baseline data from the Brazilian Longitudinal Health Study in Adults (ELSA-Brasil). Cross-validation was performed in three random subsamples. Exploratory factor analysis using exploratory structural equation models was conducted in the first two subsamples to diagnose the factor structure, and confirmatory factor analysis was used in the third to corroborate the model defined by the exploratory analyses. Based on the 31 initial items, the model with the best fit included 25 items distributed across three dimensions. They all presented satisfactory convergent validity (values greater than 0.50 for the extracted variance) and precision (values greater than 0.70 for compound reliability). All factor correlations were below 0.85, indicating full discriminative factor validity. The RG scale presents acceptable psychometric properties and can be used in populations with similar characteristics.

  11. Fenofibrate Intervention and Event Lowering in Diabetes (FIELD study: baseline characteristics and short-term effects of fenofibrate [ISRCTN64783481

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The Fenofibrate Intervention and Event Lowering in Diabetes (FIELD Study is examining the effects of long-term fibrate therapy on coronary heart disease (CHD event rates in patients with diabetes mellitus. This article describes the trial's run-in phase and patients' baseline characteristics. Research design and methods FIELD is a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in 63 centres in 3 countries evaluating the effects of fenofibrate versus placebo on CHD morbidity and mortality in 9795 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Patients were to have no indication for lipid-lowering therapy on randomization, but could start these or other drugs at any time after randomization. Follow-up in the study was to be for a median duration of not less than 5 years and until 500 major coronary events (fatal coronary heart disease plus nonfatal myocardial infarction had occurred. Results About 2100 patients (22% had some manifestation of cardiovascular disease (CVD at baseline and thus high risk status. Less than 25% of patients without CVD had a (UKPDS determined calculated 5-year CHD risk of 30, most were men, two-thirds were aged over 60 years, and substantial proportions had NCEP ATP III features of the metabolic syndrome independent of their diabetes, including low HDL (60%, high blood pressure measurement or treatment for hypertension (84%, high waist measurement (68%, and raised triglycerides (52%. After a 6-week run-in period before randomisation with all participants receiving 200 mg comicronized fenofibrate, there were declines in total and LDL cholesterol (10% and triglycerides (26% and an increase in HDL cholesterol (6.5%. Conclusion The study will show the effect of PPAR-alpha agonist action on CHD and other vascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes including substantial numbers with low to moderate CVD risk but with the various components of the metabolic syndrome. The main results of the study will be reported in

  12. Design and participant baseline characteristics of 'A Clinical Trial of IntensiVE Dialysis': the ACTIVE Dialysis Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardine, Meg J; Zuo, L I; Gray, Nicholas A; de Zoysa, Janak; Chan, Christopher T; Gallagher, Martin P; Howard, Kirsten; Hertier, Stephane; Cass, Alan; Perkovic, Vlado

    2015-04-01

    Observational reports suggest extended dialysis hours are associated with improved outcomes. These findings are confounded by better prognostic characteristics among people practising extended hours. The aim of this article is to provide an overview of the methods and baseline characteristics for ACTIVE Dialysis Study participants. This multicentre, randomized, open-label, blinded endpoint-assessment trial randomized participants receiving maintenance haemodialysis therapy to either extended (≥24 h) or standard (12-18 h) weekly haemodialysis for 12 months. A web-based randomization system used minimization to ensure balanced allocation across regions, dialysis setting and dialysis vintage. The primary outcome is the change in quality of life over 12 months of study treatment assessed by EQ-5D. Secondary outcomes include change in left ventricular mass index assessed by magnetic resonance imaging and safety outcomes including dialysis access events. A total of 200 participants were recruited between 2009 and 2013 from Australia (29.0%), China (62.0%), Canada (5.5%) and New Zealand (3.5%). Participants had a mean age of 52 (± 12) years and 11.5% were dialysing at home, with a mean duration of 13.9 h per week over a median of three sessions. At baseline, 32.5% had a history of cardiovascular disease and 36.5% had diabetes. The ACTIVE Dialysis Study has met its planned recruitment target. The participant population are drawn from a range of health service settings in a global context. The study will contribute important evidence on the benefits and harms of extending weekly dialysis hours. The trial is registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00649298). © 2014 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  13. Smooth or attached solid indeterminate nodules detected at baseline CT screening in the NELSON study: cancer risk during 1 year of follow-up.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, D.M.; Zaag-Loonen, H.J. van der; Oudkerk, M.; Wang, Y.; Vliegenthart, R.; Scholten, E.T.; Verschakelen, J.; Prokop, M.; Koning, H.J. de; Klaveren, R.J.J. van

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: To retrospectively determine whether baseline nodule characteristics at 3-month and 1-year volume doubling time (VDT) are predictive for lung cancer in solid indeterminate noncalcified nodules (NCNs) detected at baseline computed tomographic (CT) screening. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study,

  14. The population ecology of infectious diseases: pertussis in Thailand as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwood, J C; Cummings, D A T; Broutin, H; Iamsirithaworn, S; Rohani, P

    2012-12-01

    Many of the fundamental concepts in studying infectious diseases are rooted in population ecology. We describe the importance of population ecology in exploring central issues in infectious disease research including identifying the drivers and dynamics of host-pathogen interactions and pathogen persistence, and evaluating the success of public health policies. The use of ecological concepts in infectious disease research is demonstrated with simple theoretical examples in addition to an analysis of case notification data of pertussis, a childhood respiratory disease, in Thailand as a case study. We stress that further integration of these fields will have significant impacts in infectious diseases research.

  15. Moving-Talker, Speaker-Independent Feature Study, and Baseline Results Using the CUAVE Multimodal Speech Corpus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patterson Eric K

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Strides in computer technology and the search for deeper, more powerful techniques in signal processing have brought multimodal research to the forefront in recent years. Audio-visual speech processing has become an important part of this research because it holds great potential for overcoming certain problems of traditional audio-only methods. Difficulties, due to background noise and multiple speakers in an application environment, are significantly reduced by the additional information provided by visual features. This paper presents information on a new audio-visual database, a feature study on moving speakers, and on baseline results for the whole speaker group. Although a few databases have been collected in this area, none has emerged as a standard for comparison. Also, efforts to date have often been limited, focusing on cropped video or stationary speakers. This paper seeks to introduce a challenging audio-visual database that is flexible and fairly comprehensive, yet easily available to researchers on one DVD. The Clemson University Audio-Visual Experiments (CUAVE database is a speaker-independent corpus of both connected and continuous digit strings totaling over 7000 utterances. It contains a wide variety of speakers and is designed to meet several goals discussed in this paper. One of these goals is to allow testing of adverse conditions such as moving talkers and speaker pairs. A feature study of connected digit strings is also discussed. It compares stationary and moving talkers in a speaker-independent grouping. An image-processing-based contour technique, an image transform method, and a deformable template scheme are used in this comparison to obtain visual features. This paper also presents methods and results in an attempt to make these techniques more robust to speaker movement. Finally, initial baseline speaker-independent results are included using all speakers, and conclusions as well as suggested areas of research are

  16. Challenges associated with insulin therapy progression among patients with type 2 diabetes: Latin American MOSAIc study baseline data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linetzky, Bruno; Curtis, Brad; Frechtel, Gustavo; Montenegro, Renan; Escalante Pulido, Miguel; Stempa, Oded; de Lana, Janaina Martins; Gagliardino, Juan José

    2016-01-01

    Poor glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes is commonly recorded worldwide; Latin America (LA) is not an exception. Barriers to intensifying insulin therapy and which barriers are most likely to negatively impact outcomes are not completely known. The objective was to identify barriers to insulin progression in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in LA countries (Mexico, Brazil, and Argentina). MOSAIc is a multinational, non-interventional, prospective, observational study aiming to identify the patient-, physician-, and healthcare-based factors affecting insulin intensification. Eligible patients were ≥18 years, had T2DM, and were treated with insulin for ≥3 months with/without oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs). Demographic, clinical, and psychosocial data were collected at baseline and regular intervals during the 24-month follow-up period. This paper however, focuses on baseline data analysis. The association between glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and selected covariates was assessed. A trend toward a higher level of HbA1c was observed in the LA versus non-LA population (8.40 ± 2.79 versus 8.18 ± 2.28; p ≤ 0.069). Significant differences were observed in clinical parameters, treatment patterns, and patient-reported outcomes in LA compared with the rest of the cohorts and between Mexico, Brazil, and Argentina. Higher number of insulin injections and lower number of OADs were used, whereas a lower level of knowledge and a higher level of diabetes-related distress were reported in LA. Covariates associated with HbA1c levels included age (-0.0129; p higher education level (-0.2261; p = 0.0101), healthy diet (-0.0555; p = 0.0083), self-monitoring blood glucose (-0.0512; p = 0.0033), hurried communication style in the process of care (0.1295; p = 0.0208), number of insulin injections (0.1616; p = 0.0088), adherence (-0.1939; p ≤ 0.0104), and not filling insulin prescription due to associated cost (0.2651; p = 0

  17. Relationship between nodule count and lung cancer probability in baseline CT lung cancer screening : The NELSON study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvelmans, Marjolein A.; Walter, Joan E.; Peters, Robin B.; de Bock, Geertruida H.; Yousaf-Khan, Uraujh; van der Aalst, Carlijn M.; Groen, Harry J. M.; Nackaerts, Kristiaan; van Ooijen, Peter M. A.; de Koning, Harry J.; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To explore the relationship between nodule count and lung cancer probability in baseline low-dose CT lung cancer screening. Materials and Methods: Included were participants from the NELSON trial with at least one baseline nodule (3392 participants [45% of screen-group], 7258 nodules).

  18. Undertaking an Ecological Approach to Advance Game-Based Learning: A Case Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mamta Shah; Aroutis Foster

    2014-01-01

      Systematic incorporation of digital games in schools is largely unexplored. This case study explored the ecological conditions necessary for implementing a game-based learning course by examining the interaction between three domains...

  19. Displaying remotely sensed vegetation dynamics along natural gradients for ecological studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beck, P.S.A.; Wang, T.J.; Skidmore, A.K.; Liu, X.H.

    2008-01-01

    Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) datasets are growing in popularity to represent vegetation dynamics in ecological studies. Because of its multidimensional nature, it is difficult to visualise the spatial and temporal components of NDVI datasets simultaneously. This letter presents a

  20. Ecological studies related to construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility on the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, D.E.; Pechmann, J.H.K.; Knox, J.N.; Estes, R.A.; McGregor, J.H.; Bailey, K. (ed.)

    1988-12-01

    The Savannah River Ecology Laboratory has completed 10 years of ecological studies related to the construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) on the Savannah River Site. This progress report examines water quality studies on streams peripheral to the DWPF construction site and examines the effectiveness of refuge ponds'' in ameliorating the effects of construction on local amphibians. Individual papers on these topics are indexed separately. 93 refs., 15 figs., 15 tabs. (MHB)

  1. Determinan Diabetes Melitus Analisis Baseline Data Studi Kohort Penyakit Tidak Menular Bogor 2011 (The Determinan of Diabetes Melitus (Baseline Data Analysis of Kohort Studies of Non- Communicable Diseases Bogor 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olwin Nainggolan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM is a disease characterized by elevated levels of blood sugar (Hyperglycemia,due to the metabolic system disorders, organ pancreas unable to produce insulin in accordance with the needs of the body.Diabetes mellitus is one of the non-communicable disease prevalence that increase from year to year. The research wascarried out in 1 (one village in Bogor municipality at Kebun Kelapa village, in 2011 with a total of 1939 respondents. Thepurpose of this analysis is to examine the relationship between various characteristics such as (gender, age, education,socioeconomic status, history of diabetes in the family, smoking behavior, mental disorders, body mass index (BMI, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, cholesterol HDL and triglycerides in the blood on the incidence of diabetes mellitus. Methods: The design of this research is cohort study, however, as the data analyzed is the fi rst year baseline data (2011, thus the analysis is cross sectional study with univariate, bivariate and multivariate analyzes. Result: Multivariate analysis showed that there are 6 variables with a signifi cant relationship to disease Diabetes mellitus: age, hypertension, body mass index, high LDL cholesterol, high triglycerides, a family history of DM. While the other variables such gender, education,socioeconomic status, smoking behavior, emotional mental disorders, HDL cholesterol levels, do not have a statisticalsignifi cant relationship to diabetes mellitus. Recommendation: Prevention and control of diabetes mellitus is necessaryto reduce the incidence of diabetes mellitus and prevent complications.

  2. Ecological Compensation Mechanism in Water Conservation Area: A Case Study of Dongjiang River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kong Fanbin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The appropriate economic compensation from downstream to upstream watershed is important to solve China’s social and economic imbalances between regions and can potentially enhance water resources protection and ecological security. The study analyzes the implementation of ecological compensation policy and related legal basis under ecological compensation mechanism theory and practice patterns, based on current natural environment and socio-economic development of national origin in Dongjiang water conservation areas. Under the principle of “Users pay”, the Dongjiang River is the subject of ecological compensation and recipient. By using the “cost-benefit analysis” and “cost method of industrial development opportunity”, we estimate that the total ecological compensation amounted to 513.35 million yuan. When estimated by the indicators such as water quantity, water quality and water use efficiency, we establish the “environmental and ecological protection cost sharing model” and measure the total cost of protecting downstream watershed areas, the Guangdong Province, is about 108.61 million yuan. The implementation of the Dongjiang source region that follows the principles of ecological compensation and approaches are also designed

  3. Abnormal Baseline Brain Activity in Patients with Pulsatile Tinnitus: A Resting-State fMRI Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lv Han

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous investigations studying the brain functional activity of the tinnitus patients have indicated that neurological changes are important findings of this kind of disease. However, the pulsatile tinnitus (PT patients were excluded in previous studies because of the totally different mechanisms of the two subtype tinnitus. The aim of this study is to investigate whether altered baseline brain activity presents in patients with PT using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI technique. The present study used unilateral PT patients (n=42 and age-, sex-, and education-matched normal control subjects (n=42 to investigate the changes in structural and amplitude of low-frequency (ALFF of the brain. Also, we analyzed the relationships between these changes with clinical data of the PT patients. Compared with normal controls, PT patients did not show any structural changes. PT patients showed significant increased ALFF in the bilateral precuneus, and bilateral inferior frontal gyrus (IFG and decreased ALFF in multiple occipital areas. Moreover, the increased THI score and PT duration was correlated with increased ALFF in precuneus and bilateral IFG. The abnormalities of spontaneous brain activity reflected by ALFF measurements in the absence of structural changes may provide insights into the neural reorganization in PT patients.

  4. Effects of depressive symptoms on antecedents of lapses during a smoking cessation attempt: an ecological momentary assessment study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodbeck, Jeannette; Bachmann, Monica S; Brown, Anna; Znoj, Hans Joerg

    2014-08-01

    To investigate pathways through which momentary negative affect and depressive symptoms affect risk of lapse during smoking cessation attempts. Ecological momentary assessment was carried out during 2 weeks after an unassisted smoking cessation attempt. A 3-month follow-up measured smoking frequency. Data were collected via mobile devices in German-speaking Switzerland. A total of 242 individuals (age 20-40, 67% men) reported 7112 observations. Online surveys assessed baseline depressive symptoms and nicotine dependence. Real-time data on negative affect, physical withdrawal symptoms, urge to smoke, abstinence-related self-efficacy and lapses. A two-level structural equation model suggested that on the situational level, negative affect increased the urge to smoke and decreased self-efficacy (β = 0.20; β = -0.12, respectively), but had no direct effect on lapse risk. A higher urge to smoke (β = 0.09) and lower self-efficacy (β = -0.11) were confirmed as situational antecedents of lapses. Depressive symptoms at baseline were a strong predictor of a person's average negative affect (β = 0.35, all P depressive symptoms at baseline were associated strongly with a worse longer-term outcome. Negative affect experienced during the quit attempt was the only pathway through which the baseline depressive symptoms were associated with a reduced self-efficacy and increased urges to smoke, all leading to the increased probability of lapses. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  5. Afternoon Napping and Cognition in Chinese Older Adults: Findings from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study Baseline Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junxin; Cacchione, Pamela Z; Hodgson, Nancy; Riegel, Barbara; Keenan, Brendan T; Scharf, Mathew T; Richards, Kathy C; Gooneratne, Nalaka S

    2017-02-01

    To examine the cross-sectional associations between self-reported postlunch napping and structured cognitive assessments in Chinese older adults. Cross-sectional cohort study. China. Individuals aged 65 and older from the baseline national wave of the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) (N = 2,974). Interview-based cognitive assessments of orientation and attention, episodic memory, visuospatial abilities, and a combined global cognition score incorporating these assessments. Other self-reported or interview-based assessments included postlunch napping duration, nighttime sleep duration, demographic characteristics, health habits, comorbidities, functional status and social activities. According to reported napping duration, older adults were categorized as non-nappers (0 minutes), short nappers (90 minutes). Postlunch napping was reporting in 57.7% of participants for a mean of 63 minutes. Cognitive function was significantly associated with napping (P napping was significantly associated with better cognition than non- (P = .004), short (P = .04), and extended napping (P = .002), after controlling for demographic characteristics, body mass index, depression, instrumental activities of daily living, social activities, and nighttime sleep duration. A cross-sectional association was found between moderate postlunch napping and better cognition in Chinese older adults. The cross-sectional design and self-reported measures of sleep limited the findings. Longitudinal studies with objective napping measures are needed to further test this hypothesis. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.

  6. Analysis of Natural and Anthropogenic Radionuclide Content in Palm Date Fruit of the United Arab Emirates: A Baseline Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Rubina; Solodov, Alexander

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to contribute to a wider effort of establishing an environmental radiation baseline for the United Arab Emirates (UAE) before the startup of the country's first nuclear reactor in 2017. An investigation of gamma-emitting radionuclide concentrations in palm dates grown in the UAE was performed. Palm date samples of 10 varieties originating from several local commercial date palm farms of the UAE were collected and analyzed. The study targeted the naturally occurring radionuclides, such as U, Th, and K, in addition to any potential anthropogenic radionuclides, such as Cs and others. Gamma spectrometry revealed measured activity concentrations for U (Ra), Th (Ra), and K that ranged from 0.61 to 0.80 Bq kg, 0.10 to 0.23 Bq kg, and 191 to 362 Bq kg, respectively, on a dry-weight basis, and calculated activity concentrations on a wet basis ranged from 0.52 to 0.69 Bq kg, 0.09 to 0.22 Bq kg, and 168 to 297 Bq kg, respectively. No Cs or other anthropogenic radionuclides could be detected in this study. All measurements were performed using a coaxial HPGe detector with 40% relative efficiency quoted by the manufacturer. Efficiency calibration correction factors were calculated using Angle software.

  7. Marital status, gender, and depression: analysis of the baseline survey of the Korean Longitudinal Study of Ageing (KLoSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Soong-Nang; Kawachi, Ichiro; Chang, Jiyeun; Boo, Kachung; Shin, Hyun-Gu; Lee, Hyejung; Cho, Sung-il

    2009-12-01

    Marital status is a robust predictor of health outcomes in Western populations. However, data from Asian cultures remain sparse, and some studies suggest marked gender differences in the health benefits of marriage among Asian populations. We investigated the influence of marital status on depressive symptoms in older adult Koreans. Data were obtained from a sample of adults aged 45 to 85 years (4016 men, 5003 women) who participated in the 2006 cross-sectional baseline survey of the Korean Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Depressive symptoms were measured by the 10-item Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale. A multiple regression model was used to examine the association between marital status and depressive symptoms, controlling for socioeconomic status, living arrangement, disability, and number of chronic diseases. In women aged 75 to 85 years, no significant differences were found between women who were married versus those who were widowed, divorced, or separated with regard to depressive symptoms. These findings were driven by increasing depressive symptoms among married women with age. Whereas divorced and widowed men in the sample reported higher rates of depressive symptoms than did married men, the difference between married vs. widowed/divorced women converged as they aged. This pattern of depressive symptoms by gender and life stage may reflect the distinctive influence of the Asian context on relations between men and women, such as traditional gender roles and patriarchal norms for older generation.

  8. Baseline fruit and vegetable intake among adults in seven 5 a day study centers located in diverse geographic areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, B; Demark-Wahnefried, W; Taylor, G; McClelland, J W; Stables, G; Havas, S; Feng, Z; Topor, M; Heimendinger, J; Reynolds, K D; Cohen, N

    1999-10-01

    To examine baseline rates of fruit and vegetable consumption among adults in the 5 A Day research trials in order to identify any regional and sociodemographic differences associated with daily servings. The main outcome measure was the frequency of fruits and vegetables consumed within 1 month of the baseline survey as assessed by a 7-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Participants (N = 15,060) were from 7 study centers. Study centers included schools (N = 48), worksites (N = 60), churches (N = 50), or the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) clinics (N = 15) in interventions to increase fruit and vegetable consumption. Means and standard errors, adjusting for clusters, were calculated. A mixed linear model analyzed relationships between fruit and vegetable consumption and regional center, gender, age, race, education, income, marital status, food-shopping responsibility, and whether one lives with children. Results indicate an overall mean intake of 3.6 daily servings of fruits and vegetables. Significant differences in mean daily servings were found among the regional study centers (low of 3.0 to high of 4.1). There were significant differences in mean daily consumption by age (day; 30 to 49 years = 3.4; > or = 50 years = 3.7), education (> high school = 3.4 servings per day; high school graduate = 3.4; some college = 3.5; college graduate = 3.9), race (black = 3.7 servings per day; Hispanic = 3.0; white = 3.6; other = 3.7), marital status (married = 3.6 servings per day; single = 3.5), and food-shopping responsibilities (little = 3.2 servings per day; about half = 3.6; most = 3.8). Only 17% of respondents ate 5 or more servings of fruits and vegetables per day. The 7 regions showed significant variability in daily fruit and vegetable consumption, suggesting that a single national message to increase fruit and vegetable consumption may not reach the population segments most in need of changing. It is advisable to

  9. Salt marshes of Port Valdez, Alaska, and vicinity: A baseline study: Final report to the United States Department of the Interior

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In 1974 and 1975, 62 baseline locations were selected for intensive study in the salt marshes of Port Valdez and vicinity. The sites are intended to reflect the...

  10. The genome sequence of Barbarea vulgaris facilitates the study of ecological biochemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byrne, Stephen L.; Erthmann, Pernille Østerbye; Agerbirk, Niels

    2017-01-01

    The genus Barbarea has emerged as a model for evolution and ecology of plant defense compounds, due to its unusual glucosinolate profile and production of saponins, unique to the Brassicaceae. One species, B. vulgaris, includes two ‘types’, G-type and P-type that differ in trichome density, and t...... deter larvae to the extent that they die. The B. vulgaris genome will promote the study of mechanisms in ecological biochemistry to benefit crop resistance breeding....

  11. Biological Data for Biological Baseline Studies of Mobile Bay: Benthic Fauna 1980-1981 (NODC Accession 0116100)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Beginning in late 1979, the Alabama Coastal Area Board (CAB) funded a series of baseline surveys on the coastal resources of Alabama, from which they could develop a...

  12. The ecology of early farming: A Mogollon case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Steve

    The Mimbres region of southwest New Mexico is ideal for investigating the coevolutionary relationships among human impact, ecosystem processes, and settlement stability during the development of sedentism and agriculture. A resilience framework guides interpretations of nuanced relations among land use strategies and impacts through an examination of ecosystem processes around Mimbres pithouse sites. Analytical methods include multitemporal analysis of satellite imagery to measure vegetation response to precipitation variability and GIS-based spatial analyses to examine differences in ecosystem response for prehistoric sites and adjacent unoccupied locations in similar ecological settings. Palynological and architectural analyses provide independent means of assessing prehistoric impact and settlement choices (respectively). To evaluate the relative contribution of prehistoric selection and impact on occupation length, models are developed for "choice"---ecosystem characteristics that attracted initial settlement, and "impact"---modification to ecosystems resulting from prehistoric land use. Choices reflecting productivity maximization find support; prehistoric impact played a smaller role. Pollen data suggest even small prehistoric occupations shifted plant communities towards r-strategist taxa, but impacts were not long-lived, and legacy effects of Mimbres land use on modern ecosystem processes may be minor. Some Mimbres settlements had large, long occupations (villages), but most settlements were small and only briefly occupied (farmsteads). Greater architectural investment in early houses at villages than at farmsteads suggests occupation length was planned during initial construction. Satellite data indicate locations for each type of settlement were selected based on the way vegetation responds to precipitation variability. Farmsteads were constructed where pluvial effects last longer, but the effects of drought are more severe. Shorter use of these

  13. Toward a Network Perspective of the Study of Resilience in Social-Ecological Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco A. Janssen

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Formal models used to study the resilience of social-ecological systems have not explicitly included important structural characteristics of this type of system. In this paper, we propose a network perspective for social-ecological systems that enables us to better focus on the structure of interactions between identifiable components of the system. This network perspective might be useful for developing formal models and comparing case studies of social-ecological systems. Based on an analysis of the case studies in this special issue, we identify three types of social-ecological networks: (1 ecosystems that are connected by people through flows of information or materials, (2 ecosystem networks that are disconnected and fragmented by the actions of people, and (3 artificial ecological networks created by people, such as irrigation systems. Each of these three archytypal social-ecological networks faces different problems that influence its resilience as it responds to the addition or removal of connections that affect its coordination or the diffusion of system attributes such as information or disease.

  14. Common mental disorders and sociodemographic characteristics: baseline findings of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Maria A; Pinheiro, Andréa P; Bessel, Marina; Brunoni, André R; Kemp, Andrew H; Benseñor, Isabela M; Chor, Dora; Barreto, Sandhi; Schmidt, Maria I

    2016-01-01

    To assess the prevalence of common mental disorders (CMD) and the association of CMD with sociodemographic characteristics in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) cohort. We analyzed data from the cross-sectional baseline assessment of the ELSA-Brasil, a cohort study of 15,105 civil servants from six Brazilian cities. The Clinical Interview Schedule-Revised (CIS-R) was used to investigate the presence of CMD, with a score ≥ 12 indicating a current CMD (last week). Specific diagnostic algorithms for each disorder were based on the ICD-10 diagnostic criteria. Prevalence ratios (PR) of the association between CMD and sociodemographic characteristics were estimated by Poisson regression. CMD (CIS-R score ≥ 12) was found in 26.8% (95% confidence intervals [95%CI] 26.1-27.5). The highest burden occurred among women (PR 1.9; 95%CI 1.8-2.0), the youngest (PR 1.7; 95%CI 1.5-1.9), non-white individuals, and those without a university degree. The most frequent diagnostic category was anxiety disorders (16.2%), followed by depressive episodes (4.2%). The burden of CMD was high, particularly among the more socially vulnerable groups. These findings highlight the need to strengthen public policies aimed to address health inequities related to mental disorders.

  15. Risk factors for hot flashes among women undergoing the menopausal transition: baseline results from the Midlife Women's Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallicchio, Lisa; Miller, Susan R; Kiefer, Judith; Greene, Teresa; Zacur, Howard A; Flaws, Jodi A

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the associations of demographic characteristics, health behaviors, and hormone concentrations with the experience of any, current, more severe, and more frequent midlife hot flashes. Baseline data from 732 women aged 45 to 54 years who were enrolled in the Midlife Women's Health Study were analyzed. A clinic visit was conducted to collect blood samples for hormone assays and to measure ovarian volume using transvaginal ultrasound. A self-administered questionnaire ascertained information on demographic factors, health habits, and hot flash history. Multivariable logistic regression was conducted to examine associations between potential risk factors and hot flash outcomes. Approximately 45% of participants reported experiencing midlife hot flashes. In covariate-adjusted models, older age, perimenopause status, current and past cigarette smoking, and depressive symptoms were significantly associated with increased odds of all of the hot flash outcomes. In addition, history of oral contraceptive use was associated with increased odds of any hot flashes. In contrast, higher current alcohol intake was significantly associated with decreased odds of any, current, and more severe hot flashes. Higher estradiol and progesterone concentrations were significantly associated with decreased odds of all hot flash outcomes. Although the temporality of such associations is not known because of the cross-sectional nature of the data, these observed relationships can help to identify women at risk for hot flashes.

  16. Short-baseline electron antineutrino disappearance study by using neutrino sources from 13C + 9Be reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jae Won; Cheoun, Myung-Ki; Kajino, Toshitaka; Hayakawa, Takehito

    2017-04-01

    To investigate the existence of sterile neutrino, we propose a new neutrino production method using 13C beams and a 9Be target for short-baseline electron antineutrino (bar nue) disappearance study. The production of secondary unstable isotopes which can emit neutrinos from the 13C + 9Be reaction is calculated with three different nucleus-nucleus (AA) reaction models. Different isotope yields are obtained using these models, but the results of the neutrino flux are found to have unanimous similarities. This feature gives an opportunity to study neutrino oscillation through shape analysis. In this work, expected neutrino flux and event rates are discussed in detail through intensive simulation of the light ion collision reaction and the neutrino flux from the beta decay of unstable isotopes followed by this collision. Together with the reactor and accelerator anomalies, the present proposed bar nue source is shown to be a practically alternative test of the existence of the Δ m2 ~ 1 eV2 scale sterile neutrino.

  17. Fat and fish intake and asthma in Japanese women: baseline data from the Osaka Maternal and Child Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, S; Miyake, Y; Sasaki, S; Tanaka, K; Ohya, Y; Matsunaga, I; Yoshida, T; Oda, H; Ishiko, O; Hirota, Y

    2007-01-01

    It remains controversial whether the intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and fish is preventive against asthma. This cross-sectional study investigated the relationship between fat and fish intake and the prevalence of asthma using baseline data from a prospective study. The subjects were 1002 pregnant Japanese females. A diet history questionnaire was used to assess dietary habits. Current asthma and asthma after age 18 were defined as present if subjects had been treated with medications at some time in the previous 12 months and after reaching the age of 18, respectively. Fish consumption was independently associated with a decreased prevalence of asthma after age 18 and current asthma. A significant inverse relationship was observed between the ratio of n-3 to n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid intake and the prevalence of current asthma, but not asthma after age 18. Intake of total fat, saturated, monounsaturated, n-3 polyunsaturated and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, cholesterol, meat, eggs or dairy products was not evidently related to either outcome for asthma. Our results suggest that fish consumption and the high ratio of n-3 to n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid intake may be associated with a reduced prevalence of asthma in young female Japanese adults.

  18. Prevalence of carotid atherosclerosis in hypertension: preliminary baseline data from the European Lacidipine Study on Atheroscelerosis (ELSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanchetti, A

    1996-01-01

    In the ELSA trial, the effects of lacidipine-based treatment and beta-blocker (atenolol)-based treatment on the development and progression of carotid wall alterations are assessed in hypertensive patients. The primary endpoint of this study is the rate of change in the intima-media thickness of the carotid artery wall, measured with B-mode ultrasound. About 2300 hypertensive patients have been recruited and randomized to either of the antihypertensive agents. Baseline data for 1965 patients are available, showing a high prevalence of carotid wall lesions: about 82% of the subjects have an intima-media thickness > or = 1.3 mm, defined as plaque in the ELSA protocol; 16% of the subjects have intima-media thickening (> or = 1.0 mm, < 1.3 mm) and only about 1% have normal carotid artery walls. Analysis of demographic data and risk factor prevalence in ELSA patients, and comparison of these preliminary observations with data from other intervention or observational studies indicate that high blood pressure is a very important risk factor for carotid atherosclerosis.

  19. Job Strain and Cardiovascular Health Score (from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health [ELSA-Brasil] Baseline).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocco, Priscila T P; Bensenor, Isabela M; Griep, Rosane H; Moreno, Arlinda B; Alencar, Airlane P; Lotufo, Paulo A; Santos, Itamar S

    2017-07-15

    We aimed to study the association between the American Heart Association cardiovascular health (CVH) score and job strain in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health baseline. We analyzed data from 11,351 active workers (aged 35 to 74 years) without overt cardiovascular disease and who had complete data. Job strain was assessed using the 17-item Brazilian version of the Swedish Job Demand-Control-Support Questionnaire. Clinical (fasting plasma glucose, total cholesterol, and blood pressure) and lifestyle (diet, physical activity, smoking, and body mass index) components of CVH score were assessed according to the American Heart Association criteria. We used quasi-Poisson and multinomial regression models, adjusted for age, gender, race, educational level and income, and positive relative predicted score differences (rPSDs) indicate greater predicted scores. Subjects with low skill discretion scores had lower global (rPSD: -1.8%; p = 0.021) and lifestyle (rPSD: -3.6%; p = 0.018) CVH scores. Participants with low decision authority (rPSD: -2.4%; p = 0.029) and low social support scores (rPSD: -3.3%; p = 0.001) also had lower lifestyle CVH scores. In conclusion, we found significant associations between job strain and CVH scores in this large multicenter sample. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Arrhythmia and Sudden Death in Hemodialysis Patients: Protocol and Baseline Characteristics of the Monitoring in Dialysis Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charytan, David M; Foley, Robert; McCullough, Peter A; Rogers, John D; Zimetbaum, Peter; Herzog, Charles A; Tumlin, James A

    2016-04-07

    Dialysis patients have high rates of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, but data on arrhythmia burden, arrhythmia type, arrhythmia triggers, and the identity of terminal arrhythmias have historically been limited by an inability to monitor heart rhythm for prolonged periods. To investigate arrhythmia and its association with sudden death in dialysis-dependent ESRD, describe the potential for implantable devices to advance study of dialysis physiology, review the ethical implications of using implantable devices in clinical studies, and report on the protocol and baseline results of the Monitoring in Dialysis Study (MiD). In this multicenter, interventional-observational, prospective cohort study, we placed implantable loop recorders in patients undergoing long-term hemodialysis. The proportion of patients experiencing clinically significant arrhythmias was the primary endpoint. For 6 months, we captured detailed data on the primary endpoint, symptomatic arrhythmias, other electrocardiographic variables, dialysis prescription, electrolytes, dialysis-related variables, and vital signs. We collected additional electrocardiographic data for up to 1 year. Overall, 66 patients underwent implantation in sites in the United States and India. Diabetes was present in 63.6% of patients, 12.1% were age ≥70 years, 69.7% were men, and 53.0% were black. Primary and secondary endpoint data are expected in 2016. Cardiac arrhythmia is an important contributor to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in dialysis patients, but available technology has previously limited the ability to estimate its true burden and triggers and to define terminal rhythms in sudden death. Use of implantable technology in observational studies raises complex issues but may greatly expand understanding of dialysis physiology. The use of implantable loop recorders in MiD is among the first examples of such a trial, and the results are expected to provide novel insights into the nature of arrhythmia

  1. Ecological risk assessment guidance for preparation of remedial investigation/feasibility study work plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pentecost, E.D.; Vinikour, W.S. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1993-08-01

    This guidance document (1) provides instructions on preparing the components of an ecological work plan to complement the overall site remedial assessment investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) work plan and (2) directs the user on how to implement ecological tasks identified in the plan. Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA), as amended by the Superfired Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA), an RI/FS work plan win have to be developed as part of the site-remediation scoping the process. Specific guidance on the RI/FS process and the preparation of work plans has been developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA 1988a). This document provides guidance to US Department of Energy (DOE) staff and contractor personnel for incorporation of ecological information into environmental remediation planning and decision making at CERCLA sites. An overview analysis of early ecological risk assessment methods (i.e., in the 1980s) at Superfund sites was conducted by the EPA (1989a). That review provided a perspective of attention given to ecological issues in some of the first RI/FS studies. By itself, that reference is of somewhat limited value; it does, however, establish a basis for comparison of past practices in ecological risk with current, more refined methods.

  2. Ecological Footprint of Research University Students: A Pilot Case Study in Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    See Tan Ang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ecological footprint (EF is potential to be applied in universities to assist building management units to coordinate in order to reduce environmental impact and to achieve sustainable resource consumption from its main activities including teaching-learning, research and operations. As many Malaysian universities declare to become sustainability campus, the adoption of ecological footprint in measuring campus sustainability will provide insight and better understanding about the performance of campus sustainability efforts. The main concept of ecological footprint which convert levels of consumption into the amount of land needed, will able to reveal the average student performance and impacts towards the campus. Further, a study is conducted to determine the average ecological footprint level of students in research universities Malaysia considering students formed the majority of the community in a campus. A pilot study has been conducted in Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM among students staying in hostel together with staffs from UTM Office of Student Affairs and Alumni (HEMA and UTM Office of Asset and Development (PHB. Then, Redefining Progress (RP ecological footprint online calculator is used in computing the ecological footprint of UTM students.

  3. Health Risks to Ecological Workers on Contaminated Sites - the Department of Energy as a Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael

    At most contaminated sites the risk to workers focuses on those 'hazardous waste workers' directly exposed to chemicals or radionuclides, and to the elaborate approaches implemented to protecting their health and safety. Ecological workers generally are not considered. To explore the risks to the health and safety of ecological workers on sites with potential chemical and radiological exposures before, during or after remediation of contamination. To use the U.S. Department of Energy as a case study, and to develop concepts that apply generally to sites contaminated with hazardous or nuclear wastes. Develop categories of ecological workers, describe their usual jobs, and provide information on the kinds of risks they face. Ecological activities include continued surveillance and monitoring work on any sites with residual contamination, subject to institutional controls and engineered barriers following closure as well as the restoration. The categories of ecological workers and their tasks include 1) Ecological characterization, mapping and monitoring, 2) biodiversity studies, 2) Contaminant fate and transport, 3) On-going industrial activities 4) Remediation activities (environmental management), 5) Environmental restoration, 6) Post-cleanup surveillance and monitoring, and 7) Post-closure future site activities. There are a set of functional activities that can occur with different frequencies and intensities, including visual inspection, collecting biological samples, collecting media physical samples, collecting biological debris, restoration planting, and maintaining ecosystems. Ecological workers face different exposures and risks than other environmental cleanup workers. Many of their tasks mimic shift work with long hours leading to fatigue, and they are exposed to biological as well as chemical/radiological hazards. DOE and other entities need to examine the risks to ecological workers on site with an eye to risk reduction.

  4. Characterization of Whole Body Pain in Urologic Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome at Baseline – A MAPP Research Network Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, H. Henry; Jemielita, Thomas; Sutcliffe, Siobhan; Bradley, Catherine S.; Naliboff, Bruce; Williams, David A.; Gereau, Robert W.; Kreder, Karl; Clemens, J. Quentin; Rodriguez, Larissa V.; Krieger, John N.; Farrar, John T.; Robinson, Nancy; Landis, J. Richard

    2017-01-01

    Purpose We characterized the location and spatial distribution of whole body pain among patients with urologic chronic pelvic pain syndrome (UCPPS) using a body map; and compared the severity of urinary symptoms, pelvic pain, non-pelvic pain, and psychosocial health among patients with different pain patterns. Methods 233 women and 191 men with UCPPS enrolled in a multi-center, one-year observational study completed a battery of baseline measures, including a body map describing the location of pain during the past week. Participants were categorized as having “pelvic pain only” if they reported pain in the abdomen and pelvis only. Participants who reported pain beyond the pelvis were further divided into two sub-groups based on the number of broader body regions affected by pain: an “intermediate” group (1–2 additional regions outside the pelvis) and a “widespread pain” group (3–7 additional regions). Results Of the 424 enrolled patients 25% reported pelvic pain only, and 75% reported pain beyond the pelvis of which 38% reported widespread pain. Participants with greater number of pain locations had greater non-pelvic pain severity (ppelvic pain and urinary symptom severity were observed by increasing pain distribution. Conclusions Three-quarters of men and women with UCPPS reported pain outside the pelvis. Widespread pain was associated with greater severity of non-pelvic pain symptoms, poorer psychosocial health and worse quality of life, but not worse pelvic pain or urinary symptoms. PMID:28373134

  5. Application of ECH to the Study of Transport in ITER Baseline Scenario-like Discharges in DIII-D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinsker R.I.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent DIII-D experiments in the ITER Baseline Scenario (IBS have shown strong increases in fluctuations and correlated reduction of confinement associated with entering the electron-heating-dominated regime with strong electron cyclotron heating (ECH. The addition of 3.2 MW of 110 GHz EC power deposited at ρ∼0.42 to IBS discharges with ∼3 MW of neutral beam injection causes large increases in low-k and medium-k turbulent density fluctuations observed with Doppler backscatter (DBS, beam emission spectroscopy (BES and phase-contrast imaging (PCI diagnostics, correlated with decreases in the energy, particle, and momentum confinement times. Power balance calculations show the electron heat diffusivity χe increases significantly in the mid-radius region 0.4<ρ<0.8, which is roughly the same region where the DBS and BES diagnostics show the increases in turbulent density fluctuations. Confinement of angular momentum is also reduced during ECH. Studies with the TGYRO transport solver show that the model of turbulent transport embodied in the TGLF code quantitatively reproduces the measured transport in both the neutral beam (NB-only and in the NB plus EC cases. A simple model of the decrease in toroidal rotation with EC power is set forth, which exhibits a bifurcation in the rotational state of the discharge.

  6. Application of ECH to the Study of Transport in ITER Baseline Scenario-like Discharges in DIII-D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinsker, R. I.; Austin, M. E.; Ernst, D. R.; Garofalo, A. M.; Grierson, B. A.; Hosea, J. C.; Luce, T. C.; Marinoni, A.; McKee, G. R.; Perkins, R. J.; Petty, C. C.; Porkolab, M.; Rost, J. C.; Schmitz, L.; Solomon, W. M.; Taylor, G.; Turco, F.

    2015-03-01

    Recent DIII-D experiments in the ITER Baseline Scenario (IBS) have shown strong increases in fluctuations and correlated reduction of confinement associated with entering the electron-heating-dominated regime with strong electron cyclotron heating (ECH). The addition of 3.2 MW of 110 GHz EC power deposited at ρ˜0.42 to IBS discharges with ˜3 MW of neutral beam injection causes large increases in low-k and medium-k turbulent density fluctuations observed with Doppler backscatter (DBS), beam emission spectroscopy (BES) and phase-contrast imaging (PCI) diagnostics, correlated with decreases in the energy, particle, and momentum confinement times. Power balance calculations show the electron heat diffusivity χe increases significantly in the mid-radius region 0.4<ρ<0.8, which is roughly the same region where the DBS and BES diagnostics show the increases in turbulent density fluctuations. Confinement of angular momentum is also reduced during ECH. Studies with the TGYRO transport solver show that the model of turbulent transport embodied in the TGLF code quantitatively reproduces the measured transport in both the neutral beam (NB)-only and in the NB plus EC cases. A simple model of the decrease in toroidal rotation with EC power is set forth, which exhibits a bifurcation in the rotational state of the discharge.

  7. Differences in resource use and costs of dementia care between European countries: baseline data from the ICTUS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavsson, A; Jonsson, L; Rapp, T; Reynish, E; Ousset, P J; Andrieu, S; Cantet, C; Winblad, B; Vellas, B; Wimo, A

    2010-10-01

    This study aimed to estimate the costs of formal and informal care of patients with Alzheimer's disease, to compare care costs across European countries and identify potential differences in cost patterns between countries and regions. The ICTUS study is a prospective, naturalistic observational study conducted in specialised memory clinics in 12 European countries. In total, 1385 patients diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease were enrolled at baseline. All subjects had a reliable informant (primary caregiver) and informed consent was obtained from patients or their primary caregiver. Resource utilization data was captured with the RUD Lite (Resource Utilization in Dementia) instrument and caregiver burden with the Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI). Patient disease severity was measured with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive subscale (ADAS-cog), Katz´ index (PADL), Instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) scale and Neuropsychiatric inventory (NPI). The mean annual cost of care per patient was estimated to €7,820 (95% CI: €7,194-€8,446), whereof 54% were costs of informal care, 16% direct medical costs and 30% community care costs. There were substantial differences in total resource utilization and also in the balance between formal and informal care between Northern, Western and Southern Europe. PADL scores were strongly associated with formal care costs while IADL scores correlated strongly with informal care costs. Costs of Alzheimer's disease are high across European countries. Activities of daily living is an important determinant of care costs. Formal care service use is lower and informal care higher in Southern Europe compared to Western and Northern Europe. Differences in resource utilization patterns are important to consider in international studies of dementia care costs as well as in economic evaluations of new treatments for dementia.

  8. A randomized controlled trial of an extensive lifestyle management intervention (ELMI following cardiac rehabilitation: study design and baseline data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiess Marla

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiac rehabilitation programs (CRP represent comprehensive interventions that are typically limited to four months. Following completion of CRP, it appears that risk factors and lifestyle behaviours may deteriorate. The Extensive Lifestyle Management Intervention (ELMI Following Cardiac Rehabilitation trial will investigate the benefits of a randomized intervention to prevent these adverse changes. Methods Patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD were randomized following a standard CRP to the ELMI or to usual care. The ELMI program is a case-managed intervention aimed at individualizing risk factor and lifestyle management based on current treatment guidelines. The program consists of cardiac rehabilitation sessions, telephone follow-up and risk factor and lifestyle counselling sessions. Health professionals work with participants using behavioural counselling and communications with participants' family physicians. Usual care participants return to their family physicians' care, and come to the study clinic only to undergo annual outcomes assessment. The primary outcome is change in IHD global risk after four years. Secondary outcomes include combined cardiovascular events, health care utilization, lifestyle adherence, quality of life and risk factors. Results Over 28 months, 302 men and women were randomized. This represented 29% of the total population screened. The average age of study participants is 64 years, 18% are women, 53% have had a previous myocardial infarction, 73% have undergone previous revascularization and 20% have diabetes mellitus. Ischemic heart disease risk factors for the entire cohort improved significantly after subjects had gone through previous CRPs. Baseline risk factors, lifestyle behaviours and medications were similar between the groups. Conclusions This study population is representative of patients completing a standard CRP. Results of the ELMI trial will provide valuable information for

  9. Baseline characteristics of patients with chronic kidney disease stage 3 and stage 4 in spain: the MERENA observational cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montes Rafael

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To obtain information on cardiovascular morbidity, hypertension control, anemia and mineral metabolism based on the analysis of the baseline characteristics of a large cohort of Spanish patients enrolled in an ongoing prospective, observational, multicenter study of patients with stages 3 and 4 chronic kidney diseases (CKD. Methods Multicenter study from Spanish government hospital-based Nephrology outpatient clinics involving 1129 patients with CKD stages 3 (n = 434 and 4 (n = 695 defined by GFR calculated by the MDRD formula. Additional analysis was performed with GFR calculated using the CKD-EPI and Cockcroft-Gault formula. Results In the cohort as a whole, median age 70.9 years, morbidity from all cardiovascular disease (CVD was very high (39.1%. In CKD stage 4, CVD prevalence was higher than in stage 3 (42.2 vs 35.6% p 300 mg/day was present in more than 60% of patients and there was no significant differences between stages 3 and 4 CKD (1.2 ± 1.8 and 1.3 ± 1.8 g/day, respectively. A majority of the patients had hemoglobin levels greater than 11 g/dL (91.1 and 85.5% in stages 3 and 4 CKD respectively p Conclusion This study provides an overview of key clinical parameters in patients with CKD Stages 3 and 4 where delivery or care was largely by nephrologists working in a network of hospital-based clinics of the Spanish National Healthcare System.

  10. Relationship between Ecological Species Groups and Environmental Factors (Case Study: Vezg Region in Southeast of Yasouj

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Aghaei

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In applied studies, identification and study of vegetation, for management and protection of natural ecosystems, are very important. This study was carried out in Vezg forest with an area of 308 hectares located in southeast of Yasouj city. The purpose of this study was to classify ecological species groups and survey their relation to soil physic-chemical properties and physiographic attributes. For this purpose, the field data were obtained using 52 sample plots (15m×30m in a systematic random grid. In each sample plot, the cover percentage of tree, shrub and grass species type were recorded, by using Braun-Blanquet method. The TWINSPAN method and Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA were used for the definition of ecological species groups and determintion of the relationship between ecological species groups and environmental properties. Results showed that, there were four ecological species groups in the study area. The First group included: Anchusa italic-Quercus brantii, the second group: Heteranthelium piliferum-Avena clauda, the third group: Teucrium polium and the fourth group: Salvia reautreana. The first group was in an area, where there was a higher percentage of Persian oak litter. The second group was located in site a with higher grass cover than the site of other groups in the area. The third and fourth groups, were located in the higher elevation and steep points. Results of CCA showed that soil properties were not in significant relation with ecological species groups. But, the relationships of ecological species groups with other environmental factors such as litter, altitude, grass cover and slope were significant. So, we can conclude that these properties are effective in the separation and distribution of ecological groups.

  11. LANDSCAPE ECOLOGICAL METHOD TO STUDY AGRICULTURAL VEGETATION: SOME EXAMPLES FROM THE PO VALLEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. GIGLIO

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation is the most important landscape component, as regards to its ability to catch solar energy and to transform it, but also to shape the landscape, to structure the space, to create the fit environment for different animal species, to contribute to the maintenance of a correct metastability level for the landscape, etc. It is a biological system which acts under the constraints of the principles of the System Theory and owns the same properties of any other living system: so, it is a complex adaptive, hierarchical, dynamic, dissipative, self-organizing, self-transcendent, autocatalytic, self-maintaining system and follows the non-equilibrium thermodynamic. Its ecological state can be investigated through the comparison between “gathered data” (pathology and “normal data” (physiology for analogous types of vegetation. The Biological Integrated School of Landscape Ecology provides an integrated methodology to define ecological threshold limits of the different Agricultural Landscape types and applies to agricultural vegetation the specific part of the new methodology already tested to studying forests (the Landscape Biological Survey of Vegetation. Ecological quality, better and worst parameters, biological territorial capacity of vegetated corridors, agricultural field, poplar groves, orchards and woody remnant patches are investigated. Some examples from diverse agricultural landscapes of the Po Valley will be discussed. KEY WORDS: agricultural landscape, vegetation, landscape ecology, landscape health, Biological Integrated Landscape Ecology, Landscape Biological Survey of vegetation.

  12. Metagenome-based analysis: a promising direction for plankton ecological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, QingYun; Yu, YuHe

    2011-01-01

    The plankton community plays an especially important role in the functioning of aquatic ecosystems and also in biogeochemical cycles. Since the beginning of marine research expeditions in the 1870 s, an enormous number of planktonic organisms have been described and studied. Plankton investigation has become one of the most important areas of aquatic ecological study, as well as a crucial component of aquatic environmental evaluation. Nonetheless, traditional investigations have mainly focused on morphospecies composition, abundances and dynamics, which primarily depend on morphological identification and counting under microscopes. However, for many species/groups, with few readily observable characteristics, morphological identification and counting have historically been a difficult task. Over the past decades, microbiologists have endeavored to apply and extend molecular techniques to address questions in microbial ecology. These culture-independent studies have generated new insights into microbial ecology. One such strategy, metagenome-based analysis, has also proved to be a powerful tool for plankton research. This mini-review presents a brief history of plankton research using morphological and metagenome-based approaches and the potential applications and further directions of metagenomic analyses in plankton ecological studies are discussed. The use of metagenome-based approaches for plankton ecological study in aquatic ecosystems is encouraged.

  13. Exploring the relationship between baseline physical activity levels and mortality reduction associated with increases in physical activity: a modelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minton, Jonathan; Dimairo, Munyaradzi; Everson-Hock, Emma; Scott, Emma; Goyder, Elizabeth

    2013-10-18

    Increasing physical activity (PA) levels among the general adult population of developed nations is important for reducing premature mortality and the burdens of preventable illness. Assessing how effective PA interventions are as health interventions often involves categorising participants as either 'active' or 'sedentary' after the interventions. A model was developed showing that doing this could significantly misestimate the health effect of PA interventions. A life table model was constructed combining evidence on baseline PA levels with evidence indicating the non-linear relationship between PA levels and all-cause mortality risks. PA intervention scenarios were modelled which had the same mean increase in PA but different levels of take-up by people who were more active or more sedentary to begin with. The model simulations indicated that, compared with a scenario where already-active people did most of the additional PA, a scenario where the least active did the most additional PA was around a third more effective in preventing deaths between the ages of 50 and 60 years. The relationship between distribution of PA take-up and health effect was explored systematically and appeared non-linear. As the health gains of a given PA increase are greatest among people who are most sedentary, smaller increases in PA in the least active may have the same health benefits as much larger PA increases in the most active. To help such health effects to be assessed, PA studies should report changes in the distribution of PA level between the start and end of the study.

  14. Marine Vibrionaceae as a reservoir for bioprospecting and ecology studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giubergia, Sonia

    is required to elucidate whether they are produced to antagonize competitors or to communicate with other colonizers and/or a potential host. In conclusion, this PhD study adds to the knowledge of Vibrionaceae as an untapped reservoir of biodiversity and important players in the ecology of the marine...... environment. Studying microbial eco-physiology is important not only for the development of ecological models, but also as foundation for bioprospecting studies, where this knowledge may be used, for example, to elicit silent biosynthetic gene clusters during natural product discovery....... emerged as an untapped source of biodiversity, and this study investigated the marine bacterial family Vibrionaceae (“vibrios”) for its potential as reservoir of novel biodiversity and of species relevant for the ecology of the marine environment. The characterization of a novel species, Vibrio galatheae...

  15. Characterization of Whole Body Pain in Urological Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome at Baseline: A MAPP Research Network Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, H Henry; Jemielita, Thomas; Sutcliffe, Siobhan; Bradley, Catherine S; Naliboff, Bruce; Williams, David A; Gereau, Robert W; Kreder, Karl; Clemens, J Quentin; Rodriguez, Larissa V; Krieger, John N; Farrar, John T; Robinson, Nancy; Landis, J Richard

    2017-09-01

    We characterized the location and spatial distribution of whole body pain in patients with urological chronic pelvic pain syndrome using a body map. We also compared the severity of urinary symptoms, pelvic pain, nonpelvic pain and psychosocial health among patients with different pain patterns. A total of 233 women and 191 men with urological chronic pelvic pain syndrome enrolled in a multicenter, 1-year observational study completed a battery of baseline measures, including a body map describing the location of pain during the last week. Participants were categorized with pelvic pain if they reported pain in the abdomen and pelvis only. Participants who reported pain beyond the pelvis were further divided into 2 subgroups based on the number of broader body regions affected by pain, including an intermediate group with 1 or 2 additional regions outside the pelvis and a widespread pain group with 3 to 7 additional regions. Of the 424 enrolled patients 25% reported pelvic pain only and 75% reported pain beyond the pelvis, of whom 38% reported widespread pain. Participants with a greater number of pain locations had greater nonpelvic pain severity (p pelvic pain and urinary symptom severity was observed according to increasing pain distribution. Three-quarters of the men and women with urological chronic pelvic pain syndrome reported pain outside the pelvis. Widespread pain was associated with greater severity of nonpelvic pain symptoms, poorer psychosocial health and worse quality of life but not with worse pelvic pain or urinary symptoms. Copyright © 2017 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Experimental setup and commissioning baseline study in search of time-variations in beta-decay half-lives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goddard, Braden, E-mail: goddard.braden@gmail.com [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Khalifa University of Science, Technology & Research, P.O. Box 127788, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Hitt, George W. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Khalifa University of Science, Technology & Research, P.O. Box 127788, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Department of Applied Mathematics and Science, Khalifa University of Science, Technology & Research, P.O. Box 127788, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Solodov, Alexander A. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Khalifa University of Science, Technology & Research, P.O. Box 127788, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Bridi, Dorian; Isakovic, A.F. [Department of Applied Mathematics and Science, Khalifa University of Science, Technology & Research, P.O. Box 127788, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); El-Khazali, Reyad [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Khalifa University of Science, Technology & Research, P.O. Box 127788, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Abulail, Ayman, E-mail: aabulail@pi.ac.ae [Department of Applied Mathematics and Science, Khalifa University of Science, Technology & Research, P.O. Box 127788, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)

    2016-03-11

    Recently there have been a number of investigations into whether the decay constant of a radioactive isotope can be influenced by external factors, such as the Earth–Sun distance or Solar flare activity. Positive claims suggest that annual oscillations of ~0.1% and accelerations of ~0.4% in the relative activity of beta-emitters coincide with the Earth–Sun distance and solar flare activity, respectively. Results from replication experiments have so far been conflicting. The main criticism of the measurements used to trace and quantify these effects is that the data is of poor quality or limited in scope. Data have often been collected as part of short duration weekly calibration measurements, measured with a single type of low precision detector, only using one isotope, and having no environmental conditions information (temperature, pressure, humidity) accompanying the radiation measurements. This paper describes the setup of a series of counting experiments commissioned for addressing these criticisms. Six dedicated detector systems (four different types) measuring six different isotopes ({sup 14}C, {sup 54}Mn, {sup 60}Co, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 204}Tl, and {sup 226}Ra) have been continuously collecting source activity synchronously with environmental data for a period of one month (April 2014). The results of this baseline commissioning study show that there are correlations between activity and environmental conditions for some detector types which are then quantified. The results also show that the one sigma counting uncertainties in all the detectors are less than 0.024% for a given 24 h period. After accounting for propagated uncertainties from corrections against correlations with environmental data, the ability to resolve 0.1% activity changes varies, from 8 min to 1.6 days, depending on the specific detector. All six experiments therefore, will have sufficient precision over the upcoming year to scrutinize claims of both annual activity oscillations and

  17. Determining barriers to creating an enabling environment in Cambodia: results from a baseline study with key populations and police.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiders, Mira L; Weissman, Amy

    2016-01-01

    Cambodian law enforcement's limited acceptance of harm reduction has hindered HIV program effectiveness. With funding from the Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, FHI 360 supported the Ministry of Interior to implement the Police Community Partnership Initiative (PCPI) in Cambodia's capital Phnom Penh. To guide this, FHI 360 conducted a baseline study examining police and key populations' attitudes and practices towards one another, including fear and occurrence of arrest. Between December 2012 and January 2013, a cross-sectional survey of 199 police post officers, 199 people who use drugs (PWUD) including people who inject drugs (PWID), 199 men who have sex with men (MSM), 200 transgender women (TGW) and 200 female entertainment workers (FEW) was conducted in five Phnom Penh districts. Eligible participants were ≥18 years, members of a key population from selected hotspots or police officers, deputy chiefs or chiefs. Key populations' median age was 25 years (IQR: 22-30); 40% had completed only primary school. Police were male (99.5%), with median age 43 years (IQR: 30 to 47), and 45 and 25% high school and university completion rates, respectively. Key populations feared arrest for carrying needles and syringes (67%), condoms (23%) and 19% felt afraid to access health services. Close to 75% of police reported body searching and 58% arresting key populations in the past six months for using drugs (64%), selling or distributing drugs (36%) or being violent (13%). Self-reported arrests (23% PWUD, 6% MSM, 6% TGW, 12% FEW; penvironment and ensure police are allies in the Cambodian HIV response, interventions should tackle underlying negative attitudes among police towards key populations and vice versa.

  18. [Baseline characteristics and changes in treatment after a period of optimization of the patients included in the study EFICAR].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Marcos, Manuel A; Agudo-Conde, Cristina; Torcal, Jesús; Echevarria, Pilar; Domingo, Mar; Arietaleanizbeascoa, María; Sanz-Guinea, Aitor; de la Torre, Maria M; Ramírez, Jose I; García-Ortiz, Luis

    2016-03-01

    To describe the baseline date and drugs therapy changes during treatment optimization in patients with heart failure with depressed systolic function included in the EFICAR study. Multicenter randomized clinical trial. Seven Health Centers. 150 patients (ICFSD) age 68±10 years, 77% male. Sociodemographic variables, comorbidities (Charlson index), functional capacity and quality of life. Drug therapy optimization was performed. The main etiology was ischemic heart disease (45%), with 89% in functional class II. The Charlson index was 2.03±1.05. The ejection fraction mean was 37%±8, 19% with ejection fraction <30%. With the stress test 6.3±1.6 mean was reached, with the 6 minutes test 446±78 meters and the chair test 13.7±4.4 seconds. The overall quality of life with ejection fraction was 22.8±18.7 and with the Short Form-36 Health Survey, physical health 43.3±8.4 and mental health 50.1±10.6. After optimizing the treatment, the percentage of patients on drugs therapy and the dose of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor antagonists and beta-blockers were not changed. The majority of the subjects are in functional class II, with functional capacity and quality of life decreased and comorbidity index high. A protocolized drug therapy adjustment did not increase the dose or number of patients with effective drugs for heart failure with depressed systolic function. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. 324 Building Baseline Radiological Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.J. Reeder, J.C. Cooper

    2010-06-24

    This report documents the analysis of radiological data collected as part of the characterization study performed in 1998. The study was performed to create a baseline of the radiological conditions in the 324 Building.

  20. Future ecological studies of Brazilian headwater streams under global-changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Callisto

    Full Text Available This paper results from discussions triggered during the "Stream Ecology Symposium" that took place at the XIII Congress of the Brazilian Society of Limnology in September of 2011 in Natal, Brazil. Based on our experiences, we have raised several questions regarding ecological studies of headwater streams facing threats under global-changes and proposed numerous subjects to be addressed in future studies in Brazil. These studies deal with the necessity of knowing species biology and the elaboration of models to assess changes (which implies the availability of time-series or large-scale data sets; the ecology of riparian zones and the interchange of materials and energy across the land-water boundaries; forest conversions and standardized sampling strategies and data treatment to assess global change.

  1. The stability of baseline-defined categories of alcohol consumption during the adult life-course: a 28-year prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knott, Craig S; Bell, Steven; Britton, Annie

    2018-01-01

    Studies that report the relationship between alcohol consumption and disease risk have predominantly operationalized drinking according to a single baseline measure. The resulting assumption of longitudinal stability may be simplistic and complicate interpretation of risk estimates. This study aims to describe changes to the volume of consumption during the adult life-course according to baseline categories of drinking. A prospective observational study. United Kingdom. A cohort of British civil servants totalling 6838 men and 3372 women aged 34-55 years at baseline, followed for a mean 19.1 (standard deviation = 9.5) years. The volume of weekly alcohol consumption was estimated from data concerning the frequency and number of drinks consumed. Baseline categories were defined: non-current drinkers, infrequent drinkers, 0.1-50.0 g/week, 50.1-100.0 g/week, 100.1-150.0 g/week, 150.1-250.0 g/week and >250.0 g/week. For women, the highest category was defined as > 100.0 g/week. Baseline frequency was derived as 'daily or almost daily' and 'not daily or almost daily'. Trajectories were estimated within baseline categories using growth curve models. Trajectories differed between men and women, but were relatively stable within light-to-moderate categories of baseline consumption. Drinking was least stable within the highest categories of baseline consumption (men: > 250.0 g/week; women: > 100.0 g/week), declining by 47.0 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 40.7, 53.2] and 16.8 g/week (95% CI = 12.6, 21.0), respectively, per 10-year increase in age. These declines were not a consequence of sudden transitions to complete abstention. Rates of decline appear greatest in older age, with trajectories converging toward moderate volumes. Among UK civil servants, consumption within baseline drinking categories is generally stable during the life-course, except among heavier baseline drinkers, for whom intakes decline with increasing age. This shift does not appear

  2. Baseline Behavior of Pilot Whales and their Responses to Playback of Anthropogenic and Natural Sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Baseline Behavior of Pilot Whales and their Responses to...N000141210417 LONG-TERM GOALS This project investigates the social ecology and baseline behavior of pilot whales , and their responses to anthropogenic...and estimating a robust quantification of group cohesion  Conduct playback experiments to study responses of tagged whales to sounds of killer whales

  3. Theories of practice - new inspiration for ecological economic studies on consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    2009-01-01

    The dynamics behind ever-increasing consumption have long been a core issue of ecological economics. Studies on this topic have traditionally drawn not only on insights from economics, but also from such disciplines as sociology, anthropology and psychology. In recent years, a practice theory...... in relation to studies of everyday life, domestic practices and consumption, and to argue that this approach can be fruitful for ecological economics and other fields interested in the environmental aspects of consumption. The paper emphasizes the immense challenge involved in promoting sustainable...

  4. Is ecological food also radioecological? - 210Po and 210Pb studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strumińska-Parulska, Dagmara; Olszewski, Grzegorz

    2018-01-01

    Presented are results of a study on accumulation of naturally occurring 210Po and 210Pb in ecological and conventional farming food products in Poland: fruits, vegetables and cereals. The main idea behind this research was to determine the activity concentrations of 210Po and 210Pb in ecological and commercial food as well as calculate and compare the effective dose (radiation) connected to different origin of analyzed food products consumption. The studies showed the majority of all compared food samples contained similar 210Po and 210Pb activities and statistically, the consumption of organic and commercial food would give similar annual effective dose. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Studies on the Ecology, Biogeography and Evolution of Palms (Arecaceae) with Focus on the Americas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiserhardt, Wolf L.

    and evolutionary processes. These topics fall into four categories: (i) Previous empirical evidence on the factors influencing palm species distributions, community composition, and species richness was summarised in a hierarchical scale framework. The effects of different components of the abiotic environment......The palm family (Arecaceae) increasingly serves as a model system to study the ecology and evolution of tropical ecosystems. This volume covers a wide range of topics in the areas of palm community ecology, macroecology, biogeography, and phylogeny, with a focus on the bridge between ecological......, biotic interactions, and dispersal are integrally dependent on spatiotemporal scale. Historical, including evolutionary factors are clearly important for palm distributions and diversity. (ii) Broad-scale patterns of palm species richness and phylogenetic turnover were studied across the Americas...

  6. Shifting human resources for health in the context of ART provision: qualitative and quantitative findings from the Lablite baseline study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkhata, Misheck J; Muzambi, Margaret; Ford, Deborah; Chan, Adrienne K; Abongomera, George; Namata, Harriet; Mambule, Ivan; South, Annabelle; Revill, Paul; Grundy, Caroline; Mabugu, Travor; Chiwaula, Levison; Hakim, James; Kityo, Cissy; Reid, Andrew; Katabira, Elly; Sodhi, Sumeet; Gilks, Charles F; Gibb, Diana M; Seeley, Janet; Cataldo, Fabian

    2016-11-16

    Lablite is an implementation project supporting and studying decentralized antiretroviral therapy (ART) rollout to rural communities in Malawi, Uganda and Zimbabwe. Task shifting is one of the strategies to deal with shortage of health care workers (HCWs) in ART provision. Evaluating Human Resources for Health (HRH) optimization is essential for ensuring access to ART. The Lablite project started with a baseline survey whose aim was to describe and compare national and intercountry delivery of ART services including training, use of laboratories and clinical care. A cross-sectional survey was conducted between October 2011 and August 2012 in a sample of 81 health facilities representing different regions, facility levels and experience of ART provision in Malawi, Uganda and Zimbabwe. Using a questionnaire, data were collected on facility characteristics, human resources and service provision. Thirty three (33) focus group discussions were conducted with HCWs in a subset of facilities in Malawi and Zimbabwe. The survey results showed that in Malawi and Uganda, primary care facilities were run by non-physician clinical officers/medical assistants while in Zimbabwe, they were run by nurses/midwives. Across the three countries, turnover of staff was high especially among nurses. Between 10 and 20% of the facilities had at least one clinical officer/medical assistant leave in the 3 months prior to the study. Qualitative results show that HCWs in ART and non-ART facilities perceived a shortage of staff for all services, even prior to the introduction of ART provision. HCWs perceived the introduction of ART as having increased workload. In Malawi, the number of people on ART and hence the workload for HCWs has further increased following the introduction of Option B+ (ART initiation and life-long treatment for HIV positive pregnant and lactating women), resulting in extended working times and concerns that the quality of services have been affected. For some HCWs

  7. Lessons from ecological and spatial studies in relation to occupational lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansell, Anna L; Best, Nicky G; Rushton, Lesley

    2009-04-01

    The majority of epidemiological research into occupational lung disease has been advanced by the study of individuals, typically in a workplace setting. This review examines how recent advances in ecological and spatial study methodology and in the information held in routine databases could be used to enhance occupational health studies. Ecological studies often use routinely collected data, and this is becoming much more extensive and better validated with potential for increasing use in occupational health research. Improvements in computing power and statistical and geographical information systems methodology have led to more sophisticated mapping techniques and greater use of spatial information when investigating lung diseases usually related to occupational exposures. Ecological study methodology is experiencing a radical overhaul with supplementation of group-level data with information from small-scale individual-level studies. This hybrid design can be used to reduce bias and increase power and is directly applicable to the enhancement of aggregate information from job exposure matrices. Studies of occupational lung disease can be enhanced by incorporating methodological innovations from ecological and spatial studies.

  8. Case Study: Crazy about Cryptids--An Ecological Hunt for Nessie and Other Legendary Creatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Matthew P.

    2015-01-01

    This column provides original articles on innovations in case study teaching, assessment of the method, as well as case studies with teaching notes. This hybrid case has three overarching and interrelated goals. First, it can be used to familiarize students with a range of ecological concepts and terms. Second, it is intended to engage students in…

  9. Validation of self-reported cannabis dose and potency: an ecological study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Pol, Peggy; Liebregts, Nienke; de Graaf, Ron; Korf, Dirk J.; van den Brink, Wim; van Laar, Margriet

    2013-01-01

    To assess the reliability and validity of self-reported cannabis dose and potency measures. Cross-sectional study comparing self-reports with objective measures of amount of cannabis and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) concentration. Ecological study with assessments at participants' homes or in

  10. Validation of self-reported cannabis dose and potency: an ecological study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Pol, P.; Liebregts, N.; de Graaf, R.; Korf, D.J.; van den Brink, W.; van Laar, M.

    2013-01-01

    Aims To assess the reliability and validity of self-reported cannabis dose and potency measures. Design Cross-sectional study comparing self-reports with objective measures of amount of cannabis and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) concentration. Setting Ecological study with assessments at

  11. Preliminary studies in rice-fish culture in a rainfed lowland ecology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preliminary studies in rice-fish culture in a rainfed lowland ecology in Ghana. PKA Dartey, RK Bam, J Ofori. Abstract. Mixed farms of rice and fish are yet to receive attention in Ghana, despite lowland rice being grown under inundation in most areas nationwide. In a preliminary study, Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) was ...

  12. Following Lives Undergoing Change (Flux) study: Implementation and baseline prevalence of drug use in an online cohort study of gay and bisexual men in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammoud, Mohamed A; Jin, Fengyi; Degenhardt, Louisa; Lea, Toby; Maher, Lisa; Grierson, Jeffrey; Mackie, Brent; Pastorelli, Marcus; Batrouney, Colin; Bath, Nicky; Bradley, Jack; Prestage, Garrett P

    2017-03-01

    Drug use among gay and bisexual men (GBM) is higher than most populations. The use of crystal methamphetamine, erectile dysfunction medication (EDM), and amyl nitrite have been associated with sexual risk behaviour and HIV infection among gay and bisexual men (GBM). This paper describes an online prospective observational study of licit and illicit drug use among GBM and explores baseline prevalence of drug use in this sample. Capturing these data poses challenges as participants are required to disclose potentially illegal behaviours in a geographically dispersed country. To address this issue, an entirely online and study specific methodology was chosen. Men living in Australia, aged 16.5 years of age or older, who identified as homosexual or bisexual or had sex with at least one man in the preceding 12 months were eligible to enrol. Between September 2014 and July 2015, a total of 2250 participants completed the baseline questionnaire, of whom, 1710 (76.0%) consented to six-monthly follow-up. The majority (65.7%) were recruited through Facebook targeted advertising. At baseline, over half (50.5%) the men reported the use of any illicit drug in the previous six months, and 28.0% had used party drugs. In the six months prior to enrolment, 12.0% had used crystal methamphetamine, 21.8% had used EDM, and 32.1% had used amyl nitrite. Among the 1710 men enrolled into the cohort, 790 men had used none of these drugs. Ease of entry and minimal research burden on participants helped ensure successful recruitment into this online cohort study. Study outcomes will include the initiation and cessation of drug use, associated risk behaviours, and health consequences, over time. Results will provide insights into the role gay community plays in patterns of drug use among GBM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The ICTUS Study: A Prospective longitudinal observational study of 1,380 AD patients in Europe. Study design and baseline characteristics of the cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynish, E; Cortes, F; Andrieu, S; Cantet, C; Olde Rikkert, M; Melis, R; Froelich, L; Frisoni, G B; Jönsson, L; Visser, P J; Ousset, P J; Vellas, B

    2007-01-01

    The long-term objective of the ICTUS study is to identify milestones in Alzheimer's disease (AD) progression and to develop a model to predict disease course in individual AD patients in Europe. The secondary objectives are to describe the patterns of prescribing, and the socioeconomic impact of AD in Europe. Between 2003 and 2005 1,380 patients with probable AD were recruited in specialised (secondary care) clinics in 12 European countries. Their mean age was 76 years and they had a mean of 8.0 +/- (SD) 4.6 years of education. Thirty-five percent were male. The mean MMSE score was 20.4 +/- (SD) 4.0. Forty-three percent had very mild dementia (CDR 0.5) and 44% had mild dementia (CDR 1). All patients completed baseline evaluation and biannual follow-up is ongoing. The goals of the current study are to describe the specific methods for recruitment in this crosscultural setting and the characteristics of the inception ICTUS cohort, including clinical features, co-morbidity, neuropsychological performance, neuropsychiatric symptoms, functional impairment and social burden. (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Abnormal baseline brain activity in patients with neuromyelitis optica: A resting-state fMRI study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Yaou [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053 (China); Liang Peipeng [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053 (China); International WIC institute, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100024 (China); Duan Yunyun; Jia Xiuqin; Wang Fei; Yu Chunshui; Qin Wen [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053 (China); Dong Huiqing; Ye Jing [Department of Neurology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053 (China); Li Kuncheng, E-mail: likuncheng1955@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053 (China)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: Recent immunopathologic and MRI findings suggest that tissue damage in neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is not limited to spinal cord and optic nerve, but also in brain. Baseline brain activity can reveal the brain functional changes to the tissue damages and give clues to the pathophysiology of NMO, however, it has never been explored by resting-state functional MRI (fMRI). We used regional amplitude of low frequency fluctuation (ALFF) as an index in resting-state fMRI to investigate how baseline brain activity changes in patients with NMO. Methods: Resting-state fMRIs collected from seventeen NMO patients and seventeen age- and sex-matched normal controls were compared to investigate the ALFF difference between the two groups. The relationships between ALFF in regions with significant group differences and the EDSS (Expanded Disability Status Scale), disease duration were further explored. Results: Our results showed that NMO patients had significantly decreased ALFF in precuneus, posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and lingual gyrus; and increased ALFF in middle frontal gyrus, caudate nucleus and thalamus, compared to normal controls. Moderate negative correlations were found between the EDSS and ALFF in the left middle frontal gyrus (r = -0.436, p = 0.040) and the left caudate (r = -0.542, p = 0.012). Conclusion: The abnormal baseline brain activity shown by resting-state fMRI in NMO is relevant to cognition, visual and motor systems. It implicates a complex baseline brain status of both functional impairments and adaptations caused by tissue damages in these systems, which gives clues to the pathophysiology of NMO.

  15. Transition to Postgraduate Study: Postgraduate Ecological Systems and Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobbell, Jane; O'Donnell, Victoria L.

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores and examines the distal and proximal systems which construct social science postgraduate study in the UK and analyses the emergent identities of postgraduate students as they negotiate the multiple and interacting practices in their transition to study. The data represent part of a one-year research project, funded by the…

  16. Selection of important ecological source patches base on Green Infrastructure theory: A case study of Wuhan city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Yuanyuan; Yu, Yan; Tong, Yan

    2018-01-01

    Selecting urban ecological patches is of great significance for constructing urban green infrastructure network, protecting urban biodiversity and ecological environment. With the support of GIS technology, a criterion for selecting sources of patches was developed according to existing planning. Then ecological source patches of terrestrial organism, aquatic and amphibious organism were selected in Wuhan city. To increase the connectivity of the ecological patches and achieve greater ecological protection benefits, the green infrastructure networks in Wuhan city were constructed with the minimum path analysis method. Finally, the characteristics of ecological source patches were analyzed with landscape metrics, and ecological protection importance degree of ecological source patches were evaluated comprehensively. The results showed that there were 23 important ecological source patches in Wuhan city, among which Sushan Temple Forest Patch, Lu Lake and Shangshe Lake Wetland Patch were the most important in all kinds of patches for ecological protection. This study can provide a scientific basis for the preservation of urban ecological space, the delineation of natural conservation areas and the protection of biological diversity.

  17. Determining barriers to creating an enabling environment in Cambodia: results from a baseline study with key populations and police

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira L Schneiders

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cambodian law enforcement's limited acceptance of harm reduction has hindered HIV program effectiveness. With funding from the Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, FHI 360 supported the Ministry of Interior to implement the Police Community Partnership Initiative (PCPI in Cambodia's capital Phnom Penh. To guide this, FHI 360 conducted a baseline study examining police and key populations’ attitudes and practices towards one another, including fear and occurrence of arrest. Methods: Between December 2012 and January 2013, a cross-sectional survey of 199 police post officers, 199 people who use drugs (PWUD including people who inject drugs (PWID, 199 men who have sex with men (MSM, 200 transgender women (TGW and 200 female entertainment workers (FEW was conducted in five Phnom Penh districts. Eligible participants were ≥18 years, members of a key population from selected hotspots or police officers, deputy chiefs or chiefs. Results: Key populations’ median age was 25 years (IQR: 22–30; 40% had completed only primary school. Police were male (99.5%, with median age 43 years (IQR: 30 to 47, and 45 and 25% high school and university completion rates, respectively. Key populations feared arrest for carrying needles and syringes (67%, condoms (23% and 19% felt afraid to access health services. Close to 75% of police reported body searching and 58% arresting key populations in the past six months for using drugs (64%, selling or distributing drugs (36% or being violent (13%. Self-reported arrests (23% PWUD, 6% MSM, 6% TGW, 12% FEW; p<0.05, being verbally threatened (45% PWUD, 21% MSM, 25% TGW, 27% FEW; p<0.001 and body searched (44% PWUD, 28% MSM, 23% TGW, 8% FEW; p<0.001 was significantly higher among PWUD than other key populations. The majority (94% of police believed arrest was an appropriate solution to reduce HIV and drug use and reported selling sex (88% and carrying needles and syringes (55% as valid reasons

  18. Causes of visual impairment and blindness in children in three ecological regions of Nepal: Nepal Pediatric Ocular Diseases Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Srijana; Shrestha, Mohan K; Adhikari, Kamala; Maharjan, Nhukesh; Shrestha, Ujjowala D

    2015-01-01

    To study the causes of blindness and visual impairment in children in three ecologically diverse regions of Nepal. This is a baseline survey report of a 3-year longitudinal population-based study. One district each from the three ecological regions - Terai, Hills, and Mountains - was selected for the study. Village Development Committees from each district were selected by random sampling. Three community health workers were given training on vision screening and identification of abnormal ocular conditions in children. Health workers who examined children and collected data using pretested questionnaire performed house-to-house surveys. Children with abnormal vision or ocular conditions were referred to and examined by pediatric ophthalmologists. A total of 10,950 children aged 0-10 years, 5,403 from Terai, 3,204 from Hills, and 2,343 from Mountains, were enrolled in the study. Of them, 681 (6.2%) were nonresponders. The ratio of boys to girls was 1.03:1. Prevalence of blindness was 0.068% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.02%-0.12%) and visual impairment was 0.097% (95% CI 0.04%-0.15%). Blindness was relatively more prevalent in Terai region (0.08%, 95% CI 0.02%-0.13%). The most common cause of blindness was amblyopia (42.9%) followed by congenital cataract. Corneal opacity (39%) was the most common cause of unilateral blindness. More than two-thirds of the causes that lead to blindness and visual impairment were potentially preventable. Further, nutritional and genetic studies are needed to determine the factors associated with ocular morbidity and blindness in these regions.

  19. Air pollution and case fatality of SARS in the People's Republic of China: an ecologic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Shun-Zhang

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS has claimed 349 lives with 5,327 probable cases reported in mainland China since November 2002. SARS case fatality has varied across geographical areas, which might be partially explained by air pollution level. Methods Publicly accessible data on SARS morbidity and mortality were utilized in the data analysis. Air pollution was evaluated by air pollution index (API derived from the concentrations of particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide and ground-level ozone. Ecologic analysis was conducted to explore the association and correlation between air pollution and SARS case fatality via model fitting. Partially ecologic studies were performed to assess the effects of long-term and short-term exposures on the risk of dying from SARS. Results Ecologic analysis conducted among 5 regions with 100 or more SARS cases showed that case fatality rate increased with the increment of API (case fatality = - 0.063 + 0.001 * API. Partially ecologic study based on short-term exposure demonstrated that SARS patients from regions with moderate APIs had an 84% increased risk of dying from SARS compared to those from regions with low APIs (RR = 1.84, 95% CI: 1.41–2.40. Similarly, SARS patients from regions with high APIs were twice as likely to die from SARS compared to those from regions with low APIs. (RR = 2.18, 95% CI: 1.31–3.65. Partially ecologic analysis based on long-term exposure to ambient air pollution showed the similar association. Conclusion Our studies demonstrated a positive association between air pollution and SARS case fatality in Chinese population by utilizing publicly accessible data on SARS statistics and air pollution indices. Although ecologic fallacy and uncontrolled confounding effect might have biased the results, the possibility of a detrimental effect of air pollution on the prognosis of SARS patients deserves further investigation.

  20. Phenotypic integration: studying the ecology and evolution of complex phenotypes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pigliucci, Massimo; Preston, Katherine

    2004-01-01

    .... Studying the Plasticity of Phenotypic Integration in a Model Organism, 155 Massimo Pigliucci 8. Integrating Phenotypic Plasticity When Death Is on the Line: Insights from Predator-Prey Systems...

  1. Studies on the influence of some Ecological Characterististics of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    food and feeding habits, preference for habits and geographical distributed) on the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminth, parasites infection. 800 fishes comprising 56 species from Warri River, southern Nigeria, were examined during the study ...

  2. Ecological study of rotifers from Kor river, Fars, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shayestehfar, A; Soleimani, M; Mousavi, S N; Shirazi, F

    2008-09-01

    In the present study, water samples from 3 stations of Kor river, Iran were analyzed for seasonal fluctuation of physico-chemical parameters, i.e. air and water temperature, dissolved oxygen, BOD, COD, total nitrogen, total hardness, pH, alkalinity, acidity, total dissolved solid and water current. Effect of physico-chemical parameters on surface water density of rotifers was also studied. During one year study 13 species of rotifers belonging to 2 classes and 3 orders, 6 families and 10 genera were recognized. Maximum population density belongs to Lecane luna and the minimum population density was observed in Keratella valga and Monostyla lunaris. An inverse relationship between the population density of rotifera and the water current as wall as a direct relationship between the water temperature and the population density of rotifers was observed in all sampling stations and throughout the study period.

  3. The Study of Ecological Service Value of Farmland Ecosystem in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, C. H.; Li, G. Y.; Li, H. Q.; Li, M.

    2017-10-01

    The coordinated development of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Province has become major national strategy of the CPC central committee and the state council under the new historical conditions. The farmland of Hebei Province has made great contribution to food supply for Beijing and Tianjin in a long time. Hebei Province has played a more important role in the ecological function especially.The geographic grid method was adopted in this study to account the ecosystem service value of farmland in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region. The result showed that total farmland ecosystem service value in 2015 was 110.3 × 109 yuan and the proportion of ecosystem service value in Hebei Province was the highest which reached up to 92.56%. The results of the evaluation of ecological services could provide the basis for determining the ecological compensation standards for farmland in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region.

  4. The Population Ecology of Technology: An Empirical Study of US Biotechnology Patents from 1976 to 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Oord, Ad; van Witteloostuijn, Arjen

    2017-01-01

    A detailed understanding of technological change as an evolutionary process is currently not well understood. To increase our understanding, we build upon theory from organizational ecology to develop a model of endogenous technological growth and determine to what extent the pattern of technological growth can be attributed to the structural or systemic characteristics of the technology itself. Through an empirical investigation of patent data in the biotechnology industry from 1976 to 2003, we find that a technology's internal (i.e., density and diversity) ecological characteristics have a positive effect on its growth rate. The niche's external characteristics of crowding and status have a negative effect on its growth rate. Hence, applying theory from organizational ecology increases our understanding of technological change as an evolutionary process. We discuss the implications of our findings for the study of technological growth and evolution, and suggest avenues for further research.

  5. Incorporating ecological risk assessment into remedial investigation/feasibility study work plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    This guidance document (1) provides instructions on preparing the components of an ecological work plan to complement the overall site remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) work plan and (2) directs the user on how to implement ecological tasks identified in the plan. Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA), as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA), and RI/FS work plan will have to be developed as part of the site-remediation scoping process. Specific guidance on the RI/FS process and the preparation of work plans has been developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA 1988a). This document provides guidance to US Department of Energy (DOE) staff and contractor personnel for incorporation of ecological information into environmental remediation planning and decision making at CERCLA sites.

  6. Correlation between baseline CD4 + T-Lymphocyte count and plasma viral load in AIDS patients and their early clinical and immunological response to HAART: A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gautam H

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the clinical, immunological and virological status of newly diagnosed AIDS cases and to monitor their clinical and immunological response to HAART after a minimum period of three months. Forty three drug naive AIDS patients were enrolled. The most common presenting complaints were weight loss (74.4%, cough (72.1% and diarrhoea (67.4%. Mean baseline CD4 cell count was 112 ± 60 cells/μL and mean baseline plasma viral load of 31 patients studied was 192,686 copies/mL. Baseline plasma viral load was higher among patients with lower baseline CD4 cell count. During follow-up, 80.8% patients showed clinical improvement, while a CD4 cell count increased by ≥50 cells/μL in 84.6% cases. Mean CD4 cell count increased from 126 ± 16.6 cells/μL at baseline to 278 ± 196.7 cells/μL.

  7. The Nightingale study: rationale, study design and baseline characteristics of a prospective cohort study on shift work and breast cancer risk among nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pijpe, Anouk; Slottje, Pauline; van Pelt, Cres; Stehmann, Floor; Kromhout, Hans; van Leeuwen, Flora E; Vermeulen, Roel C H; Rookus, Matti A

    2014-01-29

    Evidence for the carcinogenicity of shift work in humans is limited because of significant heterogeneity of the results, thus more in-depth research in needed. The Nightingale Study is a nationwide prospective cohort study on occupational exposures and risks of chronic diseases among female nurses and focuses on the potential association between shift work and risk of breast cancer. The study design, methods, and baseline characteristics of the cohort are described. The source population for the cohort comprised 18 to 65 year old women who were registered as having completed training to be a nurse in the nationwide register for healthcare professionals in the Netherlands. Eligible women were invited to complete a web-based questionnaire including full job history, a detailed section on all domains of shift work (shift system, cumulative exposure, and shift intensity) and potential confounding factors, and an informed consent form for linkage with national (disease) registries. Women were also asked to donate toenail clippings as a source of DNA for genetic analyses. Between October 6, 2011 and February 1, 2012, 31% of the 192,931 women who were invited to participate completed the questionnaire, yielding a sample size of 59,947 cohort members. The mean age of the participants was 46.9 year (standard deviation 11.0 years). Toenail clippings were provided by 23,439 participants (39%). Results from the Nightingale Study will contribute to the scientific evidence of potential shift work-related health risks among nurses and will help develop preventive measures and policy aimed at reducing these risks.

  8. The Nightingale study: rationale, study design and baseline characteristics of a prospective cohort study on shift work and breast cancer risk among nurses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Evidence for the carcinogenicity of shift work in humans is limited because of significant heterogeneity of the results, thus more in-depth research in needed. The Nightingale Study is a nationwide prospective cohort study on occupational exposures and risks of chronic diseases among female nurses and focuses on the potential association between shift work and risk of breast cancer. The study design, methods, and baseline characteristics of the cohort are described. Methods/Design The source population for the cohort comprised 18 to 65 year old women who were registered as having completed training to be a nurse in the nationwide register for healthcare professionals in the Netherlands. Eligible women were invited to complete a web-based questionnaire including full job history, a detailed section on all domains of shift work (shift system, cumulative exposure, and shift intensity) and potential confounding factors, and an informed consent form for linkage with national (disease) registries. Women were also asked to donate toenail clippings as a source of DNA for genetic analyses. Between October 6, 2011 and February 1, 2012, 31% of the 192,931 women who were invited to participate completed the questionnaire, yielding a sample size of 59,947 cohort members. The mean age of the participants was 46.9 year (standard deviation 11.0 years). Toenail clippings were provided by 23,439 participants (39%). Discussion Results from the Nightingale Study will contribute to the scientific evidence of potential shift work-related health risks among nurses and will help develop preventive measures and policy aimed at reducing these risks. PMID:24475944

  9. Assessment of ecological security based on soil and water conservation: a case study from Gansu Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z. J.; Tian, Q.; Song, L. L.

    2016-08-01

    In this study, the analytic hierarchy process (ahp), ecological security index(S) and PSR model were used to evaluate Gansu's ecological security based on the large number of survey data. The results indicated that Gansu's ecological security index increased from 0.31 in 1986 to 0.66 in 2013, which reflected ecological security was in sensitive state (0.7༞S≥⃒0.5). The main reason was that national policy on protecting the ecological environment has played a crucial role, especially the national project of returning farmland to forest and grass carried out in recent years. Moreover, the environmental issues such as the higher PM2.5, sand storms and climate extremes, had significantly improved people's environmental awareness in the study area. The regional difference of ecological security index was significant in Gansu Provinces, and the part of Yangtze river basin was higher than the part of Yellow River basin, whiles the in-land river basin was the lowest value. In a world, Gansu's ecological security had improved in recent years, but there was strong need for paying more attention to policy for ecological environment protection and increasing the propaganda to ensure the Gansu's ecological security in the future. This study will provide a scientific basis for the sustainable development of regional social economy and ecological environment.

  10. Promoting community socio-ecological sustainability through technology: A case study from Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguayo, Claudio; Eames, Chris

    2017-12-01

    The importance of community learning in effecting social change towards ecological sustainability has been recognised for some time. More recently, the use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) tools to promote socio-ecological sustainability has been shown to have potential in community education for sustainable development (ESD). The effective design and use of technology for community learning implies an understanding of a range of cross-dimensional factors including: socio-cultural characteristics and needs of the target audience; considerations of available and culturally responsive types of technology; and non-formal pedagogical ESD strategies for community empowerment. In addition, both technology itself and social communities are dynamically evolving and complex entities. This article presents a case study which evaluated the potential of ICT for promoting ecological literacy and action competence amongst community members in southern Chile. The case study addressed the ecological deterioration of a lake, which is having deep social, economic, recreational and cultural implications locally. The authors' research involved developing a theoretical framework for the design, implementation and use of ICT for community learning for sustainability. The framework was based on key ideas from ESD, ICT and community education, and was underpinned by a systems thinking approach to account for the dynamism and complexity of such settings. Activity theory provided a frame to address overarching socio-cultural elements when using technology as a mediating tool for community learning. The authors' findings suggest that the use of an ICT tool, such as a website, can enhance ecological literacy in relation to a local socio-ecological issue.

  11. Promoting community socio-ecological sustainability through technology: A case study from Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguayo, Claudio; Eames, Chris

    2017-10-01

    The importance of community learning in effecting social change towards ecological sustainability has been recognised for some time. More recently, the use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) tools to promote socio-ecological sustainability has been shown to have potential in community education for sustainable development (ESD). The effective design and use of technology for community learning implies an understanding of a range of cross-dimensional factors including: socio-cultural characteristics and needs of the target audience; considerations of available and culturally responsive types of technology; and non-formal pedagogical ESD strategies for community empowerment. In addition, both technology itself and social communities are dynamically evolving and complex entities. This article presents a case study which evaluated the potential of ICT for promoting ecological literacy and action competence amongst community members in southern Chile. The case study addressed the ecological deterioration of a lake, which is having deep social, economic, recreational and cultural implications locally. The authors' research involved developing a theoretical framework for the design, implementation and use of ICT for community learning for sustainability. The framework was based on key ideas from ESD, ICT and community education, and was underpinned by a systems thinking approach to account for the dynamism and complexity of such settings. Activity theory provided a frame to address overarching socio-cultural elements when using technology as a mediating tool for community learning. The authors' findings suggest that the use of an ICT tool, such as a website, can enhance ecological literacy in relation to a local socio-ecological issue.

  12. Ecological studies on the distribution and phenology of bush mango ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty soil samples comprising of ten samples from each of the farming zones were analysed for their physical and chemical properties. Phenological sequences of I. wombolu were made in the farming zones of the study areas. The plant species had generally very low densities. 0.3 – 2.7 trees/ha, and 1. wombolu had ...

  13. An ecological study of the vegetation of Gambella Region ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1995-10-14

    The vegetation of Gambella Region, southwestern Ethiopia, has been studied through five field trips made between October 14, 1995 and October 10, 1996. Systematic sampling method was used to select homogenous vegetation stands. Cover/abundance data was recorded for all plants from a total of 58 relevès. For each ...

  14. An Ecological Study of Gray Goose Marsh, Alviso California

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The area of our study is located in the heart of the 300m wide strip of land just north of Triangle Marsh, known as Gray Goose Marsh. This land used to be part of an...

  15. Ecological studies in the Iture estuary mangrove forest in Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed the floristic composition as well as aspects of the structure of the mangrove vegetation of Iture estuary with the view to determining any possible changes in these attributes over the past few years. The density and basal area of the trees/shrubs were estimated using the Point-Centred Quarter Method.

  16. Studies on the ecology and distribution of some medically important ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two Local Government Areas in Bauchi State, Nigeria, harboring many snail infested water bodies were surveyed for the presence of intermediate host snail vector species for a period of 13 months. This study revealed five medically important snail species which were comprised of Bulinus (Physopsis) globosus, Bulinus ...

  17. An unparalleled opportunity for an important ecological study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L. David; Barber-Meyer, Shannon; Blanco, Juan Carlos; Boitani, Luigi; Carbyn, Ludwig N.; DelGuidice, Glenn D.; Fritts, Steven H.; Huber, Djuro; Liberg, O.; Patterson, Brent; Thiel, Richard P.

    2017-01-01

    Wolves (Canis lupus) and moose (Alces americanus) have been studied since 1958 on 540-square-kilometer Isle Royale National Park, in Lake Superior. Wolves arrived there across the ice around 1949, and the population once increased to about 50, averaging about 25 annually (Mech 1966, Jordan et al. 1967, Vucetich and Peterson 2009). However, for various reasons, wolf numbers there have now dwindled to 2 nonbreeders, and the US National Park Service has proposed reintroducing 20–30 wolves over 3 years (National Park Service 2016). This situation offers an unparalleled opportunity to promote science-based management of this unique national park. The park has long been in the public eye for its world-renowned wolf and moose populations. Visitors to this island wilderness are especially interested in the scientific studies it has yielded and in maintaining its ecosystem.

  18. Energize It! An Ecologically Integrated Approach to the Study of the Digestive System and Energy Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derting, Terry L.

    1992-01-01

    Develops a research-oriented method of studying the digestive system that integrates species' ecology with the form and function of this system. Uses problem-posing, problem-probing, and peer persuasion. Presents information for mammalian systems. (27 references) (MKR)

  19. The Cultural Ecology of Scholar-Practitioner Leaders: An Ethnographic Study of Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenlink, Patrick M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this critical ethnographic study was to examine the nature and meaning of cultural ecology in relation to preparing scholar-practitioner leaders. The ethnography focused on how the discourses and practices within the disciplinary setting of leadership preparation shape the identity of social scholar-practitioner leaders. The…

  20. an ecological study on rodents of natural vegetation and farm lands ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    preferred customer

    ABSTRACT: An ecological study on species composition, distribution, relative abundance and habitat association of rodents was conducted in Siltie natural vegetation and nearby farmlands during July 2008 - March 2009. Five habitat types, three from natural and two from agricultural fields were randomly selected based ...

  1. Revitalizing traditional ecological knowledge: a study in an Alpine rural community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianni, Elena; Geneletti, Davide; Ciolli, Marco

    2015-07-01

    This study aims to contribute to the debate on the value and the role of ecological knowledge in modern conservation strategies, with reference to the results of a case study conducted in the community of Montagne, located within a World Heritage site in the Italian Alps. This community is a paradigmatic example of the multiple transformations experienced by cultural landscapes in Alpine areas under the influence of global change. This study seeks to understand whether ecological knowledge is still in place in the community, and what the relationship is between the knowledge transmission and land use and social changes that have occurred in recent decades. To that end, the community is described by identifying the key variables (social, institutional, and ecological) that have historically shaped the landscape and the future priorities of the residents. Forest expansion, the most significant change in land use in the last 60 years, is analyzed using aerial photos; changes in biodiversity-related knowledge in the community are quantified by analyzing the inter-generational differences in plant species recognition. Results are discussed in the context of the current situation of the Montagne community, and the recommendation is made that policies and actions to promote traditional ecological knowledge protection or recovery in Europe be viewed as an important part of the recovery of community sovereignty and vitality. Lastly, concrete actions that can be implemented in our case study are proposed.

  2. Advances in the application of amino acid nitrogen isotopic analysis in ecological and biogeochemical studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compound-specific isotopic analysis of amino acids (CSIA-AA) has emerged in the last decade as a powerful approach for tracing the origins and fate of nitrogen in ecological and biogeochemical studies. This approach is based on the empirical knowledge that source AAs (i.e., phenylalanine), fractiona...

  3. A field study on Sumatran orang utans (Pongo pygmaeus abelii Lesson 1827) : ecology, behaviour and conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijksen, H.D.

    1978-01-01

    The results of a three year research project on the ecology, behaviour and conservation of the Sumatran orang utan are discussed. The 150 hectares Ketambe study area lie within the boundaries of the Gunung Leuser. reserve in Aceh Tenggara, and consists of mixed rainforest typical of hilly

  4. Daily Emotional Dynamics in Depressed Youth: A Cell Phone Ecological Momentary Assessment Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silk, Jennifer S.; Forbes, Erika E.; Whalen, Diana J.; Jakubcak, Jennifer L.; Thompson, Wesley K.; Ryan, Neal D.; Axelson, David A.; Birmaher, Boris; Dahl, Ronald E.

    2011-01-01

    This study used a new cell phone ecological momentary assessment approach to investigate daily emotional dynamics in 47 youths with major depressive disorder (MDD) and 32 no-psychopathology controls (CON) (ages 7-17 years). Information about emotional experience in the natural environment was obtained using answer-only cell phones, while MDD…

  5. Data report of the first cruise of the Marion Off-shore Ecological Study (MOES-1)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Duncombe-Rae, CM

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available The first cruise of the Marion Off-shore Ecological Study (MOES-I), during April and May 1987, was a multi-disciplinary effort aimed at gaining a further understanding of the relationships between productivity and the environment in the vicinity...

  6. The socio-ecological impacts of small dams: A case study of Mushandike Sanctuary, Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gwazani, R.; Gandiwa, E.; Gandiwa, P.; Mhaka, V.; Hungwe, T.; Muza, M.

    2012-01-01

    Demand and supply of water over space and time is being influenced by changes in land use, population growth, industrial development and construction of dams. In this study, we focus on Mushandike dam located in Mushandike Sanctuary, Zimbabwe, and evaluate the socio-ecological impacts associated

  7. Methane emission from ruminants and solid waste: A critical analysis of baseline and mitigation projections for climate and policy studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, E.

    2012-12-01

    Current and projected estimates of methane (CH4) emission from anthropogenic sources are numerous but largely unexamined or compared. Presented here is a critical appraisal of CH4 projections used in climate-chemistry and policy studies. We compare emissions for major CH4 sources from several groups, including our own new data and RCP projections developed for climate-chemistry models for the next IPCC Assessment Report (AR5). We focus on current and projected baseline and mitigation emissions from ruminant animals and solid waste that are both predicted to rise dramatically in coming decades, driven primarily by developing countries. For waste, drivers include increasing urban populations, higher per capita waste generation due to economic growth and increasing landfilling rates. Analysis of a new global data base detailing waste composition, collection and disposal indicates that IPCC-based methodologies and default data overestimate CH4 emission for the current period which cascades into substantial overestimates in future projections. CH4 emission from solid waste is estimated to be ~10-15 Tg CH4/yr currently rather than the ~35 Tg/yr often reported in the literature. Moreover, emissions from developing countries are unlikely to rise rapidly in coming decades because new management approaches, such as sanitary landfills, that would increase emissions are maladapted to infrastructures in these countries and therefore unlikely to be implemented. The low current emission associated with solid waste (~10 Tg), together with future modest growth, implies that mitigation of waste-related CH4 emission is a poor candidate for slowing global warming. In the case of ruminant animals (~90 Tg CH4/yr currently), the dominant assumption driving future trajectories of CH4 emission is a substantial increase in meat and dairy consumption in developing countries to be satisfied by growing animal populations. Unlike solid waste, current ruminant emissions among studies exhibit a

  8. Molecular ecology studies of species radiations: current research gaps, opportunities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Harpe, Marylaure; Paris, Margot; Karger, Dirk N; Rolland, Jonathan; Kessler, Michael; Salamin, Nicolas; Lexer, Christian

    2017-05-01

    Understanding the drivers and limits of species radiations is a crucial goal of evolutionary genetics and molecular ecology, yet research on this topic has been hampered by the notorious difficulty of connecting micro- and macroevolutionary approaches to studying the drivers of diversification. To chart the current research gaps, opportunities and challenges of molecular ecology approaches to studying radiations, we examine the literature in the journal Molecular Ecology and revisit recent high-profile examples of evolutionary genomic research on radiations. We find that available studies of radiations are highly unevenly distributed among taxa, with many ecologically important and species-rich organismal groups remaining severely understudied, including arthropods, plants and fungi. Most studies employed molecular methods suitable over either short or long evolutionary time scales, such as microsatellites or restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq) in the former case and conventional amplicon sequencing of organellar DNA in the latter. The potential of molecular ecology studies to address and resolve patterns and processes around the species level in radiating groups of taxa is currently limited primarily by sample size and a dearth of information on radiating nuclear genomes as opposed to organellar ones. Based on our literature survey and personal experience, we suggest possible ways forward in the coming years. We touch on the potential and current limitations of whole-genome sequencing (WGS) in studies of radiations. We suggest that WGS and targeted ('capture') resequencing emerge as the methods of choice for scaling up the sampling of populations, species and genomes, including currently understudied organismal groups and the genes or regulatory elements expected to matter most to species radiations. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Association between urbanisation and type 2 diabetes: an ecological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassasse, Zakariah; Smith, Dianna; Finer, Sarah; Gallo, Valentina

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have explored the effect of urbanisation on the prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) at regional/national level. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between urbanisation and T2D at country level, worldwide, and to explore the role of intermediate variables (physical inactivity, sugar consumption and obesity). The potential effect modification of gross domestic product (GDP) was also assessed. Data for 207 countries were collected from accessible datasets. Direct acyclic graphs were used to describe the association between urbanisation, T2D and their intermediate variables (physical inactivity, sugar consumption and obesity). Urbanisation was measured as urban percentage (UP) and as agglomeration index (AI). Crude and multivariate linear regression analyses were conducted to explore selected associations. The interaction between urbanisation and T2D across levels of GDP per capita was investigated. The association between urbanisation and T2D diverged by exposure: AI was positively associated, while UP negatively associated with T2D prevalence. Physical inactivity and obesity were statistically significantly associated with increased prevalence of T2D. In middle-income countries (MIC) UP, AI and GDP were significantly associated with T2D prevalence, while in high-income countries (HIC), physical inactivity and obesity were the main determinant of T2D prevalence. The type of urban growth, not urbanisation per se, predicted T2D prevalence at country level. In MIC, population density and GDP were the main determinant of diabetes, while in HIC. these were physical inactivity and obesity. Globalisation is playing an important role in the rise of T2D worldwide.

  10. Cognitive ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, Edwin

    2010-10-01

    Cognitive ecology is the study of cognitive phenomena in context. In particular, it points to the web of mutual dependence among the elements of a cognitive ecosystem. At least three fields were taking a deeply ecological approach to cognition 30 years ago: Gibson's ecological psychology, Bateson's ecology of mind, and Soviet cultural-historical activity theory. The ideas developed in those projects have now found a place in modern views of embodied, situated, distributed cognition. As cognitive theory continues to shift from units of analysis defined by inherent properties of the elements to units defined in terms of dynamic patterns of correlation across elements, the study of cognitive ecosystems will become an increasingly important part of cognitive science. Copyright © 2010 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  11. The genus Crataegus L.: an ecological and molecular study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MirAli, N; Al-Odat, M; Haider, N; Nabulsi, I

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed at the indentification of the species and genotypes of the genus Crataegus in Syria and determination of the genetic relationships among them based on the analysis of genomic and chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) using ISSRs and CAPS techniques. Morphological characterization carried out on 49 Crataegus samples collected from different geographical regions of Syria revealed four Crataegus species: C. monogyna, C. sinaica, C. aronia and C. azarolus. In the dendrogram constructed for those samples based on ISSRs (20 primers), all samples that belong to C. monogyna were clustered in one cluster. Samples of the other three species were overlaped in another cluster. Two samples of these were the most distant from all other samples in the dendrogram and were suggested to represent hybrid species or subspecies. When CAPS technique was applied on four Crataegus samples that represent the four suggested species using 22 cpDNA regions and 90 endonucleases, no polymorphism was detected neither in amplification products sizes nor in restriction profiles. The inability of detection of variation in cpDNA among species suggested can be attributed to the low level of evolution of the cpDNA in the genus, and to the possibility that some of these species are either subspecies or hybrids since the cpDNA is inherited through one parent only.

  12. Epidemiological Trends in Colorectal Cancer in China: An Ecological Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jinzhou; Tan, Zhengqi; Hollis-Hansen, Kelseanna; Zhang, Yong; Yu, Chaohui; Li, Youming

    2017-01-01

    Due to the changes in lifestyle and dietary behaviors, the incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) has been rapidly increasing in China. This study is to present the trends of CRC in China over the past decade. It used a series of nationally representative data, including the National Central Cancer Registry of China, the GLOBOCAN project and the Global Burden of Disease. The age-standardized rate of CRC incidence increased from 12.8 in 2003 to 16.8 per 100,000 in 2011, while the mortality rose from 5.9 to 7.8 per 100,000. The age group most affected by incident CRC cases were those aged 60-74 years old, whereas CRC death was most associated with those >74 years. Furthermore, the east coast of China presented a higher mortality rate (>15 and 10-14.9 per 100,000 in men and women) than central and west China (5-14.9 and 5-9.9 per 100,000). Compared with other countries worldwide, China indicated lower rates of incidence (14.2 per 100,000), mortality (7.4 per 100,000), and 5-year prevalence (52.7 per 100,000) than most developed countries. However, China had a higher case-fatality ratio (14.0 %) and mortality/incidence ratio (52.1 %). Lastly, disability-adjusted life years attributed to CRC in China was 224.2 per 100,000. It presents a steady increase in CRC in China over the past decade. It also reveals the domestic diversity of age, gender, and geography and finds the differences between China and developed countries, which may yield insights for national programs and policies.

  13. The Natural History of the Progression of Atrophy Secondary to Stargardt Disease (ProgStar) Studies: Design and Baseline Characteristics: ProgStar Report No. 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Rupert W; Ho, Alex; Muñoz, Beatriz; Cideciyan, Artur V; Sahel, José-Alain; Sunness, Janet S; Birch, David G; Bernstein, Paul S; Michaelides, Michel; Traboulsi, Elias I; Zrenner, Eberhart; Sadda, SriniVas; Ervin, Ann-Margret; West, Sheila; Scholl, Hendrik P N

    2016-04-01

    To describe the design and baseline characteristics of patients enrolled into 2 natural history studies of Stargardt disease (STGD1). Multicenter retrospective and prospective cohort studies. Three hundred sixty-five unique patients aged 6 years and older at baseline harboring disease-causing variants in the ABCA4 gene and with specified ocular lesions were enrolled from 9 centers in the United States and Europe. In the retrospective study, patients contributed medical record data from at least 2 and up to 4 visits for at least 1 examination modality: fundus autofluorescence (FAF), spectral-domain (SD) optical coherence tomography (SD OCT), and/or microperimetry (MP). The total observational period was at least 2 years and up to 5 years between single visits. Demographic and visual acuity (VA) data also were obtained. In the prospective study, eligible patients were examined at baseline using a standard protocol, with 6-month follow-up visits planned for a 2-year period for serial Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) best-corrected VA, SD OCT, FAF, and MP. Design and rationale of a multicenter study to determine the progression of STGD1 in 2 large retrospective and prospective international cohorts. Detailed baseline characteristics of both cohorts are presented, including demographics, and structural and functional retinal metrics. Into the retrospective study, 251 patients (458 eyes) were enrolled; mean follow-up ± standard deviation was 3.9±1.6 years. At baseline, 36% had no or mild VA loss, and 47% of the study eyes had areas of definitely decreased autofluorescence (DDAF) with an average lesion area of 2.5±2.9 mm(2) (range, 0.02-16.03 mm(2)). Two hundred fifty-nine patients (489 eyes) were enrolled in the prospective study. At baseline, 20% had no or mild VA loss, and 64% had areas of DDAF with an average lesion area of 4.0±4.4 mm(2) (range, 0.03-24.24 mm(2)). The mean retinal sensitivity with MP was 10.8±5.0 dB. The ProgStar cohorts have

  14. Phase correction for ALMA. Investigating water vapour radiometer scaling: The long-baseline science verification data case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maud, L. T.; Tilanus, R. P. J.; van Kempen, T. A.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Schmalzl, M.; Yoon, I.; Contreras, Y.; Toribio, M. C.; Asaki, Y.; Dent, W. R. F.; Fomalont, E.; Matsushita, S.

    2017-09-01

    The Atacama Large millimetre/submillimetre Array (ALMA) makes use of water vapour radiometers (WVR), which monitor the atmospheric water vapour line at 183 GHz along the line of sight above each antenna to correct for phase delays introduced by the wet component of the troposphere. The application of WVR derived phase corrections improve the image quality and facilitate successful observations in weather conditions that were classically marginal or poor. We present work to indicate that a scaling factor applied to the WVR solutions can act to further improve the phase stability and image quality of ALMA data. We find reduced phase noise statistics for 62 out of 75 datasets from the long-baseline science verification campaign after a WVR scaling factor is applied. The improvement of phase noise translates to an expected coherence improvement in 39 datasets. When imaging the bandpass source, we find 33 of the 39 datasets show an improvement in the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) between a few to 30 percent. There are 23 datasets where the S/N of the science image is improved: 6 by 450 GHz) and long-baseline (>5 km) observations. These inherently have poorer phase stability and are taken in low PWV (python code to allow ALMA users to undertake WVR scaling tests and make improvements to their data.

  15. Ecological risk Evaluation and Green Infrastructure planning for coping with global climate change, a case study of Shanghai, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pengyao; Xiao, He; Li, Xiang; Hu, Wenhao; Gu, Shoubai; Yu, Zhenrong

    2018-01-01

    Coping with various ecological risks caused by extreme weather events of global climate change has become an important issue in regional planning, and storm water management for sustainable development. In this paper, taking Shanghai, China as a case study, four potential ecological risks were identified including flood disaster, sea-source disaster, urban heat island effect, and land subsidence. Based on spatial database, the spatial variation of these four ecological risks was evaluated, and the planning area was divided into seven responding regions with different green infrastructure strategy. The methodology developed in this study combining ecological risk evaluation with spatial regionalization planning could contribute to coping with global climate change.

  16. Baseline Quality of Life and Risk of Stroke in the ALLHAT Study (Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams, Tanzila; Auchus, Alexander P; Oparil, Suzanne; Wright, Clinton B; Wright, Jackson; Furlan, Anthony J; Sila, Cathy A; Davis, Barry R; Pressel, Sara; Yamal, Jose-Miguel; Einhorn, Paula T; Lerner, Alan J

    2017-11-01

    The visual analogue scale is a self-reported, validated tool to measure quality of life (QoL). Our purpose was to determine whether baseline QoL predicted strokes in the ALLHAT study (Antihypertensive and Lipid Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial) and evaluate determinants of poststroke change in QoL. In the ALLHAT study, among the 33 357 patients randomized to treatment arms, 1525 experienced strokes; 1202 (79%) strokes were nonfatal. This study cohort includes 32 318 (97%) subjects who completed the baseline visual analogue scale QoL estimate. QoL was measured on a visual analogue scale and adjusted using a Torrance transformation (transformed QoL [TQoL]). Kaplan-Meier curves and adjusted proportional hazards analyses were used to estimate the effect of TQoL on the risk of stroke, on a continuous scale (0-1) and by quartiles (≤0.81, >0.81≤0.89, >0.89≤0.95, >0.95). We analyzed the change from baseline to first poststroke TQoL using adjusted linear regression. After adjusting for multiple stroke risk factors, the hazard ratio for stroke events for baseline TQoL was 0.93 (95% confidence interval, 0.89-0.98) per 0.1 U increase. The lowest baseline TQoL quartile had a 20% increased stroke risk (hazard ratio=1.20 [95% confidence interval, 1.00-1.44]) compared with the reference highest quartile TQoL. Poststroke TQoL change was significant within all treatment groups ( P ≤0.001). Multivariate regression analysis revealed that baseline TQoL was the strongest predictor of poststroke TQoL with similar results for the untransformed QoL. The lowest baseline TQoL quartile had a 20% higher stroke risk than the highest quartile. Baseline TQoL was the only factor that predicted poststroke change in TQoL. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00000542. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. Supplementary Environmental Baseline Studies and Evaluation of the St. Mary’s River 1980. Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Seaway Navigation Season Extension Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-07-01

    TIC FILE CO" piological Services Program FWSWOBS 80182.1 JULY 1981 SSUPPLEMENTARY ENVIRONMENTAL (N BASELINE STUDIES & EVALUATION I! OF THE ST. MARY’S...Iowa darter 4 4 Johnny darter 704 7 7 718 Logperch 48 9 1 58 Yellow perch 135 185 154 5 479 Wa] leye 46 9 9 64 Mottled sculpin 289 6 295 Slimy sculpin

  18. Eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder in a child and an adolescent with mild to borderline intellectual disability: A multiple baseline across subjects study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mevissen, E.H.M.; Didden, H.C.M.; Korzilius, H.P.L.M.; Jongh, A. de

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study explored the effectiveness of eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in persons with mild to borderline intellectual disability (MBID) using a multiple baseline across subjects design. METHODS: One child and one

  19. Histomorphometric analyses of area fraction of different ratios of Bio-Oss(®) and bone prior to grafting procedures - An in vitro study to demonstrate a baseline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aludden, Hanna; Dahlin, Anna; Starch-Jensen, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to estimate the area fraction of different ratios of Bio-Oss(®) and bone, prior to grafting in an in vitro model to demonstrate a histomorphometric baseline. METHODS: Bio-Oss(®) particles were mixed with autogenous bone from pig jaw in three different ra...

  20. Eye Movement Desensitisation and Reprocessing Therapy for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in a Child and an Adolescent with Mild to Borderline Intellectual Disability: A Multiple Baseline across Subjects Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mevissen, Liesbeth; Didden, Robert; Korzilius, Hubert; de Jongh, Ad

    2017-01-01

    Background: This study explored the effectiveness of eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in persons with mild to borderline intellectual disability (MBID) using a multiple baseline across subjects design. Methods: One child and one adolescent with MBID, who met diagnostic criteria…

  1. Variability in baseline travel behaviour as a predictor of changes in commuting by active travel, car and public transport : A natural experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinen, E.; Ogilvie, David

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To strengthen our understanding of the impact of baseline variability in mode choice on the likelihood of travel behaviour change. Methods: Quasi-experimental analyses in a cohort study of 450 commuters exposed to a new guided busway with a path for walking and cycling in Cambridge, UK.

  2. Ecological Input Assessment and EIA: A Study On EIA Report For Quarry Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahimah Wahid

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA was introduced as mandatory in Malaysia since 1988 as a measurement tool to achieve sustainable development. This study attempts to assess the EIA reports for quarrying activities which have been submitted to the Department of Environment. There are 19 scheduled activities requiring an EIA prior to project implementation. As the ecological input is an important part of the EIA report, these studies have tried to analyze the ecological quality of input in four EIA reports prepared for quarrying activities in Peninsular Malaysia. The results show that all aspects of the report comply with the review and sampling methods although there are deficiencies which may be remedied. Four EIA reports show weaknesses in the acquisition of the latest available data. For the preparation of the existing environment sections, the consultants do not feel inclined to make sampling on rock habitat, aquatic habitats and flora and fauna. The insulation measures suggested are not only exhaustive but also ineffective. The residual impact on the ecology is briefly mentioned in all the reports. Generally these EIA reports are found to have many shortcomings in the quality of ecological input and can be improved. Thus, a suggestion with a comprehensive approach and the cooperation of all parties is needed to sustain and complement the EIA.

  3. The legacy of Biosphere 2 for the study of biospherics and closed ecological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, J P; Nelson, M; Alling, A

    2003-01-01

    The unprecedented challenges of creating Biosphere 2, the world's first laboratory for biospherics, the study of global ecology and long-term closed ecological system dynamics, led to breakthrough developments in many fields, and a deeper understanding of the opportunities and difficulties of material closure. This paper will review accomplishments and challenges, citing some of the key research findings and publications that have resulted from the experiments in Biosphere 2. Engineering accomplishments included development of a technique for variable volume to deal with pressure differences between the facility and outside environment, developing methods of atmospheric leak detection and sealing, while achieving new standards of closure, with an annual atmospheric leakrate of less than 10%, or less than 300 ppm per day. This degree of closure permitted detailed tracking of carbon dioxide, oxygen, and trace gases such as nitrous oxide and ethylene over the seasonal variability of two years. Full closure also necessitated developing new approaches and technologies for complete air, water, and wastewater recycle and reuse within the facility. The development of a soil-based highly productive agricultural system was a first in closed ecological systems, and much was learned about managing a wide variety of crops using non-chemical means of pest and disease control. Closed ecological systems have different temporal biogeochemical cycling and ranges of atmospheric components because of their smaller reservoirs of air, water and soil, and higher concentration of biomass, and Biosphere 2 provided detailed examination and modeling of these accelerated cycles over a period of closure which measured in years. Medical research inside Biosphere 2 included the effects on humans of lowered oxygen: the discovery that human productivity can be maintained with good health with lowered atmospheric oxygen levels could lead to major economies on the design of space stations and

  4. The legacy of biosphere 2 for the study of biospherics and closed ecological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, J. P.; Nelson, M.; Alling, A.

    The unprecedented challenges of creating Biosphere 2, the world's first laboratory for biospherics, the study of global ecology and long-term closed ecological system dynamics, led to breakthrough developments in many fields, and a deeper understanding of the opportunities and difficulties of material closure. This paper will review accomplishments and challenges, citing some of the key research findings and publications that have resulted from the experiments in Biosphere 2. Engineering accomplishments included development of a technique for variable volume to deal with pressure differences between the facility and outside environment, developing methods of atmospheric leak detection and sealing, while achieving new standards of closure, with an annual atmospheric leakrate of less than 10%, or less than 300 ppm per day. This degree of closure permitted detailed tracking of carbon dioxide, oxygen, and trice gases such as nitrous oxide and ethylene over the seasonal variability of two years. Full closure also necessitated developing new approaches and technologies for complete air, water, and wastewater recycle and reuse within the facility. The development of a soil-based highly productive agricultural system was a first in closed ecological systems, and much was learned about managing a wide variety of crops using non-chemical means of pest and disease control. Closed ecological systems have different temporal biogeochemical cycling and ranges of atmospheric components because of their smaller reservoirs of air, water and soil, and higher concentration of biomass, and Biosphere 2 provided detailed examination and modeling of these accelerated cycles over a period of closure which measured in years. Medical research inside Biosphere 2 included the effects on humans of lowered oxygen: the discovery that human productivity can be maintained with good health with lowered atmospheric oxygen levels could lead to major economies on the design of space stations and

  5. Increased Risk of Progression of Coronary Artery Calcification in Male Subjects with High Baseline Waist-to-Height Ratio: The Kangbuk Samsung Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hyung Geun; Nallamshetty, Shriram; Rhee, Eun Jung

    2016-02-01

    The waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) is an easy and inexpensive adiposity index that reflects central obesity. In this study, we examined the association of baseline WHtR and progression of coronary artery calcification (CAC) over 4 years of follow-up in apparently healthy Korean men. A total of 1,048 male participants (mean age, 40.9 years) in a health-screening program in Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Seoul, Korea who repeated a medical check-up in 2010 and 2014 were recruited. Baseline WHtR was calculated using the value for the waist in 2010 divided by the value for height in 2010. The CAC score (CACS) of each subject was measured by multi-detector computed tomography in both 2010 and 2014. Progression of CAC was defined as a CACS change over 4 years greater than 0. During the follow-up period, progression of CAC occurred in 278 subjects (26.5%). The subjects with CAC progression had slightly higher but significant baseline WHtR compared to those who did not show CAC progression (0.51±0.04 vs. 0.50±0.04, P<0.01). The proportion of subjects with CAC progression significantly increased as the baseline WHtR increased from the 1st quartile to 4th quartile groups (18.3%, 18.7%, 28.8%, and 34.2%; P<0.01). The risk for CAC progression was elevated with an odds ratio of 1.602 in the 4th quartile group of baseline WHtR even after adjustment for confounding variables (95% confidence interval, 1.040 to 2.466). Increased baseline WHtR was associated with increased risk for CAC progression. WHtR might be a useful screening tool to identify individuals at high risk for subclinical atherosclerosis.

  6. Increased Risk of Progression of Coronary Artery Calcification in Male Subjects with High Baseline Waist-to-Height Ratio: The Kangbuk Samsung Health Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung-Geun Oh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe waist-to-height ratio (WHtR is an easy and inexpensive adiposity index that reflects central obesity. In this study, we examined the association of baseline WHtR and progression of coronary artery calcification (CAC over 4 years of follow-up in apparently healthy Korean men.MethodsA total of 1,048 male participants (mean age, 40.9 years in a health-screening program in Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Seoul, Korea who repeated a medical check-up in 2010 and 2014 were recruited. Baseline WHtR was calculated using the value for the waist in 2010 divided by the value for height in 2010. The CAC score (CACS of each subject was measured by multi-detector computed tomography in both 2010 and 2014. Progression of CAC was defined as a CACS change over 4 years greater than 0.ResultsDuring the follow-up period, progression of CAC occurred in 278 subjects (26.5%. The subjects with CAC progression had slightly higher but significant baseline WHtR compared to those who did not show CAC progression (0.51±0.04 vs. 0.50±0.04, P<0.01. The proportion of subjects with CAC progression significantly increased as the baseline WHtR increased from the 1st quartile to 4th quartile groups (18.3%, 18.7%, 28.8%, and 34.2%; P<0.01. The risk for CAC progression was elevated with an odds ratio of 1.602 in the 4th quartile group of baseline WHtR even after adjustment for confounding variables (95% confidence interval, 1.040 to 2.466.ConclusionIncreased baseline WHtR was associated with increased risk for CAC progression. WHtR might be a useful screening tool to identify individuals at high risk for subclinical atherosclerosis.

  7. Mechanism of action study to evaluate the effect of rosiglitazone on bone in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes mellitus: rationale, study design and baseline characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Lorraine A.; Bilezikian, John P.; Wooddell, Margaret; Paul, Gitanjali; Kolatkar, Nikheel S.; Nino, Antonio J.; Miller, Colin G.; Bogado, Cesar E.; Arnaud, Claude D.; Cobitz, Alexander R.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Post-hoc analyses have shown an increase incidence of fractures among type 2 diabetes (T2DM) patients treated with thiazolidinediones (TZDs). The mechanisms by which TZDs may be associated with increased fracture risk is not well understood. This article describes the study design and baseline characteristics for a prospective, randomized, double-blind, active-controlled trial to evaluate the effects of rosiglitazone on changes in measures of skeletal structure, surrogates of bone strength and metabolism. Methods Postmenopausal women without osteoporosis and diagnosed with T2DM were randomized in a double-blind design to either rosiglitazone or metformin for 52 weeks, then all subjects received open-label metformin for 24 weeks. Study endpoints included changes in bone mineral density (BMD), quantitative computed tomography (QCT), digitized hip radiography (HXR) and high resolution magnetic resonance imaging (hrMRI). Serum markers of bone metabolism and indices of glycemic control were assessed within and between treatment groups. Results A total of 226 subjects were randomized. Baseline characteristics included: age 63.8 ± 6.5 years; years postmenopausal 16.9 ± 8.4; duration of diabetes 3.5 (1.8–7.8) years; body mass index (BMI) 31.4 ± 5.9 kg/m2; and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) 6.4 ± 0.65%. At baseline, mean T-scores were −0.95 ± 0.91 at the femoral neck, −0.02 ± 0.97 at the total hip and −0.55 ± 1.25 at the total spine. Since there are no well recognized techniques to determine bone mass and structure at the distal limbs (cortical bone sites where fractures were reported in RSG subjects), using the femoral neck as a surrogate for these areas may be a potential limitation of the study. Conclusion This is the first randomized trial utilizing multiple techniques to evaluate bone mass, structure, serum markers of bone remodeling, and potential reversibility of changes after discontinuation of rosiglitazone. This

  8. Mechanism of action study to evaluate the effect of rosiglitazone on bone in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes mellitus: rationale, study design and baseline characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Lorraine A; Bilezikian, John P; Wooddell, Margaret; Paul, Gitanjali; Kolatkar, Nikheel S; Nino, Antonio J; Miller, Colin G; Bogado, Cesar E; Arnaud, Claude D; Cobitz, Alexander R

    2012-01-01

    Post-hoc analyses have shown an increase incidence of fractures among type 2 diabetes (T2DM) patients treated with thiazolidinediones (TZDs). The mechanisms by which TZDs may be associated with increased fracture risk is not well understood. This article describes the study design and baseline characteristics for a prospective, randomized, double-blind, active-controlled trial to evaluate the effects of rosiglitazone on changes in measures of skeletal structure, surrogates of bone strength and metabolism. Postmenopausal women without osteoporosis and diagnosed with T2DM were randomized in a double-blind design to either rosiglitazone or metformin for 52 weeks, then all subjects received open-label metformin for 24 weeks. Study endpoints included changes in bone mineral density (BMD), quantitative computed tomography (QCT), digitized hip radiography (HXR) and high resolution magnetic resonance imaging (hrMRI). Serum markers of bone metabolism and indices of glycemic control were assessed within and between treatment groups. A total of 226 subjects were randomized. Baseline characteristics included: age 63.8 ± 6.5 years; years postmenopausal 16.9 ± 8.4; duration of diabetes 3.5 (1.8-7.8) years; body mass index (BMI) 31.4 ± 5.9 kg/m(2); and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) 6.4 ± 0.65%. At baseline, mean T-scores were -0.95 ± 0.91 at the femoral neck, -0.02 ± 0.97 at the total hip and -0.55 ± 1.25 at the total spine. Since there are no well recognized techniques to determine bone mass and structure at the distal limbs (cortical bone sites where fractures were reported in RSG subjects), using the femoral neck as a surrogate for these areas may be a potential limitation of the study. This is the first randomized trial utilizing multiple techniques to evaluate bone mass, structure, serum markers of bone remodeling, and potential reversibility of changes after discontinuation of rosiglitazone. This study will provide information about RSG

  9. COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATION OF URBAN SPRAWL ON ECOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT USING MULTI-SOURCE DATA: A CASE STUDY OF BEIJING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available With urban population growing and urban sprawling, urban ecological environment problems appear. Study on spatiotemporal characteristics of urban sprawl and its impact on ecological environment is useful for ecological civilization construction. Although a lot of work has been conducted on urban sprawl and its impact on ecological environment, resolution of images to extract urban boundary was relatively coarse and most studies only focused on certain indicators of ecological environment, rather than comprehensive evaluation of urban ecological environmental impact. In this study, high-resolution remote sensing images of Beijing from aerial photography in 2002 and 2013 respectively are employed to extract urban boundary with manual interpretation. Fractional Vegetation Coverage (FVC, Water Density (WD, Impervious Surfaces Coverage (ISC, Net Primary Production (NPP, and Land Surface Temperature (LST are adopted to represent ecological environment. The ecological environment indicators are measured with some general algorithms by combining Landsat images, GIS data and metrological data of 243 day, 2001 and 244 day, 2013. In order to evaluate the impact of urban sprawl on ecological environment, pseudo changes due to metrological variation and other noise in this time period are removed after images calibration. The impact of urban sprawl on ecological environment is evaluated at different scales of urban extent, Beijing ring road and watershed. Results show that Beijing had been undergoing a rapid urbanization from 2002 to 2013, with urban area increase from 600 square kilometres to 987 square kilometres. All ecological environment indicators except LST became terrible in urban sprawl region, with carbon reduction of approximate 40508 tons. The Beiyun River watershed of Beijing degraded seriously since ISC increased to 0.59. Gratifyingly, ecological environment indicators including NDVI, NPP, and LST inside of 4th Ring Road became well.

  10. Compliance to a Cell Phone-Based Ecological Momentary Assessment Study: The Effect of Time and Personality Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courvoisier, Delphine S.; Eid, Michael; Lischetzke, Tanja

    2012-01-01

    Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) is a method that is now widely used to study behavior and mood in the settings in which they naturally occur. It maximizes ecological validity and avoids the limitations of retrospective self-reports. Compliance patterns across time have not been studied. Consistent compliance patterns could lead to data not…

  11. Studying the complexity of change: toward an analytical framework for understanding deliberate social-ecological transformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele-Lee Moore

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Faced with numerous seemingly intractable social and environmental challenges, many scholars and practitioners are increasingly interested in understanding how to actively engage and transform the existing systems holding such problems in place. Although a variety of analytical models have emerged in recent years, most emphasize either the social or ecological elements of such transformations rather than their coupled nature. To address this, first we have presented a definition of the core elements of a social-ecological system (SES that could potentially be altered in a transformation. Second, we drew on insights about transformation from three branches of literature focused on radical change, i.e., social movements, socio-technical transitions, and social innovation, and gave consideration to the similarities and differences with the current studies by resilience scholars. Drawing on these findings, we have proposed a framework that outlines the process and phases of transformative change in an SES. Future research will be able to utilize the framework as a tool for analyzing the alteration of social-ecological feedbacks, identifying critical barriers and leverage points and assessing the outcome of social-ecological transformations.

  12. Museum as ecology: A case study analysis of an ambient intelligent museum guide

    OpenAIRE

    Wakkary, Ron; Evernden, Dale

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores the usefulness of the ecology concept as an analytical framework for designing interactive technology in museums. We aim to describe and evaluate an ecological approach to understanding museums and to examine information and cultural ecologies as analytical tools for guiding the design of interactive systems. We focus on two related concepts of ecology, cultural ecology (Bell 2002) and information ecology (Nardi and O'Day 1999). Utilizing each of the two frameworks, we ana...

  13. [Preliminary study on ecological footprint in Bashang region of Zhangjiakou city].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Mengchun; Zhang, Yongchun; Miao, Xubo; Shen, Weishou; Ma, Ronghua

    2003-02-01

    The ecological footprint and ecological carrying capacity in Bashang region of Zhangjiakou city were calculated with the statistical data of the region in 1999. Based on calculation, the balance between ecological footprint and ecological carrying capacity was analyzed, and the threshold values of the ecological carrying capacity and population capacity of the region at the current production level were determined. Strategies on reducing ecological deficit in this region were also brought forward.

  14. THE ROLES OF CONSUMER’S KNOWLEDGE AND EMOTION IN ECOLOGICAL ISSUES: An Empirical Study on Green Consumer Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Shellyana Junaedi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the causal effect of existing relationship amongst green purchasing, which are attitudinal and behavioral approaches, consumer values, ecological affect, ecological knowledge, and green purchase intention. The survey result provides a reasonable support for the validity of the proposed model. Specifically, the finding from structural equation model confirms the influence of consumer values orientation, ecological affect, and ecological knowledge on their attitudes towards green purchase intention. The implication of this research is relevant to Indonesian government and green marketers to fine-tune their environmental programs.

  15. Dengue epidemics and adverse obstetrical outcomes in French Guiana: a semi-ecological study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanf, Matthieu; Friedman, Eleanor; Basurko, Celia; Roger, Amaury; Bruncher, Pascal; Dussart, Philippe; Flamand, Claude; Carles, Gabriel; Buekens, Pierre; Breart, Gerard; Carme, Bernard; Nacher, Mathieu

    2014-01-01

    There are few studies on the obstetrical consequences of dengue fever during pregnancy. To determine whether dengue epidemics were associated with an increase in adverse obstetrical outcomes, a semi-ecological study combining individual data on obstetrical events from the perinatal registry and aggregated exposure data from the epidemiologic surveillance of dengue was conducted in Cayenne French Guiana between 2004 and 2007. After adjustment for individual risk factors, this semi-ecological analysis showed that an epidemic level of dengue transmission during the first trimester was associated with an increased risk of postpartum hemorrhage and preterm birth. The associated risks seemed to depend on the epidemic level. Despite its limitations, the present study suggests that dengue in the first trimester may be related to preterm birth and to postpartum bleeding, thus leading to specific hypotheses that should be tested in prospective studies. PMID:24341915

  16. Residential radon exposure and brain cancer: an ecological study in a radon prone area (Galicia, Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Ruano-Ravina, Alberto; Aragon?s, Nuria; Kelsey, Karl T.; P?rez-R?os, M?nica; Pi?eiro-Lamas, Mar?a; L?pez-Abente, Gonzalo; Juan M. Barros-Dios

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to know if radon concentration is associated with municipal mortality due to brain cancer in Galicia, Spain. We designed an ecological study taking as study unit Galician municipalities. To be included, municipalities had to have at least three radon measurements. We correlated radon concentrations with municipal mortality due to these malignant tumors during the period 1999?2008. We calculated the relative risk of dying of brain cancers for each municipality and correlated this valu...

  17. A clinical case study of the use of ecological momentary assessment in obsessive compulsive disorder

    OpenAIRE

    PJ Matt eTilley; Clare Samantha Rees

    2014-01-01

    Accurate assessment of obsessions and compulsions is a crucial step in treatment planning for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD). In this clinical case study, we sought to determine if the use of Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) could provide additional symptom information beyond that captured during standard assessment of OCD. We studied three adults diagnosed with OCD and compared the number and types of obsessions and compulsions captured using the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Sca...

  18. KIGAM Seafloor Observation System (KISOS) for the baseline study in monitoring of gas hydrate test production in the Ulleung Basin, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung-rock; Chun, Jong-hwa

    2013-04-01

    For the baseline study in the monitoring gas hydrate test production in the Ulleung Basin, Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM) has developed the KIGAM Seafloor Observation System (KISOS) for seafloor exploration using unmanned remotely operated vehicle connected with a ship by a cable. The KISOS consists of a transponder of an acoustic positioning system (USBL), a bottom finding pinger, still camera, video camera, water sampler, and measuring devices (methane, oxygen, CTD, and turbidity sensors) mounted on the unmanned ROV, and a sediment collecting device collecting sediment on the seafloor. It is very important to monitoring the environmental risks (gas leakage and production water/drilling mud discharge) which may be occurred during the gas hydrate test production drilling. The KISOS will be applied to solely conduct baseline study with the KIGAM seafloor monitoring system (KIMOS) of the Korean gas hydrate program in the future. The large scale of environmental monitoring program includes the environmental impact assessment such as seafloor disturbance and subsidence, detection of methane gas leakage around well and cold seep, methane bubbles and dissolved methane, change of marine environments, chemical factor variation of water column and seabed, diffusion of drilling mud and production water, and biological factors of biodiversity and marine habitats before and after drilling test well and nearby areas. The design of the baseline survey will be determined based on the result of SIMAP simulation in 2013. The baseline survey will be performed to provide the gas leakage and production water/drilling mud discharge before and after gas hydrate test production. The field data of the baseline study will be evaluated by the simulation and verification of SIMAP simulator in 2014. In the presentation, the authors would like introduce the configuration of KISOS and applicability to the seafloor observation for the gas hydrate test production in

  19. [Ecological compensation based on farmers' willingness: A case study of Jingsan County in Hubei Province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Liang-liang; Cai, Yin-ying

    2015-01-01

    Farmland protection is a pressing issue in China' s major agricultural regions because of the strategic importance of these regions for national food security. This study quantified the appropriate ecological compensation criteria for farmland protection by way of estimating farmers' opportunity cost and willingness to adopt environment-friendly farming practices. Based on survey data collected from Jingsan County, Hubei Province, a Tobit model was constructed to identify factors affecting farmers' willingness to accept (WTA). The result showed that with appropriate economic compensation for farmland protection, 77.1% and 64.7% of the surveyed households were willing to reduce usage of fertilizers and pesticides. When the reduced rates of fertilizer and pesticide increased from 50%, farmers' opportunity costs of production respectively increased from 1198 and 5850 yuan to 9698 and 9750 yuan per hectare per year, and their WTA increased from 4750 and 7313 yuan to 9781 and 12393 yuan per hectare per year. Farmers' opportunity cost and WTA in reducing pesticide inputs were larger than those in reducing the same rate of fertilizer inputs, and in each case farmers' WTA was greater than their opportunity cost. A farm' s distance from township, farmers' knowledge about the ecology of farmland, and their expectation to improve the ecological environment of farmland had positive, significant effect on the farmers' WTA to reducing fertilization, while farmers' education level and the overall economic condition of the village had significantly negative effect. The proportion of agriculture income, farmers' knowledge about the ecology of farmland, and their expectation to improve the ecological environment of farmland had positive, significant effect on the farmers' WTA to reducing pesticide, while household' cash income and the overall economic condition of the village had significantly negative effect.

  20. Baseline glycemic status and mortality in 241,499 Korean metropolitan subjects: A Kangbuk Samsung Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Eun-Jung; Park, Se Eun; Chang, Yoosoo; Ryu, Seungho; Lee, Won-Young

    2016-02-01

    Diabetes and prediabetes subjects have increased risk for mortality. We analyzed the mortality risk due to all causes, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer in Korean subjects participating in a health-screening program according to baseline glycemic status and HbA1c levels. Among 241,499 participants of a health-screening program between 2005 and 2012, the risk of death from all causes, CVD, and cancer was calculated based on the baseline glycemic status (normoglycemia, prediabetes, and diabetes) and HbA1c levels. Uncontrolled diabetes was defined as HbA1c≥7.0%. Vital status and confirmation of the cause of death were based on the analysis of death certificate records from the National Death Index. During 923,343.1 person-years of follow-up, 877 participants died. The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) of subjects with controlled and uncontrolled diabetes to normoglycemic subjects for all-cause mortality were 1.58 (95% CI 1.24-2.03) and 2.26 (95% CI 1.78-2.86), respectively. The HRs of subjects with controlled and uncontrolled diabetes to normoglycemic subjects for mortality due to cancer were 1.75 (95% CI 1.23-2.48) and 1.67 (95% CI 1.13-2.45). However, glycemic status was not significantly associated with the risk of mortality due to CVD. The subjects with HbA1c higher than 6.5% showed more than 2-fold increased risk for all-cause mortality and the subjects with HbA1c lower than 5.2% showed increased HR (1.45, 95% CI 1.06-1.97) compared with those with HbA1c of 5.5% in subjects not taking anti-diabetic medications. Mortality risk from all causes and cancer significantly increased in diabetes subjects regardless of the glucose control status. In subjects not taking anti-diabetic medications, both high and low HbA1c resulted in increased risk for all-cause mortality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Diabetes treatment patterns and goal achievement in primary diabetes care (DiaRegis - study protocol and patient characteristics at baseline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deeg Evelin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with type 2 diabetes are at an increased risk for disease and treatment related complications after the initial approach of oral mono/dual antidiabetic therapy has failed. Data from clinical practice with respect to this patient group are however scarce. Therefore we set up a registry in primary care documenting the course and outcomes of this patient group. Methods Diabetes Treatment Patterns and Goal Achievement in Primary Diabetes Care (DiaRegis is a prospective, observational, German, multicenter registry including patients with type-2 diabetes in which oral mono/dual antidiabetic therapy has failed. Data were recorded at baseline and will be prospectively documented during visits at 6 ± 1, 12 ± 2 and 24 ± 2 months. The primary objective is to estimate the proportion of patients with at least 1 episode of severe hypoglycemia within one year. Results 313 primary care offices included 4,048 patients between June 2009 and March 2010 of which 3,810 patients fulfilled the in- and exclusion criteria. 46.7% of patients were female; patients had a median diabetes duration of 5.5 years and most were obese with respect to BMI or waist circumference. HbA1c at baseline was 7.4%, fasting plasma glucose 142 mg/dl and postprandial glucose 185 mg/dl. Co-morbidity in this patient population was substantial with 17.9% having coronary artery disease, 14.4% peripheral neuropathy, 9.9% heart failure and 6.0% peripheral arterial disease. 68.6% of patients received oral monotherapy, 31.4% dual oral combination therapy. The most frequent antidiabetic agent used as monotherapy was metformin (79.0% followed by sulfonylureas (14.8%. Conclusions DiaRegis is a large, prospective registry in primary diabetes care to document the course and outcomes of patients with type-2 diabetes in which the initial approach of oral mono/dual antidiabetic therapy has failed. The two year follow-up will allow for a prospective evaluation of these patients

  2. Effects of emotion regulation strategy use in response to stressors on PTSD symptoms: An ecological momentary assessment study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Nicole A; Boffa, Joseph W; Clancy, Kevin; Schmidt, Norman B

    2018-04-01

    Although a burgeoning line of research identifies emotion regulation difficulties as a potential maintenance factor for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), little is known in regard to what emotion regulation strategies individuals with PTSD use in their daily lives, their predictors, and their consequences on later PTSD symptoms. The current study utilized ecological momentary assessment (EMA) design to explore prospective relationships between maladaptive and adaptive emotion regulation strategy use and PTSD symptoms in participants with PTSD (N = 30). Participants completed 4 EMAs per day over 8 days, assessing stressors, emotional response, and emotion regulation strategy use. Individuals with PTSD most commonly used avoidance as an emotion regulation strategy. Multilevel modeling indicated that baseline PTSD symptoms predicted maladaptive emotion regulation strategy use. After covarying for morning PTSD symptoms, maladaptive emotion regulation prospectively predicted increased PTSD symptoms later in the day. Adaptive emotion regulation strategies did not uniquely predict later PTSD symptoms. In line with conceptualizations of difficulties in emotion regulation as a transdiagnostic maintenance factor in PTSD, findings indicate that maladaptive emotion regulation strategies in response to stressors exacerbate PTSD symptoms. The use of adaptive emotion regulation strategies had no positive or negative impact on subsequent PTSD symptoms. Future studies should utilize longer-term prospective designs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Fasting insulin at baseline influences the number of cardiometabolic risk factors and R-R interval at 3years in a healthy population: the RISC Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pataky, Z; Golay, A; Laville, M; Disse, E; Mitrakou, A; Guidone, C; Gabriel, R; Bobbioni-Harsch, E

    2013-09-01

    This was a cross-sectional and longitudinal study of factors contributing to the number of cardiometabolic risk factors, common carotid artery intima-media thickness (CCA-IMT) and R-R interval in clinically healthy subjects without diabetes. Anthropometric and cardiometabolic parameters were measured in the Relationship between Insulin Sensitivity and Cardiovascular Disease (RISC) Study cohort at baseline (n=1211) and 3years later (n=974). At baseline, insulin sensitivity was assessed by the euglycaemic clamp technique. The CCA-IMT was echographically measured and the R-R interval was electrocardiographically evaluated at baseline and at the 3-year follow-up. Higher baseline BMI, fasting insulin and tobacco use as well as greater changes in BMI and fasting insulin but lower adiponectin levels, were associated with a greater number of cardiometabolic risk factors at the 3-year follow-up independently of insulin sensitivity (all Pfasting insulin, whereas higher fasting insulinaemia and its 3-year changes were significantly associated with a smaller R-R interval (P=0.005 and P=0.002, respectively). These relationships were independent of baseline age, gender, BMI, adiponectin, insulin sensitivity, tobacco use and physical activity. In clinically healthy subjects, fasting insulinaemia, adiponectin and lifestyle parameters are related to the presence of one or two cardiometabolic risk factors before criteria for the metabolic syndrome are met. These results underline the importance of fasting insulinaemia as an independent cardiometabolic risk factor at an early stage of disease development in a healthy general population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Association of low baseline free thyroxin levels with progression of coronary artery calcification over 4 years in euthyroid subjects: the Kangbuk Samsung Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hye-Jeong; Kim, Jihyun; Han, Eun Jin; Park, Se Eun; Park, Cheol-Young; Lee, Won-Young; Oh, Ki-Won; Park, Sung-Woo; Rhee, Eun-Jung

    2016-06-01

    Overt and subclinical hypothyroidism are risk factors for atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. It is unclear whether thyroid hormone levels within the normal range are also associated with atherosclerosis measured by coronary artery calcium (CAC). This study aimed to examine the relationship between normal variations in thyroid function and changes in CAC. We conducted a 4-year retrospective study of 2173 apparently healthy men and women with normal thyroid hormone levels. Their free thyroxin (FT4), free triiodothyronin (FT3) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels were measured by electrochemiluminescent immunoassay. The CAC score (CACS) of each subject was measured by multidetector computed tomography in both 2010 and 2014. Progression of CAC was defined as a CACS change over 4 years > 0. The mean CACS changes over 4 years by quartiles of baseline FT4 level (lowest to highest) were 12·9, 8·43, 7·82 and 7·81 (P = 0·028). CAC progression was not significantly associated with either the baseline FT3 or TSH levels. The odds ratios (OR) for CAC progression over 4 years (highest vs lowest quartile for baseline FT4) were 0·647 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0·472-0·886) after adjustment for confounding factor, which were attenuated with further adjustment for lipid profiles, homoeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and hypertension [0·747 (95% CI 0·537-1·038)]. Quartiles of baseline FT3 or TSH level did not show any increased OR for CAC progression after adjustment for confounding factors. In this cohort of euthyroid men and women, a low baseline FT4 level was associated with a high risk of CACS progression over 4 years. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. The effect of inappropriate calibration: three case studies in molecular ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Simon Y W; Saarma, Urmas; Barnett, Ross; Haile, James; Shapiro, Beth

    2008-02-20

    Time-scales estimated from sequence data play an important role in molecular ecology. They can be used to draw correlations between evolutionary and palaeoclimatic events, to measure the tempo of speciation, and to study the demographic history of an endangered species. In all of these studies, it is paramount to have accurate estimates of time-scales and substitution rates. Molecular ecological studies typically focus on intraspecific data that have evolved on genealogical scales, but often these studies inappropriately employ deep fossil calibrations or canonical substitution rates (e.g., 1% per million years for birds and mammals) for calibrating estimates of divergence times. These approaches can yield misleading estimates of molecular time-scales, with significant impacts on subsequent evolutionary and ecological inferences. We illustrate this calibration problem using three case studies: avian speciation in the late Pleistocene, the demographic history of bowhead whales, and the Pleistocene biogeography of brown bears. For each data set, we compare the date estimates that are obtained using internal and external calibration points. In all three cases, the conclusions are significantly altered by the application of revised, internally-calibrated substitution rates. Collectively, the results emphasise the importance of judicious selection of calibrations for analyses of recent evolutionary events.

  6. The Effect of Inappropriate Calibration: Three Case Studies in Molecular Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Simon Y. W.; Saarma, Urmas; Barnett, Ross; Haile, James; Shapiro, Beth

    2008-01-01

    Time-scales estimated from sequence data play an important role in molecular ecology. They can be used to draw correlations between evolutionary and palaeoclimatic events, to measure the tempo of speciation, and to study the demographic history of an endangered species. In all of these studies, it is paramount to have accurate estimates of time-scales and substitution rates. Molecular ecological studies typically focus on intraspecific data that have evolved on genealogical scales, but often these studies inappropriately employ deep fossil calibrations or canonical substitution rates (e.g., 1% per million years for birds and mammals) for calibrating estimates of divergence times. These approaches can yield misleading estimates of molecular time-scales, with significant impacts on subsequent evolutionary and ecological inferences. We illustrate this calibration problem using three case studies: avian speciation in the late Pleistocene, the demographic history of bowhead whales, and the Pleistocene biogeography of brown bears. For each data set, we compare the date estimates that are obtained using internal and external calibration points. In all three cases, the conclusions are significantly altered by the application of revised, internally-calibrated substitution rates. Collectively, the results emphasise the importance of judicious selection of calibrations for analyses of recent evolutionary events. PMID:18286172

  7. Long Baseline Observatory (LBO)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Long Baseline Observatory (LBO) comprises ten radio telescopes spanning 5,351 miles. It's the world's largest, sharpest, dedicated telescope array. With an eye...

  8. Climate policies: what if emerging country baseline were not so optimistic? A case study related to India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathy, Sandrine; Guivarch, Celine (Centre International de Recherche sur l' Environnement et le Developpement, Nogent-sur-Marne (France))

    2009-07-01

    One of the current main objective of international negotiations on climate change aims at enlarging the coordination regime to developing countries (DCs), and particularly to emerging countries. The international coordination system built at the Kyoto Conference relies on a coordination system based on a purely climate centric approach which shows irreconcilable contradictions between climate and development issues. This article aims at evaluating possible pathways implementing synergies between climate policies and development policies in order to create an incentive towards DCs to take part in climate mitigation. We focus on an illustrative example on India. When most reference scenarios postulate rapid energy decoupling of the GDP and rapid decarbonisation of DCs economies in the future, this article elaborates, with the IMACLIM-R model, a baseline taking into account weaknesses and current disequilibria of the Indian technico-economic system such as the high dependency on imported energy, or the structural shortage in electricity. We show why a purely climate centric approach (quota allocation), adopted to commit with a world objective of stabilization to 550ppm, induce very high transition costs in spite of significant financial transfers. On the contrary, a strategy based on the research of synergies between the reduction of these disequilibria, and the mitigation of GHG emissions is investigated in the power sector, which presents the biggest potential of no-regret measures. This permits to drop down transition costs applied to the Indian economy by improving the overall energy efficiency. An economic and environmental evaluation of this alternative scenario is lead.

  9. Rapid Industrial Development, Competition, and Relative Economic Status: A Study in Human Ecology. Working Paper RID 73.10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, Gene F.; Clemente, Frank

    The document has 3 goals (1) to examine the distribution of economic benefits of industrial development as reflected by the concept of competition in human ecology; (2) to provide an empirical test of the ecological model, and (3) to relate the findings to public policy. Two Illinois study areas were identified. First, as an experimental region,…

  10. Ecological networks as a new approach for nature conservation in Turkey: A case study of Izmir Province

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hepcan, C.C.; Bouwma, I.M.; Jongman, R.H.G.; Ozkan, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    This paper aims to identify and evaluate a potential ecological network including core areas and large-scale corridors in the ¿zmir Province and its surrounding areas, Turkey. It is one of the first studies on the connectivity for mammal species and the detection of potential ecological corridors

  11. Cardiac patients who completed a longitudinal psychosocial study had a different clinical and psychosocial baseline profile than patients who dropped out prematurely

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damen, Nikki L; Versteeg, Henneke; Serruys, Patrick W

    2013-01-01

    Non-response is a serious threat to the external validity of longitudinal psychosocial studies. Little is known about potential systematic differences between patients with coronary artery disease who complete a psychosocial study and those who drop out prematurely due to non-response, or whether...... drop-outs may have a different cardiovascular risk. We studied a cohort of 1132 consecutive patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). At baseline, all patients completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the Type D Scale (DS14). At 12 months follow-up, 70.8% (n...... = 802) of patients completed both questionnaires, while 29.2% (n = 330) dropped out. We observed significant differences in socio-demographic, clinical, and psychological baseline characteristics between completers and drop-outs. Drop-outs were younger, more likely to smoke, but less often prescribed...

  12. Design and baseline characteristics of the 10 Small Steps Study: a randomised controlled trial of an intervention to promote healthy behaviour using a lifestyle score and personalised feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parekh Sanjoti

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-communicable diseases (NCDs are the leading causes of death globally and are associated with a limited set of common, modifiable health behaviours: tobacco use, physical inactivity, harmful use of alcohol and unhealthy diet. General practice offers an ideal avenue for addressing such health behaviours on a population-wide basis. This paper describes the protocol of a multiple health behaviour change intervention designed for implementation in general practice and summarises the baseline characteristics of its participants. Method/Design The 10 Small Steps (10SS study, a randomised controlled trial, involved 4,678 adult general practice patients in Queensland, Australia. Self-reported data were collected to establish the proportion of participants meeting recommended guidelines for ten health behaviours: physical activity, body mass index, alcohol, smoking and six dietary behaviours. Participants were randomised to four groups: contact at baseline only ('single intervention' and corresponding control group and contact at baseline and 3 months ('dual intervention' and corresponding control group. At each contact the participants received a computer-tailored feedback and one page information sheet according to their allocation to intervention or control groups. Change in the intervention group compared to the control group was assessed at 3 and12 months after baseline data collection. Responses were summed to calculate an individual lifestyle score (the Prudence Score, which ranged from 0 to 10. The baseline response was 56.5% (4678 of 8343 invited participants and the study sample was primarily female (68.7% with an average age of 47 years. The mean Prudence Score was 5.8 (95%CI 5.75-5.85. Discussion Baseline data from the 10SS study show that nearly all participants engage in some health behaviours but relatively few adhere simultaneously to a core set of dietary and lifestyle behaviours associated with risk of NCDs. Ample

  13. Ecological assessment of Mediterranean reservoirs: Alqueva reservoir as a case study (Alentejo, Southern Portugal)

    OpenAIRE

    MORAIS, Manuela; Novais, Maria Helena; Nunes, Susana; Rosado, Joana; Penha, Alexandra; Zavattieri, Amely; Potes, Miguel; Salgado, Rui

    2015-01-01

    Ecological assessment of Mediterranean reservoirs: Alqueva reservoir as a case study (Alentejo, Southern Portugal) Manuela Morais, Maria Helena Novais, Susana Nunes, Joana Rosado, Alexandra Penha, Amely Zavattieri, Miguel Potes & Rui Salgado Abstract The Mediterranean region, with almost 7% of the world population, has less than 3% of the world freshwater resources, and these are irregularly distributed, 72% in the northern countries (Spain; France; Monaco, Italy, Greece, Malta, Slov...

  14. Inferential consequences of modeling rather than measuring snow accumulation in studies of animal ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Paul C.; Klaver, Robert W.; Brennan, Angela; Creel, Scott; Beckmann, Jon P.; Higgs, Megan D.; Scurlock, Brandon M.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. It is increasingly common for studies of animal ecology to use model-based predictions of environmental variables as explanatory or predictor variables, even though model prediction uncertainty is typically unknown. To demonstrate the potential for misleading inferences when model predictions with error are used in place of direct measurements, we compared snow water equivalent (SWE) and snow depth as predicted by the Snow Data Assimilation System (SNODAS) to field measurements of SWE and snow depth. We examined locations on elk (Cervus canadensis) winter ranges in western Wyoming, because modeled data such as SNODAS output are often used for inferences on elk ecology. Overall, SNODAS predictions tended to overestimate field measurements, prediction uncertainty was high, and the difference between SNODAS predictions and field measurements was greater in snow shadows for both snow variables compared to non-snow shadow areas. We used a simple simulation of snow effects on the probability of an elk being killed by a predator to show that, if SNODAS prediction uncertainty was ignored, we might have mistakenly concluded that SWE was not an important factor in where elk were killed in predatory attacks during the winter. In this simulation, we were interested in the effects of snow at finer scales (2) than the resolution of SNODAS. If bias were to decrease when SNODAS predictions are averaged over coarser scales, SNODAS would be applicable to population-level ecology studies. In our study, however, averaging predictions over moderate to broad spatial scales (9–2200 km2) did not reduce the differences between SNODAS predictions and field measurements. This study highlights the need to carefully evaluate two issues when using model output as an explanatory variable in subsequent analysis: (1) the model’s resolution relative to the scale of the ecological question of interest and (2) the implications of prediction uncertainty on inferences when using model

  15. Metabolomics and Natural-Products Strategies to Study Chemical Ecology in Nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edison, Arthur S.; Clendinen, Chaevien S.; Ajredini, Ramadan; Beecher, Chris; Ponce, Francesca V.; Stupp, Gregory S.

    2015-01-01

    This review provides an overview of two complementary approaches to identify biologically active compounds for studies in chemical ecology. The first is activity-guided fractionation and the second is metabolomics, particularly focusing on a new liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry-based method called isotopic ratio outlier analysis. To illustrate examples using these approaches, we review recent experiments using Caenorhabditis elegans and related free-living nematodes. PMID:26141866

  16. An ecological study of stillbirths in Mexico from 2000 to 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Murgu?a-Peniche, Teresa; Illescas-Z?rate, Daniel; Chico-Barba, Gabriela; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To examine trends in the rate of stillbirths at or after 21?weeks? gestation in Mexico from 2000 to 2013, identify factors associated with stillbirths and estimate subnational variability in stillbirth rates and the proportion of deaths occurring intrapartum. Methods This population-based, ecological study involved data from a national database on 263?475 stillbirths in 29 Mexican states and maternal sociodemographic factors. Subnational variability in the stillbirth rate i...

  17. Long-term monitoring of coastal ecosystems at Las Cruces, Chile: Defining baselines to build ecological literacy in a world of change Monitoreo de largo plazo en el ecosistema marino costero de Las Cruces, Chile: Definiendo líneas base para construir alfabetización ecológica en un mundo que cambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SERGIO A NAVARRETE

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Marine coastal habitats are being increasingly impacted by human activities. In addition, there are dramatic climatic disruptions that could generate important and irreversible shifts in coastal ecosystems. Long-term monitoring plays a fundamental and irreplaceable role to establish general baselines from which we can better address current and future impacts and distinguish between natural and anthropogenic changes and fluctuations. Here we highlight how over 25 years of monitoring the coastal marine ecosystem within the no-take marine protected area of Las Cruces has provided critical information to understand ecological baselines and build the necessary ecological literacy for marine management and conservation. We argue that this understanding can only be gained with simultaneous monitoring of reserves and human-impacted areas, and the development of complementary experimental studies that test alternative hypothesis about driving processes and mechanisms. In this contribution we selected four examples to illustrate long-term temporal fluctuations at all trophic levels including taxa from algae to sea birds. From these examples we draw a few general lessons: a there is co-occurrence of rapid- and slowly- unfolding ecological responses to the exclusion of humans within the same rocky shore community. The sharp differences in the pace at which depleted populations recover is at least partly related to differences in life history (dispersal capabilities of the targeted species. b Long-term monitoring of the supply-side of marine communities is critical to evaluate the potential feedback effects of local changes in abundance into the arrival of new individuals and to correctly evaluate environmental and human-induced perturbations. c Unexpected changes in local population dynamics can occur in “independent” and apparently non-interactive modules of the marine ecosystem, such as roosting sea birds inside the reserve. In addition we discuss

  18. HIV and STI knowledge, testing, and risk among adult crack users in Mexico city: baseline findings from a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepeda, Alice; Frankeberger, Jessica; Bailey, Jennifer L; Nowotny, Kathryn M; Natera-Rey, Guillermina; Valdez, Avelardo

    2017-03-01

    Recent research has documented crack cocaine's increasing spread in Mexico, which is likely to contribute to the rapid transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). In Mexico, crack use is increasing most rapidly in vulnerable, hard-to-reach populations, where little is known about risk behaviors. This report aims to present baseline data regarding HIV and STI knowledge and testing prevalence from an innovative projection mapping HIV intervention, in which 3-D illusions, animation, and visual text graphics and sound are projected onto buildings with health messages that were designed to disrupt everyday life and connect with the target population. Fifty-eight men and women who used crack in the past month without receiving drug treatment were recruited and interviewed before the projection mapping intervention took place. Testing instruments included a sociodemographic assessment, drug use and treatment profile, HIV and STI knowledge questionnaires, and a sex and drug risk assessment. The mean scores for respondents on the HIV Knowledge Questionnaire (10.5 out of 18, 58.3%) and STD Knowledge Questionnaire (9.5 out of 27, 35.2%) were both low. Respondents also reported high rates of sexual risk behaviors, with 73% reporting never using a condom and 64% never being tested for HIV. This report provides a portrait of STI and HIV risk among a vulnerable population in Mexico City and the need for urgent interventions to prevent the spread of STIs and HIV. The associated projection mapping intervention will seek to increase HIV and STI knowledge and reduce risk in this hard-to-reach population.

  19. Prediction and treatment of asthma in preschool children at risk: study design and baseline data of a prospective cohort study in general practice (ARCADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Aalderen Wim MC

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Asthma is a difficult diagnosis to establish in preschool children. A few years ago, our group presented a prediction rule for young children at risk for asthma in general practice. Before this prediction rule can safely be used in practice, cross-validation is required. In addition, general practitioners face many therapeutic management decisions in children at risk for asthma. The objectives of the study are: (1 identification of predictors for asthma in preschool children at risk for asthma with the aim of cross-validating an earlier derived prediction rule; (2 compare the effects of different treatment strategies in preschool children. Design In this prospective cohort study one to five year old children at risk of developing asthma were selected from general practices. At risk was defined as 'visited the general practitioner with recurrent coughing (≥ 2 visits, wheezing (≥ 1 or shortness of breath (≥ 1 in the previous 12 months'. All children in this prospective cohort study will be followed until the age of six. For our prediction rule, demographic data, data with respect to clinical history and additional tests (specific immunoglobulin E (IgE, fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO, peak expiratory flow (PEF are collected. History of airway specific medication use, symptom severity and health-related quality of life (QoL are collected to estimate the effect of different treatment intensities (as expressed in GINA levels using recently developed statistical techniques. In total, 1,938 children at risk of asthma were selected from general practice and 771 children (40% were enrolled. At the time of writing, follow-up for all 5-year olds and the majority of the 4-year olds is complete. The total and specific IgE measurements at baseline were carried out by 87% of the children. Response rates to the repeated questionnaires varied from 93% at baseline to 73% after 18 months follow-up; 89% and 87% performed PEF and FENO

  20. Studying the neurobiology of human social interaction: Making the case for ecological validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogenelst, Koen; Schoevers, Robert A; aan het Rot, Marije

    2015-01-01

    With this commentary we make the case for an increased focus on the ecological validity of the measures used to assess aspects of human social functioning. Impairments in social functioning are seen in many types of psychopathology, negatively affecting the lives of psychiatric patients and those around them. Yet the neurobiology underlying abnormal social interaction remains unclear. As an example of human social neuroscience research with relevance to biological psychiatry and clinical psychopharmacology, this commentary discusses published experimental studies involving manipulation of the human brain serotonin system that included assessments of social behavior. To date, these studies have mostly been laboratory-based and included computer tasks, observations by others, or single-administration self-report measures. Most laboratory measures used so far inform about the role of serotonin in aspects of social interaction, but the relevance for real-life interaction is often unclear. Few studies have used naturalistic assessments in real life. We suggest several laboratory methods with high ecological validity as well as ecological momentary assessment, which involves intensive repeated measures in naturalistic settings. In sum, this commentary intends to stimulate experimental research on the neurobiology of human social interaction as it occurs in real life.

  1. An ecological study of Bithynia snails, the first intermediate host of Opisthorchis viverrini in northeast Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Chen; Ho, Richard Cheng Yong; Feng, Chen-Chieh; Namsanor, Jutamas; Sithithaworn, Paiboon

    2015-01-01

    Infection with the food-borne trematodiasis, liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini, is a major public health concern in Southeast Asia. While epidemiology and parasitic incidence in humans are well studied, ecological information on the O. viverrini intermediate hosts remains limited. This study aimed to investigate the factors affecting the distribution and abundance of the first intermediate host, Bithynia siamensis goniomphalos snails. Water quality and snails were sampled in 31 sites in Muang District, Khon Kaen Province, Thailand from June 2012 to January 2013 to characterize the B.s. goniomphalos snail habitats. Species relative abundance and Shannon's diversity and evenness indices were employed to describe snail compositions and diversities across different habitat types. Statistical analyses were conducted to examine the extent to which the water quality variables and species interactions account for the relative abundance of B.s. goniomphalos snails. The results showed that the freshwater habitats of ponds, streams and rice paddies possessed significantly different abiotic water qualities, with water temperature and pH showing distinct statistical differences (Psnail diversity and species evenness, with high B.s. goniomphalos snail abundance at rice paddy habitats. The differences in snail abundance might be due to the distinct sets of abiotic water qualities associated with each habitat types. The relative abundance of B.s. goniomphalos snails was found to be negatively correlated with that of Filopaludina martensi martensi snails (r=-0.46, Psnail population. Field work observations revealed that rice planting seasons and irrigation could regulate snail population dynamics at rice paddy habitats. This study provides new ecological insights into the factors affecting Bithynia snail distribution and abundance. It bridges the knowledge gap in O. viverrini disease ecology and highlights the potential effect of anthropogenic irrigation practices on B

  2. Increased risk of coronary artery calcification progression in subjects with high baseline Lp(a) levels: The Kangbuk Samsung Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jung Hwan; Lee, Da Young; Lee, Eun Seo; Kim, Jihyun; Park, Se Eun; Park, Cheol-Young; Lee, Won-Young; Oh, Ki-Won; Park, Sung-Woo; Rhee, Eun-Jung

    2016-11-01

    Results from previous studies support the association of lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] levels and coronary artery disease risk. In this study, we analyzed the association between baseline Lp(a) levels and future progression of coronary artery calcification (CAC) in apparently healthy Korean adults. A total of 2611 participants (mean age: 41years, 92% mend) who underwent a routine health check-up in 2010 and 2014 were enrolled. Coronary artery calcium score (CACS) were measured by multi-detector computed tomography. Baseline Lp(a) was measured by high-sensitivity immunoturbidimetric assay. Progression of CAC was defined as a change in CACS >0 over four years. Bivariate correlation analyses with baseline Lp(a) and other metabolic parameters revealed age, total cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C and CACS to have a significant positive correlation, while body weight, fasting glucose level, blood pressure and triglyceride level were negatively correlated with baseline Lp(a) level. After four years of follow-up, 635 subjects (24.3%) had CAC progression. The participants who had CAC progression were older, composed of more men, more obese, and had higher fasting glucose levels and worse baseline lipid profiles compared to those who did not have CAC progression. The mean serum Lp(a) level was significantly higher in subjects who had CAC progression compared to those who did not (32.5 vs. 28.9mg/dL, p<0.01). When the risk for CAC progression according to baseline Lp(a) was calculated, those with Lp(a) level≥50mg/dL had an odds ratio of 1.333 (95% CI 1.027-1.730) for CAC progression compared to those with Lp(a)<50mg/dL after adjusting for confounding factors. In this study, the subjects who had higher Lp(a) were at significantly higher risk for CAC progression after four years of follow-up, suggesting the role of high Lp(a) in CAC progression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Spatial variation in lake benthic macroinvertebrate ecological assessment: a synthesis of European case studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandin, Leif Leonard; Solimini, Angelo G.

    2012-01-01

    local invertebrate assemblages. In this issue we provide a contribution towards the understanding of basic sources of spatial variation of invertebrate assemblages in different European lake habitat types and their relationship with major human pressures. All papers have an obvious applied objective...... Baltic, Atlantic, and Mediterranean). The goal of the papers was to assess the main environmental factors and how they affected benthic macroinvertebrate variation at different ecological scales and thus better our basic understanding of how changes in these environmental variables can be tracked using......This paper summarizes eight case studies that were analysed as part of the research theme ``lake benthic macroinvertebrates'' forming part of the EU-funded WISER project ``Water bodies in Europe: Integrative Systems to assess Ecological status and Recovery''. The relationships between lake benthic...

  4. Ecological Study of Lagoons Surrounding the John F. Kennedy Space Center, Brevard County, Florida . Volume 2; Theses and Project Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Many of the detailed studies done in connection with Ecological Study of the Lagoons surrounding the John F. Kennedy Space Port were performed as Master's Thesis investigations by various graduate students enrolled at F. I. T. during and subsequent to the report. The scope and purpose of what we came to call "the KSC Baseline Study" caught the imagination and interest of our student body. Many who were not financially or otherwise connected with the project found their inspiration in studies that were directly connected with project, and thus added materially to the totality of the knowledge gained. An example of one such study is the first article included in this Volume, A Master's Thesis study performed by Shen Phillip Chen, who chose the site for his investigation so that his results would correlate with and extend the results of others. In addition to the Master's Theses contained in this Volume, six other graduate studies must be acknowledged here as contributing to this Report, although they have not reached the stage of final publication. Ms. Sandra Fettes has completed a study of the amounts of five trace metals in mangrove leaves from plants at various locations around the Kennedy Space Center. Mr. Bernard Cohenour has isolated and identified a number of oil consuming bacteria endemic in the waters of the Indian Rivers. Mr. Charles Waterhouse has analyzed historic data of tidal gauges in the lagoonal area and correlated it with wind field records. Mr. Renkert Meyer has measured the vertical and horizontal currents of the lagoons and is attempting an interpretation of them in terms of the wind field as a driving force. Mr. Richard Campbell has measured the rate of nitrogen fixation in both the water columns and the sediments under them in the lagoons. Mr. Craig Weiderhold has measured thl3 annual variations in the populations of benthic invertebrates in the lagoons. An integral part of the F. I. T. curriculum is a requirement that each undergraduate

  5. Ten-year prediction of osteoporosis from baseline bone mineral density: development of prognostic thresholds in healthy postmenopausal women. The Danish Osteoporosis Prevention Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Bo; Rejnmark, Lars; Nielsen, Stig Pors

    2006-01-01

    . We analyzed dual energy X-ray absorptometry (DXA) of the lumbar spine (LS) and femoral neck (FN) from 872 women, who participated in the non-HRT arms of the Danish Osteoporosis Prevention Study and had remained on no HRT, bisphosphonates or raloxifene since inclusion 10 years ago. We defined......Osteopenia is common in healthy women examined in the first year or two following menopause. Short-term fracture risk is low, but we lack algorithms to assess long-term risk of osteoporosis. Because bone loss proceeds at only a few percent per year, we speculated that baseline bone mineral density...... development of a T -score below -2.5 at the LS and/or FN or incident fracture as end-point, and we derived prognostic thresholds for baseline BMD, defining 90% NPV (negative predictive value) and 90% sensitivity, respectively. Seventy-six percent of the variation in BMD of the LS at 10 years was predicted...

  6. Ecological Research Division, Marine Research Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-05-01

    This report presents program summaries of the various projects sponsored during 1979 by the Marine Research Program of the Ecological Research Division. Program areas include the effects of petroleum hydrocarbons on the marine environment; a study of the baseline ecology of a proposed OTEC site near Puerto Rico; the environmental impact of offshore geothermal energy development; the movement of radionuclides through the marine environment; the environmental aspects of power plant cooling systems; and studies of the physical and biological oceangraphy of the continental shelves bordering the United States.

  7. The African Descent and Glaucoma Evaluation Study (ADAGES) III: Contribution of Genotype to Glaucoma Phenotype in African Americans: Study Design and Baseline Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zangwill, Linda M; Ayyagari, Radha; Liebmann, Jeffrey M; Girkin, Christopher A; Feldman, Robert; Dubiner, Harvey; Dirkes, Keri A; Holmann, Matthew; Williams-Steppe, Eunice; Hammel, Naama; Saunders, Luke J; Vega, Suzanne; Sandow, Kevin; Roll, Kathryn; Slight, Rigby; Auerbach, Daniel; Samuels, Brian C; Panarelli, Joseph F; Mitchell, John P; Al-Aswad, Lama A; Park, Sung Chul; Tello, Celso; Cotliar, Jeremy; Bansal, Rajendra; Sidoti, Paul A; Cioffi, George A; Blumberg, Dana; Ritch, Robert; Bell, Nicholas P; Blieden, Lauren S; Davis, Garvin; Medeiros, Felipe A; Ng, Maggie C Y; Das, Swapan K; Palmer, Nicholette D; Divers, Jasmin; Langefeld, Carl D; Freedman, Barry I; Bowden, Donald W; Christopher, Mark A; Chen, Yii-der I; Guo, Xiuqing; Taylor, Kent D; Rotter, Jerome I; Weinreb, Robert N

    2018-01-17

    To describe the study protocol and baseline characteristics of the African Descent and Glaucoma Evaluation Study (ADAGES) III. Cross-sectional, case-control study. Three thousand two hundred sixty-six glaucoma patients and control participants without glaucoma of African or European descent were recruited from 5 study centers in different regions of the United States. Individuals of African descent (AD) and European descent (ED) with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and control participants completed a detailed demographic and medical history interview. Standardized height, weight, and blood pressure measurements were obtained. Saliva and blood samples to provide serum, plasma, DNA, and RNA were collected for standardized processing. Visual fields, stereoscopic disc photographs, and details of the ophthalmic examination were obtained and transferred to the University of California, San Diego, Data Coordinating Center for standardized processing and quality review. Participant gender, age, race, body mass index, blood pressure, history of smoking and alcohol use in POAG patients and control participants were described. Ophthalmic measures included intraocular pressure, visual field mean deviation, central corneal thickness, glaucoma medication use, or past glaucoma surgery. Ocular conditions, including diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, and past cataract surgery, were recorded. The 3266 ADAGES III study participants in this report include 2146 AD POAG patients, 695 ED POAG patients, 198 AD control participants, and 227 ED control participants. The AD POAG patients and control participants were significantly younger (both, 67.4 years) than ED POAG patients and control participants (73.4 and 70.2 years, respectively). After adjusting for age, AD POAG patients had different phenotypic characteristics compared with ED POAG patients, including higher intraocular pressure, worse visual acuity and visual field mean deviation, and thinner corneas (all

  8. Both Baseline and Change in Lower Limb Muscle Strength in Younger Women Are Independent Predictors of Balance in Middle Age: A 12-Year Population-Based Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Feitong; Callisaya, Michele; Wills, Karen; Laslett, Laura L; Jones, Graeme; Winzenberg, Tania

    2017-06-01

    Poor balance is a risk factor for falls and fracture in older adults, but little is known about modifiable factors affecting balance in younger women. This study aimed to examine whether lower limb muscle strength (LMS) in young women and changes in LMS are independent predictors of balance in middle age. This was an observational 10-year follow-up of 470 women aged 25 to 44 years at baseline who had previously participated in a 2-year population-based randomized controlled trial of osteoporosis education interventions. Linear regression was used to examine the association between baseline LMS (by dynamometer) and change in LMS over 12 years with balance at 12 years (timed up and go test [TUG], step test [ST], functional reach test [FRT], and lateral reach test [LRT]). LMS declined by a mean of 17.3 kg over 12 years. After adjustment for potential confounders, baseline and change in LMS were independently beneficially associated with TUG (β = -0.008 sec/kg, 95% confidence interval [CI] -0.01 to -0.006, and β = -0.006 sec/kg, 95% CI -0.009 to -0.003 for baseline and change, respectively), FRT (β = 0.057 cm/kg, 95% CI 0.030 to 0.084, and β = 0.071 cm/kg, 95% CI 0.042 to 0.101, respectively), and LRT (β = 0.030 cm/kg, 95% CI 0.012 to 0.049, and β = 0.022 cm/kg, 95% CI 0.002 to 0.043, respectively) 12 years later. There was an association between baseline LMS and ST (β = 0.044 steps/kg, 95% CI 0.022 to 0.067) but not between change in LMS and ST. Among young women, greater LMS at baseline and slower decline over time are both associated with better balance in midlife. Analogous to the contributions of peak bone mass and bone loss to fracture risk in older adults, this suggests that both improvement of muscle strength in younger age and prevention of age-related loss of muscle strength could be potentially useful strategies to improve balance and reduce falls in later life. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral

  9. Ecological carrying capacity assessment of diving site: A case study of Mabul Island, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-Ye; Chung, Shan-Shan; Qiu, Jian-Wen

    2016-12-01

    Despite considered a non-consumptive use of the marine environment, diving-related activities can cause damages to coral reefs. It is imminent to assess the maximum numbers of divers that can be accommodated by a diving site before it is subject to irreversible deterioration. This study aimed to assess the ecological carrying capacity of a diving site in Mabul Island, Malaysia. Photo-quadrat line transect method was used in the benthic survey. The ecological carrying capacity was assessed based on the relationship between the number of divers and the proportion of diver damaged hard corals in Mabul Island. The results indicated that the proportion of diver damaged hard corals occurred exponentially with increasing use. The ecological carrying capacity of Mabul Island is 15,600-16,800 divers per diving site per year at current levels of diver education and training with a quarterly threshold of 3900-4200 per site. Our calculation shows that management intervention (e.g. limiting diving) is justified at 8-14% of hard coral damage. In addition, the use of coral reef dominated diving sites should be managed according to their sensitivity to diver damage and the depth of the reefs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Thermal ecology of montane Atelopus (Anura: Bufonidae): A study of intrageneric diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda Solano, Luis Alberto; Navas, Carlos A; Carvajalino-Fernández, Juan Manuel; Amézquita, Adolfo

    2016-05-01

    Harlequin frogs (Bufonidae: Atelopus) are among the most threatened frog genus in the world and reach very high elevations in the tropical Andes and the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta (SNSM). Learning about their thermal ecology is essential to infer sensitivity to environmental changes, particularly climate warming. We report on the activity temperature and thermoregulatory behavior of three high-elevation species of harlequin frogs, Atelopus nahumae, Atelopus laetissimus and Atelopus carrikeri. The first two mentioned live in streams in Andean rain forests, whereas A. carrikeri inhabits paramo streams in the SNSM. We studied the thermal ecology of these species in tree localities differing in altitude, and focused on activity body, operative, substrate and air temperature. A main trend was lower body temperature as elevation increased, so that differences among species were largely explained by differences in substrate temperature. However, this temperature variation was much lower in forest species than paramo species. The Atelopus species included in this work proved to be thermoconformers, a trend that not extended to all congenerics at high elevation. This diversity in thermal ecology poses important questions when discussing the impact of climate warming for high-elevation harlequin frogs. For example, forest species show narrow thermal ranges and, if highly specialized, may be more susceptible to temperature change. Paramo species such as A. carrikeri, in contrast, may be more resilient to temperature change. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. SYSTEMATIC ANALYSIS OF PERSPECTIVE TRENDS IN ECOLOGICAL AND BIOLOGICAL STUDIES OF THE CASPIAN SEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Abdurakhmanov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available RETRACTED ARTICLEAim. The main purpose of the ecological and biological research (EBR of the Caspian Sea is the information and technical support of decision-making to ensure the environmental management in the region taking into account the increase of anthropogenic impact and change in climatic conditions.Methods. As a basis, we have adopted the method of theoretical and mathematical generalization of a number of scientific papers and systematic analysis of the proposed solutions.Results. Analysis and mathematical processing of published literature sources has convincingly demonstrated the need for international cooperation to optimize the ecological and biological research. It has also confirmed the usefulness of the ecological and biological studies of the Caspian Sea in different directions, and the distribution of effort (cost between them requires coordinated management.Conclusion. It is shown that the data obtained by EBI have both rapid and long-term value. In the future, it is rational to develop suitable approaches to unified structuring of the EBR data, including their spatial and timing. An important task is to create a single interstate information space on the results of EBR using information and communication technologies.

  12. Constructing Ecological Networks Based on Habitat Quality Assessment: A Case Study of Changzhou, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yu; Ma, Lei; Liu, Jiaxun; Zhuang, Zhuzhou; Huang, Qiuhao; Li, Manchun

    2017-04-01

    Fragmentation and reduced continuity of habitat patches threaten the environment and biodiversity. Recently, ecological networks are increasingly attracting the attention of researchers as they provide fundamental frameworks for environmental protection. This study suggests a set of procedures to construct an ecological network. First, we proposed a method to construct a landscape resistance surface based on the assessment of habitat quality. Second, to analyze the effect of the resistance surface on corridor simulations, we used three methods to construct resistance surfaces: (1) the method proposed in this paper, (2) the entropy coefficient method, and (3) the expert scoring method. Then, we integrated habitat patches and resistance surfaces to identify potential corridors using graph theory. These procedures were tested in Changzhou, China. Comparing the outputs of using different resistance surfaces demonstrated that: (1) different landscape resistance surfaces contribute to how corridors are identified, but only slightly affect the assessment of the importance of habitat patches and potential corridors; (2) the resistance surface, which is constructed based on habitat quality, is more applicable to corridor simulations; and (3) the assessment of the importance of habitat patches is fundamental for ecological network optimization in the conservation of critical habitat patches and corridors.

  13. Association Between Air Temperature and Cancer Death Rates in Florida: An Ecological Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, John

    2015-01-01

    Proponents of global warming predict adverse events due to a slight warming of the planet in the last 100 years. This ecological study tests one of the possible arguments that might support the global warming theory - that it may increase cancer death rates. Thus, average daily air temperature is compared to cancer death rates at the county level in a U.S. state, while controlling for variables of smoking, race, and land elevation. The study revealed that lower cancer death rates were associated with warmer temperatures. Further study is indicated to verify these findings.

  14. Minimum Cost Estimation of a Baseline Survey for a Molecular Epidemiology Cohort Study: Collecting Participants in a Model Region in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishiro, Izumi; Sawada, Norie; Iwasaki, Motoki; Ohashi, Kayo; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2016-10-05

    Some recent molecular epidemiology studies of the effects of genetic and environmental factors on human health have required the enrollment of more than 100 000 participants and the involvement of regional study offices across the country. Although regional study office investigators play a critical role in these studies, including the acquisition of funds, this role is rarely discussed. We first differentiated the functions of the regional and central study offices. We then investigated the minimum number of items required and approximate cost of a molecular epidemiology study enrolling 7400 participants from a model region with a population of 100 000 for a 4-year baseline survey using a standard protocol developed based on the protocol of Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study for the Next Generation. The functions of the regional study office were identified, and individual expenses were itemized. The total cost of the 4-year baseline survey was 153 million yen, excluding consumption tax. Accounting difficulties in conducting the survey were clarified. We investigated a standardized example of the tasks and total actual costs of a regional study office. Our approach is easy to utilize and will help improve the management of regional study offices in future molecular epidemiology studies.

  15. Baseline head in Olkiluoto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahokas, H.; Tammisto, E.; Lehtimaeki, T. (Poeyry Environment Oy, Vantaa (Finland))

    2008-11-15

    As part of the programme for the final disposal of the spent nuclear fuel, Posiva Oy investigates the prevailing hydrological conditions on Olkiluoto island. The hydrological investigations have included several kinds of hydrological tests such as measurements of hydraulic conductivity by flow logging and a double-packer tool as well as interference tests by pumping, in order to study the hydraulic connections between the drillholes. In addition, long-term monitoring of groundwater level and groundwater head as well as measurements of flow conditions in open drillholes, groundwater salinity (in situ EC), precipitation (including snow), sea-water level, surface flow (runoff) etc. have been part of the investigation programme aiming at the characterization of the bedrock. The data have been used in the compilation of deterministic hydro-zones and hydraulic properties for numerical flow modelling to study the flow pattern on Olkiluoto island. In addition, the compiled bedrock models have been used in the planning of the repository layout and in the analyses of the transport of radionuclides and the functionality of engineered barriers. This report focuses on the measurements of groundwater head by means of multi-packers and in connection with flow loggings. The determination of the undisturbed groundwater head (baseline head) in terms of the in situ fresh water head is the main goal of this report. The density of groundwater is strongly dependent on salinity and due to the saline groundwater deep in the bedrock in Olkiluoto the term fresh water head is used instead of hydraulic head. Taking the density of groundwater into account, the gradient of the residual pressure, which actually causes groundwater flow can be calculated. The measured and calculated heads are converted into corresponding in situ fresh water heads, which correspond to the water level (metres above sea level) in the hose that runs from the packed-off section to the ground surface. This means that

  16. Habitat and Population Ecology of Greater Sandhill Cranes on Klamath Marsh National Wildlife Refuge - 1993 Annual Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The goal of the first phase of this study is to obtain baseline data on sandhill crane numbers, breeding population, distribution, home range, nesting ecology, and...

  17. Do Neurocognitive SCAT3 Baseline Test Scores Differ Between Footballers (Soccer) Living With and Without Disability? A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiler, Richard; van Mechelen, Willem; Fuller, Colin; Ahmed, Osman Hassan; Verhagen, Evert

    2018-01-01

    To determine if baseline Sport Concussion Assessment Tool, third Edition (SCAT3) scores differ between athletes with and without disability. Cross-sectional comparison of preseason baseline SCAT3 scores for a range of England international footballers. Team doctors and physiotherapists supporting England football teams recorded players' SCAT 3 baseline tests from August 1, 2013 to July 31, 2014. A convenience sample of 249 England footballers, of whom 185 were players without disability (male: 119; female: 66) and 64 were players with disability (male learning disability: 17; male cerebral palsy: 28; male blind: 10; female deaf: 9). Between-group comparisons of median SCAT3 total and section scores were made using nonparametric Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon ranked-sum test. All footballers with disability scored higher symptom severity scores compared with male players without disability. Male footballers with learning disability demonstrated no significant difference in the total number of symptoms, but recorded significantly lower scores on immediate memory and delayed recall compared with male players without disability. Male blind footballers' scored significantly higher for total concentration and delayed recall, and male footballers with cerebral palsy scored significantly higher on balance testing and immediate memory, when compared with male players without disability. Female footballers with deafness scored significantly higher for total concentration and balance testing than female footballers without disability. This study suggests that significant differences exist between SCAT3 baseline section scores for footballers with and without disability. Concussion consensus guidelines should recognize these differences and produce guidelines that are specific for the growing number of athletes living with disability.

  18. Variability in baseline travel behaviour as a predictor of changes in commuting by active travel, car and public transport: a natural experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinen, Eva; Ogilvie, David

    2016-03-01

    To strengthen our understanding of the impact of baseline variability in mode choice on the likelihood of travel behaviour change. Quasi-experimental analyses in a cohort study of 450 commuters exposed to a new guided busway with a path for walking and cycling in Cambridge, UK. Exposure to the intervention was defined using the shortest network distance from each participant's home to the busway. Variability in commuter travel behaviour at baseline was defined using the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index, the number of different modes of transport used over a week, and the proportion of trips made by the main (combination of) mode(s). The outcomes were changes in the share of commute trips (i) involving any active travel, (ii) involving any public transport, and (iii) made entirely by car. Variability and change data were derived from a self-reported seven-day record collected before (2009) and after (2012) the intervention. Separate multinomial regression models were estimated to assess the influence of baseline variability on behaviour change, both independently and as an interaction effect with exposure to the intervention. All three measures of variability predicted changes in mode share in most models. The effect size for the intervention was slightly strengthened after including variability. Commuters with higher baseline variability were more likely to increase their active mode share (e.g. for HHI: relative risk ratio [RRR] for interaction 3.34, 95% CI 1.41, 7.89) and decrease their car mode share in response to the intervention (e.g. for HHI: RRR 7.50, 95% CI 2.52, 22.34). People reporting a higher level of variability in mode choice were more likely to change their travel behaviour following an intervention. Future research should consider such variability as a potential predictor and effect modifier of travel and physical activity behaviour change, and its significance for the design and targeting of interventions.

  19. Regression to the mean and predictors of MRI disease activity in RRMS placebo cohorts--is there a place for baseline-to-treatment studies in MS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-Patrick Stellmann

    Full Text Available Gadolinium-enhancing (GD+ lesions and T2 lesions are MRI outcomes for phase-2 treatment trials in relapsing-remitting Multiple Sclerosis (RRMS. Little is known about predictors of lesion development and regression-to-the-mean, which is an important aspect in early baseline-to-treatment trials.To quantify regression-to-the-mean and identify predictors of MRI lesion development in placebo cohorts.21 Phase-2 and Phase-3 trials were identified by a systematic literature research. Random-effects meta-analyses were performed to estimate development of T2 and GD+ after 6 months (phase-2 or 2 years (phase-3. Predictors of lesion development were evaluated with mixed-effect meta-regression.The mean number of GD+-lesions per scan was similar after 6 months (1.19, 95%CI: 0.87-1.51 and 2 years (1.19, 95%CI: 1.00-1.39. 39% of the patients were without new T2-lesion after 6 month and 19% after 2 years (95%CI: 12-25%. Mean number of baseline GD+-lesions was the best predictor for new lesions after 6 months.Baseline GD-enhancing lesions predict evolution of Gd- and T2 lesions after 6 months and might be used to control for regression to the mean effects. Overall, proof-of-concept studies with a baseline to treatment design have to face a regression to 1.2 GD+lesions per scan within 6 months.

  20. Baseline predictors of response and discontinuation of tumor necrosis factor-alpha blocking therapy in ankylosing spondylitis: a prospective longitudinal observational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arends, Suzanne; Brouwer, Elisabeth; van der Veer, Eveline; Groen, Henk; Leijsma, Martha K; Houtman, Pieternella M; Th A Jansen, Tim L; Kallenberg, Cees G M; Spoorenberg, Anneke

    2011-06-20

    Identifying ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patients who are likely to benefit from tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) blocking therapy is important, especially in view of the costs and potential side effects of these agents. Recently, the AS Disease Activity Score (ASDAS) has been developed to assess both subjective and objective aspects of AS disease activity. However, data about the predictive value of the ASDAS with respect to clinical response to TNF-α blocking therapy are lacking. The aim of the present study was to identify baseline predictors of response and discontinuation of TNF-α blocking therapy in AS patients in daily clinical practice. AS outpatients who started TNF-α blocking therapy were included in the Groningen Leeuwarden Ankylosing Spondylitis (GLAS) study, an ongoing prospective longitudinal observational cohort study with follow-up visits according to a fixed protocol. For the present analysis, patients were excluded if they had previously received anti-TNF-α treatment. Predictor analyses of response and treatment discontinuation were performed using logistic and Cox regression models, respectively. Between November 2004 and April 2010, 220 patients started treatment with infliximab (n = 32), etanercept (n = 137), or adalimumab (n = 51). At three and six months, 68% and 63% of patients were Assessments in Ankylosing Spondylitis (ASAS)20 responders, 49% and 46% ASAS40 responders, and 49% and 50% Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI)50 responders, respectively. Baseline predictors of response were younger age, male gender, higher ASDAS score, higher erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) level, higher C-reactive protein (CRP) level, presence of peripheral arthritis, higher patient's global assessment of disease activity, and lower modified Schober test. In August 2010, 64% of patients were still using their TNF-α blocking agent with a median follow-up of 33.1 months (range 2.4 to 68.2). Baseline predictors of

  1. The study of women, infant feeding and type 2 diabetes after GDM pregnancy and growth of their offspring (SWIFT Offspring study): prospective design, methodology and baseline characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunderson, Erica P; Hurston, Shanta R; Dewey, Kathryn G; Faith, Myles S; Charvat-Aguilar, Nancy; Khoury, Vicky C; Nguyen, Van T; Quesenberry, Charles P

    2015-07-17

    Breastfeeding is associated with reduced risk of becoming overweight or obese later in life. Breastfed babies grow more slowly during infancy than formula-fed babies. Among offspring exposed in utero to maternal glucose intolerance, prospective data on growth during infancy have been unavailable. Thus, scientific evidence is insufficient to conclude that breastfeeding reduces the risk of obesity among the offspring of diabetic mothers (ODM). To address this gap, we devised the Study of Women, Infant Feeding and Type 2 Diabetes after GDM Pregnancy and Growth of their Offspring, also known as the SWIFT Offspring Study. This prospective, longitudinal study recruited mother-infant pairs from the SWIFT Study, a prospective study of women with recent gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). The goal of the SWIFT Offspring Study is to determine whether breastfeeding intensity and duration, compared with formula feeding, are related to slower growth of GDM offspring during the first year life. This article details the study design, participant eligibility, data collection, and methodologies. We also describe the baseline characteristics of the GDM mother-infant pairs. The study enrolled 466 mother-infant pairs among GDM deliveries in northern California from 2009-2011. Participants attended three in-person study exams at 6-9 weeks, 6 months and 12 months after delivery for infant anthropometry (head circumference, body weight, length, abdominal circumference and skinfold thicknesses), as well as maternal anthropometry (body weight, waist circumference and percent body fat). Mothers also completed questionnaires on health and lifestyle behaviors, including infant diet, sleep and temperament. Breastfeeding intensity and duration were assessed via several sources (diaries, telephone interviews, monthly mailings and in-person exams) from birth through the first year of life. Pregnancy course, clinical perinatal and newborn outcomes were obtained from health plan electronic

  2. Impact of baseline severity of aortic valve stenosis on effect of intensive lipid lowering therapy (from the SEAS study)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerdts, Eva; Rossebø, Anne Bjørhovde; Pedersen, Terje Rolf

    2010-01-01

    Retrospective studies have suggested a beneficial effect of lipid-lowering treatment on the progression of aortic stenosis (AS) in milder stages of the disease. In the randomized, placebo-controlled Simvastatin and Ezetimibe in Aortic Stenosis (SEAS) study, 4.3 years of combined treatment with si...

  3. Understanding multifactorial influences on the continuum of maternal weight trajectories in pregnancy and early postpartum: study protocol, and participant baseline characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore Simas, Tiffany A; Corvera, Silvia; Lee, Mary M; Zhang, NingNing; Leung, Katherine; Olendzki, Barbara; Barton, Bruce; Rosal, Milagros C

    2015-03-28

    Maternal and offspring immediate and long-term health are affected by pregnancy weight gain and maternal weight. This study was designed to determine feasibility of: 1) recruiting a socio-economically and racially/ethnically diverse sample of pregnant women into a longitudinal observational study, including consenting the women for serial biologic specimen evaluations; 2) implementing comprehensive assessments (including biologic, anthropometric, behavioral, cognitive/psychosocial and socio-demographic, and cultural measures) at multiple time points over the study period, including collecting biologic specimens at planned and unplanned pregnancy delivery times; and 3) retaining the sample for one year into the postpartum period. Additionally, the study will provide preliminary data of associations among hypothesized predictors, mediators and moderators of pregnancy and post-partum maternal and infant weight trajectories. The study was conceptualized under a Biopsychosocial Model using a lifespan approach. Study protocol and baseline characteristics are described. We sought to recruit a sample of 100 healthy women age 18-45 years, between 28-34 weeks gestation, with singleton pregnancies, enrolled in care prior to 17 weeks gestation. Women provide written consent for face-to-face (medical history, anthropometrics, biologic specimens), and paper-and-pencil assessments, at five time points: baseline (third trimester), delivery-associated, and 6-weeks, 3-months and 6-months postpartum. Additional telephone-based assessments (diet, physical activity and breastfeeding) administered baseline and three-months postpartum. Infant weights are collected until 1-year of life. We seek to retain 80% of participants at six-months postpartum and 80% of offspring at 12-months. 110 women were recruited. Sample characteristics include: mean age 28.3 years, BMI 25.7 kg/m(2), and gestational age at baseline visit of 32.5 weeks. One-third of cohort was non-white, over a quarter were

  4. Progress Report: Integrated Ecological Studies at Lisbon Bottom Unit, Big Muddy Fish and Wildlife Refuge, Fiscal Year 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey has been carrying out integrated ecological studies at the Lisbon Bottom Unit of the Big Muddy Fish and Wildlife Refuge since 1996. This...

  5. AFSC/NMML: Bowhead Whale Feeding Ecology Study (BOWFEST): Aerial Survey in Chukchi and Beaufort Seas, 2007-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Bowhead Whale Feeding Ecology Study (BOWFEST) was initiated in May 2007 through an Interagency Agreement between the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM)...

  6. Studies of the breeding and population ecology of seabirds at Semidi Islands, Alaska: A summary of work completed in 1978

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Species mentioned include Fulmar, petrel, gull, kittiwake, murre, auklet, and puffin. Continued study of the reproductive ecology of Northern Fulmar.

  7. Urban Ecological Security Simulation and Prediction Using an Improved Cellular Automata (CA) Approach-A Case Study for the City of Wuhan in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuan; Zhang, Chuanrong; He, Qingsong; Liu, Yaolin

    2017-06-15

    Ecological security is an important research topic, especially urban ecological security. As highly populated eco-systems, cities always have more fragile ecological environments. However, most of the research on urban ecological security in literature has focused on evaluating current or past status of the ecological environment. Very little literature has carried out simulation or prediction of future ecological security. In addition, there is even less literature exploring the urban ecological environment at a fine scale. To fill-in the literature gap, in this study we simulated and predicted urban ecological security at a fine scale (district level) using an improved Cellular Automata (CA) approach. First we used the pressure-state-response (PSR) method based on grid-scale data to evaluate urban ecological security. Then, based on the evaluation results, we imported the geographically weighted regression (GWR) concept into the CA model to simulate and predict urban ecological security. We applied the improved CA approach in a case study-simulating and predicting urban ecological security for the city of Wuhan in Central China. By comparing the simulated ecological security values from 2010 using the improved CA model to the actual ecological security values of 2010, we got a relatively high value of the kappa coefficient, which indicates that this CA model can simulate or predict well future development of ecological security in Wuhan. Based on the prediction results for 2020, we made some policy recommendations for each district in Wuhan.

  8. The RecordAF study: design, baseline data, and profile of patients according to chosen treatment strategy for atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Heuzey, Jean-Yves; Breithardt, Günter; Camm, John

    2010-01-01

    The REgistry on Cardiac rhythm disORDers assessing the control of Atrial Fibrillation (RecordAF) is the first worldwide, 1-year observational, longitudinal study of the management of paroxysmal/persistent atrial fibrillation (AF) in recently diagnosed patients. The study was conducted at 532 sites......-control patients mainly received beta blockers (72%), except for sotalol, or cardiac glycosides (34%). Patients receiving a rhythm-control strategy were younger, had a lower resting heart rate, were more frequently symptomatic, and were more likely to have recently diagnosed AF or paroxysmal AF compared...

  9. Using Multicountry Ecological and Observational Studies to Determine Dietary Risk Factors for Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, William B

    2016-07-01

    Rates of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are rising worldwide. The most important risk factors seem to be linked to diet. For example, when Japan made the nutrition transition from the traditional Japanese diet to the Western diet, AD rates rose from 1% in 1985 to 7% in 2008. Foods protective against AD include fruits, vegetables, grains, low-fat dairy products, legumes, and fish, whereas risk factors include meat, sweets, and high-fat dairy products. The evidence comes from ecological and observational studies as well as investigations of the mechanisms whereby dietary factors affect risk. The mechanisms linking dietary risk factors to AD are fairly well known and include increased oxidative stress from metal ions such as copper as well as from advanced glycation end products associated with high-temperature cooking, increased homocysteine concentrations, and cholesterol and its effects on amyloid beta, insulin resistance, and obesity. Lower 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations also are associated with increased risk of AD. In addition to reviewing the journal literature, a new ecological study was conducted using AD prevalence from 10 countries (Brazil, Chile, Cuba, Egypt, India, Mongolia, Nigeria, Republic of Korea, Sri Lanka, and the United States) along with dietary supply data 5, 10, and 15 years before the prevalence data. Dietary supply of meat or animal products less milk 5 years before AD prevalence had the highest correlations with AD prevalence in this study. Thus, reducing meat consumption could significantly reduce the risk of AD as well as of several cancers, diabetes mellitus type 2, stroke, and, likely, chronic kidney disease. • Single-country ecological data can be used to find links between diet and AD because the national diet changes, such as during the nutrition transition to a Western diet. • Multicountry ecological studies can be used to find links between dietary factors and risk of AD. • Prospective observational studies are useful in

  10. Are risk estimates biased in follow-up studies of psychosocial factors with low base-line participation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaerlev, Linda; Kolstad, Henrik; Hansen, Åse Marie

    2011-01-01

    Low participation in population-based follow-up studies addressing psychosocial risk factors may cause biased estimation of health risk but the issue has seldom been examined. We compared risk estimates for selected health outcomes among respondents and the entire source population....

  11. Rationale, design, and baseline characteristics of the Canagliflozin Cardiovascular Assessment Study (CANVAS)-A randomized placebo-controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neal, Bruce; Perkovic, Vlado; de Zeeuw, Dick; Mahaffey, Kenneth W.; Fulcher, Greg; Stein, Peter; Desai, Mehul; Shaw, Wayne; Jiang, Joel; Vercruysse, Frank; Meininger, Gary; Matthews, David

    Sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibition is a novel mode of treatment for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor canagliflozin lowered blood glucose, blood pressure, and body weight, with increased risk of urogenital infections in Phase 2 studies. Effects on

  12. Design, methods, baseline characteristics and interim results of the Catheter Sampled Blood Archive in Cardiovascular Diseases (CASABLANCA study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna K. Gaggin

    2014-11-01

    Conclusions: The CASABLANCA study will examine the role of novel biomarkers and metabolomics for predicting a wide range of cardiovascular, neurologic, and renal complications in patients undergoing angiography. Full results are expected in the latter half of 2014 (ClinicalTrials.Gov # NCT00842868.

  13. Identifying Baseline Covariates for Use in Propensity Scores: A Novel Approach Illustrated for a Nonrandomized Study of Recovery High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner-Smith, Emily E.; Lipsey, Mark W.

    2014-01-01

    There are many situations where random assignment of participants to treatment and comparison conditions may be unethical or impractical. This article provides an overview of propensity score techniques that can be used for estimating treatment effects in nonrandomized quasi-experimental studies. After reviewing the logic of propensity score…

  14. Exposure to flour dust in South African supermarket bakeries: Modeling of baseline measurements of an intervention study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baatjies, R.; Meijster, T.; Lopata, A.; Sander, I.; Raulf-Heimsoth, M.; Heederik, D.; Jeebhay, M.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Exposure to flour dust has been reported as an important risk factor for allergic respiratory disease among bakery workers. A high prevalence of allergic sensitization and asthma was recently reported in South African supermarket bakeries. The aim of this study was to conduct a

  15. Exposure to flour dust in South African supermarket bakeries: modeling of baseline measurements of an intervention study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baatjies, R.; Meijster, T.; Lopata, A.; Sander, I.; Raulf-Heimsoth, M.; Heederik, D.; Jeebhay, M.

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Exposure to flour dust has been reported as an important risk factor for allergic respiratory disease among bakery workers. A high prevalence of allergic sensitization and asthma was recently reported in South African supermarket bakeries. The aim of this study was to conduct a

  16. Increasing the Use of Prompting Strategies: A Multiple Baseline Study across Pairs of Paraeducators of Students with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of a program designed to train paraeducators to use prompting strategies to teach students with moderate to severe intellectual and multiple disabilities. The paraeducator training program contained three components: a) an initial training on using task direction, time delay, most to least prompting, and…

  17. Ecological bias in studies of the short-term effects of air pollution on health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaddick, Gavin; Lee, Duncan; Wakefield, Jonathan

    2013-06-01

    There has been a great deal of research into the short-term effects of air pollution on health with a large number of studies modelling the association between aggregate disease counts and environmental exposures measured at point locations, for example via air pollution monitors. In such cases, the standard approach is to average the observed measurements from the individual monitors and use this in a log-linear health model. Hence such studies are ecological in nature being based on spatially aggregated health and exposure data. Here we investigate the potential for bias in the estimates of the effects on health when estimating the short-term effects of air pollution on health. Such ecological bias may occur if a simple summary measure, such as a daily mean, is not a suitable summary of a spatially variable pollution surface. We assess the performance of commonly used models when confronted with such issues using simulation studies and compare their performance with a model specifically designed to acknowledge the effects of exposure aggregation. In addition to simulation studies, we apply the models to a case study of the short-term effects of particulate matter on respiratory mortality using data from Greater London for the period 2002-2005. We found a significant increased risk of 3% (95% CI 1-5%) associated with the average of the previous three days exposure to particulate matter (per 10 μg m-3 PM10).

  18. mHealth Intervention Promoting Cardiovascular Health Among African-Americans: Recruitment and Baseline Characteristics of a Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Background Mobile health (mHealth) interventions are promising avenues to promote cardiovascular (CV) health among African-Americans (AAs) and culturally tailored technology-based interventions are emerging for this population. Objective The objectives of this study were to use a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach to recruit AAs into a pilot intervention study of an innovative mHealth CV health promotion program and to characterize technology use patterns and eHealth literacy (EHL). Methods Community partners from five predominately AA churches in southeast Minnesota collaborated with our academic institution to recruit AA congregants into the pilot study. Field notes as well as communications between the study team and community partners were used to design the recruitment strategy and its implementation with a goal of enrolling 50 participants. At its core, the recruitment strategy included community kickoff events to detail the state-of-the-art nature of the mHealth intervention components, the utility of CV health assessments (physical examination, laboratory studies and surveys) and the participants’ role in advancing our understanding of the efficacy of mHealth interventions among racial/ethnic minority groups. Detailed recruitment data were documented throughout the study. A self-administered, electronic survey measured sociodemographics, technology use and EHL (eHEALS scale). Results A total of 50 participants (70% women) from five AA churches were recruited over a one-month period. The majority (>90%) of participants reported using some form of mobile technology with all utilizing these technologies within their homes. Greater than half (60% [30/50]) reported being “very comfortable” with mobile technologies. Overall, participants had high EHL (84.8% [39/46] with eHEALS score ≥26) with no differences by sex. Conclusions This study illustrates the feasibility and success of a CBPR approach in recruiting AAs into m

  19. Case study of building of conservation coalitions to conserve ecological interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gao; Luo, Shihong; Mei, Nianshu; Shen, Dingfang; Sun, Weibang

    2015-12-01

    We engaged experts in various fields of study (pollination ecology, chemical ecology, and ethnobotany), invited community participation, and provided environmental education in an effort to conserve an endangered birthwort (Aristolochia delavayi) and a vulnerable pipevine swallowtail (Byasa daemonius). Scientists studied the uptake and sequestration of the secondary metabolites aristolochic acids from A. delavayi leaves by different stages of pipevine swallowtail as a defense mechanism; low fruit set of the myophilous A. delavayi due to pollinator limitation; and the emission of chemical signals that attract parasitic wasps by the prepupae of B. daemonius. The results of these studies were part of an education program delivered by personnel of non-governmental organizations. The program was devised to deliver information to the public about the health risks of consuming A. delavayi individuals (aristolochic-acid-associated cancers) and to establish a bridge between the public and scientific research. Following delivery of the program, the behavior of residents changed considerably. Community residents were involved in management activities, including participation in a program to promote understanding of ecological interactions between A. delavayi and B. daemonius; designing an in situ conservation site; monitoring A. delavayi and B. daemonius individuals; and promoting the natural fruit set of A. delavayi by scattering animal excrement to attract fly pollinators. The integration of scientific information and community participation appears to have resulted in an increase in abundance of threatened A. delavayi and B. daemonius populations. We believe the involvement of local people in conservation is necessary for successful species conservation. © 2015 Society for Conservation Biology.

  20. Climate change and socio-ecological transformation in high mountains: an empirical study of Garhwal Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sati Vishwambhar Prasad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mountain regions are highly vulnerable to climate change, as they are ecologically fragile, tectonically and seismically active, and geologically sensitive. The main objectives of this study are to examine socio-ecological transformations and to illustrate the major driving forces - climate change, education and waves of modern civilization - in the Garhwal Himalaya. Data on socio-ecological systems and their patterns of change were accumulated from primary and secondary sources and through participatory rural appraisal. We present a case study where household level surveys were conducted in two villages. A total of 37 households were surveyed. Additionally, marginal farmers and extension workers were interviewed. Questions on population, migration, cropping pattern and livestock were answered by the head of the surveyed households. Population size was decreasing due to out-migration. The whole Garhwal region experienced 15.3% out-migration, while migration from the two villages was observed at 50% during the period 1990-2014. Similarly, changes in land use and cropping patterns and in the livestock population were observed. There was a decrease in the extent of land under cereals (24% and fruits (79%, a decrease in fruit production (75%, and a decrease in the number of livestock (76%. Climate change was observed as a major driver of the decrease in production and productivity of cereals and fruits, leading to land abandonment. Education, on the other hand, was a major driver of out-migration. Further, extreme events through climate change happened more frequently and changed the landscape. This study reveals that an increase in infrastructural facilities to create jobs and sustainable land management can control out-migration and can enhance land capability.

  1. Possibilities of the Integration of the Method of the Ecologically Oriented Independent Scientific Research in the Study Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grizans, Jurijs; Vanags, Janis

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse possibilities of the integration of the method of the ecologically oriented independent scientific research in the study process. In order to achieve the set aim, the following scientific research methods were used: analysis of the conceptual guidelines for the development of environmentally oriented entrepreneurship, interpretation of the experts' evaluation of the ecologically oriented management, analysis of the results of the students' ecologically oriented independent scientific research, as well as monographic and logically constructive methods. The results of the study give an opportunity to make conclusions and to develop conceptual recommendations on how to introduce future economics and business professionals with the theoretical and practical aspects of ecologically oriented management during the study process.

  2. Individuals and populations: the role of long-term, individual-based studies of animals in ecology and evolutionary biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clutton-Brock, Tim; Sheldon, Ben C

    2010-10-01

    Many important questions in ecology and evolutionary biology can only be answered with data that extend over several decades and answering a substantial proportion of questions requires records of the life histories of recognisable individuals. We identify six advantages that long-term, individual based studies afford in ecology and evolution: (i) analysis of age structure; (ii) linkage between life history stages; (iii) quantification of social structure; (iv) derivation of lifetime fitness measures; (v) replication of estimates of selection; (vi) linkage between generations, and we review their impact on studies in six key areas of evolution and ecology. Our review emphasises the unusual opportunities and productivity of long-term, individual-based studies and documents the important role that they play in research on ecology and evolutionary biology as well as the difficulties they face. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A mycological baseline study based on a multidisciplinary approach in a coastal area affected by contaminated torrent input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capello, M; Carbone, C; Cecchi, G; Consani, S; Cutroneo, L; Di Piazza, S; Greco, G; Tolotti, R; Vagge, G; Zotti, M

    2017-06-15

    Fungi include a vast group of eukaryotic organisms able to colonise different natural, anthropised and extreme environments, including marine areas contaminated by metals. The present study aims to give a first multidisciplinary characterisation of marine bottom sediments contaminated by metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn), originating in the water leakage from an abandoned Fe-Cu sulphide mine (Libiola, north-western Italy), and evaluate how the chemical and physical parameters of water and sediments may affect the benthic fungal communities. Our preliminary results showed the high mycodiversity of the marine sediments studied (13 genera and 23 species of marine fungi isolated), and the great physiological adaptability that this mycobiota evolved in reaction to the effects of the ecotoxic bottom sediment contamination, and associated changes in the seawater parameters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Impact of Prevalent Fractures on Quality of Life: Baseline Results From the Global Longitudinal Study of Osteoporosis in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Jonathan D.; Adami, Silvano; Gehlbach, Stephen; Anderson, Frederick A.; Boonen, Steven; Chapurlat, Roland D.; Compston, Juliet E.; Cooper, Cyrus; Delmas, Pierre; Díez-Pérez, Adolfo; Greenspan, Susan L.; Hooven, Frederick H.; LaCroix, Andrea Z.; Lindsay, Robert; Netelenbos, J. Coen; Wu, Olivia; Pfeilschifter, Johannes; Roux, Christian; Saag, Kenneth G.; Sambrook, Philip N.; Silverman, Stuart; Siris, Ethel S.; Nika, Grigor; Watts, Nelson B.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine several dimensions of health-related quality of life (HRQL) in postmenopausal women who report previous fractures, and to provide perspective by comparing these findings with those in other chronic conditions (diabetes, arthritis, lung disease). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fractures are a major cause of morbidity among older women. Few studies have examined HRQL in women who have had prior fractures and the effect of prior fracture location on HRQL. In this observational study of 57,141 postmenopausal women aged 55 years and older (enrollment from December 2007 to March 2009) from 17 study sites in 10 countries, HRQL was measured using the European Quality of Life 5 Dimensions Index (EQ-5D) and the health status, physical function, and vitality questions of the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36). RESULTS: Reductions in EQ-5D health-utility scores and SF-36–measured health status, physical function, and vitality were seen in association with 9 of 10 fracture locations. Spine, hip, and upper leg fractures resulted in the greatest reductions in quality of life (EQ-5D scores, 0.62, 0.64, and 0.61, respectively, vs 0.79 without prior fracture). Women with fractures at any of these 3 locations, as well as women with a history of multiple fractures (EQ-5D scores, 0.74 for 1 prior fracture, 0.68 for 2, and 0.58 for ≥3), had reductions in HRQL that were similar to or worse than those in women with other chronic diseases (0.67 for diabetes, 0.69 for arthritis, and 0.71 for lung disease). CONCLUSION: Previous fractures at a variety of bone locations, particularly spine, hip, and upper leg, or involving more than 1 location are associated with significant reductions in quality of life. PMID:20634496

  5. Mashhad stroke and heart atherosclerotic disorder (MASHAD) study: design, baseline characteristics and 10-year cardiovascular risk estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghayour-Mobarhan, Majid; Moohebati, Mohsen; Esmaily, Habibollah; Ebrahimi, Mahmoud; Parizadeh, Seyed Mohammad Reza; Heidari-Bakavoli, Ali Reza; Safarian, Mohammad; Mokhber, Naghmeh; Nematy, Mohsen; Saber, Hamidreza; Mohammadi, Maryam; Andalibi, Mohammad Sobhan Sheikh; Ferns, Gordon A; Azarpazhooh, Mahmoud Reza

    2015-07-01

    The Mashhad stroke and heart atherosclerotic disorder (MASHAD) study is a 10-year cohort study that aims to evaluate the impact of various genetic, environmental, nutritional and psychosocial risk factors on the incidence of cardiovascular events among an urban population in eastern Iran. The MASHAD study comprises a cohort of 9704 individuals aged 35-65 years using a stratified cluster random sampling design. This cohort will be followed up until 2020, with follow-up examinations being undertaken every 3 years. Ten-year cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk estimation was determined using NCEP ATP III criteria. Overall, 88.4 % of women and 79.2 % of men (P 20 % were observed to be 86.6, 11 and 2.5 %, respectively. Predicted risk of CVD > 10 % using the Framingham algorithm was considerably higher in men compared to women. Overall, 9.5 % [95 % confidence interval (CI) 8.9-10.1 %] of our subjects had prevalent CAD. The prevalence of CVD risk factors within our population is high compared to Western countries, indicating the necessity for interventional risk modifications.

  6. Persistence and concomitant medication in patients with overactive bladder treated with antimuscarinic agents in primary care. An observational baseline study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicras-Mainar, A; Navarro-Artieda, R; Ruiz-Torrejón, A; Sáez-Zafra, M; Coll-de Tuero, G

    2016-03-01

    To assess therapeutic persistence and its relationship with concomitant medication in patients treated with fesoterodine versus tolterodine and solifenacin for overactive bladder (OAB) in standard clinical practice conditions. An observational, multicentre retrospective study was performed based on medical registries of patients followed-up in primary care (PC). Three study groups were analysed. Persistence was defined as the time (in months) without withdrawing from the initial therapy or without changing to another medication for at least 30 days after the initial prescription. The concomitant medications were antidepressants, anxiolytic/hypnotic agents, antibiotics, antiseptic agents, laxatives and skin products. We employed the SPSSWIN program version 17 (statistical significance, P<.05). We selected 3094 patients for the study. The median age was 54.0 years and 62.2% were women. The patients treated with fesoterodine shown greater treatment persistence (12 months) when compared with those who took solifenacin and tolterodine (40.2% vs. 34.7% and 33.6%, respectively; P=.008). They also showed a lower use of concomitant medication (1.1 vs. 1.2 and 1.2 drugs, respectively; percentages: 61.6% vs. 67.1% and 70.1%, respectively; P<.03). The patients undergoing OAB treatment with fesoterodine, when compared with those taking solifenacin and tolterodine, were associated with greater treatment persistence and a reduced use of concomitant medication. Copyright © 2015 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Recruitment and Baseline Characteristics of Participants in the Finnish Geriatric Intervention Study to Prevent Cognitive Impairment and Disability (FINGER—A Randomized Controlled Lifestyle Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiia Ngandu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Our aim is to describe the study recruitment and baseline characteristics of the Finnish Geriatric Intervention Study to Prevent Cognitive Impairment and Disability (FINGER study population. Potential study participants (age 60–77 years, the dementia risk score ≥6 were identified from previous population-based survey cohorts and invited to the screening visit. To be eligible, cognitive performance measured at the screening visit had to be at the mean level or slightly lower than expected for age. Of those invited (n = 5496, 48% (n = 2654 attended the screening visit, and finally 1260 eligible participants were randomized to the intervention and control groups (1:1. The screening visit non-attendees were slightly older, less educated, and had more vascular risk factors and diseases present. The mean (SD age of the randomized participants was 69.4 (4.7 years, Mini-Mental State Examination 26.7 (2.0 points, systolic blood pressure 140.1 (16.2 mmHg, total serum cholesterol 5.2 (1.0 mmol/L for, and fasting glucose 6.1 (0.9 mmol/L for, with no difference between intervention and control groups. Several modifiable risk factors were present at baseline indicating an opportunity for the intervention. The FINGER study will provide important information on the effect of lifestyle intervention to prevent cognitive impairment among at risk persons.

  8. The genome sequence of Barbarea vulgaris facilitates the study of ecological biochemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byrne, Stephen L.; Erthmann, Pernille Østerbye; Agerbirk, Niels

    2017-01-01

    The genus Barbarea has emerged as a model for evolution and ecology of plant defense compounds, due to its unusual glucosinolate profile and production of saponins, unique to the Brassicaceae. One species, B. vulgaris, includes two ‘types’, G-type and P-type that differ in trichome density...... candidate genes underlying glucosinolate diversity, trichome density, and study the genetics of biochemical variation for glucosinolate and saponins. B. vulgaris is resistant to the diamondback moth, and may be exploited for “dead-end” trap cropping where glucosinolates stimulate oviposition and saponins...

  9. Latina adolescent sleep and mood: an ecological momentary assessment pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Carolyn; Zhang, Lei; Holt, Katie; Hardeman, Rachel; Peterson, Barbara

    2014-08-01

    Sleep and mood represent two important malleable opportunities for adolescent health. This study investigated the sleep-mood relationship in adolescent girls. Short-term, longitudinal design. Latina adolescents (N = 19, mean age 15) completed ecological momentary assessments on sleep (perceived quality, self-report quantity) and mood (negative affect, positive affect, and positivity ratio). Adolescents sent 1,598 texts on sleep and mood. Bidirectional sleep-mood relationships were in expected directions; negative affect and the positivity ratio affect predicted adolescents' sleep quality. Interventions should encourage sleep-mood relationship awareness, and further research should identify significant differences to inform tailored interventions with adolescents. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Urban Ecological Security Simulation and Prediction Using an Improved Cellular Automata (CA) Approach—A Case Study for the City of Wuhan in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuan; Zhang, Chuanrong; He, Qingsong; Liu, Yaolin

    2017-01-01

    Ecological security is an important research topic, especially urban ecological security. As highly populated eco-systems, cities always have more fragile ecological environments. However, most of the research on urban ecological security in literature has focused on evaluating current or past status of the ecological environment. Very little literature has carried out simulation or prediction of future ecological security. In addition, there is even less literature exploring the urban ecological environment at a fine scale. To fill-in the literature gap, in this study we simulated and predicted urban ecological security at a fine scale (district level) using an improved Cellular Automata (CA) approach. First we used the pressure-state-response (PSR) method based on grid-scale data to evaluate urban ecological security. Then, based on the evaluation results, we imported the geographically weighted regression (GWR) concept into the CA model to simulate and predict urban ecological security. We applied the improved CA approach in a case study—simulating and predicting urban ecological security for the city of Wuhan in Central China. By comparing the simulated ecological security values from 2010 using the improved CA model to the actual ecological security values of 2010, we got a relatively high value of the kappa coefficient, which indicates that this CA model can simulate or predict well future development of ecological security in Wuhan. Based on the prediction results for 2020, we made some policy recommendations for each district in Wuhan. PMID:28617348

  11. Health-promoting factors in medical students and students of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics: design and baseline results of a comparative longitudinal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The negative impact of medical school on students' general and mental health has often been reported. Compared to students of other subjects, or employed peers, medical students face an increased risk of developing depression, anxiety and burnout. While pathogenetic factors have been studied extensively, less is known about health-promoting factors for medical students' health. This longitudinal study aims to identify predictors for maintaining good general and mental health during medical education. We report here the design of the study and its baseline results. Methods We initiated a prospective longitudinal cohort study at the University of Lübeck, Germany. Two consecutive classes of students, entering the university in 2011 and 2012, were recruited. Participants will be assessed annually for the duration of their course. We use validated psychometric instruments covering health outcomes (general and mental health) and personality traits, as well as self-developed, pre-tested items covering leisure activities and sociodemographic data. Results At baseline, compared to students of STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) subjects (n = 531; 60.8% response rate), a larger proportion of medical students (n = 350; 93.0% response rate) showed good general health (90.9% vs. 79.7%) and a similar proportion was in good mental health (88.3% vs. 86.3%). Medical students scored significantly higher in the personality traits of extraversion, conscientiousness, openness to experience and agreeableness. Neuroticism proved to be a statistically significant negative predictor for mental health in the logistic regression analyses. Satisfaction with life as a dimension of study-related behaviour and experience predicted general health at baseline. Physical activity was a statistically significant predictor for general health in medical students. Conclusions Baseline data revealed that medical students reported better general and similar mental

  12. Health-promoting factors in medical students and students of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics: design and baseline results of a comparative longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kötter, Thomas; Tautphäus, Yannick; Scherer, Martin; Voltmer, Edgar

    2014-07-04

    The negative impact of medical school on students' general and mental health has often been reported. Compared to students of other subjects, or employed peers, medical students face an increased risk of developing depression, anxiety and burnout. While pathogenetic factors have been studied extensively, less is known about health-promoting factors for medical students' health. This longitudinal study aims to identify predictors for maintaining good general and mental health during medical education. We report here the design of the study and its baseline results. We initiated a prospective longitudinal cohort study at the University of Lübeck, Germany. Two consecutive classes of students, entering the university in 2011 and 2012, were recruited. Participants will be assessed annually for the duration of their course. We use validated psychometric instruments covering health outcomes (general and mental health) and personality traits, as well as self-developed, pre-tested items covering leisure activities and sociodemographic data. At baseline, compared to students of STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) subjects (n = 531; 60.8% response rate), a larger proportion of medical students (n = 350; 93.0% response rate) showed good general health (90.9% vs. 79.7%) and a similar proportion was in good mental health (88.3% vs. 86.3%). Medical students scored significantly higher in the personality traits of extraversion, conscientiousness, openness to experience and agreeableness. Neuroticism proved to be a statistically significant negative predictor for mental health in the logistic regression analyses. Satisfaction with life as a dimension of study-related behaviour and experience predicted general health at baseline. Physical activity was a statistically significant predictor for general health in medical students. Baseline data revealed that medical students reported better general and similar mental health compared to STEM students. The annual

  13. Long baseline neutrino experiments

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Accelerators can also produce pure ¯νµ. They may be needed in the search matter effects (if ∆31 is negative) and for evidence for CP violation. Since ¯νµ cross-section is only about a third of νµ cross-section, the running time will be three times larger for the same statistical accuracy. 4. Long baseline neutrino experiments.

  14. Simulation of Regionally Ecological Land Based on a Cellular Automation Model: A Case Study of Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiubin Li

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Ecological land is like the “liver” of a city and is very useful to public health. Ecological land change is a spatially dynamic non-linear process under the interaction between natural and anthropogenic factors at different scales. In this study, by setting up natural development scenario, object orientation scenario and ecosystem priority scenario, a Cellular Automation (CA model has been established to simulate the evolution pattern of ecological land in Beijing in the year 2020. Under the natural development scenario, most of ecological land will be replaced by construction land and crop land. But under the scenarios of object orientation and ecosystem priority, the ecological land area will increase, especially under the scenario of ecosystem priority. When considering the factors such as total area of ecological land, loss of key ecological land and spatial patterns of land use, the scenarios from priority to inferiority are ecosystem priority, object orientation and natural development, so future land management policies in Beijing should be focused on conversion of cropland to forest, wetland protection and prohibition of exploitation of natural protection zones, water source areas and forest parks to maintain the safety of the regional ecosystem.

  15. Altered baseline brain activity in experts measured by amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (ALFF: a resting state fMRI study using expertise model of acupuncturists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minghao eDong

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available It is well established that expertise modulates evoked brain activity in response to specific stimuli. Recently, researchers have begun to investigate how expertise influences the resting brain. Among these studies, most focused on the connectivity features within/across regions, i.e. connectivity patterns/strength. However, little concern has been given to a more fundamental issue whether or not expertise modulates baseline brain activity. We investigated this question using amplitude of low-frequency (<0.08Hz fluctuation (ALFF as the metric of brain activity and a novel expertise model, i.e. acupuncturists, due to their robust proficiency in tactile perception and emotion regulation. After the psychophysical and behavioral expertise screening procedure, 23 acupuncturists and 23 matched non-acupuncturists (NA were enrolled. Our results explicated higher ALFF for acupuncturists in the left ventral medial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC and the contralateral hand representation of the primary somatosensory area (SI (corrected for multiple comparisons. Additionally, ALFF of VMPFC was negatively correlated with the outcomes of the emotion regulation task (corrected for multiple comparisons. We suggest that our study may reveal a novel connection between the neuroplasticity mechanism and resting state activity, which would upgrade our understanding of the central mechanism of learning. Furthermore, by showing that expertise can affect the baseline brain activity as indicated by ALFF, our findings may have profound implication for functional neuroimaging studies especially those involving expert models, in that difference in baseline brain activity may either smear the spatial pattern of activations for task data or introduce biased results into connectivity-based analysis for resting data.

  16. The TDAQ Baseline Architecture

    CERN Multimedia

    Wickens, F J

    The Trigger-DAQ community is currently busy preparing material for the DAQ, HLT and DCS TDR. Over the last few weeks a very important step has been a series of meetings to complete agreement on the baseline architecture. An overview of the architecture indicating some of the main parameters is shown in figure 1. As reported at the ATLAS Plenary during the February ATLAS week, the main area where the baseline had not yet been agreed was around the Read-Out System (ROS) and details in the DataFlow. The agreed architecture has: Read-Out Links (ROLs) from the RODs using S-Link; Read-Out Buffers (ROB) sited near the RODs, mounted in a chassis - today assumed to be a PC, using PCI bus at least for configuration, control and monitoring. The baseline assumes data aggregation, in the ROB and/or at the output (which could either be over a bus or in the network). Optimization of the data aggregation will be made in the coming months, but the current model has each ROB card receiving input from 4 ROLs, and 3 such c...

  17. End-of-life care for persons with advanced Alzheimer disease: design and baseline data from the ALFINE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourhashémi, F; Gillette, S; Cantet, C; Stilmunkes, A; Saffon, N; Rougé-Bugat, M E; Vellas, B; Rolland, Y

    2012-05-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia. Most affected individuals survive to an advanced stage of dementia, which is under-recognized as a terminal illness. Our objectives were to better understand the clinical trajectory of advanced AD and to identify the palliative care needs of these patients. This was an observational prospective study of AD patients in severe stage of disease included after a hospitalization in geriatric wards. They were followed up every three months during 2 years. At each visit, interviews provided data regarding: pain (Elderly Pain Caring Assessment scale), pressure ulcers, eating patterns, daily medications and use of health services. This paper describes the design of the ALFINE study and the characteristics of the recruited cohort. 112 patients were recruited (mean age: 84.03 + 6.96) years; 76.79% were women. Mean time since diagnosis of AD was 5.28 years. Pressure ulcers were observed in 42 patients. Pain assessment with the EPCA showed a mean score of 8.58. One third of patients with an EPCA score of more than 7 (median) had no analgesics. More than half of patients had been treated with antibiotics during the three months before inclusion in the study and 33 patients were still receiving antibiotics at inclusion. Two third of patients had been hospitalized in the month before inclusion. End-of-life care for individuals with end-stage AD is increasingly important because of the rising number of patients with this disease. Health care systems and clinicians should make efforts to ameliorate the suffering of patients and their caregivers.

  18. Extra-articular disease in patients with spondyloarthritis. Baseline characteristics of the spondyloarthritis cohort of the AQUILES study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarco, Pedro; González, Carlos M; Rodríguez de la Serna, Arturo; Peiró, Enriqueta; Mateo, Isabel; Linares, Luis; Calvo, Jerusalem; Cea-Calvo, Luis; Arteaga, María J; Vanaclocha, Francisco; Marín-Jiménez, Ignacio; García-Vicuña, Rosario

    2015-01-01

    To describe the prevalence of extra-articular disease (uveitis, psoriasis and inflammatory bowel disease [IBD]), in a cohort of patients with spondyloarthritis (SpA). AQUILES is an observational, prospective and multicentric study of three cohorts of patients with one of the following immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMID): SpA, psoriasis, or IBD. In the present cohort, patients ≥18 years of age with SpA were enrolled from Rheumatology clinics. The main objective was to assess the coexistence of these diseases and of uveitis, based on the patients' clinical history up to the study entry. A total of 601 patients with SpA (men: 63.1%; women: 36.9%) were enrolled. The specific diagnoses were: ankylosing spondylitis (55.1%), psoriatic arthritis (25.1%), undifferentiated spondyloarthritis (16.1%), enteropathic arthritis (2.5%), and others (1.3%). In 43.6% (95% CI: 39.7-47.6) of the patients, at least one of the three abovementioned diseases was encountered, predominantly psoriasis (prevalence 27.8%, 95% CI: 24.4-31.5), uveitis (13.6%, CI 95%: 11.1-16.6) and IBD (5.1%, 95% CI: 3.7-7.2). In patients with ankylosing spondylitis the proportion of other disease was 25.3% (IBD: 3.9%, psoriasis: 5.4%, uveitis: 19.0%) whilst it was 94.7% in psoriatic arthritis, due to the presence of psoriasis (94.0%). The coexistence of these diseases was associated with age, female gender and the presence of other extra-articular manifestations associated with SpA. Extra-articular disease in patients with SpA is common and, in this study, it was associated to age, female gender and the presence of other SpA-related extra-articular manifestations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. [Immune-mediated inflammatory diseases in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Baseline data from the Aquiles study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín-Jiménez, Ignacio; García Sánchez, Valle; Gisbert, Javier P; Lázaro Pérez Calle, José; Luján, Marisol; Gordillo Ábalos, Jordi; Tabernero, Susana; Juliá, Berta; Romero, Cristina; Cea-Calvo, Luis; García-Vicuña, Rosario; Vanaclocha, Francisco

    2014-11-01

    To determine the prevalence of immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMID) in a cohort of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) enrolled in hospital gastroenterology outpatients units for the AQUILES study, a prospective 2-year follow-up study. We included patients ≥18 years old with a prior or new diagnosis of IBD (Crohn disease [CD], ulcerative colitis [UC] or indeterminate colitis). Diagnoses were collected in a cross-sectional manner from the clinical records at enrollment of a new patient in the study. We included 526 patients (mean age 40.2 years; 47.3% men, 52.7% women), 300 with CD (57.0%), 218 with UC (41.4%) and 8 with indeterminate colitis. Other types of IMID were present in 71 patients (prevalence: 13.5%, 95% CI: 10.8-16.7): 47 were spondyloarthropathies (prevalence: 8.9%); 18 psoriasis (3.4%); 5 pyoderma gangrenosum (1.0%), and 11 uveitis (2.1%). The prevalence of IMID was higher in patients with CD than in those with UC (17.0% [95% CI: 13.2-21.7] vs 9.2% [95% CI: 6.0-13.8], p=0.011). In the multivariate analysis, the variables associated with the presence of IMID were diagnosis of CD (OR=1.8 [95% CI: 1.1-3.2]) and duration of IBD ≥4 years (OR=2.1 [95% CI: 1.1-4.1] in those with disease duration 4-8 years, and OR=2.1 [95% CI: 1.2-3.9] in those with ≥8 years vs. 4 years since disease onset. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  20. Applying Ecological Frameworks in Obesity Intervention Studies in Hispanic/Latino Youth:: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiraly, Carmen; Turk, Melanie T; Kalarchian, Melissa A; Shaffer, Cheryl

    2017-09-01

    In the United States, Hispanic children have higher rates of obesity compared with non-Hispanic White children. An ecological framework provides a holistic view of the environment to which Hispanic/Latino children are exposed that can potentially inform prevention and treatment initiatives for this vulnerable population. This systematic review examines the existing evidence on the use of an ecological framework in intervention studies targeting overweight and obesity in Hispanic youth from birth to 8 years. Key terms guided the search of PubMed, Google Scholar, CINAHL, and EBSCOhost databases from 1997 to 2016. Results were organized using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) method. Seven studies met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Significant improvements in body mass index z scores in treatment children were evident in five of the seven studies. Increases in fruit, water, and vegetable consumption and physical activity levels were reported in four of the seven studies. Multilevel interventions targeting a child's home and community suggest efficacy in reducing or preventing obesity; increasing fruit, water, and vegetable consumption; and increasing physical activity in overweight/obese young Hispanic children. Future research is needed to explore the sustainability of multilevel obesity prevention interventions in this vulnerable population.

  1. Bioremediation in marine ecosystems: a computational study combining ecological modelling and flux balance analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna eTaffi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The pressure to search effective bioremediation methodologies for contaminated ecosystems has led to the large-scale identification of microbial species and metabolic degradation pathways. However, minor attention has been paid to the study of bioremediation in marine food webs and to the definition of integrated strategies for reducing bioaccumulation in species. We propose a novel computational framework for analysing the multiscale effects of bioremediation at the ecosystem level, based on coupling food web bioaccumulation models and metabolic models of degrading bacteria. The combination of techniques from synthetic biology and ecological network analysis allows the specification of arbitrary scenarios of contaminant removal and the evaluation of strategies based on natural or synthetic microbial strains.In this study, we derive a bioaccumulation model of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs in the Adriatic food web, and we extend a metabolic reconstruction of Pseudomonas putida KT2440 (iJN746 with the aerobic pathway of PCBs degradation. We assess the effectiveness of different bioremediation scenarios in reducing PCBs concentration in species and we study indices of species centrality to measure their importance in the contaminant diffusion via feeding links.The analysis of the Adriatic sea case study suggests that our framework could represent a practical tool in the design of effective remediation strategies, providing at the same time insights into the ecological role of microbial communities within food webs.

  2. Historical ecology provides new insights for ecosystem management: Eastern Baltic cod case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacKenzie, Brian; Ojaveer, Henn; Eero, Margit

    2011-01-01

    A recent historical marine ecological case study (cod in the eastern Baltic Sea) is used to show how long-term data and knowledge of fluctuations can contribute to revisions of fishery management policy. The case study first developed new longer analytical time series of spawner biomass and recru......A recent historical marine ecological case study (cod in the eastern Baltic Sea) is used to show how long-term data and knowledge of fluctuations can contribute to revisions of fishery management policy. The case study first developed new longer analytical time series of spawner biomass...... and recruitment back to the 1920s, which extended knowledge of population dynamics into a time period when ecosystem state was characterized by temporally varying combinations of exploitation, climate-hydrographic conditions, marine mammal predation and eutrophication. Recovery of spatially resolved historical...... catch data from the late 1500s to early 1600s also contributed new perspectives to cod population dynamics under alternative ecosystem forcings. These new perspectives have contributed, and will likely continue to contribute to new management policies (e.g., revision of fishery management reference...

  3. Baseline Face Detection, Head Pose Estimation, and Coarse Direction Detection for Facial Data in the SHRP2 Naturalistic Driving Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paone, Jeffrey R [ORNL; Bolme, David S [ORNL; Ferrell, Regina Kay [ORNL; Aykac, Deniz [ORNL; Karnowski, Thomas Paul [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Keeping a driver focused on the road is one of the most critical steps in insuring the safe operation of a vehicle. The Strategic Highway Research Program 2 (SHRP2) has over 3,100 recorded videos of volunteer drivers during a period of 2 years. This extensive naturalistic driving study (NDS) contains over one million hours of video and associated data that could aid safety researchers in understanding where the driver s attention is focused. Manual analysis of this data is infeasible, therefore efforts are underway to develop automated feature extraction algorithms to process and characterize the data. The real-world nature, volume, and acquisition conditions are unmatched in the transportation community, but there are also challenges because the data has relatively low resolution, high compression rates, and differing illumination conditions. A smaller dataset, the head pose validation study, is available which used the same recording equipment as SHRP2 but is more easily accessible with less privacy constraints. In this work we report initial head pose accuracy using commercial and open source face pose estimation algorithms on the head pose validation data set.

  4. Biochemical and physiological modifications in tissues of Sardina pilchardus: spatial and temporal patterns as a baseline for biomonitoring studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Silva Nunes

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Sardina pilchardus is a marine species common in the North Atlantic Ocean, and is subjected to diffuse anthropogenic chemical contamination and seasonal fluctuations in biotic and abiotic parameters that may alter its physiology and condition. Biological material is easily available through commercial fisheries, which could facilitate its use as a bioindicator species. The aim of the present work was to address its potential inclusion in biomonitoring studies, considering a combinatory approach through the use of enzymatic biomarkers and somatic indices, by assessing spatial and temporal patterns in a metapopulation along the west coast of Portugal. Our results showed significant variability of the biochemical and physiological profile of the fish, mainly concordant between sampling sites. Large differences for most markers were found across periods of the year, showing the importance of seasonality, which was mostly related to the reproductive cycle. Hence, environmental scientists should acknowledge seasonality as a strong driving force for physiological adaptations, influencing biochemical markers that are normally used to identify effects of chemical contamination. The here-obtained set of data suggests that S. pilchardus may be successfully included in oceanic biomonitoring studies, when one considers that the contribution of seasonal factors may exceed the influence of eventual anthropogenic contamination.

  5. . Ecological conceptual models: a framework and case study on ecosystem management for South Florida sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, J.H.; Harwell, M.A.; Cropper, W.; Harwell, C. C.; DeAngelis, Donald L.; Davis, S.; Ogden, J.C.; Lirman, D.

    2001-01-01

    The Everglades and South Florida ecosystems are the focus of national and international attention because of their current degraded and threatened state. Ecological risk assessment, sustainability and ecosystem and adaptive management principles and processes are being used nationally as a decision and policy framework for a variety of types of ecological assessments. The intent of this study is to demonstrate the application of these paradigms and principles at a regional scale. The effects-directed assessment approach used in this study consists of a retrospective, eco-epidemiological phase to determine the causes for the current conditions and a prospective predictive risk-based assessment using scenario analysis to evaluate future options. Embedded in these assessment phases is a process that begins with the identification of goals and societal preferences which are used to develop an integrated suite of risk-based and policy relevant conceptual models. Conceptual models are used to illustrate the linkages among management (societal) actions, environmental stressors, and societal/ecological effects, and provide the basis for developing and testing causal hypotheses. These models, developed for a variety of landscape units and their drivers, stressors, and endpoints, are used to formulate hypotheses to explain the current conditions. They are also used as the basis for structuring management scenarios and analyses to project the temporal and spatial magnitude of risk reduction and system recovery. Within the context of recovery, the conceptual models are used in the initial development of performance criteria for those stressors that are determined to be most important in shaping the landscape, and to guide the use of numerical models used to develop quantitative performance criteria in the scenario analysis. The results will be discussed within an ecosystem and adaptive management framework that provides the foundation for decision making.

  6. Evaluating the Sustainability of Nature Reserves Using an Ecological Footprint Method: A Case Study in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoman Liu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Nature reserves are established to protect ecosystems and rare flora and fauna. However, with the rapid development of the social economy, many nature reserves are facing enormous pressures from human activities. The assessment of the sustainability of nature reserves is a fundamental task for the planning and management of such areas. In this study, the sustainability of China’s 319 national nature reserves (NRRs was evaluated based on an ecological footprint (EF method. The results indicated that the per capita ecological footprints of all national nature reserves increased 85.86% from 2000 to 2010. Meanwhile, the per capita biocapacity (BC of all national nature reserves increased slightly, with a rate of increase of 1.79%. The ‘traffic light’ method was adopted to identify the sustainability status of those national nature reserves. It was found that currently (2010 45% of NRRs were in the condition of ecological deficit. In terms of dynamic changes in EF and BC, only 16% of NRRs were sustainable. The 124 national nature reserves that were in the red light state were mainly distributed in Anhui Province, Chongqing City, Hunan, Guizhou, Fujian, Shandong Province, and Inner Mongolia. The percentage of nature reserves at the red light state in these areas were 83.3%, 66.7%, 64.7%, 62.5%, 58.3%, 57.1%, and 56.5%, respectively. The reserves in the red light state should be included in the priority concern level and should be strictly controlled in terms of population growth and the intensity of exploitation. The results of this study will provide more effective data for reference and for decision making support in nature reserve protection.