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Sample records for echinoderms

  1. Phylogeny of Echinoderm Hemoglobins.

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    Ana B Christensen

    Full Text Available Recent genomic information has revealed that neuroglobin and cytoglobin are the two principal lineages of vertebrate hemoglobins, with the latter encompassing the familiar myoglobin and α-globin/β-globin tetramer hemoglobin, and several minor groups. In contrast, very little is known about hemoglobins in echinoderms, a phylum of exclusively marine organisms closely related to vertebrates, beyond the presence of coelomic hemoglobins in sea cucumbers and brittle stars. We identified about 50 hemoglobins in sea urchin, starfish and sea cucumber genomes and transcriptomes, and used Bayesian inference to carry out a molecular phylogenetic analysis of their relationship to vertebrate sequences, specifically, to assess the hypothesis that the neuroglobin and cytoglobin lineages are also present in echinoderms.The genome of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus encodes several hemoglobins, including a unique chimeric 14-domain globin, 2 androglobin isoforms and a unique single androglobin domain protein. Other strongylocentrotid genomes appear to have similar repertoires of globin genes. We carried out molecular phylogenetic analyses of 52 hemoglobins identified in sea urchin, brittle star and sea cucumber genomes and transcriptomes, using different multiple sequence alignment methods coupled with Bayesian and maximum likelihood approaches. The results demonstrate that there are two major globin lineages in echinoderms, which are related to the vertebrate neuroglobin and cytoglobin lineages. Furthermore, the brittle star and sea cucumber coelomic hemoglobins appear to have evolved independently from the cytoglobin lineage, similar to the evolution of erythroid oxygen binding globins in cyclostomes and vertebrates.The presence of echinoderm globins related to the vertebrate neuroglobin and cytoglobin lineages suggests that the split between neuroglobins and cytoglobins occurred in the deuterostome ancestor shared by echinoderms and vertebrates.

  2. Zoogeography of the southern African echinoderm fauna

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1988-04-17

    Apr 17, 1988 ... Pertinent features of the oceanography of southern Africa are reviewed and an analysis of the echinoderm fauna in relation to the genera] ..... five extant echinoderm classes (all species). Crinoids. Asteroids Ophiuroids .... Australia and New Zealand, which are included with. R eprod u ced by Sabin et G.

  3. Exploring Canadian Echinoderm Diversity through DNA Barcodes.

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    Kara K S Layton

    Full Text Available DNA barcoding has proven an effective tool for species identification in varied groups of marine invertebrates including crustaceans, molluscs, polychaetes and echinoderms. In this study, we further validate its utility by analyzing almost half of the 300 species of Echinodermata known from Canadian waters. COI sequences from 999 specimens were assigned to 145 BINs. In most cases, species discrimination was straightforward due to the large difference (25-fold between mean intra- (0.48% and inter- (12.0% specific divergence. Six species were flagged for further taxonomic investigation because specimens assigned to them fell into two or three discrete sequence clusters. The potential influence of larval dispersal capacity and glacial events on patterns of genetic diversity is discussed for 19 trans-oceanic species. Although additional research is needed to clarify biogeographic patterns and resolve taxonomic questions, this study represents an important step in the assembly of a DNA barcode library for all Canadian echinoderms, a valuable resource for future biosurveillance programs.

  4. Echinoderms: their culture and bioactive compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, M S

    2005-01-01

    Of the five extant classes of echinoderms, it is the sea urchins (Echinoidea) and the sea cucumbers (Holothuroidea) that are both commercially fished and heavily overexploited. In sea urchins, it is the gonad of both males and females, normally referred to as'roe', that is a sought-after food. In the sea cucumber, the principal product is the boiled and dried body-wall or 'bêche-de-mer' for which there is an increasing demand. Many sea urchin and sea cucumber fisheries still have no management system or restrictions in place, and for those that do, the prognosis for catches to continue even at a reduced level is poor. Cultivation of these species increasingly becomes a necessity, both for stock enhancement programs and as a means to meet market demand. Sea urchin culture has been practised on a large scale in Japan for many decades, and effective methods for the culture and reseeding of species in these waters have been long established. Juvenile urchins are produced in their millions in state-sponsored hatcheries, for release to managed areas of seafloor. Outside of Japan, sea urchin cultivation is still a fairly recent practice, less than 10 years old, and largely still at a research level, although a range of species are now being produced in a variety of different culture systems. It is essential that the culture systems are adapted to be species-specific and meet with local environmental constraints. Sea cucumber cultivation originated in Japan in the 1930s and is now well established there and in China. Methods for mass cultivation of the tropical Holothuria scabra are now well established and practised in India, Australia, Indonesia, the Maldives and the Solomon Islands, with the focus of the research effort for both temperate and tropical species being centred on the production of juveniles in hatcheries for the restoration and enhancement of wild stocks. Like many other marine organisms, echinoderms have been, and continue to be, examined as a source of

  5. PROPOSAL OF SANITARY MANAGEMENT OF EDIBLE ECHINODERMS IN SARDINIA

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    G. Terrosu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus is an edible echinoderm very common in the Mediterranean sea. In the Sardinian gastronomic tradition it represents a product very used in some periods of the year, but in practice the sanitary controls by the competent authorities are very difficult. The Reg. (EC n. 853/2004 provides that, as regards as the control on production, echinoderms are assimilable to live bivalve molluscs, with the exception of the provisions on purification. In this work a proposal for the sanitary management of the phases of gathering, transport and selling of the sea urchins has been studied.

  6. Historical aspects of meetings, publication series, and digital resources dedicated to echinoderms

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    Alexander Ziegler

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Half a century after the first scientific meeting dedicated to marine spiny-skinned animals (Deuterostomia: Echinodermata was held in Washington, DC, we take this opportunity to provide information on a number of historical aspects related to the echinoderm scientific community. Apart from shedding light on the historical origins of modern echinoderm conferences, the present contribution presents photographs taken during the first meeting of echinoderm researchers in 1963 as well as during the first installments of the International Echinoderm Conference and the European Conference on Echinoderms. Furthermore, we provide background information on publication series dedicated solely to the Echinodermata as well as descriptions of selected digital resources that focus on echinoderms. Finally, we present a number of echinoderm conference logos and flyers in addition to selected information about specific echinoderm meetings.

  7. Marine-derived collagen biomaterials from echinoderm connective tissues

    KAUST Repository

    Ferrario, Cinzia; Leggio, Livio; Leone, Roberta; Di Benedetto, Cristiano; Guidetti, Luca; Coccè , Valentina; Ascagni, Miriam; Bonasoro, Francesco; La Porta, Caterina A.M.; Candia Carnevali, M. Daniela; Sugni, Michela

    2016-01-01

    The use of marine collagens is a hot topic in the field of tissue engineering. Echinoderms possess unique connective tissues (Mutable Collagenous Tissues, MCTs) which can represent an innovative source of collagen to develop collagen barrier-membranes for Guided Tissue Regeneration (GTR). In the present work we used MCTs from different echinoderm models (sea urchin, starfish and sea cucumber) to produce echinoderm-derived collagen membranes (EDCMs). Commercial membranes for GTR or soluble/reassembled (fibrillar) bovine collagen substrates were used as controls. The three EDCMs were similar among each other in terms of structure and mechanical performances and were much thinner and mechanically more resistant than the commercial membranes. Number of fibroblasts seeded on sea-urchin membranes were comparable to the bovine collagen substrates. Cell morphology on all EDCMs was similar to that of structurally comparable (reassembled) bovine collagen substrates. Overall, echinoderms, and sea urchins particularly, are alternative collagen sources to produce efficient GTR membranes. Sea urchins display a further advantage in terms of eco-sustainability by recycling tissues from food wastes.

  8. Marine-derived collagen biomaterials from echinoderm connective tissues

    KAUST Repository

    Ferrario, Cinzia

    2016-03-31

    The use of marine collagens is a hot topic in the field of tissue engineering. Echinoderms possess unique connective tissues (Mutable Collagenous Tissues, MCTs) which can represent an innovative source of collagen to develop collagen barrier-membranes for Guided Tissue Regeneration (GTR). In the present work we used MCTs from different echinoderm models (sea urchin, starfish and sea cucumber) to produce echinoderm-derived collagen membranes (EDCMs). Commercial membranes for GTR or soluble/reassembled (fibrillar) bovine collagen substrates were used as controls. The three EDCMs were similar among each other in terms of structure and mechanical performances and were much thinner and mechanically more resistant than the commercial membranes. Number of fibroblasts seeded on sea-urchin membranes were comparable to the bovine collagen substrates. Cell morphology on all EDCMs was similar to that of structurally comparable (reassembled) bovine collagen substrates. Overall, echinoderms, and sea urchins particularly, are alternative collagen sources to produce efficient GTR membranes. Sea urchins display a further advantage in terms of eco-sustainability by recycling tissues from food wastes.

  9. Marine echinoderms as reservoirs of antimicrobial resistant bacteria

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    Catarina Marinho

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Echinoderms are benthic animals that play an important ecological role in marine communities occupying diverse trophic levels in the marine food chains. The majority of echinoderms feed on small particles of edible matter, although they can eat many kinds of food (Clark, 1968. Although, some echinoderms species has been facing an emerging demand for human consumption, particularly in Asian and Mediterranean cuisine, where these animals can be eaten raw (Kelly, 2005; Micael et al., 2009. Echinoderms own an innate immune mechanism that allows them to defend themselves from high concentrations of bacteria, viruses and fungus they are often exposed, on marine sediment (Janeway and Medzhitov, 1998, Cooper, 2003. The most frequent genera of gut bacteria in echinoderms are Vibrio, Pseudomonas, Flavobacterium, and Aeromonas; nevertheless Enterococcus spp. and Escherichia coli are also present (Harris, 1993; Marinho et al., 2013. Moreover, fecal resistant bacteria found in the aquatic environment might represent an index of marine pollution (Foti et al., 2009, Kummerer, 2009. Several studies had been lead in order to identify environmental reservoirs for antibiotic-resistant bacteria in populations of fish, echinoderms and marine mammals, and they all support the thesis that these animals may serve as reservoirs since they had acquired resistant microbial species (Johnson et al., 1998, Marinho et al., 2013, Miranda and Zemelman, 2001. However, to our knowledge, there are only available in bibliography one study of antimicrobial resistant bacteria isolated from marine echinoderms (Marinho et al., 2013, which stats that their provenience in this environment is still unclear. Antimicrobial resistance outcomes from the intensive use of antimicrobial drugs in human activities associated with various mechanisms for bacteria genetic transfer (Barbosa and Levy, 2000, Coque et al., 2008. Antibiotic-resistant bacteria enter into water environments where they are

  10. Mg and Sr in Arctic echinoderm calcite: Nature or nurture?

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    Iglikowska, A.; Borszcz, T.; Drewnik, A.; Grabowska, M.; Humphreys-Williams, E.; Kędra, M.; Krzemińska, M.; Piwoni-Piórewicz, A.; Kukliński, P.

    2018-04-01

    The Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca ratios in echinoderm skeletal calcite are used as a proxy for Phanerozoic seawater changes, since the skeletal concentrations are, to some extent, controlled by environmental factors. However, it remains unclear how the influence of environmental factors is modified by vital effects, especially in polar waters. Therefore, the goal of this study was to compare the ratios of Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca among the skeletal parts of 10 common Arctic echinoderm species belonging to three classes Echinoidea, Asteroidea and Ophiuroidea that contribute substantially to the carbon cycle in the Arctic benthic system. Significant differences were recorded in echinoid skeletal element concentrations among specific skeletal parts. The lowest Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca ratios were detected in the spines (mean Mg/Ca 37.5 ± 8.8 SD; Sr/Ca 1.8 ± 0.1). The components of the Aristotle's lantern (epiphyses, pyramids and rotulas) were characterised by the highest Mg levels (Mg/Ca 79.9 ± 6.0; 75.2 ± 9.1; 60.1 ± 3.8, respectively). It is likely that mouth parts experience greater mechanical pressure compared to other body parts, and the higher content of Mg in the Aristotle's lantern contributes to its robustness. We did not find any distinctive trends in the distribution of skeletal elements in the asteroid and ophiuroid skeletal parts. The heterogeneous concentrations of Mg and Sr in different skeleton parts of the echinoids suggest possible physiological regulation of the chemical composition rather than the composition only being influenced by the environment. We cannot recommend echinoderm skeletons as reliable indicators in palaeoenvironmental reconstructions due to the possible biological control of skeletal chemistry, which may interfere with the effect of environmental variables.

  11. Every which way – nanos gene regulation in echinoderms

    OpenAIRE

    Oulhen, Nathalie; Wessel, Gary M.

    2014-01-01

    Nanos is an essential factor of germ line success in all animals tested. This gene encodes a Zn-finger RNA-binding protein that in complex with its partner pumilio, binds to and changes the fate of several known transcripts. We summarize here the documented functions of nanos in several key organisms, and then emphasize echinoderms as a working model for how nanos expression is regulated. Nanos presence outside of the target cells is often detrimental to the animal, and in sea urchins, nanos ...

  12. Every which way – nanos gene regulation in echinoderms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oulhen, Nathalie; Wessel, Gary M.

    2014-01-01

    Nanos is an essential factor of germ line success in all animals tested. This gene encodes a Zn-finger RNA-binding protein that in complex with its partner pumilio, binds to and changes the fate of several known transcripts. We summarize here the documented functions of nanos in several key organisms, and then emphasize echinoderms as a working model for how nanos expression is regulated. Nanos presence outside of the target cells is often detrimental to the animal, and in sea urchins, nanos expression appears to be regulated at every step of transcription, and post-transcriptional activity, making this gene product exciting, every which way. PMID:24376110

  13. Diversity assessment of echinoderms from Mudasalodai and Pazhayar in the southeast coast of India

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    Maheswaran Murugan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the echinoderms diversity in Mudasalodai and Pazhayar landing centers during November 2012 to December 2014. Methods: All the collected echinoderm samples were stored at 4 °C until further use. Results: As many as 19 species of echinoderms were recorded in both stations and it belongs to 10 families, three classes such as Asteroidea, Echinoidea and Ophiuroidea. The percentage composition varied from 0.15% to 73%. The species diversity ranged from 1.031 to 2.6; species richness was from 1.02 to 4.06 and species evenness ranged from 0.93 to 0.99. K-dominance curve drawn paralleled the trend of diversity indices. Cluster and multidimensional scaling showed the similarity in echinoderms composition within the stations. Conclusions: The present investigation is evident that the echinoderm occurrence was predominant during the summer season and proved statistically by using SPSS Primer 6.0.

  14. Every which way--nanos gene regulation in echinoderms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oulhen, Nathalie; Wessel, Gary M

    2014-03-01

    Nanos is an essential factor of germ line success in all animals tested. This gene encodes a Zn-finger RNA-binding protein that in complex with its partner pumilio binds to and changes the fate of several known transcripts. We summarize here the documented functions of Nanos in several key organisms, and then emphasize echinoderms as a working model for how nanos expression is regulated. Nanos presence outside of the target cells is often detrimental to the animal, and in sea urchins, nanos expression appears to be regulated at every step of transcription, and post-transcriptional activity, making this gene product exciting, every which way. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Diagenesis of echinoderm skeletons: Constraints on paleoseawater Mg/Ca reconstructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorzelak, Przemysław; Krzykawski, Tomasz; Stolarski, Jarosław

    2016-09-01

    One of the most profound environmental changes thought to be reflected in chemical composition of numerous geological archives is Mg/Ca ratio of the seawater, which has varied dramatically throughout the Phanerozoic. Echinoderms that today typically form high magnesium calcite skeletons are increasingly being utilized as a proxy for interpreting secular changes in seawater chemistry. However, accurate characterization of the diagenetic changes of their metastable high magnesium calcite skeletons is a prerequisite for assessing their original, major-element geochemical composition. Here we expand the existing models of diagenesis of echinoderm skeleton by integration of various analytical methods that up to now rarely have been used to assess the diagenetic changes of fossil echinoderms. We validated the preservation of a suite of differently preserved echinoderm ossicles, mostly crinoids, ranging in age from the Cambrian through Recent. In 13 of 99 fossil echinoderm ossicles we found well-preserved porous microstructure (stereom), non-luminescent behaviour or blotchy dark color in cathodoluminescence, and distinct nanostructural features (layered and nanocomposite structure). Moreover, in representatives of such preserved samples, distribution of sulphates associated with organic matter is identical to those in Recent echinoderms. Only such ossicles, despite of local micrometer-scale diagenetic changes, were herein considered well-preserved, retaining their original major-element skeletal composition. By contrast, majority of samples show transformation to the stable low magnesium calcite that leads to obliteration of the primary geochemical and micro/nanostructural features and is accompanied with increase in cathodoluminescence emission intensity. Using only well-preserved fossil echinoderm samples, we found purely random variation in Mg/Ca in echinoderm skeletons through the observed time series; any periodicities in echinoderm skeletal Mg/Ca ratio which might

  16. Buffer capacity of the coelomic fluid in echinoderms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collard, Marie; Laitat, Kim; Moulin, Laure; Catarino, Ana I; Grosjean, Philippe; Dubois, Philippe

    2013-09-01

    The increase in atmospheric CO2 due to anthropogenic activity results in an acidification of the surface waters of the oceans. The impact of these chemical changes depends on the considered organisms. In particular, it depends on the ability of the organism to control the pH of its inner fluids. Among echinoderms, this ability seems to differ significantly according to species or taxa. In the present paper, we investigated the buffer capacity of the coelomic fluid in different echinoderm taxa as well as factors modifying this capacity. Euechinoidea (sea urchins except Cidaroidea) present a very high buffer capacity of the coelomic fluid (from 0.8 to 1.8mmolkg(-1) SW above that of seawater), while Cidaroidea (other sea urchins), starfish and holothurians have a significantly lower one (from -0.1 to 0.4mmolkg(-1) SW compared to seawater). We hypothesize that this is linked to the more efficient gas exchange structures present in the three last taxa, whereas Euechinoidea evolved specific buffer systems to compensate lower gas exchange abilities. The constituents of the buffer capacity and the factors influencing it were investigated in the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus and the starfish Asterias rubens. Buffer capacity is primarily due to the bicarbonate buffer system of seawater (representing about 63% for sea urchins and 92% for starfish). It is also partly due to coelomocytes present in the coelomic fluid (around 8% for both) and, in P. lividus only, a compound of an apparent size larger than 3kDa is involved (about 15%). Feeding increased the buffer capacity in P. lividus (to a difference with seawater of about 2.3mmolkg(-1) SW compared to unfed ones who showed a difference of about 0.5mmolkg(-1) SW) but not in A. rubens (difference with seawater of about 0.2 for both conditions). In P. lividus, decreased seawater pH induced an increase of the buffer capacity of individuals maintained at pH7.7 to about twice that of the control individuals and, for those at pH7

  17. Oral Region Homologies in Paleozoic Crinoids and Other Plesiomorphic Pentaradial Echinoderms

    OpenAIRE

    Kammer, Thomas W.; Sumrall, Colin D.; Zamora, Samuel; Ausich, William I.; Deline, Bradley

    2013-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationships between major groups of plesiomorphic pentaradial echinoderms, the Paleozoic crinoids, blastozoans, and edrioasteroids, are poorly understood because of a lack of widely recognized homologies. Here, we present newly recognized oral region homologies, based on the Universal Elemental Homology model for skeletal plates, in a wide range of fossil taxa. The oral region of echinoderms is mainly composed of the axial, or ambulacral, skeleton, which apparently evolved ...

  18. Th, Pa and U isotopes in an echinoderm, Encope grandis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omura, Akio; Ku, Teh-Lung.

    1979-01-01

    The application of 230 Th and 231 Pa growth methods to the hard tissues of living things, which are effective for the radiometric age measurement for latter Quaternary period, has been limited to certain corals, therefore it has been scarcely utilized in other areas than coral reefs. Reef coral fossils (Porites) were obtained from terrace deposits of Magdalena Island in Southern Baja California, and the methods were applied to them. At the time, the isotope compositions of Th, Pa and U in the shells of echinoderm Encope Grandis and of the living samples were examined. The estimated ages were in agreement with those of coral. It suggests that the reliable 230 Th and 231 Pa ages of sea-urchin fossils were presented for the first time and that the method is applicable to such fossils only if the conditions can be met. The results are highly significant, since the method may be used in other areas than coral reefs. (J.P.N.)

  19. An updated checklist of Echinoderms from Indian waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Vijay Kumar Deepak; Krishnan, Pandian; Sreeraj, Chemmencheri Ramakrishnan; Chamundeeswari, Kanagaraj; Parthiban, Chermapandi; Sekar, Veeramuthu; Patro, Shesdev; Saravanan, Raju; Abhilash, Kottarathil Rajendran; Ramachandran, Purvaja; Ramesh, Ramachandran

    2017-11-27

    Species checklists enlist the species available within the defined geographical region and thus serve as essential input for developing conservation and management strategies. The fields of conservation biology and ecology confront the challenge of inflated biodiversity, attributed to non-recognition of taxonomic inconsistencies such as synonyms, alternate representation, emendations etc. Critical review of the checklists and distributional records of Phylum Echinodermata from Indian waters and subsequent validation of species names with World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) database, revealed that the current literature included 236 incorrect entries comprising of 162 synonyms, 15 emendations, 5 nomina dubia, 1 nomen nudum, 40 species under alternate representation, 9 species with author misnomer, 1 subspecies and 1 unaccepted. The 226 species found to be mixed with valid names and a revised checklist was prepared. The revised and updated checklist holds 741 species of echinoderms comprising of 182 asteroids (24.56%), 70 crinoids (9.45%), 138 echinoids (18.62%), 179 holothuroids (24.16%) and 172 ophiuroids (23.21%), placed under 28 orders and 107 families. This paper discusses the cause for taxonomic inflation and argues that such taxonomic inconsistencies alter our interpretations of a species including its inaccurate distribution and, could possibly impede the country's conservation and management efforts.

  20. Nouvelle interpretation des echinodermes de Collado de Tosas (Gerona, Espagne

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    Meléndez, B.

    1988-12-01

    Full Text Available The revision of the echinoderms from Collado de Tosas, based on the original specimens and additional material, is undertaken. The study shows that the initial attribution to the genus Trochocystites belonging to the Homalozoa Cincta has been induced by the tectonic deformation and the presence of recristallization lamellae in the natural molds. New observations allow to conclude without ambiguity that these skeletal elements are isolated columnals with a broad lumen, of crinoids. The presence of Cambrian in the section, established exclusively on the initial determinations, cannot longer be maintained.Los fósiles de Equinodermos del Collado de Tosas fueron dados a conocer en 1911 por F. Azpeitia que los atribuyó a Trochocystites bohemicus Bar. Posteriormente, M. Faura (1912 hizo notar la presencia de fósiles ordovícicos en esta misma localidad, y propuso una interpretación estratigráfica que incluía un contacto anómalo con el supuesto Cámbrico determinado por los Trochocystites. Todo ello fue revisado por B. Meléndez en 1954, que creyó poder confirmar que los fósiles en cuestión (fig. 1, eran realmente Carpoideos. El estudio de nuevo material recogido in situ, así como de los ejemplares conservados en el Museo del Seminario Conciliar de Barcelona, nos ha llevado a la conclusión de que la atribución inicial de estos discutidos fósiles al género Trochocystites, fue debida a la deformación tectónica que les ha dado forma ovalada, y a la presencia de láminas de recristalización, en disposición radial, en los moldes (fig. 6, lám. 1, que dan la falsa apariencia de placas marginales. Las nuevas observaciones nos permiten afirmar que estos fósiles son placas columnales, aisladas, probablemente del pedúnculo de Crinoides, con cavidad central muy amplia (Iám. 1, figs. 15, aunque eventualmente, también podrían haber pertenecido a Cystideos. En consecuencia, la presencia del Cámbrico en esta localidad, basada únicamente en la

  1. Temporal and Spatial Distribution Patterns of Echinoderm Larvae in La Parguera, Puerto Rico

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    Stacey M Williams

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This study describes temporal and spatial abundance patterns of echinoderm larvae in La Parguera, Puerto Rico. For the temporal study, larvae were sampled by a series of monthly tows taken with a 64μm mesh net between the new and full moon from April 2005 to July 2006, September 2006 and August 2007. In order to measure spatial variation of echinoderm larval bundances, oblique tows were taken with 64 and 202μm mesh nets at seven different sites within the shelf, at the shelf-edge, and at a nearby oceanic stations during August 2007. Overall, Echinoidea (sea urchin exhibited the highest abundance with a total of 11 921 larvae, representing 52.5% of the total collection. Ophiuroidea (brittle star ranked second in abundance with 45.6% of the total larvae. Holothuroidea (sea cucumber and Asteroidea larvae (sea star accounted for less than 2% of the total echinoderm larval collection. Early larval stages (2-8 day old of Diadema antillarum represented 20% of the total Echinoidea larvae. There was no marked seasonal trend of echinoderm larval abundance; Echinoidea and Ophiuroidea larvae were present in all monthly samples indicating that reproduction occurs year-round. Peak abundances of later-stage Echinoidea larvae were observed during January, July and October and of later-stage Ophiuroidea larvae during June, August and October. The observed peaks of later-stage larval abundances may be indicative of higher recruitment activity during these months. There was a significant difference of echinoderm larval abundance between spatial stations, with higher abundances collected at the shelf-edge. Later-stage (~24 day old D. antillarum larvae were mostly collected at shelf-edge and oceanic locations. In addition, the 64mm mesh net was more efficient for collection of echinoderm larvae than the 202mm mesh net. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (Suppl. 3: 81-88. Epub 2010 October 01.

  2. Stars in the Silurian sky: Echinoderm holdfasts from the Carnic Alps, Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferretti, A.; Ausich, W.I.; Corradini, C.; Corriga, M.G.; Schoenlaub, H.P.

    2016-01-01

    A small collection of echinoderm holdfasts from the Ludlow Cardiola Formation of the Carnic Alps (Austria) contains a wide range of morphologies as a response of environmental adaptation. In general, the holdfasts have a globous and massive dome-like profile with several processes arranged in a sub-radial disposition, so to create a sort of ‘star-like’ outline. A small central depression is common but not present on all specimens. The distinctive holdfasts are preserved in an iron-rich phase, documenting a substitution that has also affected other non-echinoderm calcareous material. (Author)

  3. Echinoderm Biodiversity in the Takofi Coastal Waters, Moti Island, North Maluku

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    Eddy Yusron

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available A total of 22 echinoderm species were found in Takofi waters, North Maluku. They were represented by 6 species of holothuroidea, 4 species of asteroidea, 5 species of echinoidea and 7 species of ophiuroidea. The Ophiuroidea were relatively common in seagrass area. The quantitative analysis on the abundance data revealed the highest diversity index of faunal assemblage at station II (H'=1.19. The highest evenness index was exhibited by the echinoderms from station III (J = 0.99, while the highest species richness was represented by them from station I (D = 1.22.

  4. Stars in the Silurian sky: Echinoderm holdfasts from the Carnic Alps, Austria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferretti, A.; Ausich, W.I.; Corradini, C.; Corriga, M.G.; Schoenlaub, H.P.

    2016-07-01

    A small collection of echinoderm holdfasts from the Ludlow Cardiola Formation of the Carnic Alps (Austria) contains a wide range of morphologies as a response of environmental adaptation. In general, the holdfasts have a globous and massive dome-like profile with several processes arranged in a sub-radial disposition, so to create a sort of ‘star-like’ outline. A small central depression is common but not present on all specimens. The distinctive holdfasts are preserved in an iron-rich phase, documenting a substitution that has also affected other non-echinoderm calcareous material. (Author)

  5. The diversity of nanos expression in echinoderm embryos supports different mechanisms in germ cell specification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresques, Tara; Swartz, Steven Zachary; Juliano, Celina; Morino, Yoshiaki; Kikuchi, Mani; Akasaka, Koji; Wada, Hiroshi; Yajima, Mamiko; Wessel, Gary M

    2016-07-01

    Specification of the germ cell lineage is required for sexual reproduction in all animals. However, the timing and mechanisms of germ cell specification is remarkably diverse in animal development. Echinoderms, such as sea urchins and sea stars, are excellent model systems to study the molecular and cellular mechanisms that contribute to germ cell specification. In several echinoderm embryos tested, the germ cell factor Vasa accumulates broadly during early development and is restricted after gastrulation to cells that contribute to the germ cell lineage. In the sea urchin, however, the germ cell factor Vasa is restricted to a specific lineage by the 32-cell stage. We therefore hypothesized that the germ cell specification program in the sea urchin/Euechinoid lineage has evolved to an earlier developmental time point. To test this hypothesis we determined the expression pattern of a second germ cell factor, Nanos, in four out of five extant echinoderm clades. Here we find that Nanos mRNA does not accumulate until the blastula stage or later during the development of all other echinoderm embryos except those that belong to the Echinoid lineage. Instead, Nanos is expressed in a restricted domain at the 32-128 cell stage in Echinoid embryos. Our results support the model that the germ cell specification program underwent a heterochronic shift in the Echinoid lineage. A comparison of Echinoid and non-Echinoid germ cell specification mechanisms will contribute to our understanding of how these mechanisms have changed during animal evolution. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Echinoderms and oil pollution: a potential stress assay using bacterial symbionts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, L.C.

    1995-01-01

    Oil pollution is a problem in the North Sea. Important sources of oil pollution are spills and drill cutting. Echinoderms are a major component of the macrobenthos in the North Sea (and elsewhere). They tend to be very sensitive to various types of marine pollution. Many species of echinoderms contain symbiotic sub-cuticular bacteria (SCB). The response of Amphiura filiformis, A. chiajei and Ophiothrix fragilis, all of which contain SCB, to oil pollution was studied in laboratory experiments, mesocosms and in the field. Sublethal stress was monitored by examining changes in the tissue loading of SCB. When subjected to hydrocarbon insult, there was a decline in the number of SCB. The potential use of SCB abundance to detect sublethal stress is discussed. (author)

  7. The A/P axis in echinoderm ontogeny and evolution: evidence from fossils and molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, K. J.; Arenas-Mena, C.; Davidson, E. H.

    2000-01-01

    Even though echinoderms are members of the Bilateria, the location of their anterior/posterior axis has remained enigmatic. Here we propose a novel solution to the problem employing three lines of evidence: the expression of a posterior class Hox gene in the coeloms of the nascent adult body plan within the larva; the anatomy of certain early fossil echinoderms; and finally the relation between endoskeletal plate morphology and the associated coelomic tissues. All three lines of evidence converge on the same answer, namely that the location of the adult mouth is anterior, and the anterior/posterior axis runs from the mouth through the adult coelomic compartments. This axis then orients the animal such that there is but a single plane of symmetry dividing the animal into left and right halves. We tentatively hypothesize that this plane of symmetry is positioned along the dorsal/ventral axis. These axis identifications lead to the conclusion that the five ambulacra are not primary body axes, but instead are outgrowths from the central anterior/posterior axis. These identifications also shed insight into several other evolutionary mysteries of various echinoderm clades such as the independent evolution of bilateral symmetry in irregular echinoids, but do not elucidate the underlying mechanisms of the adult coelomic architecture.

  8. Species richness and distribution patterns of echinoderms in the southwestern Atlantic Ocean (34-56°S

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    Valeria Souto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compile and analyse available historical information on echinoderms in the southwestern Atlantic Ocean in order to make a synthesis of present taxonomical knowledge, to identify patterns of geographical distribution of echinoderm assemblages and to test the validity of the current zoogeographic scheme for this group. This study was conducted on the Argentinean continental shelf, southwestern Atlantic Ocean (34-56°S. An intensive research on geo-referenced data was carried out to make a knowledge synthesis on echinoderm species and thus create a historical database. Multivariate analysis was used to analyse the faunal composition through latitudinal and bathymetric gradients as well as echinoderm associations. The results confirmed the existence of two faunal associations that correspond to the traditional zoogeographic scheme established for the Argentine Sea: the Argentinean and Magellan Provinces. The Argentinean Province had 46 widely distributed species. Of the 86 species recorded in the Magellan Province, a high percentage (25% were also found in Antarctic waters, suggesting a strong connection between the echinoderm fauna of this province and the Antarctic Region. The species richness between 34 and 56°S in the Atlantic Ocean showed a significant increase in reference to latitude, with the highest values being recorded between 46 and 56°S. In view of the high percentage of shared species with Antarctica, considered a hot-spot region in terms of echinoderm diversity, the pattern of distribution of species richness observed in our study area could correspond to a dispersion of this species from Antarctic to sub-Antarctic regions.

  9. Centralspindlin and Chromosomal Passenger Complex Behavior During Normal and Rappaport Furrow Specification in Echinoderm Embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argiros, Haroula; Henson, Lauren; Holguin, Christiana; Foe, Victoria; Shuster, Charles Bradley

    2014-01-01

    The chromosomal passenger (CPC) and Centralspindlin complexes are essential for organizing the anaphase central spindle and providing cues that position the cytokinetic furrow between daughter nuclei. However, echinoderm zygotes are also capable of forming “Rappaport furrows” between asters positioned back-to-back without intervening chromosomes. To understand how these complexes contribute to normal and Rappaport furrow formation, we studied the localization patterns of Survivin and mitotic-kinesin-like-protein1 (MKLP1), members respectively of the CPC and the Centralspindlin complex, and the effect of CPC inhibition on cleavage in mono- and binucleate echinoderm zygotes. In zygotes, Survivin initially localized to metaphase chromosomes, upon anaphase onset relocalized to the central spindle and then, together with MKLP1 spread towards the equatorial cortex in an Aurora-dependent manner. Inhibition of Aurora kinase activity resulted in disruption of central spindle organization and furrow regression, although astral microtubule elongation and furrow initiation were normal. In binucleate cells containing two parallel spindles MKLP1 and Survivin localized to the plane of the former metaphase plate, but were not observed in the secondary cleavage plane formed between unrelated spindle poles, except when chromosomes were abnormally present there. However, the secondary furrow was sensitive to Aurora inhibition, indicating that Aurora kinase may still contribute to furrow ingression without chromosomes nearby. Our results provide insights that reconcile classic micromanipulation studies with current molecular understanding of furrow specification in animal cells. PMID:22887753

  10. The echinoderm collagen fibril: a hero in the connective tissue research of the 1990s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szulgit, Greg

    2007-07-01

    Collagen fibrils are some of the most-abundant and important extracellular structures in our bodies, yet we are unsure of their shape and size. This is largely due to an inherent difficulty in isolating them from their surrounding tissues. Echinoderms have collagenous tissues that are similar to ours in many ways, yet they can be manipulated to easily relinquish their collagen fibrils, providing an excellent opportunity to study native fibrillar structure. In the early 1990s, they were found to defy the commonly accepted fibrillar model of the time in that they were much shorter, they were shaped like double-ended spindles, and their centers exhibited a reversal in molecular polarity. Realization of these features helped to reform the questions that were being asked about vertebrate fibrils, shifting the focus toward shape and size. Since then, researchers working with both groups (echinoderms and vertebrates) have worked together to find the structure of native fibrils. This information will be fundamental in understanding what holds collagenous tissues together at the fibrillar level, and could have important implications for people with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. (c) 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Late Cretaceous-Early Palaeogene echinoderms and the K/T boundary in the southeast Netherlands and northeast Belgium — Part 6: Conclusions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jagt, J.W.M.

    2000-01-01

    The palaeobiology of echinoderms occurring in the Meerssen and Geulhem members is discussed and changes in diversity across the K/T boundary are documented. Using literature data on the ecology of extant faunas, the various echinoderm groups are considered. Naturally, such data can only be applied

  12. Interfibrillar stiffening of echinoderm mutable collagenous tissue demonstrated at the nanoscale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Jingyi; Prévost, Sylvain F; Blowes, Liisa M; Egertová, Michaela; Terrill, Nicholas J; Wang, Wen; Elphick, Maurice R; Gupta, Himadri S

    2016-10-18

    The mutable collagenous tissue (MCT) of echinoderms (e.g., sea cucumbers and starfish) is a remarkable example of a biological material that has the unique attribute, among collagenous tissues, of being able to rapidly change its stiffness and extensibility under neural control. However, the mechanisms of MCT have not been characterized at the nanoscale. Using synchrotron small-angle X-ray diffraction to probe time-dependent changes in fibrillar structure during in situ tensile testing of sea cucumber dermis, we investigate the ultrastructural mechanics of MCT by measuring fibril strain at different chemically induced mechanical states. By measuring a variable interfibrillar stiffness (E IF ), the mechanism of mutability at the nanoscale can be demonstrated directly. A model of stiffness modulation via enhanced fibrillar recruitment is developed to explain the biophysical mechanisms of MCT. Understanding the mechanisms of MCT quantitatively may have applications in development of new types of mechanically tunable biomaterials.

  13. Temporal and Spatial Distribution Patterns of Echinoderm Larvae in La Parguera, Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacey M Williams

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This study describes temporal and spatial abundance patterns of echinoderm larvae in La Parguera, Puerto Rico. For the temporal study, larvae were sampled by a series of monthly tows taken with a 64μm mesh net between the new and full moon from April 2005 to July 2006, September 2006 and August 2007. In order to measure spatial variation of echinoderm larval bundances, oblique tows were taken with 64 and 202μm mesh nets at seven different sites within the shelf, at the shelf-edge, and at a nearby oceanic stations during August 2007. Overall, Echinoidea (sea urchin exhibited the highest abundance with a total of 11 921 larvae, representing 52.5% of the total collection. Ophiuroidea (brittle star ranked second in abundance with 45.6% of the total larvae. Holothuroidea (sea cucumber and Asteroidea larvae (sea star accounted for less than 2% of the total echinoderm larval collection. Early larval stages (2-8 day old of Diadema antillarum represented 20% of the total Echinoidea larvae. There was no marked seasonal trend of echinoderm larval abundance; Echinoidea and Ophiuroidea larvae were present in all monthly samples indicating that reproduction occurs year-round. Peak abundances of later-stage Echinoidea larvae were observed during January, July and October and of later-stage Ophiuroidea larvae during June, August and October. The observed peaks of later-stage larval abundances may be indicative of higher recruitment activity during these months. There was a significant difference of echinoderm larval abundance between spatial stations, with higher abundances collected at the shelf-edge. Later-stage (~24 day old D. antillarum larvae were mostly collected at shelf-edge and oceanic locations. In addition, the 64mm mesh net was more efficient for collection of echinoderm larvae than the 202mm mesh net. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (Suppl. 3: 81-88. Epub 2010 October 01.Este estudio describe patrones de abundancia temporal y espacial de larvas de

  14. Late Cretaceous-Early Palaeogene echinoderms and the K/Tboundary in the southeast Netherlands and northeast Belgium - Part 2: Crinoids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jagt, J.W.M.

    1999-01-01

    All Campanian, Maastrichtian and Danian articulate (cladid) crinoids known to date from the extendedtype area of the Maastrichtian Stage, are described and illustrated. The geographic and stratigraphicdistribution of this unexpectedly diverse echinoderm group are documented. A total of twentygenera

  15. Effects of manganese and hypoxia on coelomocyte renewal in the echinoderm, Asterias rubens (L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oweson, Carolina; Li Chenghua; Soederhaell, Irene; Hernroth, Bodil

    2010-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is a naturally abundant metal and particularly so in soft-bottom oceanic sediments where it generally occurs bound in a four-valent colloidal state as MnO 2 . When hypoxic conditions occur in bottom waters, the metal reduces to the bioavailable ion Mn 2+ and can reach concentrations known to have immunotoxic effects in the crustacean Nephrops norvegicus, reducing numbers of circulating haemocytes as a consequence. However, we have previously shown that Mn seems to have a contrasting effect on the echinoderm Asterias rubens in which it triggers the proliferation of haematopoietic cells and increases coelomocyte numbers. Since elevated Mn levels mostly co-occur with hypoxia in nature, here we investigated whether hypoxia has a negative effect on haematopoiesis. Proliferation and differentiation of coelomocytes and cells in the coelomic epithelium of A. rubens were compared after 3 days of exposure to realistic levels of Mn, hypoxia or a combination of these two parameters. We can confirm that Mn elevated numbers of coelomocytes and increased proliferation of epithelial cells, but hypoxia did not affect these levels. However, hypoxia did affect differentiation of these cells as judged by investigating the expression of a Runt domain transcription factor, which was also cloned and sequenced. Through comparative quantification using a real time PCR technique, we found that exposure to hypoxia had a clearly stimulating effect on mRNA expression of Runt gene in both coelomocytes and epithelial cells. These results indicate that during hypoxic conditions the composition of coelomocyte sub-populations changed.

  16. Rapid manufacture of monolithic micro-actuated forceps inspired by echinoderm pedicellariae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leigh, S J; Purssell, C P; Covington, J A; Billson, D R; Hutchins, D A; Bowen, J

    2012-01-01

    The concept of biomimetics and bioinspiration has been used to enhance the function of materials and devices in fields ranging from healthcare to renewable energy. By developing advanced design and manufacturing processes, researchers are rapidly accelerating their ability to mimic natural systems. In this paper we show how micro-actuated forceps inspired by echinoderm pedicellarie have been produced using the rapid manufacturing technology of micro-stereolithography. The manufactured monolithic devices are composed of sets of jaws on the surface of thin polymer resin membranes, which serve as musculature for the jaws. The membranes are suspended above a pneumatic chamber with the jaws opened and closed through pneumatic pressure changes exerted by a simple syringe. The forceps can be used for tasks such as grasping of microparticles. Furthermore, when an object is placed in the centre of the membrane, the membrane flexes and the jaws of the device close and grasp the object in a responsive manner. When uncured liquid photopolymer is used to actuate the devices hydraulically instead of pneumatically, the devices exhibit self-healing behaviour, sealing the damaged regions and maintaining hydraulic integrity. The manufactured devices present exciting possibilities in fields such as micromanipulation and micro-robotics for healthcare. (communication)

  17. Dynamic evolution of toll-like receptor multigene families in echinoderms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine M Buckley

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The genome of the purple sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, was the first to be sequenced from a long-lived large invertebrate. Analysis of this genome uncovered a surprisingly complex immune system in which the moderately sized sets of pattern recognition receptors that form the core of vertebrate innate immunity are encoded in large multigene families. The sea urchin genome contains 253 Toll-like receptor (TLR genes, more than 200 Nod-like receptors and 1095 scavenger receptor cysteine-rich domains, a ten-fold expansion relative to vertebrates. Given their stereotypic structure and simple intron-exon architecture, the TLRs are the most tractable of these families for more detailed analysis. An immune defense role for these receptors is suggested by their sequence diversity and expression in immunologically active tissues, including phagocytes. This complexity of the sea urchin TLR multigene families largely derives from expansions that are independent of those in vertebrates and protostomes, although a small family of TLRs with structure similar to that of Drosophila Toll likely originated in an ancient eumetazoan ancestor. Several other invertebrate deuterostome genomes have been sequenced, including the cephalochordate, Branchiostoma floridae and the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus, as well as partial sequences from two other sea urchin species. Here, we present an analysis of the invertebrate deuterostome TLRs with emphasis on the echinoderms. Representatives of most of the S. purpuratus TLR subfamilies and homologs of the protostome-like sequences are found in L. variegatus. The phylogeny of these genes within sea urchins highlights lineage-specific expansions at higher resolution than is evident at the phylum level. These analyses identify quickly evolving TLR subfamilies that are likely to have novel functions and other, more stable, subfamilies that may function similarly to those of vertebrates.

  18. Bathymetric and interspecific variability in maternal reproductive investment and diet of eurybathic echinoderms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, David A. N.; Hamel, Jean-François; Mercier, Annie

    2013-10-01

    While conditions in shallow-water and deep-sea environments differ markedly, it remains unclear how eurybathic species adapt their life histories to cope with these changes. The present study compared indicators of maternal reproductive investment of three common echinoderms collected shallower than 20 m and deeper than 850 m: Cucumaria frondosa (Holothuroidea), Solaster endeca and Henricia sanguinolenta (Asteroidea). Depth-specific and species-specific differences were found in gonad indices (GI), potential fecundity, oocyte size frequency, as well as lipid classes and fatty acids measured in gonad tissue and oocytes. The asteroids, S. endeca and H. sanguinolenta, exemplified the interspecific trade-off between size and number of oocytes: the former had fewer larger oocytes than the latter, with higher total lipid proportions in them. However, intraspecifically, larger oocytes found in deep specimens of S. endeca did not translate into lower fecundity but rather into a seemingly higher GI, indicating greater investment per oocyte without reducing fecundity. Oocytes were absent in specimens of C. frondosa sampled in deep water, suggesting delayed or impaired maturation at the limit of their depth tolerance. Analysis of S. endeca sterol proportions in gonads and oocytes across depths showed higher sterol input into oocytes in females from the deep. Gonads of S. endeca and H. sanguinolenta contained similar essential fatty acids, but showed significant differences in major fatty acids and some of the less dominant ones, indicating diet specificities. Analyses within S. endeca showed evidence of similar feeding mode (carnivory) at both depths, but suggested shifts in the diet or synthesis of fatty acids, presumably reflecting differences in available food sources and/or adaptations to their respective environments.

  19. Localization of neuropeptide gene expression in larvae of an echinoderm, the starfish Asterias rubens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana D Mayorova

    2016-12-01

    distinctive patterns of expression suggesting potential roles for neuropeptides in the attachment process. Lastly, expression of several neuropeptide precursors is associated with ciliary bands, suggesting potential roles for the neuropeptides derived from these precursors in control of larval locomotion and/or feeding. In conclusion, our findings provide novel perspectives on the evolution and development of neuropeptide signaling systems and neuroanatomical insights into neuropeptide function in echinoderm larvae.

  20. Ocean acidification has little effect on developmental thermal windows of echinoderms from Antarctica to the tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karelitz, Sam E; Uthicke, Sven; Foo, Shawna A; Barker, Mike F; Byrne, Maria; Pecorino, Danilo; Lamare, Miles D

    2017-02-01

    As the ocean warms, thermal tolerance of developmental stages may be a key driver of changes in the geographical distributions and abundance of marine invertebrates. Additional stressors such as ocean acidification may influence developmental thermal windows and are therefore important considerations for predicting distributions of species under climate change scenarios. The effects of reduced seawater pH on the thermal windows of fertilization, embryology and larval morphology were examined using five echinoderm species: two polar (Sterechinus neumayeri and Odontaster validus), two temperate (Fellaster zelandiae and Patiriella regularis) and one tropical (Arachnoides placenta). Responses were examined across 12-13 temperatures ranging from -1.1 °C to 5.7 °C (S. neumayeri), -0.5 °C to 10.7 °C (O. validus), 5.8 °C to 27 °C (F. zelandiae), 6.0 °C to 27.1 °C (P. regularis) and 13.9 °C to 34.8 °C (A. placenta) under present-day and near-future (2100+) ocean acidification conditions (-0.3 pH units) and for three important early developmental stages 1) fertilization, 2) embryo (prehatching) and 3) larval development. Thermal windows for fertilization were broad and were not influenced by a pH decrease. Embryological development was less thermotolerant. For O. validus, P. regularis and A. placenta, low pH reduced normal development, albeit with no effect on thermal windows. Larval development in all five species was affected by both temperature and pH; however, thermal tolerance was not reduced by pH. Results of this study suggest that in terms of fertilization and development, temperature will remain as the most important factor influencing species' latitudinal distributions as the ocean continues to warm and decrease in pH, and that there is little evidence of a synergistic effect of temperature and ocean acidification on the thermal control of species ranges. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Low coverage sequencing of three echinoderm genomes: the brittle star Ophionereis fasciata, the sea star Patiriella regularis, and the sea cucumber Australostichopus mollis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Kyle A; Nossa, Carlos W; Sewell, Mary A; Putnam, Nicholas H; Ryan, Joseph F

    2016-01-01

    There are five major extant groups of Echinodermata: Crinoidea (feather stars and sea lillies), Ophiuroidea (brittle stars and basket stars), Asteroidea (sea stars), Echinoidea (sea urchins, sea biscuits, and sand dollars), and Holothuroidea (sea cucumbers). These animals are known for their pentaradial symmetry as adults, unique water vascular system, mutable collagenous tissues, and endoskeletons of high magnesium calcite. To our knowledge, the only echinoderm species with a genome sequence available to date is Strongylocentrotus pupuratus (Echinoidea). The availability of additional echinoderm genome sequences is crucial for understanding the biology of these animals. Here we present assembled draft genomes of the brittle star Ophionereis fasciata, the sea star Patiriella regularis, and the sea cucumber Australostichopus mollis from Illumina sequence data with coverages of 12.5x, 22.5x, and 21.4x, respectively. These data provide a resource for mining gene superfamilies, identifying non-coding RNAs, confirming gene losses, and designing experimental constructs. They will be important comparative resources for future genomic studies in echinoderms.

  2. Cytotoxic effects of the anthraquinone derivatives 1'-deoxyrhodoptilometrin and (S)-(-)-rhodoptilometrin isolated from the marine echinoderm Comanthus sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wätjen, Wim; Ebada, Sherif S; Bergermann, Anja; Chovolou, Yvonni; Totzke, Frank; Kubbutat, Michael H G; Lin, Wenhan; Proksch, Peter

    2017-03-01

    We investigated cytotoxic effects of the anthraquinone derivatives 1'-deoxyrhodoptilometrin (SE11) and (S)-(-)-rhodoptilometrin (SE16) isolated from the marine echinoderm Comanthus sp. in two tumor cell lines (C6 glioma, Hct116 colon carcinoma). Both compounds showed cytotoxic effects, with SE11 [IC 50 -value (MTT assay): 13.1 µM in Hct116 cells] showing a higher potency to induce apoptotic and necrotic cell death. No generation of oxidative stress was detectable (DCF assay), and also no modulation of Nrf2/ARE and NFκB signaling could be shown. Investigation of 23 protein kinases associated with cell proliferation, survival, metastasis, and angiogenesis showed that both compounds were potent inhibitors of distinct kinases, e.g., IGF1-receptor kinase, focal adhesion kinase, and EGF receptor kinase with SE11 being a more potent compound (IC 50 values: 5, 18.4 and 4 µM, respectively). SE11 caused a decrease in ERK phosphorylation which may be a consequence of the inhibition of EGF receptor kinase by this compound. Since an inhibition of the EGF receptor/MAPK pathway is an important target for diverse cytostatic drugs, we suggest that the anthraquinone derivative 1'-deoxyrhodoptilometrin (SE11) may be an interesting lead structure for the development of new anticancer drugs.

  3. Los equinodermos (Echinodermata de bahía Chamela, Jalisco, México The echinoderms (Echinodermata from bahía Chamela, Jalisco, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Ríos-Jara

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Cuarenta especies de equinodermos fueron recolectadas en las zonas intermareal y submareal somero de 14 sitios de bahía Chamela. Destacan 7 nuevos registros para la costa de Jalisco. Los análisis de escalonamiento multidimensional no métrico y el índice de similitud de Jaccard permitieron identificar grupos y entidades aisladas de acuerdo a la contribución y frecuencia de las especies de 4 clases de equinodermos en los sitios de la bahía y en otras localidades del Pacífico tropical mexicano (PTM. La mayor similitud se presentó con las localidades del golfo de California. Los índices de distinción taxonómica promedio (Δ+ y su variación (Λ+ fueron utilizados para analizar la diversidad de equinodermos en los niveles de especie, género, familia, orden y clase para cada sitio de la bahía y para distintas localidades del PTM de acuerdo al número de jerarquías taxonómicas de alto orden y la variabilidad en su diversidad taxonómica. La riqueza de especies de Chamela representa el 20% de la diversidad total de equinodermos de las zonas intermareal y submareal somero del PTM, lo que indica su importancia en la contribución a la diversidad taxonómica de la región.Forty species of echinoderms were collected in the intertidal and shallow subtidal zones of 14 sites of bahía Chamela. Of particular importance are 7 new records of species for the coast of Jalisco. A nonmetric multidimensional scaling analysis and the Jaccard's similarity index identified different groups and isolated entities according to the contribution and the frequency of species of 4 classes of echinoderms in the bay and in other localities of the Mexican Tropical Pacific (MTP. The highest similarity of species was with the localities of the Gulf of California. The indices of average taxonomic distinctness (Δ+ and the variation in the taxonomic distinctness (Λ+ were estimated to analyze the diversity of echinoderms at the taxonomic levels of species, genus, family

  4. Development of an embryonic skeletogenic mesenchyme lineage in a sea cucumber reveals the trajectory of change for the evolution of novel structures in echinoderms

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    McCauley Brenna S

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mechanisms by which the conserved genetic “toolkit” for development generates phenotypic disparity across metazoans is poorly understood. Echinoderm larvae provide a great resource for understanding how developmental novelty arises. The sea urchin pluteus larva is dramatically different from basal echinoderm larval types, which include the auricularia-type larva of its sister taxon, the sea cucumbers, and the sea star bipinnaria larva. In particular, the pluteus has a mesodermally-derived larval skeleton that is not present in sea star larvae or any outgroup taxa. To understand the evolutionary origin of this structure, we examined the molecular development of mesoderm in the sea cucumber, Parastichopus parvimensis. Results By comparing gene expression in sea urchins, sea cucumbers and sea stars, we partially reconstructed the mesodermal regulatory state of the echinoderm ancestor. Surprisingly, we also identified expression of the transcription factor alx1 in a cryptic skeletogenic mesenchyme lineage in P. parvimensis. Orthologs of alx1 are expressed exclusively within the sea urchin skeletogenic mesenchyme, but are not expressed in the mesenchyme of the sea star, which suggests that alx1+ mesenchyme is a synapomorphy of at least sea urchins and sea cucumbers. Perturbation of Alx1 demonstrates that this protein is necessary for the formation of the sea cucumber spicule. Overexpression of the sea star alx1 ortholog in sea urchins is sufficient to induce additional skeleton, indicating that the Alx1 protein has not evolved a new function during the evolution of the larval skeleton. Conclusions The proposed echinoderm ancestral mesoderm state is highly conserved between the morphologically similar, but evolutionarily distant, auricularia and bipinnaria larvae. However, the auricularia, but not bipinnaria, also develops a simple skelotogenic cell lineage. Our data indicate that the first step in acquiring these novel

  5. The protein precursors of peptides that affect the mechanics of connective tissue and/or muscle in the echinoderm Apostichopus japonicus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurice R Elphick

    Full Text Available Peptides that cause muscle relaxation or contraction or that modulate electrically-induced muscle contraction have been discovered in the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Phylum Echinodermata; Class Holothuroidea. By analysing transcriptome sequence data, here the protein precursors of six of these myoactive peptides (the SALMFamides Sticho-MFamide-1 and -2, NGIWYamide, stichopin, GN-19 and GLRFA have been identified, providing novel insights on neuropeptide and endocrine-type signalling systems in echinoderms. The A. japonicus SALMFamide precursor comprises eight putative neuropeptides including both L-type and F-type SALMFamides, which contrasts with previous findings from the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus where L-type and F-type SALMFamides are encoded by different genes. The NGIWYamide precursor contains five copies of NGIWYamide but, unlike other NG peptide-type neuropeptide precursors in deuterostomian invertebrates, the NGIWYamide precursor does not have a C-terminal neurophysin domain, indicating loss of this character in holothurians. NGIWYamide was originally discovered as a muscle contractant, but it also causes stiffening of mutable connective tissue in the body wall of A. japonicus, whilst holokinins (PLGYMFR and derivative peptides cause softening of the body wall. However, the mechanisms by which these peptides affect the stiffness of body wall connective tissue are unknown. Interestingly, analysis of the A. japonicus transcriptome reveals that the only protein containing the holokinin sequence PLGYMFR is an alpha-5 type collagen. This suggests that proteolysis of collagen may generate peptides (holokinins that affect body wall stiffness in sea cucumbers, providing a novel perspective on mechanisms of mutable connective tissue in echinoderms.

  6. Echinoderms as biological indicators of the quality of littoral waters in the Mar de Alboran (Western Mediterranean, Andalusia, Spain); Equinodermos como indicadores biologicos de la calidad de las aguas litorales en el Mar de Alboran (Mediterraneo Occidental, Andalucia, Espana)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conesa Garcia, M A; Lozano Duran, R; Pozo Camacho, E; Ruiz Arias, R [Colegio Maravillas, Benalmadena. Malaga (Spain)

    1999-07-01

    Since 1985, the European Foundation for Environmental Education (EFEE) has used the widely-known European Blue Flag and its logo as a distinction for beaches that comply with a series of environmental, aesthetic, microbiological and physico-chemical quality criteria. Although the Blue Flag has had a positive effect on the overall quality of bathing waters, its presence has not ensured that the flora and fauna of coastal waters were equally preserved. The results of this study indicate the many of the coastal areas studied, some of them holding the European Blue Flag, have a high level of bacterial pollution, with the associated negative impact on their biological diversity. Two scientific method used in sea ecology have been applied: the Jacard rate and the UPGMA algorithm (grouping according to the mean association). Samples of 20 echinoderms species (sea-urchins, starfish, and holothurian) were collected in 17 clearly defined beach strips along the coast of the Alboran Sea, in the Western Mediterranean Sea. The beach strips were evaluated according to their water pollution level. The results confirm the validity of some echinoderm species as good bio indicators of the quality of coastal fauna and flora. By simply evaluating the presence or absence of those easily identified species it is possible to assess the status of the coastal waters ecosystem. It is proposed to include a new logo that substitutes the laws European Blue Flags, with the shape of an echinoderm, using three different species to indicate the health status of the ecosystem. Seminars should be organized in Schools to present the usefulness of echinoderms as bio indicators in coastal areas, and to teach students the importance of preservation of the sea environment. (Author) 17 refs.

  7. Th, Pa and U isotopes in an echinoderm, Encope grandis. An application to dating of some fossil samples from Southern Baja California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omura, A [Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Science; Ku, T

    1979-03-01

    The application of /sup 230/Th and /sup 231/Pa growth methods to the hard tissues of living things, which are effective for the radiometric age measurement for latter Quaternary period, has been limited to certain corals, therefore it has been scarcely utilized in other areas than coral reefs. Reef coral fossils (Porites) were obtained from terrace deposits of Magdalena Island in Southern Baja California, and the methods were applied to them. At the time, the isotope compositions of Th, Pa and U in the shells of echinoderm Encope Grandis and of the living samples were examined. The estimated ages were in agreement with those of coral. It suggests that the reliable /sup 230/Th and /sup 231/Pa ages of sea-urchin fossils were presented for the first time and that the method is applicable to such fossils only if the conditions can be met. The results are highly significant, since the method may be used in other areas than coral reefs. (J.P.N.).

  8. Ancestral regulatory circuits governing ectoderm patterning downstream of Nodal and BMP2/4 revealed by gene regulatory network analysis in an echinoderm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Saudemont

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Echinoderms, which are phylogenetically related to vertebrates and produce large numbers of transparent embryos that can be experimentally manipulated, offer many advantages for the analysis of the gene regulatory networks (GRN regulating germ layer formation. During development of the sea urchin embryo, the ectoderm is the source of signals that pattern all three germ layers along the dorsal-ventral axis. How this signaling center controls patterning and morphogenesis of the embryo is not understood. Here, we report a large-scale analysis of the GRN deployed in response to the activity of this signaling center in the embryos of the Mediterranean sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus, in which studies with high spatial resolution are possible. By using a combination of in situ hybridization screening, overexpression of mRNA, recombinant ligand treatments, and morpholino-based loss-of-function studies, we identified a cohort of transcription factors and signaling molecules expressed in the ventral ectoderm, dorsal ectoderm, and interposed neurogenic ("ciliary band" region in response to the known key signaling molecules Nodal and BMP2/4 and defined the epistatic relationships between the most important genes. The resultant GRN showed a number of striking features. First, Nodal was found to be essential for the expression of all ventral and dorsal marker genes, and BMP2/4 for all dorsal genes. Second, goosecoid was identified as a central player in a regulatory sub-circuit controlling mouth formation, while tbx2/3 emerged as a critical factor for differentiation of the dorsal ectoderm. Finally, and unexpectedly, a neurogenic ectoderm regulatory circuit characterized by expression of "ciliary band" genes was triggered in the absence of TGF beta signaling. We propose a novel model for ectoderm regionalization, in which neural ectoderm is the default fate in the absence of TGF beta signaling, and suggest that the stomodeal and neural subcircuits that we

  9. Modalités particulières de croissance liées au milieu abyssal chez les Bathycrinidae (Echinodermes, Crinoïdes pédonculés)

    OpenAIRE

    Duco, A; Roux, M

    1981-01-01

    La croissance individuelle de l'espèce abyssale de Mer de Norvège Bathycrinus carpenteri (Echinodermes, Crinoïdes pédonculés) est analysée. Deux stades de développement apparaissent : le premier est dépourvu de stries de croissance, le second montre une succession de poussées de croissance entrecoupées de périodes de ralentissement ou d'arrêt de croissance soulignées par des stries observables en radiographie. L'apparition de stries de croissance indiquerait la maturité sexuelle, bien que l...

  10. First echinoderm trehalase from a tropical sea cucumber (Holothuria leucospilota): Molecular cloning and mRNA expression in different tissues, embryonic and larval stages, and under a starvation challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Da; Jiang, Xiao; Wu, Xiaofen; Ren, Chunhua; Yu, Zonghe; Liu, Jinshang; Li, Hongmei; Ruan, Yao; Wen, Jin; Chen, Ting; Hu, Chaoqun

    2018-04-29

    Trehalases are a group of enzymes that catalyse the conversion of trehalose to glucose, and they are observed in most organisms. In this study, the first echinoderm trehalase, designated Hl-Tre, was identified from a tropical sea cucumber, Holothuria leucospilota. The full-length cDNA of H. leucospilota trehalase (Hl-Tre) is 2461 bp in length with an open reading frame (ORF) of 1788 bp that encodes a 595-amino-acid protein with a deduced molecular weight of 67.95 KDa. The Hl-Tre protein contains a signal peptide at the N-terminal and a functional trehalase domain, which includes the signature motifs 1 and 2. The mRNA expression of Hl-Tre was ubiquitously detected in all selected tissues, with the highest level being detected in the intestine. By in situ hybridization (ISH), the positive Hl-Tre signals were observed in the brush borders of the intestinal mucosa. In embryonic and larval stages, the transcript levels of Hl-Tre decreased during embryonic development and increased after the pentactula stage. After a challenge of starvation, the intestinal Hl-Tre mRNA levels were observed to be first decreased and partially recovered thereafter. Overall, our study provided the first evidence for trehalase in echinoderms and showed that this enzyme was potentially linked to a trehalose metabolic pathway in sea cucumbers. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Variation in the composition of corals, fishes, sponges, echinoderms, ascidians, molluscs, foraminifera and macroalgae across a pronounced in-to-offshore environmental gradient in the Jakarta Bay-Thousand Islands coral reef complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, D F R; Polónia, A R M; Renema, W; Hoeksema, B W; Rachello-Dolmen, P G; Moolenbeek, R G; Budiyanto, A; Yahmantoro; Tuti, Y; Giyanto; Draisma, S G A; Prud'homme van Reine, W F; Hariyanto, R; Gittenberger, A; Rikoh, M S; de Voogd, N J

    2016-09-30

    Substrate cover, water quality parameters and assemblages of corals, fishes, sponges, echinoderms, ascidians, molluscs, benthic foraminifera and macroalgae were sampled across a pronounced environmental gradient in the Jakarta Bay-Thousand Islands reef complex. Inshore sites mainly consisted of sand, rubble and turf algae with elevated temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH and chlorophyll concentrations and depauperate assemblages of all taxa. Live coral cover was very low inshore and mainly consisted of sparse massive coral heads and a few encrusting species. Faunal assemblages were more speciose and compositionally distinct mid- and offshore compared to inshore. There were, however, small-scale differences among taxa. Certain midshore sites, for example, housed assemblages resembling those typical of the inshore environment but this differed depending on the taxon. Substrate, water quality and spatial variables together explained from 31% (molluscs) to 72% (foraminifera) of the variation in composition. In general, satellite-derived parameters outperformed locally measured parameters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. U.V. irradiation inhibits the electrical block to polyspermy in echinoderms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, C.; Moreau, M.; Vilain, J.P.; Guerrier, P.

    1985-01-01

    Oocytes of the sea urchin Sphaerechinus granularis and the starfish Marthasterias glacialis have been submitted to U.V. irradiation before fertilization. This treatment significantly increased the incidence and severity of polyspermy in the sea urchin and was also found effective on starfish oocytes. These were found more resistant to damage than sea urchin eggs and U.V. irradiation did not affect either their response to the hormone l-methyladenine or the rate of elevation of the fertilization envelope, which assures the late and definitive block to polyspermy. Electrophysiological measurements performed on M. glacialis oocytes definitively demonstrate that U.V. irradiation completely inactivates voltage-dependent sodium channels, without altering the other main conductances, Cl - , K + or Ca 2+ . After such a treatment, the relative permeability of the membrane to Na + as compared to K + shifted from 0.019+-0.003 to 0.003+-0.002 and only the calcium component of the action potentials could be observed. However, a fertilization potential, preceded by small sperm induced steps, is still present in these conditions, although its peak and plateau level are greatly reduced. These new findings are discussed, which confirm the electrical nature of the fast block to polyspermy but question about the specificity of those sperm-gated channels which are supposed to trigger the fertilization potential. (author)

  13. First inventory of the echinoderms from Juan de Nova (Iles Eparses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Juan de Nova is one of the Iles Eparses, French islands scattered in the Mozambique Channel (Western India Ocean). They have been kept isolated of the anthropogenic influences which makes them rare areas to study biodiversity and provides elements of comparison with areas that are strongly impacted by urbanization ...

  14. Echinoderms display morphological and behavioural phenotypic plasticity in response to their trophic environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam D Hughes

    Full Text Available The trophic interactions of sea urchins are known to be the agents of phase shifts in benthic marine habitats such as tropical and temperate reefs. In temperate reefs, the grazing activity of sea urchins has been responsible for the destruction of kelp forests and the formation of 'urchin barrens', a rocky habitat dominated by crustose algae and encrusting invertebrates. Once formed, these urchin barrens can persist for decades. Trophic plasticity in the sea urchin may contribute to the stability and resilience of this alternate stable state by increasing diet breadth in sea urchins. This plasticity promotes ecological connectivity and weakens species interactions and so increases ecosystem stability. We test the hypothesis that sea urchins exhibit trophic plasticity using an approach that controls for other typically confounding environmental and genetic factors. To do this, we exposed a genetically homogenous population of sea urchins to two very different trophic environments over a period of two years. The sea urchins exhibited a wide degree of phenotypic trophic plasticity when exposed to contrasting trophic environments. The two populations developed differences in their gross morphology and the test microstructure. In addition, when challenged with unfamiliar prey, the response of each group was different. We show that sea urchins exhibit significant morphological and behavioural phenotypic plasticity independent of their environment or their nutritional status.

  15. Population studies of echinoderms and growth and mortality of sea cucumbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebert, T.A.

    1979-01-01

    Progress is reported on the following studies: methods of collecting sea cucumbers; determination of growth rates of plates of the calcareous ring; use of growth parameters and a length-frequency distribution to estimate mortality and population turnover; movement of materials through the atoll ecosystem; and autoradiographic studies on spines of sea urchins

  16. Patterning of the dorsal-ventral axis in echinoderms: insights into the evolution of the BMP-chordin signaling network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Lapraz

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Formation of the dorsal-ventral axis of the sea urchin embryo relies on cell interactions initiated by the TGFbeta Nodal. Intriguingly, although nodal expression is restricted to the ventral side of the embryo, Nodal function is required for specification of both the ventral and the dorsal territories and is able to restore both ventral and dorsal regions in nodal morpholino injected embryos. The molecular basis for the long-range organizing activity of Nodal is not understood. In this paper, we provide evidence that the long-range organizing activity of Nodal is assured by a relay molecule synthesized in the ventral ectoderm, then translocated to the opposite side of the embryo. We identified this relay molecule as BMP2/4 based on the following arguments. First, blocking BMP2/4 function eliminated the long-range organizing activity of an activated Nodal receptor in an axis rescue assay. Second, we demonstrate that BMP2/4 and the corresponding type I receptor Alk3/6 functions are both essential for specification of the dorsal region of the embryo. Third, using anti-phospho-Smad1/5/8 immunostaining, we show that, despite its ventral transcription, the BMP2/4 ligand triggers receptor mediated signaling exclusively on the dorsal side of the embryo, one of the most extreme cases of BMP translocation described so far. We further report that the pattern of pSmad1/5/8 is graded along the dorsal-ventral axis and that two BMP2/4 target genes are expressed in nested patterns centered on the region with highest levels of pSmad1/5/8, strongly suggesting that BMP2/4 is acting as a morphogen. We also describe the very unusual ventral co-expression of chordin and bmp2/4 downstream of Nodal and demonstrate that Chordin is largely responsible for the spatial restriction of BMP2/4 signaling to the dorsal side. Thus, unlike in most organisms, in the sea urchin, a single ventral signaling centre is responsible for induction of ventral and dorsal cell fates. Finally, we show that Chordin may not be required for long-range diffusion of BMP2/4, describe a striking dorsal-ventral asymmetry in the expression of Glypican 5, a heparin sulphated proteoglycan that regulates BMP mobility, and show that this asymmetry depends on BMP2/4 signaling. Our study provides new insights into the mechanisms by which positional information is established along the dorsal-ventral axis of the sea urchin embryo, and more generally on how a BMP morphogen gradient is established in a multicellular embryo. From an evolutionary point of view, it highlights that although the genes used for dorsal-ventral patterning are highly conserved in bilateria, there are considerable variations, even among deuterostomes, in the manner these genes are used to shape a BMP morphogen gradient.

  17. Molluscs and Echinoderms from Palaeolithic deposits in the Rock Shelter of Ksâr'akil, Lebanon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regteren, van C.O.

    1962-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The palaeolithic deposits of the rock shelter of Ksâr'Akil in the Antelias valley have been excavated by a group of American Jesuits in the years 1937-1938 and 1947-1948. Recently the fossil bones from these deposits were reported upon by my colleague Hooijer (1961). When he received

  18. Molluscs and echinoderms aquaculture: biological aspects, current status, technical progress and future perspectives for the most promising species in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Pais

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Shellfish aquaculture is a widespread activity in the Italian peninsula. However, only two bivalve species are mainly cultured along the coastline of that country: the Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis and the Manila clam Venerupis philippinarum (Ruditapes philippinarum. By contrast, just a few other mollusc species of commercial interest are scarcely reared at a small-scale level. After analysing the current status of Italian shellfish production, this paper reports and discusses the potential for culturing several different invertebrate species [i.e., the European flat oyster Ostrea edulis, the grooved carpet shell Venerupis decussata (Ruditapes decussatus, the razor clams Ensis minor and Solen marginatus, the cephalopod Octopus vulgaris, and the purple sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus] in this country. In addition, a detailed overview of the progress made in aquacultural techniques for these species in the Mediterranean basin is presented, highlighting the most relevant bottlenecks and the way forward to shift from the experimental to the aquaculture phase. Finally, an outlook of the main economic and environmental benefits arising from these shellfish culture practices is also given.

  19. Detailed NMR, Including 1,1-ADEQUATE, and Anticancer Studies of Compounds from the Echinoderm Colobometra perspinosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine H. Liptrot

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available From the dichloromethane/methanol extract of the crinoid Colobometra perspinosa, collected south east of Richards Island (Bedara, Family Islands, Central Great Barrier Reef, Australia, 3-(1'-hydroxypropyl-1,6,8-trihydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone [one of the two stereoisomers of rhodoptilometrin, (1], 3-propyl-1,6,8-trihydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone (3, 2-[(phenylacetylamino]ethanesulfonic acid (4, and 4-hydroxybutanoic acid (5 were isolated. Comparison of 1H- and 13C-NMR data for rhodoptilometrin (1 with those reported in the literature showed significant differences for some resonances associated with rings A and C. In an attempt to provide accurately assigned 1H- and 13C-NMR data, as well as to confirm the structure of 1, a thorough NMR investigation of this compound was undertaken. Measurements included: concentration dependent 13C, 1D selective NOE, HSQC, HMBC and 1,1-ADEQUATE. The NMR data for 4 and 5 are reported here for the first time, as is their occurrence from the marine environment. The in vitro anticancer activity of the original extract was found to be associated with 1, 3 and 5.

  20. CA2+ AND ZN2+ ARE TRANSPORTED BY THE ELECTROGENIC 2NA+/1H+ ANTIPORTER IN ECHINODERM GASTROINTESTINAL EPITHELIUM. (R823068)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  1. Studies of the reproductive biology of deep-sea megabenthos IV. The echinoderm species Peniagone azorica and P. diaphana (elasipodida: holothuroidea)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyler, P.A.; Muirhead, A.

    1984-01-01

    This report is the fourth in a series from a study of the reproductive processes in deep-sea benthic megainvertebrates. The concept of this study is based on the premise that reproduction is the most sensitive physiological process of marine invertebrates and will therefore be the first to be affected by any undue stress. Benthic megainvertebrates were selected as these are readily visible in both deep-sea photographs and television. However studies of sublethal levels of contaminants in shallow water marine invertebrates have shown that when these organisms are exposed to stress, their general biology, e.g., respiration, growth, etc. may not be affected, whilst the gametogenic biology may be totally disrupted. Thus the present study of the gametogenic biology of deep-sea megainvertebrates provides a benchmark study against which 'post-disposal' specimens could be compared. This would provide a sensitive indicator of radioactive release that may not be determined from other studies of adult ecology. If the gametogenic process is not affected by the uptake of radionuclides it is possible that any dispersal of spawned eggs or larvae may transfer these radionuclides into another part of the deep-sea food chain or deep-sea environment. (author)

  2. Studies of the reproductive biology of deep-sea megabenthos. II. The echinoderm species Deima validum and Oneirophanta mutabilis (Elasipoda: Holothuroidea)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyler, P.A.; Muirhead, A.

    1984-03-01

    Specimens of the holothurians Deima validum and Oneirophanta mutabilis were examined from a number of stations between 2900 and 4785 m in the N.E. Atlantic. Details of the gametogenic biology suggest that both species produce large eggs, the maximum sizes being 700 and 950 μm for Deima and Oneirophanta, respectively. This would suggest direct development in both species, without a planktonic larval stage. No reproductive seasonality was observed. In the males examined, we found no evidence of sperm production, suggesting the males spawn on capture, have rapid, short-term spermatogenesis or have a long spawning periodicity. (author)

  3. Studies of the reproductive biology of deep-sea megabenthos. V. The Echinoderm species Benthodytes sordida, Psychropotes longicauda and Psychropotes depressa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyler, P.A.; Muirhead, A.

    1985-09-01

    Specimens of the holothurians Benthodytes sordida, Psychropotes longicauda and P. depressa were examined from a number of stations (2300m-4780m) in the Porcupine Seabight and Abyssal Plain. All three species are gonochoric and show marked interspecific differences in gonad morphology. In the females of each species fecundity was low. Maximum oocyte size was 500 μm for Benthodytes sordida, 1.8mm for Psychropotes depressa and a massive 3mm for P. longicauda. In the males of each species spermatogenesis appeared typical of holothurians except where there was evidence of heavy parasitic infestation. There is no evidence of reproductive seasonality. (author)

  4. On the formation and functions of high and very high magnesium calcites in the continuously growing teeth of the echinoderm Lytechinus variegatus: development of crystallinity and protein involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veis, Arthur; Stock, Stuart R; Alvares, Keith; Lux, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Sea urchin teeth grow continuously and develop a complex mineralized structure consisting of spatially separate but crystallographically aligned first stage calcitic elements of high Mg content (5-15 mol% mineral). These become cemented together by epitaxially oriented second stage very high Mg calcite (30-40 mol% mineral). In the tooth plumula, ingressing preodontoblasts create layered cellular syncytia. Mineral deposits develop within membrane-bound compartments between cellular syncytial layers. We seek to understand how this complex tooth architecture is developed, how individual crystalline calcitic elements become crystallographically aligned, and how their Mg composition is regulated. Synchrotron microbeam X-ray scattering was performed on live, freshly dissected teeth. We observed that the initial diffracting crystals lie within independent syncytial spaces in the plumula. These diffraction patterns match those of mature tooth calcite. Thus, the spatially separate crystallites grow with the same crystallographic orientation seen in the mature tooth. Mineral-related proteins from regions with differing Mg contents were isolated, sequenced, and characterized. A tooth cDNA library was constructed, and selected matrix-related proteins were cloned. Antibodies were prepared and used for immunolocaliztion. Matrix-related proteins are acidic, phosphorylated, and associated with the syncytial membranes. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy of various crystal elements shows unique amino acid, Mg, and Ca ion distributions. High and very high Mg calcites differ in Asp content. Matrix-related proteins are phosphorylated. Very high Mg calcite is associated with Asp-rich protein, and it is restricted to the second stage mineral. Thus, the composition at each part of the tooth is related to architecture and function. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Studies of the reproductive biology of deep-sea megabenthos. I. The echinoderm species Laetmogone violacea and Benthogone rosea (Elasipoda: holothuroidea)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyler, P.A.; Muirhead, A.

    1984-01-01

    Specimens of the holothurians Laetmogone violacea and Benthogone rosea were examined from a number of stations (972 to 2120 m depth) in the Porcupine Seabight and Rockall Trough, N.E. Atlantic. Both species are gonochoric and show an equal division of the sexes. The ovary of Laetmogone violacea is a compact nodose structure containing eggs up to 400 μm diameter. The testis is highly digitate, with the wall of each tubule containing numerous infoldings lined with spermatogonia and spermatocytes; spermatozoa reach a maximum size of 2 μm (head diameter). The ovary of Benthogone rosea consists of thin-walled nodose tubules through which the large egg of 750 μm diameter can be clearly seen. The testis of B.rosea is a small digitate structure, the walls of which lack the infoldings found in L. violacea; spermatozoa have a head diameter of 5 to 7 μm. In neither species is there any evidence for reproductive seasonality. (author)

  6. Molecular Phylogeny of the Animal Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Katharine G.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    A rapid sequencing method for ribosomal RNA was applied to the resolution of evolutionary relationships among Metazoa. Describes the four groups (chordates, echinoderms, arthropods, and eucoelomate protostomes) that radiated from the coelomates. (TW)

  7. Biscayne Bay Alongshore Epifauna

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Field studies to characterize the alongshore epifauna (shrimp, crabs, echinoderms, and small fishes) along the western shore of southern Biscayne Bay were started in...

  8. Echinodermata

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TOSHIBA

    2015-06-23

    Jun 23, 2015 ... the FMRFamide-related peptides family, in echinoderm species ... water balance, neuroendocrine and neuromodulatory activities ..... London) for his contributions to this work and help with antibody ... Kwalalumpur, Malaysia.

  9. T-antigen binding lectin with antibacterial activity from marine invertebrate, sea cucumber (Holothuria scabra): Possible involvement in differential recognition of bacteria

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gowda, N.M.; Goswami, U.; Khan, M.I.

    report a study of a lectin (HSL) involved in immune response in the echinoderm, sea cucumber (Holothuria scabra). Correlative studies indicate that the expression of this defensive lectin is induced by bacterial challenge, wherein cell wall...

  10. A documentation on burrows in hard substrates of ferromanganese crusts and associated soft sediments from the Central Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Banerjee, R

    , which are extensively bioturbated. Both the ferromanganese-coated and uncoated relict burrows have been collected from the same locality. Mobile epibenthic megafauna, e.g. molluscs, echinoderms, etc. seem to be main bioturbating organisms. The adjacent...

  11. A toxin from Holothuria leucospilota (Brandt)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jayasree, V.; SenGupta, R.; Bhavanarayana, P.V.

    Holothurians are marine echinoderms. Despite their limited mobility and absence of a protective hard shell, they are seldom preyed upon. Thus, one would expect them to have some type of chemical defence mechanism in the form of toxic compounds...

  12. Mid-Pacific Marine Laboratory. Annual report for the period, 1 October 1977--30 September 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reese, E.S.; Johnson, V.R. Jr.

    1979-03-01

    Studies on behavior included reproduction and sociobiology of reef fishes and aggression, hearing, and ultrasonic telemetry in sharks. Ecological studies included population, growth, and mortality studies on birds, corals, crustacea, echinoderms, fishes, molluscs, and rats. Geochemistry studies included biogeochemistry of reef organisms and hydrogeochemistry of groundwater. Geology studies included bioerosion of sea urchins, biology of endolithic processes, and survey of soils. Oceanography studies were conducted on lagoon circulation. Physiological studies were conducted on symbiosis in corals and utilization of organic material by Foraminifera. Studies on systematics of algae, echinoderms, and fishes were conducted. (HLW)

  13. Biological geography of the European seas: results from the MacroBen database

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arvanitidis, C.; Somerfield, P.J.; Rumohr, H.; Faulwetter, S.; Valavanis, V.; Vasileiadou, A.; Chatzigeorgiou, G.; Vanden Berghe, E.; Vanaverbeke, J.; Labrune, C.; Grémare, A.; Zettler, M.L.; Kedra, M.; Wlodarska-Kowalczuk, M.; Aleffi, I.F.; Amouroux, J.M.; Anisimova, N.; Bachelet, G.; Büntzow, M.; Cochrane, S.J.; Costello, M.J.; Craeymeersch, J.A.; Dahle, S.; Degraer, S.; Denisenko, S.; Dounas, C.; Duineveld, G.; Emblow, C.; Escavarage, V.; Fabri, M.C.; Fleischer, D.; Gray, J.S.; Heip, C.H.R.; Herrmann, M.; Hummel, H.; Janas, U.; Karakassis, I.; Kendall, M.A.; Kingston, P.; Kotwicki, L.; Laudien, J.; Mackie, A.S.Y.; Nevrova, E.L.; Occhipinti-Ambrogi, A.; Oliver, P.G.; Olsgard, F.; Palerud, R.; Petrov, A.; Rachor, E.; Revkov, N.K.; Rose, A.; Sardá, R.; Sistermans, W.C.H.; Speybroeck, J.; Van Hoey, G.; Vincx, M.; Whomersley, P.; Willems, W.; Zenetos, A.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines whether or not biogeographical and/or managerial divisions across the European seas can be validated using soft-bottom macrobenthic community data. The faunal groups used were: all macrobenthos groups, polychaetes, molluscs, crustaceans, echinoderms, sipunculans and the last 5

  14. The Calvocheridae, a family of copepods inducing galls in sea-urchin spines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stock, Jan H.

    1968-01-01

    Misshapen spines in sea-urchins of the family Echinothuridae were observed several times by the famous Danish echinoderm specialist, the late Dr. Th. Mortensen. The swellings were caused, he discovered, by a small crustacean inhabiting a cavity in the swelling. He entrusted his material to H. J.

  15. The effect of the Banton 300 oil-spill accident on marine life in Umm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... sponges, acorn barnacles, copepods, echinoderms and fish); sub-lethal disruption of physiological and/or behavioural activities (bacterioplankton, heterotrophic flagellates, and tintinnid ciliates); effects of direct coating (birds and mangroves); incorporation of hydrocarbons in organisms (crabs, scallops, edible mussels, ...

  16. Expression of GFSKLYFamide-like neuropeptide in the digestive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Neuropeptides are key mediators of physiological processes in animals and a considerable amount of information has been accumulated on their diversity and functions across phyla. However, progress in echinoderm neurobiology has been much slower than others. The sea cucumber Holothuria scabra is an ...

  17. Spawning of coral reef invertebrates and a second spawning season for scleractinian corals in the central Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Bouwmeester, Jessica; Gatins, Remy; Giles, Emily; Sinclair-Taylor, Tane; Berumen, Michael L.

    2016-01-01

    species, as well as a general lack of data for other invertebrates. Here, we document the detailed timing of spawning for 13 scleractinian coral species, one sea anemone, and six echinoderms from an inshore reef off the coast of Thuwal, Saudi Arabia

  18. Particle-capture mechanisms in suspension-feeding invertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgård, Hans Ulrik; Larsen, Poul Scheel

    2010-01-01

    A large number of suspension-feeding animals (e.g. bivalves, polychaetes, ascidians, bryozoans, crustaceans, sponges, echinoderms, cnidarians) have specialized in grazing on not only the 2 to 200 µm phytoplankton but frequently also the 0.5 to 2 µm free-living bacteria in the aquatic environment,...

  19. Treasures in Archived Histopathology Collections: Preserving the Past for Future Understanding.(SETAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extensive collections of histopathology materials from studies of marine and freshwater mollusks, crustaceans, echinoderms, and other organisms are archived in the Registry of Tumors in Lower Animals (RTLA), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, NOAA’s National Marine Fisheri...

  20. Treasures in Archived Histopathology Collections: Preserving the Past for Future Understanding (Histologic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extensive collections of histopathology materials from studies of marine and freshwater fish, mollusks, crustaceans, echinoderms, and other organisms are archived at the Registry of Tumors in Lower Animals (RTLA), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), NOAA’s National Ma...

  1. Treasures in Archived Histopathology Collections: Preserving the Past for Future Understanding (IMCC09)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extensive collections of histopathology materials from studies of marine and freshwater fish, mollusks, crustaceans, echinoderms, and other organisms are archived in the Registry of Tumors in Lower Animals (RTLA), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, NOAA’s National Marine...

  2. Treasures in Archived Histopathology Collections: Preserving the Past for Future Understanding (ISAAH-6)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extensive collections of histopathology materials from studies of marine and freshwater fish, mollusks, crustaceans, echinoderms, and other organisms are archived in the Registry of Tumors in Lower Animals (RTLA), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, NOAA’s National Marine F...

  3. Treasures in Archived Histopathology Collections: Preserving the Past for Future Understanding (NACSETAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extensive collections of histopathology materials from studies of marine and freshwater mollusks, crustaceans, echinoderms, and other organisms are archived in the Registry of Tumors in Lower Animals (RTLA), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, NOAA’s National Marine Fishe...

  4. Treasures in Archived Histolopathology Collections: Preserving the Past for Future Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extensive collections of histopathology materials from studies of marine and freshwater mollusks, crustaceans, echinoderms, and other organisms are archived in the Registry of Tumors in Lower Animals (RTLA), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, NOAA’s National Marine Fishe...

  5. Cultivation of the heart urchin Echinocardium cordatum and validation of its use in marine toxicity testing for environmental risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schipper, C.A.; Dubbeldam, M.; Feist, S.W.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Murk, A.J.

    2008-01-01

    To study environmental risk assessment, echinoderms provide a useful model for ecotoxicological testing. However, limited knowledge of the life history of field collected heart urchins is a problem and the use of cultured urchins has been investigated here. The present study describes a culture

  6. European Scientific Notes. Volume 34, Number 6,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-30

    During the past year the Depart- molluscs, echinoderms, salps , and doli- ment of Documentation and Publications olids. produced three issues of...of keeping the weary travelers awake. the food of these fish was completed It was reminiscent of the record storm as well. that passed over the same

  7. An Integrated Approach to Understand Relationships Between Shallow Water Benthic Community Structure and Ecosystem Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-01

    REFERENCES Aarnio, K., E. Bonsdorff, and N. Rosenback. 1996. Food and feeding habits of juvenile flounder Platichthys flesus (L.), and turbot...physiological and ecological characteristics of higher taxa, such that crustaceans (especially amphipods and harpacticoid copepods) and echinoderms are...control on benthic processes by feeding on primary producers, bacteria, and detritus. They also serve as major sources of food for higher trophic

  8. Analysis of coelom development in the sea urchin Holopneustes purpurescens yielding a deuterostome body plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie B. Morris

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of early coelom development in the echinoid Holopneustes purpurescens yields a deuterostome body plan that explains the disparity between the pentameral plan of echinoderms and the bilateral plans of chordates and hemichordates, the three major phyla of the monophyletic deuterostomes. The analysis shows an early separation into a medial hydrocoele and lateral coelomic mesoderm with an enteric channel between them before the hydrocoele forms the pentameral plan of five primary podia. The deuterostome body plan thus has a single axial or medial coelom and a pair of lateral coeloms, all surrounding an enteric channel, the gut channel. Applied to the phyla, the medial coelom is the hydrocoele in echinoderms, the notochord in chordates and the proboscis coelom in hemichordates: the lateral coeloms are the coelomic mesoderm in echinoderms, the paraxial mesoderm in chordates and the lateral coeloms in hemichordates. The plan fits frog and chick development and the echinoderm fossil record, and predicts genes involved in coelomogenesis as the source of deuterostome macroevolution.

  9. A trans-Atlantic examination of haddock Melanogrammus aeglefinus food habits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tam, J.C.; Link, J.S.; Large, S.I.

    2016-01-01

    inverse relationship between the consumption of fishes and echinoderms in M. aeglefinus over time, where certain years show high levels of one prey item and low levels of the other. This apparent binary choice can be viewed as part of a gradient of prey options, contingent upon a suite of factors external...

  10. Effect factors for marine eutrophication in LCIA based on species sensitivity to hypoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cosme, Nuno Miguel Dias; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2016-01-01

    -observed-effect-concentrations (LOEC), were compiled from literature for 91 demersal species of fish, crustaceans, molluscs, echinoderms, annelids, and cnidarians, and converted to temperature-specific benthic (100 m depth) LOEC values. Species distribution and LOEC values were combined using a species sensitivity distribution (SSD...

  11. Patterning of anteroposterior body axis displayed in the expression of Hox genes in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Mani; Omori, Akihito; Kurokawa, Daisuke; Akasaka, Koji

    2015-09-01

    The presence of an anteroposterior body axis is a fundamental feature of bilateria. Within this group, echinoderms have secondarily evolved pentameral symmetric body plans. Although all echinoderms present bilaterally symmetric larval stages, they dramatically rearrange their body axis and develop a pentaradial body plan during metamorphosis. Therefore, the location of their anteroposterior body axis in adult forms remains a contentious issue. Unlike other echinoderms, sea cucumbers present an obvious anteroposterior axis not rearranged during metamorphosis, thus representing an interesting group to study their anteroposterior axis patterning. Hox genes are known to play a broadly conserved role in anteroposterior axis patterning in deuterostomes. Here, we report the expression patterns of Hox genes from early development to pentactula stage in sea cucumber. In early larval stages, five Hox genes (AjHox1, AjHox7, AjHox8, AjHox11/13a, and AjHox11/13b) were expressed sequentially along the archenteron, suggesting that the role of anteroposterior patterning of the Hox genes is conserved in bilateral larvae of echinoderms. In doliolaria and pentactula stages, eight Hox genes (AjHox1, AjHox5, AjHox7, AjHox8, AjHox9/10, AjHox11/13a, AjHox11/13b, and AjHox11/13c) were expressed sequentially along the digestive tract, following a similar expression pattern to that found in the visceral mesoderm of other bilateria. Unlike other echinoderms, pentameral expression patterns of AjHox genes were not observed in sea cucumber. Altogether, we concluded that AjHox genes are involved in the patterning of the digestive tract in both larvae and metamorphosis of sea cucumbers. In addition, the anteroposterior axis in sea cucumbers might be patterned like that of other bilateria.

  12. Crinoid ancestry without blastozoans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E. Guensburg

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available At present, a debate in the paleontologic literature focuses on whether or not the immediate ancestry of the Crinoidea lies in an unidentified member of the Blastozoa, which includes eocrinoids and an assemblage known variously as the “cystoids”. Those proposing to derive crinoids from within the blastozoans have recently argued for homologies in the construction of the oral region of certain derived taxa from both groups. An opposing viewpoint, outlined here, finds evidence that aside from plesiomorphies, proposed similarities are superficial and homoplastic. We suggest these superficialities represent convergent adaptive strategies. Earliest crinoids express ambulacral traits unlike any blastozoan but that are expressed in the only other pentaradial echinoderms with a known record early enough to be considered in the context of crinoid origins, edrioasteroids and edrioasteroid-like stem echinoderms.

  13. Assessment and rehabilitation of wildlife affected by an oil spill in Puerto Rico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mignucci-Giannoni, A.A.

    1999-01-01

    On 7 January 1994, the barge Morris J. Berman spilled approximately 3.6 million liters of oil off Punta Escambron in San Juan, Puerto Rico. This resulted in the contamination of extensive areas, impacting on natural resources along more than 48 km of Puerto Rico's north shore. Thousands of dead and alive oiled organisms washed ashore. Dead wildlife were collected opportunistically, and examined for the presence of oil and identified. Live wildlife was cleaned and treated at a temporary triage facility. A total of 5687 organisms of over 152 species were collected, including cnidarians, annelids, crustaceans, molluscs, echinoderms, fishes, birds and sea turtles. Molluscs and echinoderms were noticeably more affected than other species. Four species classified as endangered or threatened were also affected. A significant impact was observed on the live specimens presented for medical treatment, including shore crabs, birds and sea turtles. Only 63% of these were successfully rehabilitated. (author)

  14. Assessment and rehabilitation of wildlife affected by an oil spill in Puerto Rico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mignucci-Giannoni, A.A. [University of Puerto Rico, San Juan (Puerto Rico). Caribbean Stranding Network

    1999-10-01

    On 7 January 1994, the barge Morris J. Berman spilled approximately 3.6 million liters of oil off Punta Escambron in San Juan, Puerto Rico. This resulted in the contamination of extensive areas, impacting on natural resources along more than 48 km of Puerto Rico`s north shore. Thousands of dead and alive oiled organisms washed ashore. Dead wildlife were collected opportunistically, and examined for the presence of oil and identified. Live wildlife was cleaned and treated at a temporary triage facility. A total of 5687 organisms of over 152 species were collected, including cnidarians, annelids, crustaceans, molluscs, echinoderms, fishes, birds and sea turtles. Molluscs and echinoderms were noticeably more affected than other species. Four species classified as endangered or threatened were also affected. A significant impact was observed on the live specimens presented for medical treatment, including shore crabs, birds and sea turtles. Only 63% of these were successfully rehabilitated. (author)

  15. Assessment and rehabilitation of wildlife affected by an oil spill in Puerto Rico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mignucci-Giannoni, A.A. [University of Puerto Rico, San Juan (Puerto Rico). Caribbean Stranding Network

    1999-07-01

    On 7 January 1994, the barge Morris J. Berman spilled approximately 3.6 million liters of oil off Punta Escambron in San Juan, Puerto Rico. This resulted in the contamination of extensive areas, impacting on natural resources along more than 48 km of Puerto Rico's north shore. Thousands of dead and alive oiled organisms washed ashore. Dead wildlife were collected opportunistically, and examined for the presence of oil and identified. Live wildlife was cleaned and treated at a temporary triage facility. A total of 5687 organisms of over 152 species were collected, including cnidarians, annelids, crustaceans, molluscs, echinoderms, fishes, birds and sea turtles. Molluscs and echinoderms were noticeably more affected than other species. Four species classified as endangered or threatened were also affected. A significant impact was observed on the live specimens presented for medical treatment, including shore crabs, birds and sea turtles. Only 63% of these were successfully rehabilitated. (author)

  16. Benthic megafauna at deep-sea study areas W-N and E-N

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, C.H.

    1985-01-01

    Photographs were utilized determine what megafaunal organisms live at areas E-N and W-N and in what densities. Life history characteristics gleaned from the literature as well as from the photographs are presented to establish these organisms' roles in oceanic food chains. In area W-N, the most abundant megafaunal group is the echinoderms. These are the asteroids, crinoids, echinoids, holothuroids, and ophiuroids. Dominant amongst the echinoderms are the ophiuroids, which account for about 46% of the total density. Taxonomic and photographic resolution at area E-N are both poor. Numbers of megafaunal organisms cannot be directly compared between areas E-N and W-N. Differing photographic techniques severely limit comparisons between the two areas. Nevertheless, megafauna seen at area E-N is apparently less dense and probably less diverse than at area W-N. 30 references, 8 figures, 8 tables

  17. Production of quinones by in vitro cultures of Dionaea and Streptocarpus species

    OpenAIRE

    Nestor, Cora

    2006-01-01

    Quinones are a class of oxygen-containing secondary metabolites found chiefly in higher plants, fungi, bacteria and restricted in the animal kingdom to arthropods and echinoderms (Thompson 1971). In the plant, quinones, especially naphthoquinones, have been shown to function in allelopathy (juglone; Binder et al 1989), plant-insect interactions and plant-plant interactions (plumbagin; Kubo et al 1986, 1998, Spencer et al 1986, Ganapaty et al 2004). These quinones also have significant in vitr...

  18. A comparative study of the contamination of some marine burrower invertebrates by cobalt 60 and cesium 137

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amiard-Triquet, C.

    1975-01-01

    Experments were carried out with species whose mode of life is characterized by close contact with the sediments; they represent different zoological groups: an Annelid (Arenicola marina L.), an Echinoderm (Echinocardium cordatum Pennant) and two Lamellibranchs (Scrobicularia plana da Costa, Macoma balthica L.). The data obtained indicate that main vector of contamination of benthic marine invertebrates is water. The main part of these organisms in the sedimentary zone would be the redistribution, within the sediment, of radioelements adsorbed on the surface [fr

  19. The mobile macro-invertebrate fauna of the Oosterschelde and the Westerschelde (SW Netherlands)

    OpenAIRE

    Hostens, K.; Mees, J.; Hummel, H.

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Both in the marine bay the Oosterschelde and in the Westerschelde estuary, the mobile macro- invertebrate fauna from sub tidal soft substrates was sampled with a three-metre beam trawl during 10 quarterly surveys between August 1999 and November 2001. A total of 35 species was recorded. In the Oosterschelde 33 species were found: 9 caridean prawns, 9 brachyuran crabs, 6 echinoderms, 3 caridean shrimps, 3 cephalopods, 2 anomuran crabs and 1 lobster. The dominating species in the Ooste...

  20. Sleep researchers need to bring Darwin on board: elucidating functions of sleep via adaptedness and natural selection

    OpenAIRE

    Kavanau, Julian L.

    2004-01-01

    The development of neural multifunctionality – given brain regions carrying out more than one function – conferred great efficiency on brain function at early stages of evolution. This applied to animals that led relatively simple lives with few needs for long-term memories, such as many lower invertebrates – many molluscs, echinoderms, worms, etc. As more complex lifestyles and detailed focal vision evolved, needs for self-initiated and reflexive activities increased in frequency, and recogn...

  1. Replacement of benthic communities in two Neoproterozoic-Cambrian subtropical-to-temperate rift basins, High Atlas and Anti-Atlas, Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, Sébastien; Álvaro, J. Javier; Zamora, Samuel

    2014-10-01

    The ‘Cambrian explosion’ is often introduced as a major shift in benthic marine communities with a coeval decline of microbial consortia related to the diversification of metazoans and development of bioturbation (‘Agronomic Revolution’). Successive community replacements have been reported along with ecosystem diversification and increase in guild complexity from Neoproterozoic to Cambrian times. This process is recorded worldwide but with regional diachroneities, some of them directly controlled by the geodynamic conditions of sedimentary basins. The southern High Atlas and Anti-Atlas of Morocco record development of two rifts, Tonian (?) - early Cryogenian and latest Ediacarian-Cambrian in age, separated by the onset of the Pan-African Orogeny. This tectonically controlled, regional geodynamic change played a primary control on pattern and timing of benthic ecosystem replacements. Benthic communities include microbial consortia, archaeocyathan-thromboid reefal complexes, chancelloriid-echinoderm-sponge meadows, and deeper offshore echinoderm-dominated communities. Microbial consortia appeared in deeper parts of the Tonian (?) - early Cryogenian fluvio-deltaic progradational rift sequences, lacustrine environments of the Ediacaran Volcanic Atlasic Chain (Ouarzazate Supergroup) and the Ediacaran-Cambrian boundary interval, characterized by the peritidal-dominated Tifnout Member (Adoudou Formation). They persisted and were largely significant until Cambrian Age 3, as previous restricted marine conditions precluded the immigration of shelly metazoans in the relatively shallow epeiric parts of the Cambrian Atlas Rift. Successive Cambrian benthic communities were replaced as a result of distinct hydrodynamic and substrate conditions, which allow identification of biotic (e.g., antagonistic relationships between microbial consortia and echinoderms, and taphonomic feedback patterns in chancelloriid-echinoderm-sponge meadows) and abiotic (e.g., rifting

  2. Effects of long-term elevated temperature on covering, sheltering and righting behaviors of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lisheng; Zhang, Lingling; Shi, Dongtao; Wei, Jing; Chang, Yaqing

    2017-01-01

    Increases in ocean temperature due to climate change are predicted to change the behaviors of marine invertebrates. Altered behaviors of keystone ecosystem engineers such as echinoderms will have consequences for the fitness of individuals, which are expected to flow on to the local ecosystem. Relatively few studies have investigated the behavioral responses of echinoderms to long-term elevated temperature. We investigated the effects of exposure to long-term (∼31 weeks) elevated temperature (∼3 °C above the ambient water temperature) on covering, sheltering and righting behaviors of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius. Long-term elevated temperature showed different effects on the three behaviors. It significantly decreased covering behavior, including both covering behavior reaction (time to first covering) and ability (number of covered sea urchins and number of shells used for covering). Conversely, exposure to long-term elevated temperature significantly increased sheltering behavior. Righting response in S. intermedius was not significantly different between temperature treatments. The results provide new information into behavioral responses of echinoderms to ocean warming. PMID:28348933

  3. Regeneration in bipinnaria larvae of the bat star Patiria miniata induces rapid and broad new gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oulhen, Nathalie; Heyland, Andreas; Carrier, Tyler J; Zazueta-Novoa, Vanesa; Fresques, Tara; Laird, Jessica; Onorato, Thomas M; Janies, Daniel; Wessel, Gary

    2016-11-01

    Some metazoa have the capacity to regenerate lost body parts. This phenomenon in adults has been classically described in echinoderms, especially in sea stars (Asteroidea). Sea star bipinnaria larvae can also rapidly and effectively regenerate a complete larva after surgical bisection. Understanding the capacity to reverse cell fates in the larva is important from both a developmental and biomedical perspective; yet, the mechanisms underlying regeneration in echinoderms are poorly understood. Here, we describe the process of bipinnaria regeneration after bisection in the bat star Patiria miniata. We tested transcriptional, translational, and cell proliferation activity after bisection in anterior and posterior bipinnaria halves as well as expression of SRAP, reported as a sea star regeneration associated protease (Vickery et al., 2001b). Moreover, we found several genes whose transcripts increased in abundance following bisection, including: Vasa, dysferlin, vitellogenin 1 and vitellogenin 2. These results show a transformation following bisection, especially in the anterior halves, of cell fate reassignment in all three germ layers, with clear and predictable changes. These results define molecular events that accompany the cell fate changes coincident to the regenerative response in echinoderm larvae. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Up in arms: Immune and nervous system response to sea star wasting disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuess, Lauren E; Eiselord, Morgan E.; Closek, Collin J.; Tracy, Allison M.; Mauntz, Ruth; Gignoux-Wolfsohn, Sarah; Moritsch, Monica M; Yoshioka, Reyn; Burge, Colleen A.; Harvell, Drew; Friedman, Carolyn S.; Hershberger, Paul K.; Roberts, Steven B.

    2015-01-01

    Echinoderms, positioned taxonomically at the base of deuterostomes, provide an important system for the study of the evolution of the immune system. However, there is little known about the cellular components and genes associated with echinoderm immunity. The 2013–2014 sea star wasting disease outbreak is an emergent, rapidly spreading disease, which has led to large population declines of asteroids in the North American Pacific. While evidence suggests that the signs of this disease, twisting arms and lesions, may be attributed to a viral infection, the host response to infection is still poorly understood. In order to examine transcriptional responses of the sea star Pycnopodia helianthoides to sea star wasting disease, we injected a viral sized fraction (0.2 μm) homogenate prepared from symptomatic P. helianthoides into apparently healthy stars. Nine days following injection, when all stars were displaying signs of the disease, specimens were sacrificed and coelomocytes were extracted for RNA-seq analyses. A number of immune genes, including those involved in Toll signaling pathways, complement cascade, melanization response, and arachidonic acid metabolism, were differentially expressed. Furthermore, genes involved in nervous system processes and tissue remodeling were also differentially expressed, pointing to transcriptional changes underlying the signs of sea star wasting disease. The genomic resources presented here not only increase understanding of host response to sea star wasting disease, but also provide greater insight into the mechanisms underlying immune function in echinoderms.

  5. Equinodermos del Cámbrico de España: situación actual de las investigaciones y perspectivas futuras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamora, S.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews all finds of Cambrian echinoderms from Spain since their first discovery in the XIX century. Recent research techniques used for the study of echinoderms are also described, providing a guide for procedure. Sampling in new fossiliferous localities from the Cambrian of North Spain and the review of classic ones has yielded more than 2,000 echinoderm fossils. These include species belonging to five major classes, Cincta, Eocrinoidea, Edrioasteroidea, Stylophora and Ctenocystoidea, which show the highest diversity reported from Gondwana. These results suggest that echinoderms underwent major diversification during the middle Cambrian, with many groups more widely distributed than previously thought. These arguments suggest that many classes originated in the lower Cambrian where only a few taxa have been described. Finally, I offer some suggestions about where research efforts need to be focussed for a better knowledge of Cambrian echinoderm faunas in Gondwana.

    En este trabajo se presenta una revisión histórica de todos los equinodermos cámbricos descubier tos en España, desde su primer hallazgo a finales del siglo XIX y las técnicas actuales que se utilizan para su estudio. El muestreo sistemático de nuevas localidades cámbricas del Norte de España y la revisión de otras ya conocidas, ha proporcionado más de 2.000 ejemplares de equinodermos. En total se han reconocido taxones pertenecientes a cinco clases: Cincta, Eocrinoidea, Edrioasteroidea, Stylophora y Ctenocystoidea, que muestran la mayor diversidad para este periodo en Gondwana. Estos hallazgos muestran que los equinodermos alcanzaron su primer pico de diversidad durante el Cámbrico medio. Esto, unido a la amplia distribución paleobiogeográfica de algunos clados, nos advierte de un origen para muchos grupos en el Cámbrico inferior, donde sólo unos pocos taxones han sido descritos a nivel mundial. Por último se dan algunas ideas de hacia d

  6. Evidence for a trophic cascade on rocky reefs following sea star mass mortality in British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica A. Schultz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Echinoderm population collapses, driven by disease outbreaks and climatic events, may be important drivers of population dynamics, ecological shifts and biodiversity. The northeast Pacific recently experienced a mass mortality of sea stars. In Howe Sound, British Columbia, the sunflower star Pycnopodia helianthoides—a previously abundant predator of bottom-dwelling invertebrates—began to show signs of a wasting syndrome in early September 2013, and dense aggregations disappeared from many sites in a matter of weeks. Here, we assess changes in subtidal community composition by comparing the abundance of fish, invertebrates and macroalgae at 20 sites in Howe Sound before and after the 2013 sea star mortality to evaluate evidence for a trophic cascade. We observed changes in the abundance of several species after the sea star mortality, most notably a four-fold increase in the number of green sea urchins, Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis, and a significant decline in kelp cover, which are together consistent with a trophic cascade. Qualitative data on the abundance of sunflower stars and green urchins from a citizen science database show that the patterns of echinoderm abundance detected at our study sites reflected wider local trends. The trophic cascade evident at the scale of Howe Sound was observed at half of the study sites. It remains unclear whether the urchin response was triggered directly, via a reduction in urchin mortality, or indirectly, via a shift in urchin distribution into areas previously occupied by the predatory sea stars. Understanding the ecological implications of sudden and extreme population declines may further elucidate the role of echinoderms in temperate seas, and provide insight into the resilience of marine ecosystems to biological disturbances.

  7. Iterative Calibration: A Novel Approach for Calibrating the Molecular Clock Using Complex Geological Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeza-Quintana, Tzitziki; Adamowicz, Sarah J

    2018-02-01

    During the past 50 years, the molecular clock has become one of the main tools for providing a time scale for the history of life. In the era of robust molecular evolutionary analysis, clock calibration is still one of the most basic steps needing attention. When fossil records are limited, well-dated geological events are the main resource for calibration. However, biogeographic calibrations have often been used in a simplistic manner, for example assuming simultaneous vicariant divergence of multiple sister lineages. Here, we propose a novel iterative calibration approach to define the most appropriate calibration date by seeking congruence between the dates assigned to multiple allopatric divergences and the geological history. Exploring patterns of molecular divergence in 16 trans-Bering sister clades of echinoderms, we demonstrate that the iterative calibration is predominantly advantageous when using complex geological or climatological events-such as the opening/reclosure of the Bering Strait-providing a powerful tool for clock dating that can be applied to other biogeographic calibration systems and further taxa. Using Bayesian analysis, we observed that evolutionary rate variability in the COI-5P gene is generally distributed in a clock-like fashion for Northern echinoderms. The results reveal a large range of genetic divergences, consistent with multiple pulses of trans-Bering migrations. A resulting rate of 2.8% pairwise Kimura-2-parameter sequence divergence per million years is suggested for the COI-5P gene in Northern echinoderms. Given that molecular rates may vary across latitudes and taxa, this study provides a new context for dating the evolutionary history of Arctic marine life.

  8. Correlation Between Echinoidea Size and Threat Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakshi, S.; Lee, A.; Heim, N.; Payne, J.

    2017-12-01

    Echinoidea (or sea urchins), are small, spiny, globular, animals that populate the seafloors of nearly the entire planet. Echinoidea have existed on Earth since the Ordovician period, and from their archaic origin there is much to be learned about the relationship between Echinoidea body size and how it affects the survivability of the individual. The goal of this project is to determine how Echinoidea dimensions such as body volume, area, and length compare across extinct and extant species by plotting Echinoidea data in R. We will use stratigraphic data as a source to find which species of sea urchin from our data is extinct. We will then create three sets of three histograms of the size data for each type of measurement. One set will include histograms for sea urchin length, area, and volume. The other set will include histograms for extinct sea urchin length, area, and volume. The last set will include histograms for extant sea urchin length, area, and volume. Our data showed that extant sea urchins had a larger size, and extinct sea urchins were smaller. Our length data showed that the average length of all sea urchins were 54.95791 mm, the average length of extinct sea urchins were 51.0337 mm, and the average length of extant sea urchins were 66.12774 mm. There is a generally increasing trend of size over time, except for a small outlier about 350 million years ago, where echinoderm extinction selected towards larger species and biovolume was abnormally high. Our data also showed that over the past 200 million years, echinoderm extinction selectivity drove slightly smaller sea urchins towards extinction, further supporting the idea that a larger size was and still is advantageous for echinoderms.

  9. Evolution of extreme stomach pH in bilateria inferred from gastric alkalization mechanisms in basal deuterostomes

    OpenAIRE

    Stumpp, Meike; Hu, Marian Y.; Tseng, Yung-Che; Guh, Ying-Jeh; Chen, Yi-Chih; Yu, Jr-Kai; Su, Yi-Hsien; Hwang, Pung-Pung

    2015-01-01

    The stomachs of most vertebrates operate at an acidic pH of 2 generated by the gastric H+/K+-ATPase located in parietal cells. The acidic pH in stomachs of vertebrates is believed to aid digestion and to protect against environmental pathogens. Little attention has been placed on whether acidic gastric pH regulation is a vertebrate character or a deuterostome ancestral trait. Here, we report alkaline conditions up to pH 10.5 in the larval digestive systems of ambulacraria (echinoderm + hemich...

  10. Ten new records of marine invertebrates from the Azores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WIRTZ, P.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The sea anemones Telmatactis cricoides (Duchassaign, 1850 and Actinia n. sp., themolluscs Tonna galea Linnaeus, 1758, Vitreolina philippi (de Rayneval & Ponzi, 1854,Melanella n. sp., Phidiana lynceus (de Rayneval & Ponzi, 1854 and Anomia patelliformis(Linnaeus, 1761, the nemertine Baseodiscus delineatus (DelleChiaje, 1825 and the echinoderms Leptosynapta inhaerens (O. F. Müller, 1776 and Stichopus regalis (Cuvier, 1817, are here recorded from the Azores for the first time. The presence of the two starfishspecies Chaetaster longipes (Retzius, 1805 and Luidia ciliaris (Philippi, 1837 in the Azores is confirmed and the spawning behaviour of the sea urchin Echinocyamus pusillus (O. F. Müller, 1776 is described.

  11. [Problems caused by poisonous tropical marine animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lääveri, Tinja; Räisänen-Sokolowski, Anne; Jama, Timo

    2014-01-01

    A Finnish physician encounters problems caused by tropical marine animals either during her/his own travelling or while treating travelers who have returned home. Certain species of medusae and cone shells as well as the stings by some fish species are life-threateningly poisonous. A person stung or bitten by any of the most dangerous species must immediately be admitted to the hospital. Foreign material remaining in tissues after stings by echinoderms and spiky fish may cause problems months after the actual injury. The injuries become easily infected, and antimicrobial drug therapy must thus cover gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria as well.

  12. Impact of benthic disturbance on megafauna in Central Indian Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rodrigues, N; Sharma, R.; Nath, B.N

    , M., 1980. La nutrition d’echinodermes abyssaux I. Alimentation des holothuries. Marine Biology 60, 17–26. Koelher, R., Vaney, C., 1905. Echinodermata of the Indian Museum, Holothuroidea. Indian Museum, Calcutta. Lampitt, R.S., Rice, A.L., Thurston, M.... Pawson, D.L., Foell, E.J., 1983. Atlas of photographs of megafauna from the study area. Report No. MS – 200 – 146, 120pp. Pawson, D.L., Foell, E.J., 1986. Peniagone leander new species, an abyssal benthopelagic sea cucumber (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea...

  13. Modularity of gene-regulatory networks revealed in sea-star development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Degnan Bernard M

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Evidence that conserved developmental gene-regulatory networks can change as a unit during deutersostome evolution emerges from a study published in BMC Biology. This shows that genes consistently expressed in anterior brain patterning in hemichordates and chordates are expressed in a similar spatial pattern in another deuterostome, an asteroid echinoderm (sea star, but in a completely different developmental context (the animal-vegetal axis. This observation has implications for hypotheses on the type of development present in the deuterostome common ancestor. See research article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/8/143/abstract

  14. Androgen metabolism in invertebrates and its modulation by xenoandrogens: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janer, G; Leblanc, G A; Porte, C

    2005-04-01

    Marisa cornuarietis (Mollusc), Hyalella azteca (Crustacean), and Paracentrotus lividus (Echinoderm) demonstrated the ability to metabolize androgens through different pathways catalyzed by 5alpha-reductases (5alpha-R), hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (HSD), hydroxylases, sulfotransferases (SULT), and fatty-acid acyl-CoA acyltransferases (ATAT). Interspecies differences and tissue-specific distribution of those enzymatic activities were observed. Xenobiotics, such as triphenyltin, tributyltin, and fenarimol, interfered with some of the pathways studied, namely, testosterone sulfation, testosterone esterification, and 5alpha-R activity. The work evidenced different sensitivity of those pathways to androgenic compounds, together with interphyla differences in androgen metabolism.

  15. Larval nervous systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Claus

    2015-01-01

    as the adult central nervous system (CNS). Two structures can be recognized, viz. a pair of cerebral ganglia, which form the major part of the adult brain, and a blastoporal (circumblastoporal) nerve cord, which becomes differentiated into a perioral loop, paired or secondarily fused ventral nerve cords......, and the nervous systems of echinoderms and enteropneusts appear completely enigmatic. The ontogeny of the chordate CNS can perhaps be interpreted as a variation of the ontogeny of the blastoporal nerve cord of the protostomes, and this is strongly supported by patterns of gene expression. The presence...

  16. Germ line mechanics – and unfinished business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessel, Gary M.

    2016-01-01

    Primordial germ cells are usually made early in the development of an organism. These are the mother of all stem cells that are necessary for propagation of the species, yet use highly diverse mechanisms between organisms. How they are specified, and when and where they form, are central to developmental biology. Using diverse organisms to study this development is illuminating for understanding the mechanics these cells use in this essential function, and for identifying the breadth of evolutionary changes that have occurred between species. This essay emphasizes how echinoderms may contribute to the patch-work quilt of our understanding of germ line formation during embryogenesis. PMID:26970000

  17. Hunt for Palytoxins in a Wide Variety of Marine Organisms Harvested in 2010 on the French Mediterranean Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronel Biré

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available During the summer of 2010, 31 species including fish, echinoderms, gastropods, crustaceans, cephalopods and sponges were sampled in the Bay of Villefranche on the French Mediterranean coast and screened for the presence of PLTX-group toxins using the haemolytic assay. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS was used for confirmatory purposes and to determine the toxin profile. The mean toxin concentration in the whole flesh of all sampled marine organisms, determined using the lower- (LB and upper-bound (UB approach was 4.3 and 5.1 µg·kg−1, respectively, with less than 1% of the results exceeding the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA threshold of 30 µg·kg−1and the highest values being reported for sea urchins (107.6 and 108.0 µg·kg−1. Toxins accumulated almost exclusively in the digestive tube of the tested species, with the exception of octopus, in which there were detectable toxin amounts in the remaining tissues (RT. The mean toxin concentration in the RT of the sampled organisms (fishes, echinoderms and cephalopods was 0.7 and 1.7 µg·kg−1 (LB and UB, respectively, with a maximum value of 19.9 µg·kg−1 for octopus RT. The herbivorous and omnivorous organisms were the most contaminated species, indicating that diet influences the contamination process, and the LC-MS/MS revealed that ovatoxin-a was the only toxin detected.

  18. Mechanism of Calcite Co-Orientation in the Sea Urchin Tooth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Killian, Christopher; Metzler, Rebecca; Gong, Y. U. T.; Olson, Ian; Aizenberg, Joanna; Politi, Yael; Wilt, Fred; Scholl, Andreas; Young, Anthony; Doran, Andrew; Kunz, Martin; Tamura, Nobumichi; Coppersmith, Susan; Gilbert, P. U. P. A.

    2009-12-01

    Sea urchin teeth are remarkable and complex calcite structures, continuously growing at the forming end and self-sharpening at the mature grinding tip. The calcite (CaCO{sub 3}) crystals of tooth components, plates, fibers, and a high-Mg polycrystalline matrix, have highly co-oriented crystallographic axes. This ability to co-orient calcite in a mineralized structure is shared by all echinoderms. However, the physico-chemical mechanism by which calcite crystals become co-oriented in echinoderms remains enigmatic. Here, we show differences in calcite c-axis orientations in the tooth of the purple sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus), using high-resolution X-ray photoelectron emission spectromicroscopy (X-PEEM) and microbeam X-ray diffraction ({mu}XRD). All plates share one crystal orientation, propagated through pillar bridges, while fibers and polycrystalline matrix share another orientation. Furthermore, in the forming end of the tooth, we observe that CaCO{sub 3} is present as amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC). We demonstrate that co-orientation of the nanoparticles in the polycrystalline matrix occurs via solid-state secondary nucleation, propagating out from the previously formed fibers and plates, into the amorphous precursor nanoparticles. Because amorphous precursors were observed in diverse biominerals, solid-state secondary nucleation is likely to be a general mechanism for the co-orientation of biomineral components in organisms from different phyla.

  19. Using sea urchin gametes and zygotes to investigate centrosome duplication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sluder, Greenfield

    2016-01-01

    Centriole structure and function in the sea urchin zygote parallel those in mammalian somatic cells. Here, I briefly introduce the properties and attributes of the sea urchin system that make it an attractive platform for the study of centrosome and centriole duplication. These attributes apply to all echinoderms readily available from commercial suppliers: sea urchins, sand dollars, and starfish. I list some of the practical aspects of the system that make it a cost- and time-effective system for experimental work and then list properties that are a "tool kit" that can be used to conduct studies that would not be practical, or in some cases not possible, with mammalian somatic cells. Since centrioles organize and localize the pericentriolar material that nucleates the astral arrays of microtubules (Bobinnec et al. in J Cell Biol 143(6):1575-1589, 1998), the pattern of aster duplication over several cell cycles can be used as a reliable measure for centriole duplication (Sluder and Rieder in J Cell Biol 100(3):887-896, 1985). Descriptions of the methods my laboratory has used to handle and image echinoderm zygotes are reviewed in Sluder et al. (Methods Cell Biol 61:439-472, 1999). Also included is a bibliography of papers that describe additional methods.

  20. Standard Guide for Irradiation of Finfish and Aquatic Invertebrates Used as Food to Control Pathogens and Spoilage Microorganisms

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This guide outlines procedures and operations for the irradiation of raw, untreated, fresh (chilled), or frozen finfish and aquatic invertebrates, while ensuring that the irradiated product is safe and wholesome. 1.1.1 Aquatic invertebrates include molluscs, crustacea, echinoderms, etc. 1.1.1.1 Molluscs include bivalve shellfish, such as clams, mussels, and oysters; snails; and cephalopods, such as squid and octopus. 1.1.1.2 Crustacea include shellfish such as shrimp, lobster, crabs, prawns and crayfish. 1.1.1.3 Echinoderms include sea urchins and sea cucumbers. 1.2 This guide covers absorbed doses used to reduce the microbial and parasite populations in aquatic invertebrates and finfish. Such doses typically are below 10 kGy (1). 1.3 The use of reduced-oxygen packaging (vacuum or modified atmosphere, and including products packed in oil) with irradiated, raw product is not covered by this guide. The anaerobic environment created by reduced-oxygen packaging provides the potential for outgrowth o...

  1. Metabolic rates are significantly lower in abyssal Holothuroidea than in shallow-water Holothuroidea

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oevelen, Dick

    2018-01-01

    Recent analyses of metabolic rates in fishes, echinoderms, crustaceans and cephalopods have concluded that bathymetric declines in temperature- and mass-normalized metabolic rate do not result from resource-limitation (e.g. oxygen or food/chemical energy), decreasing temperature or increasing hydrostatic pressure. Instead, based on contrasting bathymetric patterns reported in the metabolic rates of visual and non-visual taxa, declining metabolic rate with depth is proposed to result from relaxation of selection for high locomotory capacity in visual predators as light diminishes. Here, we present metabolic rates of Holothuroidea, a non-visual benthic and benthopelagic echinoderm class, determined in situ at abyssal depths (greater than 4000 m depth). Mean temperature- and mass-normalized metabolic rate did not differ significantly between shallow-water (less than 200 m depth) and bathyal (200–4000 m depth) holothurians, but was significantly lower in abyssal (greater than 4000 m depth) holothurians than in shallow-water holothurians. These results support the dominance of the visual interactions hypothesis at bathyal depths, but indicate that ecological or evolutionary pressures other than biotic visual interactions contribute to bathymetric variation in holothurian metabolic rates. Multiple nonlinear regression assuming power or exponential models indicates that in situ hydrostatic pressure and/or food/chemical energy availability are responsible for variation in holothurian metabolic rates. Consequently, these results have implications for modelling deep-sea energetics and processes. PMID:29892403

  2. Comparison of two carbonate mound sequences in the Lower Ordovician El Paso Formation, west Texas and southern New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clemons, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    The El Paso Formations consists of four members, in ascending order: Hitt Canyon, Jose McKelligon and Padre. Mounds in the McKelligon Member exposed in the southern Franklin Mountains were described by Toomey (1970). Most of these mounds are small but one large one is 5.8 m thick and about 13.7 m long in outcrop. The mound rock is chiefly bioclastic wackestone with minor packstone and boundstone. The varied fauna contains echinoderms, sponges and spicules, gastropods, trilobites, digitate algae, Nuia, Girvanella, Pulchrilamina, Calathium, and minor brachiopods and cephalopods. Intraclastic, bioclastic grainstone fills channels cut in the mounds. Similar, but smaller and less spectacular mounds occur in the McKelligon Member in the Florida, Big Hatchet, and Caballo Mountains, Lone Mountain, Cooke's Range, and elsewhere in southwestern New Mexico. A second type of mound is common in the upper part of the Hitt Canyon Member in the Cooke's Range, Red Hills, Caballo and Big Hatchet Mountains. These mounds also are typically small but one in the Red Hills is 13.7 m thick and about 30 m long in outcrop. The mound complex is about 75-80% SH-C and LLH-C stromatolite boundstone and bioclastic wackestone. The remaining 20-25% is bioclastic packstone and grainstone between the SH-C stromatolites and filling channels cut in the mound complex. The limited fauna contains small fragments of echinoderms, gastropods, trilobites, spicules, and Nuia.

  3. Lithofacies, paleoenvironment and high-resolution stratigraphy of the D5 and D6 members of the Middle Jurassic carbonates Dhruma Formation, outcrop analog, central Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousif, Ibrahim M.; Abdullatif, Osman M.; Makkawi, Mohammad H.; Bashri, Mazin A.; Abdulghani, Waleed M.

    2018-03-01

    This study characterizes the lithofacies, paleoenvironment and stratigraphic architecture of the D5 and D6 members of carbonates Dhruma Formation outcrops in central Saudi Arabia. The study integrates detailed lithofacies analysis based on vertical and lateral profiles, in addition to thin-sections petrography to reveal the high-resolution architecture framework. Nine lithofacies types (LFTs) were defined namely: (1) skeletal peletal spiculitic wackestone (15%), (2) peloidal echinoderm packstone (19%), (3) fissile shale (36%), (4) peloidal spiculitic echinoderm pack-grainstone (5%), (5) cross-bedded peloidal skeletal oolitic grainstone (7%), (6) oolitic grainstone (2%), (7) intraformational rudstone (cycles and cycle sets with 5th to 6th orders magnitude, and thickness ranges from a few centimeters up to 6 m with an average of 1.5 m. Those are stacked to form four high-frequency sequences with thickness range from 1 m up to 14 m. The latter were grouped into a single depositional sequence of 3rd order magnitude. The architectural analysis also shows that the potential reservoir units were intensively affected by muddy-textured rocks which act as reservoir seals. These variations in the stratigraphic sequences in Middle Jurassic Dhruma Formation and its equivalents could be attributed to the eustatic sea-level changes, climate, tectonics, and local paleoenvironments. This study attempts to provide detailed insight into reservoir heterogeneity and architecture. The analog may help to understand and predict lithofacies heterogeneity, architecture, and quality in the subsurface equivalent reservoirs.

  4. Concentration of technetium by marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyanagi, T.; Suzuki, Y.; Nakamura, R.; Nakahara, M.

    1990-01-01

    Accumulation and excretion of technetium by marine organisms were observed in radioisotope tracer experiments to determine concentration factors for estimating radiation dose to humans from radioactive pollution of marine environments. Marine fish, crustaceans, mollusks, echinoderms, and seaweeds were reared in sea water labeled with 95m Tc to observe uptake from sea water. The organisms were then transferred into unlabeled sea water for depuration experiments. Concentration factors were calculated from uptake and excretion rates. Also considered was the contribution of food-chain transfer of technetium, observed by administering labeled seaweeds to mollusks or echinoderms. Low accumulations were shown by fish, crustaceans, pelecypods and cephalopods, whereas high concentration factors were observed in gastropods and seaweeds. Species specificity or specific accumulation in special organs or tissues was not evident except in seaweed, where the difference was clearly species-associated. Relatively high rates of technetium retention were observed in the organisms administered labeled seaweed. The higher concentrations observed in gastropods, compared to those in pelecypods, were thought to result from different feed habits. The adaptability of some species as indicator organisms for monitoring 99 Tc in sea water was recognized, but the contribution of technetium to radiation dose was considered insignificant

  5. CASA in invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Horst, Gerhard; Bennett, Monique; Bishop, John D D

    2018-04-09

    Sperm movement has been described in several phyla of invertebrates. Yet, sperm motility has only been quantified using computer-aided sperm analysis (CASA-Mot) in externally fertilising species (broadcast spawners) of two phyla, molluscs and echinoderms. In the present study we quantified in detail the nature of the sperm tracks, percentage motility groupings and detailed kinematics of rapid-, medium- and slow-swimming spermatozoa in the oyster Crassostrea gigas and four species never previously studied by CASA-Mot, namely the molluscs Choromytilus meridionalis, Donax serra and Haliotis midae and the echinoderm Parechinus angulosus. A feature common to all these species are the helical tracks, the diameter of which seems to be species specific. Using CASA-Mot, the behaviour of spermatozoa was also studied over time and in the presence of egg water and Ca2+ modulators such as caffeine and procaine hydrochloride. For the first time, we show that hyperactivation can be induced in all species in the presence of egg water (sea water that was mixed with mature eggs and then centrifuged) and/or caffeine, and these hyperactivated sperm tracks were characterised using CASA-Mot. We relate the different patterns of sperm motility and behaviour to reproductive strategies such as broadcast spawning and spermcasting, and briefly review studies using CASA-Mot on other invertebrates.

  6. Sequencing and analysis of the gastrula transcriptome of the brittle star Ophiocoma wendtii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaughn Roy

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The gastrula stage represents the point in development at which the three primary germ layers diverge. At this point the gene regulatory networks that specify the germ layers are established and the genes that define the differentiated states of the tissues have begun to be activated. These networks have been well-characterized in sea urchins, but not in other echinoderms. Embryos of the brittle star Ophiocoma wendtii share a number of developmental features with sea urchin embryos, including the ingression of mesenchyme cells that give rise to an embryonic skeleton. Notable differences are that no micromeres are formed during cleavage divisions and no pigment cells are formed during development to the pluteus larval stage. More subtle changes in timing of developmental events also occur. To explore the molecular basis for the similarities and differences between these two echinoderms, we have sequenced and characterized the gastrula transcriptome of O. wendtii. Methods Development of Ophiocoma wendtii embryos was characterized and RNA was isolated from the gastrula stage. A transcriptome data base was generated from this RNA and was analyzed using a variety of methods to identify transcripts expressed and to compare those transcripts to those expressed at the gastrula stage in other organisms. Results Using existing databases, we identified brittle star transcripts that correspond to 3,385 genes, including 1,863 genes shared with the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus gastrula transcriptome. We characterized the functional classes of genes present in the transcriptome and compared them to those found in this sea urchin. We then examined those members of the germ-layer specific gene regulatory networks (GRNs of S. purpuratus that are expressed in the O. wendtii gastrula. Our results indicate that there is a shared ‘genetic toolkit’ central to the echinoderm gastrula, a key stage in embryonic development, though

  7. Transgenerational effects of ocean warming on the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chong; Zhang, Lisheng; Shi, Dongtao; Ding, Jingyun; Yin, Donghong; Sun, Jiangnan; Zhang, Baojing; Zhang, Lingling; Chang, Yaqing

    2018-04-30

    Transgenerational effects, which involve both selection and plasticity, are important for the evolutionary adaptation of echinoderms in the changing ocean. Here, we investigated the effects of breeding design and water temperature for offspring on fertilization, hatchability, larval survival, size, abnormality and metamorphosis of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius, whose dams and sires were exposed to long-term (~15 months) elevated temperature (~3°C above ambient) or ambient temperature. There was no transgenerational effect on fertilization and metamorphosis of S. intermedius, while negative transgenerational effects were found in hatchability and most traits of larval size. Dam and sire effects were highly trait and developmental stage dependent. Interestingly, we found S. intermedius probably cannot achieve transgenerational acclimation to long-term elevated temperature for survival provided their offspring were exposed to an elevated temperature. The present study enriches our understanding of transgenerational effects of ocean warming on sea urchins. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Development of deposits of reef origin of the late Frasnian age in the Antipovsko-Shcherbakovskiy zone of elevations (Volgograd Volga region)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabrielyan, A.G.; Danshina, N.V.

    1982-01-01

    Until recently, because of the shortage of core sample material, it was difficult to assert the presence of bioherm formations in the late Frasnian-Fammenian age in the Antipovsko-Shcherbakovskiy zone of the Volgograd Volga region, although their existence was hypothesized. The influx of this material makes it possible not only to answer this question affirmatively, but also to compile a concept about their lithological composition and the conditions of occurrence. The bodies of reef origin are formed of fractured algal limestones of massive texture with an admixture of detrital material which is crushed residues of echinoderms, gastropods, etc. The reef formations of the late Frasnian age stretch in a narrow band along the entire zone of the Antipovsko-Shcherbakovskiy elevations. Their presence improves the outlook for the oil content of this region.

  9. Amoco Cadiz oil spill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Sullivan, A J

    1978-05-01

    This report gives a preliminary account of the events surrounding the wreck of the Amoco Cadiz on the Brittany coast in March, which caused the most massive oil pollution on record. The sequence of events is outlined. Also reported are details of clean-up of beaches as well as appearance and biological effects of oil. Further studies which will continue for years include: population dynamics (species of Littorina); feeding, reproduction, settlement of Spirorbis sp; surveillance of echinoderm and crustacean populations; changes in growth and development of species of red algae; changes in concentrations of bacteria, meiofauna, chlorophyll and organic material. There are indications of problems likely to arise in: sheltered areas (sediments, salt marsh vegetation); sandy shores; upper shore vegetation (higher plants, lichens); algae (temporary loss of algal cover); intertidal macrofauna; seabirds (mortality); economy (fishing, tourism, seaweed used for fertilizer).

  10. A method for in situ estimation of prey selectivity and predation rate in large plankton, exemplified with the jellyfish Aurelia aurita (L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansson, L.J.

    2006-01-01

    , predation rate can be calculated as increase in gut content over time. Clearance rates for different prey can be calculated from predation rates and prey concentrations in the water, allowing accurate estimates of prey selectivity. Thus, the problem of unknown feeding history and feeding environment, which...... of a specific individual plankton predator in situ.After prey has been evacuated from the gut of an individual predator, the predator is incubated in situ, and observed by SCUBA-divers who recapture the individual after a defined time. Given that this incubation time is shorter than prey digestion time...... among individual jellyfish and among the various oral arms and gastric pouches within individuals. Clearance rates varied strongly with prey type. The medusae selected large crustacean prey (cladocerans and copepods/copepodites) over echinoderm larvae and copepod nauplii. Prey distribution within...

  11. Demersal Assemblages on the Soft Bottoms off the Catalan-Levante Coast of the Spanish Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano García-Rodríguez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of 255 bottom trawl samples obtained in annual experimental surveys (2007–2010 along the western Mediterranean shows the existence of five well-defined demersal assemblages that follow a depth distribution: (a upper shelf assemblages, including two assemblages differentiated by the type of substrate (sand-muddy and terrigenous muddy bottoms; (b a middle shelf assemblage; (c an upper slope assemblage; (d a middle slope assemblage. Faunally, they are dominated by fish (37% of 452 total species, followed by crustaceans (22%, molluscs (17%, echinoderms (9%, and other invertebrates (15%. The assemblages identified showed major alterations on the shelf and shelf edge and less pronounced ones on the upper and middle slope. The average diversity values were more or less high, evidencing the high species richness in the western Mediterranean. The identified assemblages may facilitate future multispecies fisheries management based on an ecosystem approach.

  12. Evidence for marine microfossils from amber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Vincent; Schmidt, Alexander R; Saint Martin, Simona; Struwe, Steffi; Perrichot, Vincent; Saint Martin, Jean-Paul; Grosheny, Danièle; Breton, Gérard; Néraudeau, Didier

    2008-11-11

    Amber usually contains inclusions of terrestrial and rarely limnetic organisms that were embedded in the places were they lived in the amber forests. Therefore, it has been supposed that amber could not have preserved marine organisms. Here, we report the discovery amber-preserved marine microfossils. Diverse marine diatoms as well as radiolarians, sponge spicules, a foraminifer, and a spine of a larval echinoderm were found in Late Albian and Early Cenomanian amber samples of southwestern France. The highly fossiliferous resin samples solidified approximately 100 million years ago on the floor of coastal mixed forests dominated by conifers. The amber forests of southwestern France grew directly along the coast of the Atlantic Ocean and were influenced by the nearby sea: shells and remnants of marine organisms were probably introduced by wind, spray, or high tide from the beach or the sea onto the resin flows.

  13. Biological activities and biomedical potential of sea cucumber (Stichopus japonicus: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gun-Woo Oh

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Members of the phylum Echinodermata, commonly known as echinoderms, are exclusively marine invertebrates. Among the Echinodermata, sea cucumber belongs to the family Holothuroidea. The sea cucumber Stichopus (Apostichous japonicus (Selenka is an invertebrate animal inhabiting the coastal sea around Korean, Japan, China, and Russia. Sea cucumber has a significant commercial value, because it contains valuable nutrients such as vitamins and minerals. They possess a number of distinctive biologically and pharmacologically important compounds. In particular, the body wall of sea cucumber is a major edible part. It consists of peptide, collagen, gelatin, polysaccharide, and saponin, which possess several biological activities such as anti-cancer, anti-coagulation, anti-oxidation, and anti-osteoclastogenesis. Furthermore, the regenerative capacity of sea cucumber makes it a medically important organism. This review presents the various biological activities and biomedical potential of sea cucumber S. japonicus.

  14. Sea cucumber species identification of family Caudinidae from Surabaya based on morphological and mitochondrial DNA evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Muhammad Hilman Fu'adil; Pidada, Ida Bagus Rai; Sugiharto, Widyatmoko, Johan Nuari; Irawan, Bambang

    2016-03-01

    Species identification and taxonomy of sea cucumber remains a challenge problem in some taxa. Caudinidae family of sea cucumber was comerciallized in Surabaya, and it was used as sea cucumber chips. Members of Caudinid sea cucumber have similiar morphology, so it is hard to identify this sea cucumber only from morphological appearance. DNA barcoding is useful method to overcome this problem. The aim of this study was to determine Caudinid specimen of sea cucumber in East Java by morphological and molecular approach. Sample was collected from east coast of Surabaya, then preserved in absolute ethanol. After DNA isolation, Cytochrome Oxydase I (COI) gene amplification was performed using Echinoderm universal primer and PCR product was sequenced. Sequencing result was analyzed and identified in NCBI database using BLAST. Results showed that Caudinid specimen in have closely related to Acaudina molpadioides sequence in GenBank with 86% identity. Morphological data, especially based on ossicle, also showed that the specimen is Acaudina molpadioides.

  15. Crizotinib-induced Rectal Perforation with Abscess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagisawa, Asako; Hayama, Noriko; Amano, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Makoto; Hirano, Satoshi; Nakamura, Sukeyuki; Tabeta, Hiroshi

    2017-12-01

    An 86-year-old Japanese man was diagnosed with stage IV lung adenocarcinoma. The patient was treated with crizotinib after echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 (EML4)-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) rearrangement was detected from his pleural effusion. He subsequently developed abdominal pain and rebound tenderness in the right lower abdomen. Contrast-enhanced abdominal CT showed a low-density area in the abdominal cavity. The size of the abscess was decreased by drainage and the administration of antibiotics. Fistulography revealed a fistula from the rectum to the abscess, and a diagnosis of lower intestinal tract perforation with abscess formation was made. Crizotinib was discontinued and treatment with alectinib was initiated. The patient remains under treatment as an outpatient at our department without adverse effects.

  16. The rising tide of ocean diseases: Unsolved problems and research priorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvell, Drew; Aronson, Richard; Baron, Nancy; Connell, Joseph; Dobson, Andrew P.; Ellner, Steve; Gerber, Leah R.; Kim, Kiho; Kuris, Armand M.; McCallum, Hamish; Lafferty, Kevin D.; McKay, Bruce; Porter, James; Pascual, Mercedes; Smith, Garriett; Sutherland, Katherine; Ward, Jessica

    2004-01-01

    New studies have detected a rising number of reports of diseases in marine organisms such as corals, molluscs, turtles, mammals, and echinoderms over the past three decades. Despite the increasing disease load, microbiological, molecular, and theoretical tools for managing disease in the world's oceans are under-developed. Review of the new developments in the study of these diseases identifies five major unsolved problems and priorities for future research: (1) detecting origins and reservoirs for marine diseases and tracing the flow of some new pathogens from land to sea; (2) documenting the longevity and host range of infectious stages; (3) evaluating the effect of greater taxonomic diversity of marine relative to terrestrial hosts and pathogens; (4) pinpointing the facilitating role of anthropogenic agents as incubators and conveyors of marine pathogens; (5) adapting epidemiological models to analysis of marine disease.

  17. Receptor ligand-triggered resistance to alectinib and its circumvention by Hsp90 inhibition in EML4-ALK lung cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanimoto, Azusa; Yamada, Tadaaki; Nanjo, Shigeki; Takeuchi, Shinji; Ebi, Hiromichi; Kita, Kenji; Matsumoto, Kunio; Yano, Seiji

    2014-07-15

    Alectinib is a new generation ALK inhibitor with activity against the gatekeeper L1196M mutation that showed remarkable activity in a phase I/II study with echinoderm microtubule associated protein-like 4 (EML4)--anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. However, alectinib resistance may eventually develop. Here, we found that EGFR ligands and HGF, a ligand of the MET receptor, activate EGFR and MET, respectively, as alternative pathways, and thereby induce resistance to alectinib. Additionally, the heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) inhibitor suppressed protein expression of ALK, MET, EGFR, and AKT, and thereby induced apoptosis in EML4-ALK NSCLC cells, even in the presence of EGFR ligands or HGF. These results suggest that Hsp90 inhibitors may overcome ligand-triggered resistance to new generation ALK inhibitors and may result in more successful treatment of NSCLC patients with EML4-ALK.

  18. Aspectos gerais sobre a alimentação do cangulo, Balistes vetula Linnaeus, 1758 (Pisces - Balistidae no estado de Pernambuco - Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Técio Luiz Macêdo Costa

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available The Balistidae, especially Balistes vetula are commom fishes in tropical waters from Northeastern Brazil. Studies about these fishes captured at the coastal area of Recife between Pina; Boa Viagem, Piedade and Candeias beaches were carried out in order to determine the diet, and to verify a possible diet diversification between the sexes, and times of the year. Males and females had a food diet consisting mostly of molluscs belonging the classes Scaphopoda, Bivalvia, Gastropoda and crustaceans and fishes. Echinoderms, foraminifera, bryozoa, sponges, polychaete worms, coelenterates and brachiopods were also observed in smaller proportions. Both males and females had a carnivorous benthic diet. Growth and changes in the seasons were not reflected by changes in the diet.

  19. Present Status of Intertidal Biodiversity in and around Mumbai (West Coast of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balasaheb Kulkarni

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available During the present investigation, Girgaon, Marine Drive, Haji Ali and Gorai Creek in Mumbai were selected for biodiversity assessment following a protocol for natural geography in shore areas. Fifty nine macrobenthic molluscs, arthropods, coelenterates and echinoderms at these sites were recorded. The maximum density of gastropods and clams was observed at Marine Drive shore. At Gorai Creek, there were plentiful Telescopium telescopium, Potamidus cingulatis, mudskipper and fiddler crabs. Studies shows that the biodiversity status of the selected sites varies with respect to location, type of substratum and season. Pollution was observed to have a noticeable effect on clams at Girgaon coast, where many Paphia textile shells were observed to be filled with mud and coated with black colour.

  20. Towards a revision of the genus Periclimenes: resurrection of Ancylocaris Schenkel, 1902, and designation of three new genera (Crustacea, Decapoda, Palaemonidae

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    Zdeněk Ďuriš

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on recently published molecular phylogenies of Indo-West Pacific palaemonid shrimps and further morphological evidence, the systematic position of several species of the polyphyletic genus Periclimenes is revised. The generic name Ancylocaris Schenkel, 1902 is re-established for the anemone-associated P. brevicarpalis. Actinimenes gen. n., is proposed for the anemone-associated P. inornatus, P. ornatellus and P. ornatus, all of which have a subspatulate first pereiopod. Cristimenes gen. n., is designated for the echinoderm-associated species, P. commensalis, P. cristimanus, and P. zanzibaricus, all with a unique carpo-propodal articulation of the second pereiopods. Rapimenes gen. n. is established for the hydroid and antipatharian-associated P. brucei, P. granulimanus, and P. laevimanus, for which the long, slender and unequal second pereiopods and prehensile ambulatory propodi are the main synapomorphic characters.

  1. Details of the evolutionary history from invertebrates to vertebrates, as deduced from the sequences of 18S rDNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, H; Satoh, N

    1994-01-01

    Almost the entire sequences of 18S rDNA were determined for two chaetognaths, five echinoderms, a hemichordate, and two urochordates (a larvacean and a salp). Phylogenetic comparisons of the sequences, together with those of other deuterostomes (an ascidian, a cephalochordate, and vertebrates) and protostomes (an arthropod and a mollusc), suggest the monophyly of the deuterostomes, with the exception of the chaetognaths. Chaetognaths may not be a group of deuterostomes. The deuterostome group closest to vertebrates was the group of cephalochordates. Ascidians, larvaceans, and salps seem to form a discrete group (urochordates), in which the early divergence of larvaceans is evident. These results support the hypothesis that chordates evolved from free-living ancestors. PMID:8127885

  2. Mussel dredging: Impact on epifauna in Limfjorden, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolmer, Per

    2002-01-01

    Species composition and population density of epibenthos are described in two areas in Limfjorden, Denmark. Both areas covered both a mussel fishing ground and an area that has been permanently closed for mussel dredging since 1988. Furthermore, mussels were dredged in a part of the mussel fishing...... grounds in both areas four months before the investigations. The rest of the fishing grounds had not been exploited for at least four years. This study describes the short-term impact (4 mo) and long-term impact (>4 y) of mussel dredging using the permanently closed areas as controls. The data were...... analyzed by multivariate statistics. In both short-term study areas significant effects of dredging were observed. A number of taxa (sponges, echinoderms, anthozoans, molluscs, crustaceans, and ascidians) had a reduced density or were not observed in fished areas four months after the fishing was ended...

  3. The post-Laramide clastic deposits of the Sierra de Guanajuato: Compositional implications on the tectono-sedimentary and paleographic evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda-Aviles, R.; Puy-Alquiza, M.J.; OmaNa, L.; Loza-Aguirre, I.

    2016-07-01

    This article presents the results of the study on sedimentation, sedimentary environments, tectono-sedimentary and paleogeographic evolution of post-Laramide clastic deposits and pre-volcanism of the Sierra Madre Occidental in the Sierra de Guanajuato, central Mexico. The Eocene Duarte Conglomerate and Guanajuato Conglomerate were deposited in the middle and distal parts of alluvial fans. The studied rocks are composed of limestone clasts, granite, andesite, metasediments, diorite, and pyroxenite, indicating the erosion of uplifted blocks of the basal complex of the Sierra de Guanajuato (Arperos basin). The petrographic and compositional analysis of limestone shows a textural variation from basin limestones and shallow platform limestones. The shallow platform limestone contain bivalves, brachiopods, gastropods, echinoderms and benthic foraminifera from the Berriasian-Valanginian. The shallow-water limestone corresponds to the boundary of the Arperos basin whose original outcrops currently not outcrop in the Sierra de Guanajuato. (Author)

  4. The sea urchin, a versatile model for eco-toxicity studies and ecological experimental research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Privitera

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Echinoderm early developmental stages represent a good tool for toxicity testing in different fields, ranging from environment to food contamination, and in full respect of the 3Rs objectives (Reduction, Refinement, Replacement of animal experiments, that will lead to the reduction of vertebrate use for toxicity testing. Further, sea urchins are key species in a wide range of marine habitats, as they are able to structure algal community. Experiments and observations aiming at the  characterization of anthropogenic or climate changes effects on their settlement, population structure, feeding behaviour and reproductive condition, may be useful to describe future scenarios regarding the whole marine community. The present paper represents a short review of the possible applications of eco-toxicity bioassays using Paracentrotus lividus gametes and embryos. Further, examples of ecological researches, involving sea urchins, aiming at the definition of future scenarios will be preserved.

  5. Weighted gene co-expression network analysis reveals potential genes involved in early metamorphosis process in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongxin; Kikuchi, Mani; Li, Xueyan; Gao, Qionghua; Xiong, Zijun; Ren, Yandong; Zhao, Ruoping; Mao, Bingyu; Kondo, Mariko; Irie, Naoki; Wang, Wen

    2018-01-01

    Sea cucumbers, one main class of Echinoderms, have a very fast and drastic metamorphosis process during their development. However, the molecular basis under this process remains largely unknown. Here we systematically examined the gene expression profiles of Japanese common sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) for the first time by RNA sequencing across 16 developmental time points from fertilized egg to juvenile stage. Based on the weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA), we identified 21 modules. Among them, MEdarkmagenta was highly expressed and correlated with the early metamorphosis process from late auricularia to doliolaria larva. Furthermore, gene enrichment and differentially expressed gene analysis identified several genes in the module that may play key roles in the metamorphosis process. Our results not only provide a molecular basis for experimentally studying the development and morphological complexity of sea cucumber, but also lay a foundation for improving its emergence rate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Methodologies for estimating toxicity of shoreline cleaning agents in the field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clayton, J.R.Jr.; Stransky, B.C.; Schwartz, M.J.; Snyder, B.J.; Lees, D.C.; Michel, J.; Reilly, T.J.

    1996-01-01

    Four methodologies that could be used in a portable kit to estimate quantitative and qualitative information regarding the toxicity of oil spill cleaning agents, were evaluated. Onshore cleaning agents (SCAs) are meant to enhance the removal of treated oil from shoreline surfaces, and should not increase adverse impacts to organisms in a treated area. Tests, therefore, should be performed with resident organisms likely to be impacted during the use of SCAs. The four methodologies were Microtox T M, fertilization success for echinoderm eggs, byssal thread attachment in mussels, and righting and water-escaping ability in periwinkle snails. Site specific variations in physical and chemical properties of the oil and SCAs were considered. Results were provided, showing all combinations of oils and SCAs. Evaluation showed that all four methodologies provided sufficient information to assist a user in deciding whether or not the use of an SCA was warranted. 33 refs., 7 tabs., 11 figs

  7. Mechanisms of Acquired Resistance to ALK Inhibitors and the Rationale for Treating ALK-positive Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isozaki, Hideko [Department of Clinical Pharmaceutics, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan); Takigawa, Nagio, E-mail: ntakigaw@gmail.com [Department of General Internal Medicine 4, Kawasaki Medical School, Okayama 700-8505 (Japan); Kiura, Katsuyuki [Department of Allergy and Respiratory Medicine, Okayama University Hospital, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan)

    2015-04-30

    The discovery of an echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 (EML4)-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) fusion gene led to improved clinical outcomes in patients with lung cancer after the development of the first ALK-targeting agent, crizotinib. Some second-generation ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), which might be more potent than crizotinib or effective on crizotinib-resistant patients, have been developed. Although these ALK-TKIs show an excellent response initially, most patients eventually acquire resistance. Therefore, careful consideration of the resistance mechanisms might lead to superior therapeutic strategies. Here, we summarize the history of ALK-TKIs and their underlying resistance mechanisms in both the preclinical and clinical settings. In addition, we discuss potential future treatment strategies in ALK-TKI-naïve and -resistant patients with lung cancer harboring the EML4-ALK fusion gene.

  8. Ultrastructural and biochemical characterization of mechanically adaptable collagenous structures in the edible sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbaglio, Alice; Tricarico, Serena; Ribeiro, Ana R; Di Benedetto, Cristiano; Barbato, Marta; Dessì, Desirèe; Fugnanesi, Valeria; Magni, Stefano; Mosca, Fabio; Sugni, Michela; Bonasoro, Francesco; Barbosa, Mario A; Wilkie, Iain C; Candia Carnevali, M Daniela

    2015-06-01

    The viscoelastic properties of vertebrate connective tissues rarely undergo significant changes within physiological timescales, the only major exception being the reversible destiffening of the mammalian uterine cervix at the end of pregnancy. In contrast to this, the connective tissues of echinoderms (sea urchins, starfish, sea cucumbers, etc.) can switch reversibly between stiff and compliant conditions in timescales of around a second to minutes. Elucidation of the molecular mechanism underlying such mutability has implications for the zoological, ecological and evolutionary field. Important information could also arise for veterinary and biomedical sciences, particularly regarding the pathological plasticization or stiffening of connective tissue structures. In the present investigation we analyzed aspects of the ultrastructure and biochemistry in two representative models, the compass depressor ligament and the peristomial membrane of the edible sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus, compared in three different mechanical states. The results provide further evidence that the mechanical adaptability of echinoderm connective tissues does not necessarily imply changes in the collagen fibrils themselves. The higher glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content registered in the peristomial membrane with respect to the compass depressor ligament suggests a diverse role of these molecules in the two mutable collagenous tissues. The possible involvement of GAG in the mutability phenomenon will need further clarification. During the shift from a compliant to a standard condition, significant changes in GAG content were detected only in the compass depressor ligament. Similarities in terms of ultrastructure (collagen fibrillar assembling) and biochemistry (two alpha chains) were found between the two models and mammalian collagen. Nevertheless, differences in collagen immunoreactivity, alpha chain migration on SDS-PAGE and BLAST alignment highlighted the uniqueness of sea urchin

  9. First Report of Ciguatoxins in Two Starfish Species: Ophidiaster ophidianus and Marthasterias glacialis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Silva

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP is a syndrome caused by the ingestion of fish contaminated with Ciguatoxins (CTXs. These phycotoxins are produced mainly by dinoflagellates that belong to the genus Gambierdiscus that are transformed in more toxic forms in predatory fish guts, and are more present in the Indo-Pacific and Caribbean areas. It is estimated that CFP causes per year more than 10,000 intoxications worldwide. With the rise of water temperature and anthropogenic intervention, it is important to study the prevalence of CFP in more temperate waters. Through inter- and subtidal sampling, 22 species of organisms were collected, in Madeira and Azores archipelagos and in the northwestern Moroccan coast, during September of 2012 and June and July of 2013. A total of 94 samples of 22 different species of bivalves, gastropods, echinoderms and crustaceans where analyzed by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectometry-Ion Trap-Time of Flight (UPLC-MS-IT-TOF and Ultra Performance Chromatography- Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-MS. Our main aim was to detect new vectors and ascertain if there were some geographical differences. We detected for the first time putative CTXs in echinoderms, in two starfish species—M. glacialis and O. ophidianus. We detected differences regarding uptake values by organisms and geographical location. Toxin amounts were significant, showing the importance and the need for continuity of these studies to gain more knowledge about the prevalence of these toxins, in order to better access human health risk. In addition, we suggest monitoring of these toxins should be extended to other vectors, starfish being a good alternative for protecting and accessing human health risk.

  10. Tissue regeneration and biomineralization in sea urchins: role of Notch signaling and presence of stem cell markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena C Reinardy

    Full Text Available Echinoderms represent a phylum with exceptional regenerative capabilities that can reconstruct both external appendages and internal organs. Mechanistic understanding of the cellular pathways involved in regeneration in these animals has been hampered by the limited genomic tools and limited ability to manipulate regenerative processes. We present a functional assay to investigate mechanisms of tissue regeneration and biomineralization by measuring the regrowth of amputated tube feet (sensory and motor appendages and spines in the sea urchin, Lytechinus variegatus. The ability to manipulate regeneration was demonstrated by concentration-dependent inhibition of regrowth of spines and tube feet by treatment with the mitotic inhibitor, vincristine. Treatment with the gamma-secretase inhibitor DAPT resulted in a concentration-dependent inhibition of regrowth, indicating that both tube feet and spine regeneration require functional Notch signaling. Stem cell markers (Piwi and Vasa were expressed in tube feet and spine tissue, and Vasa-positive cells were localized throughout the epidermis of tube feet by immunohistochemistry, suggesting the existence of multipotent progenitor cells in these highly regenerative appendages. The presence of Vasa protein in other somatic tissues (e.g. esophagus, radial nerve, and a sub-population of coelomocytes suggests that multipotent cells are present throughout adult sea urchins and may contribute to normal homeostasis in addition to regeneration. Mechanistic insight into the cellular pathways governing the tremendous regenerative capacity of echinoderms may reveal processes that can be modulated for regenerative therapies, shed light on the evolution of regeneration, and enable the ability to predict how these processes will respond to changing environmental conditions.

  11. LPS-induced genes in intestinal tissue of the sea cucumber Holothuria glaberrima.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Ramírez-Gómez

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Metazoan immunity is mainly associated with specialized cells that are directly involved with the immune response. Nevertheless, both in vertebrates and invertebrates other organs might respond to immune activation and participate either directly or indirectly in the ongoing immune process. However, most of what is known about invertebrate immunity has been restricted to immune effector cells and little information is available on the immune responses of other tissues or organs. We now focus on the immune reactions of the intestinal tissue of an echinoderm. Our study employs a non-conventional model, the echinoderm Holothuria glaberrima, to identify intestinal molecules expressed after an immune challenge presented by an intra-coelomic injection of lipopolysaccharides (LPS. The expression profiles of intestinal genes expressed differentially between LPS-injected animals and control sea water-injected animals were determined using a custom-made Agilent microarray with 7209 sea cucumber intestinal ESTs. Fifty (50 unique sequences were found to be differentially expressed in the intestine of LPS-treated sea cucumbers. Seven (7 of these sequences represented homologues of known proteins, while the remaining (43 had no significant similarity with any protein, EST or RNA database. The known sequences corresponded to cytoskeletal proteins (Actin and alpha-actinin, metabolic enzymes (GAPDH, Ahcy and Gnmt, metal ion transport/metabolism (major yolk protein and defense/recognition (fibrinogen-like protein. The expression pattern of 11 genes was validated using semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Nine of these corroborated the microarray results and the remaining two showed a similar trend but without statistical significance. Our results show some of the molecular events by which the holothurian intestine responds to an immune challenge and provide important information to the study of the evolution of the immune response.

  12. EML proteins in microtubule regulation and human disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Andrew M; O'Regan, Laura; Montgomery, Jessica; Adib, Rozita; Bayliss, Richard

    2016-10-15

    The EMLs are a conserved family of microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs). The founding member was discovered in sea urchins as a 77-kDa polypeptide that co-purified with microtubules. This protein, termed EMAP for echinoderm MAP, was the major non-tubulin component present in purified microtubule preparations made from unfertilized sea urchin eggs [J. Cell Sci. (1993) 104: , 445-450; J. Cell Sci. (1987) 87: (Pt 1), 71-84]. Orthologues of EMAP were subsequently identified in other echinoderms, such as starfish and sand dollar, and then in more distant eukaryotes, including flies, worms and vertebrates, where the name of ELP or EML (both for EMAP-like protein) has been adopted [BMC Dev. Biol. (2008) 8: , 110; Dev. Genes Evol. (2000) 210: , 2-10]. The common property of these proteins is their ability to decorate microtubules. However, whether they are associated with particular microtubule populations or exercise specific functions in different microtubule-dependent processes remains unknown. Furthermore, although there is limited evidence that they regulate microtubule dynamics, the biochemical mechanisms of their molecular activity have yet to be explored. Nevertheless, interest in these proteins has grown substantially because of the identification of EML mutations in neuronal disorders and oncogenic fusions in human cancers. Here, we summarize our current knowledge of the expression, localization and structure of what is proving to be an interesting and important class of MAPs. We also speculate about their function in microtubule regulation and highlight how the studies of EMLs in human diseases may open up novel avenues for patient therapy. © 2016 The Author(s); published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  13. First Report of Ciguatoxins in Two Starfish Species: Ophidiaster ophidianus and Marthasterias glacialis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Marisa; Rodriguez, Inés; Barreiro, Aldo; Kaufmann, Manfred; Isabel Neto, Ana; Hassouani, Meryem; Sabour, Brahim; Alfonso, Amparo; Botana, Luis M; Vasconcelos, Vitor

    2015-09-21

    Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is a syndrome caused by the ingestion of fish contaminated with Ciguatoxins (CTXs). These phycotoxins are produced mainly by dinoflagellates that belong to the genus Gambierdiscus that are transformed in more toxic forms in predatory fish guts, and are more present in the Indo-Pacific and Caribbean areas. It is estimated that CFP causes per year more than 10,000 intoxications worldwide. With the rise of water temperature and anthropogenic intervention, it is important to study the prevalence of CFP in more temperate waters. Through inter- and subtidal sampling, 22 species of organisms were collected, in Madeira and Azores archipelagos and in the northwestern Moroccan coast, during September of 2012 and June and July of 2013. A total of 94 samples of 22 different species of bivalves, gastropods, echinoderms and crustaceans where analyzed by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectometry-Ion Trap-Time of Flight (UPLC-MS-IT-TOF) and Ultra Performance Chromatography- Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-MS). Our main aim was to detect new vectors and ascertain if there were some geographical differences. We detected for the first time putative CTXs in echinoderms, in two starfish species-M. glacialis and O. ophidianus. We detected differences regarding uptake values by organisms and geographical location. Toxin amounts were significant, showing the importance and the need for continuity of these studies to gain more knowledge about the prevalence of these toxins, in order to better access human health risk. In addition, we suggest monitoring of these toxins should be extended to other vectors, starfish being a good alternative for protecting and accessing human health risk.

  14. The central nervous system of sea cucumbers (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea shows positive immunostaining for a chordate glial secretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grondona Jesus M

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Echinoderms and chordates belong to the same monophyletic taxon, the Deuterostomia. In spite of significant differences in body plan organization, the two phyla may share more common traits than was thought previously. Of particular interest are the common features in the organization of the central nervous system. The present study employs two polyclonal antisera raised against bovine Reissner's substance (RS, a secretory product produced by glial cells of the subcomissural organ, to study RS-like immunoreactivity in the central nervous system of sea cucumbers. Results In the ectoneural division of the nervous system, both antisera recognize the content of secretory vacuoles in the apical cytoplasm of the radial glia-like cells of the neuroepithelium and in the flattened glial cells of the non-neural epineural roof epithelium. The secreted immunopositive material seems to form a thin layer covering the cell apices. There is no accumulation of the immunoreactive material on the apical surface of the hyponeural neuroepithelium or the hyponeural roof epithelium. Besides labelling the supporting cells and flattened glial cells of the epineural roof epithelium, both anti-RS antisera reveal a previously unknown putative glial cell type within the neural parenchyma of the holothurian nervous system. Conclusion Our results show that: a the glial cells of the holothurian tubular nervous system produce a material similar to Reissner's substance known to be synthesized by secretory glial cells in all chordates studied so far; b the nervous system of sea cucumbers shows a previously unrealized complexity of glial organization. Our findings also provide significant clues for interpretation of the evolution of the nervous system in the Deuterostomia. It is suggested that echinoderms and chordates might have inherited the RS-producing radial glial cell type from the central nervous system of their common ancestor, i.e., the last common

  15. Perturbation of gut bacteria induces a coordinated cellular immune response in the purple sea urchin larva

    Science.gov (United States)

    CH Ho, Eric; Buckley, Katherine M; Schrankel, Catherine S; Schuh, Nicholas W; Hibino, Taku; Solek, Cynthia M; Bae, Koeun; Wang, Guizhi; Rast, Jonathan P

    2016-01-01

    The purple sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) genome sequence contains a complex repertoire of genes encoding innate immune recognition proteins and homologs of important vertebrate immune regulatory factors. To characterize how this immune system is deployed within an experimentally tractable, intact animal, we investigate the immune capability of the larval stage. Sea urchin embryos and larvae are morphologically simple and transparent, providing an organism-wide model to view immune response at cellular resolution. Here we present evidence for immune function in five mesenchymal cell types based on morphology, behavior and gene expression. Two cell types are phagocytic; the others interact at sites of microbial detection or injury. We characterize immune-associated gene markers for three cell types, including a perforin-like molecule, a scavenger receptor, a complement-like thioester-containing protein and the echinoderm-specific immune response factor 185/333. We elicit larval immune responses by (1) bacterial injection into the blastocoel and (2) seawater exposure to the marine bacterium Vibrio diazotrophicus to perturb immune state in the gut. Exposure at the epithelium induces a strong response in which pigment cells (one type of immune cell) migrate from the ectoderm to interact with the gut epithelium. Bacteria that accumulate in the gut later invade the blastocoel, where they are cleared by phagocytic and granular immune cells. The complexity of this coordinated, dynamic inflammatory program within the simple larval morphology provides a system in which to characterize processes that direct both aspects of the echinoderm-specific immune response as well as those that are shared with other deuterostomes, including vertebrates. PMID:27192936

  16. Urochordate ascidians possess a single isoform of Aurora kinase that localizes to the midbody via TPX2 in eggs and cleavage stage embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celine Hebras

    Full Text Available Aurora kinases are key proteins found throughout the eukaryotes that control mitotic progression. Vertebrate Aurora-A and B kinases are thought to have evolved from a single Aurora-kinase isoform closest to that found in present day urochordates. In urochordate ascidians Aurora binds both TPX2 (a vertebrate AURKA partner and INCENP (a vertebrate AURKB partner and localizes to centrosomes and spindle microtubules as well as chromosomes and midbody during both meiosis and mitosis. Ascidian Aurora also displays this localization pattern during mitosis in echinoderms, strengthening the idea that non-vertebrate deuterostomes such as the urochordates and echinoderms possess a single form of Aurora kinase that has properties of vertebrate Aurora-kinase A and B. In the ascidian, TPX2 localizes to the centrosome and the spindle poles also as in vertebrates. However, we were surprised to find that TPX2 also localized strongly to the midbody in ascidian eggs and embryos. We thus examined more closely Aurora localization to the midbody by creating two separate point mutations of ascidian Aurora predicted to perturb binding to TPX2. Both forms of mutated Aurora behaved as predicted: neither localized to spindle poles where TPX2 is enriched. Interestingly, neither form of mutated Aurora localized to the midbody where TPX2 is also enriched, suggesting that ascidian Aurora midbody localization required TPX2 binding in ascidians. Functional analysis revealed that inhibition of Aurora kinase with a pharmacological inhibitor or with a dominant negative kinase dead form of Aurora caused cytokinesis failure and perturbed midbody formation during polar body extrusion. Our data support the view that vertebrate Aurora-A and B kinases evolved from a single non-vertebrate deuterostome ancestor. Moreover, since TPX2 localizes to the midbody in ascidian eggs and cleavage stage embryos it may be worthwhile re-assessing whether Aurora A kinase or TPX2 localize to the midbody

  17. Diversidad y distribución de crustáceos y equinodermos y su relación con niveles de sedimentación en arrecifes coralinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ella Vázquez-Domínguez

    2003-03-01

    ólo nos permiten hacer descripciones generales, el conocer las características poblacionales y de historia natural de estas comunidades arrecifales, aunado al conocimiento de las perturbaciones asociadas con las actividades humanas, provee información útil para la planeación de actividades de restauración y conservación de este ecosistema.Seven reef formations were studied in South Caicos, Turks & Caicos, to determine the species richness, patterns of diversity and patterns of distribution of crustaceans and echinoderms, and to evaluate the relationship between these parameters and the degree of sedimentation of the different sites. The reefs showed a gradient from a high sedimentation level, almost totally covered by algae, to places with no sediment particles deposited over the corals. Sites were classified as with high, low or null sedimentation, and species richness, abundance, diversity, spatial distribution of species and similarity among sites were estimated. No unique pattern was found: for crustaceans as well as for echinoderms, the site with the highest diversity value and high equitability, presumably associated to the environmental heterogeneity of this reef formation, showed null sedimentation and an uniform and random pattern of distribution, crustaceans and echinoderms respectively. The two sites with the lowest diversity for both animal groups, although with different sedimentation levels, showed the lowest equitability value and were the only sites with an aggregated pattern of distribution. The next sites in diversity for crustaceans were those with high sedimentation, probably because most species present inhabit empty conchs, in the sediment, or among seagrasses. For the echinoderms, on the contrary, the intermediate sites in diversity had low sedimentation; the habitat requirements for these species (inside sponges, over the corals or among rocks may have determined this result. The sites with lowest diversity had high sedimentation levels. In

  18. Evidence for gill slits and a pharynx in Cambrian vetulicolians: implications for the early evolution of deuterostomes

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    Ou Qiang

    2012-10-01

    members of the stem-group deuterostomes; a group best known as the chordates (amphioxus, tunicates, vertebrates, but also including the ambulacrarians (echinoderms, hemichordates, and xenoturbellids. If the latter, first they demonstrate that these members of the stem group show few similarities to the descendant crown group representatives. Second, of the key innovations that underpinned deuterostome success, the earliest and arguably most seminal was the evolution of openings that define the pharyngeal gill slits of hemichordates (and some extinct echinoderms and chordates.

  19. De Novo Adult Transcriptomes of Two European Brittle Stars: Spotlight on Opsin-Based Photoreception.

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    Jérôme Delroisse

    Full Text Available Next generation sequencing (NGS technology allows to obtain a deeper and more complete view of transcriptomes. For non-model or emerging model marine organisms, NGS technologies offer a great opportunity for rapid access to genetic information. In this study, paired-end Illumina HiSeqTM technology has been employed to analyse transcriptomes from the arm tissues of two European brittle star species, Amphiura filiformis and Ophiopsila aranea. About 48 million Illumina reads were generated and 136,387 total unigenes were predicted from A. filiformis arm tissues. For O. aranea arm tissues, about 47 million reads were generated and 123,324 total unigenes were obtained. Twenty-four percent of the total unigenes from A. filiformis show significant matches with sequences present in reference online databases, whereas, for O. aranea, this percentage amounts to 23%. In both species, around 50% of the predicted annotated unigenes were significantly similar to transcripts from the purple sea urchin, the closest species to date that has undergone complete genome sequencing and annotation. GO, COG and KEGG analyses were performed on predicted brittle star unigenes. We focused our analyses on the phototransduction actors involved in light perception. Firstly, two new echinoderm opsins were identified in O. aranea: one rhabdomeric opsin (homologous to vertebrate melanopsin and one RGR opsin. The RGR-opsin is supposed to be involved in retinal regeneration while the r-opsin is suspected to play a role in visual-like behaviour. Secondly, potential phototransduction actors were identified in both transcriptomes using the fly (rhabdomeric and mammal (ciliary classical phototransduction pathways as references. Finally, the sensitivity of O.aranea to monochromatic light was investigated to complement data available for A. filiformis. The presence of microlens-like structures at the surface of dorsal arm plate of O. aranea could potentially explain phototactic

  20. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Regulation of PD-L2 Expression in Oncogene-Driven Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibahara, Daisuke; Tanaka, Kentaro; Iwama, Eiji; Kubo, Naoki; Ota, Keiichi; Azuma, Koichi; Harada, Taishi; Fujita, Jiro; Nakanishi, Yoichi; Okamoto, Isamu

    2018-03-27

    The interaction of programmed cell death ligand 2 (PD-L2) with programmed cell death 1 is implicated in tumor immune escape. The regulation of PD-L2 expression in tumor cells has remained unclear, however. We here examined intrinsic and extrinsic regulation of PD-L2 expression in NSCLC. PD-L2 expression was evaluated by reverse transcription and real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis and by flow cytometry. BEAS-2B cells stably expressing an activated mutant form of EGFR or the echinoderm microtubule associated protein like 4 (EML4)-ALK receptor tyrosine kinase fusion oncoprotein manifested increased expression of PD-L2 at both the mRNA and protein levels. Furthermore, treatment of NSCLC cell lines that harbor such driver oncogenes with corresponding EGFR or ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitors or depletion of EGFR or ALK by small interfering RNA transfection suppressed expression of PD-L2, demonstrating that activating EGFR mutations or echinoderm microtubule associated protein like 4 gene (EML4)-ALK receptor tyrosine kinase gene (ALK) fusion intrinsically induce PD-L2 expression. We also found that interferon gamma (IFN-γ) extrinsically induced expression of PD-L2 through signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 signaling in NSCLC cells. Oncogene-driven expression of PD-L2 in NSCLC cells was inhibited by knockdown of the transcription factors signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) or c-FOS. IFN-γ also activated STAT3 and c-FOS, suggesting that these proteins may also contribute to the extrinsic induction of PD-L2 expression. Expression of PD-L2 is induced intrinsically by activating EGFR mutations or EML4-ALK fusion and extrinsically by IFN-γ, with STAT3 and c-FOS possibly contributing to both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways. Our results thus provide insight into the complexity of tumor immune escape in NSCLC. Copyright © 2018 International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Estudio anual del zooplancton: composición, abundancia, biomasa e hidrología del norte de Quintana Roo, mar Caribe de México Annual study of zooplankton: composition, abundance, biomass and hydrology from the north of Quintana Roo, Mexican Caribbean Sea

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    José N Álvarez-Cadena

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Se llevaron a cabo muestreos de zooplancton en la zona lagunar y costera del Caribe mexicano, desde Puerto Morelos hasta Cancún. Las recolectas se llevaron a cabo de enero a diciembre de 2004 en 12 localidades. Se identificaron 41 grupos del zooplancton donde los copépodos fueron los más abundantes (61% seguidos de las larvas de equinodermos (17% y decápodos (5%. El copépodo Acartia tonsa fue la especie más abundante de este grupo en el Sistema Lagunar Nichupté (SLN. En la zona marina adyacente los copépodos estuvieron representados en orden de importancia por Acartia spinata, Pseudocalanus sp. y Calanopia americana. En todas las estaciones se capturaron equinodermos del tipo equinopluteus-ofiopluteus, pero con mayor abundancia en el SLN. El quetognato Ferosagitta hispida fue la única especie que se encontró en el SLN, donde fue más abundante. Los decápodos estuvieron representados principalmente por larvas zoeas; las larvas de peces por 54 familias, de las cuales los góbidos de los géneros Ctenogobius sp., Gobionellus sp. y Gobiosoma sp. fueron los mejor representados, particularmente para el SLN. La biomasa fue mayor en el SLN.Zooplankton sampling was carried out in the northern coast of the Mexican Caribbean Sea, from Puerto Morelos to Cancun. Captures were made with a conic net 0.4m diameter, 1.40m length and 0.330 mm mesh from January to December 2004 at twelve locations. A total of 41 zooplankton groups were identified. Copepods were the most abundant taxa making up 61%, followed by echinoderms (17% and decapods (5%. Acartia tonsa at the Nichupte Lagoon System (SLN over numbered the copepod fauna and occasionally the whole zooplankton population. Along the coast Acartia spinata, Pseudocalanus sp, and Calanopia americana were the most important copepods. Echinoderms larvae such as echinopluteus-ophiopluteus were present at all sampled stations but were more abundant at the NLS. For chaetognaths, Ferosagitta hispida dominated

  2. Mississippian carbonate buildups and development of cool-waterlike carbonate platforms in the Illinois Basin, Midcontinent U.S.A.

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    Lasemi, Z.; Norby, R.D.; Utgaard, J.E.; Ferry, W.R.; Cuffey, R.J.; Dever, G.R.

    2005-01-01

    Numerous biohermal buildups occur in Mississippian (Lower Carboniferous) strata in the Illinois Basin and adjacent regions. They developed as mud mounds, biodetrital calcisiltite mounds, and bryozoan frame thickets (fenestrate-frame coquina or rudstone) during the Kinderhookian and early Meramecian (Tournaisian and early Visean), and as microbial mud mounds, microbial- serpulidbryozoanboundstones, and solenoporoid (red algal) boundstones during the Chesterian (late Visean and Serpukhovian). True Waulsortian mounds did not develop in the Illinois Basin, but echinoderm (primarily crinoids)-bryozoan carbonate banks and bryozoan frame thickets generally occupied the same niche during the Kinderhookian-early Meramecian. Nutrient availability and the resulting increase in the productivity of echinoderms and bryozoans were apparently detrimental to Waulsortian mound development. Deposition of crinoidal-bryozoan carbonates during the Kinderhookian-Osagean initially occurred on a ramp setting that later evolved into a platform with a relatively steep margin through sediment aggradation and progradation. By mid-Osagean-early Meramecian, two such platforms, namely the Burlington Shelf and the Ullin Platform, developed adjacent to a deep, initially starved basin. Sedimentologic and petrographic characteristics of the Kinderhookian-earliest Meramecian carbonates resemble the modern cool-water Heterozoan Association. This is in contrast with post-earliest Meramecian carbonates, which are typically oolitic and peloidal with common peri tidal facies. The post-earliest Meramecian carbonates, therefore, resemble those of the warm-water Photozoan Association. The prevalence of Heterozoan carbonates in the Illinois Basin correlates with a rapid increase in the rate of subsidence and a major second-order eustatic sea-level rise that resulted in deep-water starved basins at this time. In the starved Illinois Basin, deposition was initially limited to a thin phosphatic shale that was

  3. Conodonts, Calcichordates and the Origin of Vertebrates

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    J. Bergström

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Interpretation of early deuterostome evolution and relationships has been hampered by the lack of soft-part preservation in most groups. In addition, a recently revealed upside-down life orientation of vertebrates (the only real notoneuralians compared to other bilateral animals has been misinterpreted as evidence for a unique body design in all deuterostomes, misleading any search for relatives. Regarding echinoderms, the variety of body plans is confusing. The interpretation of some fossils with echinoderm-type calcite skeletons as “calcichordate” ancestors of chordates, however, involves a hypothetical reconstruction of an unusual body plan and a long series of hypothetical transitions. The number of necessary steps is much lower if cephalochordates (amphioxus or lancelet are derived directly from hemichordate enteropneusts. “Sensation interpretations” of fossils (Yunnanozoon, Cathaymyrus from Burgess Shale type deposits have added further confusion. Soft-part preservation of conodont animals, with V-shaped myomeres and a notochord, shows that they were segmented chordates, while probable eyes and teeth suggest that they were already on the vertebrate side. Die Interpretation früher Deuterostomia hinsichtlich ihrer Evolution und verwandtschaftlichen Beziehungen ist in den meisten Gruppen durch den Mangel an Weichkörpererhaltung sehr erschwert. Die kürzlich entdeckte Tatsache, daß Vertebraten, d. h. die einzigen echten Notoneuralia, im Gegensatz zu anderen bilateral symmetrischen Organismen eine mit ihrer ursprünglichen Oberseite nach unten gerichtete Lebensstellung einnehmen, hat zu der irrtümlichen Ansicht geführt, daß alle Deuostomia über einen im Tierreich einzigartigen Bauplan verfügen. Diese Interpretation brachte naturgemäß jede Suche nach Verwandtschaftsverhältnissen auf Abwege. Hinsichtlich der Echinodermata ist die bauplanmäßige Variation in der Tat verwirrend. Die Interpretation einiger Fossilien mit

  4. Characterization and expression analysis of Galnts in developing Strongylocentrotus purpuratus embryos.

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    Amber L Famiglietti

    Full Text Available Mucin-type O-glycosylation is a ubiquitous posttranslational modification in which N-Acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc is added to the hydroxyl group of select serine or threonine residues of a protein by the family of UDP-GalNAc:Polypeptide N-Acetylgalactosaminyltransferases (GalNAc-Ts; EC 2.4.1.41. Previous studies demonstrate that O-glycosylation plays essential roles in protein function, cell-cell interactions, cell polarity and differentiation in developing mouse and Drosophila embryos. Although this type of protein modification is highly conserved among higher eukaryotes, little is known about this family of enzymes in echinoderms, basal deuterostome relatives of the chordates. To investigate the potential role of GalNAc-Ts in echinoderms, we have begun the characterization of this enzyme family in the purple sea urchin, S. purpuratus. We have fully or partially cloned a total of 13 genes (SpGalnts encoding putative sea urchin SpGalNAc-Ts, and have confirmed enzymatic activity of five recombinant proteins. Amino acid alignments revealed high sequence similarity among sea urchin and mammalian glycosyltransferases, suggesting the presence of putative orthologues. Structural models underscored these similarities and helped reconcile some of the substrate preferences observed. Temporal and spatial expression of SpGalnt transcripts, was studied by whole-mount in situ hybridization. We found that many of these genes are transcribed early in developing embryos, often with restricted expression to the endomesodermal region. Multicolor fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH demonstrated that transcripts encoding SpGalnt7-2 co-localized with both Endo16 (a gene expressed in the endoderm, and Gcm (a gene expressed in secondary mesenchyme cells at the early blastula stage, 20 hours post fertilization (hpf. At late blastula stage (28 hpf, SpGalnt7-2 message co-expresses with Gcm, suggesting that it may play a role in secondary mesenchyme development. We

  5. New Invertebrate Vectors of Okadaic Acid from the North Atlantic Waters—Portugal (Azores and Madeira) and Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Marisa; Rodriguez, Inés; Barreiro, Aldo; Kaufmann, Manfred; Neto, Ana Isabel; Hassouani, Meryem; Sabour, Brahim; Alfonso, Amparo; Botana, Luis M.; Vasconcelos, Vitor

    2015-01-01

    Okadaic acid and its analogues are potent phosphatase inhibitors that cause Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP) through the ingestion of contaminated shellfish by humans. This group of toxins is transmitted worldwide but the number of poisoning incidents has declined over the last 20 years due to legislation and monitoring programs that were implemented for bivalves. In the summer of 2012 and 2013, we collected a total of 101 samples of 22 different species that were made up of benthic and subtidal organisms such echinoderms, crustaceans, bivalves and gastropods from Madeira, São Miguel Island (Azores archipelago) and the northwestern coast of Morocco. The samples were analyzed by UPLC-MS/MS. Our main objective was to detect new vectors for these biotoxins. We can report nine new vectors for these toxins in the North Atlantic: Astropecten aranciacus, Arbacia lixula, Echinaster sepositus, Holothuria sanctori, Ophidiaster ophidianus, Onchidella celtica, Aplysia depilans, Patella spp., and Stramonita haemostoma. Differences in toxin contents among the species were found. Even though low concentrations were detected, the levels of toxins that were present, especially in edible species, indicate the importance of these types of studies. Routine monitoring should be extended to comprise a wider number of vectors other than for bivalves of okadaic acid and its analogues. PMID:26670254

  6. Reproductive biology and diet of Mustelus punctulatus (Risso, 1826 (Chondrichthyes: Triakidae from the Gulf of Gabès, central Mediterranean Sea

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    Bechir Saïdi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Specimens of Mustelus punctulatus were collected between January 2002 and December 2005 from commercial fisheries in the Gulf of Gabès (central Mediterranean Sea. Males and females reached a maximum total length (TL of 111 and 122 cm respectively. Males matured between 76 and 88.5 cm TL, with a size at maturity (TL50 of 81.4 cm TL. Females matured between 88 and 100 cm TL with a TL50 of 95.6 cm. Females had an annual reproductive cycle. Mating occurred through late-May and June. Ovulation occurred from early July to mid-August with parturition occurring from mid-May to early June, after a gestation period of 11 months. The size at birth was estimated to be 24.5 to 30.5 cm TL. Positive linear relationships were detected between the TL of mature females and ovarian and uterine fecundities. Mustelus punctulatus is an opportunistic predator that consumes a wide range of demersal and benthic prey items. It preys mainly on crustaceans, teleosts and molluscs. Polychaetes, sipunculids, echinoderms and tunicates are also consumed. The species change their main food item as they grow, from crustaceans to teleosts then to molluscs.

  7. Evidence of low molecular weight components in the organic matrix of the reef building coral, Stylophora pistillata.

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    Puverel, S; Houlbrèque, F; Tambutté, E; Zoccola, D; Payan, P; Caminiti, N; Tambutté, S; Allemand, D

    2007-08-01

    Biominerals contain both inorganic and organic components. Organic components are collectively termed the organic matrix, and this matrix has been reported to play a crucial role in mineralization. Several matrix proteins have been characterized in vertebrates, but only a few in invertebrates, primarily in Molluscs and Echinoderms. Methods classically used to extract organic matrix proteins eliminate potential low molecular weight matrix components, since cut-offs ranging from 3.5 to 10 kDa are used to desalt matrix extracts. Consequently, the presence of such components remains unknown and these are never subjected to further analyses. In the present study, we have used microcolonies from the Scleractinian coral Stylophora pistillata to study newly synthesized matrix components by labelling them with 14C-labelled amino acids. Radioactive matrix components were investigated by a method in which both total organic matrix and fractions of matrix below and above 5 kDa were analyzed. Using this method and SDS-PAGE analyses, we were able to detect the presence of low molecular mass matrix components (weight molecules, these probably form the bulk of newly synthesized organic matrix components. Our results suggest that these low molecular weight components may be peptides, which can be involved in the regulation of coral skeleton mineralization.

  8. Stable and dynamic microtubules coordinately shape the myosin activation zone during cytokinetic furrow formation

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    Foe, Victoria E.; von Dassow, George

    2008-01-01

    The cytokinetic furrow arises from spatial and temporal regulation of cortical contractility. To test the role microtubules play in furrow specification, we studied myosin II activation in echinoderm zygotes by assessing serine19-phosphorylated regulatory light chain (pRLC) localization after precisely timed drug treatments. Cortical pRLC was globally depressed before cytokinesis, then elevated only at the equator. We implicated cell cycle biochemistry (not microtubules) in pRLC depression, and differential microtubule stability in localizing the subsequent myosin activation. With no microtubules, pRLC accumulation occurred globally instead of equatorially, and loss of just dynamic microtubules increased equatorial pRLC recruitment. Nocodazole treatment revealed a population of stable astral microtubules that formed during anaphase; among these, those aimed toward the equator grew longer, and their tips coincided with cortical pRLC accumulation. Shrinking the mitotic apparatus with colchicine revealed pRLC suppression near dynamic microtubule arrays. We conclude that opposite effects of stable versus dynamic microtubules focuses myosin activation to the cell equator during cytokinesis. PMID:18955555

  9. High resolution cathodoluminescence spectroscopy of carbonate cementation in Khurmala Formation (Paleocene-L. Eocene) from Iraqi Kurdistan Region, Northern Iraq

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    Omer, Muhamed F.; Omer, Dilshad; Zebari, Bahroz Gh.

    2014-12-01

    A combination of high resolution cathodoluminsecnce-spectroscopy (HRS-CL) with spatial electron microprobe analysis and optical microscopy is used to determine paragenesis and history of cementation in the limestones and dolostones of Khurmala Formation which is exposed in many parts of Northern Iraq. Khurmala Formation was subjected to different diagenetic processes such as micritization, compaction, dissolution, neomorphism, pyritization and cementation that occurred during marine to shallow burial stages and culminated during intermediate to deep burial later stages. Five dolomite textures are recognized and classified according to crystal size distribution and crystal-boundary shape. Dolomitization is closely associated with the development of secondary porosity that pre-and postdates dissolution and corrosion; meanwhile such porosity was not noticed in the associated limestones. Microprobe analysis revealed three types of cement, calcite, dolomite and ankerite which range in their luminescence from dull to bright. Cathodoluminescence study indicated four main texture generations. These are (1) unzoned microdolomite of planar and subhedral shape, with syntaxial rim cement of echinoderm that show dull to red luminescence, (2) equant calcite cements filling interparticle pores which shows dull luminescence and weak zonal growth, (3.1) homogenous intrinsic blue stoichiometric calcite with dull luminescence and without activators, (3.2) coarse blocky calcite cement with strong oscillatory zoning and bright orange luminescence which postdates other calcite cements, (4) ankerite cement with red to orange, non-luminescence growth zonation which is the last formed cement.

  10. Deep questions about the nature of early-life signals: a commentary on Lister (1673) ‘A description of certain stones figured like plants’

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    Brasier, Martin

    2015-01-01

    In 1673, Martin Lister explored the preservation of ‘St Cuthbert's beads’ plus other fossil crinoid remains from approximately 350 Ma Carboniferous limestone in northern England. He used taphonomic evidence (transport, disarticulation, burial and cementation) to infer an origin as petrified plant remains, in contrast with his views expressed elsewhere that fossil mollusc shells could have formed abiogenically, by ‘plastic forces’ within rock. Lister also observed pentagonal symmetry, now seen as characteristic of living echinoderm skeletons. A postscript from John Ray supports Lister's ‘taphonomic’ observations and accepts the biogenicity of these fossil ‘vegetables’. Ray then concluded with a prophecy, predicting the discovery of comparable living fossils in remote ocean waters. These early discussions compare with current debates about the character of candidate microfossils from the early Earth and Mars. Interesting biomorphs are now tested against the abiogenic null hypotheses, making use of features such as those pioneered by Lister, including evidence for geological context, rules for growth and taphonomy. Advanced techniques now allow us to extend this list of criteria to include the nanoscale mapping of biology-like behaviour patterns plus metabolic pathways. Whereas the science of palaeobiology once began with tests for biogenicity, the same is now true for geobiology and astrobiology. This commentary was written to celebrate the 350th anniversary of the journal Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. PMID:25750150

  11. Regulatory heterochronies and loose temporal scaling between sea star and sea urchin regulatory circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gildor, Tsvia; Hinman, Veronica; Ben-Tabou-De-Leon, Smadar

    2017-01-01

    It has long been argued that heterochrony, a change in relative timing of a developmental process, is a major source of evolutionary innovation. Heterochronic changes of regulatory gene activation could be the underlying molecular mechanism driving heterochronic changes through evolution. Here, we compare the temporal expression profiles of key regulatory circuits between sea urchin and sea star, representative of two classes of Echinoderms that shared a common ancestor about 500 million years ago. The morphologies of the sea urchin and sea star embryos are largely comparable, yet, differences in certain mesodermal cell types and ectodermal patterning result in distinct larval body plans. We generated high resolution temporal profiles of 17 mesodermally-, endodermally- and ectodermally-expressed regulatory genes in the sea star, Patiria miniata, and compared these to their orthologs in the Mediterranean sea urchin, Paracentrotus lividus. We found that the maternal to zygotic transition is delayed in the sea star compared to the sea urchin, in agreement with the longer cleavage stage in the sea star. Interestingly, the order of gene activation shows the highest variation in the relatively diverged mesodermal circuit, while the correlations of expression dynamics are the highest in the strongly conserved endodermal circuit. We detected loose scaling of the developmental rates of these species and observed interspecies heterochronies within all studied regulatory circuits. Thus, after 500 million years of parallel evolution, mild heterochronies between the species are frequently observed and the tight temporal scaling observed for closely related species no longer holds.

  12. Spatial expression of Hox cluster genes in the ontogeny of a sea urchin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenas-Mena, C.; Cameron, A. R.; Davidson, E. H.

    2000-01-01

    The Hox cluster of the sea urchin Strongylocentrous purpuratus contains ten genes in a 500 kb span of the genome. Only two of these genes are expressed during embryogenesis, while all of eight genes tested are expressed during development of the adult body plan in the larval stage. We report the spatial expression during larval development of the five 'posterior' genes of the cluster: SpHox7, SpHox8, SpHox9/10, SpHox11/13a and SpHox11/13b. The five genes exhibit a dynamic, largely mesodermal program of expression. Only SpHox7 displays extensive expression within the pentameral rudiment itself. A spatially sequential and colinear arrangement of expression domains is found in the somatocoels, the paired posterior mesodermal structures that will become the adult perivisceral coeloms. No such sequential expression pattern is observed in endodermal, epidermal or neural tissues of either the larva or the presumptive juvenile sea urchin. The spatial expression patterns of the Hox genes illuminate the evolutionary process by which the pentameral echinoderm body plan emerged from a bilateral ancestor.

  13. Eggs for breakfast? Analysis of a probable mosasaur biting trace on the Cretaceous echinoid Echinocorys ovata Leske, 1778

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Neumann

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Fossil biting traces (praedichnia represent indirect evidence of predation and shed light on fossil predator–prey interactions and fossil food webs. Especially from echinoderm skeletons, biting traces are well known. Here, we describe the oral surface of a large Cretaceous (Maastrichtian holasteroid echinoid Echinocorys ovata Leske, 1778 from Hemmoor (northern Germany which exhibits four circular punctures arranged in a semi-circular arc. Whereas three of the punctures penetrated the skeleton, one puncture only just hit the margin of the echinoid test at the ambitus, leaving a long incision furrow in the skeleton. The punctures were not lethal to the sea urchin as is indicated by progressed skeletal regeneration and closure of the fractures. The overall appearance of the punctures suggests that they were produced during a single mechanical event, most likely by the biting action of the teeth of a large vertebrate animal. We analysed the shape and arrangement of the biting trace and conclude that it was probably produced by a marine reptile possessing a prognath tooth position, most likely by a globidensine mosasauroid. Our finding not only sheds light on mosasaur feeding behaviour and prey selection but also increases the knowledge of the food webs in the chalk sea ecosystem during the uppermost Cretaceous.

  14. Production, characterization and application of monoclonal antibodies to the coelomocytes of sea urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yinan; Meng, Shaodong; Zhang, Jialin; Ding, Jun; Li, Qiang

    2018-04-01

    Sea urchin is one of marine animals with high economic and great scientific research values. Axial organ is a glandular organ that has been presumed as coelomocytes origin site. In this paper, two monoclonal antibodies (3G10 and 6B3) against coelomocytes of sea urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius were developed by hybridoma technique. The mAbs were characterized by indirect immunofluorescence assay test (IIFAT), flow cytometry (FCM) and western blot assay. Results showed that mAb 3G10 recognized a protein of a molecular weight of 17 kDa in the spherule cells, while mAb 6B3 reacted with a protein of a molecular weight of 35 kDa in the phagocytes. Furthermore, specificity analysis revealed that the two mAbs could react with the coelomocytes of sea urchin S. nudus and Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus, but not with those of other common echinoderms including sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus and starfish Asterias rollestoni. To determine whether the coelomocytes exist in the axial organ of sea urchin, the IIFAT assays were carried out based on the two mAbs. Result showed that positive fluorescence signals were distributed in the organ. It was revealed that the axial organ was rich in coelomocytes, which suggests that the organ may play as a producing source or reservoir in the ontogenesis of coelomocytes of sea urchin. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. IL17 factors are early regulators in the gut epithelium during inflammatory response to Vibrio in the sea urchin larva

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Katherine M; Ho, Eric Chun Hei; Hibino, Taku; Schrankel, Catherine S; Schuh, Nicholas W; Wang, Guizhi; Rast, Jonathan P

    2017-01-01

    IL17 cytokines are central mediators of mammalian immunity. In vertebrates, these factors derive from diverse cellular sources. Sea urchins share a molecular heritage with chordates that includes the IL17 system. Here, we characterize the role of epithelial expression of IL17 in the larval gut-associated immune response. The purple sea urchin genome encodes 10 IL17 subfamilies (35 genes) and 2 IL17 receptors. Most of these subfamilies are conserved throughout echinoderms. Two IL17 subfamilies are sequentially strongly upregulated and attenuated in the gut epithelium in response to bacterial disturbance. IL17R1 signal perturbation results in reduced expression of several response genes including an IL17 subtype, indicating a potential feedback. A third IL17 subfamily is activated in adult immune cells indicating that expression in immune cells and epithelia is divided among families. The larva provides a tractable model to investigate the regulation and consequences of gut epithelial IL17 expression across the organism. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.23481.001 PMID:28447937

  16. A Waterborne Pursuit-Deterrent Signal Deployed by a Sea Urchin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard-Brennand, Hannah; Poore, Alistair G B; Dworjanyn, Symon A

    2017-06-01

    Selection by consumers has led to the evolution of a vast array of defenses in animals and plants. These defenses include physical structures, behaviors, and chemical signals that mediate interactions with predators. Some of the strangest defensive structures in nature are the globiferous pedicellariae of the echinoderms. These are small venomous appendages with jaws and teeth that cover the test of many sea urchins and sea stars. In this study, we report a unique use of these defensive structures by the collector sea urchin Tripneustes gratilla. In both the laboratory and the field, globiferous pedicellariae were unpalatable to fish consumers. When subject to simulated predator attack, sea urchins released a cloud of pedicellaria heads into the water column. Flume experiments established the presence of a waterborne cue associated with this release of pedicellariae that is deterrent to predatory fish. These novel results add to our understanding of how the ecosystem-shaping sea urchin T. gratilla is able to reach high densities in many reef habitats, with subsequent impacts on algal cover.

  17. Reciprocal Signaling between the Ectoderm and a Mesendodermal Left-Right Organizer Directs Left-Right Determination in the Sea Urchin Embryo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessodes, Nathalie; Haillot, Emmanuel; Duboc, Véronique; Röttinger, Eric; Lahaye, François; Lepage, Thierry

    2012-01-01

    During echinoderm development, expression of nodal on the right side plays a crucial role in positioning of the rudiment on the left side, but the mechanisms that restrict nodal expression to the right side are not known. Here we show that establishment of left-right asymmetry in the sea urchin embryo relies on reciprocal signaling between the ectoderm and a left-right organizer located in the endomesoderm. FGF/ERK and BMP2/4 signaling are required to initiate nodal expression in this organizer, while Delta/Notch signaling is required to suppress formation of this organizer on the left side of the archenteron. Furthermore, we report that the H+/K+-ATPase is critically required in the Notch signaling pathway upstream of the S3 cleavage of Notch. Our results identify several novel players and key early steps responsible for initiation, restriction, and propagation of left-right asymmetry during embryogenesis of a non-chordate deuterostome and uncover a functional link between the H+/K+-ATPase and the Notch signaling pathway. PMID:23271979

  18. Sea urchin tube feet are photosensory organs that express a rhabdomeric-like opsin and PAX6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesser, Michael P.; Carleton, Karen L.; Böttger, Stefanie A.; Barry, Thomas M.; Walker, Charles W.

    2011-01-01

    All echinoderms have unique hydraulic structures called tube feet, known for their roles in light sensitivity, respiration, chemoreception and locomotion. In the green sea urchin, the most distal portion of these tube feet contain five ossicles arranged as a light collector with its concave surface facing towards the ambient light. These ossicles are perforated and lined with pigment cells that express a PAX6 protein that is universally involved in the development of eyes and sensory organs in other bilaterians. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based sequencing and real time quantitative PCR (qPCR) also demonstrate the presence and differential expression of a rhabdomeric-like opsin within these tube feet. Morphologically, nerves that could serve to transmit information to the test innervate the tube feet, and the differential expression of opsin transcripts in the tube feet is inversely, and significantly, related to the amount of light that tube feet are exposed to depending on their location on the test. The expression of these genes, the differential expression of opsin based on light exposure and the unique morphological features at the distal portion of the tube foot strongly support the hypothesis that in addition to previously identified functional roles of tube feet they are also photosensory organs that detect and respond to changes in the underwater light field. PMID:21450733

  19. A Screening Method for the ALK Fusion Gene in NSCLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Yoshiko; Mitsudomi, Tetsuya; Yatabe, Yasushi

    2012-01-01

    Lung cancer research has recently made significant progress in understanding the molecular pathogenesis of lung cancer and in developing treatments for it. Such achievements are directly utilized in clinical practice. Indeed, the echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4–anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) fusion gene was first described in non-small cell lung cancer in 2007, and a molecularly targeted drug against the fusion was approved in 2011. However, lung cancer with the ALK fusion constitutes only a small fraction of lung cancers; therefore, efficient patient selection is crucial for successful treatment using the ALK inhibitor. Currently, RT-PCR, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), and immunohistochemistry are commonly used to detect the ALK fusion. Although FISH is currently the gold standard technique, there are no perfect methods for detecting these genetic alterations. In this article, we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each method and the possible criteria for selecting patients who are more likely to have the ALK fusion. If we can successfully screen patients, then ALK inhibitor treatment will be the best example of personalized therapy in terms of selecting patients with an uncommon genotype from a larger group with the same tumor phenotype. In other words, the personalized therapy may offer a new challenge for current clinical oncology.

  20. Stratigraphy and facies development of the marine Late Devonian near the Boulongour Reservoir, northwest Xinjiang, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suttner, Thomas J.; Kido, Erika; Chen, Xiuqin; Mawson, Ruth; Waters, Johnny A.; Frýda, Jiří; Mathieson, David; Molloy, Peter D.; Pickett, John; Webster, Gary D.; Frýdová, Barbora

    2014-02-01

    Late Devonian to Early Carboniferous stratigraphic units within the 'Zhulumute' Formation, Hongguleleng Formation (stratotype), 'Hebukehe' Formation and the Heishantou Formation near the Boulongour Reservoir in northwestern Xinjiang are fossil-rich. The Hongguleleng and 'Hebukehe' formations are biostratigraphically well constrained by microfossils from the latest Frasnian linguiformis to mid-Famennian trachytera conodont biozones. The Hongguleleng Formation (96.8 m) is characterized by bioclastic argillaceous limestones and marls (the dominant facies) intercalated with green spiculitic calcareous shales. It yields abundant and highly diverse faunas of bryozoans, brachiopods and crinoids with subordinate solitary rugose corals, ostracods, trilobites, conodonts and other fish teeth. The succeeding 'Hebukehe' Formation (95.7 m) consists of siltstones, mudstones, arenites and intervals of bioclastic limestone (e.g. 'Blastoid Hill') and cherts with radiolarians. A diverse ichnofauna, phacopid trilobites, echinoderms (crinoids and blastoids) together with brachiopods, ostracods, bryozoans and rare cephalopods have been collected from this interval. Analysis of geochemical data, microfacies and especially the distribution of marine organisms, which are not described in detail here, but used for facies analysis, indicate a deepening of the depositional environment at the Boulongour Reservoir section. Results presented here concern mainly the sedimentological and stratigraphical context of the investigated section. Additionally, one Late Devonian palaeo-oceanic and biotic event, the Upper Kellwasser Event is recognized near the section base.

  1. Variability in larval gut pH regulation defines sensitivity to ocean acidification in six species of the Ambulacraria superphylum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Marian; Tseng, Yung-Che; Su, Yi-Hsien; Lein, Etienne; Lee, Hae-Gyeong; Lee, Jay-Ron; Dupont, Sam; Stumpp, Meike

    2017-10-11

    The unusual rate and extent of environmental changes due to human activities may exceed the capacity of marine organisms to deal with this phenomenon. The identification of physiological systems that set the tolerance limits and their potential for phenotypic buffering in the most vulnerable ontogenetic stages become increasingly important to make large-scale projections. Here, we demonstrate that the differential sensitivity of non-calcifying Ambulacraria (echinoderms and hemichordates) larvae towards simulated ocean acidification is dictated by the physiology of their digestive systems. Gastric pH regulation upon experimental ocean acidification was compared in six species of the superphylum Ambulacraria. We observed a strong correlation between sensitivity to ocean acidification and the ability to regulate gut pH. Surprisingly, species with tightly regulated gastric pH were more sensitive to ocean acidification. This study provides evidence that strict maintenance of highly alkaline conditions in the larval gut of Ambulacraria early life stages may dictate their sensitivity to decreases in seawater pH. These findings highlight the importance of identifying and understanding pH regulatory systems in marine larval stages that may contribute to substantial energetic challenges under near-future ocean acidification scenarios. © 2017 The Author(s).

  2. Effects of an artificial oyster shell reef on macrobenthic communities in Rongcheng Bay, East China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qinzeng; Zhang, Libin; Zhang, Tao; Zhou, Yi; Xia, Sudong; Liu, Hui; Yang, Hongsheng

    2014-01-01

    An artificial oyster shell reef was deployed in Rongcheng Bay, East China. However, the effects of this reef on the surrounding macrobenthic communities were unknown. We compared sedimentary factors, macrobenthic biomass, abundance, and community composition and ecological indicators between the reef and non-reef areas over a one year period. The mean values for chlorophyll a (Chl a), total organic matter (TOM), total organic carbon (TOC), and total nitrogen (TN) content in surface sediments in the reef area were slightly higher than those in the non-reef area. The Chl a levels differed significantly between the two areas, but the TOM, TOC, and TN were not significantly different. The abundance of crustaceans was significantly different between the two areas, but the abundance and biomass of polychaetes, echinoderms, mollusk did not differ significantly. The permutational multivariate analysis of variance (PERMANOVA) revealed that the macrobenthic community differed significantly through time and analysis of similarity multivariate analyses (ANOSIM) revealed that the macrobenthic community differed significantly in some months. The ecological indicators revealed that the environmental quality of the reef area was slightly better than that of the non-reef area. Overall, our results suggest that the artificial oyster shell reef may change the macrobenthic community and the quality of the environment. Despite the lack of an effect in the short term, long-term monitoring is still needed to evaluate the effects of artificial oyster shell reefs on macrobenthic communities.

  3. Lesions of Copper Toxicosis in Captive Marine Invertebrates With Comparisons to Normal Histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaDouceur, E E B; Wynne, J; Garner, M M; Nyaoke, A; Keel, M K

    2016-05-01

    Despite increasing concern for coral reef ecosystem health within the last decade, there is scant literature concerning the histopathology of diseases affecting the major constituents of coral reef ecosystems, particularly marine invertebrates. This study describes histologic findings in 6 species of marine invertebrates (California sea hare [Aplysia californica], purple sea urchin [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus], sunburst anemone [Anthopleura sola], knobby star [Pisaster giganteus], bat star [Asterina miniata], and brittle star [Ophiopteris papillosa]) with spontaneous copper toxicosis, 4 purple sea urchins with experimentally induced copper toxicosis, and 1 unexposed control of each species listed. The primary lesions in the California sea hare with copper toxicosis were branchial and nephridial necrosis. Affected echinoderms shared several histologic lesions, including epidermal necrosis and ulceration and increased numbers of coelomocytes within the water-vascular system. The sunburst anemone with copper toxicosis had necrosis of both epidermis and gastrodermis, as well as expulsion of zooxanthellae from the gastrodermis. In addition to the lesions attributed to copper toxicosis, our results describe normal microscopic features of these animals that may be useful for histopathologic assessment of marine invertebrates. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Notes on common macrobenthic reef invertebrates of Tubbataha Reefs Natural Park, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Beth S. Jontila

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Macrobenthic reef invertebrates are important reef health indicators and fishery resources but are not very well documented in Tubbataha Reefs Natural Park. To provide notes on the species composition and the abundance and size of commonly encountered macrobenthic reef invertebrates, belt transects survey in intertidal, shallow, and deep subtidal reef habitats were conducted. In total, 18 species were recorded, six of which were echinoderms and 12 were mollusks, which include the rare giant clam Hippopusporcellanus. Only the giant clam Tridacna crocea and the top shell Trochus niloticus occurred in all seven permanent monitoring sites but the two species varied in densities across depths. There was also an outbreak of crown-of-thorns (COTs sea stars in some sites. The large variation in the density of each species across sites and depths suggests niche differences, overharvesting, or their recovery fromhaving been overly exploited. Separate monitoring areas for each commercially important species are suggested to determine how their populations respond to poaching and their implications on the park’s long term management.

  5. Quo Vadis Venomics? A Roadmap to Neglected Venomous Invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Reumont, Bjoern Marcus; Campbell, Lahcen I.; Jenner, Ronald A.

    2014-01-01

    Venomics research is being revolutionized by the increased use of sensitive -omics techniques to identify venom toxins and their transcripts in both well studied and neglected venomous taxa. The study of neglected venomous taxa is necessary both for understanding the full diversity of venom systems that have evolved in the animal kingdom, and to robustly answer fundamental questions about the biology and evolution of venoms without the distorting effect that can result from the current bias introduced by some heavily studied taxa. In this review we draw the outlines of a roadmap into the diversity of poorly studied and understood venomous and putatively venomous invertebrates, which together represent tens of thousands of unique venoms. The main groups we discuss are crustaceans, flies, centipedes, non-spider and non-scorpion arachnids, annelids, molluscs, platyhelminths, nemerteans, and echinoderms. We review what is known about the morphology of the venom systems in these groups, the composition of their venoms, and the bioactivities of the venoms to provide researchers with an entry into a large and scattered literature. We conclude with a short discussion of some important methodological aspects that have come to light with the recent use of new -omics techniques in the study of venoms. PMID:25533518

  6. Synergistic effects of hypoxia and increasing CO2 on benthic invertebrates of the central Chilean coast

    KAUST Repository

    Steckbauer, Alexandra

    2015-07-10

    Ocean acidification (OA) and hypoxic events are an increasing worldwide problem, but the synergetic effects of these factors are seldom explored. However, this synergetic occurrence of stressors is prevalent. The coastline of Chile not only suffers from coastal hypoxia but the cold, oxygen-poor waters in upwelling events are also supersaturated in CO2, a study site to explore the combined effect of OA and hypoxia. We experimentally evaluated the metabolic response of different invertebrate species (2 anthozoans, 9 molluscs, 4 crustaceans, 2 echinoderms) of the coastline of central Chile (33°30′S, 71°37′W) to hypoxia and OA within predicted levels and in a full factorial design. Organisms were exposed to 4 different treatments (ambient, low oxygen, high CO2, and the combination of low oxygen and high CO2) and metabolism was measured after 3 and 6 days. We show that the combination of hypoxia and increased pCO2 reduces the respiration significantly, compared to a single stressor. The evaluation of synergistic pressures, a more realistic scenario than single stressors, is crucial to evaluate the effect of future changes for coastal species and our results provide the first insight on what might happen in the next 100 years.

  7. Defining thresholds of sustainable impact on benthic communities in relation to fishing disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, G I; Murray, L G; Hiddink, J G; Hinz, H; Lincoln, H; Hold, N; Cambiè, G; Kaiser, M J

    2017-07-14

    While the direct physical impact on seabed biota is well understood, no studies have defined thresholds to inform an ecosystem-based approach to managing fishing impacts. We addressed this knowledge gap using a large-scale experiment that created a controlled gradient of fishing intensity and assessed the immediate impacts and short-term recovery. We observed a mosaic of taxon-specific responses at various thresholds. The lowest threshold of significant lasting impact occurred between 1 and 3 times fished and elicited a decrease in abundance of 39 to 70% for some sessile epifaunal organisms (cnidarians, bryozoans). This contrasted with significant increases in abundance and/or biomass of scavenging species (epifaunal echinoderms, infaunal crustaceans) by two to four-fold in areas fished twice and more. In spite of these significant specific responses, the benthic community structure, biomass and abundance at the population level appeared resilient to fishing. Overall, natural temporal variation in community metrics exceeded the effects of fishing in this highly dynamic study site, suggesting that an acute level of disturbance (fished over six times) would match the level of natural variation. We discuss the implications of our findings for natural resources management with respect to context-specific human disturbance and provide guidance for best fishing practices.

  8. Inter- and intra-organ spatial distributions of sea star saponins by MALDI imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demeyer, Marie; Wisztorski, Maxence; Decroo, Corentin; De Winter, Julien; Caulier, Guillaume; Hennebert, Elise; Eeckhaut, Igor; Fournier, Isabelle; Flammang, Patrick; Gerbaux, Pascal

    2015-11-01

    Saponins are secondary metabolites that are abundant and diversified in echinoderms. Mass spectrometry is increasingly used not only to identify saponin congeners within animal extracts but also to decipher the structure/biological activity relationships of these molecules by determining their inter-organ and inter-individual variability. The usual method requires extensive purification procedures to prepare saponin extracts compatible with mass spectrometry analysis. Here, we selected the sea star Asterias rubens as a model animal to prove that direct analysis of saponins can be performed on tissue sections. We also demonstrated that carboxymethyl cellulose can be used as an embedding medium to facilitate the cryosectioning procedure. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) imaging was also revealed to afford interesting data on the distribution of saponin molecules within the tissues. We indeed highlight that saponins are located not only inside the body wall of the animals but also within the mucus layer that probably protects the animal against external aggressions. Graphical Abstract Saponins are the most abundant secondary metabolites in sea stars. They should therefore participate in important biological activities. Here, MALDI imaging is presented as a powerful method to determine the spatial distribution of saponins within the animal tissues. The inhomogeneity of the intra-organ saponin distribution is highlighted, paving the way for future elegant structure/activity relationship investigations.

  9. Mesozooplankton communities in the Magellan region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katjia Defren-Janson

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available During the Joint Chilean-German-Italian Magellan Victor Hensen Campaign in November 1994 zooplankton sampling was carried out by means of a multiple opening-closing multinet equipped with 300 µm mesh size. Distribution pattern was studied and community analyses of mesozooplankton were made at seven stations in the Magellan region. Highest numbers of individuals were found in the northern part of the investigation area (Magdalena to Brecknock Channels at stations with a mixed water column. In the southern part (Beagle and Ballenero Channels, lower zooplankton abundances were associated with a stratified water column due to melt water from several glaciers. At all stations holoplankton dominated the assemblages (83 - 97%. Copepods were by far the most abundant taxon encountered during this study, contributing to more than 2/3 of the total zooplankton numbers. They occurred throughout the water column with maxima in middle water layers. Appendicularians ranked second in abundance with their main distribution in the upper 100 m. Euphausiids were found in higher densities only in the Magdalena Channel (St. 1313; their vertical distribution pattern resembled that of copepods. Cladocerans aggregated at all stations in the upper 30 m. Within the meroplankton, echinoderm larvae were most abundant, notably in the upper 100 m under stratified conditions. Cluster analysis separated between a surface community covering all stations, and a northern and southern deep community, respectively.

  10. The other ocean acidification problem: CO2 as a resource among competitors for ecosystem dominance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Sean D.; Kroeker, Kristy J.; Fabricius, Katharina E.; Kline, David I.; Russell, Bayden D.

    2013-01-01

    Predictions concerning the consequences of the oceanic uptake of increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) have been primarily occupied with the effects of ocean acidification on calcifying organisms, particularly those critical to the formation of habitats (e.g. coral reefs) or their maintenance (e.g. grazing echinoderms). This focus overlooks direct and indirect effects of CO2 on non-calcareous taxa that play critical roles in ecosystem shifts (e.g. competitors). We present the model that future atmospheric [CO2] may act as a resource for mat-forming algae, a diverse and widespread group known to reduce the resilience of kelp forests and coral reefs. We test this hypothesis by combining laboratory and field CO2 experiments and data from ‘natural’ volcanic CO2 vents. We show that mats have enhanced productivity in experiments and more expansive covers in situ under projected near-future CO2 conditions both in temperate and tropical conditions. The benefits of CO2 are likely to vary among species of producers, potentially leading to shifts in species dominance in a high CO2 world. We explore how ocean acidification combines with other environmental changes across a number of scales, and raise awareness of CO2 as a resource whose change in availability could have wide-ranging community consequences beyond its direct effects. PMID:23980244

  11. The effects of a spillage of diesel fuel on a rocky shore in the sub-Antarctic region (Macquarie Island)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, R.D.; Smith, S.D.A.; Pople, A.R. [University of New England, Armidale (Australia). Dept. of Zoology

    1995-04-01

    On 3 December 1987, the supply ship Nella Dan ran aground at Macquarie island (54{sup o}29`S. 158{sup o}58`E) releasing about 270 000 1 of oil, mostly light marine diesel, into the sea. At the time of the incident, many marine invertebrates were washed up dead along 2 km of shoreline. Twelve months later, the shore community was investigated using (1) algal and invertebrate populations of the littoral and sublittoral rocky shore, and (2) the invertebrate communities living in the holdfasts of the giant kelp Durvillaea antarctica, which were collected for later examination. Investigations were undertaken at both affected and control locations. Analyses of differences in community structure involved nested ANOVA and multi-dimensional scaling techniques. On the rocky substrate, the effect of the spill was restricted to some biota of the lower littoral and sublittoral zones -particularly echinoderms and the patellid limpet Nacella macquariensis. There were differences in cover for some algal species between locations. Within the kelp holdfasts, communities were dominated by peracarid crustaceans at control locations and by polychaetes (particularly the opportunistic groups - capitellids, cirratulids and spionids) at oil-affected locations. The communities have recently been re-surveyed (in the summer of 1994-95) to assist in the interpretation of the results and to gauge the extent of recovery of the affected biota. (author)

  12. Structural analysis and anticoagulant activities of two sulfated polysaccharides from the sea cucumber Holothuria coluber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wenjiao; Cai, Ying; Yin, Ronghua; Lin, Lisha; Li, Zhongkun; Wu, Mingyi; Zhao, Jinhua

    2018-05-01

    Sulfated polysaccharides such as fucosylated glycosaminoglycan and fucan sulfate from echinoderm possess complex chemical structure and various biological activities. The two sulfated polysaccharides were purified from the low-value sea cucumber Holothuria coluber. Their physicochemical properties and chemical structures were analyzed and characterized by chemical and instrumental methods. Structural analysis clarified that the sea cucumber fucosylated glycosaminoglycan contains a chondroitin sulfate-like backbone and fucosyl branches with four various sulfation patterns. The fucan sulfate with molecular weight of 64.6 kDa comprises a central core of regular α(1 → 4)-linked tetrasaccharide repeating units, each of which is linked by a 4-O-sulfated fucose residue. Anticoagulant assays indicated that these sulfated polysaccharides possessed strong APTT prolonging activities and intrinsic factor Xase inhibitory activities, both of which decreased with the reduction of their molecular weights. Our results expand knowledge on the structural types of sulfated polysaccharides from sea cucumbers and further illustrate their functionality. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Evidence for a Saponin Biosynthesis Pathway in the Body Wall of the Commercially Significant Sea Cucumber Holothuria scabra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitu, Shahida Akter; Bose, Utpal; Suwansa-Ard, Saowaros; Turner, Luke H; Zhao, Min; Elizur, Abigail; Ogbourne, Steven M; Shaw, Paul Nicholas; Cummins, Scott F

    2017-11-07

    The sea cucumber (phylum Echinodermata) body wall is the first line of defense and is well known for its production of secondary metabolites; including vitamins and triterpenoid glycoside saponins that have important ecological functions and potential benefits to human health. The genes involved in the various biosynthetic pathways are unknown. To gain insight into these pathways in an echinoderm, we performed a comparative transcriptome analysis and functional annotation of the body wall and the radial nerve of the sea cucumber Holothuria scabra ; to define genes associated with body wall metabolic functioning and secondary metabolite biosynthesis. We show that genes related to signal transduction mechanisms were more highly represented in the H. scabra body wall, including genes encoding enzymes involved in energy production. Eight of the core triterpenoid biosynthesis enzymes were found, however, the identity of the saponin specific biosynthetic pathway enzymes remains unknown. We confirm the body wall release of at least three different triterpenoid saponins using solid phase extraction followed by ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography-quadrupole time of flight-mass spectrometry. The resource we have established will help to guide future research to explore secondary metabolite biosynthesis in the sea cucumber.

  14. Evidence for a Saponin Biosynthesis Pathway in the Body Wall of the Commercially Significant Sea Cucumber Holothuria scabra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahida Akter Mitu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The sea cucumber (phylum Echinodermata body wall is the first line of defense and is well known for its production of secondary metabolites; including vitamins and triterpenoid glycoside saponins that have important ecological functions and potential benefits to human health. The genes involved in the various biosynthetic pathways are unknown. To gain insight into these pathways in an echinoderm, we performed a comparative transcriptome analysis and functional annotation of the body wall and the radial nerve of the sea cucumber Holothuria scabra; to define genes associated with body wall metabolic functioning and secondary metabolite biosynthesis. We show that genes related to signal transduction mechanisms were more highly represented in the H. scabra body wall, including genes encoding enzymes involved in energy production. Eight of the core triterpenoid biosynthesis enzymes were found, however, the identity of the saponin specific biosynthetic pathway enzymes remains unknown. We confirm the body wall release of at least three different triterpenoid saponins using solid phase extraction followed by ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography-quadrupole time of flight-mass spectrometry. The resource we have established will help to guide future research to explore secondary metabolite biosynthesis in the sea cucumber.

  15. The sea cucumber genome provides insights into morphological evolution and visceral regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaojun; Sun, Lina; Yuan, Jianbo; Sun, Yamin; Gao, Yi; Zhang, Libin; Li, Shihao; Dai, Hui; Hamel, Jean-François; Liu, Chengzhang; Yu, Yang; Liu, Shilin; Lin, Wenchao; Guo, Kaimin; Jin, Songjun; Xu, Peng; Storey, Kenneth B; Huan, Pin; Zhang, Tao; Zhou, Yi; Zhang, Jiquan; Lin, Chenggang; Li, Xiaoni; Xing, Lili; Huo, Da; Sun, Mingzhe; Wang, Lei; Mercier, Annie; Li, Fuhua; Yang, Hongsheng; Xiang, Jianhai

    2017-10-01

    Apart from sharing common ancestry with chordates, sea cucumbers exhibit a unique morphology and exceptional regenerative capacity. Here we present the complete genome sequence of an economically important sea cucumber, A. japonicus, generated using Illumina and PacBio platforms, to achieve an assembly of approximately 805 Mb (contig N50 of 190 Kb and scaffold N50 of 486 Kb), with 30,350 protein-coding genes and high continuity. We used this resource to explore key genetic mechanisms behind the unique biological characters of sea cucumbers. Phylogenetic and comparative genomic analyses revealed the presence of marker genes associated with notochord and gill slits, suggesting that these chordate features were present in ancestral echinoderms. The unique shape and weak mineralization of the sea cucumber adult body were also preliminarily explained by the contraction of biomineralization genes. Genome, transcriptome, and proteome analyses of organ regrowth after induced evisceration provided insight into the molecular underpinnings of visceral regeneration, including a specific tandem-duplicated prostatic secretory protein of 94 amino acids (PSP94)-like gene family and a significantly expanded fibrinogen-related protein (FREP) gene family. This high-quality genome resource will provide a useful framework for future research into biological processes and evolution in deuterostomes, including remarkable regenerative abilities that could have medical applications. Moreover, the multiomics data will be of prime value for commercial sea cucumber breeding programs.

  16. The elusive baseline of marine disease: are diseases in ocean ecosystems increasing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica R Ward

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Disease outbreaks alter the structure and function of marine ecosystems, directly affecting vertebrates (mammals, turtles, fish, invertebrates (corals, crustaceans, echinoderms, and plants (seagrasses. Previous studies suggest a recent increase in marine disease. However, lack of baseline data in most communities prevents a direct test of this hypothesis. We developed a proxy to evaluate a prediction of the increasing disease hypothesis: the proportion of scientific publications reporting disease increased in recent decades. This represents, to our knowledge, the first quantitative use of normalized trends in the literature to investigate an ecological hypothesis. We searched a literature database for reports of parasites and disease (hereafter "disease" in nine marine taxonomic groups from 1970 to 2001. Reports, normalized for research effort, increased in turtles, corals, mammals, urchins, and molluscs. No significant trends were detected for seagrasses, decapods, or sharks/rays (though disease occurred in these groups. Counter to the prediction, disease reports decreased in fishes. Formulating effective resource management policy requires understanding the basis and timing of marine disease events. Why disease outbreaks increased in some groups but not in others should be a priority for future investigation. The increase in several groups lends urgency to understanding disease dynamics, particularly since few viable options currently exist to mitigate disease in the oceans.

  17. Macrobenthic patterns at the shallow marine waters in the caldera of the active volcano of Deception Island, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo-Preckler, Carlos; Figuerola, Blanca; Núñez-Pons, Laura; Moles, Juan; Martín-Martín, Rafael; Rull-Lluch, Jordi; Gómez-Garreta, Amelia; Avila, Conxita

    2018-04-01

    Deception Island is an active volcano located at the southern end of the South Shetland Archipelago, in the Antarctic Ocean. After the last eruption in 1970, benthic recolonization took place within the bay, with echinoderms being the dominant epifauna (e.g., the ophiuroid Ophionotus victoriae, the echinoid Sterechinus neumayeri and the sea star Odontaster validus), together with dense infaunal communities (mostly composed by oligochaetes, polychaetes, and bivalves). Here, we aim to describe the actual status of the marine benthic ecosystems inhabiting the shallow subtidal areas of this volcanic island. Benthic species were qualitatively scored as presence versus absence, considering the different sampling effort between localities done over the years. A total of 139 species of macroorganisms, belonging to 16 phyla were found, including fauna and flora, increasing the species richness values previously reported in all sites surveyed within the volcano caldera. Moreover, a dramatic increase in biodiversity was found towards the entrance of the bay. We suggest, however, that recolonization from external waters may not be the only reason for this pattern. In fact, sediment flux rates and substrate instability are common disturbances within the bay, probably being among the major factors determining benthic community assemblages. These processes probably favour deposit feeding communities at the innermost locations of the bay. This study provides a remarkably increased and updated species inventory from previous reports, altogether with a description of the main communities inhabiting the bay and the abiotic factors regulating this, mainly the bottom type.

  18. The effects of a spillage of diesel fuel on a rocky shore in the sub-Antarctic region (Macquarie Island)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, R.D.; Smith, S.D.A.; Pople, A.R.

    1995-01-01

    On 3 December 1987, the supply ship Nella Dan ran aground at Macquarie island (54 o 29'S. 158 o 58'E) releasing about 270 000 1 of oil, mostly light marine diesel, into the sea. At the time of the incident, many marine invertebrates were washed up dead along 2 km of shoreline. Twelve months later, the shore community was investigated using (1) algal and invertebrate populations of the littoral and sublittoral rocky shore, and (2) the invertebrate communities living in the holdfasts of the giant kelp Durvillaea antarctica, which were collected for later examination. Investigations were undertaken at both affected and control locations. Analyses of differences in community structure involved nested ANOVA and multi-dimensional scaling techniques. On the rocky substrate, the effect of the spill was restricted to some biota of the lower littoral and sublittoral zones -particularly echinoderms and the patellid limpet Nacella macquariensis. There were differences in cover for some algal species between locations. Within the kelp holdfasts, communities were dominated by peracarid crustaceans at control locations and by polychaetes (particularly the opportunistic groups - capitellids, cirratulids and spionids) at oil-affected locations. The communities have recently been re-surveyed (in the summer of 1994-95) to assist in the interpretation of the results and to gauge the extent of recovery of the affected biota. (author)

  19. Snake oil and venoms for medical research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolpert, H. D.

    2011-04-01

    Some think that using derivatives of snake venom for medical purposes is the modern version of snake oil but they are seriously misjudging the research potentials of some of these toxins in medicines of the 2000's. Medical trials, using some of the compounds has proven their usefulness. Several venoms have shown the possibilities that could lead to anticoagulants, helpful in heart disease. The blood clotting protein from the taipan snake has been shown to rapidly stop excessive bleeding. The venom from the copperhead may hold an answer to breast cancer. The Malaysian pit viper shows promise in breaking blood clots. Cobra venom may hold keys to finding cures for Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's. Rattlesnake proteins from certain species have produced blood pressure medicines. Besides snake venoms, venom from the South American dart frog, mollusks (i.e. Cone Shell Snail), lizards (i.e. Gila Monster & Komodo Dragon), some species of spiders and tarantulas, Cephalopods, mammals (i.e. Platypus & Shrews), fish (i.e. sting rays, stone fish, puffer fish, blue bottle fish & box jelly fish), intertidal marine animals (echinoderms)(i.e. Crown of Thorn Star Fish & Flower Urchin) and the Honeybee are being investigated for potential medical benefits.

  20. Cadmium, Copper and Tributyltin effects on fertilization of Paracentrotus lividus (Echinodermata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirella Vazzana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Marine environments are continuously being threatened by a large number of xenobi- otics from anthropogenic sources. The effect of chemical pollution on living organisms are numerous and may impair reproductive success of adults species of marine invertebrate and vertebrate through effects on gamete quality. Echinoderms are characterized by external fertilizzation and gametes, free of any type of protection, may be in contact with toxic substances so the reproductive success depends largely on the environment conditions. The purpose of this work is to assess the effects on the in vitro fertiliza- tion of exposure of sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus gametes to xenobiotic substances as CuSO4, CdCl2 and TBTCl. The effect of contaminant were assessed by two experimental set in which gametes were treated with different concentration (0, 10-3, 10-5 10-7 10-9 M of different substances as CdCl2, CuSO4 and TBTCl. The effects were evaluated as percentage of fertilization. The results showed that the gametes exposure to xenobiotic decreased the percentage of fertilization and that more sensitive to treatment were the sperm cells, propably because the toxic effect affected the motility of the sperm. In conclusion, the absence of fertilization (spermiotoxicity may submit the toxic effects of these substances to the level of body and may candidate the sea urchis as biosensors for the evaluation of environmental quality.

  1. Sea Cucumber Glycosides: Chemical Structures, Producing Species and Important Biological Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondol, Muhammad Abdul Mojid; Shin, Hee Jae; Rahman, M Aminur; Islam, Mohamad Tofazzal

    2017-10-17

    Sea cucumbers belonging to echinoderm are traditionally used as tonic food in China and other Asian countries. They produce abundant biologically active triterpene glycosides. More than 300 triterpene glycosides have been isolated and characterized from various species of sea cucumbers, which are classified as holostane and nonholostane depending on the presence or absence of a specific structural unit γ(18,20)-lactone in the aglycone. Triterpene glycosides contain a carbohydrate chain up to six monosaccharide units mainly consisting of d-xylose, 3-O-methy-d-xylose, d-glucose, 3-O-methyl-d-glucose, and d-quinovose. Cytotoxicity is the common biological property of triterpene glycosides isolated from sea cucumbers. Besides cytotoxicity, triterpene glycosides also exhibit antifungal, antiviral and hemolytic activities. This review updates and summarizes our understanding on diverse chemical structures of triterpene glycosides from various species of sea cucumbers and their important biological activities. Mechanisms of action and structural-activity relationships (SARs) of sea cucumber glycosides are also discussed briefly.

  2. Protein-Carbohydrate Interaction between Sperm and the Egg-Coating Envelope and Its Regulation by Dicalcin, a Xenopus laevis Zona Pellucida Protein-Associated Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naofumi Miwa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Protein-carbohydrate interaction regulates multiple important processes during fertilization, an essential biological event where individual gametes undergo intercellular recognition to fuse and generate a zygote. In the mammalian female reproductive tract, sperm temporarily adhere to the oviductal epithelium via the complementary interaction between carbohydrate-binding proteins on the sperm membrane and carbohydrates on the oviductal cells. After detachment from the oviductal epithelium at the appropriate time point following ovulation, sperm migrate and occasionally bind to the extracellular matrix, called the zona pellucida (ZP, which surrounds the egg, thereafter undergoing the exocytotic acrosomal reaction to penetrate the envelope and to reach the egg plasma membrane. This sperm-ZP interaction also involves the direct interaction between sperm carbohydrate-binding proteins and carbohydrates within the ZP, most of which have been conserved across divergent species from mammals to amphibians and echinoderms. This review focuses on the carbohydrate-mediated interaction of sperm with the female reproductive tract, mainly the interaction between sperm and the ZP, and introduces the fertilization-suppressive action of dicalcin, a Xenopus laevis ZP protein-associated protein. The action of dicalcin correlates significantly with a dicalcin-dependent change in the lectin-staining pattern within the ZP, suggesting a unique role of dicalcin as an inherent protein that is capable of regulating the affinity between the lectin and oligosaccharides attached on its target glycoprotein.

  3. The emerging role of ALK inhibitors in the treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galetta, Domenico; Rossi, Antonio; Pisconti, Salvatore; Colucci, Giuseppe

    2012-04-01

    Most NSCLC patients are diagnosed in the advanced stage of the disease. Recently, chemotherapeutic agents have reached a plateau of effectiveness. Increased understanding of cancer biology has revealed several potential therapeutic strategies that have led to marketing of new biologic agents. The echinoderm microtubule-associated protein like-4-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (EML4-ALK) fusion oncogene represents one of the newest molecular targets in NSCLC, identifying a subset of NSCLC patients characterized by distinct clinicopathological features. The available results concerning ALK inhibitors for the treatment of advanced NSCLC patients. An electronic search was used to retrieve the articles addressing this topic. In a pivotal Phase I clinical trial, crizotinib (PF-02341066), a small-molecule ALK inhibitor, demonstrated impressive antitumor activity in the majority of NSCLC patients with ALK fusions. Phase III randomized trials investigating crizotinib in this subgroup of patients are ongoing. If the results from these large international trials confirm the efficacy of crizotinib in the subset of patients, the next few years could see the treatment of advanced NSCLC patients with ALK fusions. Specific inhibitors would realize the so called personalized medicine in subsets of this disease.

  4. Measuring the eyes of trilobites: a motorized goniometer for macropaleontology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowen, R.; Cooper, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    The geometry of the trilobite visual surface is important in studies of trilobite taxonomy, paleoecology, and evolution. Unfortunately, methods for measuring visual surface features have been slow and laborious. The authors have built an apparatus which allows rapid, reliable measurement of angular relationships on the trilobite cephalon. A specimen is mounted on a set of turntables rotated by steeper motors driven by impulses from a computer terminal. As the turntables are rotated, their angular displacements from zero are automatically recorded to a repeatable accuracy of less than half a degree. Thus the angular positions of lens axes, spines, glabella, and other important features can be recorded directly into the computer for further processing and graphics display. The authors apparatus was designed to study the eyes of phacopid-trilobites, for two reasons. First, the Phacops rana group of trilobites is one of the type examples of punctuated speciation. Second, it has been suggested that phacopids had stereoscopic vision in each eye. The new apparatus will allow rapid and accurate study of suites of specimens, in order to test these hypotheses. Their new apparatus, essentially a motorized goniometer, could be used or modified to work with any specimens in which rapid goniometric measurements are useful. Such applications could include routine morphometric studies of molluscan or brachiopod shells or echinoderm tests, as well as specific projects dealing with spines, pores, plates, or septa in a wide variety of fossil invertebrates.

  5. Discovery of Brigatinib (AP26113), a Phosphine Oxide-Containing, Potent, Orally Active Inhibitor of Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei-Sheng; Liu, Shuangying; Zou, Dong; Thomas, Mathew; Wang, Yihan; Zhou, Tianjun; Romero, Jan; Kohlmann, Anna; Li, Feng; Qi, Jiwei; Cai, Lisi; Dwight, Timothy A; Xu, Yongjin; Xu, Rongsong; Dodd, Rory; Toms, Angela; Parillon, Lois; Lu, Xiaohui; Anjum, Rana; Zhang, Sen; Wang, Frank; Keats, Jeffrey; Wardwell, Scott D; Ning, Yaoyu; Xu, Qihong; Moran, Lauren E; Mohemmad, Qurish K; Jang, Hyun Gyung; Clackson, Tim; Narasimhan, Narayana I; Rivera, Victor M; Zhu, Xiaotian; Dalgarno, David; Shakespeare, William C

    2016-05-26

    In the treatment of echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 (EML4)-anaplastic lymphoma kinase positive (ALK+) non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), secondary mutations within the ALK kinase domain have emerged as a major resistance mechanism to both first- and second-generation ALK inhibitors. This report describes the design and synthesis of a series of 2,4-diarylaminopyrimidine-based potent and selective ALK inhibitors culminating in identification of the investigational clinical candidate brigatinib. A unique structural feature of brigatinib is a phosphine oxide, an overlooked but novel hydrogen-bond acceptor that drives potency and selectivity in addition to favorable ADME properties. Brigatinib displayed low nanomolar IC50s against native ALK and all tested clinically relevant ALK mutants in both enzyme-based biochemical and cell-based viability assays and demonstrated efficacy in multiple ALK+ xenografts in mice, including Karpas-299 (anaplastic large-cell lymphomas [ALCL]) and H3122 (NSCLC). Brigatinib represents the most clinically advanced phosphine oxide-containing drug candidate to date and is currently being evaluated in a global phase 2 registration trial.

  6. Metabolic flexibility: the key to long-term evolutionary success in Bryozoa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Lloyd S; Barnes, David K A

    2004-02-07

    Oxygen consumption (MO2) and activity were evaluated in Antarctic Bryozoa. Three species representing two different morphologies, flat sheet, laminar forms, Isoseculiflustra tenuis and Kymella polaris, and the bush form Camptoplites bicornis were used. In Bryozoa, activity is measured as the proportion of colony zooids with their lophophores extended. In I. tenuis and K. polaris, residual analysis showed that the percentage of zooids with extended lophophores was not correlated with colony MO2. Lophophore extension is, therefore, a poor measure of activity, and other costs (e.g. growth, reproduction, storage) probably form the major metabolic costs. MO2 per unit of ash-free dry mass (AFDM) in the laminar forms was low compared with other Antarctic marine invertebrates, but not lower than brachiopods and echinoderms. However, the lowest rate here, 16.8 microg O2 g AFDM(-1) h(-1) for a K. polaris colony, is (to our knowledge) the lowest for any animal so far reported. MO2 per unit of AFDM for C. bicornis, however, is among the highest reported for sessile or slow moving Antarctic marine ectotherms, with values similar to those for bivalve and gastropod molluscs. The highest rate, 527 microg O2 g AFDM(-1) h(-1) for one colony is (to our knowledge) the highest reported for polar animals of this type. Extreme diversity in metabolic strategy may explain the bryozoan long evolutionary record and great success in shallow marine environments worldwide.

  7. Detection of EML4-ALK in lung adenocarcinoma using pleural effusion with FISH, IHC, and RT-PCR methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leilei Liu

    Full Text Available Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK and echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 (EML4 gene rearrangements occur in approximately 5% of non-small-cell lung cancers (NSCLC, leading to the overexpression of anaplastic lymphoma kinase and predicting a response to the targeted inhibitor, crizotinib. Malignant pleural effusion occurs in most patients with advanced lung cancer, especially adenocarcinoma, and tissue samples are not always available from these patients. We attempted to clarify the feasibility of detecting the EML4-ALK fusion gene in pleural effusion cells using different methods. We obtained 66 samples of pleural effusion from NSCLC patients. The pleural effusion fluid was centrifuged, and the cellular components obtained were formalin fixed and paraffin embedded. The EML4-ALK fusion gene status was determined with fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, and immunohistochemistry (IHC. EML4-ALK was detected in three of 66 patient samples (4.5% with RT-PCR. When the RT-PCR data were used as the standard, one false positive and one false negative samples were identified with IHC; and one false negative sample was identified with FISH. These results suggest that a block of pleural effusion cells can be used to detect the EML4-ALK fusion gene. IHC had good sensitivity, but low specificity. FISH had low sensitivity, but high specificity. RT-PCR is a good candidate method for detecting EML4-ALK in blocks of pleural effusion cells from lung cancer patients.

  8. A case of lung adenocarcinoma harboring EGFR mutation and EML4-ALK fusion gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Hisashi; Hayashi, Akihito; Morimoto, Takeshi; Taima, Kageaki; Tanaka, Yoshihito; Shimada, Michiko; Kurose, Akira; Takanashi, Shingo; Okumura, Ken

    2012-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) - tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) is used for the patients with EGFR-mutant lung cancer. Recently, phase III studies in the patients with EGFR-mutant demonstrated that EGFR-TKI monotherapy improved progression-free survival compared with platinum-doublet chemotherapy. The echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 (EML4) - anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) fusion oncogene represents one of the newest molecular targets in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients who harbor EML4-ALK fusions have been associated with a lack of EGFR or KRAS mutations. We report a 39-year-old patient diagnosed as adenocarcinoma harboring EGFR mutation and EML4-ALK fusion gene. We treated this patient with erlotinib as the third line therapy, but no clinical benefit was obtained. We experienced a rare case with EGFR mutation and EML4-ALK. Any clinical benefit using EGFR-TKI was not obtained in our case. The therapeutic choice for the patients with more than one driver mutations is unclear. We needs further understanding of the lung cancer molecular biology and the biomarker infomation

  9. The late Middle Devonian fauna of Red Hill I, Nevada, and its paleobiogeographic implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.-P. Schultze

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The fauna of the Middle Devonian Red Hill I locality, Nevada, is unusual in the co-occurrence of a rich fish assemblage with a rich invertebrate one. Sponges are second in abundance of specimens and number of species only to the fishes and occur together with other invertebrates (conodonts, conulariids, dacryoconarid tentaculites, gastropods, bivalves, brachiopods, arthropods, and unidentifiable ammonoids and echinoderms. The invertebrates indicate a marine depositional paleoenvironment. The conodonts indicate a placement within the lower disparalis Zone, late Givetian. The fish assemblage is dominated by the antiarch Asterolepis. All the other fishes, acanthodians, actinopterygians and sarcopterygians, are less common. The closest biogeographic relationship of the fish fauna is with the Middle/Late Devonian fish fauna of the Baltic Region, followed by that of eastern Canada (Miguasha, Scotland and Iran. This distribution corresponds to the Devonian Euramerica faunal province with connection to eastern Gondwana (Iran and Australia. Localities with the same genera as Red Hill I are interpreted as marine with the exception of the Scottish localities. Asterolepis is the most widely distributed vertebrate genus, mostly marine, but it may be able to enter freshwater like Eusthenopteron if one accepts a freshwater depositional paleoenvironment for the Scottish localities. doi:10.1002/mmng.201000001

  10. Comparative morphology of the axial complex and interdependence of internal organ systems in sea urchins (Echinodermata: Echinoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Alexander; Faber, Cornelius; Bartolomaeus, Thomas

    2009-06-09

    The axial complex of echinoderms (Echinodermata) is composed of various primary and secondary body cavities that interact with each other. In sea urchins (Echinoidea), structural differences of the axial complex in "regular" and irregular species have been observed, but the reasons underlying these differences are not fully understood. In addition, a better knowledge of axial complex diversity could not only be useful for phylogenetic inferences, but improve also an understanding of the function of this enigmatic structure. We therefore analyzed numerous species of almost all sea urchin orders by magnetic resonance imaging, dissection, histology, and transmission electron microscopy and compared the results with findings from published studies spanning almost two centuries. These combined analyses demonstrate that the axial complex is present in all sea urchin orders and has remained structurally conserved for a long time, at least in the "regular" species. Within the Irregularia, a considerable morphological variation of the axial complex can be observed with gradual changes in topography, size, and internal architecture. These modifications are related to the growing size of the gastric caecum as well as to the rearrangement of the morphology of the digestive tract as a whole. The structurally most divergent axial complex can be observed in the highly derived Atelostomata in which the reorganization of the digestive tract is most pronounced. Our findings demonstrate a structural interdependence of various internal organs, including digestive tract, mesenteries, and the axial complex.

  11. ANISEED 2017: extending the integrated ascidian database to the exploration and evolutionary comparison of genome-scale datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brozovic, Matija; Dantec, Christelle; Dardaillon, Justine; Dauga, Delphine; Faure, Emmanuel; Gineste, Mathieu; Louis, Alexandra; Naville, Magali; Nitta, Kazuhiro R; Piette, Jacques; Reeves, Wendy; Scornavacca, Céline; Simion, Paul; Vincentelli, Renaud; Bellec, Maelle; Aicha, Sameh Ben; Fagotto, Marie; Guéroult-Bellone, Marion; Haeussler, Maximilian; Jacox, Edwin; Lowe, Elijah K; Mendez, Mickael; Roberge, Alexis; Stolfi, Alberto; Yokomori, Rui; Brown, C Titus; Cambillau, Christian; Christiaen, Lionel; Delsuc, Frédéric; Douzery, Emmanuel; Dumollard, Rémi; Kusakabe, Takehiro; Nakai, Kenta; Nishida, Hiroki; Satou, Yutaka; Swalla, Billie; Veeman, Michael; Volff, Jean-Nicolas; Lemaire, Patrick

    2018-01-04

    ANISEED (www.aniseed.cnrs.fr) is the main model organism database for tunicates, the sister-group of vertebrates. This release gives access to annotated genomes, gene expression patterns, and anatomical descriptions for nine ascidian species. It provides increased integration with external molecular and taxonomy databases, better support for epigenomics datasets, in particular RNA-seq, ChIP-seq and SELEX-seq, and features novel interactive interfaces for existing and novel datatypes. In particular, the cross-species navigation and comparison is enhanced through a novel taxonomy section describing each represented species and through the implementation of interactive phylogenetic gene trees for 60% of tunicate genes. The gene expression section displays the results of RNA-seq experiments for the three major model species of solitary ascidians. Gene expression is controlled by the binding of transcription factors to cis-regulatory sequences. A high-resolution description of the DNA-binding specificity for 131 Ciona robusta (formerly C. intestinalis type A) transcription factors by SELEX-seq is provided and used to map candidate binding sites across the Ciona robusta and Phallusia mammillata genomes. Finally, use of a WashU Epigenome browser enhances genome navigation, while a Genomicus server was set up to explore microsynteny relationships within tunicates and with vertebrates, Amphioxus, echinoderms and hemichordates. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  12. Experimental strategies for the identification and characterization of adhesive proteins in animals: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennebert, Elise; Maldonado, Barbara; Ladurner, Peter; Flammang, Patrick; Santos, Romana

    2015-01-01

    Adhesive secretions occur in both aquatic and terrestrial animals, in which they perform diverse functions. Biological adhesives can therefore be remarkably complex and involve a large range of components with different functions and interactions. However, being mainly protein based, biological adhesives can be characterized by classical molecular methods. This review compiles experimental strategies that were successfully used to identify, characterize and obtain the full-length sequence of adhesive proteins from nine biological models: echinoderms, barnacles, tubeworms, mussels, sticklebacks, slugs, velvet worms, spiders and ticks. A brief description and practical examples are given for a variety of tools used to study adhesive molecules at different levels from genes to secreted proteins. In most studies, proteins, extracted from secreted materials or from adhesive organs, are analysed for the presence of post-translational modifications and submitted to peptide sequencing. The peptide sequences are then used directly for a BLAST search in genomic or transcriptomic databases, or to design degenerate primers to perform RT-PCR, both allowing the recovery of the sequence of the cDNA coding for the investigated protein. These sequences can then be used for functional validation and recombinant production. In recent years, the dual proteomic and transcriptomic approach has emerged as the best way leading to the identification of novel adhesive proteins and retrieval of their complete sequences. PMID:25657842

  13. Reassessing the improbability of a muscular crinoid stem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorzelak, Przemysław; Głuchowski, Edward; Salamon, Mariusz A.

    2014-08-01

    Muscular articulations in modern stalked crinoids are only present in the arms. Although it has been suggested that certain coiled-stemmed fossil taxa may have been functionally adapted to utilize muscles, evidence supporting this interpretation is lacking. Here, we use cathodoluminescence and SEM to reveal the skeletal microstructure of the enigmatic coiled-stemmed taxon Ammonicrinus (Flexibilia). Based on the well-established link between skeletal microstructure and the nature of infilling soft tissues in modern echinoderms, we reconstructed the palaeoanatomy of the Middle Devonian ammonicrinids. We show that their median columnals with elongated lateral columnal enclosure extensions (LCEE) have stereom microstructure unexpectedly resembling that in the crinoid muscular arm plates. In particular, large ligamentary facets, that are present on each side of a transverse ridge, are mainly comprised of fine galleried stereom that is indicative of the mutable collagenous tissues. In contrast, fine labyrinthic stereom, commonly associated with muscles, is situated in the periphery on each side of the surface of elongated LCEE. Our findings thus strongly suggest that the muscles may have also been present in the stem of ammonicrinids. These results reassess the previous hypotheses about evolution of muscles in crinoids and provide new insights into the mode of life of Ammonicrinus.

  14. Coelomocytes: Biology and Possible Immune Functions in Invertebrates with Special Remarks on Nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qudsia Tahseen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available All metazoans are exposed to a wide range of microbes and have evolved complex immune defenses used to repel infectious agents. Coelomocytes play a key role in the defense reactions of most invertebrates. They are involved in important immune functions, such as phagocytosis, encapsulation, graft rejection, and inflammation, as well as the synthesis and secretion of several humoral factors especially in annelids and echinoderms. Coelomocytes in nematodes are variable in shapes from round, ovoid, cuboidal, and spindle-shaped to stellate or branched cells that are found usually at fixed positions in the pseudocoelom. Their number usually varies from 2 to 6. The model nematode, C. elegans lacks an adaptive immune system and the coelomocytes are capable of endocytosis, but their involvement in phagocytosis of bacteria seems unlikely. The aim of this review is to evaluate current knowledge on coelomocytes of invertebrates with special reference to nematodes. The morphology and structure of these coelomocytes are discussed along with their origin. Their relative positions and diversity in different nematode groups have also been discussed and illustrated.

  15. Comparative analysis of clinicoradiologic characteristics of lung adenocarcinomas with ALK rearrangements or EGFR mutations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, J.Y.; Zheng, J.; Chen, X.; Zhou, J.Y. [Zhejiang University, Department of Respiratory Disease, Thoracic Disease Center, First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Hangzhou (China); Yu, Z.F.; Xiao, W.B.; Jiang, L.N. [Zhejiang University, Department of Radiology, First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Hangzhou (China); Zhao, J.; Sun, K.; Wang, B.; Ding, W. [Zhejiang University, Department of Pathology, First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Hangzhou (China)

    2015-05-01

    To compare the clinicoradiologic features of tumours with echinoderm anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) rearrangements, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations, or wild type (WT) for both genes in a cohort of patients with lung adenocarcinoma to identify useful characteristics of different gene statuses. In 346 lung adenocarcinoma patients, ALK rearrangements were confirmed with fluorescence in situ hybridisation, and EGFR mutations were determined by pyrosequencing assay. Patients were divided into three groups: ALK rearrangement (ALK+ group, n = 48), EGFR mutation (EGFR+ group, n = 166), and WT for both genes (WT group, n = 132). Chest computed tomography (CT) examinations were performed in all patients. The percentages of ground-glass opacity volume (pGGO) and tumour shadow disappearance rate (TDR) were measured using semi-automated nodule assessment software. The pGGO was significantly lower in the ALK+ group (25.1 % ± 24.3) than in the EGFR+ group (37.2 % ± 25.7, p < 0.001) and the WT group (36.1 % ± 24.6, p = 0.001). The TDR in the ALK+ group (17.3 % ± 25.1) was significantly lower than in the EGFR+ group (26.8 % ± 24.9, p = 0.002) and the WT group (25.7 % ± 24.6, p = 0.003). Solid pattern with lower incidence of lobulated border, finely spiculated margins, pleural retraction, and bubble-like lucency on CT imaging are the main characteristics of ALK rearrangement tumours. (orig.)

  16. Bioprospecting of Marine Invertebrates for New Natural Products — A Chemical and Zoogeographical Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Calado

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Bioprospecting for new marine natural products (NPs has increased significantly over the last decades, leading to an unprecedented discovery of new molecules. Marine invertebrates have been the most important source of these NPs, with researchers commonly targeting particular taxonomic groups, marine regions and/or molecules from specific chemical groups. The present review focuses on new NPs identified from marine invertebrates between 2000 and 2009, and performs a detailed analysis on: (1 the chemical groups of these NPs; (2 the association of particular chemical groups to specific marine invertebrate taxa; and (3 the yielding of molecules from the same chemical group from organisms occurring in a particular geographic region. Our survey revealed an increasing number of new terpenoids being discovered between 2000 and 2009, contrasting with the decreasing trend in the discovery of new alkaloids and aliphatic molecules. Overall, no particular association was identified between marine invertebrate taxa and chemical groups of new NPs. Nonetheless, it is worth noting that most NPs recorded from cnidarians and mollusks were terpenoids, while most NPs identified in echinoderms were aliphatic compounds or carbohydrates. The geographical trends observed in our study do not support the idea of particular chemical groups of new NPs being associated with marine invertebrates from any specific geographical region, as NPs from different chemical groups were commonly distributed worldwide.

  17. An Organismal Model for Gene Regulatory Networks in the Gut-Associated Immune Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine M. Buckley

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The gut epithelium is an ancient site of complex communication between the animal immune system and the microbial world. While elements of self-non-self receptors and effector mechanisms differ greatly among animal phyla, some aspects of recognition, regulation, and response are broadly conserved. A gene regulatory network (GRN approach provides a means to investigate the nature of this conservation and divergence even as more peripheral functional details remain incompletely understood. The sea urchin embryo is an unparalleled experimental model for detangling the GRNs that govern embryonic development. By applying this theoretical framework to the free swimming, feeding larval stage of the purple sea urchin, it is possible to delineate the conserved regulatory circuitry that regulates the gut-associated immune response. This model provides a morphologically simple system in which to efficiently unravel regulatory connections that are phylogenetically relevant to immunity in vertebrates. Here, we review the organism-wide cellular and transcriptional immune response of the sea urchin larva. A large set of transcription factors and signal systems, including epithelial expression of interleukin 17 (IL17, are important mediators in the activation of the early gut-associated response. Many of these have homologs that are active in vertebrate immunity, while others are ancient in animals but absent in vertebrates or specific to echinoderms. This larval model provides a means to experimentally characterize immune function encoded in the sea urchin genome and the regulatory interconnections that control immune response and resolution across the tissues of the organism.

  18. Getting around when you're round: quantitative analysis of the locomotion of the blunt-spined brittle star, Ophiocoma echinata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astley, Henry C

    2012-06-01

    Brittle stars (Ophiuroidea, Echinodermata) are pentaradially symmetrical echinoderms that use five multi-jointed limbs to locomote along the seafloor. Prior qualitative descriptions have claimed coordinated movements of the limbs in a manner similar to tetrapod vertebrates, but this has not been evaluated quantitatively. It is uncertain whether the ring-shaped nervous system, which lacks an anatomically defined anterior, is capable of generating rhythmic coordinated movements of multiple limbs. This study tested whether brittle stars possess distinct locomotor modes with strong inter-limb coordination as seen in limbed animals in other phyla (e.g. tetrapods and arthropods), or instead move each limb independently according to local sensory feedback. Limb tips and the body disk were digitized for 56 cycles from 13 individuals moving across sand. Despite their pentaradial anatomy, all individuals were functionally bilateral, moving along the axis of a central limb via synchronous motions of contralateral limbs (±~13% phase lag). Two locomotor modes were observed, distinguishable mainly by whether the central limb was directed forwards or backwards. Turning was accomplished without rotation of the body disk by defining a different limb as the center limb and shifting other limb identities correspondingly, and then continuing locomotion in the direction of the newly defined anterior. These observations support the hypothesis that, in spite of their radial body plan, brittle stars employ coordinated, bilaterally symmetrical locomotion.

  19. Associated fauna and effects of epibiotic barnacles on the relative growth and reproductive indices of Stramonita haemastoma (Gastropoda: Muricidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahani El Ayari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available To better understand the impacts of biofouling on the biological processes of the basibiont, the effects of epibiotic barnacles on the relative growth and reproductive indices of Stramonita haemastoma (Linnaeus, 1767 were assessed. A total of 1035 specimens were collected monthly for one year from Bizerta Channel (northern Tunisia. Endobiotic species comprised the lithophagous bivalves Lithophaga aristata and Rocellaria dubia of different sizes, communicating with the outside through tiny perforations. Intra-shell tunnels and galleries also sheltered annelids and sipunculids. Epibiotic species comprised algae and highly diversified invertebrates represented by crustaceans, polychaetes, molluscs, echinoderms, ascidians, sponges, bryozoans and sipunculids, with barnacles being the most common group. Comparison of growth features between non-fouled and fouled S. haemastoma revealed higher growth in non-fouled specimens. Differences in reproductive condition indices were detected in few months, being mostly higher in non-fouled snails, but showed no asynchrony in the spawning period for either fouled or non-fouled gastropods hosts.

  20. The evolution of mollusc shells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Carmel; Degnan, Bernard M

    2018-05-01

    Molluscan shells are externally fabricated by specialized epithelial cells on the dorsal mantle. Although a conserved set of regulatory genes appears to underlie specification of mantle progenitor cells, the genes that contribute to the formation of the mature shell are incredibly diverse. Recent comparative analyses of mantle transcriptomes and shell proteomes of gastropods and bivalves are consistent with shell diversity being underpinned by a rapidly evolving mantle secretome (suite of genes expressed in the mantle that encode secreted proteins) that is the product of (a) high rates of gene co-option into and loss from the mantle gene regulatory network, and (b) the rapid evolution of coding sequences, particular those encoding repetitive low complexity domains. Outside a few conserved genes, such as carbonic anhydrase, a so-called "biomineralization toolkit" has yet to be discovered. Despite this, a common suite of protein domains, which are often associated with the extracellular matrix and immunity, appear to have been independently and often uniquely co-opted into the mantle secretomes of different species. The evolvability of the mantle secretome provides a molecular explanation for the evolution and diversity of molluscan shells. These genomic processes are likely to underlie the evolution of other animal biominerals, including coral and echinoderm skeletons. This article is categorized under: Comparative Development and Evolution > Regulation of Organ Diversity Comparative Development and Evolution > Evolutionary Novelties. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. The sea cucumber genome provides insights into morphological evolution and visceral regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojun Zhang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Apart from sharing common ancestry with chordates, sea cucumbers exhibit a unique morphology and exceptional regenerative capacity. Here we present the complete genome sequence of an economically important sea cucumber, A. japonicus, generated using Illumina and PacBio platforms, to achieve an assembly of approximately 805 Mb (contig N50 of 190 Kb and scaffold N50 of 486 Kb, with 30,350 protein-coding genes and high continuity. We used this resource to explore key genetic mechanisms behind the unique biological characters of sea cucumbers. Phylogenetic and comparative genomic analyses revealed the presence of marker genes associated with notochord and gill slits, suggesting that these chordate features were present in ancestral echinoderms. The unique shape and weak mineralization of the sea cucumber adult body were also preliminarily explained by the contraction of biomineralization genes. Genome, transcriptome, and proteome analyses of organ regrowth after induced evisceration provided insight into the molecular underpinnings of visceral regeneration, including a specific tandem-duplicated prostatic secretory protein of 94 amino acids (PSP94-like gene family and a significantly expanded fibrinogen-related protein (FREP gene family. This high-quality genome resource will provide a useful framework for future research into biological processes and evolution in deuterostomes, including remarkable regenerative abilities that could have medical applications. Moreover, the multiomics data will be of prime value for commercial sea cucumber breeding programs.

  2. An occurence records database of Irregular Echinoids (Echinodermata: Echinoidea) in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Melo, Alejandra; Solís-Marín, Francisco Alonso; Buitrón-Sánchez, Blanca Estela; Laguarda-Figueras, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    Research on echinoderms in Mexico began in the late nineteenth century. We present a dataset that includes the taxonomic and geographic information of irregular echinoids from Mexico, housed in four collections: 1) Colección Nacional de Equinodermos "Ma. Elena Caso Muñoz" from the Instituto de Ciencias del Mar y Limnología (ICML), Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM); 2) Invertebrate Zoology Collection, Smithsonian Museum of Natural History, Washington, D.C., United States of America (USA); 3) Invertebrate Collection, Museum of Comparative Zoology, University of Harvard, Boston, Massachusetts, USA and 4) Invertebrate Zoology, Peabody Museum, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, USA. A total of six orders, 17 families, 35 genera and 68 species are reported, 37 distributed in the Pacific coast and 31 in the Atlantic coast, none of them was found in both coasts. The most diverse region is the Gulf of California (S=32); the most diverse order is Spatangoida with 31 species reported in mexican waters.

  3. A comparative study on androgen metabolism in three invertebrate species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janer, G; LeBlanc, G A; Porte, C

    2005-09-15

    A comparative approach was taken in this study to evaluate androgen (androstenedione and testosterone) metabolism in three invertebrate species: the gastropod Marisa cornuarietis, the amphipod Hyalella azteca, and the echinoderm Paracentrotus lividus. The existence of 17beta/3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD) and 5alpha-reductase catalyzed reactions was demonstrated in all three species. Androstenedione was primarily converted to 5alpha-androstanedione in M. cornuarietis, while it was primarily metabolized to testosterone in P. lividus and H. azteca. In addition, and consistent with vertebrate findings, tissue specific pathways and sexual dimorphism in androgen metabolism were observed. Namely, testosterone was metabolized to dihydrotestosterone in P. lividus gonads (via 5alpha-reductase), and metabolized to 4-androstene-3beta,17beta-diol in the digestive tube (via 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase). Furthermore, the synthesis of 17beta-reduced metabolites of androstenedione (testosterone and dihydrotestosterone) was 3- to 4-fold higher in males of M. cornuarietis than in females. Organotin compounds, which have been shown to interfere with some aspects of androgen metabolism, had no major effect on testosterone metabolism in any of the three species. Fenarimol enhanced 5alpha-reductase-mediated catalysis in gonads of P. lividus. Overall, results demonstrate the ubiquity of some androgen biotransformation processes in invertebrates and reveals interphyla differences in androgen metabolic pathways, and different sensitivity of these pathways to some xenobiotics.

  4. Evolution of innate immunity: clues from invertebrates via fish to mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt eBuchmann

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Host responses against invading pathogens are basic physiological reactions of all living organisms. Since appearance of the first eukaryotic cells a series of defence mechanisms have evolved in order to secure cellular integrity, homeostasis and survival of the host. Invertebrates, ranging from protozoans to metazoans, possess cellular receptors which bind to foreign elements and differentiate self from non-self. This ability is in multicellular animals associated with presence of phagocytes, bearing different names (amoebocytes, haemocytes, coelomocytes in various groups including animal sponges, worms, cnidarians, molluscs, crustaceans, chelicerates, insects and echinoderms (sea stars and urchins. Basically these cells have a macrophage like appearance and function and the repair and/or fight functions associated with these cells are prominent even at the earliest evolutionary stage. The cells possess Pathogen Recognition Receptors (PRRs recognizing Pathogen Associated Molecular Patterns (PAMPS which are well conserved molecular structures expressed by various pathogens (virus, bacteria, fungi, protozoans, helminths. Scavenger receptors, Toll-like receptors (TLRs and Nod-like receptors (NLRs are prominent representatives within this group of host receptors. Following receptor-ligand binding signal transduction initiates a complex cascade of cellular reactions which lead to production of one or more of a wide array of effector molecules. Cytokines take part in this orchestration of responses even in lower invertebrates which eventually may result in elimination or inactivation of the intruder. The evolutionary processes associated with these reactions are discussed.

  5. Microfacies and Diagenetic Fabric of the Lockhart Limestone, Kotal Pass Section, Northeast of Kohat, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Waseem Khan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study is intended to describe the carbonate microfacies of the Paleocene Lockhart Limestone in area northeast of the Kohat City. The analyzed limestone in the area is 65m thick and predominantly medium to thick bedded, nodular to brecciated and richly fossiliferous. Thin interbeds of marl are observed in the main lithological unit. The lower contact of the Lockhart Limestone is faulted with the Samana Suk Formation of the Jurassic age while conformably overlain by the Patala Formation of Paleocene to Eocene age. The major lithological unit is comprised of predominant assemblage of larger benthic and smaller planktonic foraminifers with accretion of ostracods, dasycladacean algae, echinoderms, gastropods and corals. On the basis of field and laboratory observations, two distinct types of microfacies have been identified as i Dasyclad-Miliolid Foram Wacke-Packstone microfacies of the inner shelf, sub tidal lagoon, ii Larger Foram Packstone microfacies of the middle shelf. The Limestone represents a carbonate cyclic sequence marked by three, transgressive, deepening up cycles representing a gradual sea level rise compensated by vertical accumulation of microfacies. The commencement of each cycle is clearly marked by the input of land-derived siliciclastic sediments and near shore restricted marine faunal/floral assemblage in the inner shelf microfacies gradually thinning up section where the microfacies become deeper offshore. The diagenetic modifications are observed in the shape of compactional framework, dolomitization, aragonite to calcite alteration and spar filled fractures in the main lithological unit of the Lockhart Limestone.

  6. The Hunsrück biota: A unique window into the ecology of Lower Devonian arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rust, Jes; Bergmann, Alexandra; Bartels, Christoph; Schoenemann, Brigitte; Sedlmeier, Stephanie; Kühl, Gabriele

    2016-03-01

    The approximately 400-million-year old Hunsrück biota provides a unique window into Devonian marine life. Fossil evidence suggests that this biota was dominated by echinoderms and various classes of arthropods, including Trilobita, stem lineage representatives of Euarthropoda, Chelicerata and Eucrustacea, as well as several crown group Chelicerata and Eucrustacea. The Hunsrück biota's exceptional preservation allows detailed reconstructions and description of key-aspects of its fauna's functional morphologies thereby revealing modes of locomotion, sensory perception, and feeding strategies. Morphological and stratigraphic data are used for a critical interpretation of the likely habitats, mode of life and nutritional characteristics of this diverse fauna. Potential predators include pycnogonids and other chelicerates, as well as the now extinct stem arthropods Schinderhannes bartelsi, Cambronatus brasseli and Wingertshellicus backesi. Mainly the deposit feeding Trilobita, Marrellomorpha and Megacheira, such as Bundenbachiellus giganteus, represents scavengers. Possibly, opportunistic scavenging was also performed by the afore-mentioned predators. Most of the studied arthropods appear to have been adapted to living in relatively well-illuminated conditions within the photic zone. Fossil evidence for associations amongst arthropods and other classes of metazoans is reported. These associations provide evidence of likely community structures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. New Invertebrate Vectors of Okadaic Acid from the North Atlantic Waters--Portugal (Azores and Madeira) and Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Marisa; Rodriguez, Inés; Barreiro, Aldo; Kaufmann, Manfred; Isabel Neto, Ana; Hassouani, Meryem; Sabour, Brahim; Alfonso, Amparo; Botana, Luis M; Vasconcelos, Vitor

    2015-12-08

    Okadaic acid and its analogues are potent phosphatase inhibitors that cause Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP) through the ingestion of contaminated shellfish by humans. This group of toxins is transmitted worldwide but the number of poisoning incidents has declined over the last 20 years due to legislation and monitoring programs that were implemented for bivalves. In the summer of 2012 and 2013, we collected a total of 101 samples of 22 different species that were made up of benthic and subtidal organisms such echinoderms, crustaceans, bivalves and gastropods from Madeira, São Miguel Island (Azores archipelago) and the northwestern coast of Morocco. The samples were analyzed by UPLC-MS/MS. Our main objective was to detect new vectors for these biotoxins. We can report nine new vectors for these toxins in the North Atlantic: Astropecten aranciacus, Arbacia lixula, Echinaster sepositus, Holothuria sanctori, Ophidiaster ophidianus, Onchidella celtica, Aplysia depilans, Patella spp., and Stramonita haemostoma. Differences in toxin contents among the species were found. Even though low concentrations were detected, the levels of toxins that were present, especially in edible species, indicate the importance of these types of studies. Routine monitoring should be extended to comprise a wider number of vectors other than for bivalves of okadaic acid and its analogues.

  8. Spawning of coral reef invertebrates and a second spawning season for scleractinian corals in the central Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Bouwmeester, Jessica

    2016-06-22

    Recent coral spawning observations in the central Red Sea show that most scleractinian species release their gametes in the spring, with a majority of species spawning in April. There is, however, a lack of reproductive data for several other coral species, as well as a general lack of data for other invertebrates. Here, we document the detailed timing of spawning for 13 scleractinian coral species, one sea anemone, and six echinoderms from an inshore reef off the coast of Thuwal, Saudi Arabia, in the spring between April and June 2014. Furthermore, inferred from the presence of mature gametes, we report the month of spawning for three additional coral species in the spring. Seven scleractinian coral species were inferred to release their gametes in a second reproductive season, in the autumn, between September and November. This is the first report of a second spawning season in the Arabian region. Biannual spawning has so far been reported on the Great Barrier Reef, in Western Australia, in Indonesia, in Malaysia, in Palau, in Thailand, in Taiwan, and in Western Samoa. © 2016, The American Microscopical Society, Inc.

  9. Dermatology in the Darwin anniversary. Part 1: Evolution of the integument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schempp, Christoph; Emde, Matthias; Wölfle, Ute

    2009-09-01

    The present review highlights the development of the integument and its adnexa from the primitive metazoans to man. The different stages of development represent independent, partially convergent evolutions rather than a continuous evolutionary line. The epidermis of the invertebrates (sponges, cnidaria, worms, echinoderms and arthropods) always consists of one layer of pluripotent cells. The barrier function of the integument at this level is achieved with physico-chemical barriers, toxin production, fortification of the epidermis in the form of a cuticula, a syncytium or a neodermis. The lower vertebrates (cyclostoma, fishes and amphibians) have a stratified epidermis harboring many secretory cells. In terrestrial amphibians the outermost cell layer of the epidermis is cornified, and the secretory cells are relocated in the dermis. Terminal differentiation and cornification of the epidermis in the birds and mammals result in a more uniform shape of the epithelium. Stem cells are now restricted to some basal regions of the epithelium. In the mammals the glands are located in the deeper layers of the skin. In contrast to other vertebrate integuments the human skin does not possess specialized structures such as feathers, scales or coats. However, waiving specialization allows for unique universality of the human skin compared to other vertebrates.

  10. Polonium-210 and lead-210 in marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, M.; Kuwabara, J.; Komura, K.; Ueno, K.

    1994-01-01

    The concentrations of 210 Po and 210 Pb were determined in about 30 species of marine organisms collected mainly from the north-eastern region of Japan to know the levels and distributions of these radionuclides and to estimate their intake levels from marine foods. 210 Po and 210 Pb showed a wide range of concentration in species: 0.6-26 and 0.04-0.54 Bq/kg (wet wt) in fishes, 0.5-220 and 0.2-43 Bq/kg (wet wt) in molluscs, echinoderms and chordatas, and 2.8-4.3 and 0.4-1.3 Bq/kg (wet wt) in algae, respectively. Higher accumulation of 210 Po relative to 210 Pb was found in all of the samples analyzed. The intake levels of 210 Po and 210 Pb by marine foods consumption were roughly estimated to be 0.48-0.69 and 0.022-0.042 Bq/d per person, respectively, on the basis of the statistical data on the consumption of seafood and/or production rates of marine foods. (author) 16 refs.; 6 tabs

  11. Quo Vadis Venomics? A Roadmap to Neglected Venomous Invertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjoern Marcus von Reumont

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Venomics research is being revolutionized by the increased use of sensitive -omics techniques to identify venom toxins and their transcripts in both well studied and neglected venomous taxa. The study of neglected venomous taxa is necessary both for understanding the full diversity of venom systems that have evolved in the animal kingdom, and to robustly answer fundamental questions about the biology and evolution of venoms without the distorting effect that can result from the current bias introduced by some heavily studied taxa. In this review we draw the outlines of a roadmap into the diversity of poorly studied and understood venomous and putatively venomous invertebrates, which together represent tens of thousands of unique venoms. The main groups we discuss are crustaceans, flies, centipedes, non-spider and non-scorpion arachnids, annelids, molluscs, platyhelminths, nemerteans, and echinoderms. We review what is known about the morphology of the venom systems in these groups, the composition of their venoms, and the bioactivities of the venoms to provide researchers with an entry into a large and scattered literature. We conclude with a short discussion of some important methodological aspects that have come to light with the recent use of new -omics techniques in the study of venoms.

  12. Identification and expression characterization of WntA during intestinal regeneration in the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoni; Sun, Lina; Yang, Hongsheng; Zhang, Libin; Miao, Ting; Xing, Lili; Huo, Da

    2017-08-01

    Wnt genes encode secreted glycoproteins that act as signaling molecules; these molecules direct cell proliferation, migration, differentiation and survival during animal development, maintenance of homeostasis and regeneration. At present, although the regeneration mechanism in Apostichopus japonicus has been studied, there is a little research on the Wnt signaling pathway in A. japonicus. To understand the potential role of the Wnt signaling pathway in A. japonicus, we cloned and sequenced the WntA gene in A. japonicus. Protein localization analysis showed that WntA protein was ubiquitously expressed in epidermal cells, the muscle and submucosa of the intestinal tissue. After stimulation and evisceration, the dynamic changes in expression of the WntA gene and protein showed that WntA was constitutively expressed during different stages of intestine regeneration in A. japonicus, with higher levels during the early wound healing stage and late lumen formation in the residual and nascent intestinal tissues, indicating its response to intestinal regeneration. Simultaneously, cell proliferation and apoptosis analysis showed that the patterns of cell proliferation were similar to the patterns of WntA protein expression during different intestinal regeneration stages in this organism. Taken together, these results suggested that WntA might participate in intestinal regeneration and may be connected with cell proliferation, apoptosis in different intestinal layers. This research could establish a basis for further examination of WntA functions in A. japonicus and Wnt genes in other echinoderms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Abrupt change in food environment induces cloning in plutei of Dendraster excentricus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Kathryn A; Vaughn, Dawn

    2010-08-01

    Asexual reproduction, or cloning, of planktonic echinoderm larvae has been observed in the laboratory and in nature, but little is known about its ecology. Here we examine the effects of algal food density and of a change in food density on the incidence of cloning in larvae of the sand dollar Dendraster excentricus. Results indicate that a change in food concentration can induce cloning in plutei. Cultures transferred from a low to a high algal ration at the time when primary larvae were developing the third (posterodorsal) pair of larval arms showed decreased postoral arm length, unusual morphologies, and increased larval density in culture. These dense cultures of smaller plutei were produced within 48 h of the food pulse. The result is consistent with the occurrence of a burst of cloning, possibly through anterior autotomization. A second feeding experiment demonstrated that anterior autotomization does occur in 4- to 6-arm plutei. Rather than constituting a developmental rarity, cloning may happen early and often in D. excentricus cohorts when environmental conditions favor rapid growth.

  14. Feeding habits of the false southern king crab Paralomis granulosa (Lithodidae in the Beagle Channel, Tierra del Fuego, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Inés Comoglio

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Stomach contents of 282 false southern king crabs (Paralomis granulosa, between 10 to 90 mm CL from the Beagle Channel (Golondrina Bay and Roca Mora, Argentina, were examined by the frequency of occurrence method of analysis and by a food index. Roca Mora is an area where juveniles ( 60 mm CL are common; in this last area sexual segregation was also observed. The principal food groups for crabs of Golondrina Bay were algae, molluscs, crustaceans, bryozoans and foraminiferans; for crabs from Roca Mora the natural diet consisted of three major food groups: hydrozoans, echinoderms and foraminiferans. The relative frequency of different prey groups varied in relation to the size, season and sex. There were no significant differences in the quantity of food consumed by sexes in both areas. Generally small crabs ( 50 mm CL. Juveniles consumed a greater amount of food during winter and spring. In summer (moulting period, juveniles had the highest vacuity index. Adults consumed minor amounts of food during autumn, before the spawning-moulting-mating period when the vacuity index was higher (spring.

  15. Ecological adaptations and commensal evolution of the Polynoidae (Polychaeta) in the Southwest Indian Ocean Ridge: A phylogenetic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpetti, Natalia; Taylor, M. L.; Brennan, D.; Green, D. H.; Rogers, A. D.; Paterson, G. L. J.; Narayanaswamy, B. E.

    2017-03-01

    The polychaete family polynoid is very large and includes a high diversity of behaviours, including numerous examples of commensal species. The comparison between free-living and commensal behaviours and the evolution of the relationships between commensal species and their hosts are valuable case studies of ecological adaptations. Deep-sea species of Polynoidae were sampled at four seamounts in the Southwest Indian Ridge and twenty specimens from seven species were selected to be analysed. Among them, there were free-living species, living within the three-dimensional framework of cold-water coral reefs, on coral rubble and on mobile sediments, and commensal species, associated with octocorals, hydrocorals (stylasterids), antipatharians and echinoderms (holothurian and ophiuroids). We analysed two mitochondrial (COI, 16S) and two nuclear (18S, 28S) ribosomal genetic markers and their combined sequences were compared with other Genbank sequences to assess the taxonomic relationships within the species under study, and the potential role of hosts in speciation processes. Most basal species of the sub-family Polynoinae are obligate symbionts showing specific morphological adaptations. Obligate and facultative commensal species and free-living species have evolved a number of times, although, according to our results, the obligate coral commensal species appear to be monophyletic.

  16. The other ocean acidification problem: CO2 as a resource among competitors for ecosystem dominance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Sean D; Kroeker, Kristy J; Fabricius, Katharina E; Kline, David I; Russell, Bayden D

    2013-01-01

    Predictions concerning the consequences of the oceanic uptake of increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) have been primarily occupied with the effects of ocean acidification on calcifying organisms, particularly those critical to the formation of habitats (e.g. coral reefs) or their maintenance (e.g. grazing echinoderms). This focus overlooks direct and indirect effects of CO2 on non-calcareous taxa that play critical roles in ecosystem shifts (e.g. competitors). We present the model that future atmospheric [CO2] may act as a resource for mat-forming algae, a diverse and widespread group known to reduce the resilience of kelp forests and coral reefs. We test this hypothesis by combining laboratory and field CO2 experiments and data from 'natural' volcanic CO2 vents. We show that mats have enhanced productivity in experiments and more expansive covers in situ under projected near-future CO2 conditions both in temperate and tropical conditions. The benefits of CO2 are likely to vary among species of producers, potentially leading to shifts in species dominance in a high CO2 world. We explore how ocean acidification combines with other environmental changes across a number of scales, and raise awareness of CO2 as a resource whose change in availability could have wide-ranging community consequences beyond its direct effects.

  17. Immune mediators of sea-cucumber Holothuria tubulosa (Echinodermata) as source of novel antimicrobial and anti-staphylococcal biofilm agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schillaci, Domenico; Cusimano, Maria Grazia; Cunsolo, Vincenzo; Saletti, Rosaria; Russo, Debora; Vazzana, Mirella; Vitale, Maria; Arizza, Vincenzo

    2013-06-24

    The present study aims to investigate coelomocytes, immune mediators cells in the echinoderm Holothuria tubulosa, as an unusual source of antimicrobial and antibiofilm agents. The activity of the 5kDa peptide fraction of the cytosol from H. tubulosa coelomocytes (5-HCC) was tested against a reference group of Gram-negative and Gram-positive human pathogens. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranging from 125 to 500 mg/ml were determined against tested strains. The observed biological activity of 5-HCC could be due to two novel peptides, identified by capillary RP-HPLC/nESI-MS/MS, which present the common chemical-physical characteristics of antimicrobial peptides. Such peptides were chemically synthesized and their antimicrobial activity was tested. The synthetic peptides showed broad-spectrum activity at 12.5 mg/ml against the majority of the tested Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains, and they were also able to inhibit biofilm formation in a significant percentage at a concentration of 3.1 mg/ml against staphylococcal and Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains.The immune mediators in H. tubulosa are a source of novel antimicrobial peptides for the development of new agents against biofilm bacterial communities that are often intrinsically resistant to conventional antibiotics.

  18. Synergistic effects of hypoxia and increasing CO2 on benthic invertebrates of the central Chilean coast

    KAUST Repository

    Steckbauer, Alexandra; Ramajo, Laura; Hendriks, Iris E.; Fernandez, Miriam; Lagos, Nelson A.; Prado, Luis; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2015-01-01

    Ocean acidification (OA) and hypoxic events are an increasing worldwide problem, but the synergetic effects of these factors are seldom explored. However, this synergetic occurrence of stressors is prevalent. The coastline of Chile not only suffers from coastal hypoxia but the cold, oxygen-poor waters in upwelling events are also supersaturated in CO2, a study site to explore the combined effect of OA and hypoxia. We experimentally evaluated the metabolic response of different invertebrate species (2 anthozoans, 9 molluscs, 4 crustaceans, 2 echinoderms) of the coastline of central Chile (33°30′S, 71°37′W) to hypoxia and OA within predicted levels and in a full factorial design. Organisms were exposed to 4 different treatments (ambient, low oxygen, high CO2, and the combination of low oxygen and high CO2) and metabolism was measured after 3 and 6 days. We show that the combination of hypoxia and increased pCO2 reduces the respiration significantly, compared to a single stressor. The evaluation of synergistic pressures, a more realistic scenario than single stressors, is crucial to evaluate the effect of future changes for coastal species and our results provide the first insight on what might happen in the next 100 years.

  19. Activity of EGFR-tyrosine kinase and ALK inhibitors for EML4–ALK-rearranged non–small–cell lung cancer harbored coexisting EGFR mutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyanaga, Akihiko; Kawamoto, Masashi; Tsuchiya, Shinichi; Hagiwara, Koichi; Soda, Manabu; Takeuchi, Kengo; Yamamoto, Nobuyuki; Mano, Hiroyuki; Ishikawa, Yuichi; Gemma, Akihiko; Shimizu, Kumi; Noro, Rintaro; Seike, Masahiro; Kitamura, Kazuhiro; Kosaihira, Seiji; Minegishi, Yuji; Shukuya, Takehito; Yoshimura, Akinobu

    2013-01-01

    The EML4–ALK (echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 gene and the anaplastic lymphoma kinase gene) fusion oncogene represents a novel molecular target in a small subset of non–small–cell lung cancers (NSCLCs). The EML4–ALK fusion gene occurs generally in NSCLC without mutations in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and KRAS. We report that a case of EML4–ALK-positive NSCLC with EGFR mutation had a response of stable disease to both an EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) and ALK inhibitor. We described the first clinical report of a patient with EML4–ALK-positive NSCLC with EGFR mutation that had a response of stable disease to both single-agent EGFR-TKI and ALK inhibitor. EML4–ALK translocation may be associated with resistance to EGFR-TKI, and EGFR signaling may contribute to resistance to ALK inhibitor in EML4–ALK-positive NSCLC

  20. The Oldest Jurassic Dinosaur: A Basal Neotheropod from the Hettangian of Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martill, David M; Vidovic, Steven U; Howells, Cindy; Nudds, John R

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 40% of a skeleton including cranial and postcranial remains representing a new genus and species of basal neotheropod dinosaur is described. It was collected from fallen blocks from a sea cliff that exposes Late Triassic and Early Jurassic marine and quasi marine strata on the south Wales coast near the city of Cardiff. Matrix comparisons indicate that the specimen is from the lithological Jurassic part of the sequence, below the first occurrence of the index ammonite Psiloceras planorbis and above the last occurrence of the Rhaetian conodont Chirodella verecunda. Associated fauna of echinoderms and bivalves indicate that the specimen had drifted out to sea, presumably from the nearby Welsh Massif and associated islands (St David's Archipelago). Its occurrence close to the base of the Blue Lias Formation (Lower Jurassic, Hettangian) makes it the oldest known Jurassic dinosaur and it represents the first dinosaur skeleton from the Jurassic of Wales. A cladistic analysis indicates basal neotheropodan affinities, but the specimen retains plesiomorphic characters which it shares with Tawa and Daemonosaurus.

  1. Best Dressed Test: A Study of the Covering Behavior of the Collector Urchin Tripneustes gratilla.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan A Ziegenhorn

    Full Text Available Many sea urchin genera exhibit cryptic covering behaviors. One such behavior has been documented in the sea urchin Tripneustes gratilla, and previous studies have theorized that this behavior serves as protection from UV radiation. However, other hypotheses have been presented such as protection from predators or added weight to help T. gratilla resist strong currents. A field study was conducted in October-November 2015 in Moorea, French Polynesia to assess urchin covering behavior in natural habitats. The study found that urchins partially underneath rocks covered more, and with more algae, than urchins totally underneath rocks. To test if this behavior was driven by light intensity, a series of 30-minute experimental trials were run on 10 individuals in bright and dim conditions. Individuals were given red and clear plastic, and percent cover of each was recorded. These tests were repeated once fifty percent of spines had been removed from the urchin, in order to determine whether spine loss affects T. gratilla covering behavior. The study found that urchins had a distinct preference for cover that best protects them from UV radiation. Spine loss did not significantly affect urchin ability to cover, and urchins with removed spines still preferred opaque cover. Additionally, covering behavior was mapped onto a phylogeny of echinoderms to determine how it might have evolved. Understanding urchin covering behavior more fully is a step towards an understanding of the evolution of cryptic behavior across species.

  2. Sea cucumbers, the ocean of bioactive compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Ebrahimi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Sea cucumbers are one of the most echinoderms and from the class Holothuroidea. Some of their specific biological activities are including anti-cancer, anticoagulant, antihypertensive, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-atherosclerosis and anti-tumor properties, as well as accelerate wound healing. The presence of different compounds such as saponins, chondroitin sulfates, glycosaminoglycans, sulfated Polysaccharides, glycoprotein, glycosphingolipids and essential and non essential fatty acids, are the causes of their biological properties. Saponins, which are produced for compatibility with the environment, are as theire secondary metabolites. These active compounds have biological properties like hemolytic, anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antiviral, ichthyotoxic, cytostatic, anti neogenic, antineoplastic, and uric acid lowering effects. Sea cucumber, have high economic value. In East Asia, Since ancient times, it have been traditionally used for the treatment of fatigue, sexual impotence, impotence caused by aging, constipation due to intestinal dryness, urinary incontinence, asthma, hypertension, arthritis and anemia. Also, toxins obtained from sea cucumber, have anti-viral, anti-tumor, anti-cancer and anti-pregnancy properties. According to literatures, the aqueous extract and high molecular weight compounds from sea cucumbers can inhibit tumor activity, via the apoptosis induction. Sea cucumbers because of the high percentage of protein and the absence of cholesterol, classified as an invigorating food. Because of different species of sea cucumbers in the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea the identification of compounds and biological properties of sea cucumber species in these regions is recommended to the researchers.

  3. Ocean acidification: the other CO2 problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doney, Scott C; Fabry, Victoria J; Feely, Richard A; Kleypas, Joan A

    2009-01-01

    Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), primarily from human fossil fuel combustion, reduces ocean pH and causes wholesale shifts in seawater carbonate chemistry. The process of ocean acidification is well documented in field data, and the rate will accelerate over this century unless future CO2 emissions are curbed dramatically. Acidification alters seawater chemical speciation and biogeochemical cycles of many elements and compounds. One well-known effect is the lowering of calcium carbonate saturation states, which impacts shell-forming marine organisms from plankton to benthic molluscs, echinoderms, and corals. Many calcifying species exhibit reduced calcification and growth rates in laboratory experiments under high-CO2 conditions. Ocean acidification also causes an increase in carbon fixation rates in some photosynthetic organisms (both calcifying and noncalcifying). The potential for marine organisms to adapt to increasing CO2 and broader implications for ocean ecosystems are not well known; both are high priorities for future research. Although ocean pH has varied in the geological past, paleo-events may be only imperfect analogs to current conditions.

  4. Dolomitized bryozoan bioherms from the Lower Silurian Manitoulin Formation, Bruce Peninsula, Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anastas, A S; Coniglo, M [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada)

    1992-06-01

    Several small, previously undescribed bioherms are present in the shallow shelf dolostones of the Manitoulin Formation at the Cabot Head and Wingfield Basin localities in the northernmost portion of the Bruce Peninsula region of southern Ontario. The bioherms, commonly associated with carbonate tempestites, range from 0.3 to 1.0 m in height and 0.9 to 2.5 m in width and are composed of bafflestones-floatstones and minor bindstones. The chief components of the bioherms are dolomitized lime mud and branching bryozoans. Bioherm building by bryozoans, although common in the ancient record, represents a great divergence from the mostly accessory frame encrusting role of bryozoans in modern environments. Minor skeletal components of the bioherms include echinoderms, rugose and tabulate corals and brachiopods. Laminar encrusting bryozoans exist in the top 10 cm of one of the bioherms. Some of the bioherms show evidence of water agitation that may be the result of current action induced by storm or tidal processes. The occurrence of the bioherms stretches the already known Llandoverian reef complex on Manitoulin Island further to the south. The reason why these bioherms did not reach sizes comparable to large Llandoverian or Wenlockian reefs and did not make the shift to coral-stromaporoid community is probably related to a complex interaction of factors such as community development, bathymetry, clasticity and salinity. 41 refs., 4 figs.

  5. The substantial first impact of bottom fishing on rare biodiversity hotspots: a dilemma for evidence-based conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Robert; Fariñas-Franco, Jose M; Gell, Fiona R; Holt, Rohan H F; Holt, Terry; Lindenbaum, Charles; Porter, Joanne S; Seed, Ray; Skates, Lucie R; Stringell, Thomas B; Sanderson, William G

    2013-01-01

    This study describes the impact of the first passage of two types of bottom-towed fishing gear on rare protected shellfish-reefs formed by the horse mussel Modiolus modiolus (L.). One of the study sites was trawled and the other was scallop-dredged. Divers collected HD video imagery of epifauna from quadrats at the two study sites and directed infaunal samples from one site. The total number of epifaunal organisms was significantly reduced following a single pass of a trawl (90%) or scallop dredge (59%), as was the diversity of the associated community and the total number of M. modiolus at the trawled site. At both sites declines in anthozoans, hydrozoans, bivalves, echinoderms and ascidians accounted for most of the change. A year later, no recovery was evident at the trawled site and significantly fewer infaunal taxa (polychaetes, malacostracans, bivalves and ophuroids) were recorded in the trawl track. The severity of the two types of impact reflected the undisturbed status of the habitats compared to previous studies. As a 'priority habitat' the nature of the impacts described on M. modiolus communities are important to the development of conservation management policy and indicators of condition in Marine Protected Areas (EU Habitats Directive) as well as indicators of 'Good Environmental Status' under the European Union Marine Strategy Framework Directive. Conservation managers are under pressure to support decisions with good quality evidence. Elsewhere, indirect studies have shown declines of M. modiolus biogenic communities in fishing grounds. However, given the protected status of the rare habitat, premeditated demonstration of direct impact is unethical or illegal in Marine Protected Areas. This study therefore provides a unique opportunity to investigate the impact from fishing gear whilst at the same time reflecting on the dilemma of evidence-based conservation management.

  6. Characterization of the deleted in autism 1 protein family: implications for studying cognitive disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Azhari; Harrop, Sean P; Bishop, Naomi E

    2011-01-19

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are a group of commonly occurring, highly-heritable developmental disabilities. Human genes c3orf58 or Deleted In Autism-1 (DIA1) and cXorf36 or Deleted in Autism-1 Related (DIA1R) are implicated in ASD and mental retardation. Both gene products encode signal peptides for targeting to the secretory pathway. As evolutionary medicine has emerged as a key tool for understanding increasing numbers of human diseases, we have used an evolutionary approach to study DIA1 and DIA1R. We found DIA1 conserved from cnidarians to humans, indicating DIA1 evolution coincided with the development of the first primitive synapses. Nematodes lack a DIA1 homologue, indicating Caenorhabditis elegans is not suitable for studying all aspects of ASD etiology, while zebrafish encode two DIA1 paralogues. By contrast to DIA1, DIA1R was found exclusively in vertebrates, with an origin coinciding with the whole-genome duplication events occurring early in the vertebrate lineage, and the evolution of the more complex vertebrate nervous system. Strikingly, DIA1R was present in schooling fish but absent in fish that have adopted a more solitary lifestyle. An additional DIA1-related gene we named DIA1-Like (DIA1L), lacks a signal peptide and is restricted to the genomes of the echinoderm Strongylocentrotus purpuratus and cephalochordate Branchiostoma floridae. Evidence for remarkable DIA1L gene expansion was found in B. floridae. Amino acid alignments of DIA1 family gene products revealed a potential Golgi-retention motif and a number of conserved motifs with unknown function. Furthermore, a glycine and three cysteine residues were absolutely conserved in all DIA1-family proteins, indicating a critical role in protein structure and/or function. We have therefore identified a new metazoan protein family, the DIA1-family, and understanding the biological roles of DIA1-family members will have implications for our understanding of autism and mental retardation.

  7. Giant Clams and Rising CO2: Light May Ameliorate Effects of Ocean Acidification on a Solar-Powered Animal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue-Ann Watson

    Full Text Available Global climate change and ocean acidification pose a serious threat to marine life. Marine invertebrates are particularly susceptible to ocean acidification, especially highly calcareous taxa such as molluscs, echinoderms and corals. The largest of all bivalve molluscs, giant clams, are already threatened by a variety of local pressures, including overharvesting, and are in decline worldwide. Several giant clam species are listed as 'Vulnerable' on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species and now climate change and ocean acidification pose an additional threat to their conservation. Unlike most other molluscs, giant clams are 'solar-powered' animals containing photosynthetic algal symbionts suggesting that light could influence the effects of ocean acidification on these vulnerable animals. In this study, juvenile fluted giant clams Tridacna squamosa were exposed to three levels of carbon dioxide (CO2 (control ~400, mid ~650 and high ~950 μatm and light (photosynthetically active radiation 35, 65 and 304 μmol photons m-2 s-1. Elevated CO2 projected for the end of this century (~650 and ~950 μatm reduced giant clam survival and growth at mid-light levels. However, effects of CO2 on survival were absent at high-light, with 100% survival across all CO2 levels. Effects of CO2 on growth of surviving clams were lessened, but not removed, at high-light levels. Shell growth and total animal mass gain were still reduced at high-CO2. This study demonstrates the potential for light to alleviate effects of ocean acidification on survival and growth in a threatened calcareous marine invertebrate. Managing water quality (e.g. turbidity and sedimentation in coastal areas to maintain water clarity may help ameliorate some negative effects of ocean acidification on giant clams and potentially other solar-powered calcifiers, such as hard corals.

  8. Biofilm attachment reduction on bioinspired, dynamic, micro-wrinkling surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epstein, Alexander K; Hong, Donggyoon; Kim, Philseok; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    Most bacteria live in multicellular communities known as biofilms that are adherent to surfaces in our environment, from sea beds to plumbing systems. Biofilms are often associated with clinical infections, nosocomial deaths and industrial damage such as bio-corrosion and clogging of pipes. As mature biofilms are extremely challenging to eradicate once formed, prevention is advantageous over treatment. However, conventional surface chemistry strategies are either generally transient, due to chemical masking, or toxic, as in the case of leaching marine antifouling paints. Inspired by the nonfouling skins of echinoderms and other marine organisms, which possess highly dynamic surface structures that mechanically frustrate bio-attachment, we have developed and tested a synthetic platform based on both uniaxial mechanical strain and buckling-induced elastomer microtopography. Bacterial biofilm attachment to the dynamic substrates was studied under an array of parameters, including strain amplitude and timescale (1–100 mm s −1 ), surface wrinkle length scale, bacterial species and cell geometry, and growth time. The optimal conditions for achieving up to ∼ 80% Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm reduction after 24 h growth and ∼ 60% reduction after 48 h were combinatorially elucidated to occur at 20% strain amplitude, a timescale of less than ∼ 5 min between strain cycles and a topography length scale corresponding to the cell dimension of ∼ 1 μm. Divergent effects on the attachment of P. aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli biofilms showed that the dynamic substrate also provides a new means of species-specific biofilm inhibition, or inversely, selection for a desired type of bacteria, without reliance on any toxic or transient surface chemical treatments. (paper)

  9. RNA deep sequencing reveals differential microRNA expression during development of sea urchin and sea star.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabah Kadri

    Full Text Available microRNAs (miRNAs are small (20-23 nt, non-coding single stranded RNA molecules that act as post-transcriptional regulators of mRNA gene expression. They have been implicated in regulation of developmental processes in diverse organisms. The echinoderms, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus (sea urchin and Patiria miniata (sea star are excellent model organisms for studying development with well-characterized transcriptional networks. However, to date, nothing is known about the role of miRNAs during development in these organisms, except that the genes that are involved in the miRNA biogenesis pathway are expressed during their developmental stages. In this paper, we used Illumina Genome Analyzer (Illumina, Inc. to sequence small RNA libraries in mixed stage population of embryos from one to three days after fertilization of sea urchin and sea star (total of 22,670,000 reads. Analysis of these data revealed the miRNA populations in these two species. We found that 47 and 38 known miRNAs are expressed in sea urchin and sea star, respectively, during early development (32 in common. We also found 13 potentially novel miRNAs in the sea urchin embryonic library. miRNA expression is generally conserved between the two species during development, but 7 miRNAs are highly expressed in only one species. We expect that our two datasets will be a valuable resource for everyone working in the field of developmental biology and the regulatory networks that affect it. The computational pipeline to analyze Illumina reads is available at http://www.benoslab.pitt.edu/services.html.

  10. HpBase: A genome database of a sea urchin, Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinjo, Sonoko; Kiyomoto, Masato; Yamamoto, Takashi; Ikeo, Kazuho; Yaguchi, Shunsuke

    2018-04-01

    To understand the mystery of life, it is important to accumulate genomic information for various organisms because the whole genome encodes the commands for all the genes. Since the genome of Strongylocentrotus purpratus was sequenced in 2006 as the first sequenced genome in echinoderms, the genomic resources of other North American sea urchins have gradually been accumulated, but no sea urchin genomes are available in other areas, where many scientists have used the local species and reported important results. In this manuscript, we report a draft genome of the sea urchin Hemincentrotus pulcherrimus because this species has a long history as the target of developmental and cell biology in East Asia. The genome of H. pulcherrimus was assembled into 16,251 scaffold sequences with an N50 length of 143 kbp, and approximately 25,000 genes were identified in the genome. The size of the genome and the sequencing coverage were estimated to be approximately 800 Mbp and 100×, respectively. To provide these data and information of annotation, we constructed a database, HpBase (http://cell-innovation.nig.ac.jp/Hpul/). In HpBase, gene searches, genome browsing, and blast searches are available. In addition, HpBase includes the "recipes" for experiments from each lab using H. pulcherrimus. These recipes will continue to be updated according to the circumstances of individual scientists and can be powerful tools for experimental biologists and for the community. HpBase is a suitable dataset for evolutionary, developmental, and cell biologists to compare H. pulcherrimus genomic information with that of other species and to isolate gene information. © 2018 Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

  11. Different routes lead to apoptosis in unfertilized sea urchin eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippe, Laetitia; Tosca, Lucie; Zhang, Wen Ling; Piquemal, Marion; Ciapa, Brigitte

    2014-03-01

    Results obtained in various species, from mammals to invertebrates, show that arrest in the cell cycle of mature oocytes is due to a high ERK activity. Apoptosis is stimulated in these oocytes if fertilization does not occur. Our previous data suggest that apoptosis of unfertilized sea urchin eggs is the consequence of an aberrant short attempt of development that occurs if ERK is inactivated. They contradict those obtained in starfish, another echinoderm, where inactivation of ERK delays apoptosis of aging mature oocytes that are nevertheless arrested at G1 of the cell cycle as in the sea urchin. This suggests that the cell death pathway that can be activated in unfertilized eggs is not the same in sea urchin and in starfish. In the present study, we find that protein synthesis is necessary for the survival of unfertilized sea urchin eggs, contrary to starfish. We also compare the effects induced by Emetine, an inhibitor of protein synthesis, with those triggered by Staurosporine, a non specific inhibitor of protein kinase that is widely used to induce apoptosis in many types of cells. Our results indicate that the unfertilized sea urchin egg contain different mechanisms capable of leading to apoptosis and that rely or not on changes in ERK activity, acidity of intracellular organelles or intracellular Ca and pH. We discuss the validity of some methods to investigate cell death such as measurements of caspase activation with the fluorescent caspase indicator FITC-VAD-fmk or acidification of intracellular organelles, methods that may lead to erroneous conclusions at least in the sea urchin model.

  12. Unraveling estradiol metabolism and involvement in the reproductive cycle of non-vertebrate animals: The sea urchin model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvia, Mercurio; Paolo, Tremolada; Nobile, Maria; Denise, Fernandes; Cinta, Porte; Michela, Sugni

    2015-12-01

    Estradiol (E2) is a well-known hormone in vertebrates whereas in invertebrates its unambiguous presence was verified only in some species. Weather this presence is also associated to similarly conserved roles in animal phylogeny is similarly uncertain. Due to their phylogenetic position, echinoderms represent ideal experimental models to provide evolutionary insights into estrogen appearance and function. Therefore, in this research, we investigated if E2 is truly present and has a role in the reproductive biology of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus. Presence of 17β estradiol in body fluids was confirmed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. By immunological methods (RIA) we evaluated the physiological circulating E2 levels of adult specimens and, on the basis of these, we directly administered E2 to study its metabolism and its putative effects on gonad development at physiological doses. Although different E2 tested concentrations, a correspondent dose-dependent increase of hormone levels was not found in both body fluids and gonads, suggesting the presence of potent homeostatic/detoxification mechanisms. These latter do not involve enzymes such as aromatase-like, sulfotransferase-like and acyltransferase-like, whose activities were not affected by E2 administration. Despite the increase of endogenous E2, the treatment did not induce significant variations in none of the considered reproductive parameters. Overall, this research (1) provides definitive evidence of E2 presence in sea urchin tissues and (2) demonstrate that, differently from vertebrates and starfish, E2 does not play a key role in sea urchins reproductive processes. Intra-phylum differences suggest the existence of class-specific hormonal mechanisms and highlight the risk of Phylum generalization. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Novel Antimicrobial Peptides EeCentrocins 1, 2 and EeStrongylocin 2 from the Edible Sea Urchin Echinus esculentus Have 6-Br-Trp Post-Translational Modifications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runar Gjerp Solstad

    Full Text Available The global problem of microbial resistance to antibiotics has resulted in an urgent need to develop new antimicrobial agents. Natural antimicrobial peptides are considered promising candidates for drug development. Echinoderms, which rely on innate immunity factors in the defence against harmful microorganisms, are sources of novel antimicrobial peptides. This study aimed to isolate and characterise antimicrobial peptides from the Edible sea urchin Echinus esculentus. Using bioassay-guided purification and cDNA cloning, three antimicrobial peptides were characterised from the haemocytes of the sea urchin; two heterodimeric peptides and a cysteine-rich peptide. The peptides were named EeCentrocin 1 and 2 and EeStrongylocin 2, respectively, due to their apparent homology to the published centrocins and strongylocins isolated from the green sea urchin Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis. The two centrocin-like peptides EeCentrocin 1 and 2 are intramolecularly connected via a disulphide bond to form a heterodimeric structure, containing a cationic heavy chain of 30 and 32 amino acids and a light chain of 13 amino acids. Additionally, the light chain of EeCentrocin 2 seems to be N-terminally blocked by a pyroglutamic acid residue. The heavy chains of EeCentrocins 1 and 2 were synthesised and shown to be responsible for the antimicrobial activity of the natural peptides. EeStrongylocin 2 contains 6 cysteines engaged in 3 disulphide bonds. A fourth peptide (Ee4635 was also discovered but not fully characterised. Using mass spectrometric and NMR analyses, EeCentrocins 1 and 2, EeStrongylocin 2 and Ee4635 were all shown to contain post-translationally brominated Trp residues in the 6 position of the indole ring.

  14. RNA Deep Sequencing Reveals Differential MicroRNA Expression during Development of Sea Urchin and Sea Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadri, Sabah; Hinman, Veronica F.; Benos, Panayiotis V.

    2011-01-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs) are small (20–23 nt), non-coding single stranded RNA molecules that act as post-transcriptional regulators of mRNA gene expression. They have been implicated in regulation of developmental processes in diverse organisms. The echinoderms, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus (sea urchin) and Patiria miniata (sea star) are excellent model organisms for studying development with well-characterized transcriptional networks. However, to date, nothing is known about the role of miRNAs during development in these organisms, except that the genes that are involved in the miRNA biogenesis pathway are expressed during their developmental stages. In this paper, we used Illumina Genome Analyzer (Illumina, Inc.) to sequence small RNA libraries in mixed stage population of embryos from one to three days after fertilization of sea urchin and sea star (total of 22,670,000 reads). Analysis of these data revealed the miRNA populations in these two species. We found that 47 and 38 known miRNAs are expressed in sea urchin and sea star, respectively, during early development (32 in common). We also found 13 potentially novel miRNAs in the sea urchin embryonic library. miRNA expression is generally conserved between the two species during development, but 7 miRNAs are highly expressed in only one species. We expect that our two datasets will be a valuable resource for everyone working in the field of developmental biology and the regulatory networks that affect it. The computational pipeline to analyze Illumina reads is available at http://www.benoslab.pitt.edu/services.html. PMID:22216218

  15. Trans-life cycle acclimation to experimental ocean acidification affects gastric pH homeostasis and larval recruitment in the sea star Asterias rubens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Marian Y; Lein, Etienne; Bleich, Markus; Melzner, Frank; Stumpp, Meike

    2018-04-16

    Experimental simulation of near-future ocean acidification (OA) has been demonstrated to affect growth and development of echinoderm larval stages through energy allocation towards ion and pH compensatory processes. To date, it remains largely unknown how major pH regulatory systems and their energetics are affected by trans-generational exposure to near-future acidification levels. Here we used the common sea star Asterias rubens in a reciprocal transplant experiment comprising different combinations of OA scenarios, in order to study trans-generational plasticity using morphological and physiological endpoints. Acclimation of adults to pH T 7.2 (pCO 2 3500μatm) led to reductions in feeding rates, gonad weight, and fecundity. No effects were evident at moderate acidification levels (pH T 7.4; pCO 2 2000μatm). Parental pre-acclimation to pH T 7.2 for 85 days reduced developmental rates even when larvae were raised under moderate and high pH conditions, whereas pre-acclimation to pH T 7.4 did not alter offspring performance. Microelectrode measurements and pharmacological inhibitor studies carried out on larval stages demonstrated that maintenance of alkaline gastric pH represents a substantial energy sink under acidified conditions that may contribute up to 30% to the total energy budget. Parental pre-acclimation to acidification levels that are beyond the pH that is encountered by this population in its natural habitat (e.g. pH T 7.2) negatively affected larval size and development, potentially through reduced energy transfer. Maintenance of alkaline gastric pH and reductions in maternal energy reserves probably constitute the main factors for a reduced juvenile recruitment of this marine keystone species under simulated OA. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  16. Organotin levels in seafood and its implications for health risk in high-seafood consumers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerin, T. [Agence francaise de securite sanitaire des aliments - Afssa, Unites CIME et PASER, AFSSA-LERQAP, 23 Av. du G. de Gaulle, 94706 Maisons-Alfort Cedex (France)], E-mail: t.guerin@afssa.fr; Sirot, V.; Volatier, J.-L.; Leblanc, J.-C. [Agence francaise de securite sanitaire des aliments - Afssa, Unites CIME et PASER, AFSSA-LERQAP, 23 Av. du G. de Gaulle, 94706 Maisons-Alfort Cedex (France)

    2007-12-15

    Fish and fishery products are considered as the main source of organotin compounds (OTC). Unfortunately, little national contamination data is available to assess food exposure of organotins from French consumers. To provide a more accurate estimate of risks to human health, the butyltin, phenyltin and octyltin compounds sampling in four French coastal areas were measured in 159 composite samples (96 fresh and frozen fish, 28 mollusks, 14 crustaceans, 1 echinoderm, 11 canned foods, 4 smoked fish, 5 prepared seafood-based dishes) by capillary gas chromatography coupled with a microwave induced plasma atomic-emission spectrometer (CGC-MIP-AES). In these samples, butyltins were usually predominant and the range of the contamination levels was generally below those of earlier studies (fish: mean 5.6; min-max 1.1-23 {mu}g/kg; fishery products: mean 6; min-max 0.8-14 {mu}g/kg). Fish, especially tuna, salmon, mackerel, saithe/coalfish and cod were largely the main contributors (38%) to the total organotin exposure. With the supplementary contribution of great scallop, surimi, squid and oysters, the exposure exceeded 50% in all. However, the utmost OTC exposure was lesser than 47% of the provisional tolerable weekly intake [EFSA (European Food Safety Agency). Opinion of the Scientific Panel on Contaminants in the food chain on a request from the Commission to assess the health risks to consumers associated with exposure to organotins in foodstuffs. (Question N{sup o}EFSA-Q-2003-110). The EFSA Journal, 102, 1-119, 2004. (http://www.efsa.eu.int)]. Nobody would exceed this limit. Finally, as this study has some limitations and since some other sources and health effects have not been clearly evaluated, it appears rational from public health and environmental viewpoints to continue to reduce the OTC levels in the environment.

  17. Biofilm attachment reduction on bioinspired, dynamic, micro-wrinkling surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Alexander K.; Hong, Donggyoon; Kim, Philseok; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2013-09-01

    Most bacteria live in multicellular communities known as biofilms that are adherent to surfaces in our environment, from sea beds to plumbing systems. Biofilms are often associated with clinical infections, nosocomial deaths and industrial damage such as bio-corrosion and clogging of pipes. As mature biofilms are extremely challenging to eradicate once formed, prevention is advantageous over treatment. However, conventional surface chemistry strategies are either generally transient, due to chemical masking, or toxic, as in the case of leaching marine antifouling paints. Inspired by the nonfouling skins of echinoderms and other marine organisms, which possess highly dynamic surface structures that mechanically frustrate bio-attachment, we have developed and tested a synthetic platform based on both uniaxial mechanical strain and buckling-induced elastomer microtopography. Bacterial biofilm attachment to the dynamic substrates was studied under an array of parameters, including strain amplitude and timescale (1-100 mm s-1), surface wrinkle length scale, bacterial species and cell geometry, and growth time. The optimal conditions for achieving up to ˜ 80% Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm reduction after 24 h growth and ˜ 60% reduction after 48 h were combinatorially elucidated to occur at 20% strain amplitude, a timescale of less than ˜ 5 min between strain cycles and a topography length scale corresponding to the cell dimension of ˜ 1 μm. Divergent effects on the attachment of P. aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli biofilms showed that the dynamic substrate also provides a new means of species-specific biofilm inhibition, or inversely, selection for a desired type of bacteria, without reliance on any toxic or transient surface chemical treatments.

  18. Tropical dermatology: marine and aquatic dermatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Vidal; Lupi, Omar; Lonza, Juan Pedro; Tyring, Stephen K

    2009-11-01

    Dermatoses caused by marine organisms are frequently seen in dermatology clinics worldwide. Cutaneous injuries after exposure to marine environments include bacterial and fungal infections and lesions caused by aquatic plants and protists. Some of these diseases are well known by dermatologists, such as Vibrio vulnificus septicemia and erysipeloid, but others are uncommon, such as envenomation caused by ingestion or contact with certain dinoflagellates or cyanobacteria, which are associated with rashes that can begin within minutes after exposure. Many marine/aquatic invertebrates, such as sponges, cnidarians, echinoderms, crustaceans, and mollusks, are associated with different kinds of dermatologic lesions that can vary from irritant or allergic contact dermatitis to physical trauma and envenomations. These cutaneous lesions may result in mild local reactions or can be associated with severe systemic reactions. Invertebrate animals, such as cnidarians, sea urchins, and worms, and aquatic vertebrates, such as venomous fishes and stingrays, are commonly associated with skin lesions in many countries, where they can constitute occupational dermatoses among fishermen and scuba divers, but they can also be observed among persons who contact these animals in kitchens or beaches. The presence of unusual lesions, a recent travel history, and/or a report of contact with an aquatic environment (including ownership of a marine or freshwater aquarium) should alert the dermatologist to the etiology of the cutaneous problems. After completing this learning activity, participants should be able to recognize the cutaneous manifestations of marine/aquatic infections, bites, stings, and wounds, etc., treat the cutaneous manifestations of marine/aquatic injuries, and help prevent marine/aquatic injuries.

  19. Diversification of AID/APOBEC-like deaminases in metazoa: multiplicity of clades and widespread roles in immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Arunkumar; Iyer, Lakshminarayan M; Holland, Stephen J; Boehm, Thomas; Aravind, L

    2018-04-03

    AID/APOBEC deaminases (AADs) convert cytidine to uridine in single-stranded nucleic acids. They are involved in numerous mutagenic processes, including those underpinning vertebrate innate and adaptive immunity. Using a multipronged sequence analysis strategy, we uncover several AADs across metazoa, dictyosteliida, and algae, including multiple previously unreported vertebrate clades, and versions from urochordates, nematodes, echinoderms, arthropods, lophotrochozoans, cnidarians, and porifera. Evolutionary analysis suggests a fundamental division of AADs early in metazoan evolution into secreted deaminases (SNADs) and classical AADs, followed by diversification into several clades driven by rapid-sequence evolution, gene loss, lineage-specific expansions, and lateral transfer to various algae. Most vertebrate AADs, including AID and APOBECs1-3, diversified in the vertebrates, whereas the APOBEC4-like clade has a deeper origin in metazoa. Positional entropy analysis suggests that several AAD clades are diversifying rapidly, especially in the positions predicted to interact with the nucleic acid target motif, and with potential viral inhibitors. Further, several AADs have evolved neomorphic metal-binding inserts, especially within loops predicted to interact with the target nucleic acid. We also observe polymorphisms, driven by alternative splicing, gene loss, and possibly intergenic recombination between paralogs. We propose that biological conflicts of AADs with viruses and genomic retroelements are drivers of rapid AAD evolution, suggesting a widespread presence of mutagenesis-based immune-defense systems. Deaminases like AID represent versions "institutionalized" from the broader array of AADs pitted in such arms races for mutagenesis of self-DNA, and similar recruitment might have independently occurred elsewhere in metazoa. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  20. Assessing the Extent of Sediment Contamination Around Creosote-treated Pilings Through Chemical and Biological Analyses

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    Stefansson, E. S.

    2008-12-01

    Creosote is a common wood preservative used to treat marine structures, such as docks and bulkheads. Treated dock pilings continually leach polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and other creosote compounds into the surrounding water and sediment. Over time, these compounds can accumulate in marine sediments, reaching much greater concentrations than those in seawater. The purpose of this study was to assess the extent of creosote contamination in sediments, at a series of distances from treated pilings. Three pilings were randomly selected from a railroad trestle in Fidalgo Bay, WA and sediment samples were collected at four distances from each: 0 meters, 0.5 meters, 1 meter, and 2 meters. Samples were used to conduct two bioassays: an amphipod bioassay (Rhepoxynius abronius) and a sand dollar embryo bioassay. Grain size and PAH content (using a fluorometric method) were also measured. Five samples in the amphipod bioassay showed significantly lower effective survival than the reference sediment. These consisted of samples closest to the piling at 0 and 0.5 meters. One 0 m sample in the sand dollar embryo bioassay also showed a significantly lower percentage of normal embryos than the reference sediment. Overall, results strongly suggest that creosote-contaminated sediments, particularly those closest to treated pilings, can negatively affect both amphipods and echinoderm embryos. Although chemical data were somewhat ambiguous, 0 m samples had the highest levels of PAHs, which corresponded to the lowest average survival in both bioassays. Relatively high levels of PAHs were found as far as 2 meters away from pilings. Therefore, we cannot say how far chemical contamination can spread from creosote-treated pilings, and at what distance this contamination can still affect marine organisms. These results, as well as future research, are essential to the success of proposed piling removal projects. In addition to creosote-treated pilings, contaminated sediments must

  1. Variation in the macrofaunal community over large temporal and spatial scales in the southern Yellow Sea

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    Xu, Yong; Sui, Jixing; Yang, Mei; Sun, Yue; Li, Xinzheng; Wang, Hongfa; Zhang, Baolin

    2017-09-01

    To detect large, temporal- and spatial-scale variations in the macrofaunal community in the southern Yellow Sea, data collected along the western, middle and eastern regions of the southern Yellow Sea from 1958 to 2014 were organized and analyzed. Statistical methods such as cluster analysis, non-metric multidimensional scaling ordination (nMDS), permutational multivariate analysis of variance (PERMANOVA), redundancy analysis (RDA) and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) were applied. The abundance of polychaetes increased in the western region but decreased in the eastern region from 1958 to 2014, whereas the abundance of echinoderms showed an opposite trend. For the entire macrofaunal community, Margalef's richness (d), the Shannon-Wiener index (H‧) and Pielou's evenness (J‧) were significantly lower in the eastern region when compared with the other two regions. No significant temporal differences were found for d and H‧, but there were significantly lower values of J‧ in 2014. Considerable variation in the macrofaunal community structure over the past several decades and among the geographical regions at the species, genus and family levels were observed. The species, genera and families that contributed to the temporal variation in each region were also identified. The most conspicuous pattern was the increase in the species Ophiura sarsii vadicola in the eastern region. In the western region, five polychaetes (Ninoe palmata, Notomastus latericeus, Paralacydonia paradoxa, Paraprionospio pinnata and Sternaspis scutata) increased consistently from 1958 to 2014. The dominance curves showed that both the species diversity and the dominance patterns were relatively stable in the western and middle regions. Environmental parameters such as depth, temperature and salinity could only partially explain the observed biological variation in the southern Yellow Sea. Anthropogenic activities such as demersal fishing and other unmeasured environmental variables

  2. Acid-base physiology response to ocean acidification of two ecologically and economically important holothuroids from contrasting habitats, Holothuria scabra and Holothuria parva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collard, Marie; Eeckhaut, Igor; Dehairs, Frank; Dubois, Philippe

    2014-12-01

    Sea cucumbers are dominant invertebrates in several ecosystems such as coral reefs, seagrass meadows and mangroves. As bioturbators, they have an important ecological role in making available calcium carbonate and nutrients to the rest of the community. However, due to their commercial value, they face overexploitation in the natural environment. On top of that, occurring ocean acidification could impact these organisms, considered sensitive as echinoderms are osmoconformers, high-magnesium calcite producers and have a low metabolism. As a first investigation of the impact of ocean acidification on sea cucumbers, we tested the impact of short-term (6 to 12 days) exposure to ocean acidification (seawater pH 7.7 and 7.4) on two sea cucumbers collected in SW Madagascar, Holothuria scabra, a high commercial value species living in the seagrass meadows, and H. parva, inhabiting the mangroves. The former lives in a habitat with moderate fluctuations of seawater chemistry (driven by day-night differences) while the second lives in a highly variable intertidal environment. In both species, pH of the coelomic fluid was significantly negatively affected by reduced seawater pH, with a pronounced extracellular acidosis in individuals maintained at pH 7.7 and 7.4. This acidosis was due to an increased dissolved inorganic carbon content and pCO2 of the coelomic fluid, indicating a limited diffusion of the CO2 towards the external medium. However, respiration and ammonium excretion rates were not affected. No evidence of accumulation of bicarbonate was observed to buffer the coelomic fluid pH. If this acidosis stays uncompensated for when facing long-term exposure, other processes could be affected in both species, eventually leading to impacts on their ecological role.

  3. Community structure and trophic ecology of megabenthic fauna from the deep basins in the Interior Sea of Chiloé, Chile (41-43° S)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata-Hernández, Germán; Sellanes, Javier; Thiel, Martin; Henríquez, Camila; Hernández, Sebastián; Fernández, Julio C. C.; Hajdu, Eduardo

    2016-11-01

    Estuarine environments are complex ecological systems, which depend on multiple inputs of organic sources that could support their benthic communities. The deep-water megabenthic communities of the Interior Sea of Chiloé (ISCh, northern part of the fjord region of Chile) were studied to characterize their taxonomic composition and to trace the energy pathways supporting them by using stable isotope analysis (SIA). Megabenthic and demersal organisms as well as sunken macroalgal debris and terrestrial organic matter (TOM: wood, leaves, branches) were obtained by bottom trawling along an estuarine gradient covering 100-460 m water depth. Additionally, particulate organic matter (POM) and the sedimentary organic matter (SOM) were sampled and carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotope ratios were determined for all these organisms and potential food sources. A total of 140 taxa were obtained, including invertebrates (e.g. polychaetes, mollusks, crustaceans and echinoderms) bony fishes, rays and sharks. Based on the stable isotope values it was possible to infer a strong dependence on primary production derived from phytoplankton which is exported to the benthos. A potentially important contribution from sunken macroalgae to megabenthic consumers was established only for some invertebrates, such as the irregular echinoid Tripylaster philippii and the decapod Eurypodius latreillii. The trophic structure metrics suggest a similar isotopic niche width, trophic diversity and species packaging in the food webs among the major basins in the ISCh. It is thus concluded that the benthic food webs are supported principally by surface primary production, but macroalgal subsidies could be exploited by selected invertebrate taxa (e.g. detritivores) and terrestrial carbon pathways are important for certain specialized taxa (e.g. Xylophaga dorsalis).

  4. Comparative genomics of neuroglobin reveals its early origins.

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    Jasmin Dröge

    Full Text Available Neuroglobin (Ngb is a hexacoordinated globin expressed mainly in the central and peripheral nervous system of vertebrates. Although several hypotheses have been put forward regarding the role of neuroglobin, its definite function remains uncertain. Ngb appears to have a neuro-protective role enhancing cell viability under hypoxia and other types of oxidative stress. Ngb is phylogenetically ancient and has a substitution rate nearly four times lower than that of other vertebrate globins, e.g. hemoglobin. Despite its high sequence conservation among vertebrates Ngb seems to be elusive in invertebrates.We determined candidate orthologs in invertebrates and identified a globin of the placozoan Trichoplax adhaerens that is most likely orthologous to vertebrate Ngb and confirmed the orthologous relationship of the polymeric globin of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus to Ngb. The putative orthologous globin genes are located next to genes orthologous to vertebrate POMT2 similarly to localization of vertebrate Ngb. The shared syntenic position of the globins from Trichoplax, the sea urchin and of vertebrate Ngb strongly suggests that they are orthologous. A search for conserved transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs in the promoter regions of the Ngb genes of different vertebrates via phylogenetic footprinting revealed several TFBSs, which may contribute to the specific expression of Ngb, whereas a comparative analysis with myoglobin revealed several common TFBSs, suggestive of regulatory mechanisms common to globin genes.Identification of the placozoan and echinoderm genes orthologous to vertebrate neuroglobin strongly supports the hypothesis of the early evolutionary origin of this globin, as it shows that neuroglobin was already present in the placozoan-bilaterian last common ancestor. Computational determination of the transcription factor binding sites repertoire provides on the one hand a set of transcriptional factors that are

  5. Effects of nanomaterials on marine invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canesi, Laura; Corsi, Ilaria

    2016-09-15

    The development of nanotechnology will inevitably lead to the release of consistent amounts of nanomaterials (NMs) and nanoparticles (NPs) into marine ecosystems. Ecotoxicological studies have been carried out to identify potential biological targets of NPs, and suitable models for predicting their impact on the health of the marine environment. Recent studies in invertebrates mainly focused on NP accumulation and sub-lethal effects, rather than acute toxicity. Among marine invertebrates, bivalves represent by large the most studied group, with polychaetes and echinoderms also emerging as significant targets of NPs. However, major scientific gaps still need to be filled. In this work, factors affecting the fate of NPs in the marine environment, and their consequent uptake/accumulation/toxicity in marine invertebrates will be summarized. The results show that in different model species, NP accumulation mainly occurs in digestive tract and gills. Data on sub-lethal effects and modes of action of different types of NPs (mainly metal oxides and metal based NPs) in marine invertebrates will be reviewed, in particular on immune function, oxidative stress and embryo development. Moreover, the possibility that such effects may be influenced by NP interactions with biomolecules in both external and internal environment will be introduced. In natural environmental media, NP interactions with polysaccharides, proteins and colloids may affect their agglomeration/aggregation and consequent bioavailability. Moreover, once within the organism, NPs are known to interact with plasma proteins, forming a protein corona that can affect particle uptake and toxicity in target cells in a physiological environment. These interactions, leading to the formation of eco-bio-coronas, may be crucial in determining particle behavior and effects also in marine biota. In order to classify NPs into groups and predict the implications of their release into the marine environment, information on

  6. Elemental ratios and lipid classes in a coral reef food web under river influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreón-Palau, Laura; Parrish, Christopher C.; Pérez-España, Horacio; Aguiñiga-Garcia, Sergio

    2018-05-01

    Coral reefs in the Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico are increasingly suffering from anthropogenic nutrient inputs principally from fertilizers as identified by their δ15N signatures. To determine if primary producers are passively affected by anthropogenic nitrogen enrichment in a coral reef community, carbon: nitrogen ratios (C:N mol mol-1) were measured. The C:N ratio was used as a proxy for nitrogen enrichment in primary producers when the ratio decreases, and for lipid plus carbohydrate in terms of C, and protein in terms of N in primary producers and consumers. Lipid classes and the triacylglycerol to sterol (TAG:ST) ratio were used to evaluate energy storage as an indication of nutritional quality in the six most abundant primary producers, and of nutritional condition in ten ubiquitous consumers in a coral reef in the Gulf of Mexico under river influence. A low C:N ratio revealed nitrogen enrichment in primary producers. Among the lipids, high TAG proportions were detected in phytoplankton and zooxanthellae suggesting that they have a higher nutritional quality in terms of energy, followed by sea grass, mangrove, and macroalgae. During the rainy season TAG:ST increased in primary consumers such as echinoderms, and top predators such as the perciform fish Bodianus rufus, Ocyurus chrysurus and Caranx hippos, suggesting an increase in energy storage. In contrast, TAG:ST decreased in the principal habitat providing coral Montastrea cavernosa, along with a decrease in the phospholipid proportion suggesting a poor nutritional condition. There were three species with no change in their TAG:ST ratio: the sponge Aplysina sp., the masked goby Coryphopterus personatus and the surgeon fish Achanturus chirurgus. The lower value of TAG, TAG:ST ratio and phospholipid proportion in the coral M. cavernosa suggests that the reported abundance of zooplankton does not satisfy the energy demand of M. cavernosa during the rainy season.

  7. The role of carrion supply in the abundance of deep-water fish off California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drazen, Jeffrey C; Bailey, David M; Ruhl, Henry A; Smith, Kenneth L

    2012-01-01

    Few time series of deep-sea systems exist from which the factors affecting abyssal fish populations can be evaluated. Previous analysis showed an increase in grenadier abundance, in the eastern North Pacific, which lagged epibenthic megafaunal abundance, mostly echinoderms, by 9-20 months. Subsequent diet studies suggested that carrion is the grenadier's most important food. Our goal was to evaluate if changes in carrion supply might drive the temporal changes in grenadier abundance. We analyzed a unique 17 year time series of abyssal grenadier abundance and size, collected at Station M (4100 m, 220 km offshore of Pt. Conception, California), and reaffirmed the increase in abundance and also showed an increase in mean size resulting in a ∼6 fold change in grenadier biomass. We compared this data with abundance estimates for surface living nekton (pacific hake and jack mackerel) eaten by the grenadiers as carrion. A significant positive correlation between Pacific hake (but not jack mackerel) and grenadiers was found. Hake seasonally migrate to the waters offshore of California to spawn. They are the most abundant nekton species in the region and the target of the largest commercial fishery off the west coast. The correlation to grenadier abundance was strongest when using hake abundance metrics from the area within 100 nmi of Station M. No significant correlation between grenadier abundance and hake biomass for the entire California current region was found. Given the results and grenadier longevity, migration is likely responsible for the results and the location of hake spawning probably is more important than the size of the spawning stock in understanding the dynamics of abyssal grenadier populations. Our results suggest that some abyssal fishes' population dynamics are controlled by the flux of large particles of carrion. Climate and fishing pressures affecting epipelagic fish stocks could readily modulate deep-sea fish dynamics.

  8. Modelling coral polyp calcification in relation to ocean acidification

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    S. Hohn

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations due to anthropogenic emissions induce changes in the carbonate chemistry of the oceans and, ultimately, a drop in ocean pH. This acidification process can harm calcifying organisms like coccolithophores, molluscs, echinoderms, and corals. It is expected that ocean acidification in combination with other anthropogenic stressors will cause a severe decline in coral abundance by the end of this century, with associated disastrous effects on reef ecosystems. Despite the growing importance of the topic, little progress has been made with respect to modelling the impact of acidification on coral calcification. Here we present a model for a coral polyp that simulates the carbonate system in four different compartments: the seawater, the polyp tissue, the coelenteron, and the calcifying fluid. Precipitation of calcium carbonate takes place in the metabolically controlled calcifying fluid beneath the polyp tissue. The model is adjusted to a state of activity as observed by direct microsensor measurements in the calcifying fluid. We find that a transport mechanism for bicarbonate is required to supplement carbon into the calcifying fluid because CO2 diffusion alone is not sufficient to sustain the observed calcification rates. Simulated CO2 perturbation experiments reveal decreasing calcification rates under elevated pCO2 despite the strong metabolic control of the calcifying fluid. Diffusion of CO2 through the tissue into the calcifying fluid increases with increasing seawater pCO2, leading to decreased aragonite saturation in the calcifying fluid. Our modelling study provides important insights into the complexity of the calcification process at the organism level and helps to quantify the effect of ocean acidification on corals.

  9. Bioenergetic trade-offs in the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea) in response to CO2-driven ocean acidification.

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    Yuan, Xiutang; Shao, Senlin; Yang, Xiaolong; Yang, Dazuo; Xu, Qinzeng; Zong, Humin; Liu, Shilin

    2016-05-01

    Ocean acidification (OA) caused by excessive CO2 is a potential ecological threat to marine organisms. The impacts of OA on echinoderms are well-documented, but there has been a strong bias towards sea urchins, and limited information is available on sea cucumbers. This work examined the effect of medium-term (60 days) exposure to three pH levels (pH 8.06, 7.72, and 7.41, covering present and future pH variability) on the bioenergetic responses of the sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus, an ecologically and economically important holothurian in Asian coasts. Results showed that the measured specific growth rate linearly decreased with decreased pH, leading to a 0.42 %·day(-1) decrease at pH 7.41 compared with that at pH 8.06. The impacts of pH on physiological energetics were variable: measured energy consumption and defecation rates linearly decreased with decreased pH, whereas maintenance energy in calculated respiration and excretion were not significantly affected. No shift in energy allocation pattern was observed in A. japonicus upon exposure to pH 7.72 compared with pH 8.06. However, a significant shift in energy budget occurred upon exposure to pH 7.41, leading to decreased energy intake and increased percentage of energy that was lost in feces, thereby resulting in a significantly lowered allocation into somatic growth. These findings indicate that adult A. japonicus is resilient to the OA scenario at the end of the twenty-first century, but further acidification may negatively influence the grazing capability and growth, thereby influencing its ecological functioning as an "ecosystem engineer" and potentially harming its culture output.

  10. Aspects of reproductive ecology and benthic-pelagic coupling in the sub-antarctic sea cucumber Pseudostichopus mollis (Theel)

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    Morgan, Andrew; Neal, Lance

    2012-07-01

    For deeper regions of the continental shelf environmental cues entraining reproduction in echinoderms are often absent, which contributes to adoption of continuous reproduction, having larger eggs, and a lecithotrophic mode of larval development. In the present study the sub-Antarctic sea cucumber Pseudostichopus mollis from the family Synallactidae was obtained during June (winter) and September (spring) from a depth of approximately 300 m north of the Auckland Islands in an area abundant in biogenic sediments. Samples were processed for body indices and gonad development. Features characteristic of non-continuous reproduction were exhibited. Although a larger egg size was found (212±14 μm), two distinct winter cohorts of oocytes occurred (41-81 and 161-201 μm) and body wall weight fluctuations (7.6% increase in males and 27.5% reduction in females) coincided with changes in gonad indices between sample dates. For males gonad as a proportion of body wall weight decreased from 3.31±0.9 to 2.11±0.37% and for females it increased from 1.59±0.28 to 2.5±0.30%. For both sample dates the gonad of males maintained mature spermatozoa whereas female gonad shifted from mainly recovery and growth of oocytes to growth and advanced growth of mature oocytes. In habitats with low or variable food availability intermittent reproduction is predicted as resources are too low for a high reproductive effort and too erratic for synchrony. A pattern of reproduction where fluctuations in seasonal organic input into an accumulated benthic food source initiates and synchronises gametogenesis for future spawning is proposed.

  11. Selective toxicity of persian gulf sea cucumber holothuria parva on human chronic lymphocytic leukemia b lymphocytes by direct mitochondrial targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salimi, Ahmad; Motallebi, Abbasali; Ayatollahi, Maryam; Seydi, Enayatollah; Mohseni, Ali Reza; Nazemi, Melika; Pourahmad, Jalal

    2017-04-01

    Natural products isolated from marine environment are well known for their pharmacodynamic potential in diversity of disease treatments such as cancer or inflammatory conditions. Sea cucumbers are one of the marine animals of the phylum Echinoderm. Many studies have shown that the sea cucumber contains antioxidants and anti-cancer compounds. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a disease characterized by the relentless accumulation of CD5 + B lymphocytes. CLL is the most common leukemia in adults, about 25-30% of all leukemias. In this study B lymphocytes and their mitochondria (cancerous and non-cancerous) were obtained from peripheral blood of human subjects and B lymphocyte cytotoxicity assay, and caspase 3 activation along with mitochondrial upstream events of apoptosis signaling including reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and mitochondrial swelling were determined following the addition of Holothuria parva extract to both cancerous and non-cancerous B lymphocytes and their mitochondria. Our in vitro finding showed that mitochondrial ROS formation, MMP collapse, and mitochondrial swelling and cytochrome c release were significantly (P < 0.05) increased after addition of different concentrations of H. parva only in cancerous BUT NOT normal non-cancerous mitochondria. Consistently, different concentrations of H. parva significantly (P < 0.05) increased cytotoxicity and caspase 3 activation only in cancerous BUT NOT normal non-cancerous B lymphocytes. These results showed that H. parva methanolic extract has a selective mitochondria mediated apoptotic effect on chronic lymphocytic leukemia B lymphocytes hence may be promising in the future anticancer drug development for treatment of CLL. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 1158-1169, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Transcriptome sequencing and characterization for the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka, 1867.

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    Huixia Du

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sea cucumbers are a special group of marine invertebrates. They occupy a taxonomic position that is believed to be important for understanding the origin and evolution of deuterostomes. Some of them such as Apostichopus japonicus represent commercially important aquaculture species in Asian countries. Many efforts have been devoted to increasing the number of expressed sequence tags (ESTs for A. japonicus, but a comprehensive characterization of its transcriptome remains lacking. Here, we performed the large-scale transcriptome profiling and characterization by pyrosequencing diverse cDNA libraries from A. japonicus. RESULTS: In total, 1,061,078 reads were obtained by 454 sequencing of eight cDNA libraries representing different developmental stages and adult tissues in A. japonicus. These reads were assembled into 29,666 isotigs, which were further clustered into 21,071 isogroups. Nearly 40% of the isogroups showed significant matches to known proteins based on sequence similarity. Gene ontology (GO and KEGG pathway analyses recovered diverse biological functions and processes. Candidate genes that were potentially involved in aestivation were identified. Transcriptome comparison with the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus revealed similar patterns of GO term representation. In addition, 4,882 putative orthologous genes were identified, of which 202 were not present in the non-echinoderm organisms. More than 700 simple sequence repeats (SSRs and 54,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were detected in the A. japonicus transcriptome. CONCLUSION: Pyrosequencing was proven to be efficient in rapidly identifying a large set of genes for the sea cucumber A. japonicus. Through the large-scale transcriptome sequencing as well as public EST data integration, we performed a comprehensive characterization of the A. japonicus transcriptome and identified candidate aestivation-related genes. A large number of potential genetic

  13. Insights into the evolution of mammalian telomerase: Platypus TERT shares similarities with genes of birds and other reptiles and localizes on sex chromosomes

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    Hrdličková Radmila

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The TERT gene encodes the catalytic subunit of the telomerase complex and is responsible for maintaining telomere length. Vertebrate telomerase has been studied in eutherian mammals, fish, and the chicken, but less attention has been paid to other vertebrates. The platypus occupies an important evolutionary position, providing unique insight into the evolution of mammalian genes. We report the cloning of a platypus TERT (OanTERT ortholog, and provide a comparison with genes of other vertebrates. Results The OanTERT encodes a protein with a high sequence similarity to marsupial TERT and avian TERT. Like the TERT of sauropsids and marsupials, as well as that of sharks and echinoderms, OanTERT contains extended variable linkers in the N-terminal region suggesting that they were present already in basal vertebrates and lost independently in ray-finned fish and eutherian mammals. Several alternatively spliced OanTERT variants structurally similar to avian TERT variants were identified. Telomerase activity is expressed in all platypus tissues like that of cold-blooded animals and murine rodents. OanTERT was localized on pseudoautosomal regions of sex chromosomes X3/Y2, expanding the homology between human chromosome 5 and platypus sex chromosomes. Synteny analysis suggests that TERT co-localized with sex-linked genes in the last common mammalian ancestor. Interestingly, female platypuses express higher levels of telomerase in heart and liver tissues than do males. Conclusions OanTERT shares many features with TERT of the reptilian outgroup, suggesting that OanTERT represents the ancestral mammalian TERT. Features specific to TERT of eutherian mammals have, therefore, evolved more recently after the divergence of monotremes.

  14. An evaluation of intertidal feeding habitats from a shorebird perspective: Towards relevant comparisons between temperate and tropical mudflats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piersma, Theunis; de Goeij, Petra; Tulp, Ingrid

    Macrozoobenthic communities of intertidal soft sediments are reviewed worldwide from the perspective of a mollusc-eating shorebird species. Based on 19 sites, total biomass figures varied between 5 and 80 g AFDM per m 2 (average 24 g AFDM per m 2); no latitudinal trends are apparent. The contribution made by bivalves and gastropods varies between 1% and 99%, north-temperate intertidal flats having relatively more molluscs than tropical flats. Intertidal flats in the tropics contain a greater variety of taxa, with brachiopods in Indonesia and echinoderms in northwest Australia contributing significantly to biomass only there. Limits to the occurrence of avian predators of intertidal benthos are set by the harvestable fraction of the biomass on offer and the costs of living at a particular site. No systematic differences in the harvestable fraction of the total mollusc-biomass for a worldwide occurring shorebird species specializing on molluscs (knots Calidris canutus) were apparent between temperate and tropical intertidal areas, in spite of large differences in maintenance metabolism incurred by these birds. The harvestable fractions of bivalves in the two West African areas (Banc d'Arguin, Mauritania and Guinea-Bissau) tended to be high (23-84% of total biomass in six species), they were relatively low (2-52% in five species) in the temperate Wadden Sea and the tropical northwest Australian site. Harvestable biomass determines the intake rate of shorebirds, as illustrated by functional-response curves of knots feeding on two bivalves species. We argue that the collection of information on size-depth relationships along with faunal and biomass surveys at a range of sites is bound to greatly increase our understanding of both the biology of tidal-flat invertebrates and the resource base underpinning the spectacular seasonal migrations of shorebirds.

  15. Chromogenic in situ hybridization is a reliable assay for detection of ALK rearrangements in adenocarcinomas of the lung.

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    Schildhaus, Hans-Ulrich; Deml, Karl-Friedrich; Schmitz, Katja; Meiboom, Maren; Binot, Elke; Hauke, Sven; Merkelbach-Bruse, Sabine; Büttner, Reinhard

    2013-11-01

    Reliable detection of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) rearrangements is a prerequisite for personalized treatment of lung cancer patients, as ALK rearrangements represent a predictive biomarker for the therapy with specific tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Currently, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) is considered to be the standard method for assessing formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue for ALK inversions and translocations. However, FISH requires a specialized equipment, the signals fade rapidly and it is difficult to detect overall morphology and tumor heterogeneity. Chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) has been successfully introduced as an alternative test for the detection of several genetic aberrations. This study validates a newly developed ALK CISH assay by comparing FISH and CISH signal patterns in lung cancer samples with and without ALK rearrangements. One hundred adenocarcinomas of the lung were included in this study, among them 17 with known ALK rearrangement. FISH and CISH were carried out and evaluated according to the manufacturers' recommendations. For both assays, tumors were considered positive if ≥15% of tumor cells showed either isolated 3' signals or break-apart patterns or a combination of both. A subset of tumors was exemplarily examined by using a novel EML4 (echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4) CISH probe. Red, green and fusion CISH signals were clearcut and different signal patterns were easily recognized. The percentage of aberrant tumor cells was statistically highly correlated (PCISH. On the basis of 86 samples that were evaluable by ALK CISH, we found a 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity of this assay. Furthermore, EML4 rearrangements could be recognized by CISH. CISH is a highly reliable, sensitive and specific method for the detection of ALK gene rearrangements in pulmonary adenocarcinomas. Our results suggest that CISH might serve as a suitable alternative to FISH, which is the current gold

  16. Amphiregulin triggered epidermal growth factor receptor activation confers in vivo crizotinib-resistance of EML4-ALK lung cancer and circumvention by epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Hirokazu; Takeuchi, Shinji; Fukuda, Koji; Nakagawa, Takayuki; Arai, Sachiko; Nanjo, Shigeki; Yamada, Tadaaki; Yamaguchi, Hiroyuki; Mukae, Hiroshi; Yano, Seiji

    2017-01-01

    Crizotinib, a first-generation anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) tyrosine-kinase inhibitor, is known to be effective against echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 (EML4)-ALK-positive non-small cell lung cancers. Nonetheless, the tumors subsequently become resistant to crizotinib and recur in almost every case. The mechanism of the acquired resistance needs to be deciphered. In this study, we established crizotinib-resistant cells (A925LPE3-CR) via long-term administration of crizotinib to a mouse model of pleural carcinomatous effusions; this model involved implantation of the A925LPE3 cell line, which harbors the EML4-ALK gene rearrangement. The resistant cells did not have the secondary ALK mutations frequently occurring in crizotinib-resistant cells, and these cells were cross-resistant to alectinib and ceritinib as well. In cell clone #2, which is one of the clones of A925LPE3-CR, crizotinib sensitivity was restored via the inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) by means of an EGFR tyrosine-kinase inhibitor (erlotinib) or an anti-EGFR antibody (cetuximab) in vitro and in the murine xenograft model. Cell clone #2 did not have an EGFR mutation, but the expression of amphiregulin (AREG), one of EGFR ligands, was significantly increased. A knockdown of AREG with small interfering RNAs restored the sensitivity to crizotinib. These data suggest that overexpression of EGFR ligands such as AREG can cause resistance to crizotinib, and that inhibition of EGFR signaling may be a promising strategy to overcome crizotinib resistance in EML4-ALK lung cancer. © 2016 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  17. Distribución latitudinal y batimétrica de las especies más abundantes y frecuentes en la fauna acompañante del camarón del Golfo de California, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CarlosHiram Rábago-Quiroz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Latitudinal and bathymetric distribution of the most abundant and frequent species in the shrimp bycatch from the Gulf of California, Mexico. The Gulf of California is one of the most mega-diverse regions in the world, for which few fishery information is available. We present here latitudinal and bathymetric distribution of the most abundant and frequent bycatch species from the Gulf of California. The samples were obtained from a total of 111 hauls taken during seven research cruises of the closed shrimp season (2002-2005-2007, and also, from research cruises made at depths up to 90m. Due to the high variety species in this experimental shrimp bycatch, only those with highest biological value index (BVI were selected. A total of fifteen species had the highest BVI and represented about 60% of the total abundance. A total of 16 508 organisms were analyzed, representing 243 fish, crustacean, mollusk and echinoderm species. Fish were the most abundant, being the most frequent species: Urobatis halleri, Synodus scituliceps, Diplectrum pacificum, Haemulopsis nitidus and Eucinostomus argenteus. A wide latitudinal distribution of these species along the study area, as well as a bathymetric distribution from 9 to 67m depth, was observed. Two of these species were found at 325m depth. Due to the wide bathymetric distribution obtained, total abundances and sizes for each species by depth strata should be determined, and one can assume that deeper than 25m, the capture of these species decreases, and these areas can be used as natural repopulation areas, for depths where they are mainly captured by the commercial shrimp fishery. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (1: 255- 267. Epub 2011 March 01.

  18. Evaluation of EML4-ALK Fusion Proteins in Non–Small Cell Lung Cancer Using Small Molecule Inhibitors

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    Yongjun Li

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The echinoderm microtubule–associated protein-like 4–anaplastic lymphoma kinase (EML4-ALK fusion gene resulting from an inversion within chromosome 2p occurs in approximately 5% of non–small cell lung cancer and is mu-tually exclusive with Ras and EGFR mutations. In this study, we have used a potent and selective ALK small molecule inhibitor, NPV-TAE684, to assess the oncogenic role of EML4-ALK in non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. We show here that TAE684 inhibits proliferation and induces cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and tumor regression in two NSCLC models that harbor EML4-ALK fusions. TAE684 inhibits EML4-ALK activation and its downstream signaling including ERK, AKT, and STAT3. We used microarray analysis to carry out targeted pathway studies of gene expression changes in H2228 NSCLC xenograft model after TAE684 treatment and identified a gene signature of EML4-ALK inhibition. The gene signature represents 1210 known human genes, and the top biologic processes represented by these genes are cell cycle, DNA synthesis, cell proliferation, and cell death. We also compared the effect of TAE684 with PF2341066, a c-Met and ALK small molecule inhibitor currently in clinical trial in cancers harboring ALK fusions, and demonstrated that TAE684 is a much more potent inhibitor of EML4-ALK. Our data demonstrate that EML4-ALK plays an important role in the pathogenesis of a subset of NSCLC and provides insight into the mech-anism of EML4-ALK inhibition by a small molecule inhibitor.

  19. Prevalence, Variability and Bioconcentration of Saxitoxin-Group in Different Marine Species Present in the Food Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyaneder Terrazas, Javiera; Contreras, Héctor R.; García, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    The saxitoxin-group (STX-group) corresponds to toxic metabolites produced by cyanobacteria and dinoflagellates of the genera Alexandrium, Gymnodinium, and Pyrodinium. Over the last decade, it has been possible to extrapolate the areas contaminated with the STX-group worldwide, including Chile, a phenomenon that has affected ≈35% of the Southern Pacific coast territory, generating a high economic impact. The objective of this research was to study the toxicity of the STX-group in all aquatic organisms (bivalves, algae, echinoderms, crustaceans, tunicates, cephalopods, gastropods, and fish) present in areas with a variable presence of harmful algal blooms (HABs). Then, the toxic profiles of each species and dose of STX equivalents ingested by a 60 kg person from 400 g of shellfish were determined to establish the health risk assessment. The toxins with the highest prevalence detected were gonyautoxin-4/1 (GTX4/GTX1), gonyautoxin-3/2 (GTX3/GTX2), neosaxitoxin (neoSTX), decarbamoylsaxitoxin (dcSTX), and saxitoxin (STX), with average concentrations of 400, 2800, 280, 200, and 2000 µg kg−1 respectively, a species-specific variability, dependent on the evaluated tissue, which demonstrates the biotransformation of the analogues in the trophic transfer with a predominance of α-epimers in all toxic profiles. The identification in multiple vectors, as well as in unregulated species, suggests that a risk assessment and risk management update are required; also, chemical and specific analyses for the detection of all analogues associated with the STX-group need to be established. PMID:28604648

  20. Characterization of the deleted in autism 1 protein family: implications for studying cognitive disorders.

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    Azhari Aziz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs are a group of commonly occurring, highly-heritable developmental disabilities. Human genes c3orf58 or Deleted In Autism-1 (DIA1 and cXorf36 or Deleted in Autism-1 Related (DIA1R are implicated in ASD and mental retardation. Both gene products encode signal peptides for targeting to the secretory pathway. As evolutionary medicine has emerged as a key tool for understanding increasing numbers of human diseases, we have used an evolutionary approach to study DIA1 and DIA1R. We found DIA1 conserved from cnidarians to humans, indicating DIA1 evolution coincided with the development of the first primitive synapses. Nematodes lack a DIA1 homologue, indicating Caenorhabditis elegans is not suitable for studying all aspects of ASD etiology, while zebrafish encode two DIA1 paralogues. By contrast to DIA1, DIA1R was found exclusively in vertebrates, with an origin coinciding with the whole-genome duplication events occurring early in the vertebrate lineage, and the evolution of the more complex vertebrate nervous system. Strikingly, DIA1R was present in schooling fish but absent in fish that have adopted a more solitary lifestyle. An additional DIA1-related gene we named DIA1-Like (DIA1L, lacks a signal peptide and is restricted to the genomes of the echinoderm Strongylocentrotus purpuratus and cephalochordate Branchiostoma floridae. Evidence for remarkable DIA1L gene expansion was found in B. floridae. Amino acid alignments of DIA1 family gene products revealed a potential Golgi-retention motif and a number of conserved motifs with unknown function. Furthermore, a glycine and three cysteine residues were absolutely conserved in all DIA1-family proteins, indicating a critical role in protein structure and/or function. We have therefore identified a new metazoan protein family, the DIA1-family, and understanding the biological roles of DIA1-family members will have implications for our understanding of autism and mental

  1. In Vitro Drug Sensitivity Tests to Predict Molecular Target Drug Responses in Surgically Resected Lung Cancer.

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    Ryohei Miyazaki

    Full Text Available Epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK inhibitors have dramatically changed the strategy of medical treatment of lung cancer. Patients should be screened for the presence of the EGFR mutation or echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 (EML4-ALK fusion gene prior to chemotherapy to predict their clinical response. The succinate dehydrogenase inhibition (SDI test and collagen gel droplet embedded culture drug sensitivity test (CD-DST are established in vitro drug sensitivity tests, which may predict the sensitivity of patients to cytotoxic anticancer drugs. We applied in vitro drug sensitivity tests for cyclopedic prediction of clinical responses to different molecular targeting drugs.The growth inhibitory effects of erlotinib and crizotinib were confirmed for lung cancer cell lines using SDI and CD-DST. The sensitivity of 35 cases of surgically resected lung cancer to erlotinib was examined using SDI or CD-DST, and compared with EGFR mutation status.HCC827 (Exon19: E746-A750 del and H3122 (EML4-ALK cells were inhibited by lower concentrations of erlotinib and crizotinib, respectively than A549, H460, and H1975 (L858R+T790M cells were. The viability of the surgically resected lung cancer was 60.0 ± 9.8 and 86.8 ± 13.9% in EGFR-mutants vs. wild types in the SDI (p = 0.0003. The cell viability was 33.5 ± 21.2 and 79.0 ± 18.6% in EGFR mutants vs. wild-type cases (p = 0.026 in CD-DST.In vitro drug sensitivity evaluated by either SDI or CD-DST correlated with EGFR gene status. Therefore, SDI and CD-DST may be useful predictors of potential clinical responses to the molecular anticancer drugs, cyclopedically.

  2. Malignant pleural effusion cell blocks are substitutes for tissue in EML4-ALK rearrangement detection in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, J; Li, X; Bai, H; Zhao, J; Wang, Z; Duan, J; An, T; Wu, M; Wang, Y; Wang, S; Wang, J

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of malignant pleural effusions (MPE) as surrogate samples for the detection of echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like4 (EML4)-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) and to investigate the prognostic and predictive value of EML4-ALK in MPE of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). One hundred and nine NSCLC patients were retrospectively analysed. EML4-ALK was identified using paraffin-embedded tumour cells in MPE samples by immunohistochemistry (IHC, Ventana) and confirmed by fluorescence using in situ hybridisation (FISH) and qRT-PCR. The EGFR mutation was determined by MPE, using denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC). A total of 5 out of 109 (4.58%) patients were identified as EML4-ALK rearrangement in MPE by IHC.; In addition to two metachronous samples, the consistency of MPE and tissue for EML4-ALK detection was 100% (21/21), and the sensitivity and specificity were 100% (2/2) and 100% (19/19), respectively. EML4-ALK rearrangement cases were confirmed by FISH and qRT-PCR; the sensitivity were both 100% (2/2) when compared with tissue, and it was 60% (3/5) and 100% (5/5), respectively, when compared with MPE by IHC. The overall response rate (ORR) was 100% (2/2) for patients with EML4-ALK in MPE. Moreover, the PFS of these patients appeared to be prolonged in chemotherapy (9.27 versus 6.53 and versus 4.67 months, P = 0.122), compared with the EGFR mutation and the EGFR/ALK double negative group, respectively. EML4-ALK rearrangement detection in malignant pleural effusions is a complementary method for EML4-ALK detection. VETANA and qRT-PCR are more appropriate for MPE detection. EML4-ALK rearrangement in pleural effusions has a predictive value for treatment. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Structural and functional changes of soft-bottom ecosystems in northern fjords invaded by the red king crab (Paralithodes camtschaticus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oug, Eivind; Sundet, Jan H.; Cochrane, Sabine K. J.

    2018-04-01

    The red king crab invaded Norwegian coastal waters in the early 1990s after having been introduced from the northern Pacific to the Russian Barents Sea coast. The crab stock increased rapidly in NE northern Norway in the latter half of the 1990s, and since 2002 there has been a commercial fishery in the eastern invaded areas. The crab is an active predator on benthic fauna especially feeding in deep soft-bottom environments. The present study is a follow-up of previous studies (2007-09) to assess the effects of the king crab predation on soft bottom species composition, ecological functioning and sediment quality. Macroinfauna (> 1 mm) was investigated in three fjord areas in the Varanger region with low, moderate and very high crab abundances, respectively. Compared with data from 1994, most benthic species were markedly reduced in abundance, in particular non-moving burrowing and tube-dwelling polychaetes, bivalves and echinoderms. However, a few species appeared to recover from 2007-09 to 2012. Changes in ecological functioning were assessed using 'biological traits analysis (BTA)'. Following the crab invasion there was a relative reduction of suspension and surface deposit feeding species, an increase in mobile and predatory organisms and an increase in those with planktotrophic larval development. From low to high crab abundances functioning changed from tube-building, deep deposit feeding and fairly large size to free-living, shallow burrowing and rather small size. With regard to sediment reworking, downward and upward conveyors were reduced whereas surficial modifiers increased. The changes imply that sediment biomixing and bioirrigation were reduced leading to a degraded sedimentary environment. It is suggested that establishing relationships between ecosystem functioning and crab abundances may form the basis for estimating ecological costs of the crab invasion. Such knowledge is important for managing the crab in the Barents Sea area being both a non

  4. Light and vision in the deep-sea benthos: I. Bioluminescence at 500-1000 m depth in the Bahamian islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsen, Sönke; Frank, Tamara M; Haddock, Steven H D; Widder, Edith A; Messing, Charles G

    2012-10-01

    Bioluminescence is common and well studied in mesopelagic species. However, the extent of bioluminescence in benthic sites of similar depths is far less studied, although the relatively large eyes of benthic fish, crustaceans and cephalopods at bathyal depths suggest the presence of significant biogenic light. Using the Johnson-Sea-Link submersible, we collected numerous species of cnidarians, echinoderms, crustaceans, cephalopods and sponges, as well as one annelid from three sites in the northern Bahamas (500-1000 m depth). Using mechanical and chemical stimulation, we tested the collected species for light emission, and photographed and measured the spectra of the emitted light. In addition, in situ intensified video and still photos were taken of different benthic habitats. Surprisingly, bioluminescence in benthic animals at these sites was far less common than in mesopelagic animals from similar depths, with less than 20% of the collected species emitting light. Bioluminescent taxa comprised two species of anemone (Actinaria), a new genus and species of flabellate Parazoanthidae (formerly Gerardia sp.) (Zoanthidea), three sea pens (Pennatulacea), three bamboo corals (Alcyonacea), the chrysogorgiid coral Chrysogorgia desbonni (Alcyonacea), the caridean shrimp Parapandalus sp. and Heterocarpus ensifer (Decapoda), two holothuroids (Elasipodida and Aspidochirota) and the ophiuroid Ophiochiton ternispinus (Ophiurida). Except for the ophiuroid and the two shrimp, which emitted blue light (peak wavelengths 470 and 455 nm), all the species produced greener light than that measured in most mesopelagic taxa, with the emissions of the pennatulaceans being strongly shifted towards longer wavelengths. In situ observations suggested that bioluminescence associated with these sites was due primarily to light emitted by bioluminescent planktonic species as they struck filter feeders that extended into the water column.

  5. Relationships among Egg Size, Composition, and Energy: A Comparative Study of Geminate Sea Urchins

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlister, Justin S.; Moran, Amy L.

    2012-01-01

    Egg size is one of the fundamental parameters in the life histories of marine organisms. However, few studies have examined the relationships among egg size, composition, and energetic content in a phylogenetically controlled context. We investigated the associations among egg size, composition, and energy using a comparative system, geminate species formed by the closure of the Central American Seaway. We examined western Atlantic (WA) and eastern Pacific (EP) species in three echinoid genera, Echinometra, Eucidaris, and Diadema. In the genus with the largest difference in egg size between geminates (Echinometra), the eggs of WA species were larger, lipid rich and protein poor compared to the smaller eggs of their EP geminate. In addition, the larger WA eggs had significantly greater total egg energy and summed biochemical constituents yet significantly lower egg energy density (energy-per-unit-volume). However, the genera with smaller (Eucidaris) or no (Diadema) differences in egg size were not significantly different in summed biochemical constituents, total egg energy, or energy density. Theoretical models generally assume a strong tradeoff between egg size and fecundity that limits energetic investment and constrains life history evolution. We show that even among closely-related taxa, large eggs cannot be assumed to be scaled-up small eggs either in terms of energy or composition. Although our data comes exclusively from echinoid echinoderms, this pattern may be generalizable to other marine invertebrate taxa. Because egg composition and egg size do not necessarily evolve in lockstep, selective factors such as sperm limitation could act on egg volume without necessarily affecting maternal or larval energetics. PMID:22911821

  6. El Paso Formation - a Lower Ordovician platform carbonate deposit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clemons, R.E.

    1987-05-01

    The eastward-transgressive Lower Ordovician El Paso Formation conformably overlies Bliss Sandstone in southern New Mexico. Locally, lower El Paso was deposited on low hills of plutonic and volcanic rocks. The region subsided gradually throughout Canadian time, receiving the El Paso carbonate rock blanket up to 460 m thick. Lithologic and chronologic correlative rocks were deposited over most of the southwestern US as the first Paleozoic carbonate platform sequence. The El Paso Formation contains four members, listed here in ascending order: Hitt Canyon, Jose, McKelligon, and Padre. Gradually decreasing sand content upward through the Hitt Canyon indicates deepening water and/or greater distance to shore. Girvanella(.) oncolites are locally abundant. Stromatolite mounds near the top of the Hitt Canyon, combined with an influx of sand, ooids, and rounded bioclasts in the Jose Member, recorded a shoaling phase. The overlying McKelligon Member contains little or no sand, and sponge-Calathium mounds are prominent at some locales. Stromatolite mounds are interbedded with sponge-Calathium mounds in a few sections. Lower Padre Member beds are typically silty to sandy and locally contain thinly-laminated zones. The Padre contains more restricted fauna that includes traces of ostracods. Pervasive bioturbation of El Paso beds and fauna consisting of echinoderms, sponges, gastropods, trilobites, Nuia, Calathium, cephalopods, and algae plus minor brachiopods and Pulchrilamina indicate predominating shallow-subtidal environments. Low-energy platform environments, in which a large volume of micritic muds accumulated, were disturbed thousands of times by storms producing abundant thin, poorly washed biosparite, intrasparite, and intrasparrudite lenses.

  7. Activity of second-generation ALK inhibitors against crizotinib-resistant mutants in an NPM-ALK model compared to EML4-ALK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontana, Diletta; Ceccon, Monica; Gambacorti-Passerini, Carlo; Mologni, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) is a tyrosine kinase receptor involved in both solid and hematological tumors. About 80% of ALK-positive anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (ALCL) cases are characterized by the t(2;5)(p23;q35) translocation, encoding for the aberrant fusion protein nucleophosmin (NPM)-ALK, whereas 5% of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients carry the inv(2)(p21;p23) rearrangement, encoding for the echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 (EML4)-ALK fusion. The ALK/c-MET/ROS inhibitor crizotinib successfully improved the treatment of ALK-driven diseases. However, several cases of resistance appeared in NSCLC patients, and ALK amino acid substitutions were identified as a leading cause of resistance to crizotinib. Second-generation ALK inhibitors have been developed in order to overcome crizotinib resistance. In this work, we profiled in vitro the activity of crizotinib, AP26113, ASP3026, alectinib, and ceritinib against six mutated forms of ALK associated with clinical resistance to crizotinib (C1156Y, L1196M, L1152R, G1202R, G1269A, and S1206Y) and provide a classification of mutants according to their level of sensitivity/resistance to the drugs. Since the biological activity of ALK mutations extends beyond the specific type of fusion, both NPM-ALK- and EML4-ALK-positive cellular models were used. Our data revealed that most mutants may be targeted by using different inhibitors. One relevant exception is represented by the G1202R substitution, which was highly resistant to all drugs (>10-fold increased IC 50 compared to wild type) and may represent the most challenging mutation to overcome. These results provide a prediction of cross-resistance of known crizotinib-resistant mutations against all second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) clinically available, and therefore could be a useful tool to help clinicians in the management of crizotinib-resistance cases

  8. Therapeutic strategies to overcome crizotinib resistance in non-small cell lung cancers harboring the fusion oncogene EML4-ALK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Ryohei; Khan, Tahsin M.; Benes, Cyril; Lifshits, Eugene; Ebi, Hiromichi; Rivera, Victor M.; Shakespeare, William C.; Iafrate, A. John; Engelman, Jeffrey A.; Shaw, Alice T.

    2011-01-01

    The echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 (EML4)-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) fusion oncogene represents a molecular target in a small subset of non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs). This fusion leads to constitutive ALK activation with potent transforming activity. In a pivotal phase 1 clinical trial, the ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) crizotinib (PF-02341066) demonstrated impressive antitumor activity in the majority of patients with NSCLC harboring ALK fusions. However, despite these remarkable initial responses, cancers eventually develop resistance to crizotinib, usually within 1 y, thereby limiting the potential clinical benefit. To determine how cancers acquire resistance to ALK inhibitors, we established a model of acquired resistance to crizotinib by exposing a highly sensitive EML4-ALK–positive NSCLC cell line to increasing doses of crizotinib until resistance emerged. We found that cells resistant to intermediate doses of crizotinib developed amplification of the EML4-ALK gene. Cells resistant to higher doses (1 μM) also developed a gatekeeper mutation, L1196M, within the kinase domain, rendering EML4-ALK insensitive to crizotinib. This gatekeeper mutation was readily detected using a unique and highly sensitive allele-specific PCR assay. Although crizotinib was ineffectual against EML4-ALK harboring the gatekeeper mutation, we observed that two structurally different ALK inhibitors, NVP-TAE684 and AP26113, were highly active against the resistant cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, these resistant cells remained highly sensitive to the Hsp90 inhibitor 17-AAG. Thus, we have developed a model of acquired resistance to ALK inhibitors and have shown that second-generation ALK TKIs or Hsp90 inhibitors are effective in treating crizotinib-resistant tumors harboring secondary gatekeeper mutations. PMID:21502504

  9. Hard-bottom bathyal habitats and keystone epibenthic species on Le Danois Bank (Cantabrian Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, F.; Rodríguez Basalo, A.; García-Alegre, A.; Gómez-Ballesteros, M.

    2017-12-01

    "El Cachucho" Marine Protected Area (MPA), which comprises Le Danois Bank and its intraslope basin, was included during 2008 in the Nature 2000 network mainly because of the presence of the habitat "1170 Reefs" according to the EU Habitat Directive. To review the effectiveness of existing management measures, several activities aimed at characterizing the most structurally complex hard-bottom habitats were planned and carried out during the ESMAREC 0514 survey. For identification of these habitats, several transects using the photogrammetric towed sled Politolana were carried out on Le Danois Bank, in the depth range between 427 and 1379 m, searching for the sea beds with higher values of slope and backscatter. Photogrammetric techniques were used for image scaling, so we could determine the surface areas of different substrata types (facies) and their species densities. A total area of 28,762 m2 was analyzed in the still images of 23 transects, verifying that 85% of the substrata of our study area are occupied by 4 different facies: Bedrock, bedrock with mixed sediments, mixed sediments with pebbles and boulders, and mixed sediments. Acoustic data and ground-truth visual data were combined to evaluate distinctive benthic scenarios. The relative abundances of the 123 epibenthic species identified by image analyses show that the most abundant are sponges (29%), cnidarians (26%), crustaceans (26%) and echinoderms (14%), i.e. mostly sessile species or those with low mobility. The keystone species of the "1170 Reefs" habitat are 3 cnidarians: Callogorgia verticillata, Paramuricea cf. placomus and Dendrophyllia cornigera, and 3 sponges, Asconema setubalense, Geodia msp.1 and Phakellia robusta. Eight new habitats (biotopes) have been identified on Le Danois Bank, six of which occur on the hard bottoms, with depth, substratum, BPI (Bathymetric Position Index) and slope as determining environmental variables that explain their spatial distributions.

  10. The substantial first impact of bottom fishing on rare biodiversity hotspots: a dilemma for evidence-based conservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Cook

    Full Text Available This study describes the impact of the first passage of two types of bottom-towed fishing gear on rare protected shellfish-reefs formed by the horse mussel Modiolus modiolus (L.. One of the study sites was trawled and the other was scallop-dredged. Divers collected HD video imagery of epifauna from quadrats at the two study sites and directed infaunal samples from one site. The total number of epifaunal organisms was significantly reduced following a single pass of a trawl (90% or scallop dredge (59%, as was the diversity of the associated community and the total number of M. modiolus at the trawled site. At both sites declines in anthozoans, hydrozoans, bivalves, echinoderms and ascidians accounted for most of the change. A year later, no recovery was evident at the trawled site and significantly fewer infaunal taxa (polychaetes, malacostracans, bivalves and ophuroids were recorded in the trawl track. The severity of the two types of impact reflected the undisturbed status of the habitats compared to previous studies. As a 'priority habitat' the nature of the impacts described on M. modiolus communities are important to the development of conservation management policy and indicators of condition in Marine Protected Areas (EU Habitats Directive as well as indicators of 'Good Environmental Status' under the European Union Marine Strategy Framework Directive. Conservation managers are under pressure to support decisions with good quality evidence. Elsewhere, indirect studies have shown declines of M. modiolus biogenic communities in fishing grounds. However, given the protected status of the rare habitat, premeditated demonstration of direct impact is unethical or illegal in Marine Protected Areas. This study therefore provides a unique opportunity to investigate the impact from fishing gear whilst at the same time reflecting on the dilemma of evidence-based conservation management.

  11. The emerging pathogenic and therapeutic importance of the anaplastic lymphoma kinase gene.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelleher, Fergal C

    2012-02-01

    The anaplastic lymphoma kinase gene (ALK) is a gene on chromosome 2p23 that has expression restricted to the brain, testis and small intestine but is not expressed in normal lymphoid tissue. It has similarity to the insulin receptor subfamily of kinases and is emerging as having increased pathologic and potential therapeutic importance in malignant disease. This gene was originally established as being implicated in the pathogenesis of rare diseases including inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour (IMT) and ALK-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma, which is a subtype of non-Hodgkin\\'s lymphoma. Recently the number of diseases in which ALK is implicated in their pathogenesis has increased. In 2007, an inversion of chromosome 2 involving ALK and a fusion partner gene in a subset of non-small cell lung cancer was discovered. In 2008, publications emerged implicating ALK in familial and sporadic cases of neuroblastoma, a childhood cancer of the sympatho-adrenal system. Chromosomal abnormalities involving ALK are translocations, amplifications or mutations. Chromosomal translocations are the longest recognised ALK genetic abnormality. When translocations occur a fusion gene is created between ALK and a gene partner. This has been described in ALK-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma in which ALK is fused to NPM (nucleolar protein gene) and in non-small cell lung cancer where ALK is fused to EML4 (Echinoderm microtubule-associated protein 4). The most frequently described partner genes in inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour are tropomyosin 3\\/4 (TMP3\\/4), however in IMTs a diversity of ALK fusion partners have been found, with the ability to homodimerise a common characteristic. Point mutations and amplification of the ALK gene occur in the childhood cancer neuroblastoma. Therapeutic targeting of ALK fusion genes using tyrosine kinase inhibition, vaccination using an ALK specific antigen and treatment using viral vectors for RNAi are emerging potential therapeutic

  12. Shedding genomic light on Aristotle's lantern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodergren, Erica; Shen, Yufeng; Song, Xingzhi; Zhang, Lan; Gibbs, Richard A; Weinstock, George M

    2006-12-01

    Sea urchins have proved fascinating to biologists since the time of Aristotle who compared the appearance of their bony mouth structure to a lantern in The History of Animals. Throughout modern times it has been a model system for research in developmental biology. Now, the genome of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus is the first echinoderm genome to be sequenced. A high quality draft sequence assembly was produced using the Atlas assembler to combine whole genome shotgun sequences with sequences from a collection of BACs selected to form a minimal tiling path along the genome. A formidable challenge was presented by the high degree of heterozygosity between the two haplotypes of the selected male representative of this marine organism. This was overcome by use of the BAC tiling path backbone, in which each BAC represents a single haplotype, as well as by improvements in the Atlas software. Another innovation introduced in this project was the sequencing of pools of tiling path BACs rather than individual BAC sequencing. The Clone-Array Pooled Shotgun Strategy greatly reduced the cost and time devoted to preparing shotgun libraries from BAC clones. The genome sequence was analyzed with several gene prediction methods to produce a comprehensive gene list that was then manually refined and annotated by a volunteer team of sea urchin experts. This latter annotation community edited over 9000 gene models and uncovered many unexpected aspects of the sea urchin genetic content impacting transcriptional regulation, immunology, sensory perception, and an organism's development. Analysis of the basic deuterostome genetic complement supports the sea urchin's role as a model system for deuterostome and, by extension, chordate development.

  13. Fish Karyome version 2.1: a chromosome database of fishes and other aquatic organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagpure, Naresh Sahebrao; Pathak, Ajey Kumar; Pati, Rameshwar; Rashid, Iliyas; Sharma, Jyoti; Singh, Shri Prakash; Singh, Mahender; Sarkar, Uttam Kumar; Kushwaha, Basdeo; Kumar, Ravindra; Murali, S

    2016-01-01

    A voluminous information is available on karyological studies of fishes; however, limited efforts were made for compilation and curation of the available karyological data in a digital form. 'Fish Karyome' database was the preliminary attempt to compile and digitize the available karyological information on finfishes belonging to the Indian subcontinent. But the database had limitations since it covered data only on Indian finfishes with limited search options. Perceiving the feedbacks from the users and its utility in fish cytogenetic studies, the Fish Karyome database was upgraded by applying Linux, Apache, MySQL and PHP (pre hypertext processor) (LAMP) technologies. In the present version, the scope of the system was increased by compiling and curating the available chromosomal information over the globe on fishes and other aquatic organisms, such as echinoderms, molluscs and arthropods, especially of aquaculture importance. Thus, Fish Karyome version 2.1 presently covers 866 chromosomal records for 726 species supported with 253 published articles and the information is being updated regularly. The database provides information on chromosome number and morphology, sex chromosomes, chromosome banding, molecular cytogenetic markers, etc. supported by fish and karyotype images through interactive tools. It also enables the users to browse and view chromosomal information based on habitat, family, conservation status and chromosome number. The system also displays chromosome number in model organisms, protocol for chromosome preparation and allied techniques and glossary of cytogenetic terms. A data submission facility has also been provided through data submission panel. The database can serve as a unique and useful resource for cytogenetic characterization, sex determination, chromosomal mapping, cytotaxonomy, karyo-evolution and systematics of fishes. Database URL: http://mail.nbfgr.res.in/Fish_Karyome. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  14. Identification of a transformer homolog in the acorn worm, Saccoglossus kowalevskii, and analysis of its activity in insect cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Masataka G; Tochigi, Mayuko; Sakaguchi, Honami; Aoki, Fugaku; Miyamoto, Norio

    2015-06-01

    The transformer (tra) gene is an intermediate component of the sex determination hierarchy in many insect species. The homolog of tra is also found in two branchiopod crustacean species but is not known outside arthropods. We have isolated a tra homolog in the acorn worm, Saccoglossus kowalevskii, which is a hemichordate belonging to the deuterostome superphylum. The full-length complementary DNA (cDNA) of the S. kowalevskii tra homolog (Sktra) has a 3786-bp open reading frame that encodes a 1261-amino acid sequence including a TRA-CAM domain and an arginine/serine (RS)-rich domain, both of which are characteristic of TRA orthologs. Reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) analyses demonstrated that Sktra showed no differences in expression patterns between testes and ovaries, but its expression level was approximately 7.5-fold higher in the testes than in the ovaries. TRA, together with the protein product of the transformer-2 (tra-2) gene, assembles on doublesex (dsx) pre-messenger RNA (mRNA) via the cis-regulatory element, enhancing female-specific splicing of dsx in Drosophila. To understand functional conservation of the SkTRA protein as a dsx-splicing activator, we investigated whether SkTRA is capable of inducing female-specific splicing of the Drosophila dsx. Ectopic expression of Sktra cDNA in insect cultured cells did not induce the female-specific splicing of dsx. On the other hand, forced expression of Sktra-2 (a tra-2 homolog of S. kowalevskii) was able to induce the female-specific dsx splicing. These results demonstrate that the function as a dsx-splicing activator is not conserved in SkTRA even though SkTRA-2 is capable of functionally replacing the Drosophila TRA-2. We have also found a tra homolog in an echinoderm genome. This study provides the first evidence that that tra is conserved not only in arthropods but also in basal species of deuterostoms.

  15. Cement Distribution and Diagenetic Pathway of the Miocene Sediments on Kardiva Platform, Maldives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laya, J. C.; Prince, K.; Betzler, C.; Eberli, G. P.; Blättler, C. L.; Swart, P. K.; Reolid, J.; Alvarez Zarikian, C. A.; Reijmer, J.

    2017-12-01

    The Maldives archipelago is an ideal example for understanding the dynamics of isolated carbonate platforms. While previous sedimentological studies have focused on oceanographic and climatic controls on deposition, there have been limited studies on the diagenetic evolution of the Maldives archipelago. This project seeks to establish a relationship between the facies, cement distribution, and diagenetic evolution of the Kardiva Platform and associated diagenetic fluids. Samples from cores of IODP Expedition 359 at Sites U1645, U1469, and U1470 were analyzed for stable isotope geochemistry and detailed petrography including SEM, confocal and CL microscopy to investigate variations in facies, cements, porosity and diagenetic products. The facies analyzed consist mainly of planktonic and benthic foraminifers, red coralline algae, echinoderm, coral and skeletal fragments. The main facies include foraminifera grain/packstone, red algae rich grain/packstone, algal floatstone and coral floatstone. Those facies present a cyclic and general shallowing upwards trend. These facies are interpreted as shallow platform deposits on proximal areas to the margin associated with the oligophotic zone. Cement volume varies between 5% and 48%, and they have been classified as isopachous, bladed to fibrous (dog tooth), drusy and equant. Equant and drusy show recognizable growth bands with CL and confocal. Evidence of intense dissolution is shown by extensive moldic porosity within phreatic and limited vadose zones. In addition, dolomite appears as a replacement phase associated with red-algae-rich horizons and as cement on pore walls and voids. These deposits experienced a variety of diagenetic processes driven by the evolution of diagenetic fluid chemistry and by the nature of the skeletal components. Those processes can be tied to external controls such as climate (monsoonal effects), sea-level and currents.

  16. Prevalence, Variability and Bioconcentration of Saxitoxin-Group in Different Marine Species Present in the Food Chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyaneder Terrazas, Javiera; Contreras, Héctor R; García, Carlos

    2017-06-12

    The saxitoxin-group (STX-group) corresponds to toxic metabolites produced by cyanobacteria and dinoflagellates of the genera Alexandrium, Gymnodinium , and Pyrodinium . Over the last decade, it has been possible to extrapolate the areas contaminated with the STX-group worldwide, including Chile, a phenomenon that has affected ≈35% of the Southern Pacific coast territory, generating a high economic impact. The objective of this research was to study the toxicity of the STX-group in all aquatic organisms (bivalves, algae, echinoderms, crustaceans, tunicates, cephalopods, gastropods, and fish) present in areas with a variable presence of harmful algal blooms (HABs). Then, the toxic profiles of each species and dose of STX equivalents ingested by a 60 kg person from 400 g of shellfish were determined to establish the health risk assessment. The toxins with the highest prevalence detected were gonyautoxin-4/1 (GTX4/GTX1), gonyautoxin-3/2 (GTX3/GTX2), neosaxitoxin (neoSTX), decarbamoylsaxitoxin (dcSTX), and saxitoxin (STX), with average concentrations of 400, 2800, 280, 200, and 2000 µg kg -1 respectively, a species-specific variability, dependent on the evaluated tissue, which demonstrates the biotransformation of the analogues in the trophic transfer with a predominance of α-epimers in all toxic profiles. The identification in multiple vectors, as well as in unregulated species, suggests that a risk assessment and risk management update are required; also, chemical and specific analyses for the detection of all analogues associated with the STX-group need to be established.

  17. Prevalence, Variability and Bioconcentration of Saxitoxin-Group in Different Marine Species Present in the Food Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javiera Oyaneder Terrazas

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The saxitoxin-group (STX-group corresponds to toxic metabolites produced by cyanobacteria and dinoflagellates of the genera Alexandrium, Gymnodinium, and Pyrodinium. Over the last decade, it has been possible to extrapolate the areas contaminated with the STX-group worldwide, including Chile, a phenomenon that has affected ≈35% of the Southern Pacific coast territory, generating a high economic impact. The objective of this research was to study the toxicity of the STX-group in all aquatic organisms (bivalves, algae, echinoderms, crustaceans, tunicates, cephalopods, gastropods, and fish present in areas with a variable presence of harmful algal blooms (HABs. Then, the toxic profiles of each species and dose of STX equivalents ingested by a 60 kg person from 400 g of shellfish were determined to establish the health risk assessment. The toxins with the highest prevalence detected were gonyautoxin-4/1 (GTX4/GTX1, gonyautoxin-3/2 (GTX3/GTX2, neosaxitoxin (neoSTX, decarbamoylsaxitoxin (dcSTX, and saxitoxin (STX, with average concentrations of 400, 2800, 280, 200, and 2000 µg kg−1 respectively, a species-specific variability, dependent on the evaluated tissue, which demonstrates the biotransformation of the analogues in the trophic transfer with a predominance of α-epimers in all toxic profiles. The identification in multiple vectors, as well as in unregulated species, suggests that a risk assessment and risk management update are required; also, chemical and specific analyses for the detection of all analogues associated with the STX-group need to be established.

  18. The Jurassic of Denmark and Greenland: The Upper Jurassic of Europe: its subdivision and correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeiss, Arnold

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available In the last 40 years, the stratigraphy of the Upper Jurassic of Europe has received much attention and considerable revision; much of the impetus behind this endeavour has stemmed from the work of the International Subcommission on Jurassic Stratigraphy. The Upper Jurassic Series consists of three stages, the Oxfordian, Kimmeridgian and Tithonian which are further subdivided into substages, zones and subzones, primarily on the basis of ammonites. Regional variations between the Mediterranean, Submediterranean and Subboreal provinces are discussed and correlation possibilities indicated. The durations of the Oxfordian, Kimmeridgian and Tithonian Stages are reported to have been 5.3, 3.4 and 6.5 Ma, respectively. This review of the present status of Upper Jurassic stratigraphy aids identification of a number of problems of subdivision and definition of Upper Jurassic stages; in particular these include correlation of the base of the Kimmeridgian and the top of the Tithonian between Submediterranean and Subboreal Europe. Although still primarily based on ammonite stratigraphy, subdivision of the Upper Jurassic is increasingly being refined by the incorporation of other fossil groups; these include both megafossils, such as aptychi, belemnites, bivalves, gastropods, brachiopods, echinoderms, corals, sponges and vertebrates, and microfossils such as foraminifera, radiolaria, ciliata, ostracodes, dinoflagellates, calcareous nannofossils, charophyaceae, dasycladaceae, spores and pollen. Important future developments will depend on the detailed integration of these disparate biostratigraphic data and their precise combination with the abundant new data from sequence stratigraphy, utilising the high degree of stratigraphic resolution offered by certain groups of fossils. This article also contains some notes on the recent results of magnetostratigraphy and sequence chronostratigraphy.

  19. Controlled chaos of polymorphic mucins in a metazoan parasite (Schistosoma mansoni interacting with its invertebrate host (Biomphalaria glabrata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Roger

    Full Text Available Invertebrates were long thought to possess only a simple, effective and hence non-adaptive defence system against microbial and parasitic attacks. However, recent studies have shown that invertebrate immunity also relies on immune receptors that diversify (e.g. in echinoderms, insects and mollusks (Biomphalaria glabrata. Apparently, individual or population-based polymorphism-generating mechanisms exists that permit the survival of invertebrate species exposed to parasites. Consequently, the generally accepted arms race hypothesis predicts that molecular diversity and polymorphism also exist in parasites of invertebrates. We investigated the diversity and polymorphism of parasite molecules (Schistosoma mansoni Polymorphic Mucins, SmPoMucs that are key factors for the compatibility of schistosomes interacting with their host, the mollusc Biomphalaria glabrata. We have elucidated the complex cascade of mechanisms acting both at the genomic level and during expression that confer polymorphism to SmPoMuc. We show that SmPoMuc is coded by a multi-gene family whose members frequently recombine. We show that these genes are transcribed in an individual-specific manner, and that for each gene, multiple splice variants exist. Finally, we reveal the impact of this polymorphism on the SmPoMuc glycosylation status. Our data support the view that S. mansoni has evolved a complex hierarchical system that efficiently generates a high degree of polymorphism-a "controlled chaos"-based on a relatively low number of genes. This contrasts with protozoan parasites that generate antigenic variation from large sets of genes such as Trypanosoma cruzi, Trypanosoma brucei and Plasmodium falciparum. Our data support the view that the interaction between parasites and their invertebrate hosts are far more complex than previously thought. While most studies in this matter have focused on invertebrate host diversification, we clearly show that diversifying mechanisms also

  20. Microtubule association of EML proteins and the EML4-ALK variant 3 oncoprotein require an N-terminal trimerization domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Mark W; O'Regan, Laura; Roth, Daniel; Montgomery, Jessica M; Straube, Anne; Fry, Andrew M; Bayliss, Richard

    2015-05-01

    Proteins of the echinoderm microtubule (MT)-associated protein (EMAP)-like (EML) family contribute to formation of the mitotic spindle and interphase MT network. EML1-4 consist of Trp-Asp 40 (WD40) repeats and an N-terminal region containing a putative coiled-coil. Recurrent gene rearrangements in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) fuse EML4 to anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) causing expression of several oncogenic fusion variants. The fusions have constitutive ALK activity due to self-association through the EML4 coiled-coil. We have determined crystal structures of the coiled-coils from EML2 and EML4, which describe the structural basis of both EML self-association and oncogenic EML4-ALK activation. The structures reveal a trimeric oligomerization state directed by a conserved pattern of hydrophobic residues and salt bridges. We show that the trimerization domain (TD) of EML1 is necessary and sufficient for self-association. The TD is also essential for MT binding; however, this property requires an adjacent basic region. These observations prompted us to investigate MT association of EML4-ALK and EML1-ABL1 (Abelson 1) fusions in which variable portions of the EML component are present. Uniquely, EML4-ALK variant 3, which includes the TD and basic region of EML4 but none of the WD40 repeats, was localized to MTs, both when expressed recombinantly and when expressed in a patient-derived NSCLC cell line (H2228). This raises the question of whether the mislocalization of ALK activity to MTs might influence downstream signalling and malignant properties of cells. Furthermore, the structure of EML4 TD may enable the development of protein-protein interaction inhibitors targeting the trimerization interface, providing a possible avenue towards therapeutic intervention in EML4-ALK NSCLC.

  1. A geographical information system for the management of the aquaculture data in the Adriatic Sea – the Strengthening of Centres for Aquaculture Production and Safety surveillance in the Adriatic countries experience: Present capabilities, tools and functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna Tora

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The European Commission (EC regulation no. 854/2004 requires a systematic monitoring of chemical and microbiological contaminants in live bivalve molluscs, live echinoderms, live tunicates and live marine gastropods for human consumption through surveillance plans to be implemented in all European Union (EU countries.A consortium of five Adriatic countries was set up in the framework of the Instrument of Pre-accession Assistance Adriatic Cross-border Cooperation Programme (IPA Adriatic CBC 2007- 2013 with the aim of collecting data and distribute information on harvesting and production in mollusc areas. A web-based geographical information system (GIS application was developed to support the partners to manage data and to make these data available to final users, policy makers and to risk assessors. The GIS for the Strengthening of Centres for Aquaculture Production and Safety surveillance in the Adriatic countries (CAPS2 is divided into two levels, the national and the supranational one, and it distributes spatial and epidemiological information coming from various data acquisition and management sites. The great innovation is the possibility for each country to use online drawing, modifying and change of the geographic areas according to national surveillance needs. Currently it hosts data coming from about 230 production and relay areas with more than 29,478 laboratory tests performed on collected samples since August 2014. Data collected are used by each national competent authority to classify production or relay areas according to the EC regulation mentioned and to conduct risk assessment studies to evaluate the level of consumers’ exposure to contaminants in the consumption of bivalve mollusc products.

  2. Stiparin: a glycoprotein from sea cucumber dermis that aggregates collagen fibrils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotter, J A; Lyons-Levy, G; Luna, D; Koob, T J; Keene, D R; Atkinson, M A

    1996-07-01

    The interactions between collagen fibrils in many echinoderm connective tissues are rapidly altered by the secretions of resident neurosecretory cells. Recent evidence has suggested that a secreted protein is responsible for the interactions that lead to an increase in tissue stiffness (Trotter and Koob, 1995). Structurally intact collagen fibrils have been isolated from such a connective tissue- the dermis of the sea cucumber Cucumaria frondosa- and used in an assay in vitro to identify a protein that binds to them and causes them to aggregate. This protein has been purified by anion-exchange and molecular sieve chromatography. It is eluted from a MonoQ column at approximately 0.55 M NaCl. Its isoelectric point is 5.2. It elutes from a Superose-6 column in a position corresponding to a molecule with a Stokes radius of 11.5 nm. Its native molecular weight estimated from sedimentation equilibrium analysis under non-denaturing conditions is 375,000, and its monomer molecular weight, estimated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate, is approximately 350,000. Sedimentation velocity measurements indicated for the native molecule a sedimentation coefficient of 11 x 10(-13)s, a diffusion coefficient of 3.274 x 10(-7) cm2s-1, and a frictional ratio of 1.95, which corresponds to a prolate ellipsoid of revolution with an axial ratio of 19. The highly asymmetric structure suggested by the above correlated well with the images obtained by transmission electron microscopy following rotary shadowing, which revealed a flexible structure approximately 125 nm long. Based on its ability to aggregate collagen fibrils, this protein has been named "stiparin," from the Latin stipare, "to pack together."

  3. Pairing Quaternary paleoecology and modern ROV exploration to produce novel reconstructions of marine ecosystem responses to millennial-scale climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myhre, S. E.; Pak, D. K.; Borreggine, M. J.; Hill, T. M.; Kennett, J.; Nicholson, C.; Deutsch, C. A.

    2017-12-01

    One of the most interesting problems for 21st Century marine ecology is understanding the potential physical, chemical, and biological scale of future climate-forced oceanographic changes. These fundamental questions can be informed through the examination of micro- and macrofauna from Quaternary sedimentary sequences, combined with modern observations of continental margin ecosystems. Here we examine Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) exploratory videos and sedimentary push cores, to identify biological assemblages, including mollusc, echinoderm, ostracod, and foraminifera density, diversity, and community structure from Santa Barbara Basin in the California Borderland. ROV explorations, from 380-500 meters below sea level (mbsl), describe the zonation of benthic fauna and the distribution of chemosynthetic trophic webs, which are consequences of gradations in the oxygen minimum zone and the ventilating sill depth (475 mbsl). Such observations reveal the modern vertical distribution of chemosynthetic bacterial communities and shallower, diverse communities associated with detrital food webs. Biological assemblages from 16.1-3.4 ka (from core MV0811-15JC, collected at 418 mbsl) produce a suite of paleoceanographic indicators, such as dissolved oxygen concentrations (foraminifera), chemosynthetic trophic webs (molluscs), and water masses (ostracods). These assemblages demonstrate how continental margin ecosystems reorganize vertically (through the water column) and geographically through climate events, for example through the loss of cryophilic species, the ephemeral occurrence of chemosynthetic communities, and the trace fossil evidence (through predation scarring on mollusc shells) of higher trophic web interactions. Together with ROV seafloor observations, these communities can reconstruct step-by-step vertical changes in the zonation of the continental margin, and can identify intervals of zonation change in relation to both Santa Barbara Basin ventilation and the

  4. Maristem—Stem Cells of Marine/Aquatic Invertebrates: From Basic Research to Innovative Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loriano Ballarin

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The “stem cells” discipline represents one of the most dynamic areas in biomedicine. While adult marine/aquatic invertebrate stem cell (MISC biology is of prime research and medical interest, studies on stem cells from organisms outside the classical vertebrate (e.g., human, mouse, and zebrafish and invertebrate (e.g., Drosophila, Caenorhabditis models have not been pursued vigorously. Marine/aquatic invertebrates constitute the largest biodiversity and the widest phylogenetic radiation on Earth, from morphologically simple organisms (e.g., sponges, cnidarians, to the more complex mollusks, crustaceans, echinoderms, and protochordates. These organisms contain a kaleidoscope of MISC-types that allow the production of a large number of novel bioactive-molecules, many of which are of significant potential interest for human health. MISCs further participate in aging and regeneration phenomena, including whole-body regeneration. For years, the European MISC-community has been highly fragmented and has established scarce ties with biomedical industries in an attempt to harness MISCs for human welfare. Thus, it is important to (i consolidate the European community of researchers working on MISCs; (ii promote and coordinate European research on MISC biology; (iii stimulate young researchers to embark on research in MISC-biology; (iv develop, validate, and share novel MISC tools and methodologies; (v establish the MISC discipline as a forefront interest of biomedical disciplines, including nanobiomedicine; and (vi establish collaborations with industries to exploit MISCs as sources of bioactive molecules. In order to fill the recognized gaps, the EC-COST Action 16203 “MARISTEM” has recently been launched. At its initial stage, the consortium unites 26 scientists from EC countries, Cooperating countries, and Near Neighbor Countries.

  5. Megafauna of the UKSRL exploration contract area and eastern Clarion-Clipperton Zone in the Pacific Ocean: Echinodermata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amon, Diva J; Ziegler, Amanda F; Kremenetskaia, Antonina; Mah, Christopher L; Mooi, Rich; O'Hara, Tim; Pawson, David L; Roux, Michel; Smith, Craig R

    2017-01-01

    There is growing interest in mining polymetallic nodules from the abyssal Clarion-Clipperton Zone (CCZ) in the tropical Pacific Ocean. Despite being the focus of environmental studies for decades, the benthic megafauna of the CCZ remain poorly known. In order to predict and manage the environmental impacts of mining in the CCZ, baseline knowledge of the megafauna is essential. The ABYSSLINE Project has conducted benthic biological baseline surveys in the UK Seabed Resources Ltd polymetallic-nodule exploration contract area (UK-1). Prior to these research cruises in 2013 and 2015, no biological studies had been done in this area of the eastern CCZ. Using a Remotely Operated Vehicle and Autonomous Underwater Vehicle, the megafauna within the UKSRL exploration contract area (UK-1) and at a site ~250 km east of the UK-1 area were surveyed, allowing us to make the first estimates of megafaunal morphospecies richness from the imagery collected. Here, we present an atlas of the abyssal echinoderm megafauna observed and collected during the ABYSSLINE cruises to the UK-1 polymetallic-nodule exploration contract area in the CCZ. There appear to be at least 62 distinct morphospecies (13 Asteroidea, 5 Crinoidea, 9 Echinoidea, 29 Holothuroidea and 6 Ophiuroidea) identified mostly by imagery but also using molecular barcoding for a limited number of animals that were collected. This atlas will aid the synthesis of megafaunal presence/absence data collected by contractors, scientists and other stakeholders undertaking work in the CCZ, ultimately helping to decipher the biogeography of the megafauna in this threatened habitat.

  6. Organotin levels in seafood and its implications for health risk in high-seafood consumers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerin, T.; Sirot, V.; Volatier, J.-L.; Leblanc, J.-C.

    2007-01-01

    Fish and fishery products are considered as the main source of organotin compounds (OTC). Unfortunately, little national contamination data is available to assess food exposure of organotins from French consumers. To provide a more accurate estimate of risks to human health, the butyltin, phenyltin and octyltin compounds sampling in four French coastal areas were measured in 159 composite samples (96 fresh and frozen fish, 28 mollusks, 14 crustaceans, 1 echinoderm, 11 canned foods, 4 smoked fish, 5 prepared seafood-based dishes) by capillary gas chromatography coupled with a microwave induced plasma atomic-emission spectrometer (CGC-MIP-AES). In these samples, butyltins were usually predominant and the range of the contamination levels was generally below those of earlier studies (fish: mean 5.6; min-max 1.1-23 μg/kg; fishery products: mean 6; min-max 0.8-14 μg/kg). Fish, especially tuna, salmon, mackerel, saithe/coalfish and cod were largely the main contributors (38%) to the total organotin exposure. With the supplementary contribution of great scallop, surimi, squid and oysters, the exposure exceeded 50% in all. However, the utmost OTC exposure was lesser than 47% of the provisional tolerable weekly intake [EFSA (European Food Safety Agency). Opinion of the Scientific Panel on Contaminants in the food chain on a request from the Commission to assess the health risks to consumers associated with exposure to organotins in foodstuffs. (Question N o EFSA-Q-2003-110). The EFSA Journal, 102, 1-119, 2004. (http://www.efsa.eu.int)]. Nobody would exceed this limit. Finally, as this study has some limitations and since some other sources and health effects have not been clearly evaluated, it appears rational from public health and environmental viewpoints to continue to reduce the OTC levels in the environment

  7. Feasibility of computed tomography-guided core needle biopsy in producing state-of-the-art clinical management in Chinese lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hua-Jun; Yang, Jin-Ji; Fang, Liang-Yi; Huang, Min-Min; Yan, Hong-Hong; Zhang, Xu-Chao; Xu, Chong-Rui; Wu, Yi-Long

    2014-03-01

    A satisfactory biopsy determines the state-of-the-art management of lung cancer in this era of personalized medicine. This study aimed to investigate the suitability and efficacy of computed tomography (CT)-guided core needle biopsy in clinical management. A cohort of 353 patients with clinically suspected lung cancer was enrolled in the study. Patient factors and biopsy variables were recorded. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene mutations and echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 (EML4)-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) rearrangement were detected in tumor specimens. Adequacy of biopsic obtainment for clinical trial screening and tissue bank establishment were reviewed. Overall diagnostic accuracy of malignancy achieved 98.5%. The median biopsy time of the cohort was 20 minutes. In patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), 99.3% (287/289) were diagnosed as specific histologic subtypes, and two patients (0.7%) were determined as NSCLC not otherwise specified (NOS). EGFR mutations were analyzed in 81.7% (236/289) of patients with NSCLC, and 98.7% (233/236) showed conclusive results. EML4-ALK gene fusion was tested in 43.9% (127/289) of NSCLC patients, and 98.4% (125/127) showed conclusive results: 6.4% (8/125) of those had gene fusion. Ninety-six NSCLC patients participated in clinical trial screening and provided mandatory tumor slides for molecular profiling. Pathological evaluation was fulfilled in 90 patients (93.8%); 99.4% (320/322) of patients with malignancy provided extra tissue for the establishment of a tumor bank. CT-guided core needle biopsy provided optimal clinical management in this era of translational medicine. The biopsic modality should be prioritized in selected lung cancer patients.

  8. A review of nickel toxicity to marine and estuarine tropical biota with particular reference to the South East Asian and Melanesian region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gissi, Francesca; Stauber, Jennifer L; Binet, Monique T; Golding, Lisa A; Adams, Merrin S; Schlekat, Christian E; Garman, Emily R; Jolley, Dianne F

    2016-11-01

    The South East Asian Melanesian (SEAM) region contains the world's largest deposits of nickel lateritic ores. Environmental impacts may occur if mining operations are not adequately managed. Effects data for tropical ecosystems are required to assess risks of contaminant exposure and to derive water quality guidelines (WQG) to manage these risks. Currently, risk assessment tools and WQGs for the tropics are limited due to the sparse research on how contaminants impact tropical biota. As part of a larger project to develop appropriate risk assessment tools to ensure sustainable nickel production in SEAM, nickel effects data were required. The aim of this review was to compile data on the effects of nickel on tropical marine, estuarine, pelagic and benthic species, with a particular focus on SEAM. There were limited high quality chronic nickel toxicity data for tropical marine species, and even fewer for those relevant to SEAM. Of the data available, the most sensitive SEAM species to nickel were a sea urchin, copepod and anemone. There is a significant lack of high quality chronic data for several ecologically important taxonomic groups including cnidarians, molluscs, crustaceans, echinoderms, macroalgae and fish. No high quality chronic nickel toxicity data were available for estuarine waters or marine and estuarine sediments. The very sparse toxicity data for tropical species limits our ability to conduct robust ecological risk assessment and may require additional data generation or read-across from similar species in other databases (e.g. temperate) to fill data gaps. Recommendations on testing priorities to fill these data gaps are presented. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Sea Hare Aplysia punctata (Mollusca: Gastropoda) Can Maintain Shell Calcification under Extreme Ocean Acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Nicholas; Dupont, Sam; Sigwart, Julia D

    2016-10-01

    Ocean acidification is expected to cause energetic constraints upon marine calcifying organisms such as molluscs and echinoderms, because of the increased costs of building or maintaining shell material in lower pH. We examined metabolic rate, shell morphometry, and calcification in the sea hare Aplysia punctata under short-term exposure (19 days) to an extreme ocean acidification scenario (pH 7.3, ∼2800 μatm pCO 2 ), along with a group held in control conditions (pH 8.1, ∼344 μatm pCO 2 ). This gastropod and its congeners are broadly distributed and locally abundant grazers, and have an internal shell that protects the internal organs. Specimens were examined for metabolic rate via closed-chamber respirometry, followed by removal and examination of the shell under confocal microscopy. Staining using calcein determined the amount of new calcification that occurred over 6 days at the end of the acclimation period. The width of new, pre-calcified shell on the distal shell margin was also quantified as a proxy for overall shell growth. Aplysia punctata showed a 30% reduction in metabolic rate under low pH, but calcification was not affected. This species is apparently able to maintain calcification rate even under extreme low pH, and even when under the energetic constraints of lower metabolism. This finding adds to the evidence that calcification is a largely autonomous process of crystallization that occurs as long as suitable haeomocoel conditions are preserved. There was, however, evidence that the accretion of new, noncalcified shell material may have been reduced, which would lead to overall reduced shell growth under longer-term exposures to low pH independent of calcification. Our findings highlight that the chief impact of ocean acidification upon the ability of marine invertebrates to maintain their shell under low pH may be energetic constraints that hinder growth of supporting structure, rather than maintenance of calcification.

  10. Could the acid-base status of Antarctic sea urchins indicate a better-than-expected resilience to near-future ocean acidification?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collard, Marie; De Ridder, Chantal; David, Bruno; Dehairs, Frank; Dubois, Philippe

    2015-02-01

    Increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration alters the chemistry of the oceans towards more acidic conditions. Polar oceans are particularly affected due to their low temperature, low carbonate content and mixing patterns, for instance upwellings. Calcifying organisms are expected to be highly impacted by the decrease in the oceans' pH and carbonate ions concentration. In particular, sea urchins, members of the phylum Echinodermata, are hypothesized to be at risk due to their high-magnesium calcite skeleton. However, tolerance to ocean acidification in metazoans is first linked to acid-base regulation capacities of the extracellular fluids. No information on this is available to date for Antarctic echinoderms and inference from temperate and tropical studies needs support. In this study, we investigated the acid-base status of 9 species of sea urchins (3 cidaroids, 2 regular euechinoids and 4 irregular echinoids). It appears that Antarctic regular euechinoids seem equipped with similar acid-base regulation systems as tropical and temperate regular euechinoids but could rely on more passive ion transfer systems, minimizing energy requirements. Cidaroids have an acid-base status similar to that of tropical cidaroids. Therefore Antarctic cidaroids will most probably not be affected by decreasing seawater pH, the pH drop linked to ocean acidification being negligible in comparison of the naturally low pH of the coelomic fluid. Irregular echinoids might not suffer from reduced seawater pH if acidosis of the coelomic fluid pH does not occur but more data on their acid-base regulation are needed. Combining these results with the resilience of Antarctic sea urchin larvae strongly suggests that these organisms might not be the expected victims of ocean acidification. However, data on the impact of other global stressors such as temperature and of the combination of the different stressors needs to be acquired to assess the sensitivity of these organisms to global

  11. Giant Clams and Rising CO2: Light May Ameliorate Effects of Ocean Acidification on a Solar-Powered Animal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Sue-Ann

    2015-01-01

    Global climate change and ocean acidification pose a serious threat to marine life. Marine invertebrates are particularly susceptible to ocean acidification, especially highly calcareous taxa such as molluscs, echinoderms and corals. The largest of all bivalve molluscs, giant clams, are already threatened by a variety of local pressures, including overharvesting, and are in decline worldwide. Several giant clam species are listed as 'Vulnerable' on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species and now climate change and ocean acidification pose an additional threat to their conservation. Unlike most other molluscs, giant clams are 'solar-powered' animals containing photosynthetic algal symbionts suggesting that light could influence the effects of ocean acidification on these vulnerable animals. In this study, juvenile fluted giant clams Tridacna squamosa were exposed to three levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) (control ~400, mid ~650 and high ~950 μatm) and light (photosynthetically active radiation 35, 65 and 304 μmol photons m-2 s-1). Elevated CO2 projected for the end of this century (~650 and ~950 μatm) reduced giant clam survival and growth at mid-light levels. However, effects of CO2 on survival were absent at high-light, with 100% survival across all CO2 levels. Effects of CO2 on growth of surviving clams were lessened, but not removed, at high-light levels. Shell growth and total animal mass gain were still reduced at high-CO2. This study demonstrates the potential for light to alleviate effects of ocean acidification on survival and growth in a threatened calcareous marine invertebrate. Managing water quality (e.g. turbidity and sedimentation) in coastal areas to maintain water clarity may help ameliorate some negative effects of ocean acidification on giant clams and potentially other solar-powered calcifiers, such as hard corals.

  12. Secondary Metabolites from Vietnamese Marine Invertebrates with Activity against Trypanosoma brucei and T. cruzi

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    Nguyen Phuong Thao

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Marine-derived natural products from invertebrates comprise an extremely diverse and promising source of the compounds from a wide variety of structural classes. This study describes the discovery of five marine natural products with activity against Trypanosoma species by natural product library screening using whole cell in vitro assays. We investigated the anti-trypanosomal activity of the extracts from the soft corals and echinoderms living in Vietnamese seas. Of the samples screened, the methanolic extracts of several marine organisms exhibited potent activities against cultures of Trypanosoma brucei and T. cruzi (EC50 < 5.0 μg/mL. Among the compounds isolated from these extracts, laevigatol B (1 from Lobophytum crassum and L. laevigatum, (24S-ergost-4-ene-3-one (2 from Sinularia dissecta, astropectenol A (3 from Astropecten polyacanthus, and cholest-8-ene-3β,5α,6β,7α-tetraol (4 from Diadema savignyi showed inhibitory activity against T. brucei with EC50 values ranging from 1.57 ± 0.14 to 14.6 ± 1.36 μM, relative to the positive control, pentamidine (EC50 = 0.015 ± 0.003 μM. Laevigatol B (1 and 5α-cholest-8(14-ene-3β,7α-diol (5 exhibited also significant inhibitory effects on T. cruzi. The cytotoxic activity of the pure compounds on mammalian cells was also assessed and found to be insignificant in all cases. This is the first report on the inhibitory effects of marine organisms collected in Vietnamese seas against Trypanosoma species responsible for neglected tropical diseases.

  13. Testosterone conjugating activities in invertebrates: are they targets for endocrine disruptors?

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    Janer, G; Sternberg, R M; LeBlanc, G A; Porte, C

    2005-02-10

    Testosterone conjugation activities, microsomal acyltransferases and cytosolic sulfotransferases, were investigated in three invertebrate species, the gastropod Marisa cornuarietis, the amphipod Hyalella azteca, and the echinoderm Paracentrotus lividus. The goals of the study were to characterize steroid conjugation pathways in different invertebrate phyla and to assess the susceptibility of those processes to disruption by environmental chemicals. All three species exhibited palmitoyl-CoA: testosterone acyltransferase activity (ATAT) in the range of 100-510 pmol/min/mg protein. Despite similarities in specific activities, kinetic studies indicated that ATAT had a higher affinity for testosterone but a lower V(max) in M. cornuarietis than in P. lividus, and intermediate values were found for H. azteca. In contrast, the activity of testosterone sulfotransferase (SULT) was rather low (0.05-0.18 pmol/min/mg protein) in M. cornuarietis and H. azteca. The low activity precluded kinetic analyses and inhibition studies with these species. P. lividus digestive tube displayed high SULT activity (50-170 pmol/min/mg protein) at moderate testosterone concentrations, but was inhibited at high testosterone concentrations. The interference of model pollutants (triphenyltin (TPT), tributyltin (TBT), and fenarimol) with these conjugation pathways was investigated in vitro. Both TPT and TBT (100 microM) inhibited ATAT in P. lividus (68 and 42% inhibition, respectively), and appeared to act as non-competitive inhibitors. ATAT activity in M. cornuarietis was less affected by organotins, and a significant inhibition (20% inhibition) was detected only with TBT. Fenarimol (100 microM) did not affect ATAT in any of the species tested. Sulfation of testosterone was suppressed by the organotins as well as fenarimol when using cytosolic preparations from P. lividus. These results demonstrated the existence of interphyla differences in testosterone conjugation, and revealed that these

  14. An efficient method to find potentially universal population genetic markers, applied to metazoans

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    Chenuil Anne

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the impressive growth of sequence databases, the limited availability of nuclear markers that are sufficiently polymorphic for population genetics and phylogeography and applicable across various phyla restricts many potential studies, particularly in non-model organisms. Numerous introns have invariant positions among kingdoms, providing a potential source for such markers. Unfortunately, most of the few known EPIC (Exon Primed Intron Crossing loci are restricted to vertebrates or belong to multigenic families. Results In order to develop markers with broad applicability, we designed a bioinformatic approach aimed at avoiding multigenic families while identifying intron positions conserved across metazoan phyla. We developed a program facilitating the identification of EPIC loci which allowed slight variation in intron position. From the Homolens databases we selected 29 gene families which contained 52 promising introns for which we designed 93 primer pairs. PCR tests were performed on several ascidians, echinoderms, bivalves and cnidarians. On average, 24 different introns per genus were amplified in bilaterians. Remarkably, five of the introns successfully amplified in all of the metazoan genera tested (a dozen genera, including cnidarians. The influence of several factors on amplification success was investigated. Success rate was not related to the phylogenetic relatedness of a taxon to the groups that most influenced primer design, showing that these EPIC markers are extremely conserved in animals. Conclusions Our new method now makes it possible to (i rapidly isolate a set of EPIC markers for any phylum, even outside the animal kingdom, and thus, (ii compare genetic diversity at potentially homologous polymorphic loci between divergent taxa.

  15. Effect of multiple cycles of freeze-thawing on the RNA quality of lung cancer tissues.

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    Yu, Keke; Xing, Jie; Zhang, Jie; Zhao, Ruiying; Zhang, Ye; Zhao, Lanxiang

    2017-09-01

    RNA degradation is a major problem in tissue banking. We explored the effect of thawing flash-frozen biospecimens on the quality and integrity of RNA for genetic testing as well as for other cancer research studies. The histological quality of the frozen tumor sections was evaluated by using hematoxylin and eosin staining. RNA extraction from 60 lung cancer tissue samples subjected to various freeze/thaw cycles was performed using the RNeasy Plus isolation kit. RNA integrity was assessed by using an Agilent bioanalyzer to obtain RNA integrity numbers (RIN). Furthermore, RNA from different groups was used for fluorescence Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis of the echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (EML4-ALK) fusion gene mutation to verify whether it can be used for research or clinical testing. Highly variable RIN values were observed among the samples, which showed no correlation with the number of freeze/thaw cycles conducted. However, after 3 freeze/thaw cycles (each thaw event lasted for 10 min), an increasing number of changes in peak intensity in RINs were observed. After 5 freeze/thaw cycles, RNA integrity decreased to approximately 35%. After 3 freeze/thaw cycles, the RNA could still be used for RT-PCR analysis of EML4-ALK fusion gene mutations; whereas those subjected to 5 freeze/thaw cycles could not. Limited (cycles did not adversely affect the quality of RNA extracted from tumor tissues and subsequent RT-PCR analysis. Our data could be utilized in the establishment of a standardized procedure for tissue biospecimen collection and storage.

  16. Trilobite-based biostratigraphy (arthropoda-trilobita) and related faunas of the Cambrian from Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuen-Romero, F. J.; Valdez-Holguín, J. E.; Buitrón-Sánchez, B. E.; Monreal, R.; Enríquez-Ocaña, L. F.; Aguirre-Hinojosa, E.; Ochoa-Granillo, J. A.; Palafox-Reyes, J. J.

    2018-04-01

    A biostratigraphic analysis based on trilobites of the main Cambrian outcrops from Sonora, Mexico is performed. The data are based on a combination of field work and published sources, including four previously studied locations from northern and eastern Sonora (Caborca, Cananea, Mazatán, and Arivechi) as well as a new location in the central part of the state of Sonora (San José de Gracia). Chronostratigraphic positions are assigned to the Cambrian outcrops according to Peng et al., 2012 and Cohen et al., 2017. In the Caborca area, the Puerto Blanco, Proveedora, Buelna, Cerro Prieto, Arrojos and El Tren formations comprise a wide range of biozones, which starts from the Fritzaspis Zone until the Glossopleura walcotti Zone (Begadean-Lincolnian Series, global Stage 3-Stage 5, Series 2-Series 3). The Bolsa Quartzite and the Abrigo Limestone exposed in Cananea area are assigned to the Cedaria/Cedarina dakotaensis Zone until the Crepicephalus Zone (Lincolnian Series-Marjuman Stage, global Series 3-Guzhangian). In the San José de Gracia area, The Proveedora, Buelna, Cerro Prieto and El Gavilán formations range from the ?Bristolia mohavensis or ?Bristolia insolens zones until the upper part of Mexicella mexicana Zone, Albertella highlandensis Subzone (Series 2-Series 3, Stage 4-Stage 5). In the Arivechi area, the La Sata, El Mogallón, La Huerta and the Milpillas formations range from Poliella denticulata Zone to the Elvinia Zone (Lincolnian-Millardan, Delamaran-Steptoean, global Series 3-Furongian, Stage 5-Paibian). Paleozoic marine fauna distribution in northwest Mexico and the southwest United States of America, suggest that during this time an extensive faunal province existed, containing a great variety of marine invertebrates with notorious intraspecific affinity. The biotic association includes poriferans, archaeocyathids, brachiopods, mollusks, arthropods and echinoderms as predominant elements.

  17. A potential role for chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate in arm regeneration in Amphiura filiformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandra, Rashmi; Namburi, Ramesh B; Dupont, Sam T; Ortega-Martinez, Olga; van Kuppevelt, Toin H; Lindahl, Ulf; Spillmann, Dorothe

    2017-05-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), such as chondroitin sulfate (CS) and dermatan sulfate (DS) from various vertebrate and invertebrate sources are known to be involved in diverse cellular mechanisms during repair and regenerative processes. Recently, we have identified CS/DS as the major GAG in the brittlestar Amphiura filiformis, with high proportions of di- and tri-O-sulfated disaccharide units. As this echinoderm is known for its exceptional regeneration capacity, we aimed to explore the role of these GAG chains during A. filiformis arm regeneration. Analysis of CS/DS chains during the regeneration process revealed an increase in the proportion of the tri-O-sulfated disaccharides. Conversely, treatment of A. filiformis with sodium chlorate, a potent inhibitor of sulfation reactions in GAG biosynthesis, resulted in a significant reduction in arm growth rates with total inhibition at concentrations higher than 5 mM. Differentiation was less impacted by sodium chlorate exposure or even slightly increased at 1-2 mM. Based on the structural changes observed during arm regeneration we identified chondroitin synthase, chondroitin-4-O-sulfotransferase 2 and dermatan-4-O-sulfotransferase as candidate genes and sought to correlate their expression with the expression of the A. filiformis orthologue of bone morphogenetic factors, AfBMP2/4. Quantitative amplification by real-time PCR indicated increased expression of chondroitin synthase and chondroitin-4-O-sulfotransferase 2, with a corresponding increase in AfBMP2/4 during regeneration relative to nonregenerating controls. Our findings suggest that proper sulfation of GAGs is important for A. filiformis arm regeneration and that these molecules may participate in mechanisms controlling cell proliferation. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Nitric oxide acts as a positive regulator to induce metamorphosis of the ascidian Herdmania momus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Nobuo; Degnan, Sandie M

    2013-01-01

    Marine invertebrates commonly have a biphasic life cycle in which the metamorphic transition from a pelagic larva to a benthic post-larva is mediated by the nitric oxide signalling pathway. Nitric oxide (NO) is synthesised by nitric oxide synthase (NOS), which is a client protein of the molecular chaperon heat shock protein 90 (HSP90). It is notable, then, that both NO and HSP90 have been implicated in regulating metamorphosis in marine invertebrates as diverse as urochordates, echinoderms, molluscs, annelids, and crustaceans. Specifically, the suppression of NOS activity by the application of either NOS- or HSP90-inhibiting pharmacological agents has been shown consistently to induce the initiation of metamorphosis, leading to the hypothesis that a negative regulatory role of NO is widely conserved in biphasic life cycles. Further, the induction of metamorphosis by heat-shock has been demonstrated for multiple species. Here, we investigate the regulatory role of NO in induction of metamorphosis of the solitary tropical ascidian, Herdmania momus. By coupling pharmacological treatments with analysis of HmNOS and HmHSP90 gene expression, we present compelling evidence of a positive regulatory role for NO in metamorphosis of this species, in contrast to all existing ascidian data that supports the hypothesis of NO as a conserved negative regulator of metamorphosis. The exposure of competent H. momus larvae to a NOS inhibitor or an NO donor results in an up-regulation of NOS and HSP90 genes. Heat shock of competent larvae induces metamorphosis in a temperature dependent manner, up to a thermal tolerance that approaches 35°C. Both larval/post-larval survival and the appearance of abnormal morphologies in H. momus post-larvae reflect the magnitude of up-regulation of the HSP90 gene in response to heat-shock. The demonstrated role of NO as a positive metamorphic regulator in H. momus suggests the existence of inter-specific adaptations of NO regulation in ascidian

  19. Molecular phylogeny of extant Holothuroidea (Echinodermata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Allison K; Kerr, Alexander M; Paulay, Gustav; Reich, Mike; Wilson, Nerida G; Carvajal, Jose I; Rouse, Greg W

    2017-06-01

    Sea cucumbers (Holothuroidea) are a morphologically diverse, ecologically important, and economically valued clade of echinoderms; however, the understanding of the overall systematics of the group remains controversial. Here, we present a phylogeny of extant Holothuroidea assessed with maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian approaches using approximately 4.3kb of mt- (COI, 16S, 12S) and nDNA (H3, 18S, 28S) sequences from 82 holothuroid terminals representing 23 of the 27 widely-accepted family-ranked taxa. Currently five holothuroid taxa of ordinal rank are accepted. We find that three of the five orders are non-monophyletic, and we revise the taxonomy of the groups accordingly. Apodida is sister to the rest of Holothuroidea, here considered Actinopoda. Within Actinopoda, Elasipodida in part is sister to the remaining Actinopoda. This latter clade, comprising holothuroids with respiratory trees, is now called Pneumonophora. The traditional Aspidochirotida is paraphyletic, with representatives from three orders (Molpadida, Dendrochirotida, and Elasipodida in part) nested within. Therefore, we discontinue the use of Aspidochirotida and instead erect Holothuriida as the sister group to the remaining Pneumonophora, here termed Neoholothuriida. We found four well-supported major clades in Neoholothuriida: Dendrochirotida, Molpadida and two new clades, Synallactida and Persiculida. The mapping of traditionally-used morphological characters in holothuroid systematics onto the phylogeny revealed marked homoplasy in most characters demonstrating that further taxonomic revision of Holothuroidea is required. Two time-tree analyses, one based on calibrations for uncontroversial crown group dates for Eleutherozoa, Echinozoa and Holothuroidea and another using these calibrations plus four more from within Holothuroidea, showed major discrepancies, suggesting that fossils of Holothuroidea may need reassessment in terms of placing these forms with existing crown

  20. Controlled Chaos of Polymorphic Mucins in a Metazoan Parasite (Schistosoma mansoni) Interacting with Its Invertebrate Host (Biomphalaria glabrata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger, Emmanuel; Grunau, Christoph; Pierce, Raymond J.; Hirai, Hirohisa; Gourbal, Benjamin; Galinier, Richard; Emans, Rémi; Cesari, Italo M.; Cosseau, Céline; Mitta, Guillaume

    2008-01-01

    Invertebrates were long thought to possess only a simple, effective and hence non-adaptive defence system against microbial and parasitic attacks. However, recent studies have shown that invertebrate immunity also relies on immune receptors that diversify (e.g. in echinoderms, insects and mollusks (Biomphalaria glabrata)). Apparently, individual or population-based polymorphism-generating mechanisms exists that permit the survival of invertebrate species exposed to parasites. Consequently, the generally accepted arms race hypothesis predicts that molecular diversity and polymorphism also exist in parasites of invertebrates. We investigated the diversity and polymorphism of parasite molecules (Schistosoma mansoni Polymorphic Mucins, SmPoMucs) that are key factors for the compatibility of schistosomes interacting with their host, the mollusc Biomphalaria glabrata. We have elucidated the complex cascade of mechanisms acting both at the genomic level and during expression that confer polymorphism to SmPoMuc. We show that SmPoMuc is coded by a multi-gene family whose members frequently recombine. We show that these genes are transcribed in an individual-specific manner, and that for each gene, multiple splice variants exist. Finally, we reveal the impact of this polymorphism on the SmPoMuc glycosylation status. Our data support the view that S. mansoni has evolved a complex hierarchical system that efficiently generates a high degree of polymorphism—a “controlled chaos”—based on a relatively low number of genes. This contrasts with protozoan parasites that generate antigenic variation from large sets of genes such as Trypanosoma cruzi, Trypanosoma brucei and Plasmodium falciparum. Our data support the view that the interaction between parasites and their invertebrate hosts are far more complex than previously thought. While most studies in this matter have focused on invertebrate host diversification, we clearly show that diversifying mechanisms also exist on

  1. Personalized medicine and treatment approaches in non-small-cell lung carcinoma

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    Vadakara J

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Joseph Vadakara, Hossein BorghaeiFox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA, USAAbstract: Chemotherapy has been the traditional backbone for the management of metastatic lung cancer. Multiple trials have shown the benefits of treatment with platinum doublets in lung cancer. This “one treatment fits all” approach was further refined by the introduction of targeted agents and discovery of subpopulations of patients who benefited from treatment with these agents. It has also become evident that certain histologic subtypes of non-small-cell lung cancer respond better to one cytotoxic chemotherapy versus others. This has led to the concept of using histology to guide therapy. With the introduction of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors and the discovery of activating mutations in the EGFR gene, further personalization of treatment for subgroups of patients has become a reality. More recently, the presence of a fusion gene, echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 – anaplastic lymphoma kinase (EML4-ALK, was identified as the driver mutation in yet another subgroup of patients, and subsequent studies have led to approval of crizotinib in this group of patients. In this article, efforts in personalizing delivery of care based on the histological subtypes of lung cancer and the role of K-RAS and EGFR mutations, EML4/ALK translocation, and ERCC1 (excision repair cross-complementing 1 and EGFR expression in choosing appropriate treatments for patients with advanced lung cancer are discussed. This article also reviews the problem of resistance to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors and the ongoing trials that target novel pathways and mechanisms that are implicated in resistance.Keywords: NSCLC, EGFR, cancer treatment

  2. Assessing the impact of diclofenac, ibuprofen and sildenafil citrate (Viagra®) on the fertilisation biology of broadcast spawning marine invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Zanuri, Norlaila Binti; Bentley, Matthew G; Caldwell, Gary S

    2017-06-01

    Exposure to synthetic chemicals is a key environmental challenge faced by aquatic organisms. The time and dose effects of the pharmaceuticals diclofenac, ibuprofen, and sildenafil citrate on sperm motility and successful fertilisation are studied using the echinoderms, Asterias rubens and Psammechinus miliaris, and the polychaete worm Arenicola marina, all important components of the marine benthos. Motility was reduced for all species when exposed to diclofenac concentrations ≥0.1 μg/L. Exposure to ≥1.0 μg/L of ibuprofen affected only P. miliaris gametes and fertilisation success of A. marina. A. rubens and P. miliaris sperm increased in both percentage motility and swimming velocity when exposed to sildenafil citrate at concentrations ≥18 and ≥ 50 ng/L, respectively. Pre-incubation of sperm with sildenafil citrate significantly increased fertilisation success in A. rubens and P. miliaris but not in A. marina. Pre-incubated A. rubens oocytes fertilised successfully in ibuprofen. According to EU Directive 93/67/EEC, diclofenac is classified as a very toxic substance to gametes of A. rubens, P. miliaris, and A. marina (EC 50  = 100-1000 μg/L) while ibuprofen is classified as very toxic to gametes of P. miliaris but non-toxic to gametes of A. marina (EC 50  > 10,000 μg/L). The present study indicates that diclofenac exposure may have negative impacts on invertebrate reproductive success, whereas ibuprofen potentially may compromise P. miliaris reproduction. This study provides a valuable insight into the mechanisms that allow marine invertebrates to survive and reproduce in contaminated and changing habitats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. On Mellitella stokesii and Amphipholis geminata (Echinodermata, from an intertidal flat in the upper Gulf of Nicoya estuary, Pacific, Costa Rica

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    José A Vargas

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Information on changes over time in the biodiversity and ecology of tropical systems is of increasing importance against the background of local, regional, and global dynamics. This study aimed to contribute with long-term data on the abundance fluctuations of two species of echinoderms from a tropical tidal flat. From February 1984 to December 1986, March 1985 to April 1987, and July 1994 to September 1996 (total: 76 dates, core samples (17.7cm², 15cm deep were collected at low tide at a mud-sand flat in the mid upper Gulf of Nicoya estuary, Costa Rica, as part of a survey of the benthic community. Among more than 100 taxa, the burrowing brittle star, Amphipholis geminata, and the sand dollar, Mellitella stokesii, consistently appeared in the samples over the study period. A total of 63 M. stokesii and 149 A. geminata were collected. The 43 sand dollars found during 1984-1985, give an approximate density of 35 ind./m² , which is within the range reported for this species. M. stokesii was almost absent from 1994 to 1996, while A. geminata had its peak of abundance at the end of 1995. Low abundances of the sand dollar during the rainy seasons (May-November and slight increments in dry seasons (December-April cores, also agrees with a report from the region. A. geminata also presented an irregular pattern of abundance, with slight increases at the end of the rainy seasons or during the dry seasons, when higher salinities are more suitable for echinoderms. The patchy spatial distribution of both species makes difficult the detection of patterns with a corer. Nevertheless, this information is unique due to its extensive time coverage and provides a baseline for future surveys designed specifically for the study of tropical intertidal estuarine echinoderms. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (1: 193-198. Epub 2011 March 01.La información sobre cambios en el tiempo, en la biodiversidad y ecología de los sistemas tropicales, es de importancia creciente en el

  4. Engaging High School Youth in Paleobiology Research

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    Saltzman, J.; Heim, N. A.; Payne, J.

    2013-12-01

    The chasm between classroom science and scientific research is bridged by the History of Life Internships at Stanford University. Nineteen interns recorded more than 25,500 linear body size measurements of fossil echinoderms and ostracods spanning more than 11,000 species. The interns were selected from a large pool of applicants, and well-established relationships with local teachers at schools serving underrepresented groups in STEM fields were leveraged to ensure a diverse mix of applicants. The lead investigator has been hosting interns in his research group for seven years, in the process measuring over 36,000 foraminfera species as well as representatives from many other fossil groups. We (faculty member, researcher, and educators) all find this very valuable to engage youth in novel research projects. We are able to create an environment where high school students can make genuine contributions to jmportant and unsolved scientific problems, not only through data collection but also through original data analysis. Science often involves long intervals of data collection, which can be tedious, and big questions often require big datasets. Body size evolution is ideally suited to this type of program, as the data collection process requires substantial person-power but not deep technical expertise or expensive equipment. Students are therefore able to engage in the full scientific process, posing previously unanswered questions regarding the evolution of animal size, compiling relevant data, and then analyzing the data in order to test their hypotheses. Some of the projects students developed were truly creative and fun to see come together. Communicating is a critical step in science yet is often lost in the science classroom. The interns submitted seven abstracts to this meeting for the youth session entitled Bright STaRS based on their research projects. To round out the experience, students also learn about the broad field of earth sciences through

  5. Asteroidea, Echinoidea y Holothuroidea en fondos someros de la Bahía de Loreto, Baja California Sur, México

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    Oscar Holguin Quiñones

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Para evaluar distribución, abundancia y densidades de erizos, estrellas y pepinos de mar en la Bahía de Loreto se empleó un transecto de 50 metros, por duplicado, con un margen de observación de 2.5 m a cada lado del mismo por estación y fecha de muestreo. Se observaron mayores abundancias y densidades en la clase Echinoidea: Echinometra vanbrunti (94.1+ 52.9 ind, 0.25 ind/m², Centrostephanus coronatus (38.15+9.15 ind, 0.06 ind/m², Tripneustes depressus (28.68 + 6.86 ind, 0.039 ind/ m², Eucidaris thouarsii (10.66+3.37 ind, 0.025 ind/m² y Diadema mexicanum (11.75+4.92 ind, 0.023 ind/ m²; y para la clase Asteroidea: Phataria unifascialis, Mithrodia bradleyi y Acanthaster planci. Por el número de especies domina Asteroidea con 12, le siguen Echinoidea con 10 y Holothuroidea con 4.To evaluate echinoderm distribution, abundance and density a double 50 m transect, with a side observation range of 2.5 m was used at each of 11 stations (bimonthly samplings, Aug. 1997-Febr. 1998. In Bahía de Loreto the Phylum Echinodermata consists of 26 taxa. The greatest mean abundance by transect and mean densities in order of importance for Echinoidea were: Echinometra vanbrunti (94.1+ 52.9 ind, 0.25 ind/m², Centrostephanus coronatus (38.15. + 9.15 ind, 0.06 ind/m², Tripneustes depressus (28.68 + 6.86 ind, 0.039 ind/ m², Eucidaris thouarsii (10.66 + 3.37 ind, 0.025 ind/m² and Diadema mexicanum (11.75 + 4.92 ind, 0.023 ind/ m²; for Asteroidea were: Phataria unifascialis, Mithrodia bradleyi and Acanthaster planci. Asteroidea was the dominant class with 12 species, followed by Echinoidea with ten and Holothuroidea was represented by four species.

  6. Novel covalent modification of human anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK and potentiation of crizotinib-mediated inhibition of ALK activity by BNP7787

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    Parker AR

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aulma R Parker,1 Pavankumar N Petluru,1 Vicki L Nienaber,2 Min Zhao,1 Philippe Y Ayala,1 John Badger,2 Barbara Chie-Leon,2 Vandana Sridhar,2 Cheyenne Logan,2 Harry Kochat,1 Frederick H Hausheer1 1BioNumerik Pharmaceuticals, Inc., San Antonio, TX, USA; 2Zenobia Therapeutics, Inc., La Jolla, CA, USA Abstract: BNP7787 (Tavocept, disodium 2,2’-dithio-bis-ethanesulfonate is a novel, investigational, water-soluble disulfide that is well-tolerated and nontoxic. In separate randomized multicenter Phase II and Phase III clinical trials in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC patients, treatment with BNP7787 in combination with standard chemotherapy resulted in substantial increases in the overall survival of patients with advanced adenocarcinoma of the lung in the first-line treatment setting. We hypothesized that BNP7787 might interact with and modify human anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK. At least seven different variants of ALK fusions with the gene encoding the echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 (EML4 are known to occur in NSCLC. EML4–ALK fusions are thought to account for approximately 3% of NSCLC cases. Herein, we report the covalent modification of the kinase domain of human ALK by a BNP7787-derived mesna moiety and the functional consequences of this modification in ALK assays evaluating kinase activity. The kinase domain of the ALK protein crystallizes as a monomer, and BNP7787-derived mesna-cysteine adducts were observed at Cys 1235 and Cys 1156. The BNP7787-derived mesna adduct at Cys 1156 is located in close proximity to the active site and results in substantial disorder of the P-loop and activation loop (A-loop. Comparison with the P-loop of apo-ALK suggests that the BNP7787-derived mesna adduct at Cys 1156 interferes with the positioning of Phe 1127 into a small pocket now occupied by mesna, resulting in a destabilization of the loop's binding orientation. Additionally, in vitro kinase activity assays indicate that BNP7787

  7. Two hundred years of palaeontological discovery: Review of research on the Early to Middle Devonian Bokkeveld Group (Cape Supergroup) of South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penn-Clarke, C. R.; Rubidge, B. S.; Jinnah, Z. A.

    2018-01-01

    taxa were undertaken as well as the first descriptions of fossil fish. Research in the twenty-first century has shown a general decline in palaeontological interest, but developments are currently underway in refining the taxonomy of fossil echinoderms and fish from the Bokkeveld Group as well as understanding the Group's palaeoenvironmental history, geochronology and understanding the decline of the Malvinokaffric Realm in South Africa and its causation.

  8. Non-small cell lung cancer with EML4-ALK translocation in Chinese male never-smokers is characterized with early-onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yongjun; Ma, Jie; Lyu, Xiaodong; Liu, Hai; Wei, Bing; Zhao, Jiuzhou; Fu, Shuang; Ding, Lu; Zhang, Jihong

    2014-11-18

    The translocations of the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene with the echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 (EML4) gene on chromosome 2p have been identified in non-small-cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) as oncogenic driver mutations. It has been suggested that EML4-ALK fusion is associated with the resistance in NSCLCs to epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR TKIs), such as gefitinib and erlotinib. In contrast, ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitor (ALK TKI) crizotinib has shown superior effects in combating NSCLCs with EML4-ALK. Thus, characterization of EML4-ALK fusion genes and clinical features of resulting carcinomas would be a great benefit to disease diagnosis and designing customized treatment plans. Studies have suggested that EML4-ALK translocation occurs more frequently in never-smokers with NSCLC, especially in female patients. However, it is not clear whether this is the case in male patients, too. In this study, we have determined the frequency of EML4-ALK translocation in male never-smokers with NSCLC in a cohort of Chinese patients. The clinical features associated with EML4-ALK translocation were also investigated. A cohort of 95 Chinese male never-smokers with NSCLC was enrolled in this study. EML4-ALK fusion genes were detected using one-step real time RT-PCR and DNA sequencing. We further determined the expression levels of ALK mRNA by RT-PCR and ALK protein by immunohistochemistry in these specimens. The clinical features of EML4-ALK-positive carcinomas were also determined. We have identified EML4-ALK fusion genes in 8 out of 95 carcinoma cases, accounting for 8.42% in Chinese male never-smokers with NSCLC. It is significantly higher than that in all Chinese male patients (3.44%) regardless smoking habit. It is also significantly higher than that in all Chinese smokers (8/356 or 2.25%) or in smokers worldwide (2.9%) by comparing to published data. Interestingly, EML4-ALK fusion genes are more frequently found in

  9. A novel gene's role in an ancient mechanism: secreted Frizzled-related protein 1 is a critical component in the anterior-posterior Wnt signaling network that governs the establishment of the anterior neuroectoderm in sea urchin embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadka, Anita; Martínez-Bartolomé, Marina; Burr, Stephanie D; Range, Ryan C

    2018-01-01

    The anterior neuroectoderm (ANE) in many deuterostome embryos (echinoderms, hemichordates, urochordates, cephalochordates, and vertebrates) is progressively restricted along the anterior-posterior axis to a domain around the anterior pole. In the sea urchin embryo, three integrated Wnt signaling branches (Wnt/β-catenin, Wnt/JNK, and Wnt/PKC) govern this progressive restriction process, which begins around the 32- to 60-cell stage and terminates by the early gastrula stage. We previously have established that several secreted Wnt modulators of the Dickkopf and secreted Frizzled-related protein families (Dkk1, Dkk3, and sFRP-1/5) are expressed within the ANE and play important roles in modulating the Wnt signaling network during this process. In this study, we use morpholino and dominant-negative interference approaches to characterize the function of a novel Frizzled-related protein, secreted Frizzled-related protein 1 (sFRP-1), during ANE restriction. sFRP-1 appears to be related to a secreted Wnt modulator, sFRP3/4, that is essential to block Wnt signaling and establish the ANE in vertebrates. Here, we show that the sea urchin sFRP3/4 orthologue is not expressed during ANE restriction in the sea urchin embryo. Instead, our results indicate that ubiquitously expressed maternal sFRP-1 and Fzl1/2/7 signaling act together as early as the 32- to 60-cell stage to antagonize the ANE restriction mechanism mediated by Wnt/β-catenin and Wnt/JNK signaling. Then, starting from the blastula stage, Fzl5/8 signaling activates zygotic sFRP-1 within the ANE territory, where it works with the secreted Wnt antagonist Dkk1 (also activated by Fzl5/8 signaling) to antagonize Wnt1/Wnt8-Fzl5/8-JNK signaling in a negative feedback mechanism that defines the outer ANE territory boundary. Together, these data indicate that maternal and zygotic sFRP-1 protects the ANE territory by antagonizing the Wnt1/Wnt8-Fzl5/8-JNK signaling pathway throughout ANE restriction, providing precise

  10. Innate Immune Complexity in the Purple Sea Urchin: Diversity of the Sp185/333 System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L. Courtney

    2012-01-01

    The California purple sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, is a long-lived echinoderm with a complex and sophisticated innate immune system. There are several large gene families that function in immunity in this species including the Sp185/333 gene family that has ∼50 (±10) members. The family shows intriguing sequence diversity and encodes a broad array of diverse yet similar proteins. The genes have two exons of which the second encodes the mature protein and has repeats and blocks of sequence called elements. Mosaics of element patterns plus single nucleotide polymorphisms-based variants of the elements result in significant sequence diversity among the genes yet maintains similar structure among the members of the family. Sequence of a bacterial artificial chromosome insert shows a cluster of six, tightly linked Sp185/333 genes that are flanked by GA microsatellites. The sequences between the GA microsatellites in which the Sp185/333 genes and flanking regions are located, are much more similar to each other than are the sequences outside the microsatellites suggesting processes such as gene conversion, recombination, or duplication. However, close linkage does not correspond with greater sequence similarity compared to randomly cloned and sequenced genes that are unlikely to be linked. There are three segmental duplications that are bounded by GAT microsatellites and include three almost identical genes plus flanking regions. RNA editing is detectible throughout the mRNAs based on comparisons to the genes, which, in combination with putative post-translational modifications to the proteins, results in broad arrays of Sp185/333 proteins that differ among individuals. The mature proteins have an N-terminal glycine-rich region, a central RGD motif, and a C-terminal histidine-rich region. The Sp185/333 proteins are localized to the cell surface and are found within vesicles in subsets of polygonal and small phagocytes. The coelomocyte proteome shows full

  11. Characterization of calcium phosphate powders originating from Phyllacanthus imperialis and Trochidae Infundibulum concavus marine shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tămăşan, M.; Ozyegin, L.S.; Oktar, F.N.; Simon, V.

    2013-01-01

    The study reports the preparation and characterization of powders consisting of the different phases of calcium phosphates that were obtained from the naturally derived raw materials of sea-shell origins reacted with H 3 PO 4 . Species of sea origin, such as corals and nacres, attracted a special interest in bone tissue engineering area. Nacre shells are built up of calcium carbonate in aragonite form crystallized in an organic matrix. In this work two natural marine origin materials (shells of echinoderm Sputnik sea urchin — Phyllacanthus imperialis and Trochidae Infundibulum concavus mollusk) were involved in the developing powders of calcium phosphate based biomaterials (as raw materials for bone-scaffolds) by hotplate and ultrasound methods. Thermal analyses of the as-prepared materials were made for an assessment of the thermal behavior and heat treatment temperatures. Samples from both sea shells each of them prepared by the above mentioned methods were subjected to thermal treatments at 450 °C and 850 °C in order to evaluate the crystalline transformations of the calcium phosphate structures in the heating process. By X-ray diffraction analyses various calcium phosphate phases were identified. In Sputnik sea urchins originated samples were found predominantly brushite and calcite as a small secondary phase, while in Trochidae I. concavus samples mainly monetite and HA phases were identified. Thermal treatment at 850 °C resulted flat-plate whitlockite crystals — β-MgTCP [(Ca, Mg) 3 (PO 4 ) 2 ] for both samples regardless the preparation method (ultrasound or hotplate) or the targeted Ca/P molar ratio according with XRD patterns. Scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy were involved more in the characterization of these materials and the good correlations of the results of these methods were made. - Highlights: ► Calcium phosphate powders are obtained from the crushed shells of 2 “marine” species and H 3 PO 4

  12. SM50 repeat-polypeptides self-assemble into discrete matrix subunits and promote appositional calcium carbonate crystal growth during sea urchin tooth biomineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yelin; Satchell, Paul G; Luan, Xianghong; Diekwisch, Thomas G H

    2016-01-01

    The two major proteins involved in vertebrate enamel formation and echinoderm sea urchin tooth biomineralization, amelogenin and SM50, are both characterized by elongated polyproline repeat domains in the center of the macromolecule. To determine the role of polyproline repeat polypeptides in basal deuterostome biomineralization, we have mapped the localization of SM50 as it relates to crystal growth, conducted self-assembly studies of SM50 repeat polypeptides, and examined their effect on calcium carbonate and apatite crystal growth. Electron micrographs of the growth zone of Strongylocentrotus purpuratus sea urchin teeth documented a series of successive events from intravesicular mineral nucleation to mineral deposition at the interface between tooth surface and odontoblast syncytium. Using immunohistochemistry, SM50 was detected within the cytoplasm of cells associated with the developing tooth mineral, at the mineral secreting front, and adjacent to initial mineral deposits, but not in muscles and ligaments. Polypeptides derived from the SM50 polyproline alternating hexa- and hepta-peptide repeat region (SM50P6P7) formed highly discrete, donut-shaped self-assembly patterns. In calcium carbonate crystal growth studies, SM50P6P7 repeat peptides triggered the growth of expansive networks of fused calcium carbonate crystals while in apatite growth studies, SM50P6P7 peptides facilitated the growth of needle-shaped and parallel arranged crystals resembling those found in developing vertebrate enamel. In comparison, SM50P6P7 surpassed the PXX24 polypeptide repeat region derived from the vertebrate enamel protein amelogenin in its ability to promote crystal nucleation and appositional crystal growth. Together, these studies establish the SM50P6P7 polyproline repeat region as a potent regulator in the protein-guided appositional crystal growth that occurs during continuous tooth mineralization and eruption. In addition, our studies highlight the role of species

  13. Characterization of calcium phosphate powders originating from Phyllacanthus imperialis and Trochidae Infundibulum concavus marine shells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tămăşan, M., E-mail: monica.tamasan@phys.ubbcluj.ro [Babeş-Bolyai University, Faculty of Physics and Interdisciplinary Research Institute on Bio-Nano-Sciences, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Ozyegin, L.S. [Marmara University, Istanbul (Turkey); Oktar, F.N. [Marmara University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Bioengineering, Göztepe Campus, Kadıköy 34722, Istanbul (Turkey); Marmara University, School of Health Related Professions, Department of Medical Imaging Technics, Haydarpaşa Campus, Tıbbiye Street, 49, Üsküdar 34668, Istanbul (Turkey); Marmara University, Nanotechnology and Biomaterials Application and Research Centre, Göztepe Campus, Kadıköy 34722, Istanbul (Turkey); Simon, V. [Babeş-Bolyai University, Faculty of Physics and Interdisciplinary Research Institute on Bio-Nano-Sciences, Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2013-07-01

    The study reports the preparation and characterization of powders consisting of the different phases of calcium phosphates that were obtained from the naturally derived raw materials of sea-shell origins reacted with H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}. Species of sea origin, such as corals and nacres, attracted a special interest in bone tissue engineering area. Nacre shells are built up of calcium carbonate in aragonite form crystallized in an organic matrix. In this work two natural marine origin materials (shells of echinoderm Sputnik sea urchin — Phyllacanthus imperialis and Trochidae Infundibulum concavus mollusk) were involved in the developing powders of calcium phosphate based biomaterials (as raw materials for bone-scaffolds) by hotplate and ultrasound methods. Thermal analyses of the as-prepared materials were made for an assessment of the thermal behavior and heat treatment temperatures. Samples from both sea shells each of them prepared by the above mentioned methods were subjected to thermal treatments at 450 °C and 850 °C in order to evaluate the crystalline transformations of the calcium phosphate structures in the heating process. By X-ray diffraction analyses various calcium phosphate phases were identified. In Sputnik sea urchins originated samples were found predominantly brushite and calcite as a small secondary phase, while in Trochidae I. concavus samples mainly monetite and HA phases were identified. Thermal treatment at 850 °C resulted flat-plate whitlockite crystals — β-MgTCP [(Ca, Mg){sub 3} (PO{sub 4}){sub 2}] for both samples regardless the preparation method (ultrasound or hotplate) or the targeted Ca/P molar ratio according with XRD patterns. Scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy were involved more in the characterization of these materials and the good correlations of the results of these methods were made. - Highlights: ► Calcium phosphate powders are obtained from the crushed shells of 2

  14. The Compass-like locus, exclusive to the Ambulacrarians, encodes a chromatin insulator binding protein in the sea urchin embryo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Cavalieri

    Full Text Available Chromatin insulators are eukaryotic genome elements that upon binding of specific proteins display barrier and/or enhancer-blocking activity. Although several insulators have been described throughout various metazoans, much less is known about proteins that mediate their functions. This article deals with the identification and functional characterization in Paracentrotus lividus of COMPASS-like (CMPl, a novel echinoderm insulator binding protein. Phylogenetic analysis shows that the CMPl factor, encoded by the alternative spliced Cmp/Cmpl transcript, is the founder of a novel ambulacrarian-specific family of Homeodomain proteins containing the Compass domain. Specific association of CMPl with the boxB cis-element of the sns5 chromatin insulator is demonstrated by using a yeast one-hybrid system, and further corroborated by ChIP-qPCR and trans-activation assays in developing sea urchin embryos. The sns5 insulator lies within the early histone gene cluster, basically between the H2A enhancer and H1 promoter. To assess the functional role of CMPl within this locus, we challenged the activity of CMPl by two distinct experimental strategies. First we expressed in the developing embryo a chimeric protein, containing the DNA-binding domain of CMPl, which efficiently compete with the endogenous CMPl for the binding to the boxB sequence. Second, to titrate the embryonic CMPl protein, we microinjected an affinity-purified CMPl antibody. In both the experimental assays we congruently observed the loss of the enhancer-blocking function of sns5, as indicated by the specific increase of the H1 expression level. Furthermore, microinjection of the CMPl antiserum in combination with a synthetic mRNA encoding a forced repressor of the H2A enhancer-bound MBF1 factor restores the normal H1 mRNA abundance. Altogether, these results strongly support the conclusion that the recruitment of CMPl on sns5 is required for buffering the H1 promoter from the H2A enhancer

  15. Spatio-temporal variation of the structural organization of demersal communities in the Southwestern Gulf of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Torruco

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Structural patterns of a sublittoral community were analyzed through a two-year series of samples in the Southwestern Gulf of Mexico. The groups involved in the study comprise fishes, molluscs, echinoderms and crustaceans. The time-space progressions of Second 0rder diversity values range between N2=5.3 and N2=9.8 at depths of 40 and 20 m respectively, through the first year of samples. In the second year the highest value (N2=22.2 was found at 30 m. The community ordination data through cluster and principal components analysis show five assemblages: benthic, benthic-demersal, demersal, mid water column, and temporary. There is a striking difference in trophic web structure between the dry season and rainy season. Fish community resource partitioning shows that the components are organized in three guilds: ichthyophagous, carcinophagous and omnivorous. However, a partial overlap of niches was commonly observed, and juvenile stages showed a narrower trophic spectrum than adults. Rev. Biol. Trop. 55 (2: 509-536. Epub 2007 June, 29.Se analizaron los patrones estructurales de la comunidad sublitoral a través de dos años de muestreo. Los grupos involucrados en el estudio fueron: peces, moluscos, equinodermos y crustáceos. Las progresiones espacio-temporales de la diversidad de segundo orden para el primer año se encuentran entre los intervalos de N2=5.3 y N2=9.8 en las profundidades de 40 y 20 m respectivamente. En el segundo periodo el valor más alto (N2=22.2 fue registrado a 30 m. La ordenación de la comunidad a través del análisis de agrupamientos y de Componentes Principales, muestran 5 ensamblajes: béntico, béntico-demersal, demersal, a media columna de agua y temporal. Hay una fuerte diferencia en la estructura de la red trófica entre las estaciones de secas y lluvias. La repartición de recursos en la comunidad de peces, muestran que sus componentes están organizados en tres gremios: Ictiófagos, Carcinófagos y Omnívoros. Sin

  16. The 10 sea urchin receptor for egg jelly proteins (SpREJ are members of the polycystic kidney disease-1 (PKD1 family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyata Shinji

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mutations in the human polycystic kidney disease-1 (hPKD1 gene result in ~85% of cases of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, the most frequent human monogenic disease. PKD1 proteins are large multidomain proteins involved in a variety of signal transduction mechanisms. Obtaining more information about members of the PKD1 family will help to clarify their functions. Humans have five hPKD1 proteins, whereas sea urchins have 10. The PKD1 proteins of the sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, are referred to as the Receptor for Egg Jelly, or SpREJ proteins. The SpREJ proteins form a subfamily within the PKD1 family. They frequently contain C-type lectin domains, PKD repeats, a REJ domain, a GPS domain, a PLAT/LH2 domain, 1–11 transmembrane segments and a C-terminal coiled-coil domain. Results The 10 full-length SpREJ cDNA sequences were determined. The secondary structures of their deduced proteins were predicted and compared to the five human hPKD1 proteins. The genomic structures of the 10 SpREJs show low similarity to each other. All 10 SpREJs are transcribed in either embryos or adult tissues. SpREJs show distinct patterns of expression during embryogenesis. Adult tissues show tissue-specific patterns of SpREJ expression. Conclusion Possession of a REJ domain of about 600 residues defines this family. Except for SpREJ1 and 3, that are thought to be associated with the sperm acrosome reaction, the functions of the other SpREJ proteins remain unknown. The sea urchin genome is one-fourth the size of the human genome, but sea urchins have 10 SpREJ proteins, whereas humans have five. Determination of the tissue specific function of each of these proteins will be of interest to those studying echinoderm development. Sea urchins are basal deuterostomes, the line of evolution leading to the vertebrates. The study of individual PKD1 proteins will increase our knowledge of the importance of this gene family.

  17. The distribution of macrofauna on the inner continental shelf of southeastern Brazil: The major influence of an estuarine system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalmon, I. R.; Macedo, I. M.; Rezende, C. E.; Falcão, A. P. C.; Almeida, T. C.

    2013-09-01

    The environmental heterogeneity of the Campos Basin on the northern coast of Rio de Janeiro State was assessed by the benthic macrofauna on the platform adjacent to the Paraíba do Sul River (PSR) on the dry and rainy seasons. The samples were collected in triplicate from 33 sites using a van Veen grab during March 2009 - a period of higher precipitation and flow rate - and July 2009 - a period of lower precipitation and flow rate. The grab depths ranged from 12 to 97 m and were grouped into three strata: 1: 50 m. The particle size, total carbonate and total organic carbon in each sample were analyzed. Subsamples for the macrofauna analysis were washed, sieved with a 500 μm mesh and identified. The sediment was predominantly composed of sand, with mud pockets near the mouth of the river. The macrofauna included annelids, crustaceans, mollusks, echinoderms, cnidarians, nemerteans, cephalochordates, sipunculids and bryozoans. The density and richness were directly related to the depth, with both descriptors being higher during the rainy season and at depths greater than 50 m. This result is probably due to the higher availability of food in the river during this period and is corroborated by the predominance of deposit feeders in the deepest stratum. The number of individuals of each species was higher in the shallowest stratum, probably due to the higher productivity of this stratum. The rate of organic particulate matter flow from the coastal regions to the deeper regions can also be influenced by the material export dynamics of the river, which are more intense during the rainy season. These dynamics explain why a significantly higher number of individuals were observed in the rainy period in comparison to the dry one. Multivariate analyses identified differences between the sampling sites in the deepest stratum during both periods and revealed a stronger similarity between the shallow and intermediate strata, especially during the rainy season, which has a

  18. Effects of natural and human-induced hypoxia on coastal benthos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, L. A.; Ekau, W.; Gooday, A. J.; Jorissen, F.; Middelburg, J. J.; Naqvi, S. W. A.; Neira, C.; Rabalais, N. N.; Zhang, J.

    2009-10-01

    Coastal hypoxia (defined here as branchial structures, predominate. Large taxa are more sensitive than small taxa to hypoxia. Crustaceans and echinoderms are typically more sensitive to hypoxia, with lower oxygen thresholds, than annelids, sipunculans, molluscs and cnidarians. Mobile fish and shellfish will migrate away from low-oxygen areas. Within a species, early life stages may be more subject to oxygen stress than older life stages. Hypoxia alters both the structure and function of benthic communities, but effects may differ with regional hypoxia history. Human-caused hypoxia is generally linked to eutrophication, and occurs adjacent to watersheds with large populations or agricultural activities. Many occurrences are seasonal, within estuaries, fjords or enclosed seas of the North Atlantic and the NW Pacific Oceans. Benthic faunal responses, elicited at oxygen levels below 2 ml L-1, typically involve avoidance or mortality of large species and elevated abundances of enrichment opportunists, sometimes prior to population crashes. Areas of low oxygen persist seasonally or continuously beneath upwelling regions, associated with the upper parts of oxygen minimum zones (SE Pacific, W Africa, N Indian Ocean). These have a distribution largely distinct from eutrophic areas and support a resident fauna that is adapted to survive and reproduce at oxygen concentrations <0.5 ml L-1. Under both natural and eutrophication-caused hypoxia there is loss of diversity, through attrition of intolerant species and elevated dominance, as well as reductions in body size. These shifts in species composition and diversity yield altered trophic structure, energy flow pathways, and corresponding ecosystem services such as production, organic matter cycling and organic C burial. Increasingly the influences of nature and humans interact to generate or exacerbate hypoxia. A warmer ocean is more stratified, holds less oxygen, and may experience greater advection of oxygen-poor source

  19. A review of contemporary patterns of endemism for shallow water reef fauna in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    DiBattista, Joseph

    2015-11-03

    Aim The Red Sea is characterised by a unique fauna and historical periods of desiccation, hypersalinity and intermittent isolation. The origin and contemporary composition of reef-associated taxa in this region can illuminate biogeographical principles about vicariance and the establishment (or local extirpation) of existing species. Here we aim to: (1) outline the distribution of shallow water fauna between the Red Sea and adjacent regions, (2) explore mechanisms for maintaining these distributions and (3) propose hypotheses to test these mechanisms. Location Red Sea, Gulf of Aden, Arabian Sea, Arabian Gulf and Indian Ocean. Methods Updated checklists for scleractinian corals, fishes and non-coral invertebrates were used to determine species richness in the Red Sea and the rest of the Arabian Peninsula and assess levels of endemism. Fine-scale diversity and abundance of reef fishes within the Red Sea were explored using ecological survey data. Results Within the Red Sea, we recorded 346 zooxanthellate and azooxanthellate scleractinian coral species of which 19 are endemic (5.5%). Currently 635 species of polychaetes, 211 echinoderms and 79 ascidians have been documented, with endemism rates of 12.6%, 8.1% and 16.5% respectively. A preliminary compilation of 231 species of crustaceans and 137 species of molluscs include 10.0% and 6.6% endemism respectively. We documented 1071 shallow fish species, with 12.9% endemic in the entire Red Sea and 14.1% endemic in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden. Based on ecological survey data of endemic fishes, there were no major changes in species richness or abundance across 1100 km of Saudi Arabian coastline. Main conclusions The Red Sea biota appears resilient to major environmental fluctuations and is characterized by high rates of endemism with variable degrees of incursion into the Gulf of Aden. The nearby Omani and Arabian Gulfs also have variable environments and high levels of endemism, but these are not consistently distinct

  20. Response to crizotinib in a non-small-cell lung cancer patient harboring an EML4-ALK fusion with an atypical LTBP1 insertion

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    Aguado C

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Cristina Aguado,1,* Maria-de-los-Llanos Gil,2,* Zaira Yeste,1 Ana Giménez-Capitán,1 Cristina Teixidó,1 Niki Karachaliou,2 Santiago Viteri,2 Rafael Rosell,1,2 Miguel A Molina-Vila1 1Laboratory of Oncology, Pangaea Oncology, 2Dr Rosell Oncology Institute, Quirón Dexeus University Hospital, Barcelona, Spain *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Fusion of the anaplastic lymphoma receptor tyrosine kinase gene (ALK with the echinoderm microtubule-associated protein 4 gene (EML4 is the second most common actionable alteration in non-small-cell lung cancer, with a frequency of 5%. Here, we present a case of an EML4-ALK-positive patient with an atypical in-frame insertion from the LTBP1 gene in the canonical junction of variant 1. The patient was a 39-year-old never-smoker female diagnosed with Stage IV lung adenocarcinoma. A core biopsy was negative for EGFR and KRAS mutations but positive for ALK immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization. When submitted to nCounter, the sample showed a 3'/5' imbalance indicative of an ALK rearrangement, but failed to give a positive signal for any of the variants tested. Finally, a band with a molecular weight higher than expected appeared after reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis. When Sanger sequencing was performed, the band revealed an atypical EML4-ALK fusion gene with an in-frame 129 bp insertion. A 115 bp segment of the insertion corresponded to an intronic region of LTBP1, a gene located in the short arm of chromosome 2, between ALK and EML4. The patient received crizotinib and showed a good therapeutic response that is still ongoing after 12 months. Our result suggests that short in-frame insertions of other genes in the EML4-ALK junction do not affect the sensitivity of the EML4-ALK fusion protein to crizotinib. Keywords: lung cancer, NSCLC, EML4-ALK, LTBP1, crizotinib, targeted therapy

  1. The evolution of Msx gene function: expression and regulation of a sea urchin Msx class homeobox gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobias, S L; Ma, L; Wu, H; Bell, J R; Maxson, R

    1997-01-01

    Msx- class homeobox genes, characterized by a distinct and highly conserved homeodomain, have been identified in a wide variety of metazoans from vertebrates to coelenterates. Although there is evidence that they participate in inductive tissue interactions that underlie vertebrate organogenesis, including those that pattern the neural crest, there is little information about their function in simple deuterostomes. Both to learn more about the ancient function of Msx genes, and to shed light on the evolution of developmental mechanisms within the lineage that gave rise to vertebrates, we have isolated and characterized Msx genes from ascidians and echinoderms. Here we describe the sequence and expression of a sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpouratus) Msx gene whose homeodomain is very similar to that of vertebrate Msx2. This gene, designated SpMsx, is first expressed in blastula stage embryos, apparently in a non-localized manner. Subsequently, during the early phases of gastrulation, SpMsx transcripts are expressed intensely in the invaginating archenteron and secondary mesenchyme, and at reduced levels in the ectoderm. In the latter part of gastrulation, SpMsx transcripts are concentrated in the oral ectoderm and gut, and continue to be expressed at those sites through the remainder of embryonic development. That vertebrate Msx genes are regulated by inductive tissue interactions and growth factors suggested to us that the restriction of SpMsx gene expression to the oral ectoderm and derivatives of the vegetal plate might similarly be regulated by the series of signaling events that pattern these embryonic territories. As a first test of this hypothesis, we examined the influence of exogastrulation and cell-dissociation on SpMsx gene expression. In experimentally-induced exogastrulae, SpMsx transcripts were distributed normally in the oral ectoderm, evaginated gut, and secondary mesenchyme. However, when embryos were dissociated into their component cells, Sp

  2. Marine biodiversity at the end of the world: Cape Horn and Diego Ramírez islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, Enric; Bell, Tom W.; Giddens, Jonatha; Henning, Brad; Hüne, Mathias; Muñoz, Alex; Salinas-de-León, Pelayo; Sala, Enric

    2018-01-01

    The vast and complex coast of the Magellan Region of extreme southern Chile possesses a diversity of habitats including fjords, deep channels, and extensive kelp forests, with a unique mix of temperate and sub-Antarctic species. The Cape Horn and Diego Ramírez archipelagos are the most southerly locations in the Americas, with the southernmost kelp forests, and some of the least explored places on earth. The giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera plays a key role in structuring the ecological communities of the entire region, with the large brown seaweed Lessonia spp. forming dense understories. Kelp densities were highest around Cape Horn, followed by Diego Ramírez, and lowest within the fjord region of Francisco Coloane Marine Park (mean canopy densities of 2.51 kg m-2, 2.29 kg m-2, and 2.14 kg m-2, respectively). There were clear differences in marine communities among these sub-regions, with the lowest diversity in the fjords. We observed 18 species of nearshore fishes, with average species richness nearly 50% higher at Diego Ramírez compared with Cape Horn and Francisco Coloane. The number of individual fishes was nearly 10 times higher at Diego Ramírez and 4 times higher at Cape Horn compared with the fjords. Dropcam surveys of mesophotic depths (53–105 m) identified 30 taxa from 25 families, 15 classes, and 7 phyla. While much of these deeper habitats consisted of soft sediment and cobble, in rocky habitats, echinoderms, mollusks, bryozoans, and sponges were common. The southern hagfish (Myxine australis) was the most frequently encountered of the deep-sea fishes (50% of deployments), and while the Fueguian sprat (Sprattus fuegensis) was the most abundant fish species, its distribution was patchy. The Cape Horn and Diego Ramírez archipelagos represent some of the last intact sub-Antarctic ecosystems remaining and a recently declared large protected area will help ensure the health of this unique region. PMID:29364902

  3. Juliana Lake: A Benghazi Wetland In Distress!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulsamad, Esam O.; Elbabour, Mansour M.

    2013-04-01

    Of all the remaining natural habitats of Benghazi's urban area (NE Libya), perhaps the most threatened are its karst lakes and coastal salt marshes (locally known as Sebkhas). Juliana Lake stands out as one example of a fragile ecosystem that is steadily shrinking and exposed to dredging and, consequently, possible damage to its aquatic organisms, and the inevitable loss of its renowned biodiversity. Several 19th & 20th-century traveler's sketches and maps, soil maps, photographs and satellite images provide the bases for change in the size and magnitude of the lake and its adjacent areas over time. The study also includes an assessment of the sediment composition and texture of material accumulating at the bottom of the lake. These sediments are composed essentiality of mixtures of Sebkha sediments such as salty clay, silt, and clayey sand. The sediments at the surface and around the Juliana Lake, however, are represented by quite soft whitish to yellowish and scattered patchy limestones of unknown affinity. Terra-rossa (reddish soil) and Quaternary caliche are present also but calcarenites (clastic limestone) cover considerable part of the studied area. The bio-micro components of these sediments are described and a number of small-sized benthic foraminifera have been identified. Macrofauna, which are primarily presented by recent benthic seashells belonging to phylum mollusca, have also been investigated and several species have been identified to the species level wherever possible. Other calcareous biotic components are predominantly shell fragments of molluscs, bryozoans, echinoderms and calcareous coralline red algae. It is concluded that the distribution, diversity and abundance of the total benthic organisms recovered in this survey reflect that the local habitat of the Juliana Lake were rich in nutrients and consequently providing an important food source for fishes, birds, and mammals. In fact, without these benthic organisms, these larger animals would

  4. Improving Science Literacy and Earth Science Awareness Through an Intensive Summer Research Experience in Paleobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heim, N. A.; Saltzman, J.; Payne, J.

    2014-12-01

    The chasm between classroom science and scientific research is bridged in the History of Life Internships at Stanford University. The primary foci of the internships are collection of new scientific data and original scientific research. While traditional high school science courses focus on learning content and laboratory skills, students are rarely engaged in real scientific research. Even in experiential learning environments, students investigate phenomena with known outcomes under idealized conditions. In the History of Life Internships, high school youth worked full time during the summers of 2013 and 2014 to collect body size data on fossil Echinoderms and Ostracods, measuring more than 20,000 species in total. These data are contributed to the larger research efforts in the Stanford Paleobiology Lab, but they also serve as a source of data for interns to conduct their own scientific research. Over the course of eight weeks, interns learn about previous research on body size evolution, collect data, develop their own hypotheses, test their hypotheses, and communicate their results to their peers and the larger scientific community: the 2014 interns have submitted eight abstracts to this meeting for the youth session entitled Bright STaRS where they will present their research findings. Based on a post-internship survey, students in the 2013 History of Life cohort had more positive attitudes towards science and had a better understanding of how to conduct scientific research compared to interns in the Earth Sciences General Internship Program, where interns typically do not complete their own research project from start to finish. In 2014, we implemented both pre- and post-internship surveys to determine if these positive attitudes were developed over the course of the internship. Conducting novel research inspires both the students and instructors. Scientific data collection often involves many hours of repetitive work, but answering big questions typically

  5. Differential responses of emergent intertidal coral reef fauna to a large-scale El-Niño southern oscillation event: sponge and coral resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelmo, Francisco; Bell, James J; Moraes, Simone Souza; Gomes, Rilza da Costa Tourinho; Mariano-Neto, Eduardo; Attrill, Martin J

    2014-01-01

    There is a paucity of information on the impacts of the 1997-8 El Niño event and subsequent climatic episodes on emergent intertidal coral reef assemblages. Given the environmental variability intertidal reefs experience, such reefs may potentially be more resilient to climatic events and provide important insights into the adaptation of reef fauna to future ocean warming. Here we report the results of a 17-year (1995-2011) biodiversity survey of four emergent coral reef ecosystems in Bahia, Brazil, to assess the impact of a major El Niño event on the reef fauna, and determine any subsequent recovery. The densities of two species of coral, Favia gravida and Siderastrea stellata, did not vary significantly across the survey period, indicating a high degree of tolerance to the El Niño associated stress. However, there were marked decreases in the diversity of other taxa. Molluscs, bryozoans and ascidians suffered severe declines in diversity and abundance and had not recovered to pre-El Niño levels by the end of the study. Echinoderms were reduced to a single species in 1999, Echinometra lucunter, although diversity levels had recovered by 2002. Sponge assemblages were not impacted by the 1997-8 event and their densities had increased by the study end. Multivariate analysis indicated that a stable invertebrate community had re-established on the reefs after the El Niño event, but it has a different overall composition to the pre-El Niño community. It is unclear if community recovery will continue given more time, but our study highlights that any increase in the frequency of large-scale climatic events to more than one a decade is likely to result in a persistent lower-diversity state. Our results also suggest some coral and sponge species are particularly resilient to the El Niño-associated stress and therefore represent suitable models to investigate temperature adaptation in reef organisms.

  6. Recovery of Seamount Precious Coral Beds From Heavy Trawling Disturbance with Links to Carbonate Chemistry Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roark, E. B.; Baco-Taylor, A.; Morgan, N. B.; Shamberger, K.; Miller, K.; Brooks, J.

    2016-12-01

    Increasing anthropogenic impacts in the deep sea make studies of resilience and recovery time critical, with deep-sea hard-substrate habitats and large-scale disturbances having received little attention. Seamount hard-substrate habitats in particular are thought to have low resilience due to the slow growth rates and recruitment limitations of key structure-forming taxa. Seamounts of the far Northwestern Hawaiian Islands and Emperor Chain have had some of the heaviest trawl impacts in the world, from both fish and precious coral fisheries, and include sites that are still trawled and recovering ones that have been protected since establishment of the EEZ in 1977. To test the hypothesis of low resilience we compare these impacted seamounts to untrawled sites. We used the AUV Sentry in 2014 and 2015 to image nine features (three per "treatment") and analyze for substrate and visible megafauna. Sites in the "still trawled" treatment were characterized by extensive areas of bare substrate with abundant trawl scars. Sites in the "recovering" and "never trawled" locations had abundant megafauna in hard substrate areas. Initial comparisons of transects at 700m depth for three sites indicate that Yuryaku in the "still trawled" treatment had lower diversity and abundance of megafauna compared to the "recovering" and "never trawled" locations with a dominance of sea urchins. The "recovering" and "never trawled" sites were dominated by cnidarians, fishes, and echinoderms, but differed in dominant species, diversity, abundances and occurrence of dead coral skeletons. These preliminary results suggest that the recovering sites have not returned to a pre-impact community type in the 38 years since they were trawled. The megafauna distribution, in particular that of deep-sea corals, was compared to environmental water column variables at the study sites across the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. Deep-sea corals with calcium carbonate skeletons were found living below the

  7. The planktonic communities of the Jamaican south-east coast; a comparison of harbor, shelf and oceanic areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh Small

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have compared water quality and plankton along the eutrophication gradient from Kingston Harbour to oceanic waters around Jamaica. To compare the planktonic community along the expected nutrient gradient, we sampled every two weeks at four stations, from eutrophic Kingston Harbour to oceanic California Bank. Phytoplankton was assessed from whole water Niskin bottle casts and zooplankton by vertical hauls with plankton nets of three different mesh sizes: 64µm, 200µm, and 600µm. Total phytoplankton biomass declined sharply away from the harbour (1.0 μg L-1 at the Harbour Shoal Beacon to 0.2 μg L-1 at California Bank. Characteristic estuarine phytoplankton genera -such as Ceratium, Gonyaulax, Gyrodinium and Rhizosolenia- dominated harbour samples while genera characteristic of offshore locations -such as Asterionelliopsis, Navicula, Nitzschia, Rhizosolenia and Thalassionema- dominated California Bank. Highest phytoplankton densities (mean values of 34 174 cells L-1 were found at the harbor mouth. Mean zooplankton abundances ranged from maximum (5 858.5m-3 at Beacon to minimum (2 124.2 m-3 at California; 171 species of zooplankton were identified and copepods dominated with 76 species. Overall, 75 species of zooplankton were identified from Beacon, 107 from Port Royal Cays- South East Cay, 110 from the exposed shelf edge- Windward Edge, and 95 from the oceanic California Bank. Larval forms dominated; copepod nauplii, fish eggs and echinoderm larvae occurred at all sites. Lucifer faxoni and Penilia avirostris were indicative of harbor waters and Microsetella sp. and Farranula carinata of offshore waters. Some zooplankton taxa, like L. faxoni, Paracalanus parvus and copepod nauplii, despite showing gradual decline with distance from Beacon to the Edge, increased in abundance at the furthest station, California. California Bank clearly experiences enrichment which at times can be as high as near-shore areas, but the planktonic

  8. Analysis of C. elegans NR2E nuclear receptors defines three conserved clades and ligand-independent functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weber Katherine P

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The nuclear receptors (NRs are an important class of transcription factors that are conserved across animal phyla. Canonical NRs consist of a DNA-binding domain (DBD and ligand-binding domain (LBD. While most animals have 20–40 NRs, nematodes of the genus Caenorhabditis have experienced a spectacular proliferation and divergence of NR genes. The LBDs of evolutionarily-conserved Caenorhabditis NRs have diverged sharply from their Drosophila and vertebrate orthologs, while the DBDs have been strongly conserved. The NR2E family of NRs play critical roles in development, especially in the nervous system. In this study, we explore the phylogenetics and function of the NR2E family of Caenorhabditis elegans, using an in vivo assay to test LBD function. Results Phylogenetic analysis reveals that the NR2E family of NRs consists of three broadly-conserved clades of orthologous NRs. In C. elegans, these clades are defined by nhr-67, fax-1 and nhr-239. The vertebrate orthologs of nhr-67 and fax-1 are Tlx and PNR, respectively. While the nhr-239 clade includes orthologs in insects (Hr83, an echinoderm, and a hemichordate, the gene appears to have been lost from vertebrate lineages. The C. elegans and C. briggsae nhr-239 genes have an apparently-truncated and highly-diverged LBD region. An additional C. elegans NR2E gene, nhr-111, appears to be a recently-evolved paralog of fax-1; it is present in C. elegans, but not C. briggsae or other animals with completely-sequenced genomes. Analysis of the relatively unstudied nhr-111 and nhr-239 genes demonstrates that they are both expressed—nhr-111 very broadly and nhr-239 in a small subset of neurons. Analysis of the FAX-1 LBD in an in vivo assay revealed that it is not required for at least some developmental functions. Conclusions Our analysis supports three conserved clades of NR2E receptors, only two of which are represented in vertebrates, indicating three ancestral NR2E genes in the

  9. [Nutrition and biological value of food parts of a trade bivalve mollusk Anadara broughtoni].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabakaeva, O V; Tabakaev, A V

    2015-01-01

    Currently, the human diet includes different new products of seafishing, including non-fish--bivalves and gastropods, holothurias, echinoderms, jellyfishes that demands careful studying of their chemical composition. The purpose of the study was to determine the nutritional and biological value of all soft parts of the burrowing bivalve MOLLUSK Anadara broughtoni from the Far East region. It was established thatfood parts of a bivalve were significantly flooded (water content--73.5-84.2%), with the minimum water content in the adductor and maximum in the mantle. Dry solids are presented by organic (89-93%) and mineral (7-11%) components. Organic components consist of protein (14.6-20.7%), lipids (1.8-2.3%), carbohydrates (2.1-2.6%). The analysis of amino-acid composition of proteins of food parts of the mollusk of Anadara broughtonishowed the presence of all essential amino acids with slight differences in their content depending on the localization of the protein. All edible parts have tryptophan as the limiting amino acid. Muscle proteins have maximum level of lysine, methionine, cysteine, phenylalanine and tyrosine; mantle proteins--leucine, isoleucine and threonine; adductor proteins--valine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, methionine and cysteine. Predominant nonessential amino acids forproteins of all food pieces are glycine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, arginine. The coefficient of amino-acid score differences of adductor protein (31.7%) is less than the same of cloak by 3.7%. The indicator "biological value" is maximal for adductor (68.3%), but the differenceformuscle is only 0.83%. Mantle proteins are characterized by minimum biological value (64.6%). The coefficient of utility of amino acid composition of protein is maximalfor muscle (57.83%), and values for a cloak and an adductor differ slightly (55.81 and 55.96%). Taurine content in food parts of a mollusk Anadara broughtoni is rather high compared to with other bivalve mollusks of the Far East region

  10. A novel gene’s role in an ancient mechanism: secreted Frizzled-related protein 1 is a critical component in the anterior–posterior Wnt signaling network that governs the establishment of the anterior neuroectoderm in sea urchin embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Khadka

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The anterior neuroectoderm (ANE in many deuterostome embryos (echinoderms, hemichordates, urochordates, cephalochordates, and vertebrates is progressively restricted along the anterior–posterior axis to a domain around the anterior pole. In the sea urchin embryo, three integrated Wnt signaling branches (Wnt/β-catenin, Wnt/JNK, and Wnt/PKC govern this progressive restriction process, which begins around the 32- to 60-cell stage and terminates by the early gastrula stage. We previously have established that several secreted Wnt modulators of the Dickkopf and secreted Frizzled-related protein families (Dkk1, Dkk3, and sFRP-1/5 are expressed within the ANE and play important roles in modulating the Wnt signaling network during this process. In this study, we use morpholino and dominant-negative interference approaches to characterize the function of a novel Frizzled-related protein, secreted Frizzled-related protein 1 (sFRP-1, during ANE restriction. sFRP-1 appears to be related to a secreted Wnt modulator, sFRP3/4, that is essential to block Wnt signaling and establish the ANE in vertebrates. Here, we show that the sea urchin sFRP3/4 orthologue is not expressed during ANE restriction in the sea urchin embryo. Instead, our results indicate that ubiquitously expressed maternal sFRP-1 and Fzl1/2/7 signaling act together as early as the 32- to 60-cell stage to antagonize the ANE restriction mechanism mediated by Wnt/β-catenin and Wnt/JNK signaling. Then, starting from the blastula stage, Fzl5/8 signaling activates zygotic sFRP-1 within the ANE territory, where it works with the secreted Wnt antagonist Dkk1 (also activated by Fzl5/8 signaling to antagonize Wnt1/Wnt8–Fzl5/8–JNK signaling in a negative feedback mechanism that defines the outer ANE territory boundary. Together, these data indicate that maternal and zygotic sFRP-1 protects the ANE territory by antagonizing the Wnt1/Wnt8–Fzl5/8–JNK signaling pathway throughout ANE

  11. Estradiol and endocrine disrupting compounds adversely affect development of sea urchin embryos at environmentally relevant concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roepke, Troy A.; Snyder, Mark J.; Cherr, Gary N.

    2005-01-01

    Environmental endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) are a wide variety of chemicals that typically exert effects, either directly or indirectly, through receptor-mediated processes, thus mimicking endogenous hormones and/or inhibiting normal hormone activities and metabolism. Little is known about the effects of EDCs on echinoderm physiology, reproduction and development. We exposed developing sea urchin embryos (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus and Lytechinus anamesus) to two known EDCs (4-octylphenol (OCT), bisphenol A (BisA)) and to natural and synthetic reproductive hormones (17β-estradiol (E 2 ), estrone (E 1 ), estriol (E 3 ), progesterone (P 4 ) and 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE 2 )). In addition, we studied two non-estrogenic EDCs, tributyltin (TBT) and o,p-DDD. Successful development to the pluteus larval stage (96 h post-fertilization) was used to define EDC concentration-response relationships. The order of compound potency based on EC 50 values for a reduction in normal development was as follows: TBT L.anamesus > OCT > TBT S. p urpuratus >> E 2 > EE 2 > DDD >> BisA > P 4 > E 1 >> E 3 . The effect of TBT was pronounced even at concentrations substantially lower than those commonly reported in heavily contaminated areas, but the response was significantly different in the two model species. Sea urchin embryos were generally more sensitive to estrogenic EDCs and TBT than most other invertebrate larvae. Stage-specific exposure experiments were conducted to determine the most sensitive developmental periods using blastula, gastrula and post-gastrula (pluteus) stages. The stage most sensitive to E 2 , OCT and TBT was the blastula stage with less overall sensitivity in the gastrula stage, regardless of concentration. Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) were added to the experiments individually and in combination with estrogenic EDCs to interfere with potential receptor-mediated actions. Tamoxifen, a partial ER agonist, alone inhibited development at

  12. Crown-of-thorns sea star, Acanthaster cf. solaris, have tissue-characteristic microbiomes with potential roles in health and reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høj, Lone; Levy, Natalie; Baillie, Brett K; Clode, Peta L; Strohmaier, Raphael C; Siboni, Nachshon; Webster, Nicole S; Uthicke, Sven; Bourne, David G

    2018-05-04

    Outbreaks of coral-eating crown-of-thorns sea stars (CoTS; Acanthaster spp. complex) cause substantial coral loss, hence there is considerable interest in developing prevention and control strategies. We characterised the microbiome of captive CoTS and assessed whether dysbiosis was evident in sea stars during a disease event. Most tissue types had a distinct microbiome. The exception was female gonads, which were highly variable amongst individuals. Male gonads were dominated (>97% of reads) by a single Mollicutes -related OTU. Detailed phylogenetic and microscopy analysis demonstrated the presence of a novel Spiroplasma -related bacterium in the spermatogenic layer. Body wall samples had high relative abundance (43-64% of reads) of spirochetes, likely corresponding to subcuticular symbionts reported from many echinoderms. Tube feet were characterised by Hyphomonadaceae (24-55% of reads). Pyloric caeca microbiomes had high alpha diversity, comprising many taxa commonly found in gastro-intestinal systems. The order Oceanospirillales (genera Endozoicomonas and Kistimonas ) was detected in all tissues. A microbiome shift occurred in diseased individuals, although differences between tissue types were retained. The relative abundance of spirochetes was significantly reduced in diseased individuals. Kistimonas was present in all diseased individuals and significantly associated with diseased tube feet, but its role in disease causation is unknown. While Arcobacter was significantly associated with diseased tissues and Vibrionaceae increased in diversity, no single OTUs were detected in all diseased individuals suggesting opportunistic proliferation of these taxa in this case. This study shows that CoTS have tissue-characteristic bacterial communities and identifies taxa that could play a role in reproduction and host health. IMPORTANCE Coral-eating crown of thorns sea stars (CoTS; Acanthaster spp. complex) are native to the Indo-Pacific, but during periodic population

  13. Sedimentology and High Resolution Sequence Stratigraphy of the Middle Jurassic Dhruma Formation Carbonates Outcrops in the Central Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousif, Ibrahim; Abdullatif, Osman; Makkawi, Mohammed; Abdulghani, Waleed

    2017-04-01

    This study investigates the microfacies and sequence stratigraphic frame work of the Middle Jurassic Dhruma Formation in outcrops in central Saudi Arabia. The study contributes to the efforts to understand and enhance local and regional stratigraphic relationship and correlation of the Jurassic carbonate sequences and their significance to reservoir description and prediction in the subsurcae. The study describes and characterizes the sedimentology, microfacies and the stratigraphy of Dhruma Formation from outcrop sections having a total thickness of 70 m. Detailed microfacies and high-resolution stratigraphical analysis were carried out to determine microfacies, cyclicity, sequences and staking pattern. The study revealed ten lithofacies namely: oolitic grainstone,bioclastic oolitic grainstone, oolitic grapestone, bioclastic grainstone,foraminiferal packstone, echinoderm packstone, peloidal packstone to grainstone,skeletal wackestone to packstone, mudstone, and marlstone.These lithofacies were grouped into five lithofacies associations that deposited on a carbonate ramp setting. The depositional environment ranging from low energy lagoonal setting to high-energy shoals and banks to low energy outer ramp setting. Five high-resolution composite sequences have been defined and each sequence is composed at the bottom of intercalated mudstone/wackestone that passing up into grainstone lithofacies.The composite sequences range in thickness from 7 to 15 m, while the parasequences range from 0.5 to 1.5 m. The composite sequences extend laterally for a distance of more than 350 m. The overall composite section shows a shallowing upward succession of the 4th to the 5th order high-resolution sequences.The dominant lithofacies are the grainy ones, which constitute 30%, 50% and 80% of the studied sections. Furthermore, the parasequences thickness and their bio-components are increasing towards the top. The muddy lithofacies intensively affected the vertical continuity of the

  14. Xenograft tumors derived from malignant pleural effusion of the patients with non-small-cell lung cancer as models to explore drug resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yunhua; Zhang, Feifei; Pan, Xiaoqing; Wang, Guan; Zhu, Lei; Zhang, Jie; Wen, Danyi; Lu, Shun

    2018-05-09

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations or anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) fusions show dramatic responses to specific tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs); however, after 10-12 months, secondary mutations arise that confer resistance. We generated a murine xenograft model using patient-derived NSCLC cells isolated from the pleural fluid of two patients with NSCLC to investigate the mechanisms of resistance against the ALK- and EGFR-targeted TKIs crizotinib and osimertinib, respectively. Genotypes of patient biopsies and xenograft tumors were determined by whole exome sequencing (WES), and patients and xenograft-bearing mice received targeted treatment (crizotinib or osimertinib) accordingly. Xenograft mice were also treated for prolonged periods to identify whether the development of drug resistance and/or treatment responses were associated with tumor size. Finally, the pathology of patients biopsies and xenograft tumors were compared histologically. The histological characteristics and chemotherapy responses of xenograft tumors were similar to the actual patients. WES showed that the genotypes of the xenograft and patient tumors were similar (an echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4-ALK (EML4-ALK) gene fusion (patient/xenograft: CTC15035 EML4-ALK ) and EGFR L858R and T790M mutations (patient/xenograft: CTC15063 EGFR L858R, T790M )). After continuous crizotinib or osimertinib treatment, WES data suggested that acquired ALK E1210K mutation conferred crizotinib resistance in the CTC15035 EML4-ALK xenograft, while decreased frequencies of EGFR L858R and T790M mutations plus the appearance of v-RAF murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B (BRAF) G7V mutations and phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit type 2 alpha (PIK3C2A) A86fs frame shift mutations led to osimertinib resistance in the CTC15063 EGFR L858R, T790M xenografts. We successfully developed a new method of generating

  15. A review of the Late Cambrian (Furongian) palaeogeography in the western Mediterranean region, NW Gondwana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvaro, J. Javier; Ferretti, Annalisa; González-Gómez, Cristina; Serpagli, Enrico; Tortello, M. Franco; Vecoli, Marco; Vizcaïno, Daniel

    2007-11-01

    , onchonotinids, and pagodiids), linguliformean brachiopods (acrotretids, obolids, scaphelasmatids, siphonotretids, and zhanatellids), echinoderms (mitrates, glyptocystitid cystoids, and stromatocystoids), and conodonts belonging to the lower Peltura Zone; and (iii) the subsequent input of new trilobites (asaphids, calymenids, catillicephalids, nileids and remopleurids), which marks the base of the Proteuloma geinitzi Zone, associated with pelmatozoan holdfasts ( Oryctoconus), and a distinct input of late Tremadocian conodonts ( Paltodus deltifer Zone). The biogeographic distribution of latest Middle and Late Cambrian trilobites supports brachiopod data indicating strong affinities between the western Mediterranean region, East Gondwana (North China/Korea, South China, Australia, and Antarctica) and Kazakhstania during the late Languedocian, which became significantly stronger during the Late Cambrian. This major shift may suggest modification in oceanic circulation patterns throughout Gondwana across the Middle-Late Cambrian transition.

  16. Combining soundscape analysis with in situ observations and oceanographic data for future ecosystem evaluation techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, S. E.; Freeman, L. A.

    2016-02-01

    Coral reef ecosystems face many anthropogenic threats. There are urgent requirements for improved monitoring and management. Conventional assessment methods using SCUBA are costly and prone to bias and under-sampling. Here, three approaches to understanding coral reef ecology are combined to aid the goal of enhanced passive monitoring in the future: statistical analysis of oceanographic habitats, remote cameras for nocturnal surveys of benthic fauna, and soundscape analysis in the context of oceanographic setting and ecological metrics collected in-situ. Hawaiian reefs from Kure Atoll to the island of Hawaii, an area spanning two oceanographic habitats, are assessed. Multivariate analysis of acoustic, remote camera, and in-situ observational data showed significant differences in more than 20 percent of ecological and acoustic variables when grouped by oceanic regime, suggesting that large-scale oceanography substantially influences local ecological states and associated soundscapes. Acoustic variables further delineated sites by island, suggesting local conditions influence the soundscape to a greater degree. While the number of invertebrates (with an emphasis on crustaceans and echinoderms) imaged using remote cameras correlated with a number of acoustic metrics, an increasingly higher correlation between invertebrate density and spectral level was observed as acoustic bands increased in frequency from 2 to 20 kHz. In turn, correlation was also observed between the number of predatory fish and sound levels above 2 kHz, suggesting a connection between the number of invertebrates, sound levels at higher frequencies, and the presence of their predators. Comparisons between sound recordings and diversity indices calculated from observational and remote camera data indicate that greater diversity in fishes and benthic invertebrates is associated with a larger change in sound levels between day and night. Interdisciplinary analyses provide a novel view to underwater

  17. Common cellular events occur during wound healing and organ regeneration in the sea cucumber Holothuria glaberrima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Arrarás José E

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background All animals possess some type of tissue repair mechanism. In some species, the capacity to repair tissues is limited to the healing of wounds. Other species, such as echinoderms, posses a striking repair capability that can include the replacement of entire organs. It has been reported that some mechanisms, namely extracellular matrix remodeling, appear to occur in most repair processes. However, it remains unclear to what extent the process of organ regeneration, particularly in animals where loss and regeneration of complex structures is a programmed natural event, is similar to wound healing. We have now used the sea cucumber Holothuria glaberrima to address this question. Results Animals were lesioned by making a 3–5 mm transverse incision between one of the longitudinal muscle pairs along the bodywall. Lesioned tissues included muscle, nerve, water canal and dermis. Animals were allowed to heal for up to four weeks (2, 6, 12, 20, and 28 days post-injury before sacrificed. Tissues were sectioned in a cryostat and changes in cellular and tissue elements during repair were evaluated using classical dyes, immmuohistochemistry and phalloidin labeling. In addition, the temporal and spatial distribution of cell proliferation in the animals was assayed using BrdU incorporation. We found that cellular events associated with wound healing in H. glaberrima correspond to those previously shown to occur during intestinal regeneration. These include: (1 an increase in the number of spherule-containing cells, (2 remodeling of the extracellular matrix, (3 formation of spindle-like structures that signal dedifferentiation of muscle cells in the area flanking the lesion site and (4 intense cellular division occurring mainly in the coelomic epithelium after the first week of regeneration. Conclusion Our data indicate that H. glaberrima employs analogous cellular mechanisms during wound healing and organ regeneration. Thus, it is possible

  18. Targeted therapies in development for non-small cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanyanan Reungwetwattana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The iterative discovery in various malignancies during the past decades that a number of aberrant tumorigenic processes and signal transduction pathways are mediated by "druggable" protein kinases has led to a revolutionary change in drug development. In non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC, the ErbB family of receptors (e.g., EGFR [epidermal growth factor receptor], HER2 [human epidermal growth factor receptor 2], RAS (rat sarcoma gene, BRAF (v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1, MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase c-MET (c-mesenchymal-epithelial transition, FGFR (fibroblast growth factor receptor, DDR2 (discoidin domain receptor 2, PIK3CA (phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate3-kinase, catalytic subunit alpha, PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog, AKT (protein kinase B, ALK (anaplastic lym phoma kinase, RET (rearranged during transfection, ROS1 (reactive oxygen species 1 and EPH (erythropoietin-producing hepatoma are key targets of various agents currently in clinical development. These oncogenic targets exert their selective growth advantage through various intercommunicating pathways, such as through RAS/RAF/MEK, phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin and SRC-signal transduction and transcription signaling. The recent clinical studies, EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors and crizotinib were considered as strongly effective targeted therapies in metastatic NSCLC. Currently, five molecular targeted agents were approved for treatment of advanced NSCLC: Gefitinib, erlotinib and afatinib for positive EGFR mutation, crizotinib for positive echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 (EML4-ALK translocation and bevacizumab. Moreover, oncogenic mutant proteins are subject to regulation by protein trafficking pathways, specifically through the heat shock protein 90 system. Drug combinations affecting various nodes in these signaling and intracellular processes are predicted and demonstrated to be synergistic and

  19. Identification of Driving ALK Fusion Genes and Genomic Landscape of Medullary Thyroid Cancer.

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    Jun Ho Ji

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The genetic landscape of medullary thyroid cancer (MTC is not yet fully understood, although some oncogenic mutations have been identified. To explore genetic profiles of MTCs, formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor tissues from MTC patients were assayed on the Ion AmpliSeq Cancer Panel v2. Eighty-four sporadic MTC samples and 36 paired normal thyroid tissues were successfully sequenced. We discovered 101 hotspot mutations in 18 genes in the 84 MTC tissue samples. The most common mutation was in the ret proto-oncogene, which occurred in 47 cases followed by mutations in genes encoding Harvey rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (N = 14, serine/threonine kinase 11 (N = 11, v-kit Hardy-Zuckerman 4 feline sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (N = 6, mutL homolog 1 (N = 4, Kiesten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (N = 3 and MET proto-oncogene (N = 3. We also evaluated anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK rearrangement by immunohistochemistry and break-apart fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH. Two of 98 screened cases were positive for ALK FISH. To identify the genomic breakpoint and 5' fusion partner of ALK, customized targeted cancer panel sequencing was performed using DNA from tumor samples of the two patients. Glutamine:fructose-6-phosphate transaminase 1 (GFPT1-ALK and echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 (EML4-ALK fusions were identified. Additional PCR analysis, followed by Sanger sequencing, confirmed the GFPT1-ALK fusion, indicating that the fusion is a result of intra-chromosomal translocation or deletion. Notably, a metastatic MTC case harboring the EML4-ALK fusion showed a dramatic response to an ALK inhibitor, crizotinib. In conclusion, we found several genetic mutations in MTC and are the first to identify ALK fusions in MTC. Our results suggest that the EML4-ALK fusion in MTC may be a potential driver mutation and a valid target of ALK inhibitors. Furthermore, the GFPT1-ALK fusion may be a potential candidate for molecular

  20. The chronic toxicity of molybdate to marine organisms. I. Generating reliable effects data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heijerick, D.G.; Regoli, L.; Stubblefield, W.

    2012-01-01

    A scientific research program was initiated by the International Molybdenum Association (IMOA) which addressed identified gaps in the environmental toxicity data for the molybdate ion (MoO 4 2− ). These gaps were previously identified during the preparation of EU-REACH-dossiers for different molybdenum compounds (European Union regulation on Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemical substances; EC, 2006). Evaluation of the open literature identified few reliable marine ecotoxicological data that could be used for deriving a Predicted No-Effect Concentration (PNEC) for the marine environment. Rather than calculating a PNEC marine using the assessment factor methodology on a combined freshwater/marine dataset, IMOA decided to generate sufficient reliable marine chronic data to permit derivation of a PNEC by means of the more scientifically robust species sensitivity distribution (SSD) approach (also called the statistical extrapolation approach). Nine test species were chronically exposed to molybdate (added as sodium molybdate dihydrate, Na 2 MoO 4 ·2H 2 O) according to published standard testing guidelines that are acceptable for a broad range of regulatory purposes. The selected test organisms were representative for typical marine trophic levels: micro-algae/diatom (Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Dunaliella tertiolecta), macro-alga (Ceramium tenuicorne), mysids (Americamysis bahia), copepod (Acartia tonsa), fish (Cyprinodon variegatus), echinoderms (Dendraster exentricus, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) and molluscs (Mytilus edulis, Crassostrea gigas). Available NOEC/EC 10 levels ranged between 4.4 mg Mo/L (blue mussel M. edulis) and 1174 mg Mo/L (oyster C. gigas). Using all available reliable marine chronic effects data that are currently available, a HC 5,50% (median hazardous concentration affecting 5% of the species) of 5.74 (mg Mo)/L was derived with the statistical extrapolation approach, a value that can be used for national and

  1. The chronic toxicity of molybdate to marine organisms. I. Generating reliable effects data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heijerick, D.G., E-mail: Dagobert.heijerick@arche-consulting.be [ARCHE - Assessing Risks of Chemicals, Stapelplein 70 Bus 104, Gent (Belgium); Regoli, L. [International Molybdenum Association, 4 Heathfield Terrace, London, W4 4JE (United Kingdom); Stubblefield, W. [Oregon State University, Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, 421 Weniger Hall, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States)

    2012-07-15

    A scientific research program was initiated by the International Molybdenum Association (IMOA) which addressed identified gaps in the environmental toxicity data for the molybdate ion (MoO{sub 4}{sup 2-}). These gaps were previously identified during the preparation of EU-REACH-dossiers for different molybdenum compounds (European Union regulation on Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemical substances; EC, 2006). Evaluation of the open literature identified few reliable marine ecotoxicological data that could be used for deriving a Predicted No-Effect Concentration (PNEC) for the marine environment. Rather than calculating a PNEC{sub marine} using the assessment factor methodology on a combined freshwater/marine dataset, IMOA decided to generate sufficient reliable marine chronic data to permit derivation of a PNEC by means of the more scientifically robust species sensitivity distribution (SSD) approach (also called the statistical extrapolation approach). Nine test species were chronically exposed to molybdate (added as sodium molybdate dihydrate, Na{sub 2}MoO{sub 4}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O) according to published standard testing guidelines that are acceptable for a broad range of regulatory purposes. The selected test organisms were representative for typical marine trophic levels: micro-algae/diatom (Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Dunaliella tertiolecta), macro-alga (Ceramium tenuicorne), mysids (Americamysis bahia), copepod (Acartia tonsa), fish (Cyprinodon variegatus), echinoderms (Dendraster exentricus, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) and molluscs (Mytilus edulis, Crassostrea gigas). Available NOEC/EC{sub 10} levels ranged between 4.4 mg Mo/L (blue mussel M. edulis) and 1174 mg Mo/L (oyster C. gigas). Using all available reliable marine chronic effects data that are currently available, a HC{sub 5,50%} (median hazardous concentration affecting 5% of the species) of 5.74 (mg Mo)/L was derived with the statistical extrapolation approach, a

  2. Diet Composition and Variability of Wild Octopus vulgaris and Alloteuthis media (Cephalopoda Paralarvae: a Metagenomic Approach

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    Lorena Olmos-Pérez

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The high mortality of cephalopod early stages is the main bottleneck to grow them from paralarvae to adults in culture conditions, probably because the inadequacy of the diet that results in malnutrition. Since visual analysis of digestive tract contents of paralarvae provides little evidence of diet composition, the use of molecular tools, particularly next generation sequencing (NGS platforms, offers an alternative to understand prey preferences and nutrient requirements of wild paralarvae. In this work, we aimed to determine the diet of paralarvae of the loliginid squid Alloteuthis media and to enhance the knowledge of the diet of recently hatched Octopus vulgaris paralarvae collected in different areas and seasons in an upwelling area (NW Spain. DNA from the dissected digestive glands of 32 A. media and 64 O. vulgaris paralarvae was amplified with universal primers for the mitochondrial gene COI, and specific primers targeting the mitochondrial gene 16S gene of arthropods and the mitochondrial gene 16S of Chordata. Following high-throughput DNA sequencing with the MiSeq run (Illumina, up to 4,124,464 reads were obtained and 234,090 reads of prey were successfully identified in 96.87 and 81.25% of octopus and squid paralarvae, respectively. Overall, we identified 122 Molecular Taxonomic Units (MOTUs belonging to several taxa of decapods, copepods, euphausiids, amphipods, echinoderms, molluscs, and hydroids. Redundancy analysis (RDA showed seasonal and spatial variability in the diet of O. vulgaris and spatial variability in A. media diet. General Additive Models (GAM of the most frequently detected prey families of O. vulgaris revealed seasonal variability of the presence of copepods (family Paracalanidae and ophiuroids (family Euryalidae, spatial variability in presence of crabs (family Pilumnidae and preference in small individual octopus paralarvae for cladocerans (family Sididae and ophiuroids. No statistically significant variation in

  3. Evolution of bilaterian central nervous systems: a single origin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The question of whether the ancestral bilaterian had a central nervous system (CNS) or a diffuse ectodermal nervous system has been hotly debated. Considerable evidence supports the theory that a CNS evolved just once. However, an alternative view proposes that the chordate CNS evolved from the ectodermal nerve net of a hemichordate-like ancestral deuterostome, implying independent evolution of the CNS in chordates and protostomes. To specify morphological divisions along the anterior/posterior axis, this ancestor used gene networks homologous to those patterning three organizing centers in the vertebrate brain: the anterior neural ridge, the zona limitans intrathalamica and the isthmic organizer, and subsequent evolution of the vertebrate brain involved elaboration of these ancestral signaling centers; however, all or part of these signaling centers were lost from the CNS of invertebrate chordates. The present review analyzes the evidence for and against these theories. The bulk of the evidence indicates that a CNS evolved just once – in the ancestral bilaterian. Importantly, in both protostomes and deuterostomes, the CNS represents a portion of a generally neurogenic ectoderm that is internalized and receives and integrates inputs from sensory cells in the remainder of the ectoderm. The expression patterns of genes involved in medio/lateral (dorso/ventral) patterning of the CNS are similar in protostomes and chordates; however, these genes are not similarly expressed in the ectoderm outside the CNS. Thus, their expression is a better criterion for CNS homologs than the expression of anterior/posterior patterning genes, many of which (for example, Hox genes) are similarly expressed both in the CNS and in the remainder of the ectoderm in many bilaterians. The evidence leaves hemichordates in an ambiguous position – either CNS centralization was lost to some extent at the base of the hemichordates, or even earlier, at the base of the hemichordates + echinoderms

  4. Comparison of IHC, FISH and RT-PCR methods for detection of ALK rearrangements in 312 non-small cell lung cancer patients in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yi-Cheng; Chang, Il-Chi; Wang, Chi-Liang; Chen, Tai-Di; Chen, Ya-Ting; Liu, Hui-Ping; Chu, Yen; Chiu, Yu-Ting; Wu, Tzu-Hua; Chou, Li-Hui; Chen, Yi-Rong; Huang, Shiu-Feng

    2013-01-01

    Recently Echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4- anaplastic lymphoma kinase (EML4-ALK) fusion gene has become an important biomarker for ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitor (crizotinib) treatment in NSCLC. However, the best detection method and the significance of EML4-ALK variant types remain uncertain. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), fluorescence in Situ hybridization (FISH) and Immunohistochemical (IHC) stain were performed on tumor tissues of 312 NSCLC patients for detection of ALK rearrangements. Mutation analyses for EGFR and KRAS genes were also performed. Thirteen of the 312 patients (4.17%) had ALK rearrangements detected by RT-PCR. If RT-PCR data was used as the gold standard, FISH tests had a low sensitivity (58.33%), but very good specificity (99.32%). IHC stain had better sensitivity (91.67%) than FISH, but lower specificity (79.52%), when the cut off was IHC2+. All of the 8 patients with high abundance of EML4-ALK positive cells in tumor tissues (assessed by the signal intensities of the RT-PCR product), were also have high expression of ALK protein (IHC3+), and positive for FISH, except one failed in FISH. Variants 3a+3b (4/5, 80%) of EML4-ALK fusion gene were more common to have high abundance of EML4-ALK positive cells in tumor tissues than variant 1 (1/3, 33.3%). Meta-analysis of the published data of 2273 NSCLC patients revealed that variant 3 (23/44, 52.3%) was the most common type in Chinese population, while variant 1 (28/37, 75.7%) was most common in Caucasian. Among the three detection methods, RT-PCR could detect not only the presence of EML4-ALK fusion gene and their variant types, but also the abundance of EML4-ALK positive cells in NSCLC tumor tissues. The latter two factors might affect the treatment response to anti-ALK inhibitor. Including RT-PCR as a diagnostic test for ALK inhibitor treatment in the prospective clinical trials is recommended.

  5. Comparison of IHC, FISH and RT-PCR methods for detection of ALK rearrangements in 312 non-small cell lung cancer patients in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Cheng Wu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recently Echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4- anaplastic lymphoma kinase (EML4-ALK fusion gene has become an important biomarker for ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitor (crizotinib treatment in NSCLC. However, the best detection method and the significance of EML4-ALK variant types remain uncertain. METHODS: Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, fluorescence in Situ hybridization (FISH and Immunohistochemical (IHC stain were performed on tumor tissues of 312 NSCLC patients for detection of ALK rearrangements. Mutation analyses for EGFR and KRAS genes were also performed. RESULTS: Thirteen of the 312 patients (4.17% had ALK rearrangements detected by RT-PCR. If RT-PCR data was used as the gold standard, FISH tests had a low sensitivity (58.33%, but very good specificity (99.32%. IHC stain had better sensitivity (91.67% than FISH, but lower specificity (79.52%, when the cut off was IHC2+. All of the 8 patients with high abundance of EML4-ALK positive cells in tumor tissues (assessed by the signal intensities of the RT-PCR product, were also have high expression of ALK protein (IHC3+, and positive for FISH, except one failed in FISH. Variants 3a+3b (4/5, 80% of EML4-ALK fusion gene were more common to have high abundance of EML4-ALK positive cells in tumor tissues than variant 1 (1/3, 33.3%. Meta-analysis of the published data of 2273 NSCLC patients revealed that variant 3 (23/44, 52.3% was the most common type in Chinese population, while variant 1 (28/37, 75.7% was most common in Caucasian. CONCLUSIONS: Among the three detection methods, RT-PCR could detect not only the presence of EML4-ALK fusion gene and their variant types, but also the abundance of EML4-ALK positive cells in NSCLC tumor tissues. The latter two factors might affect the treatment response to anti-ALK inhibitor. Including RT-PCR as a diagnostic test for ALK inhibitor treatment in the prospective clinical trials is recommended.

  6. Body wall structure in the starfish Asterias rubens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blowes, Liisa M; Egertová, Michaela; Liu, Yankai; Davis, Graham R; Terrill, Nick J; Gupta, Himadri S; Elphick, Maurice R

    2017-09-01

    aboral and ambulacral samples. The overlap/D-period length ratio within fibrils was higher than reported for mammalian tissues. Collectively, the data reported here provide new insights into the anatomy of the body wall in A. rubens and a foundation for further studies investigating the structural basis of the mechanical properties of echinoderm body wall tissue composites. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Anatomy published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Anatomical Society.

  7. TRANSITION FROM CARBONATE PLATFORM TO PELAGIC DEPOSITION (MID JURASSIC- LATE CRETACEOUS, VOURINOS MASSIF, NORTHERN GREECE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICOLAOS CARRAS

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available A Jurassic- Cretaceous carbonate succession crops out along the Zyghosti Rema, Kozani (Northern Greece. The substratum consists of the ophiolitic succession of the Vourinos Massif (Pelagonian Domain: serpentinites tectonically overlain by basalts, with thin lenses of radiolarian cherts of middle Bathonian age. The contact with the overlying Jurassic limestones is tectonic. Eight informal units have been distinguished within the Mesozoic limestones, from the base upwards. (A bioclastic, intraclastic and oolitic packstone (Callovian- Oxfordian. (B bioclastic packstone and coral boundstone (Oxfordian . (C bioclastic and oncoidal wackestone with Clypeina jurassica (Oxfordian- Upper Kimmeridgian. (D (Upper Kimmeridgian- Portlandian: oncoidal packstone and rudstone (facies D1; intraclastic and bioclastic grainstone and packstone (facies D2; neptunian dykes with intraclastic and bioclastic wackestone and packstone filling (facies D3; neptunian dykes with Fe-Mn rich laterite filling and with pink silty filling of early Late Cretaceous age. An unconformity surface, due to emersion and erosion of the platform during the latest Jurassic- Early Cretaceous, is overlain by (E intraclastic, bioclastic packstone and grainstone (Cenomanian. (F massive body of debrites with coral, echinoderm, algae and rudist large clasts (facies F1 (Cenomanian; turbiditic beds of bioclastic, intraclastic and lithoclastic rudstone and grainstone (facies F2. (G thin bedded bioclastic mudstone and wackestone with planktonic foraminifers and radiolarians, alternating with turbiditic beds of bioclastic, intraclastic packstone and rudstone and with conglomeratic levels and slumped beds of the previous turbidites (upper Santonian- lower Campanian. (H: bioclastic packstone with planktonic foraminifers (facies H1 (lower Campanian - ?Maastrichtian; amalgamated turbiditic beds of bioclastic wackestone and packstone with planktonic foraminifers (facies H2; turbiditic beds of bioclastic

  8. Utility of molecular tests in cytopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur David Somoza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the popularity of interventional radiology, diagnostic material obtained can be limited requiring critical decisions on making the best use of it. Molecular testing using nanogram amounts of tissue can add useful diagnostic information by improving sensitivity and/or specificity of the diagnosis. This review examines the use of molecular tests in cervical cytology, "indeterminate" thyroid cytology specimens, pancreatic cyst fluid, urinary tract and pulmonary adenocarcinoma cytologic material. Molecular human papillomavirus (HPV testing combined with cervical cytology increases sensitivity of detection of high grade lesions. In cytologically negative cases, the HPV negative predictive value endorses longer screening intervals. With the high prevalence of benign thyroid nodules, cytology plays a vital role in screening. However, 10-40% of the specimens obtained are cytologically indeterminate. Molecular analysis of these specimens can predict the malignant risk in these cases. Increased detection of pancreatic cysts has necessitated accurate pre-operative diagnosis delineating non-mucinous from mucinous cysts, which have a potential for progression to adenocarcinoma. Multimodal diagnosis of pancreatic cysts and molecular analysis help to clarify neoplastic risk; and in cases of limited fluid, may be the only available diagnostic information. Urothelial carcinoma (UC of the bladder, a common cancer with frequent recurrences, requires lifelong surveillance. The UroVysion ™ test kit can increase the sensitivity of detection of UC especially in cases of residual/recurrent carcinoma after therapy. Subsets of lung adenocarcinomas are now commonly targeted by therapies based on molecular mutation results of epidermal growth factor receptor, KRAS or echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4-anaplastic lymphoma kinase re-arrangements. The move toward standardization of reporting of cytology specimens commencing with cervical smears and more

  9. Fine-grained sediment spatial distribution on the basis of a geostatistical analysis: Example of the eastern Bay of the Seine (France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méar, Y.; Poizot, E.; Murat, A.; Lesueur, P.; Thomas, M.

    2006-12-01

    The eastern Bay of the Seine (English Channel) was the subject in 1991 of a sampling survey of superficial sediments. Geostatistic tools were used to examine the complexity of the spatial distribution of the fine-grained fraction (discussed. Within this sedimentary unit, the distribution of the fine fraction is very heterogeneous, with mud patches of less than 4000 m diameter; the boundary between these mud patches and their substratum is very sharp. The distribution of this fine fraction appears to be controlled by an anticyclonic eddy located off the Pays de Caux. Under the influence of this, the suspended material expelled from the Seine estuary moves along the coast and swings off Antifer harbour, towards the NW. It is trapped within this eddy because of the settling of suspended particulate matter. Both at a general scale and a local scale the morphology (whether inherited or due to modern processes) has a strong influence on the spatial distribution of the fine fraction. At the general scale, the basin-like shape of the area facilitates the silting, and the presence of the submarine dunes, called "Ridins d'Antifer", clearly determines the northern limit of the muddy zone. At a local scale, the same influence is obvious: paleovalleys trap the fine sediments, whereas isolated sand dunes and ripples limit the silting. This duality of role of the morphology is therefore one of the reasons why the muddy surface is extremely heterogeneous spatially. The presence of an important population of suspension feeding echinoderm, the brittle-star Ophiothrix fragilis Abildgaard, has led to a local increase in the silting, and to the modification of the physicochemical and sedimentological parameters. A complex relationship is shown to occur between the amount of fine fraction and the number of brittle-stars (ind. m -2). Classical statistical methods are not appropriate to study the spatial distribution of the mud fraction, because the spatial component of the percentage of

  10. The Isotopologue Record of Repeat Vital Effect Offenders: Tracking (Dis)equilibrium Effects in Sea Urchins and Nannofossil Using Clumped Isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, C. M.; Davies, A.; Drury, A. J.

    2016-12-01

    Vital effects vary between species and affect various isotopic systems in unequal proportion. The magnitude of the response of different isotopic systems might thus be key in understanding biologically-mediated disequilibrium, especially in groups that show a tendency to be "repeat offenders" with regards to vital effects. Here we present carbon, oxygen, and clumped isotope data from echinoderm calcite and nannofossil ooze, both of which exhibit strong vital effects in bulk isotopes. Our study is the first to investigate the clumped isotope (dis)equilibrium of echinoids. Results from two echinoids, three marine gastropods and a bivalve mollusk from modern beach deposits of Bali, Indonesia, highlight a significant offset in clumped isotopes of a regular echinoid test from expected values, interpreted as evidence of a similar "vital effect" as observed in surface corals. This is in contrast to the test of an irregular "sand dollar" echinoid, with clumped isotope values within error of expected sea surface temperature. Furthermore, data on the inter-skeletal variability in the clumped isotopic composition of two regular echinoid species shows that the spines of the echinoids are in equilibrium with seawater with respect to clumped isotopes, but the test is not. For the nannofossil material, no clumped isotope vital effects are observed, consistent with previously published studies but at odds with strong vital effects in carbon and oxygen isotopes, often correlated with cell-size. In addition, we reveal that the <63 micron fraction of deep-sea ooze could constitute useful material for clumped isotope studies. An intriguing result of our study is that vital effects are mostly absent in clumped isotopes, even in phylums known for important isotopic effects. It remains to be explained why some parts of the echinoids show clear vital effects, notably enrichment in clumped isotopes of urchin tests. Mechanisms that could explain this include pH effects during calcification

  11. Canada's National Building Stone: Tyndall Stone from Manitoba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Brian R.; Young, Graham A.; Dobrzanski, Edward P.

    2016-04-01

    burrows belonging to Thalassinoides, which were interconnected galleries likely made by arthropods after the sediment became somewhat consolidated. Slabs bearing fossils are typically avoided in construction for esthetic reasons and because some impart weaknesses. Such slabs have, however, become increasingly popular for decorative surfaces not exposed to the elements, since the macrofossil content is so striking. Most common are receptaculitids, followed by solitary rugose corals, stromatoporoid sponges, colonial rugose and tabulate corals, brachiopods, bryozoans, gastropods, cephalopods, and trilobites; echinoderm ossicles are common in the muddy matrix. Fossil relative abundances vary stratigraphically, suggesting that subtle environmental changes took place over time.

  12. Body Size Preference of Marine Animals in Relation to Extinction Selectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriram, A.; Idgunji, S.; Heim, N. A.; Payne, J.

    2014-12-01

    Our project encompasses an extremely specific aspect in relation to the five mass extinctions in geologic history. We asked ourselves whether larger or smaller body sizes would be better suited for surviving a mass extinction. To conduct research for our project, we used the body sizes of 17,172 marine animal genera as our primary data. These animals include echinoderms, arthropods, chordates, mollusks, and brachiopods. These creatures are perfect model organisms in terms of finding data on them because they have an excellent fossil record, and are well documented. We focused on the mean body size of these animals before and after each of the five mass extinctions (end-Ordovician, Late Devonian, end-Permian, end-Triassic, and end-Cretaceous). Our hypothesis was that the average biovolume of animals increased after each of the extinctions, with the mean size being greater after than it was before. Our size data is from the Ellis & Messina Catalogue of Ostracoda and the Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology. We obtained stratigraphic range data The Treatise and Sepkoski (2002). In our analyses, we compared the mean size of the different animal genera before and after each extinction event. We further partitioned size change across mass extinction boundaries into three categories: the surviving genera, the extinct genera, and the newly originating genera that came about after the extinction. According to our analyses, the mean sizes did not change significantly from the genera living during the stages before the extinctions and after the extinctions. From our results, we can assume that there were not enough major increases in the overall volume of the organisms to warrant a definite conclusion that extinctions lead to larger body sizes. Further support for our findings came from the T-tests in our R code. Only the Cretaceous period showed true evidence for size changing because of the extinction; in this case, the mean size decreased. T-tests for the Cretaceous

  13. Is there a distinct continental slope fauna in the Antarctic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Stefanie; Griffiths, Huw J.; Barnes, David K. A.; Brandão, Simone N.; Brandt, Angelika; O'Brien, Philip E.

    2011-02-01

    The Antarctic continental slope spans the depths from the shelf break (usually between 500 and 1000 m) to ˜3000 m, is very steep, overlain by 'warm' (2-2.5 °C) Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW), and life there is poorly studied. This study investigates whether life on Antarctica's continental slope is essentially an extension of the shelf or the abyssal fauna, a transition zone between these or clearly distinct in its own right. Using data from several cruises to the Weddell Sea and Scotia Sea, including the ANDEEP (ANtarctic benthic DEEP-sea biodiversity, colonisation history and recent community patterns) I-III, BIOPEARL (BIOdiversity, Phylogeny, Evolution and Adaptive Radiation of Life in Antarctica) 1 and EASIZ (Ecology of the Antarctic Sea Ice Zone) II cruises as well as current databases (SOMBASE, SCAR-MarBIN), four different taxa were selected (i.e. cheilostome bryozoans, isopod and ostracod crustaceans and echinoid echinoderms) and two areas, the Weddell Sea and the Scotia Sea, to examine faunal composition, richness and affinities. The answer has important ramifications to the link between physical oceanography and ecology, and the potential of the slope to act as a refuge and resupply zone to the shelf during glaciations. Benthic samples were collected using Agassiz trawl, epibenthic sledge and Rauschert sled. By bathymetric definition, these data suggest that despite eurybathy in some of the groups examined and apparent similarity of physical conditions in the Antarctic, the shelf, slope and abyssal faunas were clearly separated in the Weddell Sea. However, no such separation of faunas was apparent in the Scotia Sea (except in echinoids). Using a geomorphological definition of the slope, shelf-slope-abyss similarity only changed significantly in the bryozoans. Our results did not support the presence of a homogenous and unique Antarctic slope fauna despite a high number of species being restricted to the slope. However, it remains the case that there may be

  14. "Recent" macrofossil remains from the Lomonosov Ridge, central Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Duc, Cynthia; de Vernal, Anne; Archambault, Philippe; Brice, Camille; Roberge, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    The examination of surface sediment samples collected from 17 sites along the Lomonosov Ridge at water depths ranging from 737 to 3339 meters during Polarstern Expedition PS87 in 2014 (Stein, 2015), indicates a rich biogenic content almost exclusively dominated by calcareous remains. Amongst biogenic remains, microfossils (planktic and benthic foraminifers, pteropods, ostracods, etc.) dominate but millimetric to centrimetric macrofossils occurred frequently at the surface of the sediment. The macrofossil remains consist of a large variety of taxa, including gastropods, bivalvia, polychaete tubes, scaphopods, echinoderm plates and spines, and fish otoliths. Among the Bivalvia, the most abundant taxa are Portlandia arctica, Hyalopecten frigidus, Cuspidaria glacilis, Policordia densicostata, Bathyarca spp., and Yoldiella spp. Whereas a few specimens are well preserved and apparently pristine, most mollusk shells displayed extensive alteration features. Moreover, most shells were covered by millimeter scale tubes of the serpulid polychaete Spirorbis sp. suggesting transport from low intertidal or subtidal zone. Both the ecological affinity and known geographic distribution of identified bivalvia as named above support the hypothesis of transportation rather than local development. In addition to mollusk shells, more than a hundred fish otoliths were recovered in surface sediments. The otoliths mostly belong to the Gadidae family. Most of them are well preserved and without serpulid tubes attached to their surface, suggesting a local/regional origin, unlike the shell remains. Although recovered at the surface, the macrofaunal assemblages of the Lomonosov Ridge do not necessarily represent the "modern" environments as they may result from reworking and because their occurrence at the surface of the sediment may also be due to winnowing of finer particles. Although the shells were not dated, we suspect that their actual ages may range from modern to several thousands of

  15. Fat characteristics and fatty acid profile of sea cucumbers (Holothuria Scabra obtained from the coasts of the Bushehr province -Iran

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    Najmeh Jadavi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sea cucumbers are belonging to echinoderms and one of the important members of the food chain in temperate ecosystems and tropical coral reefs. The medicinal and nutritional uses of these invertebrates are primordial and are important as ecological, biological and economic properties. Holothuria Scabra, as one of the most valuable commercial species of sea cucumber in the world, is the dominant species in many Persian Gulf coasts such as the Bushehr province coasts. Conspicuous characteristics such as the use of inexpensive foods in their culture, the rather rapid, easy and low cost growth and reproduction, the possibility of culture with other fish, reduce the organic substrate in pools, the broad tolerance in water factors changes such as salinity and temperature it has selected them to culture.It seems they are containing the significant amounts of nutrients, especially appreciated fatty acids. Therefore, the aims of the current study are determination of total fat content, quality and quantity evaluations of some physicochemical parameters such as acid value (AV, peroxide value (PV, and refractive index (RI as well as, identify the profile of fatty acids in the fat. Materials & Methods: In this study, after collecting the 36 samples of sea cucumbers from the coasts of the bushehr province, sample preparation, and extraction of fat, their fatty acids profile were analyzed using gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (GC-FID. Results: The peroxide and the acid values were 0.62±0.0435 and 0.7553±0.0034. The optical refractive index of the oil was 1467 at 26°C, and total fat was also 2%. Among 19 identified fatty acids obtained from the GC analysis of Holothuria Scabra oil, fatty acids: heneicosanoic acid, linoleic acid, palimitic acid, stearic acid, linoleic acid, and Meristic acid, with respectively amounts of 40.81%, 27.5%, 15.24%, 4.73%, 4.46% and 2.38% had the highest values, and other fatty acids were negligible

  16. Molecular evolution of the reactive oxygen-generating NADPH oxidase (Nox/Duox family of enzymes

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    Lambeth J David

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background NADPH-oxidases (Nox and the related Dual oxidases (Duox play varied biological and pathological roles via regulated generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Members of the Nox/Duox family have been identified in a wide variety of organisms, including mammals, nematodes, fruit fly, green plants, fungi, and slime molds; however, little is known about the molecular evolutionary history of these enzymes. Results We assembled and analyzed the deduced amino acid sequences of 101 Nox/Duox orthologs from 25 species, including vertebrates, urochordates, echinoderms, insects, nematodes, fungi, slime mold amoeba, alga and plants. In contrast to ROS defense enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase and catalase that are present in prokaryotes, ROS-generating Nox/Duox orthologs only appeared later in evolution. Molecular taxonomy revealed seven distinct subfamilies of Noxes and Duoxes. The calcium-regulated orthologs representing 4 subfamilies diverged early and are the most widely distributed in biology. Subunit-regulated Noxes represent a second major subdivision, and appeared first in fungi and amoeba. Nox5 was lost in rodents, and Nox3, which functions in the inner ear in gravity perception, emerged the most recently, corresponding to full-time adaptation of vertebrates to land. The sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus possesses the earliest Nox2 co-ortholog of vertebrate Nox1, 2, and 3, while Nox4 first appeared somewhat later in urochordates. Comparison of evolutionary substitution rates demonstrates that Nox2, the regulatory subunits p47phox and p67phox, and Duox are more stringently conserved in vertebrates than other Noxes and Nox regulatory subunits. Amino acid sequence comparisons identified key catalytic or regulatory regions, as 68 residues were highly conserved among all Nox/Duox orthologs, and 14 of these were identical with those mutated in Nox2 in variants of X-linked chronic granulomatous disease. In addition to

  17. Nutritional and respiratory pathways to parasitism exemplified in the Turbellaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, J B

    1997-06-01

    Symbiosis is a dominant trait in the Platyhelminthes. The Neodermata (Aspidogastrea, Monogenea, Digenea, Udonellidea, Cestoda) are wholly parasitic and even the predominantly free-living Turbellaria have almost 200 species from 35 families living in permanent associations with other animals. In the simplest turbellarian symbioses, ectosymbiotes such as the Temnocephalida, some other Rhabdocoela and a few Tricladida live on the body surfaces or in the branchial chambers of their mainly arthropodan or chelonian hosts. They feed on the same types of prey as their free-living relatives but supplement their diet by opportunistic commensalism. Their digestive physiology and food reserves are the same as in free-living species. The entosymbiotic Umagillidae, Graffillidae, Pterastericolidae, Fecamplidae and Acholadidae live in internal body cavities or body wall derivatives of echinoderms, molluscs or arthropods and show increasing metabolic dependence on their hosts. Patterns of digestive physiology and food storage generally differ markedly from those of ectosymbiotic and free-living species. Some umagillids, in echinoids, feed as entozoic predators on co-symbiotic protozoa, supplemented by opportunistic ingestion of the hosts' ingesta, gut cells or coelomocytes. Others, in holothurians, feed mainly on gut cells, which also provide some digestive enzymes, and to a lesser extent on host ingesta and co-symbiotes. Graffillids, in molluscs, lack endogenous digestive enzymes and rely entirely on those taken in with host ingesta and gut tissues. Pterastericolids, in asteroids, similarly utilise gut tissues both as food and enzyme sources. The climax to metabolic dependence occurs in the Fecamplidae and Acholadidae. The former, in crustacean haemocoels and myzostomid tissues, lack conventional alimentary systems and absorb soluble nutrients through the epidermis. In the latter the only known species lives in the tube feet of its asteroid host, lacks a normal endodermal gut, but

  18. Interacciones tróficas de las seis especies de peces más abundantes en la pesquería artesanal en dos bahías del Pacífico Central Mexicano

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    J.R Flores Ortega

    2010-03-01

    Navidad 78 prey taxa were identified in the stomachs. From July to December (T1, 64 prey taxa were found, and from January to June (T2, 45 prey items. In Bahía de Chamela 93 prey items were identified; 74 during T1 and 60 during T2. The highest prey number was found in the stomachs of M. dentatus during T1 in Bahía de Navidad and the lowest prey number (7 was recorded in H. flaviguttatum in Bahía de Navidad in the same period. Crustaceans were the most frequently recorded prey items, followed by fishes, mollusks, polychaetes, and echinoderms in both seasonal periods and sites. The six fish species studied are considered as specialist feeders due the low values of the niche breadth index. There was little similarity among the diets. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (1: 383-397. Epub 2010 March 01.

  19. Effects of natural and human-induced hypoxia on coastal benthos

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    L. A. Levin

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Coastal hypoxia (defined here as <1.42 ml L−1; 62.5 μM; 2 mg L−1, approx. 30% oxygen saturation develops seasonally in many estuaries, fjords, and along open coasts as a result of natural upwelling or from anthropogenic eutrophication induced by riverine nutrient inputs. Permanent hypoxia occurs naturally in some isolated seas and marine basins as well as in open slope oxygen minimum zones. Responses of benthos to hypoxia depend on the duration, predictability, and intensity of oxygen depletion and on whether H2S is formed. Under suboxic conditions, large mats of filamentous sulfide oxidizing bacteria cover the seabed and consume sulfide. They are hypothesized to provide a detoxified microhabitat for eukaryotic benthic communities. Calcareous foraminiferans and nematodes are particularly tolerant of low oxygen concentrations and may attain high densities and dominance, often in association with microbial mats. When oxygen is sufficient to support metazoans, small, soft-bodied invertebrates (typically annelids, often with short generation times and elaborate branchial structures, predominate. Large taxa are more sensitive than small taxa to hypoxia. Crustaceans and echinoderms are typically more sensitive to hypoxia, with lower oxygen thresholds, than annelids, sipunculans, molluscs and cnidarians. Mobile fish and shellfish will migrate away from low-oxygen areas. Within a species, early life stages may be more subject to oxygen stress than older life stages.

    Hypoxia alters both the structure and function of benthic communities, but effects may differ with regional hypoxia history. Human-caused hypoxia is generally linked to eutrophication, and occurs adjacent to watersheds with large populations or agricultural activities. Many occurrences are seasonal, within estuaries, fjords or enclosed seas of the North Atlantic and the NW Pacific Oceans. Benthic faunal responses, elicited at oxygen levels below

  20. Feeding mechanisms and ecology of pycnodont fishes (Neopterygii, Pycnodontiformes

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    J. Kriwet

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The functional morphology of the jaw apparatus and the skull and the feeding habits of the extinct pycnodont fishes are reconstructed in comparison with some extant halecostomes. For this a short review of the functional units of the pycnodont head is given. The feeding mechanisms of pycnodonts exhibit a transition from simple stereotypic feeding kinematics, which are characteristic for primitive actinoptergians, to the modulating feeding kinematics of advanced teleosts and is called limited modulating feeding kinematics herein. Two structural specialisations which are found in halecostomes (operculum with distinct m. levator operculare and the interopercular bone with the interopercular ligament are supposed to be absent in pycnodonts, whereas they maintain the two primitive couplings for direct mandibular depression (epaxial muscles – neurocranium, hypaxial muscles -cleithrum-m. sternohyoideus – hyoid apparatus. Advanced pycnodonts developed a new structure (upper jaw protrusion, resulting in an enlargment of the buccopharyngeal cavity, that is absent in halecomorphs (e.g., Amia calva and basal pycnodonts (e.g., Anduafrons, Mesturus. The premaxillae and maxillae are firmly fixed in basal pycnodonts, whereas the premaxillae and maxillae are free and movable in advanced pycnodonts. Pycnodonts were benthic foragers with a combination of biting or nipping and suction feeding based on the "truncated cone morphology" of the buccopharyngeal cavity. It is concluded, that pycnodonts certainly were omnivorous feeders with a general broad range of prey. But they were also a highly specialised group on generic level in respect to their prey. This is indicated by gut contents, as far as they are known, which comprise only monospecific remains of shelled invertebrates (e.g., spines of echinoderms, shells of bivalves. The ecological demands of pycnodonts are discussed. Die funktionelle Anatomie des Nahrungsaufnahmeapparates sowie das Fressverhalten der

  1. Estradiol and endocrine disrupting compounds adversely affect development of sea urchin embryos at environmentally relevant concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roepke, Troy A. [Bodega Marine Laboratory, University of California, Davis, POB 247, Bodega Bay, CA 94923 (United States); Snyder, Mark J. [Bodega Marine Laboratory, University of California, Davis, POB 247, Bodega Bay, CA 94923 (United States); Cherr, Gary N. [Bodega Marine Laboratory, University of California, Davis, POB 247, Bodega Bay, CA 94923 (United States) and Departments of Environmental Toxicology and Nutrition, One Shields Avenue, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)]. E-mail: gncherr@ucdavis.edu

    2005-01-26

    Environmental endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) are a wide variety of chemicals that typically exert effects, either directly or indirectly, through receptor-mediated processes, thus mimicking endogenous hormones and/or inhibiting normal hormone activities and metabolism. Little is known about the effects of EDCs on echinoderm physiology, reproduction and development. We exposed developing sea urchin embryos (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus and Lytechinus anamesus) to two known EDCs (4-octylphenol (OCT), bisphenol A (BisA)) and to natural and synthetic reproductive hormones (17{beta}-estradiol (E{sub 2}), estrone (E{sub 1}), estriol (E{sub 3}), progesterone (P{sub 4}) and 17{alpha}-ethynylestradiol (EE{sub 2})). In addition, we studied two non-estrogenic EDCs, tributyltin (TBT) and o,p-DDD. Successful development to the pluteus larval stage (96 h post-fertilization) was used to define EDC concentration-response relationships. The order of compound potency based on EC{sub 50} values for a reduction in normal development was as follows: TBT {sub L.anamesus} > OCT > TBT {sub S.{sub p}}{sub urpuratus} >> E{sub 2} > EE{sub 2} > DDD >> BisA > P{sub 4} > E{sub 1} >> E{sub 3}. The effect of TBT was pronounced even at concentrations substantially lower than those commonly reported in heavily contaminated areas, but the response was significantly different in the two model species. Sea urchin embryos were generally more sensitive to estrogenic EDCs and TBT than most other invertebrate larvae. Stage-specific exposure experiments were conducted to determine the most sensitive developmental periods using blastula, gastrula and post-gastrula (pluteus) stages. The stage most sensitive to E{sub 2}, OCT and TBT was the blastula stage with less overall sensitivity in the gastrula stage, regardless of concentration. Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) were added to the experiments individually and in combination with estrogenic EDCs to interfere with potential receptor

  2. Review: geological and experimental evidence for secular variation in seawater Mg/Ca (calcite-aragonite seas and its effects on marine biological calcification

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    J. B. Ries

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Synchronized transitions in the polymorph mineralogy of the major reef-building and sediment-producing calcareous marine organisms and abiotic CaCO3 precipitates (ooids, marine cements throughout Phanerozoic time are believed to have been caused by tectonically induced variations in the Mg/Ca ratio of seawater (molar Mg/Ca>2="aragonite seas", <2="calcite seas". Here, I assess the geological evidence in support of secular variation in seawater Mg/Ca and its effects on marine calcifiers, and review a series of recent experiments that investigate the effects of seawater Mg/Ca (1.0–5.2 on extant representatives of calcifying taxa that have experienced variations in this ionic ratio of seawater throughout the geologic past.

    Secular variation in seawater Mg/Ca is supported by synchronized secular variations in (1 the ionic composition of fluid inclusions in primary marine halite, (2 the mineralogies of late stage marine evaporites, abiogenic carbonates, and reef- and sediment-forming marine calcifiers, (3 the Mg/Ca ratios of fossil echinoderms, molluscs, rugose corals, and abiogenic carbonates, (4 global rates of tectonism that drive the exchange of Mg2+ and Ca2+ along zones of ocean crust production, and (5 additional proxies of seawater Mg/Ca including Sr/Mg ratios of abiogenic carbonates, Sr/Ca ratios of biogenic carbonates, and Br concentrations in marine halite.

    Laboratory experiments have revealed that aragonite-secreting bryopsidalean algae and scleractinian corals and calcite-secreting coccolithophores exhibit higher rates of calcification and growth in experimental seawaters formulated with seawater Mg/Ca ratios that favor their skeletal mineral. These results support the assertion that seawater Mg/Ca played an important role in determining which hypercalcifying marine organisms were the major reef-builders and sediment-producers throughout Earth history. The observation that primary

  3. The evolution of gonad expenditure and gonadosomatic index (GSI) in male and female broadcast-spawning invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Geoff A; Ramm, Steven A; Lehtonen, Jussi; Henshaw, Jonathan M

    2018-05-01

    Sedentary broadcast-spawning marine invertebrates, which release both eggs and sperm into the water for fertilization, are of special interest for sexual selection studies. They provide unique insight into the early stages of the evolutionary succession leading to the often-intense operation of both pre- and post-mating sexual selection in mobile gonochorists. Since they are sessile or only weakly mobile, adults can interact only to a limited extent with other adults and with their own fertilized offspring. They are consequently subject mainly to selection on gamete production and gamete success, and so high gonad expenditure is expected in both sexes. We review literature on gonadosomatic index (GSI; the proportion of body tissue devoted to gamete production) of gonochoristic broadcast spawners, which we use as a proxy for gonad expenditure. We show that such taxa most often have a high GSI that is approximately equal in both sexes. When GSI is asymmetric, female GSI usually exceeds male GSI, at least in echinoderms (the majority of species recorded). Intriguingly, though, higher male GSI also occurs in some species and appears more common than female-biased GSI in certain orders of gastropod molluscs. Our limited data also suggest that higher male GSI may be the prevalent pattern in sperm casters (where only males release gametes). We explore how selection might have shaped these patterns using game theoretic models for gonad expenditure that consider possible trade-offs with (i) somatic maintenance or (ii) growth, while also considering sperm competition, sperm limitation, and polyspermy. Our models of the trade-off between somatic tissue (which increases survival) and gonad (which increases reproductive success) predict that GSI should be equal for the two sexes when sperm competition is intense, as is probably common in broadcast spawners due to synchronous spawning in aggregations. Higher female GSI occurs under low sperm competition. Sperm limitation appears

  4. Recolonization of gravel habitats on Georges Bank (northwest Atlantic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collie, Jeremy S.; Hermsen, Jerome M.; Valentine, Page C.

    2009-09-01

    Gravel habitats on continental shelves around the world support productive fisheries but are also vulnerable to disturbance from bottom fishing. We conducted a 2-year in situ experiment to measure the rate of colonization of a gravel habitat on northern Georges Bank in an area closed to fishing (Closed Area II) since December 1994. Three large (0.25 m 2) sediment trays containing defaunated pebble gravel were deployed at a study site (47 m water depth) in July 1997 and recovered in June 1999. The undersides of the tray lids positioned 56 cm above the trays served as settlement panels over the same time period. We observed rapid colonization of the gravel substrate (56 species) and the settlement panels (35 species), indicating that colonization of gravel in this region is not limited by the supply of colonists. The species composition of the taxa found in the trays was broadly similar to that we collected over a 10-year period (1994-2004) in dredge samples from gravel sediments at the same site. The increase in abundance of animals in the gravel colonization trays was rapid and reached a level in 2 years that took 4.5 years to achieve in the surrounding gravel sediments once fishing had stopped, based on data from dredge sampling at this site. The increase in biomass of animals found in the sediment trays paralleled the trend of biomass increase observed in dredge samples over the same period (1997-1999) but was lower in value. These data suggest that after rapid initial increase in abundance of organisms, succession proceeded by increasing individual body size. A comparison of settlement panel and tray faunas revealed that the mean biomass of structure-forming epifauna (sponges, bryozoans, anemones, hydroids, colonial tube worms) on the panels was 8 times that found on the trays. Structure-forming taxa constituted 29% of the mean biomass of the panel fauna but only 5.5% of the tray fauna. By contrast, the mean biomass of scavengers (crabs, echinoderms, nudibranchs

  5. The relevance of "Santa Pudia" calcarenite: a natural stone to preserve heritage buildings in Andalusia (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Rafael; Molina, Eduardo; Baltuille, José Manuel

    2013-04-01

    "Santa Pudia" calcarenite, extracted in quarries from Granada (Andalusia, Spain), is a very important ornamental stone used in some of the main historical buildings in Andalusia, and particularly in the city of Granada. It has been used mainly outdoors with structural purposes (ashlars, columns), but is also used as decorative element in façades, pinnacles, etc. There are two main quarries, one historical ("Las Parideras") and another one currently under exploitation ("La Escribana"). Both were the source for all the material to make the different cited elements. Some of the main historical buildings using this stone in their construction, in one way or other, are the cathedral, The Royal Chapel, the Royal Hospital, San Juan de Dios monastery, the Royal Chancery or Carlos V Palace in the Alhambra, all of them in the city of Granada. In recent days, this natural stone has been used in the restoration of the Mosque of Córdoba and the Cinco Llagas Hospital in Seville. Although the main reference in industry for this natural stone is "Calcarenita de Santa Pudia", it can be found as well cited in the old literature under the denomination of "Piedra Franca". From a geological point of view is a white to yellow calcarenite, part of the Tortonian deposits of the Guadalquivir Basin (Post-Orogenic Neogene Basins of the Betic Chains). It's made up mainly by micritic matrix of calcite, with fragments of bioclasts (about 90%) including molluscs, echinoderms, briozoan, red algae and foraminifera. Other components, like metamorphic quartz, moscovite and/or schist or gneiss (rock fragments from the nearby metamorphic basement), can be found as well. The rock is poorly cemented with sparitic calcite. Regarding the main physical and mechanical properties, this rock has an open porosity between 25-36%, bulk density of 1,74 g/cm3, water absorption values at atmospheric pressure of 16%, compressive strength (dry) of 11 MPa, flexural strength (dry) of 2,3 MPa and salt crystallization

  6. The Late Ordovician Extinction: How it became the best understood of the five major extinctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, P.

    2003-04-01

    epicontinental seas were drained in many places. An extensive record of changes of all the major faunal groups has been established and work continues. Compilations by Sepkoski and Benton established the Ordovician extinction as one of the five major Phanerozoic extinctions, ranking second only to the end Permian extinction in terms of taxonomic loss. However, as the ecologic changes caused by the extinction became better understood it was realized that of the five extinction events the Ordovician extinction caused the least ecologic perturbation. Given the interest and extensive study extinction events have generated in the last 20 years it is surprising the oldest of the five extinctions has the most well understood cause and the best global record of the faunal changes. In fact only one other extinction event (K/T event) has a widely accepted cause, darkness associated with an impact event. The general faunal changes allow at least a preliminary comparison of two events with differing causes. The most important factor promoting survival in both events is wide geographic distribution. Other ecologic factors differ considerably between the events. Extinction was very high in epicontinental seas during the Ordovician but not in the Cretaceous. Cretaceous organisms that could survive several months without food (such as animals with low metabolic rates, or larval stages that included dormancy) preferentially survived, while this was not a factor in the Ordovician when low metabolic rates of animals like brachiopods and echinoderms provided little advantage. Animals capable of feeding on detritus during the loss of sunlight preferentially survived the Cretaceous extinction, but this was not a buffer to extinction in the Ordovician.

  7. Recolonization of gravel habitats on Georges Bank (northwest Atlantic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collie, Jeremy S.; Hermsen, Jerome M.; Valentine, Page C.

    2009-01-01

    Gravel habitats on continental shelves around the world support productive fisheries but are also vulnerable to disturbance from bottom fishing. We conducted a 2-year in situ experiment to measure the rate of colonization of a gravel habitat on northern Georges Bank in an area closed to fishing (Closed Area II) since December 1994. Three large (0.25 m2) sediment trays containing defaunated pebble gravel were deployed at a study site (47 m water depth) in July 1997 and recovered in June 1999. The undersides of the tray lids positioned 56 cm above the trays served as settlement panels over the same time period. We observed rapid colonization of the gravel substrate (56 species) and the settlement panels (35 species), indicating that colonization of gravel in this region is not limited by the supply of colonists. The species composition of the taxa found in the trays was broadly similar to that we collected over a 10-year period (1994-2004) in dredge samples from gravel sediments at the same site. The increase in abundance of animals in the gravel colonization trays was rapid and reached a level in 2 years that took 4.5 years to achieve in the surrounding gravel sediments once fishing had stopped, based on data from dredge sampling at this site. The increase in biomass of animals found in the sediment trays paralleled the trend of biomass increase observed in dredge samples over the same period (1997-1999) but was lower in value. These data suggest that after rapid initial increase in abundance of organisms, succession proceeded by increasing individual body size. A comparison of settlement panel and tray faunas revealed that the mean biomass of structure-forming epifauna (sponges, bryozoans, anemones, hydroids, colonial tube worms) on the panels was 8 times that found on the trays. Structure-forming taxa constituted 29% of the mean biomass of the panel fauna but only 5.5% of the tray fauna. By contrast, the mean biomass of scavengers (crabs, echinoderms, nudibranchs

  8. Ocean acidification impact on copepod swimming and mating behavior: consequences for population dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seuront, L.

    2010-12-01

    There is now ample evidence that ocean acidification caused by the uptake of additional carbon dioxide from the atmosphere at the ocean surface will severely impact on marine ecosystem structure and function. To date, most research effort has focused on the impact of ocean acidification on calcifying marine organisms. These include the dissolution of calcifying plankton, reduced growth and shell thickness in gastropods and echinoderms and declining growth of reef-building corals. The effects of increasing the partial pressure in carbon dioxide and decreasing carbonate concentrations on various aspects of phytoplankton biology and ecology have received some attention. It has also recently been shown that the ability of fish larvae to discriminate between the olfactory cues of different habitat types at settlement and to detect predator olfactory cues are impaired at the level of ocean acidification predicted to occur around 2100 on a business-as-usual scenario of CO2 emissions. Average ocean pH has decreased by 0.1 units since the pre-industrial times, and it is predicted to decline another 0.3-0.4 units by 2100, which nearly corresponds to a doubling PCO2. In addition, some locations are expected to exhibit an even greater than predicted rate of decline. In this context, understanding the direct and indirect links between ocean acidification and the mortality of marine species is critical, especially for minute planktonic organisms such as copepods at the base of the ocean food chains. In this context, this work tested if ocean acidification could affect copepod swimming behavior, and subsequently affect, and ultimately disrupt, the ability of male copepods to detect and follow the pheromone plume produced by conspecific females. To ensure the generality and the ecological relevance of the present work, the species used for the experimentation are two of the most common zooplankton species found in estuarine and coastal waters of the Northern Hemisphere, the

  9. Sedimentology, conodonts and ostracods of the Devonian - Carboniferous strata of the Anseremme railway bridge section, Dinant Basin, Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casier, J.-G.; Mamet, B.; Preat, A.; Sandberg, C.A.

    2004-01-01

    Seven major carbonate microfacies are defined in the Devonian - Carboniferous (D/C) strata (50 m) of the Anseremme railway bridge section, south of Dinant. They permit recognition of several levels encompassing the Etroeungt and Hastie??re formations. "Bathymetric" sequences range from open marine, below the storm wave base, to semi-restricted lagoon. This sequence records a shallowing-upward trend of the relative sea level, from environments below the storm wave base to strongly eroded supraticial pre-evaporitic environments. Faunal components (echinoderms, brachiopods...) indicate open-marine domain for the first six microfacies located within the dysphoticeuphotic zone in relatively shallow waters. The textures of the rocks (mudstones to rudstones) associated with lamination characteristics indicate the position of the storm (SWB) and the fair-weather (FWWB) wave bases. Microfacies seven suggests a semi-restricted platform with salinity fluctuations from hypersaline brines to brackish waters. Thus, the boundary of the Etroeungt/Hastie??re formations is marked by an abrupt drop in sea level. Carbonate micro-conglomerates recording an important erosive phase and a sedimentary hiatus. The environment is again open marine in the upper part of the Hastie??re Formation. Our conclusion is that the Anseremme section is not a reliable continuous succession for the study of the D/C boundary. This confirms the VAN STEENWINKEL (1988, 1993 hypothesis based on other arguments. Conodont faunas demonstrate that the Devonian sequence spans the five youngest conodont zones, but that two of these zones are not represented. The Epinette Formation is dated as the youngest part of the Middle expansa Zone. Thus, the boundary with the Late praesulcata Zone probably coincides with the sharp sedimentological change at the base of the Etroeungt Formation, which is interpreted to belong entirely to this zone. The disconformably overlying basal bed 159 of the Hastie??re Formation is dated

  10. STRATIGRAPHY OF THE CARNIAN - NORIAN CALCARI CON SELCE FORMATION IN THE LAGONEGRO BASIN, SOUTHERN APENNINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MANUEL RIGO

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The Upper Triassic Calcari con Selce Formation, cropping out in the southern Apennines (S Italy, consists of 400 m of micritic limestones, often nodular, with chert beds and nodules, organized in dm to m beds intercalated with mm (rarely centimetric marly horizons. Three intervals characterized by higher siliciclastic content have been recognized within this formation, and stratigraphically ordered after an accurate conodont biostratigraphical investigation: 1 the green clay-radiolaritic horizon, previously named in literature with the informal expression of “livello argilloso ad Halobia superba”, Tuvalian (upper Carnian; 2 an interval of some tens of meters of limestones and brown shales with abundant chert beds, here informally termed the "brown member", Tuvalian/Lacian (upper Carnian/lower Norian; 3 the ca. 3 m thick red shale horizon, Sevatian (upper Norian in age. All these intervals are characterized by micritic limestones or marly limestones with bivalves, radiolarians and conodonts alternating with shales (green, brown or red having thicknesses of 50 cm or more. These intervals are also associated to an increase of calciturbidites, consisting of echinoderm fragments, isolated thin-shelled bivalves and reworked, partially lithified intraclasts of the Calcari con Selce Fm. The Carnian green clay-radiolaritic horizon and the Sevatian red siliciclastic interval are useful lithostratigraphic markers recognizable throughout the Lagonegro Basin and have been used as guide horizons to evaluate the lateral continuity of contiguous limestone beds. The green clay-radiolaritic horizon has been logged in 4 sections (Pignola 2, Mt. Armizzone, Pezza la Quagliara, San Michele. The sections are presently at approximately 50 km distance - but Tertiary thrusts occur between the sections, suggesting a larger separation at the time of the deposition of the Formation. Above the green clay-radiolaritic horizon, single carbonate beds or banks with the same

  11. Paleocommunity turnover in an Early Pliocene seamount from southeastern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ramos, Diego Antonio; Zuschin, Martin

    2017-04-01

    Seamounts are topographic elevations under the sea, regardless of their size and relief. They support rich living communities and are important biodiversity hotspots, but many of the fundamental ecological processes that maintain seamount communities remain poorly understood. In contrast to snapshot observations conducted on extant seamounts, fossil examples may provide the opportunity to assess how temporal changes in physico-chemical parameters relate to paleocommunity turnovers in these particular biotopes. Here we deal with an Early Pliocene (Zanclean) small seamount in southeastern Spain. This classic locality is extremely rich in fossil macroinvertebrates and was subject to studies of some taxonomic groups in the late seventies. However, the detailed stratigraphy is herein outlined for the first time. The overall feature is a shallowing upward succession about 35 m thick which onlaps a Miocene volcanic ridge. The occurrence of the planktonic foraminifera Globorotalia margaritae and G. puncticulata allow attribution to the MPl3 biozone of the Mediterranean Pliocene. We measured two sections that can be divided in a lower interval of fine-grained bryozoan-rich deposits and a upper interval of biocalcarenite increasingly rich in rhodoliths upsection. The whole series is bioturbated, with Thalassinoides traces being more common upsection. Biofabrics comprise mostly densely-packed suites of disarticulated and fragmented shells of calcitic fauna (large oysters are often bioeroded by clionid sponges), suggesting relatively low sedimentation rates and reworking by storms (e.g., channelized shell-beds, tubular tempestites). The prevailing taxonomic groups are cheilostome bryozoans, oysters, brachiopods, pectinids, echinoderms, cirripedes and corals. The lower interval contains octocoral internodes (Isididae) (only recorded at the base of the section). Scleratinians like Balanophyllia? decrease in abundance upsection. Bryozoans are extremely abundant and diverse, with

  12. Viruses in Marine Animals: Discovery, Detection, and Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahsbender, Elizabeth

    seals, viral metagenomics led to the discovery of 152 novel anellovirus genomes, encompassing two anellovirus species. Characterizing these viruses is important for understanding the prevalence and diversity of ssDNA viruses, which have only recently been described in marine animals. Furthermore, since emerging diseases can be caused by changing conditions affecting host susceptibility to a virus that was previously not related to disease (opportunistic pathogen), having baseline data allows for quick identification of the pathogen. In addition to determining baseline data, viral metagenomics can explore the role of viruses in disease. A novel virus, Asterias forbesi-associated circular virus (AfaCV), was discovered in the Atlantic sea star Asterias forbesi displaying symptoms of sea star wasting disease (SSWD). AfaCV was the first circular replicase-encoding ssDNA (CRESS-DNA) virus discovered in echinoderms, but it was only present in 10% of SSWD sea stars indicating it is not involved in the development of the disease. This dissertation also focuses on elucidating the role of two previously characterized viruses, chelonid fibropapillomatosis-associated herpesvirus (CHHV5; Chelonid herpesvirus 5, ChHV5) and Zalophus californianus anellovirus (ZcAV), in animal health. PCR amplicon sequencing was used to obtain large portions of the 132 kb genome of ChHV5, the putative etiological agent of the neoplastic sea turtle disease, fibropapillomatosis. Obtaining the genome of ChHV5 from Florida green, Kemp's ridley, and loggerhead sea turtles provides data for phylogenetic analysis across geographic locations and sea turtle species, as well as a reference for designing downstream molecular assays to examine viral latency. ZcAV was first described from the lungs of captive sea lions involved in a mortality event. PCR could not detect ZcAV in the blood of infected animals, and since sea lions are a protected species, it is not possible to obtain lung biopsies from live sea lions