WorldWideScience

Sample records for eco tailored tribo

  1. FY1998 results report on the priority area research and development of 'innovative processing technologies for producing ecologically tailored tribo-materials'. Innovation processing technologies for producing high-order composite structured material; 1998 nendo eco tailored tribo material sosei process gijutsu seika hokokusho. Koji fukugo kozo material sosei process gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    With research and development conducted for the purpose of improving performance of tribology-related parts in outdoor industrial equipment and transportation machinery, the results for fiscal 1998 were summarized. In the trial manufacturing of tribo-materials by a powder metallurgical method, since Fe-Ti-Al based intermetallic compound was promising, four kinds of powder samples were manufactured by mechanical alloying. Tribo-materials by a melting and casting method were also manufactured using the same samples and found to be inferior to the powder sintered materials in dynamic properties. In the evaluation of trial manufacturing of materials for brake disks, the result of measurement on abrasion loss and a friction coefficient by a high temperature abrasion tester revealed that Ti-Al based alloys were promising as composition metal. In the examination of the trial manufacturing of materials for bearings, in dealing with high loading of bearings, investigations were conducted on the physical properties of a low carbon steel backing with heating and rolling applied as well as on overlay materials. For materials for bearing alloys, Cu based powders were examined which were manufactured by a gas atomizing method. (NEDO)

  2. Tribo-charging properties of waste plastic granules in process of tribo-electrostatic separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; Wu, Guiqing; Xu, Zhenming

    2015-01-01

    Plastic products can be found everywhere in people's daily life. With the consistent growth of plastic consumption, more and more plastic waste is generated. Considering the stable chemical and physics characteristics of plastic, regular waste management methods are not suitable for recycling economic strategy of each government, which has become a serious environmental problem. Recycling plastic waste is considered to be the best way to treat it, because it cannot only deduce the waste but also save the energy to produce new virgin plastic. Tribo-electrostatic separation is strongly recommended for plastic separation as it can preserve the original properties of plastic and has little additional pollution. In this study, plastic granules are generated by crushing plastic waste in waste electric and electronic equipment. The tribo-charging properties of plastic waste were studied by vibrating tribo-charging and cyclone tribo-charging. The triboelectric series obtained by vibrating was: (-)-PE-PS-PC-PVC-ABS-PP-(+), while the triboelectric series obtained by cyclone was (-)-PE-PS-PC-PVC-ABS-PP-(+). Further, the cyclone charging was more effective and stable than vibrating charging. The impact factors experiments showed that small particle size was better changed than large ones and were more suitable recycled by tribo-electrostatic separation. High relative humidity was identified as impede charging effect. The results of this study will help defining the operating parameters of subsequent separator. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Tribo-systems for Sheet Metal Forming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels

    2009-01-01

    The present paper gives an overview of more than 10 years work by the author’s research group through participation in national as well as international framework programmes on developing and testing environmentally friendly lubricants and tool materials and coatings inhibiting galling. Partners ......’s research group has especially been involved in the development of a system of tribo-tests for sheet metal forming and in testing and modelling of friction and limits of lubrication of new, environmentally friendly lubricants and tool materials....

  4. Time-resolved tribo-thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinwiddie, Ralph B.; Blau, Peter J.

    1999-03-01

    Wear of coated surfaces tends to progress through a series of stages in which damage accumulates until the coating fails to protect its substrate. Depending on the coating system and the contact conditions, these stages can sometimes be detected as a series of discrete periods of changing frictional behavior, or they can occur quite rapidly, leading to rapid removal of the coating. A new technique has been developed to capture magnified infrared (IR) images of a selected location on a moving wear surface and to synchronize these cycle-by-cycle images with the instantaneous friction force that occurs at the same location. A pin-on-disk tribometer has been used to demonstrate the principle, but other kinds of test geometries can also be used. Contrast in the IR images derives not only from the surface temperatures but also from the emissivity of surface features. A spatial calibration of the system allows the measurement of the width of the wear path as a function of time. By studying a series of captured and friction- synchronized images, it is possible to observe the detailed progression of wear and the corresponding frictional transitions in a limitless variety of materials. Examples of several different materials, including, steel, aluminum, brass, and paint, will be used to illustrate the application of time-resolved microscopic tribo-thermography to coatings research.

  5. TRIBO DE CONSUMO DE ANIMES: O ANIME COMO UM TOTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno Alves Catão; Claudia Rosa Acevedo; Eduardo Correa de Godoy

    2017-01-01

    O presente estudo é uma análise etnográfica das tribos de animes, com o objetivo de desvendar os valores, as práticas de consumo, a organização, o comportamento e a cultura da tribo. Utilizamos registros de vídeo, fotos e anotações de campo para coletar as informações da pesquisa de observação participante. Concluímos que os animes influenciam os estilos visuais, hábitos e padrões de consumo dos integrantes. O anime é o centro da atenção dos jovens. É uma espécie de “totem” da tribo de consum...

  6. Tribo-chemical behavior of eutectoid steel during rolling contact friction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Y.; Cai, Z.B. [Key Laboratory of Advanced Technologies of Materials, Ministry of Education, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); Peng, J.F. [Tribology Research Institute, State Key Laboratory of Traction Power, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); Cao, B.B. [Key Laboratory of Advanced Technologies of Materials, Ministry of Education, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); Jin, X.S. [Tribology Research Institute, State Key Laboratory of Traction Power, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); Zhu, M.H., E-mail: zhuminhao@swjtu.cn [Key Laboratory of Advanced Technologies of Materials, Ministry of Education, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); Tribology Research Institute, State Key Laboratory of Traction Power, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China)

    2016-12-01

    Highlights: • Tribo-chemical behavior was investigated during rolling contact friction. • Tribo-film may weaken the absorptive ability of O/C atoms on the surface. • Tribo-film is related to a low friction coefficient at rolling friction condition. - Abstract: The tribo-chemical behavior of the eutectoid steel during rolling contact friction is investigated via scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and electron probe X-ray microanalysis. The worn surface is divided into three zones: matrix zone (without friction), tribo-film zone (formed during friction) and delamination zone (tribo-film spalling). The different chemical states of atoms between those three zones and the air were investigated using the XPS analysis. The results showed that the matrix zone is composed of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, FeO and metallic Fe, while the tribo-film and delamination zones only contain Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and FeO. Where the tribo-film is formed, the absorptive ability of O and C atoms on the top 2–3 atomic layers is probably weakened, while the exposed fresh metal in the delamination zone tends to be continuously oxidized and form tribo-film. The tribo-chemical reaction in the delamination zone is more activated than that in the other two zones. The protective nature of the tribo-film probably maintains a low friction coefficient under rolling contact friction condition.

  7. INFANTICÍDIO EM TRIBOS INDÍGENA BRASILEIRAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathas da Silva Simões

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Diante das constatações midiáticas que traziam estampados casos de tribos indígenas que ceifavam a vida de suas crianças quando portadoras de defeitos físicos ou culturais. Fatos que desencadearam numa audiência pública, em 2007, onde os órgãos de tutela e proteção ao índio (FUNAI/FUNASA, ONG’s, Grupos Missionários e representantes de algumas tribos indígenas travaram um debate polarizado no discurso indissoluto do Relativismo Cultural versus a Universalização dos Direitos Humanos. Não obstante, em tramitação o Projeto de Lei nº 1057/2007, que dispõe sobre o combate a práticas tradicionais nocivas e à proteção dos direitos fundamentais de crianças indígenas, bem como pertencentes a outras sociedades ditas não tradicionais. Conhecido popularmente como “Projeto de Lei Muwaji”, de autoria do Deputado Henrique Afonso - PT /AC, propõe por fim as ambivalências. Para tanto, o discurso da colisão real entre direitos fundamentais faz-se imprescindível. A técnica de ponderação de valores de Robert Alexy aparece como uma solução plausível ao conflito agregada ao princípio do melhor interesse e a doutrina da proteção integral na garantia do direito a convivência familiar e demais direitos fundamentais referentes à criança e ao adolescente são ventilados. Doutrinas e Jurisprudências corroboram os fundamentos ora apresentados.

  8. Fiscal 1998 research report on development, study and evaluation of tribo-materials; 1998 nendo tribo material no kaihatsu chosa hyoka hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Recently, needs for tribo-materials are on the increase for further energy saving and improvement of various functions and durability in various field such as less-fuel consumption car, new type Shinkansen, linear motor car, high-speed motor boat, various machines and tools, electronics, medical equipment and vitally adaptable material. This project researches and studies various properties required for tribo- materials for surface treated materials by ceramic and other material films, and clarifies the guidance and direction of the technology for creating tribo-materials by surface treatment and surface modification, through clarifying a friction/abrasion mechanism by collection of basic characteristic data and analysis of abrasion powders. This project is studying the marginal condition of film destruction for ceramic system vapor-phase deposited films, through studying the effect of mechanical properties of substrates, film surface treatment methods and film surface shapes on the marginal condition. (NEDO)

  9. Characterization of tribo-layer formed during sliding wear of SiC ball against nanocrystalline diamond coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumpala, Ravikumar [Manufacturing Engineering Section, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India); Nano Functional Materials Technology Centre, Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India); Kumar, N. [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102, TN (India); Samji, Sunil Kumar [Nano Functional Materials Technology Centre, Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India); Dash, S. [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102, TN (India); Ramamoorthy, B. [Manufacturing Engineering Section, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India); Ramachandra Rao, M.S., E-mail: msrrao@iitm.ac.in [Nano Functional Materials Technology Centre, Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India)

    2014-09-15

    Tribo-layer formation and frictional characteristics of the SiC ball were studied with the sliding test against nanocrystalline diamond coating under atmospheric test conditions. Unsteady friction coefficients in the range of 0.04 to 0.1 were observed during the tribo-test. Friction and wear characteristics were found to be influenced by the formation of cohesive tribo-layer (thickness ∼ 1.3 μm) in the wear track of nanocrystalline diamond coating. Hardness of the tribo-layer was measured using nanoindentation technique and low hardness of ∼ 1.2 GPa was observed. The presence of silicon and oxygen in the tribo-layer was noticed by the energy dispersive spectroscopy mapping and the chemical states of the silicon were analyzed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Large amount of oxygen content in the tribo-layer indicated tribo-oxidation wear mechanism. - Highlights: • Sliding wear and friction characteristics of SiC were studied against NCD coating. • Silicon oxide tribo-layer formation was observed in the NCD coating wear track. • Low hardness 1.2 GPa of tribo-layer was measured using nanoindentation technique. • Chemical states of silicon were analyzed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

  10. A tribo-dynamic model of a spur gear pair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S.; Kahraman, A.

    2013-09-01

    In this study, a tribo-dynamics model for spur gear pairs is proposed. The model couples a mixed elastohydrodynamic lubrication model of a spur gear pair with a transverse-torsional dynamic model. The lubrication model provides the dynamic model with friction forces and moments that couple the vibrations of the gears along the off-line-of-action direction to other gear vibrations. In addition, it predicts damping coefficient at the gear mesh in a physics-based manner from the energy loss associated with viscous shearing across the fluid film. In return, the dynamic model predicts the dynamic tooth forces and surface velocities to be used in the lubrication model. An iterative computational scheme is proposed to implement the lubrication and dynamics models simultaneously to couple tribological and dynamic behaviors of a spur gear pair fully. An example gear pair is analyzed using the proposed model to demonstrate this two-way relationship and quantify the impact of operating conditions, surface roughness and lubrication characteristics on the tribo-dynamics response. Dynamic gear mesh tooth forces predicted by the dynamic model are used in the EHL model as the loading. Surface velocity fluctuations due to gear vibrations are included in the EHL formulation in the definition of rolling and sliding velocities as well as non-Newtonian flow coefficients. A physics-based, time-varying, viscous gear mesh damping is defined from the EHL formulations to be used in the dynamic model along the OLOA direction. Since the EHL model considers rough surfaces, the roughness effects in addition to the operating speed, load and temperature effects are all included in the gear mesh damping. Time-varying friction forces acting in the OLOA direction and friction moments acting in torsional direction are computed from the EHL model to be used in the dynamic model to couple LOA and OLOA motions properly. Effects of surface roughness and operating speed, load and temperature conditions on

  11. A Methodology for Off-line Evaluation of New Environmentally Friendly Tribo-systems for Sheet Metal Forming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ceron, Ermanno; Bay, Niels

    2013-01-01

    Increasing focus on environmental issues in industrial production has urged sheet stamping companies to look for new tribo-systems in order to substitute hazardous lubricants such as chlorinated paraffin oils. Production testing of new lubricants is, however, costly and makes industry reluctant...... towards testing alternative solutions. The present paper presents a methodology for off-line testing of new tribo-systems based on numerical modelling of production process as well as laboratory test to adjust the latter combined with testing of selected tribo-systems on a new automatic sheet......-tribo-tester emulating typical sheet forming production processes. Final testing of the tribo-systems in production verifies the methodology. © 2013 CIRP....

  12. New Tribo-systems for Cold Forming of Steel, Stainless Steel and Aluminium Alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels

    2013-01-01

    Globalisation of industrial production and increasing demands for environmentally benign solutions has forced cold forging industry to search for new, economically optimized tribo-systems, which are less harmful to the working as well as the global environment. The present paper describes efforts...

  13. Testing new tribo-systems for sheet metal forming of advanced high strength steels and stainless steels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels; Ceron, Ermanno

    2014-01-01

    Testing of new tribo-systems in sheet metal forming has become an important issue due to new legislation, which forces industry to replace current, hazardous lubricants. The present paper summarizes the work done in a recent PhD project at the Technical University of Denmark on the development...... of a methodology for off-line testing of new tribo-systems for advanced high strength steels and stainless steels. The methodology is presented and applied to an industrial case, where different tribo-systems are tested. A universal sheet tribotester has been developed, which can run automatically repetitive...

  14. EcoTour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ove; Jensen, Christian S.; Torp, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    Reduction in greenhouse gas emissions from transportation is essential in combating global warming and climate change. Eco-routing enables drivers to use the most eco-friendly routes and is effective in reducing vehicle emissions. The EcoTour system assigns eco-weights to a road network based on ...

  15. Determination of friction in sheet metal forming by means of simulative tribo-tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ceron, Ermanno; Bay, Niels

    2013-01-01

    , not appropriate when introducing new tribo-systems (lubricant, workpiece material, tool material or tool coating). In order to determine friction under the very varied conditions in sheet stamping simulative testing may be applied, e.g., Plane-Strip-Testing (PST), Draw-Bead-Testing (DBT) and Bending...... of friction, whereas detailed numerical simulation of the test can give useful friction values as demonstrated in comparative analysis of an industrial, multistage deep drawing....

  16. Escritores-jornalistas: uma tribo no campo jornalístico brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Ritter

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Seguindo o modelo dos países ocidentais, na literatura brasileira é significativa a participação de jornalistas na produção literária de seu tempo. Autores clássicos da literatura ocidental, como Honoré de Balzac, Ernest Hemingway, Truman Capote e Euclides da Cunha são apenas alguns exemplos dos mais conhecidos nesse sentido. Partindo do conceito de tribo jornalística, apresentado por Traquina (2005, pode-se apresentar uma tribo especificamente literária que está inserida no campo jornalístico brasileiro, formada por escritores que atuam ou atuaram nas redações e nas páginas dos livros, tanto no sentido de produção de jornalismo literário, como Caco Barcellos, quanto no de produção de contos e romances, como foi o caso de Erico Verissimo, por exemplo. Considerando isso, para a presente análise do tema, optou-se por restringir o estudo dessa tribo exclusivamente no cenário brasileiro. Para tanto, metodologicamente esse estudo se caracteriza como sendo de tipo exploratório com base na pesquisa bibliográfica. 

  17. Performance Analysis of Retrofitted Tribo-Corrosion Test Rig for Monitoring In Situ Oil Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Rahul; Menezes, Pradeep L.

    2017-01-01

    Oils and lubricants, once extracted after use from a mechanical system, can hardly be reused, and should be refurbished or replaced in most applications. New methods of in situ oil and lubricant efficiency monitoring systems have been introduced for a wide variety of mechanical systems, such as automobiles, aerospace aircrafts, ships, offshore wind turbines, and deep sea oil drilling rigs. These methods utilize electronic sensors to monitor the “byproduct effects” in a mechanical system that are not indicative of the actual remaining lifecycle and reliability of the oils. A reliable oil monitoring system should be able to monitor the wear rate and the corrosion rate of the tribo-pairs due to the inclusion of contaminants. The current study addresses this technological gap, and presents a novel design of a tribo-corrosion test rig for oils used in a dynamic system. A pin-on-disk tribometer test rig retrofitted with a three electrode-potentiostat corrosion monitoring system was used to analyze the corrosion and wear rate of a steel tribo-pair in industrial grade transmission oil. The effectiveness of the retrofitted test rig was analyzed by introducing various concentrations of contaminants in an oil medium that usually leads to a corrosive working environment. The results indicate that the retrofitted test rig can effectively monitor the in situ tribological performance of the oil in a controlled dynamic corrosive environment. It is a useful method to understand the wear–corrosion synergies for further experimental work, and to develop accurate predictive lifecycle assessment and prognostic models. The application of this system is expected to have economic benefits and help reduce the ecological oil waste footprint. PMID:28956819

  18. Performance Analysis of Retrofitted Tribo-Corrosion Test Rig for Monitoring In Situ Oil Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpith Siddaiah

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Oils and lubricants, once extracted after use from a mechanical system, can hardly be reused, and should be refurbished or replaced in most applications. New methods of in situ oil and lubricant efficiency monitoring systems have been introduced for a wide variety of mechanical systems, such as automobiles, aerospace aircrafts, ships, offshore wind turbines, and deep sea oil drilling rigs. These methods utilize electronic sensors to monitor the “byproduct effects” in a mechanical system that are not indicative of the actual remaining lifecycle and reliability of the oils. A reliable oil monitoring system should be able to monitor the wear rate and the corrosion rate of the tribo-pairs due to the inclusion of contaminants. The current study addresses this technological gap, and presents a novel design of a tribo-corrosion test rig for oils used in a dynamic system. A pin-on-disk tribometer test rig retrofitted with a three electrode-potentiostat corrosion monitoring system was used to analyze the corrosion and wear rate of a steel tribo-pair in industrial grade transmission oil. The effectiveness of the retrofitted test rig was analyzed by introducing various concentrations of contaminants in an oil medium that usually leads to a corrosive working environment. The results indicate that the retrofitted test rig can effectively monitor the in situ tribological performance of the oil in a controlled dynamic corrosive environment. It is a useful method to understand the wear–corrosion synergies for further experimental work, and to develop accurate predictive lifecycle assessment and prognostic models. The application of this system is expected to have economic benefits and help reduce the ecological oil waste footprint.

  19. Performance Analysis of Retrofitted Tribo-Corrosion Test Rig for Monitoring In Situ Oil Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddaiah, Arpith; Khan, Zulfiqar Ahmad; Ramachandran, Rahul; Menezes, Pradeep L

    2017-09-28

    Oils and lubricants, once extracted after use from a mechanical system, can hardly be reused, and should be refurbished or replaced in most applications. New methods of in situ oil and lubricant efficiency monitoring systems have been introduced for a wide variety of mechanical systems, such as automobiles, aerospace aircrafts, ships, offshore wind turbines, and deep sea oil drilling rigs. These methods utilize electronic sensors to monitor the "byproduct effects" in a mechanical system that are not indicative of the actual remaining lifecycle and reliability of the oils. A reliable oil monitoring system should be able to monitor the wear rate and the corrosion rate of the tribo-pairs due to the inclusion of contaminants. The current study addresses this technological gap, and presents a novel design of a tribo-corrosion test rig for oils used in a dynamic system. A pin-on-disk tribometer test rig retrofitted with a three electrode-potentiostat corrosion monitoring system was used to analyze the corrosion and wear rate of a steel tribo-pair in industrial grade transmission oil. The effectiveness of the retrofitted test rig was analyzed by introducing various concentrations of contaminants in an oil medium that usually leads to a corrosive working environment. The results indicate that the retrofitted test rig can effectively monitor the in situ tribological performance of the oil in a controlled dynamic corrosive environment. It is a useful method to understand the wear-corrosion synergies for further experimental work, and to develop accurate predictive lifecycle assessment and prognostic models. The application of this system is expected to have economic benefits and help reduce the ecological oil waste footprint.

  20. The Effect of Rotor Disc Material on Tribo Behavior of Automotive Brake Pad Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, K. W.; El-Tayeb, N. S. M.

    This work aims to investigate the effect of two different counterdisc materials, i.e. gray cast iron (GCI) and ductile gray cast iron (DGCI) on tribo behavior of non-commercial frictional materials (NF1, NF2, NF4, and NF5) and two other chosen commercial brake pads (CMA and CMB) under dry sliding contact conditions. The four non-commercial frictional materials were fabricated with various percentages of phenolic binder resin (15 and 20 vol.%) and reinforced with steel fibers (15 and 20 vol.%) using hot press molding methods. Tribo tests were carried out using a small-scale tribo-tester of pad-on-disc type. Friction coefficient and wear of non-commercial and commercial brake pads were measured against each counterdisc (GCI and DGCI) and compared. Then, the friction and wear characteristic are discussed by comparing the experimental results obtained for each kind of cast iron. The results showed that maximum friction coefficient (0.4-0.5) of brake pad was attained at 2.22 MPa applied pressure and 2.1 m/s sliding speed when the frictional brake pad materials were tested against DGCI disc rotor. Meanwhile, similar wear rates for all frictional brake pad materials were sustained at higher applied pressure and sliding speed when tested against either type of rotor discs (GCI and DGCI). The results on the other hand, indicated that non-commercial materials NF1 and NF4, gave better wear resistance compared to other frictional pad materials. NF2 exhibited the lowest wear resistance when tested against GCI and DGCI rotor disc at all applied pressure and sliding speeds. The latter result is referred to the low percentage binder resin in the friction material NF2.

  1. Microfibrillated Cellulose Based Ink for Eco-Sustainable Screen Printed Flexible Electrodes in Lithium Ion Batteries

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    El Baradai, Oussama; Beneventi, Davide; Alloin, Fannie; Bongiovanni, Roberta; Bruas-Reverdy, Nadege; Bultel, Yann; Chaussy, Didier

    2016-01-01

    ... and eco- sustainable electrodes for lithium ion batteries. Content ratio of components and dispersion protocol were tailored in order to have theological properties suitable for a large and cheap manufacturing process as well as screen printing...

  2. Off-Line Testing of Tribo-Systems for Sheet Metal Forming Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels; Ceron, Ermanno

    2014-01-01

    -parameters, which are tool/workpiece normal pressure, sliding length, sliding speed and interface contact temperature. The paper describes a generic methodology for such tests exemplified on an industrial, multistage deep drawing example, where deep drawing is followed by two successive re-drawing operations...... leading to very high tool/workpiece interface pressure and temperature in the second re-draw. Under such conditions only the best lubricant systems work satisfactory, and the paper shows how the performance of different tribo-systems in production may be predicted by off-line testing combined...

  3. TERRITÓRIOS E TERRITORIALIDADES URBANAS EM GOIÂNIA: AS TRIBOS DOS MOTO CLUBES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elisabeth Alves Mesquita

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O intuito deste trabalho é analisar as tribos urbanas, fenômenoscontemporâneos, a partir das categorias territórioe territorialidade. Na tentativa de ampliar a visão sobre talassunto, de inegável importância na atualidade, busca-sedemonstrar como estas se organizam espacialmente ecomo se dá a sua dinâmica organizacional e inter-relaçãocom o espaço citadino, tomando-se o exemplo dos motoclubes da cidade de Goiânia - GO. Acerca deste casoespecífico, investigaremos sobre os modos como osmembros dos moto clubes goianienses se relacionamcom as atividades de comércio e lazer da cidade mas,ao mesmo tempo, criam fronteiras em espaços sociaistidos como públicos, controlando o seu acesso. Assim,notar-se-ão territórios que são firmados em códigos simbólicos,comportamentais e identitários de cada tribo noseu “pedaço”.

  4. A tribo-mechanical analysis of PVA-based building-blocks for implementation in a 2-layered skin model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morales Hurtado, Marina; de Vries, Erik G.; Zeng, Xiangqiong; van der Heide, Emile

    2016-01-01

    Poly(vinyl) alcohol hydrogel (PVA) is a well-known polymer widely used in the medical field due to its biocompatibility properties and easy manufacturing. In this work, the tribo-mechanical properties of PVA-based blocks are studied to evaluate their suitability as a part of a structure simulating

  5. EcoBears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nick; Pedersen, Sandra Bleuenn; Sørensen, Jens Ager

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce the EcoBears concept that aims to augment household appliances with functional and aesthetic features to promote their "use'' and "longevity of use'' to prevent their disposal. The EcoBears also aim to support the communication of environmental issues in the home setting...

  6. Tribo-mechanical and electrical properties of boron-containing coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Jincheng

    The development of new hard protective coatings with advanced performance is very important for progress in a variety of scientific and industrial fields. Application of hard protective coatings can significantly improve the performance of parts and components, extend their service life, and save energy in many industrial applications including aerospace, automotive, manufacturing, and other industries. In addition, the multifunctionality of protective coatings is also required in many other application fields such as optics, microelectronics, biomedical, magnetic storage media, etc. Therefore, protective coatings with enhanced tribo-mechanical and corrosion properties as well as other functions are in demand. The coating characteristics can be adjusted by controlling the microstructure at different scales. For example, films with nanostructures, such as superlattice, nanocolumn, and nanocomposite systems, exhibit distinctive characteristics compared to single-phase materials. They show superior tribo-mechanical properties due to the presence of strong interfaces, and different functions can be achieved due to the multi-phase characteristics. Boron-containing materials with their excellent mechanical properties and interesting electronic characteristics are good candidates for functional hard protective coatings. For instance, cubic boron nitride (c-BN), boron carbide (B1-xCx), and titanium diboride (TiB 2) are well known for their high hardness, high thermal stability, and high chemical inertness. An interesting example is the boron carbon nitride (BCN) compound that possesses many attractive properties because its structure is similar to that of carbon (graphite and diamond) and of boron nitride (BN in hexagonal and cubic phases). The main goal of this work is to further develop the family of Boron-containing films including B1-xCx, Ti-B-C, and BCN films fabricated by magnetron sputtering, and to enhance their performance by controlling their microstructure on

  7. Umberto Eco - an autobiographer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Lubas-Bartoszyńska

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This text shows that U. Eco is an autobiographer in only some sense of the word. He has not written an autobiobiographical text in which he would present a segment of his life. However, he told the history of his novelistic work and presented his intellectual train of thought in his essays, interviews, introductions to his works. There also exists an indirect autobiographism in Eco, which expresses signs of the author's life and of his personality dispersed in his interpretative and theoretical writings on literature, aesthetics, history, in his feuilletons and in his novels. Five types of autobiographism have been distinguished in Eco as well as five autobiographical strategies within the indirect autobiographism. The first strategy - a strong presence of autorial I in the text - is not sufficient and requires support of some other of the strategies discussed.

  8. Nanostructure and Composition of Tribo-Boundary Films Formed in Ionic Liquid Lubrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, Jun [ORNL; Chi, Miaofang [ORNL; Meyer III, Harry M [ORNL; Blau, Peter Julian [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL; Luo, Huimin [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Since the idea of using ionic liquids (ILs) as lubricants was raised in 2001, many studies have been conducted in this area and results have demonstrated superior lubricating performance for a variety of ionic liquids. It is widely believed that tribochemical reactions occur between the metal surface and the IL during the wear process to form a protective tribo-boundary film on the contact area that reduces friction and wear. However, the study of this critical boundary film has been limited to top surface two-dimensional topography examination and chemical analysis in the literature. A more comprehensive characterization is needed to help understand the film formation process and the lubricating mechanism. This study demonstrated a multi-technique three-dimensional approach to characterize the IL-formed boundary films, including top surface morphology examination, cross section nanostructure characterization, and layered chemical analysis. Characterization was carried out on both ferrous and aluminum surfaces lubricated by an ammonium IL. The focused-ion-beam (FIB) technique enabled TEM/EDS examination on the cross section of the boundary film to provide direct measurement of the film thickness, visualization of the nanostructure, and analysis of composition. In addition, composition-depth profiles were generated using XPS aided by ion-sputtering to reveal the composition change at different levels of the boundary film to investigate the film formation process.

  9. EcoCount

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip P. Allen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Techniques that analyze biological remains from sediment sequences for environmental reconstructions are well established and widely used. Yet, identifying, counting, and recording biological evidence such as pollen grains remain a highly skilled, demanding, and time-consuming task. Standard procedure requires the classification and recording of between 300 and 500 pollen grains from each representative sample. Recording the data from a pollen count requires significant effort and focused resources from the palynologist. However, when an adaptation to the recording procedure is utilized, efficiency and time economy improve. We describe EcoCount, which represents a development in environmental data recording procedure. EcoCount is a voice activated fully customizable digital count sheet that allows the investigator to continuously interact with a field of view during the data recording. Continuous viewing allows the palynologist the opportunity to remain engaged with the essential task, identification, for longer, making pollen counting more efficient and economical. EcoCount is a versatile software package that can be used to record a variety of environmental evidence and can be installed onto different computer platforms, making the adoption by users and laboratories simple and inexpensive. The user-friendly format of EcoCount allows any novice to be competent and functional in a very short time.

  10. Eco-Innovation Manual

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Hare, Jamie Alexander; McAloone, Tim C.; Pigosso, Daniela Cristina Antelmi

    This tool is designed to support you in identifying companies that are more likely to be willing and able to benefit from eco-innovation services. The tool provides questions to guide your research analysis, starting at the industry sector level, before progressing through the market level, down...

  11. Friction Regimes of Water-Lubricated Diamond (111): Role of Interfacial Ether Groups and Tribo-Induced Aromatic Surface Reconstructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwahara, Takuya; Moras, Gianpietro; Moseler, Michael

    2017-09-01

    Large-scale quantum molecular dynamics of water-lubricated diamond (111) surfaces in sliding contact reveals multiple friction regimes. While water starvation causes amorphization of the tribological interface, small H_{2}O traces are sufficient to preserve crystallinity. This can result in high friction due to cold welding via ether groups or in ultralow friction due to aromatic surface passivation triggered by tribo-induced Pandey reconstruction. At higher water coverage, Grotthuss-type diffusion and H_{2}O dissociation yield dense H/OH surface passivation leading to another ultralow friction regime.

  12. Palinotaxonomia de representantes das tribos Coussareeae. Benth. Hook. F. e Psychotrieae Cham. & Schtdl (Rubiaceae Juss.) ocorrentes no Sudeste do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Gabrielle Reboredo Menezes Vieira

    2015-01-01

    Rubiaceae Juss. é a quarta família em número de espécies entre as Angiospermas no Mundo e no Neotrópico, apresentando grande diversidade de espécies com representantes na maioria dos biomas. No Brasil são registrados 124 gêneros e 1.395 espécies sendo considerada uma das principais famílias da flora brasileira. O presente trabalho trata do estudo palinológico de 61 espécies da família Rubiaceae subordinadas às tribos Coussareeae Benth. & Hook.f e Psychotrieae Cham. & Schltdl. o...

  13. Friction Regimes of Water-Lubricated Diamond (111): Role of Interfacial Ether Groups and Tribo-Induced Aromatic Surface Reconstructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwahara, Takuya; Moras, Gianpietro; Moseler, Michael

    2017-09-01

    Large-scale quantum molecular dynamics of water-lubricated diamond (111) surfaces in sliding contact reveals multiple friction regimes. While water starvation causes amorphization of the tribological interface, small H2O traces are sufficient to preserve crystallinity. This can result in high friction due to cold welding via ether groups or in ultralow friction due to aromatic surface passivation triggered by tribo-induced Pandey reconstruction. At higher water coverage, Grotthuss-type diffusion and H2O dissociation yield dense H /OH surface passivation leading to another ultralow friction regime.

  14. Interações evolutivas entre borboletas da tribo troidini (Papilionidae, Papilioninae) e suas plantas hospedeiras no genero Aristolochia (Aristolochiaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Karina Lucas da Silva-Brandão

    2005-01-01

    Resumo: Uma filogenia dos membros Neotropicais da tribo Troidini (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) foi obtida a partir da seqüência de três genes codificadores de proteínas: dois mitocondriais (COI e COII) e um nuclear (EF-1?). Análises de Parcimônia e Bayesiana de 33 taxa resultaram em árvores bastante similares, independentemente do método utilizado, com os 27 Troidini sempre formando um ramo monofilético. O gênero Battus é grupo irmão dos demais Troidini, seguido pelo ramo formado pelos taxa P...

  15. Eco-marketing and eco-design of products

    OpenAIRE

    Filipović Jovan; Stokić Dušan

    2007-01-01

    Environmental marketing (Eco-marketing), as a relatively new movement, emerged at the beginning of the 20th century, is in the growing phase of its development. Eco-labeling and other ways/types of eco-marketing are attracting more attention of consumers, since they are aware of the necessity of nature conservation and environmental protection. There has been a lot of misunderstanding and miss leadings in interpretation and substantiation of ecomarketing claims in previous period of time. One...

  16. The EcoCyc Database

    OpenAIRE

    Karp, Peter D; Riley, Monica; Saier, Milton; Paulsen, Ian T.; Collado-Vides, Julio; Paley, Suzanne M.; Pellegrini-Toole, Alida; Bonavides, César; Gama-Castro, Socorro

    2002-01-01

    EcoCyc is an organism-specific pathway/genome database that describes the metabolic and signal-transduction pathways of Escherichia coli, its enzymes, its transport proteins and its mechanisms of transcriptional control of gene expression. EcoCyc is queried using the Pathway Tools graphical user interface, which provides a wide variety of query operations and visualization tools. EcoCyc is available at http://ecocyc.org/.

  17. Tailored Porous Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BARTON,THOMAS J.; BULL,LUCY M.; KLEMPERER,WALTER G.; LOY,DOUGLAS A.; MCENANEY,BRIAN; MISONO,MAKOTO; MONSON,PETER A.; PEZ,GUIDO; SCHERER,GEORGE W.; VARTULI,JAMES C.; YAGHI,OMAR M.

    1999-11-09

    Tailoring of porous materials involves not only chemical synthetic techniques for tailoring microscopic properties such as pore size, pore shape, pore connectivity, and pore surface reactivity, but also materials processing techniques for tailoring the meso- and the macroscopic properties of bulk materials in the form of fibers, thin films and monoliths. These issues are addressed in the context of five specific classes of porous materials: oxide molecular sieves, porous coordination solids, porous carbons, sol-gel derived oxides, and porous heteropolyanion salts. Reviews of these specific areas are preceded by a presentation of background material and review of current theoretical approaches to adsorption phenomena. A concluding section outlines current research needs and opportunities.

  18. Diallyl disulphide as natural organosulphur friction modifier via the in-situ tribo-chemical formation of tungsten disulphide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Ripoll, Manel; Totolin, Vladimir; Gabler, Christoph; Bernardi, Johannes; Minami, Ichiro

    2018-01-01

    The present work shows a novel method for generating in-situ low friction tribofilms containing tungsten disulphide in lubricated contacts using diallyl disulphide as sulphur precursor. The approach relies on the tribo-chemical interaction between the diallyl disulphide and a surface containing embedded sub-micrometer tungsten carbide particles. The results show that upon sliding contact between diallyl disulphide and the tungsten-containing surface, the coefficient of friction drops to values below 0.05 after an induction period. The reason for the reduction in friction is due to tribo-chemical reactions that leads to the in-situ formation of a complex tribofilm that contains iron and tungsten components. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses indicate the presence of tungsten disulphide at the contact interface, thus justifying the low coefficient of friction achieved during the sliding experiments. It was proven that the low friction tribofilms can only be formed by the coexistence of tungsten and sulphur species, thus highlighting the synergy between diallyl disulphide and the tungsten-containing surface. The concept of functionalizing surfaces to react with specific additives opens up a wide range of possibilities, which allows tuning on-site surfaces to target additive interactions.

  19. Relations of Counterface Hardness with Wear Behavior and Tribo-Oxide Layer of AISI H13 Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Q. Y.; Wang, S. Q.; Li, X. X.; Zhou, Y.; Chen, K. M.; Cui, X. H.

    2016-12-01

    Dry sliding wear tests of AISI H13 steel (50 HRC) against AISI D2 steel counterface with three hardness levels (55, 50, and 42 HRC) were performed at 298 K to 873 K (25 °C to 600 °C). The relations of counterface hardness with the wear behavior and tribo-oxide layer of AISI H13 steel were explored. When sliding against the different-hardness counterface, H13 steel presents appreciably changed wear behavior as a function of temperature. For H d/ H p (the hardness ratio of disk to pin) > 1, the wear rate increases with the increase of temperature, but the wear rate variation is roughly inversed for H d/ H p 1, at 474 K (200 °C) for H d/ H p = 1, and at 673 K (400 °C) for H d/ H p 1 and at 673 K to 873 K (400 °C to 600 °C) for H d/ H p = 1. These findings suggest that the tribo-oxide layers are liable to exist stably for H d/ H p ≤ 1 but to readily delaminate for H d/ H p > 1.

  20. A genitália externa na tribo Bolboderini (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Lent

    1984-03-01

    Full Text Available Sete espécies da tribo bolboderini, pertencentes aos gêneros Bolbodera, Belminus, Microtriatoma e Parabelminus, duas das quais já encontradas naturalmente infectadas com Trypanosoma cruzi, foram analisadas e comparadas tendo como enfoque oito estruturas da genitália externa dos machos: Processo mediano do pigóforo (PrP, Processo da conjuntiva (PrCj, Extensão mediana da placa basal (EPIb, Processo do endosoma (PrEn, Suporte do falosoma (SPh, Falosoma (Ph, Processo do gonoporo (PrG e a Vesica (V. Microtriatoma trinidadensis (lent, 1951 e M. borbai Lent & Wygodzinsky, 1979 mostraram um plano estrutural morfológico semelhante a Parabelminus yurupucu Lent & Wygodzinsky, 1979 e P. carioca Lent, 1943 e deferindo nitidamente de Belminus peruvianus Herrer, Lent & Wygodzinsky, 1954 e B. herreri Lent & Wygodzinsky, 1979 e de Bolbodera scabrosa, Valdés, 1910, não só pela ausência como pela forma de determinadas estruturas. Estas observações comparativas confirmam as afinidades entre Microtriatoma e Parabelminus e suas relações com belminus e Bolbodera.Seven species of the Bolboderini tribe belonging to the genera bolbodera, Belminus, Microtriatoma and Parabelminus, two of them found naturally infected with Trypanosoma cruzi, were analysed and compared emphasizing eight structures of the male external genitalia: median process of pygophore (PrP, conjunctiva process (PrCj, pedicel (EP1b, endosoma process (PrEn, struts (SPh, phallosoma (Ph, medium bridge (PrG and vesica (V. Microtriatoma trinidadensis (Lent, 1951 and M. borbai Lent & Wygodzinsky, 1979 have shown a structural morphological aspect similar to Parabelminus yurupucu Lent & Wygodzinsky, 1979 and P. carioca Lent, 1943 differing clearly from Belminus peruvianus Herrer, Lent & Wygodzinsky, 1954, B. herreri Lent & Wygodzinsky, 1979 and Bolbodera scabrosa valdés, 1910, not only by the absence but by the shape of some structures. These comparative observations confirm the affinity between

  1. [Umberto Eco and abortion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-09-01

    The Cardinal of Milan and the linguist and writer Umberto Eco maintained a correspondence in the mid-1990s in connection with the Italian magazine ¿Liberal¿. One of the issues discussed was the conflict between belief in the value of human life and existing abortion legislation. Umberto Eco stated that he would do all in his power to dissuade a woman pregnant with his child from having an abortion, regardless of the personal cost to the parents, because the birth of a child is a miracle. He would not, however, feel capable of imposing his ethical position on anyone else. Terrible moments occur in which women have a right to make autonomous decisions concerning their bodies, their feelings, their futures. Those who disagree cite the right to life, a rather vague concept about which even atheists can be enthusiastic. The moment at which a new human being is formed has been brought to the center of Catholic theology, despite its uncertainty; the beginning of a new life may always need to be understood as a process whose end result is the newborn. Only the mother should decide at what moment the process may be interrupted. The cardinal¿s response distinguished between psychic and physical life, on the one hand, and life participating in the life of God on the other. The threshold is the moment of conception, reflecting a continuity of identity. The new being is worthy of respect. Any violation of the affection and care owed to the being can only be experienced as a profound suffering and painful laceration that may never heal. The response of Eco is unknown.

  2. Issues of Eco-agricultural Industrialization for Big Qinling Eco-city Cluster

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Dong

    2011-01-01

    Firstly, the necessities of ecological agriculture development in Big Qinling Eco-city Cluster were discussed. Then, condition endowment of eco-agricultural industrialization in Big Qinling Eco-city Cluster was analyzed from the aspects of basic conditions and differential endowment of eco-agricultural industrialization. Finally, specific forms and functional orientation of eco-agriculture were pointed out Countermeasures for the eco agricultural industrialization in Big Qinling Eco-city Clus...

  3. Evaluation of Eco-Efficiency and Performance of Retrofit Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopinath, Smitha; Rama Chandra Murthy, A.; Iyer, Nagesh R.; Kokila, S.

    2015-12-01

    In this work three materials namely Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP), ferrocement and Textile Reinforced Concrete (TRC) have been evaluated towards their performance efficiency and eco-effectiveness for sustainable retrofitting applications. Investigations have been carried out for flexural strengthening of RC beams with FRP, ferrocement and TRC. It is observed that in the case of FRP, it is not possible to tailor the material according to design requirements and most of the time strengthened structure becomes over stiff. Eco-effectiveness of these retrofitting materials has been evaluated by computing the embodied energy. It is observed that the amount of CO2 emitted by TRC is less compared to other retrofit materials. Further, the performance point of retrofitted RC frames has been evaluated and damage index has been calculated to find out the effective retrofit material. It is concluded that, if RC frame is retrofitted with FRP and TRC, it undergoes less damage compared to ferrocement.

  4. Umberto Eco in his own words

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This volume contributes to the advancement of the understanding of Umberto Eco's (1932-2016) excellent work on semiotics, communication and cognition. Forty Eco-scholars from 12 contries located on 3 continents bring together insights across the wide range of Eco's writings, as well as the contem...... as the contemporary trends in his interpretation, including innovative applications of Eco's semiotic models...

  5. A Multidirectional Tribo-System: Wear of UHMWPE under Sliding, Rolling, and Rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patten, Elias Wolfgang

    Total knee replacements (TKR) have become a successful surgical procedure for addressing end-stage osteoarthritis, with ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene and cobalt chrome alloy (UHMWPE/Co-Cr) serving as the bearing materials of choice for decades. However, more than 10% of TKRs fail and require revision surgery. The predominant challenge with UHMWPE is the particulate debris generated through wear-mediated processes; wear debris from the UHMWPE tibial bearing surface leading to loosening is still the main cause for post-fifth-year revisions. UHMWPE wear in hip arthroplasty has been linked to microstructural evolution at the surface from multidirectional sliding in the hip joint but little is known about how the microstructure responds to clinically relevant sliding conditions in the knee. This is likely because wear tests are typically performed under basic motion parameters with simplified geometry (pin-on-disk tests) while the knee has more complex kinematics: it is neither a ball-and-socket joint nor a simple hinge joint, but has 2D sliding, rolling/slip motion, and rotation. There is also disagreement over how to best quantify cross-shear and how to model how much wear it will cause. A custom multidirectional tribo-system was used to investigate the individual and combined effects of the different motions in TKR: 2D sliding, rolling, and rotation, for a total of eight separate kinematic conditions. The trends in wear rates and wear factors for these different motions were compared with many different definitions for magnitudes and ratios of cross-shear. Additionally, the wear surfaces were examined for wear mechanism and the microstructural changes in lamellae orientation for the different motions were analyzed. To mimic the tribological conditions of a condyle in a TKR, polished Co-Cr spheres were articulated against flat, smooth UHMWPE disks with physiologically relevant loading, speed, and lubrication conditions. The motion parameters were selected

  6. Eco-marketing and eco-design of products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipović Jovan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental marketing (Eco-marketing, as a relatively new movement, emerged at the beginning of the 20th century, is in the growing phase of its development. Eco-labeling and other ways/types of eco-marketing are attracting more attention of consumers, since they are aware of the necessity of nature conservation and environmental protection. There has been a lot of misunderstanding and miss leadings in interpretation and substantiation of ecomarketing claims in previous period of time. One of the most concrete improvements in eco-marketing was appearance and establishment of ISO 14020 guidelines. ISO 14020 guidelines are integral part of ISO 14000 series of standards, which could be implemented in eco-marketing. At the same time, development of "green" products and marketing of "green" products, are direct positive contributions to resources reduction, environmental protection and sustainable economic development. Companies designing this kind of products can expect better position on the market, improvement of competitiveness, reduction of expenses (less raw materials, less waste, less harmful effects on the environment, raising corporate social responsibility, higher export.

  7. Tribological Properties of IF-MoS2 Nanoparticles as Lubricant Additive on Cylinder Liner and Piston Ring Tribo-pair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Charoo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Friction and wear behaviors of different concentrations of IF-MoS2 nanoparticles in SAE 20W40 were studied. First of all tribological tests with SAE 20W40 + IF-MoS2 were carried out on a four ball wear test machine as per ASTM D 4172 standard to study its wear properties. Detailed friction and wear studies on cylinder liner and piston ring tribo-pair were conducted on pin-on-block universal tribometer under lubricated conditions of SAE 20W40+ IF-MoS2. These experimental studies were conducted at different operating parameters to ascertain the influence of nanoadditive on friction and wear of cylinder liner and piston ring tribo-pair. A minimum coefficient of friction of 0.0772 was observed for 0.5 wt% of IF-MoS2 at normal load of 100 N at sliding velocity of 0.03 m/sec. A substantial reduction of 65 % in the wear of cylinder liner and piston ring tribo-pair was also observed when lubricated with SAE 20W40 and 0.5 wt% of IF-MoS2. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectrometry analysis of the worn out surfaces was also carried out to find the causes for observed friction and wear behavior.

  8. A regulatory gene (ECO-orf4) required for ECO-0501 biosynthesis in Amycolatopsis orientalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yang; Huang, He; Zhu, Li; Luo, Minyu; Chen, Daijie

    2014-02-01

    ECO-0501 is a novel linear polyene antibiotic, which was discovered from Amycolatopsis orientalis. Recent study of ECO-0501 biosynthesis pathway revealed the presence of regulatory gene: ECO-orf4. The A. orientalis ECO-orf4 gene from the ECO-0501 biosynthesis cluster was analyzed, and its deduced protein (ECO-orf4) was found to have amino acid sequence homology with large ATP-binding regulators of the LuxR (LAL) family regulators. Database comparison revealed two hypothetical domains, a LuxR-type helix-turn-helix (HTH) DNA binding motif near the C-terminal and an N-terminal nucleotide triphosphate (NTP) binding motif included. Deletion of the corresponding gene (ECO-orf4) resulted in complete loss of ECO-0501 production. Complementation by one copy of intact ECO-orf4 restored the polyene biosynthesis demonstrating that ECO-orf4 is required for ECO-0501 biosynthesis. The results of overexpression ECO-orf4 on ECO-0501 production indicated that it is a positive regulatory gene. Gene expression analysis by reverse transcription PCR of the ECO-0501 gene cluster showed that the transcription of ECO-orf4 correlates with that of genes involved in polyketide biosynthesis. These results demonstrated that ECO-orf4 is a pathway-specific positive regulatory gene that is essential for ECO-0501 biosynthesis. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Fiscal 1996 international research cooperation project. Report on the result of the development survey of tribo materials; 1996 nendo kokusai kenkyu kyoryoku jigyo. Tribo material no kaihatsu chosa seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Basic information was collected and assessed on materials and element technology for tribo materials which are expected to contribute to improvement of energy efficiency of machine/equipment having the sliding part such as automobiles. A survey was conducted of creation of substrate materials, the surface treatment method, and evaluation of coating characteristics. For an analysis of high polymer abrasion powder, the micro ATR method is effective. As an analysis method of abrasion scar, the micro ATR method is effective to specify the peeling part of coating, and the Raman method is effective for an analysis of transfer matters or abrasion powder. As a method to collect various shapes of abrasion powder, processing of material surfaces by polishing method is effective. As a dynamic analysis method, the infrared ray stress image method is effective. As an evaluation method of deficient concentration of coating, the GC-MS method is effective. For the application of high-hardness/low-toughness gas phase coating film to the sliding part, important factors are the substrate hardness, surface roughness, and film adhesiveness from the aspect of materials and the determination of pressure of the sliding face from the aspect of sliding conditions. 12 refs., 38 figs., 20 tabs.

  10. International research cooperation in fiscal 1997. Report on the results of researches for the development of tribo-materials; 1997 nendo kokusai kenkyu kyoryoku jigyo. Tribo material no kaihatsu chosa seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Researches were conducted for the development of tribo-materials for the improvement of energy efficiency for equipment with slide members usable for example aboard automobiles, and the result is reported for fiscal 1997. In the research for the creation of substrate materials, some metals different in hardness, iron-base materials, titanium-base materials, etc., were selected, and experiments were conducted to disclose the effect of the substrate hardness/surface roughness on the critical load under which gas phase coatings fracture. In the research about surface treatment, the arc ion plating method is employed to produce TiN coatings on substrates of SKD11 and Ti-6Al-4V, and the critical loads were evaluated using a heavy duty, acoustic detection type adhesion evaluator and a sliding wear tester. Furthermore, the substrate/coating interface is subjected to observation under high-resolution transmission electron microscope. As for the evaluation of coating characteristics, the effects of the hardness of the coating itself, Young`s modulus, and toughness on the fracture of the coating were investigated. During the international joint researches, information was exchanged with National Institute for Standards and Technology, U.S. 11 refs., 64 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Electro Catalytic Oxidation (ECO) Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan Jones

    2011-03-31

    The power industry in the United States is faced with meeting many new regulations to reduce a number of air pollutants including sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, fine particulate matter, and mercury. With over 1,000 power plants in the US, this is a daunting task. In some cases, traditional pollution control technologies such as wet scrubbers and SCRs are not feasible. Powerspan's Electro-Catalytic Oxidation, or ECO{reg_sign} process combines four pollution control devices into a single integrated system that can be installed after a power plant's particulate control device. Besides achieving major reductions in emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NOx), fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and mercury (Hg), ECO produces a highly marketable fertilizer, which can help offset the operating costs of the process system. Powerspan has been operating a 50-MW ECO commercial demonstration unit (CDU) at FirstEnergy Corp.'s R.E. Burger Plant near Shadyside, Ohio, since February 2004. In addition to the CDU, a test loop has been constructed beside the CDU to demonstrate higher NOx removal rates and test various scrubber packing types and wet ESP configurations. Furthermore, Powerspan has developed the ECO{reg_sign}{sub 2} technology, a regenerative process that uses a proprietary solvent to capture CO{sub 2} from flue gas. The CO{sub 2} capture takes place after the capture of NOx, SO{sub 2}, mercury, and fine particulate matter. Once the CO{sub 2} is captured, the proprietary solution is regenerated to release CO{sub 2} in a form that is ready for geological storage or beneficial use. Pilot scale testing of ECO{sub 2} began in early 2009 at FirstEnergy's Burger Plant. The ECO{sub 2} pilot unit is designed to process a 1-MW flue gas stream and produce 20 tons of CO{sub 2} per day, achieving a 90% CO{sub 2} capture rate. The ECO{sub 2} pilot program provided the opportunity to confirm process design and cost estimates, and prepare for large

  12. Umberto Eco : olemise piire kombates / Marina Grishakova

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Grišakova, Marina, 1961-

    2004-01-01

    Arvustus: Eco, Umberto. Eilse päeva saar / tõlkinud Merike Pau. Tallinn : Eesti Raamat, 2003 ; Eco, Umberto. Baudolino / itaalia keelest tõlkinud [ja järelsõna:] Ülar Ploom. Tallinn : Varrak, 2003

  13. ECO-MARKETING TRENDS OF HOTEL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT IN UKRAINE

    OpenAIRE

    Olha DANILOVA; Nataly ZABLOTOVSKA; Inna PASHANIUK

    2017-01-01

    Eco-marketing trends of hotel industry development are examined. Major factors that effected on the appearance of eco-hotels are disclosed, as well as eco-hotel environmental and economic benefits are discussed. Classification of both eco-hotels and organizations involved in eco-certification is suggested. Problems and prospects of eco-hotel development in Ukraine are analyzed.

  14. Tribological performance evaluation of coated steels with TiNbCN subjected to tribo-chemical wear in Ringers solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caballero G, J.; Aperador, W. [Universidad Militar Nueva Granada, Volta Research Group, 101-80 Bogota (Colombia); Caicedo, J. C., E-mail: g.ing.materiales@gmail.com [Universidad del Valle, Tribology Polymers, Powder Metallurgy and Processing of Solid Recycled Research Group, Cali (Colombia)

    2016-11-01

    With the aim of generating solutions against the deterioration of the joint prostheses, it was studied the tribo-corrosive behavior of titanium niobium carbonitride (TiNbCN) deposited on stainless steel AISI 316 LVM using the technique of magnetron sputtering physical vapor deposition. The tests were performed in a balanced saline solution (Ringers solution) which represents the characteristics of the body fluids, using an equipment where the micro-abrasive wear is generated by the contact of micro particles in the system; the micro-abrasion-corrosion mechanism is described by means of the incorporation of an electrochemical cell consisting of three electrodes. Both the substrate and the coating, were subjected to micro-abrasive wear simultaneously with the electrochemical tests of Tafel polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS); subsequently of the tests, the specimens were analyzed by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy characterizing the surface morphology. It was observed that the coating presents an increase in its corrosion and wear resistance with the presence of a simulated biological fluid. The samples were characterized via X-ray diffraction. (Author)

  15. Factors that influence the efficiency of a fluidized-bed-type tribo-electrostatic separator for mixed granular plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dascalescu, L.; Fati, O.; Bilici, M.; Rahou, F.; Dragan, C.; Samuila, A.; Iuga, A.

    2011-06-01

    Fluidized bed devices have already been used as tribochargers for various industrial electrostatic separation processes. In the present paper, the authors investigate the behaviour of polyamide - polycarbonate granular plastic mixtures in a parallelepiped bed, the height of which is roughly 2 times its length or width, so that the collisions between granules become the prevailing tribocharging mechanism. Two of the opposite walls of the tribocharging chamber consist of metallic plates connected to two DC high-voltage supplies of opposite polarities, so that the charged particles are attracted to the electrodes and separated while still in the fluidized state. The collecting hoppers are designed as Faraday cups connected to two electrometers, thus allowing the instantaneous measurement of the charge carried by the separated particles. Experimental design methodology was employed for the optimization of the tribo-aero-electrostatic separation process, the input variables being the high-voltage applied to the electrodes and the duration of the tribocharging. Higher voltages applied to the electrode system do not necessarily lead to larger quantities of collected products but improve the purity of the concentrates. The composition of the mixture influences the outcome of the process.

  16. Influence of surface roughness on the tribo-electric process for a sliding contact between polymeric plate materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neagoe, M. B.; Prawatya, Y. E.; Zeghloul, T.; Dascalescu, L.

    2017-02-01

    Polymers are used in many industrial applications due to their good mechanical and thermal properties. Studies have shown that electrical insulators, such as the polymers, are generating electrostatic charge by frictional contact. This tribo-charging effect influences de sliding conditions, and the level of charge depends of several factors. The aim of this paper is to validate two paradigms: (I) the electrostatic charge increases with contact pressure; (II) the level of charge is influenced by the number of contact points on the surface. The tribocharging experiments were carried out with samples cut from two polymers: Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene, 5 mm x 15mm x100 mm, roughness: Ra = 0.4 µm and Polyvinyl Chloride, 5 mm x 50 mm x 180 mm, with various roughness values: Ra = 3-12 µm and RSm = 150-350 µm. The modification of asperity density was accompanied by changes in the electric potential measured at the surface of the PVC samples. Thus, its average value V increased from -0.33 to -0.85 kV, and its maximum value Vmax, from -1.56 to -4.83 kV.

  17. Umberto Eco og fortolkningens semiotik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Finn

    1997-01-01

    En analyse af spørgsmålet om fortolkningens muligheder og grænser, sådan som det bliver formuleret og besvaret i den italienske semiotiker Umberto Ecos teoretiske forfatterskab. Problemstillingen - og dens transformationer hvad angår såvel metasprog, omfang, niveau og fokus - følges fra begyndelsen...... af 60'erne, hvor Eco er inspireret af fænomenologi og hermeneutik (f.eks. i Opera aperta), til begyndelsen af 90'erne, hvor han arbejder med tekstpragmatik og receptionssemiotik. (f.eks. i I limiti dell'interpretazione)...

  18. Developing eco-adaptive cruise control systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The study demonstrates the feasibility of two eco-driving applications which reduces vehicle fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. In particular, the study develops an eco-drive system that combines eco-cruise control logic with state-of-the...

  19. Tailored Random Graph Ensembles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, E. S.; Annibale, A.; Coolen, A. C. C.

    2013-02-01

    Tailored graph ensembles are a developing bridge between biological networks and statistical mechanics. The aim is to use this concept to generate a suite of rigorous tools that can be used to quantify and compare the topology of cellular signalling networks, such as protein-protein interaction networks and gene regulation networks. We calculate exact and explicit formulae for the leading orders in the system size of the Shannon entropies of random graph ensembles constrained with degree distribution and degree-degree correlation. We also construct an ergodic detailed balance Markov chain with non-trivial acceptance probabilities which converges to a strictly uniform measure and is based on edge swaps that conserve all degrees. The acceptance probabilities can be generalized to define Markov chains that target any alternative desired measure on the space of directed or undirected graphs, in order to generate graphs with more sophisticated topological features.

  20. Eco matters; In & Out

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial

    2016-11-01

    uncontrolled or premature differentiation and the onset of senescence [12]. Stressing the importance of in vitro environments, even regulatory agencies like the US-FDA use in vitro manipulation as a gauge to classify cell therapies[13]. In this issue, a diverse assortment of articles ranging from the use of scaffolds for in vitro culture by Gomathysankar et al [14] to employing tools for in vivo transplantation of cells by Maiti et al [15]and Fauzi et al [16] have been published. During regenerative medicine applications, cells undergo several transitions across environments, starting with an in vivo to in vitro transition when harvested from the body and subjected to culture-expansion or tissue engineering kind of processing and then a reversal back to an in vivo environment. While the factors and materials employed in the in vitro eco-system are known, their effects are known though to an extent, some of their implications still remain unknown and the mechanisms of those implications are largely obscure [17-19]. These bunch of changes in the whole eco-system inside-out and vice versa need a meticulous and flawless assessment which is indispensable in improvising the clinical outcome of regenerative medicine applications. References Yanoa K, Watanabe N, Tsuyuki K, Ikawa T, Kasanuki H, Yamato M. Regulatory approval for autologous human cells and tissue products in the United States, the European Union, and Japan. Regenerative Therapy 2015; 1: 45-56 Schnabel M, Marlovits S, Eckhoff G, Fichtel I, Gotzen L, Vécsei V, Schlegel J. Dedifferentiation-associated changes in morphology and gene expression in primary human articular chondrocytes in cell culture. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2002;10(1:62-70. Caron MM, Emans PJ, Coolsen MM, Voss L, Surtel DA, Cremers A, van Rhijn LW, Welting TJ. Redifferentiation of dedifferentiated human articular chondrocytes: comparison of 2D and 3D cultures. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2012;20(10:1170-8. Hsiong SX, Carampin P, Kong HJ, Lee KY, Mooney DJ

  1. Tailored thrombolytic therapy. A perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.L. Simoons (Maarten); A.E.R. Arnold (Alfred)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND. In contrast with current standard regimens, it seems more appropriate to tailor thrombolytic therapy to individual patient characteristics. A proposed model for such tailored therapy is based on individual assessment of benefits and risks of thrombolytic therapy, taking into

  2. Epidemiologia das lesões traumáticas da dentição permanente de crianças e adolescentes nas tribos Maxakali e Krenak

    OpenAIRE

    Erika de Aguiar Miranda Coelho

    2002-01-01

    São escassos os dados sobre a saúde bucal das populações indígenas brasileiras. Uma parceria entre o curso de odontologia da Faculdade de Ciências da Saúde da Universidade Vale do Rio Doce (FACS-UNIVALE) e a Fundação Nacional da Saúde (FUNASA) resultou no levantamento epidemiológico de saúde bucal nas tribos Maxakali e Krenak localizadas nos municípios de Bertópolis,e Santa Helena de Minas no Vale do Mucuri e Resplendor respectivamente. Foi considerado de interesse incluir informações relati...

  3. RESOLVE and ECO: Survey Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannappan, Sheila; Moffett, Amanda J.; Norris, Mark A.; Eckert, Kathleen D.; Stark, David; Berlind, Andreas A.; Snyder, Elaine M.; Norman, Dara J.; Hoversten, Erik A.; RESOLVE Team

    2016-01-01

    The REsolved Spectroscopy Of a Local VolumE (RESOLVE) survey is a volume-limited census of stellar, gas, and dynamical mass as well as star formation and galaxy interactions within >50,000 cubic Mpc of the nearby cosmic web, reaching down to dwarf galaxies of baryonic mass ~10^9 Msun and spanning multiple large-scale filaments, walls, and voids. RESOLVE is surrounded by the ~10x larger Environmental COntext (ECO) catalog, with matched custom photometry and environment metrics enabling analysis of cosmic variance with greater statistical power. For the ~1500 galaxies in its two equatorial footprints, RESOLVE goes beyond ECO in providing (i) deep 21cm data with adaptive sensitivity ensuring HI mass detections or upper limits <10% of the stellar mass and (ii) 3D optical spectroscopy including both high-resolution ionized gas or stellar kinematic data for each galaxy and broad 320-725nm spectroscopy spanning [OII] 3727, Halpha, and Hbeta. RESOLVE is designed to complement other radio and optical surveys in providing diverse, contiguous, and uniform local/global environment data as well as unusually high completeness extending into the gas-dominated dwarf galaxy regime. RESOLVE also offers superb reprocessed photometry including full, deep NUV coverage and synergy with other equatorial surveys as well as unique northern and southern facilities such as Arecibo, the GBT, and ALMA. The RESOLVE and ECO surveys have been supported by funding from NSF grants AST-0955368 and OCI-1156614.

  4. ECO-MARKETING TRENDS OF HOTEL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olha DANILOVA

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Eco-marketing trends of hotel industry development are examined. Major factors that effected on the appearance of eco-hotels are disclosed, as well as eco-hotel environmental and economic benefits are discussed. Classification of both eco-hotels and organizations involved in eco-certification is suggested. Problems and prospects of eco-hotel development in Ukraine are analyzed.

  5. Role of thymidine residues in DNA recognition by the EcoRI and EcoRV restriction endonucleases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fliess, A; Wolfes, H; Rosenthal, A; Schwellnus, K; Blöcker, H; Frank, R; Pingoud, A

    1986-04-25

    We have synthesized a series of oligonucleotides containing the EcoRI (GAATTC) or EcoRV (GATATC) recognition site within which or adjacent to which thymidine was substituted by uridine or derivatives of uridine. The effects of these substitutions on the rate of the EcoRI and EcoRV catalyzed cleavage reaction were investigated. Our results show that most of the substitutions within the site are quite well tolerated by EcoRI, not, however, by EcoRV. We conclude that the thymin residues most likely are not directly involved in the recognition process of the EcoRI reaction. In contrast, they are major points of contact, between substrate and enzyme in the EcoRV reaction. The effects of substitutions in the position adjacent to the recognition site is also markedly different for EcoRI and EcoRV. Here, EcoRI seems to be considerably more selective than EcoRV.

  6. EcoMark 2.0

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Chenjuan; Yang, Bin; Andersen, Ove

    2015-01-01

    Eco-routing is a simple yet effective approach to substantially reducing the environmental impact, e.g., fuel consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, of vehicular transportation. Eco-routing relies on the ability to reliably quantify the environmental impact of vehicles as they travel in ...

  7. EcoDesign and future environmental impacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeswiet, Jack; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the relation between EcoDesign and Life Cycle Engineering; both include Product Engineering as a focal point. Product Engineering includes both product design and manufacture, two fields which are changing quickly. In addition, this paper shows where future changes can...... be expected in Life Cycle Engineering and EcoDesign....

  8. Eco-cities, governance and sustainable lifestyles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flynn, Andrew; Yu, Li; Feindt, Peter; Chen, Chun

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we argue that to analyse the eco-development process we need to explore it as a whole, from design, through delivery and then to how these developments influence the behaviour of the people who live and work in eco-developments. At each stage of the development process it is

  9. Snapshots from a leading eco-city

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlsen, Camilla

    2009-01-01

    The government of Singapore wants to make Singapore the leading Eco-city in Asia. Professor Kim Chuan Goh explains why this might be an achievable goal.......The government of Singapore wants to make Singapore the leading Eco-city in Asia. Professor Kim Chuan Goh explains why this might be an achievable goal....

  10. EcoGene 3.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jindan; Rudd, Kenneth E.

    2013-01-01

    EcoGene (http://ecogene.org) is a database and website devoted to continuously improving the structural and functional annotation of Escherichia coli K-12, one of the most well understood model organisms, represented by the MG1655(Seq) genome sequence and annotations. Major improvements to EcoGene in the past decade include (i) graphic presentations of genome map features; (ii) ability to design Boolean queries and Venn diagrams from EcoArray, EcoTopics or user-provided GeneSets; (iii) the genome-wide clone and deletion primer design tool, PrimerPairs; (iv) sequence searches using a customized EcoBLAST; (v) a Cross Reference table of synonymous gene and protein identifiers; (vi) proteome-wide indexing with GO terms; (vii) EcoTools access to >2000 complete bacterial genomes in EcoGene-RefSeq; (viii) establishment of a MySql relational database; and (ix) use of web content management systems. The biomedical literature is surveyed daily to provide citation and gene function updates. As of September 2012, the review of 37 397 abstracts and articles led to creation of 98 425 PubMed-Gene links and 5415 PubMed-Topic links. Annotation updates to Genbank U00096 are transmitted from EcoGene to NCBI. Experimental verifications include confirmation of a CTG start codon, pseudogene restoration and quality assurance of the Keio strain collection. PMID:23197660

  11. Eco-Innovation in the Value Chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAloone, Tim C.; Mougaard, Krestine; Restrepo-Giraldo, John Dairo

    2010-01-01

    processes is often reactive, resulting in a retrospective and insufficient approach. This paper describes the mechanisms, opportunities and barriers for the actual realisation of value chain based eco-innovation, together with a first indication of a methodical approach to realising eco-innovation....

  12. Eco-efficiency in industrial production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    von Raesfeld Meijer, Ariane M.; de Bakker, F.G.A.; Groen, Arend J.

    2001-01-01

    English AbstractThis report of the MATRIC project investigated 'Eco-efficiency in industrial production'. After a general introduction into the domain of eco-efficiency, the first part of this report further focusses on the organisation of Product-Oriented Environmental Management (POEM), which is

  13. Underwater Leidenfrost nanochemistry for creation of size-tailored zinc peroxide cancer nanotherapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbahri, Mady; Abdelaziz, Ramzy; Disci-Zayed, Duygu; Homaeigohar, Shahin; Sosna, Justyna; Adam, Dieter; Kienle, Lorenz; Dankwort, Torben; Abdelaziz, Moheb

    2017-05-01

    The dynamic underwater chemistry seen in nature is inspiring for the next generation of eco-friendly nanochemistry. In this context, green synthesis of size-tailored nanoparticles in a facile and scalable manner via a dynamic process is an interesting challenge. Simulating the volcano-induced dynamic chemistry of the deep ocean, here we demonstrate the Leidenfrost dynamic chemistry occurring in an underwater overheated confined zone as a new tool for customized creation of nanoclusters of zinc peroxide. The hydrodynamic nature of the phenomenon ensures eruption of the nanoclusters towards a much colder region, giving rise to growth of monodisperse, size-tailored nanoclusters. Such nanoparticles are investigated in terms of their cytotoxicity on suspension and adherent cells to prove their applicability as cancer nanotherapeutics. Our research can pave the way for employment of the dynamic green nanochemistry in facile, scalable fabrication of size-tailored nanoparticles for biomedical applications.

  14. The influence of lubricant degradation on the wear of the tribo systems in an internal combustion engine; Der Einfluss der Oelalterung auf das Verschleissverhalten der Tribosysteme im Verbrennungsmotor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarze, H.; Brouwer, L.; Wolf, M. [Technische Univ. Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany). Inst. fuer Tribologie und Energiewandlungsmaschinen; Knoll, G.; Schlerege, F. [Kassel Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Maschinenelemente und Konstruktionstechnik; Kopnarski, M.; Emrich, S. [IFOS Inst. fuer Oberflaechen- und Schichtanalytik GmbH, Kaiserslautern (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    For a distinct extension of oil change intervals an improved knowledge of the influence of deteriorated lubricants on the wear properties of the engine's tribo systems is necessary. In test runs with a modern 1.8 l direct injection Otto engine the impact of the input of contaminants into the oil was studied by means of on line wear measurements, surface analyses and computer simulation. Two different test cycles and a modification of the blow-by system were utilized for a variation of the mechanical and chemical stress to the oil. The crucial oil contamination takes place at low temperature conditions. In a certain temperature range a water/oil-emulsion is formed from oil dust and blow by gas, which decomposes to a water phase and an oil phase at colder surfaces in the engine. The water phases show strongly corrosive properties. The chemical deterioration of oil from the emulsion is significantly increased as compared to the bulk oil. Only after a short run time these changes in the lubricant caused increased rates of wear as compared to reference experiments, in which the oil temperature was always kept above the critical temperature range. Decreasing the input of contaminants by limiting the circulation of blow by gas in the engine and removing it at its place of formation resulted in a delayed and reduced increase of the rate of wear. In the surfaces of the tribo contacts phosphorus, zinc, and sulphur could be identified indicating the formation of wear protection layers. Whereas under high temperature conditions these layers are conserved during the entire test run, they could not be detected in low temperature runs for most of the tribo systems. There is some evidence that wear protection layers may tolerate unfavourable oil condition before irreversible damages occur. Computer simulations utilizing flow factors deducted from real surfaces of components taken from the test runs clearly indicate that under low temperature conditions wear produces grooves

  15. Sustainable packaging: from eco-efficiency to eco-effectiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niero, Monia; Boas, Simon H.; Olsen, Stig Irving

    2014-01-01

    and the natural environment. Companies in the packaging sector have traditionally been using the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology to fulfill these requirements. However, being inspired by the eco-efficiency principle, LCA aims to reduce the negative environmental footprint of human activities by optimizing......According to Verghese et al (2012) sustainable packaging should be: effective in delivering its functional requirements, efficient in its use of materials, energy, and water throughout its life cycle, cyclic in its use of renewable materials and recoverability at end-of-life, and safe for people......-effective” solutions,i.e. maximizing the benefit to ecological systems. C2C is based on three key principles “waste equal food”,“use solar energy income” and “celebrate diversity” (McDonough and Braungart, 2002). The first principlecalls for eliminating the concept of waste by designing systems where waste...

  16. Eco-efficiency in aviation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker Grewe

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Air traffic guarantees mobility and serves the needs of society to travel over long distances in a decent time. But aviation also contributes to climate change. Here, we present various mitigation options, based on technological and operational measures and present a framework to compare the different mitigation options by taking into account aspects, such as changes in operational costs, climate impact reduction, eco-efficiency, possible starting point of the mitigation option and the investment costs. We show that it is not possible to directly rank these options because of the different requirements and framework conditions. Instead, we introduce two different presentations that take into account these different aspects and serve as a framework for intercomparison.

  17. Eco-marketing in industrial enterprise activities

    OpenAIRE

    N.M. Chupryna

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the article. The aim of the article is determination of the areas of industrial enterprise’s development and detection of the specificity of their activity in terms of environmental priorities. The results of the analysis. The analysis of the research and publications of the leading scholars on the eco-marketing’s problem was conducted. The main factors of eco-marketing’s mechanism use were considered. Eco-marketing was determined as an important tool of the enterprises’ modern ...

  18. Triple helix interactions for eco-innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, Roberto Rivas; Riisgaard, Henrik; Remmen, Arne

    . Overall, the research found that the Panamanian national innovation system facilitates eco-innovation by: providing research and development, building competence and financing of innovation processes. The “green maritime route” is an example of institutional eco-innovation promoted by the Panama Canal...... Authority with insights from consultants, universities and donnor agencies. The proximity of the science park to the canal, has hitherto not yielded with the creation of a “green cluster”, which could be a precedent to promote eco-innovations. These findings suggest that, Triple Helix interactions...

  19. ECO Exposure Assessment Tools by Stressors - References

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eco-Box is a toolbox for exposure assessors. Its purpose is to provide a compendium of exposure assessment and risk characterization tools that will present comprehensive step-by-step guidance and links to relevant exposure assessment data bases

  20. ECO Exposure Assessment Tools by Effects - References

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eco-Box is a toolbox for exposure assessors. Its purpose is to provide a compendium of exposure assessment and risk characterization tools that will present comprehensive step-by-step guidance and links to relevant exposure assessment data bases

  1. EPA EcoBox Tools by Stressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eco-Box is a toolbox for exposure assessors. Its purpose is to provide a compendium of exposure assessment and risk characterization tools that will present comprehensive step-by-step guidance and links to relevant exposure assessment data bases

  2. [Environment capacity of eco-tourism resort].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Y; Wang, R

    2000-08-01

    The results of quantitative analysis on the amount of tourist, service-environment capacity, eco-environment capacity, and their relations in Five-finger Mountain eco-tourism resort indicate that the amount of tourist in common situation and in its extreme was 1918 and 2301 visitor-hour per day, and the service-environment capacity and eco-environment capacity were 6000 and 2400 visitor-hour per day, respectively. The eco-environment capacity was smaller than its service-environment capacity, and would become the first limiting factor to the increase of tourist amount, which was mainly due to the ecological fragility of resort, the lower resistance of biological communities to the disturbance, and the slower speed of ecosystem restoration after its being destroyed.

  3. [Eco-efficiency of Jiaozuo industry sectors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yan-chun; Jiang, Pan; Mao, Jian-su; Xu, Lin-yu

    2011-05-01

    Jiaozuo city was taken as a representative industry city and its industry energy consumption and industry emissions such as wastewater,solid waste, SO2, dust and so on were selected as corresponding environmental loads. The contribution rate to the environmental loads and eco-efficiencies of Jiaozuo industry sectors were analyzed quantitatively. The results show that, the industry sector with the highest energy eco-efficiency is Mining and Processing of Ferrous Metal Ores (FMM), 43.19 x 10(4) yuan x tce(-1), and its contribution rate is 0.003%; the one with the highest wastewater-related eco-efficiency is Manufacture of Transport Equipment (TRM), 3.58 x 10(4) yuan x t(-1), and its contribution rate is 0.0001%; the one with the highest solid waste-related eco-efficiency is Manufacture of Special Purpose Machinery( SMM), 323.22 x 10(4) yuan x t(-1), and its contribution rate is 0.005%; the one with the highest SO2 emission-related eco-efficiency is Manufacture of Special Purpose Machinery (SMM), 19.74 x 10(4) yuan x kg(-1), and its contribution rate is 0.0001%; the one with the highest dust emission-related eco-efficiency is Manufacture of Rubber (RUM), 6.75 x 10(4) yuan x kg(-1), and its contribution rate is 0.001%. It can be seen that the industry sector with high value of eco-efficiency always contributes less to its environmental load, which results that the industry sectors with high eco-efficiencies only play a weak role in leading the overall industry eco-efficiency. A succinct distance index (SDI) was proposed to estimate the differences between Jiaozuo and China average for their eco-efficiency of every industrial sector. The values of SDI range from -1 to 63.45, and the absolute value of SDI with positive value is much greater than that with negative value, which indicates that the values of eco-efficiencies for the advanced industry sectors of Jiaozuo city are much higher than those for China's industry sectors average.

  4. ECO-INNOVATION FOR A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RATIU Mariana

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Eco-innovation is any form of innovation resulting in or aiming at significant and demonstrable progress towards the goal of sustainable development, through reducing impacts on the environment, enhancing resilience to environmental pressures, or achieving a more efficient and responsible use of natural resources. States and governments of the world, different institutions and organizations actively involved and aware in public policies, strategies and actions, reaffirm their commitments and reassess actions in order to achieve a truly sustainable development. In the common vision and the resolutions and other documents of the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development, Rio+20, the words "environment", "innovation", "green economy" appear very often and almost always along the same context, to achieve the objectives of the sustainable development. The objectives of EU's Europe 2020 strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, are being implemented through a number of Flagship Initiatives addressing the main challenges, like “Innovation for a sustainable Future - The Eco-innovation Action Plan (EcoAP”. Eco-innovation Observatory developed the Eco-Innovation index, the first tool to assess and illustrate eco-innovation performance across the EU Member States. Like in all fields, in textiles and leather field, eco-innovation is present and there are a lot of tools available that measure environmental damage and help manufacturers and brands become more sustainable. Eco-innovation is not just a trendy concept but a reality and a necessity nowadays, a way to achieve a sustainable future for ourselves and future generations.

  5. Manufacturing tailored property ceramic composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewsuk, K.G. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Ceramic Processing Science Dept.; Harrison, L.W. [E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Co., Inc., Wilmington, DE (United States). Central Research and Development Dept.

    1994-11-14

    Composite materials are desirable for many advanced engineering applications where the properties of a single phase material cannot meet all of the service requirements; however, existing process technology has limited the development and commercialization of composites. Lack of reproducible sintering to high density is one of the major obstacles to commercializing ceramic composites. Final-stage, non-reactive liquid phase sintering (NLPS) theory provides metrics for sinterability that can be used as guidelines to design and manufacture dense ceramic-filled-glass (CFG) composites. Additionally, within the constraints defined by the NLPS theory, sum-property models can be used to predict CFG composite properties, and to design composites with properties tailored to specific applications. By integrating composite process models with composite property models, processable, application-tailored CFG composites for microelectronics packaging have been designed and fabricated.

  6. Towards tailor-made participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Annika

    2012-01-01

    Public participation has become an important element of governance in many Western European countries. However, among scholars and practitioners there is a recognition that participatory governance processes tend to produce systematic exclusions. Knowledge about 'who' participates and 'how......' they participate can enhance our understanding of participatory processes. This paper presents some characterisations of citizens based on a review of the literature on participation. In addition, examples of how to tailor participation for different type of citizens are provided based on studies of urban...... regeneration programmes and local environmental initiatives in Denmark. The paper concludes that in order to broaden the inclusion of affected citizens, public authorities need to be tailor participation processes by applying distinct approaches to different types of citizens...

  7. Tailored Ceramics for Laser Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollingsworth, Joel [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2007-12-10

    Transparent ceramics match or exceed the performance of single-crystal materials in laser applications, with a more-robust fabrication process. Controlling the distribution of optical dopants in transparent ceramics would allow qualitative improvements in amplifier slab design by allowing gain and loss to be varied within the material. My work aims to achieve a controlled pattern or gradient of dopant prior to sintering, in order to produce tailored ceramics.

  8. Tailored Training in Army Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    some who did not participate in high school sports to others who have played professional sports . These personnel are then grouped into training units...information that can be used to describe the instructors who conducted tailored training. Instructor expertise in pedagogy and subject matter. The most...liked sports , the instructor would try to relate how to remember specific task details to how the person recalls sports statistics. When

  9. Deep drawing simulation of Tailored Blanks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Albert; Meinders, Vincent T.; Stokman, B.

    1998-01-01

    Tailored blanks are increasingly used in the automotive industry. A tailored blank consists of different metal parts, which are joined by a welding process. These metal parts usually have different material properties. Hence, the main advantage of using a tailored blank is to provide the right

  10. Eco-Evolutionary Theory and Insect Outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Páez, David J; Dukic, Vanja; Dushoff, Jonathan; Fleming-Davies, Arietta; Dwyer, Greg

    2017-06-01

    Eco-evolutionary theory argues that population cycles in consumer-resource interactions are partly driven by natural selection, such that changes in densities and changes in trait values are mutually reinforcing. Evidence that the theory explains cycles in nature, however, is almost nonexistent. Experimental tests of model assumptions are logistically impractical for most organisms, while for others, evidence that population cycles occur in nature is lacking. For insect baculoviruses in contrast, tests of model assumptions are straightforward, and there is strong evidence that baculoviruses help drive population cycles in many insects, including the gypsy moth that we study here. We therefore used field experiments with the gypsy moth baculovirus to test two key assumptions of eco-evolutionary models of host-pathogen population cycles: that reduced host infection risk is heritable and that it is costly. Our experiments confirm both assumptions, and inserting parameters estimated from our data into eco-evolutionary insect-outbreak models gives cycles closely resembling gypsy moth outbreak cycles in North America, whereas standard models predict unrealistic stable equilibria. Our work shows that eco-evolutionary models are useful for explaining outbreaks of forest insect defoliators, while widespread observations of intense selection on defoliators in nature and of heritable and costly resistance in defoliators in the lab together suggest that eco-evolutionary dynamics may play a general role in defoliator outbreaks.

  11. Tailoring PKI for the battlespace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covey, Carlin R.

    2003-07-01

    A Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) can provide useful communication protections for friendly forces in the battlespace. The PKI would be used in conjunction with communication facilities that are accorded physical and Type-1 cryptographic protections. The latter protections would safeguard the confidentiality and (optionally) the integrity of communications between enclaves of users, whereas the PKI protections would furnish identification, authentication, authorization and privacy services for individual users. However, Commercial-Off-the-Shelf (COTS) and most Government-Off-the-Shelf (GOTS) PKI solutions are not ideally tailored for the battlespace environment. Most PKI solutions assume a relatively static, high-bandwidth communication network, whereas communication links in the battlespace will be dynamically reconfigured and bandwidth-limited. Most enterprise-wide PKI systems assume that users will enroll and disenroll at an orderly pace, whereas the battlespace PKI "enterprise" will grow and shrink abruptly as units are deployed or withdrawn from the battlespace. COTS and GOTS PKIs are seldom required to incorporate temporary "enterprise mergers", whereas the battlespace "enterprise" will need to incorporate temporary coalitions of forces drawn from various nations. This paper addresses both well-known and novel techniques for tailoring PKI for the battlespace environment. These techniques include the design of the security architecture, the selection of appropriate options within PKI standards, and some new PKI protocols that offer significant advantages in the battlespace.

  12. ENTREPRENEURIAL ECO-SYSTEMS & REGIONAL ALLIANCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe ENGLISH

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The study of universities and their role in enterprise development, support and education is very mature. However when Isenberg coined the term ‘entrepreneurial ecosystem’ and suggested that higher education was one of the key foundation blocks of a regional eco-system it threw open the concept of the university having a wider role in the overall business, economic and civic life of a region. What is this wider role, and how do the universities themselves view their place in this evolving entrepreneurial eco-system? How do they fit into Regional Alliances set up to build regional economic development? This paper introduces two pilot Alliances that have been recently formed using both the education institutes and the wider eco-system to drive Innovation and Graduate Employability (The SHIP and REAL Alliances.

  13. Looking for a Framework for Analyzing Eco-innovation Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yan

    2011-01-01

    Looking for a Framework for Analyzing Eco-innovation Dynamics: A Triple Helix Model of Innovation Perspective.......Looking for a Framework for Analyzing Eco-innovation Dynamics: A Triple Helix Model of Innovation Perspective....

  14. Eco-efficiency and control loop configuration for recycle systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munir, Muhammad Tajammal; Yu, Wei; Young, Brent P. [The University of Auckland, Auckland (New Zealand)

    2013-05-15

    To integrate measurements of eco-efficiency with control loop configuration has become an important topic since all industrial processes/plants are requested to increase their eco-efficiency. The exergy eco-efficiency factor, a new measure of eco-efficiency for control loop configuration, has been developed recently. The exergy eco-efficiency factor is based on the thermodynamic concept of exergy, which can be used to analyze a process in terms of its efficiency. The combination of the relative gain array (RGA), NI, CN, dynamic RGA, and the exergy eco-efficiency factor will help guide the process designer to find the optimal control design with low operating cost/eco-efficiency. In this paper, we validate the proposed exergy eco-efficiency factor for processes with recycles which are very common industrially.

  15. AERIS : eco-driving application development and testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    This exploratory study investigates the potential of developing an Eco-Driving application that : utilizes an eco-cruise control (ECC) system within state-of-the-art car-following models. The : research focuses on integrating predictive cruise contro...

  16. SUSTAINABLE ECONOMIC GROWTH AND ECO-EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana\tLUPAN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The current economic and social contexts have brought forth the issues regarding growth and sustainability. The concept of growth has always been linked to an increase in consumption levels, and this inevitably led to pressures on the environment and on the resources that support human activity. Given these circumstances, the question whether we can avoid an environmental disaster while maintaining economic growth, has become more stringent. We chose to approach this aspect by examining the concept of eco-efficiency, a concept that embodies aspects of both economic efficiency and environmental efficiency. Eco-efficiency can be regarded as the effectiveness with which resources are used in order to create products and services that satisfy human needs. Based on this idea, the last decade has produced an increasing number of studies on eco-efficiency and how it can be measured and implemented in the production of goods and services, but also in the field regarding demand patterns. An analysis regarding the aspects of eco-efficiency at the macro level of the Romanian economy is in line with the current environmental concerns, thus I have chosen to cover these questions, as well as the evolution of the locale economy towards a more sustainable development. The outcome of the examined aspects shows that, in spite of an increase in eco-efficiency levels, energy and material consumption and emissions have increased. This raises the question if measuring economic and environmental efficiency by reporting to the GDP value is becoming obsolete and if there is a need to revaluate eco-efficiency indicators in order to measure the transition to a greener and more sustainable development from different points of view.

  17. Novas espécies de Coussarea Aubl. e Faramea Aubl. (Rubiaceae, tribo Coussareae New species from Coussarea Aubl. and Faramea Aubl. (Rubiaceae, tribe Coussareae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Gomes

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Quatro novas espécies da família Rubiaceae, relacionadas à tribo Coussareae são descritas e ilustradas. São elas: Coussarea bocainae; Faramea hymenocalyx; F. paratiensis e F. picinguabae. Os táxons aqui apresentados tiveram como base material coletado na Serra do Parati, situada na divisa entre os Estados do Rio de Janeiro e São Paulo, nas proximidades do litoral. Essa serra integra o Parque Nacional da Serra da Bocaina e possui cobertura vegetal predominante da Floresta Pluvial Atlântica, sendo essa a área de distribuição e o hábitat dos novos táxons.Four new species of the Rubiaceae, tribe Coussareae are described and illustrated: Coussarea bocainae; Faramea hymenocalyx; F. paratiensis and F. picinguabae. They are based on the material collected in the Parati Mountains, located on the border between Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo States, near the coast. This mountainous area is part of the Serra da Bocaina National Park, which is covered mainly by Atlantic Rain Forest. These new taxa are found in this forest within the Park.

  18. Construction of Eco-tourism Sites Based on the Experience of Eco-tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Rui

    2010-01-01

    Taking Lingtong Grand Canyon in Jingxi County, Baise City, Guangxi, China as a research object, the face-to-face questionnaire survey on tourist is carried out, in order to obtain the basic situation of the interviewees, as well as their expectation for the eco-tourism experience. Factor analysis method is adopted to test the interviewees’ expectation of the eco-tourism experience. Result shows that eco-tourism experience of tourist is mainly reflected in the ecological leisure experience, ...

  19. Eco-Innovation in the Value Chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAloone, Tim C.; Mougaard, Krestine; Restrepo-Giraldo, John Dairo

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that companies face challenges integrating environmental considerations into their product development processes and there is an established body of research focusing on ways and means to aid this. The approach for integrating environmental considerations into product development...... processes is often reactive, resulting in a retrospective and insufficient approach. This paper describes the mechanisms, opportunities and barriers for the actual realisation of value chain based eco-innovation, together with a first indication of a methodical approach to realising eco-innovation....

  20. The Law and Economics of Eco-Labels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Martinez Gandara (Alejandra)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBy late 2012, the Ecolabel Index had 432 eco-labels on record. In the first quarter of 2010, the same Index measured only 340. This reflects an increase in the interest in eco-labelling in the last couple of years. While it is unclear why this sudden interest in eco-labelling, it

  1. Molecular tailoring of solid surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Evenson, S A

    1997-01-01

    The overall performance of a material can be dramatically improved by tailoring its surface at the molecular level. The aim of this project was to develop a universal technique for attaching dendrimers (well-defined, nanoscale, functional polymers) and Jeffamines (high molecular weight polymer chains) to the surface of any shaped solid substrate. This desire for controlled functionalization is ultimately driven by the need to improve material compatibility in various biomedical applications. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used initially to study the packing and structure of Langmuir-Blodgett films on surfaces, and subsequently resulted in the first visualization of individual, spherically shaped, nanoscopic polyamidoamine dendrimers. The next goal was to develop a methodology for attaching such macromolecules to inert surfaces. Thin copolymer films were deposited onto solid substrates to produce materials with a fixed concentration of surface anhydride groups. Vapor-phase functionalization reactions were t...

  2. Modelling Of Eco-innovation Diffusion: The EU Eco-label

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KIJEK TOMASZ

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to carry out a theoretical and empirical analysis of the process of eco-label diffusion. Eco-labels allow consumers to identify products and services that have a reduced environmental impact during their life cycle. Thus, they are aimed at diminishing the information gap between sellers and buyers. The results of the estimation using the Bass model indicate that the diffusion of the EU eco-label has been most dynamic in countries such as Hungary, Poland, Denmark, Germany and France. In turn, the scope of diffusion (absolute saturation level reached the highest value for companies in France and Italy. In addition, the results of the study confirm the stimulating impact of the scope of eco-label diffusion on consumer awareness of environmental issues. This finding points to the need for environmental education among consumers, which could in turn encourage firms to undertake pro-environmental actions.

  3. Understanding tailoring in communicating about health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hawkins, Robert P; Kreuter, Matthew; Resnicow, Kenneth; Fishbein, Martin; Dijkstra, Arie

    2008-01-01

    'Tailoring' refers to any of a number of methods for creating communications individualized for their receivers, with the expectation that this individualization will lead to larger intended effects...

  4. A declaration of eco-ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Cairns Jr.

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Eco-ethics is the essential foundation for sustainable use of the planet. Such a foundation must consist of a series of value judgments to which humanity is committed. This declaration is a tentative attempt to provide some illustrative examples.

  5. Science, culture and (eco-ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis Legendre

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available EE Book 16 focuses on achievements and shortcomings of modern marine ecology. It also analysis the crux of all science: human capabilities and limitations of conducting research - of critically perceiving the world in and around us. Louis Legendre further examines the relationships between science and culture and underlines the significance of ethics, especially eco-ethics.

  6. ECO-FRIENDLY SYNTHESIS OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    userpc

    as medical diagnosis/therapy, solar cell development, water treatment, surface coating and cosmetic production. Bacterial synthesis of silver nanoparticles is regarded as eco-friendly due to minimal waste generated while being energy efficient. This study was aimed at synthesizing silver nanoparticles using Lactobacillus ...

  7. GENETIC DIVERSITY AND ECO-GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Classic F-statistics revealed the highest intra-specific polymorphism recorded for E. africana (32.45%), followed by E. coracana (16.83%); implying .... Genetic diversity and eco-geographical distribution of Eleusine species. 47 regions of Ethiopia as a ... were collected from the central highlands, west, northwest, northern and ...

  8. Eco-labelling: Barrier or incentive of international trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Milica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Eco-labeling plays an important role in international trade. It is necessary to put emphasis on the importance of eco-labels as potential barriers and potential incentives for international trade. Demand for products with eco-labels is increasing. However, the use of eco-labels can lead to discrimination against foreign products in the domestic market. The paper points out the great importance of the World Trade Organization and the International Organization for Standardization in the field of eco-labeling and international trade.

  9. Real-Time Market Concept Architecture for EcoGrid EU—A Prototype for European Smart Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Yi; Pineda Morente, Salvador; Nyeng, Preben

    2014-01-01

    ) to participate in electricity markets. Current electricity markets need to be tailored to incorporate these changes regarding how electricity will be generated and consumed in the future. The EcoGrid EU is a large-scale EU-funded project, which establishes the first prototype of the future European intelligent...... grids. In this project, small-scale DERs and small end-consumers can actively participate in a new real-time electricity market by responding to 5-min real time electricity prices. In this way, the market operator will also obtain additional balancing power to cancel out the production variation...... introduced by renewable electricity generation. The real-time market concept architecture for EcoGrid EU is introduced in this paper, which provides a market-based platform and information and communication technology (ICT) infrastructure that extends the current electricity market to a shorter time horizon...

  10. Determinants of eco-efficiency in the Chinese industrial sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Hidemichi; Managi, Shunsuke

    2013-12-01

    This study measures productive inefficiency within the context of multi-environmental pollution (eco-efficiency) in the Chinese industrial sector. The weighted Russell directional distance model is applied to measure eco-efficiency using production technology. The objective is to clarify how external factors affect eco-efficiency. The major findings are that both foreign direct investment and investment for pollution abatement improve eco-efficiency as measured by air pollutant substances. A levy system for wastewater discharge improves eco-efficiency as measured by wastewater pollutant substances. However, an air pollutant levy does not significantly affect eco-efficiency as measured by air pollutants. Copyright © 2013 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. An R&D Management Framework for Eco-Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Sano

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Although research and development (R&D affects new value-added creation, including that related to environmental aspects, there is little literature dealing with the integration of R&D management and eco-value. Here, eco-value of technology is defined as the advantage of environmental competitiveness in the market. This paper proposes a framework of R&D management of eco-technology (RDMOET, consisting of: (1 future research for sustainability; (2 making an original eco-theme portfolio and roadmap; (3 gap analysis and implementation of new eco-themes; and (4 eco-value evaluation. (1 and (4 are new processes compared with conventional R&D management. Through practice at the Corporate R&D Center of Toshiba Corporation, the usefulness of the proposed framework is verified from the viewpoint of not only technological eco-innovation, but also that of organizational learning for environmental sustainability.

  12. Formability of stainless steel tailored blanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Claus; Gong, Hui; Olsen, Flemming Ove

    2004-01-01

    In a number of systematic tests, the formability of tailored blanks consisting of even and different combinations of AISI304 and AISI316 in thickness of 0.8 mm and 1.5 mm have been investigated. In order to analyse the formability of tailored blanks with different sheet thickness, a method based ...

  13. Spray Characteristics and Tribo-Mechanical Properties of High-Velocity Arc-Sprayed WC-W2C Iron-Based Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillmann, W.; Hagen, L.; Kokalj, D.

    2017-10-01

    In terms of arc-sprayed coatings, the lamellar coating microstructure is mainly affected by the atomization behavior of the molten electrode tips. When using compressed air, oxide formations occur during atomization, across the particle-laden spray plume and when the molten droplets splash onto the substrate. Within the scope of this study, the potential of a high-velocity arc-spraying process due to elevated atomization gas pressures and its effect on the spray and coating characteristics was analyzed using a cast tungsten carbide (CTC)-reinforced FeCMnSi cored wire. Since the atomization behavior corresponds with the electrode phenomena, the power spectrum and the droplet formation were observed during spraying. The tribo-mechanical properties of CTC-FeCMnSi coatings were examined in dry sliding experiments and indentation tests. In addition, adhesion tests and metallographic investigations were carried out to analyze the bonding strength, cohesive behavior, and lamellar microstructure. The occurrence of oxide phases was evaluated by x-ray diffraction and electron microscopy. Moreover, the oxygen content was determined by using glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy as well as energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. With respect to elevated atomization gas pressures, a dense microstructure with improved adhesion to the substrate and reduced surface roughness was observed. Dry sliding experiments revealed an advanced wear behavior of specimens, when using above average increased atomization gas pressures. Analytic methods verified the existence of oxide phases, which were generated during spraying. A significant change of the extent and type of oxides, when applying an increased flow rate of the atomization gas, cannot be observed. Besides an enhanced coating quality, the use of increased atomization gas pressure exhibited good process stability.

  14. Os wannabees e suas tribos: adolescência e distinção na Internet The wannabees and their tribes: adolescence and distinction in Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia da Silva Pereira

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Observando uma rede virtual de relacionamento, o Orkut, é possível identificar um sistema de classificação determinado pela forma com que os usuários interagem dentro das comunidades. O wannabe é um dos tipos que fazem parte desse universo. Os principais objetivos deste artigo são analisar de que forma a adolescência constrói sua identidade a partir de processos de distinção e controle social na Internet, tomando os aspectos relacionados ao gênero e ao corpo como centrais para a discussão, e refletir sobre os significados atribuídos, nessa fase da vida, a conceitos como "estilo de vida" e "estado de espírito" dentro de dois tipos de comunidades virtuais: a dos "góticos", tribo urbana detentora de uma dada feminilidade, e a das "pró-anas", estritamente virtual, que defende as práticas da anorexia como um estilo de vida.Orkut is a virtual relationship network through which it is possible to identify a system of classification determined by the way users interact inside of the communities. The wannabee is one of the types that are part of this universe. The main goals of this article are to analyze how adolescence constructs its identity from distinction and social control processes in the Internet, taking the aspects related to gender and body as central issues for discussion, and to reflect on the meanings attributed, in this phase of life, to concepts as "life style" and "mood", inside two types of virtual communities: the "gothics", urban tribe representative of one given femininity, and the "pro-anas", strictly virtual, that defends anorexic practices as a life style.

  15. Eco-Efficiency Indicators for Urban Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Moriarty

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on urban passenger transport eco-efficiency, which can be defined as the production of maximum benefits to society while minimising environmental impacts from urban transport’s inputs of energy and materials. Researchers have intensively studied transport’s varied environmental impacts, particularly through Life Cycle Assessment; this paper argues that primary transport energy per capita is presently the best measure of impact. Although transport’s societal benefits have generally been regarded as self-evident, access to out-of-home activities, not passenger-km, should be considered as the fundamental useful output of an urban transport system, since transport is a derived demand. We argue that access levels are roughly similar in all high-income OECD cities, so that these cities can be ranked on transport eco-efficiency simply on the basis of per capita primary transport energy.

  16. Development of eco-friendly washing machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakidin Hamzah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A portable, non-electric washing machine powered by human leg identical to cycling is produced in order to fulfil the need of varsity students to wash their clothes in a cheap, eco-friendly and time saving and also to do physical body exercises. A black plastic bin has been used as the main body. At the bottom lies the rotating disk to provide agitation to the water and also cleaning the clothes. Shaft and gears are also been used in the rotating and moving mechanism that is connected to the pedal. This eco-friendly washing machine with an affordable price will benefit the lower income family and also for the college students.

  17. ECO-EFFICIENCY INDICATORS’ EVOLUTION IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia CAMASOIU

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to the importance of improving the environmental performance and of integrating the environmental protection policies in long-term strategies, the practical interest has increased for identifying, selecting and building the most expressive eco-efficiency indicators. The paper analyses the basic performance indicators for environment at micro-economic level, which might show progress on the sustainable development road. The study of the eco-efficiency was developed based on a financing pilot study of urban infrastructure investments in Calarasi county for a municipal association. The main objective was to improve gas and sewerage systems for four localities (Calarasi, Oltenita, Lehliu Gara and Budesti under the conditions of improving the economic and ecological efficiency of the proposed project.

  18. [Eco-epidemiology: towards epidemiology of complexity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizouarn, Philippe

    2016-05-01

    In order to solve public health problems posed by the epidemiology of risk factors centered on the individual and neglecting the causal processes linking the risk factors with the health outcomes, Mervyn Susser proposed a multilevel epidemiology called eco-epidemiology, addressing the interdependence of individuals and their connection with molecular, individual, societal, environmental levels of organization participating in the causal disease processes. The aim of this epidemiology is to integrate more than a level of organization in design, analysis and interpretation of health problems. After presenting the main criticisms of risk-factor epidemiology focused on the individual, we will try to show how eco-epidemiology and its development could help to understand the need for a broader and integrative epidemiology, in which studies designed to identify risk factors would be balanced by studies designed to answer other questions equally vital to public health. © 2016 médecine/sciences – Inserm.

  19. Does resilient mean eco-inefficient?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pizzol, Massimo

    -efficient than their vulnerable counterparts and instead can allow for eco-efficiency gains. This goes against the intuitive idea that optimizing a system for efficiency only will necessarily allow achieving eco-efficiency as well, and suggests that design for resilience may be a valuable idea towards......Resilience is a property of systems that is deemed essential for their sustainability. The term “resilience” has become a vague buzzword in the last few years but the literature agrees that resilience depends on the structure and architecture of a system. It increases with system complexity......, because the redundant connections between elements of a system make it less efficient but also more flexible and adaptable and allow to perform a function even if some connections are interrupted or missing. Balancing between resilience and efficiency seems to be the key for sustainability intended...

  20. Eco-ethology. Oeko-Ethologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krebs, J.R.; Davies, N.B.

    1981-01-01

    Eco-ethology is the science of the effects of animal behaviour on animal environment and the effects of animal environment on animal behaviour, with the purpose to find out how natural selection within this control loop has formed and molded animals. N. Tinbergen was the first to make experiments on the evolution of patterns of behaviour which are influenced not only by the evolution of species but also by their adaptation to a changing environment. R.H. MacArthur then introduced mathematical modelling for better clarification of the function and adoptive value of behavioural patterns. The book gives a detailed description of both methods and a successful attempt at a synthesis. In surveys and specific contribution, an exemplary outline of eco-ethology is presented, with information, ideas and reflections that are of interest both to teachers and students. The book is addressed to biologists, zoologists, ecologists, sociologists, and evolutionary biologists and to students of these disciplines.

  1. EcoGrid.dk Phase 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Morten; Ackermann, T.; Bach, P.F.

    The overall objective of WP2 is to provide a synthesis of alternative system architectures for the future Danish electric power transmission and distribution system. A power system architecture is the specification of operating objectives, functions and components and their mutual relations in th...... throughout chapters 1.1, 2 , 2.2. WP 2 utilizes results from the EcoGrid.dk WP4 (measures)....

  2. CAD Instructor Designs Eco-Friendly Shed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwendau, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Dissatisfied with the options offered by big box stores--and wanting to save some money and go as green as possible--the author puts his design and construction skills to good use. In this article, he shares how he designed and built an eco-friendly shed. He says he is very pleased with the results of working with his own design, reducing waste,…

  3. Plan de negocio EcoSolutions

    OpenAIRE

    Barón Pérez, Marc

    2009-01-01

    El presente documento desarrolla un plan de negocio con dos objetivos: por un lado familiarizarse con el mundo empresarial, concretamente el de los emprendedores; y por otro lado, buscar una idea de negocio rentable que paralelamente ayude a reducir el impacto de la actividad humana sobre el medio ambiente. Con tal intención, se analizan los pasos y elementos necesarios para crear EcoSolutions, una empresa online, comercializadora de productos ecológicos destinados al ahorro de...

  4. The Weakness and Innovation of China Eco-tourism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Lu

    The purpose of this paper is to propose a new direction of eco-tourism development in China. Using the converse thinking method, we found China eco-tourism is still locating a lower level, and has some problems: the eco-tourism plan is simple and unreasonable; the eco-tourism development has mainly focused on better ecological system resource but not the worse; the eco-tourism products mostly expense natural resource and damage ecological system, but not protect or rebuild it. Then we proposed the advice that the eco-tourism development should mainly focus on the destroyed ecosystem, it has important meanings to reconditioning and protecting the environment, and it is feasible.

  5. Tailoring thermal interfaces with nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seshadri, Indira

    Thermal interfaces are key to ensure the reliable performance of many semiconductor, energy and electronic systems. High thermal conductivity (k), low elastic modulus (E) interface materials are required to dissipate heat and relieve thermo-mechanical stresses. The aim of this thesis is to develop compliant, high k nanocomposite materials for thermal interface applications utilizing nanostructured networks. Realizing high k nanocomposites is a challenge because of difficulties in incorporating high fractions of uniformly dispersed nanofillers and countering low filler-matrix interfacial conductance, while retaining a low elastic modulus. In this thesis, it is demonstrated that these issues are obviated by using cold welded gold nanowire fillers to obtain an unprecedented 30-fold increase in polydimethylsiloxane thermal conductivity that is 6-fold higher than previously reported nanocomposites at low nanofiller loadings and exceeds theoretical predictions. The nanowire diameter and aspect ratio are key to obtain cold-welded networks that enhance k at low filler fractions, while fostering low E. Along with high k, tailoring high thermal contact conductance G c is crucial for many applications. This thesis reveals a critical correlation between the rheological behavior of a high k gold-nanowire-filled polydimethylsiloxane nanocomposite and its thermal contact conductance with copper. At a critical filler fraction, an abrupt increase in the nanocomposite k is accompanied by a liquid-solid transition and a multifold decrease in Gc. These concurrent changes are attributed to nanowire percolation network formation and pre-cure polymer gelation that inhibits the formation of conformal void-free interfaces. These findings will be important for designing processing sequences to realize heterointerfaces with nanowire filled high k nanocomposite materials. Another important finding of this thesis is that nanowire networks can result in mechanical softening of polymer matrices

  6. Aerolastic tailoring and integrated wing design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Mike H.; Bohlmann, Jon

    1989-01-01

    Much has been learned from the TSO optimization code over the years in determining aeroelastic tailoring's place in the integrated design process. Indeed, it has become apparent that aeroelastic tailoring is and should be deeply embedded in design. Aeroelastic tailoring can have tremendous effects on the design loads, and design loads affect every aspect of the design process. While optimization enables the evaluation of design sensitivities, valid computational simulations are required to make these sensitivities valid. Aircraft maneuvers simulated must adequately cover the plane's intended flight envelope, realistic design criteria must be included, and models among the various disciplines must be calibrated among themselves and with any hard-core (e.g., wind tunnel) data available. The information gained and benefits derived from aeroelastic tailoring provide a focal point for the various disciplines to become involved and communicate with one another to reach the best design possible.

  7. Tailor made preservation strategies : Food Innovation Concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blankestijn, J.

    2013-01-01

    High quality, long shelf life, clean label, less salt: food must comply with many requirements. From genomics and mild preservation to a ‘Quick Scan’ for process hygiene, TNO helps manufacturers to develop a tailor made preservation strategy.

  8. [Research progress in water eco-functional regionalization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan-mei; Zeng, Wen-lu; Zhou, Qi-xing

    2009-12-01

    Water eco-functional regionalization is a new zoning approach based on the study of regional differences in water ecosystem, aimed to reveal the spatial differentiation characteristics and distribution patterns of water environment at different regional and zonal scales. This paper discussed the methodologies, objectives, and limitations of water function zoning, water environmental function zoning, geoecology zoning, ecoregion classification, and water eco-functional regionalization, summarized the research progress in the water eco-functional regionalization, and compared the regionalization system at home and abroad. The disadvantages of our water eco-functional regionalization system were pointed out, and its development trend was prospected.

  9. EcoMark: Evaluating Models of Vehicular Environmental Impact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Chenjuan; Ma, Mike; Yang, Bin

    2012-01-01

    the vehicle travels in. We develop an evaluation framework, called EcoMark, for such environmental impact models. In addition, we survey all eleven state-of-the-art impact models known to us. To gain insight into the capabilities of the models and to understand the effectiveness of the EcoMark, we apply......The reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from transporta- tion is essential for achieving politically agreed upon emissions re- duction targets that aim to combat global climate change. So-called eco-routing and eco-driving are able to substantially reduce GHG emissions caused by vehicular...

  10. Type II thioesterase gene (ECO-orf27) from Amycolatopsis orientalis influences production of the polyketide antibiotic, ECO-0501 (LW01).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yang; Huang, He; Zhu, Li; Luo, Minyu; Chen, Daijie

    2012-11-01

    ECO-orf27 associated with the cluster of ECO-0501 (LW01) from Amycolatopsis orientalis is deduced to encode a type II thioesterase. Disruption of ECO-orf27 reduced LW01 production by 95 %. Complementation of the disrupted mutant with intact ECO-orf27 restored the production of LW01 suggesting that ECO-orf27 is crucial for LW01 biosynthesis. ECO-TE I, the gene encoding type I thioesterase from LW01 polyketide synthases, cannot complement ECO-orf27 deficient mutant distinguishing ECO-orf27 from type I thioesterase gene. Type II thioesterase gene pikAV from Streptomyces venezuelae could complement ECO-orf27 in A. orientalis indicating that the two genes are equivalent in their function. Overexpression of ECO-orf27 resulted in a 20 % increase in LW01 production providing an alternative approach for yield improvement.

  11. Organic Foods: Do Eco-Friendly Attitudes Predict Eco-Friendly Behaviors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahm, Molly J.; Samonte, Aurelia V.; Shows, Amy R.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine whether student awareness and attitudes about organic foods would predict their behaviors with regard to organic food consumption and other healthy lifestyle practices. A secondary purpose was to determine whether attitudes about similar eco-friendly practices would result in socially conscious…

  12. Modern contraceptive utilization and associated factors among married pastoralist women in Bale eco-region, Bale Zone, South East Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belda, Semere Sileshi; Haile, Mekonnen Tegegne; Melku, Abulie Takele; Tololu, Abdurehaman Kalu

    2017-03-14

    Women who live in remote rural areas encounter different challenges against contraception and often deny the use of modern contraceptive methods. The predictors of modern contraceptive utilization by pastoralist women in the Bale eco-region could be specific and are not well known. Therefore, this study aims to assess modern contraceptive utilization and its determinants among married pastoralist women in Bale eco-region, Oromia regional state, South East Ethiopia. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted from 20th November 2015 to 30th February 2016. A structured questionnaire was used to interview 549 married pastoralist women who were selected by multistage sampling technique. The data were analyzed by SPSS - 21 software, multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify predictors of modern contraceptive use at (P-value eco-region. The study identified lower modern contraceptive method utilization by pastoralist women, and the majority of the contraceptive users rely on short- acting contraceptive methods. The uncomplimentary perceptions towards religious and cultural acceptability of modern contraceptive method were among the major reasons for lesser utilization of the methods. Family planning programs should be tailored to actively involve pastoralist women, husbands, and religious leaders in pastoralist communities.

  13. Integrated Land Governance for Eco-Urbanization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhan Wang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available “Eco-urbanization” emphasizes the importance of the ecological and environmental aspects of urbanization, which is to approach a balanced and healthy ecosystem through paying attention to the ecological intercorrelation of many factors. This involves balancing the stocks and utilization of multi-resources and balancing the efficiency and equality of multi-resources allocation to improve the quality of life for both urban and rural areas. In this dynamic process, resource allocations are carried out at different administrative levels, which have posed challenges of developing an integrated approach for eco-urbanization. Due to interaction and intersection of ecological activities among adjacent regions, a complex ecosystem tends to be in a fluid catchment area with dynamic flows of activities that transcend rigid administrative boundaries. The management of ecosystem sensitively impinges on the effectiveness of having an integrated approach of land governance in a comprehensive planning of urban–rural development. This will require scientific findings to support a policy-oriented management approach, which can take account of land use/cover changes (LUCC, ecosystem services and functions, interactive impacts of socio-economic transformation and climatic variations for optimum land use allocation to achieve the objective of ecosystem conservation and socio-economic development for both urban and rural area in a sustainable approach. Three aspects of development are identified as the importance of achieving advanced land governance for eco-urbanization. This paper aims to discuss these in turn: first, to find the adaptive measures in response to the uncertainty of climatic variation; second, to understand and research the scale and level of sustainable consumption for balancing resource saving and consumption; and third, to study ecological intercorrelation among multiple factors. We, therefore, argue that the far insight of

  14. Eco-design opportunities for critical material supply risks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peck, D.P.; Bakker, C.A.

    2012-01-01

    A number of recent publications point to the important role of eco-design approaches in risk mitigation for critical materials supply. The core of eco-design is life cycle thinking – usually as some form of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach together with a set of generic guidelines such as

  15. Assessing farming eco-efficiency: a Data Envelopment Analysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picazo-Tadeo, Andrés J; Gómez-Limón, José A; Reig-Martínez, Ernest

    2011-04-01

    This paper assesses farming eco-efficiency using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) techniques. Eco-efficiency scores at both farm and environmental pressure-specific levels are computed for a sample of Spanish farmers operating in the rain-fed agricultural system of Campos County. The determinants of eco-efficiency are then studied using truncated regression and bootstrapping techniques. We contribute to previous literature in this field of research by including information on slacks in the assessment of the potential environmental pressure reductions in a DEA framework. Our results reveal that farmers are quite eco-inefficient, with very few differences emerging among specific environmental pressures. Moreover, eco-inefficiency is closely related to technical inefficiencies in the management of inputs. Regarding the determinants of eco-efficiency, farmers benefiting from agri-environmental programs as well as those with university education are found to be more eco-efficient. Concerning the policy implications of these results, public expenditure in agricultural extension and farmer training could be of some help to promote integration between farming and the environment. Furthermore, Common Agricultural Policy agri-environmental programs are an effective policy to improve eco-efficiency, although some doubts arise regarding their cost-benefit balance. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Eco-efficient Agriculture: Concepts, Challenges, and Opportunities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keating, B.A.; Carberry, P.S.; Bindraban, P.S.; Asseng, S.; Meinke, H.B.; Dixon, J.

    2010-01-01

    Eco-efficiency in the simplest of terms is about achieving more with less—more agricultural outputs, in terms of quantity and quality, for less input of land, water, nutrients, energy, labor, or capital. The concept of eco-efficiency encompasses both the ecological and economic dimensions of

  17. Experimental evidence that parasites drive eco-evolutionary feedbacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Franziska S; Anaya-Rojas, Jaime M; Matthews, Blake; Eizaguirre, Christophe

    2017-04-04

    Host resistance to parasites is a rapidly evolving trait that can influence how hosts modify ecosystems. Eco-evolutionary feedbacks may develop if the ecosystem effects of host resistance influence selection on subsequent host generations. In a mesocosm experiment, using a recently diverged (eco-evolutionary feedbacks.

  18. D3.2a Final ECO Platform Architecture Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loozen, Kjeld; Viñuales, Javier; Ternier, Stefaan

    2016-01-01

    This deliverable presents the ECO platform architecture. It reports on the outcomes of the work so far conducted under task T3.2: Overall platform architecture. It specifies all components that will constitute the ECO platform and describes the connection to each other.

  19. Using Eco-Mapping to Understand Family Strengths and Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Katherine M.; Stricklin, Sarintha; Nowak, Theresa M.; Rous, Beth

    2008-01-01

    As professionals and families work together to identify and celebrate the strengths and resources unique to each family, new and innovative ways to describe and discuss family characteristics are needed. The eco-map, borrowed from social science disciplines, is one method used to describe family strengths and resources. The eco-map was developed…

  20. Evaluation of Eco Schools Scotland. SCRE Research Report No. 124

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirrie, Anne; Elliot, Dely; McConnell, Fraser; Wilkinson, J. Eric

    2006-01-01

    In October 2005, Keep Scotland Beautiful commissioned the SCRE Centre at the University of Glasgow to undertake an evaluation of the Eco Schools Programme in Scotland. Eco Schools is a programme for environmental management, certification and sustainable development education. It is an international programme that was developed in 1994 in response…

  1. Eco-Visualization: Promoting Environmental Stewardship in the Museum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Tiffany

    2007-01-01

    Eco-visualizations are artworks that reinterpret environmental data with custom software to promote stewardship. Eco-visualization technology offers a new way to dynamically picture environmental data and make it meaningful to a museum population. The questions are: How might museums create new projects and programs around place-based information?…

  2. The analysis of ink jet printed eco-font efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastko Milošević

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Utilization of eco-font for office printing is one of sustainable, “green” printing concepts, which besides obvious economic benefits, as a result has a certain effect on environmental sustainability as well. The fundamental problem that this practice faces is decreased quality of text printed using eco-fonts comparing to those printed with regular fonts. The aim of this research is eco-font efficiency estimation, i.e. determination of toner usage reduction level of ink jet printed documents typed with this font type, as well as estimation of the extent humans perceive differences between text printed with eco-font and the one printed by its „non-eco“ equivalent. Combining instrumental measuring method and digital image analysis, it was found that this simple principle (eco-font utilization enables substantial toner usage reduction for an ink jet printing system, while visual test showed that visual experience of text printed using eco-font is sufficient. In addition, awareness of benefits that eco-font utilization brings, change users’ attitude towards eco-font quality.

  3. Preparation, characterization and antibacterial effects of eco-friendly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To synthesize and characterize eco-friendly gold nanorods (Au-NRs) and to assess their effects against two bacterial strains. Methods: Synthesis of eco-friendly gold nanorods was done from an aqueous solution of chloroauric acid and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide by mixing Olea europaea fruit and Acacia ...

  4. Sustainable wetland resource utilization of Sango Bay through Eco ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AGHOGHO A

    It is evident from the SWOT analysis that the develop- ment of eco-tourism in Sango Bay wetland enjoys more strength and opportunities than weaknesses and threats. The development of eco-tourism can be more beneficial to the community as a whole than the present consump- tive use of resources that has led to ...

  5. What do people know about eco-driving?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIlroy, Rich C; Stanton, Neville A

    2017-06-01

    An online survey of 321 respondents revealed that the majority of people are aware of eco-driving and have a positive attitude towards it. Although the types of eco-driving tips offered by respondents, and their potential effect on fuel consumption, were in line with those found in the popular and academic literature, knowledge of specific fuel saving behaviours was generally low. Relationships were found between environmental attitudes and knowledge of, and propensity to perform eco-driving behaviours; however, these relationships were weak, indicating that neither pro-environmental attitudes nor knowledge of eco-driving behaviours is strongly indicative of actual eco-driving performance. Males were found to be more knowledgeable of the means for driving in a fuel-efficient manner than females; however, no effect was found for either age or level of general education. Results are discussed in terms of the challenges and opportunities for encouraging eco-driving, and the necessity for both governmental and industry involvement. Practitioner Summary: To successfully encourage the uptake of eco-driving (e.g. through policy, training and feedback) it is first necessary to understand how the general public perceives it, and what they already know of it. This survey study addresses this by looking at relationships between environmental attitudes and knowledge, and specific eco-driving measures.

  6. Tailored nutrition education: is it really effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyles, Helen; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona

    2012-03-01

    There has been a growing interest in tailored nutrition education over the previous decade, with a number of literature reviews suggesting this intervention strategy holds considerable potential. Nevertheless, the majority of intervention trials undertaken to date have employed subjective self-report outcome measures (such as dietary recalls). The aim of the present review is to further consider the likely true effect of tailored nutrition education by assessing the findings of tailored nutrition education intervention trials where objective outcome measures (such as sales data) have been employed. Four trials of tailored nutrition education employing objective outcome measures were identified: one was undertaken in eight low-cost supermarkets in New Zealand (2010; n 1104); one was an online intervention trial in Australia (2006; n 497); and two were undertaken in US supermarkets (1997 and 2001; n 105 and 296, respectively). Findings from the high-quality New Zealand trial were negative. Findings from the US trials were also generally negative, although reporting was poor making it difficult to assess quality. Findings from the high-quality online trial were positive, although have limited generalisability for public health. Trials employing objective outcome measures strongly suggest tailored nutrition education is not effective as a stand-alone strategy. However, further large, high-quality trials employing objective outcome measures are needed to determine the true effectiveness of this popular nutrition intervention strategy. Regardless, education plays an important role in generating social understanding and acceptance of broader interventions to improve nutrition.

  7. EcoCyc: Enyclopedia of Escherichia coli Genes and Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, P D; Riley, M; Paley, S M; Pellegrini-Toole, A; Krummenacker, M

    1997-01-01

    The Encyclopedia of Genes and Metabolism (EcoCyc) is a database that combines information about the genome and the intermediary metabolism of Escherichia coli. It describes 2970 genes of E.coli, 547 enzymes encoded by these genes, 702 metabolic reactions that occur in E.coli and the organization of these reactions into 107 metabolic pathways. The EcoCyc graphical user interface allows scientists to query and explore the EcoCyc database using visualization tools such as genomic-map browsers and automatic layouts of metabolic pathways. EcoCyc spans the space from sequence to function to allow scientists to investigate an unusually broad range of questions. EcoCyc can be thought of as both an electronic review article because of its copious references to the primary literature, and as an in silicio model of E.coli metabolism that can be probed and analyzed through computational means.

  8. Eco-innovations in the functioning of companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ociepa-Kubicka, A; Pachura, P

    2017-07-01

    The development of entrepreneurships in the 21st century cannot occur without taking care of the natural environment. The article presents issues related to eco-innovation. Despite the opportunities offered by eco-innovations, implementation of such initiatives remains to lead to various difficulties. They vary across countries and sectors. The insufficient number of enterprises in Poland and other European countries implement adequate level of eco-innovations. The main aim of this paper is to indicate the causes of this status and activities aimed to develop eco-innovativeness. The benefits and risks connected with implementation of innovative products and technologies were also discussed. Furthermore, the advantages of and barriers to their implementation into companies were analysed. The entrepreneurs from the least eco-innovative countries emphasize serious barriers, including uncertain demand from the market, uncertain return on investment or too long a payback period for eco-innovation, lack of funds within the enterprise, insufficient access to existing subsidies and fiscal incentive. They are especially afraid of the financial risks, which raises uncertainty and leads to refraining from innovative initiatives. The possibilities were indicated for the entrepreneurs who face problems with the implementation of innovative solutions. Particular attention was paid to the European Union activities for the development of eco-innovations. Numerous programs supporting their implementation were indicated. The article also presents examples of eco-innovation in water and sewage enterprises. It was emphasized that planning of eco-innovative solutions should be based on comprehensive information about actual benefits and possibility of threats to the environment which can be caused by implementation of eco-innovations. The study presents the example of threats resulting from different methods of sewage sludge management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  9. From an eco-industrial park towards an eco-city : a case study in Suzhou, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Chang; Dijkema, Gerard P. J.; de Jong, Martin; Shi, Han

    2015-01-01

    As eco-industrial park policies have been in place for years, many mature eco-industrial parks tend to acquire more than just industrial functions and become new urban districts. We investigated this development and conducted empirical research in Suzhou Industrial Park, to obtain insight in how a

  10. The Role of Interaction Patterns with Hybrid Electric Vehicle Eco-Features for Drivers' Eco-Driving Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arend, Matthias G; Franke, Thomas

    2017-03-01

    The objective of the present research was to understand drivers' interaction patterns with hybrid electric vehicles' (HEV) eco-features (electric propulsion, regenerative braking, neutral mode) and their relationship to fuel efficiency and driver characteristics (technical system knowledge, eco-driving motivation). Eco-driving (driving behaviors performed to achieve higher fuel efficiency) has the potential to reduce CO2 emissions caused by road vehicles. Eco-driving in HEVs is particularly challenging due to the systems' dynamic energy flows. As a result, drivers are likely to show diverse eco-driving behaviors, depending on factors like knowledge and motivation. The eco-features represent an interface for the control of the systems' energy flows. A sample of 121 HEV drivers who had constantly logged their fuel consumption prior to the study participated in an online questionnaire. Drivers' interaction patterns with the eco-features were related to fuel efficiency. A common factor was identified in an exploratory factor analysis, characterizing the intensity of actively dealing with electric energy, which was also related to fuel efficiency. Driver characteristics were not related to this factor, yet they were significant predictors of fuel efficiency. From the perspective of user-energy interaction, the relationship of the aggregated factor to fuel efficiency emphasizes the central role of drivers' perception of and interaction with energy conversions in determining HEV eco-driving success. To arrive at an in-depth understanding of drivers' eco-driving behaviors that can guide interface design, authors of future research should be concerned with the psychological processes that underlie drivers' interaction patterns with eco-features.

  11. Eco-Friendly Multipurpose Lubricating Greases from Vegetable Residual Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponnekanti Nagendramma

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Environmentally friendly multipurpose grease formulation has been synthesized by using Jatropha vegetable residual oil with lithium soap and multifunctional additive. The thus obtained formulation was evaluated for its tribological performance on a four-ball tribo-tester. The anti-friction and anti-wear performance characteristics were evaluated using standard test methods. The biodegradability and toxicity of the base oil was assessed. The results indicate that the synthesized residual oil grease formulation shows superior tribological performance when compared to the commercial grease. On the basis of physico-chemical characterization and tribological performance the vegetable residual oil was found to have good potential for use as biodegradable multipurpose lubricating grease. In addition, the base oils are biodegradable and non toxic.

  12. Tailoring group velocity by topology optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stainko, Roman; Sigmund, Ole

    2007-01-01

    The paper describes a systematic method for the tailoring of dispersion properties of slab-based photonic crystal waveguides. The method is based on the topology optimization method which consists in repeated finite element frequency domain analyses. The goal of the optimization process is to come...

  13. Measuring Task Proficiency with Tailored Response Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Herbert George; And Others

    Tailored Response Testing (TRT) is a new type of test that has demonstrated its applicability to the evaluation of human performance in a wide variety of occupations and work settings. The Navy is using TRT to measure the technical proficiency of job incumbents in three of its jobs. The methodology holds great promise for testing aboard ships as…

  14. LIFE-STYLE SEGMENTATION WITH TAILORED INTERVIEWING

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KAMAKURA, WA; WEDEL, M

    The authors present a tailored interviewing procedure for life-style segmentation. The procedure assumes that a life-style measurement instrument has been designed. A classification of a sample of consumers into life-style segments is obtained using a latent-class model. With these segments, the

  15. The genomic basis of eco-evolutionary dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Verdugo, Alejandra; Buckley, James; Stapley, Jessica

    2017-03-01

    Recent recognition that ecological and evolutionary processes can operate on similar timescales has led to a rapid increase in theoretical and empirical studies on eco-evolutionary dynamics. Progress in the fields of evolutionary biology, genomics and ecology is greatly enhancing our understanding of rapid adaptive processes, the predictability of adaptation and the genetics of ecologically important traits. However, progress in these fields has proceeded largely independently of one another. In an attempt to better integrate these fields, the centre for 'Adaptation to a Changing Environment' organized a conference entitled 'The genomic basis of eco-evolutionary change' and brought together experts in ecological genomics and eco-evolutionary dynamics. In this review, we use the work of the invited speakers to summarize eco-evolutionary dynamics and discuss how they are relevant for understanding and predicting responses to contemporary environmental change. Then, we show how recent advances in genomics are contributing to our understanding of eco-evolutionary dynamics. Finally, we highlight the gaps in our understanding of eco-evolutionary dynamics and recommend future avenues of research in eco-evolutionary dynamics. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Quality Guidelines for Scalable Eco Skills in Vet Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu MOLDOVAN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In a sustainable economy the assessment of Eco skills provided in a Vocational Education and Training (VET course is performed by the amount of knowledge applied on the job a period after the course ends. To this end VET providers have a current need of quality guidelines for scalable Eco skills and sustainable training evaluation. The purpose of the paper is to present some results of the project entitled “European Quality Assurance in VET towards new Eco Skills and Environmentally Sustainable Economy”, as regards Eco skills categorisation and elaboration of a scale to be used in the green methodology for learning assessment. In the research methodology, the Eco skills are categorised and exemplified for jobs at different levels into generic skills and specific skills evidenced from relevant publications in the field. Than the new Eco skills scale is developed which is organized into six steps: from “Level 1 - Introductory” up to “Level 6 - Expert”. The Eco skills scale is a useful input in the learning assessment process.

  17. Eco-Labeled Seafood: Determinants for (Blue Green Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malin Jonell

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Eco-certification has become an increasingly popular market-based tool in the endeavor to reduce negative environmental impacts from fisheries and aquaculture. In this study, we aimed at investigating which psychological consumer characteristics influence demand for eco-labeled seafood by correlating consumers’ stated purchasing of eco-labeled seafood to nine variables: environmental knowledge regarding seafood production, familiarity with eco-labels, subjective knowledge, pro-environmental self-identification, sense of personal responsibility, concern for negative environmental impacts from seafood production, perceived consumer effectiveness, gender and education. Questionnaires were distributed to consumers in Stockholm, Sweden, and the data were tested with multiple regression analysis using linear modeling and model averaging (n = 371. Two variables were the best predictors of stated purchasing of eco-labeled seafood: (i recognition and understanding of eco-labels for seafood (Marine Stewardship Council, Fish for Life, Aquaculture Stewardship Council and KRAV; and (ii concern for negative environmental impacts associated with seafood production. Meanwhile, consumer environmental knowledge was a weaker predictor. Results from this study suggest that strengthening the emotional component of consumer decision-making and improving the level of consumer familiarity with seafood eco-labels could stimulate more pro-environmental seafood consumption.

  18. SIGNALLING GREEN TECHNOLOGY THROUGH PRICE AND ECO-LABEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SLAĐANA PAVLINOVIĆ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We apply signalling games to investigate the effect of environmental friendly technology on the adoption of eco-labels. The framework is information asymmetric because the consumers do not observe a firm type directly, but may infer it indirectly through the market price and eco-label. Also, we assume that eco-labels are unreliable since they imperfectly reveal the actual firm technology. A monopoly signalling game is studied, where a firm is a sender, and a consumer is a receiver of two signals, price and eco-label. Since the purpose of eco-labels is to distinguish environmentally friendly producer type, we elaborate the factors which affect the existence of the separating equilibria. We find necessary condition for the existence of the separating equilibrium in which both types extract the whole consumer surplus. Furthermore, if the labelling costs exceed the quality difference between the green and the brown type, then the separating equilibrium does not exist. While the pooling equilibrium without eco-labelling exists for any set of parameters, we identify the parameters’ values under which the pooling equilibrium with eco-labelling does not exist

  19. Climbing therapy under PK-tailored prophylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stemberger, M; Schmit, E; Czepa, D; Kurnik, K; Spannagl, M

    2014-01-01

    Climbing has a low risk of injury and strengthens the entire musculature. Due to its benefits in physical and mental health as well as its high fun factor climbing is an established way of therapy. So far, the usefulness of climbing therapy has not been shown for people with haemophilia (PWH). A crucial requirement for physical activity in PWH is regular prophylaxis. As the patient's individual pharmacokinetic (PK) response varies significantly, PK-tailored prophylaxis may decrease bleeding frequency. We describe a man (age 25 years) with severe haemophilia A who took part in an 8.5-month weekly climbing program under PK-tailored prophylaxis. Bleeding frequency, factor consumption, joint health (Haemophilia Joint Health Score, HJHS), quality of life (Haemo-QoL-A) and climbing performance (UIAA scale) were assessed before and after the training. Prior to the study, the patient was on demand treatment. The patient was started on standard prophylaxis for a 2 months period and then observed for 6.5 months under PK-tailored prophylaxis. PK-tailored prophylaxis was targeted to a trough level of 1-3%. For high-impact activities a factor activity >15%, for low-impact activities a factor activity >5% was suggested. Climbing therapy was safe. The bleeding rate decreased from 14 (2012) to 1 (during the study period of 8.5 months). The one bleeding event was due to a missed infusion and was not triggered by physical activity. The elimination half-life using Bayesian statistics was determined to be 16h. Using this half-life for PK-tailored prophylaxis reduced the factor VIII consumption in comparison to standard prophylaxis. Joint health was particularly improved in the categories range of motion and swelling. Quality of life scores stayed at a high level. Climbing performance improved by 1 grade. The combination of PK-tailored prophylaxis with therapeutic climbing improved clinical outcome in this young adult with severe haemophilia. The tailored concept for high- and low

  20. Is agro-tourism eco-friendly?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giurea Ramona

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper will highlight the impact of agro-tourism on environment in Romania, focusing on the Sibiu County. Thanks to the results obtained from this analysis, research and information collection, the paper will give some answers regarding the question: are agro-tourisms environmentally friendly? The authors identify potential causes of environmental pollution from agro-tourism and some resources that could be economically used. The negative and positive aspects on the increase of agro-tourism activities in the proposed region will be also discussed taking into account there impact on the environment. Based on the obtained results, the authors will propose a method for the management of resources in order to arrive to an eco-friendly system for the proposed case-study. Future developments and applications on other EU case-study will be also discussed in this paper.

  1. Cancelación de Ecos Multicanal

    OpenAIRE

    García Morales, Lino

    2006-01-01

    La idea básica de la cancelación de ecos es bloquear la señal desde la sala remota para que no se realimente. Para ello se coloca un sistema adaptativo en medio que genere “idealmente” la misma señal que proviene de la sala local y se envía de vuelta a la sala remota la diferencia entre la señal estimada y la que retorna de la sala local, en lugar de esta última. La introducción de múltiples canales permite capturar la espacialidad de los locutores pero introduce una alta correlación entre la...

  2. Where’s eco-design going?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAloone, Timothy Charles

    2000-01-01

    and developing repeatable methods, we are making good progress in this area too – we have ideas about how to prioritise and organise our efforts. If we are to move to thinking about how to be pro-active with our efforts and design-in more to our products than just snap-fits and expect more back from our customer...... to environmental problems. We use the lessons learned from these systematic attempts to construct methods for preventing the problems from occurring in the first instance. Further to this, some environmental ‘leaders’ are beginning to make pro-active attempts at using the environmental credentials......-centric, strong sustainability and weak sustainability. Is it really possible to have these shades of green? This paper puts together some experiences and ideas around the state-of-the-art in eco-design, from both literature and personal experience and hopes to ask where, perhaps, we should be heading....

  3. [Eco-efficiency of industry sectors for China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Jian-Su; Zeng, Run; Du, Yan-Chun; Jiang, Pan

    2010-11-01

    Industry is the main source of resource consumption and environmental emissions of China, and the analyzing of eco-efficiencies for industrial sectors may provide essential information for the restructure of industrial system and the improvement of environmental quality of China. The industry composition was analyzed and the relationship between the industry and its environment was established. The energy consumption and the main environmental emissions such as wastewater, solid waste, industry SO2, smog, dust were chosen as the environmental impact categories, the corresponding eco-efficiencies of industry were defined and estimated for China in 2007. The results are as follows: the energy efficiency is 615.5 x 10(4) yuan x ktce(-1), the wastewater and solid waste related eco-efficiencies are 54.3 x 10(4) yuan x kt(-1) and 1.9 x 10(4) yuan x t(-1), respectively; industry SO2, smog, dust related eco-efficiencies are 59.6 x 10(4), 169.2 x 10(4) and 184.6 x 10(4) yuan x t(-1), respectively. The eco-efficiencies of 39 industry sectors were analyzed extensively and the results showed that, the distribution of industrial sectors in above eco-efficiencies is uneven, and the order of industrial sector in industry will vary with industry sector and eco-efficiency category. Meanwhile, for the same category of eco-efficiency, the values for different industry sectors may change from centuplicate to several thousand folds, therefore a great possibility for the improvement of industry eco-efficiency is exist in the restructure of industry system.

  4. The Eco-Club: A Place for the Becoming Active Citizen?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Elsa Ukanyezi

    2017-01-01

    This paper makes a twofold contribution. Firstly it presents a typology of eco-clubs that can be used to contextualise eco-club observations by researchers and can support management of eco-clubs by practitioners. Secondly it explains how participation in eco-clubs provides a space for a child to both enact and develop as a citizen, a place for…

  5. Eco-Film and the Audience: Making Ecological Sense of National Cultural Narratives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culloty, Eileen; Brereton, Pat

    2017-01-01

    As eco-criticism moves in the mainstream of film studies, questions remain about the relationship between ecological film representations and audience understanding. Addressing definitional tensions within eco-film research, this article argues that eco-criticism can be pragmatically grounded in terms of eco-film's pedagogical pertinence for…

  6. Evaluating Eco-Innovation of OECD Countries with Data Envelopment Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavi, Reza Kiani; Standing, Craig

    2016-01-01

    Government regulations require businesses to improve their processes and products/services in a green and sustainable manner. For being environmentally friendly, businesses should invest more on eco-innovation practices. Firms eco-innovate to promote eco-efficiency and sustainability. This paper evaluates the eco-innovation performance of…

  7. Eco-efficiency of grinding processes and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Winter, Marius

    2016-01-01

    This research monograph aims at presenting an integrated assessment approach to describe, model, evaluate and improve the eco-efficiency of existing and new grinding processes and systems. Various combinations of grinding process parameters and system configurations can be evaluated based on the eco-efficiency. The book presents the novel concept of empirical and physical modeling of technological, economic and environmental impact indicators. This includes the integrated evaluation of different grinding process and system scenarios. The book is a valuable read for research experts and practitioners in the field of eco-efficiency of manufacturing processes but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.

  8. Eco-friendly dentistry: Need of future. An overview

    OpenAIRE

    Savy Arora; Sanjeev Mittal; Veronika Dogra

    2017-01-01

    In today's world, it is very necessary to understand the importance of being eco-friendly in every facet of our lives. The color “green” has healing power and denotes renewal, growth, and hope. “Eco-friendly dentistry” attempts to reduce the detrimental impact of dental practices on the environment and promote environmental awareness and sustainability to patients. This paper attempts to cover all possible aspects of making a dental practice eco-friendly, both in a dental perspective as well ...

  9. ECO Exposure Assessment Tools by Phases of ERA - References

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eco-Box is a toolbox for exposure assessors. Its purpose is to provide a compendium of exposure assessment and risk characterization tools that will present comprehensive step-by-step guidance and links to relevant exposure assessment data bases

  10. ECO Exposure Assessment Tools by Receptors and Exposure Factors - References

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eco-Box is a toolbox for exposure assessors. Its purpose is to provide a compendium of exposure assessment and risk characterization tools that will present comprehensive step-by-step guidance and links to relevant exposure assessment data bases

  11. ECO Exposure Assessment Tools by Exposure Pathways - References

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eco-Box is a toolbox for exposure assessors. Its purpose is to provide a compendium of exposure assessment and risk characterization tools that will present comprehensive step-by-step guidance and links to relevant exposure assessment data bases

  12. EPA EcoBox Tools by Stressors - Physical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eco-Box is a toolbox for exposure assessors. Its purpose is to provide a compendium of exposure assessment and risk characterization tools that will present comprehensive step-by-step guidance and links to relevant exposure assessment data bases

  13. EPA EcoBox Tools by Stressors - Stressors in ERA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eco-Box is a toolbox for exposure assessors. Its purpose is to provide a compendium of exposure assessment and risk characterization tools that will present comprehensive step-by-step guidance and links to relevant exposure assessment data bases

  14. EPA EcoBox Tools by Stressors - Chemical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eco-Box is a toolbox for exposure assessors. Its purpose is to provide a compendium of exposure assessment and risk characterization tools that will present comprehensive step-by-step guidance and links to relevant exposure assessment data bases

  15. EPA EcoBox Tools by Stressors - Biological

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eco-Box is a toolbox for exposure assessors. Its purpose is to provide a compendium of exposure assessment and risk characterization tools that will present comprehensive step-by-step guidance and links to relevant exposure assessment data bases

  16. Eco-innovation: The opportunities for engineering design research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Hare, Jamie Alexander; McAloone, Tim C.

    2014-01-01

    Eco-innovation is an approach that has the potential to deliver step change improvements in the environmental performance of products, but the uptake by industry to date has been disappointing. The paper presents a selective review of the academic literature, choosing examples of research that gi...... a flavour of the key trends and interesting topics that are emerging from the eco-innovation body of knowledge. We conclude by suggesting 10 areas where we see potential for the engineering design research community to contribute to the advancement of eco-innovation.......Eco-innovation is an approach that has the potential to deliver step change improvements in the environmental performance of products, but the uptake by industry to date has been disappointing. The paper presents a selective review of the academic literature, choosing examples of research that give...

  17. [Emergy evaluation of power plant eco-industrial park].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lingmei; Zhang, Jintun

    2004-06-01

    In this paper, new emergy indices for the material circulation utilization and energy cascade utilization were presented to evaluate the emergy of power plant eco-industrial park. The common contribution of the members in power plant eco-industrial park should be accounted for emergy yield ratio (PEYR) and emergy investment ratio (PEIR), namely, PEYR = sigma(i = 1)6 (Fi + Ri + Ni)/sigma(i = 1)6 Fi and PEIR = sigma(i = 1)6 Fi/sigma(i = 1)6 (Ni + Ri). Saved renewable and nonrenewable resources and purchased resources and decreased environmental load should be accounted for environmental loading ratio (PELR) and index of sustainability (PESI), namely, PELR = sigma(i = 1)6 Fi/F' and PESI = PEYR/PELR. Case analysis on the Shuozhou power plant eco-industrial park showed that new emergy indices were practical in evaluating the power plant eco-industrial park.

  18. Understanding Eco-innovation and Green Business Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Maj Munch

    2014-01-01

    Eco-innovation is considered a still more important competitive strategy to maintain production in highcost economies such as the Danish one. Within the studies of economics of technological change only little research has been undertaken on the dynamics of eco-innovation. Rigorous statistics...... and definitions of ecoinnovationare lacking leading to much confusion and methodologically weak empirical analyses. This paperseeks to remedy this by offering a definition and taxonomy of eco-innovations and discussing theimplications for green business model thinking, bringing in examples of Danish successful...... and less successful green business models.The taxonomy entails seven main types of eco-innovations which are defined by the role these innovationsplay on the market, i.e. they represent different ways to attract green value. The categorization hencediffers markedly from existing taxonomies of environmental...

  19. Business sustainability performance measurement: Eco-ratio analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collins C. Ngwakwe

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Eco-aware customers and stakeholders are demanding for a measurement that links environmental performance with other business operations. To bridge this seemingly measurement gap, this paper suggests ‘Eco-Ratio Analysis’ and proposes an approach for conducting eco-ratio analysis. It is argued that since accounting ratios function as a tool for evaluating corporate financial viability by management and investors, eco-ratio analysis should be brought to the fore to provide a succinct measurement about the linkage between environmental performance and conventional business performance. It is hoped that this suggestion will usher in a nuance debate and approach in the teaching, research and practice of environmental management and sustainability accounting

  20. EPA EcoBox Tools by Exposure Pathways - Food Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eco-Box is a toolbox for exposure assessors. Its purpose is to provide a compendium of exposure assessment and risk characterization tools that will present comprehensive step-by-step guidance and links to relevant exposure assessment data bases

  1. ECO-INDUSTRIAL PARK - A TOOL FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BUGNAR NICOLETA GEORGETA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Local communities embracing the concept of Eco-industrial park are looking for some additional benefits for all the interested parties – both public and private: higher economic efficiency, the increase of competitivity by applying last minute technologies, generation of additional revenues through positive regulations at the community level, the creation of jobs, solving the conflict between economy and environment, diminishing the demand on the county infrastructure, decreasing the effects of pollution, using energy from regenerating sources and replacement materials. Communities and enterprises creating Eco-industrial parks will have common grounds for industrial development, which is much more competitive, more efficient and much cleaner than traditional industrial parks. Moreover, the new business niches will be open to recruitment or new incubators. Eco-industrial parks represent a special category compared to industrial parks, a category which is different from the classical ones due to the fact that they are designed in such a way so that they promote the collaboration between companies in order to reuse recyclable materials and green energy sources. A long-term vision must reflect the focus on the creation of collaboration networks between firms and the fact that an Eco-industrial park should be a business community, not only a mathematical sum of companies located in the same geographical area. The quality, continuity and interconnection of economic flows within the firms of an Eco-industrial park are important characteristics for the success of Eco-industrial networks. The following discussion tackles the way in which an Eco-industrial park is set-up: creating and implementing an Eco-industrial park in accordance with the principles of circular economy or transforming an already existing industrial park into an Eco- industrial park. The quality, the continuity, the number of interconnected firms, the flows of resources and the

  2. Aeroelastic tailoring of composite aircraft wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihaila-Andres, Mihai; Larco, Ciprian; Rosu, Paul-Virgil; Rotaru, Constantin

    2017-07-01

    The need of a continuously increasing size and performance of aerospace structures has settled the composite materials as the preferred materials in aircraft structures. Apart from the clear capacity to reduce the structural weight and with it the manufacture cost and the fuel consumption while preserving proper airworthiness, the prospect of tailoring a structure using the unique directional stiffness properties of composite materials allows an aerospace engineer to optimize aircraft structures to achieve particular design objectives. This paper presents a brief review of what is known as the aeroelastic tailoring of airframes with the intent of understanding the evolution of this research topic and at the same time providing useful references for further studies.

  3. Revisiting eco-ethics and econ-ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otto Kinne

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Modern humanity can survive only if traditional ethics are extended to include eco-ethics and econ-ethics. Success or failure in developing and implementing these new ethical constructs will affect the fate of our species Homo sapiens and that of millions of other forms of life. In the long run failure to accept and apply eco-ethics and econ-ethics would reduce the capacities of Planet Earth to support life.

  4. Proposal for the Evaluation of Eco-Efficient Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taehyoung Kim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The importance of environmental consequences due to diverse substances that are emitted during the production of concrete is recognized, but environmental performance tends to be evaluated separately from the economic performance and durability performance of concrete. In order to evaluate concrete from the perspective of sustainable development, evaluation technologies are required for comprehensive assessment of environmental performance, economic performance, and durability performance based on a concept of sustainable development called the triple bottom line (TBL. Herein, an assessment method for concrete eco-efficiency is developed as a technique to ensure the manufacture of highly durable and eco-friendly concrete, while minimizing both the load on the ecological environment and manufacturing costs. The assessment method is based on environmental impact, manufacturing costs, and the service life of concrete. According to our findings, eco-efficiency increased as the compressive strength of concrete increased from 21 MPa to 40 MPa. The eco-efficiency of 40 MPa concrete was about 50% higher than the eco-efficiency of 24 MPa concrete. Thus eco-efficiency is found to increase with an increasing compressive strength of concrete because the rate of increase in the service life of concrete is larger than the rate of increase in the costs. In addition, eco-efficiency (KRW/year was shown to increase for all concrete strengths as mixing rates of admixtures (Ground Granulated Blast furnace Slag increased to 30% during concrete mix design. However, when the mixing rate of admixtures increased to 40% and 60%, the eco-efficiency dropped due to rapid reduction in the service life values of concrete to 74 (year/m3 and 44 (year/m3, respectively.

  5. Exploring Challenges and Opportunities for Eco-Feedback Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verdezoto, Nervo

    This position paper explores challenges and opportunities for eco-feedback technology. Drawing on two design cases, I discuss the importance of supporting active participation as well as the articulation of work in everyday practices to facilitate reduction of consumption.......This position paper explores challenges and opportunities for eco-feedback technology. Drawing on two design cases, I discuss the importance of supporting active participation as well as the articulation of work in everyday practices to facilitate reduction of consumption....

  6. Eco-labelling. A Socio-economic Analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Wendy

    2004-01-01

    Due to the interdisciplinary nature of eco-labelling, the sense of the phenomenon itself is lost when studied in isolation. With this consideration, a balance of research between practical and theoretical approaches, between environmental sociology, environmental economics, international trade relations, consumer society, sustainability and marketing theory was explored. Eco-labelling has far-reaching ramifications in society, not just in the commercial relationship between producer and consu...

  7. Prospects of Economic Integration among the ECO Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Pervez Tahir

    2004-01-01

    Promotion of Intra-regional trade is the most important economic justification for regional economic blocs. This paper examines such prospects in the Economic Cooperation Organisation (ECO) region, a grouping of ex-RCD and Central Asian States. It is shown that the progress is extremely slow and the time table fixed for the implementation of the ECO Trade Agreement is ambitious, given the lukewarm will to cooperate, the unsettled state of affairs in Afghanistan, and the dirigistic legacy of c...

  8. Tailoring quantum structures for active photonic crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuznetsova, Nadezda

    This work is dedicated to the tailoring of quantum structures, with particular attention to the integration of selective area grown (SAG) active material into photonic crystal (PhC) slabs. The platform based on active PhC is vital to the realization of highly efficient elements with low energy......; in particular, the emission control of SAG QW matched the operating wavelength of photonic crystals. A strong photoluminescence signal in the slow light regime with the group index of 18 was demonstrated....

  9. Standardized description of scientific evidence using the Evidence Ontology (ECO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chibucos, Marcus C; Mungall, Christopher J; Balakrishnan, Rama; Christie, Karen R; Huntley, Rachael P; White, Owen; Blake, Judith A; Lewis, Suzanna E; Giglio, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    The Evidence Ontology (ECO) is a structured, controlled vocabulary for capturing evidence in biological research. ECO includes diverse terms for categorizing evidence that supports annotation assertions including experimental types, computational methods, author statements and curator inferences. Using ECO, annotation assertions can be distinguished according to the evidence they are based on such as those made by curators versus those automatically computed or those made via high-throughput data review versus single test experiments. Originally created for capturing evidence associated with Gene Ontology annotations, ECO is now used in other capacities by many additional annotation resources including UniProt, Mouse Genome Informatics, Saccharomyces Genome Database, PomBase, the Protein Information Resource and others. Information on the development and use of ECO can be found at http://evidenceontology.org. The ontology is freely available under Creative Commons license (CC BY-SA 3.0), and can be downloaded in both Open Biological Ontologies and Web Ontology Language formats at http://code.google.com/p/evidenceontology. Also at this site is a tracker for user submission of term requests and questions. ECO remains under active development in response to user-requested terms and in collaborations with other ontologies and database resources. Database URL: Evidence Ontology Web site: http://evidenceontology.org. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.

  10. [Research advances in eco-toxicological diagnosis of soil pollution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Teng, Hong-Hui; Ren, Bai-Xiang; Shi, Shu-Yun

    2014-09-01

    Soil eco-toxicology provides a theoretical basis for ecological risk assessment of contaminated soils and soil pollution control. Research on eco-toxicological effects and molecular mechanisms of toxic substances in soil environment is the central content of the soil eco-toxicology. Eco-toxicological diagnosis not only gathers all the information of soil pollution, but also provides the overall toxic effects of soil. Therefore, research on the eco-toxicological diagnosis of soil pollution has important theoretical and practical significance. Based on the research of eco-toxicological diagnosis of soil pollution, this paper introduced some common toxicological methods and indicators, with the advantages and disadvantages of various methods discussed. However, conventional biomarkers can only indicate the class of stress, but fail to explain the molecular mechanism of damage or response happened. Biomarkers and molecular diagnostic techniques, which are used to evaluate toxicity of contaminated soil, can explore deeply detoxification mechanisms of organisms under exogenous stress. In this paper, these biomarkers and techniques were introduced systematically, and the future research trends were prospected.

  11. Roles of Eco-labeling in Fisheries Conservation and Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaniyi Alaba Olopade

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available An important goal of fisheries management is to ensure that fish stocks are harvested at sustainable levels of fishing pressure. However, the classical maximum sustainable yield theory and its derivatives have not worked for fisheries management. A number of mitigating measures have been suggested of which eco -labeling is one. An ecolabel on a fish product is a distinctive mark or statement indicating that it has been harvested in compliance with preset sustainability standards. This paper examines eco labeling in fisheries as the new strategy to achieve fisheries conservation and sustainability. It emphasizes the importance of fish as critical food resources and new approach to fisheries management through the use of certification programs. It considers the benefits and problems that may accrue from eco-certification of fish harvesting and trade practices in fisheries. This paper, attention is focused on examining the likely option for development of eco-labeling scheme in Nigeria. The paper concludes that the increase awareness amongst stakeholders of the potential role of eco-labeling in conservation and sustainability tools should be established.   Keywords: Fisheries management, fish, conservation, eco-certification

  12. Component-based Groupware Tailorability using Monitoring Facilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guareis de farias, Cléver; Diakov, N.K.

    2000-01-01

    Tailorability has long been recognised as a key issue concerning groupware applications in general and component-based groupware applications in particular. Tailoring activities are usually classified according to three levels, viz., customisation, integration and extension. This paper presents an

  13. Tailored Trustworthy Spaces: Solutions for the Smart Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — The NITRD workshop on Tailored Trustworthy Spaces: Solutions for the Smart Grid was conceived by the Federal government to probe deeper into how Tailored Trustworthy...

  14. Tailored implementation for chronic diseases (TICD): A project protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wensing, M.J.P.; Oxman, A.; Baker, R.; Godycki-Cwirko, M.; Flottorp, S.; Szecsenyi, J.; Grimshaw, J.; Eccles, M.

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The assumption underlying tailoring is that implementation interventions are most helpful if these effectively address the most important determinants of practice for improvement in the targeted setting. The aim of the Tailored Implementation For Chronic Diseases (TICD) project

  15. Lay Health Influencers: How They Tailor Brief Tobacco Cessation Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Nicole P.; Castaneda, Heide; Nichter, Mark; Nichter, Mimi; Wind, Steven; Carruth, Lauren; Muramoto, Myra

    2012-01-01

    Interventions tailored to individual smoker characteristics have increasingly received attention in the tobacco control literature. The majority of tailored interventions are generated by computers and administered with printed materials or web-based programs. The purpose of this study was to examine the tailoring activities of community lay…

  16. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT THROUGH ECO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vergina CHIRITESCU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The issue of the relationship between humankind and the environment became scientific and economic concerns of the international community since the first UN Conference on the Human Environment (Stockholm, 1972 and resulted in the work of the World Commission on Environment and Development, established in 1985. Report of the Commission presented in 1987 by GH Brundtland, entitled "Our Common Future" provided the first universally accepted definition of sustainable development as "development that meets the needs of the present generation without compromising the opportunities of future generations to meet their own needs". Brundtland Report, 1987, was reaffirmed by the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development / Earth Summit held in Rio de Janeiro - Brazil, 1992 which established the principles of Agenda 21, which was intended to be a guide implementation of sustainable development for the 21st century, a development that was required to be applied at national, regional and local level. [1] In the context of developing new eco-economic system adopted a number of international conventions that establish detailed obligations of the States and strict implementation deadlines climate change, biodiversity conservation, protection of forests and wetlands, limiting the use of certain chemicals, access information on the state of the environment and other international legal space outlining the practical application of the principles of sustainable economic development in ecological conditions.

  17. Ecos da poesia no leitor mirim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Brocchetto Ramos

    Full Text Available Resumo Este artigo relata, a partir de pesquisa empírica, como estudantes de 4° ano do Ensino Fundamental configuram o poético, por meio do estudo orientado de poemas veiculados em obras selecionadas pelo Programa Nacional Biblioteca da Escola (PNBE. Parte de investigação maior, o artigo propõe procedimentos mediadores para o poema "O eco", de Cecília Meireles, problematizando o letramento poético. A investigação apoia-se principalmente em Huizinga e Kirinus. O problema posto justifica-se em virtude de a formação de leitores ser um desafio para o âmbito educacional e para a criação e a manutenção de políticas públicas. O artigo contribui para apresentar possibilidade de inserção escolar do acervo do PNBE e aponta caminhos para o desenvolvimento do poético, que tende a ser pouco explorado na escola.

  18. The innovative application studty on eco-packaging design and materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Yong Min

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper solves the increasingly deteriorate environmental problems by positively exploring how to utilize and develop eco-packaging design reasonably. The paper explores an effective method that combines eco-packaging and environmental protection materials, hoping to define the sustainable development road of packaging design. The paper is centered on the design application of eco-packaging and environmental protection materials, applies and analyzes the method to obtain innovative design requirements and development tendency of eco-packaging design by analyzing status and significance of eco-packaging design, combining with the development and main types of eco-packaging packaging materials, and based on the achievements acquired by eco-packaging and environmental protection materials. Meanwhile, the paper also reveals mutual dependence and mutual promotion of eco-packaging design and eco-packaging materials.

  19. Energy sustainable cities. From eco villages, eco districts towards zero carbon cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaręba Anna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Minimizing energy consumption is the effect of sustainable design technics as among many others: designing buildings with solar access and natural ventilation, using climate responsive design materials and effective insulation. Contemporary examples of zero-carbon cities: Masdar City, United Arab Emirates and Dongtan, China, confirm technical feasibility of renewable energy by implementation of solar PV and wind technologies. The ecological city - medium or high density urban settlement separated by greenspace causes the smallest possible ecological footprint on the surrounding countryside through efficient use of land and its resources, recycling used materials and converting waste to energy. This paper investigates the concept of energy sustainable cities, examines, how urban settlements might affect building energy design in eco-villages, eco-districts (e.g. Vauban, Freiburg in Germany, Bo01 Malmo in Sweden, and discuss the strategies for achieving Zero Emission Cities principles in densely populated areas. It is focused on low energy architectural design solutions which could be incorporated into urban settlements to create ecological villages, districts and cities, designed with consideration of environmental impact, required minimal inputs of energy, water, food, waste and pollution.

  20. Energy sustainable cities. From eco villages, eco districts towards zero carbon cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaręba, Anna; Krzemińska, Alicja; Łach, Janusz

    2017-11-01

    Minimizing energy consumption is the effect of sustainable design technics as among many others: designing buildings with solar access and natural ventilation, using climate responsive design materials and effective insulation. Contemporary examples of zero-carbon cities: Masdar City, United Arab Emirates and Dongtan, China, confirm technical feasibility of renewable energy by implementation of solar PV and wind technologies. The ecological city - medium or high density urban settlement separated by greenspace causes the smallest possible ecological footprint on the surrounding countryside through efficient use of land and its resources, recycling used materials and converting waste to energy. This paper investigates the concept of energy sustainable cities, examines, how urban settlements might affect building energy design in eco-villages, eco-districts (e.g. Vauban, Freiburg in Germany, Bo01 Malmo in Sweden), and discuss the strategies for achieving Zero Emission Cities principles in densely populated areas. It is focused on low energy architectural design solutions which could be incorporated into urban settlements to create ecological villages, districts and cities, designed with consideration of environmental impact, required minimal inputs of energy, water, food, waste and pollution.

  1. Eco-friendly dentistry: Need of future. An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savy Arora

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In today's world, it is very necessary to understand the importance of being eco-friendly in every facet of our lives. The color “green” has healing power and denotes renewal, growth, and hope. “Eco-friendly dentistry” attempts to reduce the detrimental impact of dental practices on the environment and promote environmental awareness and sustainability to patients. This paper attempts to cover all possible aspects of making a dental practice eco-friendly, both in a dental perspective as well as a general perspective. While establishing an eco-friendly dental workplace, the dentist needs to assess his choices in planning the infrastructure and purchasing of equipment and dental materials. Eco-friendly dentistry is a newly evolving practice of dentistry, which encompasses a simultaneous devotion to sustainability, prevention, precaution, and a minimally invasive patient-centric, as well as global-centric treatment. There are two main avenues for implementing eco-friendly dentistry: (1 appropriate policy development and implementation and (2 dentists taking responsibility/ownership in the absence of policies and regulations. Although in some cases, it may take a little extra effort or money; dentists throughout the world are doing their best to reduce the environmental impact of the dental practice. Although the commitment of one small dental office cannot save the planet, certainly, the collective efforts of many small offices as well as large dental hospitals/colleges can ensure that dentists, at least, will not be responsible for destroying it. This article discusses various factors that can be incorporated into dental practice that can help make dentistry eco-friendly.

  2. Forming of an axially tailored automotive channel section through hot stamping of tailor-welded blanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peister, C.; George, R.; Omer, K.; Worswick, M. J.; Malcolm, S.; Dykeman, J.; Yau, C.; Soldaat, R.; Bernert, W.

    2017-09-01

    In this work, top-hat cross-section axial crush rail specimens with tailored properties along their length were investigated. These top-hat channels were hot stamped in a fully cooled die set from tailor-welded blanks (TWBs). The blanks were laser-welded and comprised Usibor® 1500-AS joined to Ductibor® 500-AS in 1.2 mm and 1.6 mm thicknesses. Micro-hardness measurements were taken along the length of the formed specimens to map the hardness profile along their length. The effect of gauge thickness on hardness was evaluated. The hardness profile of these TWB parts was compared to that of parts formed using tailored in-die heating (IDH).

  3. Functions of myosin motors tailored for parasitism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller, Christina; Graindorge, Arnault; Soldati-Favre, Dominique

    2017-01-01

    Myosin motors are one of the largest protein families in eukaryotes that exhibit divergent cellular functions. Their roles in protozoans, a diverse group of anciently diverged, single celled organisms with many prominent members known to be parasitic and to cause diseases in human and livestock......, are largely unknown. In the recent years many different approaches, among them whole genome sequencing, phylogenetic analyses and functional studies have increased our understanding on the distribution, protein architecture and function of unconventional myosin motors in protozoan parasites. In Apicomplexa......, myosins turn out to be highly specialized and to exhibit unique functions tailored to accommodate the lifestyle of these parasites....

  4. Advances in Precision Medicine: Tailoring Individualized Therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matchett, Kyle B; Lynam-Lennon, Niamh; Watson, R William; Brown, James A L

    2017-10-25

    The traditional bench-to-bedside pipeline involves using model systems and patient samples to provide insights into pathways deregulated in cancer. This discovery reveals new biomarkers and therapeutic targets, ultimately stratifying patients and informing cohort-based treatment options. Precision medicine (molecular profiling of individual tumors combined with established clinical-pathological parameters) reveals, in real-time, individual patient's diagnostic and prognostic risk profile, informing tailored and tumor-specific treatment plans. Here we discuss advances in precision medicine presented at the Irish Association for Cancer Research Annual Meeting, highlighting examples where personalized medicine approaches have led to precision discovery in individual tumors, informing customized treatment programs.

  5. Eco-evolutionary feedbacks drive species interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade-Domínguez, Andrés; Salazar, Emmanuel; Vargas-Lagunas, María del Carmen; Kolter, Roberto; Encarnación, Sergio

    2014-05-01

    In the biosphere, many species live in close proximity and can thus interact in many different ways. Such interactions are dynamic and fall along a continuum between antagonism and cooperation. Because interspecies interactions are the key to understanding biological communities, it is important to know how species interactions arise and evolve. Here, we show that the feedback between ecological and evolutionary processes has a fundamental role in the emergence and dynamics of species interaction. Using a two-species artificial community, we demonstrate that ecological processes and rapid evolution interact to influence the dynamics of the symbiosis between a eukaryote (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and a bacterium (Rhizobium etli). The simplicity of our experimental design enables an explicit statement of causality. The niche-constructing activities of the fungus were the key ecological process: it allowed the establishment of a commensal relationship that switched to ammensalism and provided the selective conditions necessary for the adaptive evolution of the bacteria. In this latter state, the bacterial population radiates into more than five genotypes that vary with respect to nutrient transport, metabolic strategies and global regulation. Evolutionary diversification of the bacterial populations has strong effects on the community; the nature of interaction subsequently switches from ammensalism to antagonism where bacteria promote yeast extinction. Our results demonstrate the importance of the evolution-to-ecology pathway in the persistence of interactions and the stability of communities. Thus, eco-evolutionary dynamics have the potential to transform the structure and functioning of ecosystems. Our results suggest that these dynamics should be considered to improve our understanding of beneficial and detrimental host-microbe interactions.

  6. Towards an eco-phylogenetic framework for infectious disease ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fountain-Jones, Nicholas M; Pearse, William D; Escobar, Luis E; Alba-Casals, Ana; Carver, Scott; Davies, T Jonathan; Kraberger, Simona; Papeş, Monica; Vandegrift, Kurt; Worsley-Tonks, Katherine; Craft, Meggan E

    2017-11-08

    Identifying patterns and drivers of infectious disease dynamics across multiple scales is a fundamental challenge for modern science. There is growing awareness that it is necessary to incorporate multi-host and/or multi-parasite interactions to understand and predict current and future disease threats better, and new tools are needed to help address this task. Eco-phylogenetics (phylogenetic community ecology) provides one avenue for exploring multi-host multi-parasite systems, yet the incorporation of eco-phylogenetic concepts and methods into studies of host pathogen dynamics has lagged behind. Eco-phylogenetics is a transformative approach that uses evolutionary history to infer present-day dynamics. Here, we present an eco-phylogenetic framework to reveal insights into parasite communities and infectious disease dynamics across spatial and temporal scales. We illustrate how eco-phylogenetic methods can help untangle the mechanisms of host-parasite dynamics from individual (e.g. co-infection) to landscape scales (e.g. parasite/host community structure). An improved ecological understanding of multi-host and multi-pathogen dynamics across scales will increase our ability to predict disease threats. © 2017 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  7. Green Eco-Driving Effects in Non-Congested Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Francisco Coloma

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite technological advances in engines and fuels, the transportation sector is still one of the largest emitters of greenhouse gas (GHG. Driving patterns, including eco-driving techniques, are a complementary measure for saving GHG emissions. Most eco-driving studies so far have been conducted in large cities suffering chronic congestion problems. The aim of this research is therefore to analyse the potential of driver behaviour for reducing emissions in a small non-congested city. Driver performance parameters such as travel speeds, number of stops, revolutions per minute, and maximum acceleration-deceleration are also studied. The methodology is designed to measure the effect of both eco-driving and eco-routing under real traffic conditions. A campaign was carried out in the city of Caceres (Spain to collect data on various types of roads under different traffic conditions. This research concludes that eco-driving leads to CO2 savings on all routes and road types of 17% in gasoline engines and 21% in diesel, although travel times are increased by 7.5% on average. The shortest route is also the most ecological, regardless of the traffic volume and characteristics, implying that consumption in non-congested cities depends mainly on distance travelled rather than driving patterns in terms of number of stops, speed and acceleration.

  8. O fundamento estrutural do pensamento de Umberto Eco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winfried Nöth

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Uma análise detalhada apresenta o método argumentativo a contrario, característico do artigo "Existe a contracultura?", de Umberto Eco, como paradigmático do princípio estruturalista da constituição do sentido por meio de oposições semânticas. O artigo argumenta que muitos dos escritos de Eco podem ser lidos como aplicações do princípio estruturalista de que apenas diferenças ou oposições carregam significação. A evidência do modo como o pensamento de Eco está sob o encanto do princípio das oposições e da dialética da presença e da ausência é apresentada através do levantamento dos escritos gerais de Eco e também da inspeção das obras A estrutura ausente e Semiótica e filosofia da linguagem. Além disso, o artigo revela que o pensamento de Eco é igualmente atraído tanto por processos nos quais oposições anulam ou dissolvem a si próprias quanto pela crítica pós-estruturalista do pensamento estruturalista.

  9. Laser cutting of sheets for Tailored Blanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Claus; Olsen, Flemming Ove

    1999-01-01

    Over the past few years there has been an enormous increase in the use of tailored blanks, especially in the automotive industry. Often the sheets for tailored blanks are shear cut, but results have been reported that the allowable sheet gap distance should not exceed 0.1 mm in order to obtain...... sound welds. Laser cutting the sheets may therefore be an alternative to shear cutting, if the cut kerf squareness can be kept below 0.05 mm.In a number of systematic laboratory experiments the effects of the major process parameters in laser cutting have been investigated. Each cut was quantified...... by the squareness, the surface roughness and the burr height. Mild steel as well as high strength steel with and with out galvanisation with thickness' of 0.7(5) and 1.25 were used.In the tests the difference in cut quality between a 5" and a 7.5" focusing lens were tested and the effect of using pulsed mode laser...

  10. Eco-evolutionary dynamics in an urbanizing planet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberti, Marina

    2015-02-01

    A great challenge for ecology in the coming decades is to understand the role humans play in eco-evolutionary dynamics. If, as emerging evidence shows, rapid evolutionary change affects ecosystem functioning and stability, current rapid environmental change and its evolutionary effects might have significant implications for ecological and human wellbeing on a relatively short time scale. Humans are major selective agents with potential for unprecedented evolutionary consequences for Earth's ecosystems, especially as cities expand rapidly. In this review, I identify emerging hypotheses on how urbanization drives eco-evolutionary dynamics. Studying how human-driven micro-evolutionary changes interact with ecological processes offers us the chance to advance our understanding of eco-evolutionary feedbacks and will provide new insights for maintaining biodiversity and ecosystem function over the long term. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Eco-design and human-powered products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazazian, T. [O2 (France); Jansen, A. [PES Research Group, Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands)

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents the relation between eco-design and human-powered products. The results of a number of design projects in the field of eco-design are presented; they focus on the use of human power as a renewable energy source for consumer products. Human-powered energy systems are powered by muscular work from the human body. Opportunities for human-powered energy systems are reduction of life cycle costs and energy self-sufficiency. Challenges can be found in identifying scenarios where the concept of human power is adopted by consumers. Eco-design proves helpful in providing a platform for radical innovations driving the introduction of human-powered technology. (orig.)

  12. D3.6 Report on implementation of the ECO Federated Search infrastructure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ternier, Stefaan; Loozen, Kjeld; Viñuales, Javier; Tejera, Sara; Tomasini, Alessandra; Unruh, Sören

    2016-01-01

    This document describes the implementation of the ECO federated search architecture. It presents an analysis of various architectures and defines based on this analysis an architectural solution for federated search in ECO.

  13. Shedding Light on Eco-Innovation in Tourism: A Critical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-del-Mar Alonso-Almeida

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The recent global increase in the competitiveness of tourism has made the implementation of eco-innovations a differentiating element among both the destinations and companies in the sector, with quality management and contribution to sustainable development being increasingly valued. However, the eco-innovations that have been developed and implemented in tourist industries have rarely been studied. In this study, the eco-innovations that have been developed and implemented by 57 tourism businesses worldwide are analysed. The identified eco-innovations are classified by using different qualitative methodologies. The obtained results shed light on the limited development of eco-innovations in the tourism industry and the industry focuses mainly on product eco-innovations. Several examples by the tourist sub-industry and types of eco-innovation are analysed. Furthermore, this study provides practical information about measures that both businesses and governmental organisations can adopt to promote eco-innovation in the sector.

  14. Applications for the environment : real-time information synthesis (AERIS). Eco-lanes : operational concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    This document serves as an Operational Concept for the Applications for the Environment: Real-Time Information Synthesis (AERIS) Eco-Lanes Transformative Concept. The Eco-Lanes Transformative Concept features dedicated lanes on freeways optimized for...

  15. Deep Drawing of High-Strength Tailored Blanks by Using Tailored Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennecart, Thomas; Ul Hassan, Hamad; Güner, Alper; Ben Khalifa, Noomane; Hosseini, Mohamad

    2016-01-27

    In most forming processes based on tailored blanks, the tool material remains the same as that of sheet metal blanks without tailored properties. A novel concept of lightweight construction for deep drawing tools is presented in this work to improve the forming behavior of tailored blanks. The investigations presented here deal with the forming of tailored blanks of dissimilar strengths using tailored dies made of two different materials. In the area of the steel blank with higher strength, typical tool steel is used. In the area of the low-strength steel, a hybrid tool made out of a polymer and a fiber-reinforced surface replaces the steel half. Cylindrical cups of DP600/HX300LAD are formed and analyzed regarding their formability. The use of two different halves of tool materials shows improved blank thickness distribution, weld-line movement and pressure distribution compared to the use of two steel halves. An improvement in strain distribution is also observed by the inclusion of springs in the polymer side of tools, which is implemented to control the material flow in the die. Furthermore, a reduction in tool weight of approximately 75% can be achieved by using this technique. An accurate finite element modeling strategy is developed to analyze the problem numerically and is verified experimentally for the cylindrical cup. This strategy is then applied to investigate the thickness distribution and weld-line movement for a complex geometry, and its transferability is validated. The inclusion of springs in the hybrid tool leads to better material flow, which results in reduction of weld-line movement by around 60%, leading to more uniform thickness distribution.

  16. Deep Drawing of High-Strength Tailored Blanks by Using Tailored Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Mennecart

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In most forming processes based on tailored blanks, the tool material remains the same as that of sheet metal blanks without tailored properties. A novel concept of lightweight construction for deep drawing tools is presented in this work to improve the forming behavior of tailored blanks. The investigations presented here deal with the forming of tailored blanks of dissimilar strengths using tailored dies made of two different materials. In the area of the steel blank with higher strength, typical tool steel is used. In the area of the low-strength steel, a hybrid tool made out of a polymer and a fiber-reinforced surface replaces the steel half. Cylindrical cups of DP600/HX300LAD are formed and analyzed regarding their formability. The use of two different halves of tool materials shows improved blank thickness distribution, weld-line movement and pressure distribution compared to the use of two steel halves. An improvement in strain distribution is also observed by the inclusion of springs in the polymer side of tools, which is implemented to control the material flow in the die. Furthermore, a reduction in tool weight of approximately 75% can be achieved by using this technique. An accurate finite element modeling strategy is developed to analyze the problem numerically and is verified experimentally for the cylindrical cup. This strategy is then applied to investigate the thickness distribution and weld-line movement for a complex geometry, and its transferability is validated. The inclusion of springs in the hybrid tool leads to better material flow, which results in reduction of weld-line movement by around 60%, leading to more uniform thickness distribution.

  17. Forest ecosystem services and eco-compensation mechanisms in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Hongbing; Zheng, Peng; Liu, Tianxing; Liu, Xin

    2011-12-01

    Forests are a major terrestrial ecosystem providing multiple ecosystem services. However, the importance of forests is frequently underestimated from an economic perspective because of the externalities and public good properties of these services. Forest eco-compensation is a transfer mechanism that serves to internalize the externalities of forest ecosystem services by compensating individuals or companies for the losses or costs resulting from the provision of these services. China's current forest eco-compensation system is centered mainly on noncommercial forest. The primary measures associated with ecosystem services are (1) a charge on destructive activities, such as indiscriminate logging, and (2) compensation for individual or local activities and investments in forest conservation. The Compensation Fund System for Forest Ecological Benefits was first listed in the Forest Law of the People's Republic of China in 1998. In 2004, the Central Government Financial Compensation Fund, an important source for the Compensation Fund for Forest Ecological Benefits, was formally established. To improve the forest eco-compensation system, it is crucial to design and establish compensation criteria for noncommercial forests. These criteria should take both theoretical and practical concerns into account, and they should be based on the quantitative valuation of ecosystem services. Although some initial headway has been made on this task, the implementation of an effective forest eco-compensation system in China still has deficiencies and still faces problems. Implementing classification-based and dynamic management for key noncommercial forests and establishing an eco-compensation mechanism with multiple funding sources in the market economy are the key measures needed to conquer these problems and improve the forest eco-compensation system and China's forestry development in sequence.

  18. Forest Ecosystem Services and Eco-Compensation Mechanisms in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Hongbing; Zheng, Peng; Liu, Tianxing; Liu, Xin

    2011-12-01

    Forests are a major terrestrial ecosystem providing multiple ecosystem services. However, the importance of forests is frequently underestimated from an economic perspective because of the externalities and public good properties of these services. Forest eco-compensation is a transfer mechanism that serves to internalize the externalities of forest ecosystem services by compensating individuals or companies for the losses or costs resulting from the provision of these services. China's current forest eco-compensation system is centered mainly on noncommercial forest. The primary measures associated with ecosystem services are (1) a charge on destructive activities, such as indiscriminate logging, and (2) compensation for individual or local activities and investments in forest conservation. The Compensation Fund System for Forest Ecological Benefits was first listed in the Forest Law of the People's Republic of China in 1998. In 2004, the Central Government Financial Compensation Fund, an important source for the Compensation Fund for Forest Ecological Benefits, was formally established. To improve the forest eco-compensation system, it is crucial to design and establish compensation criteria for noncommercial forests. These criteria should take both theoretical and practical concerns into account, and they should be based on the quantitative valuation of ecosystem services. Although some initial headway has been made on this task, the implementation of an effective forest eco-compensation system in China still has deficiencies and still faces problems. Implementing classification-based and dynamic management for key noncommercial forests and establishing an eco-compensation mechanism with multiple funding sources in the market economy are the key measures needed to conquer these problems and improve the forest eco-compensation system and China's forestry development in sequence.

  19. EVERYTHING MOVES NOTHING STANDS STILL. SOME ASPECTS ABOUT THE MEGASYSTEM EARTH ECO-SOC-ECO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negucioiu Aurel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important moments of the start or restart of the academic activity has always been the opening of courses in each subject (discipline that would be studied. On these occasions each professor shows to the students the subject of the discipline, place and role that intellectual seizure of that object in the formation of their professional competence required by the exigencies of the time. Most teachers stop on the most important sources, sources of knowledge that young learners can turn to and would be better to turn. They indicate written sources, books, magazines and other publications available in classical libraries and add, especially now, the world’s largest library: the Internet. However, teachers advise students to seek permanently another source, a "book" - permanently opened, the book of reality that contains the most truth and what is very important - many problems waiting to be discovered and resolved. Leafing over "the first pages" of one of the "volumes" of this huge established "book", I found that the paradigm "Everything moves. Nothing stands still" as the paradigm "movement is absolute, and the repose - roughly" is far from having exhausted full knowledge of "everything". But knowledge can enrich through investigation of the unknown aspects. Substantially reducing the size of the unknown we have subscribed to communicate, stopping on several sides and objectives of the issues: Further examination of the main contents of the concept of development; Nominate a limited number of forms of movement in the "kingdom" of the Megasystem Eco-soc-eco; Further investigation of the causes of motion; Pace to and rhythm in which the different forms of movement develop; Which are the directions in which evolve different directions of movement forms.

  20. Landscape of Industry: Transformation of (Eco Industrial Park through history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana Sharma

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The landscape of industry has been changing over time. Industry has transformed and many tangents have emerged from the sporadic home-based cottage industries to geographically scattered large manufacturing industries to co-located industrial parks to environment friendly eco-industrial parks. Curiosity about the catalysts that bring about the transformation of industrial landscape is the motivation of this article. Through the narrative on Industrial Park and the gradual shift towards Eco-Industrial Park, this article aims to shed light on the context and conditions that act as catalysts for industrial transformations, so as to serve as a reference for predicting future changes in industrial landscape.

  1. Course Content for Life Cycle Engineering and EcoDesign

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jerswiet, Jack; Duflou, Joost; Dewulf, Wim

    2007-01-01

    There is a need to create an awareness of Life Cycle Engineering and EcoDesign in Engineering students. Topics covered in an LCE/EcoDesign course will create an awareness of environmental impacts, especially in other design course projects. This paper suggests that an awareness of product impact...... have the ultimate objective of decreasing the environmental impact of a design. It has been observed that 70% of product costs are decided at the design stage. This can be extended to environmental impact, where it can be observed that, the design is correct, at the beginning, the environmental impact...

  2. EcoVillage: A Net Zero Energy Ready Community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arena, L. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States); Faakye, O. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2015-02-01

    CARB is working with the EcoVillage co-housing community in Ithaca, New York, on their third neighborhood called the Third Residential EcoVillage Experience (TREE). This community scale project consists of 40 housing units --15 apartments and 25 single family residences. The community is pursuing certifications for DOE Zero Energy Ready Home, U.S. Green Building Council Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design Gold, and ENERGY STAR for the entire project. Additionally, seven of the 25 homes, along with the four-story apartment building and community center, are being constructed to the Passive House (PH) design standard.

  3. Cross-linking of bromodeoxyuridine-substituted oligonucleotides to the EcoRI and EcoRV restriction endonucleases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfes, H; Fliess, A; Winkler, F; Pingoud, A

    1986-09-01

    We have synthesized several self-complementary oligodeoxynucleotides which contain bromodeoxyuridine in various positions within and outside of the recognition sequence for the EcoRI and EcoRV restriction endonucleases. These oligodeoxynucleotides are cleaved in the presence of Mg2+ by their respective enzyme. Upon irradiation by long-wavelength ultraviolet light and in the absence of Mg2+ they are cross-linked in low yield to their enzymes, forming 1:1 and 1:2 (oligodeoxynucleotide:enzyme subunit) adducts. Cross-linking occurs with both specific and non-specific complexes. With EcoRI the site of cross-linking was determined to be at or close to Met-137, i.e. in a region of the molecule implicated by other studies from our laboratory [Scholtissek et al. (1986) J. Biol. Chem. 261, 2228-2234] in the binding and cleavage of the substrate.

  4. Tailoring photocatalytic nanostructures for sustainable hydrogen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cargnello, Matteo; Diroll, Benjamin T

    2014-01-07

    Photocatalysis is an important component for achieving sustainability in chemical transformations. It requires light absorption by a semiconductor and efficient extraction of the photogenerated electron-hole pairs to chemically active sites. One of the main problems in photocatalytic materials is to avoid electron-hole recombination following excitation. Tailored nanostructures offer a new way for achieving this goal by facilitating electron-hole separation. Nanoscaling of materials offers additional opportunities to generate unique photocatalysts that demonstrated novel light absorption, thermodynamic and kinetic properties. In this feature article we highlight some recent approaches towards the preparation of materials and nanostructures that showed improved activity for the sustainable production of hydrogen. This reaction has received much attention for the supply of future demand both for chemical industry and energy-related applications.

  5. Tailored nearfield Green's functions for arbitrary geometries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonamy, C; Jordan, P; Gervais, Y

    2010-11-01

    An iterative technique, taken from the field of optics, is used to obtain tailored Green's functions suitable for the evaluation, in the nearfield, of pressure fluctuations generated by turbulent flow in the vicinity of solid boundaries. Comparisons are made with the analytical solution for the solid sphere, and with results obtained using conventional boundary element method (BEM) for the case of a thick semi-infinite plate. A divergence issue in the case of the solid sphere is resolved by the introduction of a relaxation factor. The performance of the iterative approach is found to be comparable to that of conventional BEM, except at irregular frequencies, where the bandwidth of the error is slightly larger than that of the conventional BEM. The main advantage of the iterative approach is a significantly reduced computational cost, which allows for higher surface mesh densities and a broader useful frequency range.

  6. Tailored Patient Information Some Issues and Questions

    CERN Document Server

    Reiter, E R; Reiter, Ehud; Osman, Liesl

    1997-01-01

    Tailored patient information (TPI) systems are computer programs which produce personalised heath-information material for patients. TPI systems are of growing interest to the natural-language generation (NLG) community; many TPI systems have also been developed in the medical community, usually with mail-merge technology. No matter what technology is used, experience shows that it is not easy to field a TPI system, even if it is shown to be effective in clinical trials. In this paper we discuss some of the difficulties in fielding TPI systems. This is based on our experiences with 2 TPI systems, one for generating asthma-information booklets and one for generating smoking-cessation letters.

  7. Tailoring graphene layer-to-layer growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongtao; Wu, Bin; Guo, Wei; Wang, Lifeng; Li, Jingbo; Liu, Yunqi

    2017-06-01

    A layered material grown between a substrate and the upper layer involves complex interactions and a confined reaction space, representing an unusual growth mode. Here, we show multi-layer graphene domains grown on liquid or solid Cu by the chemical vapor deposition method via this ‘double-substrate’ mode. We demonstrate the interlayer-induced coupling effect on the twist angle in bi- and multi-layer graphene. We discover dramatic growth disunity for different graphene layers, which is explained by the ideas of a chemical ‘gate’ and a material transport process within a confined space. These key results lead to a consistent framework for understanding the dynamic evolution of multi-layered graphene flakes and tailoring the layer-to-layer growth for practical applications.

  8. The Effect of Eco-Schools on Children's Environmental Values and Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeve-de Pauw, Jelle; Van Petegem, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The study examines the effectiveness of eco-schools concerning their students' environmental values and environmental behaviour, and includes 1287 children from fifty-nine schools (thirty-eight eco-schools and twenty-one control schools) in Flanders. Controlling for effects of gender and socio-economic status, analyses show that eco-schools have…

  9. Eco-buffers: A high density agroforestry design using native species

    Science.gov (United States)

    William Schroeder

    2012-01-01

    This study showed that Eco-Buffers are characterized by rapid establishment and superior survival when compared to single species buffers. Height of green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh. var. subintegerrima (Vahl.) Fern.) after eight growing seasons averaged 415 cm when growing in an Eco-Buffer compared to 333cm in the single species buffer. Site capture in the Eco-...

  10. Green Water Credits and Its Applications to Watershed Eco-compensation in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bai, Z.G.

    2015-01-01

    Watershed eco-compensation is one key component of the eco-compensation framework. The green water credit is one of the eco-compensation modes. The concept of the green water credit, technical system of quantitative assessment and application of the green water credit in Kenya, Morocco and China are

  11. Eco-runner team Delft; the most fuel efficient vehicle in the world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijks, F.

    2014-01-01

    The slogan, ‘Eco-Runner: the most fuel efficient vehicle in the world’ of the Eco-Runner Team Delft says it all: designing and building the most fuel efficient vehicle in the world. The Eco-Runner Team is a ‘D:DREAM Team’ where students from various faculties work together to design and build

  12. Learning at Eco-Attractions: Exploring the Bifurcation of Nature and Culture through Experiential Environmental Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkley, Ria Ann

    2016-01-01

    This article explores informal environmental education (EE) experiences at eco-attractions. A consortium of three UK-based environmental charities designed an eco-attraction-based EE program aiming to inspire responses to environmental change. Over six months, educators at six eco-attractions delivered this two-day program to 430 young people.…

  13. Trust and responsible eco managing. The case of state controlled repacking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rittenhofer, Iris

    The paper is concerned with a case of local management of eco certification. With outset in a case study, the paper explores the relation of eco certification to economy, society and culture. The paper emphasizes the multidimensional quality of local eco management of global organic agrifood...

  14. Tailoring CSR Strategy to Company Size?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra ZBUCHEA

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR is one of the most debated topics in the academic and professional business literature, being analyzed in a myriad of perspectives, from philosophy, to marketing, management practice, managerial strategies or financial impact. The very term of CSR implies that involving with society in a structural way that is part of a business DNA is or should be understood as a characteristic of big size companies (e.g. ‘corporations’. Academic literature and financial reports show a direct relationship between a company size and its CSR budget, therefore some conclusions have been taken that CSR is effective mostly in cases of big budgets and, consequently, of big companies. Academic research also tends to favor large corporations. Most of the literature on CSR is dedicated to large companies. Nevertheless, in the past decade, increasingly more studies have investigated the social responsibility assumed by other types of companies (such as SMEs, by public institutions or by nonprofit organizations. Our present empirical analysis based on structured academic literature review (comprehensive selection of relevant international papers and content analysis demonstrates that CSR should go beyond the classical understanding of the ‘corporation’ concept and that it should be tailored to SMEs as well. Innovation and top management support are the drivers of effective CSR adoption by SMEs, for positive results meeting specific business model requirements, as well as for society. Going beyond social responsibility as a philosophical duty, correctly tailored CSR strategies can be efficient for small and medium enterprises in meeting strategic business objectives.

  15. Tailoring and Critical Thinking - Key Principles for Acquisition Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Defense AT&L: September–October 2015 6 Tailoring and Critical Thinking — Key Principles for Acquisition Success Mike Kotzian, D.M. n Michael Paul...warfighter ca- pability by FY 2018, the LRASM team relied upon two powerful acquisition principles—tailoring and critical thinking . Tailoring The new... Critical Thinking A basic principle for improved defense acquisition outcomes is to expect program managers and their team to think critically

  16. Combining eco-efficiency and eco-effectiveness for continuous loop beverage packaging systems: learnings from the Carlsberg Circular Community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niero, Monia; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Hoffmeyer, Simon Boas

    2017-01-01

    Eco-efficiency (i.e., increasing value while reducing resource use and pollution) can with advantage be combined with eco-effectiveness (i.e., maximizing the benefits to ecological and economical systems) to address the challenges posed by the circular economy in the design of circular industrial...... systems. We present a framework combining life cycle assessment (LCA) and the Cradle to Cradle® (C2C) certification program for the development of continuous loop packaging systems, which was conceived for aluminum cans in the context of the Carlsberg Circular Community. As a first step...

  17. EcoHealth Student: Emerging Researcher Awards encourages ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    EcoHealth Student: Emerging Researcher Awards encourages innovation and leadership. 10 mai 2011. Ecosystems and Human Health. Addressing critical population health and environment issues through an ecohealth approach is a common vision shared by four individuals from vastly different parts of the world. Yoseth ...

  18. Introducing guidelines for eco-dynamic development and design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Koningsveld, M.; Van Raalte, G.H.

    2011-01-01

    One of the key activities within the Building with Nature innovation programme is the development of a guideline for Eco-dynamic Development and Design. This guidance will be focussed on implementation of the Building with Nature principles throughout all of the stages of hydraulic engineering

  19. M-Eco enhanced Adaptation Service (D5.3)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lage, Ricardo Gomes; Leginus, Martin; Dolog, Peter

    2012-01-01

    In this report, we present the final version of the Adaptive Tuning and Personalization (WP5) component of the M-Eco system. This component is focused on four main areas of interest to users of surveillance systems: presentation options for recommendation and adaptation, user and group models, us...

  20. An eco-sustainable green approach for the synthesis of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An eco-sustainable green approach for the synthesis of propargylamines using LiOTf as a reusable catalyst under solvent-free condition. SOMESHWAR D DINDULKAR, BAEK KWAN, KWON TAEK LIM and YEON TAE JEONG. ∗. Department of Image Science and Engineering, Pukyong National University, Busan 608-739,.

  1. The Evidence and Conclusion Ontology (ECO): Supporting GO Annotations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chibucos, Marcus C; Siegele, Deborah A; Hu, James C; Giglio, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    The Evidence and Conclusion Ontology (ECO) is a community resource for describing the various types of evidence that are generated during the course of a scientific study and which are typically used to support assertions made by researchers. ECO describes multiple evidence types, including evidence resulting from experimental (i.e., wet lab) techniques, evidence arising from computational methods, statements made by authors (whether or not supported by evidence), and inferences drawn by researchers curating the literature. In addition to summarizing the evidence that supports a particular assertion, ECO also offers a means to document whether a computer or a human performed the process of making the annotation. Incorporating ECO into an annotation system makes it possible to leverage the structure of the ontology such that associated data can be grouped hierarchically, users can select data associated with particular evidence types, and quality control pipelines can be optimized. Today, over 30 resources, including the Gene Ontology, use the Evidence and Conclusion Ontology to represent both evidence and how annotations are made.

  2. Individual heterogeneity in life histories and eco-evolutionary dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vindenes, Yngvild; Langangen, Øystein

    2015-05-01

    Individual heterogeneity in life history shapes eco-evolutionary processes, and unobserved heterogeneity can affect demographic outputs characterising life history and population dynamical properties. Demographic frameworks like matrix models or integral projection models represent powerful approaches to disentangle mechanisms linking individual life histories and population-level processes. Recent developments have provided important steps towards their application to study eco-evolutionary dynamics, but so far individual heterogeneity has largely been ignored. Here, we present a general demographic framework that incorporates individual heterogeneity in a flexible way, by separating static and dynamic traits (discrete or continuous). First, we apply the framework to derive the consequences of ignoring heterogeneity for a range of widely used demographic outputs. A general conclusion is that besides the long-term growth rate lambda, all parameters can be affected. Second, we discuss how the framework can help advance current demographic models of eco-evolutionary dynamics, by incorporating individual heterogeneity. For both applications numerical examples are provided, including an empirical example for pike. For instance, we demonstrate that predicted demographic responses to climate warming can be reversed by increased heritability. We discuss how applications of this demographic framework incorporating individual heterogeneity can help answer key biological questions that require a detailed understanding of eco-evolutionary dynamics. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  3. The Eco-Sculpture Assignment: Using Art to Scaffold Metacognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polegato, Rosemary

    2014-01-01

    The Eco-Sculpture Assignment demonstrates that art may be used as a conduit to scaffold metacognition in marketing courses. Theoretical underpinnings are drawn from the literature on pedagogy used in general, marketing, and art education contexts. The assignment is described in detail, followed by examples of learner response that illustrate…

  4. Candidate eco-friendly gas mixtures for MPGDs

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2071648; Saviano, G.; Muhammad, S.; Piccolo, D.; Primavera, F.; Ferrini, M.; Parvis, M.; Grassing, S.; Colafranceschi, S.; Kjøbro, J.; Sharma, A.; Yang, D.; Chen, G.; Ban, Y.; Li, Q.

    2015-01-01

    Modern gas detectors for detection of particles require F-based gases for optimal performance. Recent regulations demand the use of environmentally unfriendly F-based gases to be limited or banned. This review studies properties of potential eco-friendly gas candidate replacements.

  5. Eco-social processes influencing infectious disease emergence and spread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Bryony A; Betson, Martha; Pfeiffer, Dirk U

    2017-01-01

    The complexity and connectedness of eco-social processes have major influence on the emergence and spread of infectious diseases amongst humans and animals. The disciplinary nature of most research activity has made it difficult to improve our understanding of interactions and feedback loops within the relevant systems. Influenced by the One Health approach, increasing efforts have recently been made to address this knowledge gap. Disease emergence and spread is strongly influenced by host density and contact structures, pathogen characteristics and pathogen population and molecular evolutionary dynamics in different host species, and host response to infection. All these mechanisms are strongly influenced by eco-social processes, such as globalization and urbanization, which lead to changes in global ecosystem dynamics, including patterns of mobility, human population density and contact structures, and food production and consumption. An improved understanding of epidemiological and eco-social processes, including their interdependence, will be essential to be able to manage diseases in these circumstances. The interfaces between wild animals, domestic animals and humans need to be examined to identify the main risk pathways and put in place appropriate mitigation. Some recent examples of emerging infectious disease are described to illustrate eco-social processes that are influencing disease emergence and spread.

  6. ECO-Report - Finding common ground: Montana Forest Restoration Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharon Ritter; Greg Jones; Alan Watson; Ward McCaughey; Mick Harrington; Rafal Zwolak; Kerry Foresman; Elizabeth Crone; Dean Pearson; Yvette Ortega; Dan Loeffler

    2008-01-01

    EcoReport is an annual Rocky Mountain Research Station (RMRS) publication which contains a set of articles showcasing the Bitterroot Ecosystem Management Research Project (BEMRP) research projects and activities. The articles are concise, user-friendly, and designed to inform a broad range of audiences interested in ecosystem management. Articles featured in...

  7. UFORE (i-Tree Eco) Analysis of Chicago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherie LeBlanc Fisher; David Nowak

    2010-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service and City of Chicago conducted a UFORE (now called i-Tree Eco) analysis of Chicago's urban forest in the summer of 2007. The UFORE (Urban FORest Effects) model developed by the Forest Service uses on-the-ground sampling data to understand the composition of on urban forest and calculate the forest's impacts on air pollution and energy...

  8. Panama eco-park: a protected urban forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    P. L. Weaver

    2009-01-01

    Eco-Park and surrounding areas located near the Pacific or southern entrance to the Panama Canal have a long history involving pre-Columbian inhabitants, Spanish conquistadors, pirates, and Panamanian natives and immigrants associated with the construction and operation of the Panama Railroad and Canal. Some major 20th century events included Panamanian independence...

  9. Eco-innovations in the German fertilizer supply Chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hasler, Kathrin; Bröring, Stefanie; Omta, Onno S.W.F.; Olfs, Hans Werner

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse to what extent the existing eco-innovations in the German fertilizer domain might reduce the fertilizer carbon footprint without compromising on crop productivity. The continuously growing demand for agricultural products will require a further increase in

  10. Eco-technique of sewer renovation using composite shells ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An eco-technical renovation of the sewage system is developed in this paper; this technique involves incorporating into the existing sewer a series of jointed prefabricated sandwich or composite shells. The purpose of his study is to determine the structural shell deflection, the high displacement areas and to validate the ...

  11. Perspectives on the Eco-Schools Programme: An environment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Africa, extracts from the email conversations which took place between August and September. 2003 following Schnack's ... Schnack's first email and the start of our Eco-School conversation. Schnack (20 August 2003): ... not actually doing much to develop skills of environmental activism at schools, as we are so focused on ...

  12. Octopods, as do other cephalopods, constitute eco- nomically ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    Octopods, as do other cephalopods, constitute eco- nomically significant fisheries in many areas of the world. The type species of the genus, Octopus vulgaris. Cuvier, 1797, is widely spread throughout the world in tropical, subtropical and ... 1996), all of which complicate the interpretation of such field data. Therefore ...

  13. ECO-Report - Scale matters - some thoughts on landscape sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharon Ritter; Janie Canton-Thompson; Greg Jones; Ward McCaughey; Dave Calkin; Mick Harrington; Peter Kolb; LaWen Hollingsworth; Joe Jensen; Katie Knotek; Brooke Thompson

    2005-01-01

    ECO-Report is an annual Rocky Mountain Research Station (RMRS) publication which contains a set of articles showcasing the Bitterroot Ecosystem Management Research Project (BEMRP) research projects and activities. The articles are concise, user-friendly, and designed to inform a broad range of audiences interested in ecosystem management. Articles featured in...

  14. Consumer Behaviours Towards ECO-Cars: A Case of Mauritius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry Mathieu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Mankind has always relied on transportation to move from one place to the other; be it by horse carriage or modernized vehicles. With rising environmental issues such as global warming, the transport industry had to evolve so as to provide greener means of transportation and satisfy demands for eco-friendly technologies. This study has shed light on consumer behaviours towards eco-cars, known as hybrid vehicles. This research was in the context of Mauritius and respondents who already drive a vehicle were targeted so as to prevent lack of information about key questions such as habits on fuel expenses and vehicle features. The survey method used, had 100% response rate and permitted the researcher to get fruitful insights about: the extent of introduction and penetration of hybrid vehicles, the factors influencing the purchase of eco-cars, the perceived benefits of owning a hybrid vehicle and the relationship between age and hybrid vehicles’ characteristics. One revelation of this study is that hybrid vehicles do not have the expected impacts on Mauritian consumers like they have on the international markets; though the younger generation- the leaders of tomorrow- are interested with eco-friendly automobiles.

  15. Eco-friendly synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Lactobacillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Silver nanoparticles have gained global popularity because of its application in crucial areas such as medical diagnosis/therapy, solar cell development, water treatment, surface coating and cosmetic production. Bacterial synthesis of silver nanoparticles is regarded as eco-friendly due to minimal waste generated while ...

  16. Policies and Strategies for Eco-Friendly Dairy Product

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ziggers, G.W.; Conte, F.; Del Nobile, M.A.; Faccia, M.; Zambrini, A.V.; Conte, A.

    2017-01-01

    Despite the growing interest in, and market for, eco-friendly dairy production, a large-scale transition is not taking place. This is partly explained by the institutional context, since dairy production is organized in supply chains that generate interdependencies and, in turn, are subject to

  17. Umberto Eco on Libraries: A Discussion of "De Biblioteca."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Michael F.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses a scholar's reactions to libraries made by Umberto Eco in "De Biblioteca." Topics addressed include functions of libraries, including collecting; accessibility of materials; the scholar's creative use of libraries, and discovering materials not looked for or known about; North American research libraries; photocopying; and…

  18. Eco-Friendly Alternative Refrigeration Systems-Thermoacoustic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 11. Eco-Friendly Alternative Refrigeration Systems - Thermoacoustic ... Author Affiliations. S S Verma1. Department of Physics, Sant Longowol Institute of Engineering and Technology Longowal, District Songrur Punjab 148 106. India.

  19. Eco-tourism potential along the Indian coasts

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Untawale, A.G.; Dhargalkar, V.K.

    Tourism has recently become one of the major industries in India. The concentration of tourism in India is on the historical as well as religious places, hill stations and to some extent the beaches. Eco-tourism is a new concept being considered...

  20. ECO-Report - Scientific independence: A key to credibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharon Ritter; Janie Canton-Thompson; Leonard F. Ruggiero; Greg Jones; Janet Sullivan; Ward McCaughey; Yvette Ortega; Neal Christensen; Mick Harrington; Deborah Page-Dumroese

    2007-01-01

    EcoReport is an annual Rocky Mountain Research Station (RMRS) publication which contains a set of articles showcasing the Bitterroot Ecosystem Management Research Project (BEMRP) research projects and activities. The articles are concise, user-friendly, and designed to inform a broad range of audiences interested in ecosystem management. Articles featured in...

  1. Sustainable wetland resource utilization of Sango Bay through Eco ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Defining and achieving sustainable development is a major issue for policy debates both in the developed and developing countries. Eco-tourism as an important niche market in the world tourism industry has been embraced by developing countries like Uganda, which are trying to use tourism as an engine of national ...

  2. Prospects for Urban Eco-Tourism in Nairobi, Kenya: Experiences ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite the positive impact of urban tourism and eco-tourism on the city's economy, as well as the well-being of its citizenry, less attention has been given to it in developing countries. This paper argues that Nairobi city is well endowed with a wide range of natural ecological and bio-physical heritage and green spaces that ...

  3. EcoHealth Student: Emerging Researcher Awards encourages ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-05-10

    May 10, 2011 ... Addressing critical population health and environment issues through an ecohealth approach is a common vision shared by four individuals from vastly ... an inspiring experience for the students, who were paired with EcoHealth board members or journal editors to score and discuss the 70 student posters.

  4. The EcoHealth Journal: Connecting the ecohealth community ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The journal introduces projects, institutions, and people working on ecohealth approaches. Researchers collaborate on articles and on "special sections,” which showcase areas of research, for publication in EcoHealth. The journal's title draws attention to the field and encourages new entrants to the community, Dr Wilcox ...

  5. EcoWellness: The Missing Factor in Holistic Wellness Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Ryan F.; Myers, Jane E.

    2012-01-01

    A growing body of multidisciplinary literature has delineated the benefits that natural environments have on physical and mental health. Current wellness models in counseling do not specifically address the impact of nature on wellness or how the natural world can be integrated into counseling. The concept of EcoWellness is presented as the…

  6. ECO-TECHNIQUE OF SEWER RENOVATION USING COMPOSITE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-12-31

    Dec 31, 2011 ... ABSTRACT. An eco-technical renovation of the sewage system is developed in this paper; this technique involves incorporating into the existing sewer a series of jointed prefabricated sandwich or composite shells. The purpose of his study is to determine the structural shell deflection, the high ...

  7. Elk viewing in Pennsylvania: an evolving eco-tourism system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce E. Lord; Charles H. Strauss; Michael J. Powell

    2002-01-01

    In 1997, the Pennsylvania Game Commission established an Elk Viewing Area within Pennsylvania's elk range. The viewing area has become the focus for a developing eco-tourism system. During the four years of operation, a research team from Penn State has measured the number of visitors, their expenditure patterns, and other parameters of their visit. The trends...

  8. Promoting a Culture of Tailoring for Systems Engineering Policy Expectations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankenship, Van A.

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has developed an integrated systems engineering approach to promote a culture of tailoring for program and project policy requirements. MSFC's culture encourages and supports tailoring, with an emphasis on risk-based decision making, for enhanced affordability and efficiency. MSFC's policy structure integrates the various Agency requirements into a single, streamlined implementation approach which serves as a "one-stop-shop" for our programs and projects to follow. The engineers gain an enhanced understanding of policy and technical expectations, as well as lesson's learned from MSFC's history of spaceflight and science missions, to enable them to make appropriate, risk-based tailoring recommendations. The tailoring approach utilizes a standard methodology to classify projects into predefined levels using selected mission and programmatic scaling factors related to risk tolerance. Policy requirements are then selectively applied and tailored, with appropriate rationale, and approved by the governing authorities, to support risk-informed decisions to achieve the desired cost and schedule efficiencies. The policy is further augmented by implementation tools and lifecycle planning aids which help promote and support the cultural shift toward more tailoring. The MSFC Customization Tool is an integrated spreadsheet that ties together everything that projects need to understand, navigate, and tailor the policy. It helps them classify their project, understand the intent of the requirements, determine their tailoring approach, and document the necessary governance approvals. It also helps them plan for and conduct technical reviews throughout the lifecycle. Policy tailoring is thus established as a normal part of project execution, with the tools provided to facilitate and enable the tailoring process. MSFC's approach to changing the culture emphasizes risk-based tailoring of policy to achieve increased flexibility, efficiency

  9. Green Port / Eco Port Project - Applications and Procedures in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akgul, Burak

    2017-12-01

    As being the heartlands of international trade, sea ports are the junction points of land and sea routes. The growth of global trade has led to the development of number and capacity as well as the service quality of ports. The policies and procedures applied during construction, operation and development of ports under development with environmental considerations scope has evolved in accordance with the needs of global trends. Although maritime transportation provides the most ecofriendly transportation method, the reduction of potential environmental threats and continuous improvement of ports and their vicinity is paramount from environmental concerns with regards to the international environmental standards. In the context of the study, national and international legal regulations governing the control of the environmental impacts of the activity groups causing pollution in Turkey based sea ports were viewed. In addition, the models applied during the measurement and documentation of environmental impacts were investigated. The most important aspects in terms of the effectiveness of the environmental management models are legal regulations. However, the standards applied at the ports without any legal obligation, such as EcoPorts applications, ISO 14001 standard, and the EMAS (Eco-Management and Audit Scheme) were sought in the scope of the study. The boundaries of the study were determined as the EU based Environmental Management Systems and the Green Port/Eco Port Project which is being administered by the Turkish Ministry of Transport, Maritime and Communication. “Marport”, which is Turkey’s first certified Green Port / Eco Port is designated as the experimental study site. In addition, the provisions in the ports of ESPO member countries are approached in order to compare the effectiveness and applicability of Green Port / Eco Port Project.

  10. Eco-cities as an Assemblage of Worlding Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zack Lee

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Eco-cities are gaining attention in policy and academic circles over the past few years. Yet they pose difficulties as objects of study since they have been diversely defined and implemented. This paper argues that eco-cities are better understood as an assemblage of worlding practices. Combining these two concepts foregoes the emphasis on the eco-city’s physical structures and focuses more on its policy environment and its relations with other locations. The case study being examined is the Philippine’s Clark Green, the country’s first eco-city project. Its main proponent is an independent government agency, the Bases Conversion and Development Authority (BCDA, tasked with developing former military locations for civilian uses. Their vision is to create a world-class project built by international stakeholders in order to elevate the status of the Philippines and the Filipinos. They have chosen to emulate the Songdo International Business District in South Korea as their benchmark model. Not only are they adopting the ideas of a smart city but also similar strategies to enter the international education and logistics industries. The paper will show how the BCDA uses the eco-city idea as a tool to enter various national and international discourses that extend beyond the project’s geographical boundaries. Yet the strategies and visions of an independent government-owned corporation are tempered by challenges from local stakeholders, conflicting national priorities, and failures from similar policies applied elsewhere. The paper highlights the need for worlding projects to be embedded in their own national context for greater policy coordination.

  11. Eco-evolutionary spatial dynamics in the Glanville fritillary butterfly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanski, Ilkka A

    2011-08-30

    Demographic population dynamics, gene flow, and local adaptation may influence each other and lead to coupling of ecological and evolutionary dynamics, especially in species inhabiting fragmented heterogeneous environments. Here, I review long-term research on eco-evolutionary spatial dynamics in the Glanville fritillary butterfly inhabiting a large network of approximately 4,000 meadows in Finland. The metapopulation persists in a balance between frequent local extinctions and recolonizations. The genetic spatial structure as defined by neutral markers is much more coarse-grained than the demographic spatial structure determined by the fragmented habitat, yet small-scale spatial structure has important consequences for the dynamics. I discuss three examples of eco-evolutionary spatial dynamics. (i) Extinction-colonization metapopulation dynamics influence allele frequency changes in the phosphoglucose isomerase (Pgi) gene, which leads to strong associations between genetic variation in Pgi and dispersal, recolonization, and local population dynamics. (ii) Inbreeding in local populations increases their risk for extinction, whereas reciprocal effects between inbreeding, population size, and emigration represent likely eco-evolutionary feedbacks. (iii) Genetically determined female oviposition preference for two host plant species exhibits a cline paralleling a gradient in host plant relative abundances, and host plant preference of dispersing females in relation to the host plant composition of habitat patches influences immigration (gene flow) and recolonization (founder events). Eco-evolutionary spatial dynamics in heterogeneous environments may not lead to directional evolutionary changes unless the environment itself changes, but eco-evolutionary dynamics may contribute to the maintenance of genetic variation attributable to fluctuating selection in space and time.

  12. Eco-genetic modeling of contemporary life-history evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlop, Erin S; Heino, Mikko; Dieckmann, Ulf

    2009-10-01

    We present eco-genetic modeling as a flexible tool for exploring the course and rates of multi-trait life-history evolution in natural populations. We build on existing modeling approaches by combining features that facilitate studying the ecological and evolutionary dynamics of realistically structured populations. In particular, the joint consideration of age and size structure enables the analysis of phenotypically plastic populations with more than a single growth trajectory, and ecological feedback is readily included in the form of density dependence and frequency dependence. Stochasticity and life-history trade-offs can also be implemented. Critically, eco-genetic models permit the incorporation of salient genetic detail such as a population's genetic variances and covariances and the corresponding heritabilities, as well as the probabilistic inheritance and phenotypic expression of quantitative traits. These inclusions are crucial for predicting rates of evolutionary change on both contemporary and longer timescales. An eco-genetic model can be tightly coupled with empirical data and therefore may have considerable practical relevance, in terms of generating testable predictions and evaluating alternative management measures. To illustrate the utility of these models, we present as an example an eco-genetic model used to study harvest-induced evolution of multiple traits in Atlantic cod. The predictions of our model (most notably that harvesting induces a genetic reduction in age and size at maturation, an increase or decrease in growth capacity depending on the minimum-length limit, and an increase in reproductive investment) are corroborated by patterns observed in wild populations. The predicted genetic changes occur together with plastic changes that could phenotypically mask the former. Importantly, our analysis predicts that evolutionary changes show little signs of reversal following a harvest moratorium. This illustrates how predictions offered by

  13. On the Faces and Phases of Eco-innovation - on the Dynamics of the Greening of the Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Maj Munch

    2010-01-01

    that the concept of eco-innovation could represent the evolutionary economic analysis of the greening of industry and the economy. The paper seeks to contribute to the development of evolutionary eco-innovation theory starting with a fundamental discussion on defining eco-innovation. Hitherto eco...

  14. Practical Eco-Design and Eco-Innovation of Consumer Electronics—the Case of Mobile Phones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders S. G. Andrae

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Annually, it is estimated that about 4 billion units of consumer electronics for mobile communications are produced worldwide. This could lead to various ecological imbalances unless the design and disposal of the products are handled optimally. To illustrate how industry looks at and responds to the increasing social awareness, this article describes how sustainability is successfully implemented in practice at a large Chinese company, developing and producing various kinds of electronic products used for communication. It also describes how a variety of eco-innovations and business models contribute to reducing the environmental impact; for example, through increased recovery and recycling. A new kind of eco-design procedure is presented along with a new methodology which shows how a mobile phone gradually becomes more sustainable from one generation to the next. The issues with and set-up of new eco-labeling schemes for mobile phones, eco-rating, is described in detail. The conclusion is that due to high competition between companies, the industry acts resourcefully and a lot is done to the save the ecological environment.

  15. Tailored cognitive-behavioral therapy for fibromyalgia: two case studies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koulil, S. van; Lankveld, W. van; Kraaimaat, F.W.; Helmond, T. van; Vedder, A.; Hoorn, H. van; Cats, H.; Riel, P.L.C.M. van; Evers, A.W.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To illustrate a multidisciplinary group treatment for patients with fibromyalgia (FM) tailored to the patient's cognitive-behavioral pattern. METHOD: In a case-study design the tailored treatment approaches of two FM patients were described. One patient characterized by avoidance behavior

  16. Investigational research on eco-smart engines; Eco-smart engine no chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The paper investigated the trend of research on eco-smart engines into which optimization function of engine performance, high environmental-adaptability, etc. are integrated. The investigation was made in Japan and abroad on technologies of combustion, structure/material, control, design/analysis, systematization, etc. In case of Japan, specifications were established for three types of engines, subsonic, supersonic and hypersonic aircraft, and the research subjects to fulfil the specifications were extracted. In case of the U.S. and Europe, the survey was made of combustion, materials, noise, design concept, control, etc. Important subjects are selected in priority order. Namely, for the enhancement of efficiency, the following were taken up: three-dimensional fiber-reinforced large-size light-weight structure application technology, heat-resistant advanced-material structure damage-tolerant design technology, pseudo-vesicular structure transpiration cooling technology, etc. For the reduction of NOx emission, the paper took up technologies of environmentally optimization combustion, AI combustion control, and non-cooling combustor liner application. For the noise reduction, technologies of new inclination hole orientation noise absorbing structure material application, super noise control, and innovative CFD utilization low noise aerodynamics. Moreover, the results of fiscal 1997 were outlined to indicate the research in the next fiscal year. 14 figs., 10 tabs.

  17. Tailored semiconductors for high-harmonic optoelectronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivis, Murat; Taucer, Marco; Vampa, Giulio; Johnston, Kyle; Staudte, André; Naumov, Andrei Yu; Villeneuve, D M; Ropers, Claus; Corkum, P B

    2017-07-21

    The advent of high-harmonic generation in gases 30 years ago set the foundation for attosecond science and facilitated ultrafast spectroscopy in atoms, molecules, and solids. We explore high-harmonic generation in the solid state by means of nanostructured and ion-implanted semiconductors. We use wavelength-selective microscopic imaging to map enhanced harmonic emission and show that the generation medium and the driving field can be locally tailored in solids by modifying the chemical composition and morphology. This enables the control of high-harmonic technology within precisely engineered solid targets. We demonstrate customized high-harmonic wave fields with wavelengths down to 225 nanometers (ninth-harmonic order of 2-micrometer laser pulses) and present an integrated Fresnel zone plate target in silicon, which leads to diffraction-limited self-focusing of the generated harmonics down to 1-micrometer spot sizes. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  18. Computer tailored nutrition education: Mediterranean diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Balzo, V; Vitiello, V; Dernini, S; Zicari, S; Giusti, A M; Donini, L M; Pinto, A; Cannella, C

    2012-01-01

    Goal of this work is to promote via on-line applications the knowledge of the Italian Weekly Pyramid, which is based on the concept of WI (Well Being Index) as a unit for a correct lifestyle. On the website www.piramideitaliana.it the user can verify his/her weekly lifestyle by participating in a "game" based on the introduction, for seven consecutive days, of food and beverages consumption and time assigned to physical activity. At the end of the seven days it is possible to access the page with an evaluation of dietary habits together with the possible suggestions for a correct lifestyle. On the basis of the data collected through this web game, a statistical analysis has been developed to evaluate the food habits and the level of physical activity. In the period between September 2005-January 2010 16,546 participants have completed the game. The data collected compare actual WI consumption for each food group with the one suggested by the Pyramid. The sample eating pattern appears almost varied; all the food groups were consumed daily, albeit in much lower quantities with regard to the suggested portions. It is pointed out that some differences in the nutritional habits are related to differences in age groups and in the school degree of the sample analyzed. This work highlights the importance of web-based tailored interventions on population food habits: many people can be reached to promote the knowledge of the guidelines leading to a healthy lifestyle.

  19. Tailored cellulose esters: synthesis and structure determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebert, Tim F; Heinze, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    A broad variety of cellulose esters with complex and sensitive (against hydrolysis and light) structures was synthesized homogeneously in N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMAc)/LiCl and in the new solvent dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)/tetrabutylammonium fluoride (TBAF) via in situ activation of the carboxylic acids with N,N'-carbonyldiimidazole (CDI). New esters of chiral (-)-menthyloxyacetic acid, of unsaturated 3-(2-furyl)-acrylcarboxylic- and furane-2-carboxylic acid, acids with crownether moieties (4'-carboxybenzo-18-crown-6), and with carboxymethyl-beta-cyclodextrin were accessible in a one-pot reaction. Because of the mild conditions and the efficiency of the reaction via imidazolides, very pure and highly functionalized cellulose derivatives were obtained up to a degree of substitution of 2.5 possessing a degree of polymerization in the range of the starting cellulose. Structure determination was carried out by different one- and two-dimensional NMR techniques confirming the high purity of the esters and a pronounced regioselectivity for the primary OH function. The structural features, the purity, the solubility, and the film forming properties, make these materials desired products for the preparation of membranes with tailored separation characteristics.

  20. Does tailoring really make a difference? : the development and evaluation of tailored interventions aimed at benzodiazepine cessation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolde, Geeske Brecht ten

    2008-01-01

    Because of the problems associated with chronic benzodiazepine use, there is impetus to prevent and reduce chronic benzodiazepine use. The overall aim was to develop a 'tailor-made' intervention in order to reduce chronic use. Before developing tailored patient education, it is first of all

  1. Ceramic laminates with tailored residual stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baudín, C.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Severe environments imposed by new technologies demand new materials with better properties and ensured reliability. The intrinsic brittleness of ceramics has forced scientists to look for new materials and processing routes to improve the mechanical behaviour of ceramics in order to allow their use under severe thermomechanical conditions. The laminate approach has allowed the fabrication of a new family of composite materials with strength and reliability superior to those of monolithic ceramics with microstructures similar to those of the constituent layers. The different ceramic laminates developed since the middle 1970´s can be divided in two large groups depending on whether the development of residual stresses between layers is the main design tool. This paper reviews the developments in the control and tailoring of residual stresses in ceramic laminates. The tailoring of the thickness and location of layers in compression can lead to extremely performing structures in terms of strength values and reliability. External layers in compression lead to the strengthening of the structure. When relatively thin and highly compressed layers are located inside the material, threshold strength, crack bifurcation and crack arrest during fracture occur.

    Las severas condiciones de trabajo de las nuevas aplicaciones tecnológicas exigen el uso de materiales con mejores propiedades y alta fiabilidad. La potencialidad de uso de materiales frágiles, como los cerámicos, en estas aplicaciones exige el desarrollo de nuevos materiales y métodos de procesamiento que mejoren su comportamiento mecánico. El concepto de material laminado ha permitido la fabricación de una nueva familia de materiales con tensiones de fractura y fiabilidad superiores a las de materiales monolíticos con microestructuras similares a las de las láminas que conforman el laminado. Los distintos materiales laminados desarrollados desde mediados de los años 70 se pueden

  2. Tailored bifunctional polymer for plutonium monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Sumana; Pandey, Ashok K; Kumar, Pranaw; Kaity, Santu; Aggarwal, Suresh K

    2014-07-01

    Monitoring of actinides with sophisticated conventional methods is affected by matrix interferences, spectral interferences, isobaric interferences, polyatomic interferences, and abundance sensitivity problems. To circumvent these limitations, a self-supported disk and membrane-supported bifunctional polymer were tailored in the present work for acidity-dependent selectivity toward Pu(IV). The bifunctional polymer was found to be better than the polymer containing either a phosphate group or a sulfonic acid group in terms of (i) higher Pu(IV) sorption efficiency at 3-4 mol L(-1) HNO3, (ii) selective preconcentration of Pu(IV) in the presence of a trivalent actinide such as Am(III), and (iii) preferential sorption of Pu(IV) in the presence of a large excess of U(VI). The bifunctional polymer was formed as a self-supported matrix by bulk polymerization and also as a 1-2 μm thin layer anchored on a microporous poly(ether sulfone) by surface grafting. The proportions of sulfonic acid and phosphate groups in both the self-supported disk and membrane-supported bifunctional polymer were found to be the same as expected from the mole proportions of monomers in polymerizing solutions used for syntheses. α radiography by a solid-state nuclear track detector indicated fairly homogeneous anchoring of the bifunctional polymer on the surface of the membrane. Pu(IV) preconcentrated on a single bifunctional bead was used for determination of the Pu isotopic composition by thermal ionization mass spectrometry. The membrane-supported bifunctional polymer was used for preconcentration and subsequent quantification of Pu(IV) by α spectrometry using the absolute efficiency at a fixed counting geometry. The analytical performance of the membrane-supported-bifunctional-polymer-based α spectrometry method was found to be highly reproducible for assay of Pu(IV) in a variety of complex samples.

  3. Microbial tailoring of acyl peptidic siderophores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauglitz, Julia M; Iinishi, Akira; Ito, Yusai; Butler, Alison

    2014-04-29

    Marine bacteria produce an abundance of suites of acylated siderophores characterized by a unique, species-dependent headgroup that binds iron(III) and one of a series of fatty acid appendages. Marinobacter sp. DS40M6 produces a suite of seven acylated marinobactins, with fatty acids ranging from saturated and unsaturated C12-C18 fatty acids. In the present study, we report that in the late log phase of growth, the fatty acids are hydrolyzed by an amide hydrolase producing the peptidic marinobactin headgroup. Halomonas aquamarina str. DS40M3, another marine bacterium isolated originally from the same sample of open ocean water as Marinobacter sp. DS40M6, produces the acyl aquachelins, also as a suite composed of a peptidic headgroup distinct from that of the marinobactins. In contrast to the acyl marinobactins, hydrolysis of the suite of acyl aquachelins is not detected, even when H. aquamarina str. DS40M3 is grown into the stationary phase. The Marinobacter cell-free extract containing the acyl amide hydrolase is active toward exogenous acyl-peptidic siderophores (e.g., aquachelin C, loihichelin C, as well as octanoyl homoserine lactone used in quorum sensing). Further, when H. aquamarina str. DS40M3 is cultured together with Marinobacter sp. DS40M6, the fatty acids of both suites of siderophores are hydrolyzed, and the aquachelin headgroup is also produced. The present study demonstrates that coculturing bacteria leads to metabolically tailored metabolites compared to growth in a single pure culture, which is interesting given the importance of siderophore-mediated iron acquisition for bacterial growth and that Marinobacter sp. DS40M6 and H. aquamarina str. DS40M3 were isolated from the same sample of seawater.

  4. Automatically producing tailored web materials for public administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colineau, Nathalie; Paris, Cécile; Vander Linden, Keith

    2013-06-01

    Public administration organizations commonly produce citizen-focused, informational materials describing public programs and the conditions under which citizens or citizen groups are eligible for these programs. The organizations write these materials for generic audiences because of the excessive human resource costs that would be required to produce personalized materials for everyone. Unfortunately, generic materials tend to be longer and harder to understand than materials tailored for particular citizens. Our work explores the feasibility and effectiveness of automatically producing tailored materials. We have developed an adaptive hypermedia application system that automatically produces tailored informational materials and have evaluated it in a series of studies. The studies demonstrate that: (1) subjects prefer tailored materials over generic materials, even if the tailoring requires answering a set of demographic questions first; (2) tailored materials are more effective at supporting subjects in their task of learning about public programs; and (3) the time required to specify the demographic information on which the tailoring is based does not significantly slow down the subjects in their information seeking task.

  5. Combined analyses of costs, market value and eco-costs in circular business models : eco-efficient value creation in remanufacturing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogtländer, J.G.; Scheepens, A.E.; Bocken, N.M.P.; Peck, D.P.

    2017-01-01

    Eco-efficient Value Creation is a method to analyse innovative product and service design together with circular business strategies. The method is based on combined analyses of the costs, market value (perceived customer value) and eco-costs. This provides a prevention-based single indicator for

  6. Eco Assist Techniques through Real-time Monitoring of BEV Energy Usage Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Younsun; Lee, Ingeol; Kang, Sungho

    2015-06-25

    Energy efficiency enhancement has become an increasingly important issue for battery electric vehicles. Even if it can be improved in many ways, the driver's driving pattern strongly influences the battery energy consumption of a vehicle. In this paper, eco assist techniques to simply implement an energy-efficient driving assistant system are introduced, including eco guide, eco control and eco monitoring methods. The eco guide is provided to control the vehicle speed and accelerator pedal stroke, and eco control is suggested to limit the output power of the battery. For eco monitoring, the eco indicator and eco report are suggested to teach eco-friendly driving habits. The vehicle test, which is done in four ways, consists of federal test procedure (FTP)-75, new european driving cycle (NEDC), city and highway cycles, and visual feedback with audible warnings is provided to attract the driver's voluntary participation. The vehicle test result shows that the energy usage efficiency can be increased up to 19.41%.

  7. Eco Assist Techniques through Real-time Monitoring of BEV Energy Usage Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younsun Kim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Energy efficiency enhancement has become an increasingly important issue for battery electric vehicles. Even if it can be improved in many ways, the driver’s driving pattern strongly influences the battery energy consumption of a vehicle. In this paper, eco assist techniques to simply implement an energy-efficient driving assistant system are introduced, including eco guide, eco control and eco monitoring methods. The eco guide is provided to control the vehicle speed and accelerator pedal stroke, and eco control is suggested to limit the output power of the battery. For eco monitoring, the eco indicator and eco report are suggested to teach eco-friendly driving habits. The vehicle test, which is done in four ways, consists of federal test procedure (FTP-75, new european driving cycle (NEDC, city and highway cycles, and visual feedback with audible warnings is provided to attract the driver’s voluntary participation. The vehicle test result shows that the energy usage efficiency can be increased up to 19.41%.

  8. [Assessment of eco-environmental vulnerability of Hainan Island, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bao-rong; Ouyang, Zhi-yun; Zhang, Hui-zhi; Zhang, Li-hua; Zheng, Hua

    2009-03-01

    Based on the assessment method of environmental vulnerability constructed by SOPAC and UNEP, this paper constructed an indicator system from three sub-themes including hazard, resistance, and damage to assess the eco-environmental vulnerability of Hainan Island. The results showed that Hainan Island was suffering a middling level eco-environmental hazard, and the main hazards came from some intensive human activities such as intensive agriculture, mass tourism, mining, and a mass of solid wastes thrown by islanders and tourists. Some geographical characters such as larger land area, larger altitude range, integrated geographical form, and abundant habitat types endowed Hainan Island higher resistance to environmental hazards. However, disturbed by historical accumulative artificial and natural hazards, the Island ecosystem had showed serious ecological damage, such as soil degradation and biodiversity loss. Comprehensively considered hazard, resistance, damage, and degradation, the comprehensive environmental vulnerability of the Island was at a middling level. Some indicators showed lower vulnerability, but some showed higher vulnerability.

  9. Eco-analytical Methodology in Environmental Problems Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agienko, M. I.; Bondareva, E. P.; Chistyakova, G. V.; Zhironkina, O. V.; Kalinina, O. I.

    2017-01-01

    Among the problems common to all mankind, which solutions influence the prospects of civilization, the problem of ecological situation monitoring takes very important place. Solution of this problem requires specific methodology based on eco-analytical comprehension of global issues. Eco-analytical methodology should help searching for the optimum balance between environmental problems and accelerating scientific and technical progress. The fact that Governments, corporations, scientists and nations focus on the production and consumption of material goods cause great damage to environment. As a result, the activity of environmentalists is developing quite spontaneously, as a complement to productive activities. Therefore, the challenge posed by the environmental problems for the science is the formation of geo-analytical reasoning and the monitoring of global problems common for the whole humanity. So it is expected to find the optimal trajectory of industrial development to prevent irreversible problems in the biosphere that could stop progress of civilization.

  10. THE ROLE OF ECO-INNOVATION IN THE ENERGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Kokić Arsić

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The immediate effect of energy consumption on environment quality is its deterioration. Gas and dust emissions, as products of coal, mazut (heavy fuel oil or natural gas combustion, continually pollute the atmosphere and have a global effect on climate changes, ozone damage, acid rains, disappearing of sensitive ecosystems, etc. This, directly or indirectly, brings about pollution of soil and fresh water, since energy life cycle begins with mines, oil and gas deposits, and ends with mechanical operations, heating and cooling with the restoration of thermal energy back into the atmosphere. In order to anticipate these negative processes, it is necessary to conduct an array of eco innovations in the entire life cycle of final energy. What this paper will show, on the example of communally-industrial energetics, is methodology of research and realization of eco innovations, as well as assessment of effects on improvement of energetic efficiency, quality of the environment and human life.

  11. Self-regulated dynamical criticality in human ECoG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo eSolovey

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Mounting experimental and theoretical results indicate that neural systems are poised near a critical state. In human subjects, however, most evidence comes from functional MRI studies, an indirect measurement of neuronal activity with poor temporal resolution. Electrocorticography (ECoG provides a unique window into human brain activity: each electrode records, with high temporal resolution, the activity resulting from the sum of the local field potentials of sim 10^5 neurons. We show that the human brain ECoG recordings display features of self-regulated dynamical criticality: dynamical modes of activation drift around the critical stability threshold, moving in and out of the unstable region and equilibrating the global dynamical state at a very fast time scale. Moreover, the analysis also reveals differences between the resting state and a motor task, associated with increased stability of a fraction of the dynamical modes.

  12. Glass fiber effect on mechanical properties of Eco-SCC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad M. L., V.; Loksesh, G.; Ramanjaneyulu, B.; Venkatesh, S.; Mousumi, K.

    2017-07-01

    Sustainable Construction encouraging the use of recycled materials and implies adoption of fewer natural resources in buildings and other infrastructure. In this paper Quarry Dust (QD) is used as partial replacement for River Sand (RS) to make Self Compacting Concrete (SCC) of grade M40. Glass fiber is used as strengthening material to the developed concrete. The present study mainly focused to develop Eco-SCC using QD. In this study it was found that, for developing Eco-SCC, what is the optimum dosage of replacement of QD in RS. Fresh properties of SCC are satisfying the EFNARC specifications and also target strength is achieved. Further it is concluded that, with the glass fiber addition there is an improvement in the split and flexural strength values.

  13. Candidate eco-friendly gas mixtures for MPGDs

    CERN Document Server

    Saviano, Giovanna

    2015-01-01

    Modern gas detectors for the detection of elementary particles, and MPGDs in particular, require F-based gases for optimal performance. Recent regulations demand the use of environmentally unfriendly F-based gases to be limited or banned. This work investigates the properties of potential eco-friendly gas candidate replacements. The aim is to discuss some of the important properties of gases for MPGDs, to list and summarize basic properties of eco-friendly refrigerants from the literature available, to discuss their properties for materials compatibility and safe use, and to make a prediction on selected parameters (i.e., ionization potentials, ionization pairs, etc) crucial for the performance of gas detectors considered by making use of both known parametrizations and quantum chemistry simulation codes.

  14. Integrating FMEA with TRIZ for eco-innovation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yen, S.B.; Chen, J.L. [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, National Cheng Kung Univ., Tainan (Taiwan)

    2004-07-01

    This paper begins with an overview of current development of TRIZ-based eco-innovative design methods. Some suggestions for future research direction of TRIZ-based eco-innovation methods are proposed. Next, instead of as in traditional FMEA emphasizing potential failure risk, this paper proposes an approach that emphasizes environmental, safe and healthy aspects at normal operations. Taking the environment, safety and health into consideration, one can establish the synthetic indicator to evaluate the priority to remove the failures or reduce their risks. By integrating FMEA with the TRIZ inventive problem solving method, different kinds of innovative recommendations are systematically found out and then decisions are taken. This approach can be used in the early design stages as a supporting tool for designer to invent ''novelty, usefulness, and no environmental burden'' products. (orig.)

  15. EcoProDB: the Escherichia coli protein database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Hongseok; Lee, Jeong Wook; Jeong, Joonwoo; Chung, Jaesung; Park, Jong Myoung; Myoung, Han Na; Lee, Sang Yup

    2007-09-15

    EcoProDB is a web-based database for comparative proteomics of Escherichia coli. The database contains information on E. coli proteins identified on 2D gels along with other resources collected from various databases and published literature, with a special feature of showing the expression levels of E. coli proteins under different genetic and environmental conditions. It also provides comparative information of subcellular localization, theoretical 2D map, experimental 2D map and integrated protein information via an interactive web interface and application such as the Map Browser. Users can also upload their own 2D gels, extract core information associated with the proteins and 2D gel results from different experiments and consequently generate new knowledge and hypotheses for further studies. EcoProDB database system is accessible at http://eecoli.kaist.ac.kr.

  16. Advanced scoring method of eco-efficiency in European cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutinho, Victor; Madaleno, Mara; Robaina, Margarita; Villar, José

    2018-01-01

    This paper analyzes a set of selected German and French cities' performance in terms of the relative behavior of their eco-efficiencies, computed as the ratio of their gross domestic product (GDP) over their CO 2 emissions. For this analysis, eco-efficiency scores of the selected cities are computed using the data envelopment analysis (DEA) technique, taking the eco-efficiencies as outputs, and the inputs being the energy consumption, the population density, the labor productivity, the resource productivity, and the patents per inhabitant. Once DEA results are analyzed, the Malmquist productivity indexes (MPI) are used to assess the time evolution of the technical efficiency, technological efficiency, and productivity of the cities over the window periods 2000 to 2005 and 2005 to 2008. Some of the main conclusions are that (1) most of the analyzed cities seem to have suboptimal scales, being one of the causes of their inefficiency; (2) there is evidence that high GDP over CO 2 emissions does not imply high eco-efficiency scores, meaning that DEA like approaches are useful to complement more simplistic ranking procedures, pointing out potential inefficiencies at the input levels; (3) efficiencies performed worse during the period 2000-2005 than during the period 2005-2008, suggesting the possibility of corrective actions taken during or at the end of the first period but impacting only on the second period, probably due to an increasing environmental awareness of policymakers and governors; and (4) MPI analysis shows a positive technological evolution of all cities, according to the general technological evolution of the reference cities, reflecting a generalized convergence of most cities to their technological frontier and therefore an evolution in the right direction.

  17. ECO-CASTING OF AEOLIAN BLADES AND SOLAR PANELS WITH ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admissible par rapport aux nouvelles dispositions réglementaires et éco-normes. Mots clés : matériaux composites, éco-conception, procédé RTM, perméabilité, développement durable, énergie renouvelable. How to cite this article. Attaf B. Eco-casting of aeolian blades and solar panels with composites materials via.

  18. M-Eco enhanced Adaptation Service (D5.2)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolog, Peter; Durao, Frederico; Lage, Ricardo Gomes

    2012-01-01

    In this report, we present the improvements of the Adaptive Tuning and Personalization (WP5) component of the M-Eco system. This component is focused on four main areas of interest to users of surveillance systems: presentation options for recommendation and adaptation, user and group models, use...... interests. The main contributions of the report are spatial reasoning methods evaluated in group recommendations, personalized tag clouds, and web services integration....

  19. CHOICE AND JUSTIFICATION FOR FUEL CELL ECO-MOBIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abramchuk, F.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The problems of choice of fuel cell of choice to drive the car competitor of Shell-EcoMarathon are considered. The analysis of the concepts of fuel cells, chosen as the most rational scheme and main parameters of the components of the power plant is done. The results of calculation of the characteris-tics of the sports car with a fuel cell are given.

  20. Comparing tailored and untailored text messages for smoking cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov-Ettrup, Lise; Ringgaard, L W; Dalum, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to compare the effectiveness of untailored text messages for smoking cessation to tailored text messages delivered at a higher frequency. From February 2007 to August 2009, 2030 users of an internet-based smoking cessation program with optional text message support aged 15-25 years were...... consecutively randomized to versions of the program that offered either tailored or untailored text messages. Thirty-day point abstinence from smoking was measured self-reportedly at 12-months follow-up. Response rates were 36.3% and 38.1% in the tailored and untailored group, respectively. We analyzed...

  1. Antibiotic resistance in the wild: an eco-evolutionary perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiltunen, Teppo; Virta, Marko; Laine, Anna-Liisa

    2017-01-19

    The legacy of the use and misuse of antibiotics in recent decades has left us with a global public health crisis: antibiotic-resistant bacteria are on the rise, making it harder to treat infections. At the same time, evolution of antibiotic resistance is probably the best-documented case of contemporary evolution. To date, research on antibiotic resistance has largely ignored the complexity of interactions that bacteria engage in. However, in natural populations, bacteria interact with other species; for example, competition and grazing are import interactions influencing bacterial population dynamics. Furthermore, antibiotic leakage to natural environments can radically alter bacterial communities. Overall, we argue that eco-evolutionary feedback loops in microbial communities can be modified by residual antibiotics and evolution of antibiotic resistance. The aim of this review is to connect some of the well-established key concepts in evolutionary biology and recent advances in the study of eco-evolutionary dynamics to research on antibiotic resistance. We also identify some key knowledge gaps related to eco-evolutionary dynamics of antibiotic resistance, and review some of the recent technical advantages in molecular microbiology that offer new opportunities for tackling these questions. Finally, we argue that using the full potential of evolutionary theory and active communication across the different fields is needed for solving this global crisis more efficiently.This article is part of the themed issue 'Human influences on evolution, and the ecological and societal consequences'. © 2016 The Authors.

  2. ACT NOW: Kindergarten children, eco citizens at its best - Pilot project in Algeria : Green Buds (Eco Bourgeons); AGIR MAINTENANT : Les enfants de la maternelle, eco citoyens par excellence -- Projet pilote en Algerie : Eco Bourgeons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahid, Fatima Djalila; Stambouli, Amine Boudghene; Youcef, Reda Dali

    2010-09-15

    Based on originality, reproducibility, impact, duration and consistence of action, the Green Buds pilot program (Eco Bourgeons) in Algeria under the wings of the 'El Baraim' association has for slogan: 'Consume adequately, live better' ('Consommons juste, vivons mieux'). The long term objective: Introduce the ED as a subject in the national education program. [French] Inculquer des eco gestes a 672 enfants de la maternelle dans le sens de la ME a travers un programme educatif riche et adequat, c'est eduquer nos futurs citoyens (industriels, dirigeants, etc.) au respect de nos ressources energetiques et de l'environnement. Se basant sur les criteres de l'originalite, la reproductibilite, l'impact, la duree et la ''consistance'' de l'action, le projet 'Eco Bourgeons' pilote en Algerie sous tutelle de l'association 'El Baraim' a pour slogan : 'Consommons juste, vivons mieux'. L'objectif a long terme: Introduire la ME comme matiere dans le Programme de l'Education Nationale.

  3. The Eco-Efficiency and Sustainable National Projects in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Gaber EL Sakty

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available As national mega projects, the Suez Canal Area Development Project and New Suez Canal have logistically imposed two main questions. First, how the project can spot the preferred solution for balancing the business and environmental concerns? Second, how the project can enhance the trade-off between those two dimensions. In order to answer these two questions, the efficient frontier between the profitability and the environmental impact needs to be investigated. Three Levels of Thinking has to be applied. In Marlog 2, the Operational Thinking has been discussed using different supply chain approaches including SCOR and Lean Thinking. In Marlog 3, the Tactical Thinking has been explained for global growth opportunities including thinking process and value chain philosophy. This year, the Strategic Thinking approach will be discussed for improving the Eco-efficiency in logistics clusters with the application for the Suez Canal Logistics Corridor project.  The main purpose of this paper is to explore the eco-efficiency solution and the concept of eco-topology for the national mega project to transfer the Suez Canal region into a global logistics corridor.

  4. Deberes y felicidad en la ecoética

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velayos Castelo, Carmen

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Right from the start until now, ecoethics has primarily appealed to fear as its source of motivation. This essay doesn't propose that we abandon the appeal to fear in ecoethics, but it suggests that we complement it with more positive kinds of rhetoric centered on the promotion of positive emotions and on the general search of happiness common to human beings. It will be argued that one of the challenges of ecoethics is to work out an enlightened ethics of happiness.

    El temor ha sido, y sigue siendo, la fuente de motivación a la que más ha recurrido la ecoética. Este trabajo no pretende abandonar la apelación necesaria al temor en la ecoética, pero sí complementarla con otro tipo de retóricas más positivas, centradas en la promoción de emociones positivas y en la búsqueda general de felicidad por parte del ser humano. Se defenderá que uno de los retos pendientes de la ecoética es la confección de una ética ilustrada de la felicidad.

  5. Eco-Anthropic Compatibility - a Multidisciplinary Model in Urban Ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIANO L. BIANCA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I propose a multidisciplinary model of urban development which goes beyond the notion of ecological sustainability, by building on the concept of eco-anthropic compatibility. First of all I will sketch the historical development of human aggregations and I will underline the difference between ancient and modern aggregations. On the basis of this analysis, I will take into consideration the notion of sustainability and its possible application to present conurbations. I will underline several limits of the notion of sustainable development and I will propose a multidisciplinary model grounded on a broader and new notion: the eco-anthropic compatibility. Using this notion, which includes the idea of sustainability, it is possible to handle, within the model, the human factors and human living conditions inside an urban aggregation. Finally, I will state that the actual urban model is decaying and therefore, sooner or later, we will have to face the end of urban civilization; for this reason we can start imagining new future ways for human aggregations on the planet based on the notion of eco-anthropic compatibility.

  6. The reality of fiction: the ECO by Mathias Goeritz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Quesada

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article covers the full biography of a building, the Experimental Museum El Eco, designed by Germanborn and Mexican émigré artist and architect Mathias Goeritz. It provides an approach intersecting the biography of the author, the history of the building, and prominent  individuals of the two cultural traditions, German and Mexican, who  participated in the creation of a very special and unique building: El Eco. On the one hand, the ethics of Expressionism, the interest in  non-European art, the cult of primitivism and the aesthetic system of the  pair of concepts abstraction-empathy, all stemming from German culture. On the other, the pantheistic religiosity of landscape, zoomorphism and anthropomorphism, the interest in masks, and the aesthetics of  monumental scale, stemming from pre-Cortesian Mexican culture. Taking  the stance of intertwining Mathias Goeritz parcours with those of individuals and issues from his German past and his Mexican future – highlighting the figures of Wilhelm Worringer, Paul Westheim, Luis Barragán, Edmundo O'Gorman, and Ida Rodríguez Prampolini – this article proposes a return  trip from fiction to reality, following in the footsteps of the author and  comparing them with the pathway of the very building El Eco.

  7. Peculiarities of Crystallization of the Restriction Endonuclease EcoRII

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpove, Elizaveta; Pusey, M.arc L.

    1998-01-01

    Nucleases interfere with most standard molecular biology procedures. We have purified and crystallized the restriction endonuclease EcoRII, which belongs to the type II of restriction- modification enzyme, to study the protein crystallization process using a "non standard" macromolecule. A procedure for the purification of EcoRII was developed and 99% pure protein as determined by SDS PAGE electrophoresis obtained. Light scattering experiments were performed to assist in screening protein suitable crystallization conditions. The second virial coefficient was determined as a function of precipitating salt concentration, using sodium chloride, ammonium sulfate, and sodium sulfate. Small (maximum size approximately 0.2 mm) well shaped crystals have been obtained. Larger poorly formed crystals (ca 0.5 mm) have also been obtained, but we have been unable to mount them for diff-raction analysis due to their extreme fragility. Crystallization experiments with PEG have shown that using this precipitant, the best crystals are obtained from slightly over-saturated solutions. Use of higher precipitant concentration leads to dendritic crystal formation. EcoRII is difficult to solubilize and meticulous attention must be paid to the presence of reducing agents.

  8. The Four Ways of Eco-global Criminology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob White

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In charting out the ‘four ways’ of eco-global criminology, this paper discusses the importance of recognising and acting in regards to the differences evident in (1 ways of being (ontology, (2 ways of knowing (epistemology, (3 ways of doing (methodology and (4 ways of valuing (axiology. The paper assumes and asserts that global study of environmental crime is essential to the green criminology project, and particularly an eco-global criminology approach. Specific instances of criminal and harmful activity therefore need to be analysed in the context of broad international social, political, economic and ecological processes. The article outlines the key ideas of eco-global criminology, a perspective that argues that global study must always be inclusive of voices from the periphery and margins of the world’s metropolitan centres, and critical of the social relations that sustain the epistemological as well as material realities and legacies of colonialism and imperialism. Yet, in doing so, there arise many paradoxes and conundrums that likewise warrant close attention.

  9. Tailoring Magnetic Properties in Bulk Nanostructured Solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Jason Rolando

    Important magnetic properties and behaviors such as coercivity, remanence, susceptibility, energy product, and exchange coupling can be tailored by controlling the grain size, composition, and density of bulk magnetic materials. At nanometric length scales the grain size plays an increasingly important role since magnetic domain behavior and grain boundary concentration determine bulk magnetic behavior. This has spurred a significant amount of work devoted to developing magnetic materials with nanometric features (thickness, grain/crystallite size, inclusions or shells) in 0D (powder), 1D (wires), and 2D (thin films) materials. Large 3D nanocrystalline materials are more suitable for many applications such as permanent magnets, magneto-optical Faraday isolators etc. Yet there are relatively few successful demonstrations of 3D magnetic materials with nanoscale influenced properties available in the literature. Making dense 3D bulk materials with magnetic nanocrystalline microstructures is a challenge because many traditional densification techniques (HIP, pressureless sintering, etc.) move the microstructure out of the "nano" regime during densification. This dissertation shows that the Current Activated Pressure Assisted Densification (CAPAD) method, also known as spark plasma sintering, can be used to create dense, bulk, magnetic, nanocrystalline solids with varied compositions suited to fit many applications. The results of my research will first show important implications for the use of CAPAD for the production of exchange-coupled nanocomposite magnets. Decreases in grain size were shown to have a significant role in increasing the magnitude of exchange bias. Second, preferentially ordered bulk magnetic materials were produced with highly anisotropic material properties. The ordered microstructure resulted in changing magnetic property magnitudes (ex. change in coercivity by almost 10x) depending on the relative orientation (0° vs. 90°) of an externally

  10. Tailored Materials for High Efficiency CIDI Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant, G.J.; Jana, S.

    2012-03-30

    The overall goal of the project, Tailored Materials for High Efficiency Compression Ignition Direct Injection (CIDI) Engines, is to enable the implementation of new combustion strategies, such as homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI), that have the potential to significantly increase the energy efficiency of current diesel engines and decrease fuel consumption and environmental emissions. These strategies, however, are increasing the demands on conventional engine materials, either from increases in peak cylinder pressure (PCP) or from increases in the temperature of operation. The specific objective of this project is to investigate the application of a new material processing technology, friction stir processing (FSP), to improve the thermal and mechanical properties of engine components. The concept is to modify the surfaces of conventional, low-cost engine materials. The project focused primarily on FSP in aluminum materials that are compositional analogs to the typical piston and head alloys seen in small- to mid-sized CIDI engines. Investigations have been primarily of two types over the duration of this project: (1) FSP of a cast hypoeutectic Al-Si-Mg (A356/357) alloy with no introduction of any new components, and (2) FSP of Al-Cu-Ni alloys (Alloy 339) by physically stirring-in various quantities of carbon nanotubes/nanofibers or carbon fibers. Experimental work to date on aluminum systems has shown significant increases in fatigue lifetime and stress-level performance in aluminum-silicon alloys using friction processing alone, but work to demonstrate the addition of carbon nanotubes and fibers into aluminum substrates has shown mixed results due primarily to the difficulty in achieving porosity-free, homogeneous distributions of the particulate. A limited effort to understand the effects of FSP on steel materials was also undertaken during the course of this project. Processed regions were created in high-strength, low-alloyed steels up to 0.5 in

  11. Semiconductor quantum optics with tailored photonic nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laucht, Arne

    2011-06-15

    single photon emission into the waveguide. The results obtained during the course of this thesis contribute significantly to the understanding of coupling phenomena between excitons in self-assembled quantum dots and optical modes of tailored photonic nanostructures realized on the basis of two-dimensional photonic crystals. While we highlight the potential for advanced applications in the direction of quantum optics and quantum computation, we also identify some of the challenges which will need to be overcome on the way. (orig.)

  12. Eco-anthropological Considerations on Terroir Reflexiones desde la eco-antropología sobre el terroir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Duhart

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Terroir currently constitutes a key concept in the thought about the production of quality foods and drinks. In this text, we consider this notion from an eco-anthropological point of view, relying on examples taken from the past and present of certain wines. We successively study the construction of this notion, its uses (especially in the framework of denomination of origin processes and its representations.El Terroir constituye en la actualidad un concepto clave en el pensamiento sobre la producción de alimentos y de bebidas de calidad. En este texto, consideramos esta noción con un punto de vista eco-antropológico apoyándonos sobre ejemplos sacados principalmente de la historia y de la actualidad de ciertos vinos. Estudiamos sucesivamente su construcción, sus usos (en particular en el marco de los procesos de denominación de origen y sus representaciones.

  13. Enabling time-dependent uncertain eco-weights for road networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Jilin; Yang, Bin; Jensen, Christian S.

    2017-01-01

    transportation. The foundation of eco-routing is a weighted-graph representation of a road network in which road segments, or edges, are associated with eco-weights that capture the GHG emissions caused by traversing the edges. Due to the dynamics of traffic, the eco-weights are best modeled as being time......Reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from transportation is an essential part of the efforts to prevent global warming and climate change. Eco-routing, which enables drivers to use the most environmentally friendly routes, is able to substantially reduce GHG emissions from vehicular...... dependent and uncertain. We formalize the problem of assigning a time-dependent, uncertain eco-weight to each edge in a road network based on historical GPS records. In particular, a sequence of histograms is employed to describe the uncertain eco-weight of an edge at different time intervals. Compression...

  14. [Eco-fitness of county-level agricultural leading industry structure: assessment and development prediction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liang; Zhu, Li-Qun; Zhang, Si-Wei; Zhang, Pei-Qi; Xu, Min-Lun; Bian, Xin-Min

    2012-11-01

    Based on the 'three critical points' theory of eco-fitness, and by using dynamic weighting and fitting methods, an assessment system for the eco-fitness of county-level agricultural leading industry structure was constructed, and, taking Zhangqiu of Shandong Province, East China as a case, the eco-fitness of county-level agricultural leading industry structure was assessed and predicted. Due to the limited agro-ecological resources, the comprehensive eco-fitness index of four kinds of agricultural leading industry in Zhangqiu presented an upward trend from 2005 to 2010, but a downward trend from 2011 to 2015. The eco-fitness indices of oil crops and fruits would be negative in 2015. The applied research in Zhangqiu confirmed the validity of the assessment system constructed for the eco-fitness of county-level agriculture leading industry structure and the rationality of the prediction model.

  15. A software algorithm/package for control loop configuration and eco-efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munir, M T; Yu, W; Young, B R

    2012-11-01

    Software is a powerful tool to help us analyze industrial information and control processes. In this paper, we will show our recently development of a software algorithm/package which can help us select the more eco-efficient control configuration. Nowadays, the eco-efficiency of all industrial processes/plants has become more and more important; engineers need to find a way to integrate control loop configuration and measurements of eco-efficiency. The exergy eco-efficiency factor; a new measure of eco-efficiency for control loop configuration has been developed. This software algorithm/package will combine a commercial simulator, VMGSim, and Excel together to calculate the exergy eco-efficiency factor. Copyright © 2012 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The EcoCyc database: reflecting new knowledge about Escherichia coli K-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keseler, Ingrid M; Mackie, Amanda; Santos-Zavaleta, Alberto; Billington, Richard; Bonavides-Martínez, César; Caspi, Ron; Fulcher, Carol; Gama-Castro, Socorro; Kothari, Anamika; Krummenacker, Markus; Latendresse, Mario; Muñiz-Rascado, Luis; Ong, Quang; Paley, Suzanne; Peralta-Gil, Martin; Subhraveti, Pallavi; Velázquez-Ramírez, David A; Weaver, Daniel; Collado-Vides, Julio; Paulsen, Ian; Karp, Peter D

    2017-01-04

    EcoCyc (EcoCyc.org) is a freely accessible, comprehensive database that collects and summarizes experimental data for Escherichia coli K-12, the best-studied bacterial model organism. New experimental discoveries about gene products, their function and regulation, new metabolic pathways, enzymes and cofactors are regularly added to EcoCyc. New SmartTable tools allow users to browse collections of related EcoCyc content. SmartTables can also serve as repositories for user- or curator-generated lists. EcoCyc now supports running and modifying E. coli metabolic models directly on the EcoCyc website. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  17. Tailoring the Bandgap and magnetic properties by Bismuth ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    66

    Tailoring the Bandgap and magnetic properties by Bismuth substitution in. Neodymium Chromite. Venkateswara rao Mannepalli, Saj Mohan M M and R. Ranjith*. Department of Materials Science & Metallurgical Engineering,. Indian Institute of Technology Hyderabad,. Kandi, Sanga reddy-502285, Telangana, India. Abstract.

  18. Past, present, and future of computer-tailored nutrition education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Brug (Hans); A. Oenema (Anke); M.K. Campbell (Marci)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractComputer-tailored nutrition education is an innovative and promising tool to motivate people to make healthy dietary changes. It provides respondents with individualized feedback about their dietary behaviors, motivations, attitudes, norms, and skills and mimics the

  19. Planners’ roles and techniques in developing sustainable "eco-City": The case of gaborone, Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cavrić Branko I.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Efforts to incorporate sustainability principles into city planning demands new relationships between traditional and contemporary culture of key players involved in urban development arena. Many stakeholders involved in urban projects, management and governance are tailoring the destiny of urban world. Unfortunately, their contribution to sustainable practices show the lack of awareness and negative attitude towards protection of basic environmental, economic and social elements for the benefits of future generations of urban dwellers. By changing the way in which they think it is important to spell out clearly the role of planning professionals which should be more active and persistent in educating and advising decision-makers and other stakeholders helping them not to think and act only sectorally supporting individual and forgetting common interests. With carrying capacities and sustainability in mind these "key players" should be trained and guided by planners and diverse community entrepreneurs to have a look well beyond current planning horizons of socio-economic and physical plans, because sound sustainable solutions need wider and more ecologically friendly temporal frameworks. This paper explores contemporary physical planning concepts for sustainable development of Gaborone city, the capital of Botswana. sensitive development solutions, lamenting more on behavioural organisational and technological improvements in city planner’s "toolkit" and planner’s roles of technocrats and advocates of sustainable change. The purpose of this exploration will also be to suggest how to create enough manoeuvring space beyond the exclusive political power and how to apply different planning concepts which can help to create a sustainable eco-city.

  20. An International Review of Eco-City Theory, Indicators, and Case Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Nan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Williams, Christopher [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-03-01

    This report is intended to answer the question: “What international experiences with ‘eco-cities’ can help the central Chinese government evaluate the performance of Chinese cities that pursue ‘lowcarbon’ urban development?” To answer this question, we reviewed the literature on eco-cities and closely related concepts, surveyed performance indicators used to evaluate sustainable urban development around the world, and compiled case studies of exceptional eco- and sustainable cities.

  1. ecoPrimers: inference of new DNA barcode markers from whole genome sequence analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Riaz, Tiayyba; Shehzad, Wasim; Viari, Alain; Pompanon, Fran?ois; Taberlet, Pierre; Coissac, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Using non-conventional markers, DNA metabarcoding allows biodiversity assessment from complex substrates. In this article, we present ecoPrimers, a software for identifying new barcode markers and their associated PCR primers. ecoPrimers scans whole genomes to find such markers without a priori knowledge. ecoPrimers optimizes two quality indices measuring taxonomical range and discrimination to select the most efficient markers from a set of reference sequences, according to specific experime...

  2. Eco-City Planning In Developing Countries : The Role of Organic Waste Management

    OpenAIRE

    Weningtyas, Widyarini; Quan, Liqing; Suga, Manami; Zhang, Nan; Yang, Song; Amidu, Issahaku Zakaria

    2012-01-01

    This report aims to indicate challenges and future possibilities for Eco-City planning in terms of the role of organic solid waste management in developing countries. Eco-City, which seeks to reduce garbage and energy consumption, and recycle and reuse waste, has attracted our attention as a concept for sustainable urban development. Awareness of the concept of Eco-City planning is increasing in municipalities or cities in developing countries with rising environmental concerns. Among municip...

  3. Eco-innovations: which new paths for the Aquitaine wood industry?

    OpenAIRE

    BERGOUIGNAN Marie-Claude

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on the question of how eco-innovation projects can lead to the break-out of an industrial trajectory. Using the example of the Aquitaine wood industry, we question how eco-innovation projects promoted by the ‘competitiveness cluster’ might help to modify that trajectory. Based on the existing literature, which refers to the diversity of objectives of eco-innovation, our research analyzes this diversity and then questions the compatibility of these objectives. By doing so,...

  4. Eco-runner team Delft; the most fuel efficient vehicle in the world

    OpenAIRE

    Rijks, F.

    2014-01-01

    The slogan, ‘Eco-Runner: the most fuel efficient vehicle in the world’ of the Eco-Runner Team Delft says it all: designing and building the most fuel efficient vehicle in the world. The Eco-Runner Team is a ‘D:DREAM Team’ where students from various faculties work together to design and build extremely efficient, hydrogen powered vehicles and conduct research in the fields of aerodynamics, structures, electronics, hydrogen fuel cells and driving strategies.

  5. The innovative application studty on eco-packaging design and materials

    OpenAIRE

    Cui Yong Min; Ren Xin Guang

    2016-01-01

    The paper solves the increasingly deteriorate environmental problems by positively exploring how to utilize and develop eco-packaging design reasonably. The paper explores an effective method that combines eco-packaging and environmental protection materials, hoping to define the sustainable development road of packaging design. The paper is centered on the design application of eco-packaging and environmental protection materials, applies and analyzes the method to obtain innovative design r...

  6. Eco-Innovation for Sustainability: Evidence from 49 Countries in Asia and Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jang-Hwan Jo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Following the trend on focusing on a nation’s economic-growth, side effects such as resource exhaustion, environmental pollution, and social injustice have begun to appear. As a solution, eco-innovation has received a great amount of attention from European countries and as a result, many efforts to analyze the development of eco-innovation quantitatively have been made. This study aims to evaluate the validity of an eco-innovation index developed to support the sustainable development goal. For this purpose, four factors of eco-innovation—capacity, supportive environment, activity, and performance—were applied to three categories of the Triple-Bottom-Line (TBL concept in sustainability to compare the eco-innovation development level of 49 Asia-Europe Meeting countries. Factors for eco-innovation and TBL at the country level were organized in quartile and compared to see strength and weaknesses for each nation. In order to test if eco-innovation factors of a nation adequately reflect its sustainability, we used various comparisons of ANOVA. The results of this study are as follows: First, the one-way ANOVA tests present the scores for capacity, supportive environment, and performance as grouped into four quartiles in the same pattern as their economic, social, and environmental scores. The three-way ANOVA tests showed significance for the economic category. Scores for capacity, supportive environment, activity and performance were significant at a nation’s economic level. Lastly, the MANOVA test revealed that TBL significantly explains four eco-innovation factors. In addition, the eco-innovation performance level of European nations and Asian nations were compared. The possibility that many nations still have room to be competitive in their eco-innovation efforts was identified. Nations with unbalanced eco-innovation growth are urged to implement new strategies to balance their growth. Therefore, this research contributes to extending

  7. Assessment of eco-environmental quality of Western Taiwan Straits Economic Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, He; Shi, Longyu

    2016-05-01

    Regional eco-environmental quality is the key and foundation to the sustainable socio-economic development of a region. Eco-environmental quality assessment can reveal the capacity of sustainable socio-economic development in a region and the degree of coordination between social production and the living environment. As part of a new development strategy for Fujian Province, the Western Taiwan Straits Economic Zone (hereafter referred to as the Economic Zone) provides an important guarantee for the development of China's southeastern coastal area. Based on ecological and remote sensing data on the Economic Zone obtained in 2000, 2005, and 2010, this study investigated county-level administrative regions with a comprehensive index of eco-environmental indicators. An objective weighting method was used to determine the importance of each indicator. This led to the development of an indicator system to assess the eco-environmental quality of the economic zone. ArcGIS software was used to assess the eco-environmental quality of the economic zone based on each indicator. The eco-environmental quality index (EQI) of the county-level administrative regions was calculated. The overall eco-environmental quality of the Economic Zone during the period studied is described and analyzed. The results show that the overall eco-environmental quality of the Economic Zone is satisfactory, but significant intraregional differences still exist. The key to improving the overall eco-environmental quality of this area is to restore vegetation and preserve biodiversity.

  8. Do Eco-rating Schemes Improve the Environmental Performance of Ships?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, René Taudal; Hermann, Roberto Rivas; Smink, Carla K.

    2018-01-01

    This paper examines if eco-rating schemes improve environmental outcomes in the context of the international shipping industry. Shipping faces global environmental challenges and has recently witnessed the introduction of several eco-rating schemes aiming to improve the environmental performance...... of ships. Extending the private environmental governance literature into a mature service industry with global operations, the paper shows that concerns about eco-rating schemes’ effectiveness also have relevance here. Shipping eco-rating schemes fall short of best practices for design and governance...

  9. DOES ECO-EFFICENCY REDUCE THE COST OF EQUITY CAPITAL? EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Alviani

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to examine the effect of eco-efficiency on the cost of equity capital. The study hypothesizes that the implementation of eco-efficiency reduces the cost of equity capital. Using manufacturing companies listed on the Indonesian Stock Exchange for the period 2010-2012 as data, and controlling for beta, company size, Book to Market ratio, and leverage; the study finds that the implementation of eco-efficiency may reduce the cost of equity capital. The findings suggest that companies should implement eco-efficency.

  10. Comprehensive evaluation of eco-tourism resources in Hangzhou based on GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Qian; Wu, Xiuju

    2009-09-01

    By using analytical hierarchy process (AHP) and Fuzzy method, representative evaluation factors in the aspects of tourism resources quantity, environmental quantity, tourism conditions, and tourism functions were chosen to build up a comprehensive quantitative evaluation model to evaluate the eco-tourism resources of Hangzhou region based on GIS. The results showed that in Hangzhou region, the natural eco-tourism re-sources were superior to the humanity resources. In the spatial distribution, eco-tourism resources in Hangzhou present circle shape, and it is not balance. Based on the above analyses, it gives the initial development direction of resource sub area suiting to eco-tourism resources in Hangzhou.

  11. Feedback-Based Eco-Design for Integrating the Recency, Frequency, and Monetary Value of Eco-Efficiency into Sustainability Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Yang Chen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Customer feedback is used to understand customer requirements. Early design phases require the consideration of items including manufacturing, the environment, and sustainability management. Therefore, it is crucial that eco-efficiency is taken into account in the early design phases. Traditionally, eco-efficiency is considered only in terms of eco-design issues, not customer requirements based on business values such as Recency, Frequency, and Monetary (RFM value. In the meantime, integrating innovation from eco-design is one important aspect. Here, I propose that customer feedback-based eco-efficiency and TRIZ-based innovation can be considered in early eco-design based on the RFM value for sustainability management. The analytic hierarchy process (AHP and fuzzy-based AHP were integrated to explore the relative weights of RFM variables for business value evaluation. The innovative method of the paper is using a TRIZ contradiction matrix associated with engineering parameters for eco-design. The experimental study has been carried out, and it meets the forecasting business value for green product usage. The business value was used as the decision-making factor in order to evaluate both environmental and marketing performance.

  12. Eco Issues in Bulk Materials Handling Technologies in Ports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad Zrnić

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with eco issues in bulk materials handling in ports. Solid, free-flowing materials are said to be in bulk. Bulk materials handling is very difficult, because it incorporates all the features of liquids, gasses and mass solids. Energy efficiency, dust emissions in nearby environment, dust explosions, jamming, noise, handling of hazardous materials and protection of materials from contamination are issues that will be considered in this paper. Here are also presented possible solutions for some of these issues

  13. Eco-theological Responses to Climate Change in Oceania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubow, Cecilie; Bird, Cliff

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores eco-theological responses to climate change in Oceania. First, we review central texts in the contextual theological tradition in Oceania, focusing on recent responses to climate change. This points to a body of theological texts integrating climate change into a broader effor...... actors in the cultural modeling of climate change. We highlight the uniqueness of Christian narratives from the Pacific region, while alluding to the fact that literal interpretations of scriptures are influential in many other parts of the world too....

  14. Modelo ECO2 : redes sociales, complejidad y sufrimiento social

    OpenAIRE

    Machín, Juan

    2010-01-01

    Un resultado bien documentado de múltiples y diversas investigaciones es que las redes sociales juegan un papel fundamental en los estados de salud/bienestar o enfermedad/malestar de las personas. En este marco, se presenta un modelo, denominado ECO2 (desarrollado por organizaciones de la sociedad civil en México y experimentado en diferentes países, principalmente latinoamericanos), para la intervención sobre un amplio espectro de fenómenos hipercomplejos denominados de sufrimiento social qu...

  15. Analisis 6 DNA Rekombinan dengan enzim EcoRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Nyoman Tri Puspaningsih

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Amylase enzyme from Endomycopsis fibuligera capable to hidrolize starch into glucose. Insertion of amylase gene from Endomycopsis fibuligera into yeast (Saccharomyces cereviceae will be able to increase the function of yeast (S.cereviceae to digest more cheaper substrate, like starch. Before cloning in yeast, recombinant DNA will be made and analyzed in Escherichia coli strain DH5α. The result showed that the sixth transformant consist recombinant DNA that were sensitive to tetracycline medium. Analysis by EcoR1 digestion showed that the size of insertion fragment into Ycp 50 vector are around 0.3 untill 16 kb.

  16. Eco-hydrological Modeling in the Framework of Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatichi, Simone; Ivanov, Valeriy Y.; Caporali, Enrica

    2010-05-01

    A blueprint methodology for studying climate change impacts, as inferred from climate models, on eco-hydrological dynamics at the plot and small catchment scale is presented. Input hydro-meteorological variables for hydrological and eco-hydrological models for present and future climates are reproduced using a stochastic downscaling technique and a weather generator, "AWE-GEN". The generated time series of meteorological variables for the present climate and an ensemble of possible future climates serve as input to a newly developed physically-based eco-hydrological model "Tethys-Chloris". An application of the proposed methodology is realized reproducing the current (1961-2000) and multiple future (2081-2100) climates for the location of Tucson (Arizona). A general reduction of precipitation and a significant increase of air temperature are inferred. The eco-hydrological model is successively applied to detect changes in water recharge and vegetation dynamics for a desert shrub ecosystem, typical of the semi-arid climate of south Arizona. Results for the future climate account for uncertainties in the downscaling and are produced in terms of probability density functions. A comparison of control and future scenarios is discussed in terms of changes in the hydrological balance components, energy fluxes, and indices of vegetation productivity. An appreciable effect of climate change can be observed in metrics of vegetation performance. The negative impact on vegetation due to amplification of water stress in a warmer and dryer climate is offset by a positive effect of carbon dioxide augment. This implies a positive shift in plant capabilities to exploit water. Consequently, the plant water use efficiency and rain use efficiency are expected to increase. Interesting differences in the long-term vegetation productivity are also observed for the ensemble of future climates. The reduction of precipitation and the substantial maintenance of vegetation cover ultimately

  17. Shape-Tailored Features and their Application to Texture Segmentation

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Naeemullah

    2014-04-01

    Texture Segmentation is one of the most challenging areas of computer vision. One reason for this difficulty is the huge variety and variability of textures occurring in real world, making it very difficult to quantitatively study textures. One of the key tools used for texture segmentation is local invariant descriptors. Texture consists of textons, the basic building block of textures, that may vary by small nuisances like illumination variation, deformations, and noise. Local invariant descriptors are robust to these nuisances making them beneficial for texture segmentation. However, grouping dense descriptors directly for segmentation presents a problem: existing descriptors aggregate data from neighborhoods that may contain different textured regions, making descriptors from these neighborhoods difficult to group, leading to significant errors in segmentation. This work addresses this issue by proposing dense local descriptors, called Shape-Tailored Features, which are tailored to an arbitrarily shaped region, aggregating data only within the region of interest. Since the segmentation, i.e., the regions, are not known a-priori, we propose a joint problem for Shape-Tailored Features and the regions. We present a framework based on variational methods. Extensive experiments on a new large texture dataset, which we introduce, show that the joint approach with Shape-Tailored Features leads to better segmentations over the non-joint non Shape-Tailored approach, and the method out-performs existing state-of-the-art.

  18. Eco-Efficiency Assessment of Material Use: The Case of Phosphorus Fertilizer Usage in Japan’s Rice Sector

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cherry Myo Lwin; Akane Nogi; Seiji Hashimoto

    2017-01-01

    To raise the eco-efficiency of the economy, it is important to not only investigate the eco-efficiency of specific products but also to ascertain whether the resources are used effectively throughout the life cycle...

  19. USING ECO-EVOLUTIONARY INDIVIDUAL-BASED MODELS TO INVESTIGATE SPATIALLY-DEPENDENT PROCESSES IN CONSERVATION GENETICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eco-evolutionary population simulation models are powerful new forecasting tools for exploring management strategies for climate change and other dynamic disturbance regimes. Additionally, eco-evo individual-based models (IBMs) are useful for investigating theoretical feedbacks ...

  20. Who Needs Cream and Sugar When There Is Eco-Labeling? Taste and Willingness to Pay for "Eco-Friendly" Coffee: e80719

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Patrik Sörqvist; Daniel Hedblom; Mattias Holmgren; Andreas Haga; Linda Langeborg; Anatole Nöstl; Jonas Kågström

    2013-01-01

    .... The participants preferred the taste of, and were willing to pay more for, the "eco-friendly" coffee, at least those who scored high on a questionnaire on attitudes toward sustainable consumer behavior (Experiment 1...

  1. Who needs cream and sugar when there is eco-labeling? Taste and willingness to pay for "eco-friendly" coffee

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sörqvist, Patrik; Hedblom, Daniel; Holmgren, Mattias; Haga, Andreas; Langeborg, Linda; Nöstl, Anatole; Kågström, Jonas

    2013-01-01

    .... The participants preferred the taste of, and were willing to pay more for, the "eco-friendly" coffee, at least those who scored high on a questionnaire on attitudes toward sustainable consumer behavior (Experiment 1...

  2. A Follow-Up Study of Eco Education's Environmental Service-Learning Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobert, Thomas Milton

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to determine student views of the influence of the Eco Education Urban Stewards program's impact on their involvement in community environmental initiatives. Eco Education is a non-profit organization in St. Paul that facilitates an urban, environmental, year-long science curriculum delivered in middle schools in…

  3. Eco-Webbing: A Teaching Strategy to Facilitate Critical Consciousness and Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Joseph M.; McMahon, H. George; Goodman, Rachael D.

    2015-01-01

    Eco-webbing is a teaching strategy that can be used to help counselor educators integrate a social justice focus into their courses. Preliminary data indicated increased critical consciousness and social justice agency as a result of using eco-webbing with counseling students (N = 17). The authors provide implications for counselor educators and…

  4. [Eco-efficiency change and its driving factors in Tongling City of Anhui Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Chen; Wang, Yuan; Zhu, Xiao-Dong; Wu, Xiao-Qing; Wang, Ke; Ren, Ke-Xiu; Lu, Gen-Fa

    2011-02-01

    This paper first applied material flow analysis (MFA) to construct three levels of regional eco-efficiency indicators, i.e., regional direct eco-efficiency (RDE), regional total eco-efficiency (RTE), and holistic eco-efficiency (HE), and adopted the newly developed data envelopment analysis (DEA) to evaluate the eco-efficiency of Tongling City during the period of 1990-2008. We also applied Malmquist productivity index (MPI) to explore the eco-efficiency change between two following years and its driving factors. The main results were summarized as 1) though the RDE of Tongling City in 1990-2008 kept an increasing trend, its mean eco-efficiency was not high (close to 0.8 in 80% of the years), being lower than that of the RTE and HE, and 2) the RDE change was closely relevant to the improvement in resource management and the technical input in environmental protection in recent years. In order to further improve the RDE of the City, it would be necessary to raise its eco-efficiency via expanding raw material input, reducing domestic extraction, promoting resources productivity, and taking more measures on environmental protection facilities construction.

  5. The reliability of product-specific eco-labels as an agrobiodiversity management instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amstel, van Mariëtte; Brauw, de Claar; Driessen, Peter; Glasbergen, Pieter

    2007-01-01

    This paper seeks to understand why multinationals prefer to launch a label specific to their own product and examines how reliable these product-specific eco-labels are. A new methodology is applied to assess the extent to which eco-labels live up to claims about their contribution to

  6. Eco-Literacy Development through a Framework for Indigenous and Environmental Educational Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulnieks, Andrejs; Longboat, Dan Roronhiakewan; Young, Kelly

    2013-01-01

    In response to the call of curriculum reforms at the international, national, and local levels, we conceptualize an eco-mentorship program and envision a learning garden alternative practica. We aim to advance a framework enabling the innovation of Indigenous environmental studies, eco-justice education, and Western scientific environmental…

  7. Growing food, feeding change : Towards a holistic and dynamic approach of eco-city planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vernay, A.B.H.; Salcedo Rahola, T.B.; Ravesteijn, W.

    2010-01-01

    In response to increasing environmental problems and consciousness in relation to urbanization, more and more cities are trying to become eco-cities. We can question, however, whether these cities can be considered as sustainable cities. The eco-city concept usually includes criteria regarding

  8. The Effect of Flemish Eco-Schools on Student Environmental Knowledge, Attitudes, and Affect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeve-de Pauw, Jelle; Van Petegem, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Eco-schools aim to improve the environment through direct and indirect effects. Direct effects are those that result from the implementation of an environmental management system. Indirect effects are educational gains. The current study examines the effectiveness of eco-schools concerning three student outcomes: (1) environmental knowledge, (2)…

  9. Can Eco-Schools Improve Elementary School Students' Environmental Literacy Levels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozsoy, Sibel; Ertepinar, Hamide; Saglam, Necdet

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of eco-schools on elementary school students' environmental literacy levels. Data of the study were gathered from 316 students enrolled to two elementary schools. One of the schools was determined as experimental group (n = 156) and students attending this school received eco-school application.…

  10. Eco-restoration of a high-sulphur coal mine overburden dumping ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 118; Issue 5 ... Keywords. Mine overburden; environment degradation; ecology; eco-restoration; primary, secondary ecological succession. Abstract. Eco-restoration of mine overburden (OB)or abandoned mine sites is a major environmental concern.In the present ...

  11. EcoWellness & Guiding Principles for the Ethical Integration of Nature into Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Ryan F.

    2016-01-01

    Connection with nature impacts human wellness, yet few resources currently exist in the international literature to help guide clinicians in the ethical integration of EcoWellness into therapeutic processes. Ethical principles for EcoWellness practice are introduced and linked to applicable portions of the American Counseling Association's (2014)…

  12. Cultivating Artistic Approaches to Environmental Learning: Exploring Eco-Art Education in Elementary Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inwood, Hilary J.

    2013-01-01

    This article explores curriculum development in eco-art education, an integration of art education and environmental education, as a means of increasing awareness of and engagement with the environment. It reports on a qualitative research study that tracked teachers' experiments with the design and implementation of eco-art education in…

  13. The ECO European Project: A New MOOC Dimension Based on an Intercreativity Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acedo, Sara Osuna; Cano, Lucía Camarero

    2016-01-01

    The ECO European Project funded by the European Commission is dedicated to bringing MOOCs to a new dimension by taking advantage of the new possibilities offered by the Social Web (O'Reilly, 2005). This paper focuses on the intercreative aspects of MOOCs. It takes a look at the characteristics of the new ECO MOOCs to see if they are designed and…

  14. ECoG Gamma Activity during a Language Task: Differentiating Expressive and Receptive Speech Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towle, Vernon L.; Yoon, Hyun-Ah; Castelle, Michael; Edgar, J. Christopher; Biassou, Nadia M.; Frim, David M.; Spire, Jean-Paul; Kohrman, Michael H.

    2008-01-01

    Electrocorticographic (ECoG) spectral patterns obtained during language tasks from 12 epilepsy patients (age: 12-44 years) were analyzed in order to identify and characterize cortical language areas. ECoG from 63 subdural electrodes (500 Hz/channel) chronically implanted over frontal, parietal and temporal lobes were examined. Two language tasks…

  15. A Product Line Analysis for Eco-Designed Fashion Products: Evidence from an Outdoor Sportswear Brand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo Wang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing awareness of sustainability, eco-design has been an important trend in the fashion industry. Many fashion brands such as Nike, Adidas, and The North Face have developed sustainable fashion by incorporating eco-design elements. Eco-design is an important part of sustainable supply chains. In this paper, we conducted a product line analysis of eco-designed products from a famous outdoor sportswear brand, Patagonia. We collected Patagonia’s 2017 Spring Season product line data and analyzed the data through descriptive analysis, factor analysis and correlation analysis. We found that Patagonia mainly uses organic, recycled, and traceable materials in their eco-product line development. We identified that the usage of eco-materials may significantly affect the number of color choices and product weight as well as gender difference, pattern design, product fit and online reviewers’ opinions at Patagonia. We argued that Patagonia should focus on functionality more than aesthetics in eco-design. We discussed how sustainable fashion firms should manage eco-design in the supply chain.

  16. Eco-restoration of a high-sulphur coal mine overburden dumping ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    hpdekaboruah@yahoo.com. Eco-restoration of mine overburden (OB) or abandoned mine sites is a major environmental ... Management of these plant species at the site will ensure long term sustainable eco-restoration of the coal mine-degraded land ... of ecosystems; these changes ultimately influence water and nutrient ...

  17. Eco-Tourism Development Strategy Balurannational Park in the Regency of Situbondo, East Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siswanto, Adil; Moeljadi

    2015-01-01

    Baluran National Park in the regency of Situbondo, East Java-Indonesia, highly prospective for development of sustainable tourism that can improve the welfare of local people. The suitable tourism type is eco-tourism with local people involvement. The purposes of this study are: 1) To know the local people involvement in eco-tourism development;…

  18. Industrial and urban symbiosis in Japan: analysis of the Eco-Town Program 1997-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Berkel, Rene; Fujita, Tsuyoshi; Hashimoto, Shizuka; Geng, Yong

    2009-03-01

    Japan's Eco-Town Program spearheaded in Japan the integration of Industrial Symbiosis and Urban Symbiosis, seeking to maximise the economic and environmental benefit from close geographic proximity of industrial and urban areas, through the use of previously discarded commercial, municipal and industrial waste materials in industrial applications. The program established 26 Eco-Towns around Japan. Approximately 1.65 billion USD was invested in 61 innovative recycling projects, with an average government subsidy of 36%. In addition at least 107 other recycling facilities have been constructed without government subsidy. 14 Eco-Towns primarily contributed to improving industry's productivity, whilst 10 Eco-Towns primarily contributed to improving environmental amenity. In 16 Eco-Towns the private sector was the most important actor supporting local government in the realisation of the Eco-Town, whilst in 9 Eco-Towns this was civil society. The availability of investment subsidies, the coming into force of ambitious recycling legislation with quantified, product-specific targets, access to the significant technological resources of the private sector, and widespread recognition of the urgency to act on environmental issues, all contributed to the success of the Eco-Town Program.

  19. Eco-innovation Dynamics at a Large State-Owned Wind Turbine Manufacture in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yan; YIN, Shoujun

    This paper discloses the learning process and stakeholder relations in eco-innovation dynamics at a large state-owned wind turbine manufacture in China in the past 7 years. Based on an understanding of eco-innovation and eco-innovation dynamics, we propose an analytical framework of eco-innovatio......This paper discloses the learning process and stakeholder relations in eco-innovation dynamics at a large state-owned wind turbine manufacture in China in the past 7 years. Based on an understanding of eco-innovation and eco-innovation dynamics, we propose an analytical framework of eco......-innovation dynamics from a multi-perspective of learning, triple helix and path dependence. We find that, in case company’s developing wind turbine business: (1) individual and collective learning were characterized by a Do-Use-Interact mode in product innovation and assembly procedure innovation and diverse learning...... approaches were employed; (2)its product development, marketing strategy and stakeholder relations were considerably affected by central government and local government on policies, directives, regulations; (3) co-R&D with foreign companies provided it an important learning platform on product development...

  20. Consumers' understanding and use of textile eco-labels during pre ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eco-labels inform consumers regarding products' environmental friendliness and emerged as a world-wide phenomenon because of increased environmental awareness and concern. Textile eco-labels, which are also available in South Africa, are intended to help consumers make decisions regarding textile products with ...

  1. ECO D2.2 Instructional design and scenarios for MOOCs version 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morgado, Lina; Mota, José; Jansen, Darco; Fano, Santiago; Tomasini, Alessandra; Silva, Alejandro; Fueyo Gutiérrez, Aquilina; Giannatelli, Ada; Brouns, Francis

    2014-01-01

    This document presents a definition for ECO sMOOCs, their characteristics and the underlying pedagogical model. ECO sMOOCs are seen as part of the Open Education movement. Therefore, they are intended to remove all unnecessary barriers to learning and provide participants with a reasonable chance of

  2. What Makes Eco-Transformation of Industrial Parks Take Off in China?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Chang; Dijkema, Gerard P.J.; de Jong, Martin

    This article focuses on the effects of policy instruments for developing viable eco-industrial parks (EIPs) in China. We analyzed the root of China's national EIP program and inventoried the general instruments available to local authorities to shape and promote eco-industrial development. Empirical

  3. Construction and curation of a large ecotoxicological dataset for the EcoTTC

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Ecological Threshold for Toxicological Concern, or ecoTTC, has been proposed as a natural next step to the well-known human safety TTC concept. The ecoTTC is particularly suited for use as an early screening tool in the risk assessment process, in situations where chemical h...

  4. Uma jornada histórica de Umberto Eco em busca da beleza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Cristina Senko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Esta é uma resenha da importante obra de Umberto Eco "História da Beleza". ECO, Umberto. História da Beleza. Tradução de Eliana Aguiar. 3ª edição. Rio de Janeiro: Record, 2013, 438 p.

  5. Tailored Treatment of Colorectal Cancer: Surgical, Molecular, and Genetic Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knut Magne Augestad

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is a complex cancer disease, and approximately 40% of the surgically cured patients will experience cancer recurrence within 5 years. During recent years, research has shown that CRC treatment should be tailored to the individual patient due to the wide variety of risk factors, genetic factors, and surgical complexity. In this review, we provide an overview of the considerations that are needed to provide an individualized, patient-tailored treatment. We emphasize the need to assess the predictors of CRC, and we summarize the latest research on CRC genetics and immunotherapy. Finally, we provide a summary of the significant variations in the colon and rectal anatomy that is important to consider in an individualized surgical approach. For the individual patient with CRC, a tailored treatment approach is needed in the preoperative, operative, and postoperative phase.

  6. Tailorable Stimulated Brillouin Scattering in Nanoscale Silicon Waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Shin, Heedeuk; Jarecki, Robert; Cox, Jonathan A; Olsson, Roy H; Starbuck, Andrew; Wang, Zheng; Rakich, Peter T

    2013-01-01

    While nanoscale modal confinement radically enhances a variety of nonlinear light-matter interactions within silicon waveguides, traveling-wave stimulated Brillouin scattering nonlinearities have never been observed in silicon nanophotonics. Through a new class of hybrid photonic-phononic waveguides, we demonstrate tailorable traveling-wave forward stimulated Brillouin scattering in nanophotonic silicon waveguides for the first time, yielding 3000 times stronger forward SBS responses than any previous waveguide system. Simulations reveal that a coherent combination of electrostrictive forces and radiation pressures are responsible for greatly enhanced photon-phonon coupling at nano-scales. Highly tailorable Brillouin nonlinearities are produced by engineering the structure of a membrane-suspended waveguide to yield Brillouin resonances from 1 to 18 GHz through high quality-factor (>1000) phonon modes. Such wideband and tailorable stimulated Brillouin scattering in silicon photonics could enable practical real...

  7. The important role of civil society groups in eco-innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yan; Holgaard, Jette Egelund

    2012-01-01

    the role of civil society groups in eco-innovation by addressing the following research questions: Why is it necessary to stress that civil society groups are as important as university, industry and government in eco-innovation? What inspiration can “triple helix twins” and “quadruple helix” provide when......-innovation studies. Practically, eco-innovation practices from Danish and Chinese companies show that: non-governmental organizations (NGOs) play an important role as external expert knowledge providers, mediators and supporters of green business; the practices of the Danish case company indicate that civil society...... actors and indicates the importance of analysing “mixed” organizations representing by linkages between the four actors. Social implications – The peculiarities of eco-innovation indicate that eco-innovation policy and strategy making should take civil society groups into consideration...

  8. Eco-balance of a vacuum insulation panel (VIP); Oekobilanz eines Vakuum-Isolations-Paneels (VIP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schonhardt, U.; Binz, A.; Wohler, M.; Dott, R. [Institut fuer Energie - Fachhochschule beider Basel, Muttenz (Switzerland); Frischknecht, R. [ESU-services, Uster (Switzerland)

    2003-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) made by the Institute for Energy at the University of Applied Sciences in Muttenz and ESU Services in Uster, Switzerland, presents the results of an eco-balance made on the ecological impact of vacuum insulation panels. These panels are being used more and more instead of bulky, traditional insulation materials. The three eco-balance models used - Eco-Indicator 99, Ecological Scarcity UBP 97 and Cumulative Energy Use KEA - are introduced. Comparisons were made between vacuum insulation systems and glass-fibre and polystyrene insulation materials. The methods used are described and the results of the eco-balance analyses made are presented for the three types of insulation. In an appendix to the report, the influence of power generation methods and transport services on the eco-balance is discussed.

  9. Vegetarian Eco-feminist Consciousness in Carol Ann Duffy’s Poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Zhou

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses vegetarian eco-feminist consciousness in Carol Ann Duffy’s poetry by close analysis of two poems, namely “The Dolphins” and “A Healthy Diet” from her poem collection Standing Female Nude. The former is a dramatic monologue of a dolphin, which is exploited by people, and the latter is a dramatic monologue of an omnipotent observer in a restaurant. Both poems criticized the species-ism, and together, they showed the poet’s vegetarian eco-feminist consciousness. A close reading of the two poems from the eco-feminist perspective helps the reader understand why Carol Ann Duffy is honored as the first woman poet laureate in British history, and better understand vegetarian eco-feminism and its influence in British society. Keywords: eco-feminism; consciousness, species-ism, vegetarian, animal, diet

  10. ECO-PHILOSOPHY SEBAGAI CETAK BIRU FILSAFAT RAMAH LINGKUNGAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supian Supian

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article proves that there is a significant relationship between the Islamic philosophy along with spiritual ecology and the ecological crisis and its solution. Loss of views and beliefs of spiritual ecology are among causes of environmental damage and the universe. Therefore, the restoration of spiritual ecology and its relationship to ecological values will play a pivotal role in the conservation and rescuing of natural and environmental crisis. Spiritual and Islamic philosophical values have ecological implications and consequences that should be the attitude and lifestyle in creating a harmonious relationship between God, man, and the universe. Eco-philosophy presents what so-called the values of spirituality as its base and emphasizes that humans remain to be special from other creatures. However, such privilege has to be a burden for humans and they are obliged to maintain and preserve the universe with spirituality and based on cosmic theology as coined in Islamic philosophy.Keywords: eco-philosophy, ecological crisis, spiritual ecology, cosmic teleology.

  11. ECO-TOURISM SUSTAINABILITY THROUGH PV TECHNOLOGY: A COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARAVIND C. V

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Through the Economic Transformation program the Malaysian Government aims to consider tourism as one of the major contributors to the country’s economy and as an industry that imbibe on the principles of environmental responsibility and sustainable development. The growing challenges in the prevention of expansion in agriculture, forestry and aquaculture, and over-exploitation of the natural resources, have made ecotourism extremely popular as a solution for developing tourism sites. Ecotourism attracts many people who wish not only to explore natural wonders but also to protect them for future generations. Most of the ecotourism sites are presumably situated far from the conventional energy resources and thus transporting electricity to those areas are discussed as inefficient and unsustainable. However, solar Photo-voltaic (PV system is clean and alternative energy to suffice the energy demands of eco-tourist sites. This paper puts statements of the energy demand in global and its impact on the traditional fossil fuels and proposes PV as an alternative renewable technology pertaining to the eco-tourism application. The paper especially focuses on solar PV systems which not only could supply the energy demand of tourist sites but can also maintain the image of the ecotourism. A case of a model lodge is used for the study, through the energy demand analysis. A comprehensive review on the PV architecture is presented that derive interest in the implementation of such structure for the case presented.

  12. Pre-Service Teacher Opinions about Eco-Friendly Person Activity Package Developed to Raise Environmental Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candan, Sevcan; Erten, Sinan

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the effectiveness of Eco-Friendly Person Activity Package developed in order to raise environmental awareness in pre-service teachers and enable them to be an example of an eco-friendly teacher for their future students, and the responses about Eco-Friendly Person Activity Package were investigated. The study was conducted on 75…

  13. Tailoring hierarchical structures in selective laser melted materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Jon; Zhou, Xin; Zhong, Yuan; Liu, Leifeng; Wang, Dianzheng; Yu, Chenfan; Wang, Yafei; Li, Kailun; Xing, Leilei; Ma, Jing; Cui, Daqing; Liu, Wei; Shen, Zhijian

    2017-07-01

    With selective laser melting the potential to manufacture a wide variety of geometries from different materials has presented itself. Interest in this technology keeps growing every year, and with that growth a deeper understanding of the process and resulting materials is urgently needed. In this paper we present a short overview of the structural elements that appear during selective laser melting, and explain how to tailor them to achieve specific structures and material properties. Melt-pools, texture and grains, subgrain cells, and inclusions are the elements discussed herein, and tailoring of these elements can have effects on density, and corrosion resistance, as well as mechanical properties in general.

  14. Building Tailorable Hypermedia Systems: The embedded-interpreter approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbæk, Kaj; Malhotra, Jawahar

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses an approach for developing dynamically tailorable hypermedia systems in an object-oriented environment. The approach is aimed at making applications developed in compiled languages like Beta and C++ tailorable at run-time. The approach is based on use of: 1) a hypermedia...... application framework (DEVISE Hyper-media), and 2) an embeddable interpreter for the framework language. A specific hypermedia system is instantiated from the framework with the interpreter embedded in the executable. The specific hypermedia system has a number of “open points” which can be filled via...

  15. Aeroelastic Tailoring of Transport Wings Including Transonic Flutter Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, Bret K.; Wieseman, Carol D.; Jutte, Christine V.

    2015-01-01

    Several minimum-mass optimization problems are solved to evaluate the effectiveness of a variety of novel tailoring schemes for subsonic transport wings. Aeroelastic stress and panel buckling constraints are imposed across several trimmed static maneuver loads, in addition to a transonic flutter margin constraint, captured with aerodynamic influence coefficient-based tools. Tailoring with metallic thickness variations, functionally graded materials, balanced or unbalanced composite laminates, curvilinear tow steering, and distributed trailing edge control effectors are all found to provide reductions in structural wing mass with varying degrees of success. The question as to whether this wing mass reduction will offset the increased manufacturing cost is left unresolved for each case.

  16. Tailoring Dispersion properties of photonic crystal waveguides by topology optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stainko, Roman; Sigmund, Ole

    2007-01-01

    The paper describes a systematic method for the tailoring of dispersion properties of slab-based photonic crystal waveguides. The method is based on the topology optimization method which consists in repeated finite element frequency domain analyzes, analytical sensitivity analyzes and gradient...... based design updates. The goal of the optimization process is to come up with slow light, zero group velocity dispersion photonic waveguides or photonic waveguides with tailored dispersion properties for dispersion compensation purposes. Two examples concerning reproduction of a specific dispersion...... curve and design of a wide bandwidth, constant low group velocity waveguide demonstrate the efficiency of the method....

  17. Eco-design pilot project in China - Monsoon offer 2 upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thai, Roselyne; Liu, Guoguo

    2017-11-01

    During COP21, Schneider Electric has committed that 100% of our new products would be eco-designed to tackle climate change. Launched in 2015, this initiative ecoDesign WayTM was tested on some pilot projects. This project covers the first ecoDesign WayTM pilot in China on an overvoltage or under voltage protective device used in both residential and industrial sectors, called Monsoon. Under the name ecoDesign WayTM, a method and a process have been deployed. The 3 main ecoDesign WayTM phases are: phase 1 - Marketing & Technique handshake, Phase 2 - ecoDesign WayTM follow-up and Phase 3 - Marketing communication. During the project, EIME from Bureau Veritas CODDE and ecoDesign WayTM scorecard from EVEA consulting are two core tools for eco-design implementation. They are respectively used for life cycle assessment and eco-design performance comparison. Thanks to the approach, compared to previous range, pollution emissions and resource depletion along the whole life cycle of product have decreased (reduction of 55% for energy depletion and 85% for water depletion). Global warming potential has dramatically decreased by 98.4% and air pollution by 33%. Meanwhile, the recycling rate has been improved by 18%, and recycled PA is used. The ecoDesign WayTM scorecard is stored as referent document for any customer request. Moreover, customers can access RoHS certificate, REACh declaration, PEP and EoLI in Check a product, an online environmental data repository, available 24/7.

  18. Eco-compensation in multi-district river networks in north Jiangsu, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Rongrong; Pang, Yong; Li, Zhe; Zhang, Ninghong; Hu, Fenjuan

    2013-04-01

    Eco-compensation is a multi-disciplinary topic. There is no consensus on the issue of river eco-compensation across districts. Although policies regarding river eco-compensation have been issued in China since 2008, due to the high cost, eco-compensation has not been well implemented in the Taihu pilot region. Therefore, a simplified method based solely on water quality (both water quality and water volume included in the Taihu method) was proposed for North Jiangsu province (NJP). However, the formula was flawed and it led to payments being too low. Three problems need to be solved: (1) how to specify the eco-compensation areas; (2) how to test a reasonable eco-compensation model and (3) how to determine the compensation criterion. Solving these issues is already a priority. In this paper, three potential solutions surrounding eco-compensation are discussed: (1) three principles for selecting the representative eco-compensation areas are suggested; (2) the compensation calculation method based on contaminant flux above the ultra standard is revised and (3) a compensation criterion model based on the treatment costs of sewage is proposed. In the NJP case in 2009, the average eco-compensation criterion for chemical oxygen demand (COD) is 2,000 Chinese Yuan (CNY) per ton and ammonia nitrogen (NH4-N) and total phosphorus (TP) are 8,000 CNY and 80,000 CNY per ton, respectively. Five districts needed to be compensated. The payments in the revised scheme were 4.15-586 million CNY, which were 16-48 times greater than that in the draft method. The new method can provide an important template for managers when drafting river eco-compensation schemes.

  19. Redesigning the marketing mix for eco-friendly product consumption among non-purchasers in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chockalingam Senthil Nathan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was created in order to customise the marketing mix for non-purchasers of eco-friendly products by studying their perspectives on the introduction of eco-friendly variants of the regular products that they are using in particular product categories (personal care and home care. Overall previous literature reviews in this area imply that there is a gap in the scientific literature on the marketing mix formulation for converting non-purchasers into purchasers of eco-friendly products to augment eco-friendly product sales and adopt green marketing. As literature reviews had clearly indicated that green purchasers have a very low percentage when compared to non-purchasers, the purpose is to create new opportunities for successful green marketing as the study tries to convert non-purchasers into purchasers. We used descriptive research design to study a sample of 885 respondents, who were surveyed in 2 cities in the Tamil Nadu state in India, to acquire an in-depth understanding of consumer behaviour that would enable the consumption of eco-friendly products among non-purchasers. The results reveal the marketing mix requirement and the eco-friendly aspects needed by the non-purchasers in order to buy the eco-friendly variants. The research sheds light on the product, price and promotion components that will attract non-purchases of eco-friendly products to buy eco-friendly products, thus facilitating green marketing mix adaptation. The study will provide valuable input for further research in formulating the marketing mix necessary to enable consumption of eco-friendly products in different geographical locations and various product categories.

  20. Ecological risk assessment of land use change in the Poyang Lake Eco-economic Zone, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Hualin; Wang, Peng; Huang, Hongsheng

    2013-01-14

    Land use/land cover change has been attracting increasing attention in the field of global environmental change research because of its role in the social and ecological environment. To explore the ecological risk characteristics of land use change in the Poyang Lake Eco-economic Zone of China, an eco-risk index was established in this study by the combination of a landscape disturbance index with a landscape fragmentation index. Spatial distribution and gradient difference of land use eco-risk are analyzed by using the methods of spatial autocorrelation and semivariance. Results show that ecological risk in the study area has a positive correlation, and there is a decreasing trend with the increase of grain size both in 1995 and 2005. Because the area of high eco-risk value increased from 1995 to 2005, eco-environment quality declined slightly in the study area. There are distinct spatial changes in the concentrated areas with high land use eco-risk values from 1995 to 2005. The step length of spatial separation of land use eco-risk is comparatively long - 58 km in 1995 and 11 km in 2005 - respectively. There are still nonstructural factors affecting the quality of the regional ecological environment at some small-scales. Our research results can provide some useful information for land eco-management, eco-environmental harnessing and restoration. In the future, some measures should be put forward in the regions with high eco-risk value, which include strengthening land use management, avoiding unreasonable types of land use and reducing the degree of fragmentation and separation.

  1. A novel mechanism for the establishment of sister chromatid cohesion by the ECO1 acetyltransferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guacci, Vincent; Stricklin, Jeremiah; Bloom, Michelle S; Guō, Xuánzōng; Bhatter, Meghna; Koshland, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    Cohesin complex mediates cohesion between sister chromatids, which promotes high-fidelity chromosome segregation. Eco1p acetylates the cohesin subunit Smc3p during S phase to establish cohesion. The current model posits that this Eco1p-mediated acetylation promotes establishment by abrogating the ability of Wpl1p to destabilize cohesin binding to chromosomes. Here we present data from budding yeast that is incompatible with this Wpl1p-centric model. Two independent in vivo assays show that a wpl1∆ fails to suppress cohesion defects of eco1∆ cells. Moreover, a wpl1∆ also fails to suppress cohesion defects engendered by blocking just the essential Eco1p acetylation sites on Smc3p (K112, K113). Thus removing WPL1 inhibition is insufficient for generating cohesion without ECO1 activity. To elucidate how ECO1 promotes cohesion, we conducted a genetic screen and identified a cohesion activator mutation in the SMC3 head domain (D1189H). Smc3-D1189H partially restores cohesion in eco1∆ wpl1∆ or eco1 mutant cells but robustly restores cohesion in cells blocked for Smc3p K112 K113 acetylation. These data support two important conclusions. First, acetylation of the K112 K113 region by Eco1p promotes cohesion establishment by altering Smc3p head function independent of its ability to antagonize Wpl1p. Second, Eco1p targets other than Smc3p K112 K113 are necessary for efficient establishment. © 2015 Guacci et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  2. Properties of Interfacial Tribo-Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-01

    power loss due to friction heiltino W0 increases witht increasing load (P). friction (as) and sliding :p~ed (v), as Automated Brush Tester JAP eq.6 Oue to...P.J. 19. D.M. Alley, LJ. Hagen. 0. Kuhlmann-Wilsdorl. 0.0. Blaul. ASM, Metals Parx. OH, 1988. p:. . -.32. Makel and C.G, Moorte. * Automated Aippaiatus...volume quelconque (appele bloc cellulaire ) le nombre de systemes de glissement niatteint pas celui que requiert la deformation homogine (Taylor), mais

  3. PULSED MODE LASER CUTTING OF SHEETS FOR TAILORED BLANKS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Claus; Olsen, Flemming Ove

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes how the laser cutting process can be optimised in such a way that the cut sheets can subsequently be used to laser weld tailored blanks. In a number of systematic laboratory experiments the effect of cutting speed, assist gas pressure, average laser power and pulse energy was...

  4. Tailoring magnetic and dielectric properties of rubber ferrite ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 24; Issue 6. Tailoring magnetic and dielectric properties of rubber ferrite composites containing mixed ferrites. M R Anantharaman K A Malini S Sindhu E M Mohammed S K Date S D Kulkarni P A Joy Philip Kurian. Magnetic Materials Volume 24 Issue 6 December 2001 ...

  5. New ERP Methods Tailored Onto Single Subject Neuroanatomical Variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girelli, Massimo

    2017-07-01

    Gebodh and coworkers present an innovative method for strengthening the reliability with which event-related potential (ERP) components are recorded. By tailoring the experimental design to the neuroanatomical singularity of each observer, this method provides more robust and cleaner data.

  6. Tailorable Trimethyl chitosans as adjuvant for intranasal immunization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheul, R.J.

    2010-01-01

    Tailorable Trimethyl Chitosans as Adjuvant for Intranasal Immunization Active vaccination has proven to be the most (cost) effective tool in the fight against infectious diseases. Nowadays, most vaccines are administered via parenteral injection. However, the risk of contaminated needles and need

  7. Enabling Tailored Music Programs in Elementary Schools: An Australian Exemplar

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFerran, Katrina Skewes; Crooke, Alexander Hew Dale

    2014-01-01

    Participation in meaningful school music programs is the right of all children. Although music education is widely supported by policy, significant gaps exist in practice in most developed Western countries. These gaps mean the extrinsic and intrinsic benefits associated with participation in tailored programs are not equally available to all…

  8. Tailor-made blanks for the aircraft industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zad Poor, A.A.

    2010-01-01

    Tailor-Made Blanks (TMBs) are hybrid assemblies made of sheet metals with different materials and/or thicknesses that are joined together prior to forming. Alternatively, a monolithic sheet can be machined to create required thickness variations (machined TMBs). The possibility of having several

  9. Insights in the Efficacy of Computer-tailored Nutrition Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Kroeze (Willemieke)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractSaturated fat intake is an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, one of the main burdens of disease worldwide. Therefore it is important to use population-wide health promotion efforts to target this risk behavior. Computer-tailored nutrition education has been found to be a

  10. Patient-tailored ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fauser, Bart C. J. M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/071281932

    2017-01-01

    At present, much attention in medicine is being directed toward individualized or patient-tailored care with the use of novel tools such as biomarkers or genomics. Research tools different from randomized controlled trials, focusing on the heterogeneity of patients rather than the intervention per

  11. Microstructural gradients in thin hard coatings -- tailor-made

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pantleon, Karen; Oettel, Heinrich

    1998-01-01

    ) alternating sputtering with and without substrate voltage and (c) pulsed bias voltage. On the basis of X-ray diffraction measurements, it is demonstrated that residual stress gradients and texture gradients can be designed tailor-made. Furthermore, results of microhardness measurements and scratch tests...

  12. Molecular tailoring approach for exploring structures, energetics and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Molecular Tailoring Approach (MTA) is a method developed for enabling ab initio calculations on prohibitively large molecules or atomic/molecular clusters. A brief review of MTA, a linear scaling technique based on set inclusion and exclusion principle, is provided. The Molecular Electrostatic Potential (MESP) of smaller ...

  13. Tailoring approach for obtaining molecular orbitals of large systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    With this view, an attempt is made in the present work to employ molecular tailoring approach (MTA) for obtaining the complete set of MO's including occupied and virtual orbitals, for large molecules at HF and B3LYP levels of theory. The energies of highest occupied and lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals, and hence the ...

  14. Design and Testing of Aeroelastically Tailored Wings Under Maneuver Loading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werter, N.P.M.; Sodja, J.; De Breuker, R.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the present paper is to provide experimental validation data for the aeroelastic analysis of composite aeroelastically tailored wings with a closed-cell cross-sectional structure. Several rectangular wings with differ- ent skin thicknesses and composite layups are designed in order to

  15. Understanding the impact of graphene sheet tailoring on the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The effect of tailoring the graphene sheets used as channel in a graphene nanoribbon field effect transistor (GNRFET) was investigated. The study was performed using self-consistent solution of Poisson's and Schrodinger's equation in combination with non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF) formalism. Graphene sheet ...

  16. INTRODUCTION The tailor or weaver ants of genus Oecophylla ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    INTRODUCTION. The tailor or weaver ants of genus Oecophylla. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) are eusocial insects. They are obligately arboreal and are known for their unique nest building behaviour where workers construct nests by weaving together leaves using larval silk. Colonies can be extremely large with a mature ...

  17. The Promise of Tailoring Incentives for Healthy Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullgren, Jeffrey T; Williams, Geoffrey C; Resnicow, Kenneth; An, Lawrence C; Rothberg, Amy; Volpp, Kevin G; Heisler, Michele

    2016-01-01

    To describe how tailoring financial incentives for healthy behaviors to employees' goals, values, and aspirations might improve the efficacy of incentives. We integrate insights from self-determination theory (SDT) with principles from behavioral economics in the design of financial incentives by linking how incentives could help meet an employee's life goals, values, or aspirations. Tailored financial incentives could be more effective than standard incentives in promoting autonomous motivation necessary to initiate healthy behaviors and sustain them after incentives are removed. Previous efforts to improve the design of financial incentives have tested different incentive designs that vary the size, schedule, timing, and target of incentives. Our strategy for tailoring incentives builds on strong evidence that difficult behavior changes are more successful when integrated with important life goals and values. We outline necessary research to examine the effectiveness of this approach among at-risk employees. Instead of offering simple financial rewards for engaging in healthy behaviors, existing programs could leverage incentives to promote employees' autonomous motivation for sustained health improvements. Effective application of these concepts could lead to programs more effective at improving health, potentially at lower cost. Our approach for the first time integrates key insights from SDT, behavioral economics, and tailoring to turn an extrinsic reward for behavior change into an internalized, self-sustaining motivator for long-term engagement in risk-reducing behaviors.

  18. Tailoring the Systems Engineering Technical Review Implementation Within Naval Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    SYSTEMS ENGINEERING TECHNICAL REVIEW IMPLEMENTATION WITHIN NAVAL ACQUISITION by Heather B. Burke September 2017 Thesis Advisor: Walter E...2017 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE TAILORING THE SYSTEMS ENGINEERING TECHNICAL REVIEW IMPLEMENTATION...STATEMENT Approved for public release. Distribution is unlimited. 12b. DISTRIBUTION CODE 13. ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words) The systems engineering

  19. RESOLVE and ECO: Galaxy Refueling Transitions in Environmental Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannappan, Sheila; Moffett, A. J.; Eckert, K. D.; Stark, D.; Norris, M. A.; Berlind, A. A.; the RESOLVE Team

    2014-01-01

    Recent work has demonstrated that galaxies undergo two key transitions in refueling. Below the threshold mass (baryonic mass Mbar 10^10 Msun or 125 km/s), gas-dominated late-type galaxies and blue, disk-building E/S0 galaxies become abundant, reflecting an increase in accretion-dominated states. Between the threshold mass and the bimodality mass (Mbar 10^10.6 Msun or 200 km/s), "normal" intermediate gas content bulged spiral galaxies like our Milky Way become most common, reflecting reduced accretion, while at higher masses quenched E/S0s start to dominate. Notwithstanding these results, the high scatter in gas and long-term star formation trends as a function of galaxy mass implies that mass is a secondary driver of refueling, motivating an inquiry into the role of environment. We present two surveys designed to meet this need: the REsolved Spectroscopy Of a Local VolumE (RESOLVE) survey and the Environmental COntext (ECO) catalog encompassing it. Initially selected from the SDSS, both surveys offer enhanced redshift completeness and custom reprocessed NUV+ugriz+JHK photometry. RESOLVE comprises >1500 galaxies down to baryonic mass ~10^9 Msun, for which we are building a comprehensive census of stellar, gas, and dynamical mass as well as star formation and environment data. The RESOLVE database includes spatially resolved optical spectroscopy from SOAR, SALT, and Gemini in both high-resolution kinematic mode and low-resolution stellar population mode, as well as deep 21cm observations from the GBT and Arecibo aimed at detecting HI down to 5%-10% of each galaxy's stellar mass. ECO has nearly ten times larger volume than RESOLVE, with matched environment and stellar mass metrics as well as shallower HI data inherited from the 21cm ALFALFA survey, but only SDSS spectroscopy. Here we use the first wave of gas, star formation, and environment data for RESOLVE and ECO to explore the halo mass dependence of refueling, finding that both gas-dominated galaxies and blue

  20. ECO-INTELLIGENT TOOLS – A NECESSITY FOR SUSTAINABLE BUSINESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Nate

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Many of the challenges associated with sustainable development can be traced in the way modern society produces and consumes. Production, distribution and supply of goods and services require material and energy consumption, having an impact on natural resources both quantitatively and qualitatively, generating waste, pollution and disrupting ecosystems. Ecobusiness intelligence is the capacity of people, processes and applications / tools to organize business information, to facilitate consistent access to them and analyse them in order to improve management decisions, for better performance management of the organizations that are increasingly pressed to synchronize their processes and services with a sustainable development agenda, through the development, testing and implementation of decision support software. By adopting sustainable practices, eco – intelligent companies can gain added value, increase market share and boost shareholder value. Moreover, the growing demand for "green" products has created new markets and the visionary entrepreneurs already reap the rewards of approaching sustainability. Large and small companies are learning that sustainable business practices not only help the environment but also can improve profitability by pursuing higher efficiency, fewer harmful side-effects, and better relationships with the community and more. Gaining competitive advantage is a core concern of the companies and the existence of systems of identification, extraction and analysis of available data in a company, but also from the external environment, to provide real support for business decisions, is an essential ingredient of success. This paper highlights the necessity of eco-intelligent tools that help determining the organization's strategies, identifying the perceptions and capabilities of the competitors, analyzing the effectiveness of current operations, deploying long-term prospects for environmental action and establishing

  1. Application of environmental performance analysis for urban design with Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD and EcoTect tools: The case of Cao Fei Dian eco-city, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Cheshmehzangi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper suggests a type of quantitative research method with the application of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD and EcoTect tools for a sustainable urban design project. This paper is part of a funded research study and was completed in 2010. This study is part of the larger project for planning and development of Cao Fei Dian eco-city development in North-Eastern China; one of the first eco-city development projects in the first batch of pilot eco-cities in China. The research programme addresses the main aspects of good practice in terms of eco-design and sustainability. These aspects include wind flow analysis around buildings, insolation analysis of open spaces, pollutant dispersion in water systems and noise control on urban highways. This study aims to explore a range of research methods in order to enhance the performance of integrated design with a comprehensive planning stage. The integration in evaluation across professions and subject boundaries is emphasised to identify the key gaps between sustainability and design. The main method of this study is the application of CFD and EcoTect tools for environmental performance of a larger urban area than the common use for architectural interventions or immediate outdoor spaces of a project. This study suggests an integrated urban design model with the application of computational tools (i.e. CFD and EcoTect in here and how these could inform, from a technical dimension, a more comprehensive approach to executing best practice in design and planning. The paper concludes by suggesting an integrated model of urban design to achieve urban sustainability.

  2. Global Risk Management – A Necessity in a World of Vulnerabilities and of ECO-Economy and BIO -ECO-Economy Needed by ECO-SANO-Genesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Gurgu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The Vision of the Eco-Bio-Economy is to sustain development of the humankind welfare in all forms, through an economy of future dedicated to human life through the rational use of the environmental resources. The present work attempts to discuss the issues that humanity faces at the beginning of a new global economic paradigm. The minimum point of the financial crisis started in 2008 meets the final years of the decline phase of the long term global economic cycle. The feeling is one of lack of vision on the part of Governments, of improvisation, of passive reaction, such as seeing and doing. One feels that the economic context is worn out , dysfunctional because of deep recovery problems. The perception, not far from the taugh reality, is that of a national competition meant to minimize losses caused by the financial crisis and to use beggar thy neighbor types of policies, similar to finding the way out of the crisis on the expense of others.

  3. Plant-wide control: eco-efficiency and control loop configuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munir, M T; Yu, W; Young, B R

    2013-01-01

    Since the eco-efficiency of all industrial processes/plants has become increasingly important, engineers need to find a way to integrate the control loop configuration and the measurements of eco-efficiency. A new measure of eco-efficiency, the exergy eco-efficiency factor, for control loop configuration, is proposed in this paper. The exergy eco-efficiency factor is based on the thermodynamic concept of exergy which can be used to analyse a process in terms of its efficiency associated with the control configuration. The combination of control pairing configuration techniques (such as the relative gain array, RGA and Niederlinski index, NI) and the proposed exergy eco-efficiency factor will guide the process designer to reach the optimal control design with low operational cost (i.e., energy consumption). The exergy eco-efficiency factor is implemented in the process simulation case study and the reliability of the proposed method is demonstrated by dynamic simulation results. Copyright © 2012 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Synthesis of Constructs for Modeling Consumers’ Understanding and Perception of Eco-Labels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Md Raziuddin Taufique

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The term “eco-labeling” has become a buzzword in today’s sustainable business world. The use of eco-labeling in various forms has been increasing notably for past many years, sometimes as an environmental “requirement” and sometimes merely as a marketing tool. Questions arise about how well these eco-labels are attended and understood by consumers. However, though mentionable studies are found on various aspects of eco-labels, gaps exist in exploring an inclusive set of parameters for investigating consumer perceptions of eco-labels. This paper aims at preparing a synthesis of all the possible factors to be incorporated for measuring consumer perceptions of eco-labeling of products. For making such synthesis, all major works in the field have been thoroughly reviewed. The paper comes up with a total of 10 parameters that include consumer awareness, consumer knowledge, consumer involvement, consumer trust, design and visibility, credibility of the source, type and level of information, clarity of meaning, persuasiveness, and private benefits. This tentative, yet inclusive, set of parameters is thought to be useful for designing large scale future empirical researches for developing a dependable inclusive set of parameters to test consumer understanding and perceptions of eco-label. A framework is proposed for further empirical research.

  5. Asymmetric DNA methylation by dimeric EcoP15I DNA methyltransferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urulangodi, Madhusoodanan; Dhanaraju, Rajkumar; Gupta, Kanchan; Roy, Rajendra P; Bujnicki, Janusz M; Rao, Desirazu N

    2016-01-01

    EcoP15I DNA methyltransferase (M.EcoP15I) recognizes short asymmetric sequence, 5'-CAGCAG-3', and methylates the second adenine only on one strand of the double-stranded DNA (dsDNA). In vivo, this methylation is sufficient to protect the host DNA from cleavage by the cognate restriction endonuclease, R.EcoP15I, because of the stringent cleavage specificity requirements. Biochemical and structural characterization support the notion that purified M.EcoP15I exists and functions as dimer. However, the exact role of dimerization in M.EcoP15I reaction mechanism remains elusive. Here we engineered M.EcoP15I to a stable monomeric form and studied the role of dimerization in enzyme catalyzed methylation reaction. While the monomeric form binds single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) containing the recognition sequence it is unable to methylate it. Further we show that, while the monomeric form has AdoMet binding and Mg(2+) binding motifs intact, optimal dsDNA binding required for methylation is dependent on dimerization. Together, our biochemical data supports a unique subunit organization for M.EcoP15I to catalyze the methylation reaction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  6. First Image Products from EcoSAR - Osa Peninsula, Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmanoglu, Batuhan; Lee, SeungKuk; Rincon, Rafael; Fatuyinbo, Lola; Bollian, Tobias; Ranson, Jon

    2016-01-01

    Designed especially for forest ecosystem studies, EcoSAR employs state-of-the-art digital beamforming technology to generate wide-swath, high-resolution imagery. EcoSARs dual antenna single-pass imaging capability eliminates temporal decorrelation from polarimetric and interferometric analysis, increasing the signal strength and simplifying models used to invert forest structure parameters. Antennae are physically separated by 25 meters providing single pass interferometry. In this mode the radar is most sensitive to topography. With 32 active transmit and receive channels, EcoSARs digital beamforming is an order of magnitude more versatile than the digital beamforming employed on the upcoming NISAR mission. EcoSARs long wavelength (P-band, 435 MHz, 69 cm) measurements can be used to simulate data products for ESAs future BIOMASS mission, allowing scientists to develop algorithms before the launch of the satellite. EcoSAR can also be deployed to collect much needed data where BIOMASS satellite wont be allowed to collect data (North America, Europe and Arctic), filling in the gaps to keep a watchful eye on the global carbon cycle. EcoSAR can play a vital role in monitoring, reporting and verification schemes of internationals programs such as UN-REDD (United Nations Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation) benefiting global society. EcoSAR was developed and flown with support from NASA Earth Sciences Technology Offices Instrument Incubator Program.

  7. ecoPrimers: inference of new DNA barcode markers from whole genome sequence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaz, Tiayyba; Shehzad, Wasim; Viari, Alain; Pompanon, François; Taberlet, Pierre; Coissac, Eric

    2011-11-01

    Using non-conventional markers, DNA metabarcoding allows biodiversity assessment from complex substrates. In this article, we present ecoPrimers, a software for identifying new barcode markers and their associated PCR primers. ecoPrimers scans whole genomes to find such markers without a priori knowledge. ecoPrimers optimizes two quality indices measuring taxonomical range and discrimination to select the most efficient markers from a set of reference sequences, according to specific experimental constraints such as marker length or specifically targeted taxa. The key step of the algorithm is the identification of conserved regions among reference sequences for anchoring primers. We propose an efficient algorithm based on data mining, that allows the analysis of huge sets of sequences. We evaluate the efficiency of ecoPrimers by running it on three different sequence sets: mitochondrial, chloroplast and bacterial genomes. Identified barcode markers correspond either to barcode regions already in use for plants or animals, or to new potential barcodes. Results from empirical experiments carried out on a promising new barcode for analyzing vertebrate diversity fully agree with expectations based on bioinformatics analysis. These tests demonstrate the efficiency of ecoPrimers for inferring new barcodes fitting with diverse experimental contexts. ecoPrimers is available as an open source project at: http://www.grenoble.prabi.fr/trac/ecoPrimers.

  8. Assessment of Eco-Environmental Stress in the Western Taiwan Straits Economic Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longyu Shi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Eco-environmental stress refers to the pressure borne by the environment in sustaining the pre-existing non-industrialized state and/or in counteracting adverse impacts caused by natural and human factors. The present article introduces the concept, research progress, and method for assessing eco-environmental stress. An eco-environmental stress index (ESI is established to assess the eco-environmental stress of 13 cities in the Western Taiwan Straits Economic Zone (hereafter referred to as the Economic Zone during the period from 2000 to 2010. The research provides a reference for the strategic planning of industrial development and environmental protection. The results show that the overall eco-environmental stress of the Economic Zone was slight and did not have significant change during the past 10 years. The cities with the most severe eco-environmental stress are distributed in the north and south of the Economic Zone. Most areas of Fujian Province have a low degree of eco-environmental stress, a situation that is being constantly improved. The regions with high atmospheric and water pollutant emissions are concentrated in the northern, middle, and southern coastal regions of the Economic Zone. The pollutant emissions of coastal cities are higher than those of inland cities. In the future, ecological restoration and compensation mechanisms should be established for regions where environmental protection and remediation is urgently needed.

  9. Extraction and localization of mesoscopic motor control signals for human ECoG neuroprosthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Justin C; Gunduz, Aysegul; Carney, Paul R; Principe, Jose C

    2008-01-15

    Electrocorticogram (ECoG) recordings for neuroprosthetics provide a mesoscopic level of abstraction of brain function between microwire single neuron recordings and the electroencephalogram (EEG). Single-trial ECoG neural interfaces require appropriate feature extraction and signal processing methods to identify and model in real-time signatures of motor events in spontaneous brain activity. Here, we develop the clinical experimental paradigm and analysis tools to record broadband (1Hz to 6kHz) ECoG from patients participating in a reaching and pointing task. Motivated by the significant role of amplitude modulated rate coding in extracellular spike based brain-machine interfaces (BMIs), we develop methods to quantify spatio-temporal intermittent increased ECoG voltages to determine if they provide viable control inputs for ECoG neural interfaces. This study seeks to explore preprocessing modalities that emphasize amplitude modulation across frequencies and channels in the ECoG above the level of noisy background fluctuations in order to derive the commands for complex, continuous control tasks. Preliminary experiments show that it is possible to derive online predictive models and spatially localize the generation of commands in the cortex for motor tasks using amplitude modulated ECoG.

  10. EcoRV catalysis with a pre-bent substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Daniel S.; Zocchi, Giovanni

    2015-05-01

    Enzymes are deformable molecules which often adapt their conformation to the substrate's geometry. In the case of restriction enzymes acting on DNA, the substrate (DNA) is deformable also. While it is well established that external mechanical stress exerted on an enzyme modulates the enzymatic activity, the effect of mechanically stressing the substrate is less explored. Here we present the restriction enzyme EcoRV with a series of pre-bent DNA substrates and observe modulation of the overall speed of the enzymatic reaction by up to a factor 50. While in all cases the reaction is slowed down compared to the unstressed substrate, we observe peaks in the reaction rate as we vary the state of stress of the DNA substrate. Both bending moments and torsional moments on the DNA substrate affect the reaction rate.

  11. Eco: Revista de la Cultura de Occidente (1960-1984

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Eduardo Jaramillo Zuluaga

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available La primera entrega de la revista Eco apareció en mayo de 1960. La última en junio de 1984. Durante ese tiempo alcanzó a publicar 272 números y más de 40.000 páginas. Sus redactores fueron Elsa Goerner (1960-1963. Hernando Valencia Goelkel (1963-1967, José María Castellet (1964, Nicolás Suescún (1967-1971. Ernesto Volkening (1971-1972 y Juan Gustavo Cobo Borda (1973-1984. Contar la historia de una revista es difícil y, evidentemente, hay muchas formas de hacerlo. Existen las historias que siguen el hilo de una cronología y existen también las que persiguen una imagen que se desplaza. El ensayo que puedo ofrecer a continuación corresponde más bien a este último tipo de historias.

  12. Towards the eco-quarters for the Pescara urban regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatella Radogna

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the experimentation is the definition of some strategies for an efficient, responsible and sustainable building requalification, in the conversion of the public housing settlements of Pescara in eco-quarters, according to the aim of supplying a contribution to the local administration for the urban regeneration policies. Considering the high pollution indicators, the study aspires to an environmentally, economically and socially suitable cohabitation of the territorial and climatic and built elements. So we propose some requalification hypothesis, for an enhancement of the housing supply in a new urban mould with a positive environmental balance and able to cheer the considered context cultural and social conditions up. 

  13. Eco-districts and Social Housing in Northern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Losasso

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available New districts and ‘eco-cities’ built between the '90s and 2000s in the Scandinavian countries and the UK, as well as in Germany, France, the Netherlands and in other European countries, represent a decisive overcoming of the experimental phase where the ecological housing was just an innovative approach limited to small pilot projects. In these districts the social housing is implemented according to percentages corresponding to the housing policies of the different countries. The role of technological choices and the characteristics of the building process have been crucial for building quality to reduce environmental impacts and to support and promote new ecologically oriented lifestyles and a wider social inclusion.

  14. MICP and Advances towards Eco-Friendly and Economical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasekar, Adharsh; Moy, Charles K. S.; Wilkinson, Stephen

    2017-07-01

    Biomineralization is a natural process aided by living organisms. Due to its applicability in ground improvement and bioremediation, Microbially Induced Calcite Precipitation (MICP) is an interdisciplinary field of study combining engineering, chemistry and microbiology. Bioremediation has been applied widely for contamination containment or removal, in this case it will be containment. MICP can also be applied to improve the efficiency of insitu bioremediation. Urease is an enzyme which can facilitate increased calcite precipitation. However the production of urease by bacteria and thus the resulting carbonate precipitation are inhibited by environmental factors including calcium concentration, bacterial concentration, pH and temperature. Under good conditions MICP can be used for heavy metal and radionuclide immobilization. However technologies such as bioconsolidation and biocementation require improvement such as time and cost. This paper highlights the application of MICP in addition to suggested improvements to make it more eco-friendly and sustainable.

  15. Energetics of Eco-Industry of Food Concentrates Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burdo O.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The determination of eco-industry in food production is formulated. The problems of processes of dehydration, heat balance and prospects of technologies directed energy action are considered. We offer the ways of solving an energy problems in product drying. The hypostases are formulated and the possibilities of laminar and turbulent diffusion to heat transfer mechanisms are analyzed. Increasing of drying speed with barodiffusional flows involvement is demonstrated. The extraction kinetic model is given in differential form. The prospects of usage directed action principles in target compounds extraction processes are analyzed. The analysis of drying technologies energy efficiency on base new similarity (similarity of energy action is carried out. We demonstrated that impulse electromagnetic field can trigger in basically new effect, which one named mechanodiffusion.

  16. Eco-friendly Crosslinking Agent for Acid Functional Acrylic Resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana Shah

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Oil from J. multifida was extracted and it was first converted into N,N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl Jatropha fatty amide (HEJFA. HEJFA has been synthesized by reaction between Jatropha oil and diethanol amine in presence of zinc oxide as a catalyst. The reaction is relatively rapid and proceeded to high yield at 200±5 OC. The resulting HEJFA was used to formulate thermosetting coating compositions. Films were cured at ambient (air drying and elevated (stove drying temperatures using N, N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl Jatropha fatty amide (HEJFA as eco-friendly crosslinking agent for acrylic resin. The coating performance of the various compositions was tested by measurement of scratch hardness, impact strength and chemical resistance. The results show better performance of the HEJFA based compositions compared to butylated melamine formaldehyde (MF based compositions.

  17. Eco-efficiency assessment of dairy wastewater reuse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rygaard, Martin; Skrydstrup, Julie; Larsen, Sille Lyster

    supply and wastewater management can limit the production capacity of an industrial facility, when local water resources are under stress or wastewater treatment capacity is limited. In such situations, the industry will seek to increase its water efficiency through implementation of new technology....... To evaluate the eco-efficiency of new technologies we have developed a method that aligns assessment of environmental impacts and value creation within a life-cycle boundary of a food processing industry. Using standard life-cycle assessment and the concept of value added we have demonstrated the method......€/ton reduction in value added. Further studies will investigate the value added from increased production capacity and potential investment savings at the public utilities. For the specific case study, a wastewater reuse scheme was found to reduce environmental impacts from dairy production...

  18. Eco-friendly polymer nanocomposites processing and properties

    CERN Document Server

    Thakur, Vijay Kumar

    2015-01-01

    This book contains precisely referenced chapters, emphasizing environment-friendly polymer nanocomposites with basic fundamentals, practicality and alternatives to traditional nanocomposites through detailed reviews of different environmental friendly materials procured from different resources, their synthesis and applications using alternative green approaches. The book aims at explaining basics of eco-friendly polymer nanocomposites from different natural resources and their chemistry along with practical applications which present a future direction in the biomedical, pharmaceutical and automotive industry. The book attempts to present emerging economic and environmentally friendly polymer nanocomposites that are free from side effects studied in the traditional nanocomposites. This book is the outcome of contributions by many experts in the field from different disciplines, with various backgrounds and expertises. This book will appeal to researchers as well as students from different disciplines. The co...

  19. Eco-morphological attributes and feeding habits in coexisting characins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portella, T; Lobón-Cerviá, J; Manna, L R; Bergallo, H G; Mazzoni, R

    2017-01-01

    The head morphology and feeding habits of pairs of characin species (family Characidae) that coexist in four different coastal rainforest streams were analysed. Coexisting species differed in size, but were very similar in eco-morphological attributes. Gut analyses revealed differences in feeding preferences for each coexisting species, indicating resource partitioning. A pattern of organization in species pairs that was repeated in the four studied streams was noticed. The pattern consisted of one slightly larger species with a feeding preference for items of allochthonous origin and another smaller species with a preference for autochthonous items. The hypothesis that small morphological differences enable the current coexistence of those species pairs was proposed. Furthermore, the results show ecological equivalence among different species in the studied streams. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  20. The need for European OneHealth/EcoHealth networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keune, Hans; Flandroy, Lucette; Thys, Séverine; De Regge, Nick; Mori, Marcella; Antoine-Moussiaux, Nicolas; Vanhove, Maarten P M; Rebolledo, Javiera; Van Gucht, Steven; Deblauwe, Isra; Hiemstra, Wim; Häsler, Barbara; Binot, Aurélie; Savic, Sara; Ruegg, Simon R; De Vries, Sjerp; Garnier, Julie; van den Berg, Thierry

    2017-01-01

    Elaborating from the European One Health/Ecohealth (OH/EH) workshop that took place in fall 2016 and aimed to bring together different communities and explore collaborative potential, the creation of European networks focusing on the development of important OH/EH perspectives was a direct output from discussions at the end of some sessions, in particular: - A network on transdisciplinary One Health education. - A network integrating inputs from social sciences in One Health/EcoHealth actions and networks. - A network aiming at translating research findings on the Environment-Microbiome-Health axis into policy making, with a view to make healthy ecosystems a cost-effective disease prevention healthcare strategy. It was also suggested that a European Community of Practice could be initiated in order to support these several concrete networking initiatives, and to help to promote the building of other emerging initiatives.

  1. Eco-Innovation Drivers in Value-Creating Networks: A Case Study of Ship Retrofitting Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Rivas Hermann

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies discuss how regulatory, technological and market drivers increasingly challenge manufacturing industries to adopt eco-innovations. However, the understanding of the process by which eco-innovations are developed and commercialized as a result of these drivers is not yet well established, in particular because these drivers are perceived differently by the end-users and their suppliers. In this paper, we address the following research question: How do eco-innovation drivers shape processes in value-creating networks? To answer this question, we carried out a case study purposely selected to understand how eco-innovation drivers, such as regulation, market pull and technology, interact and affect the eco-innovation decisions in a given industry. We analyzed the processes in an eco-innovation initiative about retrofitting old ships, contextualized in the maritime equipment and supply industry. The paper makes two novel contributions: First, we develop a framework that can support supply-network eco-innovation initiatives to deal with changes at the regulatory, market and technology levels. The framework includes elements, such as value co-creation to explore technological opportunities emerging from the interaction of the drivers or value proposition development to align multiple actors’ interests in the network and agree on shared expectations to exploit the opportunities. Second, we contribute to the emerging research area on eco-innovation processes by highlighting the lesser-known role of value-creating network dynamics. Value-creating networks can be a platform for the development of more radical eco-innovations if actors in the networks can align their value creation and capture objectives.

  2. The eco-driving effect of electric vehicles compared to conventional gasoline vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki Kato

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Eco-driving is attractive to the public, not only users of internal-combustion-engine vehicles (ICEVs including hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs but also users of electric vehicles (EVs have interest in eco-driving. In this context, a quantitative evaluation of eco-driving effect of EVs was conducted using a chassis dynamometer (C/D with an “eco-driving test mode.” This mode comprised four speed patterns selected from fifty-two real-world driving datasets collected during an eco-driving test-ride event. The four patterns had the same travel distance (5.2 km, but showed varying eco-driving achievement levels. Three ICEVs, one HEV and two EVs were tested using a C/D. Good linear relationships were found between the eco-driving achievement level and electric or fuel consumption rate of all vehicles. The reduction of CO2 emissions was also estimated. The CO2-reduction rates of the four conventional (including hybrid vehicles were 10.9%–12.6%, while those of two types of EVs were 11.7%–18.4%. These results indicate that the eco-driving tips for conventional vehicles are effective to not only ICEVs and HEVs but also EVs. Furthermore, EVs have a higher potential of eco-driving effect than ICEVs and HEVs if EVs could maintain high energy conversion efficiency at low load range. This study is intended to support the importance of the dissemination of tools like the intelligent speed adaptation (ISA to obey the regulation speed in real time. In the future, also in the development and dissemination of automated driving systems, the viewpoint of achieving the traveling purpose with less kinetic energy would be important.

  3. Relationship between eco-innovations and the impact on business performance: an empirical survey research on the Brazilian textile industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Vinicius de Oliveira Brasil

    Full Text Available Abstract This study draws from the resource-based theory and investigates the interrelationships between three types of eco-innovation (process, product, organizational and their impact on business performance. Using a structural equation design with 70 samples collected from textile industry, research results show that business performance is affected by product and organizational eco-innovations. The process and product eco-innovations significantly influence the effects of organizational eco-innovation, and there are connections between process and product eco-innovations. Research reveals that each type of eco-innovation has its own attributes, determinants, and contributions to business performance. Study on the textile sector broadens the discussion of interdependence and co-evolutionary relationships among different types of eco-innovation and demonstrates that the development of efficient innovation programs requires a holistic view and organizational and technological capabilities.

  4. Sustainable Eco Coastal Development Through Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhmanissazly, Arsi; Mursito Ardy, Yong; Abdullah

    2017-02-01

    Besides technical problems the company’s operational constraints that may effect high deficiency for the company is the company - community conflicts. Company - community conflict can also arise depends on the geographic conditions and characteristics of the community itself. Some studies has show that coastal community have higher level of social risk when compared to non-coastal community. Also, the coastal community ussually only rely on what sea provides as their main livelihood. Because of the level of education still contemtible the community couldn’t optimized the potential of their own area. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) har emerged as an important approach for addressing the social and environmental impact of company activities. Through CSR program, PT Pertamina EP Asset 3 Tambun Field (PEP) try to form value integration by utilizing resources from the community and the company by making sustainable eco - coastal living in Desa Tambaksari, Karawang, one of PEP working area. Using sustainable livelihood approach begin with compiling data by doing social mapping PEP has initiate the area to becoming Fish Processing Industry Centre. By implementing PDCA in every steps of the program, PEP has multiplied some other programs such as Organic Fish Feed Processing, Seaweed Farming and Waste Bank for Green Coastal Village. These program is PEP’s effort to create a sustainability environment by enhancing the community’s potentials as well as resolving social problems around Tambaksari. The most important result besides getting our license to operate from the community, is the community itself can grow into an eco coastal sustainable system.

  5. ECOs, FOBs, and UFOs: making sense of observational data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross Ross, J F

    2000-01-01

    Systematic observations of rat behavior are required for both standard subchronic safety studies and for neurotoxicity studies. The requirements specify subjective out-of-cage observations (eg, posture, gait, and reactivity to various stimuli such as, auditory, tactile, and noxious) using defined scales. Measurement of forelimb/hind limb grip strength, landing foot splay, and locomotor activity are also required. The observational endpoints are organized into a battery, eg, the Environmental Protection Agency functional observational battery (FOB) or expanded clinical observations (ECO). Functional and neuropathologic data are most easily integrated when the functional endpoints are organized as a neurologic exam (ie, each endpoint has a known anatomical basis and there are sufficient endpoints to cover the nervous system). Current batteries do not constitute a neurologic exam. Although ECOs and FOBs contain some components of a neurologic exam (ie, observations of gait, response to pinch), the anatomic basis for other components (eg, hind limb splay) is poorly defined. And although some functions (eg, somatomotor) are well characterized by current batteries, others (eg, vision, somatosensation) are evaluated less effectively. The measurement of locomotor activity in a novel environment is one of the most problematic parts of current functional testing batteries, although contemporary technology may provide opportunities for improving this test. The influence of inherent limitations of functional test methods is magnified by factors associated with testing for neurotoxicant-related effects during safety studies. First, most personnel at contract laboratories have little or no formal training in conducting and interpreting a neurologic examination. Second, most neurotoxicant-related lesions are bilateral, which paradoxically may produce more subtle effects than unilateral lesions. Third, most chemicals will be tested only once, and sponsors are reluctant to evaluate

  6. Development of eco-friendly polymeric materials by radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jae-hak; Shim, Kihyung; Kim, Jaeyoung; and others

    2012-12-15

    In this project, the core technologies such as fabrication of eco-friendly and high-performance bioplastics, anionic exchange membranes for the energy generation, and anisotropic conductive films (ACF) for the electronic devices were developed by using an eco-friendly and low-energy consumption radiation. In the 1{sup st} project group, the fabrication technologies of biodegradable polymer-based blends, biocompoistes, and foam were developed using a radiation crosslinking technology, and the possibility of their commercialization was evaluated through the fabrication of prototype products (fruits packaging material and adhesive) in the practical production lines. In the 2{sup nd} project group, the fabrication technology of the anion exchange membranes for alkaline fuel cell were prepared by utilizing the inherent property of radiation such as high ionizing energy and penetrating depth. The ion exchange capacity, ion conductivity, high ionizing energy and penetrating depth. The ion exchange capacity, ion conductivity, high ionizing energy and penetrating depth. The ion exchange capacity, ion conductivity, mechanical property, and chemical stability of the prepared membranes were measured. The results of the MEA performance test, the maximum power density of 115 mW and operation for 200 hours, indicates the possibility of the use of anion exchange membranes for alkaline fuel cell. In the 3rd project group, the electron beam-induced room temperature and fast curable epoxy was developed and the mechanism of electron beam-induced curing was investigated using various analytical methods. On the basis of the physical and electrical characterization, the prepared ACF exhibited lower resistance and higher tensile strength compared to that of the commercialized one.

  7. ECO and RESOLVE: Morphology and Disk Growth in Environmental Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffett, Amanda J.; Kannappan, Sheila; Berlind, Andreas A.; Eckert, Kathleen D.; Stark, David; Hendel, David; Norris, Mark A.; Grogin, Norman A.; RESOLVE Team

    2016-01-01

    We present the first data release of the Environmental COntext (ECO) catalog, which was designed to surround and complement the RESOLVE survey with matched photometry, gas and stellar mass estimates, and environment metrics for ~13,000 galaxies in a >500,000 cubic Mpc volume. In the first results from ECO, we study the phenomenon of galaxy disk growth by considering by-eye and quantitative morphological classifications as well as galaxy environments quantified using group identifications and halo abundance matching (on integrated r-band luminosity) as well as smoothed galaxy density fields. Additionally, we derive HI gas masses and upper limits from ALFALFA data and HI mass estimates from the photometric gas fraction technique. We find that blue early-type (E/S0) galaxies, gas-dominated galaxies, and UV-bright disk host galaxies all become distinctly more common below group halo mass ˜10^11.5 Msun, implying that this low group halo mass regime may be a preferred regime for significant disk growth activity. We also find that blue early-type and blue late-type galaxies inhabit environments of similar group halo mass at fixed baryonic mass, consistent with a scenario in which blue early types can regrow late-type disks. More generally, we argue that the traditional morphology-environment relation (i.e., that denser environments have more early types) can be largely attributed to the morphology-galaxy mass relation for centrals and the color-environment relation for satellites. This work has been supported through NSF grant AST-0955368.

  8. Proceedings of eco-indicators for products and materials - state of play '97

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubreuil, A. (ed.) (Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada))

    1997-01-01

    This workshop was held to address issues relating to environmental choices required by industrial designers, architects, procurement officers, policy-makers and other decision makers. Leading developers and users of eco-indicators within industry, government and the environmental community gathered to discuss environmental, scientific, social and economic issues related to eco-indicators. A total of 15 papers were presented, emphasizing eco-indicator methods for product design, architecture, materials selection and similar applications. This proceedings volume contains the text of the papers (where available), and/or the speaking notes and graphic aids used in the presentations. tabs., figs.

  9. The online potential for the development of eco-certified accommodation units in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Codruţa Adina BĂLTESCU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Internet and electronic communication have generated significant changes in the marketing strategies of accommodation units. On the other hand, sustainable development is a goal which requires concrete actions and changed mentalities. In Romania operates a number of eco-certified accommodation units. The online tools allow them to communicate the advantages and benefits of the sustainable services, and also to obtain a quick feedback from the consumers. This paper highlights the extent to which eco-certified accommodation units in our country offer relevant information to potential consumers and analyzes the online reviews regarding the eco-certified accommodation services

  10. Comparative Study of Data Classification Methods Between EEG and ECoG Used to BCI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Ge

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Effective decoding of the source signal is a key to improve Brain-computer interfaces (BCI performances. Two groups of motor imagery (MI data based on electroencephalograms (EEG and electrocorticograms (ECoG which provided by International Brain-Computer Interface Competition organization are analyzed, and concluded that ECoG signals processing is more suitable for model-driven approaches. Temporal-frequency features were extracted by model-driven method instead of data-driven method and compared, and classified by support vector machine (SVM. The results show 6 % improvement of motor imagery experiment classification accuracy on ECoG data, compared with of data-driven method.

  11. PREFACE: International Symposium on Materials Science and Innovation for Sustainable Society - Eco-Materials and Eco-Innovation for Global Sustainability - The 21st Iketani Conference 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Yasuo

    2012-08-01

    Conference logo The 21st century has been called the century of environmental revolution. Green innovations and environmentally friendly production systems based on physics, chemistry, materials science, and electronic engineering will be indispensable for ensuring renewable energy and establishing a sustainable society. In particular, production design, materials processing, and fabrication technologies such as welding and joining will be very important components of such green innovations. For these reasons, the International Symposium on Materials Science and Innovation for Sustainable Society - eco-materials and eco-innovation for global sustainability - (ECO-MATES 2011) was organized by the Joining and Welding Research Institute (JWRI) and the Center of Environmental Innovation Design for Sustainability (CEIDS), Osaka University. ECO-MATES 2011 was held at Hotel Hankyu Expo Park, Osaka, Japan from 28-30 November 2011. 435 participants from 20 countries around the world attended the symposium. 149 oral presentations including 60 invited talks and 160 posters were presented at the symposium to discuss the latest research and developments in green innovations in relation to environmental issues. The topics of the symposium covered all environmentally related fields including renewable energy, energy-materials, environment and resources, waste and biomass, power electronics, semiconductor, rare-earth metals, functional materials, organic electronics materials, electronics packaging, smart processing, joining and welding, eco-efficient processes, and green applied physics and chemistry. Therefore, 55 full papers concerning green innovations and environmentally benign production were selected and approved by the editorial board and the program committee of ECO-MATES 2011. All papers were accepted through peer review processes. I believe that all the papers have many informative contents. On behalf of the steering committee of the symposium, I would like to express

  12. Who Needs Cream and Sugar When There Is Eco-Labeling? Taste and Willingness to Pay for “Eco-Friendly” Coffee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sörqvist, Patrik; Hedblom, Daniel; Holmgren, Mattias; Haga, Andreas; Langeborg, Linda; Nöstl, Anatole; Kågström, Jonas

    2013-01-01

    Participants tasted two cups of coffee, decided which they preferred, and then rated each coffee. They were told (in lure) that one of the cups contained “eco-friendly” coffee while the other did not, although the two cups contained identical coffee. In Experiments 1 and 3, but not in Experiment 2, the participants were also told which cup contained which type of coffee before they tasted. The participants preferred the taste of, and were willing to pay more for, the “eco-friendly” coffee, at least those who scored high on a questionnaire on attitudes toward sustainable consumer behavior (Experiment 1). High sustainability consumers were also willing to pay more for “eco-friendly” coffee, even when they were told, after their decision, that they preferred the non-labeled alternative (Experiment 2). Moreover, the eco-label effect does not appear to be a consequence of social desirability, as participants were just as biased when reporting the taste estimates and willingness to pay anonymously (Experiment 3). Eco labels not only promote a willingness to pay more for the product but also lead to a more favorable perceptual experience of it. PMID:24324623

  13. Who needs cream and sugar when there is eco-labeling? Taste and willingness to pay for "eco-friendly" coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sörqvist, Patrik; Hedblom, Daniel; Holmgren, Mattias; Haga, Andreas; Langeborg, Linda; Nöstl, Anatole; Kågström, Jonas

    2013-01-01

    Participants tasted two cups of coffee, decided which they preferred, and then rated each coffee. They were told (in lure) that one of the cups contained "eco-friendly" coffee while the other did not, although the two cups contained identical coffee. In Experiments 1 and 3, but not in Experiment 2, the participants were also told which cup contained which type of coffee before they tasted. The participants preferred the taste of, and were willing to pay more for, the "eco-friendly" coffee, at least those who scored high on a questionnaire on attitudes toward sustainable consumer behavior (Experiment 1). High sustainability consumers were also willing to pay more for "eco-friendly" coffee, even when they were told, after their decision, that they preferred the non-labeled alternative (Experiment 2). Moreover, the eco-label effect does not appear to be a consequence of social desirability, as participants were just as biased when reporting the taste estimates and willingness to pay anonymously (Experiment 3). Eco labels not only promote a willingness to pay more for the product but also lead to a more favorable perceptual experience of it.

  14. Minergie-Eco system audit - Results of the concept phase; Systemnachweis MINERGIE-ECO. Bericht ueber die Ergebnisse der Konzeptphase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenel, S.; Schinabeck, J.; Sigg, R. [Intep, Integrale Planung GmbH, Zuerich (Switzerland); Foradini, F. [E4tech Sarl, Lausanne (Switzerland); Citherlet, S. [Ecole d' Ingenieurs du Canton de Vaud (EIVD), Yverdon (Switzerland); Roulet, C.-A. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL), Laboratoire d' Energie Solaire et de Physique du Batiment (LESO-PB), Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2006-05-15

    This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of the concept phase of a project that developed a system-verification method for the Swiss Minergie-Eco label. This label considers not only energy aspects of building but also the materials used along with health aspects. Swiss and international standards that form the basis for the audit are described. The methods used and the work packages involved in the whole project are described and their implementation is discussed in detail. The framework for the software building-blocks to be developed is presented. The further project phases involved in the project are briefly discussed and the planned implementation time-scales are presented.

  15. Sensitivity analysis and other improvements to tailored combinatorial library design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin; Wong

    2000-03-01

    "Tailoring" combinatorial libraries was developed several years ago as a very general and intuitive method to design diverse compound collections while controlling the profile of other pharmaceutically relevant properties. The candidate substituents were assigned to "categorical bins" according to their properties, and successive steps of D-optimal design were performed to generate diverse substituent sets consistent with required membership quotas from each bin. This serial algorithm was expedient to implement from existing D-optimal design codes, but was order-dependent and did not generally locate the very best possible design. A new "parallel" Fedorov search algorithm has now been implemented that can find the most diverse property-tailored design. An ambiguous mass penalty has been added, whereby most duplicate masses can be eliminated with little loss of library diversity. Sensitivity analysis has also been added to quantitatively explore the diversity trade-offs due to increasing or decreasing each specific kind of bias.

  16. Aerogels in Chemical Engineering: Strategies Toward Tailor-Made Aerogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, Irina; Gurikov, Pavel

    2017-06-07

    The present review deals with recent advances in the rapidly growing field of aerogel research and technology. The major focus of the review lies in approaches that allow tailoring of aerogel properties to meet application-driven requirements. The decisive properties of aerogels are discussed with regard to existing and potential application areas. Various tailoring strategies, such as modulation of the pore structure, coating, surface modification, and post-treatment, are illustrated by results of the last decade. In view of commercialization of aerogel-based products, a panorama of current industrial aerogel suppliers is given, along with a discussion of possible alternative sources for raw materials and precursors. Finally, growing points and perspectives of the aerogel field are summarized.

  17. Tailoring the topology of an artificial magnetic skyrmion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J; Tan, A; Moon, K W; Doran, A; Marcus, M A; Young, A T; Arenholz, E; Ma, S; Yang, R F; Hwang, C; Qiu, Z Q

    2014-08-19

    Despite theoretical predictions, it remains an experimental challenge to realize an artificial magnetic skyrmion whose topology can be well controlled and tailored so that its topological effect can be revealed explicitly in a deformation of the spin textures. Here we report epitaxial magnetic thin films in which an artificial skyrmion is created by embedding a magnetic vortex into an out-of-plane aligned spin environment. By changing the relative orientation between the central vortex core polarity and the surrounding out-of-plane spins, we are able to control and tailor the system between two skyrmion topological states. An in-plane magnetic field is used to annihilate the skyrmion core by converting the central vortex state into a single domain state. Our result shows distinct annihilation behaviour of the skyrmion core for the two different skyrmion states, suggesting a topological effect of the magnetic skyrmions in the core annihilation process.

  18. Tailoring Systems Engineering Projects for Small Satellite Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horan, Stephen; Belvin, Keith

    2013-01-01

    NASA maintains excellence in its spaceflight systems by utilizing rigorous engineering processes based on over 50 years of experience. The NASA systems engineering process for flight projects described in NPR 7120.5E was initially developed for major flight projects. The design and development of low-cost small satellite systems does not entail the financial and risk consequences traditionally associated with spaceflight projects. Consequently, an approach is offered to tailoring of the processes such that the small satellite missions will benefit from the engineering rigor without overly burdensome overhead. In this paper we will outline the approaches to tailoring the standard processes for these small missions and describe how it will be applied in a proposed small satellite mission.

  19. Tailoring the microstructure of particle-stabilized wet foams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzenbach, Urs T; Studart, André R; Tervoort, Elena; Gauckler, Ludwig J

    2007-01-30

    Inorganic colloidal particles which are in situ hydrophobized upon adsorption of short-chain amphiphilic molecules can be used as foam stabilizers. In this study, we tailor the microstructure of particle-stabilized wet foams, namely, the foam air content, average bubble size, and bubble size distribution, by changing the composition of the initial colloidal suspension. Wet foams featuring average bubble sizes between 10 and 200 microm and air contents between 45% and 90% were obtained by adjusting the amphiphile and particle concentration, pH, ionic strength, and particle size in the initial suspension. The influence of these parameters on the bubble size was satisfactorily described in terms of a balance between the shear stress applied during mixing and the counteracting Laplace pressure of the air bubbles. This model, originally developed for oil droplets in emulsions, can therefore be used to deliberately tailor the microstructure of particle-stabilized wet foams.

  20. Addressing barriers to eco-innovation: Exploring the finance mobilisation functions of institutional innovation intermediaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polzin, Friedemann; Flotow, von Paschen; Klerkx, L.W.A.

    2016-01-01

    This research article explores the role of institutional innovation intermediaries in accelerating the commercialisation of (clean) technologies. Drawing on the finance and innovation intermediaries literatures, we show that financial barriers to eco-innovation can be partly overcome by particular

  1. LBA-ECO LC-15 Aerodynamic Roughness Maps of Vegetation Canopies, Amazon Basin: 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set, LBA-ECO LC-15 Aerodynamic Roughness Maps of Vegetation Canopies, Amazon Basin: 2000, provides physical roughness maps of vegetation canopies in the...

  2. Feasibility of the Blue Flag Eco-Labelling Scheme for Beaches in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nafiisah

    communities, accommodations, visitor attractions, tourism operators, and their administrative offices. International. Green Deal accommodations, guides, restaurants, communities and tourism operators. Guatemala. Eco-Certified. Sustainable Travel accommodations, visitor attractions, tourism operators, and transportation.

  3. People and Nature in Asian Stories: Reading and Writing Materials for Eco Education

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Novita Dewi

    2017-01-01

    .... The first part of this article examines such environmental stories as fables, folklores, short stories from Asia, while the second part is a project report on writing eco education materials, i.e...

  4. EXPLORING THE ECO-ATTITUDES AND BUYING BEHAVIOUR OF FACEBOOK USERS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kevin Kane; Codrin Chiru; Stela Georgiana Ciuchete

    2012-01-01

      Eco-friendly consumers' attitudes are becoming increasingly frequent, recent research indicating that pro-environmental purchase behaviour not only lower costs on the long term, but also enhance...

  5. Eco-efficient Value Creation : An Alternative Perspective on Packaging and Sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wever, R.; Vogtländer, J.

    2012-01-01

    The classical sustainability perspective on packaging is to reduce the environmental impact or eco burden of the packaging, using life cycle assessment to evaluate different design alternatives. Simultaneously, the classical marketing perspective on packaging is to generate value through

  6. Eco-certification of Farmed Seafood: Will it Make a Difference?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Malin Jonell; Michael Phillips; Patrik Rönnbäck; Max Troell

    2013-01-01

    Eco-certification is widely considered a tool for reducing environmental impacts of aquaculture, but what are the likely environmental outcomes for the world's fastest growing animal-food production sector...

  7. Emergy and Eco-exergy Evaluation of Four Forest Restoration Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four different forest restoration modes (Acacia mangium plantation, mixed-native species plantation, conifer plantation and Eucalyptus plantation) were evaluated using Energy System Theory and the emergy synthesis method. In addition, the eco-exergies of the four forest restorati...

  8. LBA-ECO LC-22 Land Cover from MODIS Vegetation Indices, Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set, LBA-ECO LC-22 Land Cover from MODIS Vegetation Indices, Mato Grosso, Brazil, provides land cover classifications for Mato Grosso, Brazil, for the...

  9. Applications for the environment : real-time information synthesis (AERIS) eco-signal operations : operational concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    This document serves as an Operational Concept for the Applications for the Environment: Real-Time Information Synthesis (AERIS) Eco-Signal Operations Transformative Concept. It was developed along with two other Operational Concept documents that de...

  10. AERIS - applications for the environment : real-time information synthesis : eco-signal operations modeling report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    This report constitutes the detailed modeling and evaluation results of the Eco-Signal Operations Operational : Scenario defined by the AERIS program. The Operational Scenario constitutes four applications that are : designed to provide environmental...

  11. Eco-efficient Value Creation : An Alternative Perspective on Packaging and Sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wever, R.; Vogtländer, J.

    The classical sustainability perspective on packaging is to reduce the environmental impact or eco burden of the packaging, using life cycle assessment to evaluate different design alternatives. Simultaneously, the classical marketing perspective on packaging is to generate value through

  12. LBA-ECO LC-07 Amazon Floodplain Lake Chlorophyll from MODIS, Para, Brazil: 2002-2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set, LBA-ECO LC-07 Amazon Floodplain Lake Chlorophyll from MODIS, Para, Brazil: 2002-2003, contains chlorophyll concentration maps of the Amazon River...

  13. Eco-Governmentality: A Discursive Analysis of State-NGOs-Youth Relations in Singapore

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peili Pey; Md Saidul Islam

    2017-01-01

    ...; state, NGOs and youths. By using eco-governmentality as a framework and through discursive analysis, we argue that state-society cooperation in environmentalism is hindered by lack of clear and effective communication...

  14. ECO-PROTECTING DETERMINANTS OF THE ECONOMIC SELF-DETERMINATION OF PERSONALITY. VALIDATION OF THE QUESTIONNAIRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Gennadjevna Khashenko

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The complexity and instability of the economic environment of contemporary life bring to the fore the question of individual determinants of economic self-determination, including aspects that are linked to eco-caring (environmental protection, social and self-preservation. The successful solution of this problem is determined by the availability of adequate psychological tools (diagnostic and psychotechnological. In the article theoretical and metho-dological bases and the results of validation of the questionnaire e-co, designed to explore eco-caring orientations of the subject of economic self-determination. The results can be used in psychological practice for diagnostic purposes and in the development of psychological technologies of formation of eco-saving orientations of a person, as well as in the research of the psychological determination of economic behavior of the individual and the group.

  15. Roheline revolutsioon - ökosiki tagasitulek : well fashioned eco style in the UK

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Loodussõbralikust moest, ökoloogilistest materjalidest, jätkusuutlikest tootmismeetoditest moetööstuses, rõivaste taaskasutamisest. Briti ökodisainerite loomingu näitusest "Well Fashioned: Eco Fashion in the UK" Londonis

  16. [Evaluation of eco-environmental quality based on artificial neural network and remote sensing techniques].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongyi; Shi, Zhou; Sha, Jinming; Cheng, Jieliang

    2006-08-01

    In the present study, vegetation, soil brightness, and moisture indices were extracted from Landsat ETM remote sensing image, heat indices were extracted from MODIS land surface temperature product, and climate index and other auxiliary geographical information were selected as the input of neural network. The remote sensing eco-environmental background value of standard interest region evaluated in situ was selected as the output of neural network, and the back propagation (BP) neural network prediction model containing three layers was designed. The network was trained, and the remote sensing eco-environmental background value of Fuzhou in China was predicted by using software MATLAB. The class mapping of remote sensing eco-environmental background values based on evaluation standard showed that the total classification accuracy was 87. 8%. The method with a scheme of prediction first and classification then could provide acceptable results in accord with the regional eco-environment types.

  17. PMEL EcoFOCI Chukchi Sea profile data, 2010-2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory (PMEL) Fisheries-Oceanography Cooperative Investigations (FOCI) Chukchi Sea. PMEL EcoFOCI data from a local source.

  18. Insights on copper coordination and reactivity of endonuclease EcoRI by ESR spectroscopy and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Ming

    2009-03-01

    The cleavage of DNA by restriction endonuclease EcoRI is catalyzed by metal ions such as Mg^2+. However, Cu^2+ does not catalyze the cleavage of DNA by EcoRI. In order to understand the functional difference between Cu^2+ and Mg^2+, coordination of Cu^2+ in the EcoRI--DNA complex was clarified by ESR and MD simulation. There are two Cu^2+ components in the specific EcoRI-DNA complex. Each component has one N atom from histidine imidazole and one oxygen atom from the phosphate backbone of DNA coordinate to Cu^2+ based on the ESR experimental results. MD simulation further confirmed that the Nδ atom of His114 imidazole and one oxygen atom from the phosphate backbone of DNA coordinate to Cu^2+. Difference in the coordination of Cu^2+ and Mg^2+ explains their different functional behaviors.

  19. Moving Towards Eco Cultural Tourism Village (A Case Study of Pondok Cabe Village

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina Kurniawati

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study identifies some eco-cultural tourism attraction potentials that exist in PondokCabeUdik Village Tangerang Selatan Indonesia. In addition, it investigates local people’s opinion on tourism development. The objective is to provide a preliminary overview of eco-tourism development. This study is a descriptive study that uses three types of instrument in data collection method, including questionnaire, interview and field observation. The data is then analyzed using SWOT analysis. The result indicated that natural potential include farming, lake and fish pond, and chicken hatchery. Cultural potentials include cultural diversity that depicted in praying houses and culinary. 194 respondents involved are the locals. The result showed thatthere is positive view from the local community on the availability of tourism potentials and development in the future. It is proposed that environmental awareness, education, ecotourism development, and consensus buildingare needed to implement eco cultural tourism concept. Keywords: Tourism, Eco-Cultural, Village, Planning and Development

  20. How to Do It. Plant Eco-Physiology: Experiments on Crassulacean Acid Metabolism, Using Minimal Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, Douglas J. C.

    1990-01-01

    Features of Crassulacean Acid Metabolism plants are presented. Investigations of a complex eco-physiological plant adaptation to the problems of growth in an arid environment are discussed. Materials and procedures for these investigations are described. (CW)

  1. Predictive Eco-Cruise Control (ECC) system : model development, modeling and potential benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    The research develops a reference model of a predictive eco-cruise control (ECC) system that intelligently modulates vehicle speed within a pre-set speed range to minimize vehicle fuel consumption levels using roadway topographic information. The stu...

  2. The changing nature of eco/feminism : telling stories from Clayoquot Sound

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moore-Cherry, Niamh

    2015-01-01

    ... in Canadian environmental discourse. Yet although the camp was said to be based on feminist or eco/feminist principles, insufficient attention has been paid to its impact on feminism and the debates that were raging at that time...

  3. Milk protein tailoring to improve functional and biological properties

    OpenAIRE

    JEAN-MARC CHOBERT

    2012-01-01

    Proteins are involved in every aspects of life: structure, motion, catalysis, recognition and regulation. Today's highly sophisticated science of the modifications of proteins has ancient roots. The tailoring of proteins for food and medical uses precedes the beginning of what is called biochemistry. Chemical modification of proteins was pursued early in the twentieth century as an analytical procedure for side-chain amino acids. Later, methods were developed for specific inactivation of biol...

  4. Tailor-made blanks for the aircraft industry

    OpenAIRE

    Zad Poor, A.A.

    2010-01-01

    Tailor-Made Blanks (TMBs) are hybrid assemblies made of sheet metals with different materials and/or thicknesses that are joined together prior to forming. Alternatively, a monolithic sheet can be machined to create required thickness variations (machined TMBs). The possibility of having several thicknesses and/or materials in one single structure facilitates optimal material distribution and helps us make ground and air vehicles lighter, more cost-effective, fuel-efficient, and environment-f...

  5. Manufacturing of tailored tubes with a process integrated heat treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hordych, Illia; Boiarkin, Viacheslav; Rodman, Dmytro; Nürnberger, Florian

    2017-10-01

    The usage of work-pieces with tailored properties allows for reducing costs and materials. One example are tailored tubes that can be used as end parts e.g. in the automotive industry or in domestic applications as well as semi-finished products for subsequent controlled deformation processes. An innovative technology to manufacture tubes is roll forming with a subsequent inductive heating and adapted quenching to obtain tailored properties in the longitudinal direction. This processing offers a great potential for the production of tubes with a wide range of properties, although this novel approach still requires a suited process design. Based on experimental data, a process simulation is being developed. The simulation shall be suitable for a virtual design of the tubes and allows for gaining a deeper understanding of the required processing. The model proposed shall predict microstructural and mechanical tube properties by considering process parameters, different geometries, batch-related influences etc. A validation is carried out using experimental data of tubes manufactured from various steel grades.

  6. Towards collaborative filtering recommender systems for tailored health communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlin, Benjamin M; Adams, Roy J; Sadasivam, Rajani; Houston, Thomas K

    2013-01-01

    The goal of computer tailored health communications (CTHC) is to promote healthy behaviors by sending messages tailored to individual patients. Current CTHC systems collect baseline patient "profiles" and then use expert-written, rule-based systems to target messages to subsets of patients. Our main interest in this work is the study of collaborative filtering-based CTHC systems that can learn to tailor future message selections to individual patients based explicit feedback about past message selections. This paper reports the results of a study designed to collect explicit feedback (ratings) regarding four aspects of messages from 100 subjects in the smoking cessation support domain. Our results show that most users have positive opinions of most messages and that the ratings for all four aspects of the messages are highly correlated with each other. Finally, we conduct a range of rating prediction experiments comparing several different model variations. Our results show that predicting future ratings based on each user's past ratings contributes the most to predictive accuracy.

  7. Tailoring cognitive behavioural therapy to subtypes of voice-hearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eSmailes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT for voice-hearing (i.e., auditory verbal hallucinations; AVH has, at best, small-to-moderate effects. One possible reason for this limited efficacy is that current CBT approaches tend to conceptualise voice-hearing as a homogenous experience in terms of the cognitive processes involved in AVH. However, the highly heterogeneous nature of voice-hearing suggests that many different cognitive processes may be involved in the etiology of AVH. These heterogeneous voice-hearing experiences do, however, appear to cluster into a set of subtypes, opening up the possibility of tailoring treatment to the subtype of AVH that a voice-hearer reports. In this paper, we (a outline our rationale for tailoring CBT to subtypes of voice-hearing, (b describe CBT for three putative subtypes of AVH (inner speech-based AVH, memory-based AVH, and hypervigilance AVH, and (c discuss potential limitations and problems with such an approach. We conclude by arguing that tailoring CBT to subtypes of voice-hearing could prove to be a valuable therapeutic development, which may be especially effective when used in early intervention in psychosis services.

  8. Tailoring Cognitive Behavioral Therapy to Subtypes of Voice-Hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smailes, David; Alderson-Day, Ben; Fernyhough, Charles; McCarthy-Jones, Simon; Dodgson, Guy

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for voice-hearing (i.e., auditory verbal hallucinations; AVH) has, at best, small to moderate effects. One possible reason for this limited efficacy is that current CBT approaches tend to conceptualize voice-hearing as a homogenous experience in terms of the cognitive processes involved in AVH. However, the highly heterogeneous nature of voice-hearing suggests that many different cognitive processes may be involved in the etiology of AVH. These heterogeneous voice-hearing experiences do, however, appear to cluster into a set of subtypes, opening up the possibility of tailoring treatment to the subtype of AVH that a voice-hearer reports. In this paper, we (a) outline our rationale for tailoring CBT to subtypes of voice-hearing, (b) describe CBT for three putative subtypes of AVH (inner speech-based AVH, memory-based AVH, and hypervigilance AVH), and (c) discuss potential limitations and problems with such an approach. We conclude by arguing that tailoring CBT to subtypes of voice-hearing could prove to be a valuable therapeutic development, which may be especially effective when used in early intervention in psychosis services.

  9. Resilience of Eco-Industrial Parks: analysis and solutions for improvements

    OpenAIRE

    Louhichi, Rim; Kuznetsova, Elizaveta; Zio, Enrico; Farel, Romain

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Eco-Industrial Park (EIP) in a complex environment of Critical Infrastructures (CIs) An Eco-industrial Park (EIP) is a set of manufacturing and service businesses located in the same geographical area. The goal of an EIP is to enhance environmental and economic performance through the creation of Industrial Symbiosis (ISs). The material and energy exchanges in an EIP and with external industrial plants, as well as information, logistics and human resources networks, ma...

  10. On the flexibility of an eco-industrial park (EIP) for managing industrial water

    OpenAIRE

    Montastruc, Ludovic; Boix, Marianne; Pibouleau, Luc; Azzaro-Pantel, Catherine; Domenech, Serge

    2013-01-01

    International audience; In a recent paper, a generic model, based on a multiobjective optimization procedure, for water supply system for a single company and for an eco-industrial park was proposed and illustrated by a park involving three companies A, B and C. The best configuration was identified by simultaneously minimizing the fresh water flow rate, the regenerated water flow rate and the number of connections in the eco-industrial park. The question is now to know what the maximal incre...

  11. A model-based eco-routing strategy for electric vehicles in large urban networks

    OpenAIRE

    De Nunzio, Giovanni; Thibault, Laurent; Sciarretta, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    International audience; A novel eco-routing navigation strategy and energy consumption modeling approach for electric vehicles are presented in this work. Speed fluctuations and road network infrastructure have a large impact on vehicular energy consumption. Neglecting these effects may lead to large errors in eco-routing navigation, which could trivially select the route with the lowest average speed. We propose an energy consumption model that considers both accelerations and impact of the ...

  12. Marketing the Eco-Efficiency of a Finnish Product in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Sattarova, Asiia

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitatitive research was to find the way for a Finnish company to market the eco-efficient characteristics as an advantage of their products and bring the message effectively to their consumers in Russia. The core objective was to create a strategic marketing plan; the goal was to work out an efficient strategy, practical marketing steps and effective solutions. The first theory part focused on the comparison of general eco-awareness in Europe and Russia. The part rev...

  13. Exploring the eco-attitudes and buying behaviour of Facebook users

    OpenAIRE

    Kevin Kane; Codrin Chiru; Stela Georgiana Ciuchete

    2012-01-01

    Eco-friendly consumers’ attitudes are becoming increasingly frequent, recent research indicating that pro-environmental purchase behaviour not only lower costs on the long term, but also enhance business stakeholders’ and consumers’ confidence in high added value products and services. This paper undertakes an interdisciplinary research on how social media (i.e. Facebook) can influence users’ perceptions and buying behaviour related to five categories of ecological products and services (eco-...

  14. Eco-Certification of Natural Rubber: Demand, Supply, and Potential Implications of Private Global Environmental Governance

    OpenAIRE

    Kennedy, Sean

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, concern over the environmental impacts of natural rubber culti- vation has generated considerable interest in eco-certification, a form of private environ- mental regulation designed to encourage more sustainable land-use practices. This paper explores the emergence and potential sovereignty implications of this approach to envi- ronmental control with an emphasis on the natural rubber industry. I argue that although eco-certification is advocated as a form of networked gover...

  15. Performance and visitors' perception of authenticity in eco-cultural tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Tiberghien, Guillaume; Bremner, Hamish; Milne, Simon

    2017-01-01

    With the increasing commodification of cultural heritage induced by tourism development, the perception of a ‘real’ travel experience often depends on what is defined as authentic, original and local. Visitors are becoming increasingly concerned about the authenticity of eco-cultural tourism practices when they visit culturally and environmentally remote regions. The purpose of this study is to examine the role performance plays in visitors' perception of authenticity of eco-cultural tourism ...

  16. EcoBot-II: An artificial agent with a natural metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Ieropoulos, I.; Melhuish, C; Greenman, J.; Horsfield, I.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we report the development of the robot EcoBot-II, which exhibits a primitive form of artificial symbiosis. Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs) were used as the onboard energy supply, which consisted of bacterial cultures from sewage sludge and employed oxygen from free air for oxidation at the cathode. EcoBot-II was able to perform sensing, information processing, communication and actuation when fed (amongst other substrates) with flies. This is the first robot in the world, to utilise...

  17. The Eco-Knowledge City Theory and its Practice in Shenzhen of China

    OpenAIRE

    Dong Wang; Zhanglan Wu; Yan Li; Yunzhi Wang

    2012-01-01

    Eco-knowledge city is a new concept for the world’s urban studies, an all-new urban form, and concept of urban development and strategy. The core of eco-knowledge city is to surpass the traditional urban development model of industrial society strategically, to purposely encourage citizens to learn and share knowledge equally, and to enhance creativity through the cultivation of knowledge, technological innovation, and scientific research, sequentially to reduce material consumption and pol...

  18. Analisis Penerapan Sistem Manajemen Limbah Berdasarkan Sertifikasi Eco-hotel Di Sheraton Surabaya Hotel and Towers

    OpenAIRE

    Wibowo, Melisa; Andreani, Fransisca

    2013-01-01

    Sistem manajemen limbah menjadi hal yang perlu diperhatikan bagi pelaksana bisnis perhotelan. Sheraton Surabaya Hotel and Towers mendasarkan sistem manajemen limbah pada sertifikasi Eco-Hotel, yaitu sertifikasi yang didasarkan pada ISO 14001 tahun 2004 mengenai Standar Manajemen Lingkungan dan diaplikasikan pada bisnis dan operasional hotel. Dalam penelitian ini, penulis ingin mengetahui penerapan sistem manajemen limbah berdasarkan sertifikasi Eco-Hotel di Sheraton Surabaya Hotel and Towers....

  19. EcoGIS – GIS tools for ecosystem approaches to fisheries management

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, David Moe; Haverland, Tim; Finnen, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Executive Summary: The EcoGIS project was launched in September 2004 to investigate how Geographic Information Systems (GIS), marine data, and custom analysis tools can better enable fisheries scientists and managers to adopt Ecosystem Approaches to Fisheries Management (EAFM). EcoGIS is a collaborative effort between NOAA’s National Ocean Service (NOS) and National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), and four regional Fishery Management Councils. The project has focused on four priority...

  20. Conceptual Analysis of Eco-Efficiency and Industrial Symbiosis: Insights from Process Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Y; Holgado Granados, M; Benedetti, M; Evans, S

    2017-01-01

    The interior relationship between Industrial Ecology, Eco-Efficiency and Industrial Symbiosis has been scarcely investigated in literature. We identify three main aspects linking the concepts, which are ‘Actions’, ‘Stakeholders’ and ‘Value’, and use them to drive the conceptual analysis. Considering the application and implementation, authors conduct a conceptual comparison between Eco-Efficiency and Industrial Symbiosis by using Industrial Ecology as the leading concept. A conceptual framewo...

  1. Comparison of eco-physiological characteristics of pepper in hydroponic and aquaponic systems

    OpenAIRE

    A. R. Sajjadinia; A. Ershadi; H.R. Roosta

    2010-01-01

    Aquaponics is one of the recirculating aquaculture systems in which plant grows without soil. Considering the lack of information about aquaponic culture for main crops like pepper and the absence of comparison of plant conditions in soilless culture, in this experiment eco-physiological characteristics of pepper in hydroponics and aquaponics were investigated. After starting the plants to flowering, eco-physiological parameters were measured using potable far-red gas analyzer LCA-4, ADC. The...

  2. A Protocol to Address User Behavior in the Eco-Design of Consumer Products

    OpenAIRE

    Cor, Emmanuelle; ZWOLINSKI, Peggy

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Today, it is difficult to integrate the use phase optimization of consumer products into eco-design methodologies. Current eco-design approaches are in fact mainly focused on improving the technological performance of products while it has been proven that users behavior plays an important role in the overall environmental performances of products. This paper deals with the need to address the notion of user experience and behavior in the design process of today's low-...

  3. ¿Quién es el culpable? La semiótica de Eco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Oñate

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo aborda un aspecto por el cual Umberto Eco no se hizo mundialmente famoso, pero que sin lugar a dudas habla de su erudición y sin cuyos antecedentes su novelística no tendría determinadas características que la identifican. Este aspecto es el que fundamentalmente dice que Umberto Eco es un semiólogo.

  4. Eco-Tourism Potential and Development within Lake Nakuru National Park and its Catchment.

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    This report summarises the eco-tourism potentials within Lake Nakuru National Park and its catchment to promote environmental conservation and socio-economic development that involves community participation for poverty alleviation. The area is of immense importance both nationally and internationally with tremendous potential for eco-tourism development. Currently, the Park receives about 200,000 visitors per year, most of whom on average stay only for two nights. In the recent past minimal ...

  5. Eco-exergy and emergy based self-organization of three forest plantations in lower subtropical China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hongfang; Fu, Fangyan; Li, Hao; Campbell, Daniel E; Ren, Hai

    2015-10-21

    The bio-thermodynamic structures of a mixed native species plantation, a conifer plantation and an Acacia mangium plantation in Southern China were quantified over a period of 15 years based on eco-exergy methods. The efficiencies of structural development and maintenance were quantified through an integrated application of eco-exergy and emergy methods. The results showed that the storage of eco-exergy increased over 3 times in all three plantations, as predicted by the maximum eco-exergy principle. This trend was primarily seen due to the accumulation of biomass, instead of an increase in the specific eco-exergy (eco-exergy per unit biomass), although species richness did increase. The eco-exergy to emergy and eco-exergy to empower ratios of the three plantations generally increased during the study period, but the rate of increase slowed down after 20 years. The dominant trees are the largest contributors to the eco-exergy stored in the plantations, and thus, the introduction of suitable indigenous tree species should be considered after the existing trees pass through their period of most rapid growth or around 20 years after planting. The combined application of C-values and suggested weighting factors in the eco-exergy calculation can imply opposite results, but may also supply useful information for forest management.

  6. The Eco-Innovation Variables which Influence the Performance of Creative Industries Center of Natural Stone Crafts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murti Astuti

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the eco-innovation variable which has the significant effecton creative industries center’s performance of marble and natural stone craft sector in Tulungagung, Indonesia. The object of the study is the creative industries center with the non-renewable raw material. Mostly, the companies are in form of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs which is ‘passive eco-innovator’ and their eco-innovation variables have not been investigated before in terms of their influenceon their performance. The respondents were 81 craftsmen taken from the population. The data were collected through questionnaires which were tested, processed and analyzed by using Consistent Partial Least Square (PLSc. The eco-innovation variables which significantly effecton innovative performance are eco-organizational innovation and eco-product innovation. Eco-process innovation and eco-marketing innovation don’t directly affecton innovative performance, but its significant effecton eco-product innovation may influence innovative performance. Improving innovative performance will impact on financial performance through improvement of production performance, but market performance does not significantly affect financial performance. The findings of this study could be a reference for creative industries center’s of marble and natural stone craft sector to prioritize which type of eco-innovation should be improved so that its impact on performance is more significant

  7. Resolution of the EcoRII restriction endonuclease-DNA complex structure in solution using fluorescence spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subach, Fedor; Kirsanova, Olga; Liquier, Jean; Gromova, Elizaveta S

    2008-12-01

    The X-ray structure for the type IIE EcoRII restriction endonuclease has been resolved [X.E. Zhou, Y. Wang, M. Reuter, M. Mucke, D.H. Kruger, E.J. Meehan and L. Chen. Crystal structure of type IIE restriction endonuclease EcoRII reveals an autoinhibition mechanism by a novel effector-binding fold. J. Mol. Biol. 335 (2004) 307-319.], but the structure of the R.EcoRII-DNA complex is still unknown. The aim of this article was to examine the structure of the pre-reactive R.EcoRII-DNA complex in solution by fluorescence spectroscopy. The structure for the R.EcoRII-DNA complex was resolved by determining the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between two fluorescent dyes, covalently attached near the EcoRII recognition sites, that were located at opposite ends of a lengthy two-site DNA molecule. Analysis of the FRET data from the two-site DNA revealed a likely model for the arrangement of the two EcoRII recognition sites relative to each other in the R.EcoRII-DNA complex in the presence of Ca(2+) ions. According to this model, the R.EcoRII binds the two-site DNA and forms a DNA loop in which the EcoRII recognition sites are 20+/-10 A distant to each other and situated at an angle of 70+/-10 degrees.

  8. LCA as a Tool for Assessing Product and Process Oriented Eco-Innovations Undertaken by Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rybaczewska-Błażejowska Magdalena

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the application of life cycle assessment (LCA as an approach to foster the product and process oriented eco- innovation of enterprises, using the fruit and vegetable processing plant as an example. LCA, which is traditionally used to assess the impacts of a single product system on the environment, was applied in the enterprise context. This was made possible by forming an indicator describing the environmental profile of an enterprise, which is calculated by the sum of the multiplication of the environmental impact assessment (LCIA results for individual unit processes within a particular impact category and their weights reflecting the structure of production in an enterprise. In order to distinguish and indicate the direction in which an enterprise should undertake its eco-innovative actions (implementing eco-innovations within the product or production process the LCIA results are presented individually for products and production processes. The research was conducted in full compliance with the LCA methodology. LCA proved that the analysed enterprise has the largest negative impacts on the environment in the following impact categories: marine eco-toxicity, freshwater eco-toxicity, freshwater eutrophication, human toxicity and natural land transformation. They result primarily from the consumption of thermal and electric energy in the production processes. Therefore, to improve energy efficiency, the enterprise should take eco-innovative actions in the processes applied.

  9. Adapting adaptation: the English eco-town initiative as governance process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Tomozeiu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Climate change adaptation and mitigation have become key policy drivers in the UK under its Climate Change Act of 2008. At the same time, urbanization has been high on the agenda, given the pressing need for substantial additional housing, particularly in southeast England. These twin policy objectives were brought together in the UK government's 'eco-town' initiative for England launched in 2007, which has since resulted in four eco-town projects currently under development. We critically analyze the eco-town initiative's policy evolution and early planning phase from a multilevel governance perspective by focusing on the following two interrelated aspects: (1 the evolving governance structures and resulting dynamics arising from the development of the eco-town initiative at UK governmental level, and the subsequent partial devolution to local stakeholders, including local authorities and nongovernmental actors, under the new 'localism' agenda; and (2 the effect of these governance dynamics on the conceptual and practical approach to adaptation through the emerging eco-town projects. As such, we problematize the impact of multilevel governance relations, and competing governance strategies and leadership, on shaping eco-town and related adaptation strategies and practice.

  10. Macromolecular crowding for tailoring tissue-derived fibrillated matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magno, Valentina; Friedrichs, Jens; Weber, Heather M; Prewitz, Marina C; Tsurkan, Mikhail V; Werner, Carsten

    2017-06-01

    Tissue-derived fibrillated matrices can be instrumental for the in vitro reconstitution of multiphasic extracellular microenvironments. However, despite of several advantages, the obtained scaffolds so far offer a rather narrow range of materials characteristics only. In this work, we demonstrate how macromolecular crowding (MMC) - the supplementation of matrix reconstitution media with synthetic or natural macromolecules in ways to create excluded volume effects (EVE) - can be employed for tailoring important structural and biophysical characteristics of kidney-derived fibrillated matrices. Porcine kidneys were decellularized, ground and the obtained extracellular matrix (ECM) preparations were reconstituted under varied MMC conditions. We show that MMC strongly influences the fibrillogenesis kinetics and impacts the architecture and the elastic modulus of the reconstituted matrices, with diameters and relative alignment of fibrils increasing at elevated concentrations of the crowding agent Ficoll400, a nonionic synthetic polymer of sucrose. Furthermore, we demonstrate how MMC modulates the distribution of key ECM molecules within the reconstituted matrix scaffolds. As a proof of concept, we compared different variants of kidney-derived fibrillated matrices in cell culture experiments referring to specific requirements of kidney tissue engineering approaches. The results revealed that MMC-tailored matrices support the morphogenesis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) into capillary networks and of murine kidney stem cells (KSCs) into highly branched aggregates. The established methodology is concluded to provide generally applicable new options for tailoring tissue-specific multiphasic matrices in vitro. Tissue-derived fibrillated matrices can be instrumental for the in vitro reconstitution of multiphasic extracellular microenvironments. However, despite of several advantages, the obtained scaffolds so far offer a rather narrow range of materials

  11. Eco-efficiency analysis of an agricultural research complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reith, Charles C; Guidry, Michael J

    2003-07-01

    The Model Sustainable Agricultural Complex (MSAC) is a 600-acre experimental farm in south-central Louisiana, in the very southern reaches of the United States, approximately 40 km north of the Gulf of Mexico. The MSAC consists of many land uses and facilities, including a dairy, crawfish center, beef herd, sugarcane crop, and equestrian center, as well as numerous features and programs for research, education, and residence. The mission of the MSAC, which is operated by the Department of Renewable Resources at the University of Louisiana at Lafayette, has been to accommodate research and education in production agriculture, while generating revenues through the delivery of food products into the local economy. In recent years, environmental conservation has been increasingly important at the MSAC. Best management practices (BMPs) were implemented to reduce soil loss and mitigate nonpoint source pollution. Research was initiated to quantify the effectiveness of these BMPs, and workshops were conducted to explain preliminary results to local farmers. However, environmental improvements at the MSAC had until 2000 been piecemeal, which may be said as well for agriculture overall. What is needed is a comprehensive integrated approach to analyzing and improving environmental performance, as is possible when implementing an environmental management system (EMS). This manuscript describes our efforts to integrate piecemeal environmental improvements into a farm-wide program of systematic improvement. This process began with a qualitative ranking of the MSAC's inputs and outputs, followed by a quantification of certain key parameters related to the consumption of resources and provision of services at the Complex. Certain measures related to the Complex's eco-efficiency were combined into a ratio that provides a useful target for management and continuous improvement. Eco-efficiency, which is defined as 'the efficiency with which receivables are converted into deliverables

  12. Eco-friendly aqueous core surface-modified nanocapsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, C; Musumeci, T; Lauro, M R; Puglisi, G

    2015-01-01

    In this work, positively charged nanocapsules have been developed for potential ocular delivery exploiting the deposition of PLA onto the droplet surface of a W/O nanoemulsion prepared by the reversed procedure of the PIT method. PLA in combination with different amounts of various oils and surfactants have been studied in order to select the best formulation for polymeric nanocapsule preparation. The traditional visual observation together with the Turbiscan(®) technology were exploited in order to identify the best combination of polymer/oil for nanocapsule preparation. Two different primary surfactants (Span(®) 60 and Span(®) 80) have been tested to select their influence on the field of existence of the nanoemulsion by the construction of the pseudoternary phase diagrams. Cationic hybrid NC have been prepared by the addition of a coating layer of DDAB. The physico-chemical and morphological properties of all the prepared nanocapsules have been evaluated and compared by PCS, DSC and AFM. Therefore, positively charged nanocapsules can be easily prepared by a simple eco-friendly technique that exploits biocompatible materials avoiding a large input of mechanical energy as a potential ocular delivery systems for hydrophilic compounds or gene materials. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Eco-evolutionary experience in novel species interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saul, Wolf-Christian; Jeschke, Jonathan M

    2015-03-01

    A better understanding of how ecological novelty influences interactions in new combinations of species is key for predicting interaction outcomes, and can help focus conservation and management efforts on preventing the introduction of novel organisms or species (including invasive species, GMOs, synthetic organisms, resurrected species and emerging pathogens) that seem particularly 'risky' for resident species. Here, we consider the implications of different degrees of eco-evolutionary experience of interacting resident and non-resident species, define four qualitative risk categories for estimating the probability of successful establishment and impact of novel species and discuss how the effects of novelty change over time. Focusing then on novel predator-prey interactions, we argue that novelty entails density-dependent advantages for non-resident species, with their largest effects often being at low prey densities. This is illustrated by a comparison of predator functional responses and prey predation risk curves between novel species and ecologically similar resident species, and raises important issues for the conservation of endangered resident prey species. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  14. Building 'blue': An eco-engineering framework for foreshore developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer-Pinto, M; Johnston, E L; Bugnot, A B; Glasby, T M; Airoldi, L; Mitchell, A; Dafforn, K A

    2017-03-15

    Urbanisation in terrestrial systems has driven architects, planners, ecologists and engineers to collaborate on the design and creation of more sustainable structures. Examples include the development of 'green infrastructure' and the introduction of wildlife corridors that mitigate urban stressors and provide positive ecological outcomes. In contrast, efforts to minimise the impacts of urban developments in marine environments have been far more restricted in their extent and scope, and have often overlooked the ecological role of the built environment as potential habitat. Urban foreshore developments, i.e. those built on the interface of intertidal and/or subtidal zones, have the potential to incorporate clear multi-functional outcomes, by supporting novel ecosystems. We present a step-by-step eco-engineering framework for 'building blue' that will allow coastal managers to facilitate planning and construction of sustainable foreshore developments. Adopting such an approach will incorporate ecological principles, thereby mitigating some of the environmental impacts, creating more resilient urban infrastructure and environments, and maximising benefits to the multiple stakeholders and users of marine urban waterfronts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Adaptation and habitat selection in the eco-evolutionary process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Douglas W

    2011-08-22

    The struggle for existence occurs through the vital rates of population growth. This basic fact demonstrates the tight connection between ecology and evolution that defines the emerging field of eco-evolutionary dynamics. An effective synthesis of the interdependencies between ecology and evolution is grounded in six principles. The mechanics of evolution specifies the origin and rules governing traits and evolutionary strategies. Traits and evolutionary strategies achieve their selective value through their functional relationships with fitness. Function depends on the underlying structure of variation and the temporal, spatial and organizational scales of evolution. An understanding of how changes in traits and strategies occur requires conjoining ecological and evolutionary dynamics. Adaptation merges these five pillars to achieve a comprehensive understanding of ecological and evolutionary change. I demonstrate the value of this world-view with reference to the theory and practice of habitat selection. The theory allows us to assess evolutionarily stable strategies and states of habitat selection, and to draw the adaptive landscapes for habitat-selecting species. The landscapes can then be used to forecast future evolution under a variety of climate change and other scenarios.

  16. Design and Development of Green Eco-House

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Almed Hassan Abdelrahman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As humanity craves progression, there is an increase in the number of buildings being constructed on a global scale; this in turn leads to an increase in energy consumption to satisfy the development process which leads to more tons of greenhouse emissions can be released to accommodate the energy demand. Due to this there is increase in energy demand; the world has to face the fact that our resources will soon be depleted. This project aim is to construct a prototype of an eco-friendly house which is constructed and powered with minimal CO2 emissions which replacing cement in construction. The main focus on reducing the production of CO2 is by utilizing an innovative material known as geo-polymer cement and the usage of a solar panel to power the prototype fully using a clean and renewable energy source. This will in turn reduce our dependency on fossil fuels. Fly ash is created as a byproduct of the combustion of coal in power plants and it is usually disposed however it can be fully utilized by recycling it.

  17. Molar macrowear reveals Neanderthal eco-geographic dietary variation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Fiorenza

    Full Text Available Neanderthal diets are reported to be based mainly on the consumption of large and medium sized herbivores, while the exploitation of other food types including plants has also been demonstrated. Though some studies conclude that early Homo sapiens were active hunters, the analyses of faunal assemblages, stone tool technologies and stable isotopic studies indicate that they exploited broader dietary resources than Neanderthals. Whereas previous studies assume taxon-specific dietary specializations, we suggest here that the diet of both Neanderthals and early Homo sapiens is determined by ecological conditions. We analyzed molar wear patterns using occlusal fingerprint analysis derived from optical 3D topometry. Molar macrowear accumulates during the lifespan of an individual and thus reflects diet over long periods. Neanderthal and early Homo sapiens maxillary molar macrowear indicates strong eco-geographic dietary variation independent of taxonomic affinities. Based on comparisons with modern hunter-gatherer populations with known diets, Neanderthals as well as early Homo sapiens show high dietary variability in Mediterranean evergreen habitats but a more restricted diet in upper latitude steppe/coniferous forest environments, suggesting a significant consumption of high protein meat resources.

  18. Molar Macrowear Reveals Neanderthal Eco-Geographic Dietary Variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorenza, Luca; Benazzi, Stefano; Tausch, Jeremy; Kullmer, Ottmar; Bromage, Timothy G.; Schrenk, Friedemann

    2011-01-01

    Neanderthal diets are reported to be based mainly on the consumption of large and medium sized herbivores, while the exploitation of other food types including plants has also been demonstrated. Though some studies conclude that early Homo sapiens were active hunters, the analyses of faunal assemblages, stone tool technologies and stable isotopic studies indicate that they exploited broader dietary resources than Neanderthals. Whereas previous studies assume taxon-specific dietary specializations, we suggest here that the diet of both Neanderthals and early Homo sapiens is determined by ecological conditions. We analyzed molar wear patterns using occlusal fingerprint analysis derived from optical 3D topometry. Molar macrowear accumulates during the lifespan of an individual and thus reflects diet over long periods. Neanderthal and early Homo sapiens maxillary molar macrowear indicates strong eco-geographic dietary variation independent of taxonomic affinities. Based on comparisons with modern hunter-gatherer populations with known diets, Neanderthals as well as early Homo sapiens show high dietary variability in Mediterranean evergreen habitats but a more restricted diet in upper latitude steppe/coniferous forest environments, suggesting a significant consumption of high protein meat resources. PMID:21445243

  19. Identifying the Attended Speaker Using Electrocorticographic (ECoG) Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, K.; Brunner, P.; Gunduz, A.; Coon, W.; Ritaccio, A.L.; Farquhar, J.; Schalk, G.

    2015-01-01

    People affected by severe neuro-degenerative diseases (e.g., late-stage amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) or locked-in syndrome) eventually lose all muscular control. Thus, they cannot use traditional assistive communication devices that depend on muscle control, or brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) that depend on the ability to control gaze. While auditory and tactile BCIs can provide communication to such individuals, their use typically entails an artificial mapping between the stimulus and the communication intent. This makes these BCIs difficult to learn and use. In this study, we investigated the use of selective auditory attention to natural speech as an avenue for BCI communication. In this approach, the user communicates by directing his/her attention to one of two simultaneously presented speakers. We used electrocorticographic (ECoG) signals in the gamma band (70–170 Hz) to infer the identity of attended speaker, thereby removing the need to learn such an artificial mapping. Our results from twelve human subjects show that a single cortical location over superior temporal gyrus or pre-motor cortex is typically sufficient to identify the attended speaker within 10 s and with 77% accuracy (50% accuracy due to chance). These results lay the groundwork for future studies that may determine the real-time performance of BCIs based on selective auditory attention to speech. PMID:26949710

  20. An eco-hydrologic model of malaria outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montosi, E.; Manzoni, S.; Porporato, A.; Montanari, A.

    2012-03-01

    Malaria is a geographically widespread infectious disease that is well known to be affected by climate variability at both seasonal and interannual timescales. In an effort to identify climatic factors that impact malaria dynamics, there has been considerable research focused on the development of appropriate disease models for malaria transmission and their consideration alongside climatic datasets. These analyses have focused largely on variation in temperature and rainfall as direct climatic drivers of malaria dynamics. Here, we further these efforts by considering additionally the role that soil water content may play in driving malaria incidence. Specifically, we hypothesize that hydro-climatic variability should be an important factor in controlling the availability of mosquito habitats, thereby governing mosquito growth rates. To test this hypothesis, we reduce a nonlinear eco-hydrologic model to a simple linear model through a series of consecutive assumptions and apply this model to malaria incidence data from three South African provinces. Despite the assumptions made in the reduction of the model, we show that soil water content can account for a significant portion of malaria's case variability beyond its seasonal patterns, whereas neither temperature nor rainfall alone can do so. Future work should therefore consider soil water content as a simple and computable variable for incorporation into climate-driven disease models of malaria and other vector-borne infectious diseases.