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Sample records for echinoidea internal anatomy

  1. Systematic comparison and reconstruction of sea urchin (Echinoidea internal anatomy: a novel approach using magnetic resonance imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mueller Susanne

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traditional comparative morphological analyses and subsequent three-dimensional reconstructions suffer from a number of drawbacks. This is particularly evident in the case of soft tissue studies that are technically demanding, time-consuming, and often prone to produce artefacts. These problems can partly be overcome by employing non-invasive, destruction-free imaging techniques, in particular micro-computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. Results Here, we employed high-field magnetic resonance imaging techniques to gather numerous data from members of a major marine invertebrate taxon, the sea urchins (Echinoidea. For this model study, 13 of the 14 currently recognized high-ranking subtaxa (orders of this group of animals were analyzed. Based on the acquired datasets, interactive three-dimensional models were assembled. Our analyses reveal that selected soft tissue characters can even be used for phylogenetic inferences in sea urchins, as exemplified by differences in the size and shape of the gastric caecum found in the Irregularia. Conclusion The main focus of our investigation was to explore the possibility to systematically visualize the internal anatomy of echinoids obtained from various museum collections. We show that, in contrast to classical preparative procedures, magnetic resonance imaging can give rapid, destruction-free access to morphological data from numerous specimens, thus extending the range of techniques available for comparative studies of invertebrate morphology.

  2. Comparative morphology of the axial complex and interdependence of internal organ systems in sea urchins (Echinodermata: Echinoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Alexander; Faber, Cornelius; Bartolomaeus, Thomas

    2009-06-09

    The axial complex of echinoderms (Echinodermata) is composed of various primary and secondary body cavities that interact with each other. In sea urchins (Echinoidea), structural differences of the axial complex in "regular" and irregular species have been observed, but the reasons underlying these differences are not fully understood. In addition, a better knowledge of axial complex diversity could not only be useful for phylogenetic inferences, but improve also an understanding of the function of this enigmatic structure. We therefore analyzed numerous species of almost all sea urchin orders by magnetic resonance imaging, dissection, histology, and transmission electron microscopy and compared the results with findings from published studies spanning almost two centuries. These combined analyses demonstrate that the axial complex is present in all sea urchin orders and has remained structurally conserved for a long time, at least in the "regular" species. Within the Irregularia, a considerable morphological variation of the axial complex can be observed with gradual changes in topography, size, and internal architecture. These modifications are related to the growing size of the gastric caecum as well as to the rearrangement of the morphology of the digestive tract as a whole. The structurally most divergent axial complex can be observed in the highly derived Atelostomata in which the reorganization of the digestive tract is most pronounced. Our findings demonstrate a structural interdependence of various internal organs, including digestive tract, mesenteries, and the axial complex.

  3. External and internal anatomy of mandibular molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, L F; Sousa Neto, M D; Fidel, S R; da Costa, W F; Pécora, J D

    1996-01-01

    The external and internal anatomy of 628 extracted, mandibular first and second molars was studied. The external anatomy was studied by measuring each tooth and by observing the direction of the root curvatures from the facial surface. The internal anatomy of the pulp cavity was studied by a method of making the teeth translucent.

  4. External and internal anatomy of third molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerisoli, D M; de Souza, R A; de Sousa Neto, M D; Silva, R G; Pécora, J D

    1998-01-01

    The external and internal anatomy of 269 third molars (155 maxillary and 114 mandibular) were studied. The teeth were measured, classified according to their root number and shape and the internal anatomy was observed by the use of diaphanization. A great anatomical variability was found, with the presence of up to 5 roots in maxillary third molars and 3 roots in mandibular third molars. The number of root canals followed the same pattern.

  5. Correlation Between Echinoidea Size and Threat Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakshi, S.; Lee, A.; Heim, N.; Payne, J.

    2017-12-01

    Echinoidea (or sea urchins), are small, spiny, globular, animals that populate the seafloors of nearly the entire planet. Echinoidea have existed on Earth since the Ordovician period, and from their archaic origin there is much to be learned about the relationship between Echinoidea body size and how it affects the survivability of the individual. The goal of this project is to determine how Echinoidea dimensions such as body volume, area, and length compare across extinct and extant species by plotting Echinoidea data in R. We will use stratigraphic data as a source to find which species of sea urchin from our data is extinct. We will then create three sets of three histograms of the size data for each type of measurement. One set will include histograms for sea urchin length, area, and volume. The other set will include histograms for extinct sea urchin length, area, and volume. The last set will include histograms for extant sea urchin length, area, and volume. Our data showed that extant sea urchins had a larger size, and extinct sea urchins were smaller. Our length data showed that the average length of all sea urchins were 54.95791 mm, the average length of extinct sea urchins were 51.0337 mm, and the average length of extant sea urchins were 66.12774 mm. There is a generally increasing trend of size over time, except for a small outlier about 350 million years ago, where echinoderm extinction selected towards larger species and biovolume was abnormally high. Our data also showed that over the past 200 million years, echinoderm extinction selectivity drove slightly smaller sea urchins towards extinction, further supporting the idea that a larger size was and still is advantageous for echinoderms.

  6. Morphologic study of the maxillary molars. Part II: Internal anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pécora, J D; Woelfel, J B; Sousa Neto, M D; Issa, E P

    1992-01-01

    The internal anatomy of three hundred and seventy (370) decalcified and cleared human maxillary molars was studied. Seventy-five percent of the first molars, 58% of the second molars and 68% of the third molars studied presented three (3) root canals and 25% of the first molars, 42% of the second molars and 32% of the third molars presented four (4) root canals. The authors observed that the incidence of two root canals in the mesiobuccal root was higher in second maxillary molars than in first maxillary molars.

  7. Computer-Assisted Learning in Anatomy at the International Medical School in Debrecen, Hungary: A Preliminary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kish, Gary; Cook, Samuel A.; Kis, Greta

    2013-01-01

    The University of Debrecen's Faculty of Medicine has an international, multilingual student population with anatomy courses taught in English to all but Hungarian students. An elective computer-assisted gross anatomy course, the Computer Human Anatomy (CHA), has been taught in English at the Anatomy Department since 2008. This course focuses on an…

  8. Children's knowledge of internal anatomy: conceptual orientation and review of research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, E G; Badger, T A; Moore, I

    1992-08-01

    Children's understanding of health and illness is influenced by their knowledge of internal anatomy and physiological functioning. This article provides a comprehensive review of studies of children's knowledge of internal anatomy, one component of internal body image. Consistencies, controversies, and methodological issues that emerge across the studies are discussed. A conceptual framework for the development of children's internal body image is presented. The framework posits relationships between cognitive development, health status, knowledge of internal body image, and understanding of physiological functioning. Future studies are needed to test and refine the conceptual framework and to develop interventions to facilitate children's internal body image.

  9. Computed Tomographic Morphometry of the Internal Anatomy of Mandibular Second Primary Molars

    OpenAIRE

    Kurthukoti, Ameet J; Sharma, Pranjal; Swamy, Dinesh Francis; Shashidara, R; Swamy, Elaine Barretto

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Need for the study: The most important procedure for a successful endodontic treatment is the cleaning and shaping of the canal system. Understanding the internal anatomy of teeth provides valuable information to the clinician that would help him achieve higher clinical success during endodontic therapy. Aims: To evaluate by computed tomography?the internal anatomy of mandibular second primary molars with respect to the number of canals, cross-sectional shape of canals, cross-section...

  10. Ultrasound comparison of external and internal neck anatomy with the LMA Unique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Steven M; Wojtczak, Jacek A; Cattano, Davide

    2017-12-01

    Internal neck anatomy landmarks and their relation after placement of an extraglottic airway devices have not been studied extensively by the use of ultrasound. Based on our group experience with external landmarks as well as internal landmarks evaluation with other techniques, we aimed use ultrasound to analyze the internal neck anatomy landmarks and the related changes due to the placement of the Laryngeal Mask Airway Unique. Observational pilot investigation. Non-obese adult patients with no evidence of airway anomalies, were recruited. External neck landmarks were measured based on a validated and standardized method by tape. Eight internal anatomical landmarks, reciprocal by the investigational hypothesis to the external landmarks, were also measured by ultrasound guidance. The internal landmarks were re-measured after optimal placement and inflation of the extraglottic airway devices cuff Laryngeal Mask Airway Unique. Six subjects were recruited. Ultrasound measurements of hyoid-mental distance, thyroid-cricoid distance, thyroid height, and thyroid width were found to be significantly ( p internal neck anatomy. The induced changes and respective specific internal neck anatomy landmarks could help to design devices that would modify their shape accordingly to areas of greatest displacement. Also, while external neck landmark measurements overestimate their respective internal neck landmarks, as we previously reported, the concordance of each measurement and their respective conversion factor could continue to be of help in sizing extraglottic airway devices. Due to the pilot nature of the study, more investigations are warranted.

  11. Nasal Anatomy

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    ... Caregivers Contact ARS HOME ANATOMY Nasal Anatomy Sinus Anatomy Nasal Physiology Nasal Endoscopy Skull Base Anatomy Virtual Anatomy Disclosure ... Size + - Home > ANATOMY > Nasal Anatomy Nasal Anatomy Sinus Anatomy Nasal Physiology Nasal Endoscopy Skull Base Anatomy Virtual Anatomy Disclosure ...

  12. Sinus Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Caregivers Contact ARS HOME ANATOMY Nasal Anatomy Sinus Anatomy Nasal Physiology Nasal Endoscopy Skull Base Anatomy Virtual Anatomy Disclosure ... Size + - Home > ANATOMY > Sinus Anatomy Nasal Anatomy Sinus Anatomy Nasal Physiology Nasal Endoscopy Skull Base Anatomy Virtual Anatomy Disclosure ...

  13. Ultrasound comparison of external and internal neck anatomy with the LMA Unique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven M. Lee

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Internal neck anatomy landmarks and their relation after placement of an extraglottic airway devices have not been studied extensively by the use of ultrasound. Based on our group experience with external landmarks as well as internal landmarks evaluation with other techniques, we aimed use ultrasound to analyze the internal neck anatomy landmarks and the related changes due to the placement of the Laryngeal Mask Airway Unique. Methods: Observational pilot investigation. Non-obese adult patients with no evidence of airway anomalies, were recruited. External neck landmarks were measured based on a validated and standardized method by tape. Eight internal anatomical landmarks, reciprocal by the investigational hypothesis to the external landmarks, were also measured by ultrasound guidance. The internal landmarks were re-measured after optimal placement and inflation of the extraglottic airway devices cuff Laryngeal Mask Airway Unique. Results: Six subjects were recruited. Ultrasound measurements of hyoid-mental distance, thyroid-cricoid distance, thyroid height, and thyroid width were found to be significantly (p < 0.05 overestimated using a tape measure. Sagittal neck landmark distances such as thyroid height, sternal-mental distance, and thyroid-cricoid distance significantly decreased after placement of the Laryngeal Mask Airway Unique. Conclusion: The laryngeal mask airway Unique resulted in significant changes in internal neck anatomy. The induced changes and respective specific internal neck anatomy landmarks could help to design devices that would modify their shape accordingly to areas of greatest displacement. Also, while external neck landmark measurements overestimate their respective internal neck landmarks, as we previously reported, the concordance of each measurement and their respective conversion factor could continue to be of help in sizing extraglottic airway devices. Due to the pilot nature of the study, more

  14. Computer-assisted learning in anatomy at the international medical school in Debrecen, Hungary: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kish, Gary; Cook, Samuel A; Kis, Gréta

    2013-01-01

    The University of Debrecen's Faculty of Medicine has an international, multilingual student population with anatomy courses taught in English to all but Hungarian students. An elective computer-assisted gross anatomy course, the Computer Human Anatomy (CHA), has been taught in English at the Anatomy Department since 2008. This course focuses on an introduction to anatomical digital images along with clinical cases. This low-budget course has a large visual component using images from magnetic resonance imaging and computer axial tomogram scans, ultrasound clinical studies, and readily available anatomy software that presents topics which run in parallel to the university's core anatomy curriculum. From the combined computer images and CHA lecture information, students are asked to solve computer-based clinical anatomy problems in the CHA computer laboratory. A statistical comparison was undertaken of core anatomy oral examination performances of English program first-year medical students who took the elective CHA course and those who did not in the three academic years 2007-2008, 2008-2009, and 2009-2010. The results of this study indicate that the CHA-enrolled students improved their performance on required anatomy core curriculum oral examinations (P computer-assisted learning may play an active role in anatomy curriculum improvement. These preliminary results have prompted ongoing evaluation of what specific aspects of CHA are valuable and which students benefit from computer-assisted learning in a multilingual and diverse cultural environment. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Anatomists.

  15. 4D CT sorting based on patient internal anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruijiang; Lewis, John H.; Cerviño, Laura I.; Jiang, Steve B.

    2009-08-01

    Respiratory motion during free-breathing computed tomography (CT) scan may cause significant errors in target definition for tumors in the thorax and upper abdomen. A four-dimensional (4D) CT technique has been widely used for treatment simulation of thoracic and abdominal cancer radiotherapy. The current 4D CT techniques require retrospective sorting of the reconstructed CT slices oversampled at the same couch position. Most sorting methods depend on external surrogates of respiratory motion recorded by extra instruments. However, respiratory signals obtained from these external surrogates may not always accurately represent the internal target motion, especially when irregular breathing patterns occur. We have proposed a new sorting method based on multiple internal anatomical features for multi-slice CT scan acquired in the cine mode. Four features are analyzed in this study, including the air content, lung area, lung density and body area. We use a measure called spatial coherence to select the optimal internal feature at each couch position and to generate the respiratory signals for 4D CT sorting. The proposed method has been evaluated for ten cancer patients (eight with thoracic cancer and two with abdominal cancer). For nine patients, the respiratory signals generated from the combined internal features are well correlated to those from external surrogates recorded by the real-time position management (RPM) system (average correlation: 0.95 ± 0.02), which is better than any individual internal measures at 95% confidence level. For these nine patients, the 4D CT images sorted by the combined internal features are almost identical to those sorted by the RPM signal. For one patient with an irregular breathing pattern, the respiratory signals given by the combined internal features do not correlate well with those from RPM (correlation: 0.68 ± 0.42). In this case, the 4D CT image sorted by our method presents fewer artifacts than that from the RPM signal. Our

  16. Computed Tomographic Morphometry of the Internal Anatomy of Mandibular Second Primary Molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurthukoti, Ameet J; Sharma, Pranjal; Swamy, Dinesh Francis; Shashidara, R; Swamy, Elaine Barretto

    2015-01-01

    Need for the study: The most important procedure for a successful endodontic treatment is the cleaning and shaping of the canal system. Understanding the internal anatomy of teeth provides valuable information to the clinician that would help him achieve higher clinical success during endodontic therapy. To evaluate by computed tomography-the internal anatomy of mandibular second primary molars with respect to the number of canals, cross-sectional shape of canals, cross-sectional area of canals and the root dentin thickness. A total of 31 mandibular second primary molars were subjected to computed-tomographic evaluation in the transverse plane, after mounting them in a prefabricated template. The images, thus, obtained were analyzed using De-winter Bio-wizard® software. All the samples demonstrated two canals in the mesial root, while majority of the samples (65.48%) demonstrated two canals in the distal root. The cross-sectional images of the mesial canals demonstrated a round shape, while the distal canals demonstrated an irregular shape. The root dentin thickness was highly reduced on the distal aspect of mesial and mesial aspect of distal canals. The mandibular second primary molars demonstrated wide variation and complexities in their internal anatomy. A thorough understanding of the complexity of the root canal system is essential for understanding the principles and problems of shaping and cleaning, determining the apical limits and dimensions of canal preparations, and for performing successful endodontic procedures. How to cite this article: Kurthukoti AJ, Sharma P, Swamy DF, Shashidara R, Swamy EB. Computed Tomographic Morphometry of the Internal Anatomy of Mandibular Second Primary Molars. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(3):202-207.

  17. The anatomy of medical research: US and international comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Hamilton; Matheson, David H M; Cairns-Smith, Sarah; George, Benjamin P; Palisch, Chase; Dorsey, E Ray

    2015-01-13

    Medical research is a prerequisite of clinical advances, while health service research supports improved delivery, access, and cost. Few previous analyses have compared the United States with other developed countries. To quantify total public and private investment and personnel (economic inputs) and to evaluate resulting patents, publications, drug and device approvals, and value created (economic outputs). Publicly available data from 1994 to 2012 were compiled showing trends in US and international research funding, productivity, and disease burden by source and industry type. Patents and publications (1981-2011) were evaluated using citation rates and impact factors. (1) Reduced science investment: Total US funding increased 6% per year (1994-2004), but rate of growth declined to 0.8% per year (2004-2012), reaching $117 billion (4.5%) of total health care expenditures. Private sources increased from 46% (1994) to 58% (2012). Industry reduced early-stage research, favoring medical devices, bioengineered drugs, and late-stage clinical trials, particularly for cancer and rare diseases. National Insitutes of Health allocations correlate imperfectly with disease burden, with cancer and HIV/AIDS receiving disproportionate support. (2) Underfunding of service innovation: Health services research receives $5.0 billion (0.3% of total health care expenditures) or only 1/20th of science funding. Private insurers ranked last (0.04% of revenue) and health systems 19th (0.1% of revenue) among 22 industries in their investment in innovation. An increment of $8 billion to $15 billion yearly would occur if service firms were to reach median research and development funding. (3) Globalization: US government research funding declined from 57% (2004) to 50% (2012) of the global total, as did that of US companies (50% to 41%), with the total US (public plus private) share of global research funding declining from 57% to 44%. Asia, particularly China, tripled investment from $2

  18. Internal anatomy of the hornbill casque described by radiography, contrast radiography, and computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Kathryn C

    2007-03-01

    Hornbills are distinguished from most other avian taxa by the presence of a casque on the dorsal maxillary beak, which, in all but 1 of the 54 extant hornbill species, is described as essentially an air-filled cavity enclosed by minimal cancellous bone. The external casque has been described in detail, but little has been described about its internal anatomy and the communications between the casque and the paranasal sinuses. In this study, 10 intact casque and skull specimens of 7 hornbill species were collected opportunistically at necropsy. The anatomy of the casque and the skull for each of the specimens was examined by radiography, contrast radiography, and computed tomography. After imaging, 8 specimens were submitted for osteologic preparation to directly visualize the casque and the skull interior. Through this standardized review, the baseline anatomy of the internal casque was described, including identification of a novel casque sinus within the paranasal sinus system. These observations will assist clinicians in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the casque in hornbill species.

  19. Influence of the internal anatomy on the leakage of root canals filled with thermoplastic technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jadaa, Anas; Attin, T; Peltomäki, T; Heumann, C; Schmidlin, P R; Paquè, F

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the influence of the internal anatomy on the leakage of root canals filled with the thermoplastic technique. The upper central incisors (UCI) and mesial roots of the lower molars (MRLM) (n = 12 each) were tested regarding leakage using the gas-enhanced permeation test (GEPT) after root filling. The quality of the root fillings was assessed using micro-computed tomography (μCT) by superimposing scans before and after treatment to calculate unfilled volume. The calculated void volume was compared between the groups and correlated to the measured leakage values. Data were analyzed using t test and Pearson's correlation tests (p anatomy should be considered.

  20. Trapped in freshwater: the internal anatomy of the entoproct Loxosomatoides sirindhornae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwaha, Thomas; Wood, Timothy S; Wanninger, Andreas Wilhelm Georg

    2010-01-01

    including adaptations to life in freshwater are unknown. We analyzed the internal anatomy of L. sirindhornae using serial semi-thin sections, 3D reconstruction, as well as immunocytochemistry and confocal laserscanning microscopy. Results The nephridial system shows high complexity, strikingly similar...... close to the central nervous system and open into the atrium by a nephridiopore. Compared to other stolonate entoprocts, L. sirindhornae shows a different stalk-calyx junction by possessing only a single, multicellular canopy instead of a stack of star cells. A sphincter muscle is situated below...

  1. Axial complex and associated structures of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus pallidus (Sars, G.O. 1871) (Echinodermata: Echinoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezhova, Olga Vladimirovna; Malakhov, Vladimir Vasil'yevich; Egorova, Ekaterina Alekseevna

    2018-06-01

    Studies of echinoid microscopic anatomy over the last two centuries have created a number of inaccuracies and mistakes that have accumulated in the descriptions of the intricate organization of the coelomic system of Echinoidea. To clarify the situation, we reconstructed the axial complex and radial complex of the echinoid Strongylocentrotus pallidus. The water ring is located between the perivisceral coelom and the perioral coelom. The oral haemal ring lies between the coelothelia of the water-vascular, perivisceral, and perioral rings. The axial part of the axial organ communicates with the oral haemal ring in interradius CD, but the axial coelom does not form the axocoelomic perihaemal ring. The ventral intestinal haemal vessel originates from the oral haemal ring in radius A, and then branches into a network of capillaries, from which the dorsal intestinal vessel starts. The pericardial coelom envelopes the pericardial part of the axial organ, the lacunae of which communicate with the haemocoel of the body wall and with the axial part of the axial organ. The genital haemal ring and the dorsal intestinal vessel communicate with the axial organ. The genital coelom passes in the CD interradius on the side opposite to the hindgut. There is a somatocoelomic perihaemal ring, which sends a pair of coelomic outgrowths into each radius, accompanied by a radial haemal vessel in the oral part. The mistakes and inaccuracies of early descriptions of the echinoid axial complex are listed. The axial complex and associated structures of sea urchins are compared with other eleutherozoans. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Cerebellopontine angle and internal auditory canal: neurovascular anatomy on gas CT cisternograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bird, C.R.; Hasso, A.N.; Drayer, B.P.; Hinshaw, D.B. Jr.; Thompson, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    The authors reviewed 103 normal gas CT cisternograms to delineate the appearance of normal neurovascular structures in the cerebellopontine angle (CPA) and internal auditory canal (IAC). Cranial nerves VII and VIII were identified in the CPA in 97% of cases, either separately (53%) or as a bundle (44%). Intracanalicular branches of the VIIIth cranial nerve were identified in 20% of cases, and cranial nerve V was visualized in the CPA in 14%. The characteristic vascular loop, usually the anterior inferior cerebellar artery, was visible in 35% of cases, and, in 22% of visualized cases, was in an intracanalicular location. In 10% of cases, greater than 66% of the IAC was occupied by the neurovascular bundle. Familiarity with the normal anatomy and variations seen on gas CT cisternograms is necessary to prevent false-positive interpretations

  3. Trapped in freshwater: the internal anatomy of the entoproct Loxosomatoides sirindhornae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanninger Andreas

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Entoprocta is a small phylum of tentacle-bearing spiralian lophotrochozoans that comprises mainly marine representatives, with only two known freshwater species. One of them, Loxosomatoides sirindhornae Wood, 2005 was only recently described, and detailed information on its morphology including adaptations to life in freshwater are unknown. We analyzed the internal anatomy of L. sirindhornae using serial semi-thin sections, 3D reconstruction, as well as immunocytochemistry and confocal laserscanning microscopy. Results The nephridial system shows high complexity, strikingly similar to that of Urnatella gracilis, the only other known freshwater entoproct. It is composed of 105-120 large flame-bulb terminal organs that occur in the stalk and calyx. In the stalk they terminate in the epidermis, whereas efferent ducts in each terminal organ in the calyx lead to large, paired terminal ducts that fuse close to the central nervous system and open into the atrium by a nephridiopore. Compared to other stolonate entoprocts, L. sirindhornae shows a different stalk-calyx junction by possessing only a single, multicellular canopy instead of a stack of star cells. A sphincter muscle is situated below the diaphragm of the stalk. The remaining musculature is concentrated in the stalk, while the calyx musculature is sparsely developed. The central nervous system is dumbbell-shaped as in basal entoprocts. Conclusions The nephridial system probably has mainly osmoregulatory function. Previous studies have shown that L. sirindhornae is unable to cope with higher salinities, suggesting that its adaptation to freshwater has reached such a high degree that it is unable to 'turn off' the nephridial system in higher salinities. The current data available show that the architecture of internal organ systems such as the musculature or the calyx-stalk junction hold more promising information for taxonomic and perhaps even evolutionary inferences in

  4. Proceedings of the Third International Workshop on Mathematical Foundations of Computational Anatomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    the mathematical community around shapes and the MICCAI community in view of computational anatomy applications. It targets more particularly researchers investigating the combination of statistical and geometrical aspects in the modeling of the variability of biological shapes. The workshop is a forum...... of the workshop: statistics on manifolds and diff eomorphisms for surface or longitudinal registration. One session gathers papers exploring new mathematical structures beyond Riemannian geometry while the last oral session deals with the emerging theme of statistics on graphs and trees. Finally, a poster session......Computational anatomy is an emerging discipline at the interface of geometry, statistics and image analysis which aims at modeling and analyzing the biological shape of tissues and organs. The goal is to estimate representative organ anatomies across diseases, populations, species or ages, to model...

  5. Larynx Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Larynx Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 648x576 ... View Download Large: 2700x2400 View Download Title: Larynx Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the larynx; drawing shows the ...

  6. Vulva Anatomy

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    ... e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Vulva Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x634 ... View Download Large: 3000x2640 View Download Title: Vulva Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the vulva; drawing shows the ...

  7. Pharynx Anatomy

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    ... e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Pharynx Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x576 ... View Download Large: 3000x2400 View Download Title: Pharynx Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the pharynx; drawing shows the ...

  8. The Anatomy of an International Fashion Retailer – The Giorgio Armani Group

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Christopher M; Wigley, Stephen M.

    2004-01-01

    Of all the international retailers, luxury fashion retailers are typically the most prolific as measured by the number and diversity of foreign markets in which they operate. Furthermore, for most, the contribution of foreign sales to total sales is equal to, if not greater than, that achieved by the most active international retailers (Moore & Fernie 2004). Yet, while the significance of the luxury fashion retailers’ foreign activities is now acknowledged in the international retailing liter...

  9. Eye Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News About Us Donate In This Section Eye Anatomy en Español email Send this article to a ... You at Risk For Glaucoma? Childhood Glaucoma Eye Anatomy Five Common Glaucoma Tests Glaucoma Facts and Stats ...

  10. Paraganglioma Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Paraganglioma Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 648x576 ... View Download Large: 2700x2400 View Download Title: Paraganglioma Anatomy Description: Paraganglioma of the head and neck; drawing ...

  11. Hand Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... All Topics A-Z Videos Infographics Symptom Picker Anatomy Bones Joints Muscles Nerves Vessels Tendons About Hand Surgery What is ... Hand Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy Bones Joints Muscles Nerves Vessels Tendons Anatomy The upper extremity is ...

  12. Micro-computed tomography study of the internal anatomy of mesial root canals of mandibular molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villas-Bôas, Marcelo Haas; Bernardineli, Norberti; Cavenago, Bruno Cavalini; Marciano, Marina; Del Carpio-Perochena, Aldo; de Moraes, Ivaldo Gomes; Duarte, Marco H; Bramante, Clovis M; Ordinola-Zapata, Ronald

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the mesiodistal and buccolingual diameter, apical volume, and the presence of isthmuses at the apical level of mesial root canals of mandibular molars. Sixty extracted first and second mandibular molars were scanned by using a SkyScan 1076 micro-computed tomography system with a voxel size of 18 μm. The apical thirds of the samples were reconstructed to allow a perpendicular section of the apical third by using the multiplanar reconstruction tool of the OsiriX software. The mesiodistal and the buccolingual distances of root canals were measured between the 1- to 4-mm levels. The type of root canal isthmuses present at these levels was classified by using modified criteria of Hsu and Kim. The volume of the root canal anatomy between the 1- to 3-mm apical levels was obtained by using the CTAN-CTVOL software. The medians of the mesiodistal diameter at the 1-, 2-, 3-, and 4-mm levels in the mesiobuccal and mesiolingual canals were 0.22 and 0.23 mm, 0.27 and 0.27 mm, 0.30 and 0.30 mm, and 0.36 and 0.35 mm, respectively. The buccolingual lengths at the 1-, 2-, 3-, and 4-mm levels were 0.37-0.35 mm, 0.55-0.41 mm, 0.54-0.49 mm, and 0.54 and 0.60 mm, respectively. The presence of isthmuses was more prevalent at the 3- to 4-mm level. However, 27 cases presented complete or incomplete isthmuses at the 1-mm apical level. The mean of the volume of the apical third was 0.83 mm(3), with a minimum value of 0.02 and a maximum value of 2.4 mm(3). Mesial root canals of mandibular molars do not present a consistent pattern. A high variability of apical diameters exists. The presence of isthmuses at the apical third was not uncommon even at the 1-mm apical level. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A rare variant of internal anatomy of a third mandibular molar: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimigean, V; Nimigean, Vanda Roxana; Sălăvăstru, D I

    2011-01-01

    The several anatomical variations existing in the root canal system may contribute to failure of the root canal therapy. Knowledge of the internal dental morphology is a complex and extremely important point for planning and performing endodontic therapy. This paper reports the case of a left mandibular third molar that presented only one dental conical root and only one aberrant radicular canal with an initial annular portion situated in the coronar third of the root and a linear portion at the level of the other two thirds of the dental root, which opened through an apical foramen. Root canal therapy and case management are described. Features like wide crown access, adequate illumination and use of exploring files where important for successful completion of the endodontic treatment. The treatment was performed through conventional methods. This clinical case constitutes a rare anatomical variant of internal radicular morphology.

  14. Internal derangements of the temporomandibular joint: A review of the anatomy, diagnosis, and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew L Young

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Internal derangements of the temporomandibular joint are conditions in which the articular disc has become displaced from its original position the condylar head. Relevant anatomic structures and their functional relationships are briefly discussed. The displacement of the disc can result in numerous presentations, with the most common being disc displacement with reduction (with or without intermittent locking, and disc displacement without reduction (with or without limited opening. These are described in this article according to the standardized Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders, as well as the less common posterior disc displacement. Appropriate management usually ranges from patient education and monitoring to splints, physical therapy, and medications. In rare and select cases, surgery may be necessary. However, in for the majority of internal derangements, the prognosis is good, particularly with conservative care.

  15. Anatomy of the cerebellopontine angle; Anatomie des Kleinhirnbrueckenwinkels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grunwald, I.Q.; Papanagiotou, P.; Politi, M.; Reith, W. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar (Germany). Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie; Nabhan, A. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar (Germany). Neurochirurgische Klinik

    2006-03-15

    The cerebellopontine angle (CPA) is an anatomically complex region of the brain. In this article we describe the anatomy of the CPA cisterns, of the internal auditory canal, the topography of the cerebellum and brainstem, and the neurovascular structures of this area. (orig.) [German] Der Kleinhirnbrueckenwinkel ist eine umschriebene anatomische Region. Im diesem Artikel werden die Subarachnoidalraeume im Kleinhirnbrueckenwinkel, die Anatomie der Felsenbeinflaeche, Anatomie und Topographie des Kleinhirns und des Hirnstamms, die arteriellen Beziehungen und venoese Drainage des Kleinhirnbrueckenwinkels besprochen. (orig.)

  16. Reproducing the internal and external anatomy of fossil bones: Two new automatic digital tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Profico, Antonio; Schlager, Stefan; Valoriani, Veronica; Buzi, Costantino; Melchionna, Marina; Veneziano, Alessio; Raia, Pasquale; Moggi-Cecchi, Jacopo; Manzi, Giorgio

    2018-04-21

    We present two new automatic tools, developed under the R environment, to reproduce the internal and external structures of bony elements. The first method, Computer-Aided Laser Scanner Emulator (CA-LSE), provides the reconstruction of the external portions of a 3D mesh by simulating the action of a laser scanner. The second method, Automatic Segmentation Tool for 3D objects (AST-3D), performs the digital reconstruction of anatomical cavities. We present the application of CA-LSE and AST-3D methods to different anatomical remains, highly variable in terms of shape, size and structure: a modern human skull, a malleus bone, and a Neanderthal deciduous tooth. Both methods are developed in the R environment and embedded in the packages "Arothron" and "Morpho," where both the codes and the data are fully available. The application of CA-LSE and AST-3D allows the isolation and manipulation of the internal and external components of the 3D virtual representation of complex bony elements. In particular, we present the output of the four case studies: a complete modern human endocast and the right maxillary sinus, the dental pulp of the Neanderthal tooth and the inner network of blood vessels of the malleus. Both methods demonstrated to be much faster, cheaper, and more accurate than other conventional approaches. The tools we presented are available as add-ons in existing software within the R platform. Because of ease of application, and unrestrained availability of the methods proposed, these tools can be widely used by paleoanthropologists, paleontologists and anatomists. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Real-time Ultrasound Assessment of Astronaut Spinal Anatomy and Disorders on the International Space Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Kathleen M; Harrison, Michael F; Sargsyan, Ashot E; Ebert, Douglas; Dulchavsky, Scott A

    2018-04-01

    Back pain is one of the most common conditions of astronauts during spaceflight and is hypothesized to be attributed to pathologic anatomic changes. Ultrasound (US) represents the only available imaging modality on the International Space Station, but a formal US protocol for imaging the structures of the spinal column does not exist. This investigation developed a method of acquiring diagnostic-quality images of the anterior lumbar and cervical regions of the spine during long-duration spaceflight. Comprehensive spinal US examinations were conducted on 7 long-duration spaceflight astronauts before flight, in flight, and after flight and compared to preflight and postflight magnetic resonance imaging data. In-flight scans were conducted after just-in-time training assisted by remote expert tele-US guidance. Novice users were able to obtain diagnostic-quality spinal images with a 92.5% success rate. Thirty-three anomalous or pathologic findings were identified during the preflight US analysis, and at least 14 new findings or progressions were identified during the postflight US analysis. Common findings included disk desiccation, osteophytes, and qualitative changes in the intervertebral disk height and angle. Ultrasound has proven efficacy as a portable and versatile diagnostic imaging modality under austere conditions. We demonstrated a potential role for US to evaluate spinal integrity and alterations in the extreme environment of space on the International Space Station. Further investigations should be performed to corroborate this imaging technique and to create a larger database related to in-flight spinal conditions during long-duration spaceflight. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  18. Analysis of the internal anatomy of maxillary first molars by using different methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baratto Filho, Flares; Zaitter, Suellen; Haragushiku, Gisele Aihara; de Campos, Edson Alves; Abuabara, Allan; Correr, Gisele Maria

    2009-03-01

    The success of endodontic treatment depends on the identification of all root canals so that they can be cleaned, shaped, and obturated. This study investigated internal morphology of maxillary first molars by 3 different methods: ex vivo, clinical, and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) analysis. In all these different methods, the number of additional root canals and their locations, the number of foramina, and the frequency of canals that could or could not be negotiated were recorded. In the ex vivo study, 140 extracted maxillary first molars were evaluated. After canals were accessed and detected by using an operating microscope, the teeth with significant anatomic variances were cleared. In the clinical analysis, the records of 291 patients who had undergone endodontic treatment in a dental school during a 2-year period were used. In the CBCT analysis, 54 maxillary first molars were evaluated. The ex vivo assessment results showed a fourth canal frequency in 67.14% of the teeth, besides a tooth with 7 root canals (0.72%). Additional root canals were located in the mesiobuccal root in 92.85% of the teeth (17.35% could not be negotiated), and when they were present, 65.30% exhibited 1 foramen. Clinical assessment showed that 53.26%, 0.35%, and 0.35% of the teeth exhibited 4, 5, and 6 root canals, respectively. Additional root canals were located in this assessment in mesiobuccal root in 95.63% (27.50% could not be negotiated), and when they were present, 59.38% exhibited 1 foramen. CBCT results showed 2, 4, and 5 root canals in 1.85%, 37.05%, and 1.85% of the teeth, respectively. When present, additional canals showed 1 foramen in 90.90% of the teeth studied. This study demonstrated that operating microscope and CBCT have been important for locating and identifying root canals, and CBCT can be used as a good method for initial identification of maxillary first molar internal morphology.

  19. Integer anatomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doolittle, R. [ONR, Arlington, VA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    The title integer anatomy is intended to convey the idea of a systematic method for displaying the prime decomposition of the integers. Just as the biological study of anatomy does not teach us all things about behavior of species neither would we expect to learn everything about the number theory from a study of its anatomy. But, some number-theoretic theorems are illustrated by inspection of integer anatomy, which tend to validate the underlying structure and the form as developed and displayed in this treatise. The first statement to be made in this development is: the way structure of the natural numbers is displayed depends upon the allowed operations.

  20. Individualized adjustments to reference phantom internal organ dosimetry—scaling factors given knowledge of patient internal anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayson, Michael B.; Bolch, Wesley E.

    2018-04-01

    Various computational tools are currently available that facilitate patient organ dosimetry in diagnostic nuclear medicine, yet they are typically restricted to reporting organ doses to ICRP-defined reference phantoms. The present study, while remaining computational phantom based, provides straightforward tools to adjust reference phantom organ dose for both internal photon and electron sources. A wide variety of monoenergetic specific absorbed fractions were computed using radiation transport simulations for tissue spheres of varying size and separation distance. Scaling methods were then constructed for both photon and electron self-dose and cross-dose, with data validation provided from patient-specific voxel phantom simulations, as well as via comparison to the scaling methodology given in MIRD Pamphlet No. 11. Photon and electron self-dose was found to be dependent on both radiation energy and sphere size. Photon cross-dose was found to be mostly independent of sphere size. Electron cross-dose was found to be dependent on sphere size when the spheres were in close proximity, owing to differences in electron range. The validation studies showed that this dataset was more effective than the MIRD 11 method at predicting patient-specific photon doses for at both high and low energies, but gave similar results at photon energies between 100 keV and 1 MeV. The MIRD 11 method for electron self-dose scaling was accurate for lower energies but began to break down at higher energies. The photon cross-dose scaling methodology developed in this study showed gains in accuracy of up to 9% for actual patient studies, and the electron cross-dose scaling methodology showed gains in accuracy up to 9% as well when only the bremsstrahlung component of the cross-dose was scaled. These dose scaling methods are readily available for incorporation into internal dosimetry software for diagnostic phantom-based organ dosimetry.

  1. Facial anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marur, Tania; Tuna, Yakup; Demirci, Selman

    2014-01-01

    Dermatologic problems of the face affect both function and aesthetics, which are based on complex anatomical features. Treating dermatologic problems while preserving the aesthetics and functions of the face requires knowledge of normal anatomy. When performing successfully invasive procedures of the face, it is essential to understand its underlying topographic anatomy. This chapter presents the anatomy of the facial musculature and neurovascular structures in a systematic way with some clinically important aspects. We describe the attachments of the mimetic and masticatory muscles and emphasize their functions and nerve supply. We highlight clinically relevant facial topographic anatomy by explaining the course and location of the sensory and motor nerves of the face and facial vasculature with their relations. Additionally, this chapter reviews the recent nomenclature of the branching pattern of the facial artery. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Transforming Anatomy

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Anndee

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: Transforming Anatomy Studying historic books allows people to witness the transformation of the world right before their very eyes. The Bruxellensis Icones Anatomicae[1] by Andreas Vesalius is a vital piece of evidence in the movement from a more rudimentary understanding of the human body into the more complex and accurate development of modern anatomy. Vesalius’ research worked to both refute and confirm findings of his predecessor, the great historical Greek philosopher, Galen...

  3. Abundancia de Diadema antillarum (Echinodermata: Echinoidea en las costas de Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicida Noriega

    2006-09-01

    lento incremento de las poblaciones.Abundance of Diadema antillarum (Echinodermata: Echinoidea in the coasts of Venezuela. Diadema antillarum is a shallow-water sea-urchin from the tropical Atlantic whose populations almost disappeared in 1983-84 because of widespread mortalities which reached 87-100 %. In Venezuela, urchin population densities before the mortality event were comparable to those of other Caribbean regions; however, later abundancies remain unknown. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the recent densities of certain D. antillarum populations along the Venezuelan coasts and compare the densities at the Parque Nacional Mochima before and after the mortality. At each location urchin densities were determined by means of transects using 1m²-quadrats as sampling units. The highest mean densities were observed at the sites on the central coast: Ensenada de Oricao, 0.28 ind/m² (2002 and 1.05 ind/m² (2003, and Chichiriviche de la Costa, 0.84 ind/m² (2002 and 0.74 ind/m² (2003. In Mochima, the mean density before the mortality for D. antillarum oscillated between 0.28 and 4 ind/m², after the mortality event the mean density varied between 0.15 ind/m² (2000 and 0.47 ind/m² (2000. The populations of D. antillarum studied at Parque Nacional Morrocoy and Refugio de Fauna Silvestre Cuare showed highest densities at Playuela (0.43 ind/m² and Cayo Sur (0.95 ind/m² respectively, whereas other sites showed densities below 0.1 ind/m². The density registered at Playuela in 2003 is lower than that reported before the mortality event (0.58-3.64 ind/m². The density for Parque Nacional Archipiélago de Los Roques, specifically for the Arrecife de Herradura remained constant between 2002 and 2003 with values between 0.22-0.23 ind/m² respectively. To conclude, the sea urchin abundancies observed at most of the Venezuelan coastal sites that we studied were higher than those reported for other areas of the northern Caribbean, even though the values have not

  4. The internal anatomy of the inferior vena cava with specific emphasis on the entrance of the renal, gonadal and lumbar veins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubb, Kathleen; du Plessis, Maira; Hage, Robert; Tubbs, R Shane; Loukas, Marios

    2016-01-01

    Major tributaries such as the renal and adrenal veins have been studied extensively; however, tributaries of the infra-renal segment of the inferior vena cava (IVC) have not been given much attention. Accurate knowledge of the anatomy of these veins is necessary for improved efficacy of surgical interventions in the retroperitoneum. The aim of this study therefore was to provide a comprehensive picture of the internal anatomy of the tributaries of the infra-renal segment of the IVC. Dissection of the posterior abdominal wall was performed on 30 formalin-fixed cadavers. Endoscopic study was carried out followed by a midline venotomy on the anterior wall of the isolated IVC, the location and orientation of its tributaries and their ostia were observed and measurements taken. The results showed that while there was great variation in the drainage pattern of the lumbar veins, most lumbar veins had ostia located between L2 and L3 vertebrae irrespective of the location of renal and gonadal tributaries. Valves were found in 81.81 % of gonadal veins, in 56.60 % of all lumbar veins and discrete ostial valves in 14.81 % of renal veins. The location of the tributaries of the IVC was correlated with the vertebral levels. Empirical data regarding their ostio-valvular complexes were established, which put into question widely accepted concept of valveless tributaries. Our results may implicate surgical procedures in and around the retroperitoneal region.

  5. Asteroidea, Echinoidea y Holothuroidea en fondos someros de la Bahía de Loreto, Baja California Sur, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Holguin Quiñones

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Para evaluar distribución, abundancia y densidades de erizos, estrellas y pepinos de mar en la Bahía de Loreto se empleó un transecto de 50 metros, por duplicado, con un margen de observación de 2.5 m a cada lado del mismo por estación y fecha de muestreo. Se observaron mayores abundancias y densidades en la clase Echinoidea: Echinometra vanbrunti (94.1+ 52.9 ind, 0.25 ind/m², Centrostephanus coronatus (38.15+9.15 ind, 0.06 ind/m², Tripneustes depressus (28.68 + 6.86 ind, 0.039 ind/ m², Eucidaris thouarsii (10.66+3.37 ind, 0.025 ind/m² y Diadema mexicanum (11.75+4.92 ind, 0.023 ind/ m²; y para la clase Asteroidea: Phataria unifascialis, Mithrodia bradleyi y Acanthaster planci. Por el número de especies domina Asteroidea con 12, le siguen Echinoidea con 10 y Holothuroidea con 4.To evaluate echinoderm distribution, abundance and density a double 50 m transect, with a side observation range of 2.5 m was used at each of 11 stations (bimonthly samplings, Aug. 1997-Febr. 1998. In Bahía de Loreto the Phylum Echinodermata consists of 26 taxa. The greatest mean abundance by transect and mean densities in order of importance for Echinoidea were: Echinometra vanbrunti (94.1+ 52.9 ind, 0.25 ind/m², Centrostephanus coronatus (38.15. + 9.15 ind, 0.06 ind/m², Tripneustes depressus (28.68 + 6.86 ind, 0.039 ind/ m², Eucidaris thouarsii (10.66 + 3.37 ind, 0.025 ind/m² and Diadema mexicanum (11.75 + 4.92 ind, 0.023 ind/ m²; for Asteroidea were: Phataria unifascialis, Mithrodia bradleyi and Acanthaster planci. Asteroidea was the dominant class with 12 species, followed by Echinoidea with ten and Holothuroidea was represented by four species.

  6. Regulatory Anatomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoeyer, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    This article proposes the term “safety logics” to understand attempts within the European Union (EU) to harmonize member state legislation to ensure a safe and stable supply of human biological material for transplants and transfusions. With safety logics, I refer to assemblages of discourses, le...... they arise. In short, I expose the regulatory anatomy of the policy landscape....

  7. Stedets Anatomi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lasse Juel

    Titlen på denne ph.d.-afhandling, Stedets Anatomi – en teoretisk undersøgelse af stedets og rumlighedens betydning for leg, computerspil og læring, skitserer ikke kun afhandlingens teoretiske dimensionering, men også dens analytiske bliks tematik i forbindelse med undersøgelsen af fænomenerne leg...

  8. Comparison of two methods of preparation of tissue to study the internal anatomy of the delphacid Togosodes orizicolus with microscopy of electronic light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macaya-Lizano, A.V.; Pereira, R.; Espinoza, A.M.

    1997-01-01

    Two methods of embedding, sectioning and staining were developed to study the internal anatomy of delphacid plant hopper Tagosodes orizicolus, one of the most important plagues of rice in Latin America and the only vector of the white leaf tenuivirus (RHBV), using both light and electron microscopy. The paraffines-hematoxyline-eosin Y method allows color identification of tissues, for example purple for fat tissue, pink for muscles, yellow-brown for exocutile, while the resin-toluidine-blue method preserves better the ultrastructure but do not permit color identification. The information obtained by these procedures is complementary and the material can also be used for in situ studies by immuno microscopy, to assess the changes in cell ultrastructure and the localization and replication of the RHBV during its infection cycle in the insect vector. (author) [es

  9. The influence of leaf anatomy on the internal light environment and photosynthetic electron transport rate: exploration with a new leaf ray tracing model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yi; Tholen, Danny; Zhu, Xin-Guang

    2016-11-01

    Leaf photosynthesis is determined by biochemical properties and anatomical features. Here we developed a three-dimensional leaf model that can be used to evaluate the internal light environment of a leaf and its implications for whole-leaf electron transport rates (J). This model includes (i) the basic components of a leaf, such as the epidermis, palisade and spongy tissues, as well as the physical dimensions and arrangements of cell walls, vacuoles and chloroplasts; and (ii) an efficient forward ray-tracing algorithm, predicting the internal light environment for light of wavelengths between 400 and 2500nm. We studied the influence of leaf anatomy and ambient light on internal light conditions and J The results show that (i) different chloroplasts can experience drastically different light conditions, even when they are located at the same distance from the leaf surface; (ii) bundle sheath extensions, which are strips of parenchyma, collenchyma or sclerenchyma cells connecting the vascular bundles with the epidermis, can influence photosynthetic light-use efficiency of leaves; and (iii) chloroplast positioning can also influence the light-use efficiency of leaves. Mechanisms underlying leaf internal light heterogeneity and implications of the heterogeneity for photoprotection and for the convexity of the light response curves are discussed. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  10. The Anatomy of Learning Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelmsson, Niklas; Dahlgren, Lars Owe; Hult, Hakan; Scheja, Max; Lonka, Kirsti; Josephson, Anna

    2010-01-01

    The experience of clinical teachers as well as research results about senior medical students' understanding of basic science concepts has much been debated. To gain a better understanding about how this knowledge-transformation is managed by medical students, this work aims at investigating their ways of setting about learning anatomy.…

  11. The development of a core syllabus for the teaching of oral anatomy, histology, and embryology to dental students via an international 'Delphi Panel'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moxham, Bernard John; McHanwell, Stephen; Berkovitz, Barry

    2018-03-01

    The formulation of core syllabuses for the biomedical sciences within medical and dental courses is partially driven by the need to cope with decreased time allocations for these subjects as a result of major curricular changes taking place worldwide. There is also a requirement to deal with the request for increased clinical relevance. In response to such demands, the International Federation of Associations of Anatomists (IFAA) is devising core syllabuses for the anatomical sciences relating to the education and training of both scientific and clinical professions. The process initially involves using Delphi Panels consisting of a team of anatomists, scientists, and clinicians who evaluate syllabus content in detail and accord each element/topic 'essential,' 'important,' 'acceptable,' or 'not required' status. Their conjectures, published on the IFAA website, provide merely a framework to enable other stakeholders to comment. The approach is international in scope, is conceptually 'democratic,' and is developmentally fluid in being readily available for amendment. The aim is to set internationally recognized standards and thus to provide guidelines concerning anatomical knowledge when engaged in course development. This article presents the deliberations of an IFAA Delphi Panel into a core syllabus for oral anatomy, histology, and embryology within the dental curriculum. Clin. Anat. 31:231-249, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Internal validation of the renal pelvic score: a novel marker of renal pelvic anatomy that predicts urine leak after partial nephrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszewski, Jeffrey J; Smaldone, Marc C; Cung, Bic; Li, Tianyu; Mehrazin, Reza; Kutikov, Alexander; Canter, Daniel J; Viterbo, Rosalia; Chen, David Y T; Greenberg, Richard E; Uzzo, Robert G

    2014-08-01

    To internally validate the renal pelvic score (RPS) in an expanded cohort of patients undergoing partial nephrectomy (PN). Our prospective institutional renal cell carcinoma database was used to identify all patients undergoing PN for localized renal cell carcinoma from 2007 to 2013. Patients were classified by RPS as having an intraparenchymal or extraparenchymal renal pelvis. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to examine the relationship between RPS and urine leak. Eight hundred thirty-one patients (median age, 60 ± 11.6 years; 65.1% male) undergoing PN (57.3% robotic) for low (28.9%), intermediate (56.5%), and high complexity (14.5%) localized renal tumors (median size, 3.0 ± 2.3 cm; median nephrometry score, 7.0 ± 2.6) were included. Fifty-four patients (6.5%) developed a clinically significant or radiographically identified urine leak. Seventy-two of 831 renal pelvises (8.7%) were classified as intraparenchymal. Intrarenal pelvic anatomy was associated with a markedly increased risk of urine leak (43.1% vs 3.0%; P renal pelvis; odds ratio [OR], 24.8; confidence interval [CI], 11.5-53.4; P Renal pelvic anatomy as measured by the RPS best predicts urine leak after open and robotic partial nephrectomy. Although external validation of the RPS is required, preoperative identification of patients at increased risk for urine leak should be considered in perioperative management and counseling algorithms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Thymus Gland Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Thymus Gland, Adult, Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x576 ... Large: 3000x2400 View Download Title: Thymus Gland, Adult, Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the thymus gland; drawing shows ...

  14. Normal Female Reproductive Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x756 ... Large: 3000x3150 View Download Title: Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the female reproductive system; drawing ...

  15. Normal Pancreas Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Pancreas Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: ... 1586x1534 View Download Large: 3172x3068 View Download Title: Pancreas Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the pancreas; drawing shows ...

  16. Sonographic anatomy of the newborn hip and high-resolution US equipments: internal capsular stripe and perichondral gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortore, P.; Fodor, G.; Psenner, F.; Stuefert, S.; Scherer, M.

    1991-01-01

    The use of high-resolution US equipments in the examination of the newborn hip allowed the evaluation of a thin echogenic stripe (the internal capsule stripe), which defines laterally the acetabular hyaline cartilage. By means of an anatomo-histological preparation the echogenic stripe can be related to either the capsular circular fibres or the interface between the latter and the hyaline cartilage. The internal capsular stripe, together with the echogenic synovial stripe, precisely delimit the whole acetabular hyaline cartilage. Further-more, in many babies high-resolution US sometimes fails to demonstrate Graft's 'perichondral gap', so that an accurate anatomic knowledge of the hip becomes necessary in the evaluation of acetabular labrum

  17. DAGAL: Detailed Anatomy of Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapen, Johan H.

    2017-03-01

    The current IAU Symposium is closely connected to the EU-funded network DAGAL (Detailed Anatomy of Galaxies), with the final annual network meeting of DAGAL being at the core of this international symposium. In this short paper, we give an overview of DAGAL, its training activities, and some of the scientific advances that have been made under its umbrella.

  18. Individualized adjustments to reference phantom internal organ dosimetry—scaling factors given knowledge of patient external anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayson, Michael B.; Bolch, Wesley E.

    2018-04-01

    Internal radiation dose estimates for diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures are typically calculated for a reference individual. Resultantly, there is uncertainty when determining the organ doses to patients who are not at 50th percentile on either height or weight. This study aims to better personalize internal radiation dose estimates for individual patients by modifying the dose estimates calculated for reference individuals based on easily obtainable morphometric characteristics of the patient. Phantoms of different sitting heights and waist circumferences were constructed based on computational reference phantoms for the newborn, 10 year-old, and adult. Monoenergetic photons and electrons were then simulated separately at 15 energies. Photon and electron specific absorbed fractions (SAFs) were computed for the newly constructed non-reference phantoms and compared to SAFs previously generated for the age-matched reference phantoms. Differences in SAFs were correlated to changes in sitting height and waist circumference to develop scaling factors that could be applied to reference SAFs as morphometry corrections. A further set of arbitrary non-reference phantoms were then constructed and used in validation studies for the SAF scaling factors. Both photon and electron dose scaling methods were found to increase average accuracy when sitting height was used as the scaling parameter (~11%). Photon waist circumference-based scaling factors showed modest increases in average accuracy (~7%) for underweight individuals, but not for overweight individuals. Electron waist circumference-based scaling factors did not show increases in average accuracy. When sitting height and waist circumference scaling factors were combined, modest average gains in accuracy were observed for photons (~6%), but not for electrons. Both photon and electron absorbed doses are more reliably scaled using scaling factors computed in this study. They can be effectively scaled using sitting

  19. Individualized adjustments to reference phantom internal organ dosimetry-scaling factors given knowledge of patient external anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayson, Michael B; Bolch, Wesley E

    2018-04-13

    Internal radiation dose estimates for diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures are typically calculated for a reference individual. Resultantly, there is uncertainty when determining the organ doses to patients who are not at 50th percentile on either height or weight. This study aims to better personalize internal radiation dose estimates for individual patients by modifying the dose estimates calculated for reference individuals based on easily obtainable morphometric characteristics of the patient. Phantoms of different sitting heights and waist circumferences were constructed based on computational reference phantoms for the newborn, 10 year-old, and adult. Monoenergetic photons and electrons were then simulated separately at 15 energies. Photon and electron specific absorbed fractions (SAFs) were computed for the newly constructed non-reference phantoms and compared to SAFs previously generated for the age-matched reference phantoms. Differences in SAFs were correlated to changes in sitting height and waist circumference to develop scaling factors that could be applied to reference SAFs as morphometry corrections. A further set of arbitrary non-reference phantoms were then constructed and used in validation studies for the SAF scaling factors. Both photon and electron dose scaling methods were found to increase average accuracy when sitting height was used as the scaling parameter (~11%). Photon waist circumference-based scaling factors showed modest increases in average accuracy (~7%) for underweight individuals, but not for overweight individuals. Electron waist circumference-based scaling factors did not show increases in average accuracy. When sitting height and waist circumference scaling factors were combined, modest average gains in accuracy were observed for photons (~6%), but not for electrons. Both photon and electron absorbed doses are more reliably scaled using scaling factors computed in this study. They can be effectively scaled using sitting

  20. Papilian's anatomy - celebrating six decades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitraşcu, Dinu Iuliu; Crivii, Carmen Bianca; Opincariu, Iulian

    2017-01-01

    Victor Papilian was born an artist, during high school he studied music in order to become a violinist in two professional orchestras in Bucharest. Later on he enrolled in the school of medicine, being immediately attracted by anatomy. After graduating, with a briliant dissertation, he became a member of the faculty and continued to teach in his preferred field. His masters, Gh. Marinescu and Victor Babes, proposed him for the position of professor at the newly established Faculty of Medicine of Cluj. Here he reorganized the department radically, created an anatomy museum and edited the first dissection handbook and the first Romanian anatomy (descriptive and topographic) treatise, both books received with great appreciation. He received the Romanian Academy Prize. His knowledge and skills gained him a well deserved reputation and he created a prestigious school of anatomy. He published over 250 scientific papers in national and international journals, ranging from morphology to functional, pathological and anthropological topics. He founded the Society of Anthropology, with its own newsletter; he was elected as a member of the French Society of Anatomy. In parallel he had a rich artistic and cultural activity as writer and playwright: he was president of the Transylvanian Writers' Society, editor of a literary review, director of the Cluj theater and opera, leader of a book club and founder of a symphony orchestra.

  1. Anatomy Journal of Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH. AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING AJOL · RESOURCES ... Anatomy Journal of Africa is the Official Journal for the Association of Anatomical Societies of Africa. ... Applied anatomy - Clinical anatomy - Morphology, - Embryology ...

  2. Teaching Anatomy: need or taste?

    OpenAIRE

    Farrokhi, Ahmad; Nejad, Masoume Soleymani

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Anatomy is one of the core sections of Basic Medical Sciences. Given the central role of anatomy, the development of medical knowledge and reach new horizons in science is not possible without relying on anatomy. Since in the anatomy science, students are familiar with the basic terms of medical language, the anatomy's hard to know and have a negative attitude towards this course. With these conditions, anatomy professors have an important role in providing incentives...

  3. Anatomy Comic Strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin Seo; Kim, Dae Hyun; Chung, Min Suk

    2011-01-01

    Comics are powerful visual messages that convey immediate visceral meaning in ways that conventional texts often cannot. This article's authors created comic strips to teach anatomy more interestingly and effectively. Four-frame comic strips were conceptualized from a set of anatomy-related humorous stories gathered from the authors' collective…

  4. An original micro-CT study and meta-analysis of the internal and external anatomy of maxillary molars - implications for endodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszewska, Iwona M; Jarzębska, Anna; Skinningsrud, Bendik; Pękala, Przemysław A; Wroński, Sebastian; Iwanaga, Joe

    2018-05-07

    The aim of this work was to conduct a radiological micro-CT study and meta-analysis to determine the morphological features of the root canal anatomy of the maxillary molars. The radiological study included micro-CT scans of 110 maxillary first molars and 98 maxillary second molars. To identify articles eligible for inclusion in our meta-analysis, PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science were search comprehensively. The following data were extracted: study type (cadaveric, intraoperative or imaging), Vertucci types of canal configuration, presence/number of canals, roots, apical foramina, apical deltas, and inter-canal communications. The mesiobuccal root was the most variable with respect to canal configuration, type I being the most common configuration followed by type II and type IV. Type I was the most common canal configuration in the distobuccal and palatal root. Regarding the number of canals in the maxillary first and second molars, one canal was most prevalent in all roots of the three molars, except for the mesiobuccal root of maxillary first molar, in which two canals were most prevalent. The most prevalent number of roots in all maxillary molars was three. Knowledge of endodontic anatomy determines the parameters of root canal treatment and significantly affects the probability of success. It is therefore especially important to know the morphology of the root canal system in order to perform endodontic treatment correctly. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Venous chest anatomy: clinical implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chasen, M.H.; Charnsangavej, C.

    1998-01-01

    This article provides a practical approach to the clinical implications and importance of understanding the collateral venous anatomy of the thorax. Routine radiography, conventional venography, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging studies provide correlative anatomic models for the demonstration of how interconnecting collateral vascular networks within the thorax maintain venous stability at all times. Five major systems comprise the collateral venous network of the thorax ( Fig. 1 ). These include the paravertebral, azygos-hemiazygos, internal mammary, lateral thoracic, and anterior jugular venous systems (AJVS). The five systems are presented in the following sequence: (a) a brief introduction to the importance of catheter position and malposition in understanding access to the thoracic venous system, (b) the anatomy of the azygos-hemiazygos systems and their relationship with the paravertebral plexus, (c) the importance of the AJVS, (d) 'loop' concepts interconnecting the internal mammary and azygos-hemiazygos systems by means of the lateral thoracic and intercostal veins, and (e) the interconnecting venous networks on the thoracic side of the thoracoabdominal junction. Certain aspects of the venous anatomy of the thorax will not be discussed in this chapter and include (a) the intra-abdominal anastomoses between the superior and inferior vena cavae (IVC) via the internal mammary, lateral thoracic, and azygos-hemiazygos systems (beyond the scope of this article), (b) potential collateral vessels involving vertebral, parascapular, thyroidal, thymic, and other smaller veins that might anastomose with the major systems, and (c) anatomic variants and pitfalls that may mimic pathologic conditions (space limitations). (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  6. Anatomy of Sarcocaulon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. L. Verhoeven

    1983-11-01

    Full Text Available The anatomy of the leaf blade, petiole, stem and root of the genus Sarcocaulon (DC. Sweet is discussed. On the basis of the leaf anatomy, the four sections recognized by Moffett (1979 can be identified: section Denticulati (dorsiventral leaves, section Multifidi (isobilateral leaves and adaxial and abaxial palisade continuous at midvein, section Crenati (isobilateral leaves, short curved trichomes and glandular hairs, section Sarcocaulon (isobilateral leaves and glandular hairs only. The anatomy of the stem is typically that of a herbaceous dicotyledon with a thick periderm. The root structure shows that the function of the root is not food storage.

  7. Applied peritoneal anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, R.R.; Planche, K.

    2013-01-01

    The peritoneal cavity is a complex anatomical structure with multiple attachments and connections. These are better understood with reference to the embryological development of this region. Armed with this knowledge, the diagnosis and assessment of a wide range of common intra-abdominal diseases becomes straightforward. This article will review and simplify the terminology, complex embryological development, and anatomy of the peritoneum, peritoneal attachments, and the reflections forming the peritoneal boundaries. Normal anatomy will be described using schematic diagrams with corresponding computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images, including CT peritoneograms. The relevance of intra- and extra-peritoneal anatomy to common pathological processes will be demonstrated

  8. Comparison of a Gross Anatomy Laboratory to Online Anatomy Software for Teaching Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathiowetz, Virgil; Yu, Chih-Huang; Quake-Rapp, Cindee

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the grades, self-perceived learning, and satisfaction between occupational therapy students who used a gross anatomy laboratory versus online anatomy software (AnatomyTV) as tools to learn anatomy at a large public university and a satellite campus in the mid-western United States. The goal was to determine if…

  9. Anatomy of Memory

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    1991-01-01

    Studies of the anatomy and function of the brain system for memory in humans and animal models are reviewed from the Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Diego and the Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA.

  10. Japanese Neurosurgeons and Microsurgical Anatomy: A Historical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    MATSUSHIMA, Toshio; KAWASHIMA, Masatou; MATSUSHIMA, Ken; WANIBUCHI, Masahiko

    2015-01-01

    Research in microneurosurgical anatomy has contributed to great advances in neurosurgery in the last 40 years. Many Japanese neurosurgeons have traveled abroad to study microsurgical anatomy and played major roles in advancing and spreading the knowledge of anatomy, overcoming their disadvantage that the cadaver study has been strictly limited inside Japan. In Japan, they initiated an educational system for surgical anatomy that has contributed to the development and standardization of Japanese neurosurgery. For example, the Japanese Society for Microsurgical Anatomy started an annual educational meeting in the middle of 1980s and published its proceedings in Japanese every year for approximately 20 years. These are some of the achievements that bring worldwide credit to Japanese neurosurgeons. Not only should Japanese neurosurgeons improve their educational system but they should also contribute to the international education in this field, particularly in Asia. PMID:25797782

  11. [Laurentius on anatomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawai, Tadashi; Sakai, Tatsuo

    2005-03-01

    Andreas Laurentius wrote Opera anatomica (1593) and Historia anatomica (1600). These books were composed of two types of chapters; 'historia' and 'quaestio'. His description is not original, but take from other anatomists. 'Historia' describes the structure, action and usefulness of the body parts clarified after dissection. 'Quaestio' treats those questions which could not be solved only by dissection. Laurentius cited many previous contradicting interpretations to these questions and choose a best interpretation for the individual questions. In most cases, Laurentius preferred Galen's view. Historia anatomica retained almost all the 'historia' and 'quaestio' from Opera anatomica, and added some new 'historia' and 'quaestio', especially in regard to the components of the body, such as ligaments, membranes, vessels, nerves and glands. Other new 'historia' and 'quaestio' in Historia anatomica concerned several topics on anatomy in general to comprehensively analyze the history of anatomy, methods of anatomy, and usefulness of anatomy. Historia anatomica reviewed what was anatomy by describing in 'historia' what was known and in 'quaestio' what was unresolved. Till now Laurentius's anatomical works have attracted little attention because his description contained few original findings and depended on previous books. However, the important fact that Historia anatomica was very popular in the 17th century tells us that people needed non-original and handbook style of this textbook. Historia anatomica is important for further research on the propagation of anatomical knowledge from professional anatomists to non-professionals in the 17th century.

  12. Variation in root wood anatomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cutler, D.F.

    1976-01-01

    Variability in the anatomy of root wood of selected specimens particularly Fraxinus excelsior L. and Acer pseudoplatanus L. in the Kew reference microscope slide collection is discussed in relation to generalised statements in the literature on root wood anatomy.

  13. Synopsis of radiologic anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meschan, I.

    1987-01-01

    The book is a compact version of earlier publications that appeared in 1975 as a one- and a two-volume issue under the title 'Atlas of Radiologic Anatomy'. A chapter on computed tomography has been added as this novel technique requires a new approach to radiologic anatomy. The radiologist will find all the information on the anatomic conditions he needs for analysing radiographs and CT pictures. More than 600 radiographs and CT pictures are given that illustrate typical and rare findings. The book also is useful as a source of reference for making good radiographs and evaluating the quality of radiographs or CT pictures. With 1413 figs., 18 tabs [de

  14. Henry Gray's Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, J M S

    2009-04-01

    Little is generally known of Henry Gray, the author of Gray's Anatomy, and even less of his colleague Henry Vandyke Carter, who played a vital role in the dissections and illustrations leading to the production of the first volume in 1859. This essay attempts to sketch briefly the salient, know aspects of these two men and their divergent careers. It traces succinctly the subsequent fate of the unique anatomy book that has influenced and instructed almost every student of medicine. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Anatomy of the clitoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Helen E; Sanjeevan, Kalavampara V; Hutson, John M

    2005-10-01

    We present a comprehensive account of clitoral anatomy, including its component structures, neurovascular supply, relationship to adjacent structures (the urethra, vagina and vestibular glands, and connective tissue supports), histology and immunohistochemistry. We related recent anatomical findings to the historical literature to determine when data on accurate anatomy became available. An extensive review of the current and historical literature was done. The studies reviewed included dissection and microdissection, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), 3-dimensional sectional anatomy reconstruction, histology and immunohistochemical studies. The clitoris is a multiplanar structure with a broad attachment to the pubic arch and via extensive supporting tissue to the mons pubis and labia. Centrally it is attached to the urethra and vagina. Its components include the erectile bodies (paired bulbs and paired corpora, which are continuous with the crura) and the glans clitoris. The glans is a midline, densely neural, non-erectile structure that is the only external manifestation of the clitoris. All other components are composed of erectile tissue with the composition of the bulbar erectile tissue differing from that of the corpora. The clitoral and perineal neurovascular bundles are large, paired terminations of the pudendal neurovascular bundles. The clitoral neurovascular bundles ascend along the ischiopubic rami to meet each other and pass along the superior surface of the clitoral body supplying the clitoris. The neural trunks pass largely intact into the glans. These nerves are at least 2 mm in diameter even in infancy. The cavernous or autonomic neural anatomy is microscopic and difficult to define consistently. MRI complements dissection studies and clarifies the anatomy. Clitoral pharmacology and histology appears to parallel those of penile tissue, although the clinical impact is vastly different. Typical textbook descriptions of the clitoris lack detail and

  16. Learning Anatomy Enhances Spatial Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorstenbosch, Marc A. T. M.; Klaassen, Tim P. F. M.; Donders, A. R. T.; Kooloos, Jan G. M.; Bolhuis, Sanneke M.; Laan, Roland F. J. M.

    2013-01-01

    Spatial ability is an important factor in learning anatomy. Students with high scores on a mental rotation test (MRT) systematically score higher on anatomy examinations. This study aims to investigate if learning anatomy also oppositely improves the MRT-score. Five hundred first year students of medicine ("n" = 242, intervention) and…

  17. Anatomy for Biomedical Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Stephen W.; Robb, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    There is a perceived need for anatomy instruction for graduate students enrolled in a biomedical engineering program. This appeared especially important for students interested in and using medical images. These students typically did not have a strong background in biology. The authors arranged for students to dissect regions of the body that…

  18. The Anatomy Puzzle Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Willis H.; Carter, Robert, III

    This document features review questions, crossword puzzles, and word search puzzles on human anatomy. Topics include: (1) Anatomical Terminology; (2) The Skeletal System and Joints; (3) The Muscular System; (4) The Nervous System; (5) The Eye and Ear; (6) The Circulatory System and Blood; (7) The Respiratory System; (8) The Urinary System; (9) The…

  19. Illustrated Speech Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, William M.

    Written for students in the fields of speech correction and audiology, the text deals with the following: structures involved in respiration; the skeleton and the processes of inhalation and exhalation; phonation and pitch, the larynx, and esophageal speech; muscles involved in articulation; muscles involved in resonance; and the anatomy of the…

  20. Historical development of modern anatomy education in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Tatsuo

    2010-03-01

    Medical schools at the beginning of Meiji era were diverse, both in regard to their founders and their methods of education, frequently employing foreign teachers of various nationalities. In 1871, German teachers were appointed to organize medical education at the medical school of the University of Tokyo. The anatomical education at the school was conducted by German teachers, i.e. Miller (1871-1873), Dönitz (1873-1877), Gierke (1877-1880) and Disse (1880-1885), followed by Koganei, who returned from the study in Germany. At the first meeting of Japanese Association ofAnatomists in 1893 [Meiji 26], the Japanese anatomy teachers met together and most of them were graduates of the University of Tokyo or fellows of its anatomy department. Before 1877 [Meiji 10], the anatomy books were mainly translated from English books, and foreign teachers of various nationalities were employed in many medical schools in Japan. After 1877 [Meiji 10], the anatomy books based on the lectures by German teachers at the University of Tokyo were published. The anatomy books after 1887 [Meiji 20] were written based on German books, and the German anatomical terms were utilized. After 1905 [Meiji 38], the original Japanese anatomy books appeared, employing international anatomical terms. In the Meiji 10s the anatomy teachers and anatomy textbooks spread from the University of Tokyo to the medical schools in Japan as the number of medical schools increased temporally. In the Meiji 20s the five national and three public medical schools in addition to the University of Tokyo provided substantial anatomy education including dissection course. Even in the early Meiji 20s these medical schools supplied only half of the newly licensed doctors, and the others were supplied through the national examination after preparatory education at private medical schools without opportunity of substantial anatomy education including dissection course.

  1. LEARNING ANATOMY WITH AUGMENTED REALITY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Cita; Dyhrberg O'Neill, Lotte; Nielsen, Kurt Gammelgaard

    An Augmented Reality (AR) app for Hololens glasses was developed to help students learn the anatomy of the human body mediastinum. In this research project, we wanted to evaluate whether AR: strengthened the students’ self-efficacy and motivation, helped students to improve learning, and provided...... a questionnaire regarding their self-efficacy and motivation, presence in the virtual room, experiences with Hololens teaching, and how they used the quizzes. In addition, students answered a test with the same 20 questions used in the app and three additional transfer questions new to students. Finally, students......’ scores on the mediastinum questions in the exam 2 month later were collected to examine the long-term memory of content. Internal consistency was estimated for all measures. Correlations between measures were examined with a correlation matrix, and group differences were examined with one-way analysis...

  2. Anatomy education environment measurement inventory: A valid tool to measure the anatomy learning environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadie, Siti Nurma Hanim; Hassan, Asma'; Ismail, Zul Izhar Mohd; Asari, Mohd Asnizam; Khan, Aaijaz Ahmed; Kasim, Fazlina; Yusof, Nurul Aiman Mohd; Manan Sulong, Husnaida Abdul; Tg Muda, Tg Fatimah Murniwati; Arifin, Wan Nor; Yusoff, Muhamad Saiful Bahri

    2017-09-01

    Students' perceptions of the education environment influence their learning. Ever since the major medical curriculum reform, anatomy education has undergone several changes in terms of its curriculum, teaching modalities, learning resources, and assessment methods. By measuring students' perceptions concerning anatomy education environment, valuable information can be obtained to facilitate improvements in teaching and learning. Hence, it is important to use a valid inventory that specifically measures attributes of the anatomy education environment. In this study, a new 11-factor, 132-items Anatomy Education Environment Measurement Inventory (AEEMI) was developed using Delphi technique and was validated in a Malaysian public medical school. The inventory was found to have satisfactory content evidence (scale-level content validity index [total] = 0.646); good response process evidence (scale-level face validity index [total] = 0.867); and acceptable to high internal consistency, with the Raykov composite reliability estimates of the six factors are in the range of 0.604-0.876. The best fit model of the AEEMI is achieved with six domains and 25 items (X 2  = 415.67, P education environment in Malaysia. A concerted collaboration should be initiated toward developing a valid universal tool that, using the methods outlined in this study, measures the anatomy education environment across different institutions and countries. Anat Sci Educ 10: 423-432. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists.

  3. The anatomy workbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagen-Ansert, S.L.

    1986-01-01

    This is an atlas of human anatomy presented in the form of line drawings, many of which correspond to imaging planes used in ultrasound (US), computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance (MR). The book is organized into 17 sections, each covering a specific structure or organ system. Large, uncluttered drawings are labeled for identification of structures of interest. Many illustrations include captions consisting of comments explaining major divisions within organs, specific anatomic relationships and landmarks, and pertinent vascular anatomy. Most organs are first depicted in isolation or in relation to important adjacent organs or blood vessels and are rendered as if viewed from anterior, posterior, inferior, or superior perspectives. The organs are demonstrated again in serial transverse, saggital, and coronal sections, each accompanied by a drawing of a body in anatomic position denoting the plane of the section

  4. Breast development and anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, Sonali; Moore, Richard G

    2011-03-01

    In this article, the development of the female breast, as well as the functional anatomy, blood supply, innervation and lymphatic drainage are described. A thorough understanding of the breast anatomy is an important adjunct to a meticulous clinical breast examination. Breast examination is a complex skill involving key maneuvers, including careful inspection and palpation. Clinical breast examination can provide an opportunity for the clinician to educate patients about their breast and about breast cancer, its symptoms, risk factors, early detection, and normal breast composition, and specifically variability. Clinical breast examination can help to detect some cancers not found by mammography, and clinicians should not override their examination findings if imaging is not supportive of the physical findings.

  5. Human ocular anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kels, Barry D; Grzybowski, Andrzej; Grant-Kels, Jane M

    2015-01-01

    We review the normal anatomy of the human globe, eyelids, and lacrimal system. This contribution explores both the form and function of numerous anatomic features of the human ocular system, which are vital to a comprehensive understanding of the pathophysiology of many oculocutaneous diseases. The review concludes with a reference glossary of selective ophthalmologic terms that are relevant to a thorough understanding of many oculocutaneous disease processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparison of a gross anatomy laboratory to online anatomy software for teaching anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathiowetz, Virgil; Yu, Chih-Huang; Quake-Rapp, Cindee

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the grades, self-perceived learning, and satisfaction between occupational therapy students who used a gross anatomy laboratory versus online anatomy software (AnatomyTV) as tools to learn anatomy at a large public university and a satellite campus in the mid-western United States. The goal was to determine if equivalent learning outcomes could be achieved regardless of learning tool used. In addition, it was important to determine why students chose the gross anatomy laboratory over online AnatomyTV. A two group, post-test only design was used with data gathered at the end of the course. Primary outcomes were students' grades, self-perceived learning, and satisfaction. In addition, a survey was used to collect descriptive data. One cadaver prosection was available for every four students in the gross anatomy laboratory. AnatomyTV was available online through the university library. At the conclusion of the course, the gross anatomy laboratory group had significantly higher grade percentage, self-perceived learning, and satisfaction than the AnatomyTV group. However, the practical significance of the difference is debatable. The significantly greater time spent in gross anatomy laboratory during the laboratory portion of the course may have affected the study outcomes. In addition, some students may find the difference in (B+) versus (A-) grade as not practically significant. Further research needs to be conducted to identify what specific anatomy teaching resources are most effective beyond prosection for students without access to a gross anatomy laboratory. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.

  7. High precision anatomy for MEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troebinger, Luzia; López, José David; Lutti, Antoine; Bradbury, David; Bestmann, Sven; Barnes, Gareth

    2014-02-01

    Precise MEG estimates of neuronal current flow are undermined by uncertain knowledge of the head location with respect to the MEG sensors. This is either due to head movements within the scanning session or systematic errors in co-registration to anatomy. Here we show how such errors can be minimized using subject-specific head-casts produced using 3D printing technology. The casts fit the scalp of the subject internally and the inside of the MEG dewar externally, reducing within session and between session head movements. Systematic errors in matching to MRI coordinate system are also reduced through the use of MRI-visible fiducial markers placed on the same cast. Bootstrap estimates of absolute co-registration error were of the order of 1mm. Estimates of relative co-registration error were <1.5mm between sessions. We corroborated these scalp based estimates by looking at the MEG data recorded over a 6month period. We found that the between session sensor variability of the subject's evoked response was of the order of the within session noise, showing no appreciable noise due to between-session movement. Simulations suggest that the between-session sensor level amplitude SNR improved by a factor of 5 over conventional strategies. We show that at this level of coregistration accuracy there is strong evidence for anatomical models based on the individual rather than canonical anatomy; but that this advantage disappears for errors of greater than 5mm. This work paves the way for source reconstruction methods which can exploit very high SNR signals and accurate anatomical models; and also significantly increases the sensitivity of longitudinal studies with MEG. © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. High precision anatomy for MEG☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troebinger, Luzia; López, José David; Lutti, Antoine; Bradbury, David; Bestmann, Sven; Barnes, Gareth

    2014-01-01

    Precise MEG estimates of neuronal current flow are undermined by uncertain knowledge of the head location with respect to the MEG sensors. This is either due to head movements within the scanning session or systematic errors in co-registration to anatomy. Here we show how such errors can be minimized using subject-specific head-casts produced using 3D printing technology. The casts fit the scalp of the subject internally and the inside of the MEG dewar externally, reducing within session and between session head movements. Systematic errors in matching to MRI coordinate system are also reduced through the use of MRI-visible fiducial markers placed on the same cast. Bootstrap estimates of absolute co-registration error were of the order of 1 mm. Estimates of relative co-registration error were < 1.5 mm between sessions. We corroborated these scalp based estimates by looking at the MEG data recorded over a 6 month period. We found that the between session sensor variability of the subject's evoked response was of the order of the within session noise, showing no appreciable noise due to between-session movement. Simulations suggest that the between-session sensor level amplitude SNR improved by a factor of 5 over conventional strategies. We show that at this level of coregistration accuracy there is strong evidence for anatomical models based on the individual rather than canonical anatomy; but that this advantage disappears for errors of greater than 5 mm. This work paves the way for source reconstruction methods which can exploit very high SNR signals and accurate anatomical models; and also significantly increases the sensitivity of longitudinal studies with MEG. PMID:23911673

  9. International trends in patient selection for elective endovascular aneurysm repair: sicker patients with safer anatomy leading to improved 1-year survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitridge, Robert A; Boult, Margaret; Mackillop, Clare; De Loryn, Tania; Barnes, Mary; Cowled, Prue; Thompson, Matthew M; Holt, Peter J; Karthikesalingam, Alan; Sayers, Robert D; Choke, Edward; Boyle, Jonathan R; Forbes, Thomas L; Novick, Teresa V

    2015-02-01

    To review the trends in patient selection and early death rate for patients undergoing elective endovascular repair of infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysms (EVAR) in 3 countries. For this study, audit data from 4,163 patients who had undergone elective infrarenal EVAR were amalgamated. The data originated from Australia, Canada (Ontario), and England (London, Cambridge, and Leicester). Statistical analyses were undertaken to determine whether patient characteristics and early death rate varied between and within study groups and over time. The study design was retrospective analysis of data collected prospectively between 1999 and 2012. One-year survival improved over time (P = 0.0013). Canadian patients were sicker than those in Australia or England (P international comparison, several trends were noted including improved 1-year survival despite declining patient health (as measured by increasing ASA status). This may reflect greater knowledge regarding EVAR that centers from different countries have gained over the last decade and improved medical management of patients with aneurysmal disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Computer tomographic anatomy of the neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, R.

    1984-01-01

    The structures in the neck which can be recognised by computer tomography, and their course, is described. The cartilagenous larynx and trachea, the oesophagus, thyroid, sternocleidomastoid muscle, common carotid arteries and internal jugular veins can be recognised regularly. In addition, one can identify smaller muscles, vessels and nerves, such as the sterno-hyoid, omo-hyoid, anterior and medial scalenus muscles, the superior and inferior thyroid arteries and the suprascapular, internal thoracic and vertebral arteries, the thyro-cervical trunk and the vagus and phrenic nerves. An accurate knowledge of the anatomy is essential for the recognition of enlarged parathyroid glands. (orig.) [de

  11. Computer tomographic anatomy of the neck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenig, R.

    1984-01-01

    The structures in the neck which can be recognised by computer tomography, and their course, is described. The cartilagenous larynx and trachea, the oesophagus, thyroid, sternocleidomastoid muscle, common carotid arteries and internal jugular veins can be recognised regularly. In addition, one can identify smaller muscles, vessels and nerves, such as the sterno-hyoid, omo-hyoid, anterior and medial scalenus muscles, the superior and inferior thyroid arteries and the suprascapular, internal thoracic and vertebral arteries, the thyro-cervical trunk and the vagus and phrenic nerves. An accurate knowledge of the anatomy is essential for the recognition of enlarged parathyroid glands.

  12. Who Is Repeating Anatomy? Trends in an Undergraduate Anatomy Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutte, Audra F.

    2016-01-01

    Anatomy courses frequently serve as prerequisites or requirements for health sciences programs. Due to the challenging nature of anatomy, each semester there are students remediating the course (enrolled in the course for a second time), attempting to earn a grade competitive for admissions into a program of study. In this retrospective study,…

  13. Normal cranial CT anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gado, M.H.; Rao, K.C.V.G.

    1987-01-01

    The human brain consists of well-known anatomical components. Some parts of these components have been shown to be concerned with certain functions. A complete cranial CT examination consists of a series of several slices obtained in a sequence usually from the base to the vertex of the cranial vault, in the axial mode. The ultimate goal of this chapter is to pinpoint those slices that depict a given anatomical structure or several structures that deal with a given function. To achieve this goal, the discussion of CT cranial anatomy is presented in three sections

  14. Orbita - Anatomy, development and deformities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, K.M.; Reith, W.; Golinski, M.; Schroeder, A.C.

    2008-01-01

    The development of the structures of the human orbita is very complex, but understanding the development makes it easier to understand normal anatomy and dysplasia. The following article first discusses the embryonic development of the eye structures and then presents the ''normal'' radiological anatomy using different investigation techniques and the most common deformities. (orig.) [de

  15. Health Instruction Packages: Cardiac Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Gwen; And Others

    Text, illustrations, and exercises are utilized in these five learning modules to instruct nurses, students, and other health care professionals in cardiac anatomy and functions and in fundamental electrocardiographic techniques. The first module, "Cardiac Anatomy and Physiology: A Review" by Gwen Phillips, teaches the learner to draw…

  16. The history of anatomy in Persia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoja, Mohammadali M; Tubbs, R Shane

    2007-04-01

    The study of human anatomy can be found throughout the rich history of Persia. For thousands of years, morphological descriptions derived from this part of the world have contributed to and have helped form our current anatomical knowledge base. In this article we review the major influential Persian periods and the individuals who have contributed to the development of anatomy. We have divided the history of Persia into five eras: (1) the period of the Elamites, Medes, early Persians and Babylonians (10th millennium to 6th century BC); (2) following the establishment of the Persian Empire (6th century BC) to the 7th century AD; (3) after the Islamic conquest of Persia to the ascendency of Baghdad (7th to 13th century AD); (4) from the Mongol invasion of Persia to the foundations of modern anatomy (13th to 18th century AD); and (5) modern Persia/Iran (18th century AD to present). Evidence indicates that human dissection was commonplace in the first era, which led to a disciplined practice of surgery in the centuries leading to the foundation of the Persian Empire. By the emergence of Zoroastrianism in the Persian Empire, the microcosm theory was widely used to understand internal anatomy in relation to the external universe. The world's first cosmopolitan university and hospital were built in Gondishapur, south-western Persia, in the third century AD. Greek and Syriac knowledge influenced the second era. With the gradual ruin of Gondishapur and the foundation of Baghdad following the Islamic conquest of Persia (637-651 AD), a great movement took place, which led to the flourishing of the so-called Middle Age or Islamic Golden Age. Of the influential anatomists of this period, Mesue (777-857 AD), Tabbari (838-870 AD), Rhazes (865-925 AD), Joveini (?-983 AD), Ali ibn Abbas (930-994 AD), Avicenna (980-1037 AD) and Jorjani (1042-1137 AD) all hailed from Persia. There is evidence in the Persian literature as to the direct involvement of these scholars in human

  17. Blended learning in anatomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Gert Værge; Brogner, Heidi Marie

    behind DBR is that new knowledge is generated through processes that simultaneously develop, test and improve a design, in this case, an educational design (1) The main principles used in the project is blended learning and flipped learning (2). …"I definitely learn best in practice, but the theory...... in working with the assignments in the classroom."... External assesor, observer and interviewer Based on the different evaluations, the conclusion are that the blended learning approach combined with the ‘flipped classroom’ is a very good way to learn and apply the anatomy, both for the students......The aim of the project was to bridge the gap between theory and practice by working more collaboratively, both peer-to-peer and between student and lecturer. Furthermore the aim was to create active learning environments. The methodology of the project is Design-Based Research (DBR). The idea...

  18. The peritoneum - anatomy and imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribarova, V.

    2017-01-01

    The peritoneum is a large and complex serous membrane The peritoneal spaces and the natural flow of peritoneal fluid determine the route of spread of the disease processes within the abdominal cavity. The goal of this article is to review the normal peritoneal anatomy and the role of the imaging in the diagnostic of the disease processes. Among the imaging methods, the computed tomography at greater extent allows the accurate examination of the complex anatomy of the peritoneal cavity and to assess the extent of the pathological processes affecting it. Key words: Peritoneal Anatomy. Imaging. CT [bg

  19. Temporomandibular joint arthrography: normal anatomy and technique of examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duvoisin, B.; Schnyder, P.; Klaus, E.; Jacques, B.

    1990-01-01

    Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) dysfunction is common. This entity is most often consecutive to internal derangements of the TMJ, which are not recognizable on plain films and tomograms. TMJ arthrography has proved a valuable tool in diagnosing these abnormalities. The technique of examination and normal arthrographic anatomy are reviewed. (author) [pt

  20. Anal sphincter complex: endoanal MR imaging of normal anatomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hussain, S. M.; Stoker, J.; Laméris, J. S.

    1995-01-01

    To determine the normal anatomy of the anal sphincter complex on magnetic resonance (MR) images. Ten healthy volunteers (four men, six women; age range, 21-26 years) underwent MR imaging with an endoanal coil. The lower part of the anal canal contained the internal sphincter, the longitudinal muscle

  1. Penile embryology and anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiee, Jenny H; Baskin, Laurence S

    2010-06-29

    Knowledge of penile embryology and anatomy is essential to any pediatric urologist in order to fully understand and treat congenital anomalies. Sex differentiation of the external genitalia occurs between the 7th and 17th weeks of gestation. The Y chromosome initiates male differentiation through the SRY gene, which triggers testicular development. Under the influence of androgens produced by the testes, external genitalia then develop into the penis and scrotum. Dorsal nerves supply penile skin sensation and lie within Buck's fascia. These nerves are notably absent at the 12 o'clock position. Perineal nerves supply skin sensation to the ventral shaft skin and frenulum. Cavernosal nerves lie within the corpora cavernosa and are responsible for sexual function. Paired cavernosal, dorsal, and bulbourethral arteries have extensive anastomotic connections. During erection, the cavernosal artery causes engorgement of the cavernosa, while the deep dorsal artery leads to glans enlargement. The majority of venous drainage occurs through a single, deep dorsal vein into which multiple emissary veins from the corpora and circumflex veins from the spongiosum drain. The corpora cavernosa and spongiosum are all made of spongy erectile tissue. Buck's fascia circumferentially envelops all three structures, splitting into two leaves ventrally at the spongiosum. The male urethra is composed of six parts: bladder neck, prostatic, membranous, bulbous, penile, and fossa navicularis. The urethra receives its blood supply from both proximal and distal directions.

  2. Penile Embryology and Anatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny H. Yiee

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of penile embryology and anatomy is essential to any pediatric urologist in order to fully understand and treat congenital anomalies. Sex differentiation of the external genitalia occurs between the 7thand 17th weeks of gestation. The Y chromosome initiates male differentiation through the SRY gene, which triggers testicular development. Under the influence of androgens produced by the testes, external genitalia then develop into the penis and scrotum. Dorsal nerves supply penile skin sensation and lie within Buck's fascia. These nerves are notably absent at the 12 o'clock position. Perineal nerves supply skin sensation to the ventral shaft skin and frenulum. Cavernosal nerves lie within the corpora cavernosa and are responsible for sexual function. Paired cavernosal, dorsal, and bulbourethral arteries have extensive anastomotic connections. During erection, the cavernosal artery causes engorgement of the cavernosa, while the deep dorsal artery leads to glans enlargement. The majority of venous drainage occurs through a single, deep dorsal vein into which multiple emissary veins from the corpora and circumflex veins from the spongiosum drain. The corpora cavernosa and spongiosum are all made of spongy erectile tissue. Buck's fascia circumferentially envelops all three structures, splitting into two leaves ventrally at the spongiosum. The male urethra is composed of six parts: bladder neck, prostatic, membranous, bulbous, penile, and fossa navicularis. The urethra receives its blood supply from both proximal and distal directions.

  3. A comparison of the use of bony anatomy and internal markers for offline verification and an evaluation of the potential benefit of online and offline verification protocols for prostate radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNair, Helen A; Hansen, Vibeke N; Parker, Christopher C; Evans, Phil M; Norman, Andrew; Miles, Elizabeth; Harris, Emma J; Del-Acroix, Louise; Smith, Elizabeth; Keane, Richard; Khoo, Vincent S; Thompson, Alan C; Dearnaley, David P

    2008-05-01

    To evaluate the utility of intraprostatic markers in the treatment verification of prostate cancer radiotherapy. Specific aims were: to compare the effectiveness of offline correction protocols, either using gold markers or bony anatomy; to estimate the potential benefit of online correction protocol's using gold markers; to determine the presence and effect of intrafraction motion. Thirty patients with three gold markers inserted had pretreatment and posttreatment images acquired and were treated using an offline correction protocol and gold markers. Retrospectively, an offline protocol was applied using bony anatomy and an online protocol using gold markers. The systematic errors were reduced from 1.3, 1.9, and 2.5 mm to 1.1, 1.1, and 1.5 mm in the right-left (RL), superoinferior (SI), and anteroposterior (AP) directions, respectively, using the offline correction protocol and gold markers instead of bony anatomy. The subsequent decrease in margins was 1.7, 3.3, and 4 mm in the RL, SI, and AP directions, respectively. An offline correction protocol combined with an online correction protocol in the first four fractions reduced random errors further to 0.9, 1.1, and 1.0 mm in the RL, SI, and AP directions, respectively. A daily online protocol reduced all errors to markers is effective in reducing the systematic error. The value of online protocols is reduced by intrafraction motion.

  4. Patient specific anatomy: the new area of anatomy based on computer science illustrated on liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, Luc; Mutter, Didier; Pessaux, Patrick; Marescaux, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Over the past century, medical imaging has brought a new revolution: internal anatomy of a patient could be seen without any invasive technique. This revolution has highlighted the two main limits of current anatomy: the anatomical description is physician dependent, and the average anatomy is more and more frequently insufficient to describe anatomical variations. These drawbacks can sometimes be so important that they create mistakes but they can be overcome through the use of 3D patient-specific surgical anatomy. In this article, we propose to illustrate such improvement of standard anatomy on liver. We first propose a general scheme allowing to easily compare the four main liver anatomical descriptions by Takasaki, Goldsmith and Woodburne, Bismuth and Couinaud. From this general scheme we propose four rules to apply in order to correct these initial anatomical definitions. Application of these rules allows to correct usual vascular topological mistakes of standard anatomy. We finally validate such correction on a database of 20 clinical cases compared to the 111 clinical cases of a Couinaud article. Out of the 20 images of the database, we note a revealing difference in 14 cases (70%) on at least one important branch of the portal network. Only six cases (30%) do not present a revealing difference between both labellings. We also show that the right portal fissure location on our 20 cases defined between segment V and VI of our anatomical definition is well correlated with the real position described by Couinaud on 111 cases, knowing that the theoretical position was only found in 46 cases out of 111, i.e., 41.44% of cases with the non-corrected Couinaud definition. We have proposed a new anatomical segmentation of the liver based on four main rules to apply in order to correct topological errors of the four main standard segmentations. Our validation clearly illustrates that this new definition corrects the large amount of mistakes created by the current

  5. The place of surface anatomy in the medical literature and undergraduate anatomy textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azer, Samy A

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this review were to examine the place of surface anatomy in the medical literature, particularly the methods and approaches used in teaching surface and living anatomy and assess commonly used anatomy textbooks in regard to their surface anatomy contents. PubMed and MEDLINE databases were searched using the following keywords "surface anatomy," "living anatomy," "teaching surface anatomy," "bony landmarks," "peer examination" and "dermatomes". The percentage of pages covering surface anatomy in each textbook was calculated as well as the number of images covering surface anatomy. Clarity, quality and adequacy of surface anatomy contents was also examined. The search identified 22 research papers addressing methods used in teaching surface anatomy, 31 papers that can help in the improvement of surface anatomy curriculum, and 12 anatomy textbooks. These teaching methods included: body painting, peer volunteer surface anatomy, use of a living anatomy model, real time ultrasound, virtual (visible) human dissector (VHD), full body digital x-ray of cadavers (Lodox(®) Statscan(®) images) combined with palpating landmarks on peers and the cadaver, as well as the use of collaborative, contextual and self-directed learning. Nineteen of these studies were published in the period from 2006 to 2013. The 31 papers covered evidence-based and clinically-applied surface anatomy. The percentage of surface anatomy in textbooks' contents ranged from 0 to 6.2 with an average of 3.4%. The number of medical illustrations on surface anatomy varied from 0 to 135. In conclusion, although there has been a progressive increase in publications addressing methods used in teaching surface anatomy over the last six to seven years, most anatomy textbooks do not provide students with adequate information about surface anatomy. Only three textbooks provided a solid explanation and foundation of understanding surface anatomy. © 2013 American Association of Anatomists.

  6. An anatomy precourse enhances student learning in veterinary anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNulty, Margaret A; Stevens-Sparks, Cathryn; Taboada, Joseph; Daniel, Annie; Lazarus, Michelle D

    2016-07-08

    Veterinary anatomy is often a source of trepidation for many students. Currently professional veterinary programs, similar to medical curricula, within the United States have no admission requirements for anatomy as a prerequisite course. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the impact of a week-long precourse in veterinary anatomy on both objective student performance and subjective student perceptions of the precourse educational methods. Incoming first year veterinary students in the Louisiana State University School of Veterinary Medicine professional curriculum were asked to participate in a free precourse before the start of the semester, covering the musculoskeletal structures of the canine thoracic limb. Students learned the material either via dissection only, instructor-led demonstrations only, or a combination of both techniques. Outcome measures included student performance on examinations throughout the first anatomy course of the professional curriculum as compared with those who did not participate in the precourse. This study found that those who participated in the precourse did significantly better on examinations within the professional anatomy course compared with those who did not participate. Notably, this significant improvement was also identified on the examination where both groups were exposed to the material for the first time together, indicating that exposure to a small portion of veterinary anatomy can impact learning of anatomical structures beyond the immediate scope of the material previously learned. Subjective data evaluation indicated that the precourse was well received and students preferred guided learning via demonstrations in addition to dissection as opposed to either method alone. Anat Sci Educ 9: 344-356. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.

  7. A reappraisal of pediatric thoracic surface anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Nicholas J; Morreau, Jonty; Sugunesegran, Ramanen; Taghavi, Kiarash; Mirjalili, S Ali

    2017-09-01

    Accurate knowledge of surface anatomy is fundamental to safe clinical practice. A paucity of evidence in the literature regarding thoracic surface anatomy in children was identified. The associations between surface landmarks and internal structures were meticulously analyzed by reviewing high quality computed tomography (CT) images of 77 children aged from four days to 12 years. The results confirmed that the sternal angle is an accurate surface landmark for the azygos-superior vena cava junction in a plane through to the level of upper T4 from birth to age four, and to lower T4 in older children. The concavity of the aortic arch was slightly below this plane and the tracheal and pulmonary artery bifurcations were even lower. The cardiac apex was typically at the 5 th intercostal space (ICS) from birth to age four, at the 4 th ICS and 5 th rib in 4-12 year olds, and close to the midclavicular line at all ages. The lower border of the diaphragm was at the level of the 6 th or 7 th rib at the midclavicular line, the 7 th ICS and 8 th rib at the midaxillary line, and the 11 th thoracic vertebra posteriorly. The domes of the diaphragm were generally flatter and lower in children, typically only one rib level higher than its anterior level at the midclavicular line. Diaphragm apertures were most commonly around the level of T9, T10, and T11 for the IVC, esophagus and aorta, respectively. This is the first study to provide an evidence-base for thoracic surface anatomy in children. Clin. Anat. 30:788-794, 2017. © 2017Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Coronary artery anatomy and variants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malago, Roberto; Pezzato, Andrea; Barbiani, Camilla; Alfonsi, Ugolino; Nicoli, Lisa; Caliari, Giuliana; Pozzi Mucelli, Roberto [Policlinico G.B. Rossi, University of Verona, Department of Radiology, Verona (Italy)

    2011-12-15

    Variants and congenital anomalies of the coronary arteries are usually asymptomatic, but may present with severe chest pain or cardiac arrest. The introduction of multidetector CT coronary angiography (MDCT-CA) allows the detection of significant coronary artery stenosis. Improved performance with isotropic spatial resolution and higher temporal resolution provides a valid alternative to conventional coronary angiography (CCA) in many patients. MDCT-CA is now considered the ideal tool for three-dimensional visualization of the complex and tortuous anatomy of the coronary arteries. With multiplanar and volume-rendered reconstructions, MDCT-CA may even outperform CCA in determining the relative position of vessels, thus providing a better view of the coronary vascular anatomy. The purpose of this review is to describe the normal anatomy of the coronary arteries and their main variants based on MDCT-CA with appropriate reconstructions. (orig.)

  9. A Comparison of the Use of Bony Anatomy and Internal Markers for Offline Verification and an Evaluation of the Potential Benefit of Online and Offline Verification Protocols for Prostate Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNair, Helen A.; Hansen, Vibeke N.; Parker, Christopher; Evans, Phil M.; Norman, Andrew; Miles, Elizabeth; Harris, Emma J.; Del-Acroix, Louise; Smith, Elizabeth; Keane, Richard; Khoo, Vincent S.; Thompson, Alan C.; Dearnaley, David P.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the utility of intraprostatic markers in the treatment verification of prostate cancer radiotherapy. Specific aims were: to compare the effectiveness of offline correction protocols, either using gold markers or bony anatomy; to estimate the potential benefit of online correction protocol's using gold markers; to determine the presence and effect of intrafraction motion. Methods and Materials: Thirty patients with three gold markers inserted had pretreatment and posttreatment images acquired and were treated using an offline correction protocol and gold markers. Retrospectively, an offline protocol was applied using bony anatomy and an online protocol using gold markers. Results: The systematic errors were reduced from 1.3, 1.9, and 2.5 mm to 1.1, 1.1, and 1.5 mm in the right-left (RL), superoinferior (SI), and anteroposterior (AP) directions, respectively, using the offline correction protocol and gold markers instead of bony anatomy. The subsequent decrease in margins was 1.7, 3.3, and 4 mm in the RL, SI, and AP directions, respectively. An offline correction protocol combined with an online correction protocol in the first four fractions reduced random errors further to 0.9, 1.1, and 1.0 mm in the RL, SI, and AP directions, respectively. A daily online protocol reduced all errors to <1 mm. Intrafraction motion had greater impact on the effectiveness of the online protocol than the offline protocols. Conclusions: An offline protocol using gold markers is effective in reducing the systematic error. The value of online protocols is reduced by intrafraction motion

  10. [Imaging anatomy of cranial nerves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermier, M; Leal, P R L; Salaris, S F; Froment, J-C; Sindou, M

    2009-04-01

    Knowledge of the anatomy of the cranial nerves is mandatory for optimal radiological exploration and interpretation of the images in normal and pathological conditions. CT is the method of choice for the study of the skull base and its foramina. MRI explores the cranial nerves and their vascular relationships precisely. Because of their small size, it is essential to obtain images with high spatial resolution. The MRI sequences optimize contrast between nerves and surrounding structures (cerebrospinal fluid, fat, bone structures and vessels). This chapter discusses the radiological anatomy of the cranial nerves.

  11. Pocket atlas of radiographic anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, T.B.; Reif, E.; Stark, P.

    1993-01-01

    The 'Pocket Atlas of Radiographic Anatomy' presents 170 radiographs of the various body regions of adults, showing only the normal radiographic anatomy. Each radiograph is supplemented on the opposite page by a drawing of the particular body region. There is no commenting text, but the drawings are provided with captions in English. The atlas is a useful guide for interpreting radiographs. The pictures are arranged in chapters entitled as follows: Skeletal Imaging (skull, spine, upper extremity), lower extremity; Miscellaneous Plain Films (chest, mammogram, trachea, lung tomograms); Contrast Examinations (gastrointestinal tract, intravenous contrast examinations, arthrography, angiography); Special Examinations (myelograms, lymphangiograms, bronchograms, sialograms). (UWA). 348 figs [de

  12. 3D virtual table in anatomy education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Mads Ronald; Simonsen, Eivind Ortind

    The ‘Anatomage’ is a 3D virtual human anatomy table, with touchscreen functionality, where it is possible to upload CT-scans and digital. Learning the human anatomy terminology requires time, a very good memory, anatomy atlas, books and lectures. Learning the 3 dimensional structure, connections...

  13. Anatomy of the trigeminal nerve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijden, T.M.G.J.; Langenbach, G.E.J.; Baart, J.A.; Brand, H.S.

    2017-01-01

    The trigeminal nerve is the fifth cranial nerve (n. V), which plays an important role in the innervation of the head and neck area, together with other cranial and spinal nerves. Knowledge of the nerve’s anatomy is very important for the correct application of local anaesthetics.

  14. CONTRIBUTIONS OF SUSHRUTA TO ANATOMY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2005-08-08

    Aug 8, 2005 ... Learning anatomy through the dissected ... practice. Sushruta was the first person who had established the ... graduate had to obtain the permission of the ... importance to neuroembryology in the Sarira- .... Faculty of the History of Medicine and Pharmacy, and held at the Royal College of Physicians.

  15. Soul Anatomy: A virtual cadaver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moaz Bambi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the traditional science of medicine and medical education, teaching human anatomy in the class has always been done using human cadavers. Not only does this violate human sanctity, but according to our research, it is not adequate to provide students with the alleged educational value that it is supposed to deliver. It is very cumbersome to organise all the aspects of cadaver care. Cadavers are also very limited when it comes to controlling their structures and any benefit is almost completely altered the first time the cadaver is used (dissected, and ironically, it is very weak at delivering actual real-life scenarios of a human body to students. Virtual anatomy has been a promising solution that many are counting on. But even today, we have not found a complete solution that combines all the benefits of using human cadavers and those introduced by its technical counterparts. "Soul Anatomy" aims to do just that. It brings the best of all worlds, from a natural intuitive control system, life-like feel of organs, precise accuracy in moving and controlling bodily structures, to the smallest details of being able to show medical information overlays from various medical databases connected to the internet; thus making use of technology in teaching human anatomy by providing a modern learning experience.

  16. Stem anatomy variation in cottonwood

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.N. Foulger; J. Hacskaylo

    1968-01-01

    Investigations of mineral nutrient-tree growth relationships have dealt mainly with associations involving foliage composition, root formation, or volume production of wood. Few studies have been concerned with changes in wood anatomy associated with element deficiency. In 1949 Davis reported that calcium deficiency was accompanied by a reduction of primary tissue and...

  17. Anatomy of Teaching Anatomy: Do Prosected Cross Sections Improve Students Understanding of Spatial and Radiological Anatomy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. B. Samarakoon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Cadaveric dissections and prosections have traditionally been part of undergraduate medical teaching. Materials and Methods. Hundred and fifty-nine first-year students in the Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo, were invited to participate in the above study. Students were randomly allocated to two age and gender matched groups. Both groups were exposed to identical series of lectures regarding anatomy of the abdomen and conventional cadaveric prosections of the abdomen. The test group (n=77, 48.4% was also exposed to cadaveric cross-sectional slices of the abdomen to which the control group (n=82, 51.6% was blinded. At the end of the teaching session both groups were assessed by using their performance in a timed multiple choice question paper as well as ability to identify structures in abdominal CT films. Results. Scores for spatial and radiological anatomy were significantly higher among the test group when compared with the control group (P<0.05, CI 95%. Majority of the students in both control and test groups agreed that cadaveric cross section may be useful for them to understand spatial and radiological anatomy. Conclusion. Introduction of cadaveric cross-sectional prosections may help students to understand spatial and radiological anatomy better.

  18. Classic versus millennial medical lab anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benninger, Brion; Matsler, Nik; Delamarter, Taylor

    2014-10-01

    This study investigated the integration, implementation, and use of cadaver dissection, hospital radiology modalities, surgical tools, and AV technology during a 12-week contemporary anatomy course suggesting a millennial laboratory. The teaching of anatomy has undergone the greatest fluctuation of any of the basic sciences during the past 100 years in order to make room for the meteoric rise in molecular sciences. Classically, anatomy consisted of a 2-year methodical, horizontal, anatomy course; anatomy has now morphed into a 12-week accelerated course in a vertical curriculum, at most institutions. Surface and radiological anatomy is the language for all clinicians regardless of specialty. The objective of this study was to investigate whether integration of full-body dissection anatomy and modern hospital technology, during the anatomy laboratory, could be accomplished in a 12-week anatomy course. Literature search was conducted on anatomy text, journals, and websites regarding contemporary hospital technology integrating multiple image mediums of 37 embalmed cadavers, surgical suite tools and technology, and audio/visual technology. Surgical and radiology professionals were contracted to teach during the anatomy laboratory. Literature search revealed no contemporary studies integrating full-body dissection with hospital technology and behavior. About 37 cadavers were successfully imaged with roentograms, CT, and MRI scans. Students were in favor of the dynamic laboratory consisting of multiple activity sessions occurring simultaneously. Objectively, examination scores proved to be a positive outcome and, subjectively, feedback from students was overwhelmingly positive. Despite the surging molecular based sciences consuming much of the curricula, full-body dissection anatomy is irreplaceable regarding both surface and architectural, radiological anatomy. Radiology should not be a small adjunct to understand full-body dissection, but rather, full-body dissection

  19. Dancers' Perceived and Actual Knowledge of Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotler, Dana H; Lynch, Meaghan; Cushman, Daniel; Hu, Jason; Garner, Jocelyn

    2017-06-15

    Dancers are highly susceptible to musculoskeletal injuries and frequently require interaction with medical professionals. While many dancers have a finely tuned awareness of their bodies, their knowledge of the fundamentals of human anatomy is not uniform. There is a paucity of literature on the benefits of human anatomy education in dancers, though it seems intuitive that there should be a relationship. The purpose of this study was to assess dancers' perceived and actual knowledge of basic musculoskeletal anatomy and its relationship to function. Adult dancers at the undergraduate, pre-professional, and professional levels were surveyed through an anonymous online questionnaire. Questions included demographic information, dance techniques studied, anatomy training, and injury history. Subjects rated their perceived knowledge of anatomy and were tested with 15 multiple-choice questions on basic musculoskeletal anatomy. Four hundred seventy-five surveys were completed. Ordinal regression showed a correlation of perceived to actual knowledge of anatomy (p < 0.001). Factors that correlated with increases in both perceived and actual knowledge of anatomy included having taken an anatomy course of any type (p < 0.001) and increased age (p ≤ 0.001). Years of dance training and professional dancer status both significantly correlated with increased knowledge of anatomy (p < 0.001) but not perceived knowledge. Chi-square analysis showed that dancers with training in either modern or jazz dance had a significantly higher perceived, but not actual, knowledge when compared to those without training in those styles of dance (p < 0.001 and p = 0.011, respectively). In conclusion, dancers generally scored well on questions pertaining to basic musculoskeletal anatomy, and their perception correlated with their actual knowledge of anatomy. Factors that contribute to dancers' knowledge of anatomy include age, years of experience, professional dancer status, and anatomy training.

  20. Padua: the renaissance of human anatomy and medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrioli, Giancarlo; Trincia, Giuseppe

    2004-10-01

    The city and University of Padua have a long tradition and a great reputation in anatomic studies, dating from the founding of the university in the year 1222. We present a historical review of the study of human anatomy, for which Padua was a most important center. The background for the development of this culture was represented by the scientific freedom and political wisdom of the Serenissima Republic of Venice, a liberal and tolerant state in the midst of a feudal, imperial, and pontifical Europe. During the second half of the 15th century, the flourishing trade and cultural, social, and political life of Venice attracted a great number of scientists and students from all over Europe who contributed to the establishment of Padua as an international center for culture and the sciences. Vesalio, Fabrizio d'Acquapendente, and Giovanni Battista Morgagni represent milestones in the history of anatomy as well as in medicine and surgery. History shows that anatomy and surgery evolved together, just as anatomy of the nervous system and neurosurgery developed in tandem. The tradition of neurosurgery in Padua is considered one the most important schools in Italy.

  1. Anatomy of Biometric Passports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Malčík

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Travelling is becoming available for more and more people. Millions of people are on a way every day. That is why a better control over global human transfer and a more reliable identity check is desired. A recent trend in a field of personal identification documents is to use RFID (Radio Frequency Identification technology and biometrics, especially (but not only in passports. This paper provides an insight into the electronic passports (also called e-passport or ePassport implementation chosen in the Czech Republic. Such a summary is needed for further studies of biometric passports implementation security and biometric passports analysis. A separate description of the Czech solution is a prerequisite for a planned analysis, because of the uniqueness of each implementation. (Each country can choose the implementation details within a range specified by the ICAO (International Civil Aviation Organisation; moreover, specific security mechanisms are optional and can be omitted.

  2. Anatomy of Biometric Passports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malčík, Dominik; Drahanský, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Travelling is becoming available for more and more people. Millions of people are on a way every day. That is why a better control over global human transfer and a more reliable identity check is desired. A recent trend in a field of personal identification documents is to use RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) technology and biometrics, especially (but not only) in passports. This paper provides an insight into the electronic passports (also called e-passport or ePassport) implementation chosen in the Czech Republic. Such a summary is needed for further studies of biometric passports implementation security and biometric passports analysis. A separate description of the Czech solution is a prerequisite for a planned analysis, because of the uniqueness of each implementation. (Each country can choose the implementation details within a range specified by the ICAO (International Civil Aviation Organisation); moreover, specific security mechanisms are optional and can be omitted). PMID:22969272

  3. Anatomy of biometric passports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malčík, Dominik; Drahanský, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Travelling is becoming available for more and more people. Millions of people are on a way every day. That is why a better control over global human transfer and a more reliable identity check is desired. A recent trend in a field of personal identification documents is to use RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) technology and biometrics, especially (but not only) in passports. This paper provides an insight into the electronic passports (also called e-passport or ePassport) implementation chosen in the Czech Republic. Such a summary is needed for further studies of biometric passports implementation security and biometric passports analysis. A separate description of the Czech solution is a prerequisite for a planned analysis, because of the uniqueness of each implementation. (Each country can choose the implementation details within a range specified by the ICAO (International Civil Aviation Organisation); moreover, specific security mechanisms are optional and can be omitted).

  4. Clinically related anatomy for physicists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, A.E.; Boyer, A.L.

    1987-01-01

    With the advent of CT and MR imaging, delineation of malignancies and the shaping of radiation treatment fields have become much more precise. Treatment planning in more than one transverse plane is more widely practiced as the use of sophisticated computers grow. These developments emphasize the need for the physicist to have a basic knowledge of human anatomy. This course is designed to familiarize the clinical physicist with the gross anatomy and topographic landmarks used by the physician in planning three-dimensional radiation treatment volumes. The significance of the various anatomic structures and their related lymphatics in the spread of disease is discussed. Emphasis is placed on disease entities that pose particular problems due to overlying or nearby healthy structures at risk

  5. Ecological anatomy of ferns fronds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina M. Derzhavina

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Structural types of frond anatomy are distinguished on the basis of investigation of 30 species of homosporous ferns and with regard for literature: hydromorphic, hygromorphic, mesomorphic, subxeromorphic, and subsucculent (cryptic succulent. Following frond traits are of highest adaptive value: their area and thickness, type of mesophyll, dry weight of an area unit – specific superficial density, cellular volume, and number of cells per unit of frond area.

  6. Magkänslans anatomi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlström, Kristoffer

    Varför dog 1500 personer i onödan i biltrafiken efter den 11 september 2001? Vad har FBI-agenter gemensamt med barn till alkoholister? Och vad fick författaren George Orwell att börja utöva svart magi? Magkänslans anatomi är en fascinerande kartläggning av de psykologiska mekanismer som ligger...

  7. Roentgenologic anatomy of dog arteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehak, J.; Hlava, A.; Bavor, J.

    1984-01-01

    In catheter methods in dogs the knowledge of the roentgenologic anatomy of blood vessels is very important. Because of lacking in such roentgenologic anatomic schemes 5 arterial schemes in relation to the skeleton were elaborated. The system of arteries was divided into five regions: chest, head and neck in submentooccipital and lateral projection, abdomen and pelvis. The schemes comprise 75 of the main arteries of the dog. (author)

  8. VISUALIZATION OF REGISTERED SUBSURFACE ANATOMY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    A system and method for visualization of subsurface anatomy includes obtaining a first image from a first camera and a second image from a second camera or a second channel of the first camera, where the first and second images contain shared anatomical structures. The second camera and the secon....... A visual interface displays the registered visualization of the first and second images. The system and method are particularly useful for imaging during minimally invasive surgery, such as robotic surgery....

  9. Anatomy of the infant head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosma, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    This text is mainly an atlas of illustration representing the dissection of the head and upper neck of the infant. It was prepared by the author over a 20-year period. The commentary compares the anatomy of the near-term infant with that of a younger fetus, child, and adult. As the author indicates, the dearth of anatomic information about postnatal anatomic changes represents a considerable handicap to those imaging infants. In part 1 of the book, anatomy is related to physiologic performance involving the pharynx, larynx, and mouth. Sequential topics involve the regional anatomy of the head (excluding the brain), the skeleton of the cranium, the nose, orbit, mouth, larynx, pharynx, and ear. To facilitate use of this text as a reference, the illustrations and text on individual organs are considered separately (i.e., the nose, the orbit, the eye, the mouth, the larynx, the pharynx, and the ear). Each part concerned with a separate organ includes materials from the regional illustrations contained in part 2 and from the skeleton, which is treated in part 3. Also included in a summary of the embryologic and fetal development of the organ

  10. Functional anatomy of the prostate: Implications for treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, Patrick W.; Troyer, Sara; Berri, Sally; Narayana, Vrinda; Meirowitz, Amichay; Roberson, Peter L.; Montie, James

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To summarize the functional anatomy relevant to prostate cancer treatment planning. Methods and Materials: Coronal, axial, and sagittal T2 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and MRI angiography were fused by mutual information and registered with computed tomography (CT) scan data sets to improve definition of zonal anatomy of the prostate and critical adjacent structures. Results: The three major prostate zones (inner, outer, and anterior fibromuscular) are visible by T2 MRI imaging. The bladder, bladder neck, and internal (preprostatic) sphincter are a continuous muscular structure and clear definition of the preprostatic sphincter is difficult by MRI. Transition zone hypertrophy may efface the bladder neck and internal sphincter. The external 'lower' sphincter is clearly visible by T2 MRI with wide variations in length. The critical erectile structures are the internal pudendal artery (defined by MRI angiogram or T2 MRI), corpus cavernosum, and neurovascular bundle. The neurovascular bundle is visible along the posterior lateral surface of the prostate on CT and MRI, but its terminal branches (cavernosal nerves) are not visible and must be defined by their relationship to the urethra within the genitourinary diaphragm. Visualization of the ejaculatory ducts within the prostate is possible on sagittal MRI. The anatomy of the prostate-rectum interface is clarified by MRI, as is the potentially important distinction of rectal muscle and rectal mucosa. Conclusion: Improved understanding of functional anatomy and imaging of the prostate and critical adjacent structures will improve prostate radiation therapy by improvement of dose and toxicity correlation, limitation of dose to critical structures, and potential improvement in post therapy quality of life

  11. Anatomy of Cyberterrorism: Is America Vulnerable?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ashley, Bradley

    2003-01-01

    ... it means. It also presents a model to understand the anatomy of cyberterrorism, describing some real-world cyber events, assesses cyberterrorist capabilities, and finally makes specific recommendations...

  12. Remediation Trends in an Undergraduate Anatomy Course and Assessment of an Anatomy Supplemental Study Skills Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutte, Audra Faye

    2013-01-01

    Anatomy A215: Basic Human Anatomy (Anat A215) is an undergraduate human anatomy course at Indiana University Bloomington (IUB) that serves as a requirement for many degree programs at IUB. The difficulty of the course, coupled with pressure to achieve grades for admittance into specific programs, has resulted in high remediation rates. In an…

  13. Bariatric surgery: A review of normal postoperative anatomy and complications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quigley, S.; Colledge, J.; Mukherjee, S.; Patel, K.

    2011-01-01

    The number of bariatric surgery procedures performed is increasing every year. Patients may be referred for radiological investigations to exclude complications not only in the early postoperative period but many months later. Radiologists who do not work in bariatric centres are therefore required to have an understanding of the complex normal anatomy and complications associated with bariatric surgery to interpret imaging studies correctly. The purpose of this article is to describe the surgical techniques and normal anatomy of the four bariatric operations performed today, review the most common problems encountered in this patient group, and to describe the imaging findings that allow the accurate diagnosis of complications. In particular, we focus on identification of the internal hernia, a grave complication of bariatric surgery often missed by radiologists.

  14. Bariatric surgery: A review of normal postoperative anatomy and complications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quigley, S., E-mail: shaun.quigley@bartsandthelondon.nhs.uk [Radiology Department, Homerton University Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Colledge, J. [Radiology Department, Homerton University Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Mukherjee, S. [Bariatric Surgery Unit, Homerton University Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Patel, K. [Radiology Department, Homerton University Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom)

    2011-10-15

    The number of bariatric surgery procedures performed is increasing every year. Patients may be referred for radiological investigations to exclude complications not only in the early postoperative period but many months later. Radiologists who do not work in bariatric centres are therefore required to have an understanding of the complex normal anatomy and complications associated with bariatric surgery to interpret imaging studies correctly. The purpose of this article is to describe the surgical techniques and normal anatomy of the four bariatric operations performed today, review the most common problems encountered in this patient group, and to describe the imaging findings that allow the accurate diagnosis of complications. In particular, we focus on identification of the internal hernia, a grave complication of bariatric surgery often missed by radiologists.

  15. International

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    This rubric reports on 10 short notes about international economical facts about nuclear power: Electricite de France (EdF) and its assistance and management contracts with Eastern Europe countries (Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria); Transnuclear Inc. company (a 100% Cogema daughter company) acquired the US Vectra Technologies company; the construction of the Khumo nuclear power plant in Northern Korea plays in favour of the reconciliation between Northern and Southern Korea; the delivery of two VVER 1000 Russian reactors to China; the enforcement of the cooperation agreement between Euratom and Argentina; Japan requested for the financing of a Russian fast breeder reactor; Russia has planned to sell a floating barge-type nuclear power plant to Indonesia; the control of the Swedish reactor vessels of Sydkraft AB company committed to Tractebel (Belgium); the renewal of the nuclear cooperation agreement between Swiss and USA; the call for bids from the Turkish TEAS electric power company for the building of the Akkuyu nuclear power plant answered by three candidates: Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), Westinghouse (US) and the French-German NPI company. (J.S.)

  16. Interactive Anatomy-Augmented Virtual Simulation Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aebersold, Michelle; Voepel-Lewis, Terri; Cherara, Leila; Weber, Monica; Khouri, Christina; Levine, Robert; Tait, Alan R

    2018-02-01

    Traditionally, clinical psychomotor skills are taught through videos and demonstration by faculty which does not allow for the visualization of internal structures and anatomical landmarks that would enhance the learner skill performance. Sophomore and junior nursing students attending a large Midwestern Institution (N=69) participated in this mixed methods study. Students demonstrated their ability to place a nasogastric tube (NGT) after being randomly assigned to usual training (Control group) or an iPad anatomy-augmented virtual simulation training module (AR group). The ability of the participants to demonstrate competence in placing the NGT was assessed using a 17-item competency checklist. After the demonstration, students completed a survey to elicit information about students' level of training, prior experience with NGT placement, satisfaction with the AR technology, and perceptions of AR as a potential teaching tool for clinical skills training. The ability to correctly place the NGT through all the checklist items was statistically significant in the AR group compared with the control group (P = 0.011). Eighty-six percent of participants in the AR group rated AR as superior/far superior to other procedural training programs to which they had been exposed, whereas, only 5.9% of participants in the control group rated the control program as superior/far superior (P < 0.001). Overall the AR module was better received compared with the control group with regards to realism, identifying landmarks, visualization of internal organs, ease of use, usefulness, and promoting learning and understanding.

  17. Anatomy of the Corrugator Muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Kun; Lee, Jung Hun; Lim, Hee Joong

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this article is to systematically review the anatomy and action of the corrugator muscle. PubMed and Scopus were searched using the terms "corrugator" AND "anatomy." Among the 60 full texts from the 145 relevant abstracts, 34 articles without sufficient content were excluded and 4 articles drawn from the reference lists were added. Among the 30 articles analyzed (721 hemifaces), 28% classified by oblique head and transverse head, and 72% did not. Corrugator originated mostly from the medial supraorbital rim (45%), followed by the medial frontal bone (31%), the medial infraorbital rim (17%), and the upper nasal process (7%). Corrugator extended through the frontalis and orbicularis oculi (41%), only the frontalis (41%), or only the orbicularis oculi (18%). Corrugator ran superolaterally (59%), or laterally (41%). Corrugators inserted mostly to the middle of the eyebrow (57%), or the medial half of the eyebrow (36%), but also to the glabella region (7%). The length of the corrugator ranged 38 to 53 mm. The transverse head (23.38 mm) was longer than the oblique head (19.75 mm). Corrugator was thicker at the medial canthus than at the midpupillary line. Corrugator was innervated by the temporal branch of the facial nerve (66%), the zygomatic branch (17%), or the angular nerve (zygomatic branch and buccal branch, 17%). Supraorbital nerve (60%) or supratrochlear nerve (40%) penetrated the corrugator. The action was depressing, pulling the eyebrow medially (91%), or with medial eyebrow elevation and lateral eyebrow depression (9%). Surgeons must keep this anatomy in mind during surgical procedures.

  18. SnapAnatomy, a computer-based interactive tool for independent learning of human anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, George W; Rajendran, Kanagasuntheram

    2008-06-01

    Computer-aided instruction materials are becoming increasing popular in medical education and particularly in the teaching of human anatomy. This paper describes SnapAnatomy, a new interactive program that the authors designed for independent learning of anatomy. SnapAnatomy is primarily tailored for the beginner student to encourage the learning of anatomy by developing a three-dimensional visualization of human structure that is essential to applications in clinical practice and the understanding of function. The program allows the student to take apart and to accurately put together body components in an interactive, self-paced and variable manner to achieve the learning outcome.

  19. Gross anatomy of network security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Thomas J.

    2002-01-01

    Information security involves many branches of effort, including information assurance, host level security, physical security, and network security. Computer network security methods and implementations are given a top-down description to permit a medically focused audience to anchor this information to their daily practice. The depth of detail of network functionality and security measures, like that of the study of human anatomy, can be highly involved. Presented at the level of major gross anatomical systems, this paper will focus on network backbone implementation and perimeter defenses, then diagnostic tools, and finally the user practices (the human element). Physical security measures, though significant, have been defined as beyond the scope of this presentation.

  20. ZBrush Digital Sculpting Human Anatomy

    CERN Document Server

    Spencer, Scott

    2010-01-01

    Taking into account that many of today?s digital artists?particularly 3D character animators?lack foundational artistic instruction, this book teaches anatomy in a coherent and succinct style. A clear writing style explains how to sculpt an accurate human figure, starting with the skeleton and working out to muscle, fat, and skin. Insightful explanations enable you to quickly and easily create and design characters that can be used in film, game, or print, and allows you to gain a strong understanding of the foundational artistic concepts.

  1. Frontal anatomy and reaction time in Autism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitz, Nicole; Daly, Eileen; Murphy, Declan

    2007-01-01

    Widespread frontal lobe abnormalities, encompassing anatomy and function, are known to be implicated in Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD). The correlation between neurobiology and behaviour, however, is poorly understood in ASD. The aim of this study was to investigate frontal lobe anatomy and

  2. Porcine Tricuspid Valve Anatomy and Human Compatibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waziri, Farhad; Lyager Nielsen, Sten; Hasenkam, J. Michael

    2016-01-01

    before clinical use. The study aim was to evaluate and compare the tricuspid valve anatomy of porcine and human hearts. METHODS: The anatomy of the tricuspid valve and the surrounding structures that affect the valve during a cardiac cycle were examined in detail in 100 fresh and 19 formalin...

  3. An introduction to human brain anatomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forstmann, B.U.; Keuken, M.C.; Alkemade, A.; Forstmann, B.U.; Wagenmakers, E.-J.

    2015-01-01

    This tutorial chapter provides an overview of the human brain anatomy. Knowledge of brain anatomy is fundamental to our understanding of cognitive processes in health and disease; moreover, anatomical constraints are vital for neurocomputational models and can be important for psychological

  4. Design Projects in Human Anatomy & Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polizzotto, Kristin; Ortiz, Mary T.

    2008-01-01

    Very often, some type of writing assignment is required in college entry-level Human Anatomy and Physiology courses. This assignment can be anything from an essay to a research paper on the literature, focusing on a faculty-approved topic of interest to the student. As educators who teach Human Anatomy and Physiology at an urban community college,…

  5. Journal of Experimental and Clinical Anatomy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Journal of Experimental and Clinical Anatomy accepts for publication manuscripts of high standard containing reports of original scientific research in the morphology, mechanical functioning and development of man and animals. The scope the journal embraces articles of human and comparative anatomy, embryology ...

  6. Human fetal anatomy: MR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinreb, J C; Lowe, T; Cohen, J M; Kutler, M

    1985-12-01

    Twenty-four pregnant women carrying 26 fetuses (two sets of twins) were imaged with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging at 0.35 T following sonographic evaluation. Each study was retrospectively evaluated to determine which of 33 normal fetal structures were visible on the images and which imaging parameters were most useful for depicting fetal anatomy. Fetal motion degraded fetal images in all but two cases, both with oligohydramnios and in the third trimester of gestation. Nevertheless, many fetal structures were identifiable, particularly in the third trimester. Visualization of fetal anatomy improved with intravenous maternal sedation in five cases. Relatively T1-weighted images occasionally offered the advantage of less image degradation owing to fetal motion and improved contrast between different fetal structures. More T2 weighting was believed to be advantageous in one case for outlining the fetal head and in one case for delineation of the brain. In many cases, structures were similarly identifiable (though with different signal intensities) regardless of the parameters selected. The authors conclude that MR imaging of many fetal structures is currently unsatisfactory and is probably of limited value, particularly in the first and second trimesters. However, the relative frequency and detail with which the fetal head and liver can be depicted indicate that these may be areas for further investigation, and the potential utility of imaging fetal fat warrants further investigation.

  7. Anatomy of the Spinal Meninges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakka, Laurent; Gabrillargues, Jean; Coll, Guillaume

    2016-06-01

    The spinal meninges have received less attention than the cranial meninges in the literature, although several points remain debatable and poorly understood, like their phylogenesis, their development, and their interactions with the spinal cord. Their constancy among the chordates shows their crucial importance in central nervous system homeostasis and suggests a role far beyond mechanical protection of the neuraxis. This work provides an extensive study of the spinal meninges, from an overview of their phylogenesis and embryology to a descriptive and topographic anatomy with clinical implications. It examines their involvement in spinal cord development, functioning, and repair. This work is a review of the literature using PubMed as a search engine on Medline. The stages followed by the meninges along the phylogenesis could not be easily compared with their development in vertebrates for methodological aspects and convergence processes throughout evolution. The distinction between arachnoid and pia mater appeared controversial. Several points of descriptive anatomy remain debatable: the functional organization of the arterial network, and the venous and lymphatic drainages, considered differently by classical anatomic and neuroradiological approaches. Spinal meninges are involved in neurodevelopment and neurorepair producing neural stem cells and morphogens, in cerebrospinal fluid dynamics and neuraxis functioning by the synthesis of active molecules, and the elimination of waste products of central nervous system metabolism. The spinal meninges should be considered as dynamic functional formations evolving over a lifetime, with ultrastructural features and functional interactions with the neuraxis remaining not fully understood.

  8. KELAINAN BANGUN ANATOMIS KUKU KUDA KOLEKSI LABORATORIUM ANATOMI FKH IPB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemaz A Dewangga

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to observe the anatomical structure of horse hooves collected from the Laboratory of Anatomy FKH IPB. Twenty five hoof specimens, consisting of ten fore hooves and fifteen hind hooves were used as research materials. The external morphology such as color, angle, structure and condition of the hoof wall were described. The observation on external morphology showed that the hooves have two basic colors, black and white. Generally, all of the hoof specimens showed abnormalities in such aspect as angle, structure and condition of the wall. The structures of fore hoof and hind hoof from this study are classified into 8 categories, they are: flat foot, flared foot, knol hoef, fever rings, sand crack, club foot, contracted foot and bull nosed foot.

  9. Ultrasound simulator-assisted teaching of cardiac anatomy to preclinical anatomy students: A pilot randomized trial of a three-hour learning exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canty, David Jeffrey; Hayes, Jenny A; Story, David Andrew; Royse, Colin Forbes

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound simulation allows students to virtually explore internal anatomy by producing accurate, moving, color, three-dimensional rendered slices from any angle or approach leaving the organs and their relationships intact without requirement for consumables. The aim was to determine the feasibility and efficacy of self-directed learning of cardiac anatomy with an ultrasound simulator compared to cadavers and plastic models. After a single cardiac anatomy lecture, fifty university anatomy students participated in a three-hour supervised self-directed learning exposure in groups of five, randomized to an ultrasound simulator or human cadaveric specimens and plastic models. Pre- and post-tests were conducted using pictorial and non-pictorial multiple-choice questions (MCQs). Simulator students completed a survey on their experience. Four simulator and seven cadaver group students did not attend after randomization. Simulator use in groups of five students was feasible and feedback from participants was very positive. Baseline test scores were similar (P = 0.9) between groups. After the learning intervention, there was no difference between groups in change in total test score (P = 0.37), whether they were pictorial (P = 0.6) or non-pictorial (P = 0.21). In both groups there was an increase in total test scores (simulator +19.8 ±12.4%% and cadaver: +16.4% ± 10.2, P human cadaveric prosections for learning cardiac anatomy. © 2014 American Association of Anatomists.

  10. Anatomy of a Security Operations Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, John

    2010-01-01

    Many agencies and corporations are either contemplating or in the process of building a cyber Security Operations Center (SOC). Those Agencies that have established SOCs are most likely working on major revisions or enhancements to existing capabilities. As principle developers of the NASA SOC; this Presenters' goals are to provide the GFIRST community with examples of some of the key building blocks of an Agency scale cyber Security Operations Center. This presentation viII include the inputs and outputs, the facilities or shell, as well as the internal components and the processes necessary to maintain the SOC's subsistence - in other words, the anatomy of a SOC. Details to be presented include the SOC architecture and its key components: Tier 1 Call Center, data entry, and incident triage; Tier 2 monitoring, incident handling and tracking; Tier 3 computer forensics, malware analysis, and reverse engineering; Incident Management System; Threat Management System; SOC Portal; Log Aggregation and Security Incident Management (SIM) systems; flow monitoring; IDS; etc. Specific processes and methodologies discussed include Incident States and associated Work Elements; the Incident Management Workflow Process; Cyber Threat Risk Assessment methodology; and Incident Taxonomy. The Evolution of the Cyber Security Operations Center viII be discussed; starting from reactive, to proactive, and finally to proactive. Finally, the resources necessary to establish an Agency scale SOC as well as the lessons learned in the process of standing up a SOC viII be presented.

  11. An atlas of radiological anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weir, J.; Abrahams, P.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains a wealth of radiologic images of normal human anatomy; plain radiographs, contrast-enhanced radiographs, and computed tomography (CT) scans. There are 18 pages of magnetic resonance (MR) images, most on the brain and spinal cord, so that there are only two pages on MR imaging of the heart and two pages on abdominal and pelvic MR imaging. Twelve pages of ultrasound (US) images are included. This book has the radiologic image paired with an explanatory drawing; the image is on the left with a paragraph or two of text, and the drawing is on the right with legends. This book includes images of the brain and spinal cord obtained with arteriography, venography, myelography, encephalography, CT, and MR imaging

  12. Anterior ethmoid anatomy facilitates dacryocystorhinostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaylock, W K; Moore, C A; Linberg, J V

    1990-12-01

    The ethmoid air cell labyrinth lies adjacent to the medial orbital wall, extending even beyond the sutures of the ethmoid bone. Its anatomic relationship to the lacrimal sac fossa is important in lacrimal surgery. We evaluated computed tomographic scans of 190 orbits with normal ethmoid anatomy to define the anatomic relationship of anterior ethmoid air cells to the lacrimal sac fossa. In 93% of the orbits, the cells extended anterior to the posterior lacrimal crest, with 40% entering the frontal process of the maxilla. This anatomic relationship may be used to facilitate the osteotomy during dacryocystorhinostomy. During a 10-year period (310 cases), one of us routinely entered the anterior ethmoid air cells to initiate the osteotomy during dacryocystorhinostomy. This technique has helped to avoid lacerations of the nasal mucosa.

  13. Anatomy of the Platysma Muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Kun; Kim, Ji Yeon; Lim, Jae Hyun

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this paper was to review the anatomy the platysma systematically.The term "platysma AND anatomy" was used to search PubMed and Scopus, producing 394 and 214 papers, respectively. After excluding 95 duplicate titles, 513 abstracts and 98 full papers were reviewed. Among these 98 papers, 83 were excluded and 5 were added. Ultimately, 20 papers were analyzed.The most common aging-related change of the platysma was shortening (70.7%), followed by thinning (25.2%). The platysma most commonly originated from the upper portion of thorax anterior to clavicle (67.7%), followed by the subcutaneous tissue of the subclavicular and acromial regions (22.6%) and pectoralis (9.7%). The platysma ascended upward and medially (68.5%) or ascended from the clavicle to the face (31.5%). The platysma most commonly inserted on the cheek skin (57.5%), followed by the cutaneous muscles around the mouth (18.6%), the mandibulocutaneous ligament or zygoma (18.6%), and the parotid fascia or periosteum of the mandible (5.3%). The platysma was most commonly innervated by the cervical branch of the facial nerve (38.2%) or the cervical branch and mandibular branch of the facial nerve (60.5%), followed by the cervical plexus (0.6%), the cervical motor nucleus (0.6%), and the glossopharyngeal nerve (0.1%). The most common action of the platysma was drawing the lips inferiorly (83.3%) or posteriorly (12.9%). Four papers classified the platysma into subtypes; however, these classification strategies used arbitrary standards.Further studies will be necessary to establish the thickness of the platysma and to characterize age-related changes of the platysma.

  14. Anatomy and function of the hypothenar muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquella, John A; Levine, Pam

    2012-02-01

    The hypothenar eminence is the thick soft tissue mass located on the ulnar side of the palm. Understanding its location and contents is important for understanding certain aspects of hand function. Variation in motor nerve distribution of the hypothenar muscles makes surgery of the ulnar side of the palm more challenging. To avoid injury to nerve branches, knowledge of these differences is imperative. This article discusses the muscular anatomy and function, vascular anatomy, and nerve anatomy and innervation of the hypothenar muscles. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Normal CT anatomy of the calcaneus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Mun Gyu; Kang, Heung Sik

    1986-01-01

    Normal sectional anatomy of the calcaneus with multiplanar CT examination was studied in 5 volunteers as the background for interpretation of various abnormalities. Major 3 sectional anatomy including plantar, coronal, sagittal and additional tuberosity planes are described. With CT examination of the calcaneus, 1. More detailed anatomy of 3 facets of subtalar joint (anterior, middle, and posterior facet) can be well visualized. 2. Its clinical applications in the tarsal trauma, tarsal coalition, subtalar infection, degenerative arthritis, club foot, pes planus and tarsal tumor could provide much more information's, which not obtained by conventional radiographic studies.

  16. Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Statements International International Competition International Consumer Protection International Technical Assistance Program International Cooperation Agreements Competition & Consumer Protection ...

  17. Elementary Anatomy: Activities Designed to Teach Preschool Children about the Human Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raven, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Studies show that children may not be able to conceptualize some of the topics associated with anatomy, including internal organs and involuntary muscles, because the concepts are too abstract and are not easily visualized. Thus, this article presents activities that incorporate a variety of models and hands-on activities designed to provide…

  18. Anatomy and physiology of lymphatic drainage of the breast from the perspective of sentinel node biopsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanis, P. J.; Nieweg, O. E.; Valdés Olmos, R. A.; Kroon, B. B.

    2001-01-01

    Knowledge of the anatomy and physiology of the lymphatic system is helpful when considering a particular sentinel node biopsy technique. The delicate balance between internal and external pressures in a lymphatic channel can be influenced by the injection volume and by massage in a negative or

  19. FUNCTIONAL ANATOMY OF THE FEEDING APPARATUS OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in body size and jaw force are thought to reduce competition for food between ...... through the water and prey is taken by surprise or actively pursued (Van ..... differences in limb and axial anatomy probably exist among the four South African.

  20. Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of a Cancer Treatment Scam Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam January 19, 2012 Curious about a product that claims to treat or cure cancer? According to the Federal Trade Commission, consumers should ...

  1. Understanding Colds: Anatomy of the Nose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Complications Special Features References Common Cold Understanding Colds Anatomy of the Nose The nose contains shelf-like ... white). Soft tissue, such as the eye, is gray. The maxillary sinus of adults has a volume ...

  2. Cochlear anatomy: CT and MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, Manuel; Bruno, Claudio; Martin, Eduardo; Canale, Nancy; De Luca, Laura; Spina, Juan C. h

    2002-01-01

    The authors present a brief overview of the normal cochlear anatomy with CT and MR images in order to allow a more complete identification of the pathological findings in patients with perceptive hipoacusia. (author)

  3. Ecological anatomy of some hydrophytes in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-07-20

    Jul 20, 2009 ... tissues and counter stained in Aniline Blue to increase contrast. Sections were viewed with microscope equipped with the ocular eye-piece at 100 x magnification. .... the relationship between anatomy, ecology and evolution.

  4. Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a Cancer Treatment Scam Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam January 19, 2012 Curious about a product ... and should not stop or delay their conventional treatment. Category: Scam Watch Health Download File Related Videos ...

  5. Bone Conduction: Anatomy, Physiology, and Communication

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Henry, Paula; Letowski, Tomasz R

    2007-01-01

    .... This report combines results of an extensive literature review of the anatomy and physiology of human hearing, theories behind the mechanisms of bone conduction transmission, devices for use in bone...

  6. Anatomy Ontology Matching Using Markov Logic Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhua Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The anatomy of model species is described in ontologies, which are used to standardize the annotations of experimental data, such as gene expression patterns. To compare such data between species, we need to establish relationships between ontologies describing different species. Ontology matching is a kind of solutions to find semantic correspondences between entities of different ontologies. Markov logic networks which unify probabilistic graphical model and first-order logic provide an excellent framework for ontology matching. We combine several different matching strategies through first-order logic formulas according to the structure of anatomy ontologies. Experiments on the adult mouse anatomy and the human anatomy have demonstrated the effectiveness of proposed approach in terms of the quality of result alignment.

  7. Radiological anatomy of the groin region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, J.C. van den; Valois, J.C. de; Go, P.M.N.Y.H.; Rosenbusch, G.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to give an overview of the anatomy of the inguinal region, and to discuss the value of various imaging modalities in the diagnosis of groin hernias. After description of the gross anatomy of the groin, attention is focused on the anatomic features of conventional herniography, US, CT, and MRI. Advantages, disadvantages, and accuracy of each technique is discussed briefly. (orig.)

  8. Renal anatomy as applied to uroradiologic interventions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, C.C.; Castaneda-Zuniga, W.; Miller, R.P.; Amplatz, K.

    1987-01-01

    Through the experience at the University of Minnesota with over 650 stone removals and over 1,000 percutaneous nephrostomies and ureteral manipulations, the authors developed an approach to the urinary system that has minimized their complication rate and maximized their successes. The exhibit demonstrates the salient anatomic relationships of the kidney with respect to urologic interventions. The kidney's position within the body, lobar anatomy, arterial anatomy, relationship to the ribs and pleura, and relationship to adjacent organs are shown

  9. Unusual anatomy of a maxillary first molar with two palatal roots: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomazinho, Flávia S F; Baratto-Filho, Flares; Zaitter, Suellen; Leonardi, Denise P; Gonzaga, Carla C

    2010-03-01

    The success of endodontic therapy is based on good endodontic access, correct cleaning and shaping, and adequate root canal obturation. However, endodontic treatment is also dependent on a sound knowledge of the internal anatomy of human teeth, especially when anatomical variations are present. Certain anatomical changes may be present to varying degrees, and it is important to report these to improve the understanding and expertise of endodontic specialists. With this aim in mind, this study reports an example of a maxillary first molar showing unusual anatomy (four roots and six root canals) and describes the endodontic treatment that was employed.

  10. Normal distal pulmonary vein anatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiesława Klimek-Piotrowska

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. It is well known that the pulmonary veins (PVs, especially their myocardial sleeves play a critical role in the initiation and maintenance of atrial fibrillation. Understanding the PV anatomy is crucial for the safety and efficacy of all procedures performed on PVs. The aim of this study was to present normal distal PV anatomy and to create a juxtaposition of all PV ostium variants.Methods. A total of 130 randomly selected autopsied adult human hearts (Caucasian were examined. The number of PVs ostia was evaluated and their diameter was measured. The ostium-to-last-tributary distance and macroscopic presence of myocardial sleeves were also evaluated.Results. Five hundred forty-one PV ostia were identified. Four classical PV ostia patterns (two left and two right PVs were observed in 70.8% of all cases. The most common variant was the classical pattern with additional middle right PV (19.2%, followed by the common ostium for the left superior and the inferior PVs (4.44%. Mean diameters of PV ostia (for the classical pattern were: left superior = 13.8 ± 2.9 mm; left inferior = 13.3 ± 3.4 mm; right superior = 14.3 ± 2.9 mm; right inferior = 13.7 ± 3.3 mm. When present, the additional middle right PV ostium had the smallest PV ostium diameter in the heart (8.2 ± 4.1 mm. The mean ostium-to-last-tributary (closest to the atrium distances were: left superior = 15.1 ± 4.6 mm; left inferior = 13.5 ± 4.0 mm; right superior = 11.8 ± 4.0 mm; right inferior = 11.0 ± 3.7 mm. There were no statistically significant differences between sexes in ostia diameters and ostium-to-last-tributary distances.Conclusion. Only 71% of the cases have four standard pulmonary veins. The middle right pulmonary vein is present in almost 20% of patients. Presented data can provide useful information for the clinicians during interventional procedures or radiologic examinations of PVs.

  11. The brain's default network: anatomy, function, and relevance to disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, Randy L; Andrews-Hanna, Jessica R; Schacter, Daniel L

    2008-03-01

    Thirty years of brain imaging research has converged to define the brain's default network-a novel and only recently appreciated brain system that participates in internal modes of cognition. Here we synthesize past observations to provide strong evidence that the default network is a specific, anatomically defined brain system preferentially active when individuals are not focused on the external environment. Analysis of connectional anatomy in the monkey supports the presence of an interconnected brain system. Providing insight into function, the default network is active when individuals are engaged in internally focused tasks including autobiographical memory retrieval, envisioning the future, and conceiving the perspectives of others. Probing the functional anatomy of the network in detail reveals that it is best understood as multiple interacting subsystems. The medial temporal lobe subsystem provides information from prior experiences in the form of memories and associations that are the building blocks of mental simulation. The medial prefrontal subsystem facilitates the flexible use of this information during the construction of self-relevant mental simulations. These two subsystems converge on important nodes of integration including the posterior cingulate cortex. The implications of these functional and anatomical observations are discussed in relation to possible adaptive roles of the default network for using past experiences to plan for the future, navigate social interactions, and maximize the utility of moments when we are not otherwise engaged by the external world. We conclude by discussing the relevance of the default network for understanding mental disorders including autism, schizophrenia, and Alzheimer's disease.

  12. Commentary: the importance of musculoskeletal medicine and anatomy in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Charles S; Ahn, Christine S

    2010-03-01

    Medical schools in the United States have continued to demonstrate deficiencies in musculoskeletal education. In response to the findings of numerous studies and to the objectives of the U.S. Bone and Joint Decade (an international collaborative movement sanctioned by the United Nations and the World Health Organization for the purpose of promoting awareness of musculoskeletal disease), several institutions, including Harvard Medical School, have reassessed the preclinical musculoskeletal curriculum at their respective medical schools. A cross-sectional survey at Harvard in 2004 found that students lacked clinical confidence in dealing with the musculoskeletal system. In addition, only one quarter of the graduating class of medical students passed a nationally validated exam in basic musculoskeletal competency. In 2005, 33 total hours of musculoskeletal medicine were added to the musculoskeletal blocks of the preclinical anatomy, pathophysiology, and physical examination courses. Alongside this movement toward more musculoskeletal education, there has been continued debate over the relevance and cost-effectiveness of cadaveric and surface anatomy labs. With the advent of advanced imaging technology, some argue that dissection anatomy is outdated and labor-intensive, whereas three-dimensional images are more accessible and time-effective for today's students. However, knowledge of anatomy is a critical foundation to learning musculoskeletal medicine. Thus, making room for more musculoskeletal curriculum time by cutting out cadaveric anatomy labs may ultimately be counterproductive.

  13. What Do the Public Know about Anatomy? Anatomy Education to the Public and the Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Adam M.; Diggle, Peter; Wessels, Quenton

    2018-01-01

    Public knowledge of the anatomical "self" is lacking and evidence points towards a growing need for anatomy education to the wider public. The public were offered the opportunity to learn human anatomy and complete an anatomical knowledge survey afterwards. Sixty-three participants volunteered to attempt to place 20 anatomical structures…

  14. Multiple anatomy optimization of accumulated dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watkins, W. Tyler; Siebers, Jeffrey V.; Moore, Joseph A.; Gordon, James; Hugo, Geoffrey D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the potential advantages of multiple anatomy optimization (MAO) for lung cancer radiation therapy compared to the internal target volume (ITV) approach. Methods: MAO aims to optimize a single fluence to be delivered under free-breathing conditions such that the accumulated dose meets the plan objectives, where accumulated dose is defined as the sum of deformably mapped doses computed on each phase of a single four dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) dataset. Phantom and patient simulation studies were carried out to investigate potential advantages of MAO compared to ITV planning. Through simulated delivery of the ITV- and MAO-plans, target dose variations were also investigated. Results: By optimizing the accumulated dose, MAO shows the potential to ensure dose to the moving target meets plan objectives while simultaneously reducing dose to organs at risk (OARs) compared with ITV planning. While consistently superior to the ITV approach, MAO resulted in equivalent OAR dosimetry at planning objective dose levels to within 2% volume in 14/30 plans and to within 3% volume in 19/30 plans for each lung V20, esophagus V25, and heart V30. Despite large variations in per-fraction respiratory phase weights in simulated deliveries at high dose rates (e.g., treating 4/10 phases during single fraction beams) the cumulative clinical target volume (CTV) dose after 30 fractions and per-fraction dose were constant independent of planning technique. In one case considered, however, per-phase CTV dose varied from 74% to 117% of prescription implying the level of ITV-dose heterogeneity may not be appropriate with conventional, free-breathing delivery. Conclusions: MAO incorporates 4DCT information in an optimized dose distribution and can achieve a superior plan in terms of accumulated dose to the moving target and OAR sparing compared to ITV-plans. An appropriate level of dose heterogeneity in MAO plans must be further investigated

  15. Multiple anatomy optimization of accumulated dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watkins, W. Tyler, E-mail: watkinswt@virginia.edu; Siebers, Jeffrey V. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908 and Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298 (United States); Moore, Joseph A. [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21231 and Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298 (United States); Gordon, James [Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan 48202 and Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298 (United States); Hugo, Geoffrey D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298 (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: To investigate the potential advantages of multiple anatomy optimization (MAO) for lung cancer radiation therapy compared to the internal target volume (ITV) approach. Methods: MAO aims to optimize a single fluence to be delivered under free-breathing conditions such that the accumulated dose meets the plan objectives, where accumulated dose is defined as the sum of deformably mapped doses computed on each phase of a single four dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) dataset. Phantom and patient simulation studies were carried out to investigate potential advantages of MAO compared to ITV planning. Through simulated delivery of the ITV- and MAO-plans, target dose variations were also investigated. Results: By optimizing the accumulated dose, MAO shows the potential to ensure dose to the moving target meets plan objectives while simultaneously reducing dose to organs at risk (OARs) compared with ITV planning. While consistently superior to the ITV approach, MAO resulted in equivalent OAR dosimetry at planning objective dose levels to within 2% volume in 14/30 plans and to within 3% volume in 19/30 plans for each lung V20, esophagus V25, and heart V30. Despite large variations in per-fraction respiratory phase weights in simulated deliveries at high dose rates (e.g., treating 4/10 phases during single fraction beams) the cumulative clinical target volume (CTV) dose after 30 fractions and per-fraction dose were constant independent of planning technique. In one case considered, however, per-phase CTV dose varied from 74% to 117% of prescription implying the level of ITV-dose heterogeneity may not be appropriate with conventional, free-breathing delivery. Conclusions: MAO incorporates 4DCT information in an optimized dose distribution and can achieve a superior plan in terms of accumulated dose to the moving target and OAR sparing compared to ITV-plans. An appropriate level of dose heterogeneity in MAO plans must be further investigated.

  16. Multiple anatomy optimization of accumulated dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, W Tyler; Moore, Joseph A; Gordon, James; Hugo, Geoffrey D; Siebers, Jeffrey V

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the potential advantages of multiple anatomy optimization (MAO) for lung cancer radiation therapy compared to the internal target volume (ITV) approach. MAO aims to optimize a single fluence to be delivered under free-breathing conditions such that the accumulated dose meets the plan objectives, where accumulated dose is defined as the sum of deformably mapped doses computed on each phase of a single four dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) dataset. Phantom and patient simulation studies were carried out to investigate potential advantages of MAO compared to ITV planning. Through simulated delivery of the ITV- and MAO-plans, target dose variations were also investigated. By optimizing the accumulated dose, MAO shows the potential to ensure dose to the moving target meets plan objectives while simultaneously reducing dose to organs at risk (OARs) compared with ITV planning. While consistently superior to the ITV approach, MAO resulted in equivalent OAR dosimetry at planning objective dose levels to within 2% volume in 14/30 plans and to within 3% volume in 19/30 plans for each lung V20, esophagus V25, and heart V30. Despite large variations in per-fraction respiratory phase weights in simulated deliveries at high dose rates (e.g., treating 4/10 phases during single fraction beams) the cumulative clinical target volume (CTV) dose after 30 fractions and per-fraction dose were constant independent of planning technique. In one case considered, however, per-phase CTV dose varied from 74% to 117% of prescription implying the level of ITV-dose heterogeneity may not be appropriate with conventional, free-breathing delivery. MAO incorporates 4DCT information in an optimized dose distribution and can achieve a superior plan in terms of accumulated dose to the moving target and OAR sparing compared to ITV-plans. An appropriate level of dose heterogeneity in MAO plans must be further investigated.

  17. Surgical neuroangiography. Vol. 1: Functional anatomy of craniofacial arteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lasjaunias, P.; Berenstein, A.

    1987-01-01

    The contents of this book are: Arterial Anatomy: Introduction. - The Internal Maxillary System. - The Pharyngo-occipital System. - The Upper Cervical Vertebral Column: The Cervical Arteries. - The Musculocutaneous Elements of the Head and Mouth. - Thyrolaryngeal Arteries. - The Transosseous Peripheral Nervous System Arterial Supply. - Dangerous Vessels. - Collateral Circulation. - The Pharyngoocipital Collateral Pattern. - The Internal Maxillary Collateral Pattern. - The Linguofacial Collateral Pattern. - Multiple Constraints and Chronology of the Collateral Response. - Angiographic Protocols. - Angiographic Protocol of the Parasellar Region. - Angiographic Protocol of the Posterior Base of the Skull. - Angiographic Protocol of the Carotid Region. - Angiographic Protocol of the Nasomaxillaary Region. - Angiographic Protocol of the Maxillomandibular Region. - Angiographic Protocol of the Temporofacial and Scalp Region. - Angiographic Protocol of the Thyrolaryngeal Region. - References. - Subject Index

  18. Anatomy of the ward round.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Hare, James A

    2008-07-01

    The ward round has been a central activity of hospital life for hundreds of years. It is hardly mentioned in textbooks. The ward round is a parade through the hospital of professionals where most decision making concerning patient care is made. However the traditional format may be intimidating for patients and inadequate for communication. The round provides an opportunity for the multi-disciplinary team to listen to the patient\\'s narrative and jointly interpret his concerns. From this unfolds diagnosis, management plans, prognosis formation and the opportunity to explore social, psychological, rehabilitation and placement issues. Physical examination of the patient at the bedside still remains important. It has been a tradition to discuss the patient at the bedside but sensitive matters especially of uncertainty may better be discussed elsewhere. The senior doctor as round leader must seek the input of nursing whose observations may be under-appreciated due to traditional professional hierarchy. Reductions in the working hours of junior doctors and shortened length of stay have reduced continuity of patient care. This increases the importance of senior staff in ensuring continuity of care and the need for the joint round as the focus of optimal decision making. The traditional round incorporates teaching but patient\\'s right to privacy and their preferences must be respected. The quality and form of the clinical note is underreported but the electronic record is slow to being accepted. The traditional multi-disciplinary round is disappearing in some centres. This may be regrettable. The anatomy and optimal functioning of the ward round deserves scientific scrutiny and experimentation.

  19. Constructive, collaborative, contextual, and self-directed learning in surface anatomy education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergman-de Bres, E.M.; Sieben, J.M.; Smailbegovic, I.; Bruin, A. de; Scherpbier, A.J.J.A.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der

    2013-01-01

    Anatomy education often consists of a combination of lectures and laboratory sessions, the latter frequently including surface anatomy. Studying surface anatomy enables students to elaborate on their knowledge of the cadaver's static anatomy by enabling the visualization of structures, especially

  20. RADIOGRAPHIC THORACIC ANATOMY OF THE RED PANDA (AILURUS FULGENS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makungu, Modesta; du Plessis, Wencke M; Barrows, Michelle; Groenewald, Hermanus B; Koeppel, Katja N

    2016-09-01

    The red panda ( Ailurus fulgens ) is classified as an endangered species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. The natural distribution of the red panda is in the Himalayas and southern China. Thoracic diseases such as dirofilariasis, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, tracheal obstruction, lung worm infestation, and pneumonia have been reported in the red panda. The aim of this study was to describe the normal radiographic thoracic anatomy of captive red pandas as a species-specific reference for routine health examinations and clinical cases. Right lateral (RL) and dorsoventral (DV) inspiratory phase views of the thorax were obtained in 11 adult captive red pandas. Measurements were made and ratios calculated to establish reference ranges for the mean vertebral heart score on the RL (8.34 ± 0.25) and DV (8.78 ± 0.34) views and the mean ratios of the caudal vena cava diameter to the vertebral body length above tracheal bifurcation (0.67 ± 0.05) and tracheal diameter to the width of the third rib (2.75 ± 0.24). The majority of animals (10/11) had 14 thoracic vertebrae, except for one animal that had 15 thoracic vertebrae. Rudimentary clavicles were seen in 3/11 animals. The ovoid, oblique cardiac silhouette was more horizontally positioned and elongated in older animals. A redundant aortic arch was seen in the oldest animal. The trachea was seen with mineralized cartilage rings in all animals. The carina was clearly seen in the majority of animals (10/11). Variations exist in the normal radiographic thoracic anatomy of different species. Knowledge of the normal radiographic thoracic anatomy of the red panda should prove useful for routine health examinations and in the diagnosis of thoracic diseases.

  1. Detailed sectional anatomy of the spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauschning, W.

    1985-01-01

    Morphologic studies on the human spine constitute a special challenge because of the spine's complex topographic anatomy and the intimate relationship between the supporting skeleton and the contiguous soft tissues (muscles, discs, joint capsules) as well as the neurovascular contents of the spinal canal and intervertebral foramina. The improving resolution and multiplanar image reformatting capabilities of modern CT scanners call for accurate anatomic reference material. Such anatomic images should be available without distortion, in natural colors, and in considerable detail. The images should present the anatomy in the correct axial, sagittal, and coronal planes and should also be sufficiently closely spaced so as to follow the thin cuts of modern CT scanners. This chapter details one of several recent attempts to correlate gross anatomy with the images depicted by high-resolution CT. The methods of specimen preparation, sectioning, and photographing have been documented elsewhere

  2. Anatomy and histology of the sacroiliac joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egund, Niels; Jurik, Anne Grethe

    2014-07-01

    The anatomy of joints provides an important basis for understanding the nature and imaging of pathologic lesions and their imaging appearance. This applies especially to the sacroiliac (SI) joints, which play a major role in the diagnosis of spondyloarthritis. They are composed of two different joint portions, a cartilage-covered portion ventrally and a ligamentous portion dorsally, and thus rather complex anatomically. Knowledge of anatomy and the corresponding normal imaging findings are important in the imaging diagnosis of sacroiliitis, especially by MR imaging. A certain distinction between the two joint portions by MR imaging is only obtainable by axial slice orientation. Together with a perpendicular coronal slice orientation, it provides adequate anatomical information and thereby a possibility for detecting the anatomical site of disease-specific characteristics and normal variants simulating disease. This overview describes current knowledge about the normal macroscopic and microscopic anatomy of the SI joints. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  3. Retention of anatomy knowledge by student radiographers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, A. Susanne; Durward, Brian R.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Anatomy has long been regarded as an integral part of the core curriculum. However, anecdotal evidence suggests that long-term retention of anatomy knowledge may be deficient. This study aims to evidence whether student radiographers demonstrate the same level of knowledge of anatomy after a period of time has elapsed and to correlate to approaches to learning and studying. Methodology: A repeated measures design was utilised to measure retention of anatomy knowledge for both MCQs and short-response answers to a Practical Radiographic Anatomy Examination; alpha value p < 0.05. Fifty-one students from levels 2 and 3 were retested after a time lapse of 10 and 22 months respectively. The students were not aware that their knowledge was being retested. Approaches to learning and studying were measured using the ASSIST inventory. Results: Statistical analysis found no difference in performance on MCQ assessment, in either the combined sample or levels 2 and 3 separately, from baseline to retention occasions; average retention rate being 99%. However, a statistical difference in performance on PRAE assessment was found, with level 2 experiencing a larger reduction in scores; retention rate of 67% compared to level 3 at 77%. The students perceived themselves to be principally strategic in their approach to learning and studying but no strong relationships were found when correlated to test scores. Conclusion: The student radiographers in this study demonstrated varied anatomy retention rates dependent on assessment method employed and time interval that had elapsed. It is recommended that diverse teaching and assessment strategies are adopted to encourage a deeper approach to learning and studying.

  4. Improving gross anatomy learning using reciprocal peer teaching

    OpenAIRE

    Manyama, Mange; Stafford, Renae; Mazyala, Erick; Lukanima, Anthony; Magele, Ndulu; Kidenya, Benson R.; Kimwaga, Emmanuel; Msuya, Sifael; Kauki, Julius

    2016-01-01

    Background The use of cadavers in human anatomy teaching requires adequate number of anatomy instructors who can provide close supervision of the students. Most medical schools are facing challenges of lack of trained individuals to teach anatomy. Innovative techniques are therefore needed to impart adequate and relevant anatomical knowledge and skills. This study was conducted in order to evaluate the traditional teaching method and reciprocal peer teaching (RPT) method during anatomy dissec...

  5. Cross-sectional anatomy for computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkas, M.L.

    1988-01-01

    This self-study guide recognizes that evaluation and interpretation of CT-images demands a firm understanding of both cross-sectional anatomy and the principles of computed tomography. The objectives of this book are: to discuss the basic principles of CT, to stress the importance of cross-sectional anatomy to CT through study of selected cardinal transverse sections of head, neck, and trunk, to explain orientation and interpretation of CT-images with the aid of corresponding cross-sectional preparations

  6. Anatomy, normal variants, and basic biomechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berquist, T.H.; Johnson, K.A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on the anatomy and basic functions of the foot and ankle important to physicians involved in imaging procedures, clinical medicine, and surgery. New radiographic techniques especially magnetic resonance imaging, provide more diagnostic information owing to improved tissue contrast and the ability to obtain multiple image planes (axial, sagittal, coronal, oblique). Therefore, a thorough knowledge of skeletal and soft tissue anatomy is even more essential. Normal variants must also be understood in order to distinguish normal from pathologic changes in the foot and ankle. A basic understanding of biomechanics is also essential for selecting the proper diagnostic techniques

  7. Anatomy and imaging of the normal meninges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Neel; Kirmi, Olga

    2009-12-01

    The meninges are an important connective tissue envelope investing the brain. Their function is to provide a protective coating to the brain and also participate in the formation of blood-brain barrier. Understanding their anatomy is fundamental to understanding the location and spread of pathologies in relation to the layers. It also provides an insight into the characteristics of such pathologies when imaging them. This review aims to describe the anatomy of the meninges, and to demonstrate the imaging findings of specific features.

  8. Clinical Anatomy of the Lingual Nerve: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sittitavornwong, Somsak; Babston, Michael; Denson, Douglas; Zehren, Steven; Friend, Jonathan

    2017-05-01

    Knowledge of lingual nerve anatomy is of paramount importance to dental practitioners and maxillofacial surgeons. The purpose of this article is to review lingual nerve anatomy from the cranial base to its insertion in the tongue and provide a more detailed explanation of its course to prevent procedural nerve injuries. Fifteen human cadavers from the University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Medicine's Anatomical Donor Program were reviewed. The anatomic structures and landmarks were identified and confirmed by anatomists. Lingual nerve dissection was carried out and reviewed on 15 halved human cadaver skulls (total specimens, 28). Cadaveric dissection provides a detailed examination of the lingual nerve from the cranial base to tongue insertion. The lingual nerve receives the chorda tympani nerve approximately 1 cm below the bifurcation of the lingual and inferior alveolar nerves. The pathway of the lingual nerve is in contact with the periosteum of the mandible just behind the internal oblique ridge. The lingual nerve crosses the submandibular duct at the interproximal space between the mandibular first and second molars. The submandibular ganglion is suspended from the lingual nerve at the distal area of the second mandibular molar. A zoning classification is another way to more accurately describe the lingual nerve based on close anatomic landmarks as seen in human cadaveric specimens. This system could identify particular areas of interest that might be at greater procedural risk. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Use of synchrotron tomography to image naturalistic anatomy in insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socha, John J.; De Carlo, Francesco

    2008-08-01

    Understanding the morphology of anatomical structures is a cornerstone of biology. For small animals, classical methods such as histology have provided a wealth of data, but such techniques can be problematic due to destruction of the sample. More importantly, fixation and physical slicing can cause deformation of anatomy, a critical limitation when precise three-dimensional data are required. Modern techniques such as confocal microscopy, MRI, and tabletop x-ray microCT provide effective non-invasive methods, but each of these tools each has limitations including sample size constraints, resolution limits, and difficulty visualizing soft tissue. Our research group at the Advanced Photon Source (Argonne National Laboratory) studies physiological processes in insects, focusing on the dynamics of breathing and feeding. To determine the size, shape, and relative location of internal anatomy in insects, we use synchrotron microtomography at the beamline 2-BM to image structures including tracheal tubes, muscles, and gut. Because obtaining naturalistic, undeformed anatomical information is a key component of our studies, we have developed methods to image fresh and non-fixed whole animals and tissues. Although motion artifacts remain a problem, we have successfully imaged multiple species including beetles, ants, fruit flies, and butterflies. Here we discuss advances in biological imaging and highlight key findings in insect morphology.

  10. An Interactive 3D Virtual Anatomy Puzzle for Learning and Simulation - Initial Demonstration and Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messier, Erik; Wilcox, Jascha; Dawson-Elli, Alexander; Diaz, Gabriel; Linte, Cristian A

    2016-01-01

    To inspire young students (grades 6-12) to become medical practitioners and biomedical engineers, it is necessary to expose them to key concepts of the field in a way that is both exciting and informative. Recent advances in medical image acquisition, manipulation, processing, visualization, and display have revolutionized the approach in which the human body and internal anatomy can be seen and studied. It is now possible to collect 3D, 4D, and 5D medical images of patient specific data, and display that data to the end user using consumer level 3D stereoscopic display technology. Despite such advancements, traditional 2D modes of content presentation such as textbooks and slides are still the standard didactic equipment used to teach young students anatomy. More sophisticated methods of display can help to elucidate the complex 3D relationships between structures that are so often missed when viewing only 2D media, and can instill in students an appreciation for the interconnection between medicine and technology. Here we describe the design, implementation, and preliminary evaluation of a 3D virtual anatomy puzzle dedicated to helping users learn the anatomy of various organs and systems by manipulating 3D virtual data. The puzzle currently comprises several components of the human anatomy and can be easily extended to include additional organs and systems. The 3D virtual anatomy puzzle game was implemented and piloted using three display paradigms - a traditional 2D monitor, a 3D TV with active shutter glass, and the DK2 version Oculus Rift, as well as two different user interaction devices - a space mouse and traditional keyboard controls.

  11. Ocular anatomy in medieval arabic medicine. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laios, Konstantinos; Moschos, Marilita M; George, Androutsos

    2016-01-01

    In medieval Arabic medicine Ophthalmology had a central role. Ocular anatomy was described in many ophthalmological treatises of the physicians of the time. These physicians followed the doctrines of Galen according ocular anatomy, nevertheless their contribution to the history of ocular anatomy was the presentation of ocular anatomical sketches in their manuscripts for the fist time in medical history.

  12. Learning of Cross-Sectional Anatomy Using Clay Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Chang-Seok; Kim, Ji-Young; Choe, Yeon Hyeon

    2009-01-01

    We incorporated clay modeling into gross anatomy and neuro-anatomy courses to help students understand cross-sectional anatomy. By making clay models, cutting them and comparing cut surfaces to CT and MR images, students learned how cross-sectional two-dimensional images were created from three-dimensional structure of human organs. Most students…

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging anatomy of the anal canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashyap, P.; Bates, N.

    2004-01-01

    The anatomy of the anal canal is complex but well demonstrated by MRI. Understanding the anatomy is a prerequisite for determining the true site and the extent of pathology, especially for surgical workup. In this article, the MRI anatomy of the anal canal has been displayed using highlighted MRI images and line diagrams. Copyright (2004) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  14. Guidelines for Standard Photography in Gross and Clinical Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barut, Cagatay; Ertilav, Hakan

    2011-01-01

    Photography has a widespread usage in medicine and anatomy. In this review, authors focused on the usage of photography in gross and clinical anatomy. Photography in gross and clinical anatomy is not only essential for accurate documentation of morphological findings but also important in sharing knowledge and experience. Photographs of cadavers…

  15. Medical Students' Perception of Problem Areas in Anatomy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ranges of problems were extensive; neuro-anatomy in gross anatomy, slide review in histology, and cardiovascular embryology were amongst the most highlighted areas of concern. Most students attributed the problems in gross anatomy to difficulty with accessing the area during dissection and inability to grasp the ...

  16. Computer assisted surgical anatomy mapping : applications in surgical anatomy research, tailor-made surgery and presonalized teaching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.L.A. Kerver (Anton)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractThis thesis presents a novel anatomy mapping tool named Computer Assisted Surgical Anatomy Mapping (CASAM). It allows researchers to map complex anatomy of multiple specimens and compare their location and course. Renditions such as safe zones or danger zones can be visualized,

  17. Two-Year Community: Human Anatomy Software Use in Traditional and Online Anatomy Laboratory Classes: Student-Perceived Learning Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuyatt, Brian L.; Baker, Jason D.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluates the effectiveness of human anatomy software in face-to-face and online anatomy laboratory classes. Cognitive, affective, and psychomotor perceived learning was measured for students using Pearson Education's Practice Anatomy Laboratory 2.0 software. This study determined that student-perceived learning was significantly…

  18. Systematic wood anatomy of the Rosaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Shu-Yin

    1992-01-01

    The wood anatomy of the Rosaceae is surveyed and analysed, based on the study of 280 species (c. 500 specimens) belonging to 62 genera from different parts of the world. Eighteen wood anatomical characters have been used for a phenetic and phylogenetic classification. In the phenetic classification,

  19. [Computer technologies in teaching pathological anatomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponomarev, A B; Fedorov, D N

    2015-01-01

    The paper gives experience with personal computers used at the Academician A.L. Strukov Department of Pathological Anatomy for more than 20 years. It shows the objective necessity of introducing computer technologies at all stages of acquiring skills in anatomical pathology, including lectures, students' free work, test check, etc.

  20. Cardiac anatomy and physiology: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavaghan, M

    1998-04-01

    This article reviews the normal anatomy and physiology of the heart. Understanding the normal anatomic and physiologic relationships described in this article will help perioperative nurses care for patients who are undergoing cardiac procedures. Such knowledge also assists nurses in educating patients about cardiac procedures and about activities that can prevent, reverse, or improve cardiac illness.

  1. Digital interactive learning of oral radiographic anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuchkova, J; Maybury, T; Farah, C S

    2012-02-01

    Studies reporting high number of diagnostic errors made from radiographs suggest the need to improve the learning of radiographic interpretation in the dental curriculum. Given studies that show student preference for computer-assisted or digital technologies, the purpose of this study was to develop an interactive digital tool and to determine whether it was more successful than a conventional radiology textbook in assisting dental students with the learning of radiographic anatomy. Eighty-eight dental students underwent a learning phase of radiographic anatomy using an interactive digital tool alongside a conventional radiology textbook. The success of the digital tool, when compared to the textbook, was assessed by quantitative means using a radiographic interpretation test and by qualitative means using a structured Likert scale survey, asking students to evaluate their own learning outcomes from the digital tool. Student evaluations of the digital tool showed that almost all participants (95%) indicated that the tool positively enhanced their learning of radiographic anatomy and interpretation. The success of the digital tool in assisting the learning of radiographic interpretation is discussed in the broader context of learning and teaching curricula, and preference (by students) for the use of this digital form when compared to the conventional literate form of the textbook. Whilst traditional textbooks are still valued in the dental curriculum, it is evident that the preference for computer-assisted learning of oral radiographic anatomy enhances the learning experience by enabling students to interact and better engage with the course material. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  2. Modelling vocal anatomy's significant effect on speech

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, B.

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of larynx position on the articulatory abilities of a humanlike vocal tract. Previous work has investigated models that were built to resemble the anatomy of existing species or fossil ancestors. This has led to conflicting conclusions about the relation between

  3. Anatomy, Medical Education, and Human Ancestral Variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strkalj, Goran; Spocter, Muhammad A.; Wilkinson, A. Tracey

    2011-01-01

    It is argued in this article that the human body both in health and disease cannot be fully understood without adequately accounting for the different levels of human variation. The article focuses on variation due to ancestry, arguing that the inclusion of information pertaining to ancestry in human anatomy teaching materials and courses should…

  4. Thoracic radiographic anatomy in goats | Makungu | Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to describe the normal radiographic anatomy of the thorax of small East African goats as a reference for clinical use. Radiography of the thorax was performed under general anaesthesia in 10 healthy small East African goats. Right lateral (RL), left lateral (LL), dorsoventral (DV) and ventrodorsal ...

  5. Testing to Enhance Retention in Human Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Jessica M.; Thompson, Andrew J.; Marshak, David W.

    2011-01-01

    Recent work in cognitive psychology has shown that repeatedly testing one's knowledge is a powerful learning aid and provides substantial benefits for retention of the material. To apply this in a human anatomy course for medical students, 39 fill-in-the-blank quizzes of about 50 questions each, one for each region of the body, and four about the…

  6. Wood anatomy of the Blakeeae (Melastomataceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koek-Noorman, J.; Hogeweg, P.; Maanen, van W.H.M.; Welle, ter B.J.H.

    1979-01-01

    The present paper deals with the wood anatomy of the Blakeeae (Melastomataceae). Generic descriptions of the secondary xylem of Blakea, Topobea, and Huilaea are given and compared with data on 16 genera of the Miconieae. Numerical pattern detection was undertaken. The results confirm our preliminary

  7. Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Competition Matters Tech@FTC Comment Policy Contests IoT Home Inspector Challenge Robocalls: Humanity Strikes Back DetectaRobo Zapping ... File Documents in Adjudicative Proceedings You are here Home » News & Events » Audio/Video » Anatomy of a Cancer ...

  8. Anatomy and Physiology. Revised Teacher Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Danene; And Others

    This curriculum guide contains 14 units of instruction for a course in anatomy and physiology for surgical technology students. The units cover the following topics: (1) organization of the body; (2) cells, tissues, and membranes; (3) integumentary system; (4) skeletal system; (5) muscular system; (6) nervous system; (7) special sense organs; (8)…

  9. The functional anatomy of the ureterovesical junction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomson, A. S.; Dabhoiwala, N. F.; Verbeek, F. J.; Lamers, W. H.

    1994-01-01

    To obtain a new insight into the anti-reflux mechanism of the ureterovesical junction by studying the topographical anatomy of the juxta- and intravesical ureter and its relationship to the surrounding bladder musculature. Fresh pig bladders were fixed, frozen and serially sectioned. Enzyme

  10. Anatomy and Physiology of the Small Bowel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volk, Neil; Lacy, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Comprehension of small intestine physiology and function provides a framework for the understanding of several important disease pathways of the gastrointestinal system. This article reviews the development, anatomy and histology of the small bowel in addition to physiology and digestion of key nutrients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Neuromodulators: available agents, physiology, and anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettar, Kartik; Maas, Corey

    2011-12-01

    Neuromodulators have risen to the forefront of aesthetic medicine. By reversibly relaxing target muscles, neuromodulators exhibit their effect by softening hyperfunctional lines. An understanding of their physiology, relevant facial anatomy, and current agents is imperative for a successful aesthetic practice. © Thieme Medical Publishers.

  12. Anatomy and physiology of genital organs - women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziottin, Alessandra; Gambini, Dania

    2015-01-01

    "Anatomy is destiny": Sigmund Freud viewed human anatomy as a necessary, although not a sufficient, condition for understanding the complexity of human sexual function with a solid biologic basis. The aim of the chapter is to describe women's genital anatomy and physiology, focusing on women's sexual function with a clinically oriented vision. Key points include: embryology, stressing that the "female" is the anatomic "default" program, differentiated into "male" only in the presence of androgens at physiologic levels for the gestational age; sex determination and sex differentiation, describing the interplay between anatomic and endocrine factors; the "clitoral-urethral-vaginal" complex, the most recent anatomy reading of the corpora cavernosa pattern in women; the controversial G spot; the role of the pelvic floor muscles in modulating vaginal receptivity and intercourse feelings, with hyperactivity leading to introital dyspareunia and contributing to provoked vestibulodynia and recurrent postcoital cystitis, whilst lesions during delivery reduce vaginal sensations, genital arousability, and orgasm; innervation, vessels, bones, ligaments; and the physiology of women's sexual response. Attention to physiologic aging focuses on "low-grade inflammation," genital and systemic, with its impact on women sexual function, especially after the menopause, if the woman does not or cannot use hormone replacement therapy. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Fostering Improved Anatomy and Physiology Instructor Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattheis, Allison; Jensen, Murray

    2014-01-01

    Despite widespread calls for reform in undergraduate science, technology, engineering, and mathematics education, effecting lasting change in instructor practice is challenging to achieve. This article describes the results of a 2-yr research study that involved efforts to develop the pedagogical expertise of a group of anatomy and physiology…

  14. Surgical anatomy of the nail apparatus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haneke, E.

    2006-01-01

    Nail surgery is an integral part of dermatologic surgery. An in-depth knowledge of the anatomy, biology, physiology, and gross pathology of the entire nail unit is essential. In particular, knowledge of nail histopathology is necessary to perform diagnostic nail biopsies and other nail procedures

  15. "Digit anatomy": a new technique for learning anatomy using motor memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Chang-Seok; Won, Hyung-Sun; Kim, Kyong-Jee; Jang, Dong-Su

    2011-01-01

    Gestural motions of the hands and fingers are powerful tools for expressing meanings and concepts, and the nervous system has the capacity to retain multiple long-term motor memories, especially including movements of the hands. We developed many sets of successive movements of both hands, referred to as "digit anatomy," and made students practice the movements which express (1) the aortic arch, subclavian, and thoracoacromial arteries and their branches, (2) the celiac trunk, superior mesenteric artery and their branches, and formation of the portal vein, (3) the heart and the coronary arteries, and (4) the brachial, lumbar, and sacral plexuses. A feedback survey showed that digit anatomy was helpful for the students not only in memorizing anatomical structures but also in understanding their functions. Out of 40 students, 34 of them who learned anatomy with the help of digit anatomy were "very satisfied" or "generally satisfied" with this new teaching method. Digit anatomy that was used to express the aortic arch, subclavian, and thoracoacromial arteries and their branches was more helpful than those representing other structures. Although the movements of digit anatomy are expected to be remembered longer than the exact meaning of each movement, invoking the motor memory of the movement may help to make relearning of the same information easier and faster in the future. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Anatomists.

  16. Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Remedy Study Testimony Public Comments Advanced Comment Search Policy Statements International International Competition International Consumer Protection International Technical Assistance ...

  17. Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Competition International Consumer Protection International Technical Assistance Program International Cooperation Agreements Competition & Consumer Protection Authorities Worldwide International Fellows ...

  18. Modeling Functional Neuroanatomy for an Anatomy Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niggemann, Jörg M.; Gebert, Andreas; Schulz, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    Objective Existing neuroanatomical ontologies, databases and information systems, such as the Foundational Model of Anatomy (FMA), represent outgoing connections from brain structures, but cannot represent the “internal wiring” of structures and as such, cannot distinguish between different independent connections from the same structure. Thus, a fundamental aspect of Neuroanatomy, the functional pathways and functional systems of the brain such as the pupillary light reflex system, is not adequately represented. This article identifies underlying anatomical objects which are the source of independent connections (collections of neurons) and uses these as basic building blocks to construct a model of functional neuroanatomy and its functional pathways. Design The basic representational elements of the model are unnamed groups of neurons or groups of neuron segments. These groups, their relations to each other, and the relations to the objects of macroscopic anatomy are defined. The resulting model can be incorporated into the FMA. Measurements The capabilities of the presented model are compared to the FMA and the Brain Architecture Management System (BAMS). Results Internal wiring as well as functional pathways can correctly be represented and tracked. Conclusion This model bridges the gap between representations of single neurons and their parts on the one hand and representations of spatial brain structures and areas on the other hand. It is capable of drawing correct inferences on pathways in a nervous system. The object and relation definitions are related to the Open Biomedical Ontology effort and its relation ontology, so that this model can be further developed into an ontology of neuronal functional systems. PMID:18579841

  19. Anatomy of virgin and mature externae of Loxothylacus texanus, parasitic on the dark blue crab Callinectes rathbunae (Crustacea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alvarez, Fernando; Bortolini, José Luis; Høeg, Jens Thorvald

    2010-01-01

    the reproductive biology and the taxonomy of these specialized parasites. We use scanning electron microscopy and histological methods to study the anatomy of juvenile and the mature externae of the rhizocephalan barnacle Loxothylacus texanus parasitizing the blue crab Callinectes rathbunae. We put emphasis......, as is characteristic for the genus Loxothylacus. The internal anatomy of the mature externa of L. texanus is in most features similar to that seen in other species of the Sacculinidae, which comprises the majority of rhizocephalan species. However, the single receptacle creates a situation where the two implanted...

  20. Overview of radiological anatomy and topography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed Ali Abdul Khader

    2004-01-01

    This chapter introduces the reader to the examination of the most common radiographs of the body that will be encountered by the x-ray operator. The discussion of the radiograph begins with a review of the anatomy and functions of the region. This is followed by a description of the normal anatomy that is imaged in the radiographs. The subjects discussed are follows - Skeleton; Axial Skeleton, Skull: functions, radiographic appearance. Vertebral Column, Thoracic Cage (Sternum and Ribs), The Chest Radiograph, Appendicular Skeleton, Shoulder Girdle and Upper Arm. Radiological Appearance of the Elbow, Radiological Appearance of the Wrist and Hand, Pelvic Girdle and Lower Limbs, Innominate (hip bones) Radiological Appearance of the Pelvis, Lower Extremities, Joints, Classification, Radiological Appearance of the Knee, Radiological Appearance of the Ankle and Foot, Systems and Cavities of the Body, Cranial Cavity, Thoracic Cavity, Abdominal Cavity, Pelvic Cavity

  1. Understanding chest radiographic anatomy with MDCT reformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sussmann, A.R. [Department of Radiology, Thoracic Imaging, NYU Langone Medical Center, New York, NY (United States); Ko, J.P., E-mail: jane.ko@nyumc.or [Department of Radiology, Thoracic Imaging, NYU Langone Medical Center, New York, NY (United States)

    2010-02-15

    Chest radiograph interpretation requires an understanding of the mediastinal reflections and anatomical structures. Computed tomography (CT) improves the learning of three-dimensional (3D) anatomy, and more recently multidetector CT (MDCT) technology has enabled the creation of high-quality reformations in varying projections. Multiplanar reformations (MPRs) of varying thickness in the coronal and sagittal projections can be created for direct correlation with findings on frontal and lateral chest radiographs, respectively. MPRs enable simultaneous visualization of the craniocaudal extent of thoracic structures while providing the anatomic detail that has been previously illustrated using cadaveric specimens. Emphasis will be placed on improving knowledge of mediastinal anatomy and reflections including edges, lines, and stripes that are visible on chest radiographs.

  2. Fetal anatomy revealed with fast MR sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, D; Hatabu, H; Gaa, J; Atkinson, M W; Edelman, R R

    1996-10-01

    Although all the imaging studies in this pictorial essay were done for maternal rather than fetal indications, fetal anatomy was well visualized. However, when scans are undertaken for fetal indications, fetal motion in between scout views and imaging sequences may make specific image planes difficult to obtain. Of the different techniques described in this review, we preferred the HASTE technique and use it almost exclusively for scanning pregnant patients. The T2-weighting is ideal for delineating fetal organs. Also, the HASTE technique allows images to be obtained in 430 msec, limiting artifacts arising from maternal and fetal motion. MR imaging should play a more important role in evaluating equivocal sonographic cases as fast scanning techniques are more widely used. Obstetric MR imaging no longer will be limited by fetal motion artifacts. When complex anatomy requires definition in a complicated pregnant patient, MR imaging should be considered as a useful adjunct to sonography.

  3. Pocket atlas of MRI body anatomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berquist, T.H.; Ehman, R.L.; May, G.R.

    1987-01-01

    This book is a guide to the anatomy of extracranial organs as seen in magnetic resonance images. This collection of 96 magnetic resonance images, accompanied by explanatory line drawings, covers all the major organs of the body- shoulder and humerus; elbow and forearm; hand and wrist; chest; abdomen; pelvis; thigh; knee; calf; and ankle. The images are displayed in the axial, coronal, and sagittal planes, enabling radiologists to quickly review coronal and sagittal anatomy as it applies to routine MRI practice. Special emphasis is placed on the extremities, where spatial resolution, coronal and sagittal planes, and soft tissue contrast provide important anatomic detail. Each MRI image is carefully labeled - using numbers with legends at the top of the page - to highlight key anatomic features. Where applicable, special parameters and positioning are noted below the images. Accompanying each image is a line drawing demonstrating the level and plane of the image.

  4. Patellofemoral anatomy and biomechanics: current concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZAFFAGNINI, STEFANO; DEJOUR, DAVID; GRASSI, ALBERTO; BONANZINGA, TOMMASO; MUCCIOLI, GIULIO MARIA MARCHEGGIANI; COLLE, FRANCESCA; RAGGI, FEDERICO; BENZI, ANDREA; MARCACCI, MAURILIO

    2013-01-01

    The patellofemoral joint, due to its particular bone anatomy and the numerous capsuloligamentous structures and muscles that act dynamically on the patella, is considered one of the most complex joints in the human body from the biomechanical point of view. The medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) has been demonstrated to contribute 60% of the force that opposes lateral displacement of the patella, and MPFL injury results in an approximately 50% reduction in the force needed to dislocate the patella laterally with the knee extended. For this reason, recent years have seen a growing interest in the study of this important anatomical structure, whose aponeurotic nature has thus been demonstrated. The MPFL acts as a restraint during motion, playing an active role under conditions of laterally applied stress, but an only marginal role during natural knee flexion. However, it remains extremely difficult to clearly define the anatomy of the MPFL and its relationships with other anatomical structures. PMID:25606512

  5. Interoperability between phenotype and anatomy ontologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoehndorf, Robert; Oellrich, Anika; Rebholz-Schuhmann, Dietrich

    2010-12-15

    Phenotypic information is important for the analysis of the molecular mechanisms underlying disease. A formal ontological representation of phenotypic information can help to identify, interpret and infer phenotypic traits based on experimental findings. The methods that are currently used to represent data and information about phenotypes fail to make the semantics of the phenotypic trait explicit and do not interoperate with ontologies of anatomy and other domains. Therefore, valuable resources for the analysis of phenotype studies remain unconnected and inaccessible to automated analysis and reasoning. We provide a framework to formalize phenotypic descriptions and make their semantics explicit. Based on this formalization, we provide the means to integrate phenotypic descriptions with ontologies of other domains, in particular anatomy and physiology. We demonstrate how our framework leads to the capability to represent disease phenotypes, perform powerful queries that were not possible before and infer additional knowledge. http://bioonto.de/pmwiki.php/Main/PheneOntology.

  6. Alterations in physiology and anatomy during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Eng Kien; Tan, Eng Loy

    2013-12-01

    Pregnant women undergo profound anatomical and physiological changes so that they can cope with the increased physical and metabolic demands of their pregnancies. The cardiovascular, respiratory, haematological, renal, gastrointestinal and endocrine systems all undergo important physiological alterations and adaptations needed to allow development of the fetus and to allow the mother and fetus to survive the demands of childbirth. Such alterations in anatomy and physiology may cause difficulties in interpreting signs, symptoms, and biochemical investigations, making the clinical assessment of a pregnant woman inevitably confusing but challenging. Understanding these changes is important for every practicing obstetrician, as the pathological deviations from the normal physiological alterations may not be clear-cut until an adverse outcome has resulted. Only with a sound knowledge of the physiology and anatomy changes can the care of an obstetric parturient be safely optimized for a better maternal and fetal outcome. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Complementing anatomy education using three-dimensional anatomy mobile software applications on tablet computers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, T L; Burnett, B; Tunstall, R G; Abrahams, P H

    2014-04-01

    Anatomy has traditionally been a cornerstone of medical education, which has been taught via dissection and didactic lectures. The rising prevalence of mobile tablet technology means medical software applications ("apps") play an increasingly important role in medical education. The applications highlighted in this article will aid anatomical educators to identify which are the most useful in clinical, academic, and educational environments. These have been systematically identified by downloading all applications with keywords related to anatomy and then carrying out qualitative assessment. Novel anatomy applications from developers such as Visible Body, 3D4Medical, and Pocket Anatomy allow students to visualize and manipulate complex anatomical structures using detailed 3D models. They often contain additional content including clinical correlations and a range of media from instructional videos to interactive quiz functions. The strength of tablet technology lies in its ability to consolidate and present anatomical information to the user in the most appropriate manner for their learning style. The only question mark remains over the level of detail and accuracy of these applications. Innovative medical educators who embrace tablet technology will find that anatomy applications serve as a useful learning tool when used in conjunction with existing teaching setups. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Clinical anatomy of the subserous layer: An amalgamation of gross and clinical anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabuki, Yoshihiko

    2016-05-01

    The 1998 edition of Terminologia Anatomica introduced some currently used clinical anatomical terms for the pelvic connective tissue or subserous layer. These innovations persuaded the present author to consider a format in which the clinical anatomical terms could be reconciled with those of gross anatomy and incorporated into a single anatomical glossary without contradiction or ambiguity. Specific studies on the subserous layer were undertaken on 79 Japanese women who had undergone surgery for uterine cervical cancer, and on 26 female cadavers that were dissected, 17 being formalin-fixed and 9 fresh. The results were as follows: (a) the subserous layer could be segmentalized by surgical dissection in the perpendicular, horizontal and sagittal planes; (b) the segmentalized subserous layer corresponded to 12 cubes, or ligaments, of minimal dimension that enabled the pelvic organs to be extirpated; (c) each ligament had a three-dimensional (3D) structure comprising craniocaudal, mediolateral, and dorsoventral directions vis-á-vis the pelvic axis; (d) these 3D-structured ligaments were encoded morphologically in order of decreasing length; and (e) using these codes, all the surgical procedures for 19th century to present-day radical hysterectomy could be expressed symbolically. The establishment of clinical anatomical terms, represented symbolically through coding as demonstrated in this article, could provide common ground for amalgamating clinical anatomy with gross anatomy. Consequently, terms in clinical anatomy and gross anatomy could be reconciled and compiled into a single anatomical glossary. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. A meta-analysis of the educational effectiveness of three-dimensional visualization technologies in teaching anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yammine, Kaissar; Violato, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Many medical graduates are deficient in anatomy knowledge and perhaps below the standards for safe medical practice. Three-dimensional visualization technology (3DVT) has been advanced as a promising tool to enhance anatomy knowledge. The purpose of this review is to conduct a meta-analysis of the effectiveness of 3DVT in teaching and learning anatomy compared to all teaching methods. The primary outcomes were scores of anatomy knowledge tests expressed as factual or spatial knowledge percentage means. Secondary outcomes were perception scores of the learners. Thirty-six studies met the inclusion criteria including 28 (78%) randomized studies. Based on 2,226 participants including 2,128 from studies with comparison groups, 3DVTs (1) resulted in higher (d = 0.30, 95%CI: 0.02-0.62) factual knowledge, (2) yielded significant better results (d = 0.50, 95%CI: 0.20-0.80) in spatial knowledge acquisition, and (3) produced significant increase in user satisfaction (d = 0.28, 95%CI = 0.12-0.44) and in learners' perception of the effectiveness of the learning tool (d = 0.28, 95%CI = 0.14-0.43). The total mean scores (out of five) and ±SDs for QUESTS's Quality and Strength dimensions were 4.38 (±SD 1.3) and 3.3 (±SD 1.7), respectively. The results have high internal validity, for the improved outcomes of 3DVTs compared to other methods of anatomy teaching. Given that anatomy teaching and learning in the modern medical school appears to be approaching a crisis, 3DVT can be a potential solution to the problem of inadequate anatomy pedagogy. © 2014 American Association of Anatomists.

  10. The Journal of Anatomy: origin and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morriss-Kay, Gillian

    2016-07-01

    The Journal of Anatomy was launched 150 years ago as the Journal of Anatomy and Physiology, in an age when anatomy and physiology were not regarded as separate disciplines. European science in general was advancing rapidly at the time (it was 7 years after publication of Darwin's Origin of Species), and the recent demise of the Natural History Review meant that there was no English language publication covering these subjects. The founding editors were George Murray Humphry of Cambridge and William Turner of Edinburgh, together with Alfred Newton of Cambridge and Edward Perceval Wright of Dublin (the last two served only for a year). The pivotal event leading to the Journal's foundation was the 1866 meeting of the British Association, at which Humphry delivered the 'Address in Physiology' (printed in the first issue). Turner, who was also present at the 1866 British Association meeting, remained as a member of the editorial team for 50 years and was a major contributor of Journal articles. The title was changed to Journal of Anatomy in October 1916, when it was taken under the wing, in terms of both management and ownership, by the Anatomical Society. This article reviews the early years of the Journal's publication in more detail than later years because of the historical interest of this less familiar material. The subject matter, which has remained surprisingly consistent over the years, is illustrated by examples from some notable contributions. The evolution of illustration techniques is surveyed from 1866 to the present day; the final section provides brief summaries of all of the chief editors. © 2016 Anatomical Society.

  11. Congenital Heart Defects and Coronary Anatomy

    OpenAIRE

    Mawson, John B.

    2002-01-01

    Coronary artery anomalies are a well recognized feature of many cardiac malformations and have been catalogued in a number of reviews. This overview concentrates on 1) the interplay between congenital heart defects and coronary morphogenesis, examining how some of the embryology fits with the experiments of nature encountered in clinical practice; and 2) the influence of coronary anatomy on patient management. This overview uses, as examples, pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum, ...

  12. Clinical anatomy of the periocular region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams, Pari N; Ortiz-Pérez, Santiago; Joshi, Naresh

    2013-08-01

    The aims of this article are twofold: (1) to provide the facial plastic surgeon with a comprehensive and up-to-date overview of periocular anatomy including the brow, midface, and temporal region and (2) to highlight important anatomical relationships that must be appreciated in order to achieve the best possible functional and aesthetic surgical outcomes. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  13. The functional anatomy of forearm rotation

    OpenAIRE

    Lees, Vivien C.

    2009-01-01

    The elbow, forearm and wrist act as a unified structure to provide a stable, strong and highly mobile strut for positioning the hand in space and for conducting load-bearing tasks. An understanding of the relevant anatomy and biomechanics is important for the surgeon assessing and treating disorders of forearm function. This paper is concerned with illuminating the principles and concepts governing forearm rotation and load-bearing functions.

  14. Exercises in anatomy: the normal heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Robert H; Sarwark, Anne; Spicer, Diane E; Backer, Carl L

    2014-01-01

    In the first of our exercises in anatomy, created for the Multimedia Manual of the European Association of Cardiothoracic Surgery, we emphasized that thorough knowledge of intracardiac anatomy was an essential part of the training for all budding cardiac surgeons, explaining how we had used the archive of congenitally malformed hearts maintained at Lurie Children's Hospital in Chicago to prepare a series of videoclips, demonstrating the salient features of tetralogy of Fallot. In this series of videoclips, we extend our analysis of the normal heart, since for our initial exercise we had concentrated exclusively on the structure of the right ventricular outflow tract. We begin our overview of normal anatomy by emphasizing the need, in the current era, to describe the heart in attitudinally appropriate fashion. Increasingly, clinicians are demonstrating the features of the heart as it is located within the body. It is no longer satisfactory, therefore, to describe these components in a 'Valentine' fashion, as continues to be the case in most textbooks of normal or cardiac anatomy. We then emphasize the importance of the so-called morphological method, which states that structures within the heart should be defined on the basis of their own intrinsic morphology, and not according to other parts, which are themselves variable. We continue by using this concept to show how it is the appendages that serve to distinguish between the atrial chambers, while the apical trabecular components provide the features to distinguish the ventricles. We then return to the cardiac chambers, emphasizing features of surgical significance, in particular the locations of the cardiac conduction tissues. We proceed by examining the cardiac valves, and conclude by providing a detailed analysis of the septal structures. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  15. The anatomy of Japan's postwar economic development.

    OpenAIRE

    Tsao, Hsiung Yuan

    1997-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis examines the anatomy of postwar Japanese economic development. It is illustrated by the reform and reconstruction era (1945-52) and those factors which caused the Japanese economy to grow during the 1953-73 period. Furthermore, on the basis of Japanese economic successes, the role of the Japanese in world affairs again became important. However, due to the world experiencing economic inflation and an oil shock after 1974, t...

  16. Radiological anatomy for FRCR. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borg, Philip; Alvi, Abdul Rahman

    2011-01-01

    The new FRCR part 1 Anatomy examination comprises 20 cases/images, with five questions about each. The cases are labelled 01 to 20 and the five questions are labelled (a) to (e). The authors have set out to emulate this format by gathering 200 cases which, from their experience, are representative of the cases on which candidates will be tested. The book consists of 10 tests with 20 cases each, and 5 stem questions each. The answers, along with an explanation and tips, accompany each test at the end of the chapter. This will help candidates to identify the level of anatomical knowledge expected by the Royal College of Radiologists. The aim of this book is not to replace the already available literature in radiological anatomy, but to complement it as a revision guide. Whereas radiological anatomy atlases and textbooks provide images with labels for every possible identifiable structure in an investigation, the cases in this book have only 5 labels, simulating the exam. (orig.)

  17. A radiographic study of pediatric ulnar anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravino, Mattia; Oni, Julius K; Sala, Debra A; Chu, Alice

    2014-01-01

    The adult ulna has a unique bony architecture that has been described in the literature, but, to the best of our knowledge, the ulnar anatomy in children has not been described. We examined 75 anteroposterior (AP) and 64 lateral radiographs (29 were bilateral) of 50, 0.5- to 11-year-old, healthy children's forearms. On AP radiographs, the total ulnar length, the ulnar proximal angle, the ulnar distal angle, and the distance between each angle from the tip of the triceps insertion; and, on lateral radiographs, the ulnar length and bow deviation were measured. The correlation between age and radiographic measurements, differences based on sex, differences compared with adults' measurements, and interobserver/intraobserver reliability were assessed. Age had a very strong/strong positive correlation with length/distance measurements on both AP and lateral radiographs. Only AP ulnar distal angle was significantly different between sexes (females > males). Compared with the adult ulnar studies, the AP proximal angle in children is significantly smaller and the location of this angle is significantly more distal. Interobserver and intraobserver reliability were very good for length/distance measurements on AP and lateral radiographs. The knowledge of pediatric ulnar anatomy could be helpful in the treatment of forearm deformities due to multiple hereditary exostosis and osteogenesis imperfecta, and in the treatment of ulnar fractures, particularly in Monteggia variants, where restoration of the correct forearm anatomy is essential to obtain good clinical and functional results. Study of diagnostic test, Level II.

  18. Tinjauan Anatomi Layout Halaman Republika Epaper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suprayitno Suprayitno

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Communities are increasingly familiar with Internet technology became one of the reasons for the rapid growth of digital newspaper in Indonesia. The ability of the media presents news in brief, fast, accessible and inexpensive form the basis of high growth of consumer interest in digital newspaper / electronic. Technological developments, triggering changes to the newspaper that had shaped the physical print later developed in digital form. In principle, newspaper print and digital newspapers contain messages or the same news, namely providing information to readers about the actual and weighted, as well as other light information that is entertainment. Review the anatomy of the digital newspaper layout is a study to trace and explore what and how the anatomy of a newspaper page layout, at least to provide information and understanding of the anatomy of the layouts in outline. Process layout in the digital version is no different from print media, which distinguishes its output only. In the process to any design layout of a medium, a designer is still expected to possess and master the basic principles such as layout hierarchy, emphasis, balance, and unity. 

  19. Gender preference between traditional and PowerPoint methods of teaching gross anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuhu, Saleh; Adamu, Lawan Hassan; Buba, Mohammed Alhaji; Garba, Sani Hyedima; Dalori, Babagana Mohammed; Yusuf, Ashiru Hassan

    2018-01-01

    Teaching and learning process is increasingly metamorphosing from the traditional chalk and talk to the modern dynamism in the information and communication technology. Medical education is no exception to this dynamism more especially in the teaching of gross anatomy, which serves as one of the bases of understanding the human structure. This study was conducted to determine the gender preference of preclinical medical students on the use of traditional (chalk and talk) and PowerPoint presentation in the teaching of gross anatomy. This was cross-sectional and prospective study, which was conducted among preclinical medical students in the University of Maiduguri, Nigeria. Using simple random techniques, a questionnaire was circulated among 280 medical students, where 247 students filled the questionnaire appropriately. The data obtained was analyzed using SPSS version 20 (IBM Corporation, Armonk, NY, USA) to find the method preferred by the students among other things. Majority of the preclinical medical students in the University of Maiduguri preferred PowerPoint method in the teaching of gross anatomy over the conventional methods. The Cronbach alpha value of 0.76 was obtained which is an acceptable level of internal consistency. A statistically significant association was found between gender and preferred method of lecture delivery on the clarity of lecture content where females prefer the conventional method of lecture delivery whereas males prefer the PowerPoint method, On the reproducibility of text and diagram, females prefer PowerPoint method of teaching gross anatomy while males prefer the conventional method of teaching gross anatomy. There are gender preferences with regard to clarity of lecture contents and reproducibility of text and diagram. It was also revealed from this study that majority of the preclinical medical students in the University of Maiduguri prefer PowerPoint presentation over the traditional chalk and talk method in most of the

  20. Kant on anatomy and the status of the life sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Michael J

    2016-08-01

    This paper contributes to recent interest in Kant's engagement with the life sciences by focusing on one corner of those sciences that has received comparatively little attention: physical and comparative anatomy. By attending to remarks spread across Kant's writings, we gain some insight into Kant's understanding of the disciplinary limitations but also the methodological sophistication of the study of anatomy and physiology. Insofar as Kant highlights anatomy as a paradigmatic science guided by the principle of teleology in the Critique of the Power of Judgment, a more careful study of Kant's discussions of anatomy promises to illuminate some of the obscurities of that text and of his understanding of the life sciences more generally. In the end, it is argued, Kant's ambivalence with regard to anatomy gives way to a pessimistic conclusion about the possibility that anatomy, natural history, and, by extension, the life sciences more generally might one day become true natural sciences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Mandibular second molar exhibiting a unique "Y-" and "J-" "shaped" root canal anatomy diagnosed using cone-beam computed tomographic scanning: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parashar, Saumya-Rajesh; Kowsky, R Dinesh; Natanasabapathy, Velmurugan

    2017-01-01

    This article aims to report a unique case with aberrant root canal anatomy exhibiting "Y-" and "J"-shaped canal pattern in a mandibular second molar. Anatomic complexities may pose challenges for endodontic treatment. Before performing endodontic treatment, the clinician should be aware of the internal anatomy of the tooth being treated and should recognize anatomic aberrations if present. Presence of unusual anatomy may call for modifications in treatment planning. This report describes in detail about a mandibular second molar tooth associated with two paramolar tubercles having a peculiar "Y-" and "J-"shaped canal anatomy detected with the aid of cone beam computed tomography, which has never been reported in the dental literature. The proposed treatment protocol for the endodontic management of the same has also been discussed.

  2. Procedure Oriented Torsional Anatomy of the Forearm for Spasticity Injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou-Tan, Faye; Cianca, John; John, Joslyn; Furr-Stimming, Erin; Pandit, Sindhu; Taber, Katherine H

    2015-01-01

    : This is the second in a series of articles related to the concept of "torsional" anatomy. The objective of this article is to provide musculoskeletal ultrasound (MSKUS) anatomy of the forearm in the position of hemispastic flexion as a reference relevant to needle procedures. The MSKUS images were obtained in a healthy human subject. Marker dots were placed over common injection sites in the forearm for spasticity. The MSKUS probe was centered over each dot to obtain a cross-sectional view. A pair of MSKUS images was recorded for each site: the first in anatomic neutral and second in hemiparetic spastic position. The images were compared side to side. In addition, a video recording was made at each site to track the movement of the muscles and nerves during internal rotation. The pronator teres (PT) rotated medially and the brachialis and biceps tendon rotated in view. In addition, the median nerve became more superficial. The flexor carpi radialis rotated medially and was replaced by PT and the median nerve. The flexor carpi ulnaris and flexor digitorum profundus rotated medially and were replaced by the flexor carpi radialis, PT and median nerve. The flexor digitorum superficialis was replaced by the brachioradialis, extensor carpi radialis brevis, and radial nerve. The brachioradialis was replaced by the extensor carpi radialis brevis and extensor digitorum communis. Intended muscle targets rotate out of view and injection range. These are replaced by other muscles and nerves that could inadvertently be injected. This potentially could result in both increased complications and decreased efficacy of the procedure. It is hoped that this series of images will increase the accuracy and safety of needle placement for spasticity injections in the forearm.

  3. Functional anatomy of the sleep-wakefulness cycle: wakefulness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinoso-Suárez, Fernando; de Andrés, Isabel; Garzón, Miguel

    2011-01-01

    Sleep is a necessary, diverse, periodic, and an active condition circadian and homeostatically regulated and precisely meshed with waking time into the sleep-wakefulness cycle (SWC). Photic retinal stimulation modulates the suprachiasmatic nucleus, which acts as the pacemaker for SWC rhythmicity. Both the light period and social cues adjust the internal clock, making the SWC a circadian, 24-h period in the adult human. Bioelectrical and behavioral parameters characterize the different phases of the SWC. For a long time, lesions and electrical stimulation of brain structures, as well as connection studies, were the main methods used to decipher the foundations of the functional anatomy of the SWC. That is why the first section of this review presents these early historical studies to then discuss the current state of our knowledge based on our understanding of the functional anatomy of the structures underlying the SWC. Supported by this description, we then present a detailed review and update of the structures involved in the phase of wakefulness (W), including their morphological, functional, and chemical characteristics, as well as their anatomical connections. The structures for W generation are known as the "ascending reticular activating system", and they keep and maintain the "thalamo-cerebral cortex unit" awake. This system originates from the neuronal groups located within the brainstem, hypothalamus, and basal forebrain, which use known neurotransmitters and whose neurons are more active during W than during the other SWC states. Thus, synergies among several of these neurotransmitters are necessary to generate the cortical and thalamic activation that is characteristic of the W state, with all the plastic qualities and nuances present in its different behavioral circumstances. Each one of the neurotransmitters exerts powerful influences on the information and cognitive processes as well as attentional, emotional, motivational, behavioral, and arousal

  4. Stereopsis, Visuospatial Ability, and Virtual Reality in Anatomy Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Luursema, Jan-Maarten; Vorstenbosch, Marc; Kooloos, Jan

    2017-01-01

    A new wave of virtual reality headsets has become available. A potential benefit for the study of human anatomy is the reintroduction of stereopsis and absolute size. We report a randomized controlled trial to assess the contribution of stereopsis to anatomy learning, for students of different visuospatial ability. Sixty-three participants engaged in a one-hour session including a study phase and posttest. One group studied 3D models of the anatomy of the deep neck in full stereoptic virtual ...

  5. William, a voxel model of child anatomy from tomographic images for Monte Carlo dosimetry calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caon, M.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Medical imaging provides two-dimensional pictures of the human internal anatomy from which may be constructed a three-dimensional model of organs and tissues suitable for calculation of dose from radiation. Diagnostic CT provides the greatest exposure to radiation per examination and the frequency of CT examination is high. Esti mates of dose from diagnostic radiography are still determined from data derived from geometric models (rather than anatomical models), models scaled from adult bodies (rather than bodies of children) and CT scanner hardware that is no longer used. The aim of anatomical modelling is to produce a mathematical representation of internal anatomy that has organs of realistic size, shape and positioning. The organs and tissues are represented by a great many cuboidal volumes (voxels). The conversion of medical images to voxels is called segmentation and on completion every pixel in an image is assigned to a tissue or organ. Segmentation is time consuming. An image processing pack age is used to identify organ boundaries in each image. Thirty to forty tomographic voxel models of anatomy have been reported in the literature. Each model is of an individual, or a composite from several individuals. Images of children are particularly scarce. So there remains a need for more paediatric anatomical models. I am working on segmenting ''William'' who is 368 PET-CT images from head to toe of a seven year old boy. William will be used for Monte Carlo dose calculations of dose from CT examination using a simulated modern CT scanner.

  6. MR imaging of brain surface structures: Surface anatomy scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katada, K.; Koga, S.; Asahina, M.; Kanno, T.; Asahina, K.

    1987-01-01

    Preoperative evaluation of brain surface anatomy, including cortical sulci and veins, relative to cerebral and cerebellar lesions is an important subject for surgeons. Until now, no imaging modality existed that allowed direct visualization of brain surface anatomy. A new MR imaging technique (surface anatomy scanning) was developed to visualize brain surface structures. The technique uses a spin-echo pulse sequence with long repetition and echo times, thick sections and a surface coil. Cortical sulci, fissures, veins, and intracranial lesions were clearly identified with this technique. Initial clinical results indicate that surface anatomy scanning is useful for lesion localization and for detailed evaluation of cortical and subcortical lesions

  7. Relevance of human anatomy in daily clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arráez-Aybar, Luis-Alfonso; Sánchez-Montesinos, Indalecio; Mirapeix, Rosa-M; Mompeo-Corredera, Blanca; Sañudo-Tejero, Jose-Ramón

    2010-12-20

    the aim of this study has been to evaluate the relevance of gross human anatomy in daily clinical practice and to compare it to that of other basic sciences (biochemistry, bioethics, cytohistology, microbiology, pharmacology, physiology, psychology). a total of 1250 questionnaires were distributed among 38 different medical speciality professionals. Answers were analyzed taking into account speciality (medical, surgery and others), professional status (training physician or staff member) and professional experience. the response rate was 42.9% (n=536). Gross human anatomy was considered the most relevant basic discipline for surgical specialists, while pharmacology and physiology were most relevant for medical specialists. Knowledge of anatomy was also considered fundamental for understanding neurological or musculoskeletal disorders. In undergraduate programmes, the most important focuses in teaching anatomy were radiological, topographical and functional anatomy followed by systematic anatomy. In daily medical practice anatomy was considered basic for physical examination, symptom interpretation and interpretation of radiological images. When professional status or professional experience was considered, small variations were shown and there were no significant differences related to gender or community. our results underline the relevance of basic sciences (gross anatomy, physiology, and pharmacology) in daily professional activity. Evidence-based studies such as ours, lend greater credibility and objectivity to the role of gross anatomy in the undergraduate training of health professionals and should help to establish a more appropriate curriculum for future professionals. 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Teaching medical anatomy: what is the role of imaging today?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grignon, Bruno; Oldrini, Guillaume; Walter, Frédéric

    2016-03-01

    Medical anatomy instruction has been an important issue of debate for many years and imaging anatomy has become an increasingly important component in the field, the role of which has not yet been clearly defined. The aim of the paper was to assess the current deployment of medical imaging in the teaching of anatomy by means of a review of the literature. A systematic search was performed using the electronic database PubMed, ScienceDirect and various publisher databases, with combinations of the relevant MeSH terms. A manual research was added. In most academic curricula, imaging anatomy has been integrated as a part of anatomical education, taught using a very wide variety of strategies. Considerable variation in the time allocation, content and delivery of medical imaging in teaching human anatomy was identified. Given this considerable variation, an objective assessment remains quite difficult. In most publications, students' perceptions regarding anatomical courses including imaging anatomy were investigated by means of questionnaires and, regardless of the method of teaching, it was globally concluded that imaging anatomy enhanced the quality and efficiency of instruction in human anatomy. More objective evaluation based on an increase in students' performance on course examinations or on specific tests performed before and after teaching sessions showed positive results in numerous cases, while mixed results were also indicated by other studies. A relative standardization could be useful in improving the teaching of imaging anatomy, to facilitate its assessment and reinforce its effectiveness.

  9. [Scholarships for a science in crisis: the JAE as sponsor for macroscopic anatomy (1912-1931)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco Morgado, Raúl

    2010-01-01

    Beside the creation of national research institutions, the patronage work of the JAE (through scholarships and recognition given to Spanish scientists in the first third of the 20th century) was important in opening the door to the silver age of Spanish science. In the morphologic sciences, macroscopic anatomy was an almost closed science and in crisis with regard to the microscopic sciences and embryology. Despite this setting, the JAE chose to promote this science, importing European anatomical pedagogy and including the technologies and philosophy of the new dynamic anatomy under way on the continent. In this paper, we analyze the grantholders listed in the JAE archives and the studies that they published by them. We conclude that the utilization of these grants played an important role in promoting the international exchange necessary for the reform of a science in crisis, with anatomical pedagogy and technology being the major protagonists of this renewal.

  10. Gross anatomy and ultrasonographic images of the reproductive system of the Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilia, K; Rosnina, Y; Abd Wahid, H; Zahari, Z Z; Abraham, M

    2010-12-01

    The Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus) is the largest among the four tapir species and is listed as an endangered species. Ultrasound examination and description of the external anatomy of the female reproductive system of three adult females were performed, whereas the internal anatomy was investigated in necropsied samples of four adult females and one subadult female. Descriptions of the male external genitalia were conducted on one adult male. Gross examination revealed the presence of a bicornuate uterus. The uterine cervix is firm and muscular with projections towards its lumen, which is also evident on ultrasonography. The elongated and relatively small ovaries, which have a smooth surface, could not be imaged on ultrasonography, due to their anatomical position. The testes are located inside a slightly pendulous scrotum that is sparsely covered with soft, short hairs. The penis has one dorsal and two lateral penile projections just proximal to the glans penis. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. The need for more workshops in laparoscopic surgery and surgical anatomy for European gynaecological oncology trainees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manchanda, Ranjit; Halaska, Michael J; Piek, Jurgen M

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to highlight the relative preference of European gynecologic oncology trainees for workshops that could support and supplement their training needs. METHODS: A Web-based survey was sent to 900 trainees on the European Network of Young Gynaecological...... to the survey, giving a 21% response rate. The 3 most important topics reported were laparoscopic surgery; surgical anatomy, and imaging techniques in gynecologic oncology. The Dendron plot indicated 4 different clusters of workshops (research related skills, supportive ancillary skills, related nonsurgical...... questionnaire was 0.78, which suggests good internal consistency/reliability. CONCLUSIONS: This report for the first time highlights the relative importance and significance European trainees attach to some of their training needs in gynecologic oncology. Laparoscopic surgery, surgical anatomy, and imaging...

  12. Atlas of fetal sectional anatomy with ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaacson, G.; Mintz, M.C.; Crelin, E.S.

    1986-01-01

    Here is an atlas of sectional anatomy for the fetus featuring correlated anatomy and imaging, transverse coronal and sagittal views, a guide to development of the brain, cardiac anatomy in standard plans of study and, over 280 illustrations

  13. Evaluation of an innovative hands-on anatomy-centered ultrasound curriculum to supplement graduate gross anatomy education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer, Danielle F; Kessler, Ross; Stowell, Jeffrey R

    2017-07-01

    Ultrasound (US) can enhance anatomy education, yet is incorporated into few non-medical anatomy programs. This study is the first to evaluate the impact of US training in gross anatomy for non-medical students in the United States. All 32 master's students enrolled in gross anatomy with the anatomy-centered ultrasound (ACUS) curriculum were recruited. Mean Likert ratings on pre- and post-course surveys (100% response rates) were compared to evaluate the effectiveness of the ACUS curriculum in developing US confidence, and gauge its impact on views of US. Post-course, students reported significantly higher (P education and to students' future careers remained positive after the course. End-of-semester quiz performance (91% response rate) provided data on educational outcomes. The average score was 79%, with a 90% average on questions about distinguishing tissues/artifacts, demonstrating positive learning outcomes and retention. The anatomy-centered ultrasound curriculum significantly increased confidence with and knowledge of US among non-medical anatomy students with limited prior training. Non-medical students greatly value the contributions that US makes to anatomy education and to their future careers. It is feasible to enhance anatomy education outside of medical training by incorporating US. Anat Sci Educ 10: 348-362. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  14. "Anatomy lesson of Frederik Ruysch" of 1670: a tribute to Ruysch's contributions to lymphatic anatomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ijpma, Frank F. A.; van Gulik, Thomas M.

    2013-01-01

    Frederick Ruysch was one of the most prominent Dutch physicians of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. For more than 65 years, he was the Praelector Anatomiae (Lecturer of Anatomy) of the Amsterdam Guild of Surgeons. During his career, he conducted many dissections at the guild's theatre to

  15. A reappraisal of adult abdominal surface anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirjalili, S Ali; McFadden, Sara L; Buckenham, Tim; Stringer, Mark D

    2012-10-01

    Descriptions of clinically important surface landmarks often vary between and within contemporary anatomical texts. The aim of this study was to investigate the surface anatomy of major abdominal vessels, kidneys, spleen, gastroesophageal junction, and duodenojejunal flexure in living adults using computed tomography (CT). After excluding patients with distorting space-occupying lesions, scoliosis, abnormal lordosis, and obvious visceromegaly, 108 abdominal CT scans of supine adults (mean age 60 years, range 18-97 years; 64 female) at end tidal inspiration were available for analysis by dual consensus reporting. Intra-observer agreement was assessed by repeat blind assessment of a random sample of scans. The vertebral level of the aortic bifurcation and almost all of its major branches, and the origin of the inferior vena cava were consistent with current descriptions. Important differences from contemporary descriptions of surface anatomy were as follows: the renal arteries were most commonly at the L1 vertebral level (left 55%, right 43%); the midpoint of the renal hila was most frequently at L2 (left 68%, right 40%); the 11th rib was a posterior relation of the left kidney in only 28% of scans; and the spleen was most frequently located between the 10th and 12th ribs (48%) with its long axis in line with the 11th rib (55%). Although the majority of vascular surface landmarks are consistent with standard descriptions, the surface anatomy of the kidneys, renal arteries, and spleen needs to be revised in accordance with observations using modern imaging techniques in vivo. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. The subscapularis: anatomy, injury, and imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morag, Yoav; Jamadar, David A.; Dong, Qian; Jacobson, Jon A. [University of Michigan, Department of Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Miller, Bruce [University of Michigan, Department of Orthopaedics, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2011-03-15

    The subscapularis is the largest and most powerful of the rotator cuff muscles and fulfills an important role in glenohumeral movement and stability. The spectrum and implications of subscapularis muscle or tendon injury differ from injury to other rotator cuff components because of its unique structure and function. Diagnosing subscapularis injury is clinically difficult and assessment of subscapularis integrity may be limited during arthroscopy or open surgery. Diagnostic imaging plays an important part in diagnosing and evaluating the extent of subscapularis injury. The radiologist should be aware of the anatomy of the subscapularis, the variations in muscle or tendon injury, and the potential implications for treatment and prognosis. (orig.)

  17. An imaging atlas of human anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weir, J.; Abrahams, P.H.

    1993-01-01

    The atlas presents pictures obtained by the various imaging techniques, showing the normal anatomy of the various body regions in healthy adults. The pictures are the major information given, accompanying texts are reduced to captions giving the Latin names of important anatomic details or a brief introduction each to the fundamental characteristics of the imaging methods used, as e.g. angiography, computerized tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and ultrasonography. The atlas is a key source of reference and a guide in interpreting radiographs. The material is arranged in chapters according to the body regions of interest: Head, neck, brain; spine and spinal cord; upper extremities; thorax; abdomen; pelvis; lower extremities. (UWA) [de

  18. Interactive videodisk atlas of knee anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEnery, K.W.; Woods, J.W.; Glenn, W.F.; Rauschning, W.

    1987-01-01

    An interactive, computer-assisted atlas of knee anatomy has been developed. MR and CT images from normal volunteers and cryomicrotomed anatomic images were recorded on a laser viodeodisk. Computer software allows movement through the knee and correlation of radiographic images in the coronal, axial, and sagittal planes. Computer graphics are superimposed on the videodisk images. A high-resolution color graphics, touch-screen monitor is included in the computer system. Learning modules allow for rapid identification of specific structure by touching their location on the screen. Computer-created testing modules are available that provide for self-assessment

  19. The subscapularis: anatomy, injury, and imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morag, Yoav; Jamadar, David A.; Dong, Qian; Jacobson, Jon A.; Miller, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    The subscapularis is the largest and most powerful of the rotator cuff muscles and fulfills an important role in glenohumeral movement and stability. The spectrum and implications of subscapularis muscle or tendon injury differ from injury to other rotator cuff components because of its unique structure and function. Diagnosing subscapularis injury is clinically difficult and assessment of subscapularis integrity may be limited during arthroscopy or open surgery. Diagnostic imaging plays an important part in diagnosing and evaluating the extent of subscapularis injury. The radiologist should be aware of the anatomy of the subscapularis, the variations in muscle or tendon injury, and the potential implications for treatment and prognosis. (orig.)

  20. Improved understanding of human anatomy through self-guided radiological anatomy modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Andrew W; Smith, Sandy G; Ross, Callum F; Straus, Christopher M

    2012-07-01

    To quantifiably measure the impact of self-instructed radiological anatomy modules on anatomy comprehension, demonstrated by radiology, gross, and written exams. Study guides for independent use that emphasized structural relationships were created for use with two online radiology atlases. A guide was created for each module of the first year medical anatomy course and incorporated as an optional course component. A total of 93 of 96 eligible students participated. All exams were normalized to control for variances in exam difficulty and body region tested. An independent t-test was used to compare overall exam scores with respect to guide completion or incompletion. To account for aptitude differences between students, a paired t-test of each student's exam scores with and without completion of the associated guide was performed, thus allowing students to serve as their own controls. Twenty-one students completed no study guides; 22 completed all six guides; and 50 students completed between one and five guides. Aggregate comparisons of all students' exam scores showed significantly improved mean performance when guides were used (radiology, 57.8% [percentile] vs. 45.1%, P < .001; gross, 56.9% vs. 46.5%, P = .001; written, 57.8% vs. 50.2%, P = .011). Paired comparisons among students who completed between one and five guides demonstrated significantly higher mean practical exam scores when guides were used (radiology, 49.3% [percentile] vs. 36.0%, P = .001; gross, 51.5% vs. 40.4%, P = .005), but not higher written scores. Radiological anatomy study guides significantly improved anatomy comprehension on radiology, gross, and written exams. Copyright © 2012 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Medical Student Perceptions of Radiology Use in Anatomy Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kevin P.; Crush, Lee; O'Malley, Eoin; Daly, Fergus E.; Twomey, Maria; O'Tuathaigh, Colm M. P.; Maher, Michael M.; Cryan, John F.; O'Connor, Owen J.

    2015-01-01

    The use of radiology in the teaching of anatomy to medical students is gaining in popularity; however, there is wide variation in how and when radiology is introduced into the curriculum. The authors sought to investigate students' perceptions regarding methods used to depict and teach anatomy and effects of integrated radiology instruction on…

  2. Teaching Anatomy in the XXI Century: New Aspects and Pitfalls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Papa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Anatomy has historically been a cornerstone in medical education regardless of nation, racial background, or medical school system. By learning gross anatomy, medical students get a first “impression” about the structure of the human body which is the basis for understanding pathologic and clinical problems. Although the importance of teaching anatomy to both undergraduate and postgraduate students remains undisputed, there is currently a relevant debate concerning methods of anatomy teaching. In the past century, dissection and lectures were its sole pedagogy worldwide. Recently, the time allocated for anatomy teaching was dramatically reduced to such an extent that some suggest that it has fallen below an adequate standard. Traditional anatomy education based on topographical structural anatomy taught in lectures and gross dissection classes has been replaced by a multiple range of study modules, including problem-based learning, plastic models or computer-assisted learning, and curricula integration. “Does the anatomical theatre still have a place in medical education?” And “what is the problem with anatomic specimens?” We endeavor to answer both of these questions and to contribute to the debate on the current situation in undergraduate and graduate anatomy education.

  3. The Anatomy Lecture Then and Now: A Foucauldian Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Norm; Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2014-01-01

    Although there are many points of continuity, there are also a number of changes in the pedagogical form of the anatomy lecture over the longue durée, over centuries of epistemic change, rather than over years or decades. The article begins with an analysis of the physical and technical arrangements of the early modern anatomy lecture, showing how…

  4. The anatomy lessons of the Amsterdam Guild of Surgeons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJpma, F.F.A.

    2014-01-01

    Mandatory lessons in anatomy, taught by the praelector anatomiae (lecturer in anatomy) of the Amsterdam Guild of Surgeons, were an important part of the surgical training starting in the 16th century. We describe how surgeons were trained approximately 350 years ago at the Surgeons’ Guild. The role

  5. Medical Students' Perspective on Current and Future Training in Anatomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Triepels, C.P.R.; Koppes, D.M.; Kuijk, S.M.J. Van; Popeijus, H.E.; Lamers, W.H.; Gorp, T. Van; Futterer, J.J.; Kruitwagen, R.; Notten, K.J.B.

    2018-01-01

    Gaining sufficient knowledge of anatomy is an important part of medical education. Factors that influence how well students learn anatomical structures include available sources, learning time and study assistance. This study explores the attitude of medical students with regard to studying anatomy

  6. Anatomy in Occupational Therapy Program Curriculum: Practitioners' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Katherine Anne

    2014-01-01

    Anatomy education is undergoing significant transformation. It is unknown whether changes are in accordance with occupational therapy (OT) practice needs. The purpose of this pilot study was to survey OT clinicians to determine their perspectives on the value of anatomy in OT curricula, and anatomical knowledge required for practice. In addition…

  7. YouTube: An Emerging Tool in Anatomy Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffar, Akram Abood

    2012-01-01

    The use of online social networks in medical education can remodel and enhance anatomy teaching and learning; one such network is the video-sharing site YouTube. Limited research in the literature exists on the use of YouTube as a platform for anatomy education. The aim of this study is to assess student's perceptions and patterns of usage of this…

  8. Anatomy Education for the YouTube Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Denis S.; Marzouk, Fadi; Chulak-Oglu, Kyrylo; Bennett, Deirdre; Tierney, Paul; O'Keeffe, Gerard W.

    2016-01-01

    Anatomy remains a cornerstone of medical education despite challenges that have seen a significant reduction in contact hours over recent decades; however, the rise of the "YouTube Generation" or "Generation Connected" (Gen C), offers new possibilities for anatomy education. Gen C, which consists of 80% Millennials, actively…

  9. Human Anatomy: Let the Students Tell Us How to Teach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Christopher R.; Bates, Anthony S.; Ellis, Harold; Roberts, Alice M.

    2014-01-01

    Anatomy teaching methods have evolved as the medical undergraduate curriculum has modernized. Traditional teaching methods of dissection, prosection, tutorials and lectures are now supplemented by anatomical models and e-learning. Despite these changes, the preferences of medical students and anatomy faculty towards both traditional and…

  10. The art of human anatomy: Renaissance to 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hee, Robrecht; Wells, F C; Ballestriero, Roberta; Richardson, Ruth; Mazzarello, Paolo; Cani, Valentina; Catani, Marco

    2014-01-01

    This session examines the relationship between the art and science of anatomy from the time of Vesalius to the present with particular emphasis on the role of the medical artist and the changing nature of anatomical illustration over the last five centuries. Pivotal changes in the art of anatomy will be examined including the evolution of media and brain imaging from Golgi to Geschwind.

  11. Stereopsis, Visuospatial Ability, and Virtual Reality in Anatomy Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luursema, J.M.; Vorstenbosch, M.A.; Kooloos, J.G.M.

    2017-01-01

    A new wave of virtual reality headsets has become available. A potential benefit for the study of human anatomy is the reintroduction of stereopsis and absolute size. We report a randomized controlled trial to assess the contribution of stereopsis to anatomy learning, for students of different

  12. The mouse-human anatomy ontology mapping project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayamizu, Terry F; de Coronado, Sherri; Fragoso, Gilberto; Sioutos, Nicholas; Kadin, James A; Ringwald, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The overall objective of the Mouse-Human Anatomy Project (MHAP) was to facilitate the mapping and harmonization of anatomical terms used for mouse and human models by Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI) and the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The anatomy resources designated for this study were the Adult Mouse Anatomy (MA) ontology and the set of anatomy concepts contained in the NCI Thesaurus (NCIt). Several methods and software tools were identified and evaluated, then used to conduct an in-depth comparative analysis of the anatomy ontologies. Matches between mouse and human anatomy terms were determined and validated, resulting in a highly curated set of mappings between the two ontologies that has been used by other resources. These mappings will enable linking of data from mouse and human. As the anatomy ontologies have been expanded and refined, the mappings have been updated accordingly. Insights are presented into the overall process of comparing and mapping between ontologies, which may prove useful for further comparative analyses and ontology mapping efforts, especially those involving anatomy ontologies. Finally, issues concerning further development of the ontologies, updates to the mapping files, and possible additional applications and significance were considered. DATABASE URL: http://obofoundry.org/cgi-bin/detail.cgi?id=ma2ncit.

  13. Comparative leaf anatomy of Kokoona and Lophopetalum (Celastraceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, W.T.; Baas, P.

    1973-01-01

    The leaf anatomy of Kokoona and Lophopetalum is described in detail. Separation of the two genera as effectuated by Hou (1963) is supported by differences in vascular anatomy of the distal end of the petiole, which is invariably more complex in Lophopetalum than in Kokoona. Other differential

  14. Systematic wood anatomy of the tribe Guettardeae (Rubiaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welle, ter B.J.H.; Loureiro, A.A.; Lisboa, P.L.B.; Koek-Noorman, J.

    1983-01-01

    Systematic wood anatomy of the tribe Guettardeae (Rubiaceae). The wood anatomy of nearly all genera of the Guettardeae (Rubiaceae, Guettardoideae) has been examined, and in this respect the tribe is heterogeneous. Suggestions are made for a delimitation of the tribe. Guettarda, Bobea, Antirhea,

  15. Anatomy Education in Namibia: Balancing Facility Design and Curriculum Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessels, Quenton; Vorster, Willie; Jacobson, Christian

    2012-01-01

    The anatomy curriculum at Namibia's first, and currently only, medical school is clinically oriented, outcome-based, and includes all of the components of modern anatomical sciences i.e., histology, embryology, neuroanatomy, gross, and clinical anatomy. The design of the facilities and the equipment incorporated into these facilities were directed…

  16. Surgical anatomy of greater occipital nerve and its relation to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: The knowledge of the anatomy of greater occipital nerve and its relation to occipital artery is important for the surgeon. Blockage or surgical release of greater occipital nerve is clinically effective in reducing or eliminating chronic migraine symptoms. Aim: The aim of this research was to study the anatomy of ...

  17. Student Perceptions to Teaching Undergraduate Anatomy in Health Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderton, Ryan S.; Chiu, Li Shan; Aulfrey, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Anatomy and physiology teaching has undergone significant changes to keep up with advances in technology and to cater for a wide array of student specific learning approaches. This paper examines perceptions towards a variety of teaching instruments, techniques, and innovations used in the delivery and teaching of anatomy and physiology for health…

  18. Anatomy of the female reproductive system of Rusa deer ( Rusa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study aims to present baseline data on the reproductive anatomy of a poorly known tropical deer species, Rusa deer (Rusa timorensis). The anatomy of female reproductive system is described using seven uniparous hinds, aged between four and eight years. The various reproductive structures were studied via ...

  19. Student Perspectives of Imaging Anatomy in Undergraduate Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Jorge Americo Dinis; Barbosa, Joselina Maria Pinto; Ferreira, Maria Amelia Duarte

    2013-01-01

    Radiological imaging is gaining relevance in the acquisition of competencies in clinical anatomy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the perceptions of medical students on teaching/learning of imaging anatomy as an integrated part of anatomical education. A questionnaire was designed to evaluate the perceptions of second-year students…

  20. The normal anatomy of the pulmonary hili on computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stark, P.

    1982-01-01

    The diagnosis of abnormalities in the hili by computed tomography may be difficult. A thorough knowledge of normal cross-sectional anatomy is necessary. The hilar anatomy on cross sections is described in detail and illustrated by appropriate cuts. (orig.) [de

  1. Fostering improved anatomy and physiology instructor pedagogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattheis, Allison; Jensen, Murray

    2014-12-01

    Despite widespread calls for reform in undergraduate science, technology, engineering, and mathematics education, effecting lasting change in instructor practice is challenging to achieve. This article describes the results of a 2-yr research study that involved efforts to develop the pedagogical expertise of a group of anatomy and physiology instructors at the college level. Data were collected through a series of individual interviews that included the use of the Teacher Beliefs Inventory questionnaire (23) along with observations onsite in participants' college classrooms and at process-oriented guided inquiry learning (POGIL) curriculum writing workshops. Findings indicated attitudinal shifts on the part of participants from teacher-centered to more student-centered pedagogy and supported the benefits of long-term professional development for instructors. Here, we documented the successful progress of these professors as they participated in a curriculum development process that emphasized student-centered teaching with the goal of promoting broader change efforts in introductory anatomy and physiology. Copyright © 2014 The American Physiological Society.

  2. Personalized augmented reality for anatomy education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Meng; Fallavollita, Pascal; Seelbach, Ina; Von Der Heide, Anna Maria; Euler, Ekkehard; Waschke, Jens; Navab, Nassir

    2016-05-01

    Anatomy education is a challenging but vital element in forming future medical professionals. In this work, a personalized and interactive augmented reality system is developed to facilitate education. This system behaves as a "magic mirror" which allows personalized in-situ visualization of anatomy on the user's body. Real-time volume visualization of a CT dataset creates the illusion that the user can look inside their body. The system comprises a RGB-D sensor as a real-time tracking device to detect the user moving in front of a display. In addition, the magic mirror system shows text information, medical images, and 3D models of organs that the user can interact with. Through the participation of 7 clinicians and 72 students, two user studies were designed to respectively assess the precision and acceptability of the magic mirror system for education. The results of the first study demonstrated that the average precision of the augmented reality overlay on the user body was 0.96 cm, while the results of the second study indicate 86.1% approval for the educational value of the magic mirror, and 91.7% approval for the augmented reality capability of displaying organs in three dimensions. The usefulness of this unique type of personalized augmented reality technology has been demonstrated in this paper. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Cardiovascular anatomy and physiology in the female.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingate, S

    1997-12-01

    Important differences in male and female cardiovascular anatomy and physiology may account for many of the gender differences seen in various cardiac disease states. Predominant influences on female disease manifestations include (1) women's smaller body size, hence smaller hearts and smaller coronary vessels and (2) women's fluctuating levels of estrogen throughout their lifespan. Understanding these critical anatomic and physiologic differences allows the clinician to better predict and plan care for women. For example, knowing that women generally have a smaller body surface area than men allows one to better understand why men have higher creatine kinase (CK) values than do women--an important distinction when interpreting these values in the acute care setting. The fact that women's hearts and coronary vessels are generally smaller than men's also helps one understand why women have a higher in-hospital mortality than men post-coronary artery bypass graft surgery (see article by Allen in this issue for more detailed information on revascularization). These are only a few examples of the many opportunities that acute care nurses have to integrate their knowledge of anatomy and physiology into proactive planning for their female cardiac patients.

  4. Anatomy and function: PET-CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajander, Sami; Saraste, Antti; Ukkonen, Heikki; Knuuti, Juhani

    2010-05-01

    CT coronary angiography and perfusion PET form an attractive combination to study coronary artery lesions and their consequences in patients with coronary artery disease. Whereas CT provides non-invasive assessment of coronary lumen and wall, PET perfusion is a reliable method for the evaluation of myocardial flow. CT, although very capable of ruling out significant coronary artery disease, is less than satisfactory in assessing the actual significance of the detected lesions. PET imaging, despite its excellent sensitivity, fails to describe the exact anatomy of the epicardial vessels. By fusing image data from these two modalities, lesions can be accurately correlated with their physiological or anatomical counterparts. Hybrid PET-CT devices, now in wide clinical use, allow such fusion in a one-stop-shop study. Although still seeking its place in clinical scenarios, growing evidence suggests that hybrid PET-CT imaging of coronary anatomy and myocardial perfusion can accurately - and non-invasively - assess the existence and degree of coronary artery disease.

  5. Virtual Reality Educational Tool for Human Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izard, Santiago González; Juanes Méndez, Juan A; Palomera, Pablo Ruisoto

    2017-05-01

    Virtual Reality is becoming widespread in our society within very different areas, from industry to entertainment. It has many advantages in education as well, since it allows visualizing almost any object or going anywhere in a unique way. We will be focusing on medical education, and more specifically anatomy, where its use is especially interesting because it allows studying any structure of the human body by placing the user inside each one. By allowing virtual immersion in a body structure such as the interior of the cranium, stereoscopic vision goggles make these innovative teaching technologies a powerful tool for training in all areas of health sciences. The aim of this study is to illustrate the teaching potential of applying Virtual Reality in the field of human anatomy, where it can be used as a tool for education in medicine. A Virtual Reality Software was developed as an educational tool. This technological procedure is based entirely on software which will run in stereoscopic goggles to give users the sensation of being in a virtual environment, clearly showing the different bones and foramina which make up the cranium, and accompanied by audio explanations. Throughout the results the structure of the cranium is described in detailed from both inside and out. Importance of an exhaustive morphological knowledge of cranial fossae is further discussed. Application for the design of microsurgery is also commented.

  6. Microsurgical anatomy of the abducens nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Wonil; Yoshioka, Fumitaka; Funaki, Takeshi; Rhoton, Albert L

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study is to demonstrate and review the detailed microsurgical anatomy of the abducens nerve and surrounding structures along its entire course and to provide its topographic measurements. Ten cadaveric heads were examined using ×3 to ×40 magnification after the arteries and veins were injected with colored silicone. Both sides of each cadaveric head were dissected using different skull base approaches to demonstrate the entire course of the abducens nerve from the pontomedullary sulcus to the lateral rectus muscle. The anatomy of the petroclival area and the cavernous sinus through which the abducens nerve passes are complex due to the high density of critically important neural and vascular structures. The abducens nerve has angulations and fixation points along its course that put the nerve at risk in many clinical situations. From a surgical viewpoint, the petrous tubercle of the petrous apex is an intraoperative landmark to avoid damage to the abducens nerve. The abducens nerve is quite different from the other nerves. No other cranial nerve has a long intradural path with angulations and fixations such as the abducens nerve in petroclival venous confluence. A precise knowledge of the relationship between the abducens nerve and surrounding structures has allowed neurosurgeon to approach the clivus, petroclival area, cavernous sinus, and superior orbital fissure without surgical complications. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Perceptions of cadaveric dissection in anatomy teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naz, Saima; Nazir, Ghazala; Iram, Samia; Mohammad, Malik; Umair; Qari, Iftikhar Hussain; Mohammad, Shaheen

    2011-01-01

    Anatomy professors world over are lamenting about medical students' lack of interest in dissections and its diminishing utilisation in medical studies. The objective of our study was to find out the reasons why some of the Pakistani medical students were avoiding dissections. We conducted this study in 5 medical colleges of Pakistan from Dec 2010-Oct 2011. Questionnaires were prepared and administered to more than 500 Pakistani medical students, at least 6 months after their first cadaver dissecting session. Mostly 1st and 2nd year medical students participated in this study. Around 43% students have actually performed dissections in some form, whereas around 57% had never touched the cadaver. Further evaluation of these results revealed that out of 57% of students, 45% avoided dissection due to bad smell of formaldehyde, 37% due to moral/ethical grounds, 22% due to low motivation and respect of human body, 19.4% due to anxiety, 18.6% due to religious reason, 16% due to fear, asthma and emotional reaction, 9.4% due to toxic chemical, 8.6% due to laziness and 7% due to nightmares. In spite of availability of required number of cadavers in all 5 medical colleges and a clear realisation amongst the students that dissecting cadaver is an effective way of learning anatomy; majority of students were not very keen and had therefore not performed dissection even once.

  8. Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam

    Medline Plus

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  9. Designing Anatomy Program in Modern Medical Curriculum: Matter of Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grković, Ivica; Marinović Guić, Maja; Košta, Vana; Poljičanin, Ana; Čarić, Ana; Vilović, Katarina

    2009-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the structure of the anatomy program in the first year medical curriculum of University of Split School of Medicine by comparing it with the recommendations by the Educational Affairs Committee of the American Association of Clinical Anatomists (AACA) and the Terminologia Anatomica (TA); we also quantitatively evaluated the organization of teaching material in contemporary topographical anatomy textbooks and matched them with the AACA recommendations, TA, and the curriculum of the anatomy course taught at Medical School in Split, Croatia. Methods TA, official recommendations of the AACA, 6 contemporary anatomy textbooks, and the structure of the anatomy course were analyzed for the proportion of the terms or text devoted to standard topographical regions of the body. The findings were correlated using Spearman ρ test. Results The curriculum outline correlated both with the AACA recommendations (Spearman ρ = 0.83, P = 0.015) and TA (Spearman ρ = 0.73, P = 0.046). Textbooks contained 8 distinct sections, 7 allocated to topographic anatomy regions and 1 to general anatomy concepts and principles. The structure of all textbooks correlated significantly with the course curriculum. However, 4 out of 6 textbooks did not correlate with TA and only a single textbook showed significant correlation with the AACA recommendations. Conclusion Anatomy textbooks vary in the amount of text dedicated to different parts of topographical anatomy and are not quite concordant with curriculum recommendations and standard anatomical terminology. Planning the structure of an anatomy course should not be based on a single book or recommendation but on evidence. PMID:19260144

  10. Learning Anatomy through Thiel- vs. Formalin-Embalmed Cadavers: Student Perceptions of Embalming Methods and Effect on Functional Anatomy Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennel, Larissa; Martin, David M. A.; Shaw, Hannah; Wilkinson, Tracey

    2018-01-01

    Thiel-embalmed cadavers, which have been adopted for use in anatomy teaching in relatively few universities, show greater flexibility and color retention compared to formalin-embalmed cadavers, properties which might be considered advantageous for anatomy teaching. This study aimed to investigate student attitudes toward the dissection experience…

  11. Anatomy learning styles and strategies among Jordanian and Malaysian medical students: the impact of culture on learning anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Ayman G; Allouh, Mohammed Z; Mustafa, Intisar G; Hoja, Ibrahim M

    2013-07-01

    The study aims to investigate anatomy learning styles and strategies of Jordanian and Malaysian medical students at the Jordan University of Science and Technology. The study is a cross-sectional questionnaire-based study. Students' responses for the questionnaire were numerically coded, and the results were analyzed to reveal statistically significant differences between Jordanian and Malaysian students. The results showed that Jordanian medical students were less interested in using cadavers in learning anatomy than Malaysian medical students. However, similar to their Malaysian counterparts, they prefer to employ other tools to learn anatomy like plastinated models and Internet-based resources. In addition to the aforementioned tools, Malaysian students were more interested in using cross-sectional images and making their own revision cards. Both Jordanian and Malaysian medical students were more interested in learning anatomy through clinical cases, and by system rather than by region. Moreover, it was revealed that Jordanian medical students learn anatomy more efficiently when they formulate a general view of a particular topic. Both Jordanian and Malaysian medical students also relied on reciting definitions and memorizing facts to learn anatomy. The study also reported significant differences between Jordanian and Malaysian students' perspectives on learning anatomy. The findings of the study suggest that Jordanian and Malaysian medical students posses different cultures of learning. Jordanian anatomy instructors need to consider these different learning cultures when they prepare their instructional methods and teaching materials to fulfill the educational needs of their culturally diverse students.

  12. Inner ear anatomy in Waardenburg syndrome: radiological assessment and comparison with normative data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontorinis, Georgios; Goetz, Friedrich; Lanfermann, Heinrich; Luytenski, Stefan; Giesemann, Anja M

    2014-08-01

    As patients with Waardenburg syndrome (WS) represent potential candidates for cochlear implantation, their inner ear anatomy is of high significance. There is an ongoing debate whether WS is related to any inner ear dysplasias. Our objective was to evaluate radiologically the inner ear anatomy in patients with WS and identify any temporal bone malformations. A retrospective case review was carried out in a tertiary, referral center. The high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scans of the temporal bone from 20 patients (40 ears) with WS who were managed for deafness in a tertiary referral center from 1995 to 2012 were retrospectively examined. Measurements of 15 different inner ear dimensions, involving the cochlea, the vestibule, the semicircular canals and the internal auditory meatus, as well as measurements of the vestibular aqueduct, were performed independently by two neuroradiologists. Finally, we compared the results from the WS group with a control group consisting of 50 normal hearing subjects (100 ears) and with previously reported normative values. Inner ear malformations were not found in any of the patients with WS. All measured inner ear dimensions were within the normative values compiled by our study group as well as by others. Inner ear malformations are not characteristic for all types of WS; however, certain rare subtypes might be related to inner ear deformities. Normative cochleovestibular dimensions that can help in assessing the temporal bone anatomy are provided. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Novel Application of Postmortem CT Angiography for Evaluation of the Intracranial Vascular Anatomy in Cadaver Heads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Eijk, Ruben P A; van der Zwan, Albert; Bleys, Ronald L A W; Regli, Luca; Esposito, Giuseppe

    2015-12-01

    Postmortem CT angiography is a common procedure used to visualize the entire human vasculature. For visualization of a specific organ's vascular anatomy, casting is the preferred method. Because of the permanent and damaging nature of casting, the organ cannot be further used as an experimental model after angiography. Therefore, there is a need for a minimally traumatic method to visualize organ-specific vascular anatomy. The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a contrast enhancement technique that is capable of visualizing the intracranial vascular anatomy while preserving the anatomic integrity in cadaver heads. Seven human heads were used in this study. Heads were prepared by cannulating the vertebral and internal carotid arteries. Contrast agent was injected as a mixture of tap water, polyethylene glycol 600, and an iodinated contrast agent. Postmortem imaging was executed on a 64-MDCT scanner. Primary image review and 3D reconstruction were performed on a CT workstation. Clear visualization of the major cerebral arteries and smaller intracranial branches was achieved. Adequate visualization was obtained for both the anterior and posterior intracranial circulation. The minimally traumatic angiography method preserved the vascular integrity of the cadaver heads. A novel application of postmortem CT angiography is presented here. The technique can be used for radiologic evaluation of the intracranial circulation in cadaver heads. After CT angiography, the specimen can be used for further experimental or laboratory testing and teaching purposes.

  14. SU-F-BRCD-06: Multiple Anatomy Optimization of Accumulated Dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, W T; Moore, J A; Sharma, M; Dial, C; Xu, H; Hugo, G D; Gordon, J J; Siebers, J V

    2012-06-01

    Multiple anatomy optimization (MAO) utilizing deformable dose accumulation on entire 4DCT data sets is implemented to overcome ambiguity between optimal dose defined on a single anatomy and optimal accumulated dose resulting from dose delivery to moving and deforming anatomy. Six lung cancer patients are planned using two methods of radiotherapy optimization: the internal target volume (ITV) envelope method and MAO, which simultaneously optimizes a single fluence for delivery to all 10 breathing phases such that the accumulated dose satisfies the plan objectives. Target dose is constrained to 70 Gy. The ITV-plan is optimized on a single breathing phase with the planning target volume defined as the ITV; the MAO target is the moving CTV. MAO is compared to single image ITV optimization based on the accumulated dose assuming equal monitor-units to each phase. Dose-volume differences between single image estimations and 10-image accumulation are examined. Single image optimal dose distributions overestimate target V70 by 4.2%±3.1% (average, one standard deviation) and in five of six cases ipsilateral lung V20 is underestimated (1.4%±0.9%). For these five cases, MAO increases V70 by 2.8%±2.5% (maximum of 6% increase in V70) and reduces ipsilateral lung V20 by up to 3% (average decrease of 1.2%±1.3%). Contralateral lung V20, esophagus V25, and heart V30 are also reduced by up to 5%, 3%, and 3%. For the sixth case, lung tumor motion is on the order of the dose voxel size (3mm), and MAO did not improve upon the ITV plan. Dose-volume optimization on a stationary image does not ensure accumulated dose coverage to the moving CTV. Multiple anatomy optimization can remove dose ambiguity and improve plan quality. P01CA11602 and Philips Medical Systems. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  15. Volumetric visualization of anatomy for treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelizzari, Charles A.; Grzeszczuk, Robert; Chen, George T. Y.; Heimann, Ruth; Haraf, Daniel J.; Vijayakumar, Srinivasan; Ryan, Martin J.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: Delineation of volumes of interest for three-dimensional (3D) treatment planning is usually performed by contouring on two-dimensional sections. We explore the usage of segmentation-free volumetric rendering of the three-dimensional image data set for tumor and normal tissue visualization. Methods and Materials: Standard treatment planning computed tomography (CT) studies, with typically 5 to 10 mm slice thickness, and spiral CT studies with 3 mm slice thickness were used. The data were visualized using locally developed volume-rendering software. Similar to the method of Drebin et al., CT voxels are automatically assigned an opacity and other visual properties (e.g., color) based on a probabilistic classification into tissue types. Using volumetric compositing, a projection into the opacity-weighted volume is produced. Depth cueing, perspective, and gradient-based shading are incorporated to achieve realistic images. Unlike surface-rendered displays, no hand segmentation is required to produce detailed renditions of skin, muscle, or bony anatomy. By suitable manipulation of the opacity map, tissue classes can be made transparent, revealing muscle, vessels, or bone, for example. Manually supervised tissue masking allows irrelevant tissues overlying tumors or other structures of interest to be removed. Results: Very high-quality renditions are produced in from 5 s to 1 min on midrange computer workstations. In the pelvis, an anteroposterior (AP) volume rendered view from a typical planning CT scan clearly shows the skin and bony anatomy. A muscle opacity map permits clear visualization of the superficial thigh muscles, femoral veins, and arteries. Lymph nodes are seen in the femoral triangle. When overlying muscle and bone are cut away, the prostate, seminal vessels, bladder, and rectum are seen in 3D perspective. Similar results are obtained for thorax and for head and neck scans. Conclusion: Volumetric visualization of anatomy is useful in treatment

  16. Microsurgical anatomy of the central core of the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribas, Eduardo Carvalhal; Yağmurlu, Kaan; de Oliveira, Evandro; Ribas, Guilherme Carvalhal; Rhoton, Albert

    2017-12-22

    OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to describe in detail the cortical and subcortical anatomy of the central core of the brain, defining its limits, with particular attention to the topography and relationships of the thalamus, basal ganglia, and related white matter pathways and vessels. METHODS The authors studied 19 cerebral hemispheres. The vascular systems of all of the specimens were injected with colored silicone, and the specimens were then frozen for at least 1 month to facilitate identification of individual fiber tracts. The dissections were performed in a stepwise manner, locating each gray matter nucleus and white matter pathway at different depths inside the central core. The course of fiber pathways was also noted in relation to the insular limiting sulci. RESULTS The insular surface is the most superficial aspect of the central core and is divided by a central sulcus into an anterior portion, usually containing 3 short gyri, and a posterior portion, with 2 long gyri. It is bounded by the anterior limiting sulcus, the superior limiting sulcus, and the inferior limiting sulcus. The extreme capsule is directly underneath the insular surface and is composed of short association fibers that extend toward all the opercula. The claustrum lies deep to the extreme capsule, and the external capsule is found medial to it. Three fiber pathways contribute to form both the extreme and external capsules, and they lie in a sequential anteroposterior disposition: the uncinate fascicle, the inferior fronto-occipital fascicle, and claustrocortical fibers. The putamen and the globus pallidus are between the external capsule, laterally, and the internal capsule, medially. The internal capsule is present medial to almost all insular limiting sulci and most of the insular surface, but not to their most anteroinferior portions. This anteroinferior portion of the central core has a more complex anatomy and is distinguished in this paper as the "anterior perforated

  17. Orbitopterional Approach for the Resection of a Suprasellar Craniopharyngioma: Adapting the Strategy to the Microsurgical and Pathologic Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Vincent; Basma, Jaafar; Klimo, Paul; Sorenson, Jeffrey; Michael, L Madison

    2018-04-01

    Objectives  To describe the orbitopterional approach for the resection of a suprasellar craniopharyngioma with emphasis on the microsurgical and pathological anatomy of such lesions. Design  After completing the orbitopterional craniotomy in one piece including a supraorbital ridge osteotomy, the Sylvian fissure was split in a distal to proximal direction. The ipsilateral optic nerve and internal carotid artery were identified. Establishing a corridor to the tumor through both the opticocarotid and optic cisterns allowed for a wide angle of attack. Using both corridors, a microsurgical gross total resection was achieved. A radical resection required transection of the stalk at the level of the hypothalamus. Photographs of the region are borrowed from Dr Rhoton's laboratory to illustrate the microsurgical anatomy. Understanding the cisternal and topographic relationships of the optic nerve, optic chiasm, and internal carotid artery is critical to achieving gross total resection while preserving normal anatomy. Participants  The surgery was performed by the senior author assisted by Dr. Jaafar Basma. The video was edited by Dr. Vincent Nguyen. Outcome Measures  Outcome was assessed with extent of resection and postoperative visual function. Results  A gross total resection of the tumor was achieved. The patient had resolution of her bitemporal hemianopsia. She had diabetes insipidus with normal anterior pituitary function. Conclusions  Understanding the microsurgical anatomy of the suprasellar region and the pathological anatomy of craniopharyngiomas is necessary to achieve a good resection of these tumors. The orbitopterional approach provides the appropriate access for such endeavor. The link to the video can be found at: https://youtu.be/Be6dtYIGqfs .

  18. Pollen cone anatomy of Classostrobus crossii sp. nov. (Cheirolepidiaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothwell, Gar W.; Mapes, Gene [Department of Environmental and Plant Biology, Ohio University, Athens OH 45701 (United States); Hilton, Jason [Department of Earth Sciences, School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, The University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Hollingworth, Neville T. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Winfrith Technology Centre, Winfrith Newburgh, Dorchester, Dorset, DT2 8ZD (United Kingdom)

    2007-01-02

    Discovery of a permineralized fossil cone in Mesozoic deposits of southern England provides an opportunity to document the first detailed evidence of internal pollen cone anatomy for the extinct conifer family Cheirolepidiaceae. The specimen, described here as Classostrobus crossii sp. nov., occurs in a calcareous nodule recovered from Middle Jurassic marine sediments of the Lower Callovian Sigaloceras calloviense biozone, Kellaways, near Cirencester, England. The cone is 2.0 cm long and 1.8 cm wide. Sporophylls diverge helically from the axis. Each sporophyll displays a narrow stalk and a distal lamina approx. 11 mm long that tapers to a pointed tip. There is also a basal keel that bends inward at the bottom and sides to form a shallow pocket. A single vascular bundle diverges from the cone axis, extends distally into the sporophyll stalk at the contact of two distinctly different histological zones, and further expands into the distal lamina as transfusion tracheids. Several pollen sacs are attached abaxially at the juncture of the sporophyll stalk and keel. Pollen is roughly spheroidal, 26-35 {mu}m in diameter, with unequal polar caps separated by a striated belt with a subequatorial furrow. This specimen helps clarify the range of variation in the morphology of Mesozoic conifer pollen cones. (author)

  19. Secretory structures of Ipomoea asarifolia: anatomy and histochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano M. Martins

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Ipomoea asarifolia (Desr. Roem. & Schult., Convolvulaceae, is a weed that infests agricultural areas and is toxic to cattle. In spite of its toxicity, the leaves of this plant are used in traditional remedies in the state of Bahia, Brazil. The present work describes the leaf anatomy of I. asarifolia and characterizes the exudates of its secretory structures. The leaves have a unistratified epidermis composed of ordinary cells with straight to slightly sinuous anticlinal walls and thin cuticles. Paracytic stomata are found on both surfaces of the leaves at the same level as the ordinary epidermal cells. Trichomes producing polysaccharide secretions occur on the petiole and leaf blade and are considered colleters. The mesophyll is dorsiventral and the vascular bundle of the central vein is bicollateral. Two opposed nectaries occur on the petiole near the leaf blade. Each nectary is composed of a small canal with internal ramifications and numerous secretory trichomes. The laticiferous glands are articulated, not anastomosed, and are composed of large diameter cells with thin cell walls. The secretions of the laticiferous glands are lipidic.

  20. Computed tomographic anatomy of the canine lumbosacral spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, J.C.; Cartee, R.E.; Bartels, J.E.

    1995-01-01

    The lumbosacral spine (L5–S3) was examined by high resolution computed tomography (CT) in five canine cadaver specimens and one anesthetized dog using 5mm thick transverse slices at 5mm intervals. In each dog, anatomic features observed on CT images were confirmed by comparison with corresponding 5 mm thick anatomic transverse sections and section radiographs. CT anatomic features visualized in all dogs included the vertebral bodies, pedicles, laminae, articular processes, spinous processes, transverse processes, mammillary processes, basivertebral venous canals, vertebral foramina, intervertebral foramina, sacral wings, median sacral crest, intermediate sacral crests, lateral sacral crests, articular process joints, sacroiliac joints, internal vertebral venous plexus, epidural fat, thecal sac, L5–S3 nerve roots, and spinal nerves. Spinal ganglia, yellow ligaments, and portions of the intervertebral discs were visible in some dogs. The spinal cord, intrathecal nerve roots, dorsal and ventral longitudinal ligaments, spinal arteries, and radicular vessels were not distinguishable. Accessory processes were identified on the caudal L5 pedicles in most dogs, an observation that differed from descriptions in standard anatomy texts. Previously undescribed osseous grooves, termed “lateral recesses,” were identified in the caudal L7 vertebral foramen of all dogs

  1. Anatomy and white matter connections of the orbitofrontal gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burks, Joshua D; Conner, Andrew K; Bonney, Phillip A; Glenn, Chad A; Baker, Cordell M; Boettcher, Lillian B; Briggs, Robert G; O'Donoghue, Daniel L; Wu, Dee H; Sughrue, Michael E

    2017-09-01

    OBJECTIVE The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) is understood to have a role in outcome evaluation and risk assessment and is commonly involved with infiltrative tumors. A detailed understanding of the exact location and nature of associated white matter tracts could significantly improve postoperative morbidity related to declining capacity. Through diffusion tensor imaging-based fiber tracking validated by gross anatomical dissection as ground truth, the authors have characterized these connections based on relationships to other well-known structures. METHODS Diffusion imaging from the Human Connectome Project for 10 healthy adult controls was used for tractography analysis. The OFC was evaluated as a whole based on connectivity with other regions. All OFC tracts were mapped in both hemispheres, and a lateralization index was calculated with resultant tract volumes. Ten postmortem dissections were then performed using a modified Klingler technique to demonstrate the location of major tracts. RESULTS The authors identified 3 major connections of the OFC: a bundle to the thalamus and anterior cingulate gyrus, passing inferior to the caudate and medial to the vertical fibers of the thalamic projections; a bundle to the brainstem, traveling lateral to the caudate and medial to the internal capsule; and radiations to the parietal and occipital lobes traveling with the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus. CONCLUSIONS The OFC is an important center for processing visual, spatial, and emotional information. Subtle differences in executive functioning following surgery for frontal lobe tumors may be better understood in the context of the fiber-bundle anatomy highlighted by this study.

  2. Surgical Anatomy of the Cervical Part of the Hypoglossal Nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kariuki, Brian Ngure; Butt, Fawzia; Mandela, Pamela; Odula, Paul

    2018-03-01

    Iatrogenic injuries to cranial nerves, half of which affect the hypoglossal nerve, occur in up to 20% of surgical procedures involving the neck. The risk of injury could be minimized by in-depth knowledge of its positional and relational anatomy. Forty-one hypoglossal nerves were dissected from cadaveric specimens and positions described in relation to the internal carotid artery (ICA), external carotid artery (ECA), carotid bifurcation, mandible, hyoid bone, mastoid process, and the digastric tendon. The distance of the nerve from where it crossed the ICA and ECA to the carotid bifurcation was 29.93 (±5.99) mm and 15.19 (±6.68) mm, respectively. The point where it crossed the ICA was 12.24 (±3.71) mm superior to the greater horn of hyoid, 17.16 (±4.40) mm inferior to the angle of the mandible, and 39.08 (±5.69) mm from tip of the mastoid. The hypoglossal nerve loop was inferior to the digastric tendon in 73% of the cases. The hypoglossal nerves formed high loops in this study population. Caution should be exercised during surgical procedures in the neck. The study also revealed that the mastoid process is a reliable fixed landmark to locate the hypoglossal nerve.

  3. Imaging of jaw with dental CT software program: Normal Anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Myong Gon; Seo, Kwang Hee; Jung, Hak Young; Sung, Nak Kwan; Chung, Duk Soo; Kim, Ok Dong; Lee, Young Hwan

    1994-01-01

    Dental CT software program can provide reformatted cross-sectional and panoramic images that cannot be obtained with conventional axial and direct coronal CT scan. The purpose of this study is to describe the method of the technique and to identify the precise anatomy of jaw. We evaluated 13 mandibles and 7 maxillae of 15 subjects without bony disease who were being considered for endosseous dental implants. Reformatted images obtained by the use of bone algorithm performed on GE HiSpeed Advantage CT scanner were retrospectively reviewed for detailed anatomy of jaw. Anatomy related to neurovascular bundle(mandibular foramen, inferior alveolar canal, mental foramen, canal for incisive artery, nutrient canal, lingual foramen and mylohyoid groove), muscular insertion(mylohyoid line, superior and inferior genial tubercle and digastric fossa) and other anatomy(submandibular fossa, sublingual fossa, contour of alveolar process, oblique line, retromolar fossa, temporal crest and retromolar triangle) were well delineated in mandible. In maxilla, anatomy related to neurovascular bundle(greater palatine foramen and groove, nasopalatine canal and incisive foramen) and other anatomy(alveolar process, maxillary sinus and nasal fossa) were also well delineated. Reformatted images using dental CT software program provided excellent delineation of the jaw anatomy. Therefore, dental CT software program can play an important role in the preoperative assessment of mandible and maxilla for dental implants and other surgical conditions

  4. Deep dissection: motivating students beyond rote learning in veterinary anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cake, Martin A

    2006-01-01

    The profusion of descriptive, factual information in veterinary anatomy inevitably creates pressure on students to employ surface learning approaches and "rote learning." This phenomenon may contribute to negative perceptions of the relevance of anatomy as a discipline. Thus, encouraging deep learning outcomes will not only lead to greater satisfaction for both instructors and learners but may have the added effect of raising the profile of and respect for the discipline. Consideration of the literature reveals the broad scope of interventions required to motivate students to go beyond rote learning. While many of these are common to all disciplines (e.g., promoting active learning, making higher-order goals explicit, reducing content in favor of concepts, aligning assessment with outcomes), other factors are peculiar to anatomy, such as the benefits of incorporating clinical tidbits, "living anatomy," the anatomy museum, and dissection classes into a "learning context" that fosters deep approaches. Surprisingly, the 10 interventions discussed focus more on factors contributing to student perceptions of the course than on drastic changes to the anatomy course itself. This is because many traditional anatomy practices, such as dissection and museum-based classes, are eminently compatible with active, student-centered learning strategies and the adoption of deep learning approaches by veterinary students. Thus the key to encouraging, for example, dissection for deep learning ("deep dissection") lies more in student motivation, personal engagement, curriculum structure, and "learning context" than in the nature of the learning activity itself.

  5. Occurrence and evolutionary inferences about Kranz anatomy in Cyperaceae (Poales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHIRLEY MARTINS

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Cyperaceae is an angiosperm family with the greatest diversity of species with Kranz anatomy. Four different types of Kranz anatomy (chlorocyperoid, eleocharoid, fimbristyloid and rhynchosporoid have been described for this angiosperm family, and the occurrence and structural characteristics of these types are important to trace evolutionary hypotheses. The purpose of this study was to examine the available data on Cyperaceae Kranz anatomy, emphasizing taxonomy, geographic distribution, habitat and anatomy, to infer the potential origin of the Kranz anatomy in this family. The results showed that the four types of Kranz anatomy (associated with C4 photosynthesis in Cyperaceae emerged numerous times in unrelated phylogenetic groups. However, the convergence of these anatomical types, except rhynchosporoid, was observed in certain groups. Thus, the diverse origin of these species might result from different environmental pressures that promote photorespiration. Greater variation in occurrence of Kranz anatomy and anatomical types was observed inEleocharis, whose emergence of the C4 pathway was recent compared with other genera in the family, and the species of this genus are located in aquatic environments.

  6. Locomotion and basicranial anatomy in primates and marsupials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villamil, Catalina I

    2017-10-01

    There is ongoing debate in paleoanthropology about whether and how the anatomy of the cranium, and especially the cranial base, is evolving in response to locomotor and postural changes. However, the majority of studies focus on two-dimensional data, which fails to capture the complexity of cranial anatomy. This study tests whether three-dimensional cranial base anatomy is linked to locomotion or to other factors in primates (n = 473) and marsupials (n = 231). Results indicate that although there is a small effect of locomotion on cranial base anatomy in primates, this is not the case in marsupials. Instead, facial anatomy likely drives variation in cranial base anatomy in both primates and marsupials, with additional roles for body size and brain size. Although some changes to foramen magnum position and orientation are phylogenetically useful among the hominoids, they do not necessarily reflect locomotion or positional behavior. The interplay between locomotion, posture, and facial anatomy in primates requires further investigation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Variability and reliability of the vastus lateralis muscle anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Arpa, Salvatore; Toia, Francesca; Brenner, Erich; Melloni, Carlo; Moschella, Francesco; Cordova, Adriana

    2016-08-01

    The aims of this study are to investigate the variability of the morphological and neurovascular anatomy of the vastus lateralis (VL) muscle and to describe the relationships among its intramuscular partitions and with the other muscles of the quadriceps femoris. Clinical implications in its reliability as a flap donor are also discussed. In 2012, the extra- and intramuscular neurovascular anatomy of the VL was investigated in 10 cadaveric lower limbs. In three specimens, the segmental arterial pedicles were injected with latex of different colors to point out their anastomotic connections. The morphological anatomy was investigated with regard to the mutual relationship of the three muscular partitions and the relation of the VL with the other muscles of the quadriceps femoris. The VL has a segmental morphological anatomy. However, the fibers of its three partitions interconnect individually and with the other bellies of the quadriceps femoris, particularly, in several variable portions with the vastus intermedius and mainly in the posterior part of the VL. The lateral circumflex femoral artery and its branches have variable origin, but demonstrate constant segmental distribution. Intramuscular dissection and colored latex injections show a rich anastomotic vascular network among the three partitions. Moderate variability exists in both the myological and the neurovascular anatomy of the VL. Despite this variability, the anatomy of the VL always has a constant segmental pattern, which makes the VL a reliable flap donor. Detailed knowledge of the VL anatomy could have useful applications in a broad clinical field.

  8. Spatial abilities and anatomy knowledge assessment: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, Jean; Bellemare, Christian; Toulouse, Josée; Wells, George A

    2017-06-01

    Anatomy knowledge has been found to include both spatial and non-spatial components. However, no systematic evaluation of studies relating spatial abilities and anatomy knowledge has been undertaken. The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the relationship between spatial abilities test and anatomy knowledge assessment. A literature search was done up to March 20, 2014 in Scopus and in several databases on the OvidSP and EBSCOhost platforms. Of the 556 citations obtained, 38 articles were identified and fully reviewed yielding 21 eligible articles and their quality were formally assessed. Non-significant relationships were found between spatial abilities test and anatomy knowledge assessment using essays and non-spatial multiple-choice questions. Significant relationships were observed between spatial abilities test and anatomy knowledge assessment using practical examination, three-dimensional synthesis from two-dimensional views, drawing of views, and cross-sections. Relationships between spatial abilities test and anatomy knowledge assessment using spatial multiple-choice questions were unclear. The results of this systematic review provide evidence for spatial and non-spatial methods of anatomy knowledge assessment. Anat Sci Educ 10: 235-241. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  9. Dental CT: examination technique, radiation load and anatomy; Dental-CT: Untersuchungstechnik, Strahlenbelastung und Anatomie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenglinger, F.X.; Muhr, T. [AKH Wels (Austria). Inst. fuer Radiologie; Krennmair, G. [Praxis fuer Zahn-, Mund- und Kieferheilkunde und Implantologie, Marchtrenk (Austria)

    1999-12-01

    Traditionally oral surgeons and dentists have evaluated the jaws using intraoral films and panoramic radiographs. The involvement of radiologists has been limited. In the past few years dedicated CT-software-programs developed to evaluate dental implant patients have provided a new look at the jaws. The complex anatomy is described and identified on human skulls and on axial, panoramic, and cross-sectional images. With this anatomic description Dental-CT-scans are used to demonstrate the anatomy of maxilla and the mandible. An overview of the technique of Dental-CT is provided, furthermore the radiation dose of different organs is explained. Suggestions to reduce these doses by simple modifications of the recommended protocols are given. (orig.) [German] Die Einfuehrung im Bereich der Computertomographiesoftware (Dental-CT) ermoeglicht dem Radiologen zusaetzlich zu den ueblichen, von den Zahnaerzten durchgefuehrten Roentgenuntersuchungen eine ueberlagerungs- und verzerrungsfreie Darstellung des Ober- und Unterkiefers. In der Implantologie ist mit dieser Darstellung eine exakte Planung moeglich. Weiterhin haben sich Duennschicht-CT-Untersuchungen auch bei der Abklaerung von Zysten, Tumoren, Frakturen, tiefen Parodontitiden und retinierten Zaehnen bewaehrt. In dieser Zeit wird ein Ueberblick ueber die Anatomie, die Untersuchungstechnik des Dental-CT und die auftretende Strahlenbelastung gegeben. Basierend auf rezente Literaturangaben kann eine Reduktion der absorbierten Dosis bei gleichbleibender Bildqualitaet durch einfache Protokollmodifikationen erzielt werden. (orig.)

  10. Arthroscopic anatomy of the subdeltoid space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Salata

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available From the first shoulder arthroscopy performed on a cadaver in 1931, shoulder arthroscopy has grown tremendously in its ability to diagnose and treat pathologic conditions about the shoulder. Despite improvements in arthroscopic techniques and instrumentation, it is only recently that arthroscopists have begun to explore precise anatomical structures within the subdeltoid space. By way of a thorough bursectomy of the subdeltoid region, meticulous hemostasis, and the reciprocal use of posterior and lateral viewing portals, one can identify a myriad of pertinent ligamentous, musculotendinous, osseous, and neurovascular structures. For the purposes of this review, the subdeltoid space has been compartmentalized into lateral, medial, anterior, and posterior regions. Being able to identify pertinent structures in the subdeltoid space will provide shoulder arthroscopists with the requisite foundation in core anatomy that will be required for challenging procedures such as arthroscopic subscapularis mobilization and repair, biceps tenodesis, subcoracoid decompression, suprascapular nerve decompression, quadrangular space decompression and repair of massive rotator cuff tears.

  11. Clinical anatomy of fecal incontinence in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadam-Halani, Priyanka K; Arya, Lily A; Andy, Uduak U

    2017-10-01

    Fecal incontinence is a devastating condition that has a severe impact on quality of life. This condition disproportionately affects women and its incidence is increasing with the aging United States population. Fecal continence is maintained by coordination of a functioning anal sphincter complex, intact sensation of the anorectum, rectal compliance, and the ability to consciously control defecation. Particularly important are the puborectalis sling of the levator ani muscle complex and intact innervation of the central and peripheral nervous systems. An understanding of the intricate anatomy required to maintain continence and regulate defecation will help clinicians to provide appropriate medical and surgical management and diminish the negative impact of fecal incontinence. In this article, we describe the anatomic and neural basis of fecal continence and normal defecation as well as changes that occur with fecal incontinence in women. Clin. Anat. 30:901-911, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Anatomy and physiology of the esophagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavaghan, M

    1999-02-01

    Modern diagnosis and treatment of esophageal disease is a result of progress in assessing the anatomy and physiology of the esophagus, as well as refinements in anesthetic and surgical techniques. Esophageal carcinoma spreads rapidly and metastasizes easily. The tendency for early spread and the absence of symptoms result in late diagnosis that reduces treatment options and cure rates. Lifestyle (i.e., use of alcohol and tobacco), nutritional deficiencies, ingestion of nitrosamines, and mutagen-inducing fungi are blamed for cancer of the esophagus. Other pathologic conditions (e.g., achalasia, Barrett's epithelium, gastric reflux, hiatal hernia) are potential contributors to the development of carcinoma. Nurses are in key positions to identify the existence of factors contributing to premalignant or malignant lesions and to educate patients and make the appropriate referrals.

  13. Scapulothoracic Anatomy and Snapping Scapula Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel M. Frank

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The scapulothoracic articulation is a sliding junction between the deep aspect of the scapula and thoracic rib cage at the levels of ribs 2 through 7. Motion at this articulation is dynamically stabilized by a variety of muscular attachments, allowing for controlled positioning of the glenoid to assist in glenohumeral joint function. A thorough understanding of the complex anatomic relationships, including the various muscles, and bursa, is critical to the evaluation of patients presenting with scapulothoracic disorders. The snapping scapula syndrome is caused by either osseous lesions or scapulothoracic bursitis and can be difficult to recognize and treat. The purpose of this review is to discuss the anatomy of the scapulothoracic articulation with an emphasis on the pathology associated with snapping scapula syndrome.

  14. Distal radioulnar joint: functional anatomy, including pathomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugstvedt, J R; Langer, M F; Berger, R A

    2017-05-01

    The distal radioulnar joint allows the human to rotate the forearm to place the hand in a desired position to perform different tasks, without interfering with the grasping function of the hand. The ulna is the stable part of the forearm around which the radius rotates; the stability of the distal radioulnar joint is provided by the interaction between ligaments, muscles and bones. The stabilizing structures are the triangular fibrocartilage complex, the ulnocarpal ligament complex, the extensor carpi ulnaris tendon and tendon sheath, the pronator quadratus, the interosseous membrane and ligament, the bone itself and the joint capsule. The purpose of this review article is to present and illustrate the current understanding of the functional anatomy and pathomechanics of this joint.

  15. Anatomi Kurikulum Pendidikan Agama Islam di Sekolah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marliana Marliana

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Anatomy of curriculum is described as the components that must be present in every curriculum that can be used for the learning process. They are objectives of the curriculum, materials of teaching, contents of the curriculum, strategies or methods, media and evaluation and improvement of teaching. These components are interconnected to one another. Each component has a content which is very important for the continuity of the curriculum. One of the most important parts of the curriculum is procces of learning as an empowering or enable the students. Thus, the need for active and participatory interaction between students and academic material or with a certain situation so that matter can be transformed into the learning experience of students.

  16. Gross anatomy education for South African undergraduate physiotherapy students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shead, Dorothy A; Roos, Ronel; Olivier, Benita; Ihunwo, Amadi O

    2018-01-16

    Eight faculties in South Africa offer undergraduate physiotherapy training with gross anatomy included as a basis for clinical practice. Little information exists about anatomy education for this student body. A 42-question peer-reviewed survey was distributed to physiotherapy gross anatomy course coordinators in all the eight faculties. Seven coordinators from six (75%) of the universities responded. Two respondents' data from the same university were pooled. Collected data show that staff qualifications and experience varied widely and high to average staff to student ratios exist between faculties. Direct anatomy teaching duration was 12.3 (SD ±5.2) weeks per semester. Total number of weeks in courses per faculty was 27.6 (SD ±5.7) varying widely between institutions. Calculable direct contact anatomy hours ranged between 100 and 308 with a mean of 207.6 (SD ±78.1). Direct contact hours in lectures averaged 3.9 (SD ±1.6) per week and the average direct contact hours in practical sessions were 3.5 (SD ±1.8) per week. Dissection, prosection, plastinated models, surface anatomy, and e-learning were available across faculties. Ancillary modalities such as vertical integration and inter-professional learning were in use. All faculties had multiple-choice questions, spot tests, and short examination questions. Half had viva-voce examinations and one had additional long questions assessment. Students evaluated teaching performance in five faculties. Four faculties were reviewing anatomy programs to consider implementing changes to anatomy curriculum or pedagogy. The findings highlighted disparity between programs and also identified the need for specific guidelines to develop a unified South African gross anatomy course for physiotherapy students. Anat Sci Educ. © 2018 American Association of Anatomists. © 2018 American Association of Anatomists.

  17. Arthroscopic knee anatomy in young achondroplasia patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Pilar Duque Orozco, M.; Record, N. C.; Rogers, K. J; Bober, M. B.; Mackenzie, W. G.; Atanda, A.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Purpose Achondroplasia is the most common form of skeletal dysplasia, affecting more than 250 000 individuals worldwide. In these patients, the developing knee undergoes multiple anatomical changes. The purpose of this study was to characterise the intra-articular knee anatomy in children with achondroplasia who underwent knee arthroscopy. Methods Records of achondroplasia patients who underwent knee arthroscopy between 2009 and 2014 were reviewed. Demographic data, operative reports, follow-up notes, MRI and arthroscopy images were reviewed. Bony, cartilaginous and ligamentous changes were noted. The trochlea sulcus angle was measured from intra-operative arthroscopic images. Results A total of 12 knee arthroscopies in nine patients were performed. The mean age at surgery was 16.9 years (12 to 22). In all patients, the indication for surgery was knee pain and/or mechanical symptoms that were refractory to non-operative treatment. Three anatomical variations involving the distal femur were found in all knees: a deep femoral trochlea; a high A-shaped intercondylar notch; and a vertically oriented anterior cruciate ligament. The average trochlea sulcus angle measured 123°. Pathology included: synovial plica (one knee); chondral lesions (three knees); discoid lateral meniscus (11 knees); and meniscal tears (six knees). All patients were pain-free and returned to normal activity at final follow-up. Conclusion Children with achondroplasia have characteristic distal femur anatomy noted during knee arthroscopy. These variations should be considered normal during knee arthroscopy in these patients. Arthroscopic findings confirmed previous MRI findings within this specific population with the addition of a deep trochlear groove which was not previously reported. PMID:28828058

  18. Forearm interosseous membrane imaging and anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinley, Joseph C; Roach, Neil; Gaughan, John P; Kozin, Scott H

    2004-10-01

    To determine the regional thickness variation of the interosseous membrane (IOM) along the forearm and validate magnetic resonance imaging of the IOM with laser micrometry. Axial thickness measurements of 12 cadaver forearms were obtained using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at radial, central, and ulnar locations. The specimens were dissected, and IOM thickness measured using a laser micrometer. MRI and laser measurements of the main and oblique IOM bundles were compared. An axial thickness profile was plotted versus forearm length, and radial, central, and ulnar positions were compared. The main bundle thickness was 2.18+/-0.20 mm using laser micrometry, which was not significantly different from MRI measurements (1.86+/-0.25 mm, p=0.11, power = 0.84). The dorsal oblique bundle thickness was not significantly different between measurement methods (2.93+/-0.77 mm and 3.30+/-1.64 mm using laser micrometry and MRI respectively, p=0.75, power = 0.04). Both methods demonstrated a progressive increase in thickness proximally within the forearm. MRI measurements demonstrated a significantly greater thickness increase in the radial location compared to the central location (slope = 2.26 and 1.05, r(2)=0.31 and 0.12 respectively, p0.05). Our findings describe the varying IOM anatomy using MRI, and determined the location of the clinically important IOM fiber bundles. This study confirms the accuracy of MR imaging of the IOM by comparison with a laser micrometer, and demonstrates the thickness variation along the forearm. This information may be used to identify changes in IOM anatomy with both acute IOM injury and chronic fiber attenuation.

  19. Forearm interosseous membrane imaging and anatomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGinley, Joseph C. [Temple University, School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Roach, Neil [Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Gaughan, John P. [Temple University, Department of Biostatistics, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Kozin, Scott H. [Shriners Hospitals for Children, Pediatric Hand and Upper Extremity Surgery, Philadelphia (United States); Temple University, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2004-10-01

    To determine the regional thickness variation of the interosseous membrane (IOM) along the forearm and validate magnetic resonance imaging of the IOM with laser micrometry. Axial thickness measurements of 12 cadaver forearms were obtained using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at radial, central, and ulnar locations. The specimens were dissected, and IOM thickness measured using a laser micrometer. MRI and laser measurements of the main and oblique IOM bundles were compared. An axial thickness profile was plotted versus forearm length, and radial, central, and ulnar positions were compared. The main bundle thickness was 2.18{+-}0.20 mm using laser micrometry, which was not significantly different from MRI measurements (1.86{+-}0.25 mm, p=0.11, power = 0.84). The dorsal oblique bundle thickness was not significantly different between measurement methods (2.93{+-}0.77 mm and 3.30{+-}1.64 mm using laser micrometry and MRI respectively, p=0.75, power = 0.04). Both methods demonstrated a progressive increase in thickness proximally within the forearm. MRI measurements demonstrated a significantly greater thickness increase in the radial location compared to the central location (slope = 2.26 and 1.05, r{sup 2}=0.31 and 0.12 respectively, p<0.05). The ulnar slope was not significantly different from zero (r{sup 2}=0.02, p>0.05). Our findings describe the varying IOM anatomy using MRI, and determined the location of the clinically important IOM fiber bundles. This study confirms the accuracy of MR imaging of the IOM by comparison with a laser micrometer, and demonstrates the thickness variation along the forearm. This information may be used to identify changes in IOM anatomy with both acute IOM injury and chronic fiber attenuation. (orig.)

  20. Forearm interosseous membrane imaging and anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGinley, Joseph C.; Roach, Neil; Gaughan, John P.; Kozin, Scott H.

    2004-01-01

    To determine the regional thickness variation of the interosseous membrane (IOM) along the forearm and validate magnetic resonance imaging of the IOM with laser micrometry. Axial thickness measurements of 12 cadaver forearms were obtained using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at radial, central, and ulnar locations. The specimens were dissected, and IOM thickness measured using a laser micrometer. MRI and laser measurements of the main and oblique IOM bundles were compared. An axial thickness profile was plotted versus forearm length, and radial, central, and ulnar positions were compared. The main bundle thickness was 2.18±0.20 mm using laser micrometry, which was not significantly different from MRI measurements (1.86±0.25 mm, p=0.11, power = 0.84). The dorsal oblique bundle thickness was not significantly different between measurement methods (2.93±0.77 mm and 3.30±1.64 mm using laser micrometry and MRI respectively, p=0.75, power = 0.04). Both methods demonstrated a progressive increase in thickness proximally within the forearm. MRI measurements demonstrated a significantly greater thickness increase in the radial location compared to the central location (slope = 2.26 and 1.05, r 2 =0.31 and 0.12 respectively, p 2 =0.02, p>0.05). Our findings describe the varying IOM anatomy using MRI, and determined the location of the clinically important IOM fiber bundles. This study confirms the accuracy of MR imaging of the IOM by comparison with a laser micrometer, and demonstrates the thickness variation along the forearm. This information may be used to identify changes in IOM anatomy with both acute IOM injury and chronic fiber attenuation. (orig.)

  1. New insights into dinosaur jaw muscle anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holliday, Casey M

    2009-09-01

    Jaw muscles are key components of the head and critical to testing hypotheses of soft-tissue homology, skull function, and evolution. Dinosaurs evolved an extraordinary diversity of cranial forms adapted to a variety of feeding behaviors. However, disparate evolutionary transformations in head shape and function among dinosaurs and their living relatives, birds and crocodylians, impair straightforward reconstructions of muscles, and other important cephalic soft tissues. This study presents the osteological correlates and inferred soft tissue anatomy of the jaw muscles and relevant neurovasculature in the temporal region of the dinosaur head. Hypotheses of jaw muscle homology were tested across a broad range archosaur and sauropsid taxa to more accurately infer muscle attachments in the adductor chambers of non-avian dinosaurs. Many dinosaurs likely possessed m. levator pterygoideus, a trait shared with lepidosaurs but not extant archosaurs. Several major clades of dinosaurs (e.g., Ornithopoda, Ceratopsidae, Sauropoda) eliminated the epipterygoid, thus impacting interpretations of m. pseudotemporalis profundus. M. pseudotemporalis superficialis most likely attached to the caudoventral surface of the laterosphenoid, a trait shared with extant archosaurs. Although mm. adductor mandibulae externus profundus and medialis likely attached to the caudal half of the dorsotemporal fossa and coronoid process, clear osteological correlates separating the individual bellies are rare. Most dinosaur clades possess osteological correlates indicative of a pterygoideus ventralis muscle that attaches to the lateral surface of the mandible, although the muscle may have extended as far as the jugal in some taxa (e.g., hadrosaurs, tyrannosaurs). The cranial and mandibular attachments of mm adductor mandibulae externus superficialis and adductor mandibulae posterior were consistent across all taxa studied. These new data greatly increase the interpretive resolution of head anatomy in

  2. The anatomy of the hip abductor muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flack, N A M S; Nicholson, H D; Woodley, S J

    2014-03-01

    The anatomy of the hip abductors has not been comprehensively examined, yet is important to understanding function and pathology in the gluteal region. For example, pathology of the hip abductor muscle-tendon complexes can cause greater trochanteric pain syndrome, and may be associated with gluteal atrophy and fatty infiltration. The purpose of this study was to investigate the detailed morphology of gluteus medius (GMed), gluteus minimus (GMin), and tensor fascia lata (TFL), and determine whether the muscles comprised anatomical compartments. The gluteal region from 12 cadavers was dissected and data collected on attachment sites, volume, fascicular and tendinous anatomy, and innervation. Three sites of GMed origin were identified (gluteal fossa, gluteal aponeurosis, and posteroinferior edge of the iliac crest) and the distal tendon had lateral and posterior parts. GMed was the largest in volume (27.6 ± 11.6 cm(3); GMin 14.1 ± 11.1 cm(3); TFL 1.8 ± 0.8 cm(3)). Fascicles of GMin originated from the gluteal fossa, inserting onto the deep surface of its distal tendon and the hip joint capsule. TFL was encapsulated in the fascia lata, having no bony attachment. Primary innervation patterns varied for GMed, with three or four branches supplying different regions of muscle. Distinct secondary nerve branches entered four regions of GMin; no differential innervation was observed for TFL. On the basis of architectural parameters and innervation, GMed, and GMin each comprise of four compartments but TFL is a homogenous muscle. It is anticipated that these data will be useful for future clinical and functional studies of the hip abductors. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Genotoxic damage in pathology anatomy laboratory workers exposed to formaldehyde

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Solange; Coelho, Patricia; Costa, Carla; Silva, Susana; Mayan, Olga; Silva Santos, Luis; Gaspar, Jorge; Teixeira, Joao Paulo

    2008-01-01

    Formaldehyde (FA) is a chemical traditionally used in pathology and anatomy laboratories as a tissue preservative. Several epidemiological studies of occupational exposure to FA have indicated an increased risk of nasopharyngeal cancers in industrial workers, embalmers and pathology anatomists. There is also a clear evidence of nasal squamous cell carcinomas from inhalation studies in the rat. The postulated mode of action for nasal tumours in rats was considered biologically plausible and considered likely to be relevant to humans. Based on the available data IARC, the International Agency for Research on Cancer, has recently classified FA as a human carcinogen. Although the in vitro genotoxic as well as the in vivo carcinogenic potentials of FA are well documented in mammalian cells and in rodents, evidence for genotoxic effects and carcinogenic properties in humans is insufficient and conflicting thus remains to be more documented. To evaluate the genetic effects of long-term occupational exposure to FA a group of 30 Pathological Anatomy laboratory workers was tested for a variety of biological endpoints, cytogenetic tests (micronuclei, MN; sister chromatid exchange, SCE) and comet assay. The level of exposure to FA was evaluated near the breathing zone of workers, time weighted average of exposure was calculated for each subject. The association between the biomarkers and polymorphic genes of xenobiotic metabolising and DNA repair enzymes was also assessed. The mean level of exposure was 0.44 ± 0.08 ppm (0.04-1.58 ppm). MN frequency was significantly higher (p = 0.003) in the exposed subjects (5.47 ± 0.76) when compared with controls (3.27 ± 0.69). SCE mean value was significantly higher (p < 0.05) among the exposed group (6.13 ± 0.29) compared with control group (4.49 ± 0.16). Comet assay data showed a significant increase (p < 0.05) of TL in FA-exposed workers (60.00 ± 2.31) with respect to the control group (41.85 ± 1.97). A positive correlation was

  4. Xeroradiographic anatomy of the equine digit and metacarpophalangeal region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smallwood, J.E.; Holladay, S.D.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of the project was to use xeroradiography to provide a reference for radiographic anatomy of the equine digit and metacarpophalangeal region. The left foredigits and metacarpophalangeal joints of a mature horse and a 30-day-old foal were radiographed, using xeroradiographic techniques. Fifteen xeroradiographs, illustrating standard projections of each area, were selected and appropriately labeled to demonstrate normal radiographic anatomy of these regions. These xeroradiographs have been used successfully for several years to teach radiographic anatomy of these areas to first-year veterinary students at North Carolina State University

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in obstetrics. II. Fetal anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, M C; Worthington, B S; Buckley, J M; Symonds, E M

    1988-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed in 36 patients at between 10 and 38 weeks gestation to determine the fetal anatomy that could be identified at different gestations. Fetal motion significantly degraded the image quality in the first and second trimesters, but in the final trimester fetal anatomy was clearly demonstrated. T2 weighted sequences showed the fetal brain and lungs to have a high signal intensity. Shorter TR leading to a T1 weighting gave better resolution of the overall anatomy. MRI has revealed the potential for assessment of lung maturity and the growth-retarded fetus.

  6. Anatomy and Histology of the Human and Murine Prostate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ittmann, Michael

    2018-05-01

    The human and murine prostate glands have similar functional roles in the generation of seminal fluid to assist in reproduction. There are significant differences in the anatomy and histology of murine and human prostate and knowledge of the normal anatomy and histology of the murine prostate is essential to interpreting changes in genetically engineered mouse models. In this review, the normal anatomy and histology of both human and mouse prostate will be described. Copyright © 2018 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  7. Characterization of male reproductive anatomy of the endangered Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eljarah, A; Al-Zghoul, M B; Jawasreh, K; Ababneh, M; Alsumadi, M; Alhalah, A; Ismail, Z Bani

    2012-07-01

    Reproductive tracts of four male Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx) from Shaumari Nature Reserve in Jordan were examined to characterize their reproductive anatomy. Animals were allocated into two groups based on their age: Group 1 (n = 2, males were 12 and 14 mo old) and Group 2 (n = 2, males were 7 and 9 yrs old). Observations regarding the morphology, position and orientation of different reproductive organs were made. The external and internal genital organs of male oryx were similar to other domestic ruminant species with minor differences. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) branches show acclimation of xylem anatomy and hydraulic properties to increased light after thinning

    OpenAIRE

    Lemoine, D.; Jacquemin, S.; Granier, A.

    2002-01-01

    International audience; Hydraulic acclimation of Fagus sylvatica L. was analysed in response to forest thinning. Several months after thinning, leaf and xylem water potential and stomatal conductance of thinned branches were compared to sun-exposed and shade branches. We characterised vulnerability to cavitation for branches taken from these three treatments. We compared effect of thinning on xylem anatomy (mean vessel diameter, vessel density). Thinned branches exhibited higher stomatal cond...

  9. The anatomy of the king crab Hapalogaster mertensii Brandt, 1850 (Anomura: Paguroidea: Hapalogastridae): new insights into the evolutionary transformation of hermit crabs into king crabs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keiler, J.; Richter, S.; Wirkner, C.S.

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of king crabs from a hermit crab-like ancestor is one of the most curious events in decapod evolution. King crabs comprise two taxa, Lithodidae and Hapalogastridae, and while lithodids have formed the focus of various anatomical studies, the internal anatomy of hapalogastrids has never

  10. Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Consumer Protection Authorities Worldwide International Fellows Program FTC International Monthly Tips & Advice For Consumers For Military Consumers Business Center Advertising & Marketing Credit & Finance Guidance Privacy & Security Selected Industries Legal ...

  11. Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Consumer Protection Authorities Worldwide International Fellows Program FTC International Monthly Tips & Advice For Consumers For Military Consumers Business Center Advertising & Marketing Credit & Finance Guidance Privacy & Security Selected Industries Protecting ...

  12. NEEDLE ANATOMY CHANGES WITH INCREASING TREE AGE IN DOUGLAS FIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morphological differences between old growth and sapling (Pseudotsuga menziesii, (Mirb.) Franco) Douglas fir trees may extend to differences in needle anatomy. We used microscopy with image analysis to compare and quantify anatomical parameters in cross-sections of previous year...

  13. the anatomy of pelvic corona mortis vessles in black africans

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , Moi University, P. O. Box ... This vascular anastomosis is also at risk during ilionguinal approach to the acetabulum (7). A medial approach for pelvic osteotomies for acetabular dysplasia ..... Gray's Anatomy 39th Edition , section 7 abdomen.

  14. Innovative taught MSc in Medical Visualisation and Human Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clunie, Lauren; Livingstone, Daniel; Rea, Paul M

    2015-06-01

    A relatively new, fully accredited MSc in Medical Visualisation and Human Anatomy, is now offered through a joint collaboration with the Laboratory of Human Anatomy, University of Glasgow and the Digital Design Studio, Glasgow School of Art. This degree combines training in digital technologies and intensive human anatomy training as a result of a long-standing successful partnership between these two esteemed institutes. The student also has to complete a research dissertation which encompasses both the digital perspective and a related medical, dental, surgical, veterinary (comparative anatomy) or life science specialty to enhance development in the digital field for a variety of specialties. This article discusses the background in development of this degree, the course structure and the career prospects and destinations for graduates of this unique degree programme.

  15. Delaware Anatomy: With Linguistic, Social, and Medical Aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jay

    1977-01-01

    Presents the comprehensive partonomy of anatomy in Unami Lenape or Delaware as provided by a modern Unami specialist. The primary referent is the human body, but some comparative terms referring to animals and plants are also provided. (CHK)

  16. Growth regulators, DNA content and anatomy in vitro -cultivated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth regulators, DNA content and anatomy in vitro -cultivated Curcuma longa ... Shoots were inoculated in MS culture medium with the addition of 30 g/L of sucrose ... flow cytometry, utilizing two reference standards, green pea, and tomato.

  17. Evaluation of anatomy comic strips for further production and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dong Sun; Kim, Dae Hyun; Park, Jin Seo; Jang, Hae Gwon

    2013-01-01

    The corresponding author of the study has been sketching comic strips to explain anatomy in a humorous manner. All the anatomy comic strips, including those in Korean (650 episodes) and English (451 episodes), can be viewed on the homepage (http://anatomy.co.kr). Such comic strips were created with the aim of assisting medical students. However, their impact was unknown, and therefore, we surveyed the students' responses. We noted that anatomy grades were better in the students who read the comic strips. The comics helped the trainees chat with individuals with and without a medical background. The authors also considered comments on the problems with the comic strips and attempted to find solutions. The episodes are being currently used and further produced for educational purposes. To support this effort, the readers' valuable opinions will be continuously collected and assessed. PMID:24179697

  18. Evaluation of anatomy comic strips for further production and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dong Sun; Kim, Dae Hyun; Park, Jin Seo; Jang, Hae Gwon; Chung, Min Suk

    2013-09-01

    The corresponding author of the study has been sketching comic strips to explain anatomy in a humorous manner. All the anatomy comic strips, including those in Korean (650 episodes) and English (451 episodes), can be viewed on the homepage (http://anatomy.co.kr). Such comic strips were created with the aim of assisting medical students. However, their impact was unknown, and therefore, we surveyed the students' responses. We noted that anatomy grades were better in the students who read the comic strips. The comics helped the trainees chat with individuals with and without a medical background. The authors also considered comments on the problems with the comic strips and attempted to find solutions. The episodes are being currently used and further produced for educational purposes. To support this effort, the readers' valuable opinions will be continuously collected and assessed.

  19. Historical perspective-Anatomy down the ages in Australasia; lessons for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flack, Natasha Ams; Nicholson, Helen D

    2016-01-01

    Is anatomy a dying discipline? This article explores the history and current state of human anatomy in Australasia, and considers the changing nature of the discipline, and possibilities for the future. A web-based search of all tertiary institutions in Australasia was performed to identify which taught anatomy. Those identified were invited to provide further information about postgraduate student numbers, external courses and public outreach. Forty-one institutions across Australasia teach anatomy. There are seven identifiable anatomy departments and nine disciplines of anatomy. From 1900 to 2014, the number of medical schools has increased (from 4 to 20), however a concomitant increase in the number of anatomy departments (2014, n = 7) was not observed. Twenty-one institutions, without medical schools, currently teach anatomy but none have a stand-alone anatomy department. Anatomy is taught in more than 18 different undergraduate and postgraduate programs. From the 28 institutions that provided current data, 310 postgraduate research students were identified. Predominantly, they came from longer-established institutions with an identifiable anatomy department. Similarly, those with anatomy departments/disciplines offered external professional courses. Many institutions engaged in public outreach. The evidence suggests that anatomy is alive and possibly even growing in Australasia. However, the structures around the discipline and the students who are learning anatomy are changing. Our challenge is to prepare the next generation of anatomy faculty to be both researchers and teachers. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Ultrasonography of the lower extremity veins: Anatomy and basic approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Kyu; Ahn, Kyung Sik; Kang, Chang Ho; Cho, Sung Bum [Dept. of Radiology, Korea University Anam Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    Ultrasonography is an imaging modality widely used to evaluate venous diseases of the lower extremities. It is important to understand the normal venous anatomy of the lower extremities, which has deep, superficial, and perforating venous components, in order to determine the pathophysiology of venous disease. This review provides a basic description of the anatomy of the lower extremity veins and useful techniques for approaching each vein via ultrasonography.

  1. Computed tomography of the sacrum: 1. normal anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whelan, M.A.; Gold, R.P.

    1982-01-01

    The sacrum of a disarticulated pelvis was scanned with a Pfizer 0450 computed tomographic scanner using contiguous 5 mm sections to display the normal computed tomographic anatomy of the sacrum. These anatomic sections were then compared with normal sacrums. In analyzing the computed tomographic anatomy, emphasis was placed on the central canal and sacral foramina, in that these landmarks are important in determining not only the presence but also the type of pathology involving the sacrum

  2. Vesalius, Röntgen and the origins of Modern Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Adrian M K

    2016-06-01

    The discovery of X-rays in 1895 by Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen transformed our understanding of both the physical world and our understanding of ourselves. Traditional anatomy as shown by Andreas Vesalius was learnt from dissection of the supine deceased body. Radiology showed anatomy in the living in a manner previously not possible, and has transformed our anatomical understanding, particularly of human growth and variation.

  3. Symbolic modeling of human anatomy for visualization and simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pommert, Andreas; Schubert, Rainer; Riemer, Martin; Schiemann, Thomas; Tiede, Ulf; Hoehne, Karl H.

    1994-09-01

    Visualization of human anatomy in a 3D atlas requires both spatial and more abstract symbolic knowledge. Within our 'intelligent volume' model which integrates these two levels, we developed and implemented a semantic network model for describing human anatomy. Concepts for structuring (abstraction levels, domains, views, generic and case-specific modeling, inheritance) are introduced. Model, tools for generation and exploration and applications in our 3D anatomical atlas are presented and discussed.

  4. Re-living anatomy: medical student use of lecture capture

    OpenAIRE

    Diss, L; Sharp, A; Scott, F; Moore, L; Daniel, P; Memon, S; Smith, C

    2017-01-01

    Lecture capture resources have become common place within UK Higher education to enhance and support learning in addition to the tradition lecture. These resources can be particularly useful for medical students in anatomy teaching where time dedicated to anatomy within the curriculum has been reduced compared to previous generations(1).\\ud \\ud This study aimed to investigate how lecture capture aided student learning Qualitative feedback was also collected in view to further improve the reso...

  5. Inside out: modern imaging techniques to reveal animal anatomy.

    OpenAIRE

    Henrik Lauridsen; Kasper Hansen; Tobias Wang; Peter Agger; Jonas L Andersen; Peter S Knudsen; Anne S Rasmussen; Lars Uhrenholt; Michael Pedersen

    2011-01-01

    Animal anatomy has traditionally relied on detailed dissections to produce anatomical illustrations, but modern imaging modalities, such as MRI and CT, now represent an enormous resource that allows for fast non-invasive visualizations of animal anatomy in living animals. These modalities also allow for creation of three-dimensional representations that can be of considerable value in the dissemination of anatomical studies. In this methodological review, we present our experiences using MRI,...

  6. Unusual anatomy of maxillary central incisor with two roots

    OpenAIRE

    T S Ashwini Shivakumar; Saleem Makandar; Ajay Kadam

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Knowledge of root canal morphology is essential for successful endodontic therapy. Failure to recognize unusual root canal anatomy may lead to unsuccessful endodontic treatment. Case Report: This case report describes the successful endodontic treatment of the maxillary central incisor with unusual anatomy of two roots and two root canals. A 23-year-old male patient was referred for dental consultation with discoloration of the maxillary right central incisor with periapical les...

  7. Ultrasonography of the lower extremity veins: Anatomy and basic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dong Kyu; Ahn, Kyung Sik; Kang, Chang Ho; Cho, Sung Bum

    2017-01-01

    Ultrasonography is an imaging modality widely used to evaluate venous diseases of the lower extremities. It is important to understand the normal venous anatomy of the lower extremities, which has deep, superficial, and perforating venous components, in order to determine the pathophysiology of venous disease. This review provides a basic description of the anatomy of the lower extremity veins and useful techniques for approaching each vein via ultrasonography

  8. Not all renal stem cell niches are the same: anatomy of an evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Gerosa

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The renal stem cell niche represents the most important structure of the developing kidney, responsible for nephrogenesis. Recently, some Authors have reported, at ultrastructural level, a previously unknown complexity of the architecture of renal stem cell niche in experimental models. This study was aimed at studying, at histological level, the anatomy of renal stem cell niches in the human fetal kidney. To this end, ten fetal kidneys, whose gestational ages ranged from 11 up to 24 weeks, were studied. H&E-stained sections were observed at high power. The study of the anatomy of renal stem cell niches in the human kidney revealed a previously unreported complexity: some niches appeared as a roundish arrangement of mesenchymal cells; others showed the initial phases of induction by ureteric buds; in other niches the process of mesenchymal epithelial transition was more evident; finally, in other stem cell niches the first signs of nephron origin were detectable. These findings suggest the existence of niches with different anatomy in the same kidney, indicating different stages of evolution even in adjacent niches. All stem cell niches were in strict contact with the capsular cells, suggesting a major role of the renal capsule in nephrogenesis. Finally, our study confirms the existence of a strict contact between the bud tip cells and the surrounding mesenchyme in the human developing kidney, giving a morphological support to the theory of intercellular channels allowing the passage of transcription factors from the epithelial to the mesenchymal stem/progenitors cells.Proceedings of the 2nd International Course on Perinatal Pathology (part of the 11th International Workshop on Neonatology · October 26th-31st, 2015 · Cagliari (Italy · October 31st, 2015 · Stem cells: present and future Guest Editors: Gavino Faa, Vassilios Fanos, Antonio Giordano

  9. Human anatomy: let the students tell us how to teach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Christopher R; Bates, Anthony S; Ellis, Harold; Roberts, Alice M

    2014-01-01

    Anatomy teaching methods have evolved as the medical undergraduate curriculum has modernized. Traditional teaching methods of dissection, prosection, tutorials and lectures are now supplemented by anatomical models and e-learning. Despite these changes, the preferences of medical students and anatomy faculty towards both traditional and contemporary teaching methods and tools are largely unknown. This study quantified medical student and anatomy faculty opinion on various aspects of anatomical teaching at the Department of Anatomy, University of Bristol, UK. A questionnaire was used to explore the perceived effectiveness of different anatomical teaching methods and tools among anatomy faculty (AF) and medical students in year one (Y1) and year two (Y2). A total of 370 preclinical medical students entered the study (76% response rate). Responses were quantified and intergroup comparisons were made. All students and AF were strongly in favor of access to cadaveric specimens and supported traditional methods of small-group teaching with medically qualified demonstrators. Other teaching methods, including e-learning, anatomical models and surgical videos, were considered useful educational tools. In several areas there was disharmony between the opinions of AF and medical students. This study emphasizes the importance of collecting student preferences to optimize teaching methods used in the undergraduate anatomy curriculum. © 2013 American Association of Anatomists.

  10. Anatomy education for the YouTube generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Denis S; Marzouk, Fadi; Chulak-Oglu, Kyrylo; Bennett, Deirdre; Tierney, Paul; O'Keeffe, Gerard W

    2016-01-01

    Anatomy remains a cornerstone of medical education despite challenges that have seen a significant reduction in contact hours over recent decades; however, the rise of the "YouTube Generation" or "Generation Connected" (Gen C), offers new possibilities for anatomy education. Gen C, which consists of 80% Millennials, actively interact with social media and integrate it into their education experience. Most are willing to merge their online presence with their degree programs by engaging with course materials and sharing their knowledge freely using these platforms. This integration of social media into undergraduate learning, and the attitudes and mindset of Gen C, who routinely creates and publishes blogs, podcasts, and videos online, has changed traditional learning approaches and the student/teacher relationship. To gauge this, second year undergraduate medical and radiation therapy students (n = 73) were surveyed regarding their use of online social media in relation to anatomy learning. The vast majority of students had employed web-based platforms to source information with 78% using YouTube as their primary source of anatomy-related video clips. These findings suggest that the academic anatomy community may find value in the integration of social media into blended learning approaches in anatomy programs. This will ensure continued connection with the YouTube generation of students while also allowing for academic and ethical oversight regarding the use of online video clips whose provenance may not otherwise be known. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.

  11. Accessory left gastric artery: angiographic anatomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kang Soo; Lim, Hyung Guhn; Kim, Hong Soo; Jeon, Doo Sung [Presbyterian Medical Center, Chunju (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Jin Wook; Park, Jae Hyung [College of Medicine and the Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Song, Soon Young [Myongji Hospital, College of Medicine, Kwandong University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-09-01

    To evaluate the angiographic anatomy of the accessory left gastric artery (accLGA). We evaluated the angiographic findings of the accLGA in 50 patients (Angiostar; Siemens, Erlangen, Germany). Performing celiac and selective angiography in 50 and 34 patients, respectively. By means of celiac angiography, (1) site of origin, (2) anatomical course, (3) diameter, (4) degree of tortuosity, and (5) distal tapering were evaluated, while selective angiography was used to determine (1) arterial branching, (2) area of blood supply, and (3) patterns of gastric wall stain. Celiac angiography showed that the accLGA arose from the left hepatic artery (LHA) in 45 cases (90%) and from the proper hepatic artery in five (10%). If the accLGA arose from the LHA, its origin entirely depended on the branching pattern of the latter. It always arose from the lateral branch of the LHA furthest to the left and uppermost, and proximal to its umbilical point. The most common anatomical course of the accLGA, seen in 27 cases (54%), was between the S2 and S3 segmental branch. The diameter and degree of tortuosity of the accLGA were similar to those of adjacent intrahepatic branches in 21 (42%) and 33 cases (66%), respectively. The degree of tapering was less than that of adjacent intrahepatic vessel in 28 (56%). Selective angiography demonstrated esophageal branching of the acc LGA in 27 cases (79%), inferior phrenic arterial branching in three (9%), a mediastinal branch in one (3%), and hypervascularity of the lung in one (3%). In 15 cases (44%), bifurcation of the accLGA was recognized. The vascular territory of the accLGA was the gastric fundus together with the distal esophagus in 21 cases (62%), mainly the gastric fundus in six (18%), and mainly the distal esophagus in four (12%). The pattern of gastric mucosal stain was curvilinear wall in 31 cases (91%) and nodular in three (9%). A knowledge of the angiographic anatomy of the accLGA facilitates accurate recognition of this artery on

  12. The study techniques of Asian, American, and European medical students during gross anatomy and neuroanatomy courses in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurada, Anna; Gielecki, Jerzy St; Osman, Nilab; Tubbs, R Shane; Loukas, Marios; Zurada-Zielińska, Agnieszka; Bedi, Neru; Nowak, Dariusz

    2011-03-01

    Past research in medical education has addressed the study of gross anatomy, including the most effective learning techniques, comparing the use of cadavers, dissection, anatomy atlases, and multimedia tools. The aim of this study was to demonstrate similarities and differences among American, Asian, and European medical students (MS) regarding different study methods and to see how these methods affected their clinical skills. To analyze the varying study methods of European, American, and Asian MS in our program and in order to elucidate any ethnic and cultural differences a survey was conducted. A total of 705 international MS, from the Polish (PD), American (AD), and Taiwanese (TD) divisions, were asked to voluntarily participate in the questionnaire. Students were asked the following questions: which methods they used to study anatomy, and which of the methods they believed were most efficient for comprehension, memorization, and review. The questions were based on a 5-point Likert scale, where 5 was 'strongly agree', and 1 was 'strongly disagree'. The PD and AD preferred the use of dissections and prosected specimens to study anatomy. The TD showed less interest in studying from prosected specimens, but did acknowledge that this method was more effective than using atlases, plastic models, or CD-ROMs. Multimedia tools were mainly used for radiological anatomy and review and also for correctly typing proper names of structures using exact anatomical terminology. The findings highlight the differences in study techniques among students from different ethnic backgrounds. The study approaches used in order to accomplish learning objectives was affected by cultural norms that influenced each student group. These differences may be rooted in technological, religious, and language barriers, which can shape the way MS approach learning.

  13. Learning anatomy through Thiel- vs. formalin-embalmed cadavers: Student perceptions of embalming methods and effect on functional anatomy knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennel, Larissa; Martin, David M A; Shaw, Hannah; Wilkinson, Tracey

    2018-03-01

    Thiel-embalmed cadavers, which have been adopted for use in anatomy teaching in relatively few universities, show greater flexibility and color retention compared to formalin-embalmed cadavers, properties which might be considered advantageous for anatomy teaching. This study aimed to investigate student attitudes toward the dissection experience with Thiel- compared to formalin/ethanol-embalmed cadavers. It also aimed to determine if one embalming method is more advantageous in terms of learning functional anatomy through the comparison of student anterior forearm functional anatomy knowledge. Student opinions and functional anatomy knowledge were obtained through use of a questionnaire from students at two medical schools, one using Thiel-, and one using more traditional formalin/ethanol-embalmed cadavers. Both the Thiel group and the formalin group of students were surveyed shortly after completing an anterior forearm dissection session. Significant differences (P-values <0.01) in some attitudes were found toward the dissection experience between cohorts using Thiel- vs. formalin-embalmed cadavers. The Thiel group of students felt more confident about recognizing anatomy in the living individual, found it easier to identify and dissect anatomical structures, and indicated more active exploration of functional anatomy due to the retained flexibility of the cadaver. However, on testing, no significant difference in functional anatomy knowledge was found between the two cohorts. Overall, although Thiel embalming may provide an advantageous learning experience in some investigated areas, more research needs to be carried out, especially to establish whether student perception is based on reality, at least in terms of structure identification. Anat Sci Educ 11: 166-174. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists.

  14. Resident perceptions of anatomy education: a survey of medical school alumni from two different anatomy curricula and multiple medical specialties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohl, Michael A; Gest, Thomas R

    2011-01-01

    In 2004, the University of Michigan Medical School reduced its gross anatomy curriculum. To determine the effect of this reduction on resident perceptions of their clinical preparedness, we surveyed alumni that included residents from the original and new shortened curricula. A Likert-scale survey was sent to four classes of alumni. Respondents were compared in old curriculum (OC) and new curriculum (NC) groups, surgical specialty (SS) and nonsurgical specialty (NS) groups, and subgroups of SS and NS were compared for differences between OC and NC. Mean response scores were compared using independent samples T-tests. As a single population (n = 110), respondents felt their anatomy education prepared them well for residency, that a more robust anatomy curriculum would be helpful, that dissection was important to their residency preparation, and that a 4th year anatomy elective was effective in expanding their anatomy education and preparing them for residency. No significant difference existed between OC and NC groups, neither as a whole nor as SS and NS subgroups. The SS group felt dissection was more important to their residency preparation than the NS group (P = 0.001) and that a more robust anatomy curriculum would have better prepared them for residency (P = 0.001). Thirty percent of SS respondents who did not take a 4th year elective commented that they wish they had. Fourth year anatomy electives were highly valued by residents, and respondents felt that they should be offered to students as a way of revisiting anatomy following the 1st year of clinical training. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Anatomists.

  15. Gross Anatomy classroom and dissection laboratory. An ethnographic approach to the study of human anatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Belén López Castro

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The academic areas that rely on university chairs articulate teaching and research in particular ways. The aim of this paper is to describe the ways in which knowledge about the body is built from the work of the laboratories of dissection, without losing sight of its articulation with the anatomy lessons as a regular signature. From an ethnographic perspective, the proposal is to focus in the interventions over the dead body in the dissection laboratory based on the object of didactic transposition of the class.

  16. Anatomy of an online misinformation network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengcheng Shao

    Full Text Available Massive amounts of fake news and conspiratorial content have spread over social media before and after the 2016 US Presidential Elections despite intense fact-checking efforts. How do the spread of misinformation and fact-checking compete? What are the structural and dynamic characteristics of the core of the misinformation diffusion network, and who are its main purveyors? How to reduce the overall amount of misinformation? To explore these questions we built Hoaxy, an open platform that enables large-scale, systematic studies of how misinformation and fact-checking spread and compete on Twitter. Hoaxy captures public tweets that include links to articles from low-credibility and fact-checking sources. We perform k-core decomposition on a diffusion network obtained from two million retweets produced by several hundred thousand accounts over the six months before the election. As we move from the periphery to the core of the network, fact-checking nearly disappears, while social bots proliferate. The number of users in the main core reaches equilibrium around the time of the election, with limited churn and increasingly dense connections. We conclude by quantifying how effectively the network can be disrupted by penalizing the most central nodes. These findings provide a first look at the anatomy of a massive online misinformation diffusion network.

  17. Neuroembryology and functional anatomy of craniofacial clefts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewings Ember

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The master plan of all vertebrate embryos is based on neuroanatomy. The embryo can be anatomically divided into discrete units called neuromeres so that each carries unique genetic traits. Embryonic neural crest cells arising from each neuromere induce development of nerves and concomitant arteries and support the development of specific craniofacial tissues or developmental fields. Fields are assembled upon each other in a programmed spatiotemporal order. Abnormalities in one field can affect the shape and position of developing adjacent fields. Craniofacial clefts represent states of excess or deficiency within and between specific developmental fields. The neuromeric organization of the embryo is the common denominator for understanding normal anatomy and pathology of the head and neck. Tessier′s observational cleft classification system can be redefined using neuroanatomic embryology. Reassessment of Tessier′s empiric observations demonstrates a more rational rearrangement of cleft zones, particularly near the midline. Neuromeric theory is also a means to understand and define other common craniofacial problems. Cleft palate, encephaloceles, craniosynostosis and cranial base defects may be analyzed in the same way.

  18. Normal CT anatomy of the spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quiroga, O.; Matozzi, F.; Beranger, M.; Nazarian, S.; Salamon, G.; Gambarelli, J.

    1982-01-01

    To analyse the anatomo-radiological correlation of the spine and spinal cord, 22 formalized, frozen anatomical specimens corresponding to different regions of the spinal column (8 cervical, 5 dorsal, and 9 lumbar) were studied by CT scans on axial, sagittal and coronal planes and by contact radiography after they were cut into anatomical slices in order to clarify the normal CT anatomy of the spinal column. The results obtained from CT patient scans, performed exclusively on the axial plane, were compared with those obtained from the anatomical specimens (both CT and contrast radiography). High resolution CT programs were used, enabling us to obtain better individualization of the normal structures contained in the spinal column. Direct sagittal and coronal sections were performed on the specimens in order to get further anatomo-radiological information. Enhanced CT studies of the specimens were also available because of the air already present in the subarachnoid spaces. Excellent visualization was obtained of bone structures, soft tissue and the spinal cord. High CT resolution of the spine appeares to be an excellent neuroradiological procedure to study the spine and spinal cord. A metrizamide CT scan is, however, necessary when a normal unenhanced CT scan is insufficient for diagnosis and when the spinal cord is not clearly visible, as often happens at the cervical level. Clinical findings are certainly very useful to ascertain the exact CT level and to limit the radiation exposure. (orig.)

  19. Tinjauan Anatomi Klinik dan Manajemen Bell's Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Mujaddidah

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Bell's Palsy is a peripheral facial nerve weakness (facial nerve with acute onset on one side of the face. This condition causes the inability of the patient to move half of his face consciously (volunter on the affected side. The Bell's Palsy incidence is 20-30 cases out of 100.000 people and accounts for 60-70% of all cases of unilateral facial paralysis. The disease is self-limited, but causes great suffering for patients who are not treated properly. Controversy in the management is still debated, and the cause is still unknown. The underlying hypothesis is ischemic, vascular, viral, bacterial, hereditary, and immunologic. Therapy done so far is to improve facial nerve function and healing process. The management of the therapy used will be closely related to the structure of the anatomy and its functions and associated abnormalities. The modalities of Bell's Palsy therapy are with corticosteroids and antivirals, facial exercises, electrostimulation, physiotherapy and decompression operations. Approximately 80-90% of patients with Bell's palsy recover completely within 6 months, even in 50-60% of cases improved within 3 weeks. Approximately 10% experienced persistent facial muscle asymmetry, and 5% experienced severe sequelae, and 8% of cases were recurrent.

  20. Functional anatomy and biomechanics of the carpus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, R.

    2006-01-01

    The wrist is an exceedingly complex structure composed of several joints and a dedicated ligamentous system. Its functional principles allow a wide range of carpal motion and make the wrist remarkably resistant to external stress forces: The proximal carpal row serves as an intercalated link interposed between the static elements of both the forearm and the distal carpal row. Like a flexible placeholder, the proximal row synchronously adapts to the spatial and temporal requirements of the wrist. There are synergistic movement patterns including simultaneous flexion of the proximal row as the wrist is deviated radially and simultaneous extension during ulnar deviation. Together with pronosupination of the radioulnar joints, the combined radial/ulnar inclination and flexion/extension enable spherical, out-of-plane movements of the hand. Carpal function is best explained by the ''model of a ring under tension.'' This review addresses the anatomy and the biomechanics of the wrist and illustrates systematic image analysis by using carpal lines and angles as well as indices of carpal height. (orig.) [de

  1. Microscopic functional anatomy: Integumentary system: Chapter 17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Diane G.; Ostrander, Gary K.

    2000-01-01

    Many of the features of the fish integument can only be observed microscopically. Because there are over 20,000 living fishes, mostly higher bony fishes (teleosts), a great diversity exists in the microscopic anatomy of the integument. This chapter presents several examples from varied taxonomic groups to illustrate the variation in morphological features. As in all vertebrate epidermis, the fundamental structural unit is the epithelial cell. This is the only constant feature, as a great diversity of cell types exists in the various fish taxa. Some of these include apocrine mucous cells and a variety of other secretory cells, ionocytes, sensory cells, and wandering cells such as leukocytes. The dermis consists essentially of two sets of collagen fibers arranged in opposing geodesic spirals around the body. The dermis of most fishes is divided into two major layers. The upper (outer) layer, the stratum spongiosum or stratum laxum, is a loose network of connective tissue, whereas the lower layer, the stratum compactum, is a dense layer consisting primarily of orthogonal collagen bands. There are also specialized dermal elements such as chromatophores scales, and fin rays.

  2. Charcoal anatomy of Brazilian species. I. Anacardiaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Thaís A P; Scheel-Ybert, Rita

    2016-01-01

    Anthracological studies are firmly advancing in the tropics during the last decades. The theoretical and methodological bases of the discipline are well established. Yet, there is a strong demand for comparative reference material, seeking for an improvement in the precision of taxonomic determination, both in palaeoecological and palaeoethnobotanical studies and to help preventing illegal charcoal production. This work presents descriptions of charcoal anatomy of eleven Anacardiaceae species from six genera native to Brazil (Anacardium occidentale, Anacardium parvifolium, Astronium graveolens, Astronium lecointei, Lithrea molleoides, Schinus terebenthifolius, Spondias mombin, Spondias purpurea, Spondias tuberosa, Tapirira guianensis, and Tapirira obtusa). They are characterized by diffuse-porous wood, vessels solitary and in multiples, tyloses and spiral thickenings sometimes present; simple perforation plates, alternate intervessel pits, rounded vessel-ray pits with much reduced borders to apparently simple; parenchyma paratracheal scanty to vasicentric; heterocellular rays, some with radial canals and crystals; septate fibres with simple pits. These results are quite similar to previous wood anatomical descriptions of the same species or genera. Yet, charcoal identification is more effective when unknown samples are compared to charred extant equivalents, instead of to wood slides.

  3. Charcoal anatomy of Brazilian species. I. Anacardiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    THAÍS A.P. GONÇALVES

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Anthracological studies are firmly advancing in the tropics during the last decades. The theoretical and methodological bases of the discipline are well established. Yet, there is a strong demand for comparative reference material, seeking for an improvement in the precision of taxonomic determination, both in palaeoecological and palaeoethnobotanical studies and to help preventing illegal charcoal production. This work presents descriptions of charcoal anatomy of eleven Anacardiaceae species from six genera native to Brazil (Anacardium occidentale, Anacardium parvifolium, Astronium graveolens, Astronium lecointei, Lithrea molleoides, Schinus terebenthifolius, Spondias mombin, Spondias purpurea, Spondias tuberosa, Tapirira guianensis, and Tapirira obtusa. They are characterized by diffuse-porous wood, vessels solitary and in multiples, tyloses and spiral thickenings sometimes present; simple perforation plates, alternate intervessel pits, rounded vessel-ray pits with much reduced borders to apparently simple; parenchyma paratracheal scanty to vasicentric; heterocellular rays, some with radial canals and crystals; septate fibres with simple pits. These results are quite similar to previous wood anatomical descriptions of the same species or genera. Yet, charcoal identification is more effective when unknown samples are compared to charred extant equivalents, instead of to wood slides.

  4. [Anatomy and pathogenesis of diverticular disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedel, T; Böttner, M

    2014-04-01

    Although diverticular disease is one of the most frequent gastrointestinal disorders the pathogenesis is not yet sufficiently clarified. The aim is to define the anatomy and pathogenesis of diverticular disease considering the risk factors and description of structural and functional alterations of the bowel wall. This article gives an appraisal of the literature, presentation and evaluation of classical etiological factors, analysis and discussion of novel pathogenetic concepts. Colonic diverticulosis is defined as an acquired out-pouching of multiple and initially asymptomatic pseudodiverticula through muscular gaps in the colon wall. Diverticular disease is characterized by diverticular bleeding and/or inflammatory processes (diverticulitis) with corresponding complications (e.g. abscess formation, fistula, covered and open perforation, peritonitis and stenosis). Risk factors for diverticular disease include increasing age, genetic predisposition, congenital connective tissue diseases, low fiber diet, high meat consumption and pronounced overweight. Alterations of connective tissue cause a weakening of preformed exit sites of diverticula and rigidity of the bowel wall with reduced flexibility. It is assumed that intestinal innervation disorders and structural alterations of the musculature induce abnormal contractile patterns with increased intraluminal pressure, thereby promoting the development of diverticula. Moreover, an increased release of pain-mediating neurotransmitters is considered to be responsible for persistent pain in chronic diverticular disease. According to the present data the pathogenesis of diverticular disease cannot be attributed to a single factor but should be considered as a multifactorial event.

  5. Anatomy of an online misinformation network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Jiang, Xinwen; Flammini, Alessandro; Ciampaglia, Giovanni Luca

    2018-01-01

    Massive amounts of fake news and conspiratorial content have spread over social media before and after the 2016 US Presidential Elections despite intense fact-checking efforts. How do the spread of misinformation and fact-checking compete? What are the structural and dynamic characteristics of the core of the misinformation diffusion network, and who are its main purveyors? How to reduce the overall amount of misinformation? To explore these questions we built Hoaxy, an open platform that enables large-scale, systematic studies of how misinformation and fact-checking spread and compete on Twitter. Hoaxy captures public tweets that include links to articles from low-credibility and fact-checking sources. We perform k-core decomposition on a diffusion network obtained from two million retweets produced by several hundred thousand accounts over the six months before the election. As we move from the periphery to the core of the network, fact-checking nearly disappears, while social bots proliferate. The number of users in the main core reaches equilibrium around the time of the election, with limited churn and increasingly dense connections. We conclude by quantifying how effectively the network can be disrupted by penalizing the most central nodes. These findings provide a first look at the anatomy of a massive online misinformation diffusion network. PMID:29702657

  6. Anatomy of an online misinformation network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Chengcheng; Hui, Pik-Mai; Wang, Lei; Jiang, Xinwen; Flammini, Alessandro; Menczer, Filippo; Ciampaglia, Giovanni Luca

    2018-01-01

    Massive amounts of fake news and conspiratorial content have spread over social media before and after the 2016 US Presidential Elections despite intense fact-checking efforts. How do the spread of misinformation and fact-checking compete? What are the structural and dynamic characteristics of the core of the misinformation diffusion network, and who are its main purveyors? How to reduce the overall amount of misinformation? To explore these questions we built Hoaxy, an open platform that enables large-scale, systematic studies of how misinformation and fact-checking spread and compete on Twitter. Hoaxy captures public tweets that include links to articles from low-credibility and fact-checking sources. We perform k-core decomposition on a diffusion network obtained from two million retweets produced by several hundred thousand accounts over the six months before the election. As we move from the periphery to the core of the network, fact-checking nearly disappears, while social bots proliferate. The number of users in the main core reaches equilibrium around the time of the election, with limited churn and increasingly dense connections. We conclude by quantifying how effectively the network can be disrupted by penalizing the most central nodes. These findings provide a first look at the anatomy of a massive online misinformation diffusion network.

  7. Temporomandibular Joint Anatomy Assessed by CBCT Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Caruso

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Since cone beam computed tomography (CBCT has been used for the study of craniofacial morphology, the attention of orthodontists has also focused on the mandibular condyle. The purpose of this brief review is to summarize the recent 3D CBCT images of mandibular condyle. Material and Methods. The eligibility criteria for the studies are (a studies aimed at evaluating the anatomy of the temporomandibular joint; (b studies performed with CBCT images; (c studies on human subjects; (d studies that were not clinical case-reports and clinical series; (e studies reporting data on children, adolescents, or young adults (data from individuals with age ≤ 30 years. Sources included PubMed from June 2008 to June 2016. Results. 43 full-text articles were initially screened for eligibility. 13 full-text articles were assessed for eligibility. 11 articles were finally included in qualitative synthesis. The main topics treated in the studies are the volume and surface of the mandibular condyle, the bone changes on cortical surface, the facial asymmetry, and the optimum position of the condyle in the glenoid fossa. Conclusion. Additional studies will be necessary in the future, constructed with longitudinal methodology, especially in growing subjects. The limits of CBCT acquisitions are also highlighted.

  8. The deep lymphatic anatomy of the hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chuan-Xiang; Pan, Wei-Ren; Liu, Zhi-An; Zeng, Fan-Qiang; Qiu, Zhi-Qiang

    2018-04-03

    The deep lymphatic anatomy of the hand still remains the least described in medical literature. Eight hands were harvested from four nonembalmed human cadavers amputated above the wrist. A small amount of 6% hydrogen peroxide was employed to detect the lymphatic vessels around the superficial and deep palmar vascular arches, in webs from the index to little fingers, the thenar and hypothenar areas. A 30-gauge needle was inserted into the vessels and injected with a barium sulphate compound. Each specimen was dissected, photographed and radiographed to demonstrate deep lymphatic distribution of the hand. Five groups of deep collecting lymph vessels were found in the hand: superficial palmar arch lymph vessel (SPALV); deep palmar arch lymph vessel (DPALV); thenar lymph vessel (TLV); hypothenar lymph vessel (HTLV); deep finger web lymph vessel (DFWLV). Each group of vessels drained in different directions first, then all turned and ran towards the wrist in different layers. The deep lymphatic drainage of the hand has been presented. The results will provide an anatomical basis for clinical management, educational reference and scientific research. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Clinical anatomy as practiced by ancient Egyptians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukas, Marios; Hanna, Michael; Alsaiegh, Nada; Shoja, Mohammadali M; Tubbs, R Shane

    2011-05-01

    Egypt is famously known for its Nile and pyramids, yet not many people know that Egypt made possible the origin of the anatomical sciences. Several ancient papyri guide us through the Egyptians' exploration of the human body and how they applied anatomical knowledge to clinical medicine to the best of their knowledge. It is through records, such as the Edwin Smith, Ebers, and Kahun papyri and other literature detailing the work of the Egyptian embalmers, physicians, and Greek anatomists, that we are able to take a glimpse into the evolution of the anatomical sciences from 3000 B.C. to 250 B.C. It is through the Egyptian embalmer that we were able to learn of some of the first interactions with human organs and their detailed observation. The Egyptian physician's knowledge, being transcribed into the Ebers and Edwin Smith papyri, enabled future physicians to seek reference to common ailments for diagnosing and treating a variety of conditions ranging from head injuries to procedures, such as trans-sphenoidal surgery. In Alexandria, Herophilus, and Erasistratus made substantial contributions to the anatomical sciences by beginning the practice of human dissection. For instance, Herophilus described the anatomy of the heart valves along with Erasistratus who demonstrated how blood was prevented from flowing retrograde under normal conditions. Hence, from various records, we are able to unravel how Egypt paved the road for study of the anatomical sciences. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Muscular anatomy of the human ventricular folds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Jerald; Alipour, Fariborz

    2013-09-01

    Our purpose in this study was to better understand the muscular anatomy of the ventricular folds in order to help improve biomechanical modeling of phonation and to better understand the role of these muscles during phonatory and nonphonatory tasks. Four human larynges were decalcified, sectioned coronally from posterior to anterior by a CryoJane tape transfer system, and stained with Masson's trichrome. The total and relative areas of muscles observed in each section were calculated and used for characterizing the muscle distribution within the ventricular folds. The ventricular folds contained anteriorly coursing thyroarytenoid and ventricularis muscle fibers that were in the lower half of the ventricular fold posteriorly, and some ventricularis muscle was evident in the upper and lateral portions of the fold more anteriorly. Very little muscle tissue was observed in the medial half of the fold, and the anterior half of the ventricular fold was largely devoid of any muscle tissue. All 4 larynges contained muscle bundles that coursed superiorly and medially through the upper half of the fold, toward the lateral margin of the epiglottis. Although variability of expression was evident, a well-defined thyroarytenoid muscle was readily apparent lateral to the arytenoid cartilage in all specimens.

  11. Comparative and Developmental Anatomy of Cardiac Lymphatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ratajska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of the cardiac lymphatic system has been recently appreciated since lymphatic disturbances take part in various heart pathologies. This review presents the current knowledge about normal anatomy and structure of lymphatics and their prenatal development for a better understanding of the proper functioning of this system in relation to coronary circulation. Lymphatics of the heart consist of terminal capillaries of various diameters, capillary plexuses that drain continuously subendocardial, myocardial, and subepicardial areas, and draining (collecting vessels that lead the lymph out of the heart. There are interspecies differences in the distribution of lymphatic capillaries, especially near the valves, as well as differences in the routes and number of draining vessels. In some species, subendocardial areas contain fewer lymphatic capillaries as compared to subepicardial parts of the heart. In all species there is at least one collector vessel draining lymph from the subepicardial plexuses and running along the anterior interventricular septum under the left auricle and further along the pulmonary trunk outside the heart and terminating in the right venous angle. The second collector assumes a different route in various species. In most mammalian species the collectors run along major branches of coronary arteries, have valves and a discontinuous layer of smooth muscle cells.

  12. Bronchial arteries: anatomy, function, hypertrophy, and anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Christopher M; Rosado-de-Christenson, Melissa L; Martínez-Jiménez, Santiago; Kunin, Jeffrey R; Wible, Brandt C

    2015-01-01

    The two main sources of blood supply to the lungs and their supporting structures are the pulmonary and bronchial arteries. The bronchial arteries account for 1% of the cardiac output but can be recruited to provide additional systemic circulation to the lungs in various acquired and congenital thoracic disorders. An understanding of bronchial artery anatomy and function is important in the identification of bronchial artery dilatation and anomalies and the formulation of an appropriate differential diagnosis. Visualization of dilated bronchial arteries at imaging should alert the radiologist to obstructive disorders that affect the pulmonary circulation and prompt the exclusion of diseases that produce or are associated with pulmonary artery obstruction, including chronic infectious and/or inflammatory processes, chronic thromboembolic disease, and congenital anomalies of the thorax (eg, proximal interruption of the pulmonary artery). Conotruncal abnormalities, such as pulmonary atresia with ventricular septal defect, are associated with systemic pulmonary supply provided by aortic branches known as major aortopulmonary collaterals, which originate in the region of the bronchial arteries. Bronchial artery malformation is a rare left-to-right or left-to-left shunt characterized by an anomalous connection between a bronchial artery and a pulmonary artery or a pulmonary vein, respectively. Bronchial artery interventions can be used successfully in the treatment of hemoptysis, with a low risk of adverse events. Multidetector computed tomography helps provide a vascular road map for the interventional radiologist before bronchial artery embolization. RSNA, 2015

  13. Can "YouTube" help students in learning surface anatomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azer, Samy A

    2012-07-01

    In a problem-based learning curriculum, most medical students research the Internet for information for their "learning issues." Internet sites such as "YouTube" have become a useful resource for information. This study aimed at assessing YouTube videos covering surface anatomy. A search of YouTube was conducted from November 8 to 30, 2010 using research terms "surface anatomy," "anatomy body painting," "living anatomy," "bone landmarks," and "dermatomes" for surface anatomy-related videos. Only relevant video clips in the English language were identified and related URL recorded. For each videotape the following information were collected: title, authors, duration, number of viewers, posted comments, and total number of days on YouTube. The data were statistically analyzed and videos were grouped into educationally useful and non-useful videos on the basis of major and minor criteria covering technical, content, authority, and pedagogy parameters. A total of 235 YouTube videos were screened and 57 were found to have relevant information to surface anatomy. Analysis revealed that 15 (27%) of the videos provided useful information on surface anatomy. These videos scored (mean ± SD, 14.0 ± 0.7) and mainly covered surface anatomy of the shoulder, knee, muscles of the back, leg, and ankle, carotid artery, dermatomes, and anatomical positions. The other 42 (73%) videos were not useful educationally, scoring (mean ± SD, 7.4 ± 1.8). The total viewers of all videos were 1,058,634. Useful videos were viewed by 497,925 (47% of total viewers). The total viewership per day was 750 for useful videos and 652 for non-useful videos. No video clips covering surface anatomy of the head and neck, blood vessels and nerves of upper and lower limbs, chest and abdominal organs/structures were found. Currently, YouTube is an inadequate source of information for learning surface anatomy. More work is needed from medical schools and educators to add useful videos on You

  14. Time-saving and fail-safe dissection method for vestibulocochlear organs in gross anatomy classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Ryoji; Konno, Naoaki; Ishizawa, Akimitsu; Kanatsu, Yoshinori; Funakoshi, Kodai; Akashi, Hideo; Zhou, Ming; Abe, Hiroshi

    2017-09-01

    Because the vestibulocochlear organs are tiny and complex, and are covered by the petrous part of the temporal bone, they are very difficult for medical students to dissect and visualize during gross anatomy classes. Here, we report a time-saving and fail-safe procedure we have devised, using a hand-held hobby router. Nine en bloc temporal bone samples from donated human cadavers were used as trial materials for devising an appropriate procedure for dissecting the vestibulocochlear organs. A hand-held hobby router was used to cut through the temporal bone. After trials, the most time-saving and fail-safe method was selected. The performance of the selected method was assessed by a survey of 242 sides of 121 cadavers during gross anatomy classes for vestibulocochlear dissection. The assessment was based on the observation ratio. The best procedure appeared to be removal of the external acoustic meatus roof and tympanic cavity roof together with removal of the internal acoustic meatus roof. The whole procedure was completed within two dissection classes, each lasting 4.5 hr. The ratio of surveillance for the chorda tympani and three semicircular canals by students was significantly improved during 2013 through 2016. In our dissection class, "removal of the external acoustic meatus roof and tympanic cavity roof together with removal of the internal acoustic meatus roof" was the best procedure for students in the limited time available. Clin. Anat. 30:703-710, 2017. © 2017Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Correlation among ultrasound, cross-sectional anatomy, and histology of the sciatic nerve: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moayeri, Nizar; van Geffen, Geert J; Bruhn, Jörgen; Chan, Vincent W; Groen, Gerbrand J

    2010-01-01

    Efficient identification of the sciatic nerve (SN) requires a thorough knowledge of its topography in relation to the surrounding structures. Anatomic cross sections in similar oblique planes as observed during SN ultrasonography are lacking. A survey of sonoanatomy matched with ultrasound views of the major SN block sites will be helpful in pattern recognition, especially when combined with images that show the internal architecture of the nerve. From 1 cadaver, consecutive parts of the upper leg corresponding to the 4 major blocks sites were sectioned and deeply frozen. Using cryomicrotomy, consecutive transverse sections were acquired and photographed at 78-microm intervals, along with histologic sections at 5-mm intervals. Multiplanar reformatting was done to reconstruct the optimal planes for an accurate comparison of ultrasonography and gross anatomy. The anatomic and histologic images were matched with ultrasound images that were obtained from 2 healthy volunteers. By simulating the exact position and angulation as in the ultrasonographic images, detailed anatomic overviews of SN and adjacent structures were reconstructed in the gluteal, subgluteal, midfemoral, and popliteal regions. Throughout its trajectory, SN contains numerous fascicles with connective and adipose tissues. In this study, we provide an optimal matching between histology, anatomic cross sections, and short-axis ultrasound images of SN. Reconstructing ultrasonographic planes with this high-resolution digitized anatomy not only enables an overview but also shows detailed views of the architecture of internal SN. The undulating course of the nerve fascicles within SN may explain its varying echogenic appearance during probe manipulation.

  16. Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam

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  17. Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam

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  18. Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam

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    Full Text Available ... International Monthly Tips & Advice For Consumers For Military Consumers Business Center Advertising & Marketing Credit & Finance Guidance Privacy & Security Selected Industries Legal ...

  19. Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam

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    Full Text Available ... International Monthly Tips & Advice For Consumers For Military Consumers Business Center Advertising & Marketing Credit & Finance Guidance Privacy & Security Selected Industries Protecting ...

  20. [Microsurgical anatomy importance of A1-anterior communicating artery complex].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroy-Sosa, Alejandro; Pérez-Cruz, Julio César; Reyes-Soto, Gervith; Delgado-Hernández, Carlos; Macías-Duvignau, Mario Alberto; Delgado-Reyes, Luis

    2013-01-01

    The anterior cerebral artery originates from the bifurcation of the internal carotid artery lateral to the optic chiasm, then joins with its contralateral counterpart via the anterior communicating artery. A1-anterior communicating artery complex is the most frequent anatomical variants and is the major site of aneurysms between 30 to 37%. Know the anatomy microsurgical, variants anatomical and importance of complex precommunicating segment-artery anterior communicating in surgery neurological of the pathology vascular, mainly aneurysms, in Mexican population. The study was performed in 30 brains injected. Microanatomy was studied (length and diameter) of A1-anterior communicating artery complex and its variants. 60 segments A1, the average length of left side was 11.35 mm and 11.84 mm was right. The average diameter of left was 1.67 mm and the right was 1.64 mm. The average number of perforators on the left side was 7.9 and the right side was 7.5. Anterior communicating artery was found in 29 brains of the optic chiasm, its course depended on the length of the A1 segment. The average length of the segment was 2.84 mm, the average diameter was 1.41 mm and the average number of perforators was 3.27. A1-anterior communicating artery complex variants were found in 18 (60%) and the presence of two blister-like aneurysms. It is necessary to understand the A1-anterior communicating artery complex microanatomy of its variants to have a three-dimensional vision during aneurysm surgery.

  1. Practical session assessments in human anatomy: Weightings and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Aaron C; Chan, Siew-Pang; Schuijers, Johannes A

    2016-07-08

    Assessment weighting within a given module can be a motivating factor for students when deciding on their commitment level and time given to study a specific topic. In this study, an analysis of assessment performances of second year anatomy students was performed over four years to determine if (1) students performed better when a higher weighting was given to a set of practical session assessments and (2) whether an improved performance in the practical session assessments had a carry-over effect on other assessment tasks within that anatomy module and/or other anatomy modules that follow. Results showed that increasing the weighting of practical session assessments improved the average mark in that assessment and also improved the percentage of students passing that assessment. Further, it significantly improved performance in the written end-semester examination within the same module and had a carry-over effect on the anatomy module taught in the next teaching period, as students performed better in subsequent practical session assessments as well as subsequent end-semester examinations. It was concluded that the weighting of assessments had significant influences on a student's performance in that, and subsequent, assessments. It is postulated that practical session assessments, designed to develop deep learning skills in anatomy, improved efficacy in student performance in assessments undertaken in that and subsequent anatomy modules when the weighting of these assessments was greater. These deep learning skills were also transferable to other methods of assessing anatomy. Anat Sci Educ 9: 330-336. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.

  2. Properties of publications on anatomy in medical education literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorstenbosch, Marc; Bolhuis, Sanneke; van Kuppeveld, Sascha; Kooloos, Jan; Laan, Roland

    2011-01-01

    Publications on anatomy in medical education appear to be largely anecdotal. To explore this, we investigated the literature on anatomy in medical education, aiming first to evaluate the contribution of the literature on anatomy in medical education to "best evidence medical education" (BEME) and second to evaluate the development of this literature toward more "best evidence" between 1985 and 2009. Four databases were searched for publications on anatomy in medical education published between 1985 and 2009, resulting in 525 references. Hundred publications were characterized by five variables (journal category, paper subject, paper category, author perspective, and paper perspective). Statements from these publications were characterized by two variables (category and foundation). The publications contained 797 statements that involved the words "anatomy," "anatomical," or "anatomist." Forty-five percent of the publications contained no explicit research question. Forty percent of the statements made were about "teaching methods" and 17% about "teaching content," 8% referred to "practical value," and 10% to "side effects" of anatomy education. Ten percent of the statements were "positional," five percent "traditional," four percent "self-evident," and two percent referred to "quality of care." Fifty-six percent of the statements had no foundation, 17% were founded on empirical data, and 27% by references. These results substantiated the critical comments about the anecdotal nature of the literature. However, it is encouraging to see that between 1985 and 2009 the number of publications is rising that these publications increasingly focus on teaching methods and that an academic writing style is developing. This suggests a growing body of empirical literature about anatomy education. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Anatomists.

  3. Preservation of three-dimensional anatomy in phosphatized fossil arthropods enriches evolutionary inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwermann, Achim H; Dos Santos Rolo, Tomy; Caterino, Michael S; Bechly, Günter; Schmied, Heiko; Baumbach, Tilo; van de Kamp, Thomas

    2016-02-05

    External and internal morphological characters of extant and fossil organisms are crucial to establishing their systematic position, ecological role and evolutionary trends. The lack of internal characters and soft-tissue preservation in many arthropod fossils, however, impedes comprehensive phylogenetic analyses and species descriptions according to taxonomic standards for Recent organisms. We found well-preserved three-dimensional anatomy in mineralized arthropods from Paleogene fissure fillings and demonstrate the value of these fossils by utilizing digitally reconstructed anatomical structure of a hister beetle. The new anatomical data facilitate a refinement of the species diagnosis and allowed us to reject a previous hypothesis of close phylogenetic relationship to an extant congeneric species. Our findings suggest that mineralized fossils, even those of macroscopically poor preservation, constitute a rich but yet largely unexploited source of anatomical data for fossil arthropods.

  4. Muscular anatomy of the Podocoryna carnea hydrorhiza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, Leo W; Anderson, Christopher; Bolton, Edward W

    2013-01-01

    The muscular anatomy of the athecate hydroid Podocoryna carnea hydrorhiza is elucidated. The polyp-stolon junction is characterized by an opening, here called the chloe, in the otherwise continuous hydrorhizal perisarc. The chloe is elliptical when the polyp first arises, but takes on a more complex outline as multiple stolons anastomose to communicate with that polyp. Surrounding the polyp base are spots, here called anchors, which autofluoresce at the same wavelengths as perisarc and which, like perisarc, contain chitin as assessed by Calcofluor White, Congo Red and wheat germ agglutinin staining. Anchors remain after living tissues are digested using KOH. Collagen IV staining indicates that the mesoglea is pegged to the anchors and rhodamine phallodin staining detects cytoskeletal F-actin fibers of the basal epidermis surrounding the anchors. Longitudinal muscle fibers of the polyp broaden at the polyp base and are inserted into the mesoglea of the underlying stolon, but were neither observed to extend along the stolonal axis nor to attach to the anchors. Circular muscular fibers of the polyp extend into stolons as a dense collection of strands running along the proximal-distal axis of the stolon. These gastrodermal axial muscular fibers extend to the stolon tip. Epidermal cells at the stolon tip and the polyp bud display a regular apical latticework of F-actin staining. A similar meshwork of F-actin staining was found in the extreme basal epidermis of all stolons. Immunohistochemical staining for tubulin revealed nerves at stolon tips, but at no other hydrorhizal locations. These studies bear on the mechanisms by which the stolon tip and polyp bud pulsate, the manner in which the stolon lumen closes, and on the developmental origin of the basal epidermis of the hydrorhiza.

  5. Towards an elastographic atlas of brain anatomy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Guo

    Full Text Available Cerebral viscoelastic constants can be measured in a noninvasive, image-based way by magnetic resonance elastography (MRE for the detection of neurological disorders. However, MRE brain maps of viscoelastic constants are still limited by low spatial resolution. Here we introduce three-dimensional multifrequency MRE of the brain combined with a novel reconstruction algorithm based on a model-free multifrequency inversion for calculating spatially resolved viscoelastic parameter maps of the human brain corresponding to the dynamic range of shear oscillations between 30 and 60 Hz. Maps of two viscoelastic parameters, the magnitude and the phase angle of the complex shear modulus, |G*| and φ, were obtained and normalized to group templates of 23 healthy volunteers in the age range of 22 to 72 years. This atlas of the anatomy of brain mechanics reveals a significant contrast in the stiffness parameter |G*| between different anatomical regions such as white matter (WM; 1.252±0.260 kPa, the corpus callosum genu (CCG; 1.104±0.280 kPa, the thalamus (TH; 1.058±0.208 kPa and the head of the caudate nucleus (HCN; 0.649±0.101 kPa. φ, which is sensitive to the lossy behavior of the tissue, was in the order of CCG (1.011±0.172, TH (1.037±0.173, CN (0.906±0.257 and WM (0.854±0.169. The proposed method provides the first normalized maps of brain viscoelasticity with anatomical details in subcortical regions and provides useful background data for clinical applications of cerebral MRE.

  6. BOLD Granger causality reflects vascular anatomy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Taylor Webb

    Full Text Available A number of studies have tried to exploit subtle phase differences in BOLD time series to resolve the order of sequential activation of brain regions, or more generally the ability of signal in one region to predict subsequent signal in another region. More recently, such lag-based measures have been applied to investigate directed functional connectivity, although this application has been controversial. We attempted to use large publicly available datasets (FCON 1000, ADHD 200, Human Connectome Project to determine whether consistent spatial patterns of Granger Causality are observed in typical fMRI data. For BOLD datasets from 1,240 typically developing subjects ages 7-40, we measured Granger causality between time series for every pair of 7,266 spherical ROIs covering the gray matter and 264 seed ROIs at hubs of the brain's functional network architecture. Granger causality estimates were strongly reproducible for connections in a test and replication sample (n=620 subjects for each group, as well as in data from a single subject scanned repeatedly, both during resting and passive video viewing. The same effect was even stronger in high temporal resolution fMRI data from the Human Connectome Project, and was observed independently in data collected during performance of 7 task paradigms. The spatial distribution of Granger causality reflected vascular anatomy with a progression from Granger causality sources, in Circle of Willis arterial inflow distributions, to sinks, near large venous vascular structures such as dural venous sinuses and at the periphery of the brain. Attempts to resolve BOLD phase differences with Granger causality should consider the possibility of reproducible vascular confounds, a problem that is independent of the known regional variability of the hemodynamic response.

  7. Microsurgical anatomy of the central lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frigeri, Thomas; Paglioli, Eliseu; de Oliveira, Evandro; Rhoton, Albert L

    2015-03-01

    The central lobe consists of the pre- and postcentral gyri on the lateral surface and the paracentral lobule on the medial surface and corresponds to the sensorimotor cortex. The objective of the present study was to define the neural features, craniometric relationships, arterial supply, and venous drainage of the central lobe. Cadaveric hemispheres dissected using microsurgical techniques provided the material for this study. The coronal suture is closer to the precentral gyrus and central sulcus at its lower rather than at its upper end, but they are closest at a point near where the superior temporal line crosses the coronal suture. The arterial supply of the lower two-thirds of the lateral surface of the central lobe was from the central, precentral, and anterior parietal branches that arose predominantly from the superior trunk of the middle cerebral artery. The medial surface and the superior third of the lateral surface were supplied by the posterior interior frontal, paracentral, and superior parietal branches of the pericallosal and callosomarginal arteries. The venous drainage of the superior two-thirds of the lateral surface and the central lobe on the medial surface was predominantly through the superior sagittal sinus, and the inferior third of the lateral surface was predominantly through the superficial sylvian veins to the sphenoparietal sinus or the vein of Labbé to the transverse sinus. The pre- and postcentral gyri and paracentral lobule have a morphological and functional anatomy that differentiates them from the remainder of their respective lobes and are considered by many as a single lobe. An understanding of the anatomical relationships of the central lobe can be useful in preoperative planning and in establishing reliable intraoperative landmarks.

  8. An electronic instructor for gross anatomy dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josephson, Eleanor M; Moore, Larry J

    2006-01-01

    Gross anatomy is time consuming to teach and to learn. Because the process of dissection takes up so much student time, assistance in the form of an in-lab instructional DVD program might improve student performance. The DVD could be viewed with a portable device by individual dissection groups at their tables. Groups could dissect at their own pace, with access to step-by-step demonstrations and answers to frequently asked anatomical questions. We created an instructional DVD program demonstrating dissection of the canine ventral neck and thoracic limb. The effect on student exam scores of using the DVD versus not using it was measured in a controlled, two-sample study using incoming first-year veterinary students as volunteers. Volunteers were told the study was of two different dissection methods; the DVD was not specifically mentioned until after the students were separated into two groups (Blue/DVD group and Orange/No DVD group), and then only to volunteers in the Blue group. Except for the DVD, the two groups had the same resources. The difference in scores on an exam given after a single dissection period did not differ sufficiently to conclude that DVD use raised the mean score; however, 73% of the DVD group scored 60% or higher, while only 38% of the No DVD group scored 60% or higher. The difference in mean scores overall was 2.3 points out of a possible 49, suggesting that the DVD helped students, especially those with lower scores, to earn two to three more points than they would have otherwise.

  9. Anatomy of psoas muscle innervation: Cadaveric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahan, Mark A; Sanders, Luke E; Guan, Jian; Dailey, Andrew T; Taylor, William; Morton, David A

    2017-05-01

    Hip flexion weakness is relatively common after lateral transpsoas surgery. Persistent weakness may result from injury to the innervation of the psoas major muscles (PMMs); however, anatomical texts have conflicting descriptions of this innervation, and the branching pattern of the nerves within the psoas major, particularly relative to vertebral anatomy, has not been described. The authors dissected human cadavers to describe the branching pattern of nerves supplying the PMMs. Sixteen embalmed cadavers were dissected, and the fine branching pattern of the innervation to the PMM was studied in 24 specimens. The number of branches and width and length of each branch of nerves to the PMMs were quantified. Nerve branches innervating the PMMs arose from spinal nerve levels L1-L4, with an average of 6.3 ± 1.1 branches per muscle. The L1 nerve branch was the least consistently present, whereas L2 and L3 branches were the most robust, the most numerous, and always present. The nerve branches to the psoas major commonly crossed the intervertebral (IV) disc obliquely prior to ramification within the muscle; 76%, 80%, and 40% of specimens had a branch to the PMM cross the midportion of the L2-3, L3-4, and L4-5 IV discs, respectively. The PMMs are segmentally innervated from the L2-L4 ventral rami branches, where these branches course obliquely across the L2-3, L3-4, and L4-5 IV discs. Knowledge of the mapping of nerve branches to the PMMs may reduce injury and the incidence of persistent weak hip flexion during lateral transpsoas surgery. Clin. Anat. 30:479-486, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Best teaching practices in anatomy education: A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estai, Mohamed; Bunt, Stuart

    2016-11-01

    In this report we review the range of teaching resources and strategies used in anatomy education with the aim of coming up with suggestions about the best teaching practices in this area. There is much debate about suitable methods of delivering anatomical knowledge. Competent clinicians, particularly surgeons, need a deep understanding of anatomy for safe clinical procedures. However, because students have had very limited exposure to anatomy during clinical training, there is a concern that medical students are ill-prepared in anatomy when entering clerkships and residency programs. Therefore, developing effective modalities for teaching anatomy is essential to safe medical practice. Cadaver-based instruction has survived as the main instructional tool for hundreds of years, however, there are differing views on whether full cadaver dissection is still appropriate for a modern undergraduate training. The limitations on curricular time, trained anatomy faculty and resources for gross anatomy courses in integrated or/and system-based curricula, have led many medical schools to abandon costly and time-consuming dissection-based instruction in favour of alternative methods of instruction including prosection, medical imaging, living anatomy and multimedia resources. To date, no single teaching tool has been found to meet curriculum requirements. The best way to teach modern anatomy is by combining multiple pedagogical resources to complement one another, students appear to learn more effectively when multimodal and system-based approaches are integrated. Our review suggests that certain professions would have more benefit from certain educational methods or strategies than others. Full body dissection would be best reserved for medical students, especially those with surgical career intentions, while teaching based on prosections and plastination is more suitable for dental, pharmacy and allied health science students. There is a need to direct future research

  11. The Nursing students’ metaphors about education of anatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çolak Tuncay

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available “Metaphor” word is described as a figurative expression in Turkish. A person transmits more explicitly his/her thoughts that are about an event or a concept he/she experienced. The aim of this study was to reveal emotions and thoughts of 1st class students in nursing about Anatomy lesson. 62 people who are students at 1st class in Vocational School of Health Services in 2014-2015 academic year have attended to our study. In questionnaire anthropometric and demographic traits of them were asked. They were wanted to create a metaphor about anatomy by filling in the blanks in “Anatomy resembles …../ Anatomy is like …. ; because …..” At the end of the assesment it has been detected that 44 metaphors have been produced. In these metaphors the most produced are ocean, puzzle, etc. When we divide these metaphors into categories and investigate them, there is an accumulation in discovering/revealing category with 24 metaphors. We believe that the metaphors which the students will generate, determining how to be lectured theoretical and practical anatomy lessons in a way that students are able to comprehend, will guide them.

  12. Dr. Tulp's Anatomy Lesson by Rembrandt: the third day hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afek, Arnon; Friedman, Tal; Kugel, Chen; Barshack, Iris; Lurie, Doron J

    2009-07-01

    An autopsy was an important event in 17th century Holland. Autopsies were held in an 'anatomy theater' and performed according to a fixed protocol that often took up to 3 days to complete. Of the five group portraits painted by Rembrandt over the course of his career, two were anatomy lessons given by Dr. Tulp and Dr. Deyman. An examination of Rembrandt's painting Dr. Tulp's Anatomy Lesson (1632) and an X-ray image of the painting, as compared to other paintings of anatomy lessons from the same period, reveal interesting differences, such as positioning, and light and shadow. Not only was the autopsy not performed according to the usual protocol, but in this painting Rembrandt created a unique dramatic scene in his effort to tell a story. We suggest that Dr. Tulp and Rembrandt "modified" the painting of Dr. Tulp's anatomy lesson to emphasize Dr. Tulp's position as the greatest anatomist of his era--"Vesalius of Amsterdam," and as a way of demonstrating God's greatness by highlighting the hand as a symbol of the most glorious of God's creations.

  13. [Vascular anatomy of donor and recipient in living kidney transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiqing; Zhang, Xiaodong

    2009-09-01

    To review the vascular anatomy of the donor and the recipient for the living kidney transplantation. The recent literature about the vessels of donor and recipient in clinical applications was extensively reviewed. The pertinent vascular anatomy of the donor and recipient was essential for the screening of the proper candidates, surgical planning and long-term outcome. Early branching and accessory renal artery of the donor were particularly important to deciding the side of nephrectomy, surgical technique and anastomosing pattern, and their injuries were the most frequent factor of the conversion from laparoscopic to open surgery. With increase of laparoscopic nephrectomy in donors, accurate venous anatomy was paid more and more attention to because venous bleeding could also lead to conversion to open nephrectomy. Multidetector CT (MDCT) could supplant the conventional excretory urography and renal catheter angiography and could accurately depict the donors' vessels, vascular variations. In addition, MDCT can excellently evaluate the status of donor kidney, collecting system and other pertinent anatomy details. Accurate master of related vascular anatomy can facilitate operation plan and success of operation and can contribute to the rapid development of living donor kidney transplantation. MDCT has become the choice of preoperative one-stop image assessment for living renal donors.

  14. The telencephalon of the Göttingen minipig, cytoarchitecture and cortical surface anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjarkam, Carsten R; Glud, Andreas N; Orlowski, Dariusz; Sørensen, Jens Christian H; Palomero-Gallagher, Nicola

    2017-07-01

    During the last 20 years pigs have become increasingly popular in large animal translational neuroscience research as an economical and ethical feasible substitute to non-human primates. The anatomy of the pig telencephalon is, however, not well known. We present, accordingly, a detailed description of the surface anatomy and cytoarchitecture of the Göttingen minipig telencephalon based on macrophotos and consecutive high-power microphotographs of 15 μm thick paraffin embedded Nissl-stained coronal sections. In 1-year-old specimens the formalin perfused brain measures approximately 55 × 47 × 36 mm (length, width, height) and weighs around 69 g. The telencephalic part of the Göttingen minipig cerebrum covers a large surface area, which can be divided into a neocortical gyrencephalic part located dorsal to the rhinal fissure, and a ventral subrhinal part dominated by olfactory, amygdaloid, septal, and hippocampal structures. This part of the telencephalon is named the subrhinal lobe, and based on cytoarchitectural and sulcal anatomy, can be discerned from the remaining dorsally located neocortical perirhinal/insular, pericallosal, frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes. The inner subcortical structure of the minipig telencephalon is dominated by a prominent ventricular system and large basal ganglia, wherein the putamen and the caudate nucleus posterior and dorsally are separated into two entities by the internal capsule, whereas both structures ventrally fuse into a large accumbens nucleus. The presented anatomical data is accompanied by surface renderings and high-power macrophotographs illustrating the telencephalic sulcal pattern, and the localization of the identified lobes and cytoarchitectonic areas. Additionally, 24 representative Nissl-stained telencephalic coronal sections are presented as supplementary material in atlas form on http://www.cense.dk/minipig_atlas/index.html and referred to as S1-S24 throughout the manuscript.

  15. Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam

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  16. Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam

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    Full Text Available ... Anticompetitive Practices Rules eCFR Rules and Guides Retrospective Review of FTC ... to OECD and Other International Competition Fora Litigation Status Report Magnuson-Moss Warranty ...

  17. Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam

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    Full Text Available ... Congressional Relations Office of Equal Employment Opportunity and Workplace Inclusion Office of International Affairs Office of the ... Life at the FTC Benefits at the FTC Diversity at the FTC Apply to the FTC Testimonials ...

  18. Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam

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    Full Text Available ... For Consumers For Military Consumers Business Center Advertising & Marketing Credit & Finance Guidance Privacy & Security Selected Industries Protecting ... Report International Scams at econsumer.gov November 1, 2017 Media Resources Our Media Resources library provides one- ...

  19. Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam

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    ... Relations Office of Equal Employment Opportunity and Workplace Inclusion Office of International Affairs Office of the Executive ... FTC Events For Consumers For Business En Español Social Media FTC Social Media Chats Tweeting FTC Events ...

  1. Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam

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    Full Text Available ... Economics Office of Congressional Relations Office of Equal Employment Opportunity and Workplace Inclusion Office of International Affairs ... Table of Contents Exemptions Careers at the FTC Work at the FTC Life at the FTC Benefits ...

  2. Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam

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  3. Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam

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  4. Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam

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  5. Multidetector CT angiography of renal vasculature: normal anatomy and variants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuerkvatan, Aysel; Oezdemir, Mustafa; Cumhur, Turhan; Oelcer, Tuelay

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge of the variations in renal vascular anatomy is important before laparoscopic donor or partial nephrectomy and vascular reconstruction for renal artery stenosis or abdominal aortic aneurysm. Recently, multidetector computed tomographic (MDCT) angiography has become a principal imaging investigation for assessment of the renal vasculature and has challenged the role of conventional angiography. It is an excellent imaging technique because it is a fast and non-invasive tool that provides highly accurate and detailed evaluation of normal renal vascular anatomy and variants. The number, size and course of the renal arteries and veins are easily identified by MDCT angiography. The purpose of this pictorial essay is to illustrate MDCT angiographic appearance of normal anatomy and common variants of the renal vasculature. (orig.)

  6. Multidetector CT angiography of renal vasculature: normal anatomy and variants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuerkvatan, Aysel; Oezdemir, Mustafa; Cumhur, Turhan; Oelcer, Tuelay [Tuerkiye Yueksek ihtisas Hospital, Department of Radiology, Sihhiye, Ankara (Turkey)

    2009-01-15

    Knowledge of the variations in renal vascular anatomy is important before laparoscopic donor or partial nephrectomy and vascular reconstruction for renal artery stenosis or abdominal aortic aneurysm. Recently, multidetector computed tomographic (MDCT) angiography has become a principal imaging investigation for assessment of the renal vasculature and has challenged the role of conventional angiography. It is an excellent imaging technique because it is a fast and non-invasive tool that provides highly accurate and detailed evaluation of normal renal vascular anatomy and variants. The number, size and course of the renal arteries and veins are easily identified by MDCT angiography. The purpose of this pictorial essay is to illustrate MDCT angiographic appearance of normal anatomy and common variants of the renal vasculature. (orig.)

  7. Multimedia didactic courseware of imaging anatomy for network environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Jiyang; Teng Gaojun; Yang Xiaoqing; Zhu Haihua; Kong Weiwei; Zhu Jiaming; Li Guozhao

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To design and program the multimedia didactic courseware of imaging anatomy for network environment. Methods: By collecting the teaching material and images of 'imaging anatomy', the images were obtained with digital cameras and scanners, and processed with graphic software, and then the multimedia didactic courseware was archived with Dreamweaver MX. Results: Multimedia didactic courseware of imaging anatomy with friendly interface for network environment had been completed. Reliable, stable, and flexible operation in campus network and Internet environment was achieved. Conclusion: Being not conditioned by time and space factor, multimedia didactic courseware for network environment with an abundance of information and more freedom in teaching and studying, which saves manpower and material resources and makes an effective disposal of educational resources, will have broad prospects to develop. (authors)

  8. Normal venous anatomy and physiology of the lower extremity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notowitz, L B

    1993-06-01

    Venous disease of the lower extremities is common but is often misunderstood. It seems that the focus is on the exciting world of arterial anatomy and pathology, while the topic of venous anatomy and pathology comes in second place. However, venous diseases such as chronic venous insufficiency, leg ulcers, and varicose veins affect much of the population and may lead to disability and death. Nurses are often required to answer complex questions from the patients and his or her family about the patient's disease. Patients depend on nurses to provide accurate information in terms they can understand. Therefore it is important to have an understanding of the normal venous system of the legs before one can understand the complexities of venous diseases and treatments. This presents an overview of normal venous anatomy and physiology.

  9. The assessment of virtual reality for human anatomy instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benn, Karen P.

    1994-01-01

    This research project seeks to meet the objective of science training by developing, assessing, and validating virtual reality as a human anatomy training medium. In ideal situations, anatomic models, computer-based instruction, and cadaver dissection are utilized to augment the traditional methods of instruction. At many institutions, lack of financial resources limits anatomy instruction to textbooks and lectures. However, human anatomy is three dimensional, unlike the one dimensional depiction found in textbooks and the two dimensional depiction found on the computer. Virtual reality is a breakthrough technology that allows one to step through the computer screen into a three dimensional world. This technology offers many opportunities to enhance science education. Therefore, a virtual testing environment of the abdominopelvic region of a human cadaver was created to study the placement of body parts within the nine anatomical divisions of the abdominopelvic region and the four abdominal quadrants.

  10. Unusual anatomy of maxillary central incisor with two roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T S Ashwini Shivakumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Knowledge of root canal morphology is essential for successful endodontic therapy. Failure to recognize unusual root canal anatomy may lead to unsuccessful endodontic treatment. Case Report: This case report describes the successful endodontic treatment of the maxillary central incisor with unusual anatomy of two roots and two root canals. A 23-year-old male patient was referred for dental consultation with discoloration of the maxillary right central incisor with periapical lesion, which revealed unusual anatomy of root on radiographic examination, and was confirmed upon exploration. Discussion: As described by Vertucci, the maxillary central incisor presents a single root and single root canal in 100% of the cases. However, few cases of maxillary central incisors with two canals were reported in the literature, most of which were associated with developmental anomalies like fusion, germination or dens invaginatus. Clinician should be aware of the unusual anatomical variations that should be detected by the different diagnostic resources available.

  11. Upper limb vein anatomy before hemodialysis fistula creation: cross-sectional anatomy using MR venography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laissy, Jean-Pierre; Fernandez, Pedro; Karila-Cohen, Pascale; Chillon, Sylvie; Schouman-Claeys, Elisabeth; Delmas, Vincent; Dupuy, Emmanuel; Mignon, Francoise

    2003-01-01

    Preoperative imaging is indicated to discriminate patent, adequate superficial veins of the upper limbs undetectable by clinical inspection that could be anastomosed for the creation of a durable and functional hemodialysis fistula. The aim of this pictorial review is to provide a venous anatomic map of the upper limbs using MR venography (MRV) which could help surgeons before creation of hemodialysis access fistulas (AVF). At the level of the forearm, the antebrachial cephalic vein is the most commonly identified as patent. At the level of the elbow and distal arm, the cephalic vein is patent in 80% of normal subjects, and less often patent (23-26%) than basilic vein (33-38%) in patients. Overall, reading transaxial MR views can help for assessing upper limb vein anatomy before creation of a hemodialysis access fistula. (orig.)

  12. Upper limb vein anatomy before hemodialysis fistula creation: cross-sectional anatomy using MR venography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laissy, Jean-Pierre; Fernandez, Pedro; Karila-Cohen, Pascale; Chillon, Sylvie; Schouman-Claeys, Elisabeth [Department of Radiology, Hopital Bichat, 46 rue Henri Huchard, 75877 Paris Cedex 18 (France); Delmas, Vincent [Department of Urology, Hopital Bichat, 46 rue Henri Huchard, 75877 Paris Cedex 18 (France); Dupuy, Emmanuel; Mignon, Francoise [Department of Nephrology, Hopital Bichat, 46 rue Henri Huchard, 75877 Paris Cedex 18 (France)

    2003-02-01

    Preoperative imaging is indicated to discriminate patent, adequate superficial veins of the upper limbs undetectable by clinical inspection that could be anastomosed for the creation of a durable and functional hemodialysis fistula. The aim of this pictorial review is to provide a venous anatomic map of the upper limbs using MR venography (MRV) which could help surgeons before creation of hemodialysis access fistulas (AVF). At the level of the forearm, the antebrachial cephalic vein is the most commonly identified as patent. At the level of the elbow and distal arm, the cephalic vein is patent in 80% of normal subjects, and less often patent (23-26%) than basilic vein (33-38%) in patients. Overall, reading transaxial MR views can help for assessing upper limb vein anatomy before creation of a hemodialysis access fistula. (orig.)

  13. Improving gross anatomy learning using reciprocal peer teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyama, Mange; Stafford, Renae; Mazyala, Erick; Lukanima, Anthony; Magele, Ndulu; Kidenya, Benson R; Kimwaga, Emmanuel; Msuya, Sifael; Kauki, Julius

    2016-03-22

    The use of cadavers in human anatomy teaching requires adequate number of anatomy instructors who can provide close supervision of the students. Most medical schools are facing challenges of lack of trained individuals to teach anatomy. Innovative techniques are therefore needed to impart adequate and relevant anatomical knowledge and skills. This study was conducted in order to evaluate the traditional teaching method and reciprocal peer teaching (RPT) method during anatomy dissection. Debriefing surveys were administered to the 227 first year medical students regarding merits, demerits and impact of both RPT and Traditional teaching experiences on student's preparedness prior to dissection, professionalism and communication skills. Out of this, 159 (70 %) completed the survey on traditional method while 148 (65.2 %) completed survey on RPT method. An observation tool for anatomy faculty was used to assess collaboration, professionalism and teaching skills among students. Student's scores on examinations done before introduction of RPT were compared with examinations scores after introduction of RPT. Our results show that the mean performance of students on objective examinations was significantly higher after introduction of RPT compared to the performance before introduction of RPT [63.7 ± 11.4 versus 58.6 ± 10, mean difference 5.1; 95 % CI = 4.0-6.3; p-value peers and faculty compared to 38 % for the tradition method. The majority of faculty reported that the learning environment of the dissection groups was very active learning during RPT sessions and that professionalism was observed by most students during discussions. Introduction of RPT in our anatomy dissection laboratory was generally beneficial to both students and faculty. Both objective (student performance) and subjective data indicate that RPT improved student's performance and had a positive learning experience impact. Our future plan is to continue RPT practice and continually

  14. Global Health Values of a Multidirectional Near Peer Training Program in Surgery, Pathology, Anatomy, Research Methodology, and Medical Education for Haitian, Rwandan, and Canadian Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elharram, Malik; Dinh, Trish; Lalande, Annie; Ge, Susan; Gao, Sophie; Noël, Geoffroy

    As health care delivery increasingly requires providers to cross international borders, medical students at McGill University, Canada, developed a multidirectional exchange program with Haiti and Rwanda. The program integrates surgery, pathology, anatomy, research methodology, and medical education. The aim of the present study was to explore the global health value of this international training program to improve medical education within the environment of developing countries, such as Haiti and Rwanda, while improving sociocultural learning of Canadian students. Students from the University of Kigali, Rwanda and Université Quisqueya, Haiti, participated in a 3-week program at McGill University. The students spanned from the first to sixth year of their respective medical training. The program consisted of anatomy dissections, surgical simulations, clinical pathology shadowing, and interactive sessions in research methodology and medical education. To evaluate the program, a survey was administered to students using a mixed methodology approach. Common benefits pointed out by the participants included personal and professional growth. The exchange improved career development, sense of responsibility toward one's own community, teaching skills, and sociocultural awareness. The participants all agreed that the anatomy dissections improved their knowledge of anatomy and would make them more comfortable teaching the material when the returned to their university. The clinical simulation activities and shadowing experiences allowed them to integrate the different disciplines. However, the students all felt the research component had too little time devoted to it and that the knowledge presented was beyond their educational level. The development of an integrated international program in surgery, pathology, anatomy, research methodology, and medical education provided medical students with an opportunity to learn about differences in health care and medical education

  15. The integration of an anatomy massive open online course (MOOC) into a medical anatomy curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinnerton, Bronwen J; Morris, Neil P; Hotchkiss, Stephanie; Pickering, James D

    2017-01-01

    Massive open online courses (MOOCs) are designed as stand-alone courses which can be accessed by any learner around the globe with only an internet-enabled electronic device required. Although much research has focused on the enrolment and demographics of MOOCs, their impact on undergraduate campus-based students is still unclear. This article explores the impact of integrating an anatomy MOOC in to the anatomy curriculum of a year 1 medical degree program at the University of Leeds, United Kingdom. The course did not replace any teaching that was already being delivered, and was used to supplement this teaching to support the students' consolidation and revision. Analysis of student feedback indicates a high level of usage, with evidence to suggest that female learners may have approached the course in a more personalized manner. Although the video based resources and quizzes were greatly appreciated as learning tools, significant evidence suggests the students did not engage, or were inclined to engage, with the discussion fora. Furthermore, a significant majority of students did not want the MOOC to replace the existing teaching they received. Given the feedback provided, this research suggests that although the student population believe there to be value in having access to MOOC material, their role as replacements to campus-based teaching is not supported. Details regarding the enrolment and engagement of the general public with the MOOC during the two runs are also documented, with the suggestion that graduates employed in the healthcare sector were the primary users of the course. Anat Sci Educ 10: 53-67. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  16. Exercises in anatomy: holes between the ventricles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Robert H; Sarwark, Anne E; Spicer, Diane E; Backer, Carl L

    2014-01-01

    Holes between the ventricles are the commonest congenital cardiac malformations. As yet, however, there is no consensus as to how they can best be described and categorized. In this, our third exercise in cardiac anatomy, we address the issue of classification of ventricular septal defects. We begin our demonstration by analysing the normal heart. We show that the larger part of the ventricular septum is made up of its muscular component. The membranous part accounts for only a small portion, which is located centrally within the cardiac base. This small membranous part forms a boundary between the right-sided chambers and the aortic root. Holes at this site, therefore, which account for the commonest defects closed surgically, will open centrally in the cardiac base, being located postero-inferiorly relative to the supraventricular crest. We then show that the larger part of the crest itself is a free-standing muscular sleeve, which lifts the leaflets of the pulmonary valve away from the cardiac base. Only a very small part of the muscle forming the right ventricular outlet is located in the septal position. Turning our attention to malformed hearts, we show how holes between the ventricles can open centrally at the cardiac base, open to the inlet or outlet of the right ventricle or open within the substance of the apical muscular septum. We demonstrate, however, that description of such geographical location of the defects does not paint the full picture, since lesions with markedly different phenotypic features can open in comparable geographic locations. We illustrate how it is the phenotypic features, as seen from the right ventricle, which convey the crucial information for the surgeon with regard to the location of the atrioventricular conduction axis, using hearts with holes opening to the inlet of the right ventricle with muscular as opposed to partially fibrous borders to emphasize this point. We continue by showing how holes with different phenotypes can

  17. Aerial organ anatomy of Smilax syphilitica (Smilacaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Marcelo Silva

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Smilax L. in Brazil is represented by 32 taxa and it is a taxonomically difficult genus because the plants are dioecious and show wide phenotypic variation. The analysis and use of leaf anatomy characters is recognized as a frequently successful taxonomic method to distinguish between individual taxon, when floral material is absent or minute differences in flowers and foliage exist such as in Smilax. The aim of this study was to characterize the anatomical features of the aerial organs in Smilax syphilitica collected from the Atlantic Rainforest, in Santa Teresa-ES and the Smilax aff. syphilitica from the Amazon Rainforest, in Manaus, Brazil. For this, a total of three samples of Smilax were collected per site. Sample leaves and stems were fixed with FAA 50, embedded in historesin, sectioned on a rotary microtome, stained and mounted in synthetic resin. Additionally, histochemical tests were performed and cuticle ornamentation was analyzed with standard scanning electron microscopy. S. syphilitica and S. aff. syphilitica differed in cuticle ornamentation, epidermal cell arrangement and wall thickness, stomata type and orientation, calcium oxalate crystal type, and position of stem thorns. Leaf blades of S. syphilitica from the Amazon Rainforest have a network of rounded ridges on both sides, while in S. aff. syphilitica, these ridges are parallel and the spaces between them are filled with numerous membranous platelets. Viewed from the front, the epidermal cells of S. syphilitica have sinuous walls (even more pronounced in samples from the Amazon; while in S. aff. syphilitica, these cells are also sinuous but elongated in the cross-section of the blade and arranged in parallel. Stomata of S. syphilitica are paracytic, whereas in S. aff. syphilitica, are both paracytic and anisocytic, and their polar axes are directed towards the mid-vein. Calcium oxalate crystals in S. syphilitica are prisms, whereas in S. aff. syphilitica, crystal sand. Thorns

  18. Imaging of radial wrist pain. I. Imaging modalities and anatomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ryan Ka Lok; Griffith, James F.; Ng, Alex Wing Hung [The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Department of Imaging and Interventional Radiology, Prince of Wales Hospital, Hong Kong, Shatin (China); Wong, Clara Wing Yee [The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Shatin (China)

    2014-06-15

    Radial wrist pain is a common clinical complaint. The relatively complex anatomy in this region, combined with the small size of the anatomical structures and occasionally subtle imaging findings, can pose problems when trying to localize the exact cause of pain. To fully comprehend the underlying pathology, one needs a good understanding of both radial-sided wrist anatomy and the relative merits of the different imaging techniques used to assess these structures. In part I of this review, these aspects will be discussed. (orig.)

  19. Normal and pathologic CT anatomy of the mandible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osborn, A.G.; Hanafee, W.H.; Mancuso, A.A.

    1982-01-01

    The value of computed tomography (CT) in the diagnosis and management of a wide variety of facial lesions has been amply demonstrated. While a number of studies have focused on CT anatomy of the paranasal sinuses, nose, and nasopharynx, none has concentrated on the mandible. Although the mandible is difficult to image because of its complex, curving surfaces and the presence of artifact-producing amalgam fillings or restorations, CT of the mandible can nevertheless be highly informative in selected cases. This pictorial essay depicts normal gross and CT anatomy of the mandible and presents a series of cases that illustrate the utility of CT in examining mandibular lesions

  20. Lower Face: Clinical Anatomy and Regional Approaches with Injectable Fillers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braz, André; Humphrey, Shannon; Weinkle, Susan; Yee, G Jackie; Remington, B Kent; Lorenc, Z Paul; Yoelin, Steve; Waldorf, Heidi A; Azizzadeh, Babak; Butterwick, Kimberly J; de Maio, Mauricio; Sadick, Neil; Trevidic, Patrick; Criollo-Lamilla, Gisella; Garcia, Philippe

    2015-11-01

    The use of injectable fillers enables facial sculpting through treatment of volume depletion and modeling of facial contours. Injectable fillers are among the most frequently performed minimally invasive cosmetic procedures.However, treatment of the lower third of the face can be challenging and requires expertise in facial anatomy. In this article, the authors provide a comprehensive review of the anatomy of the lower third of the face, highlighting danger zones. In addition, the authors describe their preferred approach and detailed technique used in the treatment of each specific area, namely the jawline, prejowl sulcus, melomental folds, and lips.

  1. Computerized tomography anatomy of the kidneys and retroperitoneal space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savchenko, A.P.; Mamaev, V.V.; Pkhakadze, Eh.G.

    1989-01-01

    The authors described the anatomy of the kidneys and retroperitoneal space in health on the basis of computerized tomography (CT) of 90 patients. Five typical levels in CT (ensuring all necessary data on roentgenomorphological trains of the kidneys and retroperitoneal space in the kidney area) were singled out. Some roentgenometric data on kidney cross-sections as well as the quantitative densitometric characterization of the parenchyma of the kidneys, renal sinus and adjacent tissues were presented. X-ray anatomy of the renal fiscia, pararenal space and perirenal fatty space of the kidney with different parts of the tetroperitoneal space was described

  2. The anatomy and physiology of the avian endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Midge; Pilny, Anthony A

    2008-01-01

    The endocrine system of birds is comparable to that of mammals, although there are many unique aspects to consider when studying the anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry. Avian endocrinology is a field of veterinary medicine that is unfamiliar to many practitioners; however, it is important to have a comprehensive understanding when evaluating companion birds in clinical practice. This article covers the anatomy and physiology of the normal avian, and readers are referred to other articles for a more detailed explanation of altered physiology and pathology.

  3. Identification of endangered or threatened Costa Rican tree species by wood anatomy and fluorescence activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya, Róger; Wiemann, Michael C; Olivares, Carlos

    2013-09-01

    A total of 45 native Costa Rican tree species are threatened or in danger of extinction, but the Convention on International Trade Endangered Species (CITES) includes only eight of these in its Appendices. However, the identification of other species based on their wood anatomy is limited. The present study objective was to describe and to compare wood anatomy and fluorescence activity in some endangered or threatened species of Costa Rica. A total of 45 (22 endangered and 23 threatened with extinction) wood samples of these species, from the xylaria of the Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica and the Forest Products Laboratory in Madison, Wisconsin, were examined. Surface fluorescence was positive in eight species, water extract fluorescence was positive in six species and ethanol extract fluorescence was positive in 24 species. Almost all species were diffuse porous except for occasional (Cedrela odorata, C. fissilis, Cordia gerascanthus) or regular (C. salvadorensis and C. tonduzii) semi-ring porosity. A dendritic vessel arrangement was found in Sideroxylon capari, and pores were solitary in Guaiacum sanctum and Vantanea barbourii. Vessel element length was shortest in Guaiacum sanctum and longest in Humiriastrum guianensis, Minquartia guianensis and Vantanea barbourii. Finally, anatomical information and fluorescence activity were utilized to construct an identification key of species, in which fluorescence is a feature used in identification.

  4. Cell walls and the developmental anatomy of the Brachypodium distachyon stem internode.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominick A Matos

    Full Text Available While many aspects of plant cell wall polymer structure are known, their spatial and temporal distribution within the stem are not well understood. Here, we studied vascular system and fiber development, which has implication for both biofuel feedstock conversion efficiency and crop yield. The subject of this study, Brachypodium distachyon, has emerged as a grass model for food and energy crop research. Here, we conducted our investigation using B. distachyon by applying various histological approaches and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to the stem internode from three key developmental stages. While vascular bundle size and number did not change over time, the size of the interfascicular region increased dramatically, as did cell wall thickness. We also describe internal stem internode anatomy and demonstrate that lignin deposition continues after crystalline cellulose and xylan accumulation ceases. The vascular bundle anatomy of B. distachyon appears to be highly similar to domesticated grasses. While the arrangement of bundles within the stem is highly variable across grasses, B. distachyon appears to be a suitable model for the rind of large C4 grass crops. A better understanding of growth and various anatomical and cell wall features of B. distachyon will further our understanding of plant biomass accumulation processes.

  5. Critical Anatomy Relative to the Sacral Suture: A Postoperative Imaging Study After Robotic Sacrocolpopexy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisp, Catrina C; Herfel, Charles V; Pauls, Rachel N; Westermann, Lauren B; Kleeman, Steven D

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to characterize pertinent anatomy relative to the sacral suture placed at time of robotic sacrocolpopexy using postoperative computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. A vascular clip was placed at the base of the sacral suture at the time of robotic sacrocolpopexy. Six weeks postoperatively, subjects returned for a computed tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging. Ten subjects completed the study. The middle sacral artery and vein coursed midline or to the left of midline in all the subjects. The left common iliac vein was an average of 26 mm from the sacral suture. To the right of the suture, the right common iliac artery was 18 mm away. Following the right common iliac artery to its bifurcation, the right internal iliac was on average 10 mm from the suture. The bifurcations of the inferior vena cava and the aorta were 33 mm and 54 mm further cephalad, respectively.The right ureter, on average, was 18 mm from the suture. The thickness of the anterior longitudinal ligament was 2 mm.The mean angle of descent of the sacrum was 70 degrees. Lastly, we found that 70% of the time, a vertebral body was directly below the suture; the disc was noted in 30%. We describe critical anatomy surrounding the sacral suture placed during robotic sacrocolpopexy. Proximity of both vascular and urologic structures within 10 to 18 mm, as well as anterior ligament thickness of only 2 mm highlights the importance of adequate exposure, careful dissection, and surgeon expertise.

  6. Identification of endangered or threatened Costa Rican tree species by wood anatomy and fluorescence activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Róger Moya

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A total of 45 native Costa Rican tree species are threatened or in danger of extinction, but the Convention on International Trade Endangered Species (CITES includes only eight of these in its Appendices. However, the identification of other species based on their wood anatomy is limited. The present study objective was to describe and to compare wood anatomy and fluorescence activity in some endangered or threatened species of Costa Rica. A total of 45 (22 endangered and 23 threatened with extinction wood samples of these species, from the xylaria of the Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica and the Forest Products Laboratory in Madison, Wisconsin, were examined. Surface fluorescence was positive in eight species, water extract fluorescence was positive in six species and ethanol extract fluorescence was positive in 24 species. Almost all species were diffuse porous except for occasional (Cedrela odorata, C. fissilis, Cordia gerascanthus or regular (C. salvadorensis and C. tonduzii semi-ring porosity. A dendritic vessel arrangement was found in Sideroxylon capari, and pores were solitary in Guaiacum sanctum and Vantanea barbourii. Vessel element length was shortest in Guaiacum sanctum and longest in Humiriastrum guianensis, Minquartia guianensis and Vantanea barbourii. Finally, anatomical information and fluorescence activity were utilized to construct an identification key of species, in which fluorescence is a feature used in identification.

  7. An approach to comparative anatomy of the acetabulum from amphibians to primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canillas, F; Delgado-Martos, M J; Touza, A; Escario, A; Martos-Rodriguez, A; Delgado-Baeza, E

    2011-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the anatomy, both macroscopic and microscopic, of the soft tissue internal structures of the hip joint in animal species and in three human hips (an adult and two fetuses). We dissected the hip joints of 16 species and compared the anatomical features of the soft tissue from the respective acetabula. In addition, a histological study was made of the specimens studied. In amphibians, we found a meniscus in the acetabulum, which was not observed in any of the other species studied. The isolated round ligament is observed from birds onwards. In the group of mammals analysed, including the human specimens, we found a meniscoid structure in the acetabular hip joint. Furthermore, we found that the meniscoid structure forms an anatomo-functional unit with the round ligament and the transverse ligament of the coxofemoral joint. These discoveries suggest the participation of the soft tissue anatomy in adaptative changes of species. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Comparative jaw muscle anatomy in kangaroos, wallabies, and rat-kangaroos (marsupialia: macropodoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warburton, Natalie Marina

    2009-06-01

    The jaw muscles were studied in seven genera of macropodoid marsupials with diets ranging from mainly fungi in Potorous to grass in Macropus. Relative size, attachments, and lamination within the jaw adductor muscles varied between macropodoid species. Among macropodine species, the jaw adductor muscle proportions vary with feeding type. The relative mass of the masseter is roughly consistent, but grazers and mixed-feeders (Macropus and Lagostrophus) had relatively larger medial pterygoids and smaller temporalis muscles than the browsers (Dendrolagus, Dorcopsulus, and Setonix). Grazing macropods show similar jaw muscle proportions to "ungulate-grinding" type placental mammals. The internal architecture of the jaw muscles also varies between grazing and browsing macropods, most significantly, the anatomy of the medial pterygoid muscle. Potoroines have distinctly different jaw muscle proportions to macropodines. The masseter muscle group, in particular, the superficial masseter is enlarged, while the temporalis group is relatively reduced. Lagostrophus fasciatus is anatomically distinct from other macropods with respect to its masticatory muscle anatomy, including enlarged superficial medial pterygoid and deep temporalis muscles, an anteriorly inflected masseteric process, and the shape of the mandibular condyle. The enlarged triangular pterygoid process of the sphenoid bone, in particular, is distinctive of Lagsotrophus. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Building the Body: Active Learning Laboratories that Emphasize Practical Aspects of Anatomy and Integration with Radiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumwalt, Ann C.; Lufler, Rebecca S.; Monteiro, Joseph; Shaffer, Kitt

    2010-01-01

    Active learning exercises were developed to allow advanced medical students to revisit and review anatomy in a clinically meaningful context. In our curriculum, students learn anatomy two to three years before they participate in the radiology clerkship. These educational exercises are designed to review anatomy content while highlighting its…

  10. perception to cadaver dissection and views on anatomy as a subject

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, literature on medical students' perceptions on cadaver dissection and their opinions on anatomy as a subject is scanty ... Key words: Dissection, Perceptions, Cadaver, Anatomy. INTRODUCTION. Dissection has been the .... attention they give to the learning of anatomy, and this may possibly explain the relatively.

  11. Living AnatoME: Teaching and Learning Musculoskeletal Anatomy through Yoga and Pilates

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCulloch, Carrie; Marango, Stephanie Pieczenik; Friedman, Erica S.; Laitman, Jeffrey T.

    2010-01-01

    Living AnatoME, a program designed in 2004 by two medical students in conjunction with the Director of Anatomy, teaches musculoskeletal anatomy through yoga and Pilates. Previously offered as an adjunct to the Gross Anatomy course in 2007, Living AnatoME became an official part of the curriculum. Previous research conducted on the program…

  12. Does Spatial Ability Help the Learning of Anatomy in a Biomedical Science Course?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Kevin; Hayes, Jennifer A.; Chiavaroli, Neville

    2014-01-01

    A three-dimensional appreciation of the human body is the cornerstone of clinical anatomy. Spatial ability has previously been found to be associated with students' ability to learn anatomy and their examination performance. The teaching of anatomy has been the subject of major change over the last two decades with the reduction in time spent…

  13. The Use of Educational Comics in Learning Anatomy among Multiple Student Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jiyoon; Chung, Min Suk; Jang, Hae Gwon; Chung, Beom Sun

    2017-01-01

    Understanding basic human anatomy can be beneficial for all students, regardless of when, or if, they will later undertake a formal course in the subject. For students who are preparing to undertake a formal anatomy course, educational comics on basic anatomy can serve as a concise and approachable review of the material. For other students, these…

  14. Interprofessional Anatomy Education in the United Kingdom and Ireland: Perspectives from Students and Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Claire F.; Hall, Samuel; Border, Scott; Adds, Philip J.; Finn, Gabrielle M.

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing recognition of multiprofessional learning in anatomy and its role in medical and healthcare professions. This study utilized two components to investigate anatomy interprofessional education (AIPE) in the United Kingdom and Ireland. First, a survey involving qualitative and quantitative components asked Heads of Anatomy to…

  15. Digital dissection system for medical school anatomy training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustine, Kurt E.; Pawlina, Wojciech; Carmichael, Stephen W.; Korinek, Mark J.; Schroeder, Kathryn K.; Segovis, Colin M.; Robb, Richard A.

    2003-05-01

    As technology advances, new and innovative ways of viewing and visualizing the human body are developed. Medicine has benefited greatly from imaging modalities that provide ways for us to visualize anatomy that cannot be seen without invasive procedures. As long as medical procedures include invasive operations, students of anatomy will benefit from the cadaveric dissection experience. Teaching proper technique for dissection of human cadavers is a challenging task for anatomy educators. Traditional methods, which have not changed significantly for centuries, include the use of textbooks and pictures to show students what a particular dissection specimen should look like. The ability to properly carry out such highly visual and interactive procedures is significantly constrained by these methods. The student receives a single view and has no idea how the procedure was carried out. The Department of Anatomy at Mayo Medical School recently built a new, state-of-the-art teaching laboratory, including data ports and power sources above each dissection table. This feature allows students to access the Mayo intranet from a computer mounted on each table. The vision of the Department of Anatomy is to replace all paper-based resources in the laboratory (dissection manuals, anatomic atlases, etc.) with a more dynamic medium that will direct students in dissection and in learning human anatomy. Part of that vision includes the use of interactive 3-D visualization technology. The Biomedical Imaging Resource (BIR) at Mayo Clinic has developed, in collaboration with the Department of Anatomy, a system for the control and capture of high resolution digital photographic sequences which can be used to create 3-D interactive visualizations of specimen dissections. The primary components of the system include a Kodak DC290 digital camera, a motorized controller rig from Kaidan, a PC, and custom software to synchronize and control the components. For each dissection procedure, the

  16. Fostering interprofessional teamwork in an academic medical center: Near-peer education for students during gross medical anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Richard K; Pizzimenti, Marc A; Dudley-Javoroski, Shauna; Schwinn, Debra A

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe student satisfaction with a near-peer interprofessional education (IPE) session for physical therapy and medical students. Ten senior physical therapy students worked in peer-groups to develop a musculoskeletal anatomy demonstration for first-semester medical students. Together with their classmates, they demonstrated observation, palpation, and musculoskeletal assessment of the shoulder and scapular-thoracic articulation to medical student dissection groups in the Gross Anatomy laboratory. The medical students were encouraged to consider the synergistic function of shoulder structures and the potential impact of a selected pathology: rotator cuff injury. The session provided the medical students with an opportunity to integrate their new anatomical knowledge into a framework for clinical musculoskeletal evaluation. The experience offered senior physical therapy students an opportunity to work in teams with their peers, internalize and adapt to constructive feedback, and seek common ground with members of another profession. Both student groups reported a high degree of satisfaction with the sessions and expressed a desire for further interaction. These positive perceptions by student stakeholders have prompted us to consider additional IPE exchanges for the anatomy course in the upcoming school year. Given the positive outcome of this descriptive study, we now plan to systematically test whether near-peer IPE interactions can enhance the degree that students learn key anatomical concepts. © 2014 American Association of Anatomists.

  17. [Providing of a virtual simulator perineal anatomy (Pelvic Mentor®) in learning pelvic perineology: results of a preliminary study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legendre, G; Sahmoune Rachedi, L; Descamps, P; Fernandez, H

    2015-01-01

    Medical and surgical simulation is in high demand. It is widely used in North America as a method of education and training of medical students and surgical residents. Learning anatomy and vaginal surgery are based on palpation recognition of different structures. The absence of visual control of actions learners is a limiting factor for the reproducibility of surgical techniques prolapse and urinary incontinenence. However, this reproducibility is the only guarantee of success and safety of these minimally invasive surgeries. We evaluated the contribution of an educational module perineal anatomy using a system combining anatomic mannequin and a computerized 3D virtual simulator (Pelvic Mentor®, Simbionix) in the knowledge of pelvic-perineal anatomical structures for eight residents of obstetrics and gynecology hospitals in Paris. The self-study training module has led to substantial improvements in internal rating with a proportion of structures recognized from 31.25 to 87.5 % (P3D virtual simulator enhances and facilitates learning the anatomy of the pelvic floor. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of Economics Office of Congressional Relations Office of Equal Employment Opportunity and Workplace Inclusion Office of International ... 돈을 요구하는 방법 - How Scammers Tell You To Pay (Korean) March 8, 2018 How Scammers Tell You ...

  19. Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... treat or cure cancer? According to the Federal Trade Commission, consumers should talk to their doctor before trying or buying such products and should not stop or delay their ... International Scams at econsumer.gov November 1, 2017 Media ...

  20. Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... treat or cure cancer? According to the Federal Trade Commission, consumers should talk to their doctor before trying or buying such products and should not stop or delay ... International Scams at econsumer.gov November 1, 2017 Media ...

  1. Phylogenetic and functional implications of the ear region anatomy of Glossotherium robustum (Xenarthra, Mylodontidae) from the Late Pleistocene of Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boscaini, Alberto; Iurino, Dawid A.; Billet, Guillaume; Hautier, Lionel; Sardella, Raffaele; Tirao, German; Gaudin, Timothy J.; Pujos, François

    2018-04-01

    Several detailed studies of the external morphology of the ear region in extinct sloths have been published in the past few decades, and this anatomical region has proved extremely helpful in elucidating the phylogenetic relationships among the members of this mammalian clade. Few studies of the inner ear anatomy in these peculiar animals were conducted historically, but these are increasing in number in recent years, in both the extinct and extant representatives, due to wider access to CT-scanning facilities, which allow non-destructive access to internal morphologies. In the present study, we analyze the extinct ground sloth Glossotherium robustum and provide a description of the external features of the ear region and the endocranial side of the petrosal bone, coupled with the first data on the anatomy of the bony labyrinth. Some features observable in the ear region of G. robustum (e.g., the shape and size of the entotympanic bone and the morphology of the posteromedial surface of the petrosal) are highly variable, both intraspecifically and intraindividually. The form of the bony labyrinth of G. robustum is also described, providing the first data from this anatomical region for the family Mylodontidae. The anatomy of the bony labyrinth of the genus Glossotherium is here compared at the level of the superorder Xenarthra, including all available extant and extinct representatives, using geometric morphometric methods. In light of the new data, we discuss the evolution of inner ear anatomy in the xenarthran clade, and most particularly in sloths, considering the influence of phylogeny, allometry, and physiology on the shape of this highly informative region of the skull. These analyses show that the inner ear of Glossotherium more closely resembles that of the extant anteaters, and to a lesser extent those of the giant ground sloth Megatherium and euphractine armadillos, than those of the extant sloths Bradypus and Choloepus, further demonstrating the striking

  2. Anatomy Journal of Africa - Vol 4, No 2 (2015)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variant Anatomy of Intracranial Part of Middle Meningeal Artery in a Kenyan Population · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Julius Ogeng'o, Beda Olabu, Mary I. Otiti, Beryl S. Ominde, Larry Mburu, Hemed Elbusaidy, 571-577 ...

  3. When Young Children Explore Anatomy: Dilemma or Development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petty, Karen

    2001-01-01

    Offers advice to parents and teachers on addressing children's natural curiosities about their own bodies and those of others. Recommends using anatomically correct terms and dolls, and children's anatomy books; advises what to do when children engage in sex play, self-exploration, and masturbation, or use toilet language. (DLH)

  4. Study skills in anatomy and physiology: Is there a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husmann, Polly R; Barger, J Bradley; Schutte, Audra F

    2016-01-01

    Many factors influence the way individual students study, including but not limited to: previous coursework, attitudes toward the class (motivation, intimidation, risk, etc.), metacognition, and work schedules. However, little of this research has involved medical students. The present article asks the question, "Do individual medical students study differently for different classes?" Study skills surveys were given to United States medical students at an allopathic medical school and an osteopathic medical school. Students were surveyed near the end of their first year gross anatomy course and again near the end of their first year physiology course. Survey items included Likert scale and open-ended questions about study habits and basic demographic information. The survey responses were correlated with each student's final grade percentages in the courses. Analysis revealed that the four most common study habits were reviewing lecture notes, taking practice examinations, completing learning exercises, and making drawings and diagrams. The two surveys (anatomy and physiology) from each individual were also compared to see if students reported different study habits in anatomy versus physiology. A negative correlation was found between changing study habits between courses and final anatomy grade percentages. Additional analyses suggest that those students who do change their study habits between courses are increasing the number of study strategies that they attempt. This increase in the number of study strategies attempted may not allow the student to reach the same depth of understanding as their colleagues who utilize fewer strategies. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.

  5. Anatomy Journal of Africa - Vol 3, No 2 (2014)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Perception to Cadaver Dissection and Views on Anatomy as a Subject between Two Pioneer Cohorts in a Kenyan Medical School · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. P Bundi Karau, A Wamachi, K Ndede, J Mwamisi, P Ndege, 318-323 ...

  6. Radiological anatomy - evaluation of integrative education in radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettmer, S; Schmiedl, A; Meyer, S; Giesemann, A; Pabst, R; Weidemann, J; Wacker, F K; Kirchhoff, T

    2013-09-01

    Evaluation and analysis of the integrative course "Radiological Anatomy" established since 2007 at the Medical School Hannover (MHH) in comparison with conventional education. Anatomy and radiology are usually taught separately with a considerable time lag. Interdisciplinary teaching of these associated subjects seems logical for several reasons. Therefore, the integrative course "Radiological Anatomy" was established in the second year of medical education, combining these two closely related subjects. This interdisciplinary course was retrospectively evaluated by consideration of a student questionnaire and staff observations. The advantages and disadvantages of integrative teaching in medical education are discussed. The course ratings were excellent (median 1; mean 1.3 on a scale of 1 to 6). This is significantly (p radiology increased during the course (88 %). According to the students' suggestions the course was enhanced by a visitation in the Department of Radiology and the additional topic central nervous system. Integrative teaching of anatomy and radiology was well received by the students. Both, anatomical and radiological comprehension and the motivation to learn were improved. However, it should be considered, that the amount of work and time required by the teaching staff is considerably increased compared to traditional teaching. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Cost-Effective Teaching of Radiology with Preclinical Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, James S.; Alvarez, Jacqueline; Davis, Bonnie C.; Duerinckx, Andre J.

    2018-01-01

    Graduating physicians in all subspecialties have an increased need for competency in radiology, particularly since the use of diagnostic imaging continues to grow. To integrate the teaching of radiology with anatomy during the first year of medical school at Howard University, a novel approach was developed to overcome the limitations of resources…

  8. Visualization of myocardial perfusion derived from coronary anatomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Termeer, M.A.; Bescos, J.O.; Breeuwer, M.; Vilanova, A.; Gerritsen, F.A.; Gröller, M.E.; Nagel, Eike

    2008-01-01

    Visually assessing the effect of the coronary artery anatomy on the perfusion of the heart muscle in patients with coronary artery disease remains a challenging task. We explore the feasibility of visualizing this effect on perfusion using a numerical approach. We perform a computational simulation

  9. [The Prague school of anatomy and its illustrators].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linc, R

    1997-01-01

    The centennial commemorial of the birthday of Ladislav Borovanský gives us an incentive for describing a short history of Czech anatomy in Medical Faculty of Charles University with their textbooks and painters. Parallelly with them are presented some other distinguished painters active in anatomical aspect of illustration.

  10. The Evolutionary Basis of Naturally Diverse Rice Leaves Anatomy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolly Chatterjee

    Full Text Available Rice contains genetically and ecologically diverse wild and cultivated species that show a wide variation in plant and leaf architecture. A systematic characterization of leaf anatomy is essential in understanding the dynamics behind such diversity. Therefore, leaf anatomies of 24 Oryza species spanning 11 genetically diverse rice genomes were studied in both lateral and longitudinal directions and possible evolutionary trends were examined. A significant inter-species variation in mesophyll cells, bundle sheath cells, and vein structure was observed, suggesting precise genetic control over these major rice leaf anatomical traits. Cellular dimensions, measured along three growth axes, were further combined proportionately to construct three-dimensional (3D leaf anatomy models to compare the relative size and orientation of the major cell types present in a fully expanded leaf. A reconstruction of the ancestral leaf state revealed that the following are the major characteristics of recently evolved rice species: fewer veins, larger and laterally elongated mesophyll cells, with an increase in total mesophyll area and in bundle sheath cell number. A huge diversity in leaf anatomy within wild and domesticated rice species has been portrayed in this study, on an evolutionary context, predicting a two-pronged evolutionary pathway leading to the 'sativa leaf type' that we see today in domesticated species.

  11. Oral Anatomy Laboratory Examinations in a Physical Therapy Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabrizio, Philip A.

    2013-01-01

    The process of creating and administering traditional tagged anatomy laboratory examinations is time consuming for instructors and limits laboratory access for students. Depending on class size and the number of class, sections, creating, administering, and breaking down a tagged laboratory examination may involve one to two eight-hour days.…

  12. A stochastic large deformation model for computational anatomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnaudon, Alexis; Holm, Darryl D.; Pai, Akshay Sadananda Uppinakudru

    2017-01-01

    In the study of shapes of human organs using computational anatomy, variations are found to arise from inter-subject anatomical differences, disease-specific effects, and measurement noise. This paper introduces a stochastic model for incorporating random variations into the Large Deformation...

  13. Functional Anatomy of the Feeding Apparatus of Four South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The functional anatomy of the head and anterior neck region of the cormorants Phalacrocorax lucidus. P. neglectus, P. capensis and P. africanus was investigated. There are significant differences in absolute size of the muscle and bone elements between the four species. The relative proportions of these elements are, ...

  14. Factors that affect medical students' performance in Anatomy in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Much attention has been drawn to the area of medical education in contemporary times with the aim of developing effective teaching strategies in our medical schools. Objectives: To identify the problems encountered by students in the study of Anatomy and suggest ways of enhancing their performance in the ...

  15. An emerging paradigm for teaching human anatomy and physiology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rabab El-Sayed Hassan El-Sayed

    2013-03-15

    Mar 15, 2013 ... information about the anatomy and physiology of human ... tional curriculum in a range of teaching fields that are based ..... et al.,47 who were studying the acceptance and benefits of vi- .... Foreign language teaching methods: Culture lesson 3: the case for .... vations in integrating ICT in education, vol. 3.

  16. Rembrandt's anatomy lesson of Dr. Deijman of 1656 dissected

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ijpma, Frank F. A.; Middelkoop, Norbert E.; van Gulik, Thomas M.

    2013-01-01

    More than 350 years ago, Rembrandt painted Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Deijman. This group portrait, featuring important members of the Amsterdam Guild of Surgeons, belongs to the series of paintings of the guild. Rembrandt's masterpiece is one of the most famous historical images of a dissection of the

  17. Exploring the Use of a Facebook Page in Anatomy Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffar, Akram Abood

    2014-01-01

    Facebook is the most popular social media site visited by university students on a daily basis. Consequently, Facebook is the logical place to start with for integrating social media technologies into education. This study explores how a faculty-administered Facebook Page can be used to supplement anatomy education beyond the traditional…

  18. How Useful Is YouTube in Learning Heart Anatomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raikos, Athanasios; Waidyasekara, Pasan

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays more and more modern medical degree programs focus on self-directed and problem-based learning. That requires students to search for high quality and easy to retrieve online resources. YouTube is an emerging platform for learning human anatomy due to easy access and being a free service. The purpose of this study is to make a quantitative…

  19. The anatomy of forearm free flap phalloplasty for transgender surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S; Dennis, M; Holland, J; Terrell, M; Loukas, M; Schober, J

    2018-03-01

    Transgender surgeries are becoming more frequent and visual interpretation of anatomy is essential for both surgeons and patients. Since the forearm free flap phalloplasty was introduced in 1984, it has been known to provide reliable cosmetic and functional results for transitioning men compared with phalloplasty by different flaps. Surgical text descriptions were enhanced by the creation of new anatomic illustrations. The forearm free flap consists of the anterior forearm skin, subcutaneous tissue, fascia containing the radial artery as the perforator and its venae comitantes, cephalic and basilic veins, and lateral and medial antebrachial cutaneous nerves are demonstrated in relation to the surgically derived flap. Song's forearm free flap phalloplasty requires two surgical stages with a three-month interval between the stages: prelamination of a neourethra and construction of a neophallus. The neophallus created by forearm flap phalloplasty is reported to achieve acceptable aesthetical and psychological satisfaction, appropriate size and shape, and satisfying sexual intercourse. Despite increasing experiences in gender confirming surgery with modifications made by many authors, urethral complications including fistula and/or stricture formation are the leading causes of reoperation. The poor esthetic outcome of the forearm donor site and a decrease in rigidity of the neophallus are the main limitations. Illustrations of anatomy help inform surgical choice and understanding of risks and benefits by patients. The anatomy of the free forearm flap phalloplasty supports creation of a neophallus for transsexual anatomy revision. Clin. Anat. 31:145-151, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Stereopsis, Visuospatial Ability, and Virtual Reality in Anatomy Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-Maarten Luursema

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A new wave of virtual reality headsets has become available. A potential benefit for the study of human anatomy is the reintroduction of stereopsis and absolute size. We report a randomized controlled trial to assess the contribution of stereopsis to anatomy learning, for students of different visuospatial ability. Sixty-three participants engaged in a one-hour session including a study phase and posttest. One group studied 3D models of the anatomy of the deep neck in full stereoptic virtual reality; one group studied those structures in virtual reality without stereoptic depth. The control group experienced an unrelated virtual reality environment. A post hoc questionnaire explored cognitive load and problem solving strategies of the participants. We found no effect of condition on learning. Visuospatial ability however did impact correct answers at F(1=5.63 and p=.02. No evidence was found for an impact of cognitive load on performance. Possibly, participants were able to solve the posttest items based on visuospatial information contained in the test items themselves. Additionally, the virtual anatomy may have been complex enough to discourage memory based strategies. It is important to control the amount of visuospatial information present in test items.

  1. ANATOMY OF THE MALE REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS OF THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-12-10

    Dec 10, 2014 ... was the urethral groove. The male reproductive anatomy of the African sideneck turtle is similar to those earlier reported in sea and freshwater turtles. Key Words: Testis, Epididymis, Morphology, Turtles. INTRODUCTION. Freshwater turtles are under increasing threats around the world. The African side.

  2. Visualisation of animal anatomy using MRI and CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Henrik; Hansen, Kasper; Pedersen, Michael

    imaging (MRI) and CT. Various species (tarantula, horseshoe crab, carp, haddock, lungfish, axolotl) were subjected to multi-slice MRI and CT protocols to produce 2D images of body slices, followed by volume rendering producing 3D digital models of animal anatomy with applications for visualising specific...

  3. Computed Tomography-Enhanced Anatomy Course Using Enterprise Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Hila; Cohen, Haim; Medlej, Bahaa; Kornreich, Liora; Peled, Nathan; Hershkovitz, Israel

    2013-01-01

    Rapid changes in medical knowledge are forcing continuous adaptation of the basic science courses in medical schools. This article discusses a three-year experience developing a new Computed Tomography (CT)-based anatomy curriculum at the Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, including describing the motivations and reasoning for the…

  4. Anatomy Drawing Screencasts: Enabling Flexible Learning for Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, James D.

    2015-01-01

    The traditional lecture remains an essential method of disseminating information to medical students. However, due to the constant development of the modern medical curriculum many institutions are embracing novel means for delivering the core anatomy syllabus. Using mobile media devices is one such way, enabling students to access core material…

  5. Stereopsis, Visuospatial Ability, and Virtual Reality in Anatomy Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luursema, Jan-Maarten; Vorstenbosch, Marc; Kooloos, Jan

    2017-01-01

    A new wave of virtual reality headsets has become available. A potential benefit for the study of human anatomy is the reintroduction of stereopsis and absolute size. We report a randomized controlled trial to assess the contribution of stereopsis to anatomy learning, for students of different visuospatial ability. Sixty-three participants engaged in a one-hour session including a study phase and posttest. One group studied 3D models of the anatomy of the deep neck in full stereoptic virtual reality; one group studied those structures in virtual reality without stereoptic depth. The control group experienced an unrelated virtual reality environment. A post hoc questionnaire explored cognitive load and problem solving strategies of the participants. We found no effect of condition on learning. Visuospatial ability however did impact correct answers at F (1) = 5.63 and p = .02. No evidence was found for an impact of cognitive load on performance. Possibly, participants were able to solve the posttest items based on visuospatial information contained in the test items themselves. Additionally, the virtual anatomy may have been complex enough to discourage memory based strategies. It is important to control the amount of visuospatial information present in test items.

  6. Endoscopic anatomy of the orbital floor and maxillary sinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Corey C; Bromwich, Matthew; Roth, Kathy; Matic, Damir B

    2008-01-01

    Endoscopic repair of orbital blow-out fractures could become a predictable and efficient treatment alternative to traditional methods. However, maxillary sinus endoscopy provides a complex and disorienting view of the orbital floor. To be a useful and consistent technique for providing access to the orbital floor, specific knowledge of maxillary endoscopic anatomy is required. The purpose of the study was to provide an anatomic description of the orbital floor via the endoscopic approach. Objectives include defining consistent landmarks for use in endoscopic repair of orbital floor fractures. Using 0- and 30-degree rigid endoscopes, 6 fresh cadavers (12 maxillary sinuses) were examined via a standard Caldwell-Luc approach. Computed tomographic scans, plastic molds, and digital images were used to compare observable averages within bony anatomy. Potential bony landmarks were correlated with soft-tissue anatomy in fresh specimens. The maxillary ostium, orbital floor, and lateral ethmoid air cells were visualized, and their structures were described. Observations were made in relation to the anatomy of the orbital floor and maxillary sinus, including fracture pattern and force transmission pathways. An "orbitomaxillary" sinus bony thickening was identified and described for the first time. This study provides the basis for further refinement of surgical technique and opens the door for future clinical trials using endoscopic repair.

  7. The wood anatomy of Gardenieae, Ixoreae and Mussaendeae (Rubiaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koek-Noorman, Jifke

    1972-01-01

    The tribe Gardenieae in the restricted delimitation proposed by Bremekamp and Verdcourt is wood anatomically homogeneous. The genera of the Ixoreae studied by me also agree with each other in wood structure. Within the tribe Mussaendeae in the delimitation accepted by Schumann the wood anatomy shows

  8. Comparative wood anatomy of Bonnetiaceae, Theaceae and Guttiferae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baretta-Kuipers, Tine

    1976-01-01

    A description of the xylem anatomy of the genera Archytaea, Ploiarium, Bonnetia, Neblinaria, Neotatea, Caraipa, Haploclathra, Mahurea, Marila, Kielmeyera, and Asteropeia is given. All these genera except Asteropeia, were included in the family of the Bonnetiaceae by Maguire (1972). He considered the

  9. Wood anatomy of the neotropical Sapotaceae. VII, Chrysophyllum

    Science.gov (United States)

    B. F. Kukachka

    1978-01-01

    In the neotropics, the genus Chrysophyllum consists of C. cainito and a number of species which have recently been assigned to the genus Cynodendron. Many taxonomists have not accepted the new genus Cynodendron and this is supported by the present study of the wood anatomy. In this restricted sense, Chrysophyllum consists of a group of closely related species that are...

  10. Wood anatomy of the neotropical Sapotaceae. V, Calocarpum

    Science.gov (United States)

    B. F. Kukachka

    1978-01-01

    Calocarpum, long maintained as a distinct taxon, is now generally considered as a synonym of Pouteria. The wood anatomy is quite different from Pouteria (sensu stricto) and the author is of the opinion that reduction to synonomy is not justified. The anatomical evidence supports the treatment of Calocarpum by the monographer Charles Baehni.

  11. Student performance in a flipped classroom dental anatomy course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chutinan, S; Riedy, C A; Park, S E

    2017-11-09

    The purpose of this study was to assess dental student learning in a dental anatomy module between traditional lecture and flipped classroom cohorts. Two cohorts of predoctoral dental students (N = 70 within each cohort) participated in a dental anatomy module within an Introduction to the Dental Patient (IDP) course ([traditional/lecture cohort: academic year (AY) 2012, 2013] and [flipped classroom cohort: AY 2014, 2015]). For the dental anatomy module, both cohorts were evaluated on pre-clinical tooth waxing exercises immediately after each of five lectures and tooth identification after all lectures were given. Additionally, the cohorts' performance on the overall IDP course examination was compared. The flipped classroom cohort had statistically significant higher waxing scores (dental anatomy module) than students in the traditional classroom. There was no statistically significant difference for tooth identification scores and the overall IDP course examination between the traditional vs flipped approach cohorts. This is due to the latter two assessments conducted at the end of the course gave all students enough time to review the lecture content prior to the assessment resulting in similar scores for both cohorts. The flipped classroom cohort promoted students' individual learning and resulted in improved students' performance on immediate evaluation but not on the end of the course evaluation. Redesign of courses to include a new pedagogical approach should be carefully implemented and evaluated for student's educational success. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Teaching the Anatomy of a Scientific Journal Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinske, Jeffrey N.; Clayman, Karen; Busch, Allison K.; Tanner, Kimberly D.

    2008-01-01

    To promote inquiry-based learning, the authors integrate the anatomy of a scientific journal article into their secondary science curriculum. In this article, they present three classroom activities used to teach students about the function and format of scientific journal articles. The first focuses on journal article figures, the second on…

  13. Anatomy and Physiology. Health Occupations Education. Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    East Texas State Univ., Commerce. Occupational Curriculum Lab.

    Nine units on anatomy and physiology are presented in this teacher's guide. The units are the following: organization and general plan of the body; skeletal and muscular systems; digestive system; circulatory system; respiratory system; nervous system and special senses; urinary system; reproductive system; and endocrine glands. Each instructional…

  14. Surgical anatomy of greater occipital nerve and its relation to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nancy Mohamed El Sekily

    2014-08-19

    Aug 19, 2014 ... Abstract Introduction: The knowledge of the anatomy of greater occipital nerve and its relation to occipital artery is important for the surgeon. Blockage or surgical release of greater occipital nerve is clinically effective in reducing or eliminating chronic migraine symptoms. Aim: The aim of this research was to ...

  15. DSA analysis of the normal and variant hepatic arterial anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv Penghua; Wang Jie; Shi Haibing; Feng Yaoliang; Chen Huizhu; Chen Yuqin

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To observe and analyze the normal and variant hepatic arterial anatomy by DSA. Methods: One thousand and two hundreds patients with routine celiac and/or selective hepatic arteriography from November 1994 to March 2003 were retrospectively analyzed, some of them were further simultaneously undergone superior mesenteric arteriography, left gastric arteriography or inferior phrenic arteriography etc. Results: 873 (72.8%) patients had the standard hepatic arterial anatomy. 156(13.0%) patients had variant left hepatic arteries (LHAs), 120(10.0%) with variant right hepatic arteries (RHAs) and 21 (1.8%) of a variant anatomy involving both LHA and RHA. The common hepatic artery (CHA) of 1170 (97.5%) patients originated from the celiac artery. 92.0% proper hepatic artery (PHA) was the direct extension of CHA. The RHA was mainly (89.8%) derived from the PHA. There was some variation of the middle hepatic artery (MHA) with more than 62.2% arising from the LHA. The LHA was derived from the PHA (44.6%) or the RHA(30.2%) or other arteries (25.2%). Conclusions: The knowledge of normal and variant anatomy of hepatic vasculature by DSA may be very helpful for intervention therapy and hepatosurgery. (authors)

  16. Clinical relevance of distal biceps insertional and footprint anatomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bekerom, Michel P J; Kodde, Izaäk F.; Aster, Asir; Bleys, Ronald L A W; Eygendaal, Denise

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this review was to present an overview, based on a literature search, of surgical anatomy for distal biceps tendon repairs, based on the current literature. Methods: A narrative review was performed using Pubmed/Medline using key words: Search terms were distal biceps,

  17. Anatomy of the ankle ligaments: a pictorial essay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golanó, Pau; Vega, Jordi; de Leeuw, Peter A. J.; Malagelada, Francesc; Manzanares, M. Cristina; Götzens, Víctor; van Dijk, C. Niek

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the anatomy of the ankle ligaments is important for correct diagnosis and treatment. Ankle ligament injury is the most frequent cause of acute ankle pain. Chronic ankle pain often finds its cause in laxity of one of the ankle ligaments. In this pictorial essay, the ligaments around the

  18. Anatomy of the ankle ligaments: a pictorial essay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golanó, Pau; Vega, Jordi; de Leeuw, Peter A. J.; Malagelada, Francesc; Manzanares, M. Cristina; Götzens, Víctor; van Dijk, C. Niek

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the anatomy of the ankle ligaments is important for correct diagnosis and treatment. Ankle ligament injury is the most frequent cause of acute ankle pain. Chronic ankle pain often finds its cause in laxity of one of the ankle ligaments. In this pictorial essay, the ligaments around the

  19. Introductory Anatomy and Physiology in an Undergraduate Nursing Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, S. J.; White, S.; Power, N.

    2017-01-01

    Using an educational data mining approach, first-year academic achievement of undergraduate nursing students, which included two compulsory courses in introductory human anatomy and physiology, was compared with achievement in a final semester course that transitioned students into the workplace. We hypothesized that students could be grouped…

  20. Innovative activities for teaching anatomy of speech production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinder-Meredith, Amy E

    2010-01-01

    Courses in anatomy have traditionally relied on lectures and cadaver dissection laboratories. In speech and hearing sciences, there tends to be less access to cadavers than in medical schools and other allied health professions. It is more typical to use anatomical models, diagrams and lecture slides. Regardless of the resources available, anatomy is a subject that lends itself to hands-on learning. This article briefly reviews teaching methods and describes a variety of innovative activities to enhance learning of anatomical concepts and clinical relevance of anatomy for speech production. Teaching strategies and activities were developed to capitalize on students' multimodal learning preferences as revealed by responses to a survey administered to 49 undergraduates in the beginning of an anatomy of speech production course. At the end of the semester, students completed a second survey. A five-point Likert scale was used to assess the usefulness of each activity as a learning tool or level of clinical relevance and the level of enjoyability. The responses were overwhelmingly positive with level of usefulness and level of clinical relevance rated higher on average than the level of enjoyment.

  1. Maintaining excellence in teaching of human anatomy: University of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Measures to address these challenges have resulted in wide disparities in curriculum design teaching methods, number and composition of instructors. Inspite of the challenges, the Department of Human Anatomy of the University of Nairobi (UON) maintained excellence of teaching for over 40yrs. This article describes the ...

  2. Anatomy of lead poisoning | Duru | Research Journal of Health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Lead poisoning and lead toxicity is usually often interchangeably used by different Scientists. The Anatomy of lead poisoning encompasses its effects on different organ-systems of different species of organisms. It also includes environmental, functional and biochemical components associated with most heavy ...

  3. Functional anatomy and biomechanics of the carpus; Funktionelle Anatomie und Biomechanik des Karpus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, R. [Herz- und Gefaessklinik GmbH, Institut fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Bad Neustadt an der Saale (Germany)

    2006-08-15

    The wrist is an exceedingly complex structure composed of several joints and a dedicated ligamentous system. Its functional principles allow a wide range of carpal motion and make the wrist remarkably resistant to external stress forces: The proximal carpal row serves as an intercalated link interposed between the static elements of both the forearm and the distal carpal row. Like a flexible placeholder, the proximal row synchronously adapts to the spatial and temporal requirements of the wrist. There are synergistic movement patterns including simultaneous flexion of the proximal row as the wrist is deviated radially and simultaneous extension during ulnar deviation. Together with pronosupination of the radioulnar joints, the combined radial/ulnar inclination and flexion/extension enable spherical, out-of-plane movements of the hand. Carpal function is best explained by the ''model of a ring under tension.'' This review addresses the anatomy and the biomechanics of the wrist and illustrates systematic image analysis by using carpal lines and angles as well as indices of carpal height. (orig.) [German] Die Handwurzel ist ein komplexes Mosaik von Skelettelementen mit einer Vielzahl von Gelenken und einem differenzierten Ligamentsystem. Die gegensaetzlichen Anforderungen aus hoher Belastungsstabilitaet und hoher Bewegungsfreiheit werden durch folgende Funktionsprinzipien realisiert: Die proximale Handwurzelreihe ist ein mobiles Glied, das zwischen die fixen Elemente des Unterarms und der distalen Reihe interponiert ist. Mit ''variabler Geometrie'' passt die proximale Reihe ihre Form entsprechend den aktuellen Raum- und Krafterfordernissen an. Am Handgelenk kommt es zu kombinierten Bewegungen in 2 Raumebenen, wobei die Radialduktion mit einer Flexion und die Ulnarduktion mit einer Extension kombiniert sind. In der Kombination mit den Umwendbewegungen im distalen Radioulnargelenk sowie den karpalen Abduktions- und Flexions

  4. Independent learning modules enhance student performance and understanding of anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrat, Maria A; Dom, Aaron M; Buchanan, James T; Williams, Alison R; Efaw, Morgan L; Richardson, Laura L

    2014-01-01

    Didactic lessons are only one part of the multimodal teaching strategies used in gross anatomy courses today. Increased emphasis is placed on providing more opportunities for students to develop lifelong learning and critical thinking skills during medical training. In a pilot program designed to promote more engaged and independent learning in anatomy, self-study modules were introduced to supplement human gross anatomy instruction at Joan C. Edwards School of Medicine at Marshall University. Modules use three-dimensional constructs to help students understand complex anatomical regions. Resources are self-contained in portable bins and are accessible at any time. Students use modules individually or in groups in a structured self-study format that augments material presented in lecture and laboratory. Pilot outcome data, measured by feedback surveys and examination performance statistics, suggest that the activity may be improving learning in gross anatomy. Positive feedback on both pre- and post-examination surveys showed that students felt the activity helped to increase their understanding of the topic. In concordance with student perception, average examination scores on module-related laboratory and lecture questions were higher in the two years of the pilot program compared with the year before its initiation. Modules can be fabricated on a modest budget using minimal resources, making implementation practical for smaller institutions. Upper level medical students assist in module design and upkeep, enabling continuous opportunities for vertical integration across the curriculum. This resource offers a feasible mechanism for enhancing independent and lifelong learning competencies, which could be a valuable complement to any gross anatomy curriculum. © 2014 American Association of Anatomists.

  5. Improving learning of anatomy with reusable learning objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Rad

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The use of modern educational technologies is useful for learning, durability, sociability, and upgrading professionalism. The aim of this study was evaluating the effect of reusable learning objects on improving learning of anatomy. Methods: This was a quasi-experimental study. Fourteen (reusable learning objects RLO from different parts of anatomy of human body including thorax, abdomen, and pelvis were prepared for medical student in Yasuj University of Medical Sciences in 2009. The length of the time for RLO was between 11-22 min. Because their capacities were low, so they were easy to use with cell phone or MP4. These materials were available to the students before the classes. The mean scores of students in anatomy of human body group were compared to the medical students who were not used this method and entered the university in 2008. A questionnaire was designed by the researcher to evaluate the effect of RLO and on, content, interest and motivation, participation, preparation and attitude. Result: The mean scores of anatomy of human body of medical student who were entered the university in 2009 have been increased compare to the students in 2008, but this difference was not significant. Based on the questionnaire data, it was shown that the RLO had a positive effect on improving learning anatomy of human body (75.5% and the effective relationship (60.6%. The students were interested in using RLO (74.6%, some students (54.2% believed that this method should be replaced by lecture. Conclusion: The use of RLO could promote interests and effective communication among the students and led to increasing self-learning motivation.

  6. Lecture classes in human anatomy: the students' perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Maitreyee; Roy, Hironmoy; Ghosh, Anasuya; Tapadar, Arunabha; Chowdhury, Subhramoy; Mukherjee, Pranab; Jana, Tapan Kumar

    2013-06-01

    The human anatomy, or in brief, the body structure has fascinated man for ages. Due to the information explosion and the increase in specializations, this knowledge is available in a very sketchy manner in high school biology courses. The first comprehensive course on the human anatomy is taught to the first year medical students in medical colleges. This is in keeping with the regulations of the Medical Council of India. The anatomy lecture classes occupy a considerable time of the course, to provide the students with an effective knowledge of the gross anatomy, histology, embryology and the clinical anatomy. On the other hand, the students' feedback regarding the lecture methods and the teaching environment is crucial in judging the efficacy of the present curriculum. To obtain the students' feedback about the environment of the lecture classes, as regards the venue, the teaching and learning aids which are used, the lecture class schedule of the university (the number of classes per week, the durations of the lecture classes, etc.) and the existing departmental practices (display of the class routine in advance, synchronization between the lecture and the practical classes), so that their suggestions could help the faculty in planning the most effective teaching procedures. A semi structured questionnaire was supplied to the students to get their feedback. Most of the students found the air conditioned seminar room's environment to be more comfortable and they supported the existing durations of the lecture hours with the combined use of chalk and a board and overhead projectors (OHPs). The perceptions of the learners helped in modifying the departmental practice in the desired way.

  7. A visual analysis of gender bias in contemporary anatomy textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Rhiannon; Larkin, Theresa; Cockburn, Jon

    2017-05-01

    Empirical research has linked gender bias in medical education with negative attitudes and behaviors in healthcare providers. Yet it has been more than 20 years since research has considered the degree to which women and men are equally represented in anatomy textbooks. Furthermore, previous research has not explored beyond quantity of representation to also examine visual gender stereotypes and, in light of theoretical advancements in the area of intersectional research, the relationship between representations of gender and representations of ethnicity, body type, health, and age. This study aimed to determine the existence and representation of gender bias in the major anatomy textbooks used at Australian Medical Schools. A systematic visual content analysis was conducted on 6044 images in which sex/gender could be identified, sourced from 17 major anatomy textbooks published from 2008 to 2013. Further content analysis was performed on the 521 narrative images, which represent an unfolding story, found within the same textbooks. Results indicate that the representation of gender in images from anatomy textbooks remain predominantly male except within sex-specific sections. Further, other forms of bias were found to exist in: the visualization of stereotypical gendered emotions, roles and settings; the lack of ethnic, age, and body type diversity; and in the almost complete adherence to a sex/gender binary. Despite increased attention to gender issues in medicine, the visual representation of gender in medical curricula continues to be biased. The biased construction of gender in anatomy textbooks designed for medical education provides future healthcare providers with inadequate and unrealistic information about patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. International Trade. International Business

    OpenAIRE

    Мохнюк, А. М.; Mokhniuk, A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Work programme of the study course “International Trade. International Business” was prepared in accordance with educational and vocational training program for bachelors of training direction 6.030601 “Management”.

  9. A practical description and student perspective of the integration of radiology into lower limb musculoskeletal anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davy, S; O'Keeffe, G W; Mahony, N; Phelan, N; Barry, D S

    2017-05-01

    Anatomy educators are increasing their utilisation of radiology in anatomy education in line with growing requirements for undergraduate radiology competency and clinical need. We aimed to evaluate student perceptions of radiology and to outline the technical and academic considerations underlying the integration of radiology into musculoskeletal practical anatomy sessions. The formal integration of radiology into anatomy practical sessions took place over a 5-week period during the lower limb musculoskeletal component of the anatomy course taught to first-year medical students. During practical sessions, students were required to rotate between aligned audio-visual radiology presentations, osteology/anatomical models, and prosection/dissection learning stations. After completing the course, students were invited to complete a survey to establish their opinions on radiology as a mode of learning and their satisfaction with radiological integration in anatomical practical sessions. Most students were not familiar with radiology prior to attending our university. All our students agreed or strongly agreed that learning to read radiographs in anatomy is important and most agreed that radiology is a valid assessment tool. Sixty percent stated that radiology facilitated their understanding of anatomy. The majority believed that radiology was best suited to clinically relevant anatomy and X-rays were their preferred learning tool. The practical approach to integrating radiology into undergraduate musculoskeletal anatomy described here did not place strain on existing academic resources. Most students agreed that radiology should be increased in anatomy education and that learning to understand radiographs in anatomy was important for clinical practice.

  10. Athletic injuries of the lateral abdominal wall: review of anatomy and MR imaging appearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stensby, J.D.; Baker, Jonathan C.; Fox, Michael G.

    2016-01-01

    The lateral abdominal wall is comprised of three muscles, each with a different function and orientation. The transversus abdominus, internal oblique, and external oblique muscles span the abdominal cavity between the iliocostalis lumborum and quadratus lumborum posteriorly and the rectus abdominis anteriorly. The lateral abdominal wall is bound superiorly by the lower ribs and costal cartilages and inferiorly by the iliac crest and inguinal ligament. The lateral abdominal wall may be acutely or chronically injured in a variety of athletic endeavors, with occasional acute injuries in the setting of high-energy trauma such as motor vehicle collisions. Injuries to the lateral abdominal wall may result in lumbar hernia formation, unique for its high incarceration rate, and also Spigelian hernias. This article will review the anatomy, the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging approach, and the features and complications of lateral abdominal wall injuries. (orig.)

  11. Postmortem examination of Australian sea snakes ( Hydrophiinae): Anatomy and common pathologic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillett, Amber K; Ploeg, Richard; Flint, Mark; Mills, Paul C

    2017-09-01

    There is limited published information about disease in wild sea snakes and no standardized guideline for postmortem examination of sea snakes. Identifying causes of morbidity and mortality of marine vertebrate species has been pivotal to understanding disease factors implicated in stranding events and assisting with the formulation of conservation plans. Additionally, postmortem findings can provide valuable information on life history traits and the ecology of these reclusive species. Sick, moribund, or dead sea snakes are intermittently washed ashore along Australian and international beaches and provide an opportunity to examine a subset of the population and identify causes of population decline. We present an illustrated description of sea snake anatomy and describe a systematic approach to postmortem examination of sea snakes. We describe common pathologic conditions identified from clinical and postmortem examinations of stranded Australian sea snakes from southeast Queensland. Notable pathologic conditions include traumatic injury, inflammatory conditions, parasitic infections, and neoplasia.

  12. IMPROVING MEDICAL EDUCATION: SIMULATING CHANGES IN PATIENT ANATOMY USING DYNAMIC HAPTIC FEEDBACK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yovanoff, Mary; Pepley, David; Mirkin, Katelin; Moore, Jason; Han, David; Miller, Scarlett

    2016-09-01

    Virtual simulation is an emerging field in medical education. Research suggests that simulation reduces complication rates and improves learning gains for medical residents. One benefit of simulators is their allowance for more realistic and dynamic patient anatomies. While potentially useful throughout medical education, few studies have explored the impact of dynamic haptic simulators on medical training. In light of this research void, this study was developed to examine how a Dynamic-Haptic Robotic Trainer (DHRT) impacts medical student self-efficacy and skill gains compared to traditional simulators developed to train students in Internal Jugular Central Venous Catheter (IJ CVC) placement. The study was conducted with 18 third year medical students with no prior CVC insertion experience who underwent a pre-test, simulator training (manikin, robotic, or mixed) and post-test. The results revealed the DHRT as a useful method for training CVC skills and supports further research on dynamic haptic trainers in medical education.

  13. Athletic injuries of the lateral abdominal wall: review of anatomy and MR imaging appearance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stensby, J.D. [University of Virginia, Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, 1218 Lee Street, Box 800170, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, 510 S. Kingshighway, Campus Box 8131, St. Louis, MO (United States); Baker, Jonathan C. [Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, 510 S. Kingshighway, Campus Box 8131, St. Louis, MO (United States); Fox, Michael G. [University of Virginia, Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, 1218 Lee Street, Box 800170, Charlottesville, VA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The lateral abdominal wall is comprised of three muscles, each with a different function and orientation. The transversus abdominus, internal oblique, and external oblique muscles span the abdominal cavity between the iliocostalis lumborum and quadratus lumborum posteriorly and the rectus abdominis anteriorly. The lateral abdominal wall is bound superiorly by the lower ribs and costal cartilages and inferiorly by the iliac crest and inguinal ligament. The lateral abdominal wall may be acutely or chronically injured in a variety of athletic endeavors, with occasional acute injuries in the setting of high-energy trauma such as motor vehicle collisions. Injuries to the lateral abdominal wall may result in lumbar hernia formation, unique for its high incarceration rate, and also Spigelian hernias. This article will review the anatomy, the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging approach, and the features and complications of lateral abdominal wall injuries. (orig.)

  14. The Role of Ultrasound in Graduate Anatomy Education: Current State of Integration in the United States and Faculty Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer, Danielle F.

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasound (US) is increasingly taught in medical schools, where it has been shown to be a valuable adjunct to anatomy training. To determine the extent of US training in nonmedical anatomy programs, and evaluate anatomists' perceptions on the role of US in anatomy education, an online survey was distributed to faculty in anatomy Master's and…

  15. Incorporating Radiology into Medical Gross Anatomy: Does the Use of Cadaver CT Scans Improve Students' Academic Performance in Anatomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lufler, Rebecca S.; Zumwalt, Ann C.; Romney, Carla A.; Hoagland, Todd M.

    2010-01-01

    Radiological images show anatomical structures in multiple planes and may be effective for teaching anatomical spatial relationships, something that students often find difficult to master. This study tests the hypotheses that (1) the use of cadaveric computed tomography (CT) scans in the anatomy laboratory is positively associated with…

  16. Virtual Reality Anatomy: Is It Comparable with Traditional Methods in the Teaching of Human Forearm Musculoskeletal Anatomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codd, Anthony M.; Choudhury, Bipasha

    2011-01-01

    The use of cadavers to teach anatomy is well established, but limitations with this approach have led to the introduction of alternative teaching methods. One such method is the use of three-dimensional virtual reality computer models. An interactive, three-dimensional computer model of human forearm anterior compartment musculoskeletal anatomy…

  17. Anatomy and Humanity: Examining the Effects of a Short Documentary Film and First Anatomy Laboratory Experience on Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosani, Farah; Neuberger, Lindsay

    2016-01-01

    Medical students begin their education inside a laboratory dissecting cadavers to learn human gross anatomy. Many schools use the course experience as a way to instill empathy and some have begun integrating video and recorded interviews with body donors to humanize the experience, but their impact has yet to be measured. This study examines the…

  18. Computational anatomy based on whole body imaging basic principles of computer-assisted diagnosis and therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Masutani, Yoshitaka

    2017-01-01

    This book deals with computational anatomy, an emerging discipline recognized in medical science as a derivative of conventional anatomy. It is also a completely new research area on the boundaries of several sciences and technologies, such as medical imaging, computer vision, and applied mathematics. Computational Anatomy Based on Whole Body Imaging highlights the underlying principles, basic theories, and fundamental techniques in computational anatomy, which are derived from conventional anatomy, medical imaging, computer vision, and applied mathematics, in addition to various examples of applications in clinical data. The book will cover topics on the basics and applications of the new discipline. Drawing from areas in multidisciplinary fields, it provides comprehensive, integrated coverage of innovative approaches to computational anatomy. As well,Computational Anatomy Based on Whole Body Imaging serves as a valuable resource for researchers including graduate students in the field and a connection with ...

  19. The history and the art of anatomy: a source of inspiration even nowadays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavrodi, Alexandra; Paraskevas, George; Kitsoulis, Panagiotis

    2013-01-01

    Ever since man started to study systematically medicine for the first time he recognized the value of the knowledge of Anatomy in order to safely cut and treat the human body. However, over the centuries it has been proved that Anatomy is more than just a scientific field of medicine. The fact that Anatomy requires the use of human cadavers as an object to study brought to the surface many moral issues, which adumbrated its turbulent past. Additionally, Anatomy and its inextricable element, illustration, has many times been a source of inspiration for both the anatomists and the artists. This paper aims on the one hand to provide a condensed overview of the history of Anatomy and on the other hand to investigate the way Anatomy penetrates Art and, conversely, Art penetrates Anatomy.

  20. Homepage to distribute the anatomy learning contents including Visible Korean products, comics, and books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Beom Sun; Chung, Min Suk

    2018-03-01

    The authors have operated the homepage (http://anatomy.co.kr) to provide the learning contents of anatomy. From the homepage, sectioned images, volume models, and surface models-all Visible Korean products-can be downloaded. The realistic images can be interactively manipulated, which will give rise to the interest in anatomy. The various anatomy comics (learning comics, comic strips, plastination comics, etc.) are approachable. Visitors can obtain the regional anatomy book with concise contents, mnemonics, and schematics as well as the simplified dissection manual and the pleasant anatomy essay. Medical students, health allied professional students, and even laypeople are expected to utilize the easy and comforting anatomy contents. It is hoped that other anatomists successively produce and distribute their own informative contents.