WorldWideScience

Sample records for eclipse crater tables

  1. Eclipsed neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    Full text: The total solar eclipse visible in Southern Asia on 24 October provided an opportunity for an unusual physics experiment. At face value, the levels of solar neutrinos detected on the Earth's surface are difficult to understand and suggest that perhaps the composition of solar neutrinos oscillates between different neutrino types on their journey. In this way neutrinos originating in the Sun as electrontype could convert into heavy neutrinos, which could subsequently disintegrate into an electron-neutrino and a photon. In certain neutrino scenarios, such a photon would have an energy corresponding to that of visible light, and in principle should be detectable if there are enough of them. The problem is that they would normally be swamped by the copious photons of sunlight. The 24 October solar eclipse provided a chance to check this out. A team led by François Vannucci, spokesman of the Nomad neutrino experiment at CERN, en route to the 'Rencontres du Vietnam' physics meeting in Ho Chi Minh Ville, set up a CCD-equipped telescope. To insure against cloud cover, a second telescope followed the eclipse in the desert of Rajastan, India, where the eclipse was to last only half as long, but the chance of cloud was minimal. No background solar signal was seen, or, expressed in physics terms, if solar radiation has any heavy neutrino component, then less than a millionth of it disintegrates into an electron neutrino and a visible photon before it arrives at the Earth. The negative result also has implications for candidate massive, unstable neutrinos from other sources, notably a component of the missing 'dark matter' of the Universe. The next such eclipse should be visible in North Asia in 1997, when hopefully better measurements will be made

  2. Spectral irradiance curve calculations for any type of solar eclipse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deepak, A.; Merrill, J.E.

    1974-01-01

    A simple procedure is described for calculating the eclipse function (EF), alpha, and hence the spectral irradiance curve (SIC), (1-alpha), for any type of solar eclipse: namely, the occultation (partial/total) eclipse and the transit (partial/annular) eclipse. The SIC (or the EF) gives the variation of the amount (or the loss) of solar radiation of a given wavelength reaching a distant observer for various positions of the moon across the sun. The scheme is based on the theory of light curves of eclipsing binaries, the results of which are tabulated in Merrill's Tables, and is valid for all wavelengths for which the solar limb-darkening obeys the cosine law: J = /sub c/(1 - X + X cost gamma). As an example of computing the SIC for an occultation eclipse which may be total, the calculations for the March 7, 1970, eclipse are described in detail. (U.S.)

  3. Eclipse models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, F.C.

    1989-01-01

    Three existing eclipse models for the PSR 1957 + 20 pulsar are discussed in terms of their requirements and the information they yield about the pulsar wind: the interacting wind from a companion model, the magnetosphere model, and the occulting disk model. It is shown out that the wind model requires an MHD wind from the pulsar, with enough particles that the Poynting flux of the wind can be thermalized; in this model, a large flux of energetic radiation from the pulsar is required to accompany the wind and drive the wind off the companion. The magnetosphere model requires an EM wind, which is Poynting flux dominated; the advantage of this model over the wind model is that the plasma density inside the magnetosphere can be orders of magnitude larger than in a magnetospheric tail blown back by wind interaction. The occulting disk model also requires an EM wind so that the interaction would be pushed down onto the companion surface, minimizing direct interaction of the wind with the orbiting macroscopic particles

  4. Spitzer secondary eclipses of Qatar-1b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garhart, Emily; Deming, Drake; Mandell, Avi; Knutson, Heather; Fortney, Jonathan J.

    2018-02-01

    Aims: Previous secondary eclipse observations of the hot Jupiter Qatar-1b in the Ks band suggest that it may have an unusually high day side temperature, indicative of minimal heat redistribution. There have also been indications that the orbit may be slightly eccentric, possibly forced by another planet in the system. We investigate the day side temperature and orbital eccentricity using secondary eclipse observations with Spitzer. Methods: We observed the secondary eclipse with Spitzer/IRAC in subarray mode, in both 3.6 and 4.5 μm wavelengths. We used pixel-level decorrelation to correct for Spitzer's intra-pixel sensitivity variations and thereby obtain accurate eclipse depths and central phases. Results: Our 3.6 μm eclipse depth is 0.149 ± 0.051% and the 4.5 μm depth is 0.273 ± 0.049%. Fitting a blackbody planet to our data and two recent Ks band eclipse depths indicates a brightness temperature of 1506 ± 71 K. Comparison to model atmospheres for the planet indicates that its degree of longitudinal heat redistribution is intermediate between fully uniform and day-side only. The day side temperature of the planet is unlikely to be as high (1885 K) as indicated by the ground-based eclipses in the Ks band, unless the planet's emergent spectrum deviates strongly from model atmosphere predictions. The average central phase for our Spitzer eclipses is 0.4984 ± 0.0017, yielding e cos ω = -0.0028 ± 0.0027. Our results are consistent with a circular orbit, and we constrain e cos ω much more strongly than has been possible with previous observations. Tables of the lightcurve data are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/610/A55

  5. Maven for Eclipse

    CERN Document Server

    Shah, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    If you want to learn about Maven and use it from within Eclipse to develop Java projects, this is the book for you. Prior experience in developing Java projects and using the Eclipse IDE is presumed. Whether you are a beginner or an experienced developer, this book will get you up and running quickly, with a hands-on approach.

  6. Centrifuge impact cratering experiment 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Transient crates motions, cratering flow fields, crates dynamics, determining impact conditions from total crater welt, centrifuge quarter-space cratering, and impact cratering mechanics research is documented.

  7. Cutting Craters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Released 12 November 2003The rims of two old and degraded impact craters are intersected by a graben in this THEMIS image taken near Mangala Fossa. Yardangs and low-albedo wind streaks are observed at the top of the image as well as interesting small grooves on the crater floor. The origin of these enigmatic grooves may be the result of mud or lava and volatile interactions. Variable surface textures observed in the bottom crater floor are the result of different aged lava flows.Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -15.2, Longitude 219.2 East (140.8 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  8. Lessons from ECLIPSE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faner, Rosa; Tal-Singer, Ruth; Riley, John H

    2014-01-01

    The Evaluation of COPD Longitudinally to Identify Predictive Surrogate End-points (ECLIPSE) study was a large 3-year observational controlled multicentre international study aimed at defining clinically relevant subtypes of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and identifying novel biomar...

  9. NEWS: Eclipse matters (still)!

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-05-01

    This collection of snippets has as its theme the 1999 Solar Eclipse, and covers items that might be of interest to eclipse watchers and their associates. Much information can be obtained from the national web site at http://www.eclipse.org.uk. Set up by the CLRC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, on behalf of the UK Eclipse Group, the site is intended to keep viewers abreast of developments during the countdown to the eclipse. The list of contents includes: about eclipses; eclipse pictures; eclipse science; safety advice; latest news; and local information. There is also a wealth of images and video footage, so the site has been organized with the visitor having a small PC and modem in mind, so that the key information can be accessed as quickly as possible. Free colour leaflets containing useful details for eclipse watchers can be obtained from the Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council. `The Sun - our local star' and `Neutrinos' are additions to PPARC's series introducing key areas of its science. They answer such questions as what the Sun is, what eclipses are, why the Sun is important and where neutrinos come from. They support the National Curriculum Key Stages 3 and 4 plus A-level physics. The A5 leaflets open out into an A2 sized double-sided wall chart and bulk quantitites are available for class sets, visitor centres, exhibitions, open days etc. A full list of PPARC materials can be found at the website http://www.pparc.ac.uk or by order from Mark Wells, PPARC, Polaris House, North Star Avenue, Swindon SN2 1SZ (fax: 01793 442002). A message has been received from George Care, Head of Physics in the Science Department at Mounts Bay School, Penzance, which we now pass on to our readers. During his application for electronic access to Physics Education via the Institute of Physics Affiliated Schools and Colleges scheme, George notes that his school is on the track of the eclipse this summer and he has invited us to pass on the details to anyone who

  10. Eclipses and the Olympics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, K. D.; Yau, K. K.

    2000-12-01

    Like returns of Halley's comet the Olympic games occur periodically, though not as regularly in antiquity. Dates were also imprecise due to the chaotic calendars in use. Reported sightings of comets and eclipses can be used with game dates to help fix ancient events. However some reported darkening of the sun, e.g., after Julius Caesar's murder in 44 BC, was due to volcanic eruptions. A red comet, visible in daylight, first appeared during the games that year. It was also seen from China and Korea (Pang, Sciences 31, 30). Phlegon's ``Olympiads" (2nd century) says that Christ's crucifixion was in the 4th year of the 202nd Olympiad (AD 29-33), when a total solar eclipse occurred in the 6th hour. Only the Nov. 24, AD 29 eclipse over Asia Minor can match that, and Joel's prophecy (Acts 2, 14-21) that ``the sun will be turned to darkness and moon to blood." However it conflicts with ``the first day of Passover," as recorded by Mathew, Mark and Luke, i.e., full moon in early spring. Humphreys and Waddington (Nature 306, 743) have suggested meteorological darkening and the April 3, AD 33 lunar eclipse instead. Schaefer has questioned the eclipse's visibility from Jerusalem (31.46N, 35.14E). The six computations he cited gave dissimilar answers due to the imprecise rates of the secular lunar acceleration, and lengthening of the day used (Q.Jl.R.astr.Soc. 31, 53). Lunar laser ranging has since fixed the former at -26"/cen2. Analysis of ancient Chinese solar eclipse records, e.g., the April 21, 899 BC and April 4, AD 368 ``double dawns" over Zheng, has given us a delta T (in sec) = 30t2, where t is centuries before 1800 (Pang, Yau and Chou, in ``Dynamics of Ice Age Earth: A Modern Perspective," 1998). Our computations show that the moon rose over Jerusalem, with 1/3 still in the umbra and the rest in penumbra. Holdover meteorological darkening with long absorption air mass could have help reddened the moon also. Finally the first ``eclipse season" (the Aug. 21 lunar, and

  11. Spectral Eclipse Timing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbs-Dixon, Ian; Agol, Eric; Deming, Drake

    2015-12-01

    We utilize multi-dimensional simulations of varying equatorial jet strength to predict wavelength-dependent variations in the eclipse times of gas-giant planets. A displaced hot spot introduces an asymmetry in the secondary eclipse light curve that manifests itself as a measured offset in the timing of the center of eclipse. A multi-wavelength observation of secondary eclipse, one probing the timing of barycentric eclipse at short wavelengths and another probing at longer wavelengths, will reveal the longitudinal displacement of the hot spot and break the degeneracy between this effect and that associated with the asymmetry due to an eccentric orbit. The effect of time offsets was first explored in the IRAC wavebands by Williams et al. Here we improve upon their methodology, extend to a broad range of wavelengths, and demonstrate our technique on a series of multi-dimensional radiative-hydrodynamical simulations of HD 209458b with varying equatorial jet strength and hot-spot displacement. Simulations with the largest hot-spot displacement result in timing offsets of up to 100 s in the infrared. Though we utilize a particular radiative hydrodynamical model to demonstrate this effect, the technique is model independent. This technique should allow a much larger survey of hot-spot displacements with the James Webb Space Telescope than currently accessible with time-intensive phase curves, hopefully shedding light on the physical mechanisms associated with thermal energy advection in irradiated gas giants.

  12. SPECTRAL ECLIPSE TIMING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobbs-Dixon, Ian; Agol, Eric; Deming, Drake

    2015-01-01

    We utilize multi-dimensional simulations of varying equatorial jet strength to predict wavelength-dependent variations in the eclipse times of gas-giant planets. A displaced hot spot introduces an asymmetry in the secondary eclipse light curve that manifests itself as a measured offset in the timing of the center of eclipse. A multi-wavelength observation of secondary eclipse, one probing the timing of barycentric eclipse at short wavelengths and another probing at longer wavelengths, will reveal the longitudinal displacement of the hot spot and break the degeneracy between this effect and that associated with the asymmetry due to an eccentric orbit. The effect of time offsets was first explored in the IRAC wavebands by Williams et al. Here we improve upon their methodology, extend to a broad range of wavelengths, and demonstrate our technique on a series of multi-dimensional radiative-hydrodynamical simulations of HD 209458b with varying equatorial jet strength and hot-spot displacement. Simulations with the largest hot-spot displacement result in timing offsets of up to 100 s in the infrared. Though we utilize a particular radiative hydrodynamical model to demonstrate this effect, the technique is model independent. This technique should allow a much larger survey of hot-spot displacements with the James Webb Space Telescope than currently accessible with time-intensive phase curves, hopefully shedding light on the physical mechanisms associated with thermal energy advection in irradiated gas giants

  13. SPECTRAL ECLIPSE TIMING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobbs-Dixon, Ian [Department of Physics, NYU Abu Dhabi P.O. Box 129188 Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Agol, Eric [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Seattle WA 98195 (United States); Deming, Drake [NASA Astrobiology Institute Virtual Planet Laboratory (United States)

    2015-12-10

    We utilize multi-dimensional simulations of varying equatorial jet strength to predict wavelength-dependent variations in the eclipse times of gas-giant planets. A displaced hot spot introduces an asymmetry in the secondary eclipse light curve that manifests itself as a measured offset in the timing of the center of eclipse. A multi-wavelength observation of secondary eclipse, one probing the timing of barycentric eclipse at short wavelengths and another probing at longer wavelengths, will reveal the longitudinal displacement of the hot spot and break the degeneracy between this effect and that associated with the asymmetry due to an eccentric orbit. The effect of time offsets was first explored in the IRAC wavebands by Williams et al. Here we improve upon their methodology, extend to a broad range of wavelengths, and demonstrate our technique on a series of multi-dimensional radiative-hydrodynamical simulations of HD 209458b with varying equatorial jet strength and hot-spot displacement. Simulations with the largest hot-spot displacement result in timing offsets of up to 100 s in the infrared. Though we utilize a particular radiative hydrodynamical model to demonstrate this effect, the technique is model independent. This technique should allow a much larger survey of hot-spot displacements with the James Webb Space Telescope than currently accessible with time-intensive phase curves, hopefully shedding light on the physical mechanisms associated with thermal energy advection in irradiated gas giants.

  14. Eclipsing binaries in open clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Southworth, John; Clausen, J.V.

    2006-01-01

    Stars: fundamental parameters - Stars : binaries : eclipsing - Stars: Binaries: spectroscopic - Open clusters and ass. : general Udgivelsesdato: 5 August......Stars: fundamental parameters - Stars : binaries : eclipsing - Stars: Binaries: spectroscopic - Open clusters and ass. : general Udgivelsesdato: 5 August...

  15. Raspberry Pi Eclipse Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chizek Frouard, Malynda

    2018-01-01

    The 21 August 2017 solar eclipse was an excellent opportunity for electronics and science enthusiasts to collect data during a fascinating phenomenon. With my recent personal interest in Raspberry Pis, I thought measuring how much the temperature and illuminance changes during a total solar eclipse would be fun and informational.Previous observations of total solar eclipses have remarked on the temperature drop during totality. Illuminance (ambient light) varies over 7 orders of magnitude from day to night and is highly dependent on relative positions of Sun, Earth, and Moon. I wondered whether totality was really as dark as night.Using a Raspberry Pi Zero W, a Pimoroni Enviro pHAT, and a portable USB charger, I collected environmental temperature; CPU temperature (because the environmental temperature sensor sat very near the CPU on the Raspberry Pi); barometric pressure; ambient light; R, G, and B colors; and x, y, and z acceleration (for marking times when I moved the sensor) data at a ~15 second cadence starting at about 5 am until 1:30 pm from my eclipse observation site in Glendo, WY. Totality occurred from 11:45 to 11:47 am, lasting about 2 minutes and 30 seconds.The Raspberry Pi recorded a >20 degree F drop in temperature during the eclipse, and the illuminance during totality was equivalent to twilight measurements earlier in the day. A limitation in the ambient light sensor prevented accurate measurements of broad daylight and most of the partial phase of the eclipse, but an alternate ambient light sensor combined with the Raspberry Pi setup would make this a cost-efficient set-up for illuminance studies.I will present data from the ambient light sensor, temperature sensor, and color sensor, noting caveats from my experiments, lessons learned for next time, and suggestions for anyone who wants to perform similar experiments for themselves or with a classroom.

  16. Totality eclipses of the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Littmann, Mark; Willcox, Ken

    2008-01-01

    A total eclipse of the Sun is the most awesome sight in the heavens. Totality: Eclipses of the Sun takes you to eclipses of the past, present, and future, and lets you see - and feel - why people travel to the ends of the Earth to observe them. - ;A total eclipse of the Sun is the most awesome sight in the heavens. Totality: Eclipses of the Sun takes you to eclipses of the past, present, and future, and lets you see - and feel - why people travel to the ends of the Earth to observe them. Totality: Eclipses of the Sun is the best guide and reference book on solar eclipses ever written. It explains: how to observe them; how to photograph and videotape them; why they occur; their history and mythology; and future eclipses - when and where to see them. Totality also tells the remarkable story of how eclipses shocked scientists, revealed the workings of the Sun, and made Einstein famous. And the book shares the experiences and advice of many veteran eclipse observers. Totality: Eclipses of the Sun is profusely ill...

  17. After the Eclipse

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 2. Chief Editor's column - After the Eclipse. Rajaram Nityananda. Article-in-a-Box Volume 1 Issue 2 February 1996 pp 2-3. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/001/02/0002-0003 ...

  18. Eclipse of epsilon Aurigae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, Matthew R.

    2009-07-01

    The bright, long-period, eclipsing binary star epsilon Aurigae is predicted to begin its next eclipse late July or early August of 2009. Epsilon Aurigae is now past solar conjunction and has reappeared as a morning object. All observers -- both visual and instrumental -- are encouraged to contribute observations of the eclipse during the next two years, beginning immediately for morning observers. Observations are urgently requested right now because it is less likely to be observed in the morning, and the eclipse will begin within the next month. The AAVSO is participating in a global campaign to record this eclipse as part of the International Year of Astronomy 2009 celebrations, organized by the Citizen Sky project (http://www.citizensky.org). For experienced visual observers, please observe this star on a weekly basis, using charts available via VSP from the AAVSO website. For novice visual observers, we recommend participating in this observing program by following the Citizen Sky 10-Star tutorial program, which provides a simple training experience in variable star observing. Photoelectric observers belonging to the AAVSO PEP-V program may submit data as usual via the WebObs feature of the AAVSO website Blue&Gold section. Photoelectric observers may also contribute reduced observations in all filters (including infrared J- and H-bands) directly to the AAVSO via WebObs. Observers using wide-field CCD and DSLR systems are also encouraged to participate; avoid saturating the star. For those with narrower-field systems (D Jeffrey Hopkins are co-leading the precision photometry efforts.

  19. Inclement Weather Crater Repair Tool Kit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-30

    9. Corrugated steel quadcons. ....................................................................................................... 14 Figure 10...Saw cutting around crater upheaval. ERDC/GSL TR-17-26 6 The excavation team is responsible for breaking up the damaged portland cement ...in the table located on Sheet 2 in Appendix A. The corrugated steel quadcons (Item 1) are equipped with double swing doors on both ends of the

  20. Dome craters on Ganymede

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, J.M.; Malin, M.C.

    1987-01-01

    Voyager observations reveal impact craters on Ganymede that are characterized by the presence of broad, high albedo, topographic domes situated within a central pit. Fifty-seven craters with central domes were identified in images covering approx. 50% of the surface. Owing to limitations in resolution, and viewing and illumination angles, the features identified are most likely a subset of dome craters. The sample appears to be sufficiently large to infer statistically meaningful trends. Dome craters appear to fall into two distinct populations on plots of the ratio of dome diameter to crater rim diameter, large-dome craters and small-dome craters. The two classes are morphologically distinct from one another. In general, large dome craters show little relief and their constituent landforms appear subdued with respect to fresh craters. The physical attributes of small-dome craters are more sharply defined, a characteristic they share with young impact craters of comparable size observed elsewhere in the solar system. Both types of dome craters exhibit central pits in which the dome is located. As it is difficult to produce domes by impact and/or erosional processes, an endogenic origin for the domes is reasonably inferred. Several hypotheses for their origin are proposed. These hypotheses are briefly reviewed

  1. Degraded Crater Rim

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 3 May 2002) The Science The eastern rim of this unnamed crater in Southern Arabia Terra is very degraded (beaten up). This indicates that this crater is very ancient and has been subjected to erosion and subsequent bombardment from other impactors such as asteroids and comets. One of these later (younger) craters is seen in the upper right of this image superimposed upon the older crater rim material. Note that this smaller younger crater rim is sharper and more intact than the older crater rim. This region is also mantled with a blanket of dust. This dust mantle causes the underlying topography to take on a more subdued appearance. The Story When you think of Arabia, you probably think of hot deserts and a lot of profitable oil reserves. On Mars, however, Southern Arabia Terra is a cold place of cratered terrain. This almost frothy-looking image is the badly battered edge of an ancient crater, which has suffered both erosion and bombardment from asteroids, comets, or other impacting bodies over the long course of its existence. A blanket of dust has also settled over the region, which gives the otherwise rugged landscape a soft and more subdued appearance. The small, round crater (upper left) seems almost gemlike in its setting against the larger crater ring. But this companionship is no easy romance. Whatever formed the small crater clearly whammed into the larger crater rim at some point, obliterating part of its edge. You can tell the small crater was formed after the first and more devastating impact, because it is laid over the other larger crater. How much younger is the small one? Well, its rim is also much sharper and more intact, which gives a sense that it is probably far more youthful than the very degraded, ancient crater.

  2. Total eclipses of the sun

    CERN Document Server

    Zirker, Jack B

    2014-01-01

    Eclipses have captured attention and sparked curiosity about the cosmos since the first appearance of humankind. Having been blamed for everything from natural disasters to the fall of kings, they are now invaluable tools for understanding many celestial as well as terrestrial phenomena. This clear, easy-to-understand guide explains what causes total eclipses and how they can be used in experiments to examine everything from the dust between the planets to general relativity. A new chapter has been added on the eclipse of July 11, 1991 (the great Hawaiian eclipse). Originally published in 19

  3. Two-dimensional computer simulation of hypervelocity impact cratering: some preliminary results for Meteor Crater, Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryan, J.B.; Burton, D.E.; Cunningham, M.E.; Lettis, L.A. Jr.

    1978-06-01

    A computational approach used for subsurface explosion cratering was extended to hypervelocity impact cratering. Meteor (Barringer) Crater, Arizona, was selected for the first computer simulation because it is one of the most thoroughly studied craters. It is also an excellent example of a simple, bowl-shaped crater and is one of the youngest terrestrial impact craters. Initial conditions for this calculation included a meteorite impact velocity of 15 km/s, meteorite mass of 1.67 x 10 8 kg, with a corresponding kinetic energy of 1.88 x 10 16 J (4.5 megatons). A two-dimensional Eulerian finite difference code called SOIL was used for this simulation of a cylindrical iron projectile impacting at normal incidence into a limestone target. For this initial calculation, a Tillotson equation-of-state description for iron and limestone was used with no shear strength. Results obtained for this preliminary calculation of the formation of Meteor Crater are in good agreement with field measurements. A color movie based on this calculation was produced using computer-generated graphics. 19 figures, 5 tables, 63 references

  4. Two-dimensional computer simulation of hypervelocity impact cratering: some preliminary results for Meteor Crater, Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, J.B.; Burton, D.E.; Cunningham, M.E.; Lettis, L.A. Jr.

    1978-06-01

    A computational approach used for subsurface explosion cratering was extended to hypervelocity impact cratering. Meteor (Barringer) Crater, Arizona, was selected for the first computer simulation because it is one of the most thoroughly studied craters. It is also an excellent example of a simple, bowl-shaped crater and is one of the youngest terrestrial impact craters. Initial conditions for this calculation included a meteorite impact velocity of 15 km/s, meteorite mass of 1.67 x 10/sup 8/ kg, with a corresponding kinetic energy of 1.88 x 10/sup 16/ J (4.5 megatons). A two-dimensional Eulerian finite difference code called SOIL was used for this simulation of a cylindrical iron projectile impacting at normal incidence into a limestone target. For this initial calculation, a Tillotson equation-of-state description for iron and limestone was used with no shear strength. Results obtained for this preliminary calculation of the formation of Meteor Crater are in good agreement with field measurements. A color movie based on this calculation was produced using computer-generated graphics. 19 figures, 5 tables, 63 references.

  5. Experimental impact crater morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufresne, A.; Poelchau, M. H.; Hoerth, T.; Schaefer, F.; Thoma, K.; Deutsch, A.; Kenkmann, T.

    2012-04-01

    The research group MEMIN (Multidisciplinary Experimental and Impact Modelling Research Network) is conducting impact experiments into porous sandstones, examining, among other parameters, the influence of target pore-space saturation with water, and projectile velocity, density and mass, on the cratering process. The high-velocity (2.5-7.8 km/s) impact experiments were carried out at the two-stage light-gas gun facilities of the Fraunhofer Institute EMI (Germany) using steel, iron meteorite (Campo del Cielo IAB), and aluminium projectiles with Seeberg Sandstone as targets. The primary objectives of this study within MEMIN are to provide detailed morphometric data of the experimental craters, and to identify trends and characteristics specific to a given impact parameter. Generally, all craters, regardless of impact conditions, have an inner depression within a highly fragile, white-coloured centre, an outer spallation (i.e. tensile failure) zone, and areas of arrested spallation (i.e. spall fragments that were not completely dislodged from the target) at the crater rim. Within this general morphological framework, distinct trends and differences in crater dimensions and morphological characteristics are identified. With increasing impact velocity, the volume of craters in dry targets increases by a factor of ~4 when doubling velocity. At identical impact conditions (steel projectiles, ~5km/s), craters in dry and wet sandstone targets differ significantly in that "wet" craters are up to 76% larger in volume, have depth-diameter ratios generally below 0.19 (whereas dry craters are almost consistently above this value) at significantly larger diameters, and their spallation zone morphologies show very different characteristics. In dry craters, the spall zone surfaces dip evenly at 10-20° towards the crater centre. In wet craters, on the other hand, they consist of slightly convex slopes of 10-35° adjacent to the inner depression, and of sub-horizontal tensile

  6. Getting started with Eclipse Juno

    CERN Document Server

    Durelli, Vinicius H S; Teixeira, Rafael Medeiros

    2013-01-01

    Written as a concise yet practical guide that details the main features which are usually required by a programmer who makes use of the Eclipse platform, this book covers Eclipse 3.8 in a way that is accessible to the Java novice and expert alike. The reader is guided through a series of hands-on examples that introduce Eclipse and some of its plugins.The primary audience for this book are the Java programmers. This book has been written in a way that it is accessible both to beginners and advanced Java programmers alike. Also, if you are a seasoned Java developer who has been using another ID

  7. Centrifuge Impact Cratering Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, R. M.; Housen, K. R.; Bjorkman, M. D.

    1985-01-01

    The kinematics of crater growth, impact induced target flow fields and the generation of impact melt were determined. The feasibility of using scaling relationships for impact melt and crater dimensions to determine impactor size and velocity was studied. It is concluded that a coupling parameter determines both the quantity of melt and the crater dimensions for impact velocities greater than 10km/s. As a result impactor radius, a, or velocity, U cannot be determined individually, but only as a product in the form of a coupling parameter, delta U micron. The melt volume and crater volume scaling relations were applied to Brent crater. The transport of melt and the validity of the melt volume scaling relations are examined.

  8. Buried Craters of Utopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-365, 19 May 2003Beneath the northern plains of Mars are numerous buried meteor impact craters. One of the most heavily-cratered areas, although buried, occurs in Utopia Planitia, as shown in this Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image. The history of Mars is complex; impact craters provide a tool by which to understand some of that history. In this case, a very ancient, cratered surface was thinly-buried by younger material that is not cratered at all. This area is near 48.1oN, 228.2oW; less than 180 km (112 mi) west of the Viking 2 lander site. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left.

  9. Crater in Utopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    23 March 2004 Craters of the martian northern plains tend to be somewhat shallow because material has filled them in. Their ejecta blankets, too, are often covered by younger materials. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows an example--a crater in Utopia Planitia near 43.7oN, 227.3oW. Erosion has roughened some of the surfaces of the material that filled the crater and covered its ejecta deposit. The picture covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left.

  10. Polygons on Crater Floor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-357, 11 May 2003This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) picture shows a pattern of polygons on the floor of a northern plains impact crater. These landforms are common on crater floors at high latitudes on Mars. Similar polygons occur in the arctic and antarctic regions of Earth, where they indicate the presence and freeze-thaw cycling of ground ice. Whether the polygons on Mars also indicate water ice in the ground is uncertain. The image is located in a crater at 64.8oN, 292.7oW. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left.

  11. Eclipse takeoff and flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This 25-second clip shows the QF-106 'Delta Dart' tethered to the USAF C-141A during takeoff and in flight. NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, supported a Kelly Space and Technology, Inc. (KST)/U.S. Air Force project known as Eclipse, which demonstrated a reusable tow launch vehicle concept. The purpose of the project was to demonstrate a reusable tow launch vehicle concept that had been conceived and patented by KST. Kelly Space obtained a contract with the USAF Research Laboratory for the tow launch demonstration project under the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. The USAF SBIR contract included the modifications to turn the QF-106 into the Experimental Demonstrator #1 (EXD-01), and the C141A aircraft to incorporate the tow provisions to link the two aircraft, as well as conducting flight tests. The demonstration consisted of ground and flight tests. These tests included a Combined Systems Test of both airplanes joined by a tow rope, a towed taxi test, and six towed flights. The primary goal of the project was demonstrating the tow phase of the Eclipse concept using a scaled-down tow aircraft (C-141A) and a representative aerodynamically-shaped aircraft (QF-106A) as a launch vehicle. This was successfully accomplished. On December 20, 1997, NASA research pilot Mark Stucky flew a QF-106 on the first towed flight behind an Air Force C-141 in the joint Eclipse project with KST to demonstrate the reusable tow launch vehicle concept developed by KST. Kelly hoped to use the data from the tow tests to validate a tow-to-launch procedure for reusable space launch vehicles. Stucky flew six successful tow tests between December 1997 and February 6, 1998. On February 6, 1998, the sixth and final towed flight brought the project to a successful completion. Preliminary flight results determined that the handling qualities of the QF-106 on tow were very stable; actual flight measured values of tow rope tension were well within predictions

  12. David Levy's Guide to Eclipses, Transits, and Occultations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, David H.

    2010-08-01

    Introduction; Part I. The Magic and History of Eclipses: 1. Shakespeare, King Lear, and the Great Eclipse of 1605; 2. Three centuries later: Einstein, relativity, and the solar eclipse of 1919; 3. What causes solar and lunar eclipses; Part II. Observing Solar Eclipses: 4. Safety considerations; 5. What to expect during a partial eclipse; 6. Annular eclipses and what to see in them; 7. Total eclipse of the Sun: introduction to the magic; 8. The onset: temperature drop, Baily's Beads, Diamond Ring; 9. Totality: Corona, Prominences, Chromosphere, and surrounding area; 10. Photographing and imaging a solar eclipse; Part III. Observing Lunar Eclipses: 11. Don't forget the penumbral eclipses!; 12. Partial lunar eclipses; 13. Total lunar eclipses; 14. Photographing and imaging lunar eclipses; Part IV. Occultations: 15. When the Moon occults a star; Part V. Transits: 16. When planets cross the Sun; Part VI. My Favorite Eclipses: 17. A personal canon of eclipses, occultations, and transits I have seen; Appendices; Index.

  13. Mercury's Densely Cratered Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    Mariner 10 took this picture (FDS 27465) of the densely cratered surface of Mercury when the spacecraft was 18,200 kilometers (8085 miles) from the planet on March 29. The dark line across top of picture is a 'dropout' of a few TV lines of data. At lower left, a portion of a 61 kilometer (38 mile) crater shows a flow front extending across the crater floor and filling more than half of the crater. The smaller, fresh crater at center is about 25 kilometers (15 miles) in diameter. Craters as small as one kilometer (about one-half mile) across are visible in the picture.The Mariner 10 mission, managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for NASA's Office of Space Science, explored Venus in February 1974 on the way to three encounters with Mercury-in March and September 1974 and in March 1975. The spacecraft took more than 7,000 photos of Mercury, Venus, the Earth and the Moon.Image Credit: NASA/JPL/Northwestern University

  14. Multivariate analyses of crater parameters and the classification of craters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, B. S.; Griffiths, J. C.

    1974-01-01

    Multivariate analyses were performed on certain linear dimensions of six genetic types of craters. A total of 320 craters, consisting of laboratory fluidization craters, craters formed by chemical and nuclear explosives, terrestrial maars and other volcanic craters, and terrestrial meteorite impact craters, authenticated and probable, were analyzed in the first data set in terms of their mean rim crest diameter, mean interior relief, rim height, and mean exterior rim width. The second data set contained an additional 91 terrestrial craters of which 19 were of experimental percussive impact and 28 of volcanic collapse origin, and which was analyzed in terms of mean rim crest diameter, mean interior relief, and rim height. Principal component analyses were performed on the six genetic types of craters. Ninety per cent of the variation in the variables can be accounted for by two components. Ninety-nine per cent of the variation in the craters formed by chemical and nuclear explosives is explained by the first component alone.

  15. Mapping the 2017 Eclipse: Education, Navigation, Inspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiler, M.

    2015-12-01

    Eclipse maps are a unique vessel of knowledge. At a glance, they communicate the essential knowledge of where and when to successfully view a total eclipse of the sun. An eclipse map also provides detailed knowledge of eclipse circumstances superimposed on the highway system for optimal navigation, especially in the event that weather forces relocation. Eclipse maps are also a vital planning tool for solar physicists and astrophotographers capturing high-resolution imagery of the solar corona. Michael Zeiler will speak to the role of eclipse maps in educating the American public and inspiring people to make the effort to reach the path of totality for the sight of a lifetime. Michael will review the role of eclipse maps in astronomical research and discuss a project under development, the 2017 Eclipse Atlas for smartphones, tablets, and desktop computers.

  16. Interacting Winds in Eclipsing Symbiotic Systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... Interacting Winds in Eclipsing Symbiotic Systems – The Case Study of EG Andromedae ... to obtain the physical parameters of a quiescent eclipsing symbiotic system. ... Articles are also visible in Web of Science immediately.

  17. Craters on comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, J.; Oklay, N.; Marchi, S.; Höfner, S.; Sierks, H.

    2014-07-01

    This paper reviews the observations of crater-like features on cometary nuclei. ''Pits'' have been observed on almost all cometary nuclei but their origin is not fully understood [1,2,3,4]. It is currently assumed that they are created mainly by the cometary activity with a pocket of volatiles erupting under a dust crust, leaving a hole behind. There are, however, other features which cannot be explained in this way and are interpreted alternatively as remnants of impact craters. This work focusses on the second type of pit features: impact craters. We present an in-depth review of what has been observed previously and conclude that two main types of crater morphologies can be observed: ''pit-halo'' and ''sharp pit''. We extend this review by a series of analysis of impact craters on cometary nuclei through different approaches [5]: (1) Probability of impact: We discuss the chances that a Jupiter Family Comet like 9P/Tempel 1 or the target of Rosetta 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko can experience an impact, taking into account the most recent work on the size distribution of small objects in the asteroid Main Belt [6]. (2) Crater morphology from scaling laws: We present the status of scaling laws for impact craters on cometary nuclei [7] and discuss their strengths and limitations when modeling what happens when a rocky projectile hits a very porous material. (3) Numerical experiments: We extend the work on scaling laws by a series of hydrocode impact simulations, using the iSALE shock physics code [8,9,10] for varying surface porosity and impactor velocity (see Figure). (4) Surface processes and evolution: We discuss finally the fate of the projectile and the effects of the impact-induced surface compaction on the activity of the nucleus. To summarize, we find that comets do undergo impacts although the rapid evolution of the surface erases most of the features and make craters difficult to detect. In the case of a collision between a rocky body and a highly porous

  18. Integration of BETA with Eclipse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter; Madsen, Ole Lehrmann; Enevoldsen, Mads Brøgger

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents language interoperability issues appearing in order to implement support for the BETA language in the Java-based Eclipse integrated development environment. One of the challenges is to implement plug-ins in BETA and be able to load them in Eclipse. In order to do this, some fo...... it is possible to implement plug-ins in BETA and even inherit from Java classes. In the paper the two approaches are described together with part of the mapping from BETA to Java class files. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/15710661...

  19. Determination of lunar surface ages from crater frequency–size ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and the images from Apollo missions have been calibrated from the lunar soil samples from Apollo and Luna landing sites (Head 1976; Neukum et al. 1975). ... Table 1 shows the ages as derived for the craters with errors. Mare Humorum is believed to be made up of six ring structures of 210, 340, 425, 570 and 1195km.

  20. Eclipse plugin development by example beginner's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Blewitt, Alex

    2013-01-01

    A Beginner's Guide following the ""by Example"" approach. There will be 5-8 major examples that will be used in the book to develop advanced plugins with the Eclipse IDE.This book is for Java developers who are familiar with Eclipse as a Java IDE and are interested in learning how to develop plug-ins for Eclipse. No prior knowledge of Eclipse plug-in development or OSGi is necessary, although you are expected to know how to create, run, and debug Java programs in Eclipse.

  1. Android development tools for Eclipse

    CERN Document Server

    Shah, Sanjay

    2013-01-01

    A standard tutorial aimed at developing Android applications in a practical manner.Android Development Tools for Eclipse is aimed at beginners and existing developers who want to learn more about Android development. It is assumed that you have experience in Java programming and that you have used IDE for development.

  2. Reflected eclipses on circumbinary planets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deeg H.J.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A photometric method to detect planets orbiting around shortperiodic binary stars is presented. It is based on the detection of eclipse-signatures in the reflected light of circumbinary planets. Amplitudes of such ’reflected eclipses’ will depend on the orbital configurations of binary and planet relative to the observer. Reflected eclipses will occur with a period that is distinct from the binary eclipses, and their timing will also be modified by variations in the light-travel time of the eclipse signal. For the sample of eclipsing binaries found by the Kepler mission, reflected eclipses from close circumbinary planets may be detectable around at least several dozen binaries. A thorough detection effort of such reflected eclipses may then detect the inner planets present, or give solid limits to their abundance.

  3. Hypervelocity impact cratering calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, D. E.; Moises, H.

    1971-01-01

    A summary is presented of prediction calculations on the mechanisms involved in hypervelocity impact cratering and response of earth media. Considered are: (1) a one-gram lithium-magnesium alloys impacting basalt normally at 6.4 km/sec, and (2) a large terrestrial impact corresponding to that of Sierra Madera.

  4. Exoplanet Characterization With Spitzer Eclipses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Joseph

    We will analyze our existing Spitzer eclipse data for 11 exoplanets (GJ 436b, WASP-8b, WASP-29b, WASP-11b, TrES-1, WASP-34b, WASP-43b, HD 209458b, HAT-P-30b, HAT-P-13b, and WASP-12b) along with all other Spitzer eclipse and transit data for these systems (723 hours of total data). In combination with transit results, these measurements reveal the surface fluxes emitted by the planets' atmospheres in the six Spitzer bandpasses (3.6, 4.5, 5.8, 8.0, 16, and 24 1-4m), as well as orbital eccentricity and in a few cases possibly even precession rate. The fluxes, in turn, can constrain atmospheric composition and thermal profiles. We propose here to analyze data for these planets using Monte Carlo-driven, radiative-transfer, model-fitting codes; to conduct aggregate analyses; and to develop and share statistical modeling tools. Secondary eclipses provide us with a unique way to characterize exoplanetary atmospheres. Since other techniques like spectroscopy divide the planetary signal into many channels, they require very high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) and are only possible for a few planets. Broadband eclipse photometry is thus the only technique that can measure dozens of atmospheres and identify the mechanisms that cause planets at a given irradiation level to behave so differently from one another. Until JWST becomes available, the broad variety of Spitzer data that we already have in hand, along with observations from the Hubble Space Telescope and possibly SOFIA, are our best way to understand the wide diversity of exoplanetary atmospheres. Since 2010, the team has produced six papers from a new, highly modular pipeline that implements optimal methods for analysis of Spitzer photometric time series, and our efficiency is increasing. The sensitivity needed for these measurements is up to 100 times better than Spitzer's design criteria, so careful treatment of systematic error is critically important and first-order approximations rarely work. The new pipeline

  5. Resource Letter OSE-1: Observing Solar Eclipses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.; Fraknoi, Andrew

    2017-07-01

    This Resource Letter provides a guide to the available literature, listing selected books, articles, and online resources about scientific, cultural, and practical issues related to observing solar eclipses. It is timely, given that a total solar eclipse will cross the continental United States on August 21, 2017. The next total solar eclipse path crossing the U.S. and Canada will be on April 8, 2024. In 2023, the path of annularity of an annular eclipse will cross Mexico, the United States, and Canada, with partial phases visible throughout those countries.

  6. Eclipse Soundscapes Project: Making the August 21, 2017 Total Solar Eclipse Accessible to Everyone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, H. D., III

    2017-12-01

    The Eclipse Soundscapes Project delivered a multisensory experience that allowed the blind and visually impaired to engage with the August 21, 2017 total solar eclipse along with their sighted peers in a way that would not have been possible otherwise. The project, from the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory and NASA's Heliophysics Education Consortium, includes illustrative audio descriptions of the eclipse in real time, recordings of the changing environmental sounds during the eclipse, and an interactive "rumble map" app that allows users to experience the eclipse through touch and sound. The Eclipse Soundscapes Project is working with organizations such as the National Parks Service (NPS), Science Friday, and Brigham Young University and by WGBH's National Center for Accessible Media (NCAM) to bring the awe and wonder of the total solar eclipse and other astronomical phenomena to a segment of the population that has been excluded from and astronomy and astrophysics for far too long, while engaging all learners in new and exciting ways.

  7. Evaluating the Eclipse: How good was it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel-Storr, Jacob; InsightSTEM Evaluation Team

    2018-01-01

    We present findings from the evaluation program carried out of education, public outreach, and communication activities around the "Great American Eclipse" of August 21, 2017. We include findings drawn from the experiences of 30 participants in planning activities prior to the eclipse and 31 recipients of mini-grants for eclipse activities supported by the American Astronomical Society through a grant from the National Science Foundation. We synthesize evaluations gathered by these and other volunteering organizations to provide a multi-site picture of experiences and learning outcomes at eclipse-related events - both in the path of totality and in partial eclipse settings. We make use of qualitative and quantitative responses representing over 30,000 individuals who observed (or tried to observe) the eclipse. We will share findings from across the range of programs included in our evaluation network along with specific highlights. We emphasize a reflection on the motivation and activity behind the 2017 eclipse, and how to leverage the lessons learned for future events on this scale (such as the eclipse of April 8, 2024) along with messages relevant to other events connected with astronomical phenomena, or in multi-site settings.This work was supported in part by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 1564535 awarded to the American Astronomical Society. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation or the American Astronomical Society.

  8. Mastering Eclipse plug-in development

    CERN Document Server

    Blewitt, Alex

    2014-01-01

    If you are a Java developer who is familiar with the Eclipse plug-in environment, this book covers the advanced concepts that you need to know to achieve true expertise. Prior experience in creating Eclipse plug-ins is assumed for this book.

  9. Is an eclipse described in the Odyssey?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baikouzis, Constantino; Magnasco, Marcelo O

    2008-07-01

    Plutarch and Heraclitus believed a certain passage in the 20th book of the Odyssey ("Theoclymenus's prophecy") to be a poetic description of a total solar eclipse. In the late 1920s, Schoch and Neugebauer computed that the solar eclipse of 16 April 1178 B.C.E. was total over the Ionian Islands and was the only suitable eclipse in more than a century to agree with classical estimates of the decade-earlier sack of Troy around 1192-1184 B.C.E. However, much skepticism remains about whether the verses refer to this, or any, eclipse. To contribute to the issue independently of the disputed eclipse reference, we analyze other astronomical references in the Epic, without assuming the existence of an eclipse, and search for dates matching the astronomical phenomena we believe they describe. We use three overt astronomical references in the epic: to Boötes and the Pleiades, Venus, and the New Moon; we supplement them with a conjectural identification of Hermes's trip to Ogygia as relating to the motion of planet Mercury. Performing an exhaustive search of all possible dates in the span 1250-1115 B.C., we looked to match these phenomena in the order and manner that the text describes. In that period, a single date closely matches our references: 16 April 1178 B.C.E. We speculate that these references, plus the disputed eclipse reference, may refer to that specific eclipse.

  10. Crater Highlands, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), flown aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour in February 2000, acquired elevation measurements for nearly all of Earth's landmass between 60oN and 56oS latitudes. For many areas of the world SRTM data provide the first detailed three-dimensional observation of landforms at regional scales. SRTM data were used to generate this view of the Crater Highlands along the East African Rift in Tanzania. Landforms are depicted with colored height and shaded relief, using a vertical exaggeration of 2X and a southwestwardly look direction. Lake Eyasi is depicted in blue at the top of the image, and a smaller lake occurs in Ngorongoro Crater. Near the image center, elevations peak at 3648 meters (11,968 feet) at Mount Loolmalasin, which is south of Ela Naibori Crater. Kitumbeine (left) and Gelai (right) are the two broad mountains rising from the rift lowlands. Mount Longido is seen in the lower left, and the Meto Hills are in the right foreground. Tectonics, volcanism, landslides, erosion and deposition -- and their interactions -- are all very evident in this view. The East African Rift is a zone of spreading between the African (on the west) and Somali (on the east) crustal plates. Two branches of the rift intersect here in Tanzania, resulting in distinctive and prominent landforms. One branch trends nearly parallel the view and includes Lake Eyasi and the very wide Ngorongoro Crater. The other branch is well defined by the lowlands that trend left-right across the image (below center, in green). Volcanoes are often associated with spreading zones where magma, rising to fill the gaps, reaches the surface and builds cones. Craters form if a volcano explodes or collapses. Later spreading can fracture the volcanoes, which is especially evident on Kitumbeine and Gelai Mountains (left and right, respectively, lower center). The Crater Highlands rise far above the adjacent savannas, capture moisture from passing air masses, and host rain

  11. Strategies for the public communication of eclipses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretones, P. S.

    2015-03-01

    Eclipses are among the celestial events that draw the attention of the public. This paper discusses strategies for using eclipses as public communication opportunities in the media. It discusses the impact of articles written by the author and analysis of published material for 25 observed eclipses over the last 30 years by mass media in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. On each occasion, a standard article was posted on the Internet and sent to newspapers, radio and TV with information, such as: date, time and local circumstances; type of the eclipse; area of visibility; explanation; diagram of the phenomenon, and the Moon's path through Earth's shadow; eclipses in history; techniques of observation; getting photographs; place and event for public observation. Over the years, direct contact was maintained with the media and jounralists by the press offices of the institutions.

  12. Polygons and Craters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    3 September 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows polygons enhanced by subliming seasonal frost in the martian south polar region. Polygons similar to these occur in frozen ground at high latitudes on Earth, suggesting that perhaps their presence on Mars is also a sign that there is or once was ice in the shallow subsurface. The circular features are degraded meteor impact craters. Location near: 72.2oS, 310.3oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Spring

  13. Gully formation in terrestrial simple craters: Meteor Crater, USA and Lonar Crater, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P.; Head, J. W.; Kring, D. A.

    2007-12-01

    Geomorphic features such as gullies, valley networks, and channels on Mars have been used as a proxy to understand the climate and landscape evolution of Mars. Terrestrial analogues provide significant insight as to how the various exogenic and endogenic processes might contribute to the evolution of these martian landscapes. We describe here a terrestrial example from Meteor Crater, which shows a spectacular development of gullies throughout the inner wall in response to rainwater precipitation, snow melting and groundwater discharge. As liquid water has been envisaged as one of the important agents of landscape sculpturing, Meteor Crater remains a useful landmark, where planetary geologists can learn some lessons. We also show here how the lithology and structural framework of this crater controls the gully distribution. Like many martian impact craters, it was emplaced in layered sedimentary rocks with an exceptionally well-developed centripetal drainage pattern consisting of individual alcoves, channels and fans. Some of the gullies originate from the rim crest and others from the middle crater wall, where a lithologic transition occurs. Deeply incised alcoves are well-developed on the soft sandstones of the Coconino Formation exposed on the middle crater wall, beneath overlying dolomite. In general, the gully locations are along crater wall radial fractures and faults, which are favorable locales of groundwater flow and discharge; these structural discontinuities are also the locales where the surface runoff from rain precipitation and snow melting can preferentially flow, causing degradation. Like martian craters, channels are well developed on the talus deposits and alluvial fans on the periphery of the crater floor. In addition, lake sediments on the crater floor provide significant evidence of a past pluvial climate, when groundwater seeped from springs on the crater wall. Caves exposed on the lower crater level may point to percolation of surface runoff

  14. Effect of solar eclipse on microbes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrita Shriyan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : A solar eclipse was observed in India on 15 th January, 2010. It was a total eclipse in some parts of the country, while it was a partial eclipse in other parts. Microorganisms play an important role in various phenomena on the earth. This study was undertaken to know the influence of solar eclipse on nature indirectly, by analyzing certain genotypic and phenotypic variations in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Since yeast have similar gene expression as that of humans, investigations were pursued on Candida albicans. Hence the study of the effect of solar eclipse on cultures of Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella species, Escherichia coli, and C. albicans was performed in the laboratory. The effect of the total or partial eclipse on the microorganism isolated from clinical isolates was investigated during the time period from 11.15 am to 3.15 pm. Materials and Methods : Cultures of S. aureus, Klebsiella species, and E. coli colonies on nutrient agar slants and broth and C. albicans on Sabouraud′s dextrose agar plates and broth. Slants were exposed to sunlight during eclipse and exposure to normal sunlight at Mangalore, Dakshina Kannada district, Karnataka state, India. Results : There was significant change observed during exposure to normal sunlight and eclipse phase. Bacterial colonies showed difference in morphology on smear examination and sensitivity pattern during this study. One fungal species and three bacterial isolates were studied and changes were recorded. Fungal species showed a definite change in their morphology on exposure to sunlight during eclipse observed by stained smear examination from broth, plate, and slant. Conclusion : Present study concludes that blocking of the sun rays during eclipse does not harm prokaryotes and eukaryotes, instead promoted the progeny of predators in the race of better acclimatization and survival in the natural and changing environmental conditions.

  15. Meteor Crater, AZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The Barringer Meteorite Crater (also known as 'Meteor Crater') is a gigantic hole in the middle of the arid sandstone of the Arizona desert. A rim of smashed and jumbled boulders, some of them the size of small houses, rises 50 m above the level of the surrounding plain. The crater itself is nearly a 1500 m wide, and 180 m deep. When Europeans first discovered the crater, the plain around it was covered with chunks of meteoritic iron - over 30 tons of it, scattered over an area 12 to 15 km in diameter. Scientists now believe that the crater was created approximately 50,000 years ago. The meteorite which made it was composed almost entirely of nickel-iron, suggesting that it may have originated in the interior of a small planet. It was 50 m across, weighed roughly 300,000 tons, and was traveling at a speed of 65,000 km per hour. This ASTER 3-D perspective view was created by draping an ASTER bands 3-2-1image over a digital elevation model from the US Geological Survey National Elevation Dataset.This image was acquired on May 17, 2001 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18,1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, along

  16. The eclipse period of Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Freiesleben, Ulrik; Krekling, Martin A.; Hansen, Flemming G.

    2000-01-01

    corresponds to the period of origin hemimethylation. The SeqA protein was absolutely required for the eclipse, and DnaA titration studies suggested that the SeqA protein prevented the binding of multiple DnaA molecules on oriC (initial complex formation). No correlation between the amount of SeqA and eclipse...... length was revealed, but increased SeqA levels affected chromosome partitioning and/or cell division. This was corroborated further by an aberrant nucleoid distribution in SeqA-deficient cells. We suggest that the SeqA protein's role in maintaining the eclipse is tied to a function in chromosome...

  17. Polygons near Lyot Crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-564, 4 December 2003This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows patterned ground, arranged in the form of polygons, on the undulating plains associated with ejecta from the Lyot impact crater on the martian northern plains. This picture was acquired in October 2003 and shows that the polygon margins are ridges with large boulders--shown here as dark dots--on them. On Earth, polygon patterns like this are created in arctic and antarctic regions where there is ice in the ground. The seasonal and longer-term cycles of freezing and thawing of the ice-rich ground cause these features to form over time. Whether the same is true for Mars is unknown. The polygons are located near 54.6oN, 326.6oW. The image covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and is illuminated from the lower left.

  18. The 1995 total solar eclipse: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, J.

    A number of experiments were conducted during the total solar eclipse of October 24, 1995. First time efforts were made to photograph the solar corona using IAF jet aircrafts and transport planes ad hot air balloons.

  19. Modelling secondary eclipses of Kepler exoplanets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hambálek Lubomír

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We have selected several Kepler objects with potentially the deepest secondary eclipses. By combination of many single phased light-curves (LCs we have produced a smooth LC with a larger SNR and made the secondary eclipses more distinct. This allowed us to measure the depth of primary and secondary minimum with greater accuracy and then to determine stellar and planetary radii by simplex modelling.

  20. 1982-1984 Eclipse of Epsilon Aurigae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stencel, R.E.

    1985-09-01

    A workshop proceedings concerned with the new data collected during the 1982-1984 eclipse period of the 27-year system Epsilon Aurigae is presented. This binary star has been a classic problem in astrophysics because the opaque eclipsing object is nonstellar, and probably disk shaped. Invited papers concerning the history of the system, optical, infrared and ultraviolet photometry, optical polarimetry and ultraviolet spectroscopy are included. An invited paper concerning comprehensive theoretical interpretation in the context of stellar evolution also is included

  1. Boise State's Idaho Eclipse Outreach Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Karan; Jackson, Brian

    2017-10-01

    The 2017 total solar eclipse is an unprecedented opportunity for astronomical education throughout the continental United States. With the path of totality passing through 14 states, from Oregon to South Carolina, the United States is expecting visitors from all around the world. Due to the likelihood of clear skies, Idaho was a popular destination for eclipse-chasers. In spite of considerable enthusiasm and interest by the general population, the resources for STEM outreach in the rural Pacific Northwest are very limited. In order to help prepare Idaho for the eclipse, we put together a crowdfunding campaign through the university and raised over $10,000. Donors received eclipse shades as well as information about the eclipse specific to Idaho. Idaho expects 500,000 visitors, which could present a problem for the many small, rural towns scattered across the path of totality. In order to help prepare and equip the public for the solar eclipse, we conducted a series of site visits to towns in and near the path of totality throughout Idaho. To maximize the impact of this effort, the program included several partnerships with local educational and community organizations and a focus on the sizable refugee and low-income populations in Idaho, with considerable attendance at most events.

  2. The (Almost) Unseen Total Eclipse of 1831

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartky, Ian R.

    2008-03-01

    The total eclipse of August 1831 began at sunrise in Australia, swept across the western South Pacific Ocean, and ended at sunset in the central South Pacific. As a result of the eclipse's path over mostly uninhabited ocean, the region's sparse European (British) population, and near-useless local predictions of the event at Hobart and Sydney in almanacs sold to the general public, almost no one witnessed its passage. In an attempt to document the eclipse, journals of naive observers - those having no access to a prediction - were examined. Thus far, the sole record is in the Pitcairn Island Register Book. Considering the Pitcairners' extreme isolation and the rather modest partial eclipse that occurred there, the entry is a surprising one; however, it can be explained in terms of events associated with their initial removal to Tahiti in March 1831 followed by their return home in June. Further, an authoritative means to identify any issues associated with eclipse predictions compiled for private-sector almanacs came in 1833 when sweeping changes in the British Nautical Almanac's section on eclipses were instituted.

  3. How old is Autolycus crater?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiesinger, Harald; Pasckert, Jan Henrik; van der Bogert, Carolyn H.; Robinson, Mark S.

    2016-04-01

    Accurately determining the lunar cratering chronology is prerequisite for deriving absolute model ages (AMAs) across the lunar surface and throughout the Solar System [e.g., 1]. However, the lunar chronology is only constrained by a few data points over the last 1 Ga and there are no calibration data available between 1 and 3 Ga and beyond 3.9 Ga [2]. Rays from Autolycus and Aristillus cross the Apollo 15 landing site and presumably transported material to this location [3]. [4] proposed that at the Apollo 15 landing site about 32% of any exotic material would come from Autolycus crater and 25% would come from Aristillus crater. [5,6] proposed that the 39Ar-40Ar age of 2.1 Ga derived from three petrologically distinct, shocked Apollo 15 KREEP basalt samples, date Autolycus crater. Grier et al. [7] reported that the optical maturity (OMAT) characteristics of these craters are indistinguishable from the background values despite the fact that both craters exhibit rays that were used to infer relatively young, i.e., Copernican ages [8,9]. Thus, both OMAT characteristics and radiometric ages of 2.1 Ga and 1.29 Ga for Autolycus and Aristillus, respectively, suggest that these two craters are not Copernican in age. [10] interpreted newer U-Pb ages of 1.4 and 1.9 Ga from sample 15405 as the formation ages of Aristillus and Autolycus. If Autolycus is indeed the source of the dated exotic material collected at the Apollo 15 landing site, than performing crater size frequency distribution (CSFD) measurements for Autolycus offers the possibility to add a new calibration point to the lunar chronology, particularly in an age range that was previously unconstrained. We used calibrated and map-projected LRO NAC images to perform CSFD measurements within ArcGIS, using CraterTools [11]. CSFDs were then plotted with CraterStats [12], using the production and chronology functions of [13]. We determined ages of 3.72 and 3.85 Ga for the interior (Ai1) and ejecta area Ae3, which we

  4. Geology of Lofn Crater, Callisto

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greeley, Ronald; Heiner, Sarah; Klemaszewski, James E.

    2001-01-01

    Lofn crater is a 180-km-diameter impact structure in the southern cratered plains of Callisto and is among the youngest features seen on the surface. The Lofn area was imaged by the Galileo spacecraft at regional-scale resolutions (875 m/pixel), which enable the general geology to be investigated. The morphology of Lofn crater suggests that (1) it is a class of impact structure intermediate between complex craters and palimpsests or (2) it formed by the impact of a projectile which fragmented before reaching the surface, resulting in a shallow crater (even for Callisto). The asymmetric pattern of the rim and ejecta deposits suggests that the impactor entered at a low angle from the northwest. The albedo and other characteristics of the ejecta deposits from Lofn also provide insight into the properties of the icy lithosphere and subsurface configuration at the time of impact. The "target" for the Lofn impact is inferred to have included layered materials associated with the Adlinda multiring structure northwest of Loh and ejecta deposits from the Heimdall crater area to the southeast. The Lofn impact might have penetrated through these materials into a viscous substrate of ductile ice or possibly liquid water. This interpretation is consistent with models of the current interior of Callisto based on geophysical information obtained from the Galileo spacecraft.

  5. A Tale of 3 Craters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    11 November 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image captures some of the complexity of the martian upper crust. Mars does not simply have an impact-cratered surface, it's upper crust is a cratered volume. Over time, older craters on Mars have been eroded, filled, buried, and in some cases exhumed and re-exposed at the martian surface. The crust of Mars is layered to depths of 10 or more kilometers, and mixed in with the layered bedrock are a variety of ancient craters with diameters ranging from a few tens of meters (a few tens of yards) to several hundred kilometers (more than one or two hundred miles). The picture shown here captures some of the essence of the layered, cratered volume of the upper crust of Mars in a very simple form. The image shows three distinct circular features. The smallest, in the lower right quarter of the image, is a meteor crater surrounded by a mound of material. This small crater formed within a layer of bedrock that once covered the entire scene, but today is found only in this small remnant adjacent to the crater. The intermediate-sized crater, west (left) of the small one, formed either in the next layer down--that is, below the layer in which the small crater formed--or it formed in some layers that are now removed, but was big enough to penetrate deeply into the rock that is near the surface today. The largest circular feature in the image, in the upper right quarter of the image, is still largely buried. It formed in layers of rock that are below the present surface. Erosion has brought traces of its rim back to the surface of Mars. This picture is located near 50.0oS, 77.8oW, and covers an area approximately 3 km (1.9 mi) across. Sunlight illuminates this October 2004 image from the upper left.

  6. Celestial shadows eclipses, transits, and occultations

    CERN Document Server

    Westfall, John

    2015-01-01

    Much of what is known about the universe comes from the study of celestial shadows—eclipses, transits, and occultations.  The most dramatic are total eclipses of the Sun, which constitute one of the most dramatic and awe-inspiring events of nature.  Though once a source of consternation or dread, solar eclipses now lead thousands of amateur astronomers and eclipse-chasers to travel to remote points on the globe to savor their beauty and the adrenaline-rush of experiencing totality, and were long the only source of information about the hauntingly beautiful chromosphere and corona of the Sun.   Long before Columbus, the curved shadow of the Earth on the Moon during a lunar eclipse revealed that we inhabit a round world. The rare and wonderful transits of Venus, which occur as it passes between the Earth and the Sun, inspired eighteenth century expeditions to measure the distance from the Earth to the Sun, while the recent transits of 2004 and 2012 were the most widely observed ever--and still produced re...

  7. Scanning table

    CERN Multimedia

    1960-01-01

    Before the invention of wire chambers, particles tracks were analysed on scanning tables like this one. Today, the process is electronic and much faster. Bubble chamber film - currently available - (links can be found below) was used for this analysis of the particle tracks.

  8. Stability of nuclear crater slopes in rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, Robert W.; Frandsen, Alton D.; LaFrenz, Robert L.

    1970-01-01

    The United States Army Engineer Nuclear Cratering Group was established in 1962 to participate with the Atomic Energy Commission in a joint research and development program to develop nuclear engineering and construction technology. A major part of this research effort has been devoted to studies of the engineering properties of craters. The program to date has included field investigations of crater properties in various media over a broad range of chemical and nuclear explosive yields, studies of man-made and natural slopes, and studies directed toward the development of analytical and empirical methods of crater stability analysis. From this background, a general understanding has been developed of the effects of a cratering explosion on the surrounding medium and of physical nature of the various crater zones which are produced. The stability of nuclear crater slopes has been a subject of prime interest in the feasibility study being conducted for an Atlantic-Pacific sea-level canal. Based on experimental evidence assembled to date, nuclear crater slopes in dry dock and dry alluvium have an initially stable configuration. There have been five nuclear craters produced to date with yields of 0.4 kt or more on which observations are based and the initial configurations of these craters have remained stable for over seven years. The medium, yield, crater dimensions, and date of event for these craters are summarized. It is interesting to note that the Sedan Crater has been subjected to strong seismic motions from nearby detonations without adverse effects

  9. Stability of nuclear crater slopes in rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleming, Robert W; Frandsen, Alton D; LaFrenz, Robert L [U.S. Army Engineer Nuclear Cratering Group, Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1970-05-15

    The United States Army Engineer Nuclear Cratering Group was established in 1962 to participate with the Atomic Energy Commission in a joint research and development program to develop nuclear engineering and construction technology. A major part of this research effort has been devoted to studies of the engineering properties of craters. The program to date has included field investigations of crater properties in various media over a broad range of chemical and nuclear explosive yields, studies of man-made and natural slopes, and studies directed toward the development of analytical and empirical methods of crater stability analysis. From this background, a general understanding has been developed of the effects of a cratering explosion on the surrounding medium and of physical nature of the various crater zones which are produced. The stability of nuclear crater slopes has been a subject of prime interest in the feasibility study being conducted for an Atlantic-Pacific sea-level canal. Based on experimental evidence assembled to date, nuclear crater slopes in dry dock and dry alluvium have an initially stable configuration. There have been five nuclear craters produced to date with yields of 0.4 kt or more on which observations are based and the initial configurations of these craters have remained stable for over seven years. The medium, yield, crater dimensions, and date of event for these craters are summarized. It is interesting to note that the Sedan Crater has been subjected to strong seismic motions from nearby detonations without adverse effects.

  10. Changes in abundance and nature of microimpact craters on the surfaces of Australasian microtektites with distance from the proposed source crater location

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    ShyamPrasad, M.; Roy, S.K.; Gupta, A.

    of the craters are of erosive type (Fig. 2), i.e., those which contain a central pit which is surrounded by radial and concentric cracks, indicative of high velocity impacts (Hörz et al., 1971). This could be misleading, as observed in our earlier studies... of very small particles at high relative velocities. This location also has 9    the highest spatial density of impacts, i.e., it contains 230 micro-craters/cm 2 of the ocean floor (Table 2). AAS 22/8 (4052 km): Location : 07 0 05.289’S & 78 0...

  11. The Gaugamela Battle Eclipse: An Archaeoastronomical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polcaro, V. F.; Valsecchi, G. B.; Verderame, L.

    A total lunar eclipse occurred during the night preceding the decisive Battle of Gaugamela (20th September 331 BCE), when the Macedonian army, led by Alexander the Great, finally defeated the Persian king Darius and his army. This astronomical event, well known to historians, had a relevant role on the battle outcome. The eclipse was described in detail by Babylonian astronomers, though, unfortunately, the text of their report has only partially been preserved. We have reconstructed the evolution of the phenomenon as it appeared to the observer in Babylonia, by using the positional astronomy code "Planetario V2.0". On the base of this reconstruction we suggest a number of integrations to the lost part of the text, allowing a finer astrological interpretation of the eclipse and of its influence on the mood of the armies that set against each other on the following morning.

  12. Observations of eclipses of UU Sge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimansky, V. V.; Borisov, N. V.; Bikmaev, I. F.; Shimanskaya, N. N.

    2012-06-01

    We have performed spectroscopy and photometry of eclipses of the pre-cataclysmic variable UUSge using the 6-m telescope of the Special AstrophysicalObservatory and the 1.5-mRussian-Turkish telescope. Our analysis of variations of the B- V and V- R color indices during the eclipses indicates that the temperature of the secondary is T eff,2 = 6000-6300 K. A similar value, T eff,2 = 6200 ± 200 K, follows from our comparison of the observed spectrum of UU Sge at the total eclipse phase and theoretical spectra of late-type stars. We identify 27 absorption lines of 11 chemical elements in the secondary's spectrum. Their abnormal intensities indicate possible high-velocity turbulent motions (up to ξ turb = 10.0 km/s) in the atmosphere of the star and the presence of hot gas above its surface.

  13. The Mystery and Beauty of Total Solar Eclipses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ARTICLE. The Mystery and Beauty of Total Solar Eclipses. T Chandrasekhar is with the Astronomy and ..... Specialized instruments called coronagraphs, lo- cated at mountaintop ... Scientific studies of the solar eclipses began with the eclipse of. 1842 which ... a method simultaneously evolved by English spectroscopist.

  14. Living matter: the "lunar eclipse" phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korpan, Nikolai N

    2010-01-01

    The present investigations describe a unique phenomenon, namely the phenomenon of the "lunar eclipse", which has been observed and discovered by the author in living substance during the freeze-thawing processes in vivo using temperatures of various intensities and its cryosurgical response in animal experiment. Similar phenomena author has observed in nature, namely the total lunar eclipse and total solar eclipse. In this experimental study 76 animals (mongrel dogs) were investigated. A disc cryogenic probe was placed on the pancreas after the laparotomy. For cryosurgical exposure a temperature range of -40 degrees C, -80 degrees C, -120 degrees C and -180 degrees C was selected in contact with pancreas parenchyma. The freeze-thaw cycle was monitored by intraoperative ultrasound before, during and after cryosurgery. Each cryolesion was observed for one hour after thawing intraoperatively. Immediately after freezing, during the thawing process, the snow-white pancreas parenchyma, frozen hard to an ice block and resembling a full moon with a sharp demarcation line, gradually assumed a ruby-red shade and a hemispherical shape as it grew in size depend on reconstruction vascular circulation from the periphery to the center. This snow-white cryogenic lesion dissolved in the same manner in all animal tissues. The "lunar eclipse" phenomenon contributes to a fundamental understanding of the mechanisms of biological tissue damage during low temperature exposure in cryoscience and cryomedicine. Properties of the pancreas parenchyma response during the phenomenon of the "lunar eclipse" provide important insights into the mechanisms of damage and the formation of cryogenic lesion immediately after thawing in cryosurgery. Vascular changes and circulatory stagnation are commonly considered to be the main mechanism of biological tissue injury during low temperature exposure. The phenomenon of the "lunar eclipse" suggests that cryosurgery is the first surgical technique to use

  15. Moon - 'Ghost' craters formed during Mare filling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruikshank, D. P.; Hartmann, W. K.; Wood, C. A.

    1973-01-01

    This paper discusses formation of 'pathological' cases of crater morphology due to interaction of craters with molten lavas. Terrestrial observations of such a process are discussed. In lunar maria, a number of small impact craters (D less than 10 km) may have been covered by thin layers of fluid lavas, or formed in molten lava. Some specific lunar examples are discussed, including unusual shallow rings resembling experimental craters deformed by isostatic filling.

  16. Meteor Crater (Barringer Meteorite Crater), Arizona: Summary of Impact Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roddy, D. J.; Shoemaker, E. M.

    1995-09-01

    Meteor Crater in northern Arizona represents the most abundant type of impact feature in our Solar System, i.e., the simple bowl-shaped crater. Excellent exposures and preservation of this large crater and its ejecta blanket have made it a critical data set in both terrestrial and planetary cratering research. Recognition of the value of the crater was initiated in the early 1900's by Daniel Moreau Barringer, whose 27 years of exploration championed its impact origin [1]. In 1960, Shoemaker presented information that conclusively demonstrated that Meteor Crater was formed by hypervelocity impact [2]. This led the U.S. Geological Survey to use the crater extensively in the 1960-70's as a prime training site for the Apollo astronauts. Today, Meteor Crater continues to serve as an important research site for the international science community, as well as an educational site for over 300,000 visitors per year. Since the late 1950's, studies of this crater have presented an increasingly clearer view of this impact and its effects and have provided an improved view of impact cratering in general. To expand on this data set, we are preparing an upgraded summary on the Meteor Crater event following the format in [3], including information and interpretations on: 1) Inferred origin and age of the impacting body, 2) Inferred ablation and deceleration history in Earth's atmosphere, 3) Estimated speed, trajectory, angle of impact, and bow shock conditions, 4) Estimated coherence, density, size, and mass of impacting body, 5) Composition of impacting body (Canyon Diablo meteorite), 6) Estimated kinetic energy coupled to target rocks and atmosphere, 7) Terrain conditions at time of impact and age of impact, 8) Estimated impact dynamics, such as pressures in air, meteorite, and rocks, 9) Inferred and estimated material partitioning into vapor, melt, and fragments, 10) Crater and near-field ejecta parameters, 11) Rock unit distributions in ejecta blanket, 12) Estimated far

  17. Chandra Sees Remarkable Eclipse of Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-01

    A remarkable eclipse of a supermassive black hole and the hot gas disk around it has been observed with NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. This eclipse has allowed two key predictions about the effects of supermassive black holes to be tested. Just as eclipses of the Sun and moon give astronomers rare opportunities to learn about those objects, an alignment in a nearby galaxy has provided a rare opportunity to investigate a supermassive black hole. Illustrations of Black Hole Eclipse Illustrations of Black Hole Eclipse The supermassive black hole is located in NGC 1365, a galaxy 60 million light years from Earth. It contains a so called active galactic nucleus, or AGN. Scientists believe that the black hole at the center of the AGN is fed by a steady stream of material, presumably in the form of a disk. Material just about to fall into a black hole should be heated to millions of degrees before passing over the event horizon, or point of no return. The disk of gas around the central black hole in NGC 1365 produces copious X-rays but is much too small to resolve directly with a telescope. However, the disk was eclipsed by an intervening cloud, so observation of the time taken for the disk to go in and out of eclipse allowed scientists to estimate the size of the disk. Black Hole Animation Black Hole Animation "For years we've been struggling to confirm the size of this X-ray structure," said Guido Risaliti of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA) in Cambridge, Mass, and the Italian Institute of Astronomy (INAF). "This serendipitous eclipse enabled us to make this breakthrough." The Chandra team directly measured the size of the X-ray source as about seven times the distance between the Sun and the Earth. That means the source of X-rays is about 2 billion times smaller than the host galaxy and only about 10 times larger than the estimated size of the black hole's event horizon, consistent with theoretical predictions. Chandra X-ray Image of NGC 1365

  18. New inclination changing eclipsing binaries in the Magellanic Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juryšek, J.; Zasche, P.; Wolf, M.; Vraštil, J.; Vokrouhlický, D.; Skarka, M.; Liška, J.; Janík, J.; Zejda, M.; Kurfürst, P.; Paunzen, E.

    2018-01-01

    Context. Multiple stellar systems are unique laboratories for astrophysics. Analysis of their orbital dynamics, if well characterized from their observations, may reveal invaluable information about the physical properties of the participating stars. Unfortunately, there are only a few known and well described multiple systems, this is even more so for systems located outside the Milky Way galaxy. A particularly interesting situation occurs when the inner binary in a compact triple system is eclipsing. This is because the stellar interaction, typically resulting in precession of orbital planes, may be observable as a variation of depth of the eclipses on a long timescale. Aims: We aim to present a novel method to determine compact triples using publicly available photometric data from large surveys. Here we apply it to eclipsing binaries (EBs) in Magellanic Clouds from OGLE III database. Our tool consists of identifying the cases where the orbital plane of EB evolves in accord with expectations from the interaction with a third star. Methods: We analyzed light curves (LCs) of 26121 LMC and 6138 SMC EBs with the goal to identify those for which the orbital inclination varies in time. Archival LCs of the selected systems, when complemented by our own observations with Danish 1.54-m telescope, were thoroughly analyzed using the PHOEBE program. This provided physical parameters of components of each system. Time dependence of the EB's inclination was described using the theory of orbital-plane precession. By observing the parameter-dependence of the precession rate, we were able to constrain the third companion mass and its orbital period around EB. Results: We identified 58 candidates of new compact triples in Magellanic Clouds. This is the largest published sample of such systems so far. Eight of them were analyzed thoroughly and physical parameters of inner binary were determined together with an estimation of basic characteristics of the third star. Prior to our

  19. Stratigraphy of the crater Copernicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquette, R.

    1984-01-01

    The stratigraphy of copernicus based on its olivine absorption bands is presented. Earth based spectral data are used to develop models that also employ cratering mechanics to devise theories for Copernican geomorphology. General geologic information, spectral information, upper and lower stratigraphic units and a chart for model comparison are included in the stratigraphic analysis.

  20. Crystal-Chemical Analysis of Soil at Rocknest, Gale Crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, S. M.; Downs, R. T.; Blake, D. F.; Bish, D. L.; Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.; Yen, A. S.; Chipera, S. J.; Treiman, A. H.; Vaniman, D. T.; hide

    2013-01-01

    The CheMin instrument on the Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity performed X-ray diffraction analysis on Martian soil [1] at Rocknest in Gale Crater. In particular, crystalline phases from scoop 5 were identified and analyzed with the Rietveld method [2]. Refined unit-cell parameters are reported in Table 1. Comparing these unit-cell parameters with those in the literature provides an estimate of the chemical composition of the crystalline phases. For instance, Fig. 1 shows the Mg-content of Fa-Fo olivine as a function of the b unit-cell parameter using literature data. Our refined b parameter is indicated by the black triangle.

  1. Notable Images of the 2017 Total Solar Eclipse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Teresa; Dahiwale, Aishwarya; Nemiroff, Robert; Bonnell, Jerry

    2018-01-01

    The "Great American Eclipse" – the total solar eclipse visible across the USA on 21 August 2017 – resulted in some notable eclipse images and videos high in educational and scientific value. Some of the images that were selected to appear on the Astronomy Picture of the Day (APOD) website are shown in high resolution accompanied by educational descriptions. The questions of whether this eclipse was the most viewed and the most photographed event of any type in human history will be discussed. People are invited to come by and share their own eclipse images and stories.

  2. Study of the eclipses of cataclysmic variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, E.H.

    1986-01-01

    The cataclysmic variables (CV's) are all close binary stars in which a secondary star fills its Roche lobe and transfers mass to its white dwarf companion. The transferred mass forms an accretion disk or ring, around the white dwarf. Reliable determinations of the masses of the two-component stars, the distributions of temperature and brightness across the disk, and other parameters, are necessary to understand both the CV's and the accretion processes, but they are extremely difficult to measure. The best way to obtain this data is to observe eclipsing CV's. The author developed a computer program to synthesize light curves of eclipsing CV's using the most realistic model built so far to analyze the eclipses of CV's. A statistical method was developed to perform a complete error analysis of the results of the numerical studies. High-speed, multi-color photometry of three eclipsing CV's - HT Cas, U Gem, and AC Cnc - was obtained. Using the program to analyze the observed light curves, the author derived, for each system, the orbital inclination, the sizes, masses and temperature of the two component stars, and the temperature distribution across the disk

  3. The Benchmark Eclipsing Binary V530 Ori

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torres, Guillermo; Lacy, Claud H. Sandberg; Pavlovski, Kresimir

    2015-01-01

    We report accurate measurements of the physical properties (mass, radius, temperature) of components of the G+M eclipsing binary V530 On. The M-type secondary shows a larger radius and a cooler temperature than predicted by standard stellar evolution models, as has been found for many other low...

  4. Bringing the Great American Solar Eclipse to West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keesee, A. M.; Williamson, K.; Robertson-Honecker, J.

    2017-12-01

    West Virginia experienced up to 90% coverage during the Great American Solar Eclipse on August 21st. To reach the greatest number of West Virginians, we targeted educators and the 4-H program to provide those community leaders with the tools to help students learn about and safely view the eclipse. We developed a website that consolodated relevant eclipse activities, fact sheets, and outreach videos to train educators and others in the public about the science of the eclipse and how to view a partial eclipse safely. The 4-H Summer Experiement used at all 4-H summer camps and events was designed to focus on the eclipse. We distributed over 20,000 custom designed eclipse glasses. These were distributed to teachers through an online request system and to 4-H members involved in summer activities. We hosted a pre-eclipse event on the campus of West Virginia University for the public to learn about the science of the eclipse, relevant research being conducted at the university, and provide tips for safe viewing. Student volunteers were available on campus during the day of the eclipse to hand out glasses and answer questions. We will present the results of our outreach and events as well as lessons learned for the 2024 eclipse. Support for this project was provided by the WVU Department of Physics and Astronomy, WVU Extension, the WV Space Grant Consortium, a WVU internal grant, the Green Bank Observatory, and individual supporters of a crowdfunding campaign.

  5. Blocky craters: implications about the lunar megaregolith

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, T.W.; Roberts, W.J.; Hartmann, W.K.; Shorthill, R.W.; Zisk, S.H.

    1979-01-01

    Radar, infrared, and photogeologic properties of lunar craters have been studied to determine whether there is a systematic difference in blocky craters between the maria and terrae and whether this difference may be due to a deep megaregolith of pulverized material forming the terra surface, as opposed to a layer of semi-coherent basalt flows forming the mare surface. Some 1310 craters from about 4 to 100 km diameter have been catalogued as radar and/or infrared anomalies. In addition, a study of Apollo Orbital Photography confirmed that the radar and infrared anomalies are correlated with blocky rubble around the crater. Analysis of the radar and infrared data indicated systematic terra-mare differences. Fresh terra craters smaller than 12 km were less likely to be infrared and radar anomalies than comparable mare craters: but terra and mare craters larger than 12 km had similar infrared and radar signatures. Also, there are many terra craters which are radar bright but not infrared anomalies. The authors interpretation of these data is that while the maria are rock layers (basaltic flow units) where craters eject boulder fields, the terrae are covered by relatively pulverized megaregolith at least 2 km deep, where craters eject less rocky rubble. Blocky rubble, either in the form of actual rocks or partly consolidated blocks, contributes to the radar and infrared signatures of the crater. However, aging by impacts rapidly destroys these effects, possibly through burial by secondary debris or by disintegration of the blocks themselves, especially in terra regions. (Auth.)

  6. Lunar Bouguer gravity anomalies - Imbrian age craters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorak, J.; Phillips, R. J.

    1978-01-01

    The Bouguer gravity of mass anomalies associated with four Imbrian age craters, analyzed in the present paper, are found to differ considerably from the values of the mass anomalies associated with some young lunar craters. Of the Imbrian age craters, only Piccolomini exhibits a negative gravity anomaly (i.e., a low density region) which is characteristic of the young craters studied. The Bouguer gravity anomalies are zero for each of the remaining Imbrian age craters. Since, Piccolomini is younger, or at least less modified, than the other Imbrian age craters, it is suggested that the processes responsible for the post-impact modification of the Imbrian age craters may also be responsible for removing the negative mass anomalies initially associated with these features.

  7. Crater Degradation on Mercury: A Global Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinczyk, M. J.; Byrne, P. K.; Prockter, L. M.; Susorney, H. C. M.; Chapman, C. R.; Barnouin, O. S.

    2017-12-01

    On geologic timescales, initially fresh craters are subjected to many weathering mechanisms. Whereas water and wind are, or were, effective erosive mechanisms such as on Earth and Mars, micrometeorite bombardment and modification due to subsequent impacts are the dominant processes that degrade craters and crater rays on airless bodies like the Moon and Mercury. Classifying craters based on their state of degradation can help determine the relative ages of landforms proximal to, and crosscut by, these craters. However, this method is most effective when used together with statistical analysis of crater distributions. Pre-MESSENGER degradation classification schemes lacked sufficient detail to be consistently applied to craters of various sizes and morphological types—despite evidence suggesting that the ejecta deposits of large basins persist much longer than those of smaller craters, for instance—yet broad assumptions have been made regarding the correlation of crater class to the planet's time-stratigraphic sequence. Moreover, previous efforts to categorize craters by degradation state have either been restricted to regional study sites or applied only to a subset of crater age or size. As a result, numerous interpretations of crater degradation state persist for Mercury, challenging a complete understanding of this process on the innermost planet. We report on the first global survey of crater degradation on Mercury. By modifying an established 5-class scheme, we have systematically applied a rigorous set of criteria to all craters ≥40 km in diameter on the planet. These criteria include the state and morphology of crater deposits separately (e.g., rim, floor, wall, ejecta) and degradation classes were assigned as the collection of these individual attributes. This approach yields a consistent classification of craters of different sizes. Our results provide the first comprehensive assessment of how craters of various states of degradation are distributed

  8. Eclipsing binaries observed with the WIRE satellite I. Discovery and photometric analysis of the new bright A0 IV eclipsing binary psi centauri

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruntt, Hans; Southworth, J.; Penny, A. J.

    2006-01-01

    Stars: fundamental parameters, binaries: close, eclipsing, techniques: photometric Udgivelsesdato: Sep.......Stars: fundamental parameters, binaries: close, eclipsing, techniques: photometric Udgivelsesdato: Sep....

  9. Eclipse Megamovie: Solar Discoveries, Education, and Outreach through Crowdsourcing 2017 Eclipse Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peticolas, L. M.; Hudson, H. S.; Martinez Oliveros, J. C.; Johnson, C.; Zevin, D.; Krista, L. D.; Bender, M.; Mcintosh, S. W.; Konerding, D.; Koh, J.; Pasachoff, J.; Lorimore, B.; Jiang, G.; Storksdieck, M.; Yan, D.; Shore, L.; Fraknoi, A.; Filippenko, A.

    2016-12-01

    Since 2011, a team of solar scientists, eclipse chasers, education and outreach professionals, and film makers have been working to explore the possibility of gathering images from the public during the 2017 eclipse across the United States, to be used for scientific research, education, and enhancing the public's experience of the eclipse. After years of testing the initial ideas, engaging new organizations, and exploring new technologies, our team has developed a blueprint for this project. There are three main goals for this effort: 1. to learn more about the dynamic non-equilibrium processes in the corona and lower atmosphere of the Sun, 2. to educate the public about space physics, 3. provide different levels of engagement opportunities for an interested public, and 4. to understand how these various levels of engagement with a major scientific phenomena allow people to develop deeper personal connections to Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM). We will meet these goals by training 1000 volunteers to take scientifically valid images and donate the images to this project, while also allowing the general public to share their images as well. During the Aug 21, 2017 eclipse, we will analyze these images in real-time to produce public-generated movies showing the corona of the Sun during totality from thousands of people. These movies will be disseminated in near real-time (on the order of 10s of minutes) to other eclipse programs, news organizations, and to the general public. Meanwhile, images collected during and after the eclipse will be available to scientists and the public for research purposes. To further engage the public, video clips, film, and a documentary will be produced prior and after the event. A science education research team will work alongside the team to understand how the project supports deeper connections to the eclipse experience.

  10. Solar Eclipse Computer API: Planning Ahead for August 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Jennifer L.; Chizek Frouard, Malynda; Lesniak, Michael V.; Bell, Steve

    2016-01-01

    With the total solar eclipse of 2017 August 21 over the continental United States approaching, the U.S. Naval Observatory (USNO) on-line Solar Eclipse Computer can now be accessed via an application programming interface (API). This flexible interface returns local circumstances for any solar eclipse in JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) that can be incorporated into third-party Web sites or applications. For a given year, it can also return a list of solar eclipses that can be used to build a more specific request for local circumstances. Over the course of a particular eclipse as viewed from a specific site, several events may be visible: the beginning and ending of the eclipse (first and fourth contacts), the beginning and ending of totality (second and third contacts), the moment of maximum eclipse, sunrise, or sunset. For each of these events, the USNO Solar Eclipse Computer reports the time, Sun's altitude and azimuth, and the event's position and vertex angles. The computer also reports the duration of the total phase, the duration of the eclipse, the magnitude of the eclipse, and the percent of the Sun obscured for a particular eclipse site. On-line documentation for using the API-enabled Solar Eclipse Computer, including sample calls, is available (http://aa.usno.navy.mil/data/docs/api.php). The same Web page also describes how to reach the Complete Sun and Moon Data for One Day, Phases of the Moon, Day and Night Across the Earth, and Apparent Disk of a Solar System Object services using API calls.For those who prefer using a traditional data input form, local circumstances can still be requested that way at http://aa.usno.navy.mil/data/docs/SolarEclipses.php. In addition, the 2017 August 21 Solar Eclipse Resource page (http://aa.usno.navy.mil/data/docs/Eclipse2017.php) consolidates all of the USNO resources for this event, including a Google Map view of the eclipse track designed by Her Majesty's Nautical Almanac Office (HMNAO). Looking further ahead, a

  11. SU-D-BRD-07: Automatic Patient Data Audit and Plan Quality Check to Support ARIA and Eclipse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, X; Li, H; Wu, Y; Mutic, S; Yang, D [Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To ensure patient safety and treatment quality in RT departments that use Varian ARIA and Eclipse, we developed a computer software system and interface functions that allow previously developed electron chart checking (EcCk) methodologies to support these Varian systems. Methods: ARIA and Eclipse store most patient information in its MSSQL database. We studied the contents in the hundreds database tables and identified the data elements used for patient treatment management and treatment planning. Interface functions were developed in both c-sharp and MATLAB to support data access from ARIA and Eclipse servers using SQL queries. These functions and additional data processing functions allowed the existing rules and logics from EcCk to support ARIA and Eclipse. Dose and structure information are important for plan quality check, however they are not stored in the MSSQL database but as files in Varian private formats, and cannot be processed by external programs. We have therefore implemented a service program, which uses the DB Daemon and File Daemon services on ARIA server to automatically and seamlessly retrieve dose and structure data as DICOM files. This service was designed to 1) consistently monitor the data access requests from EcCk programs, 2) translate the requests for ARIA daemon services to obtain dose and structure DICOM files, and 3) monitor the process and return the obtained DICOM files back to EcCk programs for plan quality check purposes. Results: EcCk, which was previously designed to only support MOSAIQ TMS and Pinnacle TPS, can now support Varian ARIA and Eclipse. The new EcCk software has been tested and worked well in physics new start plan check, IMRT plan integrity and plan quality checks. Conclusion: Methods and computer programs have been implemented to allow EcCk to support Varian ARIA and Eclipse systems. This project was supported by a research grant from Varian Medical System.

  12. SU-D-BRD-07: Automatic Patient Data Audit and Plan Quality Check to Support ARIA and Eclipse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, X; Li, H; Wu, Y; Mutic, S; Yang, D

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To ensure patient safety and treatment quality in RT departments that use Varian ARIA and Eclipse, we developed a computer software system and interface functions that allow previously developed electron chart checking (EcCk) methodologies to support these Varian systems. Methods: ARIA and Eclipse store most patient information in its MSSQL database. We studied the contents in the hundreds database tables and identified the data elements used for patient treatment management and treatment planning. Interface functions were developed in both c-sharp and MATLAB to support data access from ARIA and Eclipse servers using SQL queries. These functions and additional data processing functions allowed the existing rules and logics from EcCk to support ARIA and Eclipse. Dose and structure information are important for plan quality check, however they are not stored in the MSSQL database but as files in Varian private formats, and cannot be processed by external programs. We have therefore implemented a service program, which uses the DB Daemon and File Daemon services on ARIA server to automatically and seamlessly retrieve dose and structure data as DICOM files. This service was designed to 1) consistently monitor the data access requests from EcCk programs, 2) translate the requests for ARIA daemon services to obtain dose and structure DICOM files, and 3) monitor the process and return the obtained DICOM files back to EcCk programs for plan quality check purposes. Results: EcCk, which was previously designed to only support MOSAIQ TMS and Pinnacle TPS, can now support Varian ARIA and Eclipse. The new EcCk software has been tested and worked well in physics new start plan check, IMRT plan integrity and plan quality checks. Conclusion: Methods and computer programs have been implemented to allow EcCk to support Varian ARIA and Eclipse systems. This project was supported by a research grant from Varian Medical System

  13. System Geometries and Transit/Eclipse Probabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard A.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Transiting exoplanets provide access to data to study the mass-radius relation and internal structure of extrasolar planets. Long-period transiting planets allow insight into planetary environments similar to the Solar System where, in contrast to hot Jupiters, planets are not constantly exposed to the intense radiation of their parent stars. Observations of secondary eclipses additionally permit studies of exoplanet temperatures and large-scale exo-atmospheric properties. We show how transit and eclipse probabilities are related to planet-star system geometries, particularly for long-period, eccentric orbits. The resulting target selection and observational strategies represent the principal ingredients of our photometric survey of known radial-velocity planets with the aim of detecting transit signatures (TERMS.

  14. Digitizing Villanova University's Eclipsing Binary Card Catalogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Giannina; Dalton, Briana; Conroy, Kyle; Prsa, Andrej

    2018-01-01

    Villanova University’s Department of Astrophysics and Planetary Science has years of hand-written archival data on Eclipsing Binaries at its disposal. This card catalog began at Princeton in the 1930’s with notable contributions from scientists such as Henry Norris Russel. During World War II, the archive was moved to the University of Pennsylvania, which was one of the world centers for Eclipsing Binary research, consequently, the contributions to the catalog during this time were immense. It was then moved to University of Florida at Gainesville before being accepted by Villanova in the 1990’s. The catalog has been kept in storage since then. The objective of this project is to digitize this archive and create a fully functional online catalog that contains the information available on the cards, along with the scan of the actual cards. Our group has built a database using a python-powered infrastructure to contain the collected data. The team also built a prototype web-based searchable interface as a front-end to the catalog. Following the data-entry process, information like the Right Ascension and Declination will be run against SIMBAD and any differences between values will be noted as part of the catalog. Information published online from the card catalog and even discrepancies in information for a star, could be a catalyst for new studies on these Eclipsing Binaries. Once completed, the database-driven interface will be made available to astronomers worldwide. The group will also acquire, from the database, a list of referenced articles that have yet to be found online in order to further pursue their digitization. This list will be comprised of references in the cards that were neither found on ADS nor online during the data-entry process. Pursuing the integration of these references to online queries such as ADS will be an ongoing process that will contribute and further facilitate studies on Eclipsing Binaries.

  15. Relativistic apsidal motion in eccentric eclipsing binaries

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wolf, M.; Claret, L.; Kotková, Lenka; Kučáková, Hana; Kocián, R.; Brát, L.; Svoboda, P.; Šmelcer, L.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 509, January (2010), A18/1-A18/14 ISSN 0004-6361 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA205/04/2063; GA ČR(CZ) GA205/06/0217 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : binaries eclipsing Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.410, year: 2010

  16. Radial Velocities of 41 Kepler Eclipsing Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Rachel A.; Gies, Douglas R.; Guo, Zhao; Williams, Stephen J.

    2017-12-01

    Eclipsing binaries are vital for directly determining stellar parameters without reliance on models or scaling relations. Spectroscopically derived parameters of detached and semi-detached binaries allow us to determine component masses that can inform theories of stellar and binary evolution. Here we present moderate resolution ground-based spectra of stars in close binary systems with and without (detected) tertiary companions observed by NASA’s Kepler mission and analyzed for eclipse timing variations. We obtain radial velocities and spectroscopic orbits for five single-lined and 35 double-lined systems, and confirm one false positive eclipsing binary. For the double-lined spectroscopic binaries, we also determine individual component masses and examine the mass ratio {M}2/{M}1 distribution, which is dominated by binaries with like-mass pairs and semi-detached classical Algol systems that have undergone mass transfer. Finally, we constrain the mass of the tertiary component for five double-lined binaries with previously detected companions.

  17. Eclipse Megamovie 2017: How did we do?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Hugh; Bender, Mark; Collier, Braxton; Johnson, Calvin; Koh, Justin; Konerding, David; Martinez Oliveros, Juan Carlos; Peticolas, Laura; White, Vivian; Zevin, Dan

    2018-01-01

    The Eclipse Megamovie program, as set up for the Great American Eclipse of 21 August 2017, achived a massive volunteer participation, making maximal use existing equipment but with coordinated training. Everything worked fine, and the archive entered the public domain on Friday, October 6. It comprises about 800 GB of data from DSLR cameras and telescopes. An additional 200 GB of data were obtained by smartphone cameras operating a dedicated free app. The massive oversampling made possible by the many (about 2500) volunteer observers has opened new parameter space for tracking coronal and chromospheric time development. Fortuitously some solar activity appeared during the 90-minute period of totality, including a C-class flare and an ongoing CME. At the smartphone level, with the advantage of precise GPS timing, we have data on solar structure via the timing of Baily's Beads at the 2nd and 3rd contacts. The Megamovie archive is an historical first, and we hope that it has already been a springboard for citizen-science projects. We discuss the execution of the program, presenting some of the 2017 science plans and results. We expect that the eclipse of 2024 will be better still.

  18. Fourier analysis of the light curves of eclipsing variables. XI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopal, Z.

    1977-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to introduce a new definition of the loss of light suffered by mutual eclipses of the components of close binary systems: namely, as a cross-correlation of two apertures representing the eclipsing and eclipsed discs. The advantages of such a strategy over the more conventional (geometrical) approach are (a) greater symmetry of the respective expressions; (b) greater affinity of expressions arising from distortion with those expressing the light changes due to eclipses of spherical stars; and (c) greater freedom in dealing with the effects of particular distribution of brightness over the disc of the star undergoing eclipse (generalized limb-darkening), as well as of possible semi-transparency of the eclipsing component (Wolf-Rayet stars). In point of fact, none of these tasks could be handled with equal ease by any other technique; nor could the corresponding loss of light be so automated by any other approach. (Auth.)

  19. Secondary eclipses in the CoRoT light curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belmonte Juan Antonio

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We identify and characterize secondary eclipses in the original light curves of published CoRoT planets using uniform detection and evaluation criteria. Our analysis is based on a Bayesian statistics: the eclipse search is carried out using Bayesian model selection, and the characterization of the plausible eclipse candidates using Bayesian parameter estimation. We discover statistically significant eclipse events for two planets, CoRoT-6b and CoRoT-11b, and for one brown dwarf, CoRoT-15b. We also find marginally significant eclipse events passing our plausibility criteria for CoRoT-3b, 13b, 18b, and 21b, and confirm the previously published CoRoT-1b and CoRoT-2b eclipses.

  20. Crater size-frequency distributions and a revised Martian relative chronology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barlow, N.G.

    1988-01-01

    A relative plotting technique is applied to Viking 1:2M photomosaics of 25,826 Martian craters of diameter greater than 8 km and age younger than that of the Martian surface. The size-frequency distribution curves are calculated and analyzed in detail, and the results are presented in extensive tables and maps. It is found that about 60 percent of the crater-containing lithologic units, including many small volcanoes and the ridged planes, were formed during the heavy-bombardment period (HBP), while 40 percent arose after the HBP. Wide region-to-region variation in the crater density is noted, and localized age estimates are provided. 42 references

  1. Practicing for 2023 and 2024: What the AAS Solar Eclipse Task Force Learned from the "Great American Eclipse" of 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fienberg, R. T.; Speck, A. K.; Habbal, S. R.

    2017-12-01

    More than three years ahead of the "Great American Eclipse" of August 2017, the American Astronomical Society formed the AAS Solar Eclipse Task Force to function as a think tank, coordinating body, and communication gateway to the vast resources available about the 2017 eclipse and solar eclipses more generally. The task force included professional and amateur astronomers, formal and informal educators, and science journalists; many had experienced total solar eclipses before, and others would experience their first totality in August 2017. The AAS task force secured funding from the AAS Council, the National Science Foundation, and NASA. These resources were used mainly for three purposes: (1) to build a website that contains basic information about solar eclipses, safe viewing practices, and eclipse imaging and video, along with resources for educators and the media and a searchable map of eclipse-related events and activities, with links to other authoritative websites with more detailed information; (2) to solicit, receive, evaluate, and fund proposals for mini-grants to support eclipse-related education and public outreach to underrepresented groups both inside and outside the path of totality; and (3) to organize a series of multidisciplinary workshops across the country to prepare communities for the eclipse and to facilitate collaborations between astronomers, meteorologists, school administrators, and transporation and emergency-management professionals. Most importantly, the AAS Solar Eclipse Task Force focused on developing and disseminating appropriate eclipse safety information. The AAS and NASA jointly developed safety messaging that won the endorsement of the American Academies of Opthalmology and Optometry. In the weeks immediately preceding the eclipse, it became clear that the marketplace was being flooded by counterfeit eclipse glasses and solar viewers, leading to a last minute change in our communication strategy. In this talk, we'll review the

  2. Combined analysis of 2-D electrical resistivity, seismic refraction and geotechnical investigations for Bukit Bunuh complex crater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azwin, I N; Saad, Rosli; Nordiana, M M; Bery, Andy Anderson; Hidayah, I N E; Saidin, Mokhtar

    2015-01-01

    Interest in studying impact crater on earth has increased tremendously due to its importance in geologic events, earth inhabitant history as well as economic value. The existences of few shock metamorphism and crater morphology evidences are discovered in Bukit Bunuh, Malaysia thus detailed studies are performed using geophysical and geotechnical methods to verify the type of the crater and characteristics accordingly. This paper presents the combined analysis of 2-D electrical resistivity, seismic refraction, geotechnical SPT N value, moisture content and RQD within the study area. Three stages of data acquisition are made starting with regional study followed by detailed study on West side and East side. Bulk resistivity and p-wave seismic velocity were digitized from 2-D resistivity and seismic sections at specific distance and depth for corresponding boreholes and samples taken. Generally, Bukit Bunuh shows the complex crater characteristics. Standard table of bulk resistivity and p-wave seismic velocity against SPT N value, moisture content and RQD are produce according to geological classifications of impact crater; inside crater, rim/slumped terrace and outside crater

  3. Combined analysis of 2-D electrical resistivity, seismic refraction and geotechnical investigations for Bukit Bunuh complex crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azwin, I. N.; Saad, Rosli; Saidin, Mokhtar; Nordiana, M. M.; Anderson Bery, Andy; Hidayah, I. N. E.

    2015-01-01

    Interest in studying impact crater on earth has increased tremendously due to its importance in geologic events, earth inhabitant history as well as economic value. The existences of few shock metamorphism and crater morphology evidences are discovered in Bukit Bunuh, Malaysia thus detailed studies are performed using geophysical and geotechnical methods to verify the type of the crater and characteristics accordingly. This paper presents the combined analysis of 2-D electrical resistivity, seismic refraction, geotechnical SPT N value, moisture content and RQD within the study area. Three stages of data acquisition are made starting with regional study followed by detailed study on West side and East side. Bulk resistivity and p-wave seismic velocity were digitized from 2-D resistivity and seismic sections at specific distance and depth for corresponding boreholes and samples taken. Generally, Bukit Bunuh shows the complex crater characteristics. Standard table of bulk resistivity and p-wave seismic velocity against SPT N value, moisture content and RQD are produce according to geological classifications of impact crater; inside crater, rim/slumped terrace and outside crater.

  4. Size-Frequency Distribution of Small Lunar Craters: Widening with Degradation and Crater Lifetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, B. A.

    2018-01-01

    The review and new measurements are presented for depth/diameter ratio and slope angle evolution during small ( D model. The uncertainty of crater retention age due to crater degradational widening is estimated. The collected and analyzed data are discussed to be used in the future updating of mechanical models for lunar crater aging.

  5. Educating the Public about the 2017 Total Solar Eclipse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.

    2017-01-01

    On behalf of the International Astronomical Union's Working Group on Solar Eclipses, I have long worked to bring knowledge about eclipses and how to observe the safely to the people of the various countries from which partial, annular, or total solar eclipses are visible. In 2017, we have first a chance to educate the people of South America on the occasion of the February 26 annular eclipse through southern Chile and Argentina that is partial throughout almost the entire continent (and an eclipse workshop will be held February 22-24 in Esquel, Argentina: http://sion.frm.utn.edu.ar/WDEAII) and then a chance to educate the 300 million people of the United States and others in adjacent countries as far south as northern South America about the glories of totality and how to observe partial phases. Our website, a compendium of links to information about maps, safe observing, science, and more is at http://eclipses.info. We link to important mapping sites at EclipseWise.com, GreatAmericanEclipse.com, and http://xjubier.free.fr/en/site_pages/solar_eclipses/xSE_GoogleMap3.php?Ecl=+20170821&Acc=2&Umb=1&Lmt=1&Mag=1&Max=1, and information about cloudiness statistics at http://eclipsophile.com, as well as simulation sites at https://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/cgi-bin/details.cgi?aid=4314 and http://eyes.jpl.nasa.gov. The American Astronomical Society's task force on the 2017 eclipse has a website at http://eclipse.aas.org. We are working to disseminate accurate information about how and why to observe the total solar eclipse, trying among other things to head off common misinformation about the hazards of looking at the sun at eclipses or otherwise. About 12 million Americans live within the 70-mile-wide band of totality, and we encourage others to travel into it, trying to make clear the difference between even a 99% partial eclipse and a total eclipse, with its glorious Baily's beads, diamond rings, and totality that on this occasion lasts between 2 minutes and 2 minutes 40 seconds

  6. Lunar eclipses: Probing the atmosphere of an inhabited planet

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Muñoz, A.

    2013-04-01

    The Moon's brightness during a lunar eclipse is indicative of the composition, cloudiness and aerosol loading of the Earth's atmosphere. The idea of using lunar eclipse observations to characterize the Earth's atmosphere is not new, but the interest raised by the prospects of discovering Earth-like exoplanets transiting their host stars has brought renewed attention to the method. We review some recent efforts made in the prediction and interpretation of lunar eclipses. We also comment on the contribution of the lunar eclipse theory to the refractive theory of planetary transits.

  7. Lunar eclipses: Probing the atmosphere of an inhabited planet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muñoz A. García

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Moon's brightness during a lunar eclipse is indicative of the composition, cloudiness and aerosol loading of the Earth's atmosphere. The idea of using lunar eclipse observations to characterize the Earth's atmosphere is not new, but the interest raised by the prospects of discovering Earth-like exoplanets transiting their host stars has brought renewed attention to the method. We review some recent efforts made in the prediction and interpretation of lunar eclipses. We also comment on the contribution of the lunar eclipse theory to the refractive theory of planetary transits.

  8. Total Addiction The Life of an Eclipse Chaser

    CERN Document Server

    Russo, Kate

    2012-01-01

    Seeing a total solar eclipse is often described as a once-in-a-lifetime experience. However, for many who have experienced totality, once-in-a-lifetime is simply not enough. They want more, and are willing to go to great lengths often at great expense to repeat the experience. What is it like to experience totality? What is it about the experience that motivates these eclipse chasers? Is there an eclipse chaser personality? Can eclipse chasing actually be described as an addiction? This book describes the people who dedicate their lives to chasing their dream.

  9. Investigation of Secondary Craters in the Saturnian System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogenboom, T.; Schenk, P.; White, O. L.

    2012-03-01

    To derive accurate ages using impact craters, the impact source must be determined. We investigate secondary crater size, frequency, distribution, formation, and crater chain formation on icy satellites throughout the Jupiter and Saturn systems.

  10. Martian Low-Aspect-Ratio Layered Ejecta (LARLE) craters: Distribution, characteristics, and relationship to pedestal craters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Nadine G.; Boyce, Joseph M.; Cornwall, Carin

    2014-09-01

    Low-Aspect-Ratio Layered Ejecta (LARLE) craters are a unique landform found on Mars. LARLE craters are characterized by a crater and normal layered ejecta pattern surrounded by an extensive but thin outer deposit which terminates in a sinuous, almost flame-like morphology. We have conducted a survey to identify all LARLE craters ⩾1-km-diameter within the ±75° latitude zone and to determine their morphologic and morphometric characteristics. The survey reveals 140 LARLE craters, with the majority (91%) located poleward of 40°S and 35°N and all occurring within thick mantles of fine-grained deposits which are likely ice-rich. LARLE craters range in diameter from the cut-off limit of 1 km up to 12.2 km, with 83% being smaller than 5 km. The radius of the outer LARLE deposit displays a linear trend with the crater radius and is greatest at higher polar latitudes. The LARLE deposit ranges in length between 2.56 and 14.81 crater radii in average extent, with maximum length extending up to 21.4 crater radii. The LARLE layer is very sinuous, with lobateness values ranging between 1.45 and 4.35. LARLE craters display a number of characteristics in common with pedestal craters and we propose that pedestal craters are eroded versions of LARLE craters. The distribution and characteristics of the LARLE craters lead us to propose that impact excavation into ice-rich fine-grained deposits produces a dusty base surge cloud (like those produced by explosion craters) that deposits dust and ice particles to create the LARLE layers. Salts emplaced by upward migration of water through the LARLE deposit produce a surficial duricrust layer which protects the deposit from immediate removal by eolian processes.

  11. What Really Happened to Earth's Older Craters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottke, William; Mazrouei, Sara; Ghent, Rebecca; Parker, Alex

    2017-10-01

    Most assume the Earth’s crater record is heavily biased, with erosion/tectonics destroying older craters. This matches expectations, but is it actually true? To test this idea, we compared Earth’s crater record, where nearly all D ≥ 20 km craters are pick out from older craters with eroded fragments. Moreover, an inverse relationship between rock abundance (RA) and crater age exists. Using measured RA values, we computed ages for 111 rocky craters with D ≥ 10 km that formed between 80°N and 80°S over the last 1 Gyr.We found several surprising results. First, the production rate of D ≥ 10 km lunar craters increased by a factor of 2.2 [-0.9, +4.4; 95% confidence limits] over the past 250 Myr compared to the previous 750 Myr. Thus, the NEO population is higher now than it has been for the last billion years. Second, the size and age distributions of lunar and terrestrial craters for D ≥ 20 km over the last 650 Myr have similar shapes. This implies that crater erasure must be limited on stable terrestrial terrains; in an average sense, for a given region, the Earth either keeps all or loses all of its D ≥ 20 craters at the same rate, independent of size. It also implies the observed deficit of large terrestrial craters between 250-650 Myr is not preservation bias but rather reflects a distinctly lower impact flux. We predict 355 ± 86 D ≥ 20 km craters formed on Earth over the last 650 Myr. Only 38 ± 6 are known, so the ratio, 10.7 ± 3.1%, is a measure of the Earth’s surface that is reasonably stable to large crater formation over 650 Myr. If erosion had dominated, the age distribution of terrestrial craters would be strongly skewed toward younger ages, which is not observed. We predict Chicxulub-type impacts were rare over the last Gyr, with the event 66 Ma a probable byproduct of the current high terrestrial impact flux.

  12. Machine cataloging of impact craters on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepinski, Tomasz F.; Mendenhall, Michael P.; Bue, Brian D.

    2009-09-01

    This study presents an automated system for cataloging impact craters using the MOLA 128 pixels/degree digital elevation model of Mars. Craters are detected by a two-step algorithm that first identifies round and symmetric topographic depressions as crater candidates and then selects craters using a machine-learning technique. The system is robust with respect to surface types; craters are identified with similar accuracy from all different types of martian surfaces without adjusting input parameters. By using a large training set in its final selection step, the system produces virtually no false detections. Finally, the system provides a seamless integration of crater detection with its characterization. Of particular interest is the ability of our algorithm to calculate crater depths. The system is described and its application is demonstrated on eight large sites representing all major types of martian surfaces. An evaluation of its performance and prospects for its utilization for global surveys are given by means of detailed comparison of obtained results to the manually-derived Catalog of Large Martian Impact Craters. We use the results from the test sites to construct local depth-diameter relationships based on a large number of craters. In general, obtained relationships are in agreement with what was inferred on the basis of manual measurements. However, we have found that, in Terra Cimmeria, the depth/diameter ratio has an abrupt decrease at ˜38°S regardless of crater size. If shallowing of craters is attributed to presence of sub-surface ice, a sudden change in its spatial distribution is suggested by our findings.

  13. Impact craters in South America

    CERN Document Server

    Acevedo, Rogelio Daniel; Ponce, Juan Federico; Stinco, Sergio G

    2015-01-01

    A complete and updated catalogue of impact craters and structures in South America from 2014 is presented here. Approximately eighty proven, suspected and disproven structures have been identified by several sources in this continent. All the impact sites of this large continent have been exhaustively reviewed: the proved ones, the possible ones and some very doubtful. Many sites remain without a clear geological ""in situ"" confirmation and some of them could be even rejected. Argentina and Brazil are leading the list containing almost everything detected. In Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Guyana,

  14. Kepler eclipsing binary stars. IV. Precise eclipse times for close binaries and identification of candidate three-body systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conroy, Kyle E.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Prša, Andrej; Orosz, Jerome A.; Welsh, William F.; Fabrycky, Daniel C.

    2014-01-01

    We present a catalog of precise eclipse times and analysis of third-body signals among 1279 close binaries in the latest Kepler Eclipsing Binary Catalog. For these short-period binaries, Kepler's 30 minute exposure time causes significant smearing of light curves. In addition, common astrophysical phenomena such as chromospheric activity, as well as imperfections in the light curve detrending process, can create systematic artifacts that may produce fictitious signals in the eclipse timings. We present a method to measure precise eclipse times in the presence of distorted light curves, such as in contact and near-contact binaries which exhibit continuously changing light levels in and out of eclipse. We identify 236 systems for which we find a timing variation signal compatible with the presence of a third body. These are modeled for the light travel time effect and the basic properties of the third body are derived. This study complements J. A. Orosz et al. (in preparation), which focuses on eclipse timing variations of longer period binaries with flat out-of-eclipse regions. Together, these two papers provide comprehensive eclipse timings for all binaries in the Kepler Eclipsing Binary Catalog, as an ongoing resource freely accessible online to the community.

  15. The Great American Eclipse: Lessons Learned from Public Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edson, Shauna Elizabeth; Phoebe Waterman Haas Public Observatory

    2018-01-01

    The total solar eclipse of 2017 was a high-profile opportunity for nationwide public education. Astronomy experts suddenly became vital sources of information for a lay population whose interest in the eclipse greatly surpassed expectations. At the National Air and Space Museum, we leveraged our relatively accessible location and particularly diverse audience to help thousands of people, from novices to enthusiasts, prepare to view the eclipse safely. The goal was to empower all people so they could experience this unique astronomical event, understand what was happening, and observe the Sun safely. Over the course of two years spent talking with the public about the eclipse, we encountered common misconceptions, worries about safety or liability, and people experiencing confusion or information overload. We developed guidelines for handling these challenges, from correcting misinformation to managing the sudden spike in demand for glasses just before August 21.In particular, we helped people understand the following essential points:- The total phase of the eclipse is only visible from a limited path.- The partial eclipse is visible from a large area outside the path of totality.- The eclipse takes up to three hours from start to finish, providing ample time for viewing.- The Sun can be observed safely using several methods, including but not limited to eclipse glasses.- The eclipse happens because the Moon’s orbit is taking it directly between the Sun and the Earth.- Eclipses do not happen every month because the Moon’s orbit is tilted with respect to the Earth's orbital plane.- Students in schools can safely view the eclipse, with proper protection and supervision, to prevent eye damage and minimize liability.Public education about the eclipse appears to have been successful, as evidenced by the large number of people who saw their first total solar eclipse and the absence of reported eye damage cases. Amidst the excitement, photographs, and stories that

  16. Technical problems and future cratering experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knox, J B [Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1969-07-01

    This paper reviews some of the key technical problems that remain to be solved in nuclear cratering technology. These include: (1) developing a broader understanding of the effects that material properties and water content of the earth materials around the shot have on cratering behavior, (2) extending the experimental investigation of retarc formation to include intermediate yields and various materials, and (3) improving our ability to predict the escape of radioactive material to the atmosphere to form the cloud source responsible for fallout. The formation processes of ejecta craters, retarcs, and subsidence craters are described in the light of our present understanding, and the major gaps in our understanding are indicated. Methods of calculating crater and retarc formation are discussed, with particular reference to the input information needed. Methods for calculating fallout are presented, and their shortcomings are discussed. A preliminary analysis of the safety factors associated with the presently proposed nuclear excavation concepts is presented. (author)

  17. Technical problems and future cratering experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knox, J.B.

    1969-01-01

    This paper reviews some of the key technical problems that remain to be solved in nuclear cratering technology. These include: (1) developing a broader understanding of the effects that material properties and water content of the earth materials around the shot have on cratering behavior, (2) extending the experimental investigation of retarc formation to include intermediate yields and various materials, and (3) improving our ability to predict the escape of radioactive material to the atmosphere to form the cloud source responsible for fallout. The formation processes of ejecta craters, retarcs, and subsidence craters are described in the light of our present understanding, and the major gaps in our understanding are indicated. Methods of calculating crater and retarc formation are discussed, with particular reference to the input information needed. Methods for calculating fallout are presented, and their shortcomings are discussed. A preliminary analysis of the safety factors associated with the presently proposed nuclear excavation concepts is presented. (author)

  18. White dwarfs in the WTS: Eclipsing binaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burleigh M.R.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We have identified photometric white dwarf candidates in the WFCAM transit survey through a reduced proper motion versus colour approach. Box-fitting with parameters adjusted to detect the unique signature of a white dwarf + planet/brown dwarf transit/eclipse event was performed, as well as looking for variability due to the irradiation of the companions atmosphere by the white dwarf's high UV flux. We have also performed a simple sensitivity analysis in order to assess the ability of the survey to detect companions to white dwarfs via the transit method.

  19. Zimbabwe's total solar eclipse June 21st 2001 | Unknown ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The research was developed to observe and record the effects of the total solar eclipse on the behaviour of wildlife in the park, and covered a period of 3 days in order to provide comparisons between normal and eclipse conditions. The data is still undergoing comparative analysis, and the results will be submitted to the ...

  20. Visual damage following direct sighting of solar eclipse in Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    education concerning the damaging effects of the solar eclipse. Advanced techniques, such as scanning laser Ophthalmoscopy and the multifocal electroretinography (ERG) offer the possibility of detailed examination of small retina lesions in Ghana after an eclipse of the sun. African Journal of Health Sciences Vol. 14 (3-4) ...

  1. Statistical analysis of geomagnetic field variations during solar eclipses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Hee; Chang, Heon-Young

    2018-04-01

    We investigate the geomagnetic field variations recorded by INTERMAGNET geomagnetic observatories, which are observed while the Moon's umbra or penumbra passed over them during a solar eclipse event. Though it is generally considered that the geomagnetic field can be modulated during solar eclipses, the effect of the solar eclipse on the observed geomagnetic field has proved subtle to be detected. Instead of exploring the geomagnetic field as a case study, we analyze 207 geomagnetic manifestations acquired by 100 geomagnetic observatories during 39 solar eclipses occurring from 1991 to 2016. As a result of examining a pattern of the geomagnetic field variation on average, we confirm that the effect can be seen over an interval of 180 min centered at the time of maximum eclipse on a site of a geomagnetic observatory. That is, demonstrate an increase in the Y component of the geomagnetic field and decreases in the X component and the total strength of the geomagnetic field. We also find that the effect can be overwhelmed, depending more sensitively on the level of daily geomagnetic events than on the level of solar activity and/or the phase of solar cycle. We have demonstrated it by dividing the whole data set into subsets based on parameters of the geomagnetic field, solar activity, and solar eclipses. It is suggested, therefore, that an evidence of the solar eclipse effect can be revealed even at the solar maximum, as long as the day of the solar eclipse is magnetically quiet.

  2. The 2017 Solar Eclipse Community Impacts through Public Library Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusenbery, P.; Holland, A.; LaConte, K.; Mosshammer, G.; Harold, J. B.; Fraknoi, A.; Schatz, D.; Duncan, D. K.

    2017-12-01

    More than two million pairs of eclipse glasses were distributed free through public libraries in the U.S. for the solar eclipse of the Sun taking place on August 21, 2017. About 7,000 organizations, including public library branches, bookmobiles, tribal libraries, library consortia, and state libraries took part in the celestial event of the century. Many organizations received a package of free safe-viewing glasses, plus a 24-page information booklet about eclipse viewing and suggested program ideas. An educational video was also produced on how best to do public outreach programs about the eclipse. The project was supported, in part, by the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, with additional help from Google, NASA, the Research Corporation, and the National Science Foundation (NSF). The program was managed through the Space Science Institute's National Center for Interactive Learning as part of its STAR Library Network (STAR_Net). Resources developed by STAR_Net for this event included an Eclipse Resource Center; a newsletter for participating libraries to learn about eclipses and how to implement an effective and safe eclipse program; eclipse program activities on its STEM Activity Clearinghouse; webinars; and connections to subject matter experts from NASA's and the American Astronomical Society's volunteer networks. This presentation will provide an overview of the extensive collaboration that made this program possible as well as highlight the national impact that public libraries made in their communities.

  3. Absolute dimensions of eclipsing binaries XXVII. V1130 tauri

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Jens Viggo; Olsen, E, H.; Helt, B. E.

    2010-01-01

    stars: evolution / stars: fundamental parameters / stars: individual: V1130¿Tau / binaries: eclipsing / techniques: photometric / techniques: radial velocities Udgivelsesdato: 17 Feb.......stars: evolution / stars: fundamental parameters / stars: individual: V1130¿Tau / binaries: eclipsing / techniques: photometric / techniques: radial velocities Udgivelsesdato: 17 Feb....

  4. Asteroid families from cratering: Detection and models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, A.; Cellino, A.; Knežević, Z.; Novaković, B.; Spoto, F.; Paolicchi, P.

    2014-07-01

    A new asteroid families classification, more efficient in the inclusion of smaller family members, shows how relevant the cratering impacts are on large asteroids. These do not disrupt the target, but just form families with the ejecta from large craters. Of the 12 largest asteroids, 8 have cratering families: number (2), (4), (5), (10), (87), (15), (3), and (31). At least another 7 cratering families can be identified. Of the cratering families identified so far, 7 have >1000 members. This imposes a remarkable change from the focus on fragmentation families of previous classifications. Such a large dataset of asteroids believed to be crater ejecta opens a new challenge: to model the crater and family forming event(s) generating them. The first problem is to identify which cratering families, found by the similarity of proper elements, can be formed at once, with a single collision. We have identified as a likely outcome of multiple collisions the families of (4), (10), (15), and (20). Of the ejecta generated by cratering, only a fraction reaches the escape velocity from the surviving parent body. The distribution of velocities at infinity, giving to the resulting family an initial position and shape in the proper elements space, is highly asymmetric with respect to the parent body. This shape is deformed by the Yarkovsky effect and by the interaction with resonances. All the largest asteroids have been subjected to large cratering events, thus the lack of a family needs to be interpreted. The most interesting case is (1) Ceres, which is not the parent body of the nearby family of (93). Two possible interpretations of the low family forming efficiency are based on either the composition of Ceres with a significant fraction of ice, protected by a thin crust, or with the larger escape velocity of ~500 m/s.

  5. Infrared observations of eclipses of Io, its thermophysical parameters, and the thermal radiation of the Loki volcano and environs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinton, William M.; Kaminski, Charles

    1988-01-01

    Observations of Io during eclipses by Jupiter in 1981-1984 are reported. Data obtained at 3.45-30 microns using bolometer system No. 1 on the 3-m IRTF telescope at Mauna Kea are presented in extensive tables and graphs and analyzed by means of least-squares fitting of thermophysical models to the eclipse cooling and heating curves, thermal-radiation calculations for the Io volcanoes, and comparison with Voyager data. Best fits are obtained for a model comprising (1) a bright region with a vertically inhomogeneous surface and (2) a dark vertically homogeneous region with thermal inertia only about 0.1 times that of (1). Little evidence of volcanic-flux variability during the period is found, and the majority (but not all) of the excess thermal IR radiation in the sub-Jovian hemisphere is attributed to the Loki volcano and its lava lake.

  6. Preparing a Nation for the Eclipse of a Generation -

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speck, Angela; Habbal, Shadia; Tresch Fienberg, Richard; Kentrianakis, Michael; Fraknoi, Andrew; Nordgren, Tyler; Penn, Matthew; Pasachoff, Jay M.; Bakich, Michael; Winter, Henry; Gay, Pamela; Motta, Mario

    2018-01-01

    On August 21st 2017, there was a total solar eclipse visible from a vast swath of the US.In preparation for that event, the American Astronomical society created a taskforce charged with planning for the eclipse for the entire nation. The preparations included interfacing with the public, the media, non-profit organizations and governmental organizations. Preliminary data suggests that nearly 90% of American adults watched the eclipse either directly or via live streams. Moreover, there were no major problems associated with the event, in spite of valiant attempts from, e.g. imprope solar viewing materials. The eclipse offered opportunities for many scientific experiments within and ebyond astronomy. Here we present on the work of the taskforce, and the lessons learned as well as lesser known science experiments undertaken during the eclipse.

  7. Investigations of Ceres's Craters with Straightened Rim

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frigeri, A.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Ammannito, E.; Raponi, A.; Formisano, M.; Ciarniello, M.; Magni, G.; Combe, J. P.; Marchi, S.; Raymond, C. A.; Schwartz, S. J.

    2017-12-01

    Dwarf planet Ceres hosts some geological features that are unique in the solar system because its composition, rich in aqueously-altered silicates, is usually found on full-size planets, whereas its mean radius is smaller than most natural satellites in the solar system. For example, the local high-albedo, carbonate-rich areas or faculaeare specific to Ceres; also, the absence of big impact crater structures is key to understand the overall mechanical behaviour of the Cerean crust. After the first findings of water ice occurring in the shadowed areas of craters on Ceres by the NASA/Dawn mission (1, 2), we analyzed the morphology of craters looking for features similar to the ones where the water ice composition has been detected analyzing the data from the VIR spectrometer (3). These craters fall outside of the family of polygonal craters which are mainly related to regional or global scale tectonics (4). We analyzed the morphology on the base of the global mosaic, the digital terrain model derived by using the stereo photogrammetry method and the single data frames of the Framing Camera. Our investigation started from crater Juling, which is characterized by a portion of the rim which forms a straight segment instead of a portion of a circle. This linear crater wall is also steep enough that it forms a cliff that is in the shadowed area in all images acquired by Dawn. Very smooth and bright deposits lay at the foot of this crater-wall cliff. Then, we identified several other craters, relatively fresh, with radius of 2 to 10 kilometers, showing one or two sectors of the crater-rim being truncated by a mass-wasting process, probably a rockfall. Our first analysis show that in the selected craters, the truncated sectors are always in the north-eastern sector of the rim for the craters in the southern hemisphere. Conversely, the craters on the northern hemisphere exhibit a truncated rim in their south-eastern sector. Although a more detailed analysis is mandatory

  8. Student artistry sparks eclipse excitement on Maui: NSO/DKIST EPO for the 2016 Partial Solar Eclipse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schad, Thomas A.; Penn, Matthew J.; Armstrong, James

    2016-05-01

    Local creativity and artistry is a powerful resource that enhances education programs and helps us generate excitement for science within our communities. In celebration of the 2016 Solar Eclipse, the National Solar Observatory (NSO) and its Daniel K Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST) project were pleased to engage with students across Maui County, Hawai`i, via the 2016 Maui Eclipse Art Contest. With the help of the Maui Economic Development Board and the University of Hawai'is Institute for Astronomy, we solicited art entries from all K-12 schools in Maui County approximately 6 months prior to the eclipse. Along with divisional prizes, a grand prize was selected by a panel of local judges, which was subsequently printed on 25,000 solar eclipse viewing glasses and distributed to all Maui students. We found that the impact of a locally-sourced glasses design cannot be understated. Overall, the success of this program relied upon reaching out to individual teachers, supplying educational flyers to all schools, and visiting classrooms. On the day of the eclipse, all of the art entries were prominently displayed during a community eclipse viewing event at Kalama Beach Park in Kihei, HI, that was co-hosted by NSO and the Maui Science Center. This eclipse art contest was integral to making local connections to help promote science education on Maui, and we suggest that it could be adapted to the solar community's EPO activities for the upcoming 2017 Great American Solar Eclipse.

  9. Eclipse 2017: Through the Eyes of NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Louis; NASA Heliophysics Education Consortium

    2017-10-01

    The August 21, 2017 total solar eclipse across America was, by all accounts, the biggest science education program ever carried out by NASA, significantly larger than the Curiosity Mars landing and the New Horizons Pluto flyby. Initial accounting estimates over two billion people reached and website hits exceeding five billion. The NASA Science Mission Directorate spent over two years planning and developing this enormous public education program, establishing over 30 official NASA sites along the path of totality, providing imagery from 11 NASA space assets, two high altitude aircraft, and over 50 high altitude balloons. In addition, a special four focal plane ground based solar telescope was developed in partnership with Lunt Solar Systems that observed and processed the eclipse in 6K resolution. NASA EDGE and NASA TV broadcasts during the entirity of totality across the country reached hundreds of millions, world wide.This talk will discuss NASA's strategy, results, and lessons learned; and preview some of the big events we plan to feature in the near future.

  10. Eclipses of cataclysmic variables. II. U Geminorum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, E.H.; Robinson, E.L.

    1987-01-01

    U Gem is an eclipsing dwarf nova with an orbital period of 4 h 15 m. High-speed, multicolor photometric observations of U Gem in its quiescent state were obtained. A program was used that synthesizes the light curves of cataclysmic variables to derive the properties of U Gem from its eclipses. Using radial velocity curves published by Wade (1981) and by Stover (1981), it was found that i = 69.7 + or - 0.7 deg, M1 = 1.12 + or - 0.13 solar masses, and M2 = 0.53 + or - 0.06 solar mass. The radial temperature distribution across the accretion disk in U Gem shows that the disk is a hollow ring around the white dwarf with R(out) = 0.30 + or - 0.04 and R(in) = 0.12 + or - 0.05 a, where a is the separation of the two stars. The temperature of the ring is 4800 + or - 300 K. The model also reproduces the published infrared light curves and ultraviolet spectral distributions of U Gem. A mass transfer rate of 7.8 x 10 to the -10th solar mass/yr is derived. The structure of the ring around the white dwarf is consistent with the current theories of accretion disk instabilities in dwarf novae. 39 references

  11. SPITZER SECONDARY ECLIPSES OF WASP-18b

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nymeyer, Sarah; Harrington, Joseph; Hardy, Ryan A.; Stevenson, Kevin B.; Campo, Christopher J.; Blecic, Jasmina; Bowman, William C.; Britt, Christopher B. T.; Cubillos, Patricio; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Collier-Cameron, Andrew; Maxted, Pierre F. L.; Loredo, Thomas J.; Hellier, Coel; Anderson, David R.; Gillon, Michael; Hebb, Leslie; Wheatley, Peter J.; Pollacco, Don

    2011-01-01

    The transiting exoplanet WASP-18b was discovered in 2008 by the Wide Angle Search for Planets project. The Spitzer Exoplanet Target of Opportunity Program observed secondary eclipses of WASP-18b using Spitzer's Infrared Array Camera in the 3.6 μm and 5.8 μm bands on 2008 December 20, and in the 4.5 μm and 8.0 μm bands on 2008 December 24. We report eclipse depths of 0.30% ± 0.02%, 0.39% ± 0.02%, 0.37% ± 0.03%, 0.41% ± 0.02%, and brightness temperatures of 3100 ± 90, 3310 ± 130, 3080 ± 140, and 3120 ± 110 K in order of increasing wavelength. WASP-18b is one of the hottest planets yet discovered—as hot as an M-class star. The planet's pressure-temperature profile most likely features a thermal inversion. The observations also require WASP-18b to have near-zero albedo and almost no redistribution of energy from the day side to the night side of the planet.

  12. Drainage systems of Lonar Crater, India: Contributions to Lonar Lake hydrology and crater degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Goro; Senthil Kumar, P.; Goto, Kazuhisa; Sekine, Yasuhito; Giri, Chaitanya; Matsui, Takafumi

    2014-05-01

    Lonar, a 1.8-km-diameter impact crater in India, is a rare example of terrestrial impact craters formed in basaltic bedrock. The estimated age of the crater ranges widely from less than 12 ka to over 600 ka, but the crater preserves a relatively pristine morphology. We conducted a study of various drainage systems of Lonar Crater. The crater floor hosts a shallow 5-m-deep lake, which fluctuates seasonally. Our investigation reveals that the lake level is influenced by surface runoff that is active during the monsoon and groundwater input effective during both the rainy and the dry seasons. The groundwater discharge is observed as springs on the inner rim walls corresponding to weathered vesicular basalt and/or proximal ejecta, which are underlain by thick massive basalt layers. This observation indicates that groundwater movement is lithologically controlled: it passes preferentially through permeable vesicular basalt or proximal ejecta but is hindered in less permeable massive basalt. It is hypothesized that groundwater is also structurally controlled by dipping of basalt layers, interconnectivity of the permeable lithologic units through fractures, and preferential pathways such as fractures within the permeable lithologic units. Investigation on hydrological processes at Lonar Crater and its lake could provide useful insights into purported paleo-crater lakes presumably formed in the basaltic crust of Mars. The Lonar Crater interior shows signs of degradation in the forms of gullies and debris flows, and the Dhar valley incising in the rim leading to form a fan delta. The ejecta surface is characterized by the presence of channels, originating from the rim area and extending radially away from the crater center. The channels probably resulted from surface runoff, and its erosion contributes to the removal of the ejecta. Lonar Crater is a valuable analog site for studying degradation processes with potential application to impact craters occurring on

  13. Evidence for rapid topographic evolution and crater degradation on Mercury from simple crater morphometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassett, Caleb I.; Crowley, Malinda C.; Leight, Clarissa; Dyar, M. Darby; Minton, David A.; Hirabayashi, Masatoshi; Thomson, Bradley J.; Watters, Wesley A.

    2017-06-01

    Examining the topography of impact craters and their evolution with time is useful for assessing how fast planetary surfaces evolve. Here, new measurements of depth/diameter (d/D) ratios for 204 craters of 2.5 to 5 km in diameter superposed on Mercury's smooth plains are reported. The median d/D is 0.13, much lower than expected for newly formed simple craters ( 0.21). In comparison, lunar craters that postdate the maria are much less modified, and the median crater in the same size range has a d/D ratio that is nearly indistinguishable from the fresh value. This difference in crater degradation is remarkable given that Mercury's smooth plains and the lunar maria likely have ages that are comparable, if not identical. Applying a topographic diffusion model, these results imply that crater degradation is faster by a factor of approximately two on Mercury than on the Moon, suggesting more rapid landform evolution on Mercury at all scales.Plain Language SummaryMercury and the Moon are both airless bodies that have experienced numerous impact events over billions of years. These impacts form craters in a geologic instant. The question examined in this manuscript is how fast these craters erode after their formation. To simplify the problem, we examined craters of a particular size (2.5 to 5 km in diameter) on a particular geologic terrain type (volcanic smooth plains) on both the Moon and Mercury. We then measured the topography of hundreds of craters on both bodies that met these criteria. Our results suggest that craters on Mercury become shallower much more quickly than craters on the Moon. We estimate that Mercury's topography erodes at a rate at least a factor of two faster than the Moon's.

  14. Saying Goodbye to 'Bonneville' Crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Annotated Image NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit took this panoramic camera image on sol 86 (March 31, 2004) before driving 36 meters (118 feet) on sol 87 toward its future destination, the Columbia Hills. This is probably the last panoramic camera image that Spirit will take from the high rim of 'Bonneville' crater, and provides an excellent view of the ejecta-covered path the rover has journeyed thus far. The lander can be seen toward the upper right of the frame and is approximately 321 meters (1060 feet) away from Spirit's current location. The large hill on the horizon is Grissom Hill. The Colombia Hills, located to the left, are not visible in this image.

  15. SMALL CRATERS AND THEIR DIAGNOSTIC POTENTIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Bugiolacchi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available I analysed and compared the size-frequency distributions of craters in the Apollo 17 landing region, comprising of six mare terrains with varying morphologies and cratering characteristics, along with three other regions allegedly affected by the same secondary event (Tycho secondary surge. I propose that for the smaller crater sizes (in this work 9–30 m, a] an exponential curve of power −0.18D can approximate Nkm−2 crater densities in a regime of equilibrium, while b] a power function D−3 closely describes the factorised representation of craters by size (1 m. The saturation level within the Central Area suggests that c] either the modelled rates of crater erosion on the Moon should be revised, or that the Tycho event occurred much earlier in time than the current estimate. We propose that d] the size-frequency distribution of small secondary craters may bear the signature (in terms of size-frequency distribution of debris/surge of the source impact and that this observation should be tested further.

  16. Sands at Gusev Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrol, Nathalie A.; Herkenhoff, Kenneth E.; Knoll, Andrew H.; Farmer, Jack D.; Arvidson, Raymond E.; Grin, E.A.; Li, Ron; Fenton, Lori; Cohen, B.; Bell, J.F.; Yingst, R. Aileen

    2014-01-01

    Processes, environments, and the energy associated with the transport and deposition of sand at Gusev Crater are characterized at the microscopic scale through the comparison of statistical moments for particle size and shape distributions. Bivariate and factor analyses define distinct textural groups at 51 sites along the traverse completed by the Spirit rover as it crossed the plains and went into the Columbia Hills. Fine-to-medium sand is ubiquitous in ripples and wind drifts. Most distributions show excess fine material, consistent with a predominance of wind erosion over the last 3.8 billion years. Negative skewness at West Valley is explained by the removal of fine sand during active erosion, or alternatively, by excess accumulation of coarse sand from a local source. The coarse to very coarse sand particles of ripple armors in the basaltic plains have a unique combination of size and shape. Their distribution display significant changes in their statistical moments within the ~400 m that separate the Columbia Memorial Station from Bonneville Crater. Results are consistent with aeolian and/or impact deposition, while the elongated and rounded shape of the grains forming the ripples, as well as their direction of origin, could point to Ma'adim Vallis as a possible source. For smaller particles on the traverse, our findings confirm that aeolian processes have dominated over impact and other processes to produce sands with the observed size and shape patterns across a spectrum of geologic (e.g., ripples and plains soils) and aerographic settings (e.g., wind shadows).

  17. Aboriginal oral traditions of Australian impact craters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.; Goldsmith, John

    2013-11-01

    In this paper we explore Aboriginal oral traditions that relate to Australian meteorite craters. Using the literature, first-hand ethnographic records and field trip data, we identify oral traditions and artworks associated with four impact sites: Gosses Bluff, Henbury, Liverpool and Wolfe Creek. Oral traditions describe impact origins for Gosses Bluff, Henbury and Wolfe Creek Craters, and non-impact origins for Liverpool Crater, with Henbury and Wolfe Creek stories having both impact and non-impact origins. Three impact sites that are believed to have been formed during human habitation of Australia -- Dalgaranga, Veevers, and Boxhole -- do not have associated oral traditions that are reported in the literature.

  18. Cratering statistics on asteroids: Methods and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, C.

    2014-07-01

    Crater size-frequency distributions (SFDs) on the surfaces of solid-surfaced bodies in the solar system have provided valuable insights about planetary surface processes and about impactor populations since the first spacecraft images were obtained in the 1960s. They can be used to determine relative age differences between surficial units, to obtain absolute model ages if the impactor flux and scaling laws are understood, to assess various endogenic planetary or asteroidal processes that degrade craters or resurface units, as well as assess changes in impactor populations across the solar system and/or with time. The first asteroid SFDs were measured from Galileo images of Gaspra and Ida (cf., Chapman 2002). Despite the superficial simplicity of these studies, they are fraught with many difficulties, including confusion by secondary and/or endogenic cratering and poorly understood aspects of varying target properties (including regoliths, ejecta blankets, and nearly-zero-g rubble piles), widely varying attributes of impactors, and a host of methodological problems including recognizability of degraded craters, which is affected by illumination angle and by the ''personal equations'' of analysts. Indeed, controlled studies (Robbins et al. 2014) demonstrate crater-density differences of a factor of two or more between experienced crater counters. These inherent difficulties have been especially apparent in divergent results for Vesta from different members of the Dawn Science Team (cf. Russell et al. 2013). Indeed, they have been exacerbated by misuse of a widely available tool (Craterstats: hrscview.fu- berlin.de/craterstats.html), which incorrectly computes error bars for proper interpretation of cumulative SFDs, resulting in derived model ages specified to three significant figures and interpretations of statistically insignificant kinks. They are further exacerbated, and for other small-body crater SFDs analyzed by the Berlin group, by stubbornly adopting

  19. Eclipse journeys to the dark side of the Moon

    CERN Document Server

    Close, Frank

    2017-01-01

    On August 21st, over one hundred million people will gather across the USA to witness the most-watched total solar eclipse in history. Eclipse: Journeys to the Dark Side of the Moon, by popular science author Frank Close, describes the spellbinding allure of this beautiful natural phenomenon. The book explains why eclipses happen, reveals their role in history, literature and myth, and introduces us to eclipse chasers, who travel with ecstatic fervor to some of the most inaccessible places on the globe. The book also includes the author's quest to solve a 3000-year-old mystery: how did the moon move backward during a total solar eclipse, as claimed in the Book of Joshua? Eclipse is also the story of how a teacher inspired the author, aged eight, to pursue a career in science and a love affair with eclipses that has taken him to a war zone in the Western Sahara, the South Pacific, and the African bush. The tale comes full circle with another eight-year old boy - the author's grandson - at the 2017 great Americ...

  20. Eclipsing binary stars with a δ Scuti component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahraman Aliçavuş, F.; Soydugan, E.; Smalley, B.; Kubát, J.

    2017-09-01

    Eclipsing binaries with a δ Sct component are powerful tools to derive the fundamental parameters and probe the internal structure of stars. In this study, spectral analysis of six primary δ Sct components in eclipsing binaries has been performed. Values of Teff, v sin I, and metallicity for the stars have been derived from medium-resolution spectroscopy. Additionally, a revised list of δ Sct stars in eclipsing binaries is presented. In this list, we have only given the δ Sct stars in eclipsing binaries to show the effects of the secondary components and tidal-locking on the pulsations of primary δ Sct components. The stellar pulsation, atmospheric and fundamental parameters (e.g. mass, radius) of 92 δ Sct stars in eclipsing binaries have been gathered. Comparison of the properties of single and eclipsing binary member δ Sct stars has been made. We find that single δ Sct stars pulsate in longer periods and with higher amplitudes than the primary δ Sct components in eclipsing binaries. The v sin I of δ Sct components is found to be significantly lower than that of single δ Sct stars. Relationships between the pulsation periods, amplitudes and stellar parameters in our list have been examined. Significant correlations between the pulsation periods and the orbital periods, Teff, log g, radius, mass ratio, v sin I and the filling factor have been found.

  1. A Comprehensive Catalog of Galactic Eclipsing Binary Stars with Eccentric Orbits Based on Eclipse Timing Diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, C.-H.; Kreiner, J. M.; Zakrzewski, B.; Ogłoza, W.; Kim, H.-W.; Jeong, M.-J.

    2018-04-01

    A comprehensive catalog of 623 galactic eclipsing binary (EB) systems with eccentric orbits is presented with more than 2830 times of minima determined from the archived photometric data by various sky-survey projects and new photometric measurements. The systems are divided into two groups according to whether the individual system has a GCVS name or not. All the systems in both groups are further classified into three categories (D, A, and A+III) on the basis of their eclipse timing diagrams: 453 D systems showing just constantly displaced secondary minima, 139 A systems displaying only apsidal motion (AM), and 31 A+III systems exhibiting both AM and light-time effects. AM parameters for 170 systems (A and A+III systems) are consistently calculated and cataloged with basic information for all systems. Some important statistics for the AM parameters are discussed and compared with those derived for the eccentric EB systems in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds.

  2. Coordinated weather balloon solar radiation measurements during a solar eclipse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, R G; Marlton, G J; Williams, P D; Nicoll, K A

    2016-09-28

    Solar eclipses provide a rapidly changing solar radiation environment. These changes can be studied using simple photodiode sensors, if the radiation reaching the sensors is unaffected by cloud. Transporting the sensors aloft using standard meteorological instrument packages modified to carry extra sensors, provides one promising but hitherto unexploited possibility for making solar eclipse radiation measurements. For the 20 March 2015 solar eclipse, a coordinated campaign of balloon-carried solar radiation measurements was undertaken from Reading (51.44°N, 0.94°W), Lerwick (60.15°N, 1.13°W) and Reykjavik (64.13°N, 21.90°W), straddling the path of the eclipse. The balloons reached sufficient altitude at the eclipse time for eclipse-induced variations in solar radiation and solar limb darkening to be measured above cloud. Because the sensor platforms were free to swing, techniques have been evaluated to correct the measurements for their changing orientation. In the swing-averaged technique, the mean value across a set of swings was used to approximate the radiation falling on a horizontal surface; in the swing-maximum technique, the direct beam was estimated by assuming that the maximum solar radiation during a swing occurs when the photodiode sensing surface becomes normal to the direction of the solar beam. Both approaches, essentially independent, give values that agree with theoretical expectations for the eclipse-induced radiation changes.This article is part of the themed issue 'Atmospheric effects of solar eclipses stimulated by the 2015 UK eclipse'. © 2016 The Authors.

  3. Total Eclipse of the Ballpark: Connecting Space and Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasser, Molly; Petro, Noah; Jones, Andrea; Bleacher, Lora; Keller, John; Wes Patterson, G.

    2018-01-01

    The anticipation and excitement surrounding the total solar eclipse of 2017 provided astronomy educators with an incredible platform to share space science with huge audiences. The Public Engagement Team for NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) took advantage of this opportunity to share lunar science with the public by highlighting the often-overlooked central player in the eclipse – the Moon. As the sole planetary science representatives on NASA’s Science Mission Directorate eclipse leadership team, the LRO team had limited resources to conduct national public outreach. In order to increase our reach, we found success in partnerships.In early 2017, we began working with Minor League Baseball (MiLB) teams across the path of totality on August eclipse events. These partnerships proved fruitful for both parties. While MiLB is a national organization, each team is deeply rooted in its community. This proved essential as each of our four main MiLB partners handled event logistics, provided facilities, connected NASA Subject Matter Experts (SMEs) with local media, and drew in captive crowds. With this tactic, a handful of NASA representatives were able to reach nearly 30,000 people. In turn, LRO provided engaging educational content relevant to the context, SMEs to guide the eclipse viewing experience, eclipse glasses, and safety information. Our participation drew in an audience who would not typically attend baseball games while we were able to reach individuals who would not normally attend a science event. In addition, the eclipse inspired one team, the Salem-Keizer Volcanoes from Salem, OR, to make baseball history by holding the first ever eclipse delay in professional sports.In this talk, we will present on the benefits of the partnership, offer lessons learned, and suggest ways to get involved for the 2024 eclipse – and all the baseball seasons in between.

  4. Eclipse effects on field crops and marine zooplankton: the 29 March 2006 total solar eclipse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Economou

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Some effects in the biosphere from the Total Solar Eclipse of 29 March 2006 were investigated in field crops and marine zooplankton. Taking into account the decisive role of light on plant life and productivity, measurements of photosynthesis and stomatal behaviour were conducted on seven important field-grown cereal and leguminous crops. A drop in photosynthetic rates, by more than a factor of 5 in some cases, was observed, and the minimum values of photosynthetic rates ranged between 3.13 and 10.13 μmol CO2 m−2 s−1. The drop in solar irradiance and the increase in mesophyll CO2-concentration during the eclipse did not induce stomatal closure thus not blocking CO2 uptake by plants. Light effects on the photochemical phase of photosynthesis may be responsible for the observed depression in photosynthetic rates. Field studies addressing the migratory responses of marine zooplankton (micro-zooplankton (ciliates, and meso-zooplankton due to the rapid changes in underwater light intensity were also performed. The light intensity attenuation was simulated with the use of accurate underwater radiative transfer modeling techniques. Ciliates, responded to the rapid decrease in light intensity during the eclipse adopting night-time behaviour. From the meso-zooplankton assemblage, various vertical migratory behaviours were adopted by different species.

  5. Eclipse effects on field crops and marine zooplankton: the 29 March 2006 total solar eclipse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economou, G.; Christou, E. D.; Giannakourou, A.; Gerasopoulos, E.; Georgopoulos, D.; Kotoulas, V.; Lyra, D.; Tsakalis, N.; Tzortziou, M.; Vahamidis, P.; Papathanassiou, E.; Karamanos, A.

    2008-08-01

    Some effects in the biosphere from the Total Solar Eclipse of 29 March 2006 were investigated in field crops and marine zooplankton. Taking into account the decisive role of light on plant life and productivity, measurements of photosynthesis and stomatal behaviour were conducted on seven important field-grown cereal and leguminous crops. A drop in photosynthetic rates, by more than a factor of 5 in some cases, was observed, and the minimum values of photosynthetic rates ranged between 3.13 and 10.13 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1. The drop in solar irradiance and the increase in mesophyll CO2-concentration during the eclipse did not induce stomatal closure thus not blocking CO2 uptake by plants. Light effects on the photochemical phase of photosynthesis may be responsible for the observed depression in photosynthetic rates. Field studies addressing the migratory responses of marine zooplankton (micro-zooplankton (ciliates), and meso-zooplankton) due to the rapid changes in underwater light intensity were also performed. The light intensity attenuation was simulated with the use of accurate underwater radiative transfer modeling techniques. Ciliates, responded to the rapid decrease in light intensity during the eclipse adopting night-time behaviour. From the meso-zooplankton assemblage, various vertical migratory behaviours were adopted by different species.

  6. Topography of the Martian Impact Crater Tooting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouginis-Mark, P. J.; Garbeil, H.; Boyce, J. M.

    2009-01-01

    Tooting crater is approx.29 km in diameter, is located at 23.4degN, 207.5degE, and is classified as a multi-layered ejecta crater [1]. Our mapping last year identified several challenges that can now be addressed with HiRISE and CTX images, but specifically the third dimension of units. To address the distribution of ponded sediments, lobate flows, and volatile-bearing units within the crater cavity, we have focused this year on creating digital elevation models (DEMs) for the crater and ejecta blanket from stereo CTX and HiRISE images. These DEMs have a spatial resolution of approx.50 m for CTX data, and 2 m for HiRISE data. Each DEM is referenced to all of the available individual MOLA data points within an image, which number approx.5,000 and 800 respectively for the two data types

  7. Fresh Impact Crater and Rays in Tharsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) Extended Mission has included dozens of opportunities to point the spacecraft directly at features of interest so that pictures of things not seen during the earlier Mapping Mission can be obtained. The example shown here is a small meteorite impact crater in northern Tharsis near 17.2oN, 113.8oW. Viking Orbiter images from the late 1970's showed at this location what appeared to be a dark patch with dark rays emanating from a brighter center. The MOC team surmised that the dark rays may be indicating the location of afresh crater formed by impact sometime in the past few centuries (since dark ray are quickly covered by dust falling out of the martian atmosphere). All through MOC's Mapping Mission in 1999 and 2000, attempts were made to image the crater as predictions indicated that the spacecraft would pass over the site, but the crater was never seen. Finally, in June 2001, Extended Mission operations allowed the MOC team to point the spacecraft (and hence the camera, which is fixed to the spacecraft)directly at the center of the dark rays, where we expected to find the crater.The picture on the left (above, A) is a mosaic of three MOC high resolution images and one much lower-resolution Viking image. From left to right, the images used in the mosaic are: Viking 1 516A55, MOC E05-01904, MOCM21-00272, and MOC M08-03697. Image E05-01904 is the one taken in June 2001 by pointing the spacecraft. It captured the impact crater responsible for the rays. A close-up of the crater, which is only 130 meters (427 ft)across, is shown on the right (above, B). This crater is only one-tenth the size of the famous Meteor Crater in northern Arizona.The June 2001 MOC image reveals many surprises about this feature. For one, the crater is not located at the center of the bright area from which the dark rays radiate. The rays point to the center of this bright area, not the crater. Further, the dark material ejected from the

  8. An Outreach Project to Provide 2.1 Million Eclipse Glasses and Eclipse Information through 7,100 Libraries Nationwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraknoi, Andrew; Schatz, Dennis; Dusenbery, Paul; Duncan, Douglas; Holland, Anne; Laconte, Keliann

    2018-01-01

    With support from the Moore Foundation, Google, the Research Corporation, and NASA, we were able to distribute about 2.1 million eclipse glasses and an extensive booklet of eclipse information and outreach suggestions to 7,100 public libraries throughout the nation. It appears that this project was the single largest program to provide glasses and eclipse information to the public in the U.S. The project using (and significantly enlarged) the existing STARNet network of libraries set up and maintained by the Space Science Institute. We were able to get glasses to a diverse set of institutions, including urban, rural, Native American, small town and large city libraries. In this poster, we will summarize the history of the project, the various components and how they worked together, and the results of a post survey of the librarians, which provided numbers, photographs, and impressions from the many libraries and their patrons. A map of the libraries involved is at www.starnetlibraries.org/2017eclipse/. The booklet of information that was sent to help train librarians in eclipse science and eclipse outreach can still be downloaded free at: http://www.starnetlibraries.org/EclipseGuide/.”

  9. Crater Mound Formation by Wind Erosion on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, L. J.; Kite, E. S.; Michaels, T. I.

    2018-01-01

    Most of Mars' ancient sedimentary rocks by volume are in wind-eroded sedimentary mounds within impact craters and canyons, but the connections between mound form and wind erosion are unclear. We perform mesoscale simulations of different crater and mound morphologies to understand the formation of sedimentary mounds. As crater depth increases, slope winds produce increased erosion near the base of the crater wall, forming mounds. Peak erosion rates occur when the crater depth is ˜2 km. Mound evolution depends on the size of the host crater. In smaller craters mounds preferentially erode at the top, becoming more squat, while in larger craters mounds become steeper sided. This agrees with observations where smaller craters tend to have proportionally shorter mounds and larger craters have mounds encircled by moats. If a large-scale sedimentary layer blankets a crater, then as the layer recedes across the crater it will erode more toward the edges of the crater, resulting in a crescent-shaped moat. When a 160 km diameter mound-hosting crater is subject to a prevailing wind, the surface wind stress is stronger on the leeward side than on the windward side. This results in the center of the mound appearing to "march upwind" over time and forming a "bat-wing" shape, as is observed for Mount Sharp in Gale crater.

  10. Nuclear cratering on a digital computer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terhune, R W; Stubbs, T F; Cherry, J T [Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1970-05-01

    Computer programs based on the artificial viscosity method are applied to developing an understanding of the physics of cratering, with emphasis on cratering by nuclear explosives. Two established codes, SOC (spherical symmetry) and TENSOR (cylindrical symmetry), are used to illustrate the effects of variations in the material properties of various media on the cratering processes, namely shock, spall, and gas acceleration. Water content is found to be the most important material property, followed by strength, porosity, and compressibility. Crater profile calculations are presented for Pre-Gondola Charley (20-ton nitromethane detonation in shale) and Sedan (100-kt nuclear detonation in alluvium). Calculations also are presented for three 1-Mt yields in saturated Divide basalt and 1-Mt yield in dry Buckboard basalt, to show crater geometry as a function of the burial depth for large explosive yields. The calculations show, for megaton-level yields, that gas acceleration is the dominate mechanism in determining crater size and depends in turn on the water content in the medium. (author)

  11. Nuclear cratering on a digital computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terhune, R.W.; Stubbs, T.F.; Cherry, J.T.

    1970-01-01

    Computer programs based on the artificial viscosity method are applied to developing an understanding of the physics of cratering, with emphasis on cratering by nuclear explosives. Two established codes, SOC (spherical symmetry) and TENSOR (cylindrical symmetry), are used to illustrate the effects of variations in the material properties of various media on the cratering processes, namely shock, spall, and gas acceleration. Water content is found to be the most important material property, followed by strength, porosity, and compressibility. Crater profile calculations are presented for Pre-Gondola Charley (20-ton nitromethane detonation in shale) and Sedan (100-kt nuclear detonation in alluvium). Calculations also are presented for three 1-Mt yields in saturated Divide basalt and 1-Mt yield in dry Buckboard basalt, to show crater geometry as a function of the burial depth for large explosive yields. The calculations show, for megaton-level yields, that gas acceleration is the dominate mechanism in determining crater size and depends in turn on the water content in the medium. (author)

  12. Eclipse 2017: Partnering with NASA MSFC to Inspire Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Craig " Ghee" Adams, Mitzi; Gallagher, Dennis; Krause, Linda

    2017-01-01

    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is partnering with the U.S. Space and Rocket Center (USSRC), and Austin Peay State University (APSU) to engage citizen scientists, engineers, and students in science investigations during the 2017 American Solar Eclipse. Investigations will support the Citizen Continental America Telescopic Eclipse (CATE), Ham Radio Science Citizen Investigation(HamSCI), and Interactive NASA Space Physics Ionosphere Radio Experiments (INSPIRE). All planned activities will engage Space Campers and local high school students in the application of the scientific method as they seek to explore a wide range of observations during the eclipse. Where planned experiments touch on current scientific questions, the camper/students will be acting as citizen scientists, participating with researchers from APSU and MSFC. Participants will test their expectations and after the eclipse, share their results, experiences, and conclusions to younger Space Campers at the US Space & Rocket Center.

  13. Ancient Chinese observations of physical phenomena attending solar eclipses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, P.K.; Siscoe, G.L.

    1980-01-01

    The realization that solar activity probably undergoes changes in qualitative character on time scales greater than the 11 or 22 year cycle but short compared to the duration of recorded history gives renewed importance to historical documents describing the state of solar activity. Modern eclipse observation reveal the presence of solar acitivity through the appearance of coronal structures and prominences. It has been widely remarked that eclipse records prior to the 18th century are uniformly silent on these conspicuous solar eclipse features, raising the possibility, however unlikely, that a change in solar activity has occurred which rendered them only recently noticeable. We present here material from ancient Chinese sources, primarily astrological, that describe phenomena attending solar eclipses that are almost certainly coronal structures and prominences. Thus, these aspects of the present character of solar activity have apparently occurred at other times in history, if not continuously. (orig.)

  14. Characterisation of COPD heterogeneity in the ECLIPSE cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agusti, Alvar; Calverley, Peter M A; Celli, Bartolome

    2010-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a complex condition with pulmonary and extra-pulmonary manifestations. This study describes the heterogeneity of COPD in a large and well characterised and controlled COPD cohort (ECLIPSE)....

  15. NNDSS - Table III. Tuberculosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table III. Tuberculosis - 2018.This Table includes total number of cases reported in the United States, by region and by states, in accordance with the...

  16. Pension Insurance Data Tables

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation — Find out about retirement trends in PBGC's data tables. The tables include statistics on the people and pensions that PBGC protects, including how many Americans are...

  17. NNDSS - Table IV. Tuberculosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table IV. Tuberculosis - 2016.This Table includes total number of cases reported in the United States, by region and by states, in accordance with the...

  18. NNDSS - Table IV. Tuberculosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table IV. Tuberculosis - 2014.This Table includes total number of cases reported in the United States, by region and by states, in accordance with the...

  19. NNDSS - Table II. Vibriosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Vibriosis - 2017. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding year), and selected...

  20. NNDSS - Table III. Tuberculosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table III. Tuberculosis - 2017.This Table includes total number of cases reported in the United States, by region and by states, in accordance with the...

  1. NNDSS - Table IV. Tuberculosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table IV. Tuberculosis - 2015.This Table includes total number of cases reported in the United States, by region and by states, in accordance with the...

  2. NNDSS - Table II. Vibriosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Vibriosis - 2018. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding year), and selected...

  3. Tabled Execution in Scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willcock, J J; Lumsdaine, A; Quinlan, D J

    2008-08-19

    Tabled execution is a generalization of memorization developed by the logic programming community. It not only saves results from tabled predicates, but also stores the set of currently active calls to them; tabled execution can thus provide meaningful semantics for programs that seemingly contain infinite recursions with the same arguments. In logic programming, tabled execution is used for many purposes, both for improving the efficiency of programs, and making tasks simpler and more direct to express than with normal logic programs. However, tabled execution is only infrequently applied in mainstream functional languages such as Scheme. We demonstrate an elegant implementation of tabled execution in Scheme, using a mix of continuation-passing style and mutable data. We also show the use of tabled execution in Scheme for a problem in formal language and automata theory, demonstrating that tabled execution can be a valuable tool for Scheme users.

  4. Lessons from Distributing Eclipse Glasses: Planning Ahead for April 2024

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Jennifer Lynn; Wilson, Teresa; Chizek Frouard, Malynda R.; Phlips, Alan

    2018-01-01

    In preparation for the 2017 August 21 total solar eclipse across the continental United States, a multifaceted effort encouraged safe public observation of this spectacular event. However, we experienced mixed results distributing free ISO 12312-2 compliant eclipse glasses.On the positive side, we successfully dispensed several hundred in Virginia through in-school programs about the eclipse. We created a 2017-eclipse information sheet to accompany a safe-viewing handout. To facilitate sending glasses home in student backpacks, we wrapped each pair in a double-sided flyer and sealed the bundle in an individual envelope. We also passed out glasses during evening and weekend activities at a planetarium. Religious, business, and educational groups were all excited to receive them as were co-workers, family, and friends.On the negative side, planetarium staff declined to give eclipse glasses to students without a parent due to safety and liability concerns. Then, a day camp returned 200 pairs less than 72 hours before the event for the same reasons. However, we also received several requests from groups that had waited until too late to be accommodated easily.During the week before the eclipse, demand for eclipse glasses in New York, Michigan, Indiana, Illinois, Wisconsin, Minnesota, South Dakota, Nebraska, and Missouri was less than anticipated. While many people were well prepared, the recalls and reported counterfeiting made others suspicious. Concurrently, vendors were offering their remaining stock for $1–10 each.The experiences of the 2017 total solar eclipse, both good and bad, will not completely fade before preparations for 2024 begin. We look forward enthusiastically to sharing that event with as many people as possible and hope that the overall distribution of eclipse glasses goes more smoothly.We thank the AAS for providing 1,000+ of the eclipse glasses we shared, which were donated to them by Google to promote the Eclipse Megamovie project; Rainbow

  5. Physics Of Eclipsing Binaries. II. Towards the Increased Model Fidelity

    OpenAIRE

    Prša, Andrej; Conroy, Kyle E.; Horvat, Martin; Pablo, Herbert; Kochoska, Angela; Bloemen, Steven; Giammarco, Joseph; Hambleton, Kelly M.; Degroote, Pieter

    2016-01-01

    The precision of photometric and spectroscopic observations has been systematically improved in the last decade, mostly thanks to space-borne photometric missions and ground-based spectrographs dedicated to finding exoplanets. The field of eclipsing binary stars strongly benefited from this development. Eclipsing binaries serve as critical tools for determining fundamental stellar properties (masses, radii, temperatures and luminosities), yet the models are not capable of reproducing observed...

  6. Hot spot manifestation in eclipsing dwarf nova HT Cassiopeiae

    OpenAIRE

    Bakowska, K.; Olech, A.

    2014-01-01

    We report the detection of the hot spot in light curves of the eclipsing dwarf nova HT Cassiopeiae during its superoutburst in 2010 November. Analysis of eight reconstructed light curves of the hot spot eclipses showed directly that the brightness of the hot spot was changing significantly during the superoutburst. Thereby, detected hot spot manifestation in HT Cas is the newest observational evidence for the EMT model for dwarf novae.

  7. Characterisation of COPD heterogeneity in the ECLIPSE cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agusti, Alvar; Calverley, Peter M A; Celli, Bartolome

    2010-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a complex condition with pulmonary and extra-pulmonary manifestations. This study describes the heterogeneity of COPD in a large and well characterised and controlled COPD cohort (ECLIPSE).......Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a complex condition with pulmonary and extra-pulmonary manifestations. This study describes the heterogeneity of COPD in a large and well characterised and controlled COPD cohort (ECLIPSE)....

  8. AcuTable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dibbern, Simon; Rasmussen, Kasper Vestergaard; Ortiz-Arroyo, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we describe AcuTable, a new tangible user interface. AcuTable is a shapeable surface that employs capacitive touch sensors. The goal of AcuTable was to enable the exploration of the capabilities of such haptic interface and its applications. We describe its design and implementation...

  9. Table Tennis Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Table Tennis Club

    2013-01-01

    Apparently table tennis plays an important role in physics, not so much because physicists are interested in the theory of table tennis ball scattering, but probably because it provides useful breaks from their deep intellectual occupation. It seems that many of the greatest physicists took table tennis very seriously. For instance, Heisenberg could not even bear to lose a game of table tennis, Otto Frisch played a lot of table tennis, and had a table set up in his library, and Niels Bohr apparently beat everybody at table tennis. Therefore, as the CERN Table Tennis Club advertises on a poster for the next CERN Table Tennis Tournament: “if you want to be a great physicist, perhaps you should play table tennis”. Outdoor table at restaurant n° 1 For this reason, and also as part of the campaign launched by the CERN medical service “Move! & Eat better”, to encourage everyone at CERN to take regular exercise, the CERN Table Tennis Club, with the supp...

  10. Periodic Table of Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mike

    1998-01-01

    Presents an exercise in which an eighth-grade science teacher decorated the classroom with a periodic table of students. Student photographs were arranged according to similarities into vertical columns. Students were each assigned an atomic number according to their placement in the table. The table is then used to teach students about…

  11. Fourier analysis of the light curves of eclipsing variables. XV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demircan, O.

    1978-01-01

    A new general expression for the theoretical moments Asub(2m) of the light curves of eclipsing systems has been presented in the form of infinite series expansion. In this expansion, the terms have been given as the product of two different polynomials which satisfy certain three-term recursion formulae, and the coefficients diminish rapidly with increasing number of terms. Thus, the numerical values of the theoretical moments Asub(2m) can be generated recursively up to four significant figures for any given set of eclipse elements. This can be utilized to solve the eclipse elements in two ways: (i) with an indirect method, (ii) with a direct method as minimization to the observational moments Asub(2m) (area fitting). The procedures for obtaining the elements of any eclipsing system consisting of spherical stars have been automated by making use of the new expression for the moments Asub(2m) of the light curves. The theoretical functions f 0 , f 2 , f 4 , f 6 , g 2 and g 4 which are the functions of a and c 0 , have been used to solve the eclipse elements from the observed photometric data. The closed-form expressions for the functions f 2 , f 4 and f 6 have also been derived in terms of Kopal's I-integrals. The automated methods for obtaining the eclipse elements from one minimum alone have been tested on the light curves of YZ (21) Cassiopeiae under the spherical model assumptions. The results of these applications are given. (Auth.)

  12. Pancam Peek into 'Victoria Crater' (Stereo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left-eye view of a stereo pair for PIA08776 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right-eye view of a stereo pair for PIA08776 A drive of about 60 meters (about 200 feet) on the 943rd Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's exploration of Mars' Meridiani Planum region (Sept. 18, 2006) brought the NASA rover to within about 50 meters (about 160 feet) of the rim of 'Victoria Crater.' This crater has been the mission's long-term destination for the past 21 Earth months. Opportunity reached a location from which the cameras on top of the rover's mast could begin to see into the interior of Victoria. This stereo anaglyph was made from frames taken on sol 943 by the panoramic camera (Pancam) to offer a three-dimensional view when seen through red-blue glasses. It shows the upper portion of interior crater walls facing toward Opportunity from up to about 850 meters (half a mile) away. The amount of vertical relief visible at the top of the interior walls from this angle is about 15 meters (about 50 feet). The exposures were taken through a Pancam filter selecting wavelengths centered on 750 nanometers. Victoria Crater is about five times wider than 'Endurance Crater,' which Opportunity spent six months examining in 2004, and about 40 times wider than 'Eagle Crater,' where Opportunity first landed. The great lure of Victoria is the expectation that a thick stack of geological layers will be exposed in the crater walls, potentially several times the thickness that was previously studied at Endurance and therefore, potentially preserving several times the historical record.

  13. A Tale of Two Craters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] In western Acidalia, two craters of similar size (a few km's) dramatically display the effects of geologic activity. The younger one on the left has been left relatively well preserved, retaining a sharp rim crest, a classic bowl shape, and a clearly defined ejecta blanket. The older one on the right likely has experienced a flood of lava that covered over the ejecta and filled in the bowl (note the breach in the rim). Its rim crest has been worn down by a multitude of subsequent impacts.Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 35.9, Longitude 311.1 East (48.9 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

  14. The Global Contribution of Secondary Craters on the Icy Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogenboom, T.; Johnson, K. E.; Schenk, P.

    2014-12-01

    At present, surface ages of bodies in the Outer Solar System are determined only from crater size-frequency distributions (a method dependent on an understanding of the projectile populations responsible for impact craters in these planetary systems). To derive accurate ages using impact craters, the impactor population must be understood. Impact craters in the Outer Solar System can be primary, secondary or sesquinary. The contribution of secondary craters to the overall population has recently become a "topic of interest." Our objective is to better understand the contribution of dispersed secondary craters to the small crater populations, and ultimately that of small comets to the projectile flux on icy satellites in general. We measure the diameters of obvious secondary craters (determined by e.g. irregular crater shape, small size, clustering) formed by all primary craters on Ganymede for which we have sufficiently high resolution data to map secondary craters. Primary craters mapped range from approximately 40 km to 210 km. Image resolution ranges from 45 to 440 m/pixel. Bright terrain on Ganymede is our primary focus. These resurfaced terrains have relatively low crater densities and serve as a basis for characterizing secondary populations as a function of primary size on an icy body for the first time. Although focusing on Ganymede, we also investigate secondary crater size, frequency, distribution, and formation, as well as secondary crater chain formation on icy satellites throughout the Saturnian and Jovian systems principally Rhea. We compare our results to similar studies of secondary cratering on the Moon and Mercury. Using Galileo and Voyager data, we have identified approximately 3,400 secondary craters on Ganymede. In some cases, we measured crater density as a function of distance from a primary crater. Because of the limitations of the Galileo data, it is necessary to extrapolate from small data sets to the global population of secondary craters

  15. Cratering Equations for Zinc Orthotitanate Coated Aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, James; Christiansen, Eric; Liou, Jer-Chyi; Ryan, Shannon

    2009-01-01

    The final STS-125 servicing mission (SM4) to the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) in May of 2009 saw the return of the 2nd Wide Field Planetary Camera (WFPC2) aboard the shuttle Discovery. This hardware had been in service on HST since it was installed during the SM1 mission in December of 1993 yielding one of the longest low Earth orbit exposure times (15.4 years) of any returned space hardware. The WFPC2 is equipped with a 0.8 x 2.2 m radiator for thermal control of the camera electronics (Figure 1). The space facing surface of the 4.1 mm thick aluminum radiator is coated with Z93 zinc orthotitanate thermal control paint with a nominal thickness of 0.1 0.2 mm. Post flight inspections of the radiator panel revealed hundreds of micrometeoroid/orbital debris (MMOD) impact craters ranging in size from less than 300 to nearly 1000 microns in diameter. The Z93 paint exhibited large spall areas around the larger impact sites (Figure 2) and the craters observed in the 6061-T651 aluminum had a different shape than those observed in uncoated aluminum. Typical hypervelocity impact craters in aluminum have raised lips around the impact site. The craters in the HST radiator panel had suppressed crater lips, and in some cases multiple craters were present instead of a single individual crater. Humes and Kinard observed similar behavior after the WFPC1 post flight inspection and assumed the Z93 coating was acting like a bumper in a Whipple shield. Similar paint behavior (spall) was also observed by Bland2 during post flight inspection of the International Space Station (ISS) S-Band Antenna Structural Assembly (SASA) in 2008. The SASA, with similar Z93 coated aluminum, was inspected after nearly 4 years of exposure on the ISS. The multi-crater phenomena could be a function of the density, composition, or impact obliquity angle of the impacting particle. For instance, a micrometeoroid particle consisting of loosely bound grains of material could be responsible for creating the

  16. Mortality table construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutawanir

    2015-12-01

    Mortality tables play important role in actuarial studies such as life annuities, premium determination, premium reserve, valuation pension plan, pension funding. Some known mortality tables are CSO mortality table, Indonesian Mortality Table, Bowers mortality table, Japan Mortality table. For actuary applications some tables are constructed with different environment such as single decrement, double decrement, and multiple decrement. There exist two approaches in mortality table construction : mathematics approach and statistical approach. Distribution model and estimation theory are the statistical concepts that are used in mortality table construction. This article aims to discuss the statistical approach in mortality table construction. The distributional assumptions are uniform death distribution (UDD) and constant force (exponential). Moment estimation and maximum likelihood are used to estimate the mortality parameter. Moment estimation methods are easier to manipulate compared to maximum likelihood estimation (mle). However, the complete mortality data are not used in moment estimation method. Maximum likelihood exploited all available information in mortality estimation. Some mle equations are complicated and solved using numerical methods. The article focus on single decrement estimation using moment and maximum likelihood estimation. Some extension to double decrement will introduced. Simple dataset will be used to illustrated the mortality estimation, and mortality table.

  17. CERN Table Tennis Club

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Table Tennis Club

    2014-01-01

    CERN Table Tennis Club Announcing CERN 60th Anniversary Table Tennis Tournament to take place at CERN, from July 1 to July 15, 2014   The CERN Table Tennis Club, reborn in 2008, is encouraging people at CERN to take more regular exercise. This is why the Club, thanks to the strong support of the CERN Staff Association, installed last season a first outdoor table on the terrace of restaurant # 1, and will install another one this season on the terrace of Restaurant # 2. Table tennis provides both physical exercise and friendly social interactions. The CERN Table Tennis club is happy to use the unique opportunity of the 60th CERN anniversary to promote table tennis at CERN, as it is a game that everybody can easily play, regardless of level. Table tennis is particularly well suited for CERN, as many great physicists play table tennis, as you might already know: “Heisenberg could not even bear to lose a game of table tennis”; “Otto Frisch played a lot of table tennis;...

  18. Optimizing laser crater enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lednev, V. N.; Sdvizhenskii, P. A.; Grishin, M. Ya.; Fedorov, A. N.; Khokhlova, O. V.; Oshurko, V. B.; Pershin, S. M.

    2018-05-01

    The laser crater enhanced Raman scattering (LCERS) spectroscopy technique has been systematically studied for chosen sampling strategy and influence of powder material properties on spectra intensity enhancement. The same nanosecond pulsed solid state Nd:YAG laser (532 nm, 10 ns, 0.1-1.5 mJ/pulse) was used for laser crater production and Raman scattering experiments for L-aspartic acid powder. Increased sampling area inside crater cavity is the key factor for Raman signal improvement for the LCERS technique, thus Raman signal enhancement was studied as a function of numerous experimental parameters including lens-to-sample distance, wavelength (532 and 1064 nm) and laser pulse energy utilized for crater production. Combining laser pulses of 1064 and 532 nm wavelengths for crater ablation was shown to be an effective way for additional LCERS signal improvement. Powder material properties (particle size distribution, powder compactness) were demonstrated to affect LCERS measurements with better results achieved for smaller particles and lower compactness.

  19. A Coral Sea Rehearsal for the Eclipse Megamovie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, H. S.; Davey, A. R.; Ireland, J.; Jones, L.; Mcintosh, S. W.; Paglierani, R.; Pasachoff, J. M.; Peticolas, L. M.; Russell, R. M.; Suarez Sola, F. I.; Sutherland, L.; Thompson, M. J.

    2012-12-01

    The "Eclipse on the Coral Sea" - 13/14 November 2012 (GMT/Australia) - will have happened already. Our intention is to have used this opportunity as a trial run for the eclipse in 2017, which features 1.5 hours of totality across the whole width of the continental US. Conceived first and foremost as an education and public outreach activity, the plan is to engage the public in solar science and technology by providing a way for them to include images they have taken of the solar eclipse, into a movie representation of coronal evolution in time. This project will assimilate as much eclipse photography as possible from the public. The resulting movie(s) will cover all ranges of expertise, and at the basic smartphone or hand-held digital camera level, we expect to have obtained a huge number of images in the case of good weather conditions. The capability of modern digital technology to handle such a data flow is new. The basic purpose of this and the 2017 Megamovie observations is to explore this capability and its ability to engage people from many different communities in the solar science, astronomy, mathematics, and technology. The movie in 2017, especially, may also have important science impact because of the uniqueness of the corona as seen under eclipse conditions. In this presentation we will describe our smartphone application development (see the "Transit of Venus" app for a role model here). We will also summarize data acquisition via both the app and more traditional web interfaces. Although for the Coral Sea eclipse event we don't expect to have a movie product by the time of the AGU, for the 2017 event we do intend to assemble the heterogenous data into beautiful movies within a short space of time after the eclipse. These movies may have relatively low resolution but would extend to the base of the corona. We encourage participation in the 2012 observations, noting that no total eclipse, prior to 2017, will occur in a region with good infrastructure

  20. Eclipse - tow flight closeup and release

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This clip, running 15 seconds in length, shows the QF-106 'Delta Dart' gear down, with the tow rope secured to the attachment point above the aircraft nose. First there is a view looking back from the C-141A, then looking forward from the nose of the QF-106, and finally a shot of the aircraft being released from the tow rope. NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, supported a Kelly Space and Technology, Inc. (KST)/U.S. Air Force project known as Eclipse, which demonstrated a reusable tow launch vehicle concept. The purpose of the project was to demonstrate a reusable tow launch vehicle concept that had been conceived and patented by KST. Kelly Space obtained a contract with the USAF Research Laboratory for the tow launch demonstration project under the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. The USAF SBIR contract included the modifications to turn the QF-106 into the Experimental Demonstrator #1 (EXD-01), and the C141A aircraft to incorporate the tow provisions to link the two aircraft, as well as conducting flight tests. The demonstration consisted of ground and flight tests. These tests included a Combined Systems Test of both airplanes joined by a tow rope, a towed taxi test, and six towed flights. The primary goal of the project was demonstrating the tow phase of the Eclipse concept using a scaled-down tow aircraft (C-141A) and a representative aerodynamically-shaped aircraft (QF-106A) as a launch vehicle. This was successfully accomplished. On December 20, 1997, NASA research pilot Mark Stucky flew a QF-106 on the first towed flight behind an Air Force C-141 in the joint Eclipse project with KST to demonstrate a reusable tow launch vehicle concept developed by KST. Kelly Space and Technology hoped to use the data from the tow tests to validate a tow-to-launch procedure for reusable space launch vehicles. Stucky flew six successful tow tests between December 1997 and February 6, 1998. On February 6, 1998, the sixth and final towed

  1. Earth's transmission spectrum from lunar eclipse observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallé, Enric; Osorio, María Rosa Zapatero; Barrena, Rafael; Montañés-Rodríguez, Pilar; Martín, Eduardo L

    2009-06-11

    Of the 342 planets so far discovered orbiting other stars, 58 'transit' the stellar disk, meaning that they can be detected through a periodic decrease in the flux of starlight. The light from the star passes through the atmosphere of the planet, and in a few cases the basic atmospheric composition of the planet can be estimated. As we get closer to finding analogues of Earth, an important consideration for the characterization of extrasolar planetary atmospheres is what the transmission spectrum of our planet looks like. Here we report the optical and near-infrared transmission spectrum of the Earth, obtained during a lunar eclipse. Some biologically relevant atmospheric features that are weak in the reflection spectrum (such as ozone, molecular oxygen, water, carbon dioxide and methane) are much stronger in the transmission spectrum, and indeed stronger than predicted by modelling. We also find the 'fingerprints' of the Earth's ionosphere and of the major atmospheric constituent, molecular nitrogen (N(2)), which are missing in the reflection spectrum.

  2. MARVELS Radial Velocity Solutions to Seven Kepler Eclipsing Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heslar, Michael Francis; Thomas, Neil B.; Ge, Jian; Ma, Bo; Herczeg, Alec; Reyes, Alan; SDSS-III MARVELS Team

    2016-01-01

    Eclipsing binaries serve momentous purposes to improve the basis of understanding aspects of stellar astrophysics, such as the accurate calculation of the physical parameters of stars and the enigmatic mass-radius relationship of M and K dwarfs. We report the investigation results of 7 eclipsing binary candidates, initially identified by the Kepler mission, overlapped with the radial velocity observations from the SDSS-III Multi-Object APO Radial-Velocity Exoplanet Large-Area Survey (MARVELS). The RV extractions and spectroscopic solutions of these eclipsing binaries were generated by the University of Florida's 1D data pipeline with a median RV precision of ~60-100 m/s, which was utilized for the DR12 data release. We performed the cross-reference fitting of the MARVELS RV data and the Kepler photometric fluxes obtained from the Kepler Eclipsing Binary Catalog (V2) and modelled the 7 eclipsing binaries in the BinaryMaker3 and PHOEBE programs. This analysis accurately determined the absolute physical and orbital parameters of each binary. Most of the companion stars were determined to have masses of K and M dwarf stars (0.3-0.8 M⊙), and allowed for an investigation into the mass-radius relationship of M and K dwarfs. Among the cases are KIC 9163796, a 122.2 day period "heartbeat star", a recently-discovered class of eccentric binaries known for tidal distortions and pulsations, with a high eccentricity (e~0.75) and KIC 11244501, a 0.29 day period, contact binary with a double-lined spectrum and mass ratio (q~0.45). We also report on the possible reclassification of 2 Kepler eclipsing binary candidates as background eclipsing binaries based on the analysis of the flux measurements, flux ratios of the spectroscopic and photometric solutions, the differences in the FOVs, the image processing of Kepler, and RV and spectral analysis of MARVELS.

  3. Two-dimensional computer simulation of hypervelocity impact cratering: some preliminary results for Meteor Crater, Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryan, J.B.; Burton, D.E.; Cunningham, M.E.; Lettis, L.A. Jr.

    1978-04-01

    A computational approach used for subsurface explosion cratering has been extended to hypervelocity impact cratering. Meteor (Barringer) Crater, Arizona, was selected for our first computer simulation because it was the most thoroughly studied. It is also an excellent example of a simple, bowl-shaped crater and is one of the youngest terrestrial impact craters. Shoemaker estimates that the impact occurred about 20,000 to 30,000 years ago [Roddy (1977)]. Initial conditions for this calculation included a meteorite impact velocity of 15 km/s. meteorite mass of 1.57E + 08 kg, with a corresponding kinetic energy of 1.88E + 16 J (4.5 megatons). A two-dimensional Eulerian finite difference code called SOIL was used for this simulation of a cylindrical iron projectile impacting at normal incidence into a limestone target. For this initial calculation a Tillotson equation-of-state description for iron and limestone was used with no shear strength. A color movie based on this calculation was produced using computer-generated graphics. Results obtained for this preliminary calculation of the formation of Meteor Crater, Arizona, are in good agreement with Meteor Crater Measurements

  4. Experimental investigation of crater growth dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, R. M.; Housen, K. R.; Bjorkman, M. D.; Holsapple, K. A.

    1985-01-01

    This work is a continuation of an ongoing program whose objective is to perform experiments and to develop scaling relationships for large-body impacts onto planetary surfaces. The centrifuge technique is used to provide experimental data for actual target materials of interest. With both power and gas guns mounted on the rotor arm, it is possible to match various dimensionless similarity parameters, which have been shown to govern the behavior of large-scale impacts. The development of the centrifuge technique has been poineered by the present investigators and is documented by numerous publications, the most recent of which are listed below. Understanding the dependence of crater size upon gravity has been shown to be key to the complete determination of the dynamic and kinematic behavior of crater formation as well as ejecta phenomena. Three unique time regimes in the formation of an impact crater have been identified.

  5. Crater monitoring through social media observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gialampoukidis, I.; Vrochidis, S.; Kompatsiaris, I.

    2017-09-01

    We have collected more than one lunar image per two days from social media observations. Each one of the collected images has been clustered into two main groups of lunar images and an additional cluster is provided (noise) with pictures that have not been assigned to any cluster. The proposed lunar image clustering process provides two classes of lunar pictures, at different zoom levels; the first showing a clear view of craters grouped into one cluster and the second demonstrating a complete view of the Moon at various phases that are correlated with the crawling date. The clustering stage is unsupervised, so new topics can be detected on-the-fly. We have provided additional sources of planetary images using crowdsourcing information, which is associated with metadata such as time, text, location, links to other users and other related posts. This content has crater information that can be fused with other planetary data to enhance crater monitoring.

  6. Physics of soft impact and cratering

    CERN Document Server

    Katsuragi, Hiroaki

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on the impact dynamics and cratering of soft matter to describe its importance, difficulty, and wide applicability to planetary-related problems. A comprehensive introduction to the dimensional analysis and constitutive laws that are necessary to discuss impact mechanics and cratering is first provided. Then, particular coverage is given to the impact of granular matter, which is one of the most crucial constituents for geophysics. While granular matter shows both solid-like and fluid-like behaviors, neither solid nor fluid dynamics is sufficient to fully understand the physics of granular matter. In order to reveal its fundamental properties, extensive impact tests have been carried out recently. The author reveals the findings of these recent studies as well as what remains unsolved in terms of impact dynamics. Impact crater morphology with various soft matter impacts also is discussed intensively. Various experimental and observational results up to the recent Itokawa asteroid’s terrain...

  7. A concept of row crater enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redpath, B.B.

    1970-01-01

    Linear craters formed by the simultaneous detonation of a row of buried explosives will probably have a wider application than single charges in the explosive excavation of engineering structures. Most cratering experience to date has been with single charges, and an analytical procedure for the design of a row of charges to excavate a crater with a specified configuration has been lacking. There are no digital computer codes having direct application to a row of charges as there are for single charges. This paper derives a simple relationship which can be used to design row charges with some assurance of achieving the desired result and with considerable flexibility in the choice of explosive yield of the individual charges

  8. Goat paddock cryptoexplosion crater, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harms, J.E.; Milton, D.J.; Ferguson, J.; Gilbert, D.J.; Harris, W.K.; Goleby, B.

    1980-01-01

    Goat Paddock, a crater slightly over 5 km in diameter (18??20??? S, 126??40???E), lies at the north edge of the King Leopold Range/Mueller Range junction in the Kimberley district, Western Australia (Fig. 1). It was noted as a geological anomaly in 1964 during regional mapping by the Bureau of Mineral Resources, Geology and Geophysics and the Geological Survey of Western Australia. The possibility of its being a meteorite impact crater has been discussed1, although this suggestion was subsequently ignored2. Two holes were drilled by a mining corporation in 1972 to test whether kimberlite underlay the structure. Here we report the findings of five days of reconnaissance in August 1979 which established that Goat Paddock is a cryptoexplosion crater containing shocked rocks and an unusually well exposed set of structural features. ?? 1980 Nature Publishing Group.

  9. TABLE TENNIS CLUB

    CERN Document Server

    TABLE TENNIS CLUB

    2010-01-01

    2010 CERN Table Tennis Tournament The CERN Table Tennis Club organizes its traditional CERN Table Tennis Tournament, at the Meyrin club, 2 rue de livron, in Meyrin, Saturday August 21st, in the afternoon. The tournament is open to all CERN staff, users, visitors and families, including of course summer students. See below for details. In order to register, simply send an E-mail to Jean-Pierre Revol (jean-pierre.revol@cern.ch). You can also download the registration form from the Club Web page (http://www.cern.ch/tabletennis), and send it via internal mail. Photo taken on August 22, 2009 showing some of the participants in the 2nd CERN Table Tennis tournament. INFORMATION ON CERN TABLE TENNIS CLUB CERN used to have a tradition of table tennis activities at CERN. For some reason, at the beginning of the 1980’s, the CERN Table Tennis club merged with the Meyrin Table Tennis club, a member of the Association Genevoise de Tennis de Table (AGTT). Therefore, if you want to practice table tennis, you...

  10. Lomonosov Crater, Day and Night

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Released 16 June 2004 This pair of images shows part of Lomonosov Crater. Day/Night Infrared Pairs The image pairs presented focus on a single surface feature as seen in both the daytime and nighttime by the infrared THEMIS camera. The nighttime image (right) has been rotated 180 degrees to place north at the top. Infrared image interpretation Daytime: Infrared images taken during the daytime exhibit both the morphological and thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. Morphologic details are visible due to the effect of sun-facing slopes receiving more energy than antisun-facing slopes. This creates a warm (bright) slope and cool (dark) slope appearance that mimics the light and shadows of a visible wavelength image. Thermophysical properties are seen in that dust heats up more quickly than rocks. Thus dusty areas are bright and rocky areas are dark. Nighttime: Infrared images taken during the nighttime exhibit only the thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. The effect of sun-facing versus non-sun-facing energy dissipates quickly at night. Thermophysical effects dominate as different surfaces cool at different rates through the nighttime hours. Rocks cool slowly, and are therefore relatively bright at night (remember that rocks are dark during the day). Dust and other fine grained materials cool very quickly and are dark in nighttime infrared images. Image information: IR instrument. Latitude 64.9, Longitude 350.7 East (9.3 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project

  11. Optimizing laser crater enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lednev, V N; Sdvizhenskii, P A; Grishin, M Ya; Filichkina, V A; Shchegolikhin, A N; Pershin, S M

    2018-03-20

    Raman signal enhancement by laser crater production was systematically studied for 785 nm continuous wave laser pumping. Laser craters were produced in L-aspartic acid powder by a nanosecond pulsed solid state neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser (532 nm, 8 ns, 1 mJ/pulse), while Raman spectra were then acquired by using a commercial spectrometer with 785 nm laser beam pumping. The Raman signal enhancement effect was studied in terms of the number of ablating pulses used, the lens-to-sample distance, and the crater-center-laser-spot offset. The influence of the experiment parameters on Raman signal enhancement was studied for different powder materials. Maximum Raman signal enhancement reached 11 fold for loose powders but decreased twice for pressed tablets. Raman signal enhancement was demonstrated for several diverse powder materials like gypsum or ammonium nitrate with better results achieved for the samples tending to give narrow and deep craters upon the laser ablation stage. Alternative ways of cavity production (steel needle tapping and hole drilling) were compared with the laser cratering technique in terms of Raman signal enhancement. Drilling was found to give the poorest enhancement of the Raman signal, while both laser ablation and steel needle tapping provided comparable results. Here, we have demonstrated for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, that a Raman signal can be enhanced 10 fold with the aid of simple cavity production by steel needle tapping in rough highly reflective materials. Though laser crater enhancement Raman spectroscopy requires an additional pulsed laser, this technique is more appropriate for automatization compared to the needle tapping approach.

  12. Laboratory and Field Investigations of Small Crater Repair Technologies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Priddy, Lucy P; Tingle, Jeb S; McCaffrey, Timothy J; Rollings, Ray S

    2007-01-01

    .... This airfield damage repair (ADR) investigation consisted of laboratory testing of selected crater fill and capping materials, as well as full-scale field testing of small crater repairs to evaluate field mixing methods, installation...

  13. Petrologic and geochemical characterization of the Bullfrog Member of the Crater Flat Tuff: outcrop samples used in waste package experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knauss, K.G.

    1983-09-01

    In support of the Waste Package Task within the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigation (NNWSI), experiments on hydrothermal rock/water interaction, corrosion, thermomechanics, and geochemical modeling calculations are being conducted. All of these activities require characterization of the initial bulk composition, mineralogy, and individual phase geochemistry of the potential repository host rock. This report summarizes the characterization done on samples of the Bullfrog Member of the Crater Flat Tuff (Tcfb) used for Waste Package experimental programs. 11 references, 17 figures, 3 tables

  14. The Great American Eclipse Glasses Debacle of 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tresch Fienberg, Richard; AAS Solar Eclipse Task Force

    2018-01-01

    In 2014, looking ahead to the “Great American” solar eclipse of 21 August 2017, the American Astronomical Society established the AAS Solar Eclipse Task Force to help prepare the public for a safe and enjoyable experience. We worked with NASA and several associations of eye-care professionals to come up a safety message that we could all stand behind. The gist of it was that it is perfectly safe to view totality without protection, but when any part of the Sun’s bright face is exposed, you must view through eclipse glasses or handheld viewers that meet the ISO 12312-2 international safety standard for filters for direct viewing of the Sun. We compiled a list of manufacturers whose products we knew to meet the standard (because we examined their test data) and posted it on our website. These manufacturers were all based in the US or Europe. A few weeks before the eclipse, reports surfaced of viewers purchased on Amazon.com labeled “Made in China” or that were obvious knock-offs of US manufacturers’ products. Amazon responded by suspending virtually all sales of eclipse viewers and recalling many of units already sold and shipped. Millions of people who’d bought eclipse glasses online, whether from legitimate sources or from bad actors, were unsure whether they could trust their purchases. We had to change our safety messaging: it was no longer sufficient to tell people to look for the ISO 12312-2 label, because that was being printed on Chinese-made glasses that hadn’t actually been shown to meet the standard. Instead, the only way to know that you had safe viewers was to know that you got them from a legitimate source — which meant we had to expand the list on our website to include every legitimate seller we could identify. Doing so required a monumental effort under intense time pressure. Thankfully there were few reports of eye injuries following the eclipse, but apparently many people who otherwise would have viewed the eclipse chose to skip

  15. Impact of the 2017 Solar Eclipse on Smart Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reda, I.; Andreas, A.; Sengupta, M.; Habte, A.

    2017-12-01

    With the increasing interest in using solar energy as a major contributor to renewable energy utilization, and with the focus on using smart grids to optimize the use of electrical energy based on demand and resources from different locations, arises the need to know the Moon position in the sky with respect to the Sun. When a solar eclipse occurs, the Moon disk might totally or partially shade the Sun disk, which can affect the irradiance level from the sun disk, consequently, a resource on the grid is affected. The Moon position can then provide the smart grid users with information about potential total or partial solar eclipse at different locations in the grid, so that other resources on the grid can be directed where this might be needed when such phenomena occurs. At least five solar eclipses occur yearly at different locations on earth, they can last three hours or more depending on the location, which can have devastating effects on the smart grid users. On August 21, 2017 a partial solar eclipse will occur at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Golden, Colorado, USA. The solar irradiance will be measured during the eclipse and compared to the data generated by a model for validation.

  16. Your guide to the 2017 total solar eclipse

    CERN Document Server

    Bakich, Michael E

    2016-01-01

    In this book Astronomy Magazine editor Michael Bakich presents all the information you’ll need to be ready for the total solar eclipse that will cross the United States on August 21, 2017. In this one resource you’ll find out where the eclipse will occur, how to observe it safely, what you’ll experience during the eclipse, the best equipment to choose, how to photograph the event, detailed weather forecasts for locations where the Moon’s shadow will fall, and much more. Written in easy-to-understand language (and with a glossary for those few terms you may not be familiar with), this is the must-have reference for this unique occurrence. It’s not a stretch to say that this eclipse will prove to be the most viewed sky event in history. That’s why even now, more than a year before the eclipse, astronomy clubs, government agencies, cities — even whole states — are preparing for the unprecedented onslaught of visitors whose only desire is to experience darkness at midday. Bakich informs observers ...

  17. A DEEPLY ECLIPSING DETACHED DOUBLE HELIUM WHITE DWARF BINARY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsons, S. G.; Marsh, T. R.; Gaensicke, B. T.; Drake, A. J.; Koester, D.

    2011-01-01

    Using Liverpool Telescope+RISE photometry we identify the 2.78 hr period binary star CSS 41177 as a detached eclipsing double white dwarf binary with a 21,100 K primary star and a 10,500 K secondary star. This makes CSS 41177 only the second known eclipsing double white dwarf binary after NLTT 11748. The 2 minute long primary eclipse is 40% deep and the secondary eclipse 10% deep. From Gemini+GMOS spectroscopy, we measure the radial velocities of both components of the binary from the Hα absorption line cores. These measurements, combined with the light curve information, yield white dwarf masses of M 1 = 0.283 ± 0.064 M sun and M 2 = 0.274 ± 0.034 M sun , making them both helium core white dwarfs. As an eclipsing, double-lined spectroscopic binary, CSS 41177 is ideally suited to measuring precise, model-independent masses and radii. The two white dwarfs will merge in roughly 1.1 Gyr to form a single sdB star.

  18. Impact of the 2017 Solar Eclipse on the Smart Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habte, Aron M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Reda, Ibrahim M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Andreas, Afshin M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sengupta, Manajit [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-12-12

    With the increasing interest in using solar energy as a major contributor to the use of renewable generation, and with the focus on using smart grids to optimize the use of electrical energy based on demand and resources from different locations, the need arises to know the moons position in the sky with respect to the sun. When a solar eclipse occurs, the moon disk might totally or partially shade the sun disk, which can affect the irradiance level from the sun disk, consequently affecting a resource on the electric grid. The moons position can then provide smart grid users with information about how potential total or partial solar eclipses might affect different locations on the grid so that other resources on the grid can be directed to where they might be needed when such phenomena occurs. At least five solar eclipses occur yearly at different locations on Earth, they can last 3 hours or more depending on the location, and they can affect smart grid users. On August 21, 2017, a partial and full solar eclipse occurred in many locations in the United States, including at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Golden, Colorado. Solar irradiance measurements during the eclipse were compared to the data generated by a model for validation at eight locations.

  19. Crater ejecta scaling laws: fundamental forms based on dimensional analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Housen, K.R.; Schmidt, R.M.; Holsapple, K.A.

    1983-01-01

    A model of crater ejecta is constructed using dimensional analysis and a recently developed theory of energy and momentum coupling in cratering events. General relations are derived that provide a rationale for scaling laboratory measurements of ejecta to larger events. Specific expressions are presented for ejection velocities and ejecta blanket profiles in two limiting regimes of crater formation: the so-called gravity and strength regimes. In the gravity regime, ejectra velocities at geometrically similar launch points within craters vary as the square root of the product of crater radius and gravity. This relation implies geometric similarity of ejecta blankets. That is, the thickness of an ejecta blanket as a function of distance from the crater center is the same for all sizes of craters if the thickness and range are expressed in terms of crater radii. In the strength regime, ejecta velocities are independent of crater size. Consequently, ejecta blankets are not geometrically similar in this regime. For points away from the crater rim the expressions for ejecta velocities and thickness take the form of power laws. The exponents in these power laws are functions of an exponent, α, that appears in crater radius scaling relations. Thus experimental studies of the dependence of crater radius on impact conditions determine scaling relations for ejecta. Predicted ejection velocities and ejecta-blanket profiles, based on measured values of α, are compared to existing measurements of velocities and debris profiles

  20. Coesite from Wabar crater, near Al Hadida, Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, E.C.T.; Fahey, J.J.; Littler, J.

    1961-01-01

    The third natural occurrence of coesite, the high pressure polymorph of silica, is found at the Wabar meteorite crater, Arabia. The Wabar crater is about 300 feet in diameter and about 40 feet deep. It is the smallest of three craters where coesite has been found.

  1. 3D structure of the Gusev Crater region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kan - Parker, M.; Zegers, T.E.; kneissl, T.; Ivanov, B.; Neukum, G.; Foing, B.

    2010-01-01

    Gusev Crater lies within the Aeolis Quadrangle of Mars at the boundary between the northern lowlands and southern highlands. The ancient valley Ma'adim Vallis dissects the highlands south of Gusev Crater and is thought to have fed the crater with sediments.High Resolution Stereo Camera data and

  2. Cratering on Small Bodies: Lessons from Eros

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, C. R.

    2003-01-01

    Cratering and regolith processes on small bodies happen continuously as interplanetary debris rains down on asteroids, comets, and planetary satellites. Butthey are very poorly observed and not well understood. On the one hand, we have laboratory experimentation at small scales and we have examination of large impact craters (e.g. Meteor Crater on Earth and imaging of abundant craters on terrestrial planets and outer planet moons). Understanding cratering on bodies of intermediate scales, tens of meters to hundreds of km in size, involves either extrapolation from our understanding of cratering phenomena at very different scales or reliance on very preliminary, incomplete examination of the observational data we now have for a few small bodies. I review the latter information here. It has been generally understood that the role of gravity is greatly diminished for smaller bodies, so a lot of cratering phenomena studied for larger bodies is less applicable. But it would be a mistake to imagine that laboratory experiments on gravitationless rocks (usually at 1 g) are directly applicable, except perhaps to those monolithic Near Earth Asteroids (NEAs) some tens of meters in size that spin very rapidly and can be assumed to be "large bare rocks" with "negative gravity". Whereas it had once been assumed that asteroids smaller than some tens of km diameter would retain little regolith, it is increasingly apparent that regolith and megoregolith processes extend down to bodies only hundreds of meters in size, perhaps smaller. Yet these processes are very different from those that pertain to the Moon, which is our chief prototype of regolith processes. The NEAR Shoemaker spacecraft's studies of Eros provide the best evidence to date about small-body cratering processes, as well as a warning that our theoretical understanding requires anchoring by direct observations. Eros: "Ponds", Paucity of Small Craters, and Other Mysteries. Although Eros is currently largely detached

  3. Standard Reference Tables -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Standard Reference Tables (SRT) provide consistent reference data for the various applications that support Flight Standards Service (AFS) business processes and...

  4. Corot 310266512: A Light Curve With Primary, Secondary And Tertiary Eclipses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández Fernández Javier

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the photometric study of an interesting target in the CoRoT exoplanet database: CoRoT 310266512. Its light curve shows primary, secondary and tertiary eclipses that suggests the presence of at least three celestial bodies. The primary and secondary eclipses have the same orbital period, 7.42 days, and the tertiary eclipse has an orbital period of 3.27 days. Two of the tertiary eclipses fall within a primary eclipse and a secondary eclipse. The properties of the light curve indicate the presence of two physically separated systems. The primary and secondary eclipses corresponds to a binary system (System I. The tertiary eclipses correspond to a star-planet system or a star-dwarf system (System II. Some parameters of these two systems are obtained from JKTEBOP [1] program.

  5. Accuracy of lunar eclipse observations made by Jesuit astronomers in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatoohi, L. J.; Stephenson, F. R.

    1996-02-01

    The Jesuit astronomers observed numerous lunar eclipses at Beijing and summaries of their observations - made between 1644 and 1785 - are preserved. The various lunar eclipse measurements that the Jesuits made are compared with the results of present-day computation.

  6. Absolute dimensions of solar-type eclipsing binaries III. EW orionis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Jens Viggo; Bruntt, H.; Olsen, E. H.

    2010-01-01

    stars: evolution / stars: fundamental parameters / stars: abundances / binaries: eclipsing / techniques: photometric / techniques: spectroscopic Udgivelsesdato: 23 Feb.......stars: evolution / stars: fundamental parameters / stars: abundances / binaries: eclipsing / techniques: photometric / techniques: spectroscopic Udgivelsesdato: 23 Feb....

  7. Summary of results of cratering experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toman, J [Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1969-07-01

    The use of nuclear excavation as a construction technique for producing harbors, canals, highway cuts, and other large excavations requires a high assurance that the yield and depth of burst selected for the explosive will produce the desired configuration within an acceptable degree of tolerance. Nuclear excavation technology advanced significantly during 1968 as a result of the successful execution of Projects Cabriolet, Buggy, and Schooner. Until these experiments were conducted, the only nuclear data available for designing large excavations were derived from Sedan (100 kt in alluvium), Danny Boy (0.42 kt in basalt), and Sulky (0.090 kt in basalt). Applicable experience has now been extended to include two additional rock types: tuff and porphyritic trachyte, non-homogeneous formations with severe geologic layering, and a nuclear row in hard rock. The continued development of cratering calculations using in situ geophysical measurements and high-pressure test data have provided a means for predicting the cratering characteristics of untested materials. Chemical explosive cratering experiments conducted in the pre-Gondola series during the past several years have been directed toward determining the behavior of weak, wet clay shales. This material is important to nuclear excavation because of potential long-term stability problems which may affect the cratered slopes. (author)

  8. Summary of results of cratering experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toman, J.

    1969-01-01

    The use of nuclear excavation as a construction technique for producing harbors, canals, highway cuts, and other large excavations requires a high assurance that the yield and depth of burst selected for the explosive will produce the desired configuration within an acceptable degree of tolerance. Nuclear excavation technology advanced significantly during 1968 as a result of the successful execution of Projects Cabriolet, Buggy, and Schooner. Until these experiments were conducted, the only nuclear data available for designing large excavations were derived from Sedan (100 kt in alluvium), Danny Boy (0.42 kt in basalt), and Sulky (0.090 kt in basalt). Applicable experience has now been extended to include two additional rock types: tuff and porphyritic trachyte, non-homogeneous formations with severe geologic layering, and a nuclear row in hard rock. The continued development of cratering calculations using in situ geophysical measurements and high-pressure test data have provided a means for predicting the cratering characteristics of untested materials. Chemical explosive cratering experiments conducted in the pre-Gondola series during the past several years have been directed toward determining the behavior of weak, wet clay shales. This material is important to nuclear excavation because of potential long-term stability problems which may affect the cratered slopes. (author)

  9. Fluids, evaporation and precipitates at Gale Crater

    OpenAIRE

    Schwenzer, S. P.; Bridges, J. C.; Leveille, R.; Wiens, R. C.; Mangold, N.; McAdam, A.; Conrad, P.; Kelley, S. P.; Westall, F.; Martín-Torres, F.; Zorzano, M.-P.

    2015-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission landed in Gale Crater, Mars, on 6th August 2012, and has explored the Yellowknife Bay area. The detailed mineralogical and sedimentological studies provide a unique opportunity to characterise the secondary fluids associated with this habitable environment.

  10. Some Studies of Terrestrial Impact Cratering Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jetsu L.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In 1984, a 28.4 Myr periodicity was detected in the ages of terrestrial impact craters and a 26 Myr periodicity in the epochs of mass extinctions of species. Periodic comet showers from the Oort cloud seemed to cause catastrophic events linked to mass extinctions of species. Our first study revealed that the only significant detected periodicity is the “human signal” caused by the rounding of these data into integer numbers. The second study confirmed that the original 28.4 Myr periodicity detection was not significant. The third study revealed that the quality and the quantity of the currently available data would allow detection of real periodicity only if all impacts have been periodic, which cannot be the case. The detection of a periodic signal, if present, requires that more craters should be discovered and the accuracy of age estimates improved. If we sometimes will be able to find the difference between the craters caused by asteroid and comet impacts, the aperiodic component could be removed. The lunar impact craters may eventually provide the required supplementary data.

  11. The Carancas meteorite impact crater, Peru: Geologic surveying and modeling of crater formation and atmospheric passage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenkmann, T.; Artemieva, N. A.; Wünnemann, K.; Poelchau, M. H.; Elbeshausen, D.; Núñez Del Prado, H.

    2009-08-01

    The recent Carancas meteorite impact event caused a worldwide sensation. An H4-5 chondrite struck the Earth south of Lake Titicaca in Peru on September 15, 2007, and formed a crater 14.2 m across. It is the smallest, youngest, and one of two eye-witnessed impact crater events on Earth. The impact violated the hitherto existing view that stony meteorites below a size of 100 m undergo major disruption and deceleration during their passage through the atmosphere and are not capable of producing craters. Fragmentation occurs if the strength of the meteoroid is less than the aerodynamic stresses that occur in flight. The small fragments that result from a breakup rain down at terminal velocity and are not capable of producing impact craters. The Carancas cratering event, however, demonstrates that meter-sized stony meteoroids indeed can survive the atmospheric passage under specific circumstances. We present results of a detailed geologic survey of the crater and its ejecta. To constrain the possible range of impact parameters we carried out numerical models of crater formation with the iSALE hydrocode in two and three dimensions. Depending on the strength properties of the target, the impact energies range between approximately 100-1000 MJ (0.024- 0.24 t TNT). By modeling the atmospheric traverse we demonstrate that low cosmic velocities (12- 14 kms-1) and shallow entry angles (<20°) are prerequisites to keep aerodynamic stresses low (<10 MPa) and thus to prevent fragmentation of stony meteoroids with standard strength properties. This scenario results in a strong meteoroid deceleration, a deflection of the trajectory to a steeper impact angle (40-60°), and an impact velocity of 350-600 ms-1, which is insufficient to produce a shock wave and significant shock effects in target minerals. Aerodynamic and crater modeling are consistent with field data and our microscopic inspection. However, these data are in conflict with trajectories inferred from the analysis of

  12. An outstanding researcher of the solar eclipses- Nicolas Donitch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaina, Alex

    1998-09-01

    Nicolae Donitch (1874, Chisinau-1958, Nice, France?) worked in Russia (until 1917), Romania (1918-1944) and France (1945-1958?). His observatory was placed in Dubossary-Vechi (where he worked with some intervals between 1908 and 1944. He was designated by the Russian Academy of Sciences for the observations of the total Solar eclipse in Elche (Spain) on 28 May 1900. Other solar eclipses observed by N. Donitch: 17-18 may 1901, Padong (Sumatra); 1904 - the annular eclipse of the Sun in Pnom-Penh (Cambodge); august 1905, Alcala de Chisvert (Spain) and Assuan (Upper Egypt); 16/17 April 1912, Portugal; 21 august 1914, Crimea; 1925, USA; 1929 Indochina and Philipines; 1930, Egypt; 1932 Egypt and cape Porpoise,Maine USA; 1936, Inneboli, Turkey. Other solar investigations by N. Donitch; Solar cromosphere (Odessa, 1902; Mount- Blanch, 1902-1903); The passage of the planet Mercury through the solar disk (November, 1907, Egypt; October 1914, Algeria).

  13. Daylight levels during the solar eclipse of 11 August 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darula, S.; Kambezidis, H. D.; Kittler, R.

    Solar eclipses are unique phenomena not only for astronomical and space observations but also for terrestrial; they create unique conditions of sunbeam blockage which cause not only the reduction of direct sunlight but also the dimming of skylight from the whole sky vault. Very favorable conditions were met during the recent August 1999 solar eclipse in Athens, Greece and Bratislava, Slovakia. General class daylight stations operate within the International Daylight Measurements Program in the two cities. One-minute data of global/diffuse illuminance and zenith luminance from those stations have been used to provide information about their levels and the daylight reduction rate during the eclipse. An approximate formula for the estimation of sunlight and skylight illuminance levels as well as zenith luminance using relative luminance sky patterns is also presented in this work. To achieve this, recently developed sky standards together with their parameterizations are utilized.

  14. A Statistical Approach to Exoplanetary Molecular Spectroscopy Using Spitzer Eclipses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deming, Drake; Garhart, Emily; Burrows, Adam; Fortney, Jonathan; Knutson, Heather; Todorov, Kamen

    2018-01-01

    Secondary eclipses of exoplanets observed using the Spitzer Space Telescope measure the total emission emergent from exoplanetary atmospheres integrated over broad photometric bands. Spitzer photometry is excellent for measuring day side temperatures, but is less well suited to the detection of molecular absorption or emission features. Even for very hot exoplanets, it can be difficult to attain the accuracy on eclipse depth that is needed to unambiguously interpret the Spitzer results in terms of molecular absorption or emission. However, a statistical approach, wherein we seek deviations from a simple blackbody planet as a function of the planet's equilibrium temperature, shows promise for defining the nature and strength of molecular absorption in ensembles of planets. In this paper, we explore such an approach using secondary eclipses observed for tens of hot exoplanets during Spitzer's Cycles 10, 12, and 13. We focus on the possibility that the hottest planets exhibit molecular features in emission, due to temperature inversions.

  15. Through the Eyes of NASA: NASA's 2017 Eclipse Education Progam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, L.

    2017-12-01

    Over the last three years, NASA has been developing plans to bring the August 21st total solar eclipse to the nation, "as only NASA can", leveraging its considerable space assets, technology, scientists, and its unmatched commitment to science education. The eclipse, long anticipated by many groups, represents the largest Big Event education program that NASA has ever undertaken. It is the latest in a long string of successful Big Event international celebrations going back two decades including both transits of Venus, three solar eclipses, solar maximum, and mission events such as the MSL/Curiosity landing on Mars, and the launch of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) to name a few. This talk will detail NASA's program development methods, strategic partnerships, and strategies for using this celestial event to engage the nation and improve overall science literacy.

  16. Behavior of Photovoltaic System during Solar Eclipse in Prague

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Libra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available PV power plants have been recently installed in very large scale. So the effects of the solar eclipse are of big importance especially for grid connected photovoltaic (PV systems. There was a partial solar eclipse in Prague on 20th March 2015. We have evaluated the data from our facility in order to monitor the impact of this natural phenomenon on the behavior of PV system, and these results are presented in the paper. The behavior of PV system corresponds with the theoretical assumption. The power decrease of the PV array corresponds with the relative size of the solar eclipse. I-V characteristics of the PV panel correspond to the theoretical model presented in our previous work.

  17. The 1984 eclipse of the symbiotic binary SY Muscae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, S. J.; Michalitisianos, A. G.; Lutz, J. H.; Kafatos, M.

    1985-01-01

    Data from IUE spectra obtained with the 10 x 20-arcsec aperture on May 13, 1984, and optical spectrophotometry obtained with an SIT vidicon on the 1.5-m telescope at CTIO on April 29-May 1, 1984, are reported for the symbiotic binary SY Mus. The data are found to be consistent with a model of a red-giant secondary of 60 solar radii which completely eclipses the hot primary every 627 d but only partially eclipses the 75-solar-radius He(+) region surrounding the primary. The distance to SY Mus is estimated as 1.3 kpc. It is suggested that the large Balmer decrement in eclipse, with (H-alpha)/(H-beta) = 8.3 and (H-beta)/(H-gamma) = 1.5, is associated with an electron density of about 10 to the 10th/cu cm.

  18. There's An App For That: Planning Ahead for the Solar Eclipse in August 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chizek Frouard, Malynda R.; Lesniak, Michael V.; Bell, Steve

    2017-01-01

    With the total solar eclipse of 2017 August 21 over the continental United States approaching, the U.S. Naval Observatory (USNO) on-line Solar Eclipse Computer can now be accessed via an Android application, available on Google Play.Over the course of the eclipse, as viewed from a specific site, several events may be visible: the beginning and ending of the eclipse (first and fourth contacts), the beginning and ending of totality (second and third contacts), the moment of maximum eclipse, sunrise, or sunset. For each of these events, the USNO Solar Eclipse 2017 Android application reports the time, Sun's altitude and azimuth, and the event's position and vertex angles. The app also lists the duration of the total phase, the duration of the eclipse, the magnitude of the eclipse, and the percent of the Sun obscured for a particular eclipse site.All of the data available in the app comes from the flexible USNO Solar Eclipse Computer Application Programming Interface (API), which produces JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) that can be incorporated into third-party Web sites or custom applications. Additional information is available in the on-line documentation (http://aa.usno.navy.mil/data/docs/api.php).For those who prefer using a traditional data input form, the local circumstances can still be requested at http://aa.usno.navy.mil/data/docs/SolarEclipses.php.In addition the 2017 August 21 Solar Eclipse Resource page (http://aa.usno.navy.mil/data/docs/Eclipse2017.php) consolidates all of the USNO resources for this event, including a Google Map view of the eclipse track designed by Her Majesty's Nautical Almanac Office (HMNAO).Looking further ahead, a 2024 April 8 Solar Eclipse Resource page (http://aa.usno.navy.mil/data/docs/Eclipse2024.php) is also available.

  19. The Living Periodic Table

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahlik, Mary Schrodt

    2005-01-01

    To help make the abstract world of chemistry more concrete eighth-grade students, the author has them create a living periodic table that can be displayed in the classroom or hallway. This display includes information about the elements arranged in the traditional periodic table format, but also includes visual real-world representations of the…

  20. Eclipse studies of the dwarf nova Oy Carinae in quiescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, J.H.; Horne, K.; Berriman, G.; Wade, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    High-speed photometry of OY Car have been obtained which cover 20 eclipses in white light and seven eclipses in UBR. The results show the red dwarf to have a mass of 0.070 + or - 0.002 solar masses and a radius of 0.127 + or - 0.002 solar radii, and the white dwarf to have a temperature of several thousand degrees below 15,000 K. The bright spot is found to have a compact 15,000-K core and a tail that extends along the rim but does not penetrate far into the disk. 31 refs

  1. Observations of Comets and Eclipses in the Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziółkowski, Mariusz

    There is no doubt that the Incas possessed a system for observing and interpreting unusual astronomical phenomena, such as eclipses or comets. References to it, however, are scarce, often of anecdotal nature and are not collected into any coherent "Inca observation catalog". The best documented of such events is the "Ataw Wallpa's comet", seen in Cajamarca in July of 1533 and the solar eclipse, that in 1543, prevented conquistador Lucas Martínez from discovering the rich silver mines in northern Chile. Archived descriptions of the Andean population's reaction to these phenomena indicate that they were treated as extremely important omens, that should not, under any circumstances, be ignored.

  2. St. Benedict Sees the Light: Asam's Solar Eclipses as Metaphor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Roberta J. M.; Pasachoff, Jay M.

    During the Baroque period, artists worked in a style - encouraged by the Roman Catholic Church and the Council of Trent - that revealed the divine in natural forms and made religious experiences more accessible. Cosmas Damian Asam, painter and architect, and his brother Egid (Aegid) Quirin Asam, sculptor and stuccatore, were the principal exponents of eighteenth-century, southern-German religious decoration and architecture in the grand manner, the Gesamtkunstwerk. Cosmas Damian's visionary and ecstatic art utilized light, both physical and illusionistic, together with images of meteorological and astronomical phenomena, such as solar and lunar eclipses. This paper focuses on his representations of eclipses and demonstrates how Asam was galvanized by their visual, as well as metaphorical power and that he studied a number of them. He subsequently applied his observations in a series of paintings for the Benedictine order that become increasingly astronomically accurate and spiritually profound. From the evidence presented, especially in three depictions of St. Benedict's vision, the artist harnessed his observations to visualize the literary description of the miraculous event in the Dialogues of St. Gregory the Great, traditionally a difficult scene to illustrate, even for Albrecht Dürer. Asam painted the trio at Einsiedeln, Switzerland (1724-27); Kladruby, the Czech Republic (1725-27), where he captured the solar corona and the "diamond-ring effect"; and Weltenburg, Germany (1735), where he also depicted the diamond-ring effect at a total solar eclipse. We conclude that his visualizations were informed by his personal observations of the solar eclipses on 12 May 1706, 22 May 1724, and 13 May 1733. Asam may have also known the eclipse maps of Edmond Halley and William Whiston that were issued in advance. Astronomers did not start studying eclipses scientifically until the nineteenth century, making Asam's depictions all the more fascinating. So powerful was the

  3. Using Stellarium to cyber-observe the Great American Eclipse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prim, Ellie R.; Sitar, David J.

    2017-09-01

    The Great American Eclipse is over. Somewhat sad, is it not? Individuals who were unable to experience the event on August 21, 2017, can now cyber-observe the eclipse with Stellarium (http://www.stellarium.org). In the authors' opinion, it is fun and has many great applications in the classroom. In addition it is open source and available for Android, iOS, and Linux users. We here at Appalachian use it in our introductory astronomy labs for specific activities such as investigating coordinate systems, discovering differences between solar and sidereal days, as well as determining why your "astrological sign" is most often not your "astronomical sign."

  4. The total solar eclipse of 2010 July 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, H.; James, N.; Mason, J.

    2010-08-01

    The solar eclipse of 2010 July 11 always promised to be a logistical nightmare to observe. The Moon's shadow first touched the Earth in the southern Pacific, encountering land at Mangaia in the Cook Islands only after 1450km of open ocean. The narrow track of totality then swung northeast, passing tantalisingly close to the islands of Tahiti and Moorea, which experienced a 98% partial eclipse. Beyond Tahiti the track crossed the Tuamotu archipelago of French Polynesia - thousands of tiny coral atolls, of which very few are inhabited, and even fewer have airstrips that make them accessible to visitors.

  5. Experimental simulation of impact cratering on icy satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greeley, R.; Fink, J. H.; Gault, D. E.; Guest, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    Cratering processes on icy satellites were simulated in a series of 102 laboratory impact experiments involving a wide range of target materials. For impacts into homogeneous clay slurries with impact energies ranging from five million to ten billion ergs, target yield strengths ranged from 100 to 38 Pa, and apparent viscosities ranged from 8 to 200 Pa s. Bowl-shaped craters, flat-floored craters, central peak craters with high or little relief, and craters with no relief were observed. Crater diameters increased steadily as energies were raised. A similar sequence was seen for experiment in which impact energy was held constant but target viscosity and strength progressively decreases. The experiments suggest that the physical properties of the target media relative to the gravitationally induced stresses determined the final crater morphology. Crater palimpsests could form by prompt collapse of large central peak craters formed in low target strength materials. Ages estimated from crater size-frequency distributions that include these large craters may give values that are too high.

  6. Shallow and deep fresh impact craters in Hesperia Planum, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouginis-Mark, Peter J.; Hayashi, Joan N.

    1993-01-01

    The depths of 109 impact craters about 2-16 km in diameter, located on the ridged plains materials of Hesperia Planum, Mars, have been measured from their shadow lengths using digital Viking Orbiter images (orbit numbers 417S-419S) and the PICS computer software. On the basis of their pristine morphology (very fresh lobate ejecta blankets, well preserved rim crests, and lack of superposed impact craters), 57 of these craters have been selected for detailed analysis of their spatial distribution and geometry. We find that south of 30 deg S, craters less than 6.0 km in diameter are markedly shallower than similar-sized craters equatorward of this latitude. No comparable relationship is observed for morphologically fresh craters greater than 6.0 km diameter. We also find that two populations exist for older craters less than 6.0 km diameter. When craters that lack ejecta blankets are grouped on the basis of depth/diameter ratio, the deeper craters also typically lie equatorward of 30 S. We interpret the spatial variation in crater depth/diameter ratios as most likely due to a poleward increase in volatiles within the top 400 m of the surface at the times these craters were formed.

  7. Wrinkle Ridges and Young Fresh Crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 10 May 2002) The Science Wrinkle ridges are a very common landform on Mars, Mercury, Venus, and the Moon. These ridges are linear to arcuate asymmetric topographic highs commonly found on smooth plains. The origin of wrinkle ridges is not certain and two leading hypotheses have been put forth by scientists over the past 40 years. The volcanic model calls for the extrusion of high viscosity lavas along linear conduits. This thick lava accumulated over these conduits and formed the ridges. The other model is tectonic and advocates that the ridges are formed by compressional faulting and folding. Today's THEMIS image is of the ridged plains of Lunae Planum located between Kasei Valles and Valles Marineris in the northern hemisphere of the planet. Wrinkle ridges are found mostly along the eastern side of the image. The broadest wrinkle ridges in this image are up to 2 km wide. A 3 km diameter young fresh crater is located near the bottom of the image. The crater's ejecta blanket is also clearly seen surrounding the sharp well-defined crater rim. These features are indicative of a very young crater that has not been subjected to erosional processes. The Story The great thing about the solar system is that planets are both alike and different. They're all foreign enough to be mysterious and intriguing, and yet familiar enough to be seen as planetary 'cousins.' By comparing them, we can learn a lot about how planets form and then evolve geologically over time. Crinkled over smooth plains, the long, wavy raised landforms seen here are called 'wrinkle ridges,' and they've been found on Mars, Mercury, Venus, and the Moon - that is, on rocky bodies that are a part of our inner solar system. We know from this observation that planets (and large-enough moons) follow similar processes. What we don't know for sure is HOW these processes work. Scientists have been trying to understand how wrinkle ridges form for 40 years, and they still haven't reached a conclusion. That

  8. Hailar crater - A possible impact structure in Inner Mongolia, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zhiyong; Chen, Zhaoxu; Pu, Jiang; Xiao, Xiao; Wang, Yichen; Huang, Jun

    2018-04-01

    Hailar crater, a probable impact structure, is a circular depression about 300 m diameter in Inner Mongolia, northeast China. With broad elevated rims, the present rim-to-floor depth is 8-20 m. Regional geological background and geomorphological comparison suggest that this feature is likely not formed by surface processes such as salt diapir, karst, aeolian, glacial, or volcanic activity. Its unique occurrence in this region and well-preserved morphology are most consistent with it being a Cenozoic impact crater. Two field expeditions in 2016 and 2017 investigated the origin of this structure, recognizing that (1) no additional craters were identified around Hailar crater in the centimeter-scale digital topography models that were constructed using a drone imaging system and stereo photogrammetry; (2) no bedrock exposures are visible within or adjacent to the crater because of thick regolith coverage, and only small pieces of angular unconsolidated rocks are present on the crater wall and the gently-sloped crater rim, suggesting recent energetic formation of the crater; (3) most samples collected from the crater have identical lithology and petrographic characteristics with the background terrain, but some crater samples contain more abundant clasts and silicate hydrothermal veins, indicating that rocks from depths have been exposed by the crater; (4) no shock metamorphic features were found in the samples after thin section examinations; and (5) a systematic sample survey and iron detector scan within and outside of the crater found no iron-rich meteorites larger than 2 cm in size in a depth of 30 cm. Although no conclusive evidence for an impact origin is found yet, Hailar crater was most likely formed by an impact based on its unique occurrence and comparative geomorphologic study. We suggest that drilling in the crater center is required to verify the impact origin, where hypothesized melt-bearing impactites may be encountered.

  9. Geologic Structures in Crater Walls on Vesta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittlefehldt, David W.; Beck, A. W.; Ammannito, E.; Carsenty, U.; DeSanctis, M. C.; LeCorre, L.; McCoy, T. J.; Reddy, V.; Schroeder, S. E.

    2012-01-01

    The Framing Camera (FC) on the Dawn spacecraft has imaged most of the illuminated surface of Vesta with a resolution of apporpx. 20 m/pixel through different wavelength filters that allow for identification of lithologic units. The Visible and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIR) has imaged the surface at lower spatial resolution but high spectral resolution from 0.25 to 5 micron that allows for detailed mineralogical interpretation. The FC has imaged geologic structures in the walls of fresh craters and on scarps on the margin of the Rheasilvia basin that consist of cliff-forming, competent units, either as blocks or semi-continuous layers, hundreds of m to km below the rims. Different units have different albedos, FC color ratios and VIR spectral characteristics, and different units can be juxtaposed in individual craters. We will describe different examples of these competent units and present preliminary interpretations of the structures. A common occurrence is of blocks several hundred m in size of high albedo (bright) and low albedo (dark) materials protruding from crater walls. In many examples, dark material deposits lie below coherent bright material blocks. In FC Clementine color ratios, bright material is green indicating deeper 1 m pyroxene absorption band. VIR spectra show these to have deeper and wider 1 and 2 micron pyroxene absorption bands than the average vestan surface. The associated dark material has subdued pyroxene absorption features compared to the average vestan surface. Some dark material deposits are consistent with mixtures of HED materials with carbonaceous chondrites. This would indicate that some dark material deposits in crater walls are megabreccia blocks. The same would hold for bright material blocks found above them. Thus, these are not intact crustal units. Marcia crater is atypical in that the dark material forms a semi-continuous, thin layer immediately below bright material. Bright material occurs as one or more layers. In

  10. Heavy Cratering near Callisto's South Pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Images from NASA's Galileo spacecraft provide new insights into this region near Callisto's south pole. This two frame mosaic shows a heavily cratered surface with smooth plains in the areas between craters. North is to the top of the image. The smoothness of the plains appears to increase toward the south pole, approximately 480 kilometers (293 miles) south of the bottom of the image. This smoothness of Callisto's surface was not evident in images taken during the 1979 flyby of NASA's Voyager spacecraft because the resolution was insufficient to show the effect. This smooth surface, and the process(es) that cause it, are among the most intriguing aspects of Callisto. Although not fully understood, the process(es) responsible for this smoothing could include erosion by tiny meteorites and energetic ions. Some craters, such as Keelut, the 47 kilometer (29 mile) crater in the lower right corner, have sharp, well defined rims. Keelut contains an inner ring surrounding a central depression about 17 kilometers (11 miles) in diameter. Keelut, and the more irregularly shaped, degraded Reginleif, the 32 kilometer (19.5 mile) crater in the top center of the image, are very shallow and have flat floors. Crater forms can be seen down to less than 2 kilometers (1.2 miles) in diameter in the image. Each picture element (pixel) in this image is approximately 0.68 kilometers (0.41 miles) across.This image which was taken by the Galileo spacecraft's solid state imaging (CCD) system during its eighth orbit around Jupiter, on May 6th, 1997. The center of the image is located at 71.3 degrees south latitude, 97.6 degrees west longitude, and was taken when the spacecraft was approximately 35,470 kilometers (21,637 miles) from Callisto.The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http

  11. Elementary Statistics Tables

    CERN Document Server

    Neave, Henry R

    2012-01-01

    This book, designed for students taking a basic introductory course in statistical analysis, is far more than just a book of tables. Each table is accompanied by a careful but concise explanation and useful worked examples. Requiring little mathematical background, Elementary Statistics Tables is thus not just a reference book but a positive and user-friendly teaching and learning aid. The new edition contains a new and comprehensive "teach-yourself" section on a simple but powerful approach, now well-known in parts of industry but less so in academia, to analysing and interpreting process dat

  12. The eclipsing AM Herculis star 2A 0311 - 227

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, D.A.; Wright, A.E.; Ward, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    Infrared photometry and optical spectrophotometry of the AM Herculis star 2A 0311 - 227 are described. In its 81-min orbit there are two eclipses at infrared wavelengths and a third, intermittent eclipse of the optical emission lines. One of these eclipses is caused by an M dwarf which orbits a magnetic white dwarf. Much of the geometry of the system can be specified. An inclination near 80 0 is found, and a mass of the M dwarf which corresponds to a spectral type of M7 or M8. Accretion appears to occur on to two magnetic poles of the white dwarf, but the field strengths differ so that one pole emits preferentially at optical wavelengths and the other mostly in the infrared. The location of the redder-emitting magnetic pole can be specified because of its eclipse by the white dwarf, but there remains some uncertainty in the location of the bluer pole. All interpretations seem to require that the magnetic poles are not symmetrically disposed about the white dwarf, and some evidence suggests that like poles are less than 60 0 apart. (author)

  13. Worldwide photometry of the January 1989 Tau Persei eclipse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Douglas S.; Curott, David R.; Barksdale, William S.; Diethelm-Sutter, Roger; Ells, Jack

    1991-01-01

    New UBV photoelectric photometry of Tau Persei obtained at 19 different observatories during its recent January 1989 eclipse is presented. Mideclipse occurred at JD 2 447 542.31 + or - 0.01. The resulting light curve, though not complete at all phases, is solved for the elements with the help of two quantities derived from spectroscopy: the eclipse is 84 percent total at mideclipse, and the ratio of the radii is 0.135 + or - 0.01. Radii relative to the semimajor axis are 0.0236 for the G5 giant and 0.0032 for the A2 star. With a reasonable total mass assumed, the absolute radii say the A2 star could be luminosity class V or somewhat evolved and the G5 star is between III and II but could be closer to II. The G5 giant is brighter than the A2 star by 1.72 mag in V and the color excess in B - V is 0.06 mag, both quantities consistent (within uncertainties) with earlier estimates of Ake (1986). The eclipse duration, from first to fourth contact, is 2.09 day. The orbital inclination is 88.74 deg, consistent with what McAlister derived from speckle interferometry. Because of the large (e = 0.73) eccentricity, there is no secondary eclipse at all.

  14. Dayside atmospheric structure of HD209458b from Spitzer eclipses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhard, Matthew; Harrington, Joseph; Challener, Ryan; Cubillos, Patricio; Blecic, Jasmina

    2017-10-01

    HD209458b is a hot Jupiter with a radius of 1.26 ± 0.08 Jupiter radii (Richardson et al, 2006) and a mass of 0.64 ± 0.09 Jupiter masses (Snellen et al, 2010). The planet orbits a G0 type star with an orbital period of 3.52472 ± 2.81699e-05 days, and a relatively low eccentricity of 0.0082 +0.0078/-0.0082 (Wang and Ford 2013). We report the analysis of observations of HD209458b during eclipse, taken in the 3.6 and 4.5 micron channels by the Spitzer Space Telescope's Infrared Array Camera (Program 90186). We produce a photometric light curve of the eclipses in both channels, using our Photometry for Orbits Eclipses and Transits (POET) code, and calculate the brightness temperatures and eclipse depths. We also present best estimates of the atmospheric parameters of HD209458b using our Bayesian Atmospheric Radiative Transfer (BART) code. These are some preliminary results of what will be an analysis of all available Spitzer data for HD209458b. Spitzer is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with NASA. This work was supported by NASA Planetary Atmospheres grant NX12AI69G and NASA Astrophysics Data Analysis Program grant NNX13AF38G.

  15. Eclipse of Epsilon Aurigae visible spectroscopy and ultraviolet activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferluga, S.; Hack, M.

    1985-01-01

    The preliminary results of the study of several high resolution spectrograms (lambda 3500 - lambda 7000 A), obtained at the Haute Provence Observatory (OHP) in France, at different epochs before, during and after the eclipse are reported. Some of these spectrograms are compared with corresponding IUE high resolution observations, in order to study the effects of the intrinsic UV activity, towards the longer wavelengths

  16. Eclipsing binary stars with a delta Scuti component

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Alicavus, F.K.; Soydugan, E.; Smalley, B.; Kubát, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 470, č. 1 (2017), s. 915-931 ISSN 0035-8711 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-01116S Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : stars * eclipsing binaries * fundamental parameters Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics OBOR OECD: Astronomy (including astrophysics,space science) Impact factor: 4.961, year: 2016

  17. Information on the forthcoming total solar eclipse December 2002 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On Wednesday, 2002 December 04, a total eclipse of the Sun will be visible from within a narrow corridor which traverses the southern part of Africa. The path of the Moon's umbral shadow begins in the South Atlantic and crosses southern Africa. After traversing the southern Indian Ocean, the path sweeps through southern ...

  18. The spectrographic orbit of the eclipsing binary HH Carinae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandrini, C.H.; Mendez, R.H.; Niemela, V.S.; Ferrer, O.E.

    1985-01-01

    We present a radial velocity study of the eclipsing binary system HH Carinae, and determine for the first time its spectrographic orbital elements. Using the results of a previous photometric study by Soderhjelm, we also determine the values of the masses and dimensions of the binary components. (author)

  19. The O-type eclipsing binary SZ Camelopardalis revisited

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mayer, P.; Drechsel, H.; Kubát, Jiří; Šlechta, Miroslav

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 524, Dec (2010), A1/1-A1/5 ISSN 0004-6361 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : eclipsing binaries * early-type stars * fundamental parameters Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.410, year: 2010

  20. Investigation of eclipsing binary stars exhibiting calcium II emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, J.P.

    1974-01-01

    Three color photometry of some eclipsing binaries showing Calcium II emission is reported. A highly stable and accurate d.c. amplifier, and a new type digital averaging system are described. Past and current light curves of SS Boo, RS CVn, WY Cnc, WW Dra, UV Psc, Z Her, SS Cam, RW UMa, AR Lac, and RT Lac are discussed with particular emphasis on asymmetries in the heights of the maxima and variations in the depths of the minima. Both RS CVn and SS Boo show nearly sinusoidal variation outside eclipse. Spectra of SS Boo and RS CVn are discussed. The suggestion is made that many of these systems belong to a new category of variable eclipsing binary star. It is pointed out that most double line eclipsing binaries with late-type sub-giant secondary components fall into this group, and that many of the characteristics of this group are not easily explained on the basis of existing data and theory. Possible models are discussed and the need for future photometric and spectroscopic study is emphasized. (U.S.)

  1. Stonehenge: A Simple and Accurate Predictor of Lunar Eclipses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challener, S.

    1999-12-01

    Over the last century, much has been written about the astronomical significance of Stonehenge. The rage peaked in the mid to late 1960s when new computer technology enabled astronomers to make the first complete search for celestial alignments. Because there are hundreds of rocks or holes at Stonehenge and dozens of bright objects in the sky, the quest was fraught with obvious statistical problems. A storm of controversy followed and the subject nearly vanished from print. Only a handful of these alignments remain compelling. Today, few astronomers and still fewer archaeologists would argue that Stonehenge served primarily as an observatory. Instead, Stonehenge probably served as a sacred meeting place, which was consecrated by certain celestial events. These would include the sun's risings and settings at the solstices and possibly some lunar risings as well. I suggest that Stonehenge was also used to predict lunar eclipses. While Hawkins and Hoyle also suggested that Stonehenge was used in this way, their methods are complex and they make use of only early, minor, or outlying areas of Stonehenge. In contrast, I suggest a way that makes use of the imposing, central region of Stonehenge; the area built during the final phase of activity. To predict every lunar eclipse without predicting eclipses that do not occur, I use the less familiar lunar cycle of 47 lunar months. By moving markers about the Sarsen Circle, the Bluestone Circle, and the Bluestone Horseshoe, all umbral lunar eclipses can be predicted accurately.

  2. IUE observations of the eclipsing binary Epsilon Aurigae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hack, M.; Selvelli, P.L.

    1978-01-01

    It is stated that the eclipsing binary Epsilon Aur is a most peculiar binary system and it has not been explained satisfactorily. Observations of this system using the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) collected at the Villafranca Satellite Tracking Station of the European Space Agency are here reported. (author)

  3. Eclipse Across America: Through the Eyes of NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, C. Alex; Heliophysics Education Consortium

    2018-01-01

    Monday, August 21, 2017, marked the first total solar eclipse to cross the continental United States coast-to-coast in almost a century. NASA scientists and educators, working alongside many partners, were spread across the entire country, both inside and outside the path of totality. Like many other organizations, NASA prepared for this eclipse for several years. The August 21 eclipse was NASA's biggest media event in recent history, and was made possible by the work of thousands of volunteers, collaborators and NASA employees. The agency supported science, outreach, and media communications activities along the path of totality and across the country. This culminated in a 3 ½-hour broadcast from Charleston, SC, showcasing the sights and sounds of the eclipse – starting with the view from a plane off the coast of Oregon and ending with images from the International Space Station as the Moon's inner shadow left the US East Coast. Along the way, NASA shared experiments and research from different groups of scientists, including 11 NASA-supported studies, 50+ high-altitude balloon launches, and 12 NASA and partner space-based assets. This talk shares the timeline of this momentous event from NASA's perspective, describing outreach successes and providing a glimpse at some of the science results available and yet to come.

  4. The Solar Eclipse Mural Series by Howard Russell Butler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasachoff, J. M.; Olson, R. J. M.

    2016-01-01

    There is a rich trove of astronomical phenomena in works of art by artists from the greater New York area, a trend that is even more pronounced in the oeuvres of New York City residents through the present day. A case in point is the trio of oil paintings by artist (and former physics professor) Howard Russell Butler depicting total solar eclipses in 1918, 1923, and 1925 that are based on his own observations. They were long displayed in the former art-deco building of the Hayden Planetarium of the American Museum of Natural History, the location of this conference. (The Museum also has nine other Butler paintings, none of which are currently exhibited.) Since the eclipse paintings have been in storage for many years, these once famous works are now virtually forgotten. Based on our research as an astronomer who has seen sixty-two solar eclipses and an art historian who has written extensively about astronomical imagery, we will discuss Butler's Solar Eclipse Triptych to explore its place in the history of astronomical imaging.

  5. Apsidal Motion in Eccentric Eclipsing Binary WW Camelopardalis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wolf, M.; Kotková, Lenka; Kocián, R.; Dřevěný, R.; Hanžl, D.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 139, č. 3 (2010), s. 1028-1030 ISSN 0004-6256 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/08/0003 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : eclipsing Binaries * WW Camelopardali Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.548, year: 2010

  6. Multi-Wavelength Eclipse Observations of a Quiescent Prominence

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jejčič, S.; Heinzel, Petr; Zapiór, M.; Druckmüller, M.; Gunár, Stanislav; Kotrč, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 289, č. 7 (2014), s. 2487-2501 ISSN 0038-0938 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP209/12/0906 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : eclipse observations * prominences * quiescent Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.039, year: 2014

  7. Electron densities in quiescent prominences derived from eclipse observations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jejčič, S.; Heinzel, Petr

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 254, č. 1 (2009), s. 89-100 ISSN 0038-0938 Grant - others:EU(XE) ESA-PECS project No. 98030 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : prominences quiescent * eclipse observations * visible spectrum Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 3.628, year: 2009

  8. Eclipses and dust formation by WC9 type Wolf-Rayet stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, P. M.

    2014-12-01

    Visual photometry of 16 WC8-9 dust-making Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars during 2001-2009 was extracted from the All-Sky Automated Survey All Star Catalogue (ASAS-3) to search for eclipses attributable to extinction by dust formed in clumps in our line of sight. Data for a comparable number of dust-free WC6-9 stars were also examined to help characterize the data set. Frequent eclipses were observed from WR 104, and several from WR 106, extending the 1994-2001 studies by Kato et al., but not supporting their phasing the variations in WR 104 with its `pinwheel' rotation period. Only four other stars showed eclipses, WR 50 (one of the dust-free stars), WR 69, WR 95 and WR 117, and there may have been an eclipse by WR 121, which had shown two eclipses in the past. No dust eclipses were shown by the `historic' eclipsers WR 103 and WR 113. The atmospheric eclipses of the latter were observed but the suggestion by David-Uraz et al. that dust may be partly responsible for these is not supported. Despite its frequent eclipses, there is no evidence in the infrared images of WR 104 for dust made in its eclipses, demonstrating that any dust formed in this process is not a significant contributor to its circumstellar dust cloud and suggesting that the same applies to the other stars showing fewer eclipses.

  9. Empirical yield tables for Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerold T. Hahn; Joan M. Stelman

    1984-01-01

    Describes the tables derived from the 1980 Forest Survey of Michigan and presents ways the tables can be used. These tables are broken down according to Michigan's four Forest Survey Units, 14 forest types, and 5 site-index classes.

  10. Empirical yield tables for Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerold T. Hahn; Joan M. Stelman

    1989-01-01

    Describes the tables derived from the 1983 Forest Survey of Wisconsin and presents ways the tables can be used. These tables are broken down according to Wisconsin`s five Forest Survey Units and 14 forest types.

  11. Aqueous alteration detection in Tikhonravov crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancarella, F.; Fonti, S.; Alemanno, G.; Orofino, V.; Blanco, A.

    2018-03-01

    The existence of a wet period lasting long enough to allow the development of elementary forms of life on Mars has always been a very interesting issue. Given this perspective, the research for geological markers of such occurrences has been continually pursued. Once a favorable site is detected, effort should be spent to get as much information as possible aimed at a precise assessment of the genesis and evolution of the areas showing the selected markers. In this work, we discuss the recent finding of possible deposits pointing to the past existence of liquid water in Tikhonravov crater located in Arabia Terra. Comparison of CRISM spectra and those of laboratory minerals formed by aqueous alteration has led us to the conclusion that the studied areas within the impact crater host phyllosilicates deposits. In addition, analysis of the CRISM spectra has resulted in the tentative identification of carbonates mixed with phyllosilicates.

  12. Layers of 'Cabo Frio' in 'Victoria Crater'

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    This view of 'Victoria crater' is looking southeast from 'Duck Bay' towards the dramatic promontory called 'Cabo Frio.' The small crater in the right foreground, informally known as 'Sputnik,' is about 20 meters (about 65 feet) away from the rover, the tip of the spectacular, layered, Cabo Frio promontory itself is about 200 meters (about 650 feet) away from the rover, and the exposed rock layers are about 15 meters (about 50 feet) tall. This is an approximately true color rendering of images taken by the panoramic camera (Pancam) on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity during the rover's 952nd sol, or Martian day, (Sept. 28, 2006) using the camera's 750-nanometer, 530-nanometer and 430-nanometer filters.

  13. To Measure Probable Physical Changes On The Earth During Total Solar Eclipse Using Geophysical Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gocmen, C.

    2007-01-01

    When the total solar eclipse came into question, people connected the eclipse with the earthquake dated 17.08.1999. We thought if any physical parameters change during total solar eclipse on the earth, we could measure this changing and we did the project 'To Measure Probable Physical Changes On The Earth During Total Solar Eclipse Using Geophysical Methods' We did gravity, magnetic and self-potential measurements at Konya and Ankara during total solar eclipse (29, March, 2006) and the day before eclipse and the day after eclipse. The measurements went on three days continuously twenty-four hours at Konya and daytime in Ankara. Bogazici University Kandilli Observatory gave us magnetic values in Istanbul and we compare the values with our magnetic values. Turkish State Meteorological Service sent us temperature and air pressure observations during three days, in Konya and Ankara. We interpreted all of them

  14. Permit.LOA table

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This table includes the effective dates by vessel and permit number for each issued letter of authorization (LOA) by the Permit Office (APSD)

  15. VMS forms Output Tables

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These output tables contain parsed and format validated data from the various VMS forms that are sent from any given vessel, while at sea, from the VMS devices on...

  16. The Periodic Table CD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Alton J.; Holmes, Jon L.

    1995-01-01

    Describes the characteristics of the digitized version of The Periodic Table Videodisc. Provides details about the organization of information and access to the data via Macintosh and Windows computers. (DDR)

  17. Setting the Periodic Table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saturnelli, Annette

    1985-01-01

    Examines problems resulting from different forms of the periodic table, indicating that New York State schools use a form reflecting the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry's 1984 recommendations. Other formats used and reasons for standardization are discussed. (DH)

  18. Body Mass Index Table

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Families ( We Can! ) Health Professional Resources Body Mass Index Table 1 for BMI greater than 35, go ... Health Information Email Alerts Jobs and Careers Site Index About NHLBI National Institute of Health Department of ...

  19. Impact cratering experiments in Bingham materials and the morphology of craters on Mars and Ganymede

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, J. H.; Greeley, R.; Gault, D. E.

    1982-01-01

    Results from a series of laboratory impacts into clay slurry targets are compared with photographs of impact craters on Mars and Ganymede. The interior and ejecta lobe morphology of rampart-type craters, as well as the progression of crater forms seen with increasing diameter on both Mars and Ganymede, are equalitatively explained by a model for impact into Bingham materials. For increasing impact energies and constant target rheology, laboratory craters exhibit a morphologic progression from bowl-shaped forms that are typical of dry planetary surfaces to craters with ejecta flow lobes and decreasing interior relief, characteristic of more volatile-rich planets. A similar sequence is seen for uniform impact energy in slurries of decreasing yield strength. The planetary progressions are explained by assuming that volatile-rich or icy planetary surfaces behave locally in the same way as Bingham materials and produce ejecta slurries with yield strenghs and viscosities comparable to terrestrial debris flows. Hypothetical impact into Mars and Ganymede are compared, and it is concluded that less ejecta would be produced on Ganymede owing to its lower gravitational acceleration, surface temperature, and density of surface materials.

  20. Low-velocity impact cratering experiments in granular slopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Kosuke; Sumita, Ikuro

    2017-07-01

    Low-velocity impact cratering experiments are conducted in sloped granular targets to study the effect of the slope angle θ on the crater shape and its scales. We use two types of granular matter, sand and glass beads, former of which has a larger friction coefficient μs = tanθr , where θr is the angle of repose. Experiments show that as θ increases, the crater becomes shallower and elongated in the direction of the slope. Furthermore the crater floor steepens in the upslope side and a thick rim forms in the downslope side, thus forming an asymmetric profile. High-speed images show that these features are results of ejecta being dispersed farther towards the downslope side and the subsequent avalanche which buries much of the crater floor. Such asymmetric ejecta dispersal can be explained by combining the Z-model and a ballistic model. Using the topographic maps of the craters, we classify crater shape regimes I-III, which transition with increasing θ : a full-rim crater (I), a broken-rim crater (II), and a depression (III). The critical θ for the regime transitions are larger for sand compared to glass beads, but collapse to close values when we use a normalized slope θ^ = tanθ / tanθr . Similarly we derive θ^-dependences of the scaled crater depth, length, width and their ratios which collapse the results for different targets and impact energies. We compare the crater profiles formed in our experiments with deep craters on asteroid Vesta and find that some of the scaled profiles nearly overlap and many have similar depth / length ratios. This suggests that these Vestan craters may also have formed in the gravity regime and that the formation process can be approximated by a granular flow with a similar effective friction coefficient.

  1. Decision table languages and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Metzner, John R

    1977-01-01

    ACM Monograph Series: Decision Table Languages and Systems focuses on linguistic examination of decision tables and survey of the features of existing decision table languages and systems. The book first offers information on semiotics, programming language features, and generalization. Discussions focus on semantic broadening, outer language enrichments, generalization of syntax, limitations, implementation improvements, syntactic and semantic features, decision table syntax, semantics of decision table languages, and decision table programming languages. The text then elaborates on design im

  2. Lessons Learned During the Recent ɛ Aurigae Eclipse Observing Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stencel, R. E.

    2012-06-01

    (Abstract only) The eighteen-month-long eclipse of the third-magnitude star, epsilon Aurigae, is forecast to end during May 2011, based on six eclipse events, in 2010, 1982, 1955, 1930, 1902, and 1874. In partnership with AAVSO, Hopkins Phoenix Observatory, and others, we have organized observing campaigns during the past several years in order to maximize data acquired during this rare event and to promote reporting and analysis of observations of all kinds. Hundreds of registered participants have signed up for alert notices and newsletters, and many dozens of observers have contributed photometry, spectra, and ideas to the ongoing effort - see websites: www.CitizenSky.org and www.hposoft.com/Campaign09.html. In this presentation, I will provide an update on the participation leading to extensive photometric results. Similarly, bright star spectroscopy has greatly benefited from small telescope plus spectrometer capabilities, now widely available, that complement traditional but less-frequent large telescope high dispersion work. Polarimetry provided key insights during the last eclipse, and we promoted the need for new data using this method. Finally, interferometry has come of age since the last eclipse, leading to the direct detection of the transiting dark disk causing the eclipse. Along with these traditional measurements, I will outline campaign-related efforts to promote Citizen Science opportunities among the public. Support for these efforts derives in part from AAVSO/NSF-Informal Science Education, NSF AAG grant 10-16678, and a bequest to the University of Denver Astronomy Program by alumnus William Herschel Womble, for which I am grateful.

  3. Lessons Learned During the Recent Epsilon Aurigae Eclipse Observing Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stencel, Robert E.

    2011-05-01

    The 18 month long eclipse of the 3rd magnitude star, epsilon Aurigae, is forecast to end during May 2011, based on six eclipse events, in 2010, 1982, 1955, 1930, 1902 and 1874. In partnership with AAVSO, Hopkins Phoenix Observatory and others, we have organized observing campaigns during the past several years in order to maximize data acquired during this rare event and to promote reporting and analysis of observations of all kinds. Hundreds of registered participants have signed up for alert notices and newsletters, and many dozens of observers have contributed photometry, spectra and ideas to the ongoing effort - see websites: www.CitizenSky.org and www.hposoft.com/Campaign09.html . In this presentation, I will provide an update on the participation leading to extensive photometric results. Similarly, bright star spectroscopy has greatly benefited from small telescope plus spectrometer capabilities, now widely available, that complement traditional but less-frequent large telescope high dispersion work. Polarimetry provided key insights during the last eclipse, and we promoted the need for new data using this method. Finally, interferometry has come of age since the last eclipse, leading to the direct detection of the transiting dark disk causing the eclipse. Along with these traditional measurements, I will outline campaign-related efforts to promote Citizen Science opportunities among the public. Support for these efforts derives in part from AAVSO/NSF-Informal Science Education, NSF AAG grant 10-16678 and a bequest to the University of Denver Astronomy Program by alumnus William Herschel Womble, for which I am grateful.

  4. The Trojan war dated by two solar eclipses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksson, Goran

    The Trojan War was very significant for the ancient Greeks and they dated historical events according to the number of years after the fall of Troy. However, there was already in antiquity no consensus as to the exact date of the war when compared with different epochs. Even after the modern discovery of the ancient city, there has been disagreement among different excavators as to which layer corresponds to the city mentioned in the Iliad attributed to Homer. In this paper an attempt is made to identify the strange obscuration of the sun that occurred during the final battle of the Iliad as a total solar eclipse close to the southern border of the zone of totality. There exists only one solar eclipse that corresponds to the description in the text and this is the total solar eclipse of June 11, in 1312 BC. When I first presented this date in 1986, there was a difference of about 60 years compared with the most common archaeological dating at that time. My date is now fully supported by the latest results from the German-American excavation that identifies the fall of Homer's Troy with the destruction of the archaeological layer Troy VIh, dated to about 1300 BC. Further independent support is provided by another solar eclipse that dates the reign of the Hittite king Muwatalli II. This king wrote a letter to king Alaksandu in Wilusa, identified as the Hittite name for Ilios, the most frequently used name for Troy in the Iliad. Alexander was another name for Paris who abducted Helen, the crime that resulted in the war. Muwatalli II was king 1315-1297 BC, according to the chronology for the Hittite Kingdom based on a solar eclipse in 1335 BC, during the tenth year of King Mursili II (1345- 1315 BC), the father of Muwatalli II.

  5. Report about the Solar Eclipse on August 11, 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-08-01

    This webpage provides information about the total eclipse on Wednesday, August 11, 1999, as it was seen by ESO staff, mostly at or near the ESO Headquarters in Garching (Bavaria, Germany). The zone of totality was about 108 km wide and the ESO HQ were located only 8 km south of the line of maximum totality. The duration of the phase of totality was about 2 min 17 sec. The weather was quite troublesome in this geographical area. Heavy clouds moved across the sky during the entire event, but there were also some holes in between. Consequently, sites that were only a few kilometres from each other had very different viewing conditions. Some photos and spectra of the eclipsed Sun are displayed below, with short texts about the circumstances under which they were made. Please note that reproduction of pictures on this webpage is only permitted, if the author is mentioned as source. Information made available before the eclipse is available here. Eclipse Impressions at the ESO HQ Photo by Eddy Pomaroli Preparing for the Eclipse Photo: Eddy Pomaroli [JEG: 400 x 239 pix - 116k] [JPEG: 800 x 477 pix - 481k] [JPEG: 3000 x 1789 pix - 3.9M] Photo by Eddy Pomaroli During the 1st Partial Phase Photo: Eddy Pomaroli [JPEG: 400 x 275 pix - 135k] [JPEG: 800 x 549 pix - 434k] [JPEG: 2908 x 1997 pix - 5.9M] Photo by Hamid Mehrgan Heavy Clouds Above Digital Photo: Hamid Mehrgan [JPEG: 400 x 320 pix - 140k] [JPEG: 800 x 640 pix - 540k] [JPEG: 1280 x 1024 pix - 631k] Photo by Olaf Iwert Totality Approaching Digital Photo: Olaf Iwert [JPEG: 400 x 320 pix - 149k] [JPEG: 800 x 640 pix - 380k] [JPEG: 1280 x 1024 pix - 536k] Photo by Olaf Iwert Beginning of Totality Digital Photo: Olaf Iwert [JPEG: 400 x 236 pix - 86k] [JPEG: 800 x 471 pix - 184k] [JPEG: 1280 x 753 pix - 217k] Photo by Olaf Iwert A Happy Eclipse Watcher Digital Photo: Olaf Iwert [JPEG: 400 x 311 pix - 144k] [JPEG: 800 x 622 pix - 333k] [JPEG: 1280 x 995 pix - 644k] ESO HQ Eclipse Video Clip [MPEG-version] ESO HQ Eclipse Video

  6. The isostatic state of Mead crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerdt, W. B.; Konopliv, A. S.; Rappaport, N. J.; Sjogren, W. L.; Grimm, R. E.; Ford, P. G.

    1994-01-01

    We have analyzed high-resolution Magellan Doppler tracking data over Mead crater, using both line-of-sight and spherical harmonic methods, and have found a negative gravity anomaly of about 4-5 mgal (at spacecraft altitude, 182 km). This is consistent with no isostatic compensation of the present topography; the uncertainty in the analysis allows perhaps as much as 30% compensation at shallow dpeths (approximately 25 km). This is similar to observations of large craters on Earth, which are not generally compensated, but contrasts with at least some lunar basins which are inferred to have large Moho uplifts and corresponding positive Bouguer anomalies. An uncompensated load of this size requires a lithosphere with an effective elastic lithosphere thickness greater than 30 km. In order for the crust-mantle boundary not to have participated in the deformation associated with the collapse of the transient cavity during the creation of the crater, the yield strength near the top of the mantle must have been significantly higher on Earth and Venus than on the Moon at the time of basin formation. This might be due to increased strength against frictional sliding at the higher confining pressures within the larger planets. Alternatively, the thinner crusts of Earth and Venus compared to that of the Moon may result in higher creep strength of the upper mantle at shallower depths.

  7. Ejecta from single-charge cratering explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, R H

    1970-05-15

    The objective was to obtain experimental data tracing the location of ejecta to its origin within the crater region. The experiment included ten high-explosive spherical charges weighing from 8 to 1000 pounds and detonated in a playa dry lake soil on the Tonopah Test Range. Each event included from 24 to 40 locations of distinctly different tracer material embedded in a plane in the expected crater region. Tracers consisted of glass, ceramic and bugle beads, chopped metal, and plastic wire. Results of this experiment yielded data on tracer dispersion as a function of charge weight, charge burial depth and tracer emplacement position. Tracer pattern parameters such as center-of-tracer mass, range to center-of-tracer mass, and angle to center-of-tracer mass were determined. There is a clear tendency for range (to center-of-tracer mass) and the size of the dispersion pattern to decrease as tracer emplacement depth increases. Increasing tracer emplacement depth and range tends to decrease the area over which tracers are dispersed on the ground surface. Tracers at the same scaled position relative to the charge were deposited closer to the crater (on a scaled basis) as charge weight was increased. (author)

  8. The central uplift of Ritchey crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ning; Bray, Veronica J.; McEwen, Alfred S.; Mattson, Sarah S.; Okubo, Chris H.; Chojnacki, Matthew; Tornabene, Livio L.

    2015-01-01

    Ritchey crater is a ∼79 km diameter complex crater near the boundary between Hesperian ridged plains and Noachian highland terrain on Mars (28.8°S, 309.0°E) that formed after the Noachian. High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) images of the central peak reveal fractured massive bedrock and megabreccia with large clasts. Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) spectral analysis reveals low calcium pyroxene (LCP), olivine (OL), hydrated silicates (phyllosilicates) and a possible identification of plagioclase bedrock. We mapped the Ritchey crater central uplift into ten units, with 4 main groups from oldest and originally deepest to youngest: (1) megabreccia with large clasts rich in LCP and OL, and with alteration to phyllosilicates; (2) massive bedrock with bright and dark regions rich in LCP or OL, respectively; (3) LCP and OL-rich impactites draped over the central uplift; and (4) aeolian deposits. We interpret the primitive martian crust as igneous rocks rich in LCP, OL, and probably plagioclase, as previously observed in eastern Valles Marineris. We do not observe high-calcium pyroxene (HCP) rich bedrock as seen in Argyre or western Valles Marineris. The association of phyllosilicates with deep megabreccia could be from impact-induced alteration, either as a result of the Richey impact, or alteration of pre-existing impactites from Argyre basin and other large impacts that preceded the Ritchey impact, or both.

  9. The central uplift of Ritchey crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ning; Bray, Veronica J.; McEwen, Alfred S.; Mattson, Sarah S.; Okubo, Chris H.; Chojnacki, Matthew; Tornabene, Livio L.

    2015-05-01

    Ritchey crater is a ∼79 km diameter complex crater near the boundary between Hesperian ridged plains and Noachian highland terrain on Mars (28.8°S, 309.0°E) that formed after the Noachian. High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) images of the central peak reveal fractured massive bedrock and megabreccia with large clasts. Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) spectral analysis reveals low calcium pyroxene (LCP), olivine (OL), hydrated silicates (phyllosilicates) and a possible identification of plagioclase bedrock. We mapped the Ritchey crater central uplift into ten units, with 4 main groups from oldest and originally deepest to youngest: (1) megabreccia with large clasts rich in LCP and OL, and with alteration to phyllosilicates; (2) massive bedrock with bright and dark regions rich in LCP or OL, respectively; (3) LCP and OL-rich impactites draped over the central uplift; and (4) aeolian deposits. We interpret the primitive martian crust as igneous rocks rich in LCP, OL, and probably plagioclase, as previously observed in eastern Valles Marineris. We do not observe high-calcium pyroxene (HCP) rich bedrock as seen in Argyre or western Valles Marineris. The association of phyllosilicates with deep megabreccia could be from impact-induced alteration, either as a result of the Richey impact, or alteration of pre-existing impactites from Argyre basin and other large impacts that preceded the Ritchey impact, or both.

  10. Analysis of 45-years of Eclipse Timings of the Hyades (K2 V+ DA) Eclipsing Binary V471 Tauri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchioni, Lucas; Guinan, Edward; Engle, Scott

    2018-01-01

    V471 Tau is an important detached 0.521-day eclipsing binary composed of a K2 V and a hot DA white dwarf star. This system resides in the Hyades star cluster located approximately 153 Ly from us. V471 Tau is considered to be the end-product of common-envelope binary star evolution and is currently a pre-CV system. V471 Tau serves as a valuable astrophysical laboratory for studying stellar evolution, white dwarfs, stellar magnetic dynamos, and possible detection of low mass companions using the Light Travel Time (LTT) Effects. Since its discovery as an eclipsing binary in 1970, photometry has been carried out and many eclipse timings have been determined. We have performed an analysis of the available photometric data available on V471 Tauri. The binary system has been the subject of analyses regarding the orbital period. From this analysis several have postulated the existence of a third body in the form of a brown dwarf that is causing periodic variations in the system’s apparent period. In this study we combine ground based data with photometry secured recently from the Kepler K2 mission. After detrending and phasing the available data, we are able to compare the changing period of the eclipsing binary system against predictions on the existence of this third body. The results of the analysis will be presented. This research is sponsored by grants from NASA and NSF for which we are very grateful.

  11. Spectral and photometric analysis of the eclipsing binary epsilon Aurigae prior to and during the 2009-2011 eclipse

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chadima, P.; Harmanec, P.; Bennett, P.D.; Kloppenborg, B.; Stencel, R.; Yang, S.; Božić, H.; Šlechta, Miroslav; Kotková, Lenka; Wolf, M.; Škoda, Petr; Votruba, Viktor; Hopkins, J.L.; Buil, C.; Sudar, D.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 530, June (2011), A146/1-A146/13 ISSN 0004-6361 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : variables stars * binaries * eclipsing Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.587, year: 2011

  12. Cratering Studies in Thin Plastic Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, A. J.; Bugiel, S.; Gruen, E.; Hillier, J.; Horanyi, M.; Munsat, T. L.; Srama, R.

    2013-12-01

    Thin plastic films, such as Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF), have been used as protective coatings or dust detectors on a number of missions including the Dust Counter and Mass Analyzer (DUCMA) instrument on Vega 1 and 2, the High Rate Detector (HRD) on the Cassini Mission, and the Student Dust Counter (SDC) on New Horizons. These types of detectors can be used on the lunar surface or in lunar orbit to detect dust grain size distributions and velocities. Due to their low power requirements and light weight, large surface area detectors can be built for observing low dust fluxes. The SDC dust detector is made up of a permanently polarized layer of PVDF coated on both sides with a thin layer (≈ 1000 Å) of aluminum nickel. The operation principle is that a micrometeorite impact removes a portion of the metal surface layer exposing the permanently polarized PVDF underneath. This causes a local potential near the crater changing the surface charge of the metal layer. The dimensions and shape of the crater determine the strength of the potential and thus the signal generated by the PVDF. The theoretical basis for signal interpretation uses a crater diameter scaling law which was not intended for use with PVDF. In this work, a crater size scaling law has been experimentally determined, and further simulation work is being done to enhance our understanding of the mechanisms of crater formation. LS-Dyna, a smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) code from the Livermore Software Technology Corp. was chosen to simulate micrometeorite impacts. SPH is known to be well suited to the large deformities found in hypervelocity impacts. It is capable of incorporating key physics phenomena, including fracture, heat transfer, melting, etc. Furthermore, unlike Eulerian methods, SPH is gridless allowing large deformities without the inclusion of unphysical erosion algorithms. Material properties are accounted for using the Grüneisen Equation of State. The results of the SPH model can

  13. Attenuation measures of the BrainLAB imaging couch and validation on the treatment planning system Eclipse; Medidas de atenuacao da mesa BrainLAB imaging couch e validacao no sistema de planejamento Eclipse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serante, Alexandre R., E-mail: alexandre.serante@gmail.com [Clinica de Radioterapia Inga, Nitero, RJ (Brazil); Goncalves, Joao G. [Instituto Oncologico, Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil); Neves-Junior, Wellington F.P.; Leite, Joao Paulo S.; Haddad, Cecilia M.K. [Hospital Sirio-Libanes, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Servico de Radioterapia. Sociedade Beneficente de Senhoras

    2015-12-15

    In this work, attenuation measurements were performed for the beams of energy 6 and 15MV for the couch table BrainLAB Imaging Couch, consisting of carbon fiber. The measurements were performed in the Linac Novalis-Tx (Varian) for 5 x 5 and 10 x 10 cm² field sizes, varying gantry positions. The measured data were compared with the values calculated with the treatment planning system Eclipse, calculated with the algorithm AAA, in order to validate the model of the couch included in your library. The highest attenuation for the field size of 10 x 10 cm² was 7,5% and 4,8% for the beams 6 and 15 MV, respectively. With the field size of 5 x 5 cm² the highest attenuation value was 8,1% and 5,3%, for the beams 6 and 15 MV, respectively. Both measured at gantry position 120 deg C. From the attenuation data measured with an ionization chamber, it was possible to modify the model of the couch in Eclipse to obtain the smallest difference between measured and predicted values by the TPS. (author)

  14. Morphological Indicators of a Mascon Beneath Ceres's Largest Crater, Kerwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bland, M. T.; Ermakov, A. I.; Raymond, C. A.; Williams, D. A.; Bowling, T. J.; Preusker, F.; Park, R. S.; Marchi, S.; Castillo-Rogez, J. C.; Fu, R. R.; Russell, C. T.

    2018-02-01

    Gravity data of Ceres returned by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Dawn spacecraft is consistent with a lower density crust of variable thickness overlying a higher density mantle. Crustal thickness variations can affect the long-term, postimpact modification of impact craters on Ceres. Here we show that the unusual morphology of the 280 km diameter crater Kerwan may result from viscous relaxation in an outer layer that thins substantially beneath the crater floor. We propose that such a structure is consistent with either impact-induced uplift of the high-density mantle beneath the crater or from volatile loss during the impact event. In either case, the subsurface structure inferred from the crater morphology is superisostatic, and the mass excess would result in a positive Bouguer anomaly beneath the crater, consistent with the highest-degree gravity data from Dawn. Ceres joins the Moon, Mars, and Mercury in having basin-associated gravity anomalies, although their origin may differ substantially.

  15. A schematic model of crater modification by gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melosh, H. J.

    1982-01-01

    The morphology of craters found on planets and moons of the solar system is examined and a development model which can account for the observed crater characteristics is discussed. The prompt collapse of craters to form flat floors, terraced walls, and central peak structures is considered to be the result of an approximate Bingham plastic rheology of the material surrounding the crater. This rheology is induced dynamically by the strong incoherent acoustic 'noise' accompanying excavation of the crater. Central pits, peak rings, and other multiple symmetric-profile rings originate by oscillation of this fluid. Large craters with transient depths comparable to the lithosphere thickness are subject to collapse by fragmentation of the lithosphere as well as fluidization. The considered concepts are developed mathematically. A model emerges which appears capable of explaining most of the qualitative features of large impact structures.

  16. KEPLER ECLIPSING BINARY STARS. III. CLASSIFICATION OF KEPLER ECLIPSING BINARY LIGHT CURVES WITH LOCALLY LINEAR EMBEDDING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matijevič, Gal; Prša, Andrej; Orosz, Jerome A.; Welsh, William F.; Bloemen, Steven; Barclay, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    We present an automated classification of 2165 Kepler eclipsing binary (EB) light curves that accompanied the second Kepler data release. The light curves are classified using locally linear embedding, a general nonlinear dimensionality reduction tool, into morphology types (detached, semi-detached, overcontact, ellipsoidal). The method, related to a more widely used principal component analysis, produces a lower-dimensional representation of the input data while preserving local geometry and, consequently, the similarity between neighboring data points. We use this property to reduce the dimensionality in a series of steps to a one-dimensional manifold and classify light curves with a single parameter that is a measure of 'detachedness' of the system. This fully automated classification correlates well with the manual determination of morphology from the data release, and also efficiently highlights any misclassified objects. Once a lower-dimensional projection space is defined, the classification of additional light curves runs in a negligible time and the method can therefore be used as a fully automated classifier in pipeline structures. The classifier forms a tier of the Kepler EB pipeline that pre-processes light curves for the artificial intelligence based parameter estimator.

  17. Geological mapping of lunar highland crater Lalande: Topographic configuration, morphology and cratering process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Ling, Zongcheng; Zhang, Jiang; Chen, Jian; Liu, ChangQing; Bi, Xiangyu

    2018-02-01

    Highland crater Lalande (4.45°S, 8.63°W; D = 23.4 km) is located on the PKT area of the lunar near side, southeast of the Mare Insularum. It is a complex crater in Copernican era and has three distinguishing features: high silicic anomaly, the highest Th abundance and special landforms on its floor. There are some low-relief bulges on the left of Lalande's floor with regular circle or ellipse shapes. They are ∼250-680 m wide and ∼30-91 m high with maximum flank slopes >20°. There are two possible scenarios for the formation of these low-relief bulges which are impact melt products or young silicic volcanic eruptions. We estimated the absolute model ages of the ejecta deposits, several melt ponds and the hummocky floor and determined the ratio of diameter and depth of the crater Lalande. In addition, we found some similar bugle features within other Copernican-aged craters and there were no volcanic source vents on Lalande's floor. Thus, we hypothesized that these low-relief bulges were most consistent with an origin of impact melts during the crater formation instead of small and young volcanic activities occurring on the floor. Based on Kaguya Terrain Camera (TC) ortho-mosaic and Digital Terrain Model (DTM) data produced by TC imagery in stereo, geological units and some linear features on the floor and wall of Lalande have been mapped. Eight geological units are organized by crater floor units: hummocky floor, central peak and low-relief bulges; and crater wall units: terraced walls, channeled and veneered walls, interior walls, mass wasting areas, blocky areas, and melt ponds. These geological units and linear features provided us a chance to understand some details of the cratering process and elevation differences on the floor. We proposed that subsidence due to melt cooling, late-stage wall collapse and rocks uplifted from beneath the surface could be the possible causes of the observed elevation differences on Lalande's floor.

  18. Impact spacecraft imagery and comparative morphology of craters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moutsoulas, M.; Piteri, S.

    1979-01-01

    The use of hard-landing 'simple' missions for wide-scale planetary exploration is considered. As an example of their imagery potentialities, Ranger VII data are used for the study of the morphological characteristics of 16 Mare Cognitum craters. The morphological patterns of lunar craters, expressed in terms of the Depth/Diameter ratios appear to be in most cases independent of the crater location or size. (Auth.)

  19. Crater populations in the early history of Mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guest, J.E.; Gault, D.E.

    1976-01-01

    Crater populations on two major geologic units of Mercury have been classified into three morphologic types which characterize their state of degradation. The results indicate that one or more processes either prior to or contemporary with the formation of the 1300 km diameter Caloris Planitia reduced the population of fresh craters smaller than 70--80 km diameter and totally erased the population of fresh craters smaller than 20--30 km

  20. Geologic map of Tooting crater, Amazonis Planitia region of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouginis-Mark, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Tooting crater has a diameter of 27.2 km, and formed on virtually flat lava flows within Amazonis Planitia ~1,300 km west of the summit of Olympus Mons volcano, where there appear to have been no other major topographic features prior to the impact. The crater formed in an area ~185 x 135 km that is at an elevation between −3,870 m and −3,874 m relative to the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) Mars datum. This fortuitous situation (for example, a bland, horizontal target) allows the geometry of the crater and the thickness of the ejecta blanket to be accurately determined by subtracting the appropriate elevation of the surrounding landscape (−3,872 m) from the individual MOLA measurements across the crater. Thus, for the first time, it is possible to determine the radial decrease of ejecta thickness as a function of distance away from the rim crest. On the basis of the four discrete ejecta layers surrounding the crater cavity, Tooting crater is classified as a Multiple-Layered Ejecta (MLE) crater. By virtue of the asymmetric distribution of secondary craters and the greater thickness of ejecta to the northeast, Morris and others (2010) proposed that Tooting crater formed by an oblique impact from the southwest. The maximum range of blocks that produced identifiable secondary craters is ~500 km (~36.0 crater radii) from the northeast rim crest. In contrast, secondary craters are only identifiable ~215 km (15.8 radii) to the southeast and 225 km (16.5 radii) to the west.

  1. Determining long-term regional erosion rates using impact craters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hergarten, Stefan; Kenkmann, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    More than 300,000 impact craters have been found on Mars, while the surface of Moon's highlands is even saturated with craters. In contrast, only 184 impact craters have been confirmed on Earth so far with only 125 of them exposed at the surface. The spatial distribution of these impact craters is highly inhomogeneous. Beside the large variation in the age of the crust, consumption of craters by erosion and burial by sediments are the main actors being responsible for the quite small and inhomogeneous crater record. In this study we present a novel approach to infer long-term average erosion rates at regional scales from the terrestrial crater inventory. The basic idea behind this approach is a dynamic equilibrium between the production of new craters and their consumption by erosion. It is assumed that each crater remains detectable until the total erosion after the impact exceeds a characteristic depth depending on the crater's diameter. Combining this model with the terrestrial crater production rate, i.e., the number of craters per unit area and time as a function of their diameter, allows for a prediction of the expected number of craters in a given region as a function of the erosion rate. Using the real crater inventory, this relationship can be inverted to determine the regional long-term erosion rate and its statistical uncertainty. A limitation by the finite age of the crust can also be taken into account. Applying the method to the Colorado Plateau and the Deccan Traps, both being regions with a distinct geological history, yields erosion rates in excellent agreement with those obtained by other, more laborious methods. However, these rates are formally exposed to large statistical uncertainties due to the small number of impact craters. As higher crater densities are related to lower erosion rates, smaller statistical errors can be expected when large regions in old parts of the crust are considered. Very low long-term erosion rates of less than 4

  2. Floor-Fractured Craters through Machine Learning Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorey, C.

    2015-12-01

    Floor-fractured craters are impact craters that have undergone post impact deformations. They are characterized by shallow floors with a plate-like or convex appearance, wide floor moats, and radial, concentric, and polygonal floor-fractures. While the origin of these deformations has long been debated, it is now generally accepted that they are the result of the emplacement of shallow magmatic intrusions below their floor. These craters thus constitute an efficient tool to probe the importance of intrusive magmatism from the lunar surface. The most recent catalog of lunar-floor fractured craters references about 200 of them, mainly located around the lunar maria Herein, we will discuss the possibility of using machine learning algorithms to try to detect new floor-fractured craters on the Moon among the 60000 craters referenced in the most recent catalogs. In particular, we will use the gravity field provided by the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission, and the topographic dataset obtained from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) instrument to design a set of representative features for each crater. We will then discuss the possibility to design a binary supervised classifier, based on these features, to discriminate between the presence or absence of crater-centered intrusion below a specific crater. First predictions from different classifier in terms of their accuracy and uncertainty will be presented.

  3. Surface age of venus: use of the terrestrial cratering record

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaber, G.G.; Shoemaker, E.M.; Kozak, R.C.

    1987-01-01

    The average crater age of Venus' northern hemisphere may be less than 250 m.y. assuming equivalence between the recent terrestrial cratering rate and that on Venus for craters ≥ 20 km in diameter. For craters larger than this threshold size, below which crater production is significantly affected by the Venusian atmosphere, there are fairly strong observational grounds for concluding that such an equivalence in cratering rates on Venus and Earth may exist. However, given the uncertainties in the role of both active and inactive comet nuclei in the cratering history of Earth, we conclude that the age of the observed surface in the northern hemisphere of Venus could be as great as the 450-m.y. mean age of the Earth's crust. The observed surface of Venus might be even older, but no evidence from the crater observations supports an age as great as 1 b.y. If the age of the observed Venusian surface were 1 b.y., it probably should bear the impact scars of a half dozen or more large comet nuclei that penetrated the atmosphere and formed craters well over 100 km in diameter. Venera 15/16 mapped only about 25% of Venus; the remaining 75% may tell us a completely different story

  4. Characteristics of ejecta and alluvial deposits at Meteor Crater, Arizona and Odessa Craters, Texas: Results from ground penetrating radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, J. A.; Schultz, P. H.

    1991-01-01

    Previous ground penetrating radar (GRP) studies around 50,000 year old Meteor Crater revealed the potential for rapid, inexpensive, and non-destructive sub-surface investigations for deep reflectors (generally greater than 10 m). New GRP results are summarized focusing the shallow sub-surfaces (1-2 m) around Meteor Crater and the main crater at Odessa. The following subject areas are covered: (1) the thickness, distribution, and nature of the contact between surrounding alluvial deposits and distal ejecta; and (2) stratigraphic relationships between both the ejecta and alluvium derived from both pre and post crater drainages. These results support previous conclusions indicating limited vertical lowering (less than 1 m) of the distal ejecta at Meteor Crater and allow initial assessment of the gradational state if the Odessa craters.

  5. Empirical yield tables for Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerold T. Hahn; Gerhard K. Raile

    1982-01-01

    Describes the tables derived from the 1977 Forest Survey of Minnesota and presents examples of how the tables can be used. These tables are broken down according to Minnesota's four Forest Survey Units, 14 forest types, and 5 site index classes. Presents 210 of the 350 possible tables that contained sufficient data to justify publication.

  6. X-ray table

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, J.R.; Otto, G.W.

    1980-01-01

    An X-ray radiographic or fluoroscopic table is described which includes a film holder with a frame attached to a cable running over end pulleys for positioning the holder longitudinally as desired under the table top. The holder has a front opening to receive a cassette-supporting tray which can be slid out on tracks to change the cassette. A reed switch on the frame is opened by a permanent magnet on the tray only when the tray is half-way out. When the switch is closed, an electromagnet locks the pulley and the holder in place. The holder is thus automatically locked in place not only during exposure (tray in) but when the tray is out for changing the cassette. To re-position the holder, the operator pulls the tray half-out and, using the tray itself, pushes the holder along the table, the holder being counterbalanced by a weight. (author)

  7. Table Tennis Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Table Tennis Club

    2012-01-01

    The CERN Table Tennis club and the Meyrin CTT are organizing two Table Tennis workshops from 2 to 6 July and from 20 to 24 August 2012 inclusive in Meyrin. A professional would be with your children from 14.00 pm to 18.00 pm: an instructor J + S category A. Training courses with specific themes, individual courses would be given depending on the level of the child’s game, “discoveries –table tennis games” courses and games with the robot. Other activities (stretching, relaxation). Afternoons (from 18 to 20 children): 40 CHF per workshop and per child. Evenings (from 18 to 20 adults): 60 CHF per workshop and per adult. For further information, please contact Mr. Monteil : Mobile: (+33) 06 61 31 70 47 E-mail: wilfried.monteil@free.fr.

  8. Periodic table of elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluck, E.; Heumann, K.G.

    1985-01-01

    Following a recommendation by the International Union for Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC), the groups of the periodic table shall be numbered from 1 to 18, instead of I to VIII as before. The recommendations has been approved of by the Committee on Nomenclature of the American Chemical Society. The new system abandons the distinction between main groups (a) and auxiliary groups (b), which in the past frequently has been the reason for misunderstandings between European and American chemists, due to different handling. The publishing house VCH Verlagsgesellschaft recently produced a new periodic table that shows the old and the new numbering system together at a glance, so that chemists will have time to get familiar with the new system. In addition the new periodic table represents an extensive data compilation arranged by elements. The front page lists the chemical properties of elements, the back page their physical properties. (orig./EF) [de

  9. Geochemical studies of the White Breccia Boulders at North Ray Crater, Descartes region of the lunar highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, M. M.; Lindstrom, D. J.; Lum, R. K. L.; Schuhmann, P. J.; Nava, D. F.; Schuhmann, S.; Philpotts, J. A.; Winzer, S. R.

    1977-01-01

    The samples of the White Breccia Boulders obtained during the Apollo 16 mission and investigated in the reported study include an anorthositic breccia (67415), a dark matrix breccia (67435), a light matrix breccia (67455), and a large clast of dark matrix breccia (67475) taken from the 67455 boulder. The chemical analyses of bulk samples of the samples are listed in a table. A graph shows the lithophile trace element abundances. Another graph indicates the variation of Sm with Al2O3 content for samples from the White Breccia Boulders. The North Ray Crater breccias are found to be in general slightly more aluminous than breccias from the other stations at the Apollo 16 site. Analyses of eight Apollo 16 breccias cited in the literature range from 25% to 35% Al2O3. However, the North Ray Crater breccias are more clearly distinct from the other Apollo 16 breccias in their contents of lithophile trace elements.

  10. A model for the dynamics of crater-centered intrusion: Application to lunar floor-fractured craters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorey, Clément; Michaut, Chloé

    2014-01-01

    Lunar floor-fractured craters are a class of craters modified by post-impact mechanisms. They are defined by distinctive shallow floors that are convex or plate-like, sometimes with a wide floor moat bordering the wall region. Radial, concentric, and polygonal floor fractures suggest an endogenous process of modification. Two mechanisms have been proposed to account for such deformations: viscous relaxation and spreading of a magma intrusion at depth below the crater. To test the second assumption and bring more constraints on the intrusion process, we develop a model for the dynamics of magma spreading below an elastic overlying layer with a crater-like topography. As predicted in earlier more qualitative studies, the increase in lithostatic pressure at the crater wall zone prevents the intrusion from spreading laterally, leading to the thickening of the intrusion. Additionally, our model shows that the final crater floor appearance after the uplift, which can be convex or flat, with or without a circular moat bordering the wall zone, depends on the elastic thickness of the layer overlying the intrusion and on the crater size. Our model provides a simple formula to derive the elastic thickness of the overlying layer hence a minimum estimate for the intrusion depth. Finally, our model suggests that crust redistribution by cratering must have controlled magma ascent below most of these craters.

  11. Interpretation of eclipsing light curves of dwarf novae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matvienko, A.N.; Cherepashchuk, A.M.; Yagola, A.G.

    1988-01-01

    The method for interpretation of eclipsing light curves of dwarf novae is proposed, taking into account the influence of the hot spot situated in the outer part of the disk-like envelope surrounding a white dwarf. This method is applied to the analysis of the eclipsing light curves of the system Z Cha in the quiet and active stages. It is shown that the optical luminosity of the hot spot in the system Z Cha in the active stage is 3-5 times greater than that in the quiet stage. Radius of the disk-like envelope in the active stage is more than twice greater than that in the quiet stage

  12. Changes in environmental radon related with the day eclipse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaso P, M.I.; Cervantes, M.L.; Segovia A, N.; Espindola, V.H.

    1992-05-01

    Systematic studies of radon and of gamma dose in air in the Nuclear Center of Mexico during a period of nine months that include the total Sun eclipse happened at July 11, 1991 were carried out. The radon concentrations were measured with an electronic equipment that measures in continuous form and the rate of gamma dose in air was obtained with a ionization chamber. The results show that the radon fluctuations in air are influenced by the meteorological changes showing behaviors different to long and short term. The variations of long term are correlated directly with the external temperature while those of short term have an inverse relationship with the temperature. These last results are discussed regarding drastic atmospheric changes happened in the period and those light changes result of the total Sun eclipse. The rate of gamma dose in air showed stability during the study. (Author)

  13. Photometric study of the pulsating, eclipsing binary OO DRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, X. B.; Deng, L. C.; Tian, J. F.; Wang, K.; Yan, Z. Z.; Luo, C. Q.; Sun, J. J.; Liu, Q. L.; Xin, H. Q.; Zhou, Q.; Luo, Z. Q.

    2014-01-01

    We present a comprehensive photometric study of the pulsating, eclipsing binary OO Dra. Simultaneous B- and V-band photometry of the star was carried out on 14 nights. A revised orbital period and a new ephemeris were derived from the data. The first photometric solution of the binary system and the physical parameters of the component stars are determined. They reveal that OO Dra could be a detached system with a less-massive secondary component nearly filling its Roche lobe. By subtracting the eclipsing light changes from the data, we obtained the intrinsic pulsating light curves of the hotter, massive primary component. A frequency analysis of the residual light yields two confident pulsation modes in both B- and V-band data with the dominant frequency detected at 41.865 c/d. A brief discussion concerning the evolutionary status and the pulsation nature of the binary system is finally given.

  14. The 2017 Total Solar Eclipse: Through the Eyes of NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Louis; NASA Goddard Heliophysics Education Consortium

    2017-10-01

    The August 21st, 2017 Total Solar Eclipse Across America provided a unique opportunity to teach event-based science to nationwide audiences. NASA spent over three years planning space and Earth science education programs for informal audiences, undergraduate institutions, and life long learners to bring this celestial event to the public through the eyes of NASA. This talk outlines how NASA used its unique assets including mission scientists and engineers, space based assets, citizen science, educational technology, science visualization, and its wealth of science and technology partners to bring the eclipse to the country through multimedia, cross-discipline science activities, curricula, and media programing. Audience reach, impact, and lessons learned are detailed. Plans for similar events in 2018 and beyond are outlined.

  15. Solar eclipses as a vehicle for international astronomy education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasachoff, J. M.

    The public's attention is drawn to astronomy whenever solar eclipse - partial, annular, or total - is visible, and we must take advantage of the opportunity to teach about the nature of science, the ability of astronomers to predict and analyze distant bodies and events, and the value of scientific research. We must also instruct people how to watch the partial and annular phases safely and that the total phase is not harmful.

  16. Tapir: A web interface for transit/eclipse observability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Eric

    2013-06-01

    Tapir is a set of tools, written in Perl, that provides a web interface for showing the observability of periodic astronomical events, such as exoplanet transits or eclipsing binaries. The package provides tools for creating finding charts for each target and airmass plots for each event. The code can access target lists that are stored on-line in a Google spreadsheet or in a local text file.

  17. Infrared observations of the eclipsing millisecond pulsar 1957 + 20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eales, S.A.; Becklin, E.E.; Zuckerman, B.

    1990-01-01

    We have taken 2.2-μm images, over the entire range of orbital phase, of the eclipsing millisecond pulsar 1957 + 20. We show that the 2.2-μm flux from the pulsar system is variable, and that the infrared light curve is similar to the optical light curve. Four additional images at 1.2 μm show that there is a possible infrared excess from the system. (author)

  18. Martin Buber: eclipse de Deus e o Holocausto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Somberg Pfeffer

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: Este artigo analisa a questão da eclipse de Deus em Martin Buber. A experiência religiosa israelita parte de duas compreensões convergentes de Deus: Ele é o senhor da história e criador do mundo e do homem. Tudo que existe não se explica por si mesmo, tudo se remete ao criador. A partir desse ponto de vista, serão enfocados Deus e o Holocausto.

  19. Cratering record in the inner solar system: Implications for earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barlow, N.G.

    1988-01-01

    Internal and external processes have reworked the Earth's surface throughout its history. In particular, the effect of meteorite impacts on the early history of the earth is lost due to fluvial, aeolian, volcanic and plate tectonic action. The cratering record on other inner solar system bodies often provides the only clue to the relative cratering rates and intensities that the earth has experienced throughout its history. Of the five major bodies within the inner solar system, Mercury, Mars, and the Moon retain scars of an early episode of high impact rates. The heavily cratered regions on Mercury, Mars, and the Moon show crater size-frequency distribution curves similar in shape and crater density, whereas the lightly cratered plains on the Moon and Mars show distribution curves which, although similar to each other, are statistically different in shape and density from the more heavily cratered units. The similarities among crater size-frequency distribution curves for the Moon, Mercury, and Mars suggest that the entire inner solar system was subjected to the two populations of impacting objects but Earth and Venus have lost their record of heavy bombardment impactors. Thus, based on the cratering record on the Moon, Mercury, and Mars, it can be inferred that the Earth experienced a period of high crater rates and basin formation prior to about 3.8 BY ago. Recent studies have linked mass extinctions to large terrestrial impacts, so life forms were unable to establish themselves until impact rates decreased substantially and terrestrial conditions became more benign. The possible periodicity of mass extinctions has led to the theory of fluctuating impact rates due to comet showers in the post heavy bombardment period. The active erosional environment on the Earth complicates attempts to verify these showers by erasing geological evidence of older impact craters

  20. Observational constraints on the identification of shallow lunar magmatism : insights from floor-fractured craters

    OpenAIRE

    Jozwiak, Lauren; Head, James; Neumann, G. A.; Wilson, Lionel

    2017-01-01

    Floor-fractured craters are a class of lunar crater hypothesized to form in response to the emplacement of a shallow magmatic intrusion beneath the crater floor. The emplacement of a shallow magmatic body should result in a positive Bouguer anomaly relative to unaltered complex craters, a signal which is observed for the average Bouguer anomaly interior to the crater walls. We observe the Bouguer anomaly of floor-fractured craters on an individual basis using the unfiltered Bouguer gravity so...

  1. Detection of lunar floor-fractured craters using machine learning methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorey, C.

    2015-10-01

    About 200 Floor Fractured Craters (FFCs) have been identified by Schultz (1976) on the Moon, mainly around the lunar maria. These craters are a class of impact craters that are distinguished by having radi-ally and concentric floor-fractured networks and ab-normally shallow floors. In some cases, the uplift of the crater floor can be as large as 50% of the initial crater depth. These impact craters are interpreted to have undergone endogenous deformations after their formation.

  2. Investigating the Impact of a Solar Eclipse on Atmospheric Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fender, Josh; Morse, Justin; Ringler, John; Galovich, Cynthia; Kuehn, Charles A.; Semak, Matthew

    2018-06-01

    We present a project that measured atmospheric muon flux as a function of altitude during a total solar eclipse. An auxiliary goal was to design and build a cost-effective muon detection device that is simple enough for those with minimal training to build. The detector is part of a self-contained autonomous payload that is carried to altitude aboard a weather balloon. The detection system consists of three Geiger counters connected to a coincidence circuit. This system, along with internal and external temperature sensors and an altimeter, are controlled by an onboard Arduino Mega microcontroller. An internal frame was constructed to house and protect the payload components using modular 3D-printed parts. The payload was launched during the 2017 solar eclipse from Guernsey, Wyoming, along the path of totality. Initial data analysis indicates that line-of-sight blockage of the sun due to a total eclipse produces a negligible difference in muon flux when compared to the results of previous daytime flights. The successful performance of the payload, its low overall cost, and its ease of use suggest that this project would be well-suited for individuals or groups such as high school or undergraduate science students to reproduce and enhance.

  3. TIDALLY INDUCED PULSATIONS IN KEPLER ECLIPSING BINARY KIC 3230227

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Zhao; Gies, Douglas R. [Center for High Angular Resolution Astronomy and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, P.O. Box 5060, Atlanta, GA 30302-5060 (United States); Fuller, Jim, E-mail: guo@astro.gsu.edu, E-mail: gies@chara.gsu.edu, E-mail: jfuller@caltech.edu [TAPIR, Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, Mailcode 350-17, Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2017-01-01

    KIC 3230227 is a short period (P  ≈ 7.0 days) eclipsing binary with a very eccentric orbit ( e  = 0.6). From combined analysis of radial velocities and Kepler light curves, this system is found to be composed of two A-type stars, with masses of M {sub 1} = 1.84 ± 0.18  M {sub ⊙}, M {sub 2} = 1.73 ± 0.17  M {sub ⊙} and radii of R {sub 1} = 2.01 ± 0.09  R {sub ⊙}, R {sub 2} = 1.68 ± 0.08 R {sub ⊙} for the primary and secondary, respectively. In addition to an eclipse, the binary light curve shows a brightening and dimming near periastron, making this a somewhat rare eclipsing heartbeat star system. After removing the binary light curve model, more than 10 pulsational frequencies are present in the Fourier spectrum of the residuals, and most of them are integer multiples of the orbital frequency. These pulsations are tidally driven, and both the amplitudes and phases are in agreement with predictions from linear tidal theory for l  = 2, m  = −2 prograde modes.

  4. Spitzer Secondary Eclipses of HAT-P-13b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Ryan A.; Harrington, J.; Hardin, M. R.; Madhusudhan, N.; Cubillos, P.; Blecic, J.; Bakos, G.; Hartman, J. D.

    2013-10-01

    HAT-P-13 b is a transiting hot Jupiter with a slightly eccentric orbit (e = 0.010) inhabiting a two-planet system. The two-planet arrangement provides an opportunity to probe the interior structure of HAT-P-13b. Under equilibrium-tide theory and confirmation that the apsides of planets b and c are in alignment, a measurement of the planet's eccentricity can be related to the planet's tidal Love number k2, which describes the central condensation of the planet's mass and its deformation under tidal effects. A measurement of k2 could constrain interior models of HAT-P-13b. HAT-P-13b's orbit is configured favorably for refinement of the eccentricity by secondary eclipse timing observations, which provide direct measurements of ecosω. In 2010, Spitzer observed two secondary eclipses of HAT-P-13b in the 3.6- and 4.5-μm IRAC bandpasses. We present secondary eclipse times and depths; joint models of the HAT-P-13 system that incorporate transit photometry and radial velocity data; and constraints on the atmospheric chemistry of HAT-P-13b that suggest solar-abundance composition without a thermal inversion. Spitzer is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with NASA, which provided support for this work. This work was supported in part by NASA Planetary Atmospheres Grant NNX13AF38G.

  5. Nationwide network of total solar eclipse high altitude balloon flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Des Jardins, A. C.

    2017-12-01

    Three years ago we envisioned tapping into the strength of the National Space Grant Program to make the most of a rare astronomical event to engage the general public through education and to create meaningful long-lasting partnerships with other private and public entities. We believe strongly in giving student participants career-making opportunities through the use of the most cutting edge tools, resources, and communication. The NASA Space Grant network was in a unique position to engage the public in the eclipse in an awe-inspiring and educational way at a surprisingly small cost. In addition to public engagement, the multidisciplinary project presented an in-depth hands-on learning opportunity for the thousands of student participants. The project used a network of high altitude ballooning teams positioned along the path of totality from Oregon to South Carolina to conduct coordinated collaborative activities during the eclipse. These activities included 1) capturing and streaming live video of the eclipse from near space, 2) partnering with NASA Ames on a space biology experiment, and 3) conducting high-resolution atmospheric radiosonde measurements. This presentation will summarize the challenges, results, lessons learned, and professional evaluation from developing, training, and coordinating the collaboration. Details of the live streaming HD video and radiosonde activities are described in separate submissions to this session.

  6. Solar-system Education for the 2017 Total Solar Eclipse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.

    2017-10-01

    I describe an extensive outreach program about the Sun, the silhouette of the Moon, and the circumstances both celestial and terrestrial of the August 21, 2017, total solar eclipse. Publications included a summary of the last decade of solar-eclipse research for Nature Astronomy, a Resource Letter on Observing Solar Eclipses for the American Journal of Physics, and book reviews for Nature and for Phi Beta Kappa's Key Reporter. Symposia arranged include sessions at AAS, APS, AGU, and AAAS. Lectures include all ages from pre-school through elementary school to high school to senior-citizen residences. The work, including the scientific research about the solar corona that is not part of this abstract, was supported by grants from the Solar Terrestrial Program of the Atmospheric and Geospace Sciences Division of NSF and from the Committee for Research and Exploration of the National Geographic Society. Additional student support was received from NSF, NASA's Massachusetts Space Grant Consortium, the Honorary Research Society Sigma Xi, the Clare Booth Luce Foundation, and funds at Williams College.

  7. A New Orbit for the Eclipsing Binary V577 Oph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, Elizabeth J.; Barnes, Thomas G., III; Skillen, Ian; Montemayor, Thomas J.

    2017-09-01

    Pulsating stars in eclipsing binary systems are unique objects for providing constraints on stellar models. To fully leverage the information available from the binary system, full orbital radial velocity curves must be obtained. We report 23 radial velocities for components of the eclipsing binary V577 Oph, whose primary star is a δ Sct variable. The velocities cover a nearly complete orbit and a time base of 20 years. We computed orbital elements for the binary and compared them to the ephemeris computed by Creevey et al. The comparison shows marginally different results. In particular, a change in the systemic velocity by -2 km s-1 is suggested by our results. We compare this systemic velocity difference to that expected due to reflex motion of the binary in response to the third body in the system. The systemic velocity difference is consistent with reflex motion, given our mass determination for the eclipsing binary and the orbital parameters determined by Volkov & Volkova for the three-body orbit. We see no evidence for the third body in our spectra, but we do see strong interstellar Na D lines that are consistent in strength with the direction and expected distance of V577 Oph.

  8. PHYSICS OF ECLIPSING BINARIES. II. TOWARD THE INCREASED MODEL FIDELITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prša, A.; Conroy, K. E.; Horvat, M.; Kochoska, A.; Hambleton, K. M. [Villanova University, Dept. of Astrophysics and Planetary Sciences, 800 E Lancaster Avenue, Villanova PA 19085 (United States); Pablo, H. [Université de Montréal, Pavillon Roger-Gaudry, 2900, boul. Édouard-Montpetit Montréal QC H3T 1J4 (Canada); Bloemen, S. [Radboud University Nijmegen, Department of Astrophysics, IMAPP, P.O. Box 9010, 6500 GL, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Giammarco, J. [Eastern University, Dept. of Astronomy and Physics, 1300 Eagle Road, St. Davids, PA 19087 (United States); Degroote, P. [KU Leuven, Instituut voor Sterrenkunde, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium)

    2016-12-01

    The precision of photometric and spectroscopic observations has been systematically improved in the last decade, mostly thanks to space-borne photometric missions and ground-based spectrographs dedicated to finding exoplanets. The field of eclipsing binary stars strongly benefited from this development. Eclipsing binaries serve as critical tools for determining fundamental stellar properties (masses, radii, temperatures, and luminosities), yet the models are not capable of reproducing observed data well, either because of the missing physics or because of insufficient precision. This led to a predicament where radiative and dynamical effects, insofar buried in noise, started showing up routinely in the data, but were not accounted for in the models. PHOEBE (PHysics Of Eclipsing BinariEs; http://phoebe-project.org) is an open source modeling code for computing theoretical light and radial velocity curves that addresses both problems by incorporating missing physics and by increasing the computational fidelity. In particular, we discuss triangulation as a superior surface discretization algorithm, meshing of rotating single stars, light travel time effects, advanced phase computation, volume conservation in eccentric orbits, and improved computation of local intensity across the stellar surfaces that includes the photon-weighted mode, the enhanced limb darkening treatment, the better reflection treatment, and Doppler boosting. Here we present the concepts on which PHOEBE is built and proofs of concept that demonstrate the increased model fidelity.

  9. A New Orbit for the Eclipsing Binary V577 Oph

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffery, Elizabeth J. [Physics Department, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, CA 93407 (United States); Barnes, Thomas G. III; Montemayor, Thomas J. [The University of Texas at Austin, McDonald Observatory, 1 University Station, C1402, Austin, TX 78712-0259 (United States); Skillen, Ian, E-mail: ejjeffer@calpoly.edu, E-mail: tgb@astro.as.utexas.edu, E-mail: tm@astro.as.utexas.edu, E-mail: wji@ing.iac.es [Isaac Newton Group, Apartado de Correos 321, E-38700 Santa Cruz de La Palma, Canary Islands (Spain)

    2017-09-01

    Pulsating stars in eclipsing binary systems are unique objects for providing constraints on stellar models. To fully leverage the information available from the binary system, full orbital radial velocity curves must be obtained. We report 23 radial velocities for components of the eclipsing binary V577 Oph, whose primary star is a δ Sct variable. The velocities cover a nearly complete orbit and a time base of 20 years. We computed orbital elements for the binary and compared them to the ephemeris computed by Creevey et al. The comparison shows marginally different results. In particular, a change in the systemic velocity by −2 km s{sup −1} is suggested by our results. We compare this systemic velocity difference to that expected due to reflex motion of the binary in response to the third body in the system. The systemic velocity difference is consistent with reflex motion, given our mass determination for the eclipsing binary and the orbital parameters determined by Volkov and Volkova for the three-body orbit. We see no evidence for the third body in our spectra, but we do see strong interstellar Na D lines that are consistent in strength with the direction and expected distance of V577 Oph.

  10. TIDALLY INDUCED PULSATIONS IN KEPLER ECLIPSING BINARY KIC 3230227

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Zhao; Gies, Douglas R.; Fuller, Jim

    2017-01-01

    KIC 3230227 is a short period (P  ≈ 7.0 days) eclipsing binary with a very eccentric orbit ( e  = 0.6). From combined analysis of radial velocities and Kepler light curves, this system is found to be composed of two A-type stars, with masses of M 1  = 1.84 ± 0.18  M ⊙ , M 2  = 1.73 ± 0.17  M ⊙ and radii of R 1  = 2.01 ± 0.09  R ⊙ , R 2  = 1.68 ± 0.08 R ⊙ for the primary and secondary, respectively. In addition to an eclipse, the binary light curve shows a brightening and dimming near periastron, making this a somewhat rare eclipsing heartbeat star system. After removing the binary light curve model, more than 10 pulsational frequencies are present in the Fourier spectrum of the residuals, and most of them are integer multiples of the orbital frequency. These pulsations are tidally driven, and both the amplitudes and phases are in agreement with predictions from linear tidal theory for l  = 2, m  = −2 prograde modes.

  11. High-speed photometry of the eclipsing dwarf nova OY Carinae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, M. C.

    1985-01-01

    High-speed photometry of the eclipsing dwarf nova OY Car in the quiescent state is presented. OY Car becomes highly reddened during eclipse, with minimum flux colours inconsistent with optically thick emission in the U and B bandpasses. Mass ratios in the range 6.5 to 12 are required to reconcile the eclipse structure with theoretical gas stream trajectories. Primary eclipse timings reveal a significant decrease in the orbital period and the duration of primary eclipse indicates the presence of a luminous ring about the white dwarf. The hotspot eclipse reveals a hotspot which is elongated along the rim of the accretion disc, with optical emission being non-uniformly distributed along the rim. The location of the hotspot in the accretion disc implies a disc radius larger than that of an inviscid disc, with variation in the position of the hotspot being consistent with a fixed stream trajectory.

  12. The 1st of April 2470 BC Total Solar Eclipse Seen by the Prophet Ibraheem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousef, S. M.

    The Holy Quran describes a phenomenon seen by young Abraham that can only fit a solar eclipse. Two criteria were given for this particular eclipse; first only one planet was seen as soon as it got dark and second no corona was seen. In order to justify the first selection rule, examinations of solar and planetary longitudes for total solar eclipses passing over Babel were carried out. Only the eclipse of the 1st of April 2470 BC meets this condition, as it was only Venus that was seen at that eclipse. The second selection rule was also naturally fulfilled, as Babel happened to be on the border of the totality zone hence no corona was seen, however all the time the moon glistened as Baily's beads. There is no doubt that the prophet Abraham witnessed the 1st of April total solar eclipse that passed over Babel. This will put him about 470 years backward than it was previously anticipated.

  13. What are the Perspectives of Indonesian Students to Japanese Ritual during Solar Eclipse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haristiani, N.; Rusli, A.; Wiryani, A. S.; Nandiyanto, A. B. D.; Purnamasari, A.; Sucahya, T. N.; Permatasari, N.

    2018-02-01

    In this globalization era, many people still believe the myths about solar eclipse. The myths about solar eclipse are different between one country or are to another. In this context, the aim of this study was to investigate the perspective of Indonesian students in viewing how the Japanese people face their believing myths in solar eclipse. This research also investigated the student belief on several mythical stories in Indonesia, their understanding of the Islamic view, and their knowledge based on science concept relating to the solar eclipse phenomenon. To understand the Indonesian students’ perspective about the solar eclipse myths in Japanese, we took a survey to Indonesian students which are studying Japanese culture and language. Based on the results, the Indonesian student think that there is no significant difference between Indonesian and Japanese people in facing the solar eclipse.

  14. Confirming Variability in the Secondary Eclipse Depth of the Rocky Super-Earth 55 Cancri e

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamburo, Patrick; Mandell, Avi; Deming, Drake; Garhart, Emily

    2017-01-01

    We present a reanalysis of Spitzer transit and secondary eclipse observations of the rocky super Earth 55 Cancri e using Pixel Level Decorrelation (Deming et al. 2015). Secondary eclipses of this planet were found to be significantly variable by Demory et al. (2016), implying a changing brightness temperature which could be evidence of volcanic activity due to tidal forces. If genuine, this result would represent the first evidence for such a process outside of bodies in our own solar system, and would further expand our understanding of the huge variety of planetary systems that can develop in our universe. Spitzer eclipse observations, however, are subject to strong systematic effects which can heavily impact the retrieved eclipse model. A reanalysis of this result with an independent method is therefore needed to confirm eclipse depth variability. We tentatively confirm variability, finding a shallower increase in eclipse depth over the course of observations compared to Demory et al. (2015).

  15. Climate change : transportation table

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogilvie, K.

    1999-01-01

    The Kyoto Protocol sets greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction targets for the post-2000 period. If ratified, Canada will be committed to reduce emissions of GHGs by 6 per cent below 1990 levels during the period 2008-2012. A recommended national strategy is to establish 'issue tables' that will advise the Ministers of Energy and Environment on preferred options to reach the Kyoto target and to identify early actions that can be taken. The 'Transportation Table' which is the focus of this paper, is one of the 15 sectoral tables. The Transportation Table will identify by July 1999, specific measures to mitigate GHG emissions from Canada's transportation sector. Currently, GHG emissions from the transportation sector are predicted to be 27 per cent above 1990 levels by 2010. Fuel taxes, emissions trading, and research into improved vehicle technologies and automotive fuels are some of the recommended options which can help reduce emissions trading from the transportation sector. Studies are underway to deal with emissions from transport in two sub-groups, freight and passenger. 1 fig

  16. Statistical tables 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The energy statistical table is a selection of statistical data for energies and countries from 1997 to 2002. It concerns the petroleum, the natural gas, the coal, the electric power, the production, the external market, the consumption per sector, the energy accounting 2002 and graphs on the long-dated forecasting. (A.L.B.)

  17. A Modern Periodic Table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrenden-Harker, B. D.

    1997-01-01

    Presents a modern Periodic Table based on the electron distribution in the outermost shell and the order of filling of the sublevels within the shells. Enables a student to read off directly the electronic configuration of the element and the order in which filling occurs. (JRH)

  18. Conversion tables. Appendix I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKerrell, H.

    1975-01-01

    Tables are presented for the conversion of standard (5568 year half-life) C-14 dates to calendar years. The major part of the data converts C-14 dates to tree-ring years: additional data are given, based on the Egyptian historical curve. (U.K.)

  19. Impact cratering on porous targets in the strength regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Akiko M.

    2017-12-01

    Cratering on small bodies is crucial for the collision cascade and also contributes to the ejection of dust particles into interplanetary space. A crater cavity forms against the mechanical strength of the surface, gravitational acceleration, or both. The formation of moderately sized craters that are sufficiently larger than the thickness of the regolith on small bodies, in which mechanical strength plays the dominant role rather than gravitational acceleration, is in the strength regime. The formation of microcraters on blocks on the surface is also within the strength regime. On the other hand, the formation of a crater of a size comparable to the thickness of the regolith is affected by both gravitational acceleration and cohesion between regolith particles. In this short review, we compile data from the literature pertaining to impact cratering experiments on porous targets, and summarize the ratio of spall diameter to pit diameter, the depth, diameter, and volume of the crater cavity, and the ratio of depth to diameter. Among targets with various porosities studied in the laboratory to date, based on conventional scaling laws (Holsapple and Schmidt, J. Geophys. Res., 87, 1849-1870, 1982) the cratering efficiency obtained for porous sedimentary rocks (Suzuki et al., J. Geophys. Res. 117, E08012, 2012) is intermediate. A comparison with microcraters formed on a glass target with impact velocities up to 14 km s-1 indicates a different dependence of cratering efficiency and depth-to-diameter ratio on impact velocity.

  20. The 2017 solar eclipse and Majorana & Allais gravity anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munera, Hector A.

    2017-01-01

    Two little known anomalies hint to phenomena beyond current theory. Majorana effect: around 1920 in a series of well-designed experiments with a chemical laboratory balance, Quirino Majorana found in Italy that mercury (Hg) and lead (Pb) might shield terrestrial gravity. Majorana experiments were never repeated by the international scientific community. Instead his results were dismissed on theoretical claims: a) unobserved heating of earth by absorption of gravity, and b) unobserved cyclic lunar perturbation of solar gravity at earth’s surface. However, Majorana critics missed the crucial fact that shielding is not mere absorption, but also scattering, and that atomic number Z of matter in the moon is much lower than Z=80 (Hg) and Z=82 (Pb). From the June 30/1954 solar eclipse onwards, high-quality mechanical gravimeters were used to search for Majorana shielding by the moon. Results are positive, provided that shielding is interpreted as scattering rather than absorption of gravity by moon (H. A. Munera, Physics Essays 24, 428-434, 2011). Allais effect: during the same 1954 eclipse (partial in Paris) Maurice Allais had in operation a sensitive paraconical pendulum for a very different purpose. Surprisingly, the pendulum was perturbed by the eclipse, condition repeated once again in a 1959 solar eclipse, also partial in Paris. During the past sixty years, paraconical, torsion and Foucault pendula, and other mechanical devices, have been used to (dis)confirm Allais effect, but the results are not conclusive thus far. A book edited by this author (Should the laws of gravitation be revised? Apeiron 2011) describes some of those observations. Various unexpected effects, some of them torsional, appear both near the optical shadow, and far away. The Sun-Moon-Earth alignment in a solar eclipse allows detection on the terrestrial surface of the dark matter flow scattered on moon’s surface (flow not hitting earth in other geometries). Rotation of moon may induce

  1. THE ECLIPSING SYSTEM EP ANDROMEDAE AND ITS CIRCUMBINARY COMPANIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Woo; Hinse, Tobias Cornelius; Park, Jang-Ho, E-mail: jwlee@kasi.re.kr, E-mail: tchinse@gmail.com, E-mail: pooh107162@kasi.re.kr [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-15

    We present new long-term CCD photometry for EP And acquired during the period 2007-2012. The light curves display total eclipses at primary minima and season-to-season light variability. Our synthesis for all available light curves indicates that the eclipsing pair is a W-type overcontact binary with parameters of q = 2.578, i = 83. Degree-Sign 3, {Delta}T = 27 K, f = 28%, and l{sub 3} = 2%-3%. The asymmetric light curves in 2007 were satisfactorily modeled by a cool spot on either of the eclipsing components from a magnetic dynamo. Including our 95 timing measurements, a total of 414 times of minimum light spanning about 82 yr was used for a period study. A detailed analysis of the eclipse timing diagram revealed that the orbital period of EP And has varied as a combination of an upward-opening parabola and two periodic variations, with cycle lengths of P{sub 3} = 44.6 yr and P{sub 4} = 1.834 yr and semi-amplitudes of K{sub 3} = 0.0100 days and K{sub 4} = 0.0039 days, respectively. The observed period increase at a fractional rate of +1.39 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -10} is in excellent agreement with that calculated from the W-D code and can be plausibly explained by some combination of mass transfer from the primary to the secondary star and angular momentum loss due to magnetic braking. The most reasonable explanation for both cycles is a pair of light-travel-time effects driven by the possible existence of a third and fourth component with projected masses of M{sub 3} = 0.25 M{sub Sun} and M{sub 4} = 0.90 M{sub Sun }. The more massive companion could be revealed using high-resolution spectroscopic data extending over the course of a few years and could also be a binary itself. It is possible that the circumbinary objects may have played an important role in the formation and evolution of the eclipsing pair, which would cause it to have a short initial orbital period and thus evolve into an overcontact configuration by angular momentum loss.

  2. Evolution of Occator Crater on (1) Ceres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nathues, A.; Platz, T.; Thangjam, G.; Hoffmann, M.; Corre, L. Le; Reddy, V.; Kallisch, J. [Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 3, 37077 Goettingen (Germany); Mengel, K. [IELF, TU Clausthal, Adolph-Roemer-Straße 2A, 38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Cloutis, E. A. [University of Winnipeg, Winnipeg, MB R3B 2E (Canada); Crown, D. A., E-mail: nathues@mps.mpg.de, E-mail: platz@mps.mpg.de, E-mail: thangjam@mps.mpg.de, E-mail: hoffmann@mps.mpg.de, E-mail: kallisch@mps.mpg.de, E-mail: gkmengel@t-online.de, E-mail: e.cloutis@uwinnipeg.ca, E-mail: lecorre@psi.edu, E-mail: reddy@psi.edu, E-mail: crown@psi.edu [Planetary Science Institute, 1700 East Fort Lowell Rd, Suite 106, Tucson, AZ 85719-2395 (United States)

    2017-03-01

    The dwarf planet Ceres (diameter 939 km) is the largest object in the main asteroid belt. Recent investigations suggest that Ceres is a thermally evolved, volatile-rich body with potential geological activity, a body which was never completely molten but possibly differentiated into a rocky core, an ice-rich mantle, and which may contain remnant internal liquid water. Thermal alteration and exogenic material infall contribute to producing a (dark) carbonaceous chondritic-like surface containing ammoniated phyllosilicates. Here we report imaging and spectroscopic analyses of Occator crater derived from the Framing Camera and the Visible and Infrared Spectrometer onboard Dawn. We found that the central bright spot (Cerealia Facula) of Occator is ∼30 Myr younger than the crater itself. The central spot is located in a central pit which contains a dome that is spectrally homogenous, exhibiting absorption features that are consistent with carbonates. Multiple radial fractures across the dome indicate an extrusive formation process. Our results lead us to conclude that the floor region was subject to past endogenic activity. Dome and bright material in its vicinity formed likely due to a long-lasting, periodic, or episodic ascent of bright material from a subsurface reservoir rich in carbonates. Originally triggered by an impact event, gases, possibly dissolved from a subsurface water/brine layer, enabled material rich in carbonates to ascend through fractures and be deposited onto the surface.

  3. Theory and experiments on centrifuge cratering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, R.M.; Holsapple, K.A.

    1980-01-01

    Centrifuge experimental techniques provide possibilities for laboratory simulation of ground motion and cratering effects due to explosive loadings. The results of a similarity analysis for the thermomechanical response of a continuun show that increased gravity is a necessary condition for subscale testing when identical materials for both model and prototype are being used. The general similarity requirements for this type of subscale testing are examined both theoretically and experimentally. The similarity analysis is used to derive the necessary and sufficient requirements due to the general balance and jump equations and gives relations among all the scale factors for size, density, stress, body forces, internal energy, heat supply, heat conduction, heat of detonation, and time. Additional constraints due to specific choices of material constitutive equations are evaluated separately. The class of consitutive equations that add no further requirements is identified. For this class of materials, direct simulation of large-scale cratering events at small scale on the centrifuge is possible and independent of the actual constitutive equations. For a rare-independent soil it is shown that a small experiment at gravity g and energy E is similar to a large event at 1 G but with energy equal to g 3 E. Consequently, experiments at 500 G with 8 grams of explosives can be used to

  4. Mechanism of adsorption and eclipse of bacteriophage phi X174. I. In vitro conformational change under conditions of eclipse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incardona, N L; Blonski, R; Feeney, W

    1972-01-01

    Bacteriophage phiX174 undergoes a conformational change during viral eclipse when virus-host cell complexes are incubated briefly at 37 C in a complex starvation buffer at pH 8. In this report, basically the same transition is demonstrated in vitro. Incubation of phiX alone for 2 to 3 hr at 35 C in 0.1 m CaCl(2) (pH 7.2) results in an irreversible decrease in S(20,w) because of an increase in the frictional coefficient that occurs during the change in conformation. The slower sedimenting conformation is noninfectious. These properties are remarkably similar to those of the eclipsed particles characterized by Newbold and Sinsheimer. Therefore, the key structural requirements for the molecular mechanism must reside within the architecture of the virus itself. This extremely simplified system uncovered the calcium ion requirement and pronounced dependence on pH between 6 and 7, both inherent properties of adsorption. This and the more than 10-fold greater rate of the in vivo conformational transition allude to the cooperative nature of attachment and eclipse for phiX.

  5. Kepler Eclipsing Binary Stars. I. Catalog and Principal Characterization of 1879 Eclipsing Binaries in the First Data Release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prša, Andrej; Batalha, Natalie; Slawson, Robert W.; Doyle, Laurance R.; Welsh, William F.; Orosz, Jerome A.; Seager, Sara; Rucker, Michael; Mjaseth, Kimberly; Engle, Scott G.; Conroy, Kyle; Jenkins, Jon; Caldwell, Douglas; Koch, David; Borucki, William

    2011-03-01

    The Kepler space mission is devoted to finding Earth-size planets orbiting other stars in their habitable zones. Its large, 105 deg2 field of view features over 156,000 stars that are observed continuously to detect and characterize planet transits. Yet, this high-precision instrument holds great promise for other types of objects as well. Here we present a comprehensive catalog of eclipsing binary stars observed by Kepler in the first 44 days of operation, the data being publicly available through MAST as of 2010 June 15. The catalog contains 1879 unique objects. For each object, we provide its Kepler ID (KID), ephemeris (BJD0, P 0), morphology type, physical parameters (T eff, log g, E(B - V)), the estimate of third light contamination (crowding), and principal parameters (T 2/T 1, q, fillout factor, and sin i for overcontacts, and T 2/T 1, (R 1 + R 2)/a, esin ω, ecos ω, and sin i for detached binaries). We present statistics based on the determined periods and measure the average occurrence rate of eclipsing binaries to be ~1.2% across the Kepler field. We further discuss the distribution of binaries as a function of galactic latitude and thoroughly explain the application of artificial intelligence to obtain principal parameters in a matter of seconds for the whole sample. The catalog was envisioned to serve as a bridge between the now public Kepler data and the scientific community interested in eclipsing binary stars.

  6. KEPLER ECLIPSING BINARY STARS. I. CATALOG AND PRINCIPAL CHARACTERIZATION OF 1879 ECLIPSING BINARIES IN THE FIRST DATA RELEASE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prsa, Andrej; Engle, Scott G.; Conroy, Kyle; Batalha, Natalie; Rucker, Michael; Mjaseth, Kimberly; Slawson, Robert W.; Doyle, Laurance R.; Welsh, William F.; Orosz, Jerome A.; Seager, Sara; Jenkins, Jon; Caldwell, Douglas; Koch, David; Borucki, William

    2011-01-01

    The Kepler space mission is devoted to finding Earth-size planets orbiting other stars in their habitable zones. Its large, 105 deg 2 field of view features over 156,000 stars that are observed continuously to detect and characterize planet transits. Yet, this high-precision instrument holds great promise for other types of objects as well. Here we present a comprehensive catalog of eclipsing binary stars observed by Kepler in the first 44 days of operation, the data being publicly available through MAST as of 2010 June 15. The catalog contains 1879 unique objects. For each object, we provide its Kepler ID (KID), ephemeris (BJD 0 , P 0 ), morphology type, physical parameters (T eff , log g, E(B - V)), the estimate of third light contamination (crowding), and principal parameters (T 2 /T 1 , q, fillout factor, and sin i for overcontacts, and T 2 /T 1 , (R 1 + R 2 )/a, esin ω, ecos ω, and sin i for detached binaries). We present statistics based on the determined periods and measure the average occurrence rate of eclipsing binaries to be ∼1.2% across the Kepler field. We further discuss the distribution of binaries as a function of galactic latitude and thoroughly explain the application of artificial intelligence to obtain principal parameters in a matter of seconds for the whole sample. The catalog was envisioned to serve as a bridge between the now public Kepler data and the scientific community interested in eclipsing binary stars.

  7. Outreach to Scientists and to the Public about the Scientific Value of Solar Eclipses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasachoff, J.

    2017-12-01

    The Great American Eclipse of August 21, 2017, provided an unprecedented opportunity for outreach among American audiences on a giant scale in the age of social media. Professonal scientists and other educators, however, were not exempt from ignorance of the remaining scientific value of observing solar eclipses, often mistakenly thinking that space satellites or mountaintop observatories could make artificial eclipses as good as natural ones, which they can't. Further, as Chair of the Working Group on Eclipses of the International Astronomical Union and as a frequent observer of solar eclipses in other countries, I felt an obligation to provide at-least-equal hospitality in our country. Here I discuss our welcome to and interaction with eclipse scientists from Greece, Slovakia, Australia, Bulgaria, Iran, China, and Japan and their participation in the eclipse observations. I describe my own outreach about the still-vital solar-eclipse observations through my August 2017 articles in Nature Astronomy and Scientific American as well as through book reviews in Nature and Phi Beta Kappa's Key Reporter and co-authorship of a Resource Letter on Observing Solar Eclipses in the July issue og the American Journal of Physics. I describe my eclipse-day Academic Minute on National Public Radio via WAMC and on http://365daysofastronomy.org, a website started during the International Year of Astronomy. I discuss my blog post on lecturing to pre-school through elementary-school students for the National Geographic Society's Education Blog. I show my Op-Ed pre-eclipse in the Washington Post. I discuss our eclipse-night broadcast of an eclipse program on PBS's NOVA, and its preparation over many months, back as far and farther than the February 26, 2017, annular solar eclipse observed from Argentinian Patagonia, with images from prior eclipses including 2013 in Gabon and 2015 in Svalbard. My work at the 2017 total solar eclipse was supported in large part with grants from the

  8. The Solar Eclipse Predictions of Chiljeongsam-Oepyeon in Early Choseon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Young Sook; Lee, Yong Sam

    2004-12-01

    The history books of East Asia about astronomical phenomena have the more records of the solar eclipse frequently than any other ones. It is because traditionally, the solar eclipse meaned the fate of dynasty and the king's rule. The Sun, the biggest thing in the heaven symbolized the king, and the solar eclipse foresaw that the king had the problem in private including the body, and the country might suffer from difficulties in a great scale. So the king and all of the ministers used to gather to hold a ceremony named Gusikrye which solar eclipse may pass safely. Consequently, kings always had concernments on collecting informations of solar eclipse. Inspite of importance of solar eclipse predictions, but at the beginning of the Choseon, the predictions of the solar eclipse didn't fit. King Sejong compiled the Chiljeongsan-naepion and the Chiljeongsan-oepyeon to calculate the celestial phenomena including the solar eclipse. By the publications of these two books, the calendar making system of Choseon was firmly established. The Chiljeongsan-oepyeon adopted Huihui calendar of Arabia. The Solar eclipse predictions of Chiljeongsan-oepyeon were relative correct compared to modern method in early Choseon dynasty.

  9. The Solar Eclipse Predictions of Chiljeongsam-Oepyeon in Early Choseon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Sook Ahn

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The history books of East Asia about astronomical phenomena have the more records of the solar eclipse frequently than any other ones. It is because traditionally, the solar eclipse meaned the fate of dynasty and the king's rule. The Sun, the biggest thing in the heaven symbolized the king, and the solar eclipse foresaw that the king had the problem in private including the body, and the country might suffer from difficulties in a great scale. So the king and all of the ministers used to gather to hold a ceremony named Gusikrye which solar eclipse may pass safely. Consequently, kings always had concernments on collecting informations of solar eclipse. Inspite of importance of solar eclipse predictions, but at the beginning of the Choseon, the predictions of the solar eclipse didn't fit. King Sejong compiled the Chiljeongsan-naepion and the Chiljeongsan-oepyeon to calculate the celestial phenomena including the solar eclipse. By the publications of these two books, the calendar making system of Choseon was firmly established. The Chiljeongsan-oepyeon adopted Huihui calendar of Arabia. The Solar eclipse predictions of Chiljeongsan-oepyeon were relative correct compared to modern method in early Choseon dynasty.

  10. Books and Other Resources for Education about the August 21, 2017, Solar Eclipse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.; Fraknoi, Andrew; Kentrianakis, Michael

    2017-06-01

    As part of our work to reach and educate the 300+ million Americans of all ages about observing the August 21 solar eclipse, especially by being outdoors in the path of totality but also for those who will see only partial phases, we have compiled annotated lists of books, pamphlets, travel guides, websites, and other information useful for teachers, students, and the general public and made them available on the web, at conferences, and through webinars. Our list includes new eclipse books by David Barron, Anthony Aveni, Frank Close, Tyler Nordgren, John Dvorak, Michael Bakich, and others. We list websites accessible to the general public including those of the International Astronomical Union Working Group on Eclipses (http://eclipses.info, which has links to all the sites listed below); the AAS Eclipse 2017 Task Force (http://eclipse2017.aas.org); NASA Heliophysics (http://eclipse.nasa.gov); Fred Espenak (the updated successor to his authoritative "NASA website": http://EclipseWise.com); Michael Zeiler (http://GreatAmericanEclipse.com); Xavier Jubier (http://xjubier.free.fr/en/site_pages/solar_eclipses/); Jay Anderson (meteorology: http://eclipsophile.com); NASA's Eyes (http://eyes.nasa.gov/eyes-on-eclipse.html and its related app); the Astronomical Society of the Pacific (http://www.astrosociety.org/eclipse); Dan McGlaun (http://eclipse2017.org/); Bill Kramer (http://eclipse-chasers.com). Specialized guides include Dennis Schatz and Andrew Fraknoi's Solar Science for teachers (from the National Science Teachers Association:http://www.nsta.org/publications/press/extras/files/solarscience/SolarScienceInsert.pdf), and a printing with expanded eclipse coverage of Jay Pasachoff's, Peterson Field Guide to the Stars and Planets (14th printing of the fourth edition, 2016: http://solarcorona.com).A version of our joint list is to be published in the July issue of the American Journal of Physics as a Resource Letter on Eclipses, adding to JMP's 2010, "Resource Letter SP

  11. Mass movement on Vesta at steep scarps and crater rims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krohn, K.; Jaumann, R.; Otto, K.; Hoogenboom, T.; Wagner, R.; Buczkowski, D. L.; Garry, B.; Williams, D. A.; Yingst, R. A.; Scully, J.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Kneissl, T.; Schmedemann, N.; Kersten, E.; Stephan, K.; Matz, K.-D.; Pieters, C. M.; Preusker, F.; Roatsch, T.; Schenk, P.; Russell, C. T.; Raymond, C. A.

    2014-12-01

    The Quadrangles Av-11 and Av-12 on Vesta are located at the northern rim of the giant Rheasilvia south polar impact basin. The primary geologic units in Av-11 and Av-12 include material from the Rheasilvia impact basin formation, smooth material and different types of impact crater structures (such as bimodal craters, dark and bright crater ray material and dark ejecta material). Av-11 and Av-12 exhibit almost the full range of mass wasting features observed on Vesta, such as slump blocks, spur-and-gully morphologies and landslides within craters. Processes of collapse, slope instability and seismically triggered events force material to slump down crater walls or scarps and produce landslides or rotational slump blocks. The spur-and-gully morphology that is known to form on Mars is also observed on Vesta; however, on Vesta this morphology formed under dry conditions.

  12. Mass Movement on Vesta at Steep Scarps and Crater Rims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krohn, K.; Jaumann, R.; Otto, K.; Hoogenboom, T.; Wagner, R.; Buczkowski, D. L.; Garry, B.; Williams, D. A.; Yingst, R. A.; Scully, J.; hide

    2014-01-01

    The Quadrangles Av-11 and Av-12 on Vesta are located at the northern rim of the giant Rheasilvia south polar impact basin. The primary geologic units in Av-11 and Av-12 include material from the Rheasilvia impact basin formation, smooth material and different types of impact crater structures (such as bimodal craters, dark and bright crater ray material and dark ejecta material). Av-11 and Av-12 exhibit almost the full range of mass wasting features observed on Vesta, such as slump blocks, spur-and-gully morphologies and landslides within craters. Processes of collapse, slope instability and seismically triggered events force material to slump down crater walls or scarps and produce landslides or rotational slump blocks. The spur-and-gully morphology that is known to form on Mars is also observed on Vesta; however, on Vesta this morphology formed under dry conditions.

  13. Postshot distribution and movement of radionuclides in nuclear crater ejecta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koranda, John J; Martin, John R; Wikkerink, Robert; Stuart, Marshall [Bio-Medical Division, Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1970-05-01

    The distribution and postshot movement of radionuclides in nuclear crater ejecta are discussed in this report. Continuing studies of tritium movement in ejecta at SEDAN crater demonstrate that variations in tritium concentration are correlated with seasonal rainfall and soil water movements. Losses of 27 mCi H{sup 3}/ft{sup 2} are evident on SEDAN crater lip at the end of a three year period of measurements in -which an unusually large flux of rain was received. The distribution of gamma emitting radionuclides and tritium is described in the recently created SCHOONER crater ejecta field. The specific activity of radionuclides in the SCHOONER ejecta continuum is shown for ejecta collected from the crater lip to 17 miles from GZ. The movement of W{sup 181} and tritium into the sub-ejecta preshot soil is described at a site 3000 feet from GZ. (author)

  14. Acoustic fluidization and the scale dependence of impact crater morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melosh, H. J.; Gaffney, E. S.

    1983-01-01

    A phenomenological Bingham plastic model has previously been shown to provide an adequate description of the collapse of impact craters. This paper demonstrates that the Bingham parameters may be derived from a model in which acoustic energy generated during excavation fluidizes the rock debris surrounding the crater. Experimental support for the theoretical flow law is presented. Although the Bingham yield stress cannot be computed without detailed knowledge of the initial acoustic field, the Bingham viscosity is derived from a simple argument which shows that it increases as the 3/2 power of crater diameter, consistent with observation. Crater collapse may occur in material with internal dissipation Q as low as 100, comparable to laboratory observations of dissipation in granular materials. Crater collapse thus does not require that the acoustic field be regenerated during flow.

  15. Project Report ECLIPSE: European Citizenship Learning Program for Secondary Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Bombardelli

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on a European project, the Comenius ECLIPSE project (European Citizenship Learning in a Programme for Secondary Education developed by six European partners coordinated by the University of Trento in the years 2011-2014. ECLIPSE (co-financed by the EACEA - Education, Audiovisual and Culture Executive Agency aims at developing, testing, and implementing a Programme of European Citizenship, in order to improve citizenship competence and responsibility and to strengthen the sense of belonging and European identity of 8th grade pupils. These goals are reachable thanks to a number of measures in formal, non-formal and informal fields. The project partners created teaching and monitoring tools for pupils: seven ECMs (European Citizenship Modules, knowledge tests, pupils’ portfolio, and suggestions for teachers, especially a portfolio for ECLIPSE educators. The ECLIPSE teaching/ testing materials were implemented in several schools of the partner’s countries in order to make sure that it is useful for European pupils of different school systems. It can be used in a flexible way keeping in mind different learning needs in each school system, with a view to improving transversal competencies like learning to learn, as well as initiative and active involvement in improving the chances for young people in citizenship and work worlds. Dieses Papier beschreibt ein europäisches Projekt: das Comenius Projekt ECLIPSE (European Citizenship Learning in einem Programm für Secondary Education, das von sechs europäischen Partnern entwickelt und von der Universität Trient in den Jahren 2011-2014 koordiniert wurde. ECLIPSE wurde von der EACEA (Education, Audiovisual and Culture Executive Agency kofinanziert; es zielt auf die Entwicklung, Überprüfung und Implementierung eines Programms zur Entwicklung eines europäischen Bürgersinns, um Kompetenzen als Staatsbürger und zugleich einer europäischen Identität und Verantwortung bei Sch

  16. Simple Impact Crater Shapes From Shadows - The Sequel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappelow, J. E.

    2008-12-01

    At the last LPSC meeting I presented the outline of a method for determining simple impact crater shapes from shadows. In theory the shadow cast within a simple crater provides enough information to derive its cross-sectional shape from shadow measurements, at least to the maximum depth to which the shadow extends. Under certain simple assumptions, this can be done analytically. If the crater is conic-section - shaped, then it can be shown that the down-sun bound of any shadow cast within it is elliptical, with one axis along the direction of illumination and the other (perpendicular to it) of semi-length D/2 (where D is diameter). The properties of this shadow-ellipse can be related to the parameters of the crater shape conic-section, thus measurements of the shadow-ellipse yield not only crater depth and diameter but also the approximate crater shape, in terms of conic sections. The method also does not depend upon the shadow crossing near the crater center, which avoids a pitfall of older shadow measurement methods. The technique is also amenable to computer implementation, which has already been largely completed. Once computerized, crater measurements can be made rapidly and repeatably. The program reads in an image, its resolution, and the solar elevation and azimuth. The user then defines the crater rim by 'clicking' on three points, and the shadow ellipse by clicking on two more. The program calculates and outputs the diameter, the depth, and parameters describing the crater's approximating conic-section. It is highly applicable to situations where only single-image photography is available, for example MESSENGER flybys of Mercury. At the meeting I will present the finished math for this method and give some examples of its use.

  17. LU60645GT and MA132843GT Catalogues of Lunar and Martian Impact Craters Developed Using a Crater Shape-based Interpolation Crater Detection Algorithm for Topography Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamuniccar, Goran; Loncaric, Sven; Mazarico, Erwan Matias

    2012-01-01

    For Mars, 57,633 craters from the manually assembled catalogues and 72,668 additional craters identified using several crater detection algorithms (CDAs) have been merged into the MA130301GT catalogue. By contrast, for the Moon the most complete previous catalogue contains only 14,923 craters. Two recent missions provided higher-quality digital elevation maps (DEMs): SELENE (in 1/16° resolution) and Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (we used up to 1/512°). This was the main motivation for work on the new Crater Shape-based interpolation module, which improves previous CDA as follows: (1) it decreases the number of false-detections for the required number of true detections; (2) it improves detection capabilities for very small craters; and (3) it provides more accurate automated measurements of craters' properties. The results are: (1) LU60645GT, which is currently the most complete (up to D>=8 km) catalogue of Lunar craters; and (2) MA132843GT catalogue of Martian craters complete up to D>=2 km, which is the extension of the previous MA130301GT catalogue. As previously achieved for Mars, LU60645GT provides all properties that were provided by the previous Lunar catalogues, plus: (1) correlation between morphological descriptors from used catalogues; (2) correlation between manually assigned attributes and automated measurements; (3) average errors and their standard deviations for manually and automatically assigned attributes such as position coordinates, diameter, depth/diameter ratio, etc; and (4) a review of positional accuracy of used datasets. Additionally, surface dating could potentially be improved with the exhaustiveness of this new catalogue. The accompanying results are: (1) the possibility of comparing a large number of Lunar and Martian craters, of e.g. depth/diameter ratio and 2D profiles; (2) utilisation of a method for re-projection of datasets and catalogues, which is very useful for craters that are very close to poles; and (3) the extension of the

  18. Creation of High Resolution Terrain Models of Barringer Meteorite Crater (Meteor Crater) Using Photogrammetry and Terrestrial Laser Scanning Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Richard B.; Navard, Andrew R.; Holland, Donald E.; McKellip, Rodney D.; Brannon, David P.

    2010-01-01

    Barringer Meteorite Crater or Meteor Crater, AZ, has been a site of high interest for lunar and Mars analog crater and terrain studies since the early days of the Apollo-Saturn program. It continues to be a site of exceptional interest to lunar, Mars, and other planetary crater and impact analog studies because of its relatively young age (est. 50 thousand years) and well-preserved structure. High resolution (2 meter to 1 decimeter) digital terrain models of Meteor Crater in whole or in part were created at NASA Stennis Space Center to support several lunar surface analog modeling activities using photogrammetric and ground based laser scanning techniques. The dataset created by this activity provides new and highly accurate 3D models of the inside slope of the crater as well as the downslope rock distribution of the western ejecta field. The data are presented to the science community for possible use in furthering studies of Meteor Crater and impact craters in general as well as its current near term lunar exploration use in providing a beneficial test model for lunar surface analog modeling and surface operation studies.

  19. Snow-avalanche impact craters in southern Norway: Their morphology and dynamics compared with small terrestrial meteorite craters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, John A.; Owen, Geraint; McEwen, Lindsey J.; Shakesby, Richard A.; Hill, Jennifer L.; Vater, Amber E.; Ratcliffe, Anna C.

    2017-11-01

    This regional inventory and study of a globally uncommon landform type reveals similarities in form and process between craters produced by snow-avalanche and meteorite impacts. Fifty-two snow-avalanche impact craters (mean diameter 85 m, range 10-185 m) were investigated through field research, aerial photographic interpretation and analysis of topographic maps. The craters are sited on valley bottoms or lake margins at the foot of steep avalanche paths (α = 28-59°), generally with an easterly aspect, where the slope of the final 200 m of the avalanche path (β) typically exceeds 15°. Crater diameter correlates with the area of the avalanche start zone, which points to snow-avalanche volume as the main control on crater size. Proximal erosional scars ('blast zones') up to 40 m high indicate up-range ejection of material from the crater, assisted by air-launch of the avalanches and impulse waves generated by their impact into water-filled craters. Formation of distal mounds up to 12 m high of variable shape is favoured by more dispersed down-range deposition of ejecta. Key to the development of snow-avalanche impact craters is the repeated occurrence of topographically-focused snow avalanches that impact with a steep angle on unconsolidated sediment. Secondary craters or pits, a few metres in diameter, are attributed to the impact of individual boulders or smaller bodies of snow ejected from the main avalanche. The process of crater formation by low-density, low-velocity, large-volume snow flows occurring as multiple events is broadly comparable with cratering by single-event, high-density, high-velocity, small-volume projectiles such as small meteorites. Simple comparative modelling of snow-avalanche events associated with a crater of average size (diameter 85 m) indicates that the kinetic energy of a single snow-avalanche impact event is two orders of magnitude less than that of a single meteorite-impact event capable of producing a crater of similar size

  20. Tomographic examination table

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redington, R.W.; Henkes, J.L.

    1979-01-01

    Equipment is described for positioning and supporting patients during tomographic mammography using X-rays. The equipment consists of a table and fabric slings which permit the examination of a downward, pendant breast of a prone patient by allowing the breast to pass through a aperture in the table into a fluid filled container. The fluid has an X-ray absorption coefficient similar to that of soft human tissue allowing high density resolution radiography and permitting accurate detection of breast tumours. The shape of the equipment and the positioning of the patient allow the detector and X-ray source to rotate 360 0 about a vertical axis through the breast. This permits the use of relatively simple image reconstruction algorithms and a divergent X-ray geometry. (UK)

  1. Seashore marine table quiz

    OpenAIRE

    Institute, Marine

    2013-01-01

    Develop an increasing awareness of plants and animals that live in local marine environments including the seashore, seas and oceans of Ireland. After learning all about the seashore and other marine related lessons, this quiz can be used to evaluate the student’s knowledge of the marine related living things and natural environments. The table quiz can be used as a guide, highlighting facts about the marine environment and some of the animals that live there.

  2. High Resolution Digital Elevation Models of Pristine Explosion Craters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, T. G.; Krabill, W.; Garvin, J. B.

    2004-01-01

    In order to effectively capture a realistic terrain applicable to studies of cratering processes and landing hazards on Mars, we have obtained high resolution digital elevation models of several pristine explosion craters at the Nevada Test Site. We used the Airborne Terrain Mapper (ATM), operated by NASA's Wallops Flight Facility to obtain DEMs with 1 m spacing and 10 cm vertical errors of 4 main craters and many other craters and collapse pits. The main craters that were mapped are Sedan, Scooter, Schooner, and Danny Boy. The 370 m diameter Sedan crater, located on Yucca Flat, is the largest and freshest explosion crater on Earth that was formed under conditions similar to hypervelocity impact cratering. As such, it is effectively pristine, having been formed in 1962 as a result of a controlled detonation of a 100 kiloton thermonuclear device, buried at the appropriate equivalent depth of burst required to make a simple crater. Sedan was formed in alluvium of mixed lithology and subsequently studied using a variety of field-based methods. Nearby secondary craters were also formed at the time and were also mapped by ATM. Adjacent to Sedan and also in alluvium is Scooter, about 90 m in diameter and formed by a high-explosive event. Schooner (240 m) and Danny Boy (80 m) craters were also important targets for ATM as they were excavated in hard basalt and therefore have much rougher ejecta. This will allow study of ejecta patterns in hard rock as well as engineering tests of crater and rock avoidance and rover trafficability. In addition to the high resolution DEMs, crater geometric characteristics, RMS roughness maps, and other higher-order derived data products will be generated using these data. These will provide constraints for models of landing hazards on Mars and for rover trafficability. Other planned studies will include ejecta size-frequency distribution at the resolution of the DEM and at finer resolution through air photography and field measurements

  3. Table Tennis Club

    CERN Document Server

    Table Tennis Club

    2012-01-01

    2012 CERN Table Tennis Tournament As the campaign launched by the CERN medical service “Move! & Eat better” is designed in particular to encourage people at CERN to take more regular exercise, the CERN Table Tennis Club, with its traditional CERN Table Tennis Tournament is providing an excellent opportunity to practice moving. The tournament will take place at the Meyrin CTT, 2 rue de Livron, Saturday August 25, 2012, in the afternoon (starting at 13:30). It is open to all CERN staff, users, visitors and families, including of course summer students, who are strongly encouraged to participate. In order to register, simply send an E-mail to Jean-Pierre Revol (jean-pierre.revol@cern.ch). You may also find useful information on the Club Web page http://www.cern.ch/tabletennis CERN 2011 champion Savitha Flaecher, between the finalist Bertrand Mouches on her left, the winner of the consolation draw on her right (Sudarshan Paramesvaran), and far left, Denis Moriaud (semi-finalist a...

  4. SRTC - Gap Analysis Table

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M.L. Johnson

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to review the existing SRTC design against the ''Nuclear Safety Design Bases for License Application'' (NSDB) [Ref. 10] requirements and to identify codes and standards and supplemental requirements to meet these requirements. If these codes and standards and supplemental requirements can not fully meet these safety requirements then a ''gap'' is identified. These gaps will be identified here and addressed using the ''Site Rail Transfer Cart (SRTC) Design Development Plan'' [Ref. 14]. The codes and standards, supplemental requirements, and design development requirements are provided in the SRTC and associated rails gap analysis table in Appendix A. Because SRTCs are credited with performing functions important to safety (ITS) in the NSDB [Ref. 10], design basis requirements are applicable to ensure equipment is available and performs required safety functions when needed. The gap analysis table is used to identify design objectives and provide a means to satisfy safety requirements. To ensure that the SRTC and rail design perform required safety Functions and meet performance criteria, this portion of the gap analysis table supplies codes and standards sections and the supplemental requirements and identifies design development requirements, if needed

  5. Global Reference Tables Services Architecture

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This database stores the reference and transactional data used to provide a data-driven service access method to certain Global Reference Table (GRT) service tables.

  6. Aggregation Algorithms in Heterogeneous Tables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titus Felix FURTUNA

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The heterogeneous tables are most used in the problem of aggregation. A solution for this problem is to standardize these tables of figures. In this paper, we proposed some methods of aggregation based on the hierarchical algorithms.

  7. Geospatial Analysis of Low-frequency Radio Signals Collected During the 2017 Solar Eclipse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liles, W. C.; Nelson, J.; Kerby, K. C.; Lukes, L.; Henry, J.; Oputa, J.; Lemaster, G.

    2017-12-01

    The total solar eclipse of 2017, with a path that crosses the continental United States, offers a unique opportunity to gather geospatially diverse data. The EclipseMob project has been designed to crowdsource this data by building a network of citizen scientists across the country. The project focuses on gathering low-frequency radio wave data before, during, and after the eclipse. WWVB, a 60 KHz transmitter in Ft. Collins, CO operated by the National Institutes of Standard and Technology, will provide the transmit signal that will be observed by project participants. Participating citizen scientists are building simple antennas and receivers designed by the EclipseMob team and provided to participants in the form of "receiver kits." The EclipseMob receiver downsamples the 60 KHz signal to 18 KHz and supplies the downsampled signal to the audio jack of a smartphone. A dedicated app is used to collect data and upload it to the EclipseMob server. By studying the variations in WWVB amplitude observed during the eclipse at over 150 locations across the country, we aim to understand how the ionization of the D layer of the ionosphere is impacted by the eclipse as a function of both time and space (location). The diverse locations of the EclipseMob participants will provide data from a wide variety of propagation paths - some crossing the path of the total eclipse, and some remaining on the same side of the eclipse path as the transmitter. Our initial data analysis will involve identifying characteristics that define geospatial relationships in the behavior of observed WWVB signal amplitudes.

  8. On the Importance of Solar Eclipse Geometry in the Interpretation of Ionospheric Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankov, S.; Verhulst, T. G. W.

    2017-12-01

    A reliable interpretation of solar eclipse effects on the geospace environment, and on the ionosphere in particular, necessitates a careful consideration of the so-called eclipse geometry. A solar eclipse is a relatively rare astronomical phenomenon, which geometry is rather complex, specific for each event, and fast changing in time. The standard, most popular way to look at the eclipse geometry is via the two-dimensional representation (map) of the solar obscuration on the Earth's surface, in which the path of eclipse totality is drawn together with isolines of the gradually-decreasing eclipse magnitude farther away from this path. Such "surface maps" are widely used to readily explain some of the solar eclipse effects including, for example, the well-known decrease in total ionisation (due to the substantial decrease in solar irradiation), usually presented by the popular and easy to understand ionospheric characteristic of Total Electron Content (TEC). However, many other effects, especially those taking place at higher altitudes, cannot be explained in this fashion. Instead, a complete, four-dimensional (4D) description of the umbra (and penumbra), would be required. This presentation will address the issue of eclipse geometry effects on various ionospheric observations carried out during the total solar eclipse of August 21, 2017. In particular, GPS-based TEC and ionosonde measurements will be analysed and the eclipse effects on the ionosphere will be interpreted with respect to the actual eclipse geometry at ionospheric heights. Whenever possible, a comparison will be made with results from previous events, such as the ones from March 20, 2015 and October 3, 2005.

  9. Ancient aqueous environments at Endeavour crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvidson, R. E.; Squyres, S. W.; Bell, J.F.; Catalano, J.G.; Clark, B. C.; Crumpler, L.S.; de Souza, P.A.; Fairén, A.G.; Farrand, W. H.; Fox, V.K.; Gellert, Ralf; Ghosh, A.; Golombeck, M.P.; Grotzinger, J.P.; Guinness, E.A.; Herkenhoff, Kenneth E.; Jolliff, B.L.; Knoll, A.H.; Li, R.; McLennan, S.M.; Ming, D. W.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Moore, Johnnie N.; Morris, R.V.; Murchie, S.L.; Parker, T.J.; Paulsen, G.; Rice, J.W.; Ruff, S.W.; Smith, M.D.; Wolff, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    Opportunity has investigated in detail rocks on the rim of the Noachian age Endeavour crater, where orbital spectral reflectance signatures indicate the presence of Fe+3-rich smectites. The signatures are associated with fine-grained, layered rocks containing spherules of diagenetic or impact origin. The layered rocks are overlain by breccias, and both units are cut by calcium sulfate veins precipitated from fluids that circulated after the Endeavour impact. Compositional data for fractures in the layered rocks suggest formation of Al-rich smectites by aqueous leaching. Evidence is thus preserved for water-rock interactions before and after the impact, with aqueous environments of slightly acidic to circum-neutral pH that would have been more favorable for prebiotic chemistry and microorganisms than those recorded by younger sulfate-rich rocks at Meridiani Planum.

  10. Martian Fluvial Conglomerates at Gale Crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R. M. E.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Dietrich, W. E.; Gupta, S.; Sumner, D. Y.; Wiens, R. C.; Mangold, N.; Malin, M. C.; Edgett, K. S.; Maurice, S.; Forni, O.; Gasnault, O.; Ollila, A.; Newsom, H. E.; Dromart, G.; Palucis, M. C.; Yingst, R. A.; Anderson, R. B.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Le Mouélic, S.; Goetz, W.; Madsen, M. B.; Koefoed, A.; Jensen, J. K.; Bridges, J. C.; Schwenzer, S. P.; Lewis, K. W.; Stack, K. M.; Rubin, D.; Kah, L. C.; Bell, J. F.; Farmer, J. D.; Sullivan, R.; Van Beek, T.; Blaney, D. L.; Pariser, O.; Deen, R. G.; Kemppinen, Osku; Bridges, Nathan; Johnson, Jeffrey R.; Minitti, Michelle; Cremers, David; Edgar, Lauren; Godber, Austin; Wadhwa, Meenakshi; Wellington, Danika; McEwan, Ian; Newman, Claire; Richardson, Mark; Charpentier, Antoine; Peret, Laurent; King, Penelope; Blank, Jennifer; Weigle, Gerald; Schmidt, Mariek; Li, Shuai; Milliken, Ralph; Robertson, Kevin; Sun, Vivian; Baker, Michael; Edwards, Christopher; Ehlmann, Bethany; Farley, Kenneth; Griffes, Jennifer; Miller, Hayden; Newcombe, Megan; Pilorget, Cedric; Rice, Melissa; Siebach, Kirsten; Stolper, Edward; Brunet, Claude; Hipkin, Victoria; Léveillé, Richard; Marchand, Geneviève; Sobrón Sánchez, Pablo; Favot, Laurent; Cody, George; Steele, Andrew; Flückiger, Lorenzo; Lees, David; Nefian, Ara; Martin, Mildred; Gailhanou, Marc; Westall, Frances; Israël, Guy; Agard, Christophe; Baroukh, Julien; Donny, Christophe; Gaboriaud, Alain; Guillemot, Philippe; Lafaille, Vivian; Lorigny, Eric; Paillet, Alexis; Pérez, René; Saccoccio, Muriel; Yana, Charles; Aparicio, Carlos Armiens; Caride Rodríguez, Javier; Carrasco Blázquez, Isaías; Gómez Gómez, Felipe; Elvira, Javier Gómez; Hettrich, Sebastian; Lepinette Malvitte, Alain; Marín Jiménez, Mercedes; Frías, Jesús Martínez; Soler, Javier Martín; Torres, F. Javier Martín; Molina Jurado, Antonio; Sotomayor, Luis Mora; Muñoz Caro, Guillermo; Navarro López, Sara; González, Verónica Peinado; García, Jorge Pla; Rodriguez Manfredi, José Antonio; Planelló, Julio José Romeral; Alejandra Sans Fuentes, Sara; Sebastian Martinez, Eduardo; Torres Redondo, Josefina; O'Callaghan, Roser Urqui; Zorzano Mier, María-Paz; Chipera, Steve; Lacour, Jean-Luc; Mauchien, Patrick; Sirven, Jean-Baptiste; Manning, Heidi; Fairén, Alberto; Hayes, Alexander; Joseph, Jonathan; Squyres, Steven; Thomas, Peter; Dupont, Audrey; Lundberg, Angela; Melikechi, Noureddine; Mezzacappa, Alissa; DeMarines, Julia; Grinspoon, David; Reitz, Günther; Prats, Benito; Atlaskin, Evgeny; Genzer, Maria; Harri, Ari-Matti; Haukka, Harri; Kahanpää, Henrik; Kauhanen, Janne; Paton, Mark; Polkko, Jouni; Schmidt, Walter; Siili, Tero; Fabre, Cécile; Wray, James; Wilhelm, Mary Beth; Poitrasson, Franck; Patel, Kiran; Gorevan, Stephen; Indyk, Stephen; Paulsen, Gale; Bish, David; Schieber, Juergen; Gondet, Brigitte; Langevin, Yves; Geffroy, Claude; Baratoux, David; Berger, Gilles; Cros, Alain; Uston, Claude d.; Lasue, Jérémie; Lee, Qiu-Mei; Meslin, Pierre-Yves; Pallier, Etienne; Parot, Yann; Pinet, Patrick; Schröder, Susanne; Toplis, Mike; Lewin, Éric; Brunner, Will; Heydari, Ezat; Achilles, Cherie; Oehler, Dorothy; Sutter, Brad; Cabane, Michel; Coscia, David; Szopa, Cyril; Robert, François; Sautter, Violaine; Nachon, Marion; Buch, Arnaud; Stalport, Fabien; Coll, Patrice; François, Pascaline; Raulin, François; Teinturier, Samuel; Cameron, James; Clegg, Sam; Cousin, Agnès; DeLapp, Dorothea; Dingler, Robert; Jackson, Ryan Steele; Johnstone, Stephen; Lanza, Nina; Little, Cynthia; Nelson, Tony; Williams, Richard B.; Jones, Andrea; Kirkland, Laurel; Treiman, Allan; Baker, Burt; Cantor, Bruce; Caplinger, Michael; Davis, Scott; Duston, Brian; Fay, Donald; Hardgrove, Craig; Harker, David; Herrera, Paul; Jensen, Elsa; Kennedy, Megan R.; Krezoski, Gillian; Krysak, Daniel; Lipkaman, Leslie; McCartney, Elaina; McNair, Sean; Nixon, Brian; Posiolova, Liliya; Ravine, Michael; Salamon, Andrew; Saper, Lee; Stoiber, Kevin; Supulver, Kimberley; Van Beek, Jason; Zimdar, Robert; French, Katherine Louise; Iagnemma, Karl; Miller, Kristen; Summons, Roger; Goesmann, Fred; Hviid, Stubbe; Johnson, Micah; Lefavor, Matthew; Lyness, Eric; Breves, Elly; Dyar, M. Darby; Fassett, Caleb; Blake, David F.; Bristow, Thomas; DesMarais, David; Edwards, Laurence; Haberle, Robert; Hoehler, Tori; Hollingsworth, Jeff; Kahre, Melinda; Keely, Leslie; McKay, Christopher; Bleacher, Lora; Brinckerhoff, William; Choi, David; Conrad, Pamela; Dworkin, Jason P.; Eigenbrode, Jennifer; Floyd, Melissa; Freissinet, Caroline; Garvin, James; Glavin, Daniel; Harpold, Daniel; Mahaffy, Paul; Martin, David K.; McAdam, Amy; Pavlov, Alexander; Raaen, Eric; Smith, Michael D.; Stern, Jennifer; Tan, Florence; Trainer, Melissa; Meyer, Michael; Posner, Arik; Voytek, Mary; Anderson, Robert C.; Aubrey, Andrew; Beegle, Luther W.; Behar, Alberto; Brinza, David; Calef, Fred; Christensen, Lance; Crisp, Joy A.; DeFlores, Lauren; Feldman, Jason; Feldman, Sabrina; Flesch, Gregory; Hurowitz, Joel; Jun, Insoo; Keymeulen, Didier; Maki, Justin; Mischna, Michael; Morookian, John Michael; Parker, Timothy; Pavri, Betina; Schoppers, Marcel; Sengstacken, Aaron; Simmonds, John J.; Spanovich, Nicole; de la Torre Juarez, Manuel; Vasavada, Ashwin R.; Webster, Christopher R.; Yen, Albert; Archer, Paul Douglas; Cucinotta, Francis; Jones, John H.; Ming, Douglas; Morris, Richard V.; Niles, Paul; Rampe, Elizabeth; Nolan, Thomas; Fisk, Martin; Radziemski, Leon; Barraclough, Bruce; Bender, Steve; Berman, Daniel; Dobrea, Eldar Noe; Tokar, Robert; Vaniman, David; Leshin, Laurie; Cleghorn, Timothy; Huntress, Wesley; Manhès, Gérard; Hudgins, Judy; Olson, Timothy; Stewart, Noel; Sarrazin, Philippe; Grant, John; Vicenzi, Edward; Wilson, Sharon A.; Bullock, Mark; Ehresmann, Bent; Hamilton, Victoria; Hassler, Donald; Peterson, Joseph; Rafkin, Scot; Zeitlin, Cary; Fedosov, Fedor; Golovin, Dmitry; Karpushkina, Natalya; Kozyrev, Alexander; Litvak, Maxim; Malakhov, Alexey; Mitrofanov, Igor; Mokrousov, Maxim; Nikiforov, Sergey; Prokhorov, Vasily; Sanin, Anton; Tretyakov, Vladislav; Varenikov, Alexey; Vostrukhin, Andrey; Kuzmin, Ruslan; Clark, Benton; Wolff, Michael; McLennan, Scott; Botta, Oliver; Drake, Darrell; Bean, Keri; Lemmon, Mark; Lee, Ella Mae; Sucharski, Robert; Hernández, Miguel Ángel de Pablo; Blanco Ávalos, Juan José; Ramos, Miguel; Kim, Myung-Hee; Malespin, Charles; Plante, Ianik; Muller, Jan-Peter; González, Rafael Navarro; Ewing, Ryan; Boynton, William; Downs, Robert; Fitzgibbon, Mike; Harshman, Karl; Morrison, Shaunna; Kortmann, Onno; Williams, Amy; Lugmair, Günter; Wilson, Michael A.; Jakosky, Bruce; Zunic, Tonci Balic; Frydenvang, Jens; Kinch, Kjartan; Stipp, Susan Louise Svane; Boyd, Nick; Campbell, John L.; Gellert, Ralf; Perrett, Glynis; Pradler, Irina; VanBommel, Scott; Jacob, Samantha; Owen, Tobias; Rowland, Scott; Savijärvi, Hannu; Boehm, Eckart; Böttcher, Stephan; Burmeister, Sönke; Guo, Jingnan; Köhler, Jan; García, César Martín; Mellin, Reinhold Mueller; Schweingruber, Robert Wimmer; McConnochie, Timothy; Benna, Mehdi; Franz, Heather; Bower, Hannah; Brunner, Anna; Blau, Hannah; Boucher, Thomas; Carmosino, Marco; Atreya, Sushil; Elliott, Harvey; Halleaux, Douglas; Rennó, Nilton; Wong, Michael; Pepin, Robert; Elliott, Beverley; Spray, John; Thompson, Lucy; Gordon, Suzanne; Williams, Joshua; Vasconcelos, Paulo; Bentz, Jennifer; Nealson, Kenneth; Popa, Radu; Moersch, Jeffrey; Tate, Christopher; Day, Mackenzie; Kocurek, Gary; Hallet, Bernard; Sletten, Ronald; Francis, Raymond; McCullough, Emily; Cloutis, Ed; ten Kate, Inge Loes; Arvidson, Raymond; Fraeman, Abigail; Scholes, Daniel; Slavney, Susan; Stein, Thomas; Ward, Jennifer; Berger, Jeffrey; Moores, John E.

    2013-05-01

    Observations by the Mars Science Laboratory Mast Camera (Mastcam) in Gale crater reveal isolated outcrops of cemented pebbles (2 to 40 millimeters in diameter) and sand grains with textures typical of fluvial sedimentary conglomerates. Rounded pebbles in the conglomerates indicate substantial fluvial abrasion. ChemCam emission spectra at one outcrop show a predominantly feldspathic composition, consistent with minimal aqueous alteration of sediments. Sediment was mobilized in ancient water flows that likely exceeded the threshold conditions (depth 0.03 to 0.9 meter, average velocity 0.20 to 0.75 meter per second) required to transport the pebbles. Climate conditions at the time sediment was transported must have differed substantially from the cold, hyper-arid modern environment to permit aqueous flows across several kilometers.

  11. The Microstructure of Lunar Micrometeorite Impact Craters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, S. K.; Keller, L. P.; Christoffersen, R.; Rahman, Z.

    2016-01-01

    The peak of the mass flux of impactors striking the lunar surface is made up of objects approximately 200 micrometers in diameter that erode rocks, comminute regolith grains, and produce agglutinates. The effects of these micro-scale impacts are still not fully understood. Much effort has focused on evaluating the physical and optical effects of micrometeorite impacts on lunar and meteoritic material using pulsed lasers to simulate the energy deposited into a substrate in a typical hypervelocity impact. Here we characterize the physical and chemical changes that accompany natural micrometeorite impacts into lunar rocks with long surface exposure to the space environment (12075 and 76015). Transmission electron microscope (TEM) observations were obtained from cross-sections of approximately 10-20 micrometers diameter craters that revealed important micro-structural details of micrometeorite impact processes, including the creation of npFe (sup 0) in the melt, and extensive deformation around the impact site.

  12. Slope activity in Gale crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dundas, Colin M.; McEwen, Alfred S.

    2015-01-01

    High-resolution repeat imaging of Aeolis Mons, the central mound in Gale crater, reveals active slope processes within tens of kilometers of the Curiosity rover. At one location near the base of northeastern Aeolis Mons, dozens of transient narrow lineae were observed, resembling features (Recurring Slope Lineae) that are potentially due to liquid water. However, the lineae faded and have not recurred in subsequent Mars years. Other small-scale slope activity is common, but has different spatial and temporal characteristics. We have not identified confirmed RSL, which Rummel et al. (Rummel, J.D. et al. [2014]. Astrobiology 14, 887–968) recommended be treated as potential special regions for planetary protection. Repeat images acquired as Curiosity approaches the base of Aeolis Mons could detect changes due to active slope processes, which could enable the rover to examine recently exposed material.

  13. Crater Topography on Titan: Implications for Landscape Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neish, Catherine D.; Kirk, R.L.; Lorenz, R. D.; Bray, V. J.; Schenk, P.; Stiles, B. W.; Turtle, E.; Mitchell, K.; Hayes, A.

    2013-01-01

    We present a comprehensive review of available crater topography measurements for Saturn's moon Titan. In general, the depths of Titan's craters are within the range of depths observed for similarly sized fresh craters on Ganymede, but several hundreds of meters shallower than Ganymede's average depth vs. diameter trend. Depth-to-diameter ratios are between 0.0012 +/- 0.0003 (for the largest crater studied, Menrva, D approximately 425 km) and 0.017 +/- 0.004 (for the smallest crater studied, Ksa, D approximately 39 km). When we evaluate the Anderson-Darling goodness-of-fit parameter, we find that there is less than a 10% probability that Titan's craters have a current depth distribution that is consistent with the depth distribution of fresh craters on Ganymede. There is, however, a much higher probability that the relative depths are uniformly distributed between 0 (fresh) and 1 (completely infilled). This distribution is consistent with an infilling process that is relatively constant with time, such as aeolian deposition. Assuming that Ganymede represents a close 'airless' analogue to Titan, the difference in depths represents the first quantitative measure of the amount of modification that has shaped Titan's surface, the only body in the outer Solar System with extensive surface-atmosphere exchange.

  14. Noachian and more recent phyllosilicates in impact craters on Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairén, Alberto G; Chevrier, Vincent; Abramov, Oleg; Marzo, Giuseppe A; Gavin, Patricia; Davila, Alfonso F; Tornabene, Livio L; Bishop, Janice L; Roush, Ted L; Gross, Christoph; Kneissl, Thomas; Uceda, Esther R; Dohm, James M; Schulze-Makuch, Dirk; Rodríguez, J Alexis P; Amils, Ricardo; McKay, Christopher P

    2010-07-06

    Hundreds of impact craters on Mars contain diverse phyllosilicates, interpreted as excavation products of preexisting subsurface deposits following impact and crater formation. This has been used to argue that the conditions conducive to phyllosilicate synthesis, which require the presence of abundant and long-lasting liquid water, were only met early in the history of the planet, during the Noachian period (> 3.6 Gy ago), and that aqueous environments were widespread then. Here we test this hypothesis by examining the excavation process of hydrated minerals by impact events on Mars and analyzing the stability of phyllosilicates against the impact-induced thermal shock. To do so, we first compare the infrared spectra of thermally altered phyllosilicates with those of hydrated minerals known to occur in craters on Mars and then analyze the postshock temperatures reached during impact crater excavation. Our results show that phyllosilicates can resist the postshock temperatures almost everywhere in the crater, except under particular conditions in a central area in and near the point of impact. We conclude that most phyllosilicates detected inside impact craters on Mars are consistent with excavated preexisting sediments, supporting the hypothesis of a primeval and long-lasting global aqueous environment. When our analyses are applied to specific impact craters on Mars, we are able to identify both pre- and postimpact phyllosilicates, therefore extending the time of local phyllosilicate synthesis to post-Noachian times.

  15. Nevada Test Site craters used for astronaut training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, H. J.

    1977-01-01

    Craters produced by chemical and nuclear explosives at the Nevada Test Site were used to train astronauts before their lunar missions. The craters have characteristics suitable for reconnaissance-type field investigations. The Schooner test produced a crater about 300 m across and excavated more than 72 m of stratigraphic section deposited in a fairly regular fashion so that systematic observations yield systematic results. Other features common on the moon, such as secondary craters and glass-coated rocks, are present at Schooner crater. Smaller explosive tests on Buckboard Mesa excavated rocks from three horizontal alteration zones within basalt flows so that the original sequence of the zones could be determined. One crater illustrated the characteristics of craters formed across vertical boundaries between rock units. Although the exercises at the Nevada Test Site were only a small part of the training of the astronauts, voice transcripts of Apollo missions 14, 16, and 17 show that the exercises contributed to astronaut performance on the moon.

  16. The Morphology of Craters on Mercury: Results from MESSENGER Flybys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnouin, Oliver S.; Zuber, Maria T.; Smith, David E.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Herrick, Robert R.; Chappelow, John E.; Murchie, Scott L.; Prockter, Louise M.

    2012-01-01

    Topographic data measured from the Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) and the Mercury Dual Imaging System (MDIS) aboard the MESSENGER spacecraft were used for investigations of the relationship between depth and diameter for impact craters on Mercury. Results using data from the MESSENGER flybys of the innermost planet indicate that most of the craters measured with MLA are shallower than those previously measured by using Mariner 10 images. MDIS images of these same MLA-measured craters show that they have been modified. The use of shadow measurement techniques, which were found to be accurate relative to the MLA results, indicate that both small bowl-shaped and large complex craters that are fresh possess depth-to-diameter ratios that are in good agreement with those measured from Mariner 10 images. The preliminary data also show that the depths of modified craters are shallower relative to fresh ones, and might provide quantitative estimates of crater in-filling by subsequent volcanic or impact processes. The diameter that defines the transition from simple to complex craters on Mercury based on MESSENGER data is consistent with that reported from Mariner 10 data.

  17. Chemical hazards from acid crater lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bergen, M. J.; Sumarti, S.; Heikens, A.; Bogaard, T. A.; Hartiyatun, S.

    2003-04-01

    Acid crater lakes, which are hosted by a considerable number of active volcanoes, form a potential threat for local ecosystems and human health, as they commonly contain large amounts of dissolved chemicals. Subsurface seepage or overflow can lead to severe deterioration of the water quality of rivers and wells, as observations around several of these volcanoes have shown. The Ijen crater lake in East Java (Indonesia) is a striking example, as this reservoir of hyperacid (pHfluoride-rich water is the source of a ca. 50 km long acid river that transports substantial quantities of potentially toxic elements. A downstream trend of increasing pH from fluoride levels pose some of the most severe environmental threats. Its concentration decreases from ca. 1300 mg/kg in the lake to ca. 10 mg/kg in a coastal area downstream, where virtually all of the river water is used for irrigating rice fields and other cropland. Apart from serious problems for agriculture, our survey of 55 drinking water wells in the irrigation area shows that 50% contain fluoride above the 1.5 ppm WHO limit, in line with the observation that dental fluorosis is widespread among the ca. 100,000 residents of the area. A conspicuous spatial correlation between fluoride concentrations and the irrigation system suggest that long-term (century) infiltration of irrigation water may have affected the quality of groundwater. Fluorosis is also a problem in some villages within the caldera, where well water sources may have a more direct subsurface connection with the lake system. From our observations we conclude that water-quality monitoring is especially needed for health reasons in volcanic areas where volatile elements, derived from passively degassing magma, are intercepted by (sub) surface water bodies.

  18. Properties of an eclipsing double white dwarf binary NLTT 11748

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, David L.; Walker, Arielle N.; Marsh, Thomas R.; Bours, Madelon C. P.; Breedt, Elmé; Bildsten, Lars; Copperwheat, Chris M.; Dhillon, Vik S.; Littlefair, Stuart P.; Howell, Steve B.; Shporer, Avi; Steinfadt, Justin D. R.

    2014-01-01

    We present high-quality ULTRACAM photometry of the eclipsing detached double white dwarf binary NLTT 11748. This system consists of a carbon/oxygen white dwarf and an extremely low mass (<0.2 M ☉ ) helium-core white dwarf in a 5.6 hr orbit. To date, such extremely low-mass white dwarfs, which can have thin, stably burning outer layers, have been modeled via poorly constrained atmosphere and cooling calculations where uncertainties in the detailed structure can strongly influence the eventual fates of these systems when mass transfer begins. With precise (individual precision ≈1%), high-cadence (≈2 s), multicolor photometry of multiple primary and secondary eclipses spanning >1.5 yr, we constrain the masses and radii of both objects in the NLTT 11748 system to a statistical uncertainty of a few percent. However, we find that overall uncertainty in the thickness of the envelope of the secondary carbon/oxygen white dwarf leads to a larger (≈13%) systematic uncertainty in the primary He WD's mass. Over the full range of possible envelope thicknesses, we find that our primary mass (0.136-0.162 M ☉ ) and surface gravity (log (g) = 6.32-6.38; radii are 0.0423-0.0433 R ☉ ) constraints do not agree with previous spectroscopic determinations. We use precise eclipse timing to detect the Rømer delay at 7σ significance, providing an additional weak constraint on the masses and limiting the eccentricity to ecos ω = (– 4 ± 5) × 10 –5 . Finally, we use multicolor data to constrain the secondary's effective temperature (7600 ± 120 K) and cooling age (1.6-1.7 Gyr).

  19. Properties of an eclipsing double white dwarf binary NLTT 11748

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, David L.; Walker, Arielle N. [Physics Department, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53211 (United States); Marsh, Thomas R.; Bours, Madelon C. P.; Breedt, Elmé [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Bildsten, Lars [Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics, Kohn Hall, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Copperwheat, Chris M. [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, IC2, Liverpool Science Park, 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L3 5RF (United Kingdom); Dhillon, Vik S.; Littlefair, Stuart P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom); Howell, Steve B. [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Shporer, Avi [California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Steinfadt, Justin D. R., E-mail: kaplan@uwm.edu [Department of Physics, Broida Hall, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States)

    2014-01-10

    We present high-quality ULTRACAM photometry of the eclipsing detached double white dwarf binary NLTT 11748. This system consists of a carbon/oxygen white dwarf and an extremely low mass (<0.2 M {sub ☉}) helium-core white dwarf in a 5.6 hr orbit. To date, such extremely low-mass white dwarfs, which can have thin, stably burning outer layers, have been modeled via poorly constrained atmosphere and cooling calculations where uncertainties in the detailed structure can strongly influence the eventual fates of these systems when mass transfer begins. With precise (individual precision ≈1%), high-cadence (≈2 s), multicolor photometry of multiple primary and secondary eclipses spanning >1.5 yr, we constrain the masses and radii of both objects in the NLTT 11748 system to a statistical uncertainty of a few percent. However, we find that overall uncertainty in the thickness of the envelope of the secondary carbon/oxygen white dwarf leads to a larger (≈13%) systematic uncertainty in the primary He WD's mass. Over the full range of possible envelope thicknesses, we find that our primary mass (0.136-0.162 M {sub ☉}) and surface gravity (log (g) = 6.32-6.38; radii are 0.0423-0.0433 R {sub ☉}) constraints do not agree with previous spectroscopic determinations. We use precise eclipse timing to detect the Rømer delay at 7σ significance, providing an additional weak constraint on the masses and limiting the eccentricity to ecos ω = (– 4 ± 5) × 10{sup –5}. Finally, we use multicolor data to constrain the secondary's effective temperature (7600 ± 120 K) and cooling age (1.6-1.7 Gyr).

  20. The Kepler eclipsing system KIC 5621294 and its substellar companion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Woo; Hong, Kyeongsoo; Hinse, Tobias Cornelius, E-mail: jwlee@kasi.re.kr, E-mail: kshong@kasi.re.kr, E-mail: tchinse@gmail.com [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-01

    We present the physical properties of KIC 5621294, showing light and timing variations from the Kepler photometry. Its light curve displays partial eclipses and the O’Connell effect, with Max II fainter than Max I, which was fitted quite well by applying third-body and spot effects to the system. The results indicate that the eclipsing pair is a classical Algol-type system with parameters of q = 0.22, i = 76.°8, and Δ(T{sub 1}−T{sub 2}) = 4235 K, in which the detached primary component fills about 77% of its limiting lobe. Striking discrepancies exist between the primary and secondary eclipse times obtained with the method of Kwee and van Woerden. These are mainly caused by surface inhomogeneities due to spot activity detected in our light curve synthesis. The 1253 light curve timings from the Wilson–Devinney code were used for a period study. It was found that the orbital period of KIC 5621294 has varied due to periodic variation overlaid on a downward parabola. The sinusoidal variation with a period of 961 days and a semi-amplitude of 22.5 s most likely arises from a light-time effect due to a third component with a mass of M{sub 3}sini{sub 3} = 46.9 M{sub Jup}, which is in good agreement with that calculated from the light curve itself. If its orbital inclination is larger than about 40°, the mass of the circumbinary object would possibly match a brown dwarf. The parabolic variation could not be fully explained by either a mass transfer between the binary components or angular momentum via magnetic braking. It is possible that the parabola may be the only observed part of a period modulation caused by the presence of another companion in a wider orbit.

  1. Two Eclipses, a Theory, and a World War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batten, Alan H.

    2015-01-01

    Both the beginning and ending of World War I were signalled by total solar eclipses at which attempts were made to measure the deflection, predicted by Albert Einstein, of starlight passing close to the Sun. An American team led by W. W. Campbell and a German team led by E. F. Freundlich travelled to Russia to observe the eclipse of 1914 August 21. The Americans were foiled by the weather, and the Germans were interned as enemy aliens, so no successful measurements were made. British astronomers, led by A. S. Eddington, mounted two expeditions to observe the eclipse of 1919 May 29, one to Brazil, the other, with Eddington personally in charge, to an island off the west coast of Africa. The results, presented with much fanfare, appeared to constitute a spectacular confirmation of general relativity, although much debate surrounded the observations and their interpretation in later decades. The stories of Freundlich and Eddington intertwine not only with controversial questions about how best to make and to reduce the observations, but also with attitudes toward the war, notably the extreme anti-German sentiment that pervaded the countries of the western alliance, contrasted with the Quaker pacifism of Eddington himself; and also with differing attitudes to relativity among European and American astronomers. Eddington later played a role in bringing Freundlich to the United Kingdom after the rise of Hitler and the Nazis. Ironically, in later life, Freundlich became increasingly sceptical of general relativity and proposed a theory of proton-proton interaction to account for the cosmological red-shifts.

  2. Ten Kepler eclipsing binaries containing the third components

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zasche, P.; Wolf, M.; Kučáková, H.; Vraštil, J.; Juryšek, Jakub; Mašek, Martin; Jelínek, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 149, č. 6 (2015), s. 1-11, č. článku 197. ISSN 0004-6256 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG13007 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 283783 - GLORIA Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : eclipsing binaries * KIC 2305372 * KIC 3440230 * KIC 5513861 * KIC 5621294 * KIC 7630658 * KIC 8553788 * KIC 9007918 * KIC 9402652 * KIC 10581918 * KIC 10686876 Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics OBOR OECD: Astronomy (including astrophysics,space science) Impact factor: 4.617, year: 2015

  3. The G+M eclipsing binary v530 orionis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torres, Guillermo; Lacy, Claud H Sandberg; Pavlovski, Krešimir

    2014-01-01

    We report extensive photometric and spectroscopic observations of the 6.1 day period, G+M-type detached double-lined eclipsing binary V530 Ori, an important new benchmark system for testing stellar evolution models for low-mass stars. We determine accurate masses and radii for the components...... in the primary spectrum shows the system to have a slightly subsolar abundance, with [Fe/H] = –0.12 ± 0.08. A comparison with theory reveals that standard models underpredict the radius and overpredict the temperature of the secondary, as has been found previously for other M dwarfs. On the other hand, models...

  4. Spectrum of EY Orionis at the secondary eclipse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismailov, N.Z.

    1987-01-01

    The results of spectral observations of the binary system EY orions at the secondary eclipse are presented. Some peculiar properties in the linear spectrum of the star have been discovered. The spectrum of the second component is not observed. The rotational velocity of the visible component is equal to 150 ± 30 km/s. During the phases 0.52-0.58, during approximately 1 d the radial velocities deviate from the radial velocity curve. According to the character of its spectrum the system EY Orions is similar to typical Orion variables

  5. Physical elements of the eclipsing binary δ Orionis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mayer, P.; Harmanec, P.; Wolf, M.; Božić, H.; Šlechta, Miroslav

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 520, Sep-Oct (2010), A89/1-A89/12 ISSN 0004-6361 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/06/0584 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA205/06/0304; GA ČR(CZ) GAP209/10/0715 Program:GA Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : eclipsing binaries * early-type stars * fundamental parameters Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.410, year: 2010

  6. Expansion of the Eclipse Digital Signal Processing System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-01

    routed to ind from extended memory through this window. SAct willy, dti is not physically moved, address registers are imply hiai~jt d. ’zThe...method of moving data on the Eclipse is with the extended memory feature. With this feature data is not physically moved, address registers are simply...8217eOU WIdT TO,. Fig 1 IE.ETZIM U2. E( 11 -4., - IULTIPI.E P * S WI) STPM FILTER (- PAWtfTEP FILE PFILE FILTER FILE: WILE FIEP. LENGTH 55 WINIIM OF WQS

  7. Summary of solar eclipse operations in Australia, June 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lathrop, L.W.

    1975-03-01

    During the solar eclipse of June 20, 1974, a team of scientists and engineers from the United States and Australia conducted a series of scientific observations to study the temperature distribution in the solar corona. The performance of the rocket launched experiments is summarized. Two identical experiments were launched. Both rocket systems performed nominally. One failed to acquire the sun before entry into the shadow. Film from the recovered payload verified that the sun was not in view. The other test appeared to point successfully at the sun. However, the payload was not recovered and no data were obtained. The probable cause of the failures is discussed. (U.S.)

  8. Automating ActionScript Projects with Eclipse and Ant

    CERN Document Server

    Koning, Sidney

    2011-01-01

    Automating repetitive programming tasks is easier than many Flash/AS3 developers think. With the Ant build tool, the Eclipse IDE, and this concise guide, you can set up your own "ultimate development machine" to code, compile, debug, and deploy projects faster. You'll also get started with versioning systems, such as Subversion and Git. Create a consistent workflow for multiple machines, or even complete departments, with the help of extensive Ant code samples. If you want to work smarter and take your skills to a new level, this book will get you on the road to automation-with Ant. Set up y

  9. Statistical eclipses of close-in Kepler sub-Saturns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheets, Holly A.; Deming, Drake, E-mail: hsheets@astro.umd.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-2421 (United States)

    2014-10-20

    We present a method to detect small atmospheric signals in Kepler's planet candidate light curves by averaging light curves for multiple candidates with similar orbital and physical characteristics. Our statistical method allows us to measure unbiased physical properties of Kepler's planet candidates, even for candidates whose individual signal-to-noise precludes the detection of their secondary eclipse. We detect a secondary eclipse depth of 3.83{sub −1.11}{sup +1.10} ppm for a group of 31 sub-Saturn (R < 6 R {sub ⊕}) planet candidates with the greatest potential for a reflected light signature ((R{sub p} /a){sup 2} > 10 ppm). Including Kepler-10b in this group increases the depth to 5.08{sub −0.72}{sup +0.71} ppm. For a control group with (R{sub p} /a){sup 2} < 1 ppm, we find a depth of 0.36 ± 0.37 ppm, consistent with no detection. We also analyze the light curve of Kepler-10b and find an eclipse depth of 7.08 ± 1.06 ppm. If the eclipses are due solely to reflected light, this corresponds to a geometric albedo of 0.22 ± 0.06 for our group of close-in sub-Saturns, 0.37 ± 0.05 if including Kepler-10b in the group, and 0.60 ± 0.09 for Kepler-10b alone. Including a thermal emission model does not change the geometric albedo appreciably, assuming A{sub B} = (3/2)*A{sub g} . Our result for Kepler-10b is consistent with previous works. Our result for close-in sub-Saturns shows that Kepler-10b is unusually reflective, but our analysis is consistent with the results of Demory for super-Earths. Our results also indicate that hot Neptunes are typically more reflective than hot Jupiters.

  10. Anomalous Eclipses of the Young Star RW Aur A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamzin, S.; Cheryasov, D.; Chuntonov, G.; Dodin, A.; Grankin, K.; Malanchev, K.; Nadzhip, A.; Safonov, B.; Shakhovskoy, D.; Shenavrin, V.; Tatarnikov, A.; Vozyakova, O.

    2017-06-01

    Results of UBVRIJHKLM photometry, VRI polarimetry and optical spectroscopy of a young star RW Aur A obtained during 2010-11 and 2014-16 dimming events are presented. During the second dimming the star decreased its brightness to ΔV >4.5 mag, polarization of its light in I-band was up to 30 %, and color-magnitude diagramm was similar to that of UX Ori type stars. We conclude that the reason of both dimmings is an eclipses of the star by dust screen, but the size of the screen is much larger than in the case of UXORs.

  11. Rock spatial densities on the rims of the Tycho secondary craters in Mare Nectaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basilevsky, A. T.; Michael, G. G.; Kozlova, N. A.

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this work is to check whether the technique of estimation of age of small lunar craters based on spatial density of rock boulders on their rims described in Basilevsky et al. (2013, 2015b) and Li et al. (2017) for the craters rock counts on the rims of four craters having diameters 1000, 1100, 1240 and 1400 m located in Mare Nectaris. These craters are secondaries of the primary crater Tycho, whose age was found to be 109 ± 4 Ma (Stoffler and Ryder, 2001) so this may be taken as the age of the four craters, too. Using the dependence of the rock spatial densities at the crater rims on the crater age for the case of mare craters (Li et al., 2017) our measured rock densities correspond to ages from ∼100 to 130 Ma. These estimates are reasonably close to the given age of the primary crater Tycho. This, in turn, suggests that this technique of crater age estimation is applicable to craters up to ∼1.5 km in diameter. For the four considered craters we also measured their depth/diameter ratios and the maximum angles of the crater inner slopes. For the considered craters it was found that with increasing crater diameter, the depth/diameter ratios and maximum angles of internal slopes increase, but the values of these parameters for specific craters may deviate significantly from the general trends. The deviations probably result from some dissimilarities in the primary crater geometries, that may be due to crater to crater differences in characteristics of impactors (e.g., in their bulk densities) and/or differences in the mechanical properties of the target. It may be possible to find secondaries of crater Tycho in the South pole area and, if so, they may be studied to check the specifics and rates of the rock boulder degradation in the lunar polar environment.

  12. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Parameters of 529 Kepler eclipsing binaries (Kjurkchieva+, 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjurkchieva, D.; Vasileva, D.; Atanasova, T.

    2017-11-01

    We reviewed the Kepler eclipsing binary catalog (Prsa et al. 2011, Cat. J/AJ/141/83; Slawson et al. 2011, Cat. J/AJ/142/160; Matijevic et al. 2012) to search for detached eclipsing binaries with eccentric orbits. (5 data files).

  13. Fourier techniques for an analysis of eclipsing binary light curves. Pt. 6b

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demircan, O.

    1980-01-01

    This is a continuation of a previous paper which appeared in this journal (Demircan, 1980b) and aims at ascertaining some other relations between the integral transforms of the light curves of eclipsing binary systems. The appropriate use of these relations should facilitate the numerical computations for an analysis of eclipsing binary light curves by different Fourier techniques. (orig.)

  14. EPIC 219217635: A Doubly Eclipsing Quadruple System Containing an Evolved Binary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borkovits, T.; Albrecht, S.; Rappaport, S.

    2018-01-01

    We have discovered a doubly eclipsing, bound, quadruple star system in the field of K2 Campaign 7. EPIC 219217635 is a stellar image with Kp = 12.7 that contains an eclipsing binary (‘EB’) with PA = 3.59470 d and a second EB with PB = 0.61825 d. We have obtained followup radial-velocity (‘RV’) sp...

  15. The geometry of the eclipse of a pointlike star by a Roche-lobe-filling companion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chanan, G.A.; Middleditch, J.; Nelson, J.E.

    1976-01-01

    For binary systems of this type, which may be representative of certain X-ray sources, the eclipse duration defines a relation between the mass ratio and orbital inclination of the system; we have derived and tabulated this relation. Eclipse geometry for binary systems in which both stars fill their Roche lobes is also discussed briefly

  16. 75 FR 61345 - Airworthiness Directives; Eclipse Aerospace, Inc. Model EA500 Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-05

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Eclipse Aerospace, Inc. Model EA500 Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration... service information identified in this AD, contact Eclipse Aerospace Incorporated, 2503 Clark Carr Loop... Kinney, Aerospace Engineer, Ft. Worth Aircraft Certification Office, FAA, 2601 Meacham Blvd., Fort Worth...

  17. Statistical study of the solar eclipses over Egypt during 20 centuries (1–2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.I. Abdel-Rahman

    2017-06-01

    The General Linear Trend formula for predicting the future values for every types of solar eclipse was obtained and determined during next 500 years (2001–2500. We compare our results with calculated once by NASA for each types of solar eclipse. Our results are in a good agreement with that published by NASA.

  18. Prediction of gamma exposure rates in large nuclear craters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tami, Thomas M; Day, Walter C [U.S. Army Engineer Nuclear Cratering Group, Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1970-05-15

    In many civil engineering applications of nuclear explosives there is the need to reenter the crater and lip area as soon as possible after the detonation to carry out conventional construction activities. These construction activities, however, must be delayed until the gamma dose rate, or exposure rate, in and around the crater decays to acceptable levels. To estimate the time of reentry for post-detonation construction activities, the exposure rate in the crater and lip areas must be predicted as a function of time after detonation. An accurate prediction permits a project planner to effectively schedule post-detonation activities.

  19. Morphometry and Morphology of Fresh Craters on Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, R. L.; Wood, C. A.; Neish, C.; Lucas, A.; Hayes, A. G.; Cassini Radar Team

    2011-12-01

    Cassini RADAR imagery obtained on Titan flyby T77 revealed a 40-km diameter fresh impact crater at 11.6° N 44.6° W. This is only the 8th crater identified with high confidence (Wood et al., 2010, Icarus 206, 334), and the 3rd (after Sinlap D=79 km and Ksa D=30 km) for which the depth can be estimated by comparing the foreshortening of the near and far walls. This "autostereo" technique yields an estimated depth of 680 m. The T77 image forms a stereo pair with the T17 discovery image of Ksa from which we estimate the depth of Ksa at 750-800 m, in close agreement with SARTopo data. The depth of Sinlap is 760 m based on SARTopo. Depth-diameter ratios for these craters thus range from 0.01 to 0.025 and the depths are comparable to but 200-400 m shallower than fresh craters of the same size on Ganymede (Bray et al., 2008, Met. Planet Sci. 43, 1979). The depth differences could be explained by initial crater morphometry, by relaxation in a different thermal environment, or (perhaps most plausibly given the bland floors of even the freshest Titan craters) to sedimentary infill. In contrast, the 18x36 km elliptical depression at Sotra Facula is much deeper than Ganymede craters of similar size (d=1500 m from stereo), supporting the conclusion that it is not an impact crater. All three craters exhibit a relatively radar-bright annulus around the outer edge of the floor, possibly as the result of mass wasting of blocky materials from the crater walls. The central part of each crater is darker. The central darker floor of the new crater is symmetrical and featureless, whereas Ksa has a bright central ring 7 km in diameter. Stereo spot heights indicate the ring is 350±100 m above the outer floor. This height is in close agreement with the scaling for Ganymede crater central peaks from Bray et al. (2008). The darker floor area of Sinlap is substantially asymmetrical with a small bright central spot whose elevation is unknown. The new crater has continuous, radar

  20. Solar Eclipse: Concept of “Science” and “Language” Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haristiani, N.; Zaen, R.; Nandiyanto, A. B. D.; Rusmana, A. N.; Azis, F.; Danuwijaya, A. A.; Abdullah, A. G.

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the concept of science and language literacy of solar eclipse. The study was conducted through a survey to 250 students with different ages (from 17 to 23 years old), grades, and majors in Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia. The survey was completed with a questionnaire consisting of 41 questions. In the case of the language literacy, experimental results showed that various expressions in facing the solar eclipse phenomenon are found. Relating to the science literacy, most students have good science understanding to the solar eclipse phenomenon. In conclusion, the understanding about the solar eclipse is affected by formal science education and religion understanding that they have been accepted since their childhood. These factors have also influenced the belief of Indonesian people to the solar eclipse myth and the way of expressions a language literacy.

  1. Monitoring a photovoltaic system during the partial solar eclipse of August 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurinec, Santosh K.; Kucer, Michal; Schlein, Bill

    2018-05-01

    The power output of a 4.85 kW residential photovoltaic (PV) system located in Rochester, NY is monitored during the partial solar eclipse of August 21, 2017. The data is compared with the data on a day before and on the same day, a year ago. The area of exposed solar disk is measured using astrophotography every 16 s of the eclipse. Global solar irradiance is estimated using the eclipse shading, time of the day, location coordinates, atmospheric conditions and panel orientation. A sharp decline, as expected in the energy produced is observed at the time of the peak of the eclipse. The observed data of the PV energy produced is related with the model calculations taking into account solar eclipse coverage and cloudiness conditions. The paper provides a cohesive approach of irradiance calculations and obtaining anticipated PV performance.

  2. Geomorphology of crater and basin deposits - Emplacement of the Fra Mauro formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, R. H.; Oberbeck, V. R.

    1975-01-01

    Characteristics of continuous deposits near lunar craters larger than about 1 km wide are considered, and it is concluded that (1) concentric dunes, radial ridges, and braided lineations result from deposition of the collision products of ejecta from adjacent pairs of similarly oriented secondary-crater chains and are, therefore, concentrations of secondary-crater ejecta; (2) intracrater ridges are produced within preexisting craters surrounding a fresh primary crater by ricocheting and focusing of secondary-crater ejecta from the preexisting craters' walls; and (3) secondary cratering has produced many of the structures of the continuous deposits of relatively small lunar craters and is the dominant process for emplacement of most of the radial facies of the continuous deposits of large lunar craters and basins. The percentages of Imbrium ejecta in deposits and the nature of Imbrium sculpturing are investigated.

  3. Solar Eclipse-Induced Changes in the Ionosphere over the Continental US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, P. J.; Zhang, S.; Goncharenko, L. P.; Coster, A. J.; Hysell, D. L.; Sulzer, M. P.; Vierinen, J.

    2017-12-01

    For the first time in 26 years, a total solar eclipse occurred over the continental United States on 21 August 2017, between 16:00-20:00 UT. We report on American solar eclipse observations of the upper atmosphere, conducted by a team led by MIT Haystack Observatory. Efforts measured ionospheric and thermospheric eclipse perturbations. Although eclipse effects have been studied for more than 50 years, recent major sensitivity and resolution advances using radio-based techniques are providing new information on the eclipse ionosphere-thermosphere-mesosphere (ITM) system response. Our study was focused on quantifying eclipse effects on (1) traveling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs) and atmospheric gravity waves (AGWs); (2) spatial ionospheric variations associated with the eclipse; and (3) altitudinal and temporal ionospheric profile variations. We present selected early findings on ITM eclipse response including a dense global network of 6000 GNSS total electron content (TEC) receivers (100 million measurements per day; 1x1 degree spatial grid) and the Millstone Hill and Arecibo incoherent scatter radars. TEC depletions of up to 60% in magnitude were associated with the eclipse umbra and penumbra and consistently trailed the eclipse totality center. TEC enhancements associated with prominent orographic features were observed in the western US due to complex interactions as the lower atmosphere cooled in response to decreasing EUV energy inputs. Strong TIDs in the form of bow waves, stern waves, and a stern wake were observed in TEC data. Altitude-resolved plasma parameter profiles from Millstone Hill saw a nearly 50% decrease in F region electron density in vertical profiles, accompanied by a corresponding 200-250 K decrease in electron temperature. Wide field Millstone Hill radar scans showed similar decreases in electron density to the southwest, maximizing along the line of closest approach to totality. Data is available to the research community through the MIT

  4. LIMB-DARKENING COEFFICIENTS FOR ECLIPSING WHITE DWARFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gianninas, A.; Strickland, B. D.; Kilic, Mukremin [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, 440 W. Brooks St., Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Bergeron, P., E-mail: alexg@nhn.ou.edu, E-mail: benstrickland@ou.edu, E-mail: kilic@ou.edu, E-mail: bergeron@astro.umontreal.ca [Departement de Physique, Universite de Montreal, C.P. 6128, Succ. Centre-Ville, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7 (Canada)

    2013-03-20

    We present extensive calculations of linear and nonlinear limb-darkening coefficients as well as complete intensity profiles appropriate for modeling the light-curves of eclipsing white dwarfs. We compute limb-darkening coefficients in the Johnson-Kron-Cousins UBVRI photometric system as well as the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) ugrizy system using the most up to date model atmospheres available. In all, we provide the coefficients for seven different limb-darkening laws. We describe the variations of these coefficients as a function of the atmospheric parameters, including the effects of convection at low effective temperatures. Finally, we discuss the importance of having readily available limb-darkening coefficients in the context of present and future photometric surveys like the LSST, Palomar Transient Factory, and the Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System (Pan-STARRS). The LSST, for example, may find {approx}10{sup 5} eclipsing white dwarfs. The limb-darkening calculations presented here will be an essential part of the detailed analysis of all of these systems.

  5. LIMB-DARKENING COEFFICIENTS FOR ECLIPSING WHITE DWARFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gianninas, A.; Strickland, B. D.; Kilic, Mukremin; Bergeron, P.

    2013-01-01

    We present extensive calculations of linear and nonlinear limb-darkening coefficients as well as complete intensity profiles appropriate for modeling the light-curves of eclipsing white dwarfs. We compute limb-darkening coefficients in the Johnson-Kron-Cousins UBVRI photometric system as well as the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) ugrizy system using the most up to date model atmospheres available. In all, we provide the coefficients for seven different limb-darkening laws. We describe the variations of these coefficients as a function of the atmospheric parameters, including the effects of convection at low effective temperatures. Finally, we discuss the importance of having readily available limb-darkening coefficients in the context of present and future photometric surveys like the LSST, Palomar Transient Factory, and the Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System (Pan-STARRS). The LSST, for example, may find ∼10 5 eclipsing white dwarfs. The limb-darkening calculations presented here will be an essential part of the detailed analysis of all of these systems.

  6. Groundwater modelling of Aespoe using the ECLIPSE program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wokil, H.

    1995-06-01

    The pre-investigations indicated that the dominant rocks ranged in composition from true granite to dioritic or gabbroic rocks. In conjunction with these investigations at the area, a number of indications were obtained of high transmissive fracture zones. To be able to understand the fracture zone NE-1 as well as possible, a number of hydraulic tests were performed, for example a tracer test. The program ECLIPSE 100 is one of the standard programs in the oil industry which is used to simulate oil fields. ECLIPSE 100 is a multi-facility simulator and it can be used to simulate 1, 2 and 3 phase systems, one option is oil, two phase options are oil/gas, oil/water or gas/water, and the third option is oil/gas/water. Good results were obtained from the simulator match of the tracer concentration versus time to the measured values from the tracer test of the fracture zone NE-1. The simulation was less successful in modelling the draw-down of water in the wells. We were also unable to reach a balance situation for the water pressure prior to injecting the tracer in order to accommodate several weeks of leakage into the tunnel prior to the tracer test. As a main conclusion, we found the results of the simulation to be satisfactory and we believe that further work should be done to adapt the program completely for groundwater simulation. 19 refs, 10 tabs, 13 figs

  7. Eclipse-Free-Time Assessment Tool for IRIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagle, David

    2012-01-01

    IRIS_EFT is a scientific simulation that can be used to perform an Eclipse-Free- Time (EFT) assessment of IRIS (Infrared Imaging Surveyor) mission orbits. EFT is defined to be those time intervals longer than one day during which the IRIS spacecraft is not in the Earth s shadow. Program IRIS_EFT implements a special perturbation of orbital motion to numerically integrate Cowell's form of the system of differential equations. Shadow conditions are predicted by embedding this integrator within Brent s method for finding the root of a nonlinear equation. The IRIS_EFT software models the effects of the following types of orbit perturbations on the long-term evolution and shadow characteristics of IRIS mission orbits. (1) Non-spherical Earth gravity, (2) Atmospheric drag, (3) Point-mass gravity of the Sun, and (4) Point-mass gravity of the Moon. The objective of this effort was to create an in-house computer program that would perform eclipse-free-time analysis. of candidate IRIS spacecraft mission orbits in an accurate and timely fashion. The software is a suite of Fortran subroutines and data files organized as a "computational" engine that is used to accurately predict the long-term orbit evolution of IRIS mission orbits while searching for Earth shadow conditions.

  8. Crater topography on Titan: Implications for landscape evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neish, C.; Kirk, R.; Lorenz, R.; Bray, V.; Schenk, P.; Stiles, B.; Turtle, E.; Cassini Radar Team

    2012-04-01

    Unique among the icy satellites, Titan’s surface shows evidence for extensive modification by fluvial and aeolian erosion, which act to change the topography of its surface over time. Quantifying the extent of this landscape evolution is difficult, since the original, ‘non-eroded’ surface topography is generally unknown. However, fresh craters on icy satellites have a well-known shape and morphology, which has been determined from extensive studies on the airless worlds of the outer solar system (Schenk et al., 2004). By comparing the topography of craters on Titan to similarly sized, pristine analogues on airless bodies, we can obtain one of the few direct measures of the amount of erosion that has occurred on Titan. Cassini RADAR has imaged >30% of the surface of Titan, and more than 60 potential craters have been identified in this data set (Wood et al., 2010; Neish and Lorenz, 2012). Topographic information for these craters can be obtained from a technique known as ‘SARTopo’, which estimates surface heights by comparing the calibration of overlapping synthetic aperture radar (SAR) beams (Stiles et al., 2009). We present topography data for several craters on Titan, and compare the data to similarly sized craters on Ganymede, for which topography has been extracted from stereo-derived digital elevation models (Bray et al., 2012). We find that the depths of craters on Titan are generally within the range of depths observed on Ganymede, but several hundreds of meters shallower than the average (Fig. 1). A statistical comparison between the two data sets suggests that it is extremely unlikely that Titan’s craters were selected from the depth distribution of fresh craters on Ganymede, and that is it much more probable that the relative depths of Titan are uniformly distributed between ‘fresh’ and ‘completely infilled’. This is consistent with an infilling process that varies linearly with time, such as aeolian infilling. Figure 1: Depth of

  9. Vegetation damage and recovery after Chiginagak Volcano Crater drainage event

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — From August 20 — 23, 2006, I revisited Chiginigak volcano to document vegetation recovery after the crater drainage event that severely damaged vegetation in May of...

  10. LRO MOON CRATER EDR RAWDATA VERSION 1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set comprises the raw binary data from from the LRO Cosmic Ray Telescope for the Effects of Radiation (CRaTER) instrument. The data consists of the...

  11. Mars Climate History: Insights From Impact Crater Wall Slope Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreslavsky, Mikhail A.; Head, James W.

    2018-02-01

    We use the global distribution of the steepest slopes on crater walls derived from Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter profile data to assess the magnitudes of degradational processes with latitude, altitude, and time. We independently confirm that Amazonian polar/high-latitude crater slope modification is substantial, but that craters in the low latitudes have essentially escaped significant slope modification since the Early Hesperian. We find that the total amount of crater wall degradation in the Late Noachian is very small in comparison to the circumpolar regions in the Late Amazonian, an observation that we interpret to mean that the Late Noachian climate was not characterized by persistent and continuous warm and wet conditions. A confirmed elevational zonality in degradation in the Early Hesperian is interpreted to mean that the atmosphere was denser than today.

  12. Extreme Access & Lunar Ice Mining in Permanently Shadowed Craters

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Results from the recent NASA Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite, or LCROSS, mission in 2010, indicate that water (H2O), ice and other useful volatiles...

  13. PREFACE: Eclipse on the Coral Sea: Cycle 24 Ascending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cally, Paul; Erdélyi, Robert; Norton

    2013-06-01

    A total solar eclipse is the most spectacular and awe-inspiring astronomical phenomenon most people will ever see in their lifetimes. Even hardened solar scientists draw inspiration from it. The eclipse with 2 minutes totality in the early morning of 14 November 2012 (local time) drew over 120 solar researchers (and untold thousands of the general public) to the small and picturesque resort town of Palm Cove just north of Cairns in tropical north Queensland, Australia, and they were rewarded when the clouds parted just before totality to reveal a stunning solar display. Eclipse photograph The eclipse was also the catalyst for an unusually broad and exciting conference held in Palm Cove over the week 12--16 November. Eclipse on the Coral Sea: Cycle 24 Ascending served as GONG 2012, LWS/SDO-5, and SOHO 27, indicating how widely it drew on the various sub-communities within solar physics. Indeed, as we neared the end of the ascending phase of the peculiar Solar Cycle 24, it was the perfect time to bring the whole community together to discuss our Sun's errant recent behaviour, especially as Cycle 24 is the first to be fully observed by the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). The whole-Sun perspective was a driving theme of the conference, with the cycle probed from interior (helioseismology), to atmosphere (the various lines observed by the Atmospheric Imaging Assemble (AIA) aboard SDO, the several instruments on Hinode, and other modern observatories), and beyond (CMEs etc). The quality of the presentations was exceptional, and the many speakers are to be commended for pitching their talks to the broad community present. These proceedings draw from the invited and contributed oral presentations and the posters exhibited in Palm Cove. They give an (incomplete) snapshot of the meeting, illustrating its broad vistas. The published contributions are organized along the lines of the conference sessions, as set out in the Contents, leading off with a provocative view of

  14. Site characterization requirements for nuclear-cratering design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terhune, R.W.; Carlson, R.C.

    1977-01-01

    A material properties measurement program for the design of large engineering nuclear-excavation projects by computer calculation is presented. Material properties of the site and their relative effect on crater size are analyzed and ordered in relation to their importance in determining the overall cratering efficiency. The measurement program includes both in situ logging and laboratory measurement of core samples, together with the reason for each measurement and its use in the calculations

  15. A global catalogue of Ceres impact craters ≥ 1 km and preliminary analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Sheng; Yue, Zongyu; Di, Kaichang; Liu, Zhaoqin

    2018-03-01

    The orbital data products of Ceres, including global LAMO image mosaic and global HAMO DTM with a resolution of 35 m/pixel and 135 m/pixel respectively, are utilized in this research to create a global catalogue of impact craters with diameter ≥ 1 km, and their morphometric parameters are calculated. Statistics shows: (1) There are 29,219 craters in the catalogue, and the craters have a various morphologies, e.g., polygonal crater, floor fractured crater, complex crater with central peak, etc.; (2) The identifiable smallest crater size is extended to 1 km and the crater numbers have been updated when compared with the crater catalogue (D ≥ 20 km) released by the Dawn Science Team; (3) The d/D ratios for fresh simple craters, obviously degraded simple crater and polygonal simple crater are 0.11 ± 0.04, 0.05 ± 0.04 and 0.14 ± 0.02 respectively. (4) The d/D ratios for non-polygonal complex crater and polygonal complex crater are 0.08 ± 0.04 and 0.09 ± 0.03. The global crater catalogue created in this work can be further applied to many other scientific researches, such as comparing d/D with other bodies, inferring subsurface properties, determining surface age, and estimating average erosion rate.

  16. Building on the US Eclipse Experience in Schools, with the Public, and Beyond the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Mike; Chee, Zoe; Bartolone, Lindsay

    2018-01-01

    Astronomers Without Borders (AWB) organized several programs for the August 21, 2017 total solar eclipse, both before and after the event, to increase participation, build on the inspiration of the eclipse, share the eclipse experience, and prepare for the eclipse in 2024.AWB focused on preparing institutions that were least likely to receive resources despite extensive nationwide efforts. AWB distributed more than 100,000 donated glasses, to isolated schools, children's cancer hospitals, abused women’s shelters, and other institutions without access to other resource providers.AWB’s Building on the Eclipse Education Program builds on the inspiration of the eclipse for STEM education. The program uses a small, personal spectroscope kit to study sunlight in different scientific fields and includes free classroom activities that meet NGSS standards.A program to collect eclipse observing glasses for schools in developing countries for future eclipses was announced around the time of the eclipse and quickly went viral, with coverage by national and innumerable local media outlets. This effort builds on AWB’s earlier programs for schools in Africa and in South America for past eclipses. Well over one million pairs are expected, as compared to the tens of thousands AWB provided through crowdfunding for previous efforts. Nearly 1000 glasses collection centers were created spontaneously, without a public call. Factors leading to widespread and diverse public participation will be presented.A program calling for first-time eclipse observers to share their experiences addresses a major issue in encouraging people to travel to the path of totality. Expert and eclipse-enthusiast testimony often fails to convince people of the value of the experience of totality as “a few minutes of darkness.” This program will share the disconnect between expectation and experience from first-time “ordinary” observers to encourage others to travel to the path of totality for the

  17. Morphological indicators of a mascon beneath Ceres' largest crater, Kerwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bland, Michael T.; Ermakov, Anton; Raymond, Carol A.; Williams, David A.; Bowling, Tim J.; Preusker, F.; Park, Ryan S.; Marchi, Simone; Castillo-Rogez, Julie C.; Fu, R.R.; Russell, Christopher T.

    2018-01-01

    Gravity data of Ceres returned by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Dawn spacecraft is consistent with a lower density crust of variable thickness overlying a higher density mantle. Crustal thickness variations can affect the long‐term, postimpact modification of impact craters on Ceres. Here we show that the unusual morphology of the 280 km diameter crater Kerwan may result from viscous relaxation in an outer layer that thins substantially beneath the crater floor. We propose that such a structure is consistent with either impact‐induced uplift of the high‐density mantle beneath the crater or from volatile loss during the impact event. In either case, the subsurface structure inferred from the crater morphology is superisostatic, and the mass excess would result in a positive Bouguer anomaly beneath the crater, consistent with the highest‐degree gravity data from Dawn. Ceres joins the Moon, Mars, and Mercury in having basin‐associated gravity anomalies, although their origin may differ substantially.

  18. 100 New Impact Crater Sites Found on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, M. R.; Malin, M. C.

    2009-12-01

    Recent observations constrain the formation of 100 new impact sites on Mars over the past decade; 19 of these were found using the Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC), and the other 81 have been identified since 2006 using the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Context Camera (CTX). Every 6 meter/pixel CTX image is examined upon receipt and, where they overlap images of 0.3-240 m/pixel scale acquired by the same or other Mars-orbiting spacecraft, we look for features that may have changed. New impact sites are initially identified by the presence of a new dark spot or cluster of dark spots in a CTX image. Such spots may be new impact craters, or result from the effect of impact blasts on the dusty surface. In some (generally rare) cases, the crater is sufficiently large to be resolved in the CTX image. In most cases, however, the crater(s) cannot be seen. These are tentatively designated as “candidate” new impact sites, and the CTX team then creates an opportunity for the MRO spacecraft to point its cameras off-nadir and requests that the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) team obtain an image of ~0.3 m/pixel to confirm whether a crater or crater cluster is present. It is clear even from cursory examination that the CTX observations are areographically biased to dusty, higher albedo areas on Mars. All but 3 of the 100 new impact sites occur on surfaces with Lambert albedo values in excess of 23.5%. Our initial study of MOC images greatly benefited from the initial global observations made in one month in 1999, creating a baseline date from which we could start counting new craters. The global coverage by MRO Mars Color Imager is more than a factor of 4 poorer in resolution than the MOC Wide Angle camera and does not offer the opportunity for global analysis. Instead, we must rely on partial global coverage and global coverage that has taken years to accumulate; thus we can only treat impact rates statistically. We subdivide the total data

  19. Radionuclide table. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legrand, Jean; Perolat, J.-P.; Lagoutine, Frederic; Le Gallic, Yves.

    The evaluation of the following 29 radionuclides is presented: 22 Na, 24 Na, sup(24m)Na, 51 Cr, 54 Mn, 57 Co, 58 Co, sup(58m)Co, 60 Co, sup(60m)Co, 75 Se, 103 Ru, sup(103m)Rh, sup(110m)Ag- 110 Ag, 109 Cd, 125 Sb, sup(125mTe), 125 I, 133 Xe, sup(133m)Xe, 131 Cs, 134 Cs, sup(134m)Cs, 139 Ce, 144 Ce- 144 Pr, 144 Pr, 169 Er, 186 Re, 203 Hg. The introduction contains a brief description of radioactive processes and the evaluation rules followed. The best values and associated uncertainties are given for each radionuclide for the major parameters of the decay scheme and the radiation intensities emitted, together with a decay table. Gamma, X-rays and sometimes conversion electron spectra are also provided [fr

  20. Geological Mapping of Impact Melt Deposits at Lunar Complex Craters: New Insights into Morphological Diversity, Distribution and the Cratering Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhingra, D.; Head, J. W., III; Pieters, C. M.

    2014-12-01

    We have completed high resolution geological mapping of impact melt deposits at the young lunar complex craters (wall and rim impact melt units and their relation to floor units have also been mapped. Among the distinctive features of these impact melt deposits are: 1) Impact Melt Wave Fronts: These are extensive (sometimes several kilometers in length) and we have documented their occurrence and distribution in different parts of the crater floor at Jackson and Tycho. These features emphasize melt mobility and style of emplacement during the modification stage of the craters. 2) Variations in Floor Elevations: Spatially extensive and coherent sections of crater floors have different elevations at all the three craters. The observed elevation differences could be caused by subsidence due to cooling of melt and/or structural failure, together with a contribution from regional slope. 3) Melt-Covered Megablocks: We also observe large blocks/rock-fragments (megablocks) covered in impact melt, which could be sections of collapsed wall or in some cases, subdued sections of central peaks. 4) Melt-Covered Central Peaks: Impact melt has also been mapped on the central peaks but varies in spatial extent among the craters. The presence of melt on peaks must be taken into account when interpreting peak mineralogy as exposures of deeper crust. 5) Boulder Distribution: Interesting trends are observed in the distribution of boulder units of various sizes; some impact melt units have spatially extensive boulders, while boulder distribution is very scarce in other units on the floor. We interpret these distributions to be influenced by a) the differential collapse of the crater walls during the modification stage, and b) the amount of relative melt volume retained in different parts of the crater floor. These observations provide important documentation of the morphological diversity and better understanding of the emplacement and final distribution of impact melt deposits.

  1. Temperature profiles from Pos Crater Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neshyba, Steve; Fernandez, Walter; Diaz-Andrade, José

    In 1984, we took part in an expedition to measure the temperature field and bathymetry of the acid lake (Figure 1) that has formed in the crater of Poás volcano, Costa Rica, since its last eruption in 1953. Obtaining these data was the first step in a long-range study planned by researchers at the Center for Geophysical Research, University of Costa Rica (San Jose, Costa Rica), and the College of Oceanography, Oregon State University (Corvallis). The study will eventually consider all aspects of fluid behavior in a volcanic lake that is heated or otherwise convectively driven by energy injected at the lake bottom.Evidence of convection is clearly visible on the surface of the Poás lake most of the time. Fumarole activity has been continuous since 1953. Phreatic explosions are quite frequent, varying from weak to strong, and the height of the ejected column varies from 1 to more than 500 m. One immediately useful result of the research would be an estimate of the heat transfer from sources within the conduit to the overlying water column. As far as geophysical fluid behavior goes, we are interested in the turbulent and diffusive processes by which heat and chemical species are transferred. We are especially interested in the impact on the density stratification of the density changes that occur as particulates settle downward through the fluid column. The stratification would otherwise be controlled by the turbulent and diffusive processes driven by thermochemical factors.

  2. Solar Eclipse Engagement and Outreach in Madras and Warm Springs, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, M. S.; Pesnell, W. D.; Ahern, S.; Boyle, M.; Gonzales, T.; Leone, C.

    2017-12-01

    The Central Oregon towns of Madras and Warm Springs were in an ideal location to observe the total solar eclipse of 2017. In anticipation of this event, we embarked on a yearlong partnership to engage and excite these communities. We developed educational events for all students in the school district, grades K-12, as well as two evening keynote addresses during an eclipse week in May. This eclipse week provided resources, learning opportunities, and safety information for all students and families prior to the end of the school year. With the collaboration of graphic design students at Oregon State University, we produced static educational displays as an introduction to the Museum at Warm Springs' exhibit featuring eclipse art. The weekend before the eclipse, we gave away 15,000 pairs of solar viewing glasses to the local community and manned a science booth at the Oregon Solarfest to engage the arriving eclipse tourists. These efforts culminated on Monday, August 21st with tens of thousands of people viewing eclipse totality in Madras and Warm Springs.

  3. Suppression of the Polar Tongue of Ionization During the 21 August 2017 Solar Eclipse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Tong; Lei, Jiuhou; Wang, Wenbin; Burns, Alan; Zhang, Binzheng; Zhang, Shun-Rong

    2018-04-01

    It has long been recognized that during solar eclipses, the ionosphere-thermosphere system changes greatly within the eclipse shadow, due to the rapid reduction of solar irradiation. However, the concept that a solar eclipse impacts polar ionosphere behavior and dynamics as well as magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling has not been appreciated. In this study, we investigate the potential impact of the 21 August 2017 solar eclipse on the polar tongue of ionization (TOI) using a high-resolution, coupled ionosphere-thermosphere-electrodynamics model. The reduction of electron densities by the eclipse in the middle latitude TOI source region leads to a suppressed TOI in the polar region. The TOI suppression occurred when the solar eclipse moved into the afternoon sector. The Global Positioning System total electron content observations show similar tendency of polar region total electron content suppression. This study reveals that a solar eclipse occurring at middle latitudes may have significant influences on the polar ionosphere and magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling.

  4. Effects of solar eclipse on the electrodynamical processes of the equatorial ionosphere: a case study during 11 August 1999 dusk time total solar eclipse over India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sridharan

    Full Text Available The effects on the electrodynamics of the equatorial E- and F-regions of the ionosphere, due to the occurrence of the solar eclipse during sunset hours on 11 August 1999, were investigated in a unique observational campaign involving ground based ionosondes, VHF and HF radars from the equatorial location of Trivandrum (8.5° N; 77° E; dip lat. 0.5° N, India. The study revealed the nature of changes brought about by the eclipse in the evening time E- and F-regions in terms of (i the sudden intensification of a weak blanketing ES-layer and the associated large enhancement of the VHF backscattered returns, (ii significant increase in h' F immediately following the eclipse and (iii distinctly different spatial and temporal structures in the spread-F irregularity drift velocities as observed by the HF radar. The significantly large enhancement of the backscattered returns from the E-region coincident with the onset of the eclipse is attributed to the generation of steep electron density gradients associated with the blanketing ES , possibly triggered by the eclipse phenomena. The increase in F-region base height immediately after the eclipse is explained as due to the reduction in the conductivity of the conjugate E-region in the path of totality connected to the F-region over the equator along the magnetic field lines, and this, with the peculiar local and regional conditions, seems to have reduced the E-region loading of the F-region dynamo, resulting in a larger post sunset F-region height (h' F rise. These aspects of E-and F-region behaviour on the eclipse day are discussed in relation to those observed on the control day.

    Key words. Ionosphere (electric fields and currents; equatorial ionosphere; ionospheric irregularities

  5. Effects of solar eclipse on the electrodynamical processes of the equatorial ionosphere: a case study during 11 August 1999 dusk time total solar eclipse over India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sridharan

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects on the electrodynamics of the equatorial E- and F-regions of the ionosphere, due to the occurrence of the solar eclipse during sunset hours on 11 August 1999, were investigated in a unique observational campaign involving ground based ionosondes, VHF and HF radars from the equatorial location of Trivandrum (8.5° N; 77° E; dip lat. 0.5° N, India. The study revealed the nature of changes brought about by the eclipse in the evening time E- and F-regions in terms of (i the sudden intensification of a weak blanketing ES-layer and the associated large enhancement of the VHF backscattered returns, (ii significant increase in h' F immediately following the eclipse and (iii distinctly different spatial and temporal structures in the spread-F irregularity drift velocities as observed by the HF radar. The significantly large enhancement of the backscattered returns from the E-region coincident with the onset of the eclipse is attributed to the generation of steep electron density gradients associated with the blanketing ES , possibly triggered by the eclipse phenomena. The increase in F-region base height immediately after the eclipse is explained as due to the reduction in the conductivity of the conjugate E-region in the path of totality connected to the F-region over the equator along the magnetic field lines, and this, with the peculiar local and regional conditions, seems to have reduced the E-region loading of the F-region dynamo, resulting in a larger post sunset F-region height (h' F rise. These aspects of E-and F-region behaviour on the eclipse day are discussed in relation to those observed on the control day.Key words. Ionosphere (electric fields and currents; equatorial ionosphere; ionospheric irregularities

  6. Dynamics of crater formations in immersed granular materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varas, G.; Vidal, V.; Géminard, J.

    2009-12-01

    Craters are part of the widespread phenomena observed in nature. Among the main applications to natural phenomena, aside from meteorite impact craters, are the formation and growth of volcanic edifices, by successive ejecta emplacement and/or erosion. The time evolution and dynamics play a crucial role here, as the competition between volcanic-jet mass-flux (degassing and ejecta) and crater-size evolution may control directly the eruptive regime. Crater morphology in dry granular material has been extensively studied, both experimentally and theoretically. Most of these studies investigate the final, steady crater shape resulting from the collision of solid bodies with the material surface and scaling laws are derived. In immersed granular material, craters generated by an underwater vortex ring, or underwater impact craters generated by landslide, have been reported. In a previous experimental study, Gostiaux et al. [Gran. Matt., 2002] have investigated the dynamics of air flowing through an immersed granular layer. They reported that, depending on the flow rate, the system exhibits two qualitatively different regimes: At small flow rate, the bubbling regime during which bubbles escape the granular layer independently one from another; At large flow rate, the open-channel regime which corresponds to the formation of a channel crossing the whole thickness of the granular bed through which air escapes almost continuously. At intermediate flow rate, a spontaneous alternation between these two regimes is observed. Here, we report the dynamics of crater formations at the free surface of an immersed granular bed, locally crossed by an ascending gas flow. We reproduce the experimental conditions of Gostiaux et al. (2002) in two dimensions: In a vertical Hele-Shaw cell, the crater consists of two sand piles which develop around the location of the gas emission. We observe that the typical size of the crater increases logarithmically with time, independently of the gas

  7. Symbol Tables and Branch Tables: Linking Applications Together

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handler, Louis M.

    2011-01-01

    This document explores the computer techniques used to execute software whose parts are compiled and linked separately. The computer techniques include using a branch table or indirect address table to connect the parts. Methods of storing the information in data structures are discussed as well as differences between C and C++.

  8. An Overview of the GOLD Experiment Between the ETS-6 Satellite and the Table Mountain Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, K. E.

    1996-01-01

    The Ground/Orbiter Lasercomm Demonstration is a demonstration of optical communications between the Japanese Engineering Test Satellite (ETS-VI) and an optical ground transmitting and receiving station at the Table Mountain Facility in Wrightwood, California. Laser transmissions to the satellite are performed for approximately 4 hours every third night when the satellite is at apogee above Table Mountain. The experiment requires the coordination of resources at the Communications Research Laboratory (CRL), JPL, the National Aeronautics and Space Development Agency (NASDA) Tsukuba tracking station, and NASA's Deep Space Network at Goldstone, California, to generate and transmit real-time commands and receive telemetry from the ETS-VI. Transmissions to the ETS-VI began in November 1995 and are scheduled to last into the middle of January 1996, when the satellite is expected to be eclipsed by the Earth's shadow for a major part of its orbit. The eclipse is expected to last for about 2 months, and during this period there will be limited electrical power available on board the satellite. NASDA plans to restrict experiments with the ETS-VI during this period, and no laser transmissions are planned. Posteclipse experiments are currently being negotiated. GOLD is a joint NASA-CRL experiment that is being conducted by JPL in coordination with CRL and NASDA.

  9. Planetary boundary layer and circulation dynamics at Gale Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Ricardo M.; Zorzano-Mier, María-Paz; Martín-Torres, Javier

    2018-03-01

    The Mars implementation of the Planet Weather Research and Forecasting (PlanetWRF) model, MarsWRF, is used here to simulate the atmospheric conditions at Gale Crater for different seasons during a period coincident with the Curiosity rover operations. The model is first evaluated with the existing single-point observations from the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS), and is then used to provide a larger scale interpretation of these unique measurements as well as to give complementary information where there are gaps in the measurements. The variability of the planetary boundary layer depth may be a driver of the changes in the local dust and trace gas content within the crater. Our results show that the average time when the PBL height is deeper than the crater rim increases and decreases with the same rate and pattern as Curiosity's observations of the line-of-sight of dust within the crater and that the season when maximal (minimal) mixing is produced is Ls 225°-315° (Ls 90°-110°). Thus the diurnal and seasonal variability of the PBL depth seems to be the driver of the changes in the local dust content within the crater. A comparison with the available methane measurements suggests that changes in the PBL depth may also be one of the factors that accounts for the observed variability, with the model results pointing towards a local source to the north of the MSL site. The interaction between regional and local flows at Gale Crater is also investigated assuming that the meridional wind, the dynamically important component of the horizontal wind at Gale, anomalies with respect to the daily mean can be approximated by a sinusoidal function as they typically oscillate between positive (south to north) and negative (north to south) values that correspond to upslope/downslope or downslope/upslope regimes along the crater rim and Mount Sharp slopes and the dichotomy boundary. The smallest magnitudes are found in the northern crater floor in a region that

  10. Reanalysis of the radii of the Benchmark eclipsing binary V578 Mon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, E. V.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Torres, Guillermo

    2013-01-01

    V578 Mon is an eclipsing binary system in which both stars have masses above 10 M ☉ determined with an accuracy better than 3%. It is one of only five such massive eclipsing binaries known that also possess eccentric orbits and measured apsidal motions, thus making it an important benchmark for theoretical stellar evolution models. However, recently reported determinations of the radii of V578 Mon differ significantly from previously reported values. We reanalyze the published data for V578 Mon and trace the discrepancy to the use of an incorrect formulation for the stellar potentials in the most recent analysis. Here we report corrected radii for this important benchmark eclipsing binary.

  11. A Photometric Study of Three Eclipsing Binary Stars (Poster abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, A.

    2016-12-01

    (Abstract only) As part of a program to study eclipsing binary stars that exhibit the O'Connell Effect (OCE) we are observing a selection of binary stars in a long term study. The OCE is a difference in maximum light across the ligthcurve possibly cause by starspots. We observed for 7 nights at McDonald Observatory using the 30-inch telescope in July 2015, and used the same telescope remotely for a total of 20 additional nights in August, October, December, and January. We will present lightcurves for three stars from this study, characterize the OCE for these stars, and present our model results for the physical parameters of the star making up each of these systems.

  12. LB 3459, an O-type subdwarf eclipsing binary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilkenny, D.; Penfold, J.E.; Hilditch, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    Four-colour photometry of the short-period eclipsing binary system LB 3459 confirms features seen in earlier less-detailed data. An analysis of all the observational data suggests the system to be an O-type subdwarf plus a hot white dwarf rather than two sdO stars. A value of 0.03 is obtained for the linear limb-darkening coefficient of the primary and estimates of the absolute magnitudes of the two components give a distance of 70 +- 25 pc for the system. The primary and secondary may have radii as small as 0.04 solar radius and 0.02 solar radius respectively, indicating a component separation of only 0.25 solar radius. Several unsolved problems connected with the nature and evolution of the LB 3459 system are noted. (author)

  13. SPEEDY: An Eclipse-based IDE for invariant inference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Cok

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available SPEEDY is an Eclipse-based IDE for exploring techniques that assist users in generating correct specifications, particularly including invariant inference algorithms and tools. It integrates with several back-end tools that propose invariants and will incorporate published algorithms for inferring object and loop invariants. Though the architecture is language-neutral, current SPEEDY targets C programs. Building and using SPEEDY has confirmed earlier experience demonstrating the importance of showing and editing specifications in the IDEs that developers customarily use, automating as much of the production and checking of specifications as possible, and showing counterexample information directly in the source code editing environment. As in previous work, automation of specification checking is provided by back-end SMT solvers. However, reducing the effort demanded of software developers using formal methods also requires a GUI design that guides users in writing, reviewing, and correcting specifications and automates specification inference.

  14. Non regular variations in the LOD from European medieval eclipses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, M. J.; Marco, F. J.

    2012-12-01

    The study of ancient eclipses has demonstrated its utility to approximate some astronomical constants, in particular in the field of the Earth's rotation. It is a well known fact that the rate of rotation of the Earth is slowly decreasing in time. There are many possible reasons for this fact, including internal and external mechanisms. The most important external causes are lunar and solar tides. While internal causes can be very diverse: examples of short term effects are changing wind patterns, electromagnetic coupling between the fluid core of the Earth and the lower mantle, while sea-level fluctuations associated with climatic variations are examples of long time effects. In any case, the most important cause is the tidal friction.

  15. Ectopic fat accumulation in patients with COPD: an ECLIPSE substudy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin M

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mickaël Martin,1 Natalie Almeras,1 Jean-Pierre Després,1 Harvey O Coxson,2 George R Washko,3 Isabelle Vivodtzev,4 Emiel FM Wouters,5 Erica Rutten,6 Michelle C Williams,7 John T Murchison,8 William MacNee,7 Don D Sin,2 François Maltais1 On behalf of the Evaluation of COPD Longitudinally to Identify Predictive Surrogate Endpoints (ECLIPSE Study Group 1Research Centre, Institut universitaire de cardiologie et de pneumologie de Québec, Université Laval, Québec, QC, 2Department of Radiology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 3Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; 4Hypoxia Pathophysiology Laboratory, Grenoble University Hospital, Grenoble, France; 5Department of Respiratory Medicine, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht, 6Research and Development, CIRO, Horn, the Netherlands; 7Department of Respiratory Medicine, University of Edinburgh, 8Department of Radiology, Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK Background: Obesity is increasingly associated with COPD, but little is known about the prevalence of ectopic fat accumulation in COPD and whether this can possibly be associated with poor clinical outcomes and comorbidities. The Evaluation of COPD Longitudinally to Identify Predictive Surrogate Endpoints (ECLIPSE substudy tested the hypothesis that COPD is associated with increased ectopic fat accumulation and that this would be associated with COPD-related outcomes and comorbidities.Methods: Computed tomography (CT images of the thorax obtained in ECLIPSE were used to quantify ectopic fat accumulation at L2–L3 (eg, cross-sectional area [CSA] of visceral adipose tissue [VAT] and muscle tissue [MT] attenuation, a reflection of muscle fat infiltration and CSA of MT. A dose–response relationship between CSA of VAT, MT attenuation and CSA of MT and COPD-related outcomes (6-minute walking distance [6MWD], exacerbation rate, quality of life, and forced

  16. Absolute dimensions and masses of eclipsing binaries. V. IQ Persei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacy, C.H.; Frueh, M.L.; McDonald Observatory, Austin)

    1985-01-01

    New photometric and spectroscopic observations of the 1.7 day eclipsing binary IQ Persei (B8 + A6) have been analyzed to yield very accurate fundamental properties of the system. Reticon spectroscopic observations obtained at McDonald Observatory were used to determine accurate radial velocities of both stars in this slightly eccentric large light-ratio binary. A new set of VR light curves obtained at McDonald Observatory were analyzed by synthesis techniques, and previously published UBV light curves were reanalyzed to yield accurate photometric orbits. Orbital parameters derived from both sets of photometric observations are in excellent agreement. The absolute dimensions, masses, luminosities, and apsidal motion period (140 yr) derived from these observations agree well with the predictions of theoretical stellar evolution models. The A6 secondary is still very close to the zero-age main sequence. The B8 primary is about one-third of the way through its main-sequence evolution. 27 references

  17. A Numerical Investigation into Low-Speed Impact Cratering Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Stephen; Richardson, D. C.; Michel, P.

    2012-10-01

    Impact craters are the geological features most commonly observed on the surface of solid Solar System bodies. Crater shapes and features are crucial sources of information regarding past and present surface environments, and can provide indirect information about the internal structures of these bodies. In this study, we consider the effects of low-speed impacts into granular material. Studies of low-speed impact events are suitable for understanding the cratering process leading, for instance, to secondary craters. In addition, upcoming asteroid sample return missions will employ surface sampling strategies that use impacts into the surface by a projectile. An understanding of the process can lead to better sampling strategies. We use our implementation of the Soft-Sphere Discrete Element Method (SSDEM) (Schwartz et al. 2012, Granular Matter 14, 363-380) into the parallel N-body code PKDGRAV (cf. Richardson et al. 2011, Icarus 212, 427-437) to model the impact cratering process into granular material. We consider the effects of boundary conditions on the ejecta velocity profile and discuss how results relate to the Maxwell Z-Model during the crater growth phase. Cratering simulations are compared to those of Wada et al. 2006 (Icarus 180, 528-545) and to impact experiments performed in conjunction with Hayabusa 2. This work is supported in part by grants from the National Science Foundation under grant number AST1009579 and from the Office of Space Science of NASA under grant number NNX08AM39G. Part of this study resulted from discussions with the International Team (#202) sponsored by ISSI in Bern (Switzerland). Some simulations were performed on the YORP cluster administered by the Center for Theory and Computation of the Department of Astronomy at the University of Maryland in College Park and on the SIGGAM computer cluster hosted by the Côte d'Azur Observatory in Nice (France).

  18. Analysis of a Failed Eclipse Plasma Ejection Using EUV Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavabi, E.; Koutchmy, S.; Bazin, C.

    2018-03-01

    The photometry of eclipse white-light (W-L) images showing a moving blob is interpreted for the first time together with observations from space with the PRoject for On Board Autonomy (PROBA-2) mission (ESA). An off-limb event seen with great details in W-L was analyzed with the SWAP imager ( Sun Watcher using Active pixel system detector and image Processing) working in the EUV near 174 Å. It is an elongated plasma blob structure of 25 Mm diameter moving above the east limb with coronal loops under. Summed and co-aligned SWAP images are evaluated using a 20-h sequence, in addition to the 11 July, 2010 eclipse W-L images taken from several sites. The Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) instrument on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) recorded the event suggesting a magnetic reconnection near a high neutral point; accordingly, we also call it a magnetic plasmoid. The measured proper motion of the blob shows a velocity up to 12 km s^{-1}. Electron densities of the isolated condensation (cloud or blob or plasmoid) are photometrically evaluated. The typical value is 108 cm^{-3} at r=1.7 R_{⊙}, superposed on a background corona of 107 cm^{-3} density. The mass of the cloud near its maximum brightness is found to be 1.6×10^{13} g, which is typically 0.6×10^{-4} of the overall mass of the corona. From the extrapolated magnetic field the cloud evolves inside a rather broad open region but decelerates, after reaching its maximum brightness. The influence of such small events for supplying material to the ubiquitous slow wind is noticed. A precise evaluation of the EUV photometric data, after accurately removing the stray light, suggests an interpretation of the weak 174 Å radiation of the cloud as due to resonance scattering in the Fe IX/X lines.

  19. Spectral variation of the solar radiation during an eclipse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Koepke

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available The time dependent variation of the spectral extraterrestrial solar flux is modelled for the conditions during a total eclipse. These data are used to calculate irradiance and actinic flux at the Earth’s surface for atmospheric conditions of August 11, 1999 at Weihenstephan. These results are compared with measurements. It is shown, that the spectral composition of solar radiation varies during the eclipse, since solar limb darkening has a spectral dependence. The solar radiation differs from that of a hypothetical sun without limb darkening by up to 30% in the near IR at 1500 nm and 60% in the UV-B at 310 nm. As shown by a comparison of modelling and measurements, this spectral variation has to be taken into account for modelling of UV radiative quantities in the atmosphere and resulting photochemical processes. The effect of broken cloudiness on irradiance and actinic flux and its dependency on wavelength and receiver geometry is explained. Der Verlauf der spektralen extraterrestrischen solaren Strahlung wÄhrend einer Sonnenfinsternis wurde berechnet. Basierend auf diesen Daten, unter BerÜcksichtigung der atmosphÄrischen Bedingungen am 11. August 1999 in Weihenstephan, wurden Globalstrahlung und Aktinischer Fluss am Boden modelliert und mit Messwerten verglichen. Die spektrale Zusammensetzung der Strahlung Ändert sich wÄhrend einer Sonnenfinsternis, bedingt durch die wellenlÄngenabhÄngige Randverdunklung der Sonne. Im Vergleich zu einer hypothetischen Sonne ohne Randverdunklung ist die solare Strahlung im nahen IR um bis zu 30% gemindert und im UVB bei 310 nm um bis zu 60%. Diese spektralen Änderungen sollten bei der Modellierung von Strahlung, z.B. fÜr photochemische Prozesse berÜcksichtigt werden. Dies wurde durch Messung und Modellierung gezeigt. Der Einfluss von Wolken auf gemessene Werte von Globalstrahlung und Aktinischem Fluss wurde untersucht und erklÄrt.

  20. The Age of Upper Scorpius from Eclipsing Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Trevor; Hillenbrand, Lynne

    2018-01-01

    The Upper Scorpius OB association is the nearest region of recent massive star formation and thus an important benchmark for investigations concerning astrophysical timescales. Classical estimates of the association age based on the kinematics of high-mass members and a Hertzsprung-Russell (H-R) diagram of the full stellar population established an age of 5 Myr. However, recent analyses based on the H-R diagram for intermediate- and high-mass members suggest an older age of 11 Myr. Importantly, the H-R diagram ages of stars in Upper Scorpius (and other clusters of a similar age) are mass-dependent, such that low-mass members appear younger than their high-mass counterparts. Here we report an age that is self-consistent in the mass range of 0.3–5 M⊙, and based on the fundamentally-determined masses and radii of eclipsing binaries (EBs). We present nine EBs in Upper Scorpius, four of which are newly reported here and all of which were discovered from K2 photometry. Joint fitting of the eclipse photometry and radial velocities from newly acquired Keck-I/HIRES spectra yields precise masses and radii for those systems that are spectroscopically double-lined. We identify one of the EB components as a slowly pulsating B-star. We use these EBs to develop an empirical mass-radius relation for pre-main-sequence stars, and to evaluate the predictions of widely-used stellar evolutionary models. Our results are consistent with previous studies that indicate most models underestimate the masses of low-mass stars by tens of percent based on H-R diagram analyses. Models including the effects of magnetic fields produce better agreement between the observed bulk and radiative parameters of these young, low-mass stars. From the orbital elements and photometrically inferred rotation periods, we consider the dynamical states of several binaries and compare with expectations from tidal dissipation theories.

  1. An Airborne Infrared Spectrometer for Solar Eclipse Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samra, Jenna; DeLuca, Edward E.; Golub, Leon; Cheimets, Peter; Philip, Judge

    2016-05-01

    The airborne infrared spectrometer (AIR-Spec) is an innovative solar spectrometer that will observe the 2017 solar eclipse from the NSF/NCAR High-Performance Instrumented Airborne Platform for Environmental Research (HIAPER). AIR-Spec will image five infrared coronal emission lines to determine whether they may be useful probes of coronal magnetism.The solar magnetic field provides the free energy that controls coronal heating, structure, and dynamics. Energy stored in coronal magnetic fields is released in flares and coronal mass ejections and ultimately drives space weather. Therefore, direct coronal field measurements have significant potential to enhance understanding of coronal dynamics and improve solar forecasting models. Of particular interest are observations of field lines in the transitional region between closed and open flux systems, providing important information on the origin of the slow solar wind.While current instruments routinely observe only the photospheric and chromospheric magnetic fields, AIR-Spec will take a step toward the direct observation of coronal fields by measuring plasma emission in the infrared at high spatial and spectral resolution. During the total solar eclipse of 2017, AIR-Spec will observe five magnetically sensitive coronal emission lines between 1.4 and 4 µm from the HIAPER Gulfstream V at an altitude above 14.9 km. The instrument will measure emission line intensity, width, and Doppler shift, map the spatial distribution of infrared emitting plasma, and search for waves in the emission line velocities.AIR-Spec consists of an optical system (feed telescope, grating spectrometer, and infrared detector) and an image stabilization system, which uses a fast steering mirror to correct the line-of-sight for platform perturbations. To ensure that the instrument meets its research goals, both systems are undergoing extensive performance modeling and testing. These results are shown with reference to the science requirements.

  2. Acid Sulfate Alteration in Gusev Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, R. V.; Ming, D. W.; Catalano, J. G.

    2016-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Spirit landed on the Gusev Crater plains west of the Columbia Hills in January, 2004, during the Martian summer (sol 0; sol = 1 Martian day = 24 hr 40 min). Spirit explored the Columbia Hills of Gusev Crater in the vicinity of Home Plate at the onset on its second winter (sol approximately 900) until the onset of its fourth winter (sol approximately 2170). At that time, Spirit became mired in a deposit of fined-grained and sulfate-rich soil with dust-covered solar panels and unfavorable pointing of the solar arrays toward the sun. Spirit has not communicated with the Earth since sol 2210 (January, 2011). Like its twin rover Opportunity, which landed on the opposite side of Mars at Meridiani Planum, Spirit has an Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS) instrument for chemical analyses and a Moessbauer spectrometer (MB) for measurement of iron redox state, mineralogical speciation, and quantitative distribution among oxidation (Fe(3+)/sigma Fe) and coordination (octahedral versus tetrahedral) states and mineralogical speciation (e.g., olivine, pyroxene, ilmenite, carbonate, and sulfate). The concentration of SO3 in Gusev rocks and soils varies from approximately 1 to approximately 34 wt%. Because the APXS instrument does not detect low atomic number elements (e.g., H and C), major-element oxide concentrations are normalized to sum to 100 wt%, i.e., contributions of H2O, CO2, NO2, etc. to the bulk composition care not considered. The majority of Gusev samples have approximately 6 plus or minus 5 wt% SO3, but there is a group of samples with high SO3 concentrations (approximately 30 wt%) and high total iron concentrations (approximately 20 wt%). There is also a group with low total Fe and SO3 concentrations that is also characterized by high SiO2 concentrations (greater than 70 wt%). The trend labeled "Basaltic Soil" is interpreted as mixtures in variable proportions between unaltered igneous material and oxidized and SO3-rich basaltic

  3. Atmospheric Tides in Gale Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzewich, Scott D,; Newman, C. E; de la Torre Juarez, M.; Wilson, R. J.; Lemmon, M.; Smith, M. D.; Kahanpaa, H.; Harri, A.-M.

    2015-01-01

    Atmospheric tides are the primary source of daily air pressure variation at the surface of Mars. These tides are forced by solar heating of the atmosphere and modulated by the presence of atmospheric dust, topography, and surface albedo and thermal inertia. This results in a complex mix of sun-synchronous and nonsun- synchronous tides propagating both eastward and westward around the planet in periods that are integer fractions of a solar day. The Rover Environmental Monitoring Station on board the Mars Science Laboratory has observed air pressure at a regular cadence for over 1 Mars year and here we analyze and diagnose atmospheric tides in this pressure record. The diurnal tide amplitude varies from 26 to 63 Pa with an average phase of 0424 local true solar time, while the semidiurnal tide amplitude varies from 5 to 20 Pa with an average phase of 0929. We find that both the diurnal and semidiurnal tides in Gale Crater are highly correlated to atmospheric opacity variations at a value of 0.9 and to each other at a value of 0.77, with some key exceptions occurring during regional and local dust storms. We supplement our analysis with MarsWRF general circulation modeling to examine how a local dust storm impacts the diurnal tide in its vicinity. We find that both the diurnal tide amplitude enhancement and regional coverage of notable amplitude enhancement linearly scales with the size of the local dust storm. Our results provide the first long-term record of surface pressure tides near the martian equator.

  4. Volume tables for red alder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd A. Johnson; R. M. Kallander; Paul G. Lauterbach

    1949-01-01

    The increasing importance of red alder as a commercial species in the Pacific Northwest has prompted the three agencies listed above to pool their tree measurement data for the construction of standard regional red alder volume tables. The tables included here were based on trees from a variety of sites and form classes. Approximately one quarter of the total number of...

  5. Modeling Radial Velocities and Eclipse Photometry of the Kepler Target KIC 4054905: an Oscillating Red Giant in an Eclipsing Binary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benbakoura, M.; Gaulme, P.; McKeever, J.; Beck, P. G.; Jackiewicz, J.; García, R. A.

    2017-12-01

    Asteroseismology is a powerful tool to measure the fundamental properties of stars and probe their interiors. This is particularly efficient for red giants because their modes are well detectable and give information on their deep layers. However, the seismic relations used to infer the mass and radius of a star have been calibrated on the Sun. Therefore, it is crucial to assess their accuracy for red giants which are not perfectly homologous to it. We study eclipsing binaries with a giant component to test their validity. We identified 16 systems for which we intend to compare the dynamical masses and radii obtained by combined photometry and spectroscopy to the values obtained from asteroseismology. In the present work, we illustrate our approach on a system from our sample.

  6. MCNPX Model/Table Comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendricks, J.S.

    2003-01-01

    MCNPX is a Monte Carlo N-Particle radiation transport code extending the capabilities of MCNP4C. As with MCNP, MCNPX uses nuclear data tables to transport neutrons, photons, and electrons. Unlike MCNP, MCNPX also uses (1) nuclear data tables to transport protons; (2) physics models to transport 30 additional particle types (deuterons, tritons, alphas, pions, muons, etc.); and (3) physics models to transport neutrons and protons when no tabular data are available or when the data are above the energy range (20 to 150 MeV) where the data tables end. MCNPX can mix and match data tables and physics models throughout a problem. For example, MCNPX can model neutron transport in a bismuth germinate (BGO) particle detector by using data tables for bismuth and oxygen and using physics models for germanium. Also, MCNPX can model neutron transport in UO 2 , making the best use of physics models and data tables: below 20 MeV, data tables are used; above 150 MeV, physics models are used; between 20 and 150 MeV, data tables are used for oxygen and models are used for uranium. The mix-and-match capability became available with MCNPX2.5.b (November 2002). For the first time, we present here comparisons that calculate radiation transport in materials with various combinations of data charts and model physics. The physics models are poor at low energies (<150 MeV); thus, data tables should be used when available. Our comparisons demonstrate the importance of the mix-and-match capability and indicate how well physics models work in the absence of data tables

  7. A crater and its ejecta: An interpretation of Deep Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holsapple, Keith A.; Housen, Kevin R.

    2007-03-01

    We apply recently updated scaling laws for impact cratering and ejecta to interpret observations of the Deep Impact event. An important question is whether the cratering event was gravity or strength-dominated; the answer gives important clues about the properties of the surface material of Tempel 1. Gravity scaling was assumed in pre-event calculations and has been asserted in initial studies of the mission results. Because the gravity field of Tempel 1 is extremely weak, a gravity-dominated event necessarily implies a surface with essentially zero strength. The conclusion of gravity scaling was based mainly on the interpretation that the impact ejecta plume remained attached to the comet during its evolution. We address that feature here, and conclude that even strength-dominated craters would result in a plume that appeared to remain attached to the surface. We then calculate the plume characteristics from scaling laws for a variety of material types, and for gravity and strength-dominated cases. We find that no model of cratering alone can match the reported observation of plume mass and brightness history. Instead, comet-like acceleration mechanisms such as expanding vapor clouds are required to move the ejected mass to the far field in a few-hour time frame. With such mechanisms, and to within the large uncertainties, either gravity or strength craters can provide the levels of estimated observed mass. Thus, the observations are unlikely to answer the questions about the mechanical nature of the Tempel 1 surface.

  8. Detection and characterization of buried lunar craters with GRAIL data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Rohan; Chappaz, Loic; Melosh, Henry J.; Howell, Kathleen C.; Milbury, Colleen; Blair, David M.; Zuber, Maria T.

    2017-06-01

    We used gravity mapping observations from NASA's Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) to detect, characterize and validate the presence of large impact craters buried beneath the lunar maria. In this paper we focus on two prominent anomalies detected in the GRAIL data using the gravity gradiometry technique. Our detection strategy is applied to both free-air and Bouguer gravity field observations to identify gravitational signatures that are similar to those observed over buried craters. The presence of buried craters is further supported by individual analysis of regional free-air gravity anomalies, Bouguer gravity anomaly maps, and forward modeling. Our best candidate, for which we propose the informal name of Earhart Crater, is approximately 200 km in diameter and forms part of the northwestern rim of Lacus Somniorum, The other candidate, for which we propose the informal name of Ashoka Anomaly, is approximately 160 km in diameter and lies completely buried beneath Mare Tranquillitatis. Other large, still unrecognized, craters undoubtedly underlie other portions of the Moon's vast mare lavas.

  9. East Part of Sapas Mons with Flooded Crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    This Magellan image centered near 9.6 degrees north latitude, 189.5 degrees east longitude of an area 140 kilometers (87 miles) by 110 kilometers (68 miles) covers part of the eastern flank of the volcano Sapas Mons on the western edge of Atla Regio. The bright lobate features along the southern and the western part of the image, oriented in northeast to southwest directions, are lava flows that are rough at the 12.6 centimeter wavelength of the radar. These flows range in width from 5 kilometers to 25 kilometers (3 to 16 miles) with lengths of 50 kilometers to 100 kilometers (31 to 62 miles), extending off the area shown here. Additional radar-dark (smooth) flows are also present. The radar-bright linear structures in the northwest part of the image are interpreted to be faults and fractures possibly associated with the emplacement of magma in the subsurface. Located near the center of the image is a 20 kilometer (12 mile) diameter impact crater. This crater is superimposed on a northeast/southwest trending fracture while the southern part of the crater's ejecta blanket is covered by a 6 kilometer (4 mile) wide radar-bright lava flow. These relations indicate that the crater post dates an episode of fracturing and is older than the lava flows covering its southern edge. This is one of only a few places on Venus in which an impact crater is seen to be covered by volcanic deposits.

  10. Measuring impact crater depth throughout the solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Stuart J.; Watters, Wesley A.; Chappelow, John E.; Bray, Veronica J.; Daubar, Ingrid J.; Craddock, Robert A.; Beyer, Ross A.; Landis, Margaret E.; Ostrach, Lillian; Tornabene, Livio L.; Riggs, Jamie D.; Weaver, Brian P.

    2018-01-01

    One important, almost ubiquitous, tool for understanding the surfaces of solid bodies throughout the solar system is the study of impact craters. While measuring a distribution of crater diameters and locations is an important tool for a wide variety of studies, so too is measuring a crater's “depth.” Depth can inform numerous studies including the strength of a surface and modification rates in the local environment. There is, however, no standard data set, definition, or technique to perform this data‐gathering task, and the abundance of different definitions of “depth” and methods for estimating that quantity can lead to misunderstandings in and of the literature. In this review, we describe a wide variety of data sets and methods to analyze those data sets that have been, are currently, or could be used to derive different types of crater depth measurements. We also recommend certain nomenclature in doing so to help standardize practice in the field. We present a review section of all crater depths that have been published on different solar system bodies which shows how the field has evolved through time and how some common assumptions might not be wholly accurate. We conclude with several recommendations for researchers which could help different data sets to be more easily understood and compared.

  11. Observation of variable pre-eclipse dips and disk winds in the eclipsing LMXB XTE J1710-281

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Gayathri; Maitra, Chandreyee; Paul, Biswajit

    2018-04-01

    We report the first detection of highly ionized Fe species in the X-ray spectrum of the eclipsing and dipping Low Mass X-ray Binary XTE J1710-281. Using archival Chandra and Suzaku observations, we have carried out a spectro-timing analysis of the source during three different epochs. We compare the average orbital profile and obtain differences in pre-eclipse dip morphologies between different observation epochs. We observe an orbit to orbit evolution of the dips for the first time in this source in both the Chandra observations, reflecting changes in the structure of the accretion disc in timescales of hours. We further perform intensity resolved spectroscopy for both the Chandra and the Suzaku data to characterize the changes in the spectral parameters from the persistent to the dipping intervals. We find that the absorbers responsible for the dips, can be best described using a partially ionized partial covering absorber, with an ionization parameter, log(ξ) of ˜2. The photon index of the source remained at ˜2 during both the Chandra and the Suzaku observations. In the 0.6-9 keV Suzaku spectra, we detect a broad 0.72 keV Fe L-alpha emission line complex and two narrow absorption lines at ˜6.60 keV and ˜7.01 keV. The highly ionized Fe line signatures, being an indicator of accretion disc-winds, has been observed for the first time in XTE J1710-281.

  12. Chromosomal aberrations found in Paracalanus aculeatus (Giesbrecht) at the time of solar eclipse

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Goswami, U.; Goswami, S.C.

    Chromosomal aberrations in the form of an unequal heteromorphic homologous pair and a supernumerary chromosome were observed in the gonad of a copepod - @iParacalanus aculeatus@@ after being exposed to the total solar eclipse of Feb. 16, 1980...

  13. Effects of total solar eclipse on the behavioural and metabolic activities of tropical intertidal animals

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parulekar, A.H.; Ansari, Z.A.; Verlecar, X.N.; Harkantra, S.N.

    To study the effects of total solar eclipse of 16th Feb. 1980, on the behaviour and metabolic activities of intertidal invertebrates - nematodes, gastropods and bivalves - having different habitat preference a set of relevant observations, covering...

  14. SPECIAL SEMINAR - The NOTTE experiment, or how to become a Total Solar Eclipse chaser

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    The seminar will be followed by a brief presentation of future camps for solar eclipse chasers and scientists organized in 2008 in Russia, Kazakhstan, China and Mongolia, in 2009 in Shanghai and on the Easter Island in 2010.

  15. Engage All Americans with Eclipse 2017 Through the Eyes of NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, C.; Young, C. A.; Mayo, L.; Cline, T. D.; Stephenson, B. E.; Debebe, A.; Lewis, E. M.; Odenwald, S. F.; Hill, S. W.

    2016-12-01

    Join NASA and millions in the U.S. and around the world in observing the August 21, 2017 solar eclipse. This presentation will discuss NASA's education and communication plans for the 2017 eclipse, highlighting some programs, resources, and citizen science activities that will engage and educate many across the country and beyond. NASA will offer unique observations of this celestial event from the ground to space. Additionally, there are do-it-yourself (DIY) science, lunar and math challenges, art contests, Makerspace ideas, and various activities for learners of all ages. Education resources and tool kits may be of particular interest to formal and informal educators. Find out what events are happening in your neighborhood, and plan your own eclipse parties with resources and activities. Last but not the least, experience the eclipse on August 21 and learn more through NASA broadcast programming that will include telescopic views from multiple locations, simple measurements, and live and taped interviews.

  16. Bringing the Great American Eclipse of 2017 to Audiences across the Nation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, C. A.; Mayo, L.; Cline, T. D.; Ng, C.; Stephenson, B. E.

    2015-12-01

    The August 21, 2017 eclipse across America will be seen by an estimated 500 million people from northern Canada to South America as well as parts of western Europe and Africa. Through This "Great American Eclipse" NASA in partnership with Google, the American Parks Network, American Astronomical Society, the Astronomical League, and numerous other science, education, outreach, and public communications groups and organizations will develop the approaches, resources, partnerships, and technology applications necessary to bring the excitement and the science of the August 21st, 2017 total solar eclipse across America to formal and informal audiences in the US and around the world. This effort will be supported by the highly visible and successful Sun Earth Days program and will be the main theme for Sun-Earth Days 2017.This presentation will discuss NASA's education and communication plans for the eclipse and will detail a number of specific programs and partnerships being leveraged to enhance our reach and impact.

  17. z'-BAND GROUND-BASED DETECTION OF THE SECONDARY ECLIPSE OF WASP-19b

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burton, J. R.; Watson, C. A.; Pollacco, D. [Astrophysics Research Centre, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Littlefair, S. P.; Dhillon, V. S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom); Gibson, N. P. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Marsh, T. R., E-mail: jburton04@qub.ac.uk [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)

    2012-08-01

    We present the ground-based detection of the secondary eclipse of the transiting exoplanet WASP-19b. The observations were made in the Sloan z' band using the ULTRACAM triple-beam CCD camera mounted on the New Technology Telescope. The measurement shows a 0.088% {+-} 0.019% eclipse depth, matching previous predictions based on H- and K-band measurements. We discuss in detail our approach to the removal of errors arising due to systematics in the data set, in addition to fitting a model transit to our data. This fit returns an eclipse center, T{sub 0}, of 2455578.7676 HJD, consistent with a circular orbit. Our measurement of the secondary eclipse depth is also compared to model atmospheres of WASP-19b and is found to be consistent with previous measurements at longer wavelengths for the model atmospheres we investigated.

  18. [Development of a Software for Automatically Generated Contours in Eclipse TPS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhao; Hu, Jinyou; Zou, Lian; Zhang, Weisha; Zou, Yuxin; Luo, Kelin; Liu, Xiangxiang; Yu, Luxin

    2015-03-01

    The automatic generation of planning targets and auxiliary contours have achieved in Eclipse TPS 11.0. The scripting language autohotkey was used to develop a software for automatically generated contours in Eclipse TPS. This software is named Contour Auto Margin (CAM), which is composed of operational functions of contours, script generated visualization and script file operations. RESULTS Ten cases in different cancers have separately selected, in Eclipse TPS 11.0 scripts generated by the software could not only automatically generate contours but also do contour post-processing. For different cancers, there was no difference between automatically generated contours and manually created contours. The CAM is a user-friendly and powerful software, and can automatically generated contours fast in Eclipse TPS 11.0. With the help of CAM, it greatly save plan preparation time and improve working efficiency of radiation therapy physicists.

  19. Verification of Monitor unit calculations for eclipse Treatment Planning System by in- house developed spreadsheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemalatha Athiyaman

    2018-04-01

    Conclusion: The spreadsheet was tested for most of the routine treatment sites and geometries. It has good agreement with the Eclipse TPS version 13.8 for homogenous treatment sites such as head &and neck and carcinoma cervix.

  20. Interacting Winds in Eclipsing Symbiotic Systems - The Case Study of EG Andromedae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrò, Emanuele

    2014-03-01

    We report the mathematical representation of the so called eccentric eclipse model, whose numerical solutions can be used to obtain the physical parameters of a quiescent eclipsing symbiotic system. Indeed the nebular region produced by the collision of the stellar winds should be shifted to the orbital axis because of the orbital motion of the system. This mechanism is not negligible, and it led us to modify the classical concept of an eclipse. The orbital elements obtained from spectroscopy and photometry of the symbiotic EG Andromedae were used to test the eccentric eclipse model. Consistent values for the unknown orbital elements of this symbiotic were obtained. The physical parameters are in agreement with those obtained by means of other simulations for this system.

  1. Effect of the August 11, 1999 total solar eclipse on geomagnetic pulsations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pal, B.; Heilig, B.; Zieger, B.; Szendröi, J.; Verö, J.; Lühr, H.; Yumoto, K.; Tanaka, Y.; Střeštík, Jaroslav

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 1 (2007), s. 23-58 ISSN 1217-8977 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : field line resonance * geomagnetic pulsations * solar eclipse Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography

  2. Comparisons of Measurements and Modeling of Solar Eclipse Effects on VLF Transmissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eccles, J. V.; Rice, D. D.; Sojka, J. J.; Marshall, R. A.; Drob, D. P.; Decena, J. C.

    2017-12-01

    The solar eclipse of 2017 August 21 provides an excellent opportunity to examine Very Low Frequency (VLF) radio signal propagation through the path of the solar eclipse between Navy VLF transmitters and several VLF receivers. The VLF transmitters available for this study radio signal propagation study are NLK in Jim Creek, Washington (24.8 kHz, 192 kW, 48.20N, 121.90W), NML in LaMour, North Dakota (25.2 kHz, 500 kW 46.37N, 93.34W), and NAA in Cutler, Maine (24.0 kHz, 1000 kW, 44.65N, 67.29W). These VLF transmitters provide propagation paths to three VLF receivers at Utah State University (41.75N, 111.76W), Bear Lake Observatory (41.95N, 111.39W), Salt Lake City (40.76N, 111.89W) and one receiver in Boulder, Colorado (40.02N, 105.27W). The solar eclipse shadow will cross all propagations paths during the day and will modify the D region electron density within the solar shadow. The week prior to the solar eclipse will be used to generate a diurnal baseline of VLF single strength for each transmitter-receiver pair. These will be compared to the day of the solar eclipse to identify VLF propagation differences through the solar eclipse shawdow. Additionally, the electron density effects of the week prior and of the solar eclipse day will be modeled using the Data-Driven D Region (DDDR) model [Eccles et al., 2005] with a detailed eclipse solar flux mask. The Long-Wave Propagation Code and the HASEL RF ray-tracing code will be used to generate VLF signal strength for each measured propagation path through the days prior and the solar eclipse day. Model-measurement comparisons will be presented and the D region electron density effects of the solar eclipse will be examined. The DDDR is a time-dependent D region model, which makes it very suitable for the solar eclipse effects on the electron density for the altitude range of 36 to 130 km. Eccles J. V., R. D. Hunsucker, D. Rice, J. J. Sojka (2005), Space weather effects on midlatitude HF propagation paths: Observations and

  3. The effects of a solar eclipse on photo-oxidants in different areas of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-B. Wu

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effects of the total solar eclipse of 22 July 2009 on surface ozone and other photo-oxidants over China. A box model was used to study the sensitivity of ozone to the limb darkening effect during an eclipse event, and to show that the impact on ozone is small (less than 0.5 %. In addition, the regional model WRF-Chem was applied to study the effects of the eclipse on meteorological and chemical parameters, focusing on different regions in China. Chemical and meteorological observations were used to validate the model and to show that it can capture the effects of the total solar eclipse well. Model calculations show distinct differences in the spatial distributions of meteorological and chemical parameters with and without the eclipse. The maximum impacts of the eclipse occur over the area of totality, where there is a decrease in surface temperature of 1.5 °C and decrease in wind speed of 1 m s−1. The maximum impacts on atmospheric pollutants occur over parts of north and east China where emissions are greater, with an increase of 5 ppbv in NO2 and 25 ppbv in CO and a decrease of 10 ppbv in O3 and 4 ppbv in NO. This study also demonstrates the effects of the solar eclipse on surface photo-oxidants in different parts of China. Although the sun was obscured to a smaller extent in polluted areas than in clean areas, the impacts of the eclipse in polluted areas are greater and last longer than they do in clean areas. In contrast, the change in radical concentrations (OH, HO2 and NO3 in clean areas is much larger than in polluted areas mainly because of the limited source of radicals in these areas. The change in radical concentrations during the eclipse reveals that nighttime chemistry dominates in both clean and polluted areas. As solar eclipses provide a natural opportunity to test more thoroughly our understanding of atmospheric chemistry, especially that

  4. [A New Way to Look Up. Solar Retinopathy Risks and Methods of Prevention Prior to the 2015 Solar Eclipse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsatsos, M; MacGregor, C; Gousia, D; Moschos, M; Detorakis, E

    2017-06-01

    A solar eclipse is an impressive natural phenomenon that was last experienced in Europe in 2006. Last year, on March 20th 2015, a solar eclipse was visible in much of Europe. Solar retinopathy is a recognised potentially sight threatening condition that has been associated with direct or unprotected sun gazing. Public education has been shown to improve behaviour and attitudes that could influence the development of solar retinopathy during an eclipse. We have performed a study through newspapers prior to the 2015 solar eclipse in different European countries, in order to determine the level of public health awareness and attitudes to protection. Methods: 31 online editions of national newspapers were reviewed from six countries where the eclipse was most visible. Solar retinopathy, potential warnings, safe methods of viewing an eclipse and assessment of use and dangers of modern technologies were assessed. Results: All 25 newspapers examined mentioned the solar eclipse and risk to eyesight. Safe methods for viewing the eclipse were discussed in all newspapers. Eclipse eyeglasses were mentioned in 29 of the 31 newspapers reviewed. Children were identified as a high-risk group but advice for children viewing the eclipse varied between countries. Conclusion: Since the solar eclipse of 2006, there has been an increase in the level of education available in the media. Although the safe methods for viewing an eclipse have not changed in recent years, emerging technologies, such as camera phones and the "selfie" trend, have potentially increased the risk of eclipse-associated retinopathy. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Eclipsing binary stars with extreme light curve asymmetries mined from large astronomical surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papageorgiou Athanasios

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The O’Connell effect is one of the most perplexing challenges in binary studies as it has not been convincingly explained. Furthermore, a simple method to obtain essential parameters for eclipsing binaries exhibiting this effect and to extract information describing the asymmetry in the light curve maxima is needed. We have developed an automated program that characterizes the morphology of light curves by depth of both minima, height of both maxima and curvature outside the eclipses.

  6. White light coronal structures and flattening during six total solar eclipses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.A. Marzouk

    2016-12-01

    Flattening index is the first quantitative parameter introduced for analyses of the global structure of the solar corona. It varies with respect to the phase of the solar activity and sunspot number. In this paper we study the solar corona during the 1990, 1999, 2006, 2008, 2009 and 2012 total solar eclipses. We obtain flattening coefficients for all the six eclipses by using a new computer program. Our results are in a good agreement with published results.

  7. Physics of Eclipsing Binaries: Modelling in the new era of ultra-high precision photometry

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlovski, K.; Bloemen, S.; Degroote, P.; Conroy, K.; Hambleton, Kelly; Giammarco, J.M.; Pablo, H.; Prša, A.; Tkachenko, A.; Torres, G.

    2013-01-01

    Recent ultra-high precision observations of eclipsing binaries, especially data acquired by the Kepler satellite, have made accurate light curve modelling increasingly challenging but also more rewarding. In this contribution, we discuss low-amplitude signals in light curves that can now be used to derive physical information about eclipsing binaries but that were unaccessible before the Kepler era. A notable example is the detection of Doppler beaming, which leads to an increase in flux when...

  8. Introducing adapted Nelder & Mead's downhill simplex method to a fully automated analysis of eclipsing binaries

    OpenAIRE

    Prsa, A.; Zwitter, T.

    2004-01-01

    Eclipsing binaries are extremely attractive objects because absolute physical parameters (masses, luminosities, radii) of both components may be determined from observations. Since most efforts to extract these parameters were based on dedicated observing programs, existing modeling code is based on interactivity. Gaia will make a revolutionary advance in shear number of observed eclipsing binaries and new methods for automatic handling must be introduced and thoroughly tested. This paper foc...

  9. Physics of Eclipsing Binaries: Motivation for the New-Age Modeling Suite

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlovski, K.; Prša, A.; Degroote, P.; Conroy, K.; Bloemen, S.; Hambleton, Kelly; Giammarco, J.; Pablo, H.; Tkachenko, A.; Torres, G.

    2013-01-01

    Recent ultra-high precision observations of eclipsing binaries, especially data acquired by the Kepler satellite, have made accurate light curve modelling increasingly challenging but also more rewarding. In this contribution, we discuss low-amplitude signals in light curves that can now be used to derive physical information about eclipsing binaries but that were unaccessible before the Kepler era. A notable example is the detection of Doppler beaming, which leads to an increase in flux when...

  10. British Observations of the 18 August 1868 Total Solar Eclipse from Guntoor, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orchiston, Wayne; Lee, Eun-Hee; Ahn, Young-Sook

    The total solar eclipse of 18 August 1868 was observed in Aden, India, Siam (present-day Thailand) and the Dutch East Indies (present-day Indonesia). One Indian expedition was sponsored by the Royal Astronomical Society, and led by Major J.F. Tennant. In this chapter we describe the observing team and instruments, discuss their observations, and conclude with some remarks on the place of the 1868 eclipse in solar studies and later nineteenth century European astronomical expeditions to India.

  11. On the height of the faculae above the photosphere from the eclipse of July 31, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akimov, L.A.; Belkina, I.L.; Dyatel, N.P.

    1984-01-01

    The relative moments of contacts of lunar and solar limbs for the undisturbed photosphere regions and faculae are determined from July 31, 1981 solar eclipse slitless spectrograms. The comparison of the observed moments of local contacts with the theoretical ones, based on the lunar limh relief data, has shown that the visible limb of the farulae is approximately 120 km higher than the undisturbed photosphere limb. This result is in agreement with the previous eclipse data of July 10, 1972

  12. Height of the faculae above the photosphere from the eclipse of July 31, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akimov, L.A.; Belkina, I.L.; Dyatel, N.P. (Khar' kovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (Ukrainian SSR). Astronomicheskaya Observatoriya)

    The relative moments of contacts of lunar and solar limbs for the undisturbed photosphere regions and faculae are determined from July 31, 1981 solar eclipse slitless spectrograms. The comparison of the observed moments of local contacts with the theoretical ones, based on the lunar limb relief data, has shown that the visible limb of the farulae is approximately 120 km higher than the undisturbed photosphere limb. This result is in agreement with the previous eclipse data of July 10, 1972.

  13. Solar eclipse demonstrating the importance of photochemistry in new particle formation

    OpenAIRE

    Jokinen, Tuija; Kontkanen, Jenni; Lehtipalo, Katrianne; Manninen, Hanna E.; Aalto, Juho; Porcar-Castell, Albert; Garmash, Olga; Nieminen, Tuomo; Ehn, Mikael; Kangasluoma, Juha; Junninen, Heikki; Levula, Janne; Duplissy, Jonathan; Ahonen, Lauri R.; Rantala, Pekka

    2017-01-01

    Solar eclipses provide unique possibilities to investigate atmospheric processes, such as new particle formation (NPF), important to the global aerosol load and radiative balance. The temporary absence of solar radiation gives particular insight into different oxidation and clustering processes leading to NPF. This is crucial because our mechanistic understanding on how NPF is related to photochemistry is still rather limited. During a partial solar eclipse over Finland in 2015, we found that...

  14. REPEATABILITY AND ACCURACY OF EXOPLANET ECLIPSE DEPTHS MEASURED WITH POST-CRYOGENIC SPITZER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingalls, James G.; Krick, J. E.; Carey, S. J.; Stauffer, John R.; Lowrance, Patrick J.; Grillmair, Carl J.; Capak, Peter; Glaccum, William; Laine, Seppo; Surace, Jason; Storrie-Lombardi, Lisa [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E California Boulevard, Mail Code 314-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Buzasi, Derek [Department of Chemistry and Physics, Florida Gulf Coast University, Fort Myers, FL 33965 (United States); Deming, Drake [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-2421 (United States); Diamond-Lowe, Hannah; Stevenson, Kevin B. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, 5640 S Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Evans, Thomas M. [School of Physics, University of Exeter, EX4 4QL Exeter (United Kingdom); Morello, G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, WC1 E6BT (United Kingdom); Wong, Ian, E-mail: ingalls@ipac.caltech.edu [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2016-08-01

    We examine the repeatability, reliability, and accuracy of differential exoplanet eclipse depth measurements made using the InfraRed Array Camera (IRAC) on the Spitzer Space Telescope during the post-cryogenic mission. We have re-analyzed an existing 4.5 μ m data set, consisting of 10 observations of the XO-3b system during secondary eclipse, using seven different techniques for removing correlated noise. We find that, on average, for a given technique, the eclipse depth estimate is repeatable from epoch to epoch to within 156 parts per million (ppm). Most techniques derive eclipse depths that do not vary by more than a factor 3 of the photon noise limit. All methods but one accurately assess their own errors: for these methods, the individual measurement uncertainties are comparable to the scatter in eclipse depths over the 10 epoch sample. To assess the accuracy of the techniques as well as to clarify the difference between instrumental and other sources of measurement error, we have also analyzed a simulated data set of 10 visits to XO-3b, for which the eclipse depth is known. We find that three of the methods (BLISS mapping, Pixel Level Decorrelation, and Independent Component Analysis) obtain results that are within three times the photon limit of the true eclipse depth. When averaged over the 10 epoch ensemble,  5 out of 7 techniques come within 60 ppm of the true value. Spitzer exoplanet data, if obtained following current best practices and reduced using methods such as those described here, can measure repeatable and accurate single eclipse depths, with close to photon-limited results.

  15. Imaging the Buried Chicxulub Crater with Gravity Gradients and Cenotes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, A. R.; Pilkington, M.; Halpenny, J. F.; Ortiz-Aleman, C.; Chavez, R. E.; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J.; Connors, M.; Graniel-Castro, E.; Camara-Zi, A.; Vasquez, J.

    1995-09-01

    Differing interpretations of the Bouguer gravity anomaly over the Chicxulub crater, Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico, have yielded diameter estimates of 170 to 320 km. Knowing the crater's size is necessary to quantify the lethal perturbations to the Cretaceous environment associated with its formation. The crater's size (and internal structure) is revealed by the horizontal gradient of the Bouguer gravity anomaly over the structure, and by mapping the karst features of the Yucatan region. To improve our resolution of the crater's gravity signature we collected additional gravity measurements primarily along radial profiles, but also to fill in previously unsurveyed areas. Horizontal gradient analysis of Bouguer gravity data objectively highlights the lateral density contrasts of the impact lithologies and suppresses regional anomalies which may obscure the gravity signature of the Chicxulub crater lithologies. This gradient technique yields a striking circular structure with at least 6 concentric gradient features between 25 and 85 km radius. These features are most distinct in the southwest probably because of denser sampling of the gravity field. Our detailed profiles detected an additional feature and steeper gradients (up to 5 mGal/km) than the original survey. We interpret the outer four gradient maxima to represent concentric faults in the crater's zone of slumping as is also revealed by seismic reflection data. The inner two probably represent the margin of the central uplift and the peak ring and or collapsed transient cavity. Radial gradients in the SW quadrant over the inferred ~40 km-diameter central uplift (4) may represent structural "puckering" as revealed at eroded terrestrial craters. Gradient features related to regional gravity highs and lows are visible outside the crater, but no concentric gradient features are apparent at distances > 90 km radius. The marginal gradient features may be modelled by slump faults as observed in large complex craters on

  16. MCNPX Model/Table Comparison

    CERN Document Server

    Hendricks, J S

    2003-01-01

    MCNPX is a Monte Carlo N-Particle radiation transport code extending the capabilities of MCNP4C. As with MCNP, MCNPX uses nuclear data tables to transport neutrons, photons, and electrons. Unlike MCNP, MCNPX also uses (1) nuclear data tables to transport protons; (2) physics models to transport 30 additional particle types (deuterons, tritons, alphas, pions, muons, etc.); and (3) physics models to transport neutrons and protons when no tabular data are available or when the data are above the energy range (20 to 150 MeV) where the data tables end. MCNPX can mix and match data tables and physics models throughout a problem. For example, MCNPX can model neutron transport in a bismuth germinate (BGO) particle detector by using data tables for bismuth and oxygen and using physics models for germanium. Also, MCNPX can model neutron transport in UO sub 2 , making the best use of physics models and data tables: below 20 MeV, data tables are used; above 150 MeV, physics models are used; between 20 and 150 MeV, data t...

  17. Hard rock excavation at the CSM/OCRD test site using crater theory and current United States controlled smooth wall blasting practices, June 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sperry, P.E.; Chitombo, G.P.; Hustrulid, W.A.

    1984-08-01

    This report is the fourth in a series describing experiments conducted by the Colorado School of Mines for the Office of Crystalline Repository Development (OCRD) to determine the extent of blast damage in rock surrounding an underground opening. The report describes the application of tunnel design procedures based upon crater theory and current United States controlled smooth wall blasting practices for the excavation of the CSM/OCRD test room in the Colorado School of Mines, Experimental Mine (Edgar Mine) in Idaho Springs, Colorado. Ten blast rounds were used to excavate the test room. The first seven rounds were designed with Swedish Techniques, and described in the third report in this series, and the design of rounds eight through ten used crater theory. Crater theory is described in this document along with its application to the CSM/OCRD Room excavation. Calculation for spacing, burden, number and type of holes, explosives placement, and overall powder factor are discussed. A series of single charge cratering test shots, designed to evaluate some of the input data for the blast designs, are discussed. The input data include: Strain Energy Factor E, a dimensionless factor which varies according to the explosive and rock type; Critical Depth, N, the charge depth at which the explosive begins to fracture rock at the free face; Optimum Depth Ratio Δ 0 , which is a ratio between Optimum Charge Depth, d 0 , and Critical Charge Depth, d/sub c/; and charge Weight, W. A non-linear least squared regression method to best fit the general bell-shape curve of the crater results is discussed. Both scaled weight and scaled volume criteria are reported in the analysis of results. 10 references, 17 figures, 16 tables

  18. Detection of the Secondary Eclipse of Exoplanet HAT P-11b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, R. K.; Deming, L. D.; Bakos, G.; Harrington, J.; Madhusudhan, N.; Noyes, R.; Seager, S.

    2010-01-01

    We have successfully conducted secondary eclipse observations of exoplanet HAT-P-11b using the Spitzer Space Telescope. HAT-P-11b was, until very recently, the smallest transiting extrasolar planet yet found and one of only two known exo-Neptunes. We observed the system at 3.6 microns for a period of 22 hours centered on the anticipated secondary eclipse time, to detect the eclipse and determine its phase. Having detected the secondary eclipse, we are at present making a more focused series of observations in both the 3.6 and 4.5 micron bands to fully characterize it. HAT-P-11b has a period of 4.8878 days, radius of 0.422 RJ, mass of 0.081 MJ and semi-major axis 0.053 AU. Measurements of the secondary eclipse will serve to clarify two key issues; 1) the planetary brightness temperature and the nature of its atmosphere, and 2) the eccentricity of its orbit, with implications for its dynamical evolution. A precise determination of the orbit phase for the secondary eclipse will also be of great utility for Kepler observations of this system at visible wavelengths.

  19. The mid 19th and early 20th Century Pull of a Nearby Eclipse Shadow Path

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifácio, Vitor

    2012-09-01

    The unique observing conditions allowed by total solar eclipses made them a highly desirable target of 19th and early 20th century astronomical expeditions, particularly after 1842. Due to the narrowness of the lunar shadow at the Earth's surface this usually implied traveling to faraway locations with all the subsequent inconveniences, in particular, high costs and complex logistics. A situation that improved as travel became faster, cheaper and more reliable. The possibility to observe an eclipse in one's own country implied no customs, no language barriers, usually shorter travelling distances and the likely support of local and central authorities. The eclipse proximity also provided a strong argument to pressure the government to support the eclipse observation. Sometimes the scientific elite would use such high profile events to rhetorically promote broader goals. In this paper we will analyse the motivation, goals, negotiating strategies and outcomes of the Portuguese eclipse expeditions made between 1860 and 1914. We will focus, in particular, on the observation of the solar eclipses of 22 December 1870 and 17 April 1912. The former allowed the start-up of astrophysical studies in the country while the movie obtained at the latter led Francisco da Costa Lobo to unexpectedly propose a polar flattening of the Moon.

  20. Analysis of Geomagnetic Field Variations during Total Solar Eclipses Using INTERMAGNET Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    KIM, J. H.; Chang, H. Y.

    2017-12-01

    We investigate variations of the geomagnetic field observed by INTERMAGNET geomagnetic observatories over which the totality path passed during a solar eclipse. We compare results acquired by 6 geomagnetic observatories during the 4 total solar eclipses (11 August 1999, 1 August 2008, 11 July 2010, and 20 March 2015) in terms of geomagnetic and solar ecliptic parameters. These total solar eclipses are the only total solar eclipse during which the umbra of the moon swept an INTERMAGNET geomagnetic observatory and simultaneously variations of the geomagnetic field are recorded. We have confirmed previous studies that increase BY and decreases of BX, BZ and F are conspicuous. Interestingly, we have noted that variations of geomagnetic field components observed during the total solar eclipse at Isla de Pascua Mataveri (Easter Island) in Chile (IPM) in the southern hemisphere show distinct decrease of BY and increases of BX and BZ on the contrary. We have found, however, that variations of BX, BY, BZ and F observed at Hornsund in Norway (HRN) seem to be dominated by other geomagnetic occurrence. In addition, we have attempted to obtain any signatures of influence on the temporal behavior of the variation in the geomagnetic field signal during the solar eclipse by employing the wavelet analysis technique. Finally, we conclude by pointing out that despite apparent success a more sophisticate and reliable algorithm is required before implementing to make quantitative comparisons.

  1. Crater Ejecta by Day and Night

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Released 24 June 2004 This pair of images shows a crater and its ejecta. Day/Night Infrared Pairs The image pairs presented focus on a single surface feature as seen in both the daytime and nighttime by the infrared THEMIS camera. The nighttime image (right) has been rotated 180 degrees to place north at the top. Infrared image interpretation Daytime: Infrared images taken during the daytime exhibit both the morphological and thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. Morphologic details are visible due to the effect of sun-facing slopes receiving more energy than antisun-facing slopes. This creates a warm (bright) slope and cool (dark) slope appearance that mimics the light and shadows of a visible wavelength image. Thermophysical properties are seen in that dust heats up more quickly than rocks. Thus dusty areas are bright and rocky areas are dark. Nighttime: Infrared images taken during the nighttime exhibit only the thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. The effect of sun-facing versus non-sun-facing energy dissipates quickly at night. Thermophysical effects dominate as different surfaces cool at different rates through the nighttime hours. Rocks cool slowly, and are therefore relatively bright at night (remember that rocks are dark during the day). Dust and other fine grained materials cool very quickly and are dark in nighttime infrared images. Image information: IR instrument. Latitude -9, Longitude 164.2 East (195.8 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project

  2. Meridiani Crater in Day and Night

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Released 14 June 2004 This pair of images shows crater ejecta in the Terra Meridiani region. Day/Night Infrared Pairs The image pairs presented focus on a single surface feature as seen in both the daytime and nighttime by the infrared THEMIS camera. The nighttime image (right) has been rotated 180 degrees to place north at the top. Infrared image interpretation Daytime: Infrared images taken during the daytime exhibit both the morphological and thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. Morphologic details are visible due to the effect of sun-facing slopes receiving more energy than antisun-facing slopes. This creates a warm (bright) slope and cool (dark) slope appearance that mimics the light and shadows of a visible wavelength image. Thermophysical properties are seen in that dust heats up more quickly than rocks. Thus dusty areas are bright and rocky areas are dark. Nighttime: Infrared images taken during the nighttime exhibit only the thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. The effect of sun-facing versus non-sun-facing energy dissipates quickly at night. Thermophysical effects dominate as different surfaces cool at different rates through the nighttime hours. Rocks cool slowly, and are therefore relatively bright at night (remember that rocks are dark during the day). Dust and other fine grained materials cool very quickly and are dark in nighttime infrared images. Image information: IR instrument. Latitude -1.6, Longitude 4.1 East (355.9 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in

  3. Gusev Crater by Day and Night

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Released 23 June 2004 This pair of images shows part of Gusev Crater. Day/Night Infrared Pairs The image pairs presented focus on a single surface feature as seen in both the daytime and nighttime by the infrared THEMIS camera. The nighttime image (right) has been rotated 180 degrees to place north at the top. Infrared image interpretation Daytime: Infrared images taken during the daytime exhibit both the morphological and thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. Morphologic details are visible due to the effect of sun-facing slopes receiving more energy than antisun-facing slopes. This creates a warm (bright) slope and cool (dark) slope appearance that mimics the light and shadows of a visible wavelength image. Thermophysical properties are seen in that dust heats up more quickly than rocks. Thus dusty areas are bright and rocky areas are dark. Nighttime: Infrared images taken during the nighttime exhibit only the thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. The effect of sun-facing versus non-sun-facing energy dissipates quickly at night. Thermophysical effects dominate as different surfaces cool at different rates through the nighttime hours. Rocks cool slowly, and are therefore relatively bright at night (remember that rocks are dark during the day). Dust and other fine grained materials cool very quickly and are dark in nighttime infrared images. Image information: IR instrument. Latitude -14.5, Longitude 175.5 East (184.5 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project

  4. Spatiotemporal change of sky polarization during the total solar eclipse on 29 March 2006 in Turkey: polarization patterns of the eclipsed sky observed by full-sky imaging polarimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipocz, Brigitta; Hegedüs, Ramón; Kriska, György; Horváth, Gábor

    2008-12-01

    Using 180 degrees field-of-view (full-sky) imaging polarimetry, we measured the spatiotemporal change of the polarization of skylight during the total solar eclipse on 29 March 2006 in Turkey. We present our observations here on the temporal variation of the celestial patterns of the degree p and angle alpha of linear polarization of the eclipsed sky measured in the red (650 nm), green (550 nm), and blue (450 nm) parts of the spectrum. We also report on the temporal and spectral change of the positions of neutral (unpolarized, p = 0) points, and points with local minima or maxima of p of the eclipsed sky. Our results are compared with the observations performed by the same polarimetric technique during the total solar eclipse on 11 August 1999 in Hungary. Practically the same characteristics of celestial polarization were encountered during both eclipses. This shows that the observed polarization phenomena of the eclipsed sky may be general.

  5. Elekta Precise Table characteristics of IGRT remote table positioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riis, Hans L.; Zimmermann, Sune J.

    2009-01-01

    Cone beam CT is a powerful tool to ensure an optimum patient positioning in radiotherapy. When cone beam CT scan of a patient is acquired, scan data of the patient are compared and evaluated against a reference image set and patient position offset is calculated. Via the linac control system, the patient is moved to correct for position offset and treatment starts. This procedure requires a reliable system for movement of patient. In this work we present a new method to characterize the reproducibility, linearity and accuracy in table positioning. The method applies to all treatment tables used in radiotherapy. Material and methods. The table characteristics are investigated on our two recent Elekta Synergy Platforms equipped with Precise Table installed in a shallow pit concrete cavity. Remote positioning of the table uses the auto set-up (ASU) feature in the linac control system software Desktop Pro R6.1. The ASU is used clinically to correct for patient positioning offset calculated via cone beam CT (XVI)-software. High precision steel rulers and a USB-microscope has been used to detect the relative table position in vertical, lateral and longitudinal direction. The effect of patient is simulated by applying external load on the iBEAM table top. For each table position an image is exposed of the ruler and display values of actual table position in the linac control system is read out. The table is moved in full range in lateral direction (50 cm) and longitudinal direction (100 cm) while in vertical direction a limited range is used (40 cm). Results and discussion. Our results show a linear relation between linac control system read out and measured position. Effects of imperfect calibration are seen. A reproducibility within a standard deviation of 0.22 mm in lateral and longitudinal directions while within 0.43 mm in vertical direction has been observed. The usage of XVI requires knowledge of the characteristics of remote table positioning. It is our opinion

  6. The Periodic Table in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raos, N.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Croatian (Yugoslav Academy of Sciences and Arts was the first academy to elect D. I. Mendeleev as its honorary member (1882, whereas the periodic table of the elements has been taught regularly at the Zagreb University since 1888. The early interest of Croatian chemists in the periodic table should be attributed primarily to their pan-Slavic attitude, particularly as proof that Slavic people were able to produce "their own Newtons" (M. V. Lomonosov and D. I. Mendeleev. Such enthusiastic views, however, did not help in analyzing the contribution of Mendeleev and other scientists to the discovery and development of the periodic table of the elements.

  7. The Links Between Target Properties and Layered Ejecta Craters in Acidalia and Utopia Planitiae Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, E.; Osinski, G. R.

    2013-08-01

    Layered ejecta craters on Mars may form from excavation into subsurface volatiles. We examine a new catalogue of martian craters to decipher differences between the single- and double-layered ejecta populations in Acidalia and Utopia.

  8. Automated Detection of Craters in Martian Satellite Imagery Using Convolutional Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, C. J.; Paxman, J.; Benedix, G. K.; Tan, T.; Bland, P. A.; Towner, M.

    2018-04-01

    Crater counting is used in determining surface age of planets. We propose improvements to martian Crater Detection Algorithms by implementing an end-to-end detection approach with the possibility of scaling the algorithm planet-wide.

  9. Parameters critical to the morphology of fluidization craters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, B. S.; Gold, D. P.

    1973-01-01

    In order to study further the role of fluidization on the moon, a laboratory investigation was undertaken on two particulate material size fractions to determine the effect of variables, such as, duration of gas streaming, gas pressure, and 'regolith' thickness on the morphology of fluidization craters. A 3.175-mm cylindrical vent was used to simulate a gas streaming conduit. Details of the fluidization chamber are discussed together with questions of experimental control, aspects of nomenclature, crater measurements, and the effect of variables.

  10. Extreme Access & Lunar Ice Mining in Permanently Shadowed Craters Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Robert P.

    2014-01-01

    Results from the recent LCROSS mission in 2010, indicate that H2O ice and other useful volatiles such as CO, He, and N are present in the permanently shadowed craters at the poles of the moon. However, the extreme topography and steep slopes of the crater walls make access a significant challenge. In addition temperatures have been measured at 40K (-233 C) so quick access and exit is desirable before the mining robot cold soaks. The Global Exploration Roadmap lists extreme access as a necessary technology for Lunar Exploration.

  11. The seismic expression and hydrocarbon potential of subsurface impact craters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, R.; Westbroek, H.H.; Lawton, D. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics

    1995-12-31

    The seismic characteristics of meteorite impact craters and their potential as oil and gas reservoirs were discussed. Seismic data from James River, Alberta, in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin show subsurface anomalies to be meteorite impact structures. The White Valley structure in Saskatchewan has similar features and seismic anomalies indicate that it too could be a meteorite impact structure, although other possibilities have been proposed. Other impact structures in western Canada such as the Steen River structure and the Viewfield crater have or are producing hydrocarbons. 5 refs., 2 figs.

  12. Geomorphometric analysis of selected Martian craters using polar coordinate transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magyar, Zoltán; Koma, Zsófia; Székely, Balázs

    2016-04-01

    Centrally symmetric landform elements are very common features on the surface of the planet Mars. The most conspicuous ones of them are the impact craters of various size. However, a closer look on these features reveals that they show often asymmetric patterns as well. These are partially related to the geometry of the trajectory of the impacting body, but sometimes it is a result of surface processes (e.g., freeze/thaw cycles, mass movements). Geomorphometric studies have already been carried out to reveal these pecularities. Our approach, the application of polar coordinate transformation (PCT) very sensitively enhances the non-radial and non-circular shapes. We used digital terrain models (DTMs) derived from the ESA Mars Express HRSC imagery. The original DTM or its derivatives (e.g. slope angle or aspect) are PCT transformed. We analyzed the craters inter alia with scattergrams in polar coordinates. The resulting point cloud can be used directly for the analysis, but in some cases an interpolation should be applied to enhance certain non-circular features (especially in case of smaller craters). Visual inspection of the crater slopes, coloured by the aspect, reveals smaller features. Some of them are processing artefacts, but many of them are related to local undulations in the topography or indications of mass movements. In many cases the undulations of the crater rim are due to erosional processes. The drawbacks of the technology are related to the uneven resolution of the projected image: features in the crater centre should be left out from the analysis because PCT has a low resolution around the projection center. Furthermore, the success of the PCT depends on the correct definition of the projection centre: erroneously centered images are not suitable for analysis. The PCT transformed images are also suitable for radial averaging and calculation of standard deviations, resulting in typical, comparable craters shapes. These studies may lead to a deeper

  13. Ceres' intriguing Occator crater and its faculae: formation and evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buczkowski, D.; Scully, J. E. C.; Bowling, T.; Bu, C.; Castillo, J. C.; Jaumann, R.; Longobardo, A.; Nathues, A.; Neesemann, A.; Palomba, E.; Platz, T.; Quick, L. C.; Raponi, A.; Raymond, C. A.; Ruesch, O.; Russell, C. T.; Schenk, P.; Stein, N.

    2017-12-01

    Since March 2015, the Dawn spacecraft has orbited and explored Ceres, which is a dwarf planet and the largest object in the asteroid belt (radius 470 km). One of the most intriguing features on Ceres' surface is Occator crater, a 92-km-diameter impact crater that contains distinctive bright spots, called faculae, within its floor (Nathues et al., 2015; Russell et al., 2016; Schenk et al., 2017). Occator crater has been dated to 20-30 million years old (Nathues et al., 2017; Neesemann et al., 2017). The single scattering albedo of Occator's faculae is 0.67-0.80, which is greater than Ceres' average single scattering albedo of 0.09-0.11 (Li et al., 2016). The central facula is named Cerealia Facula, and is located in a 9 km wide and 700 m deep pit. There are also multiple additional faculae in the eastern crater floor, which are named the Vinalia Faculae. The faculae are mostly composed of sodium carbonate, are distinct from Ceres' average surface composition and are proposed to be the solid residues of crystallized brines (De Sanctis et al., 2016). The presence of such bright, apparently fresh, material on the surface of a dwarf planet that is billions of years old is intriguing, and indicates that active processes involving brines occurred within the geologically recent past. The Dawn Science Team has investigated whether the processes that formed the crater and the faculae are entirely endogenic, entirely exogenic or a combination of both. For example, the extensive lobate materials within the crater floor have been proposed to be impact melt, mass wasting deposits or cryolava flows (e.g. Buczkowski et al., 2017; Jaumann et al., 2017; Nathues et al., 2017; Schenk et al., 2017). Each possibility has the potential to provide fascinating insights into Ceres' evolution, including the potential for liquids within Ceres' interior today. The team's in-depth investigation of Occator crater will be presented in an upcoming special issue of the journal Icarus. This special

  14. Early Science Results from the Williams College Eclipse Expedition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.; Person, Michael J.; Dantowitz, Ron; Lockwood, Christian A.; Nagle-McNaughton, Tim; Meadors, Erin N.; Perez, Cielo C.; Marti, Connor J.; Yu, Ross; Rosseau, Brendan; Daly, Declan M.; Ide, Charles A.; Davis, Allen B.; Lu, Muzhou; Sliski, David; Seiradakis, John; Voulgaris, Aris; Rusin, Vojtech; Peñaloza-Murillo, Marcos A.; Roman, Michael; Seaton, Daniel B.; Steele, Amy; Lee, Duane M.; Freeman, Marcus J.

    2018-01-01

    We describe our first cut of data reduction on a wide variety of observations of the solar corona and of the effect of the penumbra and umbra on the terrestrial atmosphere, carried out from our eclipse site on the campus of Willamette University in Salem, Oregon. Our team of faculty, undergraduate students, graduate students, and other colleagues observed the eclipse, taking images and spectra with a variety of sensors and telescopes. Equipment included frame-transfer cameras observing at 3 Hz in 0.3 nm filters at the coronal green and red lines to measure the power spectrum of oscillations in coronal loops or elsewhere in the lower corona; 3 spectrographs; a variety of telescopes and telephotos for white-light imaging; a double Lyot system tuned at Fe XIV 530.3 nm (FWHM 0.4 nm) and Fe X 637.4 nm (FWHM 0.5 nm); and a weather station to record changes in the terrestrial atmosphere. We are comparing our observations with predictions based on the previous mapping of the photospheric magnetic field, and preparing wide-field complete coronal imaging incorporating NOAA/NASA GOES-16 SUVI and NRL/NASA/LASCO for the corona outside our own images (which extend, given the completely clear skies we had, at least 4 solar radii), and NASA SDO/AIA and NOAA/NASA GOES-16 SUVI for the solar disk. One of our early composites appeared as Astronomy Picture of the Day for September 27: https://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap170927.htmlOur expedition was supported in large part by grants from the Committee for Research and Exploration of the National Geographic Society and from the Solar Terrestrial Program of the Atmospheric and Geospace Sciences Division of the National Science Foundation, with additional student support from the STP/AGS of NSF, the NASA Massachusetts Space Grant Consortium, the Sigma Xi honorary scientific society, the Clare Booth Luce Foundation studentship and the Freeman Foote Expeditionary Fund at Williams College, other Williams College funds, and U. Pennsylvania funds.

  15. Observations of the atmospheric surface layer parameters during the total solar eclipse of March 29th, in Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Founda, Dimitra; Lykoudis, Spyridon; Psiloglou, Basil E.; Petrakis, Michael; Zerefos, Christos [Inst. for Environmental Research and Sustainable Development, National Observatory of Athens (Greece)

    2009-10-15

    This study examines the effect of the total solar eclipse of March 29{sup th} 2006, on some parameters of the atmospheric surface layer. The eclipse effects on the mean, but also turbulent parameters of the wind were studied at Kastelorizo, a small island of southeastern Greece situated within the totality path of the eclipse. Although the eclipse effect on the mean flow was partly masked by the synoptic situation, the analysis of the intensive (high frequency) wind measurements showed a decrease of the turbulent processes with reduced values of the turbulent kinetic energy and shear stress for a short period around the maximum phase of the eclipse. The buoyancy flux decreased by one order of magnitude during the phenomenon. The power spectra of the three wind components were found to be lower by almost one order of magnitude near the total phase when compared to spectra after the end of the eclipse. (orig.)

  16. Automation of BESSY scanning tables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanton, J.; Kesteman, J.

    1981-01-01

    A micro processor M6800 is used for the automation of scanning and premeasuring BESSY tables. The tasks achieved by the micro processor are: 1. control of spooling of the four asynchronous film winding devices and switching on and off the 4 projections lamps, 2. pre-processing of the data coming from a bi-polar coordinates measuring device, 3. bi-directional interchange of informations between the operator, the BESSY table and the DEC PDP 11/34 mini computer controling the scanning operations, 4. control of the magnification on the table by swapping the projection lenses of appropriate focal lengths and the associated light boxes (under development). In connection with point 4, study is being made for the use of BESSY tables for accurate measurements (+/-5 microns), by encoding the displacements of the projections lenses. (orig.)

  17. The Table Mountain Field Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Table Mountain Field Site, located north of Boulder, Colorado, is designated as an area where the magnitude of strong, external signals is restricted (by State...

  18. The redoubtable ecological periodic table

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecological periodic tables are repositories of reliable information on quantitative, predictably recurring (periodic) habitat–community patterns and their uncertainty, scaling and transferability. Their reliability derives from their grounding in sound ecological principle...

  19. Table 1: Biofuels simulation scenarios

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — A spreadsheet containing information used to generate Table 1. Agricultural Market sector results presented in the spreadsheet were generated elsewhere (non-EPA) and...

  20. Girl Scout Stars: Engaging Girl Scouts in the 2017 Total Eclipse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harman, P. K.

    2017-12-01

    Reaching for the Stars: NASA Science for Girl Scouts (Girl Scout Stars) engages Girl Scouts in observing the 2017 eclipse. Three councils are host-sponsors of Girl Scout Total Eclipse Destinations,. Total Eclipse of the Heartland, sponsored by Girl Scouts of Southern Illinois, begins with planetarium, and science center visits in St. Louis, and transits to Carbondale for the eclipse. The Great Eclipse Adventure, sponsored by the Girl Scouts of the Missouri Heartland, features hands-on science activities led by Astronomy and Physics faculty and grad students at University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, and observing the eclipse at a camp nearby. Eyes to the Sky: A Once in a Lifetime Destination, by the Girl Scouts of South Carolina - Mountains to Midlands, visits a Challenger Center, a planetarium, and observatory, and culminates at Camp MaBak, Marietta, SC. Girl Scout Destinations are travel adventures, for individual girls ages 11 and older, that are inspiring, life-changing experiences. Destinations are determined via an application and review process by Girls Scouts of the USA. Girl Scout Stars also developed an Eclipse Activity Guide and kit box of materials, distributed the materials to 91 Girl Scout Councils, and delivered webinar training to councils. The eclipse materials enrich the girls' summer camp experiences with activities that promote understanding the Sun-Earth-Moon relationship, the solar system and safe eclipse viewing; and that feature science practices. Examples of the reach of the kit boxes are Girl Scouts of Montana and Wyoming Total Eclipse Event in Casper, WY, and the Girl Scouts of Northern California summer camps featuring the activities. In Girl Scouting, girls discover their skills, talents and what they care about; connect with other Girl Scouts and people in their community; and take action to change the world. This is called the Girl Scout Leadership Experience. With girl-led, hands on activities where girls can team up and work together

  1. NNDSS - Table I. infrequently reported notifiable diseases

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table I. infrequently reported notifiable diseases - 2016. In this Table, provisional* cases of selected† infrequently reported notifiable diseases...

  2. Usability of small impact craters on small surface areas in crater count dating: Analysing examples from the Harmakhis Vallis outflow channel, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukkonen, S.; Kostama, V.-P.

    2018-05-01

    The availability of very high-resolution images has made it possible to extend crater size-frequency distribution studies to small, deca/hectometer-scale craters. This has enabled the dating of small and young surface units, as well as recent, short-time and small-scale geologic processes that have occurred on the units. Usually, however, the higher the spatial resolution of space images is, the smaller area is covered by the images. Thus the use of single, very high-resolution images in crater count age determination may be debatable if the images do not cover the studied region entirely. Here we compare the crater count results for the floor of the Harmakhis Vallis outflow channel obtained from the images of the ConTeXt camera (CTX) and High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) aboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO). The CTX images enable crater counts for entire units on the Harmakhis Vallis main valley, whereas the coverage of the higher-resolution HiRISE images is limited and thus the images can only be used to date small parts of the units. Our case study shows that the crater count data based on small impact craters and small surface areas mainly correspond with the crater count data based on larger craters and more extensive counting areas on the same unit. If differences between the results were founded, they could usually be explained by the regional geology. Usually, these differences appeared when at least one cratering model age is missing from either of the crater datasets. On the other hand, we found only a few cases in which the cratering model ages were completely different. We conclude that the crater counts using small impact craters on small counting areas provide useful information about the geological processes which have modified the surface. However, it is important to remember that all the crater counts results obtained from a specific counting area always primarily represent the results from the counting area-not the whole

  3. Photometric study of the eclipsing binary U Sagittae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNamara, D.H.; Feltz, K.A. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The geometric and photometric elements of the eclipsing star U Sge have been derived from uvby observations secured in 1973-74. The ''best'' elements are r 1 = 0.296, r 2 = 0.225, i = 90 0 ; and L 1 = 0.130, L 2 = 0.870 in yellow light where the subscript 1 refers to the G2 IV-III component and the subscript 2 refers to the B8 V component. Radii and masses of the two stars can be derived by assuming that the larger star fills its Roche lobe. This assumption yields r 1 = 3.32 R/sub solar mass/, r 2 = 2.52 R/sub solar mass/, M 1 = 1.4 solar mass, and M 2 = 3.5 solar mass. The absolute magnitudes are found by two different methods and yield M/sub v/ = -0/sup m/4 for the B star and M/sub v/ = + 1.8/sup m/ for the G star. If corrections for radiative interactions are made, the absolute magnitude of the G star is M/sub v/ is approximately equal + 2.2/sup m/. Observational data secured in the u filter suggest that Balmer continuum emission can be detected from an emitting gas stream or disk. The gas must be concentrated near the following hemisphere of the B Star. The m 1 measurements of the secondary component suggest a metal deficiency of [Fe/H] = -0.6

  4. Spectrophotometric study of the AN And eclipsing binary star

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rachkovskaya, T.M.

    1979-01-01

    The spectrum of eclipsing binary AN And has been studied using spectrograms with dispersion of 6-15 A/mm. The experiments have been carried out in 1967 and 1976 in the Crimea astrophysical laboratory. The equivalent widths of hydrogen and metallic lines were found to be 1.3-1.5 times stronger on the spectrograms in 1976 in comparison with those in 1967. The calcium spectral type Sp(KCa2)=A9, F0 was found to be earlier than the metallic one Sp(M)=F2-F5. The rotation velocity supposes the synchronism of axial and orbital rotation. Enchancement of titanium, strontiUm, conium and a deficit of magnesium and chromium is observed in the atmosphere of the star as compared with the Sun. The turbulence velocity is equal to 9.4 km/s. The velocity of the system centre-of-mass is equal to (-5.6 km/s) and the half of the amplitude of the main component beam velocity is equal to 72 km/s

  5. Fourier analysis of the light curves of eclipsing variables, XXIV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edalati, M.T.

    1978-01-01

    The aim of the present paper will be to evaluate numerically Jacobian and other functions which have been discussed in more detail in a previous paper of this series, and also choose the most convenient moments to obtain a good determination for the unknown eclipse parameters a and c 0 . More than 12 different pairs of g-functions for real values of m have been investigated numerically and diagrammatically. The behaviour of g-functions depends but very little on different combination of the moments, and related diagrams are approximately the same as g 2 and g 4 . The behaviour of the vanishing Jacobian, arising from different pairs of g-functions for real values of m>= 0 . Accordingly, the author obtains the optimum combination of the moments (i.e., A 6 , A 7 , A 8 and A 9 ) in g-functions g 7 and g 8 . It has been noted that the behaviour of the g-functions which depend on the combinations of the higher order moments (i.e., m>= 5) have been ruled out, because the proportional error of the moments Asub(2m) increases with increasing values of real m. The automated method has been tested successfully on the light curve of RT Per. Finally, a comparison is given of the elements of RT Per arising from two different pairs of g-functions, i.e. g 2 , g 4 and g 7 , g 8 for the light curves analysis. (Auth.)

  6. Physical Properties of the LMC Eclipsing Binary Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prsa, Andrej; Devinney, E. J.; Guinan, E. F.; Engle, S. G.; DeGeorge, M.

    2009-01-01

    To date, three independent studies have devised an automatic procedure to analyse and extract the principal parameters of 2581 detached eclipsing binary stars from the OGLE photometric survey of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC): Devor (2005), Tamuz et al. (2006), and Prsa et al. (2008). For time efficiency, Devor used a simple model of two spherical, limb-darkened stars without tidal or reflection physics. Tamuz et al.'s approach employs a more realistic EBOP model, which is still limited in handling proximity physics. Our study used a back-propagating neural network that was trained on the light curves computed by a modern Wilson-Devinney code. The three approaches are confronted and correlations in the results are sought that indicate the degree of reliability of the obtained results. A database of solutions consistent across all three studies is presented. We assess the suitability of each method for other morphology types (i.e. semi-detached and overcontact binaries) and we overview the practical limitations of these methods for the upcoming survey data. This research is supported by NFS/RUI Grant No. AST-05-07542, which we gratefully acknowledge.

  7. UBV Photometry at the Outside Eclipse Phase of AZ Cassiopeiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Il-Seong Nha

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available VV Cep-type long period spectroscopic-eclipsing binary AZ Cas has been observed for five years, 1985 Oct ~ 1990 Feb, in UBV at the Ilsan Station of Yonsei University Observatory. A total of 431 observations (U=129, B=142 and V=160 are made for 86 nights. Instrumental differential UBV and B-V light curves made with these observations cover phases nearly a half of one period. There is no appreciable light variation in V but in other two passbands a gradual decrease of the brightness is clearly noticed. The loss of light in B resulted in a reddening in △(B-V by +0.06 at phases between 0.4~0.5 as compared with that of at phase ~0.1. This intrinsic reddening arouses a question why at the orbital phase of the transit of a hot star in front of a cool M supergiant the heating of the facing hemisphere of M supergiant by the strong radiation from the B star is absent. With regard to this unusual situation we propose a hypothesis that a large amount of gas stream of low temperature ejected from the surface of M supergiant component towards the B star dominates the brightness of B star and reflection effect.

  8. DISTANCES TO FOUR SOLAR NEIGHBORHOOD ECLIPSING BINARIES FROM ABSOLUTE FLUXES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, R. E.; Van Hamme, W.

    2009-01-01

    Eclipsing binary (EB)-based distances are estimated for four solar neighborhood EBs by means of the Direct Distance Estimation (DDE) algorithm. Results are part of a project to map the solar neighborhood EBs in three dimensions, independently of parallaxes, and provide statistical comparisons between EB and parallax distances. Apart from judgments on adopted temperature and interstellar extinction, DDE's simultaneous light-velocity solutions are essentially objective and work as well for semidetached (SD) and overcontact binaries as for detached systems. Here, we analyze two detached and two SD binaries, all double lined. RS Chamaeleontis is a pre-main-sequence (MS), detached EB with weak δ Scuti variations. WW Aurigae is detached and uncomplicated, except for having high metallicity. RZ Cassiopeiae is SD and has very clear δ Scuti variations and several peculiarities. R Canis Majoris (R CMa) is an apparently simple but historically problematic SD system, also with weak δ Scuti variations. Discussions include solution rules and strategies, weighting, convergence, and third light problems. So far there is no indication of systematic band dependence among the derived distances, so the adopted band-calibration ratios seem consistent. Agreement of EB-based and parallax distances is typically within the overlapped uncertainties, with minor exceptions. We also suggest an explanation for the long-standing undermassiveness problem of R CMa's hotter component, in terms of a fortuitous combination of low metallicity and evolution slightly beyond the MS.

  9. Characterisation of COPD heterogeneity in the ECLIPSE cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agusti Alvar

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a complex condition with pulmonary and extra-pulmonary manifestations. This study describes the heterogeneity of COPD in a large and well characterised and controlled COPD cohort (ECLIPSE. Methods We studied 2164 clinically stable COPD patients, 337 smokers with normal lung function and 245 never smokers. In these individuals, we measured clinical parameters, nutritional status, spirometry, exercise tolerance, and amount of emphysema by computed tomography. Results COPD patients were slightly older than controls and had more pack years of smoking than smokers with normal lung function. Co-morbidities were more prevalent in COPD patients than in controls, and occurred to the same extent irrespective of the GOLD stage. The severity of airflow limitation in COPD patients was poorly related to the degree of breathlessness, health status, presence of co-morbidity, exercise capacity and number of exacerbations reported in the year before the study. The distribution of these variables within each GOLD stage was wide. Even in subjects with severe airflow obstruction, a substantial proportion did not report symptoms, exacerbations or exercise limitation. The amount of emphysema increased with GOLD severity. The prevalence of bronchiectasis was low (4% but also increased with GOLD stage. Some gender differences were also identified. Conclusions The clinical manifestations of COPD are highly variable and the degree of airflow limitation does not capture the heterogeneity of the disease.

  10. A 12 MINUTE ORBITAL PERIOD DETACHED WHITE DWARF ECLIPSING BINARY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Warren R.; Kilic, Mukremin; Kenyon, Scott J.; Hermes, J. J.; Winget, D. E.; Prieto, Carlos Allende

    2011-01-01

    We have discovered a detached pair of white dwarfs (WDs) with a 12.75 minute orbital period and a 1315 km s -1 radial velocity amplitude. We measure the full orbital parameters of the system using its light curve, which shows ellipsoidal variations, Doppler boosting, and primary and secondary eclipses. The primary is a 0.25 M sun tidally distorted helium WD, only the second tidally distorted WD known. The unseen secondary is a 0.55 M sun carbon-oxygen WD. The two WDs will come into contact in 0.9 Myr due to loss of energy and angular momentum via gravitational wave radiation. Upon contact the systems may merge (yielding a rapidly spinning massive WD), form a stable interacting binary, or possibly explode as an underluminous Type Ia supernova. The system currently has a gravitational wave strain of 10 -22 , about 10,000 times larger than the Hulse-Taylor pulsar; this system would be detected by the proposed Laser Interferometer Space Antenna gravitational wave mission in the first week of operation. This system's rapid change in orbital period will provide a fundamental test of general relativity.

  11. Absolute parameters of southern detached eclipsing binary: HD 53570

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sürgit, D.

    2018-05-01

    In this study, we conducted the first analysis of spectroscopic and photometric observations of the eclipsing binary star HD 53570. Spectroscopic observations of HD 53570 were made at the Sutherland Station of the South African Astronomical Observatory in 2013 and 2014. The radial velocities of the components were determined using the cross-correlation technique. The spectroscopic mass ratio obtained for the system was 1.13 ( ± 0.07). The All Sky Automated Survey V light curve of HD 53570 was analyzed using the Wilson-Devinney code combined with the Monte Carlo search method. The final model showed that HD 53570 has a detached configuration. The mass and radii of the primary and secondary components of HD 53570 were derived as 1.06 ( ± 0.07) M⊙, 1.20 ( ± 0.16) M⊙, and 1.42 ( ± 0.14) R⊙, 2.07 ( ± 0.16) R⊙, respectively. The distance of HD 53570 was computed as 248 ( ± 38) pc considering interstellar extinction. The evolutionary status of the component stars was also investigated using Geneva evolutionary models.

  12. Using the ionospheric response to the solar eclipse on 20 March 2015 to detect spatial structure in the solar corona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, J.; Bell, S. A.; Wilkinson, J.; Smith, D.; Tudor, S.

    2016-01-01

    The total solar eclipse that occurred over the Arctic region on 20 March 2015 was seen as a partial eclipse over much of Europe. Observations of this eclipse were used to investigate the high time resolution (1 min) decay and recovery of the Earth’s ionospheric E-region above the ionospheric monitoring station in Chilton, UK. At the altitude of this region (100 km), the maximum phase of the eclipse was 88.88% obscuration of the photosphere occurring at 9:29:41.5 UT. In comparison, the ionospheric response revealed a maximum obscuration of 66% (leaving a fraction, Φ, of uneclipsed radiation of 34±4%) occurring at 9:29 UT. The eclipse was re-created using data from the Solar Dynamics Observatory to estimate the fraction of radiation incident on the Earth’s atmosphere throughout the eclipse from nine different emission wavelengths in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and X-ray spectrum. These emissions, having varying spatial distributions, were each obscured differently during the eclipse. Those wavelengths associated with coronal emissions (94, 211 and 335 Å) most closely reproduced the time varying fraction of unobscured radiation observed in the ionosphere. These results could enable historic ionospheric eclipse measurements to be interpreted in terms of the distribution of EUV and X-ray emissions on the solar disc. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Atmospheric effects of solar eclipses stimulated by the 2015 UK eclipse’. PMID:27550766

  13. Predicting the α Comae Berenices Time of Eclipse: How 3 Ambiguous Measurements out of 609 Caused a 26 Year Binary’s Eclipse to be Missed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muterspaugh, M.W.; Wijngaarden, M.J.P.; Henrichs, H.F.; Lane, B.F.; Hartkopf, W.I.; Henry, G.W.; Schaefer, G.H.; Farrington, C.; Hummel, C.A.; Zavala, R.T.

    2015-01-01

    The dwarf stars in the 26 year period binary α Com were predicted to eclipse each other in early 2015. That prediction was based on an orbit model made with over 600 astrometric observations using micrometers, speckle interferometry, and long baseline optical interferometry. Unfortunately, it has

  14. Wildfires Caused by Formation of Small Impact Craters: A Kaali Crater Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losiak, Anna; Belcher, Claire; Hudspith, Victoria; Zhu, Menghua; Bronikowska, Malgorzata; Jõeleht, Argo; Plado, Juri

    2016-04-01

    Formation of ~200-km Chicxulub 65 Ma ago was associated with release of significant amount of thermal energy [1,2,3] which was sufficient to start wildfires that had either regional [4] or global [5] range. The evidence for wildfires caused by impacts smaller than Chicxulub is inconclusive. On one hand, no signs of fires are associated with the formation of 24-km Ries crater [6]. On the other hand, the Tunguska site was burned after the impact and the numerical models of the bolide-produced thermal radiation suggest that the Tunguska-like event would produce a thermal flux to the surface that is sufficient to ignite pine needles [7]. However, in case of Tunguska the only proof for the bolide starting the fire comes from an eyewitness description collected many years after the event. Some authors [8] suggest that this fire might have been caused "normaly" later during the same year, induced on dead trees killed by the Tunguska fall. More recently it was observed that the Chelyabinsk meteor [9] - smaller than Tunguska event - did not produced a fire. In order to explore this apparent relationship in more detail, we have studied the proximal ejecta from a 100-m in diameter, ~3500 years old [10] Kaali crater (Estonia) within which we find pieces of charred organic material. Those pieces appear to have been produced during the impact, according to their stratigraphic location and following 14C analysis [19] as opposed to pre- or post-impact forest fires. In order to determine the most probable formation mechanism of the charred organic material found within Kaali proximal ejecta blanket, we: 1) Analyzed charcoal under SEM to identify the charred plants and determine properties of the charcoal related to the temperature of its formation [11]. Detected homogenization of cell walls suggests that at least some pieces of charcoal were formed at >300 °C [11]. 2) Analyzed the reflectance properties of the charred particles in order to determine the intensity with which

  15. Organic molecules in the Sheepbed Mudstone, Gale Crater, Mars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freissinet, C.; Glavin, D. P.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Miller, K. E.; Eigenbrode, J. L.; Summons, R. E.; Brunner, A. E.; Buch, A.; Szopa, C.; Archer, P. D.; Franz, H. B.; Atreya, S. K.; Brinckerhoff, W. B.; Cabane, M.; Coll, P.; Conrad, P. G.; Des Marais, D. J.; Dworkin, J. P.; Fairén, A. G.; François, P.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Kashyap, S.; ten Kate, I. L.; Leshin, L. A.; Malespin, C. A.; Martin, M. G.; Martin-Torres, F. J.; Mcadam, A. C.; Ming, D. W.; Navarro-González, R.; Pavlov, A. A.; Prats, B. D.; Squyres, S. W.; Steele, A.; Stern, J. C.; Sumner, D. Y.; Sutter, B.; Zorzano, M. P.

    The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument on board the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover is designed to conduct inorganic and organic chemical analyses of the atmosphere and the surface regolith and rocks to help evaluate the past and present habitability potential of Mars at Gale Crater.

  16. Role of impact cratering for Mars sample return

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, P.H.

    1988-01-01

    The preserved cratering record of Mars indicates that impacts play an important role in deciphering Martian geologic history, whether as a mechanism to modify the lithosphere and atmosphere or as a tool to sample the planet. The various roles of impact cratering in adding a broader understanding of Mars through returned samples are examined. Five broad roles include impact craters as: (1) a process in response to a different planetary localizer environment; (2) a probe for excavating crustal/mantle materials; (3) a possible localizer of magmatic and hydrothermal processes; (4) a chronicle of changes in the volcanic, sedimentary, atmospheric, and cosmic flux history; and (5) a chronometer for extending the geologic time scale to unsampled regions. The evidence for Earth-like processes and very nonlunar styles of volcanism and tectonism may shift the emphasis of a sampling strategy away from equally fundamental issues including crustal composition, unit ages, and climate history. Impact cratering not only played an important active role in the early Martian geologic history, it also provides an important tool for addressing such issues

  17. Wet Weather Crater Repair Technologies for Grooved and Smooth Pavements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-30

    Dean Geotechnical and Structures Laboratory U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center 3909 Halls Ferry Road Vicksburg, MS 39180-6199...ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center Geotechnical and Structures Laboratory 3909 Halls Ferry Road ...SUBJECT TERMS Crater Concrete Rain and rainfall ADR Grooved pavement Smooth pavement Runoff Runways (Aeronautics) – Maintenance and repair

  18. Malaria among the pastoral communities of the Ngorongoro Crater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malaria among the pastoral communities of the Ngorongoro Crater Area, northern Tanzania. L.E.G Mboera, R.C Malima, P.E Mangesho, K.P Senkoro, V Mwingira. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  19. Mineralogy of a mudstone at Yellowknife Bay, Gale crater, Mars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaniman, D.T.; Bish, D.L.; Ming, D.W.; Bristow, T.F.; Morris, R.V.; Blake, D.F.; Chipera, S.J.; Morrison, S.M.; Treiman, A.H.; Rampe, E.B.; Rice, M.; Achilles, C.N.; Grotzinger, J.P.; McLennan, S.M.; Williams, J.; Bell III, J.F.; Newsom, H.E.; Downs, R.T.; Maurice, S.; Sarrazin, P.; Yen, A.S.; Morookian, J.M.; Farmer, J.D.; Stack, K.; Milliken, R.E.; Ehlmann, B.L.; Sumner, D.Y.; Berger, G.; Crisp, J.A.; Hurowitz, J.A.; Anderson, R.; Des Marais, D.J.; Stolper, E.M.; Edgett, K.S.; Gupta, S.; Spanovich, N.; MSL Science Team, the|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/292012217

    2014-01-01

    Sedimentary rocks at Yellowknife Bay (Gale crater) on Mars include mudstone sampled by the Curiosity rover. The samples, John Klein and Cumberland, contain detrital basaltic minerals, calcium sulfates, iron oxide or hydroxides, iron sulfides, amorphous material, and trioctahedral smectites. The John

  20. Crater formation by single ions, cluster ions and ion "showers"

    CERN Document Server

    Djurabekova, Flyura; Timko, Helga; Nordlund, Kai; Calatroni, Sergio; Taborelli, Mauro; Wuensch, Walter

    2011-01-01

    The various craters formed by giant objects, macroscopic collisions and nanoscale impacts exhibit an intriguing resemblance in shapes. At the same time, the arc plasma built up in the presence of sufficiently high electric fields at close look causes very similar damage on the surfaces. Although the plasma–wall interaction is far from a single heavy ion impact over dense metal surfaces or the one of a cluster ion, the craters seen on metal surfaces after a plasma discharge make it possible to link this event to the known mechanisms of the crater formations. During the plasma discharge in a high electric field the surface is subject to high fluxes (~1025 cm-2s-1) of ions with roughly equal energies typically of the order of a few keV. To simulate such a process it is possible to use a cloud of ions of the same energy. In the present work we follow the effect of such a flux of ions impinging the surface in the ‘‘shower’’ manner, to find the transition between the different mechanisms of crater formati...