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Sample records for echinococcosis hepatic

  1. Hepatic echinococcosis: Clinical and therapeutic aspects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Giuseppe Nunnari; Marilia R Pinzone; Salvatore Gruttadauria; Benedetto M Celesia; Giordano Madeddu; Giulia Malaguarnera; Piero Pavone

    2012-01-01

    Echinococcosis or hydatid disease (HD) is a zoonosis caused by the larval stages of taeniid cestodes belonging to the genus Echinococcus.Hepatic echinococcosis is a life-threatening disease,mainly differentiated into alveolar and cystic forms,associated with Echinoccus multilocularis (E.multilocularis) and Echinococcus granulosus (E.granulosus) infection,respectively.Cystic echinococcosis (CE) has a worldwide distribution,while hepatic alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is endemic in the Northern hemisphere,including North America and several Asian and European countries,like France,Germany and Austria.E.granulosus young cysts are spherical,unilocular vesicles,consisting of an internal germinal layer and an outer acellular layer.Cyst expansion is associated with a host immune reaction and the subsequent development of a fibrous layer,called the pericyst; old cysts typically present internal septations and daughter cysts.E.multilocularis has a tumorlike,infiltrative behavior,which is responsible for tissue destruction and finally for liver failure.The liver is the main site of HD involvement,for both alveolar and cystic hydatidosis.HD is usually asymptomatic for a long period of time,because cyst growth is commonly slow;the most frequent symptoms are fatigue and abdominal pain.Patients may also present jaundice,hepatomegaly or anaphylaxis,due to cyst leakage or rupture.HD diagnosis is usually accomplished with the combined use of ultrasonography and immunodiagnosis; furthermore,the improvement of surgical techniques,the introduction of minimally invasive treatments [such as puncture,aspiration,injection,re-aspiration (PAIR)] and more effective drugs (such as benzoimidazoles) have deeply changed life expectancy and quality of life of patients with HD.The aim of this article is to provide an up-to-date review of biological,diagnostic,clinical and therapeutic aspects of hepatic echinococcosis.

  2. Surgical treatment of hepatic echinococcosis in Prizren (Kosovo).

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    Avdaj, Afrim; Namani, Sadie

    2014-12-01

    Management option of hepatic echinococcosis represents a major challenge for a surgeon. The aim of the study was to evaluate surgical treatment of patients with hepatic echinococcosis at the surgery department of the regional hospital in Prizren (Kosovo). The medical records of 22 patients operated for hepatic echinococcosis in our department during a four year study period (2009-2013) were retrospectively reviewed. Apart from the total of 5850 operated patients, 22 cases were diagnosed for liver echinococcosis (0.4%). The most affected age group was from 26 to 50 years (54.5%). Female gender, 16 cases (73%), and patients living in rural places, 14 patients (64%), dominated significantly. The most affected region was Municipality of Dragash. All patients underwent ultrasonography, 13 patients underwent CT scans and 5 patients MRI of abdomen. The mean preoperative ultrasonographic diameter of cysts was 9.5 cm and maximal 21 cm. Cysts were most often localized in right hepatic lobe (77%) and subcostal laparotomy was most commonly performed (82%). The performed surgical procedures were: endocystectomy and partial pericystectomy with omentoplication according to Papadimitris (73%), endocystectomy and capitonnage and endocystectomy with external drainage (14%). The laparoscopic approach was used only in one patient. In conclusion, hepatic echinococosis was not common among operated patients at our surgery department. Subcostal laparotomy with endocystectomy and partial pericystectomy with omentoplication according to Papadimitris was most commonly used. Exact distribution of echinococcosis is needed to be analyzed with a larger cohort study including all surgery units in the country and with a longer monitoring.

  3. Surgical treatment of hepatic echinococcosis in Prizren (Kosovo

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    Afrim Avdaj

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Management option of hepatic echinococcosis represents a major challenge for a surgeon. The aim of the study was to evaluate surgical treatment of patients with hepatic echinococcosis at the surgery department of the regional hospital in Prizren (Kosovo. The medical records of 22 patients operated for hepatic echinococcosis in our department during a four year study period (2009–2013 were retrospectively reviewed. Apart from the total of 5850 operated patients, 22 cases were diagnosed for liver echinococcosis (0.4%. The most affected age group was from 26 to 50 years (54.5%. Female gender, 16 cases (73%, and patients living in rural places, 14 patients (64%, dominated significantly. The most affected region was Municipality of Dragash. All patients underwent ultrasonography, 13 patients underwent CT scans and 5 patients MRI of abdomen. The mean preoperative ultrasonographic diameter of cysts was 9.5 cm and maximal 21 cm. Cysts were most often localized in right hepatic lobe (77% and subcostal laparotomy was most commonly performed (82%. The performed surgical procedures were: endocystectomy and partial pericystectomy with omentoplication according to Papadimitris (73%, endocystectomy and capitonnage and endocystectomy with external drainage (14%. The laparoscopic approach was used only in one patient. In conclusion, hepatic echinococosis was not common among operated patients at our surgery department. Subcostal laparotomy with endocystectomy and partial pericystectomy with omentoplication according to Papadimitris was most commonly used. Exact distribution of echinococcosis is needed to be analyzed with a larger cohort study including all surgery units in the country and with a longer monitoring.

  4. [Hepatic echinococcosis and its surgical treatment].

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    Aliev, M A; Seĭsembaev, M A; Ordabekov, S O; Aliev, R M; Belekov, Zh O; Samratov, T U

    1999-01-01

    973 patients were operated for the period of 14 years for echinococcosis of the abdominal cavity. Echinococcosis of the liver was revealed in 742 (76.2%) patients. Complicated forms of echinococcosis were registered in 42.3% patients. Suppurative cyst was detected in 138 (43.9%) patients; perforation of the cyst into free abdominal cavity--in 22 (7%), into pleural cavity--in 14 (4.5%) patients, into bile ducts--in 62 cases (19.7%); biliary tracts compressing by the cyst with mechanical jaundice--in 29 (9.2%) patients; bilio-pulmonary bronchial fistula was revealed in 7 (2.3%) patients and calcification of the cysts--in 42 (13.4%). Radioisotope scanning, X-ray, ultrasound, Computed tomography and serological reactions were used for diagnosis. For differential diagnosis of parasitic cysts from non-parasitic cysts laparoscopic video technique was also used in three cases. Radical operations were carried out in 47 patients, 19 patients from them underwent total pericystectomy and 28 patients underwent resection of the liver. For echinococcosis of the liver complicated by mechanical jaundice: in this case echinococcectomia was done with the correction of the continuity of the bile duct. Ultrasound cavitation, CO2 laser, thermal or thermic means (70 degrees C solution of furaciline or instant steam treatment) were used for antiparasitic purposes.

  5. Advances in multidisciplinary individualized treatment of refractory hepatic alveolar echinococcosis

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    ABUDUAINI Abulizi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic alveolar echinococcosis (HAE is a zoonotic parasitic disease that seriously threatens the population in western China and compromises patients′ quality of life. With the continuous improvement in radical resection rate in recent years, late-stage HAE patients that were incurable in the past now have the opportunity for radical resection. However, patients who are not suitable candidates for radical resection still suffer from various complications and poor quality of life. Therefore, HAE is still considered a refractory and complex disease. The simple empirical treatment model provided by traditional professional discussion is unable to satisfy the treatment of advanced refractory HAE as it is unable to integrate specialized, standardized clinical skills for diagnosis and treatment. Multidisciplinary individualized treatment (MDT organically integrates the advantages of the available treatment into a reasonable individualized comprehensive treatment regimen. This review summarizes the advances in MDT for HAE as the best option to increase long-term survival, and suggests MDT as the first-line treatment for late-stage refractory hepatic alveolar echinococcosis.

  6. Current status of diagnosis and treatment of hepatic echinococcosis

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    Mihmanli, Memmet; Idiz, Ufuk Oguz; Kaya, Cemal; Demir, Uygar; Bostanci, Ozgur; Omeroglu, Sinan; Bozkurt, Emre

    2016-01-01

    Echinococcus granulosus (E. granulosus) and Echinococcus multilocularis (E. multilocularis) infections are the most common parasitic diseases that affect the liver. The disease course is typically slow and the patients tend to remain asymptomatic for many years. Often the diagnosis is incidental. Right upper quadrant abdominal pain, hepatitis, cholangitis, and anaphylaxis due to dissemination of the cyst are the main presenting symptoms. Ultrasonography is important in diagnosis. The World Health Organization classification, based on ultrasonographic findings, is used for staging of the disease and treatment selection. In addition to the imaging methods, immunological investigations are used to support the diagnosis. The available treatment options for E. granulosus infection include open surgery, percutaneous interventions, and pharmacotherapy. Aggressive surgery is the first-choice treatment for E. multilocularis infection, while pharmacotherapy is used as an adjunct to surgery. Due to a paucity of clinical studies, empirical evidence on the treatment of E. granulosus and E. multilocularis infections is largely lacking; there are no prominent and widely accepted clinical algorithms yet. In this article, we review the diagnosis and treatment of E. granulosus and E. multilocularis infections in the light of recent evidence. PMID:27729953

  7. Liver tryptase-positive mast cells and fibrosis in children with hepatic echinococcosis

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    Gulubova Maya

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The hepatic echinococcosis in children is a serious surgical problem. The aim of this study is to investigate the participation of mast cells in liver inflammatory reactions triggered by echinococcal cysts. Liver biopsy samples were collected from the tissue surrounding the cysts from 16 sick children (11 boys and 5 girls in the course of abdominal surgery and from 5 controls. Light and ultrastructural immunocytochemistry was performed using monoclonal antibody against tryptase. Light microscopical immunocytochemistry revealed abundance of tryptase-positive (MCT mast cells in the capsules of the cysts (43.58 cells/mm2. There were also observed greatly increased numbers of mast cells in portal tracts surrounding the cyst, compared to those of control biopsies (26.49 vs. 1.78 cells/mm2, p=0.0009, Mann-Whitney U test. Based on the ultrastructural appearance of tryptase-positive mast cell granules, morphological sings of activation of most of the mast cells were distinguished. In conclusion, we suggest that the accumulated and activated tryptase-positive mast cells in liver tissues surrounding the echinococcal cysts play a crucial role in modulation of the inflammatory liver response and could induce chronic inflammation and fibrogenesis, resulting in serious liver injury such as nonspecific reactive hepatitis.

  8. Efficacy of ultrasound-guided core-needle biopsy in the diagnosis of hepatic alveolar echinococcosis: a retrospective analysis

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    Bulakci Mesut

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study retrospectively analyzed the clinical data, laboratory results, imaging findings, and histopathological features of 28 patients who underwent ultrasound-guided core-needle biopsy from a hepatic lesion and were diagnosed with alveolar echinococcosis. Results: Among 28 patients included in the study, 16 were females and 12 were males. The mean age of the studied population was 53 ± 16 years, and the age range was 18–79 years. The most common presenting symptom was abdominal pain, which was observed in 14 patients. A total of 36 lesions were detected in the patients’ livers, out of which 7 had a cystic appearance. Hepatic vascular involvement, bile duct involvement, and other organ involvement were depicted in 14, 5, and 7 patients, respectively. The average number of cores taken from the lesions was 2.7, ranging between 2 and 5. In histopathological evaluation, PAS+ parasitic membrane structures were visualized on a necrotic background in all cases. Regarding seven patients, who were operated, the pathological findings of preoperative percutaneous biopsies were in perfect agreement with the pathological examinations after surgical resections. None of the patients developed major complications after biopsy. Conclusion: Ultrasound-guided core-needle biopsy is a minimally invasive, reliable, and effective diagnostic tool for the definitive diagnosis of hepatic alveolar echinococcosis.

  9. 阿苯达唑治疗肝包虫病研究进展%Research progress of Albendazole in the treatment of hepatic echinococcosis

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    王娟

    2014-01-01

    Hepatic echinococcosis is a serious zoonosis caused by hepatic hydatid parasite in human,sheep,horse,etc. Albendazole is a benzimidazole compounds,which has broad spectrum anthelmintic,and strong insecticidal effect.It has been designated as one of the preferred drug echinococcosis chemotherapy by WHO.In this paper,we have reviewed the research progress on albendazole in the treatment of hepatic echinococcosis.%肝包虫病是因棘球蚴寄生于人、羊、马等的肝组织所引起的一种严重的人兽共患疾病。阿苯达唑是一种苯骈咪唑类化合物,驱虫谱较广,杀虫作用强,被世界卫生组织指定为包虫病化疗的首选药物之一。本文对阿苯达唑治疗肝包虫病的研究进展进行综述。

  10. Visualization and Pathological Characteristics of Hepatic Alveolar Echinococcosis with Synchrotron-based X-ray Phase Sensitive Micro-tomography

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    Liu, Huiqiang; Ji, Xuewen; Sun, Li; Xiao, Tiqiao; Xie, Honglan; Fu, Yanan; Zhao, Yuan; Liu, Wenya; Zhang, Xueliang; Lin, Renyong

    2016-11-01

    Propagation-based phase-contrast computed tomography (PPCT) utilizes highly sensitive phase-contrast technology applied to X-ray micro-tomography, especially with the extensive use of synchrotron radiation (SR). Performing phase retrieval (PR) on the acquired angular projections can enhance image contrast and enable quantitative imaging. We employed the combination of SR-PPCT and PR for the histopathological evaluation of hepatic alveolar echinococcosis (HAE) disease and demonstrated the validity and superiority of PR-based SR-PPCT. A high-resolution angular projection data set of a human postoperative specimen of HAE disease was acquired, which was processed by graded ethanol concentration fixation (GECF). The reconstructed images from both approaches, with the projection data directly used and preprocessed by PR for tomographic reconstruction, were compared in terms of the tissue contrast-to-noise ratio and density spatial resolution. The PR-based SR-PPCT was selected for microscale measurement and the 3D visualization of HAE disease. Our experimental results demonstrated that the PR-based SR-PPCT technique is greatly suitable for the discrimination of pathological tissues and the characterization of HAE. In addition, this new technique is superior to conventional hospital CT and microscopy for the three-dimensional, non-destructive microscale measurement of HAE. This PR-based SR-PPCT technique has great potential for in situmicroscale histopathological analysis and diagnosis, especially for applications involving soft tissues and organs.

  11. Comparative Evaluation of Liposomal Albendazole and Tablet-Albendazole Against Hepatic Cystic Echinococcosis: A Non-Randomized Clinical Trial.

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    Li, Haitao; Song, Tao; Shao, Yingmei; Aili, Tuergan; Ahan, Ayifuhan; Wen, Hao

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to compare the clinical efficacy of liposomal albendazole (L-ABZ) and tablet-albendazole (T-ABZ) for the treatment of human hepatic cystic echinococcosis (CE). Sixty patients with single cyst (CE1) or daughter cyst (CE2) were included in this study and were nonrandomly divided into the L-ABZ group (n = 30, 10  mg/kg per day, p.o., b.i.d.) and T-ABZ group (n = 30, 12-20 mg/kg per day, p.o., b.i.d.), respectively. The treatment duration lasted for 6 months, during which dynamic follow-up was carried out to evaluate the clinical efficacy through calculating the total effective rates (TERs). Measurement data and numerous data were analyzed by the chi-square test. Two-sided tests were performed for all the statistical tests. In our study, 2 patients were lost in the follow-up in the L-ABZ group. One patient was lost in the follow-up in the T-ABZ group, and 1 patient was withdrawal from the study due to receiving surgery. Significant difference was identified in the 3-month TERs of L-ABZ group and T-ABZ group (33.3% vs 76.7%, P  0.05). Based on our study, both T-ABZ and L-ABZ are effective for treating human CE. The TER in the L-ABZ group is superior to that of T-ABZ.

  12. The Status and Progress in the Treatment of Hepatic Echinococcosis%肝包虫病的治疗现状及进展

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    米园园; 樊静; 马淑杰(综述); 张铁民(审校)

    2015-01-01

    包虫病是由棘球蚴寄生于人体而引起的慢性、可危及人性命的人兽共患病,是一个世界范围内的重要公共卫生问题,影响着许多地区的经济发展。棘球蚴感染后以其囊肿寄生于人体,肝和肺的寄生最常见,约占70%和20%,其余10%分布于各组织器官。目前肝包虫病的治疗主要以手术治疗为主,微创、药物治疗以及免疫预防为辅。肝包虫病的治疗方法纷繁复杂、各有利弊。分析各种治疗方法的优缺点有利于进一步深入而全面地认识肝包虫病的治疗。%Hydatid disease,an ancient,chronic,life-threatening disease caused by infection with larval stage of the tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus,represents a significant worldwide public health problem and a socioeconomic concern in many areas of the world.Larval cysts as unilocular fluid-filled bladders develop in the visceral tissue,mainly in the liver(70%) ,but also lungs(20%) and 10% of cysts can be found in other organs.At present,the treatment of hepatic echinococcosis still mainly relies on surgery,assisted with mini-mally invasive treatment, drug therapy and immune prevention.There are a lot of methods to treat hepatic echinococcosis,each with own advantages and disadvantages.Analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of various methods conhelp to further and comprehensively understand the treatment of hepatic echinococcosis .

  13. 超声在囊型肝包虫活性判断中的应用价值%Ultrasonic Judgment on Activity of Hepatic Cystic Echinococcosis (HCE)

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    马钦风; 宋书邦; 张玉英

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore ultrasonic judgment in the activity of hepatic cystic echinococcosis (HCE).Methods 148 cases confirmed by CT、 MRI、 pathology、 ultrasound-guided puncture and sclerotherapy were retrospectively analyzed. There were 45 cases singlecysts, 27 cases daughfer cysts,20 cases internal cysts separating,56 cases solid cysts. Results There were ultrasonic features on the the activity of hydatid disease including singlecyst, daughter cysts, double wall, hydatid sands, intracystic "falling snow sign", internal cysts collapse,daughter cysts deformation,wall calcification,progressive severe intracystic consolidation and calcification. Conclusions Ultrasound can objectively reflect the activity of hepatic cystic echinococcosis in different pathology periods.%目的 探讨超声在囊型肝包虫活性判断中的应用价值.方法 回顾性分析148例经CT、MRI印证以及超声诊断并经超声引导下穿刺硬化治疗、手术病理证实的单纯囊肿型45例、子囊型27例、内囊分离型20例、实变型56例的囊型肝包虫.结果 在囊型肝包虫活性判断中,声像图有单囊征、子囊征、双层壁、包虫砂"落雪征"、内囊塌陷、子囊变形、囊壁钙化、囊内容物实变与钙化并进行性加重的特征性表现.结论 超声检查能够客观反映囊型肝包虫不同病理阶段的活性程度.

  14. [Primary Pelvic Cystic Echinococcosis].

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    Yaman, İsmail; İnceboz, Ümit; İnceboz, Tonay; Keyik, Bahar; Uzgören, Engin

    2015-06-01

    Cystic echinococcosis caused by Echinococcus granulosus is still an important health problem in endemic areas. Cystic echinococcosis may involve different organs or areas with the most common sites being the liver and the lungs. Pelvic involvement has previously been reported and was mainly accepted as secondary to cystic echinococcosis in other organs, isolated pelvic involvement is very rare. In this case report, we aimed to present the case with pelvic cystic mass that was finally diagnosed with isolated pelvic cystic echinococcosis in and after the operation, and we would like to draw attention to include "cystic echinococcosis" in the differential diagnosis of pelvic masses.

  15. Non-surgical Treatment for Nonresectable Advanced Hepatic Alveolar Echinococcosis%肝泡型棘球蚴病非手术治疗的疗效评价

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    唐群科; 张瑛; 李永寿; 袁春萍; 张冬天

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the therapeutic methods of nonresectable advanced hepatic alveolar echinococcosis.Methods A retrospective study was carried out to analyze 25 cases of nonresectable advanced hepatic alveolar echinococcosis in the Fourth Hospital of PLA from 2006 to 2009.Results There were 18 male and 7 female patients with a mean age of 41 years.Twelve cases were treated with albendazole alone.Eleven patients were treated with albendazole com-bined with percutaneous puncture.Two cases were treated with albendazole combined with other intervention.A course of albendazole administration lasted 2 weeks with a dose of 15-20 mg/(kg·d) for 3 course in general.Eighteen patients were followed up for 1-4 years.In albendazole group, 2 cases were effective and 7 cases were symptom-improved.Five partients got improved and 2 cases showed effective in albendazole combined with percutaneous puncture group.Two cases of albendazole combined with intervention group showed no efficacy.Conclusions Longterm use of albendazole is the main treatment for nonresectable advanced hepatic alveolar echinococcosis.%目的 探讨非手术治疗的晚期肝泡型棘球蚴病患者的治疗方法.方法 对中国人民解放军第四医院2006-2009年收治的25例无法根治性切除的肝泡型棘球蚴病患者进行回顾性调查分析,了解其治疗方法和疗效.结果 25例肝泡型棘球蚴病患者中,男性18例,女性7例,平均年龄为41岁.其中单纯药物治疗[持续服用阿苯达唑15~20mg/(kg·d)]12例,药物结合穿刺治疗11例,药物结合介入治疗2例.阿苯达唑治疗2周为一疗程,一般持续3个疗程.治疗后1~4年共有18人获随访.其中单纯药物治疗组有效2例,改善7例;药物结合穿刺治疗组有效2例,改善5例;药物结合介入治疗组2例均无效.结论 持续服用阿苯达唑可作为非手术治疗肝泡型棘球蚴病患者的主要治疗方法.

  16. Intracranial alveolar echinococcosis: CT and MRI

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    Bensaid, A.H. (Dept. of Radiology B, Univ. Hospital, Strasbourg (France)); Dietemann, J.L. (Dept. of Radiology B, Univ. Hospital, Strasbourg (France)); Filippi de la Palavesa, M.M. (Dept. of Radiology B, Univ. Hospital, Strasbourg (France)); Klinkert, A. (Dept. of Radiology B, Univ. Hospital, Strasbourg (France)); Kastler, B. (Dept. of Radiology B, Univ. Hospital, Strasbourg (France)); Gangi, A. (Dept. of Radiology B, Univ. Hospital, Strasbourg (France)); Jacquet, G. (Dept. of Neurosurgery, Univ. Hospital, Besancon (France)); Cattin, F. (Dept. of Radiology, Univ. Hospital, Besancon (France))

    1994-05-01

    Intracranial alveolar echinococcosis is uncommon. We report a patient with right frontal lobe and palpebral lesions secondary to a primary hepatic focus with secondary lesion in the lung. The intracranial and palpebral cystic masses were totally removed and both proved to be alveolar hydatid cysts. An unusual feature in this case is CT and MRI demonstration of dural and bony extension. (orig.)

  17. Secondary pleural hydatidosis: Complication of intrapulmonary echinococcosis

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    Walid Feki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydatid disease has a wide geographic distribution around the world. In human, the liver is the most commonly affected organ, followed by the lungs. Intrathoracic extrapulmonary locations are generally the mediastinum, pleura, pericardium and chest wall. Pleural involvement usually follows the rupture of a pulmonary or hepatic cyst inside the pleural space causing secondary pleural hydatidosis. We report four cases of patients who were referred to our hospital for management of pleural hydatid disease as a complication of intrapulmonary echinococcosis.

  18. DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF CHILDREN ECHINOCOCCOSIS

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    Veliyeva T.A.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The problem of echinococcosis, despite the progress made in its diagnosis and treatment, currently remains poorly understood and highly relevant in pediatric Parasitology. Studies of many authors show that in recent years the number of patients with echinococcosis not only universally recognized endemic foci, but also among people in the European region, including in countries such as Romania, Germany, Austria. However, studies on the prevalence and structure of echinococcosis among children in Ukraine, are not held. Despite the large number of papers devoted to the treatment of echinococcosis, the problem of the treatment of this disease in children is still far from its final decision. Usually offered surgical treatment, which is not possible with multiple lesions of the liver or other organs. All this shows the relevance and importance for practical public health issues for further study of diagnosis and treatment of echinococcosis in children. The purpose of the study. A comparative analysis of the diagnostic efficacy of X-ray and ultrasound method in the diagnosis of echinococcosis in children. Material & methods. This work is based on a survey of 39 children with hepatic echinococcosis, were examined at the Department of Medical Parasitology and Tropical Diseases Kharkiv Medical Academy of Postgraduate Education from 2005 to 2015. Boys was 1.5 times greater (59.5% than girls - 40.5%. Children under five years of age accounted for only 4.0% of all patients, due to their limited contact with the environment when compared with older age. The greatest risk of disease was in the 10- 13 years of age, the number of children in the group reached 40.3% of the patients. The vast majority of patients (89.6% lived in rural areas. In this case, the parents of sick children from the village were engaged in farming, were in personal use livestock, dogs, which probably contributed to the invasion. Very often ill children pas¬tuhov, shepherds. 78% of

  19. SINGLE CHAMBER (HYDATID ECHINOCOCCOSIS

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    N. V. Polyakov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The unilocular echinococcosis (hydatid diseaseis the severe chronic parasitic disease, helminthiasis caused by the larval stage of the tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus, characterized by the development of parasitic cysts in the liver, rarely in the lungs and in other organs and tissues. The etiology of the disease, characterized by the pathogen and its development cycle, final and intermediate hosts, structure and morphology of the hydatid cyst. They describe the geographic distribution of helminth infections, pathogenesis, immunity, clinical picture, echinococcosis of the liver (asymptomatic, uncomplicated stage and stage of complications, echinococcosis of the lungs (the initial stage and the stage of developed clinical picture, other bodies. Clinical observation of unilocular echinococcosis in a 10 year old girl and a 9 year old boy. Diagnosis includes epidemiological, anamnestic and clinical data, changes in laboratory parameters, instrumental methods, diagnostic methods, immunodiagnostics, parasitological diagnosis. The surgery remains the main method of treatment. They described pharmacological therapy with albendazole in combination with a surgical method and as an involuntary self-treatment. A detailed clinical examination of patients after treatment, epidemiology of helminth infections and the major modern preventive measures.

  20. [Echinococcosis of the heart].

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    Rein, R; Niggemann, B; Runge, M

    1996-06-01

    Human disease caused by echinococcus granulosus is rare in Northern Europe, but is seen increasingly due to migration of labour and of tourism to endemic areas e. g. Southern Europe and the Middle East. Echinococcosis of the heart occurs in only 0.5 to 2% of cases of echinococcosis. Diagnosis is difficult because of the long latency between infection and manifestation of disease, and also because symptoms are unspecific. It is a diagnosis "to think of". Apart from a thorough history serological tests and medical imaging (ultrasound, X-rays, computed tomography) are used in the diagnosis of echinococcosis. Surgery is the preferred therapy, if not feasible medical treatment with benzimidazoles (Albendazole and Mebendazole) is effective. We describe a case of echinococcosis of the heart as the only manifestation of the disease: a 34-year-old male Turkish patient came in severe cardiac shock due to cardiac tamponade to the emergency department. Immediate heart surgery revealed a pericardium filled with cysts of echinococcus granulosus, infiltrating the left ventricle of the heart (Figure 1). The cysts were removed and the patient was put on a 2-year course of Mebendazole. The patient is free of relapse for more than 6 years now and he is considered to be cured.

  1. 超声随访复查对阿苯达唑治疗肝包虫病的疗效观察%B-ULTRASOUND EXAMINATION ON RESULT ANALYSIS WITH ALBENDAZOLE TREATMENT IN HEPATIC ECHINOCOCCOSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯运灵; 吴向林; 李丽; 马玉秀; 路宗仁; 张敏

    2011-01-01

    [目的]对比分析肝包虫病患者阿苯达唑治疗1年前后的超声影像结果,评价阿苯达唑对肝包虫病的疗效.[方法]采用前瞻性队列研究方法,对肝包虫病确诊病例给予阿苯达唑治疗1年后同法复查,对比分析治疗前后的B超影像变化.[结果]阿苯达唑对肝包虫病治疗总有效宰83.70% (534/638),其中对囊型肝包虫病治疗有效率83.90% (516/615),对泡型肝包虫病治疗有效率78.26% (18/23),二者间疗效无差异(x2=0.186,P>0.05);阿苯达唑片剂治疗有效率78.67% (273/347),乳剂治疗有效率89.69% (261/291),乳剂的疗效好于片剂(x2=14.08,P<0.05);阿苯达唑对黄疸、腹水改善较明显(x2=8.08,P< 0.05).[结论]阿苯达唑对肝包虫病有较好疗效,可做为包虫病首选治疗药物;B型超声检查可用于阿苯达唑治疗肝包虫病的疗效评价.%[Objective] To compare the outcomes of albendazole treatment in hepatic hydatid disease, to evaluate the al-bendazole efficacy of albendazole. [Methods] Adopted a prospective randomized research method, used the same methods in re-examination after 1 year for serological tests (ELISA) -positive and confirmed by B-ultrasound examination of liver hydatid disease who were treated with albendazole, according to the change of B-ultrasound and clinical symptoms, evaluated the treatment effects. [Results] The total effective rate of Albendazole treatment in hepatic echinococcosis was 83.70%.The efficiency rate of albendazole treatment on cystic echinococcosis was 83.90%, and on alveolar echinococcosis was 78.26%, by statistically testing the difference between the two diseases was not significant (χ2 = 0.186, P> 0.05); the efficiency rate of tablet treatment was 78.67%, and emulsion treatment was 89.69%, by statistically testing the difference between emulsion and tablets treatment was significant (χ2 = 14.08, P< 0.05); improvements of jaundice and ascites were obvious (χ2 = 8.08, P < 0

  2. Isolated Echinococcosis of cervical region

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    Pratima Khare

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Echinococcosis, commonly called as hydatid disease, is a parasitic infestation caused by the larva of the genus Echinococcus in human. Isolated occurrence of Echinococcosis without any evidence of visceral disease is very rare. A thorough search of the literature revealed only 11 cases of isolated cervical Echinococcosis. We report here a very rare case of isolated hydatid cyst in a 45-year-old female patient, who presented with swelling in right cervical region about 5 cm below the angle of mandible with no evidence of the disease elsewhere in the body. The case was diagnosed on fine needle aspiration cytology. The diagnosis was further supported by histopathology. We propose that the treating physician should also consider the differential diagnosis of Echinococcosis in the presence of an asymptomatic soft tissue mass, especially when the patient lives in an endemic area.

  3. 256层螺旋CT对肝泡性包虫切除术后门静脉的评价%256 slice spiral CT in the evaluation of portal vein of patients after resection of hepatic alveolar echinococcosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩淼; 鲍海华

    2016-01-01

    Objective:Using 256 slice spiral CT for hepatic alveolar echinococcosis hepatic portal vein imaging before and after resection,then to evaluate the situation of portal vein before and after the operation.Methods:We made a retrospective analysis of 20 patients with hepatic alveolar echinococcosis examined by liver CT examination.CT showed that the lesions were involved in 3 segments of the liver and above,the left and right branches or trunk of the portal vein were violated in different degrees,partial hepatectomy was performed in 20 patients,after 14~20 days performed the liver CT examination,we selected the portal phase of three period enhancement in liver to observe and evaluate,in order to compare the difference of portal vein before and after operation,measuring the diameter of the portal vein to judge the portal vein of patient and whether corresponding complications exist.Results:In 20 cases of patients before the surgery,5 patients with the left branch involved,12 patients with the right branch involved,3 patients with the both branches involved,in which 12 cases of patients with portal vein compression significantly,8 cases of patients with mild portal compression.The MSCT images showed after surgery that 20 cases of patients with portal pressure were improved,and the contrast agent filling well.The diameter measurement results showed that all patients’portal vein were broadening in different degrees,restored to normal level.Conclusion:Multi slice spiral CT can not only evaluate the preoperative portal vein in alveolar echinococcosis disease,providing operational information,but also can provide detailed imaging judgment on the recovery of residual liver portal vein after resection.%目的:利用256层螺旋CT对肝泡性包虫切除前后肝门静脉进行成像,进而对手术前后门脉情况进行评估。方法:回顾性分析行肝脏CT检查确诊为肝泡性包虫病患者20例,CT显示病灶均累及肝脏3段及以上,门脉左右支

  4. 手术联合阿苯达唑脂质体治疗晚期泡型肝包虫病%Surgery combined with albendazole liposomes for advanced hepatic alveolar echinococcosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵顺云; 郭亚民; 李冰

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨手术联合阿苯达唑脂质体治疗晚期泡型肝包虫病的效果及临床价值.方法 回顾性分析2002年1月至2013年1 1月71例晚期泡型肝包虫病患者临床资料.根据手术方式的不同及是否联合阿苯达唑脂质体治疗将患者分为四组进行分析比较.结果 术后随访时间最短5个月,最长44个月,单纯减体手术治疗组病死率为82.3% (14/17);减体手术+阿苯达唑治疗组病死率为52.3%(11/21);单纯根治手术治疗组病死率为28.5% (4/14);根治手术+阿苯达唑治疗组病死率为21.1%(4/19).根治术+阿苯达唑治疗组病死率与根治手术组及减体手术+阿苯达唑治疗组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);单纯根治手术组病死率与减体手术+阿苯达唑治疗组比较差异无统计学差异(P>0.05);单纯减体手术治疗组病死率与减体手术+阿苯达唑治疗组以及单纯根治手术组与根治术+阿苯达唑治疗组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 手术联合阿苯达唑脂质体治疗晚期泡型肝包虫病,可降低或减少患者术后复发的可能,提高患者生活质量和延长生命.%Objective To investigate the outcomes of surgery combined with albendazole liposomes in the treatment of advanced hepatic alveolar echinococcosis.Methods This is a retrospective study on 71 patients with advanced hepatic alveolar echinococcosis treated from January 2002 to November 2013.The patients were divided into 4 groups according to the surgical methods and whether surgery was combined with albendazole liposomes.Results On follow-up from 5 ~ 44 months,the mortality rates for the volume-reduction surgery group was 82.3%,the volume-reduction surgery + albendazole group 52.3%,the radical operation group 28.5%,and the radical operation + albendazole group 21.1%.The mortality rate of the radical operation + albendazole group,when compared with the radical operation group and the volume-reduction surgery

  5. Cystic echinococcosis of the liver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branci, Sonia; Ewertsen, Caroline; Thybo, Søren

    2012-01-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) of the liver can be treated with ultrasound-guided puncture, aspiration, injection, and re-aspiration (PAIR), with surgery and with benzimidazole derivatives. The aim of this study was to review available data concerning treatment modality and outcome for patients treat...

  6. Cystic echinococcosis of the liver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branci, Sonia; Ewertsen, Caroline; Thybo, Søren;

    2012-01-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) of the liver can be treated with ultrasound-guided puncture, aspiration, injection, and re-aspiration (PAIR), with surgery and with benzimidazole derivatives. The aim of this study was to review available data concerning treatment modality and outcome for patients treated...... for CE of the liver in a Danish tertiary reference center....

  7. Human Echinococcosis: A Neglected Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António Menezes da Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Echinococcosis is among the most neglected parasitic diseases. Development of new drugs and other treatment modalities receives very little attention, if any. In most developed countries, Cystic Echinococcosis (CE is an imported disease of very low incidence and prevalence and is found almost exclusively in migrants from endemic regions. In endemic regions, predominantly settings with limited resources, patient numbers are high. Whole communities do not have access to appropriate treatment. The choice of treatment modalities is limited because of poor infrastructure and shortage of equipment and drugs. In this context, CE meets the criteria for a neglected disease. Furthermore, the terminology related to the designations around the parasite, its evolution and some therapeutic procedures is not uniform and sometimes inappropriate terms and wrong designations are used based on incorrect concepts. Although all of us know the different aspects of the disease it is pertinent to remember some important points and, above all, to clarify some aspects concerning the hydatid cyst's nomenclature in order to understand better the therapeutic options in the liver locations, particularly the different surgical approaches.

  8. Echinococcosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Situations Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Weight Loss and Diet Plans Nutrients and Nutritional Info Sugar and Sugar Substitutes Exercise and Fitness Exercise Basics Sports Safety Injury Rehabilitation Emotional Well- ...

  9. [Diagnostics and surgery of combined lung echinococcosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vafin, A Z; Diad'kov, A V; Aĭdemirov, A N; Malanka, M I; Abdokov, A D

    2013-01-01

    An analysis of surgical treatment of 162 patients with lung echinococcosis was made. The main group consisted of 74 patients with combined forms of echinococcosis of the lung and other organs. They were treated in clinic in the period of time since 1982 till 2011 years. The control group included of 88 patients with echinococcosis of lung and the patients were followed-up in the period of time since 1991 till 2000. Plasma technology was applied in all patients of control group. The patients from main group (25) were operated by using the conventional methods and 49 patients - with the application of plasma technology. An analysis shows a reliable reduction of the rate of postoperative complications after application of plasma technology in 4 times. The lethality significantly decreased in this group of patients.

  10. Coproantigens in taeniasis and echinococcosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, James C; Craig, Philip S

    2006-01-01

    The application of modern immunodiagnostic or molecular diagnostic techniques has improved the diagnosis of the taeniid cestode infections, echinococcosis and taeniasis. One particularly promising approach is the detection of parasite-specific antigens in faeces (coproantigens). This approach has been applied to both Echinoccocus and Taenia species and it has gained increasingly widespread use. Taeniid coproantigen tests are based on either monoclonal or polyclonal antibodies raised against adult tapeworm antigens. These tests have the following common characteristics; they are largely genus-specific, specificity is high (>95%), parasite antigen can be detected in faeces weeks prior to patency, levels of coproantigen are independent of egg output, coproantigen is stable for days at a range of temperatures (-80 degrees C to 35 degrees C), for several months in formalin-fixed faecal samples, and coproantigen levels drop rapidly (1-5 days) following successful treatment. In the genus Taenia, most work has been done on Taenia solium and coproantigen tests have reliably detected many more tapeworm carriers than microscopy. For Echinococcus species, there is a broad positive correlation between test sensitivity and worm burden with a reliable threshold level for the test of >50 worms. Characterisation of taeniid coproantigens in order to further improve the tests is ongoing. Studies indicate taeniid coproantigens to include high molecular weight (>150 kDa), heavily glycosylated molecules with carbohydrate moieties contributing substantially to the levels of antigen detected in faeces. Application of the existing coproantigen tests in epidemiological and control programmes for Echinococcus and Taenia species infection has begun to contribute to an improved understanding of transmission and of surveillance of these important zoonotic cestodes.

  11. Cystic echinococcosis in Southern Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Shimol, Shalom; Sagi, Orli; Houri, Ohad; Bazarsky, Elina; Berkowitz, Anat; Bulkowstein, Shlomi; Barrett, Chiya; Greenberg, David

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this retrospective, population-based study was to characterize demographically and clinically cystic-echinococcosis (CE) in southern Israel, between 2005 and 2012. Newly-diagnosed (nd-CE) and past-diagnosed (pd-CE, diagnosed before the study) cases were defined. Two populations live in southern-Israel, receiving medical treatment at a single hospital: the Jewish and the Bedouin populations (resembling resource-rich and resource-poor populations, respectively). 126 CE cases were identified; 55 nd-CE and 71 pd-CE. Mean annual nd-CE incidence per 100,000 in the Bedouin and Jewish populations were 2.7 ± 1.2 and 0.4 ± 0.3, respectively (Pborn outside Israel. Liver and lung involvement were recorded in 85.7% and 15.1% of overall-CE, respectively. Abdominal pain, cough, fever, eosinophilia and asymptomatic disease were documented in 63.6%, 32.7%, 27.3%, 41.5% and 12.7% of nd-CE, respectively. Serology sensitivity for first test and any positive test were 67.3% and 83.3%, respectively. Computed tomography, ultrasonography and X-ray diagnosis were documented in 79.2%, 58.4% and 17.0% of overall-CE, respectively, with ultrasonography mainly used in liver-CE and X-ray in lung-CE. Treatment included surgery and albendazole in 50.0% and 55.3% of CE, respectively. We conclude that CE is endemic in southern-Israel among the Bedouin population, while disease is probably mainly imported in the Jewish population. Liver involvement and eosinophilia rates were high compared with those of other endemic regions, possibly due to differences in the timing of diagnosis. These findings may help developing treatment and prevention strategies.

  12. Polycystic echinococcosis in Pacas, Amazon region, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayor, Pedro; Baquedano, Laura E; Sanchez, Elisabeth; Aramburu, Javier; Gomez-Puerta, Luis A; Mamani, Victor J; Gavidia, Cesar M

    2015-03-01

    In the Peruvian Amazon, paca meat is consumed by humans. To determine human risk for polycystic echinococcosis, we examined wild pacas from 2 villages; 15 (11.7%) of 128 were infected with Echinococcus vogeli tapeworms. High E. vogeli prevalence among pacas indicates potential risk for humans living in E. vogeli-contaminated areas.

  13. Liver transplantation for alveolar echinococcosis in an endemic region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydinli, Bulent; Ozturk, Gurkan; Arslan, Sukru; Kantarci, Mecit; Tan, Onder; Ahıskalioglu, Ali; Özden, Kemalettin; Colak, Abdurrahim

    2015-08-01

    Alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is a chronic disease caused by ingestion of the eggs of the parasitic cestode Echinococcosis multilocularis (EM). In severe cases, liver transplantation (LT) may represent the only possibility of survival and cure. Patients undergoing LT associated with hepatic AE at our institution between April 2011 and October 2014 were investigated retrospectively. The clinical findings of the 27 patients who participated in the study were noted. Kaplan-Meier and chi-square tests were used to investigate the effect of these characteristics on survival and mortality. Living donor LT was performed on 20 patients (74.1%), and deceased donor LT was performed on 7 patients (25.9%). Hilar invasion was the most common indication (14 patients, 51.9%) for transplantation. The patient follow-up was 16.1 ± 11.4 months, and the overall survival rate was 77.8%. Primary nonfunction developed only in 2 patients in the posttransplantation period. Six patients died during monitoring, the most common cause of death being sepsis (3 patients). The relationship between the mortality rate of the patients and the invasion of the bile duct and/or portal vein by alveolar lesions was found to be statistically significant (P = 0.024 and P = 0.043, respectively). According to PNM staging, when the AE disease exceeds the resectability limits, the only alternative for the treatment of the disease is LT. However, different from LT due to cirrhosis, it is extremely difficult to perform a transplantation for AE disease because of the invasive characteristics of it. In order to decrease the difficulty of the operation and the postoperative mortality, the intracystic abscess and cholangitis which occur because of AE must be treated via medical and percutaneous methods before transplantation.

  14. An Autochthonous Case of Echinococcus vogeli Rausch & Bernstein, 1972 Polycystic Echinococcosis in the State of Rondônia, Brazil

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    Rosângela Rodrigues-Silva

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The present case report refers to a patient from the State of Rondônia, North region of Brazil, attended with clinical suspicion of hepatic echinococcosis. Examination by imaging (ultrasonography and computerized tomography revealed a conglomerate of cystic lesions, with mobile contents within the cyst. The serology (immunoblot for Echinococcus sp. was positive (21 and 31 kDa bands. This case is the first reported in Rondônia, suggesting the need to investigate the polycystic echinococcosis in individuals with hepatic cysts from areas of tropical forest and hunting habits where wild life was present as wild dogs, cats and rodents, particularly Agouti paca (paca and Dasyprocta aguti (agouti.

  15. 终末期肝泡型包虫病自体肝移植术后服用阿苯达唑脂质体的护理%Clinical Nursing for Patients with End-staged Hepatic Alveolar Echinococcosis Followed by taking Liposomal Albendazole after Autotransplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘兴雯; 高利群; 胡静; 赵萍; 王理瑛

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨终末期肝泡型包虫病自体肝移植术后服用抗包虫药物阿苯达唑脂质体的临床护理特点。方法回顾性分析我院自2010年~2013年收治的11例终末期肝泡型包虫病患者,在实施了体外肝切除、自体肝移植术后服用阿苯达唑脂质体预防包虫病复发及临床安全用药的护理指导体会。结果本研究中所有11例体外肝切除、自体肝移植患者均于术后肝肾功能恢复正常后服用阿苯达唑脂质体药物治疗,除1例3个月后随访时已不明原因死亡外,其余10例自体肝移植患者均长期服药治疗,在我们的术后临床用药指导下,患者心理及服药护理、饮食护理以及不良反应护理均无严重并发症出现。结论体外肝切除、自体肝移植术后阿苯达唑脂质体药物的有效护理可以减少患者的心理忧虑,积极地配合治疗,有效减少不良反应的发生,增强患者恢复健康的信心。%Objective To explore features of clinical nursing for patients with end-staged hepatic alveolar echinococcosis, who taking liposomal albendazole after surgery of autotransplantation.Methods We analyzed 11 cases with end-staged hepatic alveolar echinococcosis from 2010 to 2013 retrospectively, those patients took liposomal albendazole after Ex vivo liver resection followed by autotransplantation for protecting recurrence of alveolar echioncoccosis, we summed nursing guidance for safe usage of liposomal albendazole and how to control its.Results All 11 cases taking liposomal albendazole after function of liver and kidney being normal followed by autotransplantation. Except for 1 case dead for unknown reason after 3 months follow-up, 10 cases taking liposomal albendazole for a long-time, under our postoperative guidance of clinical drug, there are no serious complications about patients' nursing of psychology, drug, diet and adverse reaction.Conclusion Effective nursing for patients taking liposomal

  16. Comparison of the serological tests ICT and ELISA for the diagnosis of alveolar echinococcosis in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Jenny; Sako, Yasuhito; Grenouillet, Frédéric; Bresson-Hadni, Solange; Richou, Carine; Gbaguidi-Haore, Houssein; Ito, Akira; Millon, Laurence

    2014-01-01

    Serological diagnosis of alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is a key element for efficient patient treatment management. A rapid immunochromatography test kit (ICT) using the recombinant Em18 antigen (rEm18) was recently developed. The aim of our study was to assess this test on a panel of sera from French patients with alveolar echinococcosis and control patients. In a blind test, a total of 112 serum samples were tested including samples of AE (n = 30), cystic echinococcosis [CE] (n = 15), and polycystic echinococcosis [PE] (n = 1). For the comparison, 66 sera from patients with hepatocarcinoma, fascioliasis, toxocariasis, Caroli's disease, or autoimmune chronic active hepatitis were used. The diagnostic test sets we used were the rEm18-ICT and two validated ELISAs with rEm18 and Em2-Em18 antigens, respectively. For the ICT, 27/30 sera from AE patients, 4/15 sera from CE patients and the PE patient serum were positive. One serum from the control panel (toxocariasis) was positive for the ICT. The rEm18-ICT sensitivity (90.0%) and specificity (92.7%) for detection of Em18-specific antibodies confirmed it as a relevant tool for AE diagnosis. The rEm18-ELISA had a sensitivity of 86.7% and specificity of 91.5%, and the Em2-Em18-ELISA had a sensitivity of 96.7% and specificity of 87.8%. However, when AE patient sera are recorded as weak in intensity with the ICT, we recommend a double reading and use of a reference sample if the ICT is used for patient follow-up.

  17. [Echinococcosis in the Nenets Autonomous Okrug].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ageeva, N G

    1989-01-01

    The paper presents results of an immunological screening of the population from the Nenets Autonomous Okrug of the Arkhangelsk region for echinococcosis. A high level (8.4 +/- 1.0%) of seropositivity of the population has been found to Echinococcus antigens. Occupational groups, such as reindeer-breeders, domestic servants in the tent of skins, hunters, fur-farmers, furriers) have been identified to be mostly at high risk for Echinococcus infection. Some animal species have been demonstrated to be implicated in the epidemiology of echinococcosis. The most likely source of human granulosus Echinococcus invasion is a dog whose mature Echinococcus infection rate is 5.8 +/- 3.2%, that of multilocularis Echinococcus is a polar fox whose infection rate is 40.3 +/- 4.3%.

  18. Cardiac echinococcosis--a rare echocardiographic diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siwach, S. B.; Katyal, V. K.; Jagdish

    1997-01-01

    A 30 year old female admitted for evaluation of left chest pain was suspected to have multiple cardiac hydatid cysts. The diagnosis was established by cross sectional echocardiography and computed tomography, supported by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for echinococcosis. Medical therapy altered the echopattern of the cysts but failed to reduce cystic masses. Surgery was advocated but refused by the patient. Images PMID:9155623

  19. Cystic echinococcosis in Greece. Past and present*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotiraki S.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Cystic echinococcosis is a zoonotic disease with a wide geographical distribution, Greece included, and is considered to be a serious problem for the public health and the livestock economy. Although the disease was widespread in Greece since ancient times, cystic echinococcosis was identified as a serious problem around 1970, and since then national surveillance programmes are running, based on meat inspection and stray dogs management. Ever since, there are official records of the parasite’s prevalence in humans and livestock which show a continuous decline. More precisely, human hydatidosis, according to the official records, declines from an annual incidence of 14.8 per 100,000 inhabitants during 1967-1971 to 0.3 in 2008. Late surveys reveal that in Greece the prevalence of echinococcosis was 23-39.2 % for sheep, 7.6-14.7 % for goats, 0 % in cattle and 0.6 % in pigs, while further molecular analyses in Southern Greece showed the existence of the genotypes G1 and G3 in sheep and G7 in goats in that area. All data presented demonstrate that the parasite is still present in Greece. Surveillance is nowadays being performed under EU regulations but it is highly important to improve and adopt corrective and preventive measures to avoid animal and human infection.

  20. “Cutting hepatectomy” for treatment of advanced giant hepatic alveolar echinococcosis:a re- port of 9 cases%“掏核式肝切除法”治疗晚期巨大肝泡型包虫病9例临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗兰云; 姚豫桐; 邹海波; 骆乐; 王冠; 薛华; 黄孝伦

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical therapeutic effect of “cutting hepatectomy” on advanced huge hepatic alveo-lar echinococcosis ( HAE) .Methods The clinical data of nine patients with advanced giant HAE and with difficulty to achieve radical resection who underwent “cutting hepatectomy” from August 2010 to July 2013 were analyzed .For all patients ,preserve liver important pipeline and resection of the lesion tissue were performed during operation ,and anti-echinococcosis therapy was initiated postoperatively with oral administration of albendazole (ABZ).Results Operations were successfully performed in all the patients .The operative time was 140~370 min with average of(261.11 ±76.56)min.The intraoperative blood loss was 100~700 ml with average of (373.33 ± 173.71)ml.The hospital stay time was 11~38d with average of(22.44 ±9.23)d.During the 3 years of follow-up,3 patients had a re-sidual cavity biliary fistula and 1 patient had a deep vein thrombosis after operation .Patients with obstructive jaundice and edema of lower extremity were disappeared without the occurrence of lesions in patients with intrahepatic metastasis or death .Conclusion The"Cutting hepatectomy"provides a feasible technical approach for the treatment of advanced giant HAE when it is difficult to implement radical treatment .It is worth the clinical promotion .%目的:探讨“掏核式肝切除法”治疗晚期巨大肝泡型包虫病的临床应用价值。方法2010年8月至2013年7月9例难以常规根治性切除的巨大肝泡型包虫病行“掏核式肝切除法”手术,术中保留肝脏重要管道,并尽可能切除病灶组织,术后给予口服阿苯达唑(ABZ)抗包虫治疗。结果9例患者手术顺利,手术历时140~370 min[(261.11±76.56)min];术中出血量100~700 ml[(373.33±173.71)ml];住院时间11~38 d[(22.44±9.23)d]。随访3年,3例患者出现残腔胆瘘,1例术后出现深静脉血栓。患者

  1. Human cystic echinococcosis in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Mogoye

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Cystic echinococcosis (CE is caused by the tapeworm, Echinococcus granulosus. The tapeworms resides in the small intestines of canids and the lifecycle involves both intermediate and definitive hosts. Humans are accidental intermediate hosts. Cystic echinococcosis is an economically important infection constituting a threat to public health, and is considered an emerging disease around the world. There are at least 10 Echinococcus strain types (G1 – G10, each exhibiting diversity of morphology, development and host range. The epidemiology of CE is poorly understood in South Africa. A retrospective data analysis of the National Health Laboratory Service (NHLS laboratory information system on echinococcosis serology, microscopy and histopathology results in eight provinces (excluding KwaZula-Natal showed an overall positivity rate in submitted diagnostic samples of 17.0% (1056/6211, with the Eastern Cape (30.4%, North West (19.0% and Northern Cape (18.0% provinces showing highest rates. The data showed considerable variability between provinces. The review also showed that most proven cases were negative on serology, implying that the actual number of patients could be underestimated. To our knowledge, no data exist about the prevalent strains of E. granulosus and this prospective study will attempt to fill that gap. The aim is to genotype strains causing the disease in South Africa. Two different polymerase chain reaction (PCR methods will be used to respectively target the 12S rRNA and nad 1 genes. To date, three samples have been genotyped as G1, G5 and G6; suggesting diversity of strains prevalent in the country, but more data is needed for a clearer picture.

  2. 阿苯达唑联合西咪替丁治疗肝包虫病的疗效观察%The curative effect of albendazole combined with cimetidine in the treatment of hepatic echinococcosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盛篧; 汤治平; 周芳; 杨统升

    2016-01-01

    Objective To observe the clinical effect of albendazole combined with cimetidine in the treatment of hepatic hydatid disease.Methods 60 cases with liver hydatid disease from 2010 to 2014 wrer selected,and they were randomly divided into two groups,30 cases in each group.The control group was treated with albendazole tablets,2 times daily,2 capsules/time.The treatment group was intravenously injected cimetidine based on the treatment of the control group.Before and after treatment,the ultrasound imaging changes and clinical effect were observed.Results In the control group,the total effective rate was 83.33%(25 /30).In the treatment group, the total effective rate was 96.67%(29 /30).The total effective rate between the two groups had statistically signifi-cant difference(χ2 =9.842,P <0.01).Conclusion Albendazole combined with cimetidine in treatment of hepatic hydatid disease has good curative effect,which can be viewed as first choice in the treatment of hydatid disease.%目的:观察阿苯达唑联合西咪替丁治疗肝包虫病的临床效果。方法选取2010-2014年收治的肝包虫病患者60例,采用数字表法随机分为两组,每组各30例,对照组给予阿苯达唑片治疗,2次/d,2粒/次。治疗组在对照组的基础上联合西咪替丁静脉滴注治疗。观察治疗前后超声影像变化及临床效果。结果对照组总有效率为83.33%(25/30),治疗组总有效率96.67%(29/30),两组总有效率差异有统计学意义(χ2=9.842,P <0.01)。结论阿苯达唑联合西咪替丁治疗肝包虫病有较好疗效,可作为包虫病首选治疗药物。

  3. Detection of canine echinococcosis by coproantigen ELISA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DeS; PanD; BeraAK; SreevatsavaV; DasSK; DasS; RanaT; BandyopadhyayS; BhattacharyaD

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To study the canine echinococcosis by coproantigen ELISA method. Methods:During the present investigation experimental infection was established using evaginated worms of Echinococcus granulosus (E. granulosus). To check cross reactivity two pups were infected with Taenia hydatigena(T. hydatigena). In order to detect the presence of antigen, hyperimmune sera were raised against excretory-secretory products of adult worms E. chinococcus granulosus. Faecal sample collected either from experimentally infected pups or from other sources were heated at 70℃to detect heat stable soluble antigen. Results:Pups harbouring less than 104 worms showed negative results. Samples collected from 14 days onwards from experimentally infected animals harbouring more than 104 worms showed positive value. The maximum positive samples were detected in samples collected from in and around slaughter house and the least number of samples were detected positive maintained by dog squad. Conclusions:The affinity purified IgG exhibited promising results for detection of canine echinococcosis by indirect ELISA.

  4. Taeniasis, cysticercosis and echinococcosis in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waikagul, Jitra; Dekumyoy, Paron; Anantaphruti, Malinee T

    2006-01-01

    Taeniasis is one of the major food-borne parasitic zoonoses in Thailand. During the years 1957-1997, the prevalence was low in most parts of the country. Recent (2000-2005) country prevalence was lower than 1%. A high prevalence (5.9%) was found among 1450 villagers from 30 villages in the North, and among 1233 stool samples from 19 provinces in the Northeast (2.8%). Taenia saginata was the dominant species. Cysticercosis in Thailand is somewhat under-reported/recorded. During the period 1965-2005, diagnosis was based on techniques other than serodiagnosis, giving a total of cysticercosis cases of less than 500. However, an immunoblot technique using delipidized cyst antigen showed 314 positive cases out of 754 samples tested in 2000-2005. Reports of neurocysticercosis appeared more often than cutaneous cysticercosis. A total of 24 cases of echinococcosis, mostly hydatid cysts (only 2 cases of alveolar cysts), were recorded during 1936-2005. These records included 3 cases of foreigners seeking surgery in hospitals in Bangkok. Most Thai patients were migrant workers from the Middle East, and only a few cases were indigenous. The prevalence of cysticercosis and echinococcosis is increasing resulting from sensitive modern diagnostic tests. Taeniasis will persist in Thailand as the consumption of raw/half-cooked meat dishes is still a normal practice for Thai people.

  5. 肝脏泡球蚴病311例分析及超声影象分型标准探讨%Criterion for Classification of Hepatic Ultrasound Images Based on Analysis of 311 Alveolar Echinococcosis Cases in Sichuan,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李调英; 邱加闽; 陈兴旺; Philip S.Criag; Akira Ito; 杨文; 肖宁; 郁文

    2005-01-01

    目的了解肝泡球蚴病的超声特征和流行病学特点,提出肝泡球蚴病的超声分型.方法对19972003年四川西部311例泡球蚴病的B超影象学和流行病学资料进行分析.结果 311例泡球蚴病中,24.1%病灶>10 cm,32.8%伴病灶中央液化坏死,21.9%肝内发现多个病灶.根据B超影象学特征将肝泡球蚴病分为3型和8个亚型,不同的型及亚型提示疾病所处的不同时期及治疗依据.流行病学分析显示牧民是该病的高危人群,占80.1%,且女性多于男性.高发年龄段是>3040岁.该病的感染与是否养狗、接触狗的频率、引用的水源以及相关的不卫生习惯有关.结论分型标准的提出为评估各流行区泡球蚴病的流行程度和控制措施提供了依据.%Objective To analyse the characteristics of human alveolar echinococcosis(AE) cases in ultrasound images and epidemiology and to establish a criterion for classification of hepatic ultrasound images of AE. Method Data on 311 AE cases detected out from mass abdominal ultrasound screening in western Sichuan during 1997-2003 were analysed.Result Among 311 AE cases,24.1%(75/311)had lessions larger than 10.0 cm,32.8%(102/311)had lessions characterized by space-occupying mass with central necrotic fluid,and 21.9%(68/311)had multiple masses in the liver.AE ultrasound images were classified into 3 types and 8 sub-types. Different types suggest the AE cases in different stages while different sub-types will offer further information applicable to selection of appropriate treatment. Epidemiological analysis showed that herdsmen constituted the majority of infected persons (80.1%) and the proportion of infected females was higher than that of males. The highest proportion (20.9%) was detected in persons with age group of>3040 years. Infection was associated with the practice of raising and handling dogs, drinking water from unsafe sources and related unhealthy habits. Conclusion Criterion for classification of

  6. Control programme for cystic echinococcosis in Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Irabedra

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cystic echinococcosis is a highly endemic parasitic zoonosis that is present in the Southern Cone countries of America. For several decades, various prevention and control programmes have been implemented in different countries and regions, with varying results. In Uruguay, a new control programme was implemented in 2006 that employed new strategies for canine diagnosis and treatment, dog population control, diagnosis in humans, epidemiological surveillance, and health education, including community participation. The control programme in Uruguay addresses the control and surveillance of the disease from a holistic perspective based on Primary Health Care, which has strengthened the community’s participation in developing and coordinating activities in an interdisciplinary manner. Similarly, the control programme that is currently implemented is based on a risk-focused approach. The surveillance and control measures were focused on small villages and extremely poor urban areas. In this study, the strategies used and the results obtained from 2008-2013 are analysed and discussed.

  7. Control programme for cystic echinococcosis in Uruguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irabedra, Pilar; Ferreira, Ciro; Sayes, Julio; Elola, Susana; Rodríguez, Miriam; Morel, Noelia; Segura, Sebastian; dos Santos, Estela; Guisantes, Jorge A

    2016-01-01

    Cystic echinococcosis is a highly endemic parasitic zoonosis that is present in the Southern Cone countries of America. For several decades, various prevention and control programmes have been implemented in different countries and regions, with varying results. In Uruguay, a new control programme was implemented in 2006 that employed new strategies for canine diagnosis and treatment, dog population control, diagnosis in humans, epidemiological surveillance, and health education, including community participation. The control programme in Uruguay addresses the control and surveillance of the disease from a holistic perspective based on Primary Health Care, which has strengthened the community’s participation in developing and coordinating activities in an interdisciplinary manner. Similarly, the control programme that is currently implemented is based on a risk-focused approach. The surveillance and control measures were focused on small villages and extremely poor urban areas. In this study, the strategies used and the results obtained from 2008-2013 are analysed and discussed. PMID:27223652

  8. Control programme for cystic echinococcosis in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irabedra, Pilar; Ferreira, Ciro; Sayes, Julio; Elola, Susana; Rodríguez, Miriam; Morel, Noelia; Segura, Sebastian; Santos, Estela Dos; Guisantes, Jorge A

    2016-05-24

    Cystic echinococcosis is a highly endemic parasitic zoonosis that is present in the Southern Cone countries of America. For several decades, various prevention and control programmes have been implemented in different countries and regions, with varying results. In Uruguay, a new control programme was implemented in 2006 that employed new strategies for canine diagnosis and treatment, dog population control, diagnosis in humans, epidemiological surveillance, and health education, including community participation. The control programme in Uruguay addresses the control and surveillance of the disease from a holistic perspective based on Primary Health Care, which has strengthened the community's participation in developing and coordinating activities in an interdisciplinary manner. Similarly, the control programme that is currently implemented is based on a risk-focused approach. The surveillance and control measures were focused on small villages and extremely poor urban areas. In this study, the strategies used and the results obtained from 2008-2013 are analysed and discussed.

  9. Hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    930140 Hepatocyte stimulator peptide and itsclinical significance in viral hepatitis.ZHOUWeiping(周卫平),et al.Instit Viral Hepatitis,Chongqing Med Univ,630010.Chin J InternMed 1992;31(10):626-628.Hepatocyte stimulator peptide(HSP)is anewly developed hepatic stimulator substance.Its monoclonal antibodies have been obtained inour laboratory.In this study,HSP was deter-mined in the sera of 315 subjects including pa-

  10. Hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    2010349 Relationships between serum hepatitis B virus load in mothers,free maternal DNA in peripheral blood of newborns and hepatitis B virus infection of newborns. WEI Junni(魏俊妮),et al. Dept Epidemiol,Shanxi Med Univ,Taiyuan 030001. Chin J Infect Dis 2010;28(5):297-300. Objective To study the relationships between serum hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA level

  11. Case studies emphasising the difficulties in the diagnosis and management of alveolar echinococcosis in rural China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gray Darren J

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human alveolar echinococcosis (AE is caused by the accidental ingestion of the eggs of the fox tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis. AE occurs frequently in rural western China due to the poor levels of hygiene, the close contact of people with dogs, and the lack of appropriate facilities for the correct and rapid diagnosis of the disease. Findings We describe a case of a patient with hepatic AE, and AE metastases of the brain. She was mistakenly diagnosed with suspected undifferentiated metastatic cancer of the liver and brain, and with a pulmonary bacterial infection, but was subsequently correctly diagnosed during a follow-up field survey for echinococcosis. The diagnosis of brain AE was confirmed by pathological examination of tissue biopsies removed during neurosurgery. We also briefly describe other symptomatic and asymptomatic AE cases, identified by chance, likely due to the inadequate facilities available in rural communities in China for AE diagnosis and management, since the rapid and accurate diagnosis of metastatic AE requires a high level of expertise in the appropriate diagnostic procedures. Conclusions This report highlights the necessity for an upgrade in the diagnosis, treatment, prevention and control of AE in rural China.

  12. Cystic echinococcosis in slaughtered domestic ruminants from Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahmar, S; Trifi, M; Ben Naceur, S; Bouchhima, T; Lahouar, N; Lamouchi, I; Maâmouri, N; Selmi, R; Dhibi, M; Torgerson, P R

    2013-09-01

    A total of 10,818 domestic ruminants (3913 cattle, 2722 sheep, 3779 goats, 404 dromedaries) slaughtered in various abattoirs in Tunisia between 2003 and 2010 were examined for the presence of Echinococcus granulosus hydatid cysts. The prevalence of cystic echinococcosis (CE) was 16.42% in sheep, 8.56% in cattle, 5.94% in dromedaries and 2.88% in goats. CE prevalence increased with age according to an asymptotic model and there was evidence of variation in infection pressure depending on the region of Tunisia where the animals were slaughtered. Cattle appeared to have the highest infection pressure of the species examined. The mean intensity of hepatic cysts was higher than that of pulmonary cysts in all species. The highest mean intensity of infection with E. granulosus larvae was observed in cattle (18.14) followed by sheep (9.58), goats (2.31) and dromedaries (2.12). The abundance of infection increased in a linear fashion with age in all animal species. Cyst abundance varied with species of animal and district of Tunisia. Cysts from dromedaries were more fertile (44.44%) than those from sheep (30.25%), goats (30.32%) and cattle (0.95%). The viability of the protoscoleces from fertile cysts from cattle (78.45%) was higher than those from sheep (70.71%) and camels (69.57%). The lowest protoscolex viability was recorded for hydatid cysts from goats (20.21%). This epidemiological study confirms the importance of CE in all domestic ruminant species, particularly in sheep, throughout Tunisia and emphasizes the need to interrupt parasite transmission by preventive integrated approaches in a CE control programme.

  13. Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... inflammation of the liver.” This inflammation can be caused by a wide variety of toxins, drugs, and metabolic diseases, as well as infection. There are at least 5 hepatitis viruses. Hepatitis A is contracted when a child eats food or drinks water that is contaminated with the virus or has ...

  14. Hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    970349 Primary structure and variability of partialsequences in nonstructural gene 5 region of hepatitis Gvirus, CHANG Jinhong(常锦红), et al. Hepatol Instis,People’s Hosp, Beijing Med Univ, Beijing, 100044. NatlMed J China 1997; 77(3): 178-182. Objective: To sequence partial genome of hepatitis G

  15. Hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    2009209 Effects of chronic hepatitis B virus infection on human hepatic cytochrome P450 2C9.ZHO Fuping(周福平),et al.Dept Infect Dis,Shanghai Changzheng Hosp,Shanghai 200003.Chin J Infect Dis,2009;27(2):94-98.

  16. Hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1992-01-01

    920691 The determination of serum hepa-titis B virus DNA by polymerase chain rea-ction in hepatitis B patients treated withalpha-interferon. XU. Jianye(徐建业), et al.Centr Lab, Chongqing Cancer Instit, 630030.Chin J Intern Med, 1992; 31(5): 278-280. To clarify the status of HBV in serum of

  17. [Pulmonary echinococcosis, hepatic opisthorchiasis and generalized trichinelliasis combined with pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akimov, O V

    1993-01-01

    A case is reported of a spontaneous abortion (25 weeks of gestation) in a Nenets woman resulting in thrombohemorrhagic syndrome and profuse uterine bleeding. The abortion is attributed to drastic allergization by three parasites: Echinococcus granulosus, Opisthorchis felineus, Trichinella spiralis.

  18. Hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    2005226 Characteristics of peripheral blood T lymphocyte subsets in hepatitis B patients. FAN Zhen-ping(范振平),et al. Center Bio Ther, Instit Infect Dis, 302 Hosp Chin PLA, Beijing 100039. World Chin J Digestol, 2005;13(2): 194-197. Objective: To characterize the T-lymphocyte subsets in peripheral blood of patients with acute and chronic hepatitis B, and to explore their relations with the disease state. Methods: Peripheral blood

  19. Economic impact of cystic echinococcosis in peru.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro L Moro

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cystic echinococcosis (CE constitutes an important public health problem in Peru. However, no studies have attempted to estimate the monetary and non-monetary impact of CE in Peruvian society. METHODS: We used official and published sources of epidemiological and economic information to estimate direct and indirect costs associated with livestock production losses and human disease in addition to surgical CE-associated disability adjusted life years (DALYs lost. FINDINGS: The total estimated cost of human CE in Peru was U.S.$2,420,348 (95% CI:1,118,384-4,812,722 per year. Total estimated livestock-associated costs due to CE ranged from U.S.$196,681 (95% CI:141,641-251,629 if only direct losses (i.e., cattle and sheep liver destruction were taken into consideration to U.S.$3,846,754 (95% CI:2,676,181-4,911,383 if additional production losses (liver condemnation, decreased carcass weight, wool losses, decreased milk production were accounted for. An estimated 1,139 (95% CI: 861-1,489 DALYs were also lost due to surgical cases of CE. CONCLUSIONS: This preliminary and conservative assessment of the socio-economic impact of CE on Peru, which is based largely on official sources of information, very likely underestimates the true extent of the problem. Nevertheless, these estimates illustrate the negative economic impact of CE in Peru.

  20. Recombinant antigens for immunodiagnosis of cystic echinococcosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jun

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Three cDNAs, termed EpC1, TPxEg and EgG5, were isolated by immunoscreening from an Echinococcus granulosus cDNA library. The recombinant phages exhibited strong reactivity with sera from humans with confirmed cystic echinococcosis (CE and with sera from mice infected with E. granulosus oncospheres. The cDNAs were subcloned into a pET vector, expressed as fusion proteins tagged with GST and affinity purified against the GST tag. Of the three recombinant proteins, EpC1 achieved the highest performance for serodiagnosis of CE in Western blot analysis using a panel of clinically defined human sera to initially address the sensitivity and specificity of the molecules. The protein yielded an overall sensitivity of 92.2% and specificity of 95.6%, levels unprecedented taking into account the large panel of 896 human sera that were tested. The strategy used may also prove suitable for improved immunodiagnosis of other parasitic infections.

  1. Economic Impact of Cystic Echinococcosis in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro, Pedro L.; Budke, Christine M.; Schantz, Peter M.; Vasquez, Julio; Santivañez, Saul J.; Villavicencio, Jaime

    2011-01-01

    Background Cystic echinococcosis (CE) constitutes an important public health problem in Peru. However, no studies have attempted to estimate the monetary and non-monetary impact of CE in Peruvian society. Methods We used official and published sources of epidemiological and economic information to estimate direct and indirect costs associated with livestock production losses and human disease in addition to surgical CE-associated disability adjusted life years (DALYs) lost. Findings The total estimated cost of human CE in Peru was U.S.$2,420,348 (95% CI:1,118,384–4,812,722) per year. Total estimated livestock-associated costs due to CE ranged from U.S.$196,681 (95% CI:141,641–251,629) if only direct losses (i.e., cattle and sheep liver destruction) were taken into consideration to U.S.$3,846,754 (95% CI:2,676,181–4,911,383) if additional production losses (liver condemnation, decreased carcass weight, wool losses, decreased milk production) were accounted for. An estimated 1,139 (95% CI: 861–1,489) DALYs were also lost due to surgical cases of CE. Conclusions This preliminary and conservative assessment of the socio-economic impact of CE on Peru, which is based largely on official sources of information, very likely underestimates the true extent of the problem. Nevertheless, these estimates illustrate the negative economic impact of CE in Peru. PMID:21629731

  2. Hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    2008312 Impact of hepatitis B virus infection on the activity of hematopoietic stem cell.SHI Yanmei(石雁梅),et al.Dept Infect Dis,1st Clin Coll,Harbin Med Univ,Harbin 150001.Chin J Infect Dis 2008;26(4):197-201.Objective To study the impact of hepatitis B virus (HBV)infection on the activity of cord hematopoieticstem cells.Methods CD34+cells were isolated from healthy human cord blood by mini MACS.Cells were

  3. Hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    2008449 A cross-sectional survey of occult hepatitis B virus infection in HIV-infected patients. MA Jianxin(马建新), et al.Dept Infect Dis, Shanghai Public Health Clin Center, Shanghai 201508. Chin J Intern Med 2008;47(7):574-577. Objective To assess the prevalence of occult HBV infection in HIV-infected patients.

  4. The role of calcification for staging cystic echinococcosis (CE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosch, Waldemar; Kauffmann, Guenter W. [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Stojkovic, Marija; Junghanss, Thomas [University Hospital of Heidelberg, Section of Clinical Tropical Medicine, Heidelberg (Germany); Jaenisch, Thomas [University Hospital of Heidelberg, Section of Clinical Tropical Medicine, Heidelberg (Germany); University Hospital of Heidelberg, Section of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2007-10-15

    The prevalence of calcified cysts and the significance of calcification as a sign of cyst inactivity in cystic echinococcosis (CE) was evaluated. Seventy-eight patients (36 females, 42 males, mean age 40.8 {+-} 16.9 years) with CE, having a total of 137 abdominal cysts (116 hepatic, three splenic, one renal and 17 peritoneal cysts), were diagnosed and followed-up by ultrasound during and after albendazole treatment or as part of the watch-and-wait approach recording changes in the cyst wall and content. In 48 patients with 94 cysts, computed tomography (CT) imaging was additionally available and was correlated with ultrasound findings. Cyst wall calcification was classified into (1) ''sprinkled'', (2) ''eggshell-like'', and (3) ''circular''. Calcification of the cyst wall and/or cyst content was detected in 67 echinococcal cysts (48.9% of all cysts) in 39 patients (15 females, 24 males, mean age 40.8 {+-} 14.8 years). Of the total of 67 calcified cysts, only 23 were compatible with WHO type CE5, 18 with WHO type CE4. Judged by cyst content, the remaining 26 were of WHO type CE1, CE2 and CE3 (n = 1, n = 8, and n = 17, respectively). During a mean period of 34.3 months ({+-}21.3 months) the majority of cysts (n = 32) did not exhibit any change in cyst content and wall properties. Fourteen cysts showed signs of progressive involution, five cysts (all of WHO type CE3) of renewed activity defined by recurring fluid collection. In 16 cysts, no follow-up was available due to surgery or drop out. Calcification of the cyst is not restricted to the inactive WHO cyst types CE4 and CE5, but occurs in all stages and in up to 50% of cysts. The completeness and, most importantly, the stability of consolidation of cyst content over time predicts cyst inactivity more reliably. (orig.)

  5. Alveolar echinococcosis localized in the liver, lung and brain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seyit Mehmet Kayacan; Kutigin Turkmen; Fatih Yakar; Kerim Guier; Sezai Vatansever; Suleyman Temiz; Bora Uslu; Dilek Kayacan; Vakur Akkaya; Osman Erk; Büent Saka; Aytac Karadag

    2008-01-01

    @@ Echinococcosis is a parasitic disease caused by the larval forms of echinococci. It has two main forms as the unilocular cystic form that is more commonly seen and caused by E. granulosus and the alveolar form that is rarely seen and caused by E.

  6. Hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    2008079 Relationship of HBV genotype and bcp and pc mutations with HBV DNA rebound after lamivudine therapy. SU Minghua(苏明华), et al. Dept Infect Dis Clin Hosp, Guangxi Med Univ, Nanning 530027. World Chin J Digestol 2007;15(33):3507-3513. Objective To investigate the relationship of HBV gene mutations with HBV DNA rebound after lamivudine therapy. Methods Twenty-seven hepatitis B patients with HBV DNA rebound after

  7. Host-Parasite Relationship in Cystic Echinococcosis: An Evolving Story

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Siracusano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus causes cystic echinococcosis, a neglected infectious disease that constitutes a major public health problem in developing countries. Despite being under constant barrage by the immune system, E. granulosus modulates antiparasite immune responses and persists in the human hosts with detectable humoral and cellular responses against the parasite. In vitro and in vivo immunological approaches, together with molecular biology and immunoproteomic technologies, provided us exciting insights into the mechanisms involved in the initiation of E. granulosus infection and the consequent induction and regulation of the immune response. Although the last decade has clarified many aspects of host-parasite relationship in human cystic echinococcosis, establishing the full mechanisms that cause the disease requires more studies. Here, we review some of the recent developments and discuss new avenues in this evolving story of E. granulosus infection in man.

  8. Immunology and Immunodiagnosis of Cystic Echinococcosis: An Update

    OpenAIRE

    Wenbao Zhang; Hao Wen; Jun Li; Renyong Lin; McManus, Donald P.

    2012-01-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a cosmopolitan zoonosis caused by the larval cystic stage of the dog tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus. This complex multicellular pathogen produces various antigens which modulate the host immune response and promote parasite survival and development. The recent application of modern molecular and immunological approaches has revealed novel insights on the nature of the immune responses generated during the course of a hydatid infection, although many aspects of ...

  9. Alveolar echinococcosis: spectrum of findings at cross-sectional imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantarci, Mecit; Bayraktutan, Ummugulsum; Karabulut, Nevzat; Aydinli, Bulent; Ogul, Hayri; Yuce, Ihsan; Calik, Muhammet; Eren, Suat; Atamanalp, Sabri Selcuk; Oto, Aytekin

    2012-01-01

    Alveolar echinococcosis is a rare parasitic disease caused by the fox tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis, which is endemic in many parts of the world. Without timely diagnosis and therapy, the prognosis is dismal, with death the eventual outcome in most cases. Diagnosis is usually based on findings at radiologic imaging and in serologic analyses. Because echinococcal lesions can occur almost anywhere in the body, familiarity with the spectrum of cross-sectional imaging appearances is advantageous. Echinococcal lesions may produce widely varied imaging appearances depending on the parasite's growth stage, the tissues or organs affected, and the presence of associated complications. Although the liver is the initial site of mass infestation by E multilocularis, the parasite may disseminate from there to other organs and tissues, such as the lung, heart, brain, bones, and ligaments. In severe infestations, the walls of the bile ducts and blood vessels may be invaded. Disseminated parasitic lesions in unusual locations with atypical imaging appearances may make it difficult to narrow the differential diagnosis. Ultrasonography, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with standard and diffusion-weighted sequences, and MR cholangiopancreatography all provide useful information and play complementary roles in detecting and characterizing echinococcal lesions. Cross-sectional imaging is crucial for differentiating echinococcosis from malignant processes: CT is most useful for depicting the peripheral calcifications surrounding established echinococcal cysts, and MR imaging is most helpful for identifying echinococcosis of the central nervous system.

  10. Study on the echinococcosis blood serum detection based on Raman spectroscopy combined with neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jin-ying; Xu, Liang; Lü, Guo-dong; Tang, Jun; Mo, Jia-qing; Lü, Xiao-yi; Gao, Zhi-xian

    2017-01-01

    A Raman spectroscopy method combined with neural network is used for the invasive and rapid detection of echinococcosis. The Raman spectroscopy measurements are performed on two groups of blood serum samples, which are from 28 echinococcosis patients and 38 healthy persons, respectively. The normalized Raman reflection spectra show that the reflectivity of the echinococcosis blood serum is higher than that of the normal human blood serum in the wavelength ranges of 101—175 nm and 1 801—2 701 nm. Then the principal component analysis (PCA) and back propagation neural network (BPNN) model are used to obtain the diagnosis results. The diagnosis rates for healthy persons and echinococcosis persons are 93.333 3% and 90.909 1%, respectively, so the average final diagnosis rate is 92.121 2%. The results demonstrate that the Raman spectroscopy analysis of blood serum combined with PCA-BPNN has considerable potential for the non-invasive and rapid detection of echinococcosis.

  11. Polycystic echinococcosis in the state of Acre, Brazil: contribution to patient diagnosis, treatment and prognosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Siqueira, Nilton Ghiotti; de Siqueira, Cláudia Maria Villar Maziero; Rodrigues-Silva, Rosângela; Soares, Manoel do Carmo P; Póvoa, Marinete Marins

    2013-01-01

    The lack of knowledge regarding polycystic hydatid disease results in delayed or even incorrect diagnosis. The lack of systematic information regarding treatment also makes it difficult to assess the results and prognosis in patients with peritoneal and hepatic lesions caused by Echinococcus vogeli. Here we describe the clinical features of patients, propose a radiological classification protocol and describe a therapeutic option for the treatment of hydatid disease that previously had only been used for cases of cystic echinococcosis (Echinococcus granulosus). A prospective cohort study was initiated in 1999 and by 2009 the study included 60 patients. These patients were classified according to the PNM classification (parasite lesion, neighbouring organ invasion and metastases) and placed in one of three therapeutic modalities: (i) chemotherapy with albendazole at a dose of 10 mg/kg/day, (ii) surgical removal of cysts or (iii) percutaneous puncture of the cysts via puncture, aspiration, injection and re-aspiration (PAIR). The results were stratified according to therapeutic outcome: "cure", "clinical improvement", "no improvement", "death" or "no information". The PNM classification was useful in indicating the appropriate therapy in cases of polycystic hydatid disease. In conclusion, surgical therapy produced the best clinical results of all the therapies studied based on "cure" and "clinical improvement" outcomes. The use of PAIR for treatment requires additional study. PMID:23903966

  12. MR imaging for diagnosing cysto-biliary fistulas in cystic echinococcosis

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    Hosch, Waldemar [Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 110, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)], E-mail: waldemar_hosch@med.uni-heidelberg.de; Stojkovic, Marija [Section of Clinical Tropical Medicine, University Hospital of Heidelberg (Germany); Jaenisch, Thomas [Section of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, University Hospital of Heidelberg (Germany); Heye, Tobias [Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 110, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Werner, Jens; Friess, Helmut [Department of Surgery, University Hospital of Heidelberg (Germany); Kauffmann, Guenter W. [Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 110, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Junghanss, Thomas [Section of Clinical Tropical Medicine, University Hospital of Heidelberg (Germany)

    2008-05-15

    Objective: To evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of magnetic resonance imaging (MR imaging) including MR cholangiography for the identification of cysto-biliary fistulas in patients with hepatic hydatid disease. Patients and methods: Retrospective analysis of 3 groups of patients (20 patients with 51 echinococcal cysts) in a cohort of 103 patients with cystic echinococcosis with different pretest probabilities for cysto-biliary fistulas. Patients who had MR imaging/MR cholangiography with symptoms and signs of biliary obstruction (5 patients with 16 cysts, group I), before surgery for other reasons than biliary obstruction (9 patients with 14 cysts, group II) and for cyst staging (6 patients with 21 cysts, group III). All MR images were evaluated before surgery for the presence of cyst wall defects and hydatid debris in bile ducts. In groups I and II MR results were compared with surgical, parasitological, and biochemical findings of each individual cyst. Results: Based on direct (i.e. defects in the cyst wall and continuity of dilated biliary ducts into adjacent cysts), and indirect MR imaging/MR cholangiography imaging signs (i.e. intraluminal debris) our best estimate of sensitivity and specificity (stage-specific, WHO type CE3 and CE4) for cysto-biliary fistulas was 75% and 95%, respectively. Conclusions: MR imaging with MR cholangiography is a valuable non-invasive imaging technique to assess the risk of cysto-biliary fistula-related complications and for planning of surgery.

  13. Human Cystic Echinococcosis: Old Problems and New Perspectives

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    Alessandra Siracusano

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cystic echinococcosis (CE is a widespread chronic endemic helminthic disease caused by infection with metacestodes of the tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus. CE affects humans and has a worldwide prevalence of approximately six million. In this review, we discuss current findings in diagnosis and clinical management of CE and new concepts relating to E. granulosus molecules that directly modulate the host immune responses favouring a strong anti-inflammatory response and perpetuating parasite survival in the host. New insights into the molecular biology of E. granulosus will improve considerably our knowledge of the disease and will provide new potential therapeutic applications to treat or prevent inflammatory immune-mediated disease.

  14. Veterinary public health activities at FAO: echinococcosis/hydatid disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddi, C; de Balogh, K; Lubroth, J; Amanfu, W; Speedy, A; Battaglia, D

    2004-12-01

    Cystic hydatidosis is a zoonotic disease that remain as a significant cause of human morbidity and mortality in many parts of the world. The disease has veterinary public health implications. FAO is involved with some activities in the control of echinococcosis/hydatid disease: within the Animal Production and Health Division the Veterinary Public Health (VHP) Programme is constituted by members of the different Services (Animal Health, Animal Production, and Livestock Policy) within the Division. FAO regular programme has also established a global network of professionals directly involved in VPH. Furthermore FAO's Technical Cooperation Projects (TCP) is a tool to assist member countries in responding to urgent and unforeseen demands.

  15. Human Cystic Echinococcosis in Yasuj: A Survey of Ten Year Hospital Records

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    B Sarkari

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Cystic echinococcosis (CE is a zoonotic infection of humans and domestic animals caused by larvae of the cestode Echinococcus granulosus. Echinococcosis has a world-wide geographic distribution and occurs in all continents. CE is one of the most important zoonotic diseases prevalent in different parts of Iran and human cases are repeatedly reported from medical centers in different regions of Iran. This study was conducted to survey the hospital records of hydatidosis between 1996 and 2006 in Yasuj, southwest of Iran. Materials & Methods: Hospital records of CE patients from 1996-2006 in three hospitals in Yasuj were carefully studied. Data such as age, sex, occupation, place of residence, number of cyst, cyst location, clinical signs and other related features were recorded in a predestined information sheet. Collected data were statistically analyzed. Results: Results of this study showed that during 1996 to 2006 (10 years 105 cases of hydatidosis have been admitted in Yasuj hospitals, out of which 70 cases (66.7% were women and 35 cases (33.3% were men. Considering the age of patients, the highest rate of infection was recorded in 31-40 year old patients. Female housekeepers with 66.7% of cases were found to be the main victims of the disease. Hepatic cyst was recorded in 81% of cases where nephrotic cyst was the second most prevalent one. Most of the patients (87.8% had only one cyst, though 11.4% of the patients had 2 cysts and in one case 18 cysts have been isolated from the patient. Recurrence of the disease, based of number of patient's operation, was noted in 14.3% of cases and in one case five times of surgery for removing of hydatid cyst were noted. Conclusion: Results of this study indicate that CE is an endemic disease in the studied area. Data also suggest that the trend and number of CE cases remained unchanged during the 10 years in this area. Therefore, effective steps should be taken to control the

  16. [Targeting abattoirs to control cystic echinococcosis in Algeria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benchikh ElFegoun, M C; Kohil, K; L'Ollivier, C; Lleu, M; Babelhadj, B; Piarroux, M; Gharbi, M; Piarroux, R

    2016-08-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is an important anthropozoonotic parasitic common in Algeria. The predominant life cycle of E. granulosus is a synanthropic cycle with domestic dogs as definitive hosts and livestock animals as intermediate hosts. Slaughter activity represents a potential source for dogs to access infected offal. The aim of the present study was to determine if the contact between dogs and potentially infected offal was possible in licensed abattoirs. Eighty-one private and public abattoirs located in eastern Algeria were assessed with respect to their level of protection against the intrusion of dogs.We have demonstrated that in 42 % of these abattoirs, dogs could easily come in contact with potentially parasitized offal. The most common incorrect practices were the dumping of offal freely into the environment, the feeding of dogs with offal, and the leaving of unattended offal in an unsealed chamber. Overall, some hazardous practices remained common customs of workers, and enough abattoirs remain non-compliant that the cattledog domestic cycle of CE is unlikely to be broken. Hence, some recommended measures to interrupt parasite transmission include the following: recognition of the importance of abattoirs in the maintenance of canine echinococcosis, the controlled and proper disposal of offal, the abolishment of the custom of feeding dogs with infected offal and improvements in the level of health education of abattoir staff.

  17. Treatment of echinococcosis: albendazole and mebendazole – what else?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemphill, Andrew; Stadelmann, Britta; Rufener, Reto; Spiliotis, Markus; Boubaker, Ghalia; Müller, Joachim; Müller, Norbert; Gorgas, Daniela; Gottstein, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    The search for novel therapeutic options to cure alveolar echinococcosis (AE), due to the metacestode of Echinococcus multilocularis, is ongoing, and these developments could also have a profound impact on the treatment of cystic echinococcosis (CE), caused by the closely related Echinococcus granulosus s.l. Several options are being explored. A viable strategy for the identification of novel chemotherapeutically valuable compounds includes whole-organism drug screening, employing large-scale in vitro metacestode cultures and, upon identification of promising compounds, verification of drug efficacy in small laboratory animals. Clearly, the current focus is targeted towards broad-spectrum anti-parasitic or anti-cancer drugs and compound classes that are already marketed, or that are in development for other applications. The availability of comprehensive Echinococcus genome information and gene expression data, as well as significant progress on the molecular level, has now opened the door for a more targeted drug discovery approach, which allows exploitation of defined pathways and enzymes that are essential for the parasite. In addition, current in vitro and in vivo models that are used to assess drug efficacy should be optimized and complemented by methods that give more detailed information on the host-parasite interactions that occur during drug treatments. The key to success is to identify, target and exploit those parasite molecules that orchestrate activities essential to parasite survival. PMID:25526545

  18. Treatment of echinococcosis: albendazole and mebendazole – what else?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemphill Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The search for novel therapeutic options to cure alveolar echinococcosis (AE, due to the metacestode of Echinococcus multilocularis, is ongoing, and these developments could also have a profound impact on the treatment of cystic echinococcosis (CE, caused by the closely related Echinococcus granulosus s.l. Several options are being explored. A viable strategy for the identification of novel chemotherapeutically valuable compounds includes whole-organism drug screening, employing large-scale in vitro metacestode cultures and, upon identification of promising compounds, verification of drug efficacy in small laboratory animals. Clearly, the current focus is targeted towards broad-spectrum anti-parasitic or anti-cancer drugs and compound classes that are already marketed, or that are in development for other applications. The availability of comprehensive Echinococcus genome information and gene expression data, as well as significant progress on the molecular level, has now opened the door for a more targeted drug discovery approach, which allows exploitation of defined pathways and enzymes that are essential for the parasite. In addition, current in vitro and in vivo models that are used to assess drug efficacy should be optimized and complemented by methods that give more detailed information on the host-parasite interactions that occur during drug treatments. The key to success is to identify, target and exploit those parasite molecules that orchestrate activities essential to parasite survival.

  19. Cystic echinococcosis in Sudan and South Sudan: research history of a neglected zoonosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omer, Rihab A; Daugschies, Arwid; Romig, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Cystic echinococcosis is a zoonotic disease affecting mainly various species of livestock and humans. This study aims at highlighting the course of research on cystic echinococcosis in different animals and humans in Sudan (including the recently independent state of South Sudan) since the disease was first reported in 1908. Recent data about the genetic identification of the parasite in the countries in both humans and animals and its importance for future control programs is discussed.

  20. Notes on human cases of cystic echinococcosis in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romani, Elizabeth Luz Sanchez; Rodrigues-Silva, Rosângela; Maldonado, Arnaldo; Machado-Silva, José Roberto; Gomes, Delir Corrêa

    2006-05-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a high prevalent zoonosis in the central and southern Peruvian Andes. Serum samples (n50)from patients presenting presumptive clinical and radiological diagnosis of CE (group 1), were tested for antibodies against Echinococcus granulosus metacestode using Arc-5 double diffusion assay (DD5), immunoelectrophoresis (IEF), and immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) techniques. Serum samples (n18) from patients presenting other parasite infections (paragonomiasis, cysticercosis, and fascioliasis) or healthy blood donors (n15), were designated as control groups. The overall sensitivity of the tests was of 94% (DD5 and IEF tests) or 96% (EITB test). Only patients from group 1 were seropositive for CE. Polypeptides of 21, 31, and 48 kDa were considered positive for CE. Based on these results, this study demonstrates that CE also occurs in other coastal departments (Piura, Ancash, Ica, Arequipa, and Tacna) besides Lima.

  1. Notes on human cases of cystic echinococcosis in Peru

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    Elizabeth Luz Sanchez Romani

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Cystic echinococcosis (CE is a high prevalent zoonosis in the central and southern Peruvian Andes. Serum samples (n50frompatients presenting presumptive clinical and radiological diagnosis of CE (group 1, were tested for antibodies against Echinococcus granulosus metacestode using Arc-5 double diffusion assay (DD5, immunoelectrophoresis (IEF, and immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB techniques. Serum samples (n18 from patients presenting other parasite infections (paragonomiasis, cysticercosis, and fascioliasis or healthy blood donors (n15, were designated as control groups. The overall sensitivity of the tests was of 94% (DD5 and IEF tests or 96% (EITB test. Only patients from group 1 were seropositive for CE. Polypeptides of 21, 31, and 48 kDa were considered positive for CE. Based on these results, this study demonstrates that CE also occurs in other coastal departments (Piura, Ancash, Ica, Arequipa, and Tacna besides Lima.

  2. [Amino acid exchange in paeci lomycosis-complicated echinococcosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streliaeva, A V; Akhmedov, Iu M; Gasparian, É R; Lazareva, N B; Samylina, I A; Chebyshev, N V; Polzikov, V V; Prokina, E S; Kurilov, D V; Zuev, S S; Shcheglova, T A; Gabchenko, A K; Sadykov, V M

    2011-01-01

    The authors have detected atypical paecilomycosis-associated myocarditis with impaired amino acid exchange and pain syndrome for the first time. At first, pain occurs in the chest and radiates into the axilla, to the left arm to the finger tips, by paralyzing the arm. In some patients, pain manifests itself in both arms with radiation to the belly, by accompanying by fainting. The skin is wet, cold; the pulse is frequent and of poor volume and difficult-to-count. Heart pain spreads into the armpit and down the arm, by making the fingers numb. Attempts to use current analgesics (movalis, sirdalud, nimesil, morphine) in combination with fungicides (diflucan, mycosist, orungal) have failed to yield positive results. The homeopathic drug Latrodectus mactans, prepared from caracurt venom, in combination with the authors' designed diet and other homeopathic agents have relieved pain syndrome and normalized amino acid exchange, which offered possibilities for successful surgical treatment for echinococcosis with later recovery.

  3. Serological evidence for human cystic echinococcosis in Slovenia

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    Kotar Tadeja

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cystic echinococcosis (CE is caused by the larva of tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus. Dogs and other canids are the primary definitive hosts for this parasite. CE may develop after accidental ingestion of tapeworm eggs, excreted with the feces of these animals. In the intestine, the larvae released from the eggs are nested in the liver, lungs or other organs of livestock as intermediate hosts and humans as aberrant hosts. The aim of this study was to examine serologically whether some of the patients in Slovenia, suspected of CE by imaging findings in the liver or lungs had been infected with the larva of Echinococcus granulosus. Methods Between January 1, 2002 and the end of December 2006, 1323 patients suspected of having echinococcosis were screened serologically by indirect haemagglutination assay (IHA. For confirmation and differentiation of Echinococcus spp. infection, the sera of IHA-positive patients were then retested by western blot (WB. Results Out of 127 IHA-positive sera, 34 sera were confirmed by WB and considered specific for CE. Of 34 sera of CE-positive patients sera, 32 corresponded to the characteristic imaging findings of a liver cysts and 2 to those of lung cysts. The mean age of CE-positive patients was 58.3 years. No significant differences were found between the CE-positive patients in regard to their sex. Conclusion In the study, it was found out that CE was mostly spread in the same area of Slovenia as in the past, but its prevalence decreased from 4.8 per 105 inhabitants in the period 1956–1968 to 1.7 per 105 inhabitants in the period 2002–2006. In spite of the decreased prevalence of CE in the last years, it is suggested that clinicians and public health authorities, especially in the eastern parts of Slovenia where the most CE patients come from, should pay greater attention to this disease in the future.

  4. Present epidemic situation of liver alveolar echinococcosis in Gansu Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Ci-peng

    2005-01-01

    @@ Echinococcosis is a common parasitic zoonosis in the west of China. Two types, cystic echinococcosis (CE) and alveolar echinococcosis (AE) are respectively caused by the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus and Echinococcus multilocularis. As early as the 1960s, AE, simply named alveococcosis, was successively reported in Qinghai, Xinjiang and Gansu,1-3 and then in Ningxia, Sichuan, Tibet, Inner Mongolia and Heilongjiang. At the same time, the epidemiological surveys and clinical or experimental studies were also conducted.4 Until now, the total number of AE cases reported in China has exceeded one thousand. Since the first report of AE in Gansu in 1971, a total of 105 cases have been diagnosed. The regional distribution and epidemic factors of AE in Gansu are reviewed here.

  5. Gamma-Ray Treatment of Echinococcus Protoscoleces prior to Implantation in Mice Reduces Echinococcosis

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    Qing Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Echinococcosis is a serious parasitic disease caused by Echinococcus tapeworms. Protoscoleces are sometimes released during surgical treatment for hydatid cysts, causing the recurrence of echinococcosis. Protoscoleces may be susceptible to radiation therapy. In this study Echinococcus protoscoleces were cultured in vitro and then divided into four different γ-ray irradiation dose groups (10 Gy, 20 Gy, 40 Gy, and 80 Gy and a blank group. The protoscoleces were then implanted into the abdominal cavity of mice. Four months later, we observed that the incidence and weight of cysts declined with the increase of irradiation dose. γ-ray irradiation can suppress the generation of Echinococcus originated from protoscolex, the reason of which is due to the damaging to the structure of Echinococcus. Irradiation may prevent echinococcosis recurrence after surgical removal of hydatid cysts.

  6. Echinococcosis of Iliopsoas Muscle and Anaphylaxis as the Cause of Urgent Laparotomy

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    A Petrić

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Echinococcosis is an infectious disease which in humans is caused by the larval stadium of two types of parasites (Echinococcus granulosus and Echinococcus multilocularis. It is most frequently localized in the liver, lungs and rarely in muscles. The parasite significantly affects the immune system of the host, which is why anaphylactic reactions are not rare, especially in cases of cyst rupture. This paper presents the case of a 53-year old woman who had urgent laparotomy on the presumed basis of rupture of ovarian tumour, with intra-abdominal haemorrhage and shock. It turned out to be echinococcosis of the iliopsoas muscle and anaphylactic reaction. The differential diagnosis of adnexal tumours should take into consideration echinococcosis as well. Symptoms of anaphylactic shock in the case of parasitic cyst rupture can easily be confused with the signs of haemorrhagic shock.

  7. Retrospective evaluation of the echinococcosis cases regarding histopathological aspects

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    Tümay Özgür

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Retrospective evaluation of 28 cases, diagnosedas hydatid cyst pathologically in our centre pathologylaboratory, from surgical departments was the objectiveof the study.Methods: 28 cases diagnosed as hydatid cyst in ourhospital have been reviewed retrospectively and patients’age, gender and localizations of disease have been determined.Results: Based on histopathologic evaluation hydatidcyst cases were localized mostly on liver 19 (68%,followed by lung 7 (24%, glutea 1 (3.5% and axilla 1(3.5%. 15 (54% of the patients were male and 13 (46%were female. The age range of the cases were 7-73, whilethe median age of males were 30.2±19.5 years, the medianage of females were 35.9±19.2. Necrosis has beendetermined in 2 (7.1% of cases in pathologic evaluationof hydatid cyst.Conclusion: The pathologic evaluation of all cystic surgicalspecimens should include the careful examinationof the elements of this parasite especially where hydatidcyst is endemic.Key words; Hydatid cyst, pathologic findings, echinococcosis

  8. Radiologic diagnosis of echinococcosis. Radiologische Diagnostik bei Echinokokkose

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    Lobinger, B. (Abt. fuer Radiologische Diagnostik der Radiologischen Universitaetsklinik Tuebingen (Germany)); Pfannenberg, A.C. (Abt. fuer Radiologische Diagnostik der Radiologischen Universitaetsklinik Tuebingen (Germany)); Brambs, H.J. (Abt. fuer Radiologische Diagnostik der Radiologischen Universitaetsklinik Tuebingen (Germany))

    1994-05-01

    Medical imaging and laboratory parameters permit a reliable detection and differentiation of cases of echinococcosis. Computerized tomography is a particularly valuable diagnostic tool here. In cases of liver infestation the resulting calcified foci are less readily revealed by magnetic resonance imaging than by CT, even though the former method has its merits in the diagnosis of concomitant vascular changes. If E. cysticus has invaded the lungs, the X-rays will show a sharply delineated round-to-oval cyst of uniform density, preferably in the lower and central compartments of that organ. In 1-4% of all organ infestations with E. cysticus it is the bone that has been parasitically invaded. In those cases, X-ray pictures of the osseous tissue show a light patch of a cyst-like appearance. Computerized tomography and nmr imaging are also able to visualize any soft tissue invasion beyond the limits of the diseased bony structures. Magnetic resonance imaging is the most sensitive method to detect bone marrow infestation. (orig./MG)

  9. Survey of Echinococcosis and Hydatidosis in Kashan Region, Central Iran

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    M Arbabi

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Hydatidosis is one of the major zoonotic diseases that cause considerable economic losses and public health problems worldwide. The present study was conducted to determine the prevalence of E. granulosus in domestic and wild carnivores and the infection rate of hydatid cyst in slaughtered animals and people in Kashan area, central Iran. A total of 142 carnivores including 70 stray dogs, 40 jackals, 22 red foxes, and 10 wolves were examined for the presence of E. granulosus, as well as, 170510 slaughtered sheep, 162665 goats and 13059 cattle for hydatid cyst infection. In addition, 500 inhabitants in rural areas were examined for antibodies to hydatid cyst. Results indicated that 43.7% of carnivores were infected with E. granulosus. Infection rate in slaughtered animals was 2.7%. Overall, the seroprevalence rate in human cases was 2.4%. Eighty-five patients including 47 females and 38 males were hospitalized. The mean annual incidence rate of hydatidosis in human was three cases per 100 000 populations. In general, the situation of the hydatidosis in the livestock and human and echinococcosis in the carnivores of the Kashan is similar to the other zones in Iran.

  10. Percutaneous Treatment of Splenic Cystic Echinococcosis: Results of 12 Cases

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    Akhan, Okan, E-mail: akhano@tr.net; Akkaya, Selçuk, E-mail: selcuk.akkaya85@gmail.com [Hacettepe University, Department of Radiology, School of Medicine (Turkey); Dağoğlu, Merve Gülbiz, E-mail: drmgkartal@gmail.com [Istanbul University, Department of Radiology, Istanbul School of Medicine (Turkey); Akpınar, Burcu, E-mail: burcu-akpinar@yahoo.com [Hacettepe University, Department of Radiology, School of Medicine (Turkey); Erbahçeci, Aysun, E-mail: aysunerbahceci@yahoo.com [Istanbul Bakirkoy Dr. Sadi Konuk Education and Research Hospital, Department of Radiology (Turkey); Çiftçi, Türkmen, E-mail: turkmenciftci@yahoo.com [Hacettepe University, Department of Radiology, School of Medicine (Turkey); Köroğlu, Mert, E-mail: mertkoroglu@hotmail.com [Antalya Education and Research Hospital, Department of Radiology (Turkey); Akıncı, Devrim, E-mail: akincid@hotmail.com [Hacettepe University, Department of Radiology, School of Medicine (Turkey)

    2016-03-15

    PurposeCystic echinococcosis (CE) in the spleen is a rare disease even in endemic regions. The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of percutaneous treatment for splenic CE.Materials and MethodsTwelve patients (four men, eight women) with splenic CE were included in this study. For percutaneous treatment, CE1 and CE3A splenic hydatid cysts were treated with either the PAIR (puncture, aspiration, injection, respiration) technique or the catheterization technique.ResultsEight of the hydatid cysts were treated with the PAIR technique and four were treated with catheterization. The volume of all cysts decreased significantly during the follow-up period. No complication occurred in seven of 12 patients. Abscess developed in four patients. Two patients underwent splenectomy due to cavity infection developed after percutaneous treatment, while the spleen was preserved in 10 of 12 patients. Total hospital stay was between 1 and 18 days. Hospital stay was longer and the rate of infection was higher in the catheterization group. Follow-up period was 5–117 months (mean, 44.8 months), with no recurrence observed.ConclusionThe advantages of the percutaneous treatment are its minimal invasive nature, short hospitalization duration, and its ability to preserve splenic tissue and function. As the catheterization technique is associated with higher abscess risk, we suggest that the PAIR procedure should be the first percutaneous treatment option for splenic CE.

  11. Alveolar echinococcosis of the adrenal gland: brief review of two cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RAN Bo; Tuergan Aili; SHAO Ying-mei; JIANG Tie-ming; LI Hai-tao; WANG Yu-jie; WEN Hao

    2012-01-01

    Background Alveolar echinococcosis located in the adrenal gland can be considered a rare and aggressive infestation that radiologically and macroscopically mimics a malignant neoplasm.Its pathogenesis is poorly understood.This paper describes its clinical and radiological aspects and discusses its proper management.Methods The records of two patients with adrenal gland alveolar echinococcosis who were diagnosed and treated in our center in 2009 were evaluated.Results Neither patient showed any signs of recurrence following radical surgical treatment and postoperative oral anthelmintic therapy.Conclusion Radical surgery can be a feasible,effective management option that results in a good prospective outcome.

  12. Human alveolar echinococcosis in Poland: 1990-2011.

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    Wacław L Nahorski

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Alveolar echinococcosis (AE caused by Echinococcus multilocularis infections is a dangerous old disease in the Northern Hemisphere. The aim of the paper was to collect and analyze data on human AE in Poland in the last two decades. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The sources of data were both the cases officially registered and detected by an active field and laboratory surveillance. The cases were verified by clinical, epidemiological, and laboratory criteria. Altogether 121 human cases of AE were detected. Among these 83 (68,6% cases were classified as confirmed, 16 as probable and 22 as possible. During the two decades a continuous increase in detection rate was noticed. The cases were 6-82 years old at the time of diagnosis (mean - 47.7 years. Sex ratio M/F was 0.86/1.0. The AE was fatal in 23 (19% patients (mean age at death - 54.1 years. Family agglomeration of AE was found in 4 foci, involving 9 patients. Seventy six of the cases were diagnosed in an advanced stage of disease. In all cases the liver was the primary location of AE. In 30 (24.8% patients a spread to other organs was observed. Ninety four of the patients were treated with albendazole. In 73 (60% patients a surgical operation was performed, including 15 liver transplantations. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The studies confirmed that AE is an emerging disease in Poland, which is the fourth country in Europe with over 120 cases detected. The results also indicate the need of a wider national programme for implementation of screening in the highest AE risk areas (north-eastern Poland with an effort to increase the public awareness of the possibility of contracting E. multilocularis, and above all, training of the primary care physicians in the recognition of the risk of AE to allow for an early detection of this dangerous disease.

  13. The monetary burden of cystic echinococcosis in Iran.

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    Majid Fasihi Harandi

    Full Text Available Cystic echinococcosis (CE is a globally distributed parasitic infection of humans and livestock. The disease is of significant medical and economic importance in many developing countries, including Iran. However, the socioeconomic impact of the disease, in most endemic countries, is not fully understood. The purpose of the present study was to determine the monetary burden of CE in Iran. Epidemiological data, including prevalence and incidence of CE in humans and animals, were obtained from regional hospitals, the scientific literature, and official government reports. Economic data relating to human and animal disease, including cost of treatment, productivity losses, and livestock production losses were obtained from official national and international datasets. Monte Carlo simulation methods were used to represent uncertainty in input parameters. Mean number of surgical CE cases per year for 2000-2009 was estimated at 1,295. The number of asymptomatic individuals living in the country was estimated at 635,232 (95% Credible Interval, CI 149,466-1,120,998. The overall annual cost of CE in Iran was estimated at US$232.3 million (95% CI US$103.1-397.8 million, including both direct and indirect costs. The cost associated with human CE was estimated at US$93.39 million (95% CI US$6.1-222.7 million and the annual cost associated with CE in livestock was estimated at US$132 million (95% CI US$61.8-246.5 million. The cost per surgical human case was estimated at US$1,539. CE has a considerable economic impact on Iran, with the cost of the disease approximated at 0.03% of the country's gross domestic product. Establishment of a CE surveillance system and implementation of a control program are necessary to reduce the economic burden of CE on the country. Cost-benefit analysis of different control programs is recommended, incorporating present knowledge of the economic losses due to CE in Iran.

  14. Management and outcome of cardiac and endovascular cystic echinococcosis.

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    Marta Díaz-Menéndez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cystic echinococcosis (CE can affect the heart and the vena cava but few cases are reported. METHODS: A retrospective case series of 11 patients with cardiac and/or endovascular CE, followed-up over a period of 15 years (1995-2009 is reported. RESULTS: Main clinical manifestations included thoracic pain or dyspnea, although 2 patients were asymptomatic. Cysts were located mostly in the right atrium and inferior vena cava. Nine patients were previously diagnosed with disseminated CE. Echocardiography was the diagnostic method of choice, although serology, electrocardiogram, chest X-ray, computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging and histology aided with diagnosis and follow-up. Nine patients underwent cardiac surgery and nine received long-term antiparasitic treatment for a median duration of 25 months (range 4-93 months. One patient died intra-operatively due to cyst rupture and endovascular dissemination. Two patients died 10 and 14 years after diagnosis, due to pulmonary embolism (PE and cardiac failure, respectively. One patient was lost to follow-up. Patients who had cardiac involvement exclusively did not have complications after surgery and were considered cured. There was only one recurrence requiring a second operation. Patients with vena cava involvement developed PEs and presented multiple complications. CONCLUSIONS: Cardiovascular CE is associated with a high risk of potentially lethal complications. Clinical manifestations and complications vary according to cyst location. Isolated cardiac CE may be cured after surgery, while endovascular extracardiac involvement is associated with severe chronic complications. CE should be included in the differential diagnosis of cardiovascular disease in patients from endemic areas.

  15. Gene Expression Profile in the Liver of Sheep Infected with Cystic Echinococcosis

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    Hui, Wenqiao; Jiang, Song; Liu, Xianxia; Ban, Qian; Chen, Sheng; Jia, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Background Cystic Echinococcosis (CE), caused by infection with the Echinococcus granulosus (E. granulosus), represents considerable health problems in both humans and livestock. Nevertheless, the genetic program that regulates the host response to E. granulosus infection is largely unknown. Previously, using microarray analysis, we found that the innate immunity played a vital role in the E. granulosus defense of the intestine tissue where E. granulosus first invaded. Subsequently, we turned our attention to investigating the molecular immune mechanism in its organ target, the liver, which is where the E. granulosus metacestodes are established and live for very long periods. In this work, the microarray-based methodology was used to study gene expression profiles in the liver of sheep infected with E. granulosus at 8 weeks post infection, corresponding to the early cystic established phase. Methods A total of 6 female-1-year-old healthy Kazakh sheep were used for the experiments. Three Kazakh sheep were orally infected with E. granulosus eggs, and the others remained untreated and served as controls. Sheep were humanely euthanized and necropsized at 8 weeks post-infection (the early stage of cyst established). The microarray was used to detect differential hepatic gene expression between CE infection sheep and healthy controls at this time point. Real-time PCR was used to validate the microarray data. Results We found that E. granulosus infection induces 153 differentially expressed genes in the livers of infected sheep compared with healthy controls. Among them, 87 genes were up-regulated, and 66 genes were notably down-regulated. Functional analysis showed that these genes were associated with three major functional categories: (a) metabolism, (b) the immune system and (c) signaling and transport. Deeper analysis indicated that complement together with other genes associated with metabolism, played important roles in the defense of E. granulosus infection

  16. Up-to-date surgical tactics in echinococcosis of the lungs

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    Bakhodir Sabirov

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides analysis of surgical treatment of 132 patients with echinococcosis or hydatid disease (86 patients with uncomplicated and 46 with complicated echinococcosis of the lungs. It was possible to perform echinococcectomy of the lungs through mini-invasive approaches in more than 2/3 patients and employment of endovisual technology made it possible to shorten the number of postoperative complications from 35.71 % to 4% and the terms of treatment from 14.2 to 6.4 days.In our opinion, echinococcectomy of the lungs through mini-invasive approach requires further technical improvement. It is easier and more effective to perform echinococcectomy through minithoracotomy approach. At the same time it should be acknowledged that echinococcectomy via thoracotomy approach is more often recommended in recurrent echinococcosis of the thoracic cavity and sometimes in complicated course of the disease. Simultaneous operations using mini-approaches in bilateral echinococcosis of the lungs or in combination with the liver are the operations of the choice and can be performed in patients with good functional indexes of the cardiovascular and the respiratory systems.

  17. [Echinococcosis in North-Easter Poland--epidemiological and clinical aspects].

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    Zajkowska, Joanna M; Pancewicz, Sławomir; al-Azazi, Khalid; Kondrusik, Maciej; Grygorczuk, Sambor; Hermanowska-Szpakowicz, Teresa

    2002-10-01

    The incidence was assessed of antibodies against E. granulosus and chosen biochemical parameters among the inhabitants of north-eastern Poland. Among 532 studied subjects, 110 were seropositive. Group I (n = 73) was pharmacologically treated. Group II was surgically treated. Control group consisted of 15 healthy persons. 20.6% seropositive inhabitants of north-east Poland indicate that echinococcosis is not rare. Mainly it was echinococcosis of the liver, only in 2.7% it was connected with other organs. Echinococcosis was diagnosed among women aged 47-70, living in town, in majority owners of a dog. The course of echinococcos in majority cases was without clinical signs. In the diagnosis USG and serological test were helpful. Laboratory findings were not characteristic of echinococcosis. If it is possible surgical treatment is recommended for removal of parasite, verification of preoperative tests. In majority of chirurgically removed cyst, antibodies against E. granulosus were found after 3.5 years on the average, what evidenced strong immunogenicity of the parasite.

  18. Re-evaluation of cystic echinococcosis with molecular differentiation of causative species

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    Human cystic echinococcosis (CE) has been conceived to be caused predominantly by Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (the dog-sheep strain). Recent molecular approaches on CE, however, have revealed that human cases are also commonly caused by another species, Echinococcus canadensis. All indices...

  19. Present situation of echinococcosis in the Middle East and Arabic North Africa.

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    Sadjjadi, Seyed Mahmoud

    2006-01-01

    Echinococcosis is one of the major zoonotic parasitic diseases in the Middle East and Arabic North Africa from Morocco to Egypt. Both cystic and alveolar echinococcosis has been reported from these areas. However, cystic echinococcosis is more prevalent and has been reported from all countries in the Middle East and Arabic North Africa. Alveolar echinococcosis is less prevalent and has been reported only from Iran, Turkey, Iraq and Tunisia. Present situation of echinococcosis in dogs and other definitive hosts, animal intermediate hosts and humans in the Middle East and Arabic North Africa has been reviewed. Echinococcus granulosus is highly prevalent in Iran, Turkey, Iraq, Morocco, Tunisia, and Libya. In the Levant countries, the cystic echinococcosis is also highly endemic. In Oman, it is endemic with low prevalence and a very low level in Cyprus. Various surveys have indicated that hydatid cysts are commonly found in sheep, cattle, goats and camels throughout the Middle East and Arabic North Africa. Sheep are the most infected animals of these regions. Most of studies on human have been focused on surgical reports although several population studies have been performed using serological and imaging techniques. Human cystic echinococcosis (CE) is prevalent in the Middle East and Arabic North Africa. It is hyper endemic in Iran, Turkey, Iraq, Jordan, Morocco, Libya, Tunisia, and Algeria, and endemic in Egypt. Studies on the strain specificities of E. granulosus in the Middle East revealed sheep strain (G1) present in sheep, goats, cattle, camels and humans, and the camel strain (G6) in camels, sheep, cattle as well as humans. Dog/sheep strain seems to be more prevalent in the foregoing regions in documented reports from Iran and Jordan. However, a strain of E. granulosus, which resembles the horse strain (G4) strain, has been reported from Jordan. Strain specifications of E. granulosus in Arabic North Africa showed that sheep/dog strain (G1) have been reported

  20. A systematic review of the epidemiology of echinococcosis in domestic and wild animals.

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    Belen Otero-Abad

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human echinococcosis is a neglected zoonosis caused by parasites of the genus Echinococcus. The most frequent clinical forms of echinococcosis, cystic echinococcosis (CE and alveolar echinococcosis (AE, are responsible for a substantial health and economic burden, particularly to low-income societies. Quantitative epidemiology can provide important information to improve the understanding of parasite transmission and hence is an important part of efforts to control this disease. The purpose of this review is to give an insight on factors associated with echinococcosis in animal hosts by summarising significant results reported from epidemiological studies identified through a systematic search. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The systematic search was conducted mainly in electronic databases but a few additional records were obtained from other sources. Retrieved entries were examined in order to identify available peer-reviewed epidemiological studies that found significant risk factors for infection using associative statistical methods. One hundred studies met the eligibility criteria and were suitable for data extraction. Epidemiological factors associated with increased risk of E. granulosus infection in dogs included feeding with raw viscera, possibility of scavenging dead animals, lack of anthelmintic treatment and owners' poor health education and indicators of poverty. Key factors associated with E. granulosus infection in intermediate hosts were related to the hosts' age and the intensity of environmental contamination with parasite eggs. E. multilocularis transmission dynamics in animal hosts depended on the interaction of several ecological factors, such as hosts' population densities, host-prey interactions, landscape characteristics, climate conditions and human-related activities. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Results derived from epidemiological studies provide a better understanding of the behavioural, biological and

  1. Hepatitis C

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    ... Events Follow Us Home Health Information Liver Disease Hepatitis (Viral) Hepatitis C Related Topics English English Español Section Navigation Hepatitis (Viral) What Is Viral Hepatitis? Hepatitis A Hepatitis B ...

  2. Progress on the Epidemiology of Echinococcosis%棘球蚴病流行病学研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐颜凤; 伍卫平

    2013-01-01

    棘球蚴病是由棘球绦虫的幼虫引起的人兽共患寄生虫病,该类疾病是多个国家和地区重要的公共卫生问题.开展棘球蚴病的流行病学研究有助于遏制和消除该类疾病.本文主要概述了该病在国内外的流行病学研究现状及进展.%Echinococcosis is a zoonotic parasitic disease caused by the larval stages (metacestodes) of cestodes belonging to the genus Echinococcus. Echinococcosis is a major public health problem in many countries and regions. The epidemiological study of echinococcosis would contribute to the control and elimination of this disease. This paper summarizes the research status and progress on epidemiology of echinococcosis.

  3. Cystic echinococcosis amongst small ruminants and humans in central Ethiopia

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    Habtamu Assefa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of cystic echinococcosis (CE in small ruminants and humans in Addis Ababa, central Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study involving systematic random sampling was conducted to estimate the prevalence of CE in 512 small ruminants (262 sheep and 250 goats slaughtered at Addis Ababa Abattoir Enterprise between October 2011 and March 2012. Hydatid cysts were identified macroscopically during postmortem examination and their fertility and viability were determined. CE was observed in 21 (8.02% sheep and 17 (6.80% goats. In sheep 13 (4.96% of the lungs, 10 (3.81% livers and 1 (0.381% heart were found to be infected with hydatid cysts. Involvement of lung and liver in goats was found to be 10 (4.0% and 8 (3.2% respectively, with no cysts recorded in the heart. Of the total of 77 and 47 cysts encountered in sheep and goats, 33 (42.85% and 15 (31.91% respectively were fertile. Viability of protoscoleces from fertile cysts in sheep (29 [87.87%] was higher than in goats (6 [40.0%]. For humans, retrospective analysis covering five years of case reports at two major hospitals in Addis Ababa between January 2008 and December 2012 showed that of the total of 25 840 patients admitted for ultrasound examination, 27 CE cases were registered, a prevalence of 0.1% and mean annual incidence rate of approximately 0.18 cases per 100 000 population. Liver was the major organ affected in humans (81.5% in affected patients followed by spleen (11.1% and kidney (7.4%. Logistic regression analysis showed that prevalence of CE varied significantly in relation to host age in the small ruminants (OR = 3.93, P < 0.05 as well as in humans (95% CI, R = 4.8. This epidemiological study confirms the importance of CE in small ruminants and humans in central Ethiopia, emphasising the need for integrated approaches to controlling this neglected preventable disease.

  4. Cystic echinococcosis of the liver and lung treated by radiofrequency thermal ablation: An ex-vivo pilot experimental study in animal models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vincenzo Lamonaca; Antonino Virga; Marta Ida Minervini; Roberta Di Stefano; Alessio Provenzani; Pietro Tagliareni; Giovanna Fleres; Angelo Luca; Giovanni Vizzini; Ugo Palazzo; Bruno Gridelli

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate radiofrequency thermal ablation (RTA) for treatment of cystic echinococcosis in animal models (explanted organs). METHODS: Infected livers and lungs from slaughtered animals, 10 bovine and two ovine, were collected. Cysts were photographed, and their volume, cyst content, germinal layer adhesion status, wall calcification and presence of daughter or adjacent cysts were evaluated by ultrasound. Some cysts were treated with RTA at 150 W, 80℃, 7 min. Temperature was monitored inside and outside the cyst. A second needle was placed inside the cyst for pressure stabilization. After treatment, all cysts were sectioned and examined by histology. Cysts were defined as alive if a preserved germinal layer at histology was evident, and as successfully treated if the germinal layer was necrotic. RESULTS: The subjects of the study were 17 cysts (nine hepatic and eight pulmonary), who were treated with RTA. Pathology showed 100% success rate in both hepatic (9/9) and lung cysts (8/8); immediate volume reduction of at least 65%; layer of host tissue necrosis outside the cyst, with average extension of 0.64 cm for liver and 1.57 cm for lung; and endocyst attached to the pericystium both in hepatic and lung cysts with small and focal de novo endocyst detachment in just 3/9 hepatic cysts.CONCLUSION: RTA appears to be very effective in killing hydatid cysts of explanted liver and lung.Bile duct and bronchial wall necrosis, persistence of endocyst attached to pericystium, should help avoid or greatly decrease in vivo post-treatment fistula occurrence and consequent overlapping complications that are common after surgery or percutaneous aspiration,injection and reaspiration. In vivo studies are required to confirm and validate this new therapeutic approach.

  5. Severe and unusual hepatic lesions asociated with alveolar echinococcosis (Echinococcus multilocularis) in a Gorilla g. gorilla

    OpenAIRE

    Polledo, Laura; Martínez-Fernández, B.; González, J.; Ferreras, Mª del Carmen; García Iglesias, M. J.; García Marín, Juan Francisco

    2011-01-01

    1 página.-- Trabajo presentado al II Iberic Meeting of Veterinary Pathology.--XVI Annual Meeting of the Portuguese Society of Animal Pathology.-- Annual Meeting of the Spanisch Society of Veterinary Anatomical Pathology. (Lisboa, Portugal, 1-3 de junio de 2011).

  6. Echinococcus granulosus genomics: a new dawn for improved diagnosis, treatment, and control of echinococcosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenbao; Wang, Shengyue; McManus, Donald P

    2014-01-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a cosmopolitan disease caused by the dog tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus. The disease is difficult to diagnose, treat, and control and is responsible for considerable human morbidity and mortality globally. There is an urgent need for new diagnostic tests and new drugs for treatment of CE and the development of a vaccine against adult worms of E. granulosus in dogs. We recently presented a draft genomic sequence for the worm comprising 151.6 Mb encoding 11,325 proteins. We undertook an extensive comparative analysis of the E. granulosus transcriptome using representative life stages (protoscoleces, cyst germinal cells and membranes, adult worms, and oncospheres) to explore different aspects of tapeworm biology and parasitism. The genome and transcriptome of E. granulosus provide a unique platform for post-genomic research and to facilitate the development of new, effective treatments and interventions for echinococcosis control.

  7. Enhanced chemoprophylactic and clinical efficacy of albendazole formulated as solid dispersions in experimental cystic echinococcosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pensel, Patricia E; Castro, Silvina; Allemandi, Daniel; Bruni, Sergio Sánchez; Palma, Santiago D; Elissondo, María Celina

    2014-06-16

    Cystic echinococcosis is a chronic, complex, and still neglected disease. Although albendazole has demonstrated efficacy, only about one-third of patients experience complete remission or cure and 30-50% of treated patients develop some evidence of a therapeutic response. Different strategies have been developed in order to improve the albendazole water solubility and dissolution rate. The aim of the current work was to investigate the chemoprophylactic and clinical efficacy of an albendazole:poloxamer 188 solid dispersion formulation on mice infected with Echinococcus granulosus metacestodes. Albendazole formulated as solid dispersion had greater chemoprophylactic and clinical efficacy than albendazole alone. The improved in therapeutic efficacy could be a consequence of the increase in the systemic availability of albendazole sulfoxide. The work reported here demonstrates that in vivo treatment with albendazole:poloxamer 188 impairs the development of the hydatid cysts. This new pharmacotechnically based strategy could be a suitable alternative for treating cystic echinococcosis in humans.

  8. Human and canine echinococcosis infection in informal, unlicensed abattoirs in Lima, Peru.

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    Maria M Reyes

    Full Text Available Echinococcus granulosus infections are a major public health problem in livestock-raising regions around the world. The life cycle of this tapeworm is sustained between dogs (definitive host, canine echinococcosis, and herbivores (intermediary host, cystic hydatid disease. Humans may also develop cystic hydatid disease. Echinococcosis is endemic in rural areas of Peru; nevertheless, its presence or the extension of the problem in urban areas is basically unknown. Migration into Lima, an 8-million habitant's metropolis, creates peripheral areas where animals brought from endemic areas are slaughtered without veterinary supervision. We identified eight informal, unlicensed abattoirs in a peripheral district of Lima and performed a cross-sectional study in to assess the prevalence of canine echinococcosis, evaluated by coproELISA followed by PCR evaluation and arecoline purge. Eight of 22 dogs (36% were positive to coproELISA, and four (18% were confirmed to be infected with E. granulosus tapeworms either by PCR or direct observation (purge. Later evaluation of the human population living in these abattoirs using abdominal ultrasound, chest X-rays and serology, found 3 out of 32 (9.3% subjects with echinococcal cysts in the liver (two viable, one calcified, one of whom had also lung involvement and a strongly positive antibody response. Autochthonous transmission of E. granulosus is present in Lima. Informal, unlicensed abattoirs may be sources of infection to neighbouring people in this urban environment.

  9. Biological, Epidemiological, and Clinical Aspects of Echinococcosis, a Zoonosis of Increasing Concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, Johannes; Deplazes, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Echinococcosis in humans is a zoonotic infection caused by larval stages (metacestodes) of cestode species of the genus Echinococcus. Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is caused by Echinococcus granulosus, alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is caused by E. multilocularis, and polycystic forms are caused by either E. vogeli or E. oligarthrus. In untreated cases, AE has a high mortality rate. Although control is essentially feasible, CE remains a considerable health problem in many regions of the northern and southern hemispheres. AE is restricted to the northern hemisphere regions of North America and Eurasia. Recent studies have shown that E. multilocularis, the causative agent of AE, is more widely distributed than previously thought. There are also some hints of an increasing significance of polycystic forms of the disease, which are restricted to Central and South America. Various aspects of human echinococcosis are discussed in this review, including data on the infectivity of genetic variants of E. granulosus to humans, the increasing invasion of cities in Europe and Japan by red foxes, the main definitive hosts of E. multilocularis, and the first demonstration of urban cycles of the parasite. Examples of emergence or reemergence of CE are presented, and the question of potential spreading of E. multilocularis is critically assessed. Furthermore, information is presented on new and improved tools for diagnosing the infection in final hosts (dogs, foxes, and cats) by coproantigen or DNA detection and the application of molecular techniques to epidemiological studies. In the clinical field, the available methods for diagnosing human CE and AE are described and the treatment options are summarized. The development of new chemotherapeutic options for all forms of human echinococcosis remains an urgent requirement. A new option for the control of E. granulosus in the intermediate host population (mainly sheep and cattle) is vaccination. Attempts are made to reduce the

  10. Post-treatment follow-up study of abdominal cystic echinococcosis in tibetan communities of northwest Sichuan Province, China.

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    Tiaoying Li

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human cystic echinococcosis (CE, caused by the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus, with the liver as the most frequently affected organ, is known to be highly endemic in Tibetan communities of northwest Sichuan Province. Antiparasitic treatment with albendazole remains the primary choice for the great majority of patients in this resource-poor remote area, though surgery is the most common approach for CE therapy that has the potential to remove cysts and lead to complete cure. The current prospective study aimed to assess the effectiveness of community based use of cyclic albendazole treatment in Tibetan CE cases, and concurrently monitor the changes of serum specific antibody levels during treatment. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Ultrasonography was applied for diagnosis and follow-up of CE cases after cyclic albendazole treatment in Tibetan communities of Sichuan Province during 2006 to 2008, and serum specific IgG antibody levels against Echinococcus granulosus recombinant antigen B in ELISA was concurrently monitored in these cases. A total of 196 CE cases were identified by ultrasound, of which 37 (18.9% showed evidence of spontaneous healing/involution of hepatic cyst(s with CE4 or CE5 presentations. Of 49 enrolled CE cases for treatment follow-up, 32.7% (16 were considered to be cured based on B-ultrasound after 6 months to 30 months regular albendazole treatment, 49.0% (24 were improved, 14.3% (7 remained unchanged, and 4.1% (2 became aggravated. In general, patients with CE2 type cysts (daughter cysts present needed a longer treatment course for cure (26.4 months, compared to cases with CE1 (univesicular cysts (20.4 months or CE3 type (detached cyst membrane or partial degeneration of daughter cysts (9 months. In addition, the curative duration was longer in patients with large (>10 cm cysts (22.3 months, compared to cases with medium (5-10 cm cysts (17.3 months or patients with small (<5 cm cysts (6 months. At

  11. Renal injury due to hepatic hydatid disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altay, Mustafa; Unverdi, Selman; Altay, Fatma Aybala; Ceri, Mevlüt; Akay, Hatice; Ozer, Hüseyin; Kiraç, Halil; Denizli, Nazim; Yilmaz, Bilal; Güvence, Necmettin; Duranay, Murat

    2010-08-01

    Many studies on renal hydatid disease have been reported in the literature, and the disease process appears to be well defined. However, renal injury without direct renal invasion remains poorly understood. The present study aims to define the frequency and the property of the renal involvement in hydatid disease. Eighty patients older than 18 years and diagnosed with liver echinococcosis were included in the study. The echinococcosis was diagnosed by the haemagglutination test and abdominal ultrasonography. Twenty-four-hour protein excretion was measured for patients who had elevated serum creatinine levels or whose urinalyses were positive for haematuria or proteinuria. Subsequently, renal biopsy was performed, and the specimens were examined by light microscopy and immunofluorescence staining. Haematuria was detected in 11 patients (13.75%), and proteinuria was detected in nine patients (11.25%). Percutaneous renal biopsy was applied to nine patients who gave signed consents to undergo the test. We detected four immunoglobulin A nephritis (together with tubulointerstitial nephritis in one patient), one membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, one immunoglobulin M nephritis together with mesangiocapillary glomerulonephritis, one membranous glomerulonephritis, one amyloidosis and one tubulointerstitial nephritis. Renal hydatid cyst was detected only in four patients (5%). Hydatid disease, which affects the kidney, is not rare, and we suggest that urinalysis and, if indicated, renal biopsy should be performed for hepatic hydatid disease diagnosis.

  12. An unusual presentation of alveolar echinococcosis in a 12-yr-old immunocompetent child.

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    Oral, Akgun; Ozturk, Gurkan; Aydinli, Bülent; Kantarci, Mecit; Salman, Ahmet Bedii

    2012-12-01

    AE is a parasitic disease caused by Echinococcus multilocularis (E.m.). AE is a rare form of echinococcosis and mostly seen in 50- to 70-yr-old patients. Its asymptomatic invasive tumor-like lesion development period, which lasts as much as 20 yr, is too long. Hence, this disease is very rare in children. Herein, we report an AE in a 12-yr-old girl who was not eligible for surgical treatment because of a radiological evaluation of non-resectable lesion and was scheduled for a LT.

  13. Epidemiology and control of echinococcosis in central Asia, with particular reference to the People's Republic of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenbao; Zhang, Zhuangzhi; Wu, Weiping; Shi, Baoxin; Li, Jun; Zhou, Xiaonong; Wen, Hao; McManus, Donald P

    2015-01-01

    At least 270 million people (58% of the total population) are at risk of cystic echinococcosis (CE) in Central Asia including areas of Mongolia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Afghanistan, Iran, Pakistan and western China. The annual surgical incidence rate in Uzbekistan and Tadjikistan has been estimated to be as high as 25-27 cases/100,000 with the highest prevalence reaching 10% (range from 0.8 to 11.9%) in some Tibetan communities in western China. Echinococcus transmission in the region is largely associated with social factors including limited community knowledge of echinococcosis, small-scale household animal production, home killing of livestock, and the feeding of dogs with uncooked offal. Alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is also endemic in Central Asia and is recognized as a major problem in some Tibetan communities with up to 6% of villagers infected in some villages. In western China, 5-30% of the population are seropositive against E. granulosus antigens, indicating that a large number of individuals have been exposed to the parasite. Although echinococcosis control programs have been initiated in some countries in Central Asia, control efforts are generally fragmented and uncoordinated. Monthly deworming of dogs with praziquantel (PZQ), as a key measure to control the Echinococcus parasites, has been used in western China. However, the approach has proven difficult in local semi-nomadic communities. Additional control measures including health education, domestic livestock animal treatment/vaccination and dog vaccination are needed in CE-endemic areas to accelerate progress.

  14. Banding pattern indicative of echinococcosis in a commercial cysticercosis western blot

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    Tappe D

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective A commercial cysticercosis Western blot was evaluated for serological cross-reactivity of sera from patients with alveolar (AE and cystic echinococcosis (CE. Methods A total of 161 sera were examined, including 31 sera from AE-patients, 11 sera from CE-patients, 9 sera from patients with other parasitic diseases and 109 sera from patients with unrelated medical conditions. All AE-and CE-sera were also examined by the echinococcosis Western blot. Results More sera from patients with AE than with CE showed cross-reactivity in the form of ladder-like patterns ("Mikado aspect" and untypical bands at 6-8 kDa (71% and 77.4% versus 27.3% and 45.5%, respectively. In contrast, triplets of bands in the area above 50 kDa and between 24 and 39-42 kDa were more frequent in CE than in AE sera. The fuzzy band at 50-55 kDa typical for cysticercosis was absent in all AE and CE sera. Conclusions Atypical banding patterns in the cysticercosis Western blot should raise the suspicion of a metacestode infection different from Taenia solium, i.e. Echinococcus multilocularis or E. granulosus, especially when the Mikado aspect and an altered 6-8 kDa band is visible in the absence of a fuzzy 50-55 kDa band.

  15. Cystic Echinococcosis in Spain: Current Situation and Relevance for Other Endemic Areas in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojo-Vazquez, Francisco A.; Pardo-Lledias, Javier; Francos-Von Hunefeld, Marcelo; Cordero-Sanchez, Miguel; Alamo-Sanz, Rufino; Hernandez-Gonzalez, Ana; Brunetti, Enrico; Siles-Lucas, Mar

    2011-01-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) remains an important health problem in many regions of the world, both where no control measures have been implemented, and where control programs have been incompletely successful with ensuing re-emergence of the disease. In Spain, official data on CE show an increase in the proportion of intermediate hosts with CE during the last few years, and autochthonous pediatric patients have been reported, a sign of active local transmission of disease. A similar picture emerges from data reported to the European Food Safety Authority by other European countries. Nevertheless, several crucial aspects related to CE that would help better understand and control the disease have not been tackled appropriately, in particular the emergence of infection in specific geographical areas. In this respect, while some data are missing, other data are conflicting because they come from different databases. We review the current situation of CE in Spain compared with areas in which similar problems in the CE field exist, and offer recommendations on how to overcome those limitations. Specifically, we believe that the introduction of national registries for CE with online data entry, following the example set by the European Registry for Alveolar Echinococcosis, would help streamline data collection on CE by eliminating the need for evaluating and integrating data from multiple regions, by avoiding duplication of data from patients who access several different health facilities over time, and by providing much needed clinical and epidemiological data that are currently accessible only to clinicians. PMID:21283615

  16. Modelling the transmission dynamics of cystic echinococcosis in donkeys of different ages from Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahmar, Samia; Boufana, Belgees; Jebabli, Leila; Craig, Phillip S; Ayari, Hayet; Basti, Talha; Dhibi, Mokhtar; Torgerson, Paul R

    2014-09-15

    During the period from March 2006 to July 2009 a total of 2040 slaughtered donkeys were examined for cystic echinococcosis (CE). CE prevalence in donkeys was 8.48% and the infection pressure (0.0088 infections per year) and infection rate (0.0448 cysts per year) appeared to be lower than those previously reported for cattle, sheep, dromedaries and goats in Tunisia. However, the number of cysts per infection was relatively high (5.07 cysts per infection). Among the 901 collected hydatid cysts the majority were located in the liver (89.9%), 10.09% in the lungs and 4.77% were fertile (43/901). The amplification of a fragment within the mitochondrial gene coding for cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) revealed that donkeys were infected with both Echinococcus equinus (horse strain, G4 genotype) and Echinococcus granulosus (sheep strain, G1 genotype). E. granulosus G1 developed into fertile cysts (15,112 protoscoleces/ml) with a protoscoleces viability of 65.78%. This investigation is the first detailed epidemiological report on cystic echinococcosis infection in donkeys for any endemic region.

  17. Non-surgical and non-chemical attempts to treat echinococcosis: do they work?

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    Tamarozzi Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cystic echinococcosis (CE and alveolar echinococcosis (AE are chronic, complex and neglected diseases. Their treatment depends on a number of factors related to the lesion, setting and patient. We performed a literature review of curative or palliative non-surgical, non-chemical interventions in CE and AE. In CE, some of these techniques, like radiofrequency thermal ablation (RFA, were shelved after initial attempts, while others, such as High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound, appear promising but are still in a pre-clinical phase. In AE, RFA has never been tested, however, radiotherapy or heavy-ion therapies have been attempted in experimental models. Still, application to humans is questionable. In CE, although prospective clinical studies are still lacking, therapeutic, non-surgical drainage techniques, such as PAIR (puncture, aspiration, injection, re-aspiration and its derivatives, are now considered a useful option in selected cases. Finally, palliative, non-surgical drainage techniques such as US- or CT-guided percutaneous biliary drainage, centro-parasitic abscesses drainage, or vascular stenting were performed successfully. Recently, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP-associated techniques have become increasingly used to manage biliary fistulas in CE and biliary obstructions in AE. Development of pre-clinical animal models would allow testing for AE techniques developed for other indications, e.g. cancer. Prospective trials are required to determine the best use of PAIR, and associated procedures, and the indications and techniques of palliative drainage.

  18. Curative effect of radiotherapy at various doses on subcutaneous alveolar echinococcosis in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yue-fen; XIE Zeng-ru; NI Ya-qiong; MAO Rui; QI Hong-zhi; YANG Yu-gang; JIANG Tao; BAO Yong-xing

    2011-01-01

    Background Alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is a disease in human and animals, and the cure rate is unsatisfactory. This study aimed to investigate the curative efficacy of different doses of locally applied radiotherapy on alveolar echinococcosis in rats.Methods Rats infected with Echinococcus multilocularis were randomly divided into 4 groups of 15 rats each: low-,middle-, and high-irradiation groups and a control group. Rats in the control group underwent no treatment, while rats in the irradiation groups received 6-MeV radiotherapy at 20 Gy/8 f, 40 Gy/8 f, and 60 Gy/8 f respectively, once every 3 days for a total of 8 times. One month after radiotherapy, wet weight and AE vesicle inhibitory rate were detected in rats of each group. Histopathologic and ultrastructural observations of tissues with AE lesions were performed.Results In the treatment groups, an obvious inhibitory effect was found in AE rats; the inhibitory rates were 50%, 72%,and 82%, respectively. There were also statistical differences in pathological changes and average wet weight of the lesions compared with the control group (P <0.05). In the treatment groups, injuries of various degrees were found in the ultrastructure of the laminated and germinal layers in the capsular wall of AE, and injury was most severe in the high-dose group.Conclusion Radiotherapy has a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on the growth of AE.

  19. The first meeting of the European Register of Cystic Echinococcosis (ERCE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Patrizia; Tamarozzi, Francesca; Galati, Fabio; Pozio, Edoardo; Akhan, Okan; Cretu, Carmen Michaela; Vutova, Kamenna; Siles-Lucas, Mar; Brunetti, Enrico; Casulli, Adriano

    2016-04-28

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a zoonotic parasitic disease endemic in southern and eastern European countries. The true prevalence of CE is difficult to estimate due to the high proportion of asymptomatic carriers who never seek medical attention and to the underreporting of diagnosed cases, factors which contribute to its neglected status. In an attempt to improve this situation, the European Register of Cystic Echinococcosis (ERCE), was launched in October 2014 in the context of the HERACLES project. ERCE is a prospective, observational, multicentre register of patients with probable or confirmed CE. The first ERCE meeting was held in November 2015 at the Italian National Institute of Health (Istituto Superiore di Sanita, ISS) in Rome, to bring together CE experts currently involved in the Register activities, to share and discuss experiences, and future developments.Although the Register is still in its infancy, data collected at the time of writing this report, had outnumbered the total of national cases reported by the European endemic countries and published by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control in 2015. This confirms the need for an improved reporting system of CE at the European level. The collection of standardized clinical data and samples is expected to support a more rational, stage-specific approach to clinical management, and to help public authorities harmonize reporting of CE. A better understanding of CE burden in Europe will encourage the planning and implementation of public health policies toward its control.

  20. Impact of increased economic burden due to human echinococcosis in an underdeveloped rural community of the People's Republic of China.

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    Yu Rong Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ningxia is located in western People's Republic of China, which is hyperendemic for human cystic echinococcosis (CE throughout the entire area with alveolar echinococcosis (AE hyperendemic in the south. This is in part due to its underdeveloped economy. Despite the recent rapid growth in P.R. China's economy, medical expenditure for hospitalization of echinococcosis cases has become one of the major poverty generators in rural Ningxia, resulting in a significant social problem. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We reviewed the 2000 inpatient records with liver CE in surgical departments of hospitals from north, central and south Ningxia for the period 1996-2002. We carried out an analysis of health care expenditure of inpatient treatment in public hospitals, and examined the financial inequalities relating to human echinococcosis and the variation in per capita income between various socioeconomic groups with different levels of gross domestic product for different years. Hospital charges for Yinchuan, NHAR's capital city in the north, increased approximately 35-fold more than the annual income of rural farmers with the result that they preferred to seek health care in local county hospitals, despite higher quality and more efficient treatment and diagnosis available in the city. Household income levels thus strongly influenced the choice of health care provider and the additional expense impeded access of poor people to better quality treatment. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Information on socioeconomic problems arising from echinococcosis, which adds considerably to the burden on patient families and communities, needs to be collected as a prerequisite for developing policies to tackle the disease in rural Ningxia.

  1. Hepatitis A FAQs

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  4. A Neglected Zoonosis in Albania: why Echinococcosis is Becoming a Surgeon's Exclusivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilaca, Arben; Vyshka, Gentian; Pepa, Arben; Shytaj, Kastriot; Shtjefni, Valentin; Boçari, Arben; Beqiri, Arben; Kraja, Dhimitër

    2014-01-01

    Echinococcosis is an endemic zoonosis in the Mediterranean area, with Albania interested actually to a level that is becoming a public health concern. Authors describe preliminary data from the only tertiary (university) medical facility of Albania, positioned in the capital of the country (Tirana), with 333 new cases diagnosed and treated during the period 2005 - 2011. Out of all these 333 new cases an impressive majority of 91% had a surgical treatment right from the first admission, rendering the disease almost a surgical exclusivity. Even more, 80% of all patients from the study group were hospitalized straightforwardly in surgical wards, with options of surgical intervention's percentages outrunning figures from other sources and authors of the same geographical area. Such a situation, together with a very important level of patients' origin from highly urbanized areas such as those of the capital, suggest the necessity of well-organized interventions, among which might be the mandatory notification of all human cases with Echinococcus infection.

  5. Study Progress of Echinococcosis%棘球蚴病研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周璇; 夏党荣; 赵新斐; 王琛; 高波

    2014-01-01

    细粒棘球绦虫(Echinococcus granulosus)是一类呈世界性广泛分布,严重危害公共卫生的人兽共患寄生虫病。本文就包虫病的病因、病理、流行病学的流行进展做了概述,并对本病的诊断和预防做了出建议。%Echinococcus granulosus (Taeniidae;Echinococcus) is a medically important parasitic helminth due to the fatal echinococcosis caused by its larvae (metacestode) in domestic ruminants or wild ungulate as well as hu-mans. This review will outline the relevant progress made in etiology, pathology, epidemiology, and diagnosis of this disease and propose prospects for future treatment using molecular methodologies such as vaccination.

  6. Epidemiological Studies on Echinococcosis and Characterization of Human and Livestock Hydatid Cysts in Mauritania

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    CB Ould Ahmed Salem

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Echinococcosis/hydatidosis is considered endemic in Mauritania. The aim of this study is to present an epidemiological study on the echinococcosis in man and animals in the Nouakchott region. Methods: The internal organs from livestock carcasses were inspected for research of hydatid cysts. The hydatid fluid was examined for research of the protoscoleces. Dogs were necropsied for the collect of Echinococcus granulosus.Results: In the Nouakchott Hospital, 24 surgical operation of human hydatid cysts have been per­formed, out of which 50% were localised in the lung, 33% in the liver and 17% elsewhere. Then, the incidence rate would be of 1.2% per 100 000 inhabitants in Mauritania. In the dog, the prevalence rate is 14%. The average number of E. granulosus on the whole dogs is 172 and 1227 on the positive dogs. Concerning the livestock, hydatid cysts found in 30.1% of the dromedary, 5.5% of the cattle and 6.5 of the sheep. The fertility rate of hydatid cysts in humans (75% and camels (76% was significantly higher than that of sheep (24% and cattle (23% (P<0.0001. Hydatid infestation is characterized globally by the dominance of pulmonary localiza­tions in hu­mans (50% and camels (72.7% and in the liver in sheep (76.1% and cattle (82.3%.Conclusion: The differences between prevalence rates, the fertility of hydatid cysts and diversity sites localization observed in humans and camels of one hand and the sheep and cattle on the other hand, depends possibly the strain(s diversity of E. granulosus.

  7. Cystic Echinococcosis Epidemiology in Spain Based on Hospitalization Records, 1997-2012

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    Siles-Lucas, Mar; Aparicio, Pilar; Lopez-Velez, Rogelio; Gherasim, Alin; Garate, Teresa; Benito, Agustín

    2016-01-01

    Background Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a parasitic disease caused by the tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus. Although present throughout Europe, deficiencies in the official reporting of CE result in under-reporting and misreporting of this disease, which in turn is reflected in the wrong opinion that CE is not an important health problem. By using an alternative data source, this study aimed at describing the clinical and temporal-spatial characteristics of CE hospitalizations in Spain between 1997 and 2012. Methodology/Principal Findings We performed a retrospective descriptive study using the Hospitalization Minimum Data Set (CMBD in Spanish). All CMBD’s hospital discharges with echinococcosis diagnosis placed in first diagnostic position were reviewed. Hospitalization rates were computed and clinical characteristics were described. Spatial and temporal distribution of hospital discharges was also assessed. Between 1997 and 2012, 14,010 hospitalizations with diagnosis of CE were recorded, 55% were men and 67% were aged over 45 years. Pediatric hospitalizations occurred during the whole study period. The 95.2% were discharged at home, and only 1.7% were exitus. The average cost was 8,439.11 €. The hospitalization rate per 100,000 per year showed a decreasing trend during the study period. All the autonomous communities registered discharges, even those considered as non-endemic. Maximum rates were reached by Extremadura, Castilla-Leon and Aragon. Comparison of the CMBD data and the official Compulsory Notifiable Diseases (CND) reports from 2005 to 2012 showed that official data were lower than registered hospitalization discharges. Conclusions Hospitalizations distribution was uneven by year and autonomous region. Although CE hospitalization rates have decreased considerably due to the success of control programs, it remains a public health problem due to its severity and economic impact. Therefore, it would be desirable to improve its oversight and

  8. Canine echinococcosis: genetic diversity of Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) from definitive hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boufana, B; Lett, W; Lahmar, S; Griffiths, A; Jenkins, D J; Buishi, I; Engliez, S A; Alrefadi, M A; Eljaki, A A; Elmestiri, F M; Reyes, M M; Pointing, S; Al-Hindi, A; Torgerson, P R; Okamoto, M; Craig, P S

    2015-11-01

    Canids, particularly dogs, constitute the major source of cystic echinococcosis (CE) infection to humans, with the majority of cases being caused by Echinococcus granulosus (G1 genotype). Canine echinococcosis is an asymptomatic disease caused by adult tapeworms of E. granulosus sensu lato (s.l.). Information on the population structure and genetic variation of adult E. granulosus is limited. Using sequenced data of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) we examined the genetic diversity and population structure of adult tapeworms of E. granulosus (G1 genotype) from canid definitive hosts originating from various geographical regions and compared it to that reported for the larval metacestode stage from sheep and human hosts. Echinococcus granulosus (s.s) was identified from adult tapeworm isolates from Kenya, Libya, Tunisia, Australia, China, Kazakhstan, United Kingdom and Peru, including the first known molecular confirmation from Gaza and the Falkland Islands. Haplotype analysis showed a star-shaped network with a centrally positioned common haplotype previously described for the metacestode stage from sheep and humans, and the neutrality indices indicated population expansion. Low Fst values suggested that populations of adult E. granulosus were not genetically differentiated. Haplotype and nucleotide diversities for E. granulosus isolates from sheep and human origin were twice as high as those reported from canid hosts. This may be related to self-fertilization of E. granulosus and/or to the longevity of the parasite in the respective intermediate and definitive hosts. Improved nuclear single loci are required to investigate the discrepancies in genetic variation seen in this study.

  9. Impact of "Grain to Green" Programme on echinococcosis infection in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Eimear; Barnes, Tamsin S; Xu, Yangyang; Zhao, Hengbo; Clements, Archie C A; Gray, Darren J; McManus, Donald P; Atkinson, Jo-An M; Williams, Gail M; Yang, YuRong

    2014-10-15

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is endemic among the human population of Xiji County, Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, China, where the prevalence is estimated to be between 2.2% and 3.6%. Government-run sheep abattoirs in Xiji County have closed in recent years and, as a consequence, slaughter is carried out mostly at rural market places. The market place in Xinglong Township, Xiji County, is home to an increasing number of stray dogs and the lack of government control over slaughter practices potentially favours Echinococcus granulosus transmission. A survey of sheep, goats and cattle reared in Xiji County was conducted in Xinglong Market and Xinglong Township to determine prevalence and transmission dynamics of E. granulosus infection. The liver and lungs of all livestock aged one year and older were examined macroscopically post mortem; visual examination and palpation of organs determined overall prevalence of E. granulosus. Cysts consistent in appearance with E. granulosus were observed in 2/184 sheep (prevalence 1.0%) and 1/55 of the cattle examined (prevalence 1.8%); 0/13 goats were found to be infected. However, microscopic examination of these suspected cysts failed to confirm these samples as E. granulosus, giving a prevalence of confirmed infection of zero percent in all three species. The prevalence of liver fluke was 61.3% in sheep and 12.7% in cattle with a significant difference between males and females (p ≤ 0.001). Considering the high prevalence of echinococcosis in the local human population, the absence of CE observed among commercially slaughtered livestock was surprising. Several explanations for this discrepancy and their implications are proposed.

  10. Cerebral Alveolar Echinococcosis Concomitant with Liver and Lung Lesions in a Young Adult Patient: Case Report and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batçık, Osman Ersegun; Öğrenci, Ahmet; Koban, Orkun; Ekşi, Murat Şakir; Bilge, Turgay

    2016-09-01

    We present the case of a 25-year-old male harboring multiple brain lesions mimicking tumor metastasis that were revealed to be caused by Echinococcus multilocularis. Cerebral echinococcosis with multiple lesions is rare and might be confused with a brain abscess, tuberculoma, or metastatic tumor disease. Brain magnetic resonance imaging and serological studies are helpful in the differential diagnosis. In case of E. multilocularis, cerebral invasion is the late stage of the disease that necessitates an aggressive treatment protocol.

  11. Cardiac echinococcosis

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    Ivanović-Krstić Branislava A.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac hydatid disease is rare. We report on an uncommon hydatid cyst localized in the right ventricular wall, right atrial wall tricuspid valve left atrium and pericard. A 33-year-old woman was treated for cough, fever and chest pain. Cardiac echocardiograpic examination revealed a round tumor (5.8 x 4 cm in the right ventricular free wall and two smaller cysts behind that tumor. There were cysts in right atrial wall and tricuspidal valve as well. Serologic tests for hydatidosis were positive. Computed tomography finding was consistent with diagnosis of hydatid cyst in lungs and right hylar part. Surgical treatment was rejected due to great risk of cardiac perforation. Medical treatment with albendazole was unsuccessful and the patient died due to systemic hydatid involvement of the lungs, liver and central nervous system.

  12. CT features of lung alveolar echinococcosis%肺泡状棘球蚴病的CT表现特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹英; 刘丽; 蒲鹏; 胡细新

    2011-01-01

    Objective To analyze the CT features of lung alveolar echinococcosis and assess the value of CT scanning for the diagnosis of this disease. Methods The CT features of lung alveolar echinococcosis in 26 patients diagnosed pathologically or clinically were reviewed retrospectively and correlated with histopathology.Results Lung alveolar echinococcosis appeared as multiple lesions bilaterally in 18 patients, as multiple lesions unilaterally in 6 patients, and as single lesion bilaterally in 2 patients. Seventeen cases presented as masses and nodules,8 patients presented as nodules,1 patient presented as a mass. Lobulation and spiculation were showed in most lesions, irregular cavity or bubble-like opacity in 13 patients,calcification in 18 patients,a patchy area or fibrotic cord around lesion in 14 patients. Pleural thickening adjacent to the lesion in 20 patients. Conclusion Lung alveolar echinococcosis has characteristic features on CT, and CT can provide important information for the diagnosis of lung alveolar echinococcosis.%目的 分析肺泡状棘球蚴病的CT表现特征,评价CT诊断该病的价值.方法 回顾性分析26例经病理确诊或临床综合诊断为肺泡状棘球蚴病的CT表现特征及各种表现的病理基础.结果 双肺多发病灶18例,一侧肺多发病灶6例,双肺单发病灶2例.其中病灶为肿块结节混合型17 例,结节型8例,1例为单发肿块.26例中24例病灶边缘可见分叶状或锯齿状突起,13例病灶内可见不规则空洞、空泡,18例病灶内可见钙化,14例病灶邻近的肺组织内见到少量斑片或条索影,20例邻近胸壁的病灶处胸膜增厚明显,病灶以宽基底与胸壁相贴.结论 肺泡状棘球蚴病有较明显的CT表现特征,CT检查能为该病的诊断提供重要价值.

  13. Alveolar echinococcosis: correlation of imaging type with PNM stage and diameter of lesions

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    WANG Jing; XING Yan; REN Bo; XIE Wei-dong; WEN Hao; LIU Wen-ya

    2011-01-01

    Background Although the computer tomography (Cr) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of alveolar echinococcosis (AE) have been well documented, the consecutive imaging changes of this disease in each PNM stage (parasite lesion, neighboring organ invasion, metastases) were not described accurately. The aim of this study was to analyze the correlation between imaging type and PNM stage and diameter of AE lesions, and to explore the development features of this disease.Methods A total of 87 patients with AE were examined using CT and MRI before medical management. Imaging features including the maximum diameter, calcification pattern, and imaging type of lesion were retrospectively assessed.The correlation of imaging type with PNM stage, diameter and calcification pattern was analyzed.Results Lesions (n=111) in 87 patients were divided into three types based on imaging characteristics; solid type (33.3%, 37/111, a solid lesion without liquid necrosis or only small patches of necrosis), mixed type (41.4%, 46/111, solid component surrounding large and/or irregular liquid necrosis area), and pseudo-cystic type (25.2%, 28/111, large cyst without visible solid component). Lesion calcification in the alveolar echinococcosis was categorized into three patterns;mild calcification (45.1%, 50/111, i.e. inconspicuous calcification or punctuate scattered calcification), moderate calcification (46.8%, 52/111, coastline calcification located at the periphery of the lesion, with or without the central dot-calcification) and abundant calcification (8.1%, 9/111, large calcified deposits). Significant differences were found between pseudo-cystic type and other two types in PNM stage, maximum diameter and calcification (P <0.05), but there was no significant difference between solid type and mixed type in those mentioned aspects (P >0.05). No correlation was observed between calcification patterns and maximum diameter (P >0.05).Conclusions Solid and mixed type

  14. Epidemiological Studies on Cystic Echinococcosis in China——A Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHAIJUN-JIE

    1995-01-01

    In the four decades from 1951 to 1990,the six provinces or autonomous regions(Xinjiang,Gansu,Qinghai,Ningxia,Xizang,and Nei Monggol)reported a total of 26 065 surgical cases of hydatid disease,most of which were reported in the recent decade.About on third of the patients was chilren and adolescents under 15 years old.So far,cystic hydatid infections of local origin have been confirmed in 22 provinces,autonomous regions and municipalities in the whole nation.Findings of X-ray examination and real-time B-mode ultrasonography in agricultureal and pastoral areas of Xinjiang,Gansu,Qinghai,Ningxia and Xizang showed that the morbidity rate of hydatidosis in human population varied between 0.5% and 4.5%.The main animal intermediate host in all these regions in sheep,the morbidity of which varied between 3.3% and 90%.The infection rate of adult Echinococcus granulosus in dogs varied between 7% and 71%.The high-rish period for humans contracting hydatid disease is the pre-school age.Direct contact of children with dogs and ingestion of watr,vegetables and foods contaminated by worm eggs are the chief mode of transmission for human hydatidosis.The common practices of home slaughter and of feeding dogs on offal containing hydatid cysts faciliatte the life cyle of the parasite. On the basis of hydatid control efforts for several years,the Ministry of Public Health promulgated officially the “ 1992-1995 National Programme for Hydatid Disease Control” in Aprill 1992,and pilot studies in which the control o hydatidosis is composed of extensive health education,sanitation of slaughtering and management and deworming of dogs are being established.Cystic echinococcosis has wide distribution in China and is a major public health problem in hyperendemic areas,poses a great threat against people's health and influences the development of livestock husbandry.This problem has received great attention from the medical and veterinary departments.In the rencent decade great efforts

  15. Hepatitis C and Incarceration

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  1. Slaughterhouse survey of cystic echinococcosis in cattle and sheep from the Republic of Moldova.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chihai, O; Umhang, G; Erhan, D; Boué, F; Tălămbuţă, N; Rusu, Ş; Zamornea, M

    2016-05-01

    The Echinococcus granulosus tapeworm is responsible for cystic echinococcosis (CE), a zoonotic disease with worldwide distribution. The life cycle of the parasite is mainly domestic and takes place between dogs and livestock species. A slaughterhouse survey was conducted in 2012 in the Republic of Moldova in order to estimate the prevalence of CE. A total of 1525 cattle, 5580 sheep and 12,700 pigs were surveyed. No CE infection was observed in pigs, while prevalence was estimated at 59.3% in cattle and 61.9% in sheep. Infection was significantly higher in animals raised in private households than in those from collective farms. The frequency of infection increased with age in both species. In cattle and in sheep, infection of both the liver and lungs was the most common, while infection in the lungs only was much less frequent. Farm type appears to be an important factor in CE infection in Moldova, due to the extensive farming and the home-slaughtering undertaken in the majority private sector, despite a high prevalence of CE also recorded in the public sector. The low fertility of cysts in cattle (1.1%) compared to sheep (47.6%) confirmed the maintenance of E. granulosus sensu stricto in a dog-sheep life cycle which excludes cattle. Further studies are needed to obtain a complete overview of the parasite's epidemiology in its intermediate and definitive hosts, in order to implement control and preventive measures, with specific attention given to farms in the private sector.

  2. Complications of extrahepatic echinococcosis:Fistulization of an adrenal hydatid cyst into the intestine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan Francisco Ruiz-Rabelo; Manuel Gomez-Alvarez; Joaquin Sanchez-Rodriguez; Sebastian Rufian Pe(n)a

    2008-01-01

    Echinococcal cysts are usually found in liver and lungs,but any other organ can potentially be involved.Extrahepatic disease due to hydatid cyst may develop in the abdominal and pelvic cavity,aside from in other less common locations,which may make both diagnosis and treatment more complex.We present a rare case of extrahepatic echinococcosis in a 70-year old patient with a 4-d history of dull abdominal pain,anemia within the transfusion range and fever.She underwent surgery for left renal hydatid cysts 30 years ago.After non operative treatment,imaging studies showed a calcified hydatid cyst in a retrogastric location communicating with a proximal jejunal loop.En-block resection of the mass together with the adrenal gland was performed including closure of the enteric fistula.Anatomic pathology confirmed the diagnosis of a calcified hydatid cyst of left adrenal origin.Surgery is the treatment of choice and most authorsrecommend removal of cyst and adrenal gland.

  3. The Seroprevalence of Human Cystic Echinococcosis in Iran: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Shafiei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Human cystic echinococcosis (HCE, a zoonotic infection of the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus, has high effect on public health in human population all around the world. Iran is one of the most important endemic areas in the Middle East. This systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the seroprevalence of HCE in Iranian population. An electronic search for articles from 1985 until April 2015 was performed using data bases PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, Magiran, IranMedex, Iran Doc, and Scientific Information Database (SID both in English and in Persian. A random-effects meta-analysis was used to combine results from individual studies. The information was analyzed by STATA version 11.1. A total of 33 articles met our eligibility criteria and were included in a meta-analysis. The pooled estimate of the prevalence of HCE based on random-effects model was estimated 6.0% (95% CI: 4.0%, 7.0%. The prevalence of the disease significantly increased with age and prevalence rate in males was significantly lower than females (p<0.001. The using of CIE or CCIEP method was also significantly greater than the other methods (p<0.001. There was a publication bias in prevalence of studies. HCE is highly prevalent in Iran. Public education for preventive strategies and finally reducing transmission of the parasite and infection in population is needed.

  4. Improved Serodiagnosis of Cystic Echinococcosis Using the New Recombinant 2B2t Antigen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-González, Ana; Santivañez, Saúl; García, Héctor H.; Rodríguez, Silvia; Muñoz, Santiago; Ramos, Guillermo; Orduña, Antonio; Siles-Lucas, Mar

    2012-01-01

    A standardized test for the serodiagnosis of human cystic echinococcosis (CE) is still needed, because of the low specificity and sensitivity of the currently available commercial tools and the lack of proper evaluation of the existing recombinant antigens. In a previous work, we defined the new ELISA-B2t diagnostic tool for the detection of specific IgGs in CE patients, which showed high sensitivity and specificity, and was useful in monitoring the clinical evolution of surgically treated CE patients. Nevertheless, this recombinant antigen gave rise to false-negative results in a percentage of CE patients. Therefore, in an attempt to improve its sensitivity, we constructed B2t-derived recombinant antigens with two, four and eight tandem repeat of B2t units, and tested them by ELISA on serum samples of CE patients and patients with related parasites. The best diagnostic values were obtained with the two tandem repeat 2B2t antigen. The influence of several clinical variables on the performance of the tests was also evaluated. Finally, the diagnostic performance of the 2B2t-ELISA was compared with that of an indirect haemagglutination commercial test. The 2B2t recombinant antigen performed better than the HF and B2t antigens, and the IHA commercial kit. Therefore, this new 2B2t-ELISA is a promising candidate test for the serodiagnosis of CE in clinical settings. PMID:22802975

  5. A NEGLECTED ZOONOSIS IN ALBANIA: WHY ECHINOCOCCOSIS IS BECOMING A SURGEON’S EXCLUSIVITY?

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    Arben Pilaca

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Echinococcosis is an endemic zoonosis in the Mediterranean area, with Albania interested actually to a level that is becoming a public health concern. Authors describe preliminary data from the only tertiary (university medical facility of Albania, positioned in the capital of the country (Tirana, with 333 new cases diagnosed and treated during the period 2005 – 2011. Out of all these 333 new cases an impressive majority of 91% had a surgical treatment right from the first admission, rendering the disease almost a surgical exclusivity. Even more, 80% of all patients from the study group were hospitalized straightforwardly in surgical wards, with options of surgical intervention’s percentages outrunning figures from other sources and authors of the same geographical area. Such a situation, together with a very important level of patients’ origin from highly urbanized areas such as those of the capital, suggest the necessity of well-organized interventions, among which might be the mandatory notification of all human cases with Echinococcus infection.

  6. Serum sIL-2R, TNF-α and IFN-γ in alveolar echinococcosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Da-Zhong Shi; Fu-Rong Li; B Bartholomot; DA Vuitton; PS Craig

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To approach the relationship between alveolar echinococcosis (AE) pathology and level of sIL-2R,TNF-αand IFN-γ in sera and the significance of cytokines in development of AE.METHODS: After 23 patients with AE were confirmed by ELISA and ultrasound, their sera were collected and the concentrations of sIL-2R,TNF-α and IFN-γ were detected by double antibody sandwich. Twelve healthy adults served as controls. According to the status of livers of AE patients by ultrasound scanning, they were divided into 4 groups: P2,P3, P4 groups and C group (control). Average of concentrations of sIL-2R, TNF-α and IFN-yin homologous group was statistically analyzed by both ANOV and Newman-Keuls, respectively.RESULTS: The mean of sIL-2R in P2 group was 97±29, P3:226±80, P4:194±23 and control group (111±30)x103 u/L(P0.05).CONCLUSION:Low sIL-2R level indicates an early stage of AE or stable status, per contra, a progression stage. Higher level of TNF-α might be related to the lesion of liver. The role of single IFN-y is limited in immunological defense against AE and it can not fully block pathological progression.

  7. A Neglected Zoonosis in Albania: why Echinococcosis is Becoming a Surgeon’s Exclusivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilaca, Arben; Vyshka, Gentian; Pepa, Arben; Shytaj, Kastriot; Shtjefni, Valentin; Boçari, Arben; Beqiri, Arben; Kraja, Dhimitër

    2014-01-01

    Echinococcosis is an endemic zoonosis in the Mediterranean area, with Albania interested actually to a level that is becoming a public health concern. Authors describe preliminary data from the only tertiary (university) medical facility of Albania, positioned in the capital of the country (Tirana), with 333 new cases diagnosed and treated during the period 2005 – 2011. Out of all these 333 new cases an impressive majority of 91% had a surgical treatment right from the first admission, rendering the disease almost a surgical exclusivity. Even more, 80% of all patients from the study group were hospitalized straightforwardly in surgical wards, with options of surgical intervention’s percentages outrunning figures from other sources and authors of the same geographical area. Such a situation, together with a very important level of patients’ origin from highly urbanized areas such as those of the capital, suggest the necessity of well-organized interventions, among which might be the mandatory notification of all human cases with Echinococcus infection. PMID:24678390

  8. HLA-DRB1 allele in 35 patients with alveolar echinococcosis in Gansu Province of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Furong李富荣; SHI Youen石佑恩; SHI Dazhong史大中; Dominique Angele Vuitton; Philip Simon Craig

    2003-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association between histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DRB1 alleles and alveolar echinococcosis (AE).Methods Thirty-five patients with AE in high prevalence areas in Gansu Province of China were tested for the HLA-DRB1 gene using the polymerase chain reaction with sequence-specific primer (PCR-SSP) technique. The results were compared with those of 104 healthy individuals.Results The frequency of the HLA-DRB1·040x gene was 26% in the patient group, which was significantly higher than that in the control group (9.62%) with a relative risk (RR) of 4.45 (χ2 =13.67, P<0.01), and an etiological fraction (EF) of 0.20. The frequency of the HLA-DRB1·0701 allele was significantly lower in the patient group (2.86%) as compared to the control group (13.94%; χ2=6.67, P<0.05) with a preventable fraction (PF) of 0.30. The frequencies of other DRB1 alleles were not significantly different.Conclusion Susceptibility to AE is significantly associated with the HLA-DRB1·040x. HLA-DRB1·0701 gene might confer protection against AE in humans.

  9. [Hospital care expenses caused by acute fascioliasis, cystic echinococcosis, and neurocysticercosis in Santiago, Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fica, Alberto; Weitzel, Thomas

    2014-08-01

    Acute fascioliasis (FA), cystic echinococcosis (CE) and neurocysticercosis (NCC) are three endemic parasitic diseases in Chile for whom there is scarce information about the economic impact they represent during management at the hospital. To quantify and compare hospital care expenses caused by these three endemic helminth infections in a Chilean hospital. Retrospective analysis of hospital costs at a referral hospital in Santiago between 2006 and 2010. Hospital databases were used to identify patients with the corresponding infections, and those with sufficient data on hospital costs were included. A total of 16 patients representing 21 cases were identified and analyzed: four with AF, eleven with CE, and six with NCC. Median hospital expenses for cases with AF were US$ 1799 and mainly caused by bed-day costs. Median hospital costs for cases of CE were US$ 4707 and the most important costs components were medications, bed-day costs and consumables. NCC patients had median costs of US$ 1293, which were mainly due to bed-day costs. Non-parenchymatous or mixed forms of NCC showed a trend toward higher hospital costs compared with parenchymatous forms. Although helminth infections in Chile, an upper middle income country, are declining and considered rare in routine clinical practice, hospital care expenses caused by patients with AF, CE, and NCC are high and might still present an important economic burden to the Chilean healthcare system.

  10. Epidemiological Investigations on Cystic Echinococcosis in North-West (Sidi Kacem Province Morocco: Infection in Ruminants

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    Ikhlass El Berbri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite alarming statistics on cystic echinococcosis (CE in humans and the importance of dog and ruminant populations, no epidemiological investigations have been performed on CE in Sidi Kacem Province (North-West of Morocco. A part of large research project was devoted to determine the status of CE in ruminants. This paper reports the results of the investigations carried out in the 10 abattoirs of this region, over four successive years (April 2009–March 2013. A total of 1,302 sheep, 652 head of cattle, and 136 goats were postmortem examined and hydatid cysts were collected and examined. The overall CE prevalence of infection was 42.9% in cattle, 11.0% in sheep, and 1.5% in goats. The prevalence shows significant association with age in sheep and cattle; sheep above 3 years and cattle above 5 years are highly infected (64.0% and 72.2%, resp.. Only liver and lungs are found to be infected. Molecular analyses identified G1, G2, and G3 of E. granulosus sensu stricto in liver and lung samples. Cyst fertility was significantly higher in sheep (54.9% than in cattle (50.3%. These findings suggest that control measures should target not only sheep but also cattle.

  11. Molecular epidemiology of Echinococcosis from food producing animals in north India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Balbir Bagicha; Sharma, Jagdish Kamal; Ghatak, Sandeep; Sharma, Rajnish; Bal, Mandeep Singh; Tuli, Aashuma; Gill, Jatinder Paul Singh

    2012-05-25

    Echinococcosis is an important medical, veterinary and economic concern in India. Ten cysts were randomly selected from each intermediate host species (cattle, buffalo, sheep, goat and pigs). Either the germinal layer (sterile cysts) or protoscoleces (fertile cysts) were collected for molecular characterization. A 434 base pair fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase-1 gene was amplified using PCR from each isolate. Ten representative samples (2 from each intermediate host species) were sequenced in both the directions from which readable sequences were obtained from nine for phylogenetic analysis (NCBI, Blast). Phylogenetic analysis of cytochrome oxidase I gene revealed that seven (77.7%) isolates, from cattle (2), pigs (2), buffaloes (1) and goat (2) were clustered with the Indian Buffalo (G3) strain of Echinococcus granulosus, while two (22.2%) isolates from sheep were clustered with the sheep strain (G1) of E. granulosus. Phylogenetic analysis of the cytochrome oxidase-1 gene revealed that the buffalo strain (G3) and common sheep strain (G1) are cycling among livestock in north India and that these strains are highly adapted to cattle, buffalo, sheep, goats and pigs.

  12. Pulmonary echinococcosis presenting as a pulmonary mass with fever and haemoptysis; a case report

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    Konstantinos Marosis

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY. Hydatidosis, which is caused by larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus, is the most frequently encountered type of anthropozoonosis, and it has been known for centuries. Due to the traditional close association between sheep, dogs and humans, Echinococcus granulosus is endemic in many parts of the world and particularly the Mediterranean countries. The case is reported of a 68 year-old man, a farmer and non smoker, who presented with a 32 day history of haemoptysis and fever. On chest X-ray a mass was observed at the hilum of the right lung. He underwent full clinical, laboratory, and endoscopic evaluation, which was unrevealing. During right thoracotomy a right lower lobectomy was performed that included the mass. Frozen section of the mass was negative for malignancy and the final histopathological examination established the diagnosis of a ruptured pulmonary echinococcus cyst with abscess formation. The postoperative course was uneventful and the patient was discharged from hospital on the ninth postoperative day being treated with albendazole per os. Pulmonary echinococcosis should be included in the differential diagnosis of a lung mass in patients presenting with haemoptysis, especially if there are domestic animals in their environment. Pneumon 2010, 23(2:176-183.

  13. Epidemiological surveillance of cystic echinococcosis in rural population of Tierra del Fuego, Argentina, 1997-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanini, Fabián; Suárez, Carlos; Pérez, Héctor; Elissondo, María C

    2009-03-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is the most prevalent zoonosis in Tierra del Fuego. In 1997, ulrasonography (US) was selected as the method of choice for the development of population surveys for epidemiological surveillance and early diagnosis in rural population. The aim of this work was to present the results of the epidemiological surveillance of CE by means of US in rural population of Tierra del Fuego, Argentina between 1997 and 2006. The ultrasonographic diagnostic was realized once a year. The population was stratified in children (4 to 17 years) and adults. From each individual, name, age, sex, actual residence and origin were registered. The images compatible with cysts were graded according to location, number and characteristics. A total of 1400 rural inhabitants were examined for CE. From the total of studied individuals, 27 (1.9%) exhibited images compatible with cysts on the abdominal ultrasound scan. Thirteen of these persons were finally diagnosed as having CE. The overall prevalence of CE was 0.9%. This value is in accordance with the decrease in the prevalence observed in the definitive host and the intermediate hosts (sheep and cattle). The absence of cases in children during the studied period, evidence no transmission of the disease to humans in the recent past.

  14. Hospital and community surveys reveal the severe public health problem and socio-economic impact of human echinococcosis in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y R; Williams, G M; Craig, P S; Sun, T; Yang, S K; Cheng, L; Vuitton, D A; Giraudoux, P; Li, X; Hu, S; Liu, X; Pan, X; McManus, D P

    2006-06-01

    A comprehensive study of human echinococcosis (caused by Echinococcus granulosus or E. multilocularis), including assessment of hospital records, community surveys and patient follow-up, was conducted in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region (NHAR), China. In contrast to hospital records that showed 96% of echinococcosis cases were caused by cystic echinococcosis (CE), 56% of cases detected in active community surveys were caused by alveolar echinococcosis (AE). The AE and CE cases co-existed frequently in the same village, even occurring in the same patient. A serious public health problem caused by echinococcosis was evident in southern NHAR, typified by: a long diagnostic history for both AE and CE (7.5 years) compared with a shorter treatment history (4.7 years); a significant mortality rate (39%) caused by AE in one surveyed village, where patients had no previous access to treatment; family aggregation of CE and AE cases; a high proportion of both AE (62.5%) and CE (58%) in females; a high rate of recurrent surgery (30%) for CE demonstrated by surgical records; and frequent symptomatic recurrences (51%) because of discontinuous or sporadic access to chemotherapy for AE. The disease burden for both human AE and CE is thus very severe among these rural communities in NHAR, and this study provides the first attempt to determine the costs of morbidity and surgical intervention of human CE and AE cases both at the hospital and community level in this setting. This information may be useful for assessing the cost effectiveness of designing effective public health programs to control echinococcosis in this and other endemic areas in China and elsewhere.

  15. Hypoksisk hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amadid, Hanan; Schiødt, Frank Vinholt

    2014-01-01

    Hypoxic hepatitis (HH), also known as ischaemic hepatitis or shock liver, is an acute liver injury caused by hepatic hypoxia. Cardiac failure, respiratory failure and septic shock are the main underlying conditions. In each of these conditions, several haemodynamic mechanisms lead to hepatic...... hypoxia. A shock state is observed in only 50% of cases. Thus, shock liver and ischaemic hepatitis are misnomers. HH can be a diagnostic pitfall but the diagnosis can be established when three criteria are met. Prognosis is poor and prompt identification and treatment of the underlying conditions...

  16. First case of peritoneal cystic echinococcosis in a domestic cat caused by Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (genotype 1) associated to feline immunodeficiency virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armua-Fernandez, Maria Teresa; Castro, Oscar F; Crampet, Alejandro; Bartzabal, Álvaro; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Grimm, Felix; Deplazes, Peter

    2014-04-01

    A new cystic echinococcosis case in a cat in Uruguay is reported herein. The cat was taken to a veterinary clinic in Rocha city, Uruguay, due to dyspnea, constipation and abdominal enlargement. During surgery a large quantity of cysts was retrieved from the abdominal cavity. The cysts were morphologically studied and confirmed as Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (genotype 1) by molecular tools using cytochrome oxidase submit 1 and small subunit ribosomal RNA gene as target genes. Moreover, for the first time a coinfection with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) was detected. FIV-induced immunosuppression could be a determining factor in the development of cystic echinococcosis in cats.

  17. 关于棘球蚴病包虫病的防治%Prevention and treatment of echinococcosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永怡; 王姝; 李军

    2015-01-01

    Human echinococcosis is a parasitic disease in humans and animals caused by tapeworms of the genus Echinococcus. Humans are infected through ingestion of parasite eggs in contaminated food, water or soil, or through direct contact with animal hosts. More than 1 million people are affected with echinococcosis all over the world at any one time. In China, echinococcosis mostly occurs in the western provinces and regions. Human infection with E. granulosus leads to the development of one or more hydatids located mainly in the liver and lungs, and less frequently in the bones, kidneys, spleen, muscles, central nervous system and eyes. The treatment of echinococcosis is often expensive and complicated, and may require extensive surgery and/or prolonged drug therapy. Prevention pro-grammes involve deworming of dogs, improved slaughterhouse hygiene, public education campaigns and vaccination of lambs. WHO is working towards the validation of effective cystic echinococcosis control strategies by 2018. This article focuses on echinococcosis based on the review of updated fact sheet (N377) by WHO and experience from the experts in China.%棘球蚴病是棘球属绦虫的幼虫(棘球蚴)所导致的人类和畜类共患的寄生虫病。人类因摄取受污染的食物、水源或土壤中含有的寄生虫卵或直接接触动物宿主而感染此病。全球每一时刻均会有一百余万人受棘球蚴病的侵扰和影响。中国西部省份是该病的多发区。人类感染棘球蚴后,体内会有一个或多个包虫生长,主要在肝脏和肺部生存,有时也在骨骼、肾、脾、肌肉、中枢神经系统和眼部生存。治疗一般比较复杂、价格昂贵,有的需要大型外科手术和(或)长期服药治疗。为狗除虫,改善屠宰场卫生状况,进行公众宣传活动,为羊群接种,均被视为有效预防措施。 WHO正在努力于2018年前确定有效的囊型棘球蚴病的防控措施。本文以2014年3

  18. Hepatitis A through E (Viral Hepatitis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nutrition Clinical Trials Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis Wilson Disease Hepatitis (Viral) View or Print All Sections What is Viral Hepatitis? Viral hepatitis is an infection that causes liver inflammation ...

  19. [Coproantigens detection for the diagnosis of canine Echinococcosis in the border area of La Quiaca-Villazón].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Natalia; Costas Otero, Sergio; Céspedes, Graciela; Sosa, Sonia; Santillán, Graciela

    2013-01-01

    Cystic Echinococcosis is a major public health issue. Immunodiagnostic techniques based on the identification of parasite antigens in dog dry faeces have been developed as alternatives for the surveillance of canine Echinococcosis. The environmental conditions favouring the parasite cycle were met in the border of La Quiaca-Villazón, given the presence of definitive (dog) and intermediate hosts (sheep and goats). The most important activity in La Puna is sheep and goat rearing; slaughtering is carried out almost exclusively in the field by sheep's owners, and preventive health measures do not apply. The aim of this study was to determine the presence of dogs parasitized by Echinococcus granulosus in this border region. A hundred and sixty eight (168) stool specimens were collected during 2006. La Quiaca samples were taken from the following selected areas: the semi-rural area of Barrios, the rural areas of Santa Catalina, Yavi Chico, El Portillo, Pumahuasi and Cara Cara and the urban area of La Quiaca; selected urban areas in Villazón and the semi-rural area of Ojo de Agua, Lampaya and Matancillas. The samples were analyzed by copro-ELISA -Western blot test. The cities of San Francisco and Barrios had a prevalence of 14.3% and 6.7%, respectively. A prevalence of 3.4% was observed in the urban area of Villazón, which indicates that dogs become infected in the rural areas and bring the risk into the city. Lampaya showed a prevalence of 30%. These findings suggest the need to implement strategies for the control of hydatidosis, both in urban and rural areas to avoid the increase and spread of Echinococcosis in the region.

  20. [Autoimmune hepatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostojić, Rajko

    2003-01-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis is an unresolving, hepatocellular inflammation of unknown cause that is characterized by the presence of periportal hepatitis on histologic examination, tissue autoantibodies in serum, and hypergammaglobulinemia. By international consensus, the designation autoimmune hepatitis has replaced alternative terms for the condition. Three types of autoimmune hepatitis have been proposed based on immunoserologic findings. Type 1 autoimmune hepatitis is characterized by the presence of antinuclear antibodies (ANA) or smooth muscle antibodies (SMA) (or both) in serum. Seventy percent of patients with type 1 of autoimmune hepatitis are women. This type is the most common form and accounts for at least 80% of cases. Type 2 is characterized by the presence of antibodies to liver-kidney microsome type 1 (anti-LKM1) in serum. Patients with this type of autoimmune hepatitis are predominantly children. Type 3 autoimmune hepatitis is characterized by the presence of antibodies to soluble liver antigen (anti-SLA) in serum. There are no individual features that are pathognomonic of autoimmune hepatitis, and its diagnosis requires the confident exclusion of other conditions. The large majority of patients show satisfactory response to corticosteroid (usually prednisone or prednisolone) therapy. For the past 30 years it has been customary to add azathioprine as a "steroid sparing" agent to allow lower doses of steroids to be used and remission, once achieved, can be sustained in many patients with azathioprine alone after steroid withdrawal. Patients with autoimmune hepatitis who have decompensated during or after corticosteroid therapy are candidates for liver transplantation.

  1. Surveillance of Human Echinococcosis in Castilla-Leon (Spain between 2000-2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amparo Lopez-Bernus

    Full Text Available Cystic echinococcosis (CE is an important health problem in many areas of the world including the Mediterranean region. However, the real CE epidemiological situation is not well established. In fact, it is possible that CE is a re-emerging disease due to the weakness of current control programs.We performed a retrospective observational study of inpatients diagnosed with CE from January 2000 to December 2012 in the Western Spain Public Health-Care System.During the study period, 5510 cases of CE were diagnosed and 3161 (57.4% of the cases were males. The age mean and standard deviation were 67.8 ± 16.98 years old, respectively, and 634 patients (11.5% were younger than 45 years old. A total of 1568 patients (28.5% had CE as the primary diagnosis, and it was most frequently described in patients 70 year old associated with other causes of comorbidity. The period incidence rate was 17 cases per 105 person-years and was significantly higher when compared to the incidence declared through the Notifiable Disease System (1.88 cases per 105 person-years; p<0.001.CE in western Spain is an underestimated parasitic disease. It has an active transmission, with an occurrence in pediatric cases, but has decreased in the recent years. The systematic search of Hospital Discharge Records of the National Health System Register (HDR may be a more accurate method than other methods for the estimation of the incidence of CE in endemic areas.

  2. Unusual presentation of alveolar echinococcosis as prostatic and paraprostatic cysts in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geigy, Caroline A; Kühn, Karolin; Rütten, Maja; Howard, Judith; Grimm, Felix; Rohrer Bley, Carla

    2013-08-12

    Alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is caused by the larval stage (metacestode) of Echinococcus multilocularis. The domestic dog can act as a definitive host and harbor adult cestodes in its small intestine or become an aberrant intermediate host carrying larval stages that may cause severe lesions in the liver, lungs and other organs with clinical signs similar to AE in humans. A case of canine AE, affecting the liver and prostate with development of multilocular hydatid paraprostatic cysts and possible lung involvement is described in an 8-year-old neutered male Labrador retriever dog.The dog presented with progressive weight loss, acute constipation, stranguria and a suspected soft tissue mass in the sublumbar region. Further evaluation included computed tomography of the thorax and abdomen, which revealed cystic changes in the prostate, a paraprostatic cyst, as well as lesions in the liver and lungs. Cytological examination of fine-needle aspirates of the liver, prostate and paraprostatic cyst revealed parasitic hyaline membranes typical of an Echinococcus infection and the presence of E. multilocularis-DNA was confirmed by PCR. The dog was treated with albendazole and debulking surgery was considered in case there was a good response to antiparasitic treatment. Constipation and stranguria resolved completely. Six months after the definitive diagnosis, the dog was euthanized due to treatment-resistant ascites and acute anorexia and lethargy. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first publication of an E. multilocularis infection in a dog causing prostatic and paraprostatic cysts. Although rare, E. multilocularis infection should be considered as an extended differential diagnosis in dogs presenting with prostatic and paraprostatic disease, especially in areas where E. multilocularis is endemic.

  3. Landscape composition and spatial prediction of alveolar echinococcosis in southern Ningxia, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R J Pleydell

    Full Text Available Alveolar echinococcosis (AE presents a serious public health challenge within China. Mass screening ultrasound surveys can detect pre-symptomatic AE, but targeting areas identified from hospital records is inefficient regarding AE. Prediction of undetected or emerging hotspots would increase detection rates. Voles and lemmings of the subfamily Arvicolinae are important intermediate hosts in sylvatic transmission systems. Their populations reach high densities in productive grasslands where food and cover are abundant. Habitat availability is thought to affect arvicoline population dynamic patterns and definitive host-intermediate host interactions. Arvicoline habitat correlates with AE prevalence in Western Europe and southern Gansu Province, China.Xiji County, Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, borders southern Gansu. The aims of this study were to map AE prevalence across Xiji and test arvicoline habitat as a predictor. Land cover was mapped using remotely sensed (Landsat imagery. Infection status of 3,205 individuals screened in 2002-2003 was related, using generalised additive mixed models, to covariates: gender; farming; ethnicity; dog ownership; water source; and areal cover of mountain pasture and lowland pasture. A Markov random field modelled additional spatial variation and uncertainty. Mountain pasture and lowland pasture were associated with below and above average AE prevalence, respectively.Low values of the normalised difference vegetation index indicated sub-optimality of lowland pasture for grassland arvicolines. Unlike other known endemic areas, grassland arvicolines probably did not provide the principal reservoir for Echinococcus multilocularis in Xiji. This result is consistent with recent small mammal surveys reporting low arvicoline densities and high densities of hamsters, pikas and jerboas, all suitable intermediate hosts for E. multilocularis, in reforested lowland pasture. The risk of re-emergence is discussed. We

  4. Protoscolecidal Effect of Berberis vulgaris Root Extract and Its Main Compound, Berberine in Cystic Echinococcosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Mahmoudvand

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cystic echinococcosis (CE, a zoonotic parasitic infection caused by the metacestode (larvae stage of dog tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus and recognized as a major economic and public health concern in the world. This study aimed to investigate the in vitro scolicidal effect of methanolic extract of Berberis vulgaris L. roots and its main compound, berberine against protoscoleces of hydatid cysts.For this purpose, protoscoleces were aseptically aspirated from sheep livers having hydatid cysts. Various concentrations of the methanolic extract (0.25-2 mg/ml and berberine (0.062- 0.5 mg/ml were used for 5 to 30 min. Viability of protoscoleces was confirmed by eosin exclusive test.In the present study, all of the various concentrations of the B. vulgaris methanolic extract (0.25, 0.5, 1 and 2 mg/ml and berberine (0.062, 0.125, 0.25 and 0.5 mg/ml revealed significant (P<0.05 scolicidal effects against protoscoleces of E. granulosus in a dose-dependent manner. Both berberine and methanolic extract exhibited 100% inhibition against protoscoleces of E. granulosus at the concentration of 2.0 and 0.5 mg/ml after 10 min incubation, respectively.According to the results, both B. vulgaris methanolic extract and berberine alone demonstrated high scolicidal activities against protoscoleces of hydatid cysts in low concentration and short exposure time on in vitro model. However, in vivo efficacy of B. vulgaris and berberine also requires to be evaluated using an animal model with hydatid infection.

  5. Postoperative changes in serum cytokines profile and nitric oxide levels in patients with cystic echinococcosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Refik M.

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to examine serum cytokines and nitric oxide (NO levels in patients with cystic echinococcosis (CE. 28 patients with CE were studied and all underwent surgery. Serum levels of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, interleukin IL- 1β, receptor of soluble IL-2R (sIL-2R, IL-6, IL-8, nitrate/nitrite, and C-reactive protein (CRP were determined before and after induction of treatment. Data were compared with those obtained from 28 healthy volunteers. IL-6 was elevated in all CE patients (100%. IL-8 was increased in 11/28 (39.3%. Increased levels of IL-2R and TNF-α were found in a limited number of them particularly those showing cysts in the central area of the liver (5/28, 6/28. IL-1β level was not elevated in any patient except in secondary severe CE. CRP and nitrate/nitrite levels were also increased. A positive correlation between CRP and IL-6 (r = 0.74; p < 0.001 was found confirming the link between inflammation due to CE and activation of monocytes. All patients completely recovered and the levels of the studied parameters reverted to normal levels except one patient in whom severe recurrent disease occurred two years after the first operation. These results suggest that there are different immunoregulatory events and cytokines response during CE and may be in part related to slight monocytosis and in part to Th2 activation. IL-6, NO and CRP were unambiguously involved in the host parasite interaction and therefore may be useful markers in monitoring CE management and evaluating surgical stress.

  6. In vitro and in vivo efficacies of mefloquine-based treatment against alveolar echinococcosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küster, Tatiana; Stadelmann, Britta; Hermann, Corina; Scholl, Sabrina; Keiser, Jennifer; Hemphill, Andrew

    2011-02-01

    Alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is caused by the metacestode stage of the fox tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis and causes severe disease in the human liver, and occasionally in other organs, that is fatal when treatment is unsuccessful. The present chemotherapy against AE is based on mebendazole and albendazole. Albendazole treatment has been found to be ineffective in some instances, is parasitostatic rather than parasiticidal, and usually involves the lifelong uptake of large doses of drugs. Thus, new treatment options are urgently needed. In this study we investigated the in vitro and in vivo efficacy of mefloquine against E. multilocularis metacestodes. Treatment using mefloquine (20 μM) against in vitro cultures of metacestodes resulted in rapid and complete detachment of large parts of the germinal layer from the inner surface of the laminated layer within a few hours. The in vitro activity of mefloquine was dependent on the dosage. In vitro culture of metacestodes in the presence of 24 μM mefloquine for a period of 10 days was parasiticidal, as determined by murine bioassays, while treatment with 12 μM was not. Oral application of mefloquine (25 mg/kg of body weight administered twice a week for a period of 8 weeks) in E. multilocularis-infected mice was ineffective in achieving any reduction of parasite weight, whereas treatment with albendazole (200 mg/kg/day) was highly effective. However, when the same mefloquine dosage was applied intraperitoneally, the reduction in parasite weight was similar to the reduction seen with oral albendazole application. Combined application of both drugs did not increase the treatment efficacy. In conclusion, mefloquine represents an interesting drug candidate for the treatment of AE, and these results should be followed up in appropriate in vivo studies.

  7. In vivo and in vitro efficacies of mebendazole, mefloquine and nitazoxanide against cyst echinococcosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Congshan; Zhang, Haobing; Yin, Jianhai; Hu, Wei

    2015-06-01

    Echinococcus granulosus is a cestode parasite. The metacestode stage causes cystic echinococcosis (CE) mainly in the human liver and lung. Current chemotherapy against CE is based on mebendazole and albendazole. However, benzimidazoles result in a low cure rate or are ineffective in many patients; therefore, novel compounds for the treatment of this disease have been studied. Mefloquine was reported to be dramatically effective on cultured Echinococcus multilocularis metacestodes in vitro. And, nitazoxanide has a prominent protoscolicidal effect. However, these compounds have no impact on the growth of cysts harbored in mice. In this study, we investigated the in vitro and in vivo efficacy of mebendazole, mefloquine, and nitazoxanide against E. granulosus protoscoleces, germinal cells, and infected mice. The effect of mebendazole on protoscoleces and germinal cell was proved to be dose-dependent in vitro. And, a reduction of the cyst weight was also the found after oral application of mebendazole to infected mice. Mefloquine (5 and 10 μg/ml) caused death within 24 h of protoscoleces and germinal cells in vitro, whereas a lower concentration of 1 μg/ml was ineffective. In mice infected with E. granulosus, oral mefloquine (200 and 400 mg/kg twice weekly for 2 weeks) showed no reduction in parasite weight. Without affecting the viability of germinal cells and the growth of hydatid cysts, nitazoxanide only showed protoscolicidal effects in infected mice. In conclusion, mebendazole, mefloquine, and nitazoxanide showed various effects on E. granulosus under different conditions. These drugs could be useful to some extent in the treatment of CE.

  8. Chemotherapy for larval echinococcosis in animals and humans: report of a workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schantz, P M; Van den Bossche, H; Eckert, J

    1982-01-01

    Mebendazole, its fluorine analogue flubendazole, and other benzimidazole derivatives are active against many gastrointestinal and tissue-stage helminths. This article reviews the published literature and proceedings of a workshop on the use of benzimidazoles against larval echinococcosis (hydatid disease). Orally administered high doses (30-50 mg/kg body weight) of mebendazole given daily for 20-90 days to rodents or sheep infected with larval Echinococcus granulosus cause damage of destruction of the cyst wall, loss of cyst fluid, and death of protoscolices. Similar treatment of rodents infected with E. multilocularis with mebendazole, flubendazole, fenbendazole, and albendazole for 60-300 days leads to reduction of weight, inhibition of growth and the metastases formation of E. multilocularis tissue, and to prolonged host survival time although the metacestodes are not killed. Mebendazole or flubendazole treatment of human patients infected with E. granulosus is followed by subjective improvement in most, and evidence of regression of cysts in some; in other patients, cysts continue to grow or have been proven viable even after several months of high-dose mebendazole therapy. In patients infected with E. Multilocularis, the progressive course of the disease appeared to be arrested, but treatment apparently did not kill the parasite. Side effects of some patients have included allergic reactions, alopecia, and reversible neutropenia. Some possible reasons for different responses to treatment include inadequate plasma drug absorption from the gut and age, condition, and location of cysts. Many remaining questions concerning the risk versus benefits of mebendazole therapy can be answered only through controlled clinical trials.

  9. Detection of serum cytokines before and after pharmacological and surgical treatment in patients with cystic echinococcosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, M I; Tenguria, R K; Haq, E

    2016-01-01

    Human cystic echinococcosis (CE), caused by Echinococcus granulosus, is one of the most important and widespread parasitic zoonoses. One of the problems that can be encountered after treating CE patients is the risk of post-surgical relapses or treatment failure, thus a long-term clinical and serological follow-up is required to evaluate the success or failure of therapy. In the present study immunological markers have been identified to indicate the effectiveness of pharmacological and surgical treatments. The relationship between serum cytokine levels and the outcome of chemotherapy and surgery was evaluated in 50 patients with CE. Serum interleukin (IL)-4, IL-10 and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) concentrations were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) before and after pharmacological and surgical treatment. Serum cytokine levels of IL-4, IL-10 and IFN-γ were elevated in a significant proportion of patients during the active stage of disease. IL-4, IL-10 and IFN-γ were measurable in 41 (82%), 37 (74%) and 25 (50%) patients before the treatment. Clinical and radiological assessment of patients 2 years after pharmacological treatment has shown that 48 of 50 patients responded to treatment. IL-4 and IL-10 levels were decreased significantly (P< 0.05) in these patients. Conversely, patients who did not respond showed high levels of IL-4 and IL-10 and undetectable levels of IFN-γ. Hence these results suggest that serum IL-4 and IL-10 detection may be useful in the follow-up of patients with CE.

  10. Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C in Pregnancy

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    ... and hepatitis C infections during pregnancy? • How is hepatitis B virus infection spread? • What is acute hepatitis B virus infection? • What is chronic hepatitis B virus infection? • Can ...

  11. Feature Hepatitis: Hepatitis Can Strike Anyone

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    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Feature Hepatitis Hepatitis Can Strike Anyone Past Issues / Spring 2009 Table ... from all walks of life are affected by hepatitis, especially hepatitis C, the most common form of ...

  12. Hepatitis (For Parents)

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    ... of three viruses: the hepatitis A virus the hepatitis B virus the hepatitis C virus In some rare cases, ... also called serum hepatitis) is caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV). HBV can cause a wide range of ...

  13. Travelers' Health: Hepatitis C

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    ... 3 - Hepatitis B Chapter 3 - Hepatitis E Hepatitis C Deborah Holtzman INFECTIOUS AGENT Hepatitis C virus (HCV), ... to child. Map 3-05. Prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection 1 PDF Version (printable) 1 Disease ...

  14. Hepatitis (For Parents)

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    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Hepatitis KidsHealth > For Parents > Hepatitis Print A A A ... to Call the Doctor en español Hepatitis About Hepatitis The word hepatitis simply means an inflammation of ...

  15. Travelers' Health: Hepatitis B

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    ... Chapter 3 - Hepatitis A Chapter 3 - Hepatitis C Hepatitis B Francisco Averhoff INFECTIOUS AGENT Hepatitis B is ... their exposures. Map 3-04. Prevalence of chronic hepatitis B virus infection among adults PDF Version (printable) ...

  16. Travelers' Health: Hepatitis C

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    ... Chapter 3 - Hepatitis B Chapter 3 - Hepatitis E Hepatitis C Deborah Holtzman INFECTIOUS AGENT Hepatitis C virus ( ... human blood Map 3-05. Global epidemiology of hepatitis C virus infection 1 PDF Version (printable) 1 ...

  17. [Knowledge and practices regarding cystic echinococcosis and trichinellosis in users and companions of users of the Hospital Comunitario de Salud Familiar El Carmen, Biobio Region, Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisboa-Navarro, Raúl; González, Jorge; Junod, Tania; Melín-Coloma, Millaray; Landaeta-Aqueveque, Carlos

    2016-08-01

    We surveyed users of the Hospital Comunitario de Salud Familiar El Carmen and their companions to analyze knowledge and practices regarding cystic echinococcosis and trichinellosis. Most people recognized risky practices. Previous attendance at talks and working in agricultural-livestock enhanced the knowledge. Age, sex and formal education were not associated with the knowledge. Knowledge was not associated with practices.

  18. Efficacy and Safety of PAIR for Cystic Echinococcosis: Experience on a Large Series of Patients from Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golemanov, Branimir; Grigorov, Nikola; Mitova, Rumiana; Genov, Jordan; Vuchev, Dimitar; Tamarozzi, Francesca; Brunetti, Enrico

    2011-01-01

    We report our experience with puncture, aspiration, injection, and reaspiration (PAIR) for the treatment of cystic echinococcosis in Bulgaria. PAIR was performed in 230 patients with 348 echinococcal cysts. At 12-month follow-up, 77.6% of the cysts, all cystic echinococcosis (CE) 1 and CE3a cysts according to the World Health Organization Informal Working Group classification, showed various degrees of obliteration. In 11.5% of cysts, all of which were > 10 cm-type CE1, a significant amount of fluid persisted, and they were punctured again. Of those, 16 (4.6%) contained protoscolices and were treated by a second PAIR. The remaining 24 (6.9%) cysts were treated by simple aspiration or drainage. No significant reduction in size and no changes in the structure were observed in 10.9% of cysts, all of which were classified as CE2 or CE3b. Complications developed in 25.2% of patients, including severe anaphylactic reaction in two (0.9%) patients. Our experience confirms that PAIR is a successful first-choice treatment when a stage-specific approach is taken. PMID:21212200

  19. Hepatitis A

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    ... inflammation of the liver.” This inflammation can be caused by a wide variety of toxins, drugs, and metabolic diseases, as well as infection. There are at least 5 hepatitis viruses. Hepatitis A is contracted when a child eats food or drinks water that is contaminated with the virus or has ...

  20. The diagnostic value of Western blot method in patients with cystic echinococcosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Mustafa; Yüksel, Pelin; Polat, Erdal; Cakan, Huseyin; Ergin, Sevgi; Öner, Y Ali; Zengin, Kagan; Arıkan, Soykan; Saribas, Suat; Torun, Muzeyyen Mamal; Kocazeybek, Bekir

    2011-04-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is the larval cystic stage (called echinococcal cysts) of a small taeniid-type tapeworm (Echinococcus granulosus). Carnivores such as dogs are usually definitive hosts. Intermediate hosts are typically herbivores such as sheep and cattle. CE can be detected using various imaging techniques such as ultrasonography or radiology. Moreover the primary diagnosis has to be confirmed by serological tests since the clinical signs of the disease are non-specific. This study examined the antigenic band patterns useful for serologic diagnosis of hydatidosis. We also report on the post-operative evolution of patients treated for this disease and also determined the diagnostic performance of Western blot IgG kit. Twenty-five (16 females and 9 males) non-operated patients with hydatid cysts (NOP) and 33 (21 females and 12 males) operated patients with hydatid cysts (OP) were included as study group and 22 healthy individuals (14 females and 8 males) with no known chronic diseases were included as a control group. The ages of the patients and control group individuals were between 16-83 years. Patient and control groups were matched for age and sex. Cyst hydatid IgG antibodies were detected in the sera from all patient groups but no antibodies were found in the sera from the control group using ELISA IgG method. Twenty-three (92%) non-operated patients and 18 (54.5%) operated patients exhibited positive results when Western blot IgG kit was used. The P7 band pattern was detected in the sera from all operated and non-operated patients. Twenty-seven of these positive cases had p7 and (p7+p16/18), (p7+p24/26) or (p7+p16/18+p24/26). No antibodies against p7, p16/18 ve p24/26 band patterns were seen in sera from the control group A statistically significant difference was detected between operated and nonoperated patients for Western blot positivity.(pWestern blot kit for 25 cases with CE and 22 healthy controls were calculated as 92%, 100%, 100% and 91

  1. A molecular survey on cystic echinococcosis in Sinnar area,Blue Nile state (Sudan)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kamal Ibrahim; Romig Thomas; Kern Peter; Rihab All Omer

    2011-01-01

    Background Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a zoonosis caused by the cestodes of the Echinococcus species. Its life cycle involves dogs and other canids as definitive hosts for the intestinal tapeworm, as well as domestic and wild ungulates as intermediate hosts for the tissue-invading metacestode (larval) stage. The disease has a special impact on disadvantaged pastoralist communities and is listed now among the three top priority neglected tropical disease (NTD).Therefore, CE is a neglected disease even in high endemicity regions. This study aimed at investigation of the prevalence of CE in different animals slaughtered for food consumption in Sinnar area, Blue Nile states in Sudan.Methods A survey of CE in livestock was conducted from April 2009 to March 2011 in Sinnar area, Blue Nile state in Sudan. Location, parasitological status and fertility conditions were determined. In addition, 120 hydatid cysts (30 from camels, 62 from cattle and 28 from sheep) were examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and mitochondrial gene sequencing for the genetic allocation of Echinococcus strains or species Results The prevalence of CE was 29.7% (30/101) in camels, 2.7% (62/2310) in cattle and 0.6% (26/4378) in sheep. It was shown that infection rates increased with age in camels, cattle and sheep. In camels, 67% (20/30) of the infected animals were aged between 2-5 years whereas 58% (36/62) of the infected cattle were >5 years. In sheep, the prevalence rate was distributed equally between animals ranging 2-5 years and >5 years. Even though multiple cysts were found in some animals, the average number of cysts per animal was close to 1 in all examined species. Lungs were found to be the predilection sites for the parasite in both camels and cattle, while most of the cysts found in sheep were located in the liver. About 63.4% of cysts encountered in camels were considered as large (5-7 cm), whereas those in cattle and sheep were medium (2-4 cm) and small (<2

  2. Potential Risk Factors Associated with Human Cystic Echinococcosis: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Possenti, Alessia; Manzano-Román, Raúl; Sánchez-Ovejero, Carlos; Boufana, Belgees; La Torre, Giuseppe; Siles-Lucas, Mar; Casulli, Adriano

    2016-01-01

    Background Scientific literature on cystic echinococcosis (CE) reporting data on risk factors is limited and to the best of our knowledge, no global evaluation of human CE risk factors has to date been performed. This systematic review (SR) summarizes available data on statistically relevant potential risk factors (PRFs) associated with human CE. Methodology/Principal Findings Database searches identified 1,367 papers, of which thirty-seven were eligible for inclusion. Of these, eight and twenty-nine were case-control and cross-sectional studies, respectively. Among the eligible papers, twenty-one were included in the meta-analyses. Pooled odds ratio (OR) were used as a measure of effect and separately analysed for the two study designs. PRFs derived from case-control studies that were significantly associated with higher odds of outcome were “dog free to roam” (OR 5.23; 95% CI 2.45–11.14), “feeding dogs with viscera” (OR 4.69; 95% CI 3.02–7.29), “slaughter at home” (OR 4.67; 95% CI 2.02–10.78) or at “slaughterhouses” (OR 2.7; 95% CI 1.15–6.3), “dog ownership” (OR 3.54; 95% CI 1.27–9.85), “living in rural areas” (OR 1.83; 95% CI 1.16–2.9) and “low income” (OR 1.68; 95% CI 1.02–2.76). Statistically significant PRFs from cross-sectional studies with higher odds of outcome were “age >16 years” (OR 6.08; 95% CI 4.05–9.13), “living in rural areas” (OR 2.26; 95% CI 1.41–3.61), “being female” (OR 1.38; 95% CI 1.06–1.8) and “dog ownership” (OR 1.37; 95% CI 1.01–1.86). Conclusions/Significance Living in endemic rural areas, in which free roaming dogs have access to offal and being a dog-owner, seem to be among the most significant PRFs for acquiring this parasitic infection. Results of data analysed here may contribute to our understanding of the PRFs for CE and may potentially be useful in planning community interventions aimed at controlling CE in endemic areas. PMID:27820824

  3. The disease burden of human cystic echinococcosis based on HDRs from 2001 to 2014 in Italy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toni Piseddu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Cystic echinococcosis (CE is an important neglected zoonotic parasitic infection belonging to the subgroup of seven Neglected Zoonotic Disease (NZDs included in the World Health Organization's official list of 18 Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs. CE causes serious global human health concerns and leads to significant economic losses arising from the costs of medical treatment, morbidity, life impairments and fatality rates in human cases. Moreover, CE is endemic in several Italian Regions. The aim of this study is to perform a detailed analysis of the economic burden of hospitalization and treatment costs and to estimate the Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs of CE in Italy.In the period from 2001 to 2014, the direct costs of 21,050 Hospital Discharge Records (HDRs belonging to 12,619 patients with at least one CE-related diagnosis codes were analyzed in order to quantify the economic burden of CE. CE cases average per annum are 901 (min-max = 480-1,583. Direct costs include expenses for hospitalizations, medical and surgical treatment incurred by public and private hospitals and were computed on an individual basis according to Italian Health Ministry legislation. Moreover, we estimated the DALYs for each patient. The Italian financial burden of CE is around € 53 million; the national average economic burden per annum is around € 4 million; the DALYs of the population from 2001 to 2014 are 223.35 annually and 5.26 DALYs per 105 inhabitants.In Italy, human CE is responsible for significant economic losses in the public health sector. In humans, costs associated with CE have been shown to have a great impact on affected individuals, their families and the community as a whole. This study could be used as a tool to prioritize and make decisions with regard to a surveillance system for this largely preventable yet neglected disease. It demonstrates the need of implementing a CE control program aimed at preventing the considerable economic

  4. Preoperative albumin level is a marker of alveolar echinococcosis recurrence after hepatectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joliat, Gaëtan-Romain; Labgaa, Ismail; Demartines, Nicolas; Halkic, Nermin

    2017-01-01

    AIM To identify a preoperative blood marker predictive of alveolar echinococcosis (AE) recurrence after hepatectomy. METHODS All consecutive patients who underwent operation for liver AE at the Lausanne University Hospital (CHUV) between January 1992 and December 2015 were included in this retrospective study. Preoperative laboratory values of leukocytes, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), red blood cell distribution width (RDW), thrombocytes, C-reactive protein (CRP) and albumin were collected and analyzed. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses were performed to determine the risk factors for AE recurrence after liver resection. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to define the best discrimination threshold of the blood marker. Moreover, recurrence-free survival curves were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. RESULTS The cohort included 68 adult patients (37 females) with median age of 61 years [interquartile range (IQR): 46-71]. Eight of the patients (12%) presented a recurrence over a median follow-up time of 76 mo (IQR: 34-128). Median time to recurrence was 10 mo (IQR: 6-11). Median preoperative leukocyte, MCV, RDW, thrombocyte and CRP levels were similar between recurrent and non-recurrent cases. Median preoperative albumin level was 43 g/L (IQR: 41-45) for non-recurrent cases and 36 g/L (IQR: 33-42) for recurrent cases (P = 0.005). The area under the ROC curve for preoperative albumin level to predict recurrence was 0.840 (95%CI: 0.642-1, P = 0.002). The cut-off albumin level value was 37.5 g/L for sensitivity of 94.5% and specificity of 75%. In multivariate analysis, preoperative albumin and surgical resection margins were independent predictors of AE recurrence (HR = 0.099, P = 0.007 and HR = 0.182, P = 0.045 respectively). CONCLUSION Low preoperative albumin level was associated with AE recurrence in the present cohort. Thus, preoperative albumin may be a useful biomarker to guide follow-up. PMID:28223729

  5. Combined flubendazole-nitazoxanide treatment of cystic echinococcosis: Pharmacokinetic and efficacy assessment in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laura, Ceballos; Celina, Elissondo; Sergio, Sánchez Bruni; Guillermo, Denegri; Carlos, Lanusse; Luis, Alvarez

    2015-08-01

    The current chemotherapy of cystic echinococcosis (CE) is mainly based on the use of albendazole, and the results have been shown to be highly variable. Thus, new and more efficient treatment options are urgently needed. The goals of the current study were: a) to compare the ex vivo activity of flubendazole (FLBZ) and nitazoxanide (NTZ), given either separately or co-administered, against Echinococcus granulosus protoscoleces and cysts, b) to characterize the plasma disposition kinetics of FLBZ administered alone or combined with NTZ in mice; (c) to compare the in vivo activity of FLBZ and NTZ (either each alone or as a combined treatment) against secondary CE developed in mice. Ex vivo drug activity study: E. granulosus protoscoleces and cysts were incubated either with FLBZ, NTZ, or the FLBZ-NTZ combination. Protoscoleces and cyst viability was monitored by the methylene blue exclusion test and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Pharmacokinetic study: Balb/C mice received FLBZ (5 mg/kg) orally either alone or co-administered with NTZ (100 mg/kg). Blood samples were collected up to 12 h post treatment and plasma analyzed for FLBZ/metabolites by HPLC. Clinical Efficacy study: following secondary infection, meaning i.p. injection of 1500 E. granulosus protoscoleces/animal (n=40), the both drugs were administered by intragastric inoculation on a daily basis for a period of 25 days. Balb/C mice received FLBZ (5 mg/kg, twice a day) alone, NTZ (100 mg/kg, once daily) alone or a combination of both molecules (FLBZ, 5mg/kg twice a day and NTZ, 100 mg/kg, once daily). Ten untreated animals were used as a control. All animals were killed and the weight of the cysts collected from each animal was recorded. The presence of NTZ did not markedly affect the FLBZ kinetic parameters in mice. FLBZ alone or combined with NTZ induced a reduction (P<0.05) of cyst weight in comparison to the untreated control and NTZ-treated treated mice. The data obtained here indicate that NTZ did

  6. Economic losses due to cystic echinococcosis in India: Need for urgent action to control the disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Balbir B; Dhand, Navneet K; Ghatak, Sandeep; Gill, Jatinder P S

    2014-01-01

    Cystic ehinococcosis (CE) caused by Echinococcus granulosus remains a neglected zoonotic disease despite its considerable human and animal health concerns. This is the first systematic analysis of the livestock and human related economic losses due to cystic echinococcosis in India. Data about human cases were obtained from a tertiary hospital. Human hydatidosis cases with and without surgical interventions were extrapolated to be 5647 and 17075 per year assuming a total human population of 1210193422 in India. Data about prevalence of hydatid cysts in important food producing animals were obtained from previously published abattoir based epidemiological surveys that reported a prevalence of 5.39% in cattle, 4.36% in buffaloes, 3.09% in pigs, 2.23% in sheep and 0.41% in goats. Animal population data were sourced from the latest census conducted by the Department of Animal Husbandry, Dairying and Fisheries, India. Other input parameters were obtained from published scientific literature. Probability distributions were included for many input values to account for variability and uncertainty. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to evaluate the effect of important parameters on the estimated economic losses. The analysis revealed a total annual median loss of Rs. 11.47 billion (approx. US $ 212.35 million). Cattle and buffalo industry accounted for most of the losses: 93.05% and 88.88% of the animal and total losses, respectively. Human hydatidosis related losses were estimated to be Rs. 472.72 million (approx. US $ 8.75 million) but are likely to be an under-estimate due to under-reporting of the disease in the country. The human losses more than quadrupled to Rs. 1953 million i.e. approx. US $ 36.17 million, when the prevalence of human undiagnosed cases was increased to 0.2% in the sensitivity analyses. The social loss and psychological distress were not taken into account for calculating human loss. The results highlight an urgent need for a science based policy

  7. Hepatic Encephalopathy

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    Full Text Available ... Symptoms to look for Caregiver Support Caregiver Stories Home › What is Hepatic Encephalopathy? Why Your Liver is ... questions about HE, one step at a time. Home About Us Ways to Give Contact Us Privacy ...

  8. Hepatitis A

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    ... Hepatitis A is more common in parts of Africa, Asia, Central and South America, and Eastern Europe ... la salud en español Health Statistics Healthy Moments Radio Broadcast Clinical Trials For Health Professionals Diabetes Discoveries & ...

  9. Autoimmune hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heneghan, Michael A; Yeoman, Andrew D; Verma, Sumita; Smith, Alastair D; Longhi, Maria Serena

    2013-10-26

    Autoimmune hepatitis is a disease of the hepatic parenchyma that can present in acute or chronic forms. In common with many autoimmune diseases, autoimmune hepatitis is associated with non-organ-specific antibodies in the context of hepatic autoimmunity. This dichotomy has made definition of a unifying hypothesis in the pathophysiology of the disease difficult, although data from the past 8 years have drawn attention to the role of regulatory T cells. Several triggers have been identified, and the disease arises in genetically susceptible individuals. Clinical and biochemical remission is achievable in up to 85% of cases. For the remaining patients, alternative immunosuppression strategies are an option. Liver transplantation provides an excellent outcome for patients with acute liver failure or complications of end-stage liver disease, including hepatocellular carcinoma. Variant or overlapping syndromes are worthy of consideration when unexpected disease features arise.

  10. Hepatic Encephalopathy

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    Full Text Available ... Get Worse? How is HE Diagnosed? Prior to Treatment Who treats HE? Preparing for your Medical Appointment Hepatic Encephalopathy Treatment Options Treatment Basics Treatment Medications Importance of Adhering ...

  11. Hepatic Encephalopathy

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    Full Text Available ... is a condition that causes temporary worsening of brain function in people with advanced liver disease. When ... travel through your body until they reach your brain, causing mental and physical symptoms of HE. Hepatic ...

  12. Hepatitis B

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    ... using an infected person’s razor, toothbrush, or nail clippers You can’t get hepatitis B from being ... personal items such as toothbrushes, razors, or nail clippers using a latex or polyurethane condom during sex ...

  13. Hepatic ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or oxygen, causing injury to liver cells. Causes Low blood pressure from any condition can lead to hepatic ischemia. ... leading to reduced blood flow (vasculitis) Symptoms If low blood pressure continues for a long time, you may feel ...

  14. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Get Worse? How is HE Diagnosed? Prior to Treatment Who treats HE? Preparing for your Medical Appointment Hepatic Encephalopathy Treatment Options Treatment Basics Treatment Medications Importance of Adhering ...

  15. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the Stages of Hepatic Encephalopathy? What Triggers or Can Cause HE to Get Worse? How is HE ... liver disease. When your liver is damaged it can no longer remove toxic substances from your blood. ...

  16. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to Treatment Who treats HE? Preparing for your Medical Appointment Hepatic Encephalopathy Treatment Options Treatment Basics Treatment ... treatment. Being a fully-informed participant in your medical care is an important factor in staying as ...

  17. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is a condition that causes temporary worsening of brain function in people with advanced liver disease. When ... travel through your body until they reach your brain, causing mental and physical symptoms of HE. Hepatic ...

  18. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Hepatic Encephalopathy so you can tell your doctor right away if you think you may have it. ... American Liver Foundation © 2017 American Liver Foundation. All rights reserved. Funding for the HE123 - Diagnosis, Treatment and ...

  19. Hepatitis autoinmune.

    OpenAIRE

    LOJA OROPEZA, David; VILCA VASQUEZ, Maricela; AVILES GONZAGA, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Three patients with autoinmune hepatitis type 1 diagnosed at the Hospital Nacional Arzobispo Loayza in Lima-Perú, between 1993 and 1995, are here reported, emphasis is made on the clinical, histological and therapeutical aspects.

  20. Hepatic gene expression profile in mice perorally infected with Echinococcus multilocularis eggs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Gottstein

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Alveolar echinococcosis (AE is a severe chronic hepatic parasitic disease currently emerging in central and eastern Europe. Untreated AE presents a high mortality (>90% due to a severe hepatic destruction as a result of parasitic metacestode proliferation which behaves like a malignant tumor. Despite this severe course and outcome of disease, the genetic program that regulates the host response leading to organ damage as a consequence of hepatic alveolar echinococcosis is largely unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used a mouse model of AE to assess gene expression profiles in the liver after establishment of a chronic disease status as a result of a primary peroral infection with eggs of the fox tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis. Among 38 genes differentially regulated (false discovery rate adjusted p, while 3 associated with the functional group . Upregulated genes associated with could be clustered into functional subgroups including , , , and . Two downregulated genes related to and , respectively. The genes either associated with an or an pathway. From the overexpressed genes, 18 genes were subsequently processed with a Custom Array microfluidic card system in order to assess respective expression status at the mRNA level relative to 5 reference genes (Gapdh, Est1, Rlp3, Mdh-1, Rpl37 selected upon a constitutive and stable expression level. The results generated by the two independent tools used for the assessment of gene expression, i.e., microarray and microfluidic card system, exhibited a high level of congruency (Spearman correlation rho = 0.81, p = 7.87e-5 and thus validated the applied methods. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Based on this set of biomarkers, new diagnostic targets have been made available to predict disease status and progression. These biomarkers may also offer new targets for immuno-therapeutic intervention.

  1. Watch and Wait Management of Inactive Cystic Echinococcosis - Does the Path to Inactivity Matter - Analysis of a Prospective Patient Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojkovic, Marija; Rosenberger, Kerstin Daniela; Steudle, Franziska; Junghanss, Thomas

    2016-12-01

    Overdiagnosis and overtreatment are rarely discussed in the context of NTDs despite their relevance for patients under the care of health services with limited resources where the risks of therapy induced complications are often disproportionate to the benefit. The advantages of cyst staging-based management of patients with cystic echinococcosis (CE) are not yet fully explored. Questions are: Do inactive cysts (CE 4 and CE 5) need treatment and is there a difference between cysts which reach CE4 and CE5 naturally or by benzimidazole therapy? Analysis of long-term follow-up data from a prospective CE patient cohort of 223 patients of a national clinical center for echinococcosis. The event of interest "relapse" was defined as the reversal of a cyst from an inactive stage (CE4, CE5) back to an active stage. The watch &wait (ww) group included 30 patients with 46 inactive cysts who never received medical treatment. The benzimidazole-treated (med) group included 15 patients with 17 cysts. There was no relapse in the ww-group whereas 8/17 cysts showed relapse within 18 months after treatment in the med-group. Loss to follow-up was 15.5%. Data from the watch & wait group impressively show how stable naturally inactivated cysts are in contrast to cysts which reach inactivity through treatment with benzimidazoles. A substantial proportion of patients can be spared from treatment through cyst staging. Cysts which inactivated through a natural course do not relapse with very high likelihood. We recommend follow up of 5 years to confirm the stability of the inactive stage. Cysts driven into inactivity through benzimidazole therapy instead need careful monitoring to identify those which reactivate (around 50% within 18 months). 5 years follow-up appears safe to make a final decision on the need for further monitoring.

  2. Hepatitis B Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... worldwide 2 Billion People have been infected with Hepatitis B Worldwide The Hepatitis B Foundation is working on ... of people living with hepatitis B. Learn About Hepatitis B in 11 Other Languages . Resource Video See More ...

  3. Hepatitis A Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Hepatitis A Testing Share this page: Was this page ... HAV-Ab total; Anti-HAV Formal name: Viral Hepatitis A Antibody Related tests: Hepatitis B Testing ; Hepatitis ...

  4. Hepatitis Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Requirements for Viral Hepatitis Liver Cancer and Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis and Young Persons Who Inject Drugs National Academies’ ... Sources for IG & HBIG About the Division of Viral Hepatitis Contact Us Anonymous Feedback File Formats Help: How ...

  5. Travelers' Health: Hepatitis A

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 3 - Helminths, Soil-Transmitted Chapter 3 - Hepatitis B Hepatitis A Noele P. Nelson, Trudy V. Murphy INFECTIOUS ... hepatitis/HAV Table 3-02. Vaccines to prevent hepatitis A VACCINE TRADE NAME (MANUFACTURER) AGE (Y) DOSE ...

  6. Delta agent (Hepatitis D)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepatitis D virus ... Hepatitis D virus (HDV) is found only in people who carry the hepatitis B virus. HDV may make liver ... B virus but who never had symptoms. Hepatitis D infects about 15 million people worldwide. It occurs ...

  7. Feature Hepatitis: Hepatitis Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment & Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Feature Hepatitis Hepatitis: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment & Prevention Past Issues / Spring 2009 ... No appetite Fever Headaches Diagnosis To check for hepatitis viruses, your doctor will test your blood. You ...

  8. [Hepatobiliary fascioliasis and echinococcosis/hydatidosis in domestic animals in Haiti].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaise, J; Raccurt, C P

    2007-12-01

    In Haiti, hepatobiliary fascioliasis and hepatic hydatid cysts cause major economic losses among livestock. Surveys show high prevalence rates for bovine distomatosis caused by Fasciola hepatica (10.7% to 22.78%). Among small ruminants, the prevalence of distomatosis is low (sheep: 3.2%, goats: 0.9%) although Dicrocoelium dendriticum is found in 1.1% of sheep. Hepatic hydatidosis is more common among pigs (5.2%) and sheep (2.1%) than among goats (0.9%) and cattle (0.3%). In the case of dogs, 21% excrete egg-bearing segments in their faeces and 25% harbour Echinococcus granulosus in the small intestine. As a result of local dietary habits (consumption of raw cress), environmental pollution by animal faeces, poverty and poor standards of hygiene in Haiti, these flatworms pose serious health risks to the population, even though this is largely unknown at present.

  9. Hepatitis C: Diet and Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with Hepatitis » Daily Living: Diet and Nutrition Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... have high cholesterol and have fatty liver. How hepatitis C affects diet If you have hepatitis, you ...

  10. Liver Cancer and Hepatitis B

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Our Accomplishments Annual Reports Our Videos What Is Hepatitis B? What Is Hepatitis B? The ABCs of Viral Hepatitis Liver Cancer and Hepatitis B Hepatitis Delta Coinfection Hepatitis C Coinfection HIV/AIDS ...

  11. Comparative Performances of Flubendazole and Albendazole in Cystic Echinococcosis: Ex Vivo Activity, Plasma/Cyst Disposition, and Efficacy in Infected Mice ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Ceballos, Laura; Elissondo,Celina; Sánchez Bruni, Sergio; Denegri, Guillermo; LANUSSE , Carlos; Alvarez, Luis

    2011-01-01

    The need to identify improved therapy against cystic echinococcosis (CE) has motivated pharmacology-based research. The comparative pharmacological performances of the benzimidazole compounds flubendazole (FLBZ) and albendazole (ABZ) were addressed here. The goals of the work were as follows: (i) to evaluate the ex vivo activities of FLBZ, ABZ, and their respective metabolites against Echinococcus granulosus protoscoleces, (ii) to compare the plasma and cyst disposition kinetics for the two d...

  12. Epidemiological evaluations of the efficacy of slow-released praziquantel-medicated bars for dogs in the prevention and control of cystic echinococcosis in man and animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jiao; Cheng, Fu; Qun, Qu; Nurbek; Xu, Shi-Dong; Sun, Li-Feng; Han, Xin-Kui; Muhan; Han, Ling-Ling; Irixiati; Jie, Peng; Zhang, Ke-Jiu; Islayin; Chai, Jun-jie

    2005-12-01

    To assess the epidemiological efficacy of type SRP III slow-released praziquantel-medicated bars for dogs in the prevention and control of cystic echinococcosis in man and livestock, praziquantel-medicated bars were implanted subcutaneously in over 90% of dogs in villages in north Xinjiang, China, where cystic echinococcosis is highly endemic. After implantation, infection rate of Echinococcus granulosus in dogs, specific antibodies in children and prevalence of echinococcosis in one-year-old lambs were observed for 3 years. Coproantigen of E. granulosus was positive in 41.2% of the dogs at the start of experiment. In the second and third year after medicated-bar implantation, coproantigen was undetectable in any dogs examined, while 3.0% of dogs were positive at the end of the fourth year. The antibody positive rate in 7-year-old pupils, that was 41.2% before the experiment, declined gradually and it was 5.4% in the fourth year, while children in the non-intervention control area showed 30.6% seropositivity. The prevalence of hydatid disease in children aged 7-16 years also declined significantly. The prevalence of hydatidosis in lambs one year of age was 44.8% in the first year, dropping to 10.7% in the fourth year, while in the non-intervention control area the level of infection was 46.4%. These results demonstrated not only that the slow released praziquantel-medicated bars efficiently blocked reinfection in dogs at least for 2 years, but also the measure was effective in preventing transmission of cystic echinococcosis to both man and livestock.

  13. Autoimmune hepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Motamed

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Autoimmune hepatitis is (AIH is a chronic hepatitis that occurs in children and adults of all ages. It is characterized by immunologic and autoimmune features, including circulating auto antibodies and high serum globulin concentrations. It was first described in the 1950s by term of chronic active hepatitis. It has 2 types with different auto antibodies. Diagnosis is based upon serologic and histologic findings and exclusion of other forms of chronic liver disease.   A scoring system should be used in assessment based upon: 1 Auto anti bodie titer 2 Serum IgG level  3 Liver histology 4 Absence of viral and other causes of hepatitis. Clear indications for treatment: 1   rise of aminotrasferases 2   clinical symptoms of liver disease 3   histological features in liver biopsy 4   Children with AIH initial treatment involve glucocorticoid with or without azathioprine. For patients with fulminant hepatitis liver transplantation, should be kept in mind.   Remission is defined by: 1   Resolution of symptoms 2   Normalization of serum trasaminases 3   Normalization of serum bilirubin and gamma globuline levels. 4   Improvement in liver histology 5   Treatment is continued for at least 2-5 years, glucocorticoids are with drawn first, by tapering over six weeks. Azathioprine will be with drawn.  

  14. [Chronic hepatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa Barrios, R

    1995-01-01

    Medical literature about chronic hepatitis is reviewed. This unresolving disease caused by viruses, drugs or unknown factors may progress to in cirrhosis and hepatocarcinoma. A classification based on liver biopsy histology into chronic persistent and chronic active types has been largely abandoned and emphasis is placed on recognizing the etiology of the various types. One is associated with continuing hepatitis B virus infection; another is related to chronic hepatitis C virus infection and the third is termed autoinmune, because of the association with positive serum autoantibodies. A fourth type with similar clinical functional and morphologic features is found with some drug reactions. Long term corticoesteroid therapy is usually successful in autoinmune type. Associations between antibodies to liver-kidney microsomes and the hepatitis C virus can cause diagnostic difficulties. Antiviral treatment of chronic hepatitis B and C with interpheron alfa is employed, controlling symptoms and abnormal biochemistry and the progression to cirrhosis and liver cancer in 30 to 40% patients. Alternative therapies or combinations with interpheron are being evaluated waiting for final results.

  15. Factors Influencing the Serological Response in Hepatic Echinococcus granulosus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lissandrin, Raffaella; Tamarozzi, Francesca; Piccoli, Luca; Tinelli, Carmine; De Silvestri, Annalisa; Mariconti, Mara; Meroni, Valeria; Genco, Francesca; Brunetti, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of variables influencing serology is crucial to evaluate serology results for the diagnosis and clinical management of cystic echinococcosis (CE). We analyzed retrospectively a cohort of patients with hepatic CE followed in our clinic in 2000–2012 to evaluate the influence of several variables on the results of commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and indirect hemagglutination (IHA) tests. Sera from 171 patients with ≥ 1 hepatic CE cyst, and 90 patients with nonparasitic cysts were analyzed. CE cysts were staged according to the WHO-IWGE classification and grouped by activity. A significant difference in ELISA optical density (OD) values and percentage of positivity was found among CE activity groups and with controls (P < 0.001). The serological response was also influenced by age (P < 0.001) and cyst number (P = 0.003). OD values and cyst size were positively correlated in active cysts (P = 0.001). IHA test showed comparable results. When we analyzed the results of 151 patients followed over time, we found that serology results were significantly influenced by cyst activity, size, number, and treatment ≤ 12 months before serum collection. In conclusion, serological responses as assessed by commercial tests depend on CE cyst activity, size and number, and time from treatment. Clinical studies and clinicians in their practice should take this into account. PMID:26503271

  16. IL-4 gene expression in adventitial layer (fibrous layer) of hepatic ovine and bovine hydatid cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorosti, Zahra; Tolouei, Sepideh; Khanahmad, Hossein; Jafari, Rasool; Jafaee, Fereshteh; Sharafi, Seyedeh Marayam; Darani, Hossein Yousofi

    2016-09-01

    Cystic Echinococcosis is a parasitic disease with cosmopolitan distribution caused by the tape worm Echinococcus granulosus. Fibrous layer is developed around the cyst as a host immune response reaction. The aim of this study was to evaluate the rate of IL-4 gene expression in fibrous layer of bovine and ovine hepatic hydatid cysts using quantitative technique of Real-Time PCR. In this descriptive study the samples of hydatid cyst fibrous layer were taken from 6 bovine and 6 ovine hepatic hydatid cysts. Samples of normal liver tissue close to the cyst were also taken as controls. Total RNA from each sample was extracted and then converted to cDNA. Afterward, the rate of IL-4 gene expression for each sample was evaluated using real-time PCR technique. Data were analyzed by REST software (version 2.0.13, 2009). In sheep the rate of IL-4 gene expression in the fibrous layer of hepatic hydatid cysts was 1.98 times more than the rate of IL4 gene expression in control samples, but the difference was not significant (P = 0.561). In cattle the rate of IL-4 gene expression in the fibrous layer of hepatic hydatid cysts was 9.84 times more than that of control samples which was statistically significant (P layer of bovine hydatid cyst, it can be concluded that this interleukin may play an important role in host parasite relationship.

  17. Effects of albendazole nanoparticles in mice with hepatic echinococosis: Portal vein cannulation versus intravenous administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Di-Wen; Zhang, Ming-Xing; Bao, Ying-Jun; Gu, Jun-Peng; Ji, Wei-Zheng; Zhang, Hai-Xiao; Ren, Wei-Xin

    2015-07-01

    To compare the ABZ and its metabolites concentration in cyst tissue of hepatic alveolar echinococcosis administered by different routes, forty male Wistar rats receiving albendazole nanoparticles from tail vein and portal vein were divided into two groups, the concentration of ABZ and its metabolites ABZSO, ABZSO2, in the cyst tissue, were analyzed by HPLC at 2, 4, 8, 24, 36 h after administration. The parent drug and its metabolites were detected in plasm and the cyst tissue after portal cannulation and intravenous administration. The last results were the concentration of ABZ in the portal cannulation group was higher than in the intravenous group at every time point (p < 0.05). Compared to the intravenous group, the portal cannulation administration of ABZ led to a lower plasm concentration of ABZ. The concentration of ABZ and the active ABZSO were significantly higher in the portal cannulation group than that of the intravenous group.

  18. Autoimmune hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strassburg, Christian P

    2010-10-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the liver with a dismal prognosis when left untreated. Key for the improvement of prognosis is a timely diagnosis before cirrhosis has developed. This is reached by the exclusion of other causes of hepatitis, elevated immunoglobulin G, autoantibody profile and histological assessment. Treatment achieves remission rates in 80% of individuals and consists of immunosuppression with corticosteroids and azathioprine. A recent randomised controlled multicenter trial has added budesonide to the effective treatment options in non-cirrhotic patients and leads to a reduction of unwanted steroid side effects. Autoimmune hepatitis is an autoimmune disease of unknown aetiology. Association studies of major histocompatibility complex and other genes demonstrate an influence of immunogenetics. However, apart from the autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 1, in which 10% of patients suffer from an autoantibody-positive autoimmune hepatitis linked to mutations of the autoimmune regulator gene, there is no clear evidence for a hereditary aetiology of this disease. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Hepatitis A vaccine associated with autoimmune hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PA Berry; G Smith-Laing

    2007-01-01

    To describe a case of probable relapsing autoimmune hepatitis associated with vaccination against hepatitis A virus (HAV). A case report and review of literature were written concerning autoimmune hepatitis in association with hepatitis A and other hepatotropic viruses. Soon after the administration of formalin-inactivated hepatitis A vaccine, a man who had recently recovered from an uncharacterized but self-limiting hepatitic illness,experienced a severe deterioration (AST 1687 U/L, INR 1.4). Anti-nuclear antibodies were detectable, and liver biopsy was compatible with autoimmune hepatitis. The observation supports the role of HAV as a trigger of autoimmune hepatitis. Studies in helper T-cell activity and antibody expression against hepatic proteins in the context of hepatitis A infection are summarized, and the concept of molecular mimicry with regard to other forms of viral hepatitis and autoimmunity is briefly explored.

  20. Prevelance Investigation and Evaluation of Human Echinococcosis in Sichuan Province%四川省棘球蚴病患病情况调查及评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄燕; 齐颜凤; 秦圣超; 李树成; 王谦; 易德友; 黄亮; 喻文杰; 邱东川; 肖宁; 徐克均; 许光荣

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解四川省人群棘球蚴病患病情况.方法 采用分层随机系统抽样方法,对四川省棘球蚴病流行区的甘孜州和阿坝州31个县人群进行腹部B超检查结合血清抗棘球蚴抗体IgG检测的方法筛查棘球蚴病患者,统计患病率,推算患病人数.结果 四川省棘球蚴病标化患病率为1.06%,患者数约2万人,其中甘孜州棘球蚴病标化患病率1.55%,推算患者15335人,主要分布在石渠7720人,色达2755人,甘孜1760人,德格835人,白玉404人,炉霍333人,新龙305人和理塘265人;阿坝州棘球蚴病标化患病率0.48%,推算患者4112人,主要分布在若尔盖748人,马尔康595人,阿坝579人,金川497人,红原302人,松潘301人和壤塘294人.结论 四川省包虫病主要流行于甘孜州石渠等8县和阿坝州若尔盖等7县.防治重点和经费投入应主要集中在这15个县.%Objective To investigate and evaluate the prevelance of human echinococcosis in Sichuan province. Methods With randomly stratified cluster sampling method, people in 31 counties in Ganzi and Aba prefectures, Sichuan province, was screened for echinococcosis using B ultrasound scanning combined with sera anti - echinococcus antibody IgG detection. The prevelance of echinococcosis in human was determined and the numbers of cases were estimated. Results The standarded prevelance of human echinococcosis in Sichuan prov- ince was to 1.06% , human cases were estimated to be around 20 000. Most human echinococcosis cases were found in Ganzi prefecture, where the prevelance of echi-nococcos was counted for 1. 55% and the estimated human case was 15 335, mainly distributed in 8 counties including Shiqu, Seda, Ganzi, Dege, Baiyu, Luhuo, Xinlong and Litang. Whereas 48% of echinococcosis prevelance was eastimated for Aba prefecture, where 4 112 of human cases were primarily dispersed in Ruoergai, Maerkang, Aba, Jinchuan, Hongyuan, Songpan and Rangtan. Conclusion Echinococcosis was highly prevelant in

  1. Hepatic amebiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Maria Salles

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Amebiasis can be considered the most aggressive disease of the human intestine, responsible in its invasive form for clinical syndromes, ranging from the classic dysentery of acute colitis to extra-intestinal disease, with emphasis on hepatic amebiasis, unsuitably named amebic liver abscess. Found worldwide, with a high incidence in India, tropical regions of Africa, Mexico and other areas of Central America, it has been frequently reported in Amazonia. The trophozoite reaches the liver through the portal system, provoking enzymatic focal necrosis of hepatocytes and multiple micro-abscesses that coalesce to develop a single lesion whose central cavity contains a homogeneous thick liquid, with typically reddish brown and yellow color similar to "anchovy paste". Right upper quadrant pain, fever and hepatomegaly are the predominant symptoms of hepatic amebiasis. Jaundice is reported in cases with multiple lesions or a very large abscess, and it affects the prognosis adversely. Besides chest radiography, ultrasonography and computerized tomography have brought remarkable contributions to the diagnosis of hepatic abscesses. The conclusive diagnosis is made however by the finding of Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites in the pus and by the detection of serum antibodies to the amoeba. During the evolution of hepatic amebiasis, in spite of the availability of highly effective drugs, some important complications may occur with regularity and are a result of local perforation with extension into the pleural and pericardium cavities, causing pulmonary abscesses and purulent pericarditis, respectively The ruptures into the abdominal cavity may lead to subphrenic abscesses and peritonitis. The treatment of hepatic amebiasis is made by medical therapy, with metronidazole as the initial drug, followed by a luminal amebicide. In patients with large abscesses, showing signs of imminent rupture, and especially those who do not respond to medical treatment, a

  2. Hepatic autoregulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staehr, Peter; Hother-Nielsen, Ole; Beck-Nielsen, Henning

    2007-01-01

    The effect of increased glycogenolysis, simulated by galactose's conversion to glucose, on the contribution of gluconeogenesis (GNG) to hepatic glucose production (GP) was determined. The conversion of galactose to glucose is by the same pathway as glycogen's conversion to glucose, i.e., glucose 1......-phosphate --> glucose 6-phosphate --> glucose. Healthy men (n = 7) were fasted for 44 h. At 40 h, hepatic glycogen stores were depleted. GNG then contributed approximately 90% to a GP of approximately 8 micromol.kg(-1).min(-1). Galactose, 9 g/h, was infused over the next 4 h. The contribution of GNG to GP...... declined from approximately 90% to 65%, i.e., by approximately 2 micromol.kg(-1).min(-1). The rate of galactose conversion to blood glucose, measured by labeling the infused galactose with [1-(2)H]galactose (n = 4), was also approximately 2 micromol.kg(-1).min(-1). The 41st h GP rose by approximately 1...

  3. Hepatitis C Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities Hepatitis C Testing Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Hepatitis C Antibody; Anti-HCV; HCV-PCR; HCV-RNA; Hepatitis ...

  4. HIV and Hepatitis B

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections and Coinfections HIV and Hepatitis B (Last updated 8/31/2016; last reviewed ... should be treated for both diseases. What is hepatitis B? Hepatitis B is a liver disease caused ...

  5. Drug-induced hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxic hepatitis ... to get liver damage. Some drugs can cause hepatitis with small doses, even if the liver breakdown ... liver. Many different drugs can cause drug-induced hepatitis. Painkillers and fever reducers that contain acetaminophen are ...

  6. HIV and Hepatitis C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections and Coinfections HIV and Hepatitis C (Last updated 8/31/2016; last reviewed ... the medicines for any side effects. What is hepatitis C? Hepatitis C is a liver disease caused ...

  7. Hepatitis B Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... helpful? Also known as: HBV Tests; Hep B; anti-HBs; Hepatitis B Surface Antibody; HBsAg; Hepatitis B Surface ... including "HBV carrier" state. Hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs) Detects antibody produced in response to HBV surface ...

  8. Preventing hepatitis A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepatitis A is inflammation (irritation and swelling) of the liver caused by the hepatitis A virus. You can take several steps to ... reduce your risk of spreading or catching the hepatitis A virus: Always wash your hands thoroughly after ...

  9. Travelers' Health: Hepatitis E

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chapter 3 - Hepatitis C Chapter 3 - Histoplasmosis Hepatitis E Chong-Gee Teo INFECTIOUS AGENT Infection is caused ... for infection. Map 3-06. Distribution of hepatitis E virus infection 1 PDF Version (printable) 1 Disease ...

  10. Hepatitis B virus (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepatitis B is also known as serum hepatitis and is spread through blood and sexual contact. It is ... population. This photograph is an electronmicroscopic image of hepatitis B virus particles. (Image courtesy of the Centers for ...

  11. A Review of Research Situation on Echinococcosis%棘球蚴病研究概况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡扩军; 徐敏; 王光雷; 刘志强; 努尔; 王俊伟; 陈彪; 杨启元; 孟庆玲

    2016-01-01

    Echinococcosis is a serious parasitic zoonosis caused by theCestode larva belonging to the genus Echinococcus. In combination with the work of prevention and control for hydatid disease in grassroot-level areas,a review was made in order to provide reference for its control,which included the etiology,epidemiology,clinical symptom,pathological change,diagnosis method,prevention and control measures and prospect of prevention and control,etc.%棘球蚴病是由棘球属绦虫的幼虫引起的一种危害严重的人兽共患寄生虫病。本文结合基层的防控工作,从病原学、流行病学、临诊症状、病理变化、诊断方法、防控措施及展望等方面进行了概述,以期为该病的防控提供参考。

  12. Cystic echinococcosis in Turkey: genetic variability and first record of the pig strain (G7) in the country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snábel, V; Altintas, N; D'Amelio, S; Nakao, M; Romig, T; Yolasigmaz, A; Gunes, K; Turk, M; Busi, M; Hüttner, M; Sevcová, D; Ito, A; Altintas, N; Dubinský, P

    2009-07-01

    A sample of 22 Echinococcus granulosus isolates collected from 12 sheep and ten humans from a focus of cystic echinococcosis in western Turkey was examined by DNA sequencing of four mitochondrial genes (cox1, atp6, nad1, rrnS). Results demonstrated the presence of two species of E. granulosus complex, E. granulosus sensu stricto and E. canadensis. Of E. granulosus sensu stricto, the G1 genotype (including three microvariants) was found in 17 isolates from humans and sheep, the G3 genotype and an intermediate form G1/G3 in one isolate each (both from sheep). Of E. canadensis, the pig strain G7 was found in three isolates from sheep and human. This is the first report of this strain in Turkey. Its presence has implications for local control programs due to its shorter maturation rate in dogs compared with E. granulosus sensu stricto. Goat and/or wild boar are likely reservoirs for G7 in the region. We provided further data on the pattern and frequency of nucleotide substitutions within the G1/G3 cluster. Based on our results and GenBank records, G2 (Tasmanian sheep strain) is not considered as a discrete genotypic unit, as its sequences at polymorphic sites conform to microvariants of both G1 and (more often) G3.

  13. Hydatid cyst/cystic echinococcosis: anatomical and surgical nomenclature and method to quantify the cyst content solidification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A. Menezes da Silva

    2011-01-01

    The terminology related to the hydatid cyst is sometimes inappropriate and wrong designations are used, based on incorrect concepts. "Hydatid cyst" is the larval form of the tapeworms of the genus Echinococcus granulosus, a parasite found in the small intestine of carnivores. The disease, called cystic echinococcosis, is among the most neglected parasitic diseases despite the development of new drugs and other treatment modalities. Although all of us know the vital cycle of the parasite and the different aspects of the disease, the designations around the parasite, its evolution and some therapeutic procedures are not uniform. It would be useful, for all of us, to use the same nomenclature and it is absolutely necessary that the nomenclature is correct and universally accepted. In this paper I remember the correct terms related to all aspects of the hydatid cyst's nomenclature, including especially the anatomical and surgical terminology, as well as the criteria to define the cyst inactivity and the way to know when the cyst range the inactive stage after therapy.

  14. First meeting "Cystic echinococcosis in Chile, update in alternatives for control and diagnostics in animals and humans".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez Rojas, Cristian A; Fredes, Fernando; Torres, Marisa; Acosta-Jamett, Gerardo; Alvarez, Juan Francisco; Pavletic, Carlos; Paredes, Rodolfo; Cortés, Sandra

    2016-09-13

    This report summarizes the outcomes of a meeting on cystic echinococcosis (CE) in animals and humans in Chile held in Santiago, Chile, between the 21st and 22nd of January 2016. The meeting participants included representatives of the Departamento de Zoonosis, Ministerio de Salud (Zoonotic Diseases Department, Ministry of Health), representatives of the Secretarias Regionales del Ministerio de Salud (Regional Department of Health, Ministry of Health), Instituto Nacional de Desarrollo Agropecuario (National Institute for the Development of Agriculture and Livestock, INDAP), Instituto de Salud Pública (National Institute for Public Health, ISP) and the Servicio Agrícola y Ganadero (Animal Health Department, SAG), academics from various universities, veterinarians and physicians. Current and future CE control activities were discussed. It was noted that the EG95 vaccine was being implemented for the first time in pilot control programmes, with the vaccine scheduled during 2016 in two different regions in the South of Chile. In relation to use of the vaccine, the need was highlighted for acquiring good quality data, based on CE findings at slaughterhouse, previous to initiation of vaccination so as to enable correct assessment of the efficacy of the vaccine in the following years. The current world's-best-practice concerning the use of ultrasound as a diagnostic tool for the screening population in highly endemic remote and poor areas was also discussed.

  15. Echinococcus granulosus-specific T-cell lines derived from patients at various clinical stages of cystic echinococcosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riganò, R; Buttari, B; De Falco, E; Profumo, E; Ortona, E; Margutti, P; Scottà, C; Teggi, A; Siracusano, A

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the role of T lymphocytes in the immune response to Echinococcus granulosus, using sheep hydatid fluid (SHF) and antigen B (AgB), we generated T-cell lines from patients with active, transitional and inactive hydatid cysts. We established 16 T-cell lines, eight specific to SHF and eight specific to AgB. At surface phenotyping 88-98% of cells displayed the helper/inducer CD4 antigen. In all patients, at all clinical stages of hydatid cyst disease, T-cell stimulation with SHF and AgB invariably amplified a large number of almost identical Vbeta subfamily fragments. Irrespective of antigen-specificity, the two cell lines from the patient with an inactive cyst had a Th1 profile, because they exclusively expressed and produced IFN-gamma. Conversely, the T-cell lines derived from the seven patients with active and transitional hydatid cysts had mixed Th1/Th2 and Th0 clones. The functional characteristics of the 16 T-cell lines differed markedly in the various clinical stages of cystic echinococcosis, thus providing new in vitro evidence that Th1 lymphocytes contribute decisively to the inactive stage of hydatid disease, Th2 lymphocytes in the active and transitional stages. The parasite-specific T-cell lines, especially the two Th1 lines from the patient with an inactive cyst, may help identify Th1 protective epitopes on SHF and AgB.

  16. Cystic echinococcosis therapy: Albendazole-loaded lipid nanocapsules enhance the oral bioavailability and efficacy in experimentally infected mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pensel, Patricia E; Ullio Gamboa, Gabriela; Fabbri, Julia; Ceballos, Laura; Sanchez Bruni, Sergio; Alvarez, Luis I; Allemandi, Daniel; Benoit, Jean Pierre; Palma, Santiago D; Elissondo, María C

    2015-12-01

    Therapeutic failures attributed to medical management of cystic echinococcosis (CE) with albendazole (ABZ) have been primarily linked to the poor drug absorption rate resulting in low drug level in plasma and hydatid cysts. Lipid nanocapsules (LNCs) represent nanocarriers designed to encapsulate lipophilic drugs, such as ABZ. The goals of the current work were: (i) to characterize the plasma and cyst drug exposure after the administration of ABZ as ABZ-LNCs or ABZ suspension (ABZ-SUSP) in mice infected with Echinococcus granulosus, and ii) to compare the clinical efficacies of both ABZ formulations. Enhanced ABZ sulphoxide (ABZ-SO) concentration profiles were obtained in plasma and cysts from ABZ-LNC treated animals. ABZSO exposure (AUC0-LOQ) was significantly higher in plasma and cyst after the ABZ-LNC treatments, both orally and subcutaneously, compared to that observed after oral administration of ABZ-SUSP. Additionally, ABZSO concentrations measured in cysts from ABZ-LNC treated mice were 1.7-fold higher than those detected in plasma. This enhanced drug availability correlated with an increased efficacy against secondary CE in mice observed for the ABZ-LNCs, while ABZ-SUSP did not reach differences with the untreated control group. This new pharmacotechnically-based strategy could be a potential alternative to improve the treatment of human CE.

  17. Risk factors associated with human cystic echinococcosis in Florida, Uruguay: results of a mass screening study using ultrasound and serology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona, C; Perdomo, R; Carbo, A; Alvarez, C; Monti, J; Grauert, R; Stern, D; Perera, G; Lloyd, S; Bazini, R; Gemmell, M A; Yarzabal, L

    1998-05-01

    Sonographic evidence of asymptomatic Echinococcus granulosus lesions in the liver was found in 156 of 9,515 persons in the Department of Florida, Uruguay. The sensitivity of ELISA and latex agglutination serology compared with ultrasound was 47.6% and 28.1%, respectively, and specificity was > 85%. There was a significant positive association between positive sonography and a personal history of previous but treated Echinococcus infection while those that were seropositive but ultrasound-negative were significantly more likely to have a personal history of infection or a history of infection in their family. Prevalence of infection increased significantly with age. There was no correlation between echinococcosis and dog ownership or home slaughter of sheep but offal disposal was important, with an increased prevalence of infection of 3.2%, 2.8%, and 3.1%, respectively, in persons feeding offal to dogs or burying or burning it compared with a prevalence of 0.8-1.5% in those using other methods of disposal. Almost half the population, when questioned, seemed to have sound knowledge about E. granulosus and described correct treatment of E. granulosus in dogs but this did not affect prevalence. There was a significant positive association between infection and the presence of a fenced fruit/vegetable garden and use of rural waters, particularly the cachimba (a small dam) and the aljibe (a cistern or tank) that collect rainwater from the ground surface and roofs, respectively.

  18. Hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharara, A I; Hunt, C M; Hamilton, J D

    1996-10-15

    To review the virology, epidemiology, pathogenesis, natural history, clinical manifestations, and current treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. The MEDLINE database (1966 to 1996) was searched for English-language articles and abstracts on HCV and non-A, non-B hepatitis. Papers cited in relevant primary articles were also reviewed. More than 500 original and review articles were evaluated, and the most relevant were selected. Data were extracted and reviewed by all authors. In most patients, HCV infection results in chronic hepatitis. The disease is insidious and subclinical but may progress over decades into end-stage liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma, which makes HCV cirrhosis a leading indication for orthotopic liver transplantation. Current diagnostic methods are highly sensitive and specific, and quantitative assessment of viral load may help to predict and monitor response to treatment. The only available therapeutic option is interferon, and this agent is effective in only a small subset of patients. Infection with HCV is a significant public health problem that has important clinical and financial consequences. The tailoring of specific therapy according to viral load or genotype, better patient selection, and use of combination drug regimens may improve the chance of viral clearance and sustained biochemical and histologic response. Further understanding of the basic virology of HCV and the exact mechanisms of viral persistence and tissue injury is needed to help define future therapeutic and preventive strategies.

  19. [Hepatitis E].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotto, Gaetano; Bulla, Fabio; Campanale, Francesca; Tartaglia, Alessandra; Fazio, Vincenzina

    2013-09-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) represents the main aetiological agent of enteric non-A hepatitis and is the only member of a new virus, Hepevirus, belonging to the family of Hepeviridae. HEV is the single most important cause of acute clinical hepatitis among adults in many areas of the developing world, specifically the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia, the Middle East and North Africa, where it is a common cause of sporadic and epidemic waterborne outbreaks and results in a high rate of morbidity and death, especially in pregnant women. Once thought of as an infection confined to developing countries, it is now recognized as a geographically widely distributed disease. In low-endemic regions (Western countries), sporadic cases of locally-acquired HEV infection are reported, acquired possibly through zoonotic transmission from pigs, wild boars or deer. In persons with pre-existing chronic liver disease, HEV superinfection can present as acute-on-chronic liver disease. In European countries, chronic infection, which may progress to liver cirrhosis, has been reported among immunosuppressed persons. Two testing vaccines proved to be highly effective in preventing the disease; these vaccines should be of particular use in groups that are at high risk of HEV infection.

  20. Hepatitis Information for the Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Requirements for Viral Hepatitis Liver Cancer and Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis and Young Persons Who Inject Drugs National ... Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir What is Viral Hepatitis? The word "hepatitis" means inflammation of the liver . ...

  1. Hepatitis B Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a combination product containing Haemophilus influenzae type b, Hepatitis B Vaccine) ... combination product containing Diphtheria, Tetanus Toxoids, Acellular Pertussis, Hepatitis B, Polio Vaccine)

  2. Prolonged acute hepatitis A mimicking autoimmune hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rintaro Mikata; Osamu Yokosuka; Fumio Imazeki; Kenichi Fukai; Tatsuo Kanda; Hiromitsu Saisho

    2005-01-01

    AIM: We report a case with a prolonged course of hepatitisA, with alanine aminotransferase (ALT) higher than 500 IU/Lfor more than 2 mo.METHODS: A middle-aged woman had an elevated IgG level of more than 2 000 mg/dL, positive arti-nudear antibodies (ANA) and anti-smooth muscle antibodies (ASMA), but no evidence of persistent hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection. Liver biopsy findings were compatible with prolonged acute hepatitis, although acute onset of autoimmune hepatitis could not be ruled out.RESULTS: It was assumed that she developed a course of hepatitis similar to autoimmune hepatitis triggered by HAV infection. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) treatment was initiated and a favorable outcome was obtained. CONCLUSION: We describe a case of a middle-aged woman who showed a prolonged course of acute hepatitis A mimicking autoimmune hepatitis. Treatment with UDCAproved to be effective.

  3. The terminology of hepatitis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    It is proposed that the diseases formerly known as “infectious hepatitis” and “serum hepatitis” be referred to as viral hepatitis type A and viral hepatitis type B, respectively. It is further recommended that the “Australia” antigen be referred to as hepatitis B antigen (HB Ag) and the corresponding antibody as hepatitis B antibody (HB Ab). PMID:4544683

  4. Hepatitis A and HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C . Hepatitis A and HIV Hepatitis A is preventable with a vaccine, and ... Notice Network blog.aids.gov • locator.aids.gov • HIV/AIDS Service Locator Locator Widgets • Instructions • API Find ...

  5. Hepatitis B (HBV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Hepatitis B (HBV) KidsHealth > For Teens > Hepatitis B (HBV) Print A A A What's in this ... poisons). There are several different types of hepatitis . Hepatitis B is a type that can move from one ...

  6. Hepatitis B (HBV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Hepatitis B (HBV) KidsHealth > For Teens > Hepatitis B (HBV) A A A What's in this article? ... poisons). There are several different types of hepatitis . Hepatitis B is a type that can move from one ...

  7. Human cystic echinococcosis in Morocco: Ultrasound screening in the Mid Atlas through an Italian-Moroccan partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chebli, Houda; Laamrani El Idrissi, Abderrhamane; Benazzouz, Mustapha; Lmimouni, Badre Eddine; Nhammi, Haddou; Elabandouni, Mourad; Youbi, Mohammed; Afifi, Rajaa; Tahiri, Sara; Essayd El Feydi, Abdellah; Settaf, Adbellatif; Tinelli, Carmine; De Silvestri, Annalisa; Bouhout, Souad; Abela-Ridder, Bernadette; Magnino, Simone; Brunetti, Enrico; Filice, Carlo

    2017-01-01

    Background Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a neglected parasitic zoonosis with considerable socioeconomic impact on affected pastoral communities. CE is endemic throughout the Mediterranean, including Morocco, where the Mid Atlas is the most prevalent area for both human and animal infection. The highest hospital annual incidence of human CE is recorded in the provinces of Ifrane and El Hajeb. However, hospital-based statistics likely underestimate the real prevalence of infection, as a proportion of cases never reach medical attention or official records. Methodology/Principal findings In 2012, a project on clinical management of CE in Morocco was launched with the aims of estimating the prevalence of human abdominal CE in selected rural communes of the above mentioned provinces using ultrasound (US) screening and training local physicians to implement US-based focused assessment and rational clinical management of CE according to the WHO-IWGE Expert Consensus. A total of 5367 people received abdominal US during four campaigns in April-May 2014. During the campaigns, 24 local general practitioners received >24 hours of hands-on training and 143 health education sessions were organized for local communities. We found an overall CE prevalence of 1.9%, with significantly higher values in the rural communes of Ifrane than El Hajeb (2.6% vs 1.3%; p<0.001). CE cysts were predominantly in inactive stage, especially in older age groups. However, active cysts were present also in adults, indicating acquisition of infection at all ages. Province of residence was the only risk factor consistently associated with CE infection. Conclusions/Significance Our results show a high prevalence and on-going, likely environmental transmission of CE in the investigated provinces of Morocco, supporting the implementation of control activities in the area by national health authorities and encouraging the acceptance and divulgation of diagnosis and treatment algorithms based on imaging for

  8. A cross-sectional serological study of cysticercosis, schistosomiasis, toxocariasis and echinococcosis in HIV-1 infected people in Beira, Mozambique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Virginia Noormahomed

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Helminthic infections are highly endemic in Mozambique, due to limited access to healthcare and resources for disease prevention. Data on the subclinical prevalence of these diseases are scarce due to the fact that an immunological and imaging diagnosis is not often available in endemic areas. We conducted a cross-sectional study on HIV1(+ patients from Beira city in order to determine the seroprevalence of cysticercosis, schistosomiasis, toxocariasis and echinoccocosis and its possible interaction with HIV infection.Patients (601 were voluntarily recruited at the Ponta Gea Health Center and their demographic and clinical data were recorded (including CD4(+ cell count and antiretroviral regimen. Mean age was 39.7 years, 378 (62.9% were women and 223 (37.1% were men. Four hundred seventy-five (475 patients (79% were already on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART, and 90 started therapy after being enrolled in the study. For serological testing we used a Multiplex Western Blot IgG from LDBIO Diagnostics. The overall seroprevalence was 10.2% for cysticercosis, 23% for schistosomiasis, 7.3% for toxocariasis and 17.3% for echinococcosis.Neither age nor the CD4(+ count were significantly associated with the seroprevalence of the helminths studied. However, patients with CD4(+ between 200-500/µl had a higher seroprevalence to all helminths than those with less than 200/µl cells/and those with more than 500 cells/µl. Female gender was significantly associated with cysticercosis and schistosomiasis, and being in HAART with toxocariasis. Headache was significantly associated with cysticercosis and toxocariasis. There was no association between epilepsy and seropositivity to any of the parasites. The study concluded that a clear understanding of the prevalence and manifestations of these coinfections, how best to diagnose subclinical cases, and how to manage diseases with concomitant antiretroviral therapy is needed.

  9. Geo-referencing livestock farms as tool for studying cystic echinococcosis epidemiology in cattle and water buffaloes from southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Cringoli

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Cystic echinococcosis (CE, caused by the larval stages of the tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus, is known to be one of the most important parasitic infection in livestock worldwide and one of the most widespread zoonoses known. In the present study, we used a geographical information system (GIS to study the spatial structure of livestock (cattle, water buffaloes and sheep populations to gain a better understanding of the role of sheep as reservoir for the transmission of CE to cattle and water buffaloes. To this end, a survey on CE in cattle and water buffaloes from the Campania region of southern Italy was conducted and the geo-referenced results linked to the regional farm geo-referenced data within a GIS. The results showed a noteworthy prevalence of CE in cattle and water buffalo farms (overall prevalence = 18.6%. The elaboration of the data with a GIS approach showed a close proximity of the bovine and/or water buffalo CE positive farms with the ovine farms present in the study area, thus giving important information on the significance of sheep and free-ranging canids in the transmission cycles of CE in relation to cattle and water buffaloes. The significantly higher prevalence found in cattle as compared to water buffalo farms (20.0% versus 12.4% supports the key role of sheep in the CE transmission; indeed, within the 5 km radius buffer zones constructed around the cattle farms positive for CE, a higher number of (potentially infected sheep farms were found compared to those found within the buffer zones around the water buffalo farms. Furthermore, the average distances between the sheep and cattle farms falling in the same buffer zones were significantly lower than those between the sheep and water buffalo farms. We emphasize that the use of GIS is a novel approach to further our understanding of the epidemiology and control of CE and we encourage other groups to make use of it.

  10. Screening of the Open Source Malaria Box Reveals an Early Lead Compound for the Treatment of Alveolar Echinococcosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadelmann, Britta; Rufener, Reto; Aeschbacher, Denise; Spiliotis, Markus; Gottstein, Bruno; Hemphill, Andrew

    2016-03-01

    The metacestode (larval) stage of the tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis causes alveolar echinococcosis (AE), a very severe and in many cases incurable disease. To date, benzimidazoles such as albendazole and mebendazole are the only approved chemotherapeutical treatment options. Benzimidazoles inhibit metacestode proliferation, but do not act parasiticidal. Thus, benzimidazoles have to be taken a lifelong, can cause adverse side effects such as hepatotoxicity, and are ineffective in some patients. We here describe a newly developed screening cascade for the evaluation of the in vitro efficacy of new compounds that includes assessment of parasiticidal activity. The Malaria Box from Medicines for Malaria Venture (MMV), comprised of 400 commercially available chemicals that show in vitro activity against Plasmodium falciparum, was repurposed. Primary screening was carried out at 10 μM by employing the previously described PGI assay, and resulted in the identification of 24 compounds that caused physical damage in metacestodes. Seven out of these 24 drugs were also active at 1 μM. Dose-response assays revealed that only 2 compounds, namely MMV665807 and MMV665794, exhibited an EC50 value below 5 μM. Assessments using human foreskin fibroblasts and Reuber rat hepatoma cells showed that the salicylanilide MMV665807 was less toxic for these two mammalian cell lines than for metacestodes. The parasiticidal activity of MMV665807 was then confirmed using isolated germinal layer cell cultures as well as metacestode vesicles by employing viability assays, and its effect on metacestodes was morphologically evaluated by electron microscopy. However, both oral and intraperitoneal application of MMV665807 to mice experimentally infected with E. multilocularis metacestodes did not result in any reduction of the parasite load.

  11. Screening of the Open Source Malaria Box Reveals an Early Lead Compound for the Treatment of Alveolar Echinococcosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britta Stadelmann

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The metacestode (larval stage of the tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis causes alveolar echinococcosis (AE, a very severe and in many cases incurable disease. To date, benzimidazoles such as albendazole and mebendazole are the only approved chemotherapeutical treatment options. Benzimidazoles inhibit metacestode proliferation, but do not act parasiticidal. Thus, benzimidazoles have to be taken a lifelong, can cause adverse side effects such as hepatotoxicity, and are ineffective in some patients. We here describe a newly developed screening cascade for the evaluation of the in vitro efficacy of new compounds that includes assessment of parasiticidal activity. The Malaria Box from Medicines for Malaria Venture (MMV, comprised of 400 commercially available chemicals that show in vitro activity against Plasmodium falciparum, was repurposed. Primary screening was carried out at 10 μM by employing the previously described PGI assay, and resulted in the identification of 24 compounds that caused physical damage in metacestodes. Seven out of these 24 drugs were also active at 1 μM. Dose-response assays revealed that only 2 compounds, namely MMV665807 and MMV665794, exhibited an EC50 value below 5 μM. Assessments using human foreskin fibroblasts and Reuber rat hepatoma cells showed that the salicylanilide MMV665807 was less toxic for these two mammalian cell lines than for metacestodes. The parasiticidal activity of MMV665807 was then confirmed using isolated germinal layer cell cultures as well as metacestode vesicles by employing viability assays, and its effect on metacestodes was morphologically evaluated by electron microscopy. However, both oral and intraperitoneal application of MMV665807 to mice experimentally infected with E. multilocularis metacestodes did not result in any reduction of the parasite load.

  12. Cystic echinococcosis in Algeria: cattle act as reservoirs of a sheep strain and may contribute to human contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardonnet, K; Benchikh-Elfegoun, M C; Bart, J M; Harraga, S; Hannache, N; Haddad, S; Dumon, H; Vuitton, D A; Piarroux, R

    2003-08-29

    In Algeria, cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a serious economic and public health problem. The common sheep/dog cycle is usually considered as the major source of human contamination. But to date the main strain of Echinococcus granulosus involved in the human contamination and the role of other hosts are still unknown. This paper reports an original work performed in northern Algeria combining field observations and molecular analysis. In a first step, examination of 6237 carcasses in slaughterhouses showed high infection and fertility rates in cattle and dromedaries. Then, in a second step, we used a molecular biology approach to identify the E. granulosus strain(s) involved. Forty-six samples from various origins were collected. They were analysed using comparison of PCR-amplified DNA sequences with one genomic (BG 1/3) and two mitochondrial (COI and NDI) targets. Results show the presence of a "sheep" strain of E. granulosus in North Algeria circulating between cattle and ovines and infectious to humans, whereas in South Algeria, a "camel" strain and a "sheep" strain were found to circulate in camels and in sheep, respectively. This study also reports an ambiguous genotype which resembled the "sheep" strain genotype (Gl) on the basis of the partial COI gene sequence, whereas on the basis of the partial NDI gene sequence, it was similar either to the "sheep" strain (Gl) or to the "camel" strain (G6). Besides its basic interest, our study confirms the role of other hosts (mainly cattle) in leading to transmission to humans and suggests that control measures should not only target sheep.

  13. Human cystic echinococcosis in Morocco: Ultrasound screening in the Mid Atlas through an Italian-Moroccan partnership.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houda Chebli

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Cystic echinococcosis (CE is a neglected parasitic zoonosis with considerable socioeconomic impact on affected pastoral communities. CE is endemic throughout the Mediterranean, including Morocco, where the Mid Atlas is the most prevalent area for both human and animal infection. The highest hospital annual incidence of human CE is recorded in the provinces of Ifrane and El Hajeb. However, hospital-based statistics likely underestimate the real prevalence of infection, as a proportion of cases never reach medical attention or official records.In 2012, a project on clinical management of CE in Morocco was launched with the aims of estimating the prevalence of human abdominal CE in selected rural communes of the above mentioned provinces using ultrasound (US screening and training local physicians to implement US-based focused assessment and rational clinical management of CE according to the WHO-IWGE Expert Consensus. A total of 5367 people received abdominal US during four campaigns in April-May 2014. During the campaigns, 24 local general practitioners received >24 hours of hands-on training and 143 health education sessions were organized for local communities. We found an overall CE prevalence of 1.9%, with significantly higher values in the rural communes of Ifrane than El Hajeb (2.6% vs 1.3%; p<0.001. CE cysts were predominantly in inactive stage, especially in older age groups. However, active cysts were present also in adults, indicating acquisition of infection at all ages. Province of residence was the only risk factor consistently associated with CE infection.Our results show a high prevalence and on-going, likely environmental transmission of CE in the investigated provinces of Morocco, supporting the implementation of control activities in the area by national health authorities and encouraging the acceptance and divulgation of diagnosis and treatment algorithms based on imaging for CE at both national and local level.

  14. Towards the international collaboration for detection, surveillance and control of taeniasis/ cysticercosis and echinococcosis in Asia and the Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Akira; Wandra, Toni; Sato, Marcello O; Mamuti, Wulamu; Xiao, Ning; Sako, Yasuhito; Nakao, Minoru; Yamasaki, Hiroshi; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Okamoto, Munehiro; Craig, Philip S

    2006-01-01

    Both cysticercosis and echinococcosis are potentially among the most serious helminth zoonoses threatening human health worldwide. However, due to the lack of reliable tools for confirmation or identification of patients or infected animals, epidemiological data are expected to be underestimated. Conversely, sometimes, such data are over estimated due to the lack of specificity. The most important issue for doing field surveys is that they use evidence based science. In this communication, advanced immunological and molecular tools for detection of individuals infected with either metacestodes or adult tapeworms are briefly overviewed, and the applications of such tools for epidemiological surveys in Indonesia, China and other countries are introduced. As immunological tools are based on antigen-antibody responses, there may exist some cross-reactions. Therefore, immunodiagnostic tools are expected to be useful for primary screening, and should be combined with confirmation of direct parasitological evidence (morphology or DNA), and imaging techniques for cysts. As a risk factor for human cysticercosis is the presence of tapeworm carriers, detection of taeniasis cases and differentiation of the three human Taenia species (Taenia solium, T. saginata and T. asiatica) in Asia and the Pacific requires consideration. Similarly, in northwest China, Echinococcus granulosus and E. multilocularis are coendemic and differentiation of these species is required in humans and definitive hosts. It is stressed that combination of several tools for identification of the parasite and for confirmation of diseases is important for obtaining highly reliable data before consideration of control of these zoonoses. Recent projects coordinated by Asahikawa Medical College have concentrated on immunological and molecular diagnostic techniques transferable to colleagues from endemic regions of Asia and the Pacific, and on organization of two international symposia to establish a platform

  15. The Epidemic Situation and Causative Analysis of Echinococcosis%包虫病病原在我国的流行现状及成因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘平; 李金花; 李印; 康京丽; 戴琪; 赵娜; 孙向东

    2016-01-01

    包虫病是人感染棘球绦虫幼虫所致的寄生虫病,主要发生在高山草甸及气候寒冷地区。我国包虫病病例主要集中在青海、西藏、四川、新疆等西北地区,由细粒棘球蚴和多房棘球蚴引起。农牧民可以通过养成良好的生活卫生习惯,做好家犬管理和病畜内脏处理等预防包虫病。%Echinococcosis is a zoonosis caused by the larval stages of tapeworms of the genus Echinococcus. It is epi-demic in the alpine meadow area and cold region. The cases of echinococcosis in China are mainly concentrated in the northwest regions such as Qinghai,Tibet,Sichuan,Xinjiang and so on. The disease is caused by fine grained spines ball larva and multilocular spines ball larva. Farmers and herdsmen could prevent infection by developing good life habits and doing well in management of domestic dogs and sick animals visceral.

  16. Characterization of excretory-secretory products from protoscoleces of Echinococcus granulosus and evaluation of their potential for immunodiagnosis of human cystic echinococcosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmena, D; Martínez, J; Benito, A; Guisantes, J A

    2004-09-01

    This study describes, for the first time, the characterization of excretory-secretory antigens (ES-Ag) from Echinococcus granulosus protoscoleces, evaluating their usefulness in the immunodiagnosis of human cystic echinococcosis. ES-Ag were obtained from the first 50 h maintenance of protoscoleces in vitro. This preparation contained over 20 major protein components which could be distinguished by 1-dimensional SDS-PAGE with apparent masses between 9 and 300 kDa. The culture of of protoscoleces from liver produced a greater variety of excretory-secretory protein components than those from lung. Determination of enzymatic activities of secreted proteins revealed the presence of phosphatases, lipases and glucosidases, but no proteases. These findings were compared to those obtained from somatic extracts of protoscoleces and hydatid cyst fluid products. Immunochemical characterization was performed by immunoblotting with sera from individuals infected by cystic echinococcosis (n = 15), non-hydatidic parasitoses (n = 19), various liver diseases (n = 24), lung neoplasia (n = 16), and healthy donors (n = 18). Antigens with apparent masses of 89, 74, 47/50, 32, and 20 kDa showed specificity for immunodiagnosis of human hydatidosis. The 89 and 74 kDa components corresponded to antigens not yet described in E. granulosus, whereas proteins of 41-43 kDa and 91-95 kDa were recognized by the majority of the non-hydatid sera studied.

  17. Diabetes and Hepatitis B Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetes and Hepatitis B Vaccination Information for Diabetes Educators What is hepatitis B? Hepatitis B is a contagious liver disease that results from infection with the hepatitis B virus. When first infected, a person can develop ...

  18. Microbiological diagnostics of viral hepatitis

    OpenAIRE

    HASDEMİR, Ufuk

    2016-01-01

    Viral hepatitis is an infection that primarily affects the liverbut may also have systemic clinical manifestations. The vastmajority of viral hepatitis are caused by one of five hepatotropicviruses: hepatitis A virus (HAV), hepatitis B virus (HBV),hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis D (delta) virus (HDV), andhepatitis E virus (HEV) (Table I) [1]. HBV, HCV, and HDValso cause chronic hepatitis, whereas HAV does not. HEVcauses acute hepatitis in normal hosts but can cause protractedand chronic he...

  19. Microbiological diagnostics of viral hepatitis

    OpenAIRE

    HASDEMİR, Ufuk

    2016-01-01

    Viral hepatitis is an infection that primarily affects the liverbut may also have systemic clinical manifestations. The vastmajority of viral hepatitis are caused by one of five hepatotropicviruses: hepatitis A virus (HAV), hepatitis B virus (HBV),hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis D (delta) virus (HDV), andhepatitis E virus (HEV) (Table I) [1]. HBV, HCV, and HDValso cause chronic hepatitis, whereas HAV does not. HEVcauses acute hepatitis in normal hosts but can cause protractedand chronic he...

  20. Pilot Field Trial of the EG95 Vaccine Against Ovine Cystic Echinococcosis in Rio Negro, Argentina: Second Study of Impact.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmundo Larrieu

    Full Text Available Cystic echinococcosis (CE is an important zoonotic disease caused by the cestode parasite Echinococcus granulosus. It occurs in many parts of the world where pastoral activities predominate, including the Rio Negro province of Argentina. Although CE control activities have been undertaken in the western regions of Rio Negro for more than two decades, the disease continues to remain prevalent in both the human and livestock animal populations. Vaccination of animal intermediate hosts of CE with the EG95 vaccine may provide a new opportunity to improve the effectiveness of CE control measures, although data are lacking about field application of the vaccine.Evaluate the impact of EG95 vaccination in sheep on the transmission of Echinococcus granulosus in a field environment.Two trial sites were established in western Rio Negro province within indigenous communities. Vaccination of lambs born into one trial site was introduced and continued for 6 years. Prior to initiation of the trial, and at the end of the trial, the prevalence of CE in sheep was determined by necropsy. Weaned lambs received two injections of EG95 vaccine, approximately one month apart, and a single booster injection one year later. Vaccination was not implemented at the second trial site. A total of 2725 animals were vaccinated in the first year. Animals from this cohort as well as age-matched sheep from the control area were evaluated by necropsy.Introduction of the vaccine led to a statistically significant in the number and size of hydatid cysts in comparison to the situation prior to the introduction of the vaccine, or compared to CE prevalence in the control area where the vaccine was not applied. The prevalence of infection in the vaccinated area was also significantly reduced by 62% compared to the re-intervention level, being lower than the prevalence seen in the control area, although the difference from the control area after the intervention was not significant

  1. Hepatitis C FAQs for the Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Requirements for Viral Hepatitis Liver Cancer and Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis and Young Persons Who Inject Drugs National ... Hepatitis Contact Us Anonymous Feedback Quick Links to Hepatitis … A | B | C | D | E Viral Hepatitis Home Statistics & ...

  2. Hepatitis B Foundation Newsletter: B Informed

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Our Accomplishments Annual Reports Our Videos What Is Hepatitis B? What Is Hepatitis B? The ABCs of Viral Hepatitis Liver Cancer and Hepatitis B Hepatitis Delta Coinfection Hepatitis C Coinfection HIV/AIDS ...

  3. Hepatitis B - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... care provider will perform blood tests called the hepatitis viral panel . These tests can help diagnose: A new ... 07, 2016. Jensen MK, William F, Balistreri WF. Viral hepatitis. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St Geme JW ...

  4. Hepatitis Foundation International

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... million people globally. admin / 03/17/2015 Viral Hepatitis An estimated 4.4 million Americans from all ... Events section below. EVENTS FULL CALENDAR Loading… VIRAL HEPATITIS DISPARITIES HARD TO REACH, HARD TO TREAT™ AFRICAN ...

  5. Hepatitis B Vaccination Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fact Sheet Hepatitis B Vaccination Protection Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a pathogenic microorganism that can cause potentially life- threatening disease in humans. HBV infection is transmitted through exposure ...

  6. Hepatitis C (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepatitis C is a virus-caused liver inflammation which may cause jaundice, fever and cirrhosis. Persons who are most at risk for contracting and spreading hepatitis C are those who share needles for injecting drugs ...

  7. Hepatitis virus panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003558.htm Hepatitis virus panel To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The hepatitis virus panel is a series of blood tests used ...

  8. Hepatitis C and HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hepatitis A and Hepatitis B . Hepatitis C and HIV About 25% of people living with HIV in ... Notice Network blog.aids.gov • locator.aids.gov • HIV/AIDS Service Locator Locator Widgets • Instructions • API Find ...

  9. Hepatitis B and HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hepatitis A and Hepatitis C . Hepatitis B and HIV About 10% of people living with HIV in ... Notice Network blog.aids.gov • locator.aids.gov • HIV/AIDS Service Locator Locator Widgets • Instructions • API Find ...

  10. What Is Hepatitis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... عربي 中文 English Français Русский Español What is hepatitis? Online Q&A Reviewed July 2016 Q: What ... Question and answer archives Submit a question World Hepatitis Day Know hepatitis - Act now Event notice Key ...

  11. Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1- to 2-Year-Old Blood Test: Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel KidsHealth > For Parents > Blood Test: Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel Print A A A What's in ... Is The hepatic function panel, also known as liver function tests, is a group of seven tests ...

  12. Screening methods in alveolar echinococcosis: a follow-up study comparing Emc- and Emf-ELISA with Em2plus-ELISA and ultrasonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hänle, M M; Banzhaf, H-M; Forsbach-Birk, V; Kirch, A; Akinli, A S; Mason, R A; Reuter, S; Kratzer, W

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to identify Echinococcus multilocularis infection in follow-up of 95 subjects initially seropostive by Emc-ELISA or Emf-ELISA antibody assays and to compare the utility of these assays with specific Em2plus-ELISA and ultrasound screening for E. multilocularis infection. At follow-up seven subjects were seropositive with both methods, while three were seropositive only with Emc-ELISA and 11 only with Emf-ELISA. All subjects were seronegative with Em2plus-ELISA. There were no manifestations of E. multilocularis infestation by ultrasonographic screening. Seropositivity on Emc-ELISA and Emf-ELISA screening tests does not appear to correlate with manifest alveolar echinococcosis identified by ultrasound. A recommendation for further follow-up of subjects found to be seropositive with Emc-ELISA and Emf-ELISA but with no sonographic evidence of disease is not justified at this time.

  13. VIRAL HEPATITIS E DIAGNOSTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Yu. Malinnikova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The results of clinical and epidemiological studies conducted in the M.P. Chumakov’ Research Institute of Poliomyelitis and Viral Encephalitis and in the different research institutions of the world have been summarized in the current article. Data on etiology, pathogenesis, clinical symptoms, epidemiology and prevention of hepatitis E are presented. Increasing of significance of this infection for health care system in Russia is emphasized . The actual problems of hepatitis E (autochthonic hepatitis E, hepatitis E as zoonosis, chronic hepatitis E are discussed.

  14. Pathogenesis of Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Ciećko-Michalska

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic encephalopathy can be a serious complication of acute liver failure and chronic liver diseases, predominantly liver cirrhosis. Hyperammonemia plays the most important role in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy. The brain-blood barrier disturbances, changes in neurotransmission, neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, GABA-ergic or benzodiazepine pathway abnormalities, manganese neurotoxicity, brain energetic disturbances, and brain blood flow abnormalities are considered to be involved in the development of hepatic encephalopathy. The influence of small intestine bacterial overgrowth (SIBO on the induction of minimal hepatic encephalopathy is recently emphasized. The aim of this paper is to present the current views on the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy.

  15. Interleukin-17A correlates with interleukin-6 production in human cystic echinococcosis: a possible involvement of IL-17A in immunoprotection against Echinococcus granulosus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezioug, Dalila; Touil-Boukoffa, Chafia

    2012-01-01

    Hydatidosis is a parasitic disease caused by the development, in humans and other mammals, of the larval form of Taenia, Echinococcus granulosus. It is one of the world's major zoonotic infections. This study aimed to examine interleukin-6 (IL-6), interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and interleukin-17A (IL-17A) production in patients with cystic echinococcosis (CE), and the role of IL-17A in the modulation of the immune response against the extracellular parasite, E. granulosus. A relationship between IL-6, IL-17A production and C reactive Protein (CRP) levels was also assessed. IL-6, IFN-γ, IL-17A and CRP production were determined in serum from Algerian hydatid patients. Cytokine production was also measured in supernatants from cultures of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from hydatid patients stimulated by a major parasitic antigen (antigen-5). The increased activity of IL-6, IFN-γ and IL-17A were observed in most serum samples from patients. In contrast, healthy controls showed only minor levels. Similarly, high levels of CRP were detected. Our in vitro results indicate a positive correlation between IL-6, IFN-γ and IL-17A production in PBMC culture supernatants. However, IL-6, IFN-γ and IL-17A activity was low in serum and supernatants of PBMC cultures from relapsing patients, and there was no evidence of an immune response against parasitic antigen. Collectively, our results show that IL-17A was produced during human cystic echinococcosis, and was involved in the host defense mechanisms against the extracellular parasite E. granulosus. Our data suggest that IL-17A plays an immunoprotective role in this parasitic, helminth infection.

  16. N-type Porous Silicon Optical Sensing for Echinococcosis Detection%n型多孔硅光学传感器应用于包虫病检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王佳佳; 吕小毅; 李鹏; 贾振红

    2014-01-01

    The work in this paper has concentrated on fabrication possibility of biosensor for hydatid antigen DNA based on porous silicon microcavities. The substates have been fabricated from highly doped n-type silicon based on HF/ethanol electrolyte system. Examined the reflectance spectra before, after expore to different concentration of echinococcosis ranging from 0.625 µM to 10.000 µM, a detection sensitivity of 4.740 nm/µM has been demonstrated. A redshift of 5nm when the sample was exposed to 0.625 µM hydatid DNA solution. The linear relationship indicates that a potential and significate detection of echinococcosis.%本文主要探讨制备用于包虫抗原DNA检测的n型多孔硅微腔生物传感器的可能性.高参杂n型硅片在HF酸/乙醇电解液中实现了具有良好性能的生物传感器基底的制备.通过检测多孔硅微腔浸入不同浓度的生物溶液前后的微腔反射谱的移动量来验证传感器的性能,溶液浓度从0.625µM至10.000µM,检测灵敏度为4.740 nm/µM.当微腔基底浸泡0.625µM生物溶液后,微腔红移5nm表明制备的生物传感器是成功的.根据浓度与微腔红移量之间的线性关系表明在多孔硅传感器上检测包虫病的可行性.

  17. Early diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of cystic echinococcosis in remote rural areas in Patagonia: impact of ultrasound training of non-specialists.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Del Carpio

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Cystic echinococcosis (CE is a chronic, complex and neglected disease caused by the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus. The effects of this neglect have a stronger impact in remote rural areas whose inhabitants have no chances of being diagnosed and treated properly without leaving their jobs and travelling long distances, sometimes taking days to reach the closest referral center. BACKGROUND: In 1980 our group set up a control program in endemic regions with CE in rural sections of Rio Negro, Argentina. Since 1997, we have used abdominopelvic ultrasound (US as a screening method of CE in school children and determined an algorithm of treatment. OBJECTIVES: To describe the training system of general practitioners in early diagnosis and treatment of CE and to evaluate the impact of the implementation of the field program. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 2000, to overcome the shortage of radiologists in the area, we set up a short training course on Focused Assessment with Sonography for Echinococcosis (FASE for general practitioners with no previous experience with US. After the course, the trainees were able to carry out autonomous ultrasound surveys under the supervision of the course faculty. From 2000 to 2008, trainees carried out 22,793 ultrasound scans in children from 6 to 14 years of age, and diagnosed 87 (0.4% new cases of CE. Forty-nine (56.4% were treated with albendazole, 29 (33.3% were monitored expectantly and 9 (10.3% were treated with surgery. DISCUSSION: The introduction of a FASE course for general practitioners allowed for the screening of CE in a large population of individuals in remote endemic areas with persistent levels of transmission, thus overcoming the barrier of the great distance from tertiary care facilities. The ability of local practitioners to screen for CE using US saved the local residents costly travel time and missed work and proved to be an efficacious and least expensive intervention tool for

  18. Echinococcus granulosus infection and options for control of cystic echinococcosis in Tibetan communities of Western Sichuan Province, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Rong Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human cystic echinococcosis (CE is highly endemic in the Tibetan regions of Sichuan where most families keep guard dogs and where there are considerable numbers of ownerless/stray dogs. Strong Buddhist beliefs do not allow for elimination of stray dogs, and many strays are actually fed and adopted by households or monasteries. On account of the high altitude (3900-5000 m, pasturage is the major agricultural activity in this area. The harsh mountainous climate often leads to many grazing animals dying on the pasture at the end of a hard winter. The skin and some meat are taken, and the rest of the animal is left for scavenging birds and animals. The poor sanitation and hygiene, the Buddhist doctrine of allowing old livestock to die naturally, plus the unrestricted disposal of animal viscera post-slaughter may be responsible for the high prevalence of human CE in this setting. METHODS AND FINDINGS: As part of a large collaborative control program for CE in Ganzi County, situated in the west of Sichuan Province, surveillance for Echinococcus infection in domestic dogs using a coproantigen method and necropsy of unwanted dogs was carried out prior to (in 2000 and after (in 2005 dog anthelminthic treatment (5 mg/kg oral praziquantal at 6 month intervals to determine the efficacy of the treatment for control. The prevalence of E. granulosus only in dogs by necropsy was 27% and 22%, and prevalence of both Echinococcus spp. by necropsy was 63% and 38%; prevalence of both Echinococcus spp. by coproantigen analysis was 50% and 17%. Necropsy of sheep/goats (age <1 to 12 years (prevalence of E. granulosus in 1-6-year-old animals was 38% and in 10-12-year-old animals was 70% and yaks (age 4 years (prevalence of E. granulosus was 38% was undertaken to determine the baseline transmission pressure. Protoscoleces were only found in very old sheep/goats and yaks. Necropsy of dogs in the Datangma district indicated that there was no apparent

  19. PULMONARY CYSTIC ECHINOCOCCOSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santivanez, Saul; Garcia, Hector H.

    2012-01-01

    Pulmonary cystic echinococosis, a zoonosis caused by the larvae of the dog tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus, is considered as a major public health problem in those countries where dogs are used to care for large herds because of the incapacitating effects produced in affected population. The ratio lung:liver involvement is higher in children than in adults. A higher proportion of lung cases are discovered incidentally on a routine x-ray evaluation; the majority of infected people remain asymptomatic until the cyst enlarges sufficiently to cause symptoms. The majority of symptoms are caused by mass effect from the cyst volume; the presence of complications caused by cysts broke changes the clinical presentation; the principal complication is cyst rupture, producing cough, chest pain, hemoptysis, or vomica. Diagnosis is obtained by imaging evaluation (Chest X-ray or CT scan), supported by serology in the majority of cases. Surgery is the main therapeutic approach, having as principal objective, the removal of the parasite, preventing intraoperative dissemination; the use of pre surgical chemotherapy reduces the chances of seeding and recurrence; treatment using benzimidazoles is the preferred treatment when surgery is not available, or complete removal is not feasible PMID:20216420

  20. Autophagy in Hepatic Fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Song

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic fibrosis is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Hepatic fibrosis is usually associated with chronic liver diseases caused by infection, drugs, metabolic disorders, or autoimmune imbalances. Effective clinical therapies are still lacking. Autophagy is a cellular process that degrades damaged organelles or protein aggregation, which participates in many pathological processes including liver diseases. Autophagy participates in hepatic fibrosis by activating hepatic stellate cells and may participate as well through influencing other fibrogenic cells. Besides that, autophagy can induce some liver diseases to develop while it may play a protective role in hepatocellular abnormal aggregates related liver diseases and reduces fibrosis. With a better understanding of the potential effects of autophagy on hepatic fibrosis, targeting autophagy might be a novel therapeutic strategy for hepatic fibrosis in the near future.

  1. Hepatitis isquémica Ischemic hepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Amuchástegui (h

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available La hepatitis isquémica es una complicación sumamente infrecuente de cirugía cardiovascular. Las biopsias muestran necrosis centrolobulillar. El término de "hepatitis" fue propuesto debido al aumento de transaminasas similar a aquellas de origen infeccioso, e "isquémica" por falla en la perfusión hepática. Posteriormente se definió el término de hepatitis isquémica como cuadro de elevación aguda y reversible (dentro de las 72 horas de transaminasas de hasta 20 veces el valor normal, asociado a trastornos en la perfusión hepática, luego de haber excluido otras causas de hepatitis aguda o daño hepatocelular. Se describe el caso de un paciente de 53 años que consulta por dolor epigástrico de 12 h de evolución sin fiebre, náuseas ni vómitos, resistente a la medicación. Tenía antecedentes inmediatos de reemplazo de válvula aórtica, y estaba anticoagulado. Evolucionó con shock y fallo multiorgánico. El examen evidenció marcada ictericia y signos de taponamiento pericárdico, asociado a un aumento considerable de enzimas hepáticas. Un ecocardiograma informó signos de taponamiento cardíaco y ausencia de disección aórtica. Se decidió pericardiocentesis, extrayéndose 970 cc. de líquido sanguinolento, y hemodiálisis, con notable mejoría de su estado hemodinámico. Los valores enzimáticos disminuyeron. Los marcadores virales fueron negativos.Ischemic hepatitis is an uncommon cardiovascular surgery complication. Hepatic biopsies show centrolobulillar necrosis. The term "hepatitis" was proposed because of a raise in hepatic enzymes similar with infectious disease, and "ischemic" because of failure in hepatic perfusion. Ischemic hepatitis was then defined as an acute and reversible elevation of hepatic enzymes (within 72 h, associated with disturbance in hepatic perfusion after excluding other causes of acute hepatitis. A 53 year-old male presented complaining of a 12 h epigastric pain, without nausea or vomiting, resistant

  2. Preventing hepatitis B or C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000401.htm Preventing hepatitis B or C To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hepatitis B and hepatitis C infections cause irritation and swelling ...

  3. Hepatitis C Virus Genotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Kayhan Azadmanesh; Safie Amini; Seyed-Moayed Alavian; Malek Hossein Ahmadipour

    2005-01-01

    IntroductionHepatitis C virus (HCV) is an important cause of chronic liver disease. HCV causes 20% of acute hepatitis cases, 70% of all chronic hepatitis cases, 40% of all cases of liver cirrhosis, 60% of hepatocellular carcinomas, and 30% of liver transplants in Europe(1). It is also recognized as the leading cause of liver transplantation in the world(2). Only 20% of infected individuals will recover from this viral infection, while the rest become chronically infected(3). While the majorit...

  4. 新疆阿克陶县棘球蚴病流行病学调查%Epidemiological investigations on echinococcosis in Akto County, Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓英; 伊斯拉音·乌斯曼; 王冬梅

    2015-01-01

    Objective To conduct an epidemiological investigation on echinococcosis in Akto County,Xinjiang for understanding the prevalence and characteristics of the disease,so as to provide evidence for prevention and treatment.Methods A total of 24 villages(4 villages in each town and 3 towns in agricultural and pasturing areas of Akto county respectively)were selected as investigation spots.The investigation on echinococcosis covered whole population while serum antibody against echinococcosis was detected in 6-12 years old students as well as the investigation on echinococcosis in livestock and dogs was conducted.B ultrasound scan of the abdomen was used to check the infection of the hydatid cyst.The ELISA method was used to detect the serum IgG antibody against echinococcosis among 6-12 years old students and the antibody in dog fecal samples.The organs such as liver,lung,kidney,spleen,heart and other organs and peritoneum of the slaughter livestock were examined through palpation and visual observation for the infection rate of the hydatid cyst.Results In agricultural and pasturing regions,a total of 6 113 people was investigated.Only one patient with hydatid disease was found at Carkeqike Town in pasturing region with a proportion of 0.02% (1/6 113)and a prevalence rate of 0.49/100 000(1/202.3 thousand).The positive rate of echinococcosis serum antibodies among 6-12 years old students in agricultural areas and pastoral areas was 2.70%(49/1 813)and it was 2.24%(211938)in pasturing areas and 3.20%(28/875)in agricultural areas without statistical significance(X2=1.54,P>0.05).Moreover,the positive rate in female was 4.17%(30/720),higher than that in male(1.74%,19/1 093)(X2=9.73,P<0.05),and the difference between the positive rate in pastoral areas(2.24%,21/938)and that in agricultural area(3.20%,28/875)was not statistically significant(X2=1.54,P>0.05).The positive rate of female in pasturing areas(3.77%,13/345)was higher than that of man (1.35%,8

  5. Cytomegalovirus Hepatitis During Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Chan

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although cytomegalovirus (CMV is an uncommon cause of viral hepatitis during pregnancy, a definitive diagnosis is important because of the potential for congenital CMV. In the case reported here, a diagnosis of hepatitis caused by CMV was made after the more common viral pathogens had been ruled out.

  6. Hepatic angiosarcoma: CT findings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余日胜; 章士正; 华建明

    2003-01-01

    @@ Hepatic angiosarcoma is a rare malignant vascular tumor. Accurate preoperative diagnosis of this tumor is very difficult if the patient does not have any history of exposure to specific carcinogens including thorotrast, arsenicals and vinyl chloride monomer. We describe CT findings in two cases of hepatic angiosarcoma in combination with a review of the literature.

  7. Hepatitis E og graviditet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mannheimer, Ebba Elisabeth; Harritshøj, Lene Holm; Katzenstein, Terese Lea

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection among pregnant women is severe, often leading to fulminant hepatic failure and death, with mortality rates up to 15-25%. Studies suggest that differences in genotypes/subgenotypes, hormonal and immunological changes during pregnancy may contribute to the severe...

  8. Comparative performances of flubendazole and albendazole in cystic echinococcosis: ex vivo activity, plasma/cyst disposition, and efficacy in infected mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballos, Laura; Elissondo, Celina; Sánchez Bruni, Sergio; Denegri, Guillermo; Lanusse, Carlos; Alvarez, Luis

    2011-12-01

    The need to identify improved therapy against cystic echinococcosis (CE) has motivated pharmacology-based research. The comparative pharmacological performances of the benzimidazole compounds flubendazole (FLBZ) and albendazole (ABZ) were addressed here. The goals of the work were as follows: (i) to evaluate the ex vivo activities of FLBZ, ABZ, and their respective metabolites against Echinococcus granulosus protoscoleces, (ii) to compare the plasma and cyst disposition kinetics for the two drugs in infected mice, and (iii) to compare the clinical efficacies of FLBZ and ABZ against CE in mice. For the ex vivo study, E. granulosus protoscoleces were incubated with FLBZ, reduced FLBZ (R-FLBZ), ABZ, and ABZ-sulfoxide (ABZSO) (10 nmol/ml). Protoscolex viability was monitored by the methylene blue exclusion test and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). For the pharmacokinetic study, BALB/c mice with CE were allocated to two different groups and orally treated with either FLBZ or ABZ (5 mg/kg of body weight), both formulated as a cyclodextrin-based solution. Blood and cyst samples were taken up to 12 h posttreatment and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). For the efficacy study, CE-infected BALB/c mice were divided into three groups: the unmedicated control group and the FLBZ- and ABZ-treated groups. Oral treatments were performed twice a day during 25 days. After treatment, all animals were killed and the weight of the cysts was recorded. Loss of protoscolex viability was observed after drug incubation. FLBZ was detected in plasma (area under the concentration-versus-time curve [AUC] = 1.8 μg · h/ml) and cysts (AUC = 0.3 μg · h/g) collected from treated infected animals. Conversely, ABZSO was the only active molecule measured in plasma (AUC = 4.4 μg·h/ml) and cysts (AUC = 1.5 μg·h/g) after ABZ treatment. FLBZ induced a 90% reduction in cyst weight in comparison to those collected from untreated control mice (P < 0.05). However, no

  9. Hepatitis G virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vasiliy Ivanovich Reshetnyak; Tatiana Igorevna Karlovich; Ljudmila Urievna Ilchenko

    2008-01-01

    A number of new hepatitis viruses (G,TT,SEN) were discovered late in the past century.We review the data available in the literature and our own findings suggesting that the new hepatitis G virus (HGV),disclosed in the late 1990s,has been rather well studied.Analysis of many studies dealing with HGV mainly suggests the lymphotropicity of this virus.HGV or GBV-C has been ascertained to influence course and prognosis in the HIV-infected patient.Until now,the frequent presence of GBV-C in coinfections,hematological diseases,and biliary pathology gives no grounds to determine it as an "accidental tourist" that is of no significance.The similarity in properties of GBV-C and hepatitis C virus (HCV) offers the possibility of using HGV,and its induced experimental infection,as a model to study hepatitis C and to develop a hepatitis C vaccine.

  10. Autoimmune hepatitis triggered by acute hepatitis A

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hiroto Tanaka; Hiroto Tujioka; Hiroki Ueda; Hiroko Hamagami; Youhei Kida; Masakazu Ichinose

    2005-01-01

    The patient was a 57-year-old woman presenting with jaundice as the chief complaint. She began vomiting on July 10, 2003.Jaundice was noted and admitted to our hospital for thorough testing. Tests on admission indicated severe hepatitis, based on: aspartate aminotransferase (AST), 1 076 IU/L; alanine aminotransferase (ALT), 1 400 IU/L; total bilirubin (TB), 20.9 mg/dL; and prothrombin time rate (PT%), 46.9%. Acute hepatitis A (HA) was diagnosed based on negative hepatitis B surface antigen and hepatitis C virus RNA and positive immunoglobulin (Ig) M HA antibody, but elevation of anti-nuclear antigen (×320) and IgG (3 112 mg/dL) led to suspicion of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). Plasma exchange was performed for 3 d from July 17, and steroid pulse therapy was performed for 3 d starting on July 18, followed by oral steroid therapy. Liver biopsy was performed on August 5, and the results confirmed acute hepatitis and mild chronic inflammation. Levels of AST and ALT normalized,so dose of oral steroid was markedly reduced. Steroid therapy was terminated after 4 mo, as the patient had glaucoma. Starting 3 mo after cessation of steroid therapy,levels of AST and ALT began to increase again. Another liver biopsy was performed and AIH was diagnosed based on serum data and biopsy specimen. Oral steroid therapy was reinitiated. Levels of AST and ALT again normalized.The present case was thus considered to represent AIH triggered by acute HA.

  11. Occult hepatitis B among Iranian hepatitis C patients

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad shavakhi; Babak Norinaier; Fatomeh Esteghamat; Mohamad Seghatoleslami; Mahsa Khodadustan; Mohamad hossein Somi; Mohsen Masoodi; Mohamad reza Zali

    2009-01-01

    • BACKGROUND: Occult hepatitis B is defined as presence of HBV DNA in tissue or serum without hepatitis B surface antigen. The aim of this study is to determine frequency of occult hepatitis B among hepatitis C patients in Tehran and compare the route of transmission and liver enzymes between positive and negative HBV DNA patients.
    • METHODS: In a cross sectional study, serum of 103 hepatitis C cas...

    • [The ABC of viral hepatitis].

      Science.gov (United States)

      Van Bambeke, F

      2008-03-01

      Viral hepatitis has long been under-diagnosed. Hepatitis A is an acute disease, while patients infected by hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses are likely to develop chronical infections and severe complications (cancer, cirrhosis). The current treatment of hepatitis B and C consists in alpha interferon (preferably under its pegylated form), in combination with ribavirin for hepatitis C. The frequent and severe adverse effects of interferon-based therapy constitute, however, a major limiting factor (reactions at the injection site, flu-like syndrome, neurological disorders, ...). For hepatitis B, two alternatives are available so far, namely lamivudine and adefovir (used as a prodrug with highe oral bioavailability).

    • Role of pet dogs and cats in the transmission of helminthic zoonoses in Europe, with a focus on echinococcosis and toxocarosis.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Deplazes, Peter; van Knapen, Frans; Schweiger, Alexander; Overgaauw, Paul A M

      2011-11-24

      The close emotional tie between people and companion animals is a beneficial relation known as the human-animal bond. However, pet dogs and cats can play an important role in the transmission of helminthic zoonotic agents such as the tapeworms Echinococcus and the roundworms Toxocara which are directly transmitted from pets to the human environment without the involvement of vectors or intermediate hosts. In humans, echinococcosis has emerged in Europe and toxocarosis is still persisting in large endemic areas despite the availability of highly efficient anthelminthics for dogs and cats. Ecological changes significantly contributed to these trends: the high wild fox populations and the high density of freely roaming dogs and cats maintain a permanent infection pressure of these and other parasites. Further, the establishment of urban recreational environments closer to natural ecological systems boosted vole populations that represent urban reservoirs for zoonotic helminths. A good understanding of the parasites' biology and epidemiology including the transmission to humans is required for planning and implementing effective prevention strategies. The continuous education of veterinarians and the information of the pet owners by providing uniform recommendations are of priority importance. A close collaboration between veterinary and public health professionals in a 'One Health' concept is required.

    • Immune-protective effect of echinococcosis on colitis experimental model is dependent of down regulation of TNF-α and NO production.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Khelifi, Lila; Soufli, Imene; Labsi, Moussa; Touil-Boukoffa, Chafia

      2017-02-01

      Hydatid disease (echinococcosis) is a chronic, endemic helminthic disease caused by the larval stage of the tapeworm, Echinococcus granulosus. This disease is endemic in many parts of the world, such as the Mediterranean area, and in particular in Algeria. Helminth parasites have developed complex strategies to modulate the immune responses of their hosts through versatile immune-regulatory mechanisms. These mechanisms may regulate immune responses associated with inflammatory diseases such as inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). the goal of this study was to investigate the effect of Echinococcus granulosus infection on the development of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. Our results demonstrated that E. granulosus infection significantly improved the clinical symptoms and histological scores observed during DSS-induced colitis, and also maintained mucus production by goblet cells. Interestingly, this infection reduced Nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) production and attenuated inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) expression in colonic tissues. Collectively, our data support the hygiene hypothesis and indicate that prior infection with E. granulosus can effectively protect mice from DSS-induced colitis by enhancing immune-regulatory mechanisms.

    • 能谱CT鉴别诊断肝脏单纯囊肿和单房囊性包虫病%Spectral CT imaging in differential diagnosis of hepatic cyst and unilocular hepatic cystic echinococcosis

      Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

      李婷婷; 蒋奕; 刘文亚; 王海涛; 王静

      2015-01-01

      目的 探讨能谱CT在鉴别肝脏单纯囊肿(HC)和肝脏单房囊性包虫(UHCE)的应用价值.方法 回顾性分析39例肝脏单房囊性占位病变患者,其中HC 19例(HC组),UHCE 20例(UHCE组),行平扫和三期增强能谱CT扫描后获得40~140 keV单能图像病灶的CT值、碘(水)浓度、水(碘)浓度、有效原子序数,测量正常肝组织和腹主动脉碘值,计算不同期相标准化碘浓度(NIC)和病灶与周围正常肝组织碘浓度比值(LNR),对两组结果进行统计学分析,并进行ROC曲线分析.结果 HC 40~50 keY平扫、动脉期及延迟期单能量CT值均低于UHCE(P均<0.05),平扫和增强三期HC的碘(水)浓度低于UHCE(P<0.05),平扫、动脉期及延迟期HC的有效原子序数低于UHCE(P<0.05);平扫和动脉期HC的NIC高于UHCE(P均<0.05);HC动脉期水(碘)浓度略低于UHCE(P<0.05);平扫40 keV下鉴别HC和UHCE的敏感度(100%)和特异度最高(75%).结论 能谱CT成像的定量分析对HC和UHCE的鉴别诊断有一定价值.

    • Feature Hepatitis: The Dangers of Hepatitis: What you should know from A to E

      Science.gov (United States)

      ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Feature Hepatitis The Dangers of Hepatitis: What you should know from A to E ... drugs. In some cases, hepatitis lasts a lifetime. Hepatitis: Acute or Chronic? Acute hepatitis is the initial ...

    • Viral hepatitis and hepatitis B antigen: recent advances

      Science.gov (United States)

      Krugman, Saul

      1974-01-01

      Recent advances in hepatitis research have shed new light on the etiology, pathogenesis, epidemiology and prevention of type B hepatitis infection. The so-called ‘Dane’ particle is probably the complete hepatitis B virion; its outer coat is the hepatitis B (Australia) antigen (HB Ag) and its inner core is an immunologically distinct particle. Subtypes of HB Ag (a, d, y, w and r) are useful indices for epidemiological surveys. Concepts of epidemiology have changed: type B hepatitis is transmissible by contact as well as by inoculation. The presence of HB Ag in blood is indicative of the presence of hepatitis B virus. Tests to detect antigen and use of voluntary blood donors have played a major role in the decreased incidence of post transfusion hepatitis. A special hepatitis B gammaglobulin preparation and a heat-inactivated hepatitis B vaccine have proved to be effective in preliminary studies. PMID:4219230

    • Hepatic microcirculatory disturbances in patients with chronic hepatitis B

      Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

      郝菁华; 石军; 任万华; 韩国庆; 朱菊人; 王书运; 谢英渤

      2002-01-01

      Objective To document morphological changes in hepatic microcirculation in liver tissue with hepatitis B and the pathogenesis of hepatic microcirculatory disturbances. Methods Liver tissue samples were obtained from patients with hepatitis B by liver biopsy. These samples were examined with a light microscope and transmission electron microscope. Results Hepatic microcirculatory disturbances existed in patients with hepatitis B, including those with normal liver function, manifested by red blood cell aggregation in sinusoids seen under light microscope and sinusoidal capillarization seen under electron microscope. Weibel-Palade bodies in sinusoidal endothelial cells were seen in 26 out of 53 cases. Intimate contacts were found between lymphocyte/Kupffer cells and sinusoidal endothelial cells. Conclusions Hepatic microcirculatory disturbances exist in patients with hepatitis B .The appearance of Weibel-Palade bodies in sinusoidal endothelial cells may be a key step in the development of hepatic microcirculatory disturbances.

    • Minimal hepatic encephalopathy.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Zamora Nava, Luis Eduardo; Torre Delgadillo, Aldo

      2011-06-01

      The term minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) refers to the subtle changes in cognitive function, electrophysiological parameters, cerebral neurochemical/neurotransmitter homeostasis, cerebral blood flow, metabolism, and fluid homeostasis that can be observed in patients with cirrhosis who have no clinical evidence of hepatic encephalopathy; the prevalence is as high as 84% in patients with hepatic cirrhosis. Physician does generally not perceive cirrhosis complications, and neuropsychological tests and another especial measurement like evoked potentials and image studies like positron emission tomography can only make diagnosis. Diagnosis of minimal hepatic encephalopathy may have prognostic and therapeutic implications in cirrhotic patients. The present review pretends to explore the clinic, therapeutic, diagnosis and prognostic aspects of this complication.

    • Hepatitis A - children

      Science.gov (United States)

      ... fulminant hepatitis (liver failure) is rare in healthy children. The symptoms are often easy to manage and include: Dark urine Tiredness Loss of appetite Fever Nausea and vomiting Pale stools Abdominal pain ( ...

  1. Human hereditary hepatic porphyrias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordmann, Yves; Puy, Hervé

    2002-11-01

    The human hereditary hepatic porphyrias are diseases due to marked deficiencies of enzymes in the heme biosynthetic pathway. Porphyrias can be classified as either hepatic or erythroid, depending on the major production site of porphyrins or their precursors. The pathogenesis of inherited hepatic porphyrias has now been defined at the molecular level. Some gene carriers are vulnerable to a range of exogenous and endogenous factors, which may trigger neuropsychiatric and/or cutaneous symptoms. Early diagnosis is of prime importance since it makes way for counselling. In this article we present an overview of recent advances on hepatic porphyrias: 5-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase deficiency porphyria, acute intermittent porphyria (AIP), porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT), hereditary coproporphyria (HC), and variegate porphyria (VP).

  2. Imaging of hepatic infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, D.J. [Department of Medical Imaging, University Health Network and Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont. (Canada)]. E-mail: doyledj@hotmail.com; Hanbidge, A.E. [Department of Medical Imaging, University Health Network and Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont. (Canada); O' Malley, M.E. [Department of Medical Imaging, University Health Network and Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont. (Canada)

    2006-09-15

    Imaging plays a significant role in the detection, characterization and treatment of hepatic infections. Infectious diseases of the liver include pyogenic and amoebic abscesses and parasitic, fungal, viral and granulomatous infections. With increases in worldwide travel, immunosuppression and changing population demographics, identification of cases of hepatic infection is becoming more common in daily practice. Knowledge of the imaging features seen with hepatic infections can assist in early diagnosis and timely initiation of appropriate therapy. This review presents the imaging appearances of hepatic infections, emphasizing specific features that may contribute to the diagnosis. Examples of the imaging findings seen with pyogenic and amoebic abscesses, infection with Echinococcus granulosus (Hydatid), schistosomiasis, candidiasis and tuberculosis (TB) are presented.

  3. Aggressive hepatitis (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic active hepatitis is a liver disease caused by infection, drug ingestion, metabolic or autoimmune disorders. Necrosis (death) of liver cells, inflammation and fibrosis may lead to liver failure. Death within 5 years of onset occurs in ...

  4. Pentoxifylline for alcoholic hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitfield, Kate; Rambaldi, Andrea; Wetterslev, Jørn

    2009-01-01

    -cause mortality and mortality due to hepatorenal syndrome, and conversely, an increase in serious and non-serious adverse events. However, the evidence is not firm; no conclusions can be drawn regarding whether pentoxifylline has a positive, negative, or neutral effect on participants with alcoholic hepatitis....... analysis did not support this result. Data from one trial suggests that pentoxifylline may increase the occurrence of serious and non-serious adverse events compared to control. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The current available data may indicate a possible positive intervention effect of pentoxifylline on all......BACKGROUND: Alcoholic hepatitis is a life-threatening disease, with an average mortality of approximately 40%. There is no widely accepted, effective treatment for alcoholic hepatitis. Pentoxifylline is used to treat alcoholic hepatitis, but there has been no systematic review to assess its effects...

  5. Hepatitis C - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sexual contact with a person with HCV Getting tattoos or acupuncture therapy with infected needles Hepatitis C ... for chronic HCV. These medicines: Have fewer side effects Are easier to take Are taken by mouth ...

  6. Alcohol and Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... code here Enter ZIP code here Daily Living: Alcohol for Veterans and the Public Alcohol and Hepatitis: Entire Lesson Overview Alcohol is one ... related to choices you make about your lifestyle . Alcohol and fibrosis Fibrosis is the medical term for ...

  7. Hepatitis C and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Emma E; Nelson, Mark

    2016-04-01

    An outbreak of acute hepatitis C among HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) in the last decade has been shown to be sexually transmitted. Initially recreational drug use, in particular drug injection, was not prevalent among those becoming infected with hepatitis C. However more recently chemsex (the use of drugs to enhance sexual experience) and its associated drugs, which are not uncommonly injected, have become more frequently reported among those diagnosed with hepatitis C. It is hoped that the widespread -introduction of direct-acting antivirals and upscaling of numbers treated may have a positive impact on this epidemic. However their introduction may negatively impact on the perceived risk of acquiring hepatitis C and in conjunction with the introduction of HIV transmission prevention strategies may result in increased transmissions and spread to the HIV-negative MSM population.

  8. [HEPATIC HYDATIC CYST ASSOCIATED WITH PORTAL HYPERTENSION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustíos, S Carla; Uribe, M Rosario; Vargas, C Gloria; Myurí, B Corina

    1999-01-01

    We report the case of a 26-year-old woman from Cerro of Pasco - Per , with hydatid cyst in the liver associated with portal hypertension. We know that the echinococcosis in the liver is usually asymptomatic, although can produce clinical features that depend of the size and localization in the liver. The clinical, radiological and endoscopic findings are presented, due to the uncommon presentation and the few cases reported in the literature about this asociation

  9. Hepatitis C pada Anak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusri Dianne Jurnalis

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakInfeksi virus hepatitis C saat ini masih merupakan persoalan yang serius. Penularan infeksi HCV pada anak yang utama adalah melalui transfusi darah atau produk darah yang saat ini bertanggung jawab menyebabkan kasus hepatitis C kronis. Selain itu infeksi HCV pada anak dapat disebabkan oleh transmisi perinatal (vertikal. Infeksi HCV akut dapat berakhir dengan sirosis dan karsinoma hepatoselular setelah dekade ketiga (sekitar 20%, karena progresivitas infeksi HCV lebih lambat dari infeksi hepatitis B virus. Pada umumnya infeksi HCV bersifat asimptomatik termasuk pada anak. Karena tidak ada gejala yang jelas pada infeksi HCV tersebut maka diagnosis infeksi HCV hanya dapat ditegakkan dengan pemeriksaan awal laboratorium dan uji serologi, dan bila perlu dengan uji molekuler pada pasien dengan risiko tinggi. Kebijakan kuratif khusus terhadap HCV adalah terapi antivirus berupa interferon dan ribavirin yang diberikan bila diagnosis HCV sudah ditegakkanKata kunci: Hepatitis C, diagnosis and management problem, childrenAbstractHepatitis C virus infection is still a serious problem. Transmission of HCV infection in children is a major blood transfusion or blood products that are currently responsible for causing chronic hepatitis C cases. Additionally HCV infection in children can be caused by perinatal transmission (vertical. Acute HCV infection may end up with cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma after the third decade (around 20%, due to a slower progression of HCV infection of hepatitis B virus infection. In most cases of HCV infection are asymptomatic, including in children. Since there are no obvious symptoms in the diagnosis of HCV infection HCV infection can only be confirmed by laboratory examinations and serologic testing early, and if necessary with molecular testing in patients at high risk. Curative policy is specific to HCV antiviral therapy such as interferon and ribavirin are given when the diagnosis of HCV has been establishedKeywords:Hepatitis

  10. Immigration and viral hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Suraj; Carballo, Manuel; Feld, Jordan J; Janssen, Harry L A

    2015-08-01

    WHO estimates reveal that the global prevalence of viral hepatitis may be as high as 500 million, with an annual mortality rate of up to 1.3 million individuals. The majority of this global burden of disease is borne by nations of the developing world with high rates of vertical and iatrogenic transmission of HBV and HCV, as well as poor access to healthcare. In 2013, 3.2% of the global population (231 million individuals) migrated into a new host nation. Migrants predominantly originate from the developing countries of the south, into the developed economies of North America and Western Europe. This mass migration of individuals from areas of high-prevalence of viral hepatitis poses a unique challenge to the healthcare systems of the host nations. Due to a lack of universal standards for screening, vaccination and treatment of viral hepatitis, the burden of chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma continues to increase among migrant populations globally. Efforts to increase case identification and treatment among migrants have largely been limited to small outreach programs in urban centers, such that the majority of migrants with viral hepatitis continue to remain unaware of their infection. This review summarizes the data on prevalence of viral hepatitis and burden of chronic liver disease among migrants, current standards for screening and treatment of immigrants and refugees, and efforts to improve the identification and treatment of viral hepatitis among migrants.

  11. FELINE HEPATIC LIPIDOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Masotti

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Since the first description of feline hepatic lipidosis occurred in 1977, it becames the most diagnosed liver disease in cats. Several factors have been proposed as causes of disease, and obesity being a predisposing factor. The disease can be considered primary or idiopathic when its underlying cause is unknown, or secondary when there is another concomitant disease lipidosis. Cats with hepatic lipidosis have anorexia usually ranging from several days to weeks and weight loss, followed by jaundice and varying degrees of dehydration, diarrhea and vomiting episodes may occur. A worsening of the disease shows signs of hepatic encephalopathy, drooling and retroflexion of the neck. In clinical examination can be observed depression, lethargy and hepatomegaly. The definitive diagnosis of the disease can be performed by fine needle aspiration biopsy guided by ultrasound and cytology or biopsy. The treatment of hepatic lipidosis is based on stabilizing the patient by supplying water and electrolyte losses and provide adequate nutritional support. The diet is usually provided through feeding tubes for a period ranging from 4 to 6 weeks may occur depending on the patient's condition. The prognosis for cats with hepatic lipidosis is favored in cases of identification followed by intensive treatment of underlying causes and for patients receiving therapy necessary in cases of idiopathic hepatic lipidosis.

  12. Hepatitis B FAQs for the Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Professional Resources Patient Education Resources Quick Links to Hepatitis … A | B | C | D | E Viral Hepatitis Home ... Grantees Policy and Programs Resource Center Viral Hepatitis Hepatitis B FAQs for the Public Recommend on Facebook ...

  13. Hepatic manifestations of celiac disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh James Freeman

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Hugh James FreemanDepartment of Medicine (Gastroenterology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, CanadaAbstract: Different hepatic and biliary tract disorders may occur with celiac disease. Some have been hypothesized to share genetic or immunopathogenetic factors, such as primary biliary cirrhosis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, and autoimmune hepatitis. Other hepatic changes in celiac disease may occur with malnutrition resulting from impaired nutrient absorption, including hepatic steatosis. In addition, celiac disease may be associated with rare hepatic complications, such as hepatic T-cell lymphoma.Keywords: celiac disease, autoimmune liver disease, primary biliary cirrhosis, fatty liver, gluten-free diet

  14. Epidemiology of Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C Virus infections among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus infection are common in Nigeria; where they ... the epidemiology of HBV and HCV infection among HIV Counseling and Testing (HCT) ... Clients who declined to sign the consent form were excluded.

  15. Surveillance for Viral Hepatitis - United States, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Programs Resource Center Viral Hepatitis Surveillance for Viral Hepatitis – United States, 2014 Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... Cases Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Discussion Hepatitis A virus Index PAGE DESCRIPTION Table 2.1 Reported ...

  16. Viral kinetics of the Hepatitis C virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.C. Bekkering (Frank)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractHepatitis A virus and hepatitis B virus were identified as the cause of infectious hepatitis and serum hepatitis respectively in the beginning of the seventies. After introduction of screening tests for hepatitis A and B 4 only 25% of the cases of post transfusion hepatitis were found to

  17. Viral kinetics of the Hepatitis C virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.C. Bekkering (Frank)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractHepatitis A virus and hepatitis B virus were identified as the cause of infectious hepatitis and serum hepatitis respectively in the beginning of the seventies. After introduction of screening tests for hepatitis A and B 4 only 25% of the cases of post transfusion hepatitis were found to

  18. HIV, Hepatitis B, and Hepatitis C in Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Kenneth C Kapembwa; GOLDMAN, Jason D.; Shabir Lakhi; Yolan Banda; Kasonde Bowa; Vermund, Sten H.; Joseph Mulenga; David Chama; Chi, Benjamin H.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives : Epidemiologic data of HIV and viral hepatitis coinfection are needed in sub-Saharan Africa to guide health policy for hepatitis screening and optimized antiretroviral therapy (ART). Materials and Methods: We screened 323 HIV-infected, ART-eligible adults for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and hepatitis C antibody (HCV Ab) at a tertiary hospital in Lusaka, Zambia. We collected basic demographic, medical, and laboratory data to determine predictors for coinfection. Results: Of...

  19. Detection of hydatid-specific antibodies in the serum and urine for the diagnosis of cystic echinococcosis in patients from the Kashmir Valley, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirag, S; Fomda, B A; Khan, A; Malik, A A; Lone, G N; Khan, B A; Zahoor, D

    2015-03-01

    Serological diagnosis of cystic echinococcosis (CE) is usually made by detecting specific antibodies in serum samples. However, collection of blood samples is difficult and may be hazardous and unsafe. Thus, it is important to assess alternative simple methods of sampling body fluids that give similar results. Saliva and urine have been suggested as possible alternatives to detect specific antibodies for the diagnosis of various diseases. To the best of our knowledge, there has been no previously published study regarding the detection of CE-specific immunoglobulin (Ig) G subclass antibodies (IgG1-4) in urine. Therefore, the present study was designed to assess the value of hydatid-specific antibodies of IgG, IgM, IgE and IgG subclass in urine and serum samples for the diagnosis of CE. Serum and urine samples of 41 surgically confirmed patients of CE, 40 patients with other diseases and 16 healthy subjects were included in the study. CE-specific total IgG, IgE and IgG4 in sera and total IgG, IgG4 and IgG1 in the urine of CE patients were the most important specific antibodies for the diagnosis of CE. However, total IgG usually persists for an extended period and has a very high cross-reactivity. The diagnostic sensitivity of hydatid-specific IgM in serum and urine samples was very low and therefore cannot be used as a diagnostic marker. There was no significant difference between IgG1 and IgG4 in serum and urine and both showed the best correlation for the diagnosis of CE. These considerations suggest that detection of antibodies in urine could provide a new approach in the diagnosis of CE.

  20. Cystic echinococcosis in the Province of Álava, North Spain: the monetary burden of a disease no longer under surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carabin, Hélène; Balsera-Rodríguez, Francisco J; Rebollar-Sáenz, José; Benner, Christine T; Benito, Aitziber; Fernández-Crespo, Juan C; Carmena, David

    2014-08-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is endemic in Spain but has been considered non-endemic in the province of Álava, Northern Spain, since 1997. However, Álava is surrounded by autonomous regions with some of the highest CE prevalence proportions in the nation, casting doubts about the current classification. The purpose of this study is to estimate the frequency of CE in humans and animals and to use this data to determine the societal cost incurred due to CE in the Álava population in 2005. We have identified epidemiological and clinical data from surveillance and hospital records, prevalence data in intermediate (sheep and cattle) host species from abattoir records, and economical data from national and regional official institutions. Direct costs (diagnosis, treatment, medical care in humans and condemnation of offal in livestock species) and indirect costs (productivity losses in humans and reduction in growth, fecundity and milk production in livestock) were modelled using the Latin hypercube method under five different scenarios reflecting different assumptions regarding the prevalence of asymptomatic cases and associated productivity losses in humans. A total of 13 human CE cases were reported in 2005. The median total cost (95% credible interval) of CE in humans and animals in Álava in 2005 was estimated to range between €61,864 (95%CI%: €47,304-€76,590) and €360,466 (95%CI: €76,424-€752,469), with human-associated losses ranging from 57% to 93% of the total losses, depending on the scenario used. Our data provide evidence that CE is still very well present in Álava and incurs important cost to the province every year. We expect this information to prove valuable for public health agencies and policy-makers, as it seems advisable to reinstate appropriate surveillance and monitoring systems and to implement effective control measures that avoid the spread and recrudescence of the disease.

  1. CT and MRI features and diagnosis of alveolar echinococcosis of the brain%脑泡状棘球蚴病CT和MRI表现及诊断

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张锦烜; 任月玲; 王磊; 古丽孜拉; 张克云; 关伟锋

    2010-01-01

    Objective To summarize the CT and MRI imaging characteristics of alveolar echinococcosis of the brain and evaluate these techniques in its diagnosis. Methods A retrospective analysis of spiral CT imaging findings was performed in 17 cases of alveolar echinococcosis of the brain, in which the diagnosis was confirmed by operative pathologic evaluation and clinical follow up. In each case,the number, site, shape, margin, size, density and surrounding edema were evaluated for each lesion.Results CT demonstrated a single lesion in 6 cases, and multiple lesions in 11 cases. There were 66. 6%(34/51 ) of the lesions located in the frontal and parietal lobes, and 73. 1% (37/51 ) located in the cerebral cortex area. The size of lesions ranged from 0. 5 to 5.0 cm, and 86. 3% (44/51) showed nodular or mass lesion with high density or slight high density and indistinct "fuzzy" edges. Larger lesions showed ring shape with thick mural enhancement after contrast enhancement while smaller ones showed nodular shape. The majority of lesions showed slightly high signal intensity on T1 WI. T2 WI and FLAIR showed homogeneous or homogeneous low signal intensity with the shape of a"black hole" or "briquette". MRI and CT image findings were similar for these lesions after contrast enhancement, but MRI showed better contrast than CT after enhancement. The space occupying effect of these lesions with surrounding edema was remarkable, and "set off by contrast effect" features were observed on CT. Simultaneous demonstration of echinococcal lesions in the liver, brain and lung ( the "triple sign" ) was found in 70. 6% ( 12/17 ) of cases. When CT and MR images were combined, the gray scale of contrast gradient for echinococcal brain lesions showed" two equal grade and/or two higher two lower" features. Conclusions CT and MRI findings in cases of alveolar echinococcosis of the brain are relatively characteristic. Comprehensive evaluation with both CT and MRI scans can be a valuable tool for the

  2. 骶骨包虫病的临床诊断及治疗分析%DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF SACRUM ECHINOCOCCOSIS DISEASE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建军; 宋兴华; 谢纪宝; 折胜利; 侯国柱; 陈江涛

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the clinical characteristics of sacrum echinococcosis disease so as to provide a basis for its diagnosis and treatment. Methods Between July 1999 and August 2010, 14 cases of sacrum echinococcosis disease were treated and the clinical data were analysed retrospectively. There were 6 males and 8 females with an average age of 28.7 years (range,16-58 years). The median disease duration was 5.7 years (range, 6 months to 11 years). Twelve cases came from cattle area or had a history of dose contact with dogs and sheep; 12 patients had a history of lung or liver hydatid disease. The main clinical symptoms were lumbosacral and lower extremity pain, one or both lower extremities and perineal hypoesthesia, the gradual dysfunction of both lower extremities and neurogenic bladder and bowel, and decreased force of urination. The imaging examination showed multicystic bone erosion. The Casoni test was performed in 10 cases and the results were positive in 8 cases. The eight immunoserology markers of hydatidosis were detected in 4 cases, and the results were all positive. After entire debridement of the focus, defects were repaired with autogenous bone, allogeneic bone, artificial bone, or bone cement, and then albendazole was used as a routine treatment for 3 months. Results Incisions healed by first intention, and no complication occurred. All patients were followed up 6 months to 11 years with a median time of 5.7 years. The preoperative clinical symptoms were relieved. Eight cases recurred at 6 months to 3 years after operation; after debridement (3 times in 5 and 5 times in 1) and the lesions marginal resection with a high-speed burr (2 cases), the symptoms were relieved in different degrees without recurrence. No hydatid disease occurred and spreaded. Condusion The clinical manifestation of sacrum is not typical, which is easy to be misdiagnosed. MRI is helpful to diagnosis sacrum echinococcosis disease; serological examination is the major method of

  3. Viral Hepatitis: Information for Gay and Bisexual Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Gay and Bisexual Men What is viral hepatitis? Viral hepatitis is an infection of the liver caused by ... the United States, the most common types of viral hepatitis are Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B, and Hepatitis C. ...

  4. Mavyret Approved for Hepatitis C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news/fullstory_167618.html Mavyret Approved for Hepatitis C A chronic viral infection of the liver To ... treat adults with certain types of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV). The combination drug is the first ...

  5. FastStats: Viral Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Viral Hepatitis Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data are for the U.S. Morbidity Number of new hepatitis A cases: 1,781 (2013) Number of new ...

  6. Nitazoxanide for chronic hepatitis C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolova, Kristiana; Gluud, Christian; Grevstad, Berit

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C infection is a disease of the liver caused by the hepatitis C virus. The estimated number of chronically infected people with hepatitis C virus worldwide is about 150 million people. Every year, another three to four million people acquire the infection. Chronic hepatitis C......) and ribavirin was the approved standard treatment for chronic hepatitis C. In 2011, first-generation direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) have been licensed, for use in combination with peginterferon and ribavirin for treating hepatitis C virus genotype 1 infection. Nitazoxanide is another antiviral drug with broad...... antiviral activity and may have potential as an effective alternative, or an addition to standard treatment for the treatment of the hepatitis C virus. OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of nitazoxanide in people with chronic hepatitis C virus infection. SEARCH METHODS: We searched The Cochrane...

  7. Bile acids for viral hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Weikeng; Liu, J; Gluud, C

    2007-01-01

    Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus has been reached regarding their usefulness.......Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus has been reached regarding their usefulness....

  8. Pregnancy with autoimmune hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, António Costa; Vasconcelos, Carlos; Braga, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to review our experience with gestations in autoimmune hepatitis patients. Background: There are only limited data describing pregnancy in patients with autoimmune hepatitis. Patients and methods: Retrospective analysis of pregnancies with autoimmune hepatitis followed in Centro Hospitalar do Porto, Portugal in the last ten years. Results: We reported nine pregnancies in seven patients with autoimmune hepatitis. Two patients had documented liver cirrhosis prior to the pregnancy. In this study, 66.7% of patients were treated with azathioprine and 88.9% with prednisolone. Clinical improvements were observed in 11.1% of pregnancies and 22.2% exacerbations were diagnosed. There were six live births and two preterm deliveries (preterm delivery rate of 33%). We also report three first trimester miscarriages (early gestation miscarriage rate of 33%). There were no neonatal or maternal deaths. Conclusion: The favorable obstetric outcome is a realistic expectation in patients with autoimmune hepatitis. Tight monitoring and control of asymptomatic and unpredictable exacerbations, which are unrelated to the severity of the underlying disease, are essential to the prognosis of the current pregnancy. PMID:27458515

  9. Hepatitis in the United States

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-05-18

    In this podcast, Dr. John Ward, Director of CDC’s Division of Viral Hepatitis, discusses the different types of viral hepatitis and how they can be prevented. He also describes how hepatitis is transmitted and treated.  Created: 5/18/2010 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 5/18/2010.

  10. Hepatitis Awareness Month PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-05-11

    May is National Hepatitis Awareness Month. This 30 second PSA discusses hepatitis and encourages listners to talk to their health care professional about getting tested.  Created: 5/11/2011 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention.   Date Released: 5/11/2011.

  11. Primary hepatic carcinoid tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Jinbo

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Primary hepatic carcinoid tumor is rare and poses a challenge for diagnosis and management. We presented a case of primary hepatic carcinoid tumor in a 53-year-old female with a complaint of right upper abdominal pain. Computer tomography scans revealed a hypervascular mass in segment 4 of the liver. An ultrasonography-guided biopsy showed a carcinoid tumor. No other lesions were found by the radiological investigations. Surgery resection was performed and histopathological examination revealed a primary hepatic carcinoid tumor. Three years later, recurrence was found and transcatheter arterial chemoembolization was performed. After transcatheter arterial chemoembolization, the patient has been free of symptom and had no radiological disease progression for over 6 months. Surgical resection combination with transcatheter arterial chemoembolization is effective to offer excellent palliation.

  12. [Hepatitis E as zoonosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann-Popczyk, Anna

    2011-01-01

    The hepatitis E virus (HEV) the causative agent of hepatitis E, is a non-enveloped RNA virus. HEV is transmitted through oral consumption of contaminated food and water According to the currently knowledge now be considered as zoonosis. The main reservoir of HEV are pigs, boars and deer. For the first time HEV was isolated from animals (pigs) in 1997 in the U.S. Genetic analysis of strains isolated from pigs showed high similarity to strains HEV isolated from humans. This was the first evidence showing that HEV is a zoonosis. Further studies have shown that occupational groups e.g. veterinarians, swine breeders with close contact to pigs have an increased risk for HEV infections. The additional evidence supported the zoonotic potential of HEV were reports of acute hepatitis E after the consumption of undercooked meat from deer and wild boar. Infection of HEV in the domestic pig and wild boar population in Europe is widespread.

  13. Hepatitis viral aguda

    OpenAIRE

    Héctor Rubén Hernández Garcés; René F Espinosa Álvarez

    1998-01-01

    Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica de las hepatitis virales agudas sobre aspectos vinculados a su etiología. Se tuvieron en cuenta además algunos datos epidemiológicos, las formas clínicas más importantes, los exámenes complementarios con especial énfasis en los marcadores virales y el diagnóstico positivoA bibliographical review of acute viral hepatitis was made taking into account those aspects connected with its etiology. Some epidemiological markers, the most important clinical forms, ...

  14. Hepatitis C in India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ashis Mukhopadhya

    2008-11-01

    Hepatitis C is an emerging infection in India and an important pathogen causing liver disease in India. The high risk of chronicity of this blood-borne infection and its association with hepatocellular carcinoma underscores its public health importance. Blood transfusion and unsafe therapeutic interventions by infected needles are two preventable modalities of spread of hepatitis C infection. In addition, risk factor modification by reducing the number of intravenous drug users will help curtail the prevalence of this infection. This review summarizes the extent, nature and implications of this relatively new pathogen in causing disease in India.

  15. Themenheft 15 "Hepatitis C"

    OpenAIRE

    Schreier, Eckart; Radun, Doris; Neuhauser, Hannelore; Stark, Klaus

    2003-01-01

    Die Hepatitis C, die durch ein auf dem Blutweg übertragenes Virus verursacht wird, hat weltweit eine große medizinische, epidemiologische und gesundheitsökonomische Bedeutung. Die Infektion mit dem Hepatitis-C-Virus (HCV) verläuft in 60 bis 80 Prozent der Fälle chronisch und kann zu schwerwiegenden Folgeerkrankungen wie Leberzirrhose und Leberzellkarzinom führen. In Deutschland leben schätzungsweise 400.000 bis 500.000 Menschen mit einer chronischen HCV-Infektion.

  16. [Recent acquisitions on viral hepatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resti, M; Tucci, F; Vierucci, A

    1990-01-01

    In the last years the research on viral hepatitis let to better understand the biological, molecular, immunological and epidemiologic characteristics of the viruses that are responsible for hepatitis. The first studied virus was hepatitis B virus (HBv). The scientific attention is still, today, focused on that virus since new markers of infectivity and biological importance in early diagnosis and in disease evolution have been found. The most important result in the last years in the field of viral hepatitis has been, however, the identification of agents responsible for Non-A-Non-B hepatitis. Its epidemiology and clinical importance are discussed in the present paper. Virus C is the most important parenteral agent of NANB hepatitis. Its epidemiology in at risk populations and its role in post-transfusional and cryptogenetic hepatitis are here discussed. The research of new markers of HCV infection is today considered a main goal since the role of the only marker now available is still under discussion.

  17. [The pathology of hepatitis C].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaff, Zsuzsa; Gógl, Alíz; Dóra, Réka; Halász, Tünde

    2015-05-24

    The hepatitis C virus is an RNA virus, which belongs to the genus Hepaciviruses of the family Flaviviridae. Chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and ultimately even liver cancer may develop in over 80% of infected cases. The histological features of hepatitis C and hepatitis caused by other hepatotropic viruses show many similarities, however, certain specific histological characteristics are observable. Accordingly, intense lymphocytic infiltration around the periportal areas, steatosis and biliary alterations are frequent findings. Further characteristics of hepatitis C include liver cell destruction (apoptosis, necrosis), periportal inflammation and fibrosis, the degrees of which can be determined by means of the histology activity index. Our knowledge on the hepatitis C virus genome and the mechanism of replication of the virus have established the use of modern, direct-acting antivirals in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C.

  18. Cutaneous manifestations of viral hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhter, Ahmed; Said, Adnan

    2015-02-01

    There are several extrahepatic cutaneous manifestations associated with hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus infection. Serum sickness and polyarteritis nodosa are predominantly associated with hepatitis B infection, whereas mixed cryoglobulinemia associated vasculitis and porphyria cutanea tarda are more frequently seen in hepatitis C infection. The clinico-pathogenic associations of these skin conditions are not completely defined but appear to involve activation of the host immune system including the complement system. Management of the aforementioned cutaneous manifestations of viral hepatitis is often similar to that done in cases without viral hepatitis, with control of immune activation being a key strategy. In cases associated with hepatitis B and C, control of viral replication with specific antiviral therapy is also important and associated with improvement in most of the associated clinical manifestations.

  19. Management of Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Wright

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic encephalopathy (HE, the neuropsychiatric presentation of liver disease, is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Reduction of plasma ammonia remains the central therapeutic strategy, but there is a need for newer novel therapies. We discuss current evidence supporting the use of interventions for both the general management of chronic HE and that necessary for more acute and advanced disease.

  20. Immigration and viral hepatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Sharma (Suraj); M. Carballo (Manuel); J.J. Feld (Jordan J.); H.L.A. Janssen (Harry)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractWHO estimates reveal that the global prevalence of viral hepatitis may be as high as 500 million, with an annual mortality rate of up to 1.3 million individuals. The majority of this global burden of disease is borne by nations of the developing world with high rates of vertical and

  1. Azathioprine induced cholestatic hepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viju Moses

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of cholestatic hepatitis developed one week after exposure to azathioprine. The subsequent prolonged cholestatic phase was followed by full clinical remission. Current knowledge on pathogenesis and epidemiology and the diagnostic challenges presented by this rare complication are discussed, followed by recommendations for monitoring and management.

  2. Hepatic steatosis : metabolic consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, Adriana Maria den

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis we focused on the causes and consequences of hepatic steatosis. Epidemiological studies in humans, as well as experimental studies in animal models, have shown an association between visceral obesity and dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The mechanism

  3. Hepatic steatosis : metabolic consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, Adriana Maria den

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis we focused on the causes and consequences of hepatic steatosis. Epidemiological studies in humans, as well as experimental studies in animal models, have shown an association between visceral obesity and dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The mechanism unde

  4. Epidemic Analysis of Echinococcosis in Ganzi Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture of Sichuan Province from 2006 to 2011%2006-2011年四川省甘孜州棘球蚴病疫情分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许光荣; 张丽杰; 曾光

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解四川省甘孜州棘球蚴病流行病学特点,为改进棘球蚴病防控策略提供科学依据. 方法 使用SPSS19.0和Epi inf03.5软件,对中国疾病监测信息报告管理系统中2006-2011年四川省甘孜藏族自治州棘球蚴病疫情数据和监测数据进行描述性流行病学分析. 结果 2006-2011年累计报告病例8 939例,累计患病率818.7/10万,其中牧民占88.9%(7 949/8 939);全州18个县均有病例报告,病例分布乡镇占总乡镇的66.8% (217/325),以牧区和半农半牧区为主,石渠、色达2个牧业县报告病例占总病例数的84.3%(7 535/8 939);最小年龄1岁,最大99岁,平均年龄41岁,20-60年龄组占84.3% (7 534/8 939);男女性别比为1∶1.19,女性患病率明显高于男性(P<0.01);2011年儿童血清学阳性率3.0%(126/4 231)及牲畜内脏棘球蚴病阳性率11.1% (496/4465)较2007年4.2%(395/9 413)、13.9% (906/6496)均有所下降(P<0.01),2011年犬粪抗原阳性率21.9%(3 532/16 099)与2007年阳性率21.8% (826/3 791)差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 四川省甘孜州的棘球蚴病流行依然严重,须进一步加大综合防控力度,以减轻和遏制棘球蚴病的危害.%Objective To provide scientific evidence for further improving of the prevention and control strategies for echinococcosis in Ganzi Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture,Sichuan Province,according to the epidemiological characteristics of echinococcosis surveyed in this prefecture.Methods Data of echinococcosis cases and surveillance information of Ganzi Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture from 2006 to 2011 were downloaded from the National Infectious Diseases Reporting System,and statistically analyzed by using SPSS 19.0 and Epi info3.5 software.Results A total of 8939 echinococcosis cases was reported during the observed period,the prevalence rate was 818.7/100000,and 88.9% of the patients were herdsmen.Cases distributed in all the 18 counties and counted for 66.8% (217

  5. Hepatitis B immunisation for newborn infants of hepatitis B surface antigen-positive mothers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, C; Gong, Yanzhang; Brok, J

    2006-01-01

    Hepatitis B vaccine and hepatitis B immunoglobulin are considered for newborn infants of HBsAg-positive mothers to prevent hepatitis B infection.......Hepatitis B vaccine and hepatitis B immunoglobulin are considered for newborn infants of HBsAg-positive mothers to prevent hepatitis B infection....

  6. Characteristics of hepatitis viruses among Egyptian children with acute hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Ahmed; Yano, Yoshihiko; El-Sayed Zaki, Maysaa; Utsumi, Takako; Hayashi, Yoshitake

    2013-04-01

    Hepatitis viral infection is hyperendemic in Egypt, western Asia and Africa. However, little is known about the status of hepatitis viruses among rural Egyptian children. Therefore, this study sought to examine the prevalence and characteristics of hepatitis viruses among symptomatic Egyptian children. Serological and molecular analyses of hepatitis viral infection were conducted in 33 children hospitalised at Mansoura University with symptomatic hepatic dysfunction (mean ± standard deviation age, 9.7±3.4 years; alanine aminotransferase level, 130±68 IU/ml). Eleven children (33%) were positive for anti-haemagglutination-IgM and were diagnosed with acute hepatitis A. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and anti‑hepatitis C virus (HCV) were detected in 9 (27%) and 7 (21%) children, respectively, indicating acute-on-chronic infection with hepatitis viruses. None of the children was positive for anti‑hepatitis B core antigen-IgM. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that all HBVs belonged to genotype D (subgenotype D1) and that HCV belonged to genotypes 4a and 1g. HBV-DNA was detected in 9 children (27%) in the pre-S/S region and in 16 children (48%) in the core promoter/precore region. The Y134F amino acid mutation in the 'α' determinant region was detected in all of the patients. The A1762T/G1764A double mutation, and the T1846A and G1896A single mutations were common in children with occult HBV infection. In conclusion, hepatitis viral infection, including acute-on-chronic infection with HCV and HBV, is common in Egyptian children hospitalised with acute hepatitis.

  7. Fulminant hepatic failure secondary to primary hepatic angiosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abegunde, Ayokunle T; Aisien, Efe; Mba, Benjamin; Chennuri, Rohini; Sekosan, Marin

    2015-01-01

    Background. Hepatic angiosarcoma is a rare and aggressive tumor that often presents at an advanced stage with nonspecific symptoms. Objective. To report a case of primary hepatic angiosarcoma in an otherwise healthy man with normal liver function tests two months prior to presenting with a short period of jaundice that progressed to fulminant hepatic failure. Methods. Case report and review of literature. Conclusion. This case illustrates the rapidity of progression to death after the onset of symptoms in a patient with hepatic angiosarcoma. Research on early diagnostic strategies and newer therapies are needed to improve prognosis in this rare and poorly understood malignancy with limited treatment options.

  8. Occult hepatitis B among Iranian hepatitis C patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad shavakhi

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available

    • BACKGROUND: Occult hepatitis B is defined as presence of HBV DNA in tissue or serum without hepatitis B surface antigen. The aim of this study is to determine frequency of occult hepatitis B among hepatitis C patients in Tehran and compare the route of transmission and liver enzymes between positive and negative HBV DNA patients.
    • METHODS: In a cross sectional study, serum of 103 hepatitis C cases (79.6% men and 20.4% women were analyzed for s, x and core genes via a nested polymerase chain reaction technique.
    • RESULTS: HBV DNA was detectable in serum of 20 patients (19.4%. No significant difference in age, sex and route of transmission were seen in HBV DNA positive and negative patients. In HBV DNA positive and negative groups, mean of AST was 73, 47 (p < 0.05 and mean of ALT was 76 and 36 respectively (p < 0.05.
    • CONCLUSION: Occult hepatitis B was observed in a considerable number of hepatitis C patients in Tehran. It was associated with elevation in liver enzyme but was not related to route of transmission.
    • KEY WORD: Occult hepatitis B, hepatitis C, cirrhosis.

  9. Fulminant Hepatic Failure Secondary to Primary Hepatic Angiosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayokunle T. Abegunde

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hepatic angiosarcoma is a rare and aggressive tumor that often presents at an advanced stage with nonspecific symptoms. Objective. To report a case of primary hepatic angiosarcoma in an otherwise healthy man with normal liver function tests two months prior to presenting with a short period of jaundice that progressed to fulminant hepatic failure. Methods. Case report and review of literature. Conclusion. This case illustrates the rapidity of progression to death after the onset of symptoms in a patient with hepatic angiosarcoma. Research on early diagnostic strategies and newer therapies are needed to improve prognosis in this rare and poorly understood malignancy with limited treatment options.

  10. Acute hepatitis with nontyphoidal salmonella and hepatitis E virus coinfection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ting Kuo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A 65-year-old Taiwanese man presented with dark urine for 5 days before admission to hospital and with fever on the 2nd day of admission to hospital. Laboratory studies showed acute hepatitis with hyperbilirubinemia. Acute hepatitis with nontyphoidal salmonella and hepatitis E virus coinfection was diagnosed. The fever subsided after treatment with ceftriaxone and cefepime. His serum bilirubin reached its peak value on the 3rd week after admission to hospital and then gradually returned to the normal range. To the best of our knowledge, acute hepatitis E coinfection with nontyphoidal salmonella has not been reported previously.

  11. Primary hepatic sarcomas: CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Ri-Sheng; Chen, Ying; Jiang, Biao; Wang, Liu-Hong [Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Hangzhou (China); Xu, Xiu-Fang [Zhejiang Medical College, Teaching and Research Group of Radiology, Hangzhou (China)

    2008-10-15

    Primary hepatic sarcomas are rare tumors that are difficult to diagnose clinically. Different primary hepatic sarcomas may have different clinical, morphologic, and radiological features. In this pictorial review, we summarized computed tomography (CT) findings of some relatively common types of hepatic sarcomas, including angiosarcoma, epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (EHE), liposarcoma, undifferentiated embryonal sarcoma (UES), leiomyosarcoma, malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH), and carcinosarcoma (including cystadenocarcinosarcoma). To our knowledge, hepatic cystadenocarcinosarcoma has not been described in the English literature. The CT findings in our case are similar to that of cystadenocarcinoma, a huge, multilocular cystic mass with a large mural nodule and solid portion. The advent of CT has allowed earlier detection of primary hepatic sarcomas as well as more accurate diagnosis and characterization. In addition, we briefly discuss the MRI findings and diagnostic value of primary hepatic sarcomas. (orig.)

  12. Management of covert hepatic encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waghray, Abhijeet; Waghray, Nisheet; Mullen, Kevin

    2015-03-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy is a reversible progressive neuropsychiatric disorder that encompasses a wide clinical spectrum. Covert hepatic encephalopathy is defined as patients with minimal hepatic encephalopathy and Grade I encephalopathy by West-Haven Criteria. Terminology such as "sub-clinical", "latent", and "minimal" appear to trivialize the disease and have been replaced by the term covert. The lack of clinical signs means that covert hepatic encephalopathy is rarely recognized or treated outside of clinical trials with options for therapy based on patients with episodic hepatic encephalopathy. This review discusses the current available options for therapy in covert hepatic encephalopathy and focuses on non-absorbable disacharides (lactulose or lactitol), antibiotics (rifaximin), probiotics/synbiotics and l-ornithine-l-aspartate.

  13. Hepatitis viral aguda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Rubén Hernández Garcés

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica de las hepatitis virales agudas sobre aspectos vinculados a su etiología. Se tuvieron en cuenta además algunos datos epidemiológicos, las formas clínicas más importantes, los exámenes complementarios con especial énfasis en los marcadores virales y el diagnóstico positivoA bibliographical review of acute viral hepatitis was made taking into account those aspects connected with its etiology. Some epidemiological markers, the most important clinical forms, and the complementary examinations with special emphasis on the viral markers and the positive diagnosis were also considered

  14. 13.3.Hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    930316 An etiological study on fulminant viralhepatitis.ZHAO Yourong (赵有容),et al.Chongqing Med Univ,630010.Chin J Intern Med 1992;31(11):686—688.Viral markers were studied in 79 cases of vi-ral hepatitis with hepatic failure.The resultswere shown as follows:8 cases were positivefor anti—HAV IgM (10.12%);76 cases posi-tive for HBsAg or anti—HBc IgM (96.20%)and 41 cases positive for anti—HCV antibodies(51.89%).Among those with anti—HCV posi-tive,35 cases were co-infected with HBV,5cases with HAV and/or HCV,only one was in-

  15. Prevention of Hepatitis B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Mei-Hwei; Chen, Ding-Shinn

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) causes life-threatening liver disease. It is transmitted through a horizontal route or a mother-to-infant route, and the latter is the major route in endemic areas. Prevention of HBV infection by immunization is the best way to eliminate HBV-related diseases. The HBV vaccine is the first human vaccine using a viral antigen from infected persons, which is safe and effective. Either passive immunization by hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) or active immunization by HBV vaccine is effective, and a combination of both yields the best efficacy in preventing HBV infection. The impact of universal HBV immunization is huge, with 90%–95% effectiveness in preventing chronic HBV infection. It is the first cancer preventive vaccine with a protective efficacy against hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) of ∼70%. Nevertheless, further effort is still needed to avoid vaccine failure and to increase the global coverage rate. PMID:25732034

  16. Minimal Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura M Stinton

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE is the earliest form of hepatic encephalopathy and can affect up to 80% of cirrhotic patients. By definition, it has no obvious clinical manifestation and is characterized by neurocognitive impairment in attention, vigilance and integrative function. Although often not considered to be clinically relevant and, therefore, not diagnosed or treated, MHE has been shown to affect daily functioning, quality of life, driving and overall mortality. The diagnosis of MHE has traditionally been achieved through neuropsychological examination, psychometric tests or the newer critical flicker frequency test. A new smartphone application (EncephalApp Stroop Test may serve to function as a screening tool for patients requiring further testing. In addition to physician reporting and driving restrictions, medical treatment for MHE includes non-absorbable disaccharides (eg, lactulose, probiotics or rifaximin. Liver transplantation may not result in reversal of the cognitive deficits associated with MHE.

  17. Hepatitis C Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Arthur

    2016-09-06

    This issue provides a clinical overview of hepatitis C virus, focusing on transmission, prevention, screening, diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment. The content of In the Clinic is drawn from the clinical information and education resources of the American College of Physicians (ACP), including MKSAP (Medical Knowledge and Self-Assessment Program). Annals of Internal Medicine editors develop In the Clinic in collaboration with the ACP's Medical Education and Publishing divisions and with the assistance of additional science writers and physician writers.

  18. Hepatic surgical anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skandalakis, John E; Skandalakis, Lee J; Skandalakis, Panajiotis N; Mirilas, Petros

    2004-04-01

    The liver, the largest organ in the body, has been misunderstood at nearly all levels of organization, and there is a tendency to ignore details that do not fit the preconception. A complete presentation of the surgical anatomy of the liver includes the study of hepatic surfaces, margins, and fissures; the various classifications of lobes and segments; and the vasculature and lymphatics. A brief overview of the intrahepatic biliary tract is also presented.

  19. The right hepatic artery syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kazumi Miyashita; Katsuya Shiraki; Takeshi Ito; Hiroki Taoka; Takeshi Nakano

    2005-01-01

    Various benign and malignant conditions could cause biliary obstruction. Compression of extrahepatic bile duct (EBD) by right hepatic artery was reported as a right hepatic artery syndrome but all cases were compressed EBD from stomach side. Our case compressed from dorsum was not yet reported, so it was thought to be a very rare case. We present here the first case of bile duct obstruction due to the compression of EBD from dorsum by right hepatic artery.

  20. Hepatitis-C virus (HCV)

    OpenAIRE

    Suwarso, Suwarso

    2015-01-01

    A new problem on hepatitis for Indonesian is hepatitis-C virus (HCV). This infection is endemic, majority sub-clinic and progressive in chronic. Viral transmission is primarily via a parenteral route, while other routes are still in debate.Diagnostic approach should be focused on how this virus developed.KeyWords: hepatitis-C virus molecular biology Westem-blot-HCV blood transfusion epidemiology

  1. Laboratory diagnosis of hepatitis E

    OpenAIRE

    Vojkůvková, Pavla

    2012-01-01

    This thesis in the theoretical part contains basic information about the problems of viral hepatitis E in the world and the Czech Republic. The practical part describes the methodology used to analyze samples with suspected viral hepatitis E. The first part examined the number of analyzed samples from patients suspected of being infected with hepatitis E ( HEV ). The analysis is performed according to the positivity or negativity of the results to those years , age and gender. In the second p...

  2. Natural History of Hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingala, Shilpa; Ghany, Marc G

    2015-12-01

    Hepatitis C infection is a common cause of cirrhosis and indication for liver transplantation in the United States. The incidence of chronic hepatitis C has been declining, but rates of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma are projected to increase. The outcome of chronic hepatitis C is variable. It is estimated that 20% to 25% will develop cirrhosis over a 25-year to 30-year period. The rate of disease progression is influenced by many host, viral, and environmental factors. Few can be modified.

  3. Hepatitis C and Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashik Hayat

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple extrahepatic manifestations have been associated with chronic hepatitis C, the most important among them being cryoglobulinemia, glomerulonephritis, porphyria cutanea tarda, lichen planus, seronegative arthritis, and lymphoproliferative disorders as in the sudies of Bonkovsky and Mehta (2001 and El-Serag et al. (2002. We will discuss in this paper chronic hepatitis C- related kidney disease and course and management of patients with chronic hepatitis C in special circumstances like hemodialysis and kidney transplantation.

  4. Cytomegalovirus hepatitis and myopericarditis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Leire Zubiaurre; Eva Zapata; Luis Bujanda; María Castillo; Igor Oyarzabal; Maria A Gutiérrez-Stampa; Angel Cosme

    2007-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in inmunocompetent hosts generally is asymptomatic or may present as a mononucleosis syndrome but rarely can lead to severe organ complications. We report a case of simultaneous hepatic and pericardic CMV infection in a 36-year old immunocompetent man. He was admitted to coronary unit with fever, chest pain radiated to shoulders,changes on electrocardiogram with diffuse ST elevation and modest laboratory elevations in the MB fraction of creatine kinase (CK-MB) of 33.77 μg/L (0.1-6.73), serum cardiac troponin T of 0.904 ng/mL (0-0.4), creatine kinase of 454 U/L (20-195) and myoglobin of 480.4 μg/L (28-72). Routine laboratory test detected an elevation of aminotransferase level: alanine aminotransferase 1445 U/L, aspartate aminotransferase 601 U/L. We ruled out other causes of hepatitis with normal results except IgM CMV. The patient was diagnosed with myopericarditis and hepatitis caused by cytomegalovirus and started symptomatic treatment with salicylic acid. In few days the laboratory findings became normal and the patient was discharged.

  5. Hepatitis viral C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro A. Poma

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El virus de la hepatitis C se trasmite por contacto directo con la sangre de la persona infectada. La mayoría de los pacientes no presenta síntomas en la fase aguda o crónica de la hepatitis. Dos a tres décadas después, algunos pacientes progresan a la cirrosis compensada, que también es asintomática. En un examen de sangre, los anticuerpos se presentan como una sorpresa, porque no se les relaciona con un episodio de contagio. Un embarazo ocasiona la posibilidad de efectos negativos de la infección en la madre o el niño. El tratamiento actual no ofrece la certeza de cura, dependiendo del genotipo viral, y presenta efectos adversos que pueden ser severos. La cirrosis descompensada causa la mayoría de muertes relacionadas con esta infección; algunos de estos pacientes desarrollan carcinoma hepatocelular. La reproducción viral causa partículas virales diferentes del virus original, característica que ha impedido el desarrollo de una vacuna. Actualmente, la prevención consiste en evitar el contacto con sangre infectada. Este artículo revisa la infección con el virus de la hepatitis C, incluyendo los últimos progresos en tratamiento. Es necesario educar a la comunidad acerca de los efectos de este virus en la salud pública.

  6. Interferon prophylaxis of hepatic carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voiosu, R; Dimitriu, L; Dragomir, P; Eremia, L

    1999-01-01

    The present article reveals the importance of hepatic carcinoma among the other diseases in digestive oncology, and also the importance of a correct designation of these cases. Epidemiology and actual hypothesis on the mechanisms of oncogenesis are discussed. There are reviewed some studies in the literature concerning infection with hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, coinfection (B and C viruses, B and D viruses), the role of interferon prophylaxis in such cases. Also there is present a statistics on chronic viral hepatits, cirrhosis of viral etiology and hepatic carcinoma, diagnosed in patients in "N.Gh.Lupu" Hospital, over two decades.

  7. Hepatitis E: Epidemiology and prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Teshale, Eyasu H.; Hu, Dale J.

    2011-01-01

    Hepatitis E is caused by the hepatitis E virus (HEV), the major etiologic agent of enterically transmitted non-A hepatitis worldwide. HEV is responsible for major outbreaks of acute hepatitis in developing countries, especially in many parts of Africa and Asia. The HEV is a spherical, non-enveloped, single-stranded, positive sense RNA virus that is approximately 32 nm to 34 nm in diameter and is the only member in the family Hepeviridae and genus Hepevirus. There are four distinct genotypes o...

  8. Extrahepatic manifestations of hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palekar, Nicole A; Harrison, Stephen A

    2005-10-01

    Hepatitis C affects approximately 170 million people worldwide. Extrahepatic manifestations of chronic hepatitis C infection are clinically evident in nearly 40% of patients. Much research has been done over the last decade to better understand their incidence, clinical presentation, mechanism of disease, and the role of antiviral therapy in their treatment. Of the commonly reported manifestations, cryoglobulinemia, membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, and porphyria cutanea tarda remain the best understood manifestations. More recently, the association of insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus with chronic hepatitis C has been demonstrated. This paper serves to review the growing body of literature detailing the extrahepatic manifestations of chronic hepatitis C.

  9. Hepatite E Hepatitis E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymundo Paraná

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available O vírus da hepatite E (VHE é o segundo vírus de transmissão fecal-oral com hepatotropismo confirmado, após o vírus da hepatite A. As grandes epidemias de hepatite das décadas de 50 e 60 na Índia foram causadas pelo VHE. Observaram-se surtos da infecção na África Central, América Latina, Oriente Médio e Repúblicas independentes da ex-União Soviética. O quadro clínico da doença assemelha-se ao de outras hepatites virais. Não há casos descritos de hepatite E crônicas. Cerca de 20% das mulheres que adquirem a doença durante a gravidez desenvolvem formas graves, com insuficiência hepática fulminante. Confirma-se o diagnóstico quando se encontra no soro anticorpos (método de ELISA das classes IgM (fase aguda e/ou IgG (curados. O imunoblot e o PCR-RNA podem ser usados quando necessário. Não há tratamento específico. O uso de imunoglobulina hiperimune tem sido aconselhado por alguns autores. A prevenção se faz pelos cuidados higiênicos e dietéticos habituais. Não há vacina eficaz contra a doença.Hepatitis E virus (HEV is the second most frequent hepatotropic virus transmitted via fecal-oral route, following closely behind hepatitis A virus. The great epidemics of hepatitis described during the 50s and 60s, in India, were caused by this virus. Epidemic bursts have also been described in Central Africa, Latin America, Middle East and in the independent Republics of the ex-Soviet Union. The clinical features of the disease do not differ from those reported for other viral hepatitides. There have been no cases of chronic hepatitis E reported. Around 20% of women infected during pregnancy develop a severe form of hepatitis which courses to liver failure. Diagnosis of hepatitis is confirmed when antibodies (using ELISA of the IgM class (acute phase and/or IgG (infected and cured are found in the serum. Immunoblot and PCR-RNA may be used as necessary. There is no specific treatment for hepatitis E. Hyperimmune serum has

  10. HIV, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth C Kapembwa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : Epidemiologic data of HIV and viral hepatitis coinfection are needed in sub-Saharan Africa to guide health policy for hepatitis screening and optimized antiretroviral therapy (ART. Materials and Methods: We screened 323 HIV-infected, ART-eligible adults for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg and hepatitis C antibody (HCV Ab at a tertiary hospital in Lusaka, Zambia. We collected basic demographic, medical, and laboratory data to determine predictors for coinfection. Results: Of 323 enrolled patients, 32 (9.9%; 95% CI=6.7-13.2% were HBsAg positive, while 4 (1.2%; 95% CI=0.03-2.4% were HCV Ab positive. Patients with hepatitis B coinfection were more likely to be 200 IU/L was uncommon and did not differ between the two groups (3.4% vs. 2.3%; P=0.5. We were unable to determine predictors of hepatitis C infection due to the low prevalence of disease. Conclusions: HIV and hepatitis B coinfection was common among patients initiating ART at this tertiary care facility. Routine screening for hepatitis B should be considered for HIV-infected persons in southern Africa.

  11. Noninvasive diagnosis of hepatic fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Assessment of hepatic fibrosis is important for determining prognosis, guiding management decisions,and monitoring disease. Histological evaluation of liver biopsy specimens is currently considered the reference test for staging hepatic fibrosis. Since liver biopsy carries a small but significant risk, noninvasive tests to assess hepatic fibrosis are desirable. This editorial gives an overview on noninvasive methods currently available to determine hepatic fibrosis and their diagnostic accuracy for predicting significant fibrosis and cirrhosis in chronic hepatitis C. Based on available data, the performance of simple tests derived from routine laboratory parameters appears to be similar to that of more complex and expensive fibrosis panels. Transient elastography seems more accurate than blood tests for diagnosing cirrhosis.

  12. 放射线治疗包虫病的实验研究%The experimental study on the radiotherapy of echinococcosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王欣; 王小虎; 包根书; 刘婧; 韩俭; 景涛

    2009-01-01

    目的 通过观察不同剂量6MV X线照射对大鼠继发性棘球蚴活性的影响,探讨放射线治疗棘球蚴病的可行性及其机制.方法 对从大鼠体内分离出的棘球蚴囊分别以10、20、30和40Gy的6MV X线进行照射后,观察棘球蚴囊的超微结构,测定囊液中总蛋白和钙离子含量,并通过草酸盐一焦锑酸盐细胞化学法(PPA)探讨放射线治疗包虫病的机理.结果 与空白对照组相比,各实验组棘球蚴囊超微结构均可见不同程度的改变和破坏;囊液总蛋白含量明显降低而钙离子含量明显增高,且以高剂量组更为显著.PPA法显示实验组内质网与线粒体扩张且膜上可见黑色光滑的钙盐沉积.结论 6MV X线对棘球蚴囊有一定破坏作用,且在一定的范围内存在量效关系.%To demonstrate the possibility of radiotherapy for echinococcosis of rats and to explore its mechanism of action, the effects of different doses of 6 MV X-ray radiotherapy on the activity of Echinococcus granulosus in rats were investigated. After being irradiated by 10, 20, 30 and 40Gy of 6 MV X-ray, a lot of examinations were carried out, such as examination of the ultrastructure of the Echinococcus granulosus cysts in rat with electron microscope, the total amount of proteins and Ca2+ ion in hydatid cyst fluid(HCF) .The potassium-pyroantimonate(PPA) cytochemical method was used to demonstrate whether the blocked calcium channels would be one reason for radiotherapy on Echinococcus granulosus cysts in rat. It was found that the ultrastructures of E.granulosus cysts showed different extents of alterations or damages with abnormal changes and destruction in tissues or cells of cysts. The total protein amount in HCF was increased, while Ca2+ ions in HCF were reduced obviously in the treated groups of rats , especially in high dose groups. With PPA, some electron-dense precipitates were observed on the mitochondria and endocytoplasmic reticulum in the treated groups. It is

  13. Hepatitis virus vaccines: present status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krugman, S.

    1982-01-01

    During the past decade there has been extraordinary progress toward the development of vaccines for the prevention of type A and type B hepatitis. The successful propagation of hepatitis A virus in cell culture in 1979 was followed by the preparation of experimental live attenuated hepatitis A vaccines that have been shown to induce antibody in marmosets and chimpanzees and protect immunized marmosets against challenge with hepatitis A virus. The first human immunization trials will begin in mid-1982. An inactivated hepatitis B vaccine that was licensed in the United States in November 1981 has been shown to be safe, immunogenic, and effective. When this vaccine becomes available for use in July 1982, it will be recommended for persons who are considered to be at increased risk of contracting hepatitis B infection. Future generations of hepatitis B vaccines may be prepared from hepatitis B surface antigen derived from DNA recombinant technology or by in vitro synthesis of HBs Ag determinants by chemical means. PMID:6295013

  14. Bile acids for viral hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Weikeng; Liu, J; Gluud, C

    2003-01-01

    The viral hepatitides are common causes of liver diseases globally. Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus was reached regarding their usefulness.......The viral hepatitides are common causes of liver diseases globally. Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus was reached regarding their usefulness....

  15. Blood transfusion and hepatitis viruses

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    transplantation for patients with hepatitis B virus-related liver disease. Hepatology 1991; 13: ... and mouse liver cells by a conjugate of adenine arabinoside monophosphate with ... C virus antibody in patients with autoimmune hepatitis and other chronic liver .... to be derived·from the genome of an agent associated with.

  16. Hepatitis B and skin: review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zonunsanga

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B virus (HBV infection and its complications have become a global health problem. The spectrum of HBV infection ranges from asymptomatic carrier state to chronic hepatitis. It is usually preceded by constitutional symptoms. It has a wide range of dermatological manifestations. This review includes the pathogenesis along with the pathophysiology with their clinical significance and overview of the treatment.

  17. Bile acids for viral hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Weikeng; Liu, J; Gluud, C

    2003-01-01

    The viral hepatitides are common causes of liver diseases globally. Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus was reached regarding their usefulness.......The viral hepatitides are common causes of liver diseases globally. Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus was reached regarding their usefulness....

  18. Screening of subclinical hepatic encephalopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groeneweg, M; Moerland, W; Quero, J C; Hop, W C; Krabbe, P F; Schalm, S W

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: Subclinical hepatic encephalopathy adversely affects daily functioning. The aim of this study was to determine which elements of daily life have predictive value for subclinical hepatic encephalopathy. METHODS: The study was performed in 179 outpatients with liver cirrhosis. Subclin

  19. Pediatric hepatitis B treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inui, Ayano; Fujisawa, Tomoo

    2017-01-01

    Although the introduction of hepatitis B vaccine has been contributing to the reduction in the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriers worldwide, the treatment of children with chronic HBV infection is a challenge to be addressed. HBeAg seroconversion, which induces low replication of HBV, is widely accepted as the first goal of antiviral treatment in children with chronic hepatitis B. However, spontaneous HBeAg seroconversion is highly expected in children with chronic HBV infection. Therefore, the identification of children who need antiviral treatment to induce HBeAg seroconversion is essential in the management of chronic HBV infection. Guidelines and experts’ opinion show how to identify children who should be treated and how to treat them. If decompensated cirrhosis is absent, interferon-alpha is the first-line antiviral treatment. Nucleos(t)ide analogues (NAs), such as lamivudine, adefovir, entecavir and tenofovir, are also available for the treatment of children, although the approval age differs among them. If decompensated cirrhosis is present, NAs are the first-line antivirals. When the emergence of drug-resistant HBV variants is taken into consideration, entecavir (approved for age 2 years or older) and tenofovir (age 12 years or older), which have high genetic barriers, will play a central role in the treatment of HBV infection. However, the optimal duration of NA treatment and adverse events of long-term NA treatment remain unclear in children. In resource-constrained countries and regions, the financial burden of visiting hospitals, receiving routine blood examination and purchasing antiviral drugs is heavy. Moreover, there is no clear evidence that the induction of HBeAg seroconversion by antiviral treatment prevents the progression of liver disease to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma in children with chronic HBV infection. It is thus imperative to clarify the clinical impact of antiviral treatment in children with HBV infection.

  20. HEPATITIS ALOINMUNE FETAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Álvarez C., Dr.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available La hepatitis aloinmune fetal, conocida anteriormente como hemocromatosis neonatal, ha demostrado en los últimos años ser una enfermedad completamente distinta a la hemocromatosis del adulto, tanto en su etiología como en su la fisiopatología. Este conocimiento abre nuevas perspectivas tanto en la prevención de la enfermedad en futuros embarazos, así como en el tratamiento con inmunoglobulina endovenosa en la madre durante el embarazo y eventualmente el tratamiento postnatal, en el que el trasplante de hígado juega un rol primordial.

  1. Perinatal hepatitis B virus detection by hepatitis B virus-DNA analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    De Virgiliis, S; Frau, F; Sanna, G; Turco, M P; Figus, A L; Cornacchia, G; Cao, A.

    1985-01-01

    Maternal transmission of hepatitis B virus infection in relation to the hepatitis B e antigen/antibody system and serum hepatitis B virus-DNA were evaluated. Results indicate that hepatitis B virus-DNA analysis can identify hepatitis B serum antigen positive mothers who may transmit infection to their offspring.

  2. Perinatal hepatitis B virus detection by hepatitis B virus-DNA analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Virgiliis, S; Frau, F; Sanna, G; Turco, M P; Figus, A L; Cornacchia, G; Cao, A

    1985-01-01

    Maternal transmission of hepatitis B virus infection in relation to the hepatitis B e antigen/antibody system and serum hepatitis B virus-DNA were evaluated. Results indicate that hepatitis B virus-DNA analysis can identify hepatitis B serum antigen positive mothers who may transmit infection to their offspring. Images Figure PMID:3970570

  3. Perinatal hepatitis B virus detection by hepatitis B virus-DNA analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    De Virgiliis, S; Frau, F; Sanna, G; Turco, M P; Figus, A L; Cornacchia, G; Cao, A

    1985-01-01

    Maternal transmission of hepatitis B virus infection in relation to the hepatitis B e antigen/antibody system and serum hepatitis B virus-DNA were evaluated. Results indicate that hepatitis B virus-DNA analysis can identify hepatitis B serum antigen positive mothers who may transmit infection to their offspring.

  4. Isolated Echinococcosis of cervical region

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Khare, Pratima; Kala, Pooja; Gupta, Renu; Chauhan, Nidhi

    2014-01-01

    .... We report here a very rare case of isolated hydatid cyst in a 45-year-old female patient, who presented with swelling in right cervical region about 5 cm below the angle of mandible with no evidence...

  5. 76 FR 46181 - World Hepatitis Day, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    ..., millions of Americans are living with viral hepatitis. As many as three-fourths of Americans living with... viral hepatitis. Viral hepatitis is inflammation of the liver, and can cause a lifetime of health issues... to be done to prevent and treat this disease. Viral hepatitis touches Americans of all backgrounds...

  6. 77 FR 45895 - World Hepatitis Day, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-02

    ... viral hepatitis--a disease that threatens the health of millions of Americans and people across the... silent epidemic, and we rededicate ourselves to the fight against viral hepatitis. Hepatitis prevention and control begins with awareness. Though all types of viral hepatitis are associated with serious...

  7. [Ischemic hepatitis. Case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squella, Freddy; Zapata, Rodrigo

    2003-06-01

    Ischemic hepatitis or shock liver is defined as an extensive hepatocellular necrosis associated with a decrease in hepatic perfusion due to systemic hypotension. Serum aminotransferase levels (ALAT and ASAT) increase rapidly after the ischemic episode and peak within 1 to 3 days to at least 20 times the upper normal limit. After recovery, aminotransferases return to near normal levels in 7-10 days of the initial insult. Histological it is characterized by centrolobular necrosis without inflammation. We report a 47 years old woman with a rheumatic mitral valve disease, atrial fibrillation on anticoagulation and congestive heart failure. She was admitted due to a rapid auricular arrhythmia and secondary severe hypotension. She developed rapidly progressive jaundice (bilirubin up to 8.9 mg/dl) and her aminotransferases (ALAT and ASAT) increased rapidly to levels near 100 times the upper normal limit. Other causes of liver disease were excluded. With hemodynamic support and after heart rate control she improved rapidly within the following 10 days with normalization of liver function tests and complete clinical recovery.

  8. Hepatitis B e Antigen-Negative Chronic Hepatitis B

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    IntroductionHepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a global health problem. Current estimates are that 2 billion people have been infected worldwide, of these, 360 million suffer from chronic HBV infection resulting in over 520 000 deaths from acute hepatitis B and 470 000 from cirrhosis or liver cancer(1). The prevalence of hepatitis B carriers varies in different parts of the world, ranging from less than 1% to 15%. In the Middle East, the endemicity is intermittent, with a carrier rate of 2%...

  9. Severe Acute Hepatitis B Treated With Entecavir.

    OpenAIRE

    De Socio, Giuseppe Vittorio Luigi; Sgrelli, Alessio; Tosti, Andrea; Baldelli, Franco

    2011-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection constitutes a serious global health problem. Nowadays there are divergent data regarding the use of antiviral drugs to treat acute hepatitis B. We present here a case of a 62-year-old man affected by severe acute hepatitis B with progressive worsening of clinical and hepatic function. The patient was treated with entecavir without critical side effects. We observed rapid clinical and laboratory improvements and the disappearance of hepatitis B surface antigen...

  10. Hepatitis C and cutaneous alterations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Rita Fachinelli

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available While most of those infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV are asymptomatic or only develop liver manifestations, a significant percentage evolves with autoimmune and lymphoproliferative disorders, resulting in a clinical condition called HCV syndrome. This work involving case studies of six patients with hepatitis C and varied skin manifestation aimed to report skin lesions occurring with HCV infection and its treatment. Skin manifestations in hepatitis C have been based on epidemiological studies. This justifies the need for studies that correlate HCV infection and its treatment with skin manifestations.

  11. Wilson's Disease and Hepatic Transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐荣华; 薛峥; 叶启发

    2002-01-01

    Summary: To investigate the changes in neurological symptoms and signs, as well as serum copper,serum ceruloplasmin after hepatic transplantation in patients with Wilson's disease, neurological symptoms and signs, serum copper, serum ceruloplasmin before and after hepatic transplantation in18 patients with Wilson's disease were observed, and those changes were followed up in 20 non-oper ative controls treated with penicillamine. Our results showed that the neurological symptoms and signs, serum copper and serum ceruloplasmin were improved in the operative group but deteriorated in the non-operative control group. Our study showed that hepatic transplantation is better than peni cillamine in the treatment of Wilson's disease.

  12. Fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) due to acute hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younis, Bilal Bin; Arshad, Rozina; Khurhsid, Saima; Masood, Junaid; Nazir, Farhan; Tahira, Maham

    2015-01-01

    Acute hepatitis C (HCV) infection has been identified as an important cause of fulminant hepatic failure (FHF), characterized by rapid deterioration of liver function from massive hepatic necrosis leading to encephalopathy and multi-organ failure. We admitted a female patient at Shalamar Hospital with jaundice, fever, encephalopathy and coagulopathy of short duration with no history of any comorbidity. Her hepatitis viral screen revealed positive anti HCV. Her viral loads were also high. A diagnosis of FHF due to acute HCV infection was made. Patient was treated conservatively and improved gradually. In summary, acute HCV can cause FHF and should be ruled out in patients with FHF of unknown cause in an endemic country for HCV like Pakistan.

  13. Attitudes and Awareness Regarding Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Public Health Dentistry, Gian Sagar Dental College and Hospital, 1Department ... Sagar Dental College and Hospital, Rajpura, Punjab, 2Department of Radiology, .... HCWs are at a risk of developing hepatitis C infection owing.

  14. [Occult hepatitis B virus infection in chronic hepatitis C].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jae Young; Park, Eui Ju

    2013-09-01

    Occult HBV infection is defined as the presence of HBV DNA in the liver (with or without detectable or undetectable HBV DNA in the serum) of individuals testing negative for HBsAg. Studies on occult HBV infection in hepatitis C patients have reported highly variable prevalence, because the prevalence of occult HBV infection varies depending on the hepatitis B risk factors and methodological approaches. The most reliable diagnostic approach for detecting occult HBV detection is through examination of liver DNA extracts. HCV has been suspected to strongly suppress HBV replication up to the point where it may be directly responsible for occult HBV infection development. However, more data are needed to arrive at a definitive conclusion regarding the role of HCV in inducing occult HBV infection. Occult HBV infection in chronic hepatitis C patients is a complex biological entity with possible relevant clinical implications. Influence of occult HBV infection on the clinical outcomes of chronic hepatitis C may be considered negative. However, recent studies have shown that occult HBV infection could be associated with the development of hepatocellular carcinoma and contribute to the worsening of the course of chronic liver disease over time in chronic hepatitis C patients. Nevertheless, the possible role of occult HBV infection in chronic hepatitis C is still unresolved and no firm conclusion has been made up until now. It still remains unclear how occult HBV infection affects the treatment of chronic hepatitis C. Therefore, in order to resolve current controversies and understand the pathogenic role and clinical impacts of occult HBV infection in chronic hepatitis C patients, well-designed clinical studies are needed.

  15. Acute Hepatitis Induced by Alpha-Interferon in a Patient with Chronic Hepatitis C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Kraus

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic adverse effects occur very rarely with alpha-interferon therapy. A case of acute hepatitis induced by alpha-interferon in a 33-year-old man with chronic hepatitis C is described. The patient developed acute hepatitis with very high aminotransferase activity and jaundice. After discontinuing alpha-interferon therapy, hepatitis resolved rapidly. The immune-mediated mechanism is the most probable cause of this hepatitis.

  16. HEPATITIS A VIRAL INFECTION TRIGGERS AUTOIMMUNE HEPATITIS IN A PATIENT: A CASE REPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Jakkal Darpan; Solanke Sachin

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis A virus is an infectious agent known to trigger autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). We present a case in a 40years old woman with Autoimmune hepatitis who presented 4 months after viral hepatits A infection. Diagnosis of hepatitis A virus was attributed on viral serological tests and autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) in accordance with international autoimmune hepatitis group system. [1] She is in remission with steroid therapy. The case we present is unusual with paucity ob...

  17. Acute Hepatitis Induced by Alpha-Interferon in a Patient with Chronic Hepatitis C

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Kraus; Dinko Vitezic

    2001-01-01

    Hepatic adverse effects occur very rarely with alpha-interferon therapy. A case of acute hepatitis induced by alpha-interferon in a 33-year-old man with chronic hepatitis C is described. The patient developed acute hepatitis with very high aminotransferase activity and jaundice. After discontinuing alpha-interferon therapy, hepatitis resolved rapidly. The immune-mediated mechanism is the most probable cause of this hepatitis.

  18. Update on autoimmune hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andreas Teufel; Peter R Galle; Stephan Kanzler

    2009-01-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a necroinflammatory liver disease of unknown etiology that occurs in children and adults of all ages. Characteristics are its autoimmune features, hyperglobulinemia (IgG), and the presence of circulating autoantibodies, as well as a response to immunosuppressant drugs. Current treatment consists of prednisone and azathioprine and in most patients this disease has become very treatable. Over the past 2 years, a couple of new insights into the genetic aspects, clinical course and treatment of AIH have been reported, which will be the focus of this review. In particular, we concentrate on genome-wide microsatellite analysis, a novel mouse model of AIH, the evaluation of a large AIH cohort for overlap syndromes,suggested novel criteria for the diagnosis of AIH, and the latest studies on treatment of AIH with budenoside and mycophenolate mofetil.

  19. Hepatitis B in pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guglielmo Borgia; Maria Aurora Carleo; Giovanni Battista Gaeta; Ivan Gentile

    2012-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection affects about 350 million individuals worldwide.Management of HBV infection in pregnancy is difficult because of several peculiar and somewhat controversial aspects.The aim of the present review is to provide a tool that may help physicians to correctly manage HBV infection in pregnancy.This review focuses on (1) the effect of pregnancy on HBV infection and of HBV infection on pregnancy; (2) the potential viral transmission from mother to newborn despite at-birth prophylaxis with immunoglobulin and vaccine; (3) possible prevention of mother-to-child transmission through antiviral drugs,the type of antiviral drug to use considering their efficacy and potential teratogenic effect,and the timing of their administration and discontinuation; and (4) the evidence for the use of elective caesarean section vs vaginal delivery and the possibility of breastfeeding.

  20. Hepatitis C: extrahepatic manifestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metts, Julius; Carmichael, Lesley; Kokor, Winfred; Scharffenberg, Robert

    2014-12-01

    Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with multiple extrahepatic manifestations (EHM) affecting various organs in the body. Approximately 40% to 75% of patients with chronic HCV infection experience at least one clinical EHM during the course of the HCV infection. Mixed cryoglobulinemia (type 2) is the most documented EHM associated with chronic HCV infection. This has been documented in up to 50% of patients. Clinically, it presents as arthralgia, weakness, and cutaneous symptoms. Morphologically, immune complex depositions are identified in small vessels and glomerular capillary walls, leading to leukocytoclastic vasculitis in the skin and membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis in the kidney. In other EHMs of chronic HCV infection not related to cryoglobulinemia, such as Sjögren syndrome, lichen planus, and autoimmune thyroiditis, autoimmune processes resulting in chronic inflammatory infiltrates are thought to be the underlying mechanism.

  1. The epidemiology of viral hepatitis in Qatar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bener Abdulbari

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Viral hepatitis is a major public health problem in many countries all over the world and especially in Middle East, Asia, East-Europe, and Africa. The aim of our study was to assess the incidence of viral hepatitis A, B and C in Qatar and compare it with other countries. This is a retrospective cohort study, which was conducted at Hamad General Hospital, State of Qatar from 2002-2006. Patients who were screened and diagnosed with viral hepatitis were included in this study. The diagnostic classification of definite viral hepatitis was made in accordance with criteria based on the International Classification of Disease tenth revision (ICD-10. A total of 527 cases of hepatitis C, 396 cases of hepatitis B, 162 cases of hepatitis A and 108 cases of unspecified were reported during the year 2006. Reported incidence rate per 10,000 populations during the year 2006 for hepatitis A was 1.9, hepatitis B 4.7, and Hepatitis C 6.3. The proportion of hepatitis B and C was significantly higher in male population than females across the years (2002-2006. Hepatitis A was more prevalent in children below 15 years (72.3%, hepatitis B in adults aged above 15 years, and hepatitis C in the population above 35 years of age. The incidence of hepatitis A has been declining in Qataris and increasing in expatriates. There was a significant relationship in gender and age group of the patients with hepatitis A, B and C. We conclude that hepatitis has become a national health issue in Qatar. The incidence rate of hepatitis in Qatar is comparable to its neighboring countries, United Arab Emirates and Saudi Arabia. There is a need for further research on hepatitis and the associated risk factors.

  2. Hepatitis Virus Infections in Poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yugo, Danielle M; Hauck, Ruediger; Shivaprasad, H L; Meng, Xiang-Jin

    2016-09-01

    Viral hepatitis in poultry is a complex disease syndrome caused by several viruses belonging to different families including avian hepatitis E virus (HEV), duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV), duck hepatitis A virus (DHAV-1, -2, -3), duck hepatitis virus Types 2 and 3, fowl adenoviruses (FAdV), and turkey hepatitis virus (THV). While these hepatitis viruses share the same target organ, the liver, they each possess unique clinical and biological features. In this article, we aim to review the common and unique features of major poultry hepatitis viruses in an effort to identify the knowledge gaps and aid the prevention and control of poultry viral hepatitis. Avian HEV is an Orthohepevirus B in the family Hepeviridae that naturally infects chickens and consists of three distinct genotypes worldwide. Avian HEV is associated with hepatitis-splenomegaly syndrome or big liver and spleen disease in chickens, although the majority of the infected birds are subclinical. Avihepadnaviruses in the family of Hepadnaviridae have been isolated from ducks, snow geese, white storks, grey herons, cranes, and parrots. DHBV evolved with the host as a noncytopathic form without clinical signs and rarely progressed to chronicity. The outcome for DHBV infection varies by the host's ability to elicit an immune response and is dose and age dependent in ducks, thus mimicking the pathogenesis of human hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections and providing an excellent animal model for human HBV. DHAV is a picornavirus that causes a highly contagious virus infection in ducks with up to 100% flock mortality in ducklings under 6 wk of age, while older birds remain unaffected. The high morbidity and mortality has an economic impact on intensive duck production farming. Duck hepatitis virus Types 2 and 3 are astroviruses in the family of Astroviridae with similarity phylogenetically to turkey astroviruses, implicating the potential for cross-species infections between strains. Duck astrovirus (DAstV) causes

  3. Dopamine agents for hepatic encephalopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junker, Anders Ellekær; Als-Nielsen, Bodil; Gluud, Christian

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with hepatic encephalopathy may present with extrapyramidal symptoms and changes in basal ganglia. These changes are similar to those seen in patients with Parkinson's disease. Dopamine agents (such as bromocriptine and levodopa, used for patients with Parkinson's disease) have...... therefore been assessed as a potential treatment for patients with hepatic encephalopathy. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the beneficial and harmful effects of dopamine agents versus placebo or no intervention for patients with hepatic encephalopathy. SEARCH METHODS: Trials were identified through the Cochrane...... of the trials followed participants after the end of treatment. Only one trial reported adequate bias control; the remaining four trials were considered to have high risk of bias. Random-effects model meta-analyses showed that dopamine agents had no beneficial or detrimental effect on hepatic encephalopathy...

  4. RHEUMATIC MANIFESTATIONS IN VIRAL HEPATITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L P Anan'eva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Autoimmune reactions are of primary importance in the development of extrahepatic manifestations of viral hepatitis, among which there are rheumatic symptoms and syndromes. The incidence of clinically significant extrahepatic manifestations is shown to be relatively low, but they may be in the foreground in the clinical picture of the disease and are noted for severity. It is concluded that due to the high prevalence of hepatitis and the systemic pattern of their chronic forms, patients with extrahepatic manifestations of viral hepatitis may be encountered in the practice of a therapist and a rheumatologist. The onset of the infection caused by hepatitis viruses may be accompanied by articular lesion therefore the rheumatologist may be the first physician such a patient may resort to.

  5. RHEUMATIC MANIFESTATIONS IN VIRAL HEPATITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L P Anan'eva

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Autoimmune reactions are of primary importance in the development of extrahepatic manifestations of viral hepatitis, among which there are rheumatic symptoms and syndromes. The incidence of clinically significant extrahepatic manifestations is shown to be relatively low, but they may be in the foreground in the clinical picture of the disease and are noted for severity. It is concluded that due to the high prevalence of hepatitis and the systemic pattern of their chronic forms, patients with extrahepatic manifestations of viral hepatitis may be encountered in the practice of a therapist and a rheumatologist. The onset of the infection caused by hepatitis viruses may be accompanied by articular lesion therefore the rheumatologist may be the first physician such a patient may resort to.

  6. Treatment strategy for hepatic trauma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu-Yong Yu; Qu-Jin Li; Jian-Ping Gong

    2016-01-01

    Liver is one of the organs with the highest injury rate,and in recent decades,the guidelines for the treatment of liver trauma have changed considerably.Now,there is a growing consensus that the most important step is diagnosis and depending upon the degree of severity,non-operative therapy is the main treatment method for hepatic trauma if conditions permit.For serious hepatic trauma patients such as those with hemodynamic instability,they should be operated upon as soon as possible.Regardless of the surgical options,doctors should control damage to patients and try to prevent complications.New therapies such as hepatic artery embolization and liver transplantation have been more and more used for the treatment of serious hepatic damage in clinics.

  7. 脑泡型包虫病MR质子波谱特征分析%1H MR spectroscopy characteristics of cerebral alveolar echinococcosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王俭; 依巴努·阿不都热合曼; 姜春晖; 姚卫宏; 田兄玲; 张德清; 柳琛; 刘文亚; 温浩

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the characteristics of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) in patients with cerebral alveolar echinococcosis (CAE).Methods Thirteen patients with 33 lesions proven to be CAE histologically and clinically were examined by conventional MRI and 2D multivoxel spectroscopy with a 3.0 T double gradient superconductivity magnetic resonance scanner.Concentrations of the metabolites containing N-acetyl-aspartic-acid (NAA),Choline (Cho),Creatine (Cr),lipids and lactic acid (Lip + Lac),myo-Inositol (mI) were detected and the value of Cho/Cr,NAA/Cr,(Lip + Lac)/Cr,mI/Cr were calculated.The values of Cho/Cr,NAA/Cr,(Lip + Lac)/Cr,mI/Cr were compared between the lesions and the contralateral normal brain parenchyma.Statistical analysis was performed using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test.Results CAE 1H MRS in the lesions was characterized by the decrease of Cho,NAA to varying degrees,and a visible lipid with or without lactate peak.Compared with the control group,the ratio of NAA/Cr was decreased markedly,whereas Cho/Cr,mI/Cr increased mildly and (Lip + Lac)/Cr increased markedly in the lesions.The medians and interquartile ranges of Cho/Cr,NAA/Cr,(Lip + Lac)/Cr and mI/Cr in the lesions were:1.88 (1.24-2.23),1.32 (1.07-1.58),32.96 (24.59-47.30) and 0.91 (0.67-1.08),respectively.The medians and interquartile ranges of Cho/Cr,NAA/Cr,(Lip + Lac)/Cr and mI/Cr of control group were 0.84(0.704-0.98),2.00(1.80-2.18),0.90 (0.74-0.99) and 0.26 (0.18-0.31),respectively.There were statistically significant differences of the measures between the lesions and the control regions (Z =-5.932,-6.086,-6.946,-6.984,P <0.01).Conclusions Multi-voxel 1H MRS can reflect pathological characteristics of CAE.1 H MRS provides metabolic information for diagnosis of CAE and may be a supplement to conventional magnetic resonance examination.%目的 探讨脑泡型包虫病(CAE)的1H MRS特点.方法 13例经病理诊断(7例)和临床诊断(6例)为CAE患者(共33

  8. Current Knowledge on Hepatitis E

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez-Gracia, María Teresa; García, Mario; Suay, Beatriz; Mateos-Lindemann, María Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Although only a single serotype of hepatitis E virus (HEV), the causative agent of hepatitis E, has been identified, there is great genetic variation among the different HEV isolates reported. There are at least four major recognized genotypes of HEV: genotypes 1 and 2 are mainly restricted to humans and linked to epidemic outbreaks in nonindustrialized countries, whereas genotypes 3 and 4 are zoonotic in both developing and industrialized countries. Besides human strains, genotype 3 and 4 st...

  9. SEROPREVALENCE OF HEPATITIS C VIRUS IN HEPATIC DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syeda Amtul

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Seroprevalence of Hepatitis C virus among hepatic disorder patients. Various hepatic disorders like Hepatitis, cirrhosis & HCC cause multi organ failure leading to death. The most important viral cause of hepatic disorders after HBV is HCV. Hence this study is conducted to aid in early detection & treatment & its prevention in community. The study is conducted on 100 confirmed hepatic disorder patients from Gastro intestinal ward of Osmania General Hospital, Hydera bad. ELISA was done at Osmania General Hospital & Osmania Medical College, Hyderabad PCR was done at Deccan College of Medical Sciences, Hyderabad. Third generation ELISA containing an antigen derived from the Non - structural NS5 region which encodes as RNA polymerase was used. Principle of the test: Sandwich principle - Enzyme immune assay. Guanidine Isothyocyanite Method (GITC of PCRELISA: Total No: of anti HCV antibody positive cases in our study were 5% &HBV +HCV cases were 1%.All positive cases were abov e the age of 40 yrs.HCV positivity ratio among Male: Female was1:1.45.HCV was detected to be maximum in HCC (20%.followed by Hepatitis (9% & then Cirrhosis (7%. PCR: All the 5 anti HCV antibody positive cases detected by ELISA were also detected to be p ositive for HCV - RNA by RT - PCR in all samples. The sample positive for HBV+HCV by ELISA also showed positive for HBV DNA by PCR and HCV RNA by RT - PCR Various hepatic disorders like CAH, Cirrhosis and HCC caused by HBV and HCV have become a major public heal th problem throughout the world.HCC is one of the ten most common cancers in the world and is the only cancer which can be prevented by vaccination.HCV infection can be transmitted by blood transmission, injectable drugs, perinatally, improperly sterilized dialysis equipment, unprotected sex with infected partner specially MSM group and with other STDs & HIV Hence this study is conducted to aid in early detection and treatment and its prevention in community Comparison of

  10. Subacute fulminant hepatic failure with intermittent fever

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cong-Xin Chen; Bo Liu; Yong Hu; Joyce E. Johnson; Yi-Wei Tang

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Viral hepatitis B accounts for over 80%of acute hepatic failures in China and the patients die mainly of its complications. A patient with hepatic failure and fever is not uncommon, whereas repeated fever is rare. METHODS:A 32-year-old female was diagnosed with subacute hepatic failure and hepatitis B viral infection because of hyperbilirubinemia, coagulopathy, hepatic encephalopathy, serum anti-HBs-positive without hepatitis B vaccination, and typical intrahepatic pathological features of chronic hepatitis B. Plasma exchange was administered twice and she awoke with hyperbilirubinemia and discontinuous fever. RESULTS:Urethritis was conifrmed and medication-induced fever and/or spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (Gram-negative bacillus infection) was suspected. The patient was treated with antibiotics, steroids and a Chinese herbal medicine, matrine, for three months and she recovered. CONCLUSION:The survival rate of patients with hepatic failure might be improved with comprehensive supporting measures and appropriate, timely management of com-plications.

  11. 肝包虫病的治疗方法选择%Choice of treatment for hepatic hydatid disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈哲宇

    2015-01-01

    肝包虫病又称肝棘球蚴病,由棘球蚴的幼虫寄生于人体或其他动物的脏器内引起,是一种由动物传染的人畜共患寄生虫病.感染棘球蚴后,其幼虫可寄生于全身多个脏器,但主要寄生在肝脏,约占总数的70%,其次好发于肺部,约占20%,也可以寄生在其他脏器如脑、心脏、肾脏、眼眶、骨髓腔等,约占10%.肝包虫病在世界各地均有报道,但以牧区多见.肝包虫病对人体危害很大,主要依靠外科手段治疗肝包虫病,治疗方式有内囊摘除术,外囊剥除术和肝切除术等.本文重点阐述肝包虫病的诊断和治疗方法的选择.%Hepatic hydatid disease is also called echinococcosis of liver. It is a kind of parasitic zoonosis caused by infection with the larva of echinococcus in visceral organs of human beings and other animals. After infected with echinococcus, the larva of echinococcus can parasitize many organs in body. Liver is the most commonly affected organ and accounts for approximately 70% of cases, followed by lung which accounts for 20% of cases. It can be also observed in other organs, such as brain, heart, kidney, orbit and bone marrow cavity, which accounts for approximately 10%. Hepatic hydatid disease has been reported all around the world, and the prevalence is more severe in pastoral areas. Hepatic hydatid disease is very harmful to body, and be mainly treated by surgical procedures such as excision of internal capsule, total cystectomy and hepatectomy. The diagnosis and the choice of treatment are stated in this paper.

  12. A historical view of alveolar echinococcosis, 160 years after the discovery of the first case in humans: part 1.What have we learnt on the distribution of the disease and on its parasitic agent?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dominique Angèle Vuitton; WANG Qian; ZHOU Hong-xia; Francis Raoul; Jenny Knapp; Solange Bresson-Hadni; WEN Hao; Patrick Giraudoux

    2011-01-01

    Since the first 2 cases observed in southern Germany and the correct identification of a parasite at the origin of the disease by the famous scientist Rudolf Virchow in 1855, the borders of the endemic area of alveolar echinococcosis (AE)have never stopped to expand. The parasite was successively recognized in Switzerland, then in Russia, Austria and France which were long considered as the only endemic areas for the disease. Cases were disclosed in Turkey in 1939;then much attention was paid to Alaska and to Hokkaido, in Japan. The situation totally changed in 1991 after the recognition of the Chinese endemic areas by the international community of scientists. The world map was completed in the beginning of the 21st century by the identification of AE in most of the countries of central/eastern Europe and Baltic States, and by the recognition of cases in central Asia. Up to now, the disease has however never been reported in the South hemisphere and in the United Kingdom. In the mid-1950s, demonstration by Rausch and Schiller in Alaska, and by Vogel in Germany, of the distinction between 2 parasite species responsible respectively for cystic echinococcosis ("hydatid disease") and AE put an end to the long-lasting debate between the "dualists", who believed in that theory which eventually proved to be true, and the "unicists", who believed in a single species responsible for both diseases. At the end of the 20th century, molecular biology fully confirmed the "dualist" theory while adding several new species to the initially described E. granulosus; within the past decade, it also confirmed that little variation existed within Echinococcus (E.)multilocularis species, and that AE-Iooking infection in some intermediate animal hosts on the Tibetan plateau was indeed due to a new species, distinct from E. multilocularis, named E. shiquicus. Since the 1970s, the unique ecological interactions between the landscape, the hosts, and E. multilocu/aris have progressively been

  13. Hepatitis C: Questions to Ask Your Doctor about Your Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Ask Your Doctor about Your Diagnosis Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... me? Other questions you want to ask: ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ Search Hepatitis Search this website Submit Share this page Related ...

  14. Hepatitis C: Questions to Ask Your Doctor about Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Questions to Ask Your Doctor about Treatment Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... treatment? Other questions you want to ask: _______________________________________ _______________________________________ _______________________________________ Search Hepatitis Search this website Submit Share this page Related ...

  15. Seroepidemiology of hepatitis A and hepatitis B virus in Luxembourg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossong, J; Putz, L; Patiny, S; Schneider, F

    2006-08-01

    A prospective seroepidemiological survey was carried out in Luxembourg in 2000-2001 to determine the antibody status of the Luxembourg population against hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV). One of the objectives of this survey was to assess the impact of the hepatitis B vaccination programme, which started in May 1996 and included a catch-up campaign for all adolescents aged 12-15 years. Venous blood from 2679 individuals was screened for the presence of antibodies to HAV antigen and antibodies to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs) using an enzyme immunoassay. Samples positive for anti-HBs were tested for antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) using a chemiluminiscent microparticle immunoassay to distinguish between individuals with past exposure to vaccine or natural infection. The estimated age-standardized anti-HAV seroprevalence was 42.0% [95% confidence interval (CI) 39.8-44.1] in the population >4 years of age. Seroprevalence was age-dependent and highest in adult immigrants from Portugal and the former Yugoslavia. The age-standardized prevalence of anti-HBs and anti-HBc was estimated at 19.7% (95% CI 18.1-21.3) and 3.16% (95% CI 2.2-4.1) respectively. Anti-HBs seroprevalence exceeding 50% was found in the cohorts targeted by the routine hepatitis B vaccination programme, which started in 1996. Our study illustrates that most young people in Luxembourg are susceptible to HAV infection and that the hepatitis B vaccination programme is having a substantial impact on population immunity in children and teenagers.

  16. De Novo Hepatitis B Infection From Hepatitis B Core Antibody-Positive Donors During Hepatitis B Immunoglobulin Prophylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Milljae; Chang, Seong-Hwan

    2016-02-01

    De novo hepatitis B infection in patients receiving liver transplants from hepatitis B core antibody-positive donors is well known, but the effective prevention strategy has not been well established. In our hospital, recipients receive hepatitis B immunoglobulin monotherapy if they are hepatitis B surface antigen negative at the time of transplant and are receiving a liver from a hepatitis B core antibody-positive donor. Since August 2006, we have had 4 patients who were naïve to hepatitis B virus and received a hepatitis B core antibody-positive graft. Two patients died of other causes, and 2 patients, who had liver transplant in October 2006 and October 2009, developed de novo hepatitis B. Both patients were tested annually for serum hepatitis B surface antigen as part of routine visit. Tests were negative; however, both patients recently became hepatitis B surface antigen positive. Other laboratory results, including liver function test, were unremarkable, except HBsAb titer was undetectable even though hepatitis B immunoglobulin monotherapy had been administrated 2 months previously in both patients. The patients had hepatitis B virus DNA levels of 3.07E+08 copies/mL and 1.51E+08 copies/mL. We suggest that additional prophylactic therapies above hepatitis B immunoglobulin monotherapy are needed for these recipients.

  17. [Vaccination against hepatitis A].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balli, F; Di Biase, A R; Viola, L

    1996-01-01

    The epidemiology of hepatitis A, a disease endemic in various countries, is in a state of continuous change. Adults are more exposed to infection and considering the frequent absence of immunity, in contrast to children in whom the disease is almost always asymptomatic, the disease is often serious and prolonged with a mortality of up to 2.5%. The mode of transmission of HAV is predominantly the fecal-oral route; the virus is isolated during the prodromic period of the disease from the feces, blood, bile and seminal fluid. The virus can also be found in saliva (OMS '95); in addition it may also be transmitted by the maternal-fetal route. The HAV infects cells in vitro but does not cause a direct cytopathic effect. At the beginning of the acute phase of the disease the production of anti-HAV antibodies is of the IgM type followed later by IgG. Some studies have shown a potential role of cellular immunity in clearance of the virus from the hepatocytes and in the pathogenesis of the infection of HAV. The efficacy of immunoglobulin serum in the prevention of hepatitis A has been demonstrated since 1944. As regards active immunity two types of vaccinations have been prepared. One with live attenuated HAV carried by either bacteria or virus. The other, killed inactivated HAV, HAV capsule, antigenic subunit, synthetic peptides, anti-idiotypes or virosomes. The recent literature describe the vaccine produced by Merck Sharp & Dohme and by Smith Kline Beecham (SKB); both vaccines are made from HAV, grown in vitro, inactivated with formalin and adsorbed to aluminum hydroxide. The protection of the vaccine begins 14 days after administration and lasts from one month to one year. Numerous studies have been conducted which have shown that the vaccine is effective when given in 2 doses and confers protection against HAV for at least one year. The results have shown that the vaccination causes seroconversion in approximately 100% of subjects, and does not cause serious side

  18. [Prevention of virus hepatitis A to E].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornberg, M; Manns, M P

    2011-03-01

    Infection with hepatitis viruses can lead to acute hepatitis with the risk of developing liver failure. Chronic viral hepatitis may evolve into liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Thus, prevention of viral hepatitis and its sequels is essential. Vaccination against hepatitis A is successful in almost all individuals. Protective antibodies maintain for at least 20 years. Booster vaccinations are not necessary. Since the introduction of hepatitis A vaccines, the incidence of new HAV-infections has declined significantly. Hepatitis B vaccines are safe and highly effective. Special populations such as dialysis patients or immunocompromised patients require special vaccine schedules. New vaccines with improved adjuvants are currently being tested in clinical trials. So far there is no hepatitis C vaccine on the horizon. Prophylaxis of HCV-infections relies primarily on hygiene measures. Early therapy of acute hepatitis C can prevent chronic hepatitis C. HDV-infection can only be established if HBsAg is present. Thus, prevention of hepatitis B or elimination of HBsAg means prevention of hepatitis delta. Hepatitis E vaccines have been evaluated in phase III studies. The development of HEV vaccines becomes more relevant since chronic HEV infections have been reported in immunosuppressed individuals.

  19. Hepatitis C virus proteins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jean Dubuisson

    2007-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) encodes a single polyprotein,which is processed by cellular and viral proteases to generate 10 polypeptides. The HCV genome also contains an overlapping +1 reading frame that may lead to the synthesis of an additional protein. Until recently,studies of HCV have been hampered by the lack of a productive cell culture system. Since the identification of HCV genome approximately 17 years ago, structural,biochemical and biological information on HCV proteins has mainly been obtained with proteins produced by heterologous expression systems. In addition, some functional studies have also been confirmed with replicon systems or with retroviral particles pseudotyped with HCV envelope glycoproteins. The data that have accumulated on HCV proteins begin to provide a framework for understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in the major steps of HCV life cycle. Moreover,the knowledge accumulated on HCV proteins is also leading to the development of antiviral drugs among which some are showing promising results in early-phase clinical trials. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the functions and biochemical features of HCV proteins.

  20. Hepatitis B virus morphogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The hepatitis B virus (HBV) particle consists of an envelope containing three related surface proteins and probably lipid and an icosahedral nucleocapsid of approximately 30 nm diameter enclosing the viral DNA genome and DNA polymerase. The capsid is formed in the cytosol of the infected cell during packaging of an RNA pregenome replication complex by multiple copies of a 21-kDa C protein. The capsid gains the ability to bud during synthesis of the viral DNA genome by reverse transcription of the pregenome in the lumen of the particle. The three envelope proteins S,M, and L shape a complex transmembrane fold at the endoplasmic reticulum, and form disulfide-linked homoand heterodimers. The transmembrane topology of a fraction of the large envelope protein L changes posttranslationally, therefore, the N terminal domain of L (preS) finally appears on both sides of the membrane.During budding at an intracellular membrane, a short linear domain in the cytosolic preS region interacts with binding sites on the capsid surface. The virions are subsequently secreted into the blood. In addition, the surface proteins can bud in the absence of capsids and form subviral lipoprotein particles of 20 nm diameter which are also secreted.

  1. Hepatitis B virus replication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Hepadnaviruses, including human hepatitis B virus (HBV), replicate through reverse transcription of an RNA intermediate, the pregenomic RNA (pgRNA). Despite this kinship to retroviruses, there are fundamental differences beyond the fact that hepadnavirions contain DNA instead of RNA. Most peculiar is the initiation of reverse transcription: it occurs by protein-priming, is strictly committed to using an RNA hairpin on the pgRNA,ε, as template, and depends on cellular chaperones;moreover, proper replication can apparently occur only in the specialized environment of intact nucleocapsids.This complexity has hampered an in-depth mechanistic understanding. The recent successful reconstitution in the test tube of active replication initiation complexes from purified components, for duck HBV (DHBV),now allows for the analysis of the biochemistry of hepadnaviral replication at the molecular level. Here we review the current state of knowledge at all steps of the hepadnaviral genome replication cycle, with emphasis on new insights that turned up by the use of such cellfree systems. At this time, they can, unfortunately,not be complemented by three-dimensional structural information on the involved components. However, at least for the s RNA element such information is emerging,raising expectations that combining biophysics with biochemistry and genetics will soon provide a powerful integrated approach for solving the many outstanding questions. The ultimate, though most challenging goal,will be to visualize the hepadnaviral reverse transcriptase in the act of synthesizing DNA, which will also have strong implications for drug development.

  2. Hepatitis B immunisation in persons not previously exposed to hepatitis B or with unknown exposure status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathew, Joseph L; El Dib, Regina; Mathew, Preethy J

    2008-01-01

    The benefits and harms of hepatitis B vaccination in persons not previously exposed to hepatitis B infection or with unknown exposure status have not been established.......The benefits and harms of hepatitis B vaccination in persons not previously exposed to hepatitis B infection or with unknown exposure status have not been established....

  3. Effect of hepatitis B immunisation in newborn infants of mothers positive for hepatitis B surface antigen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Chuanfang; Gong, Yan; Brok, Jesper

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of hepatitis B vaccine and immunoglobulin in newborn infants of mothers positive for hepatitis B surface antigen.......To evaluate the effects of hepatitis B vaccine and immunoglobulin in newborn infants of mothers positive for hepatitis B surface antigen....

  4. Bivalent inactivated hepatitis A and recombinant hepatitis B vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, Jiri

    2007-12-01

    Hepatitis A and B remain serious global public health problems. Monovalent vaccines against hepatitis A and B have been available for many years. Since 1996, licenses have been gradually introduced for different formulations and immunization schedules of the first combined vaccines against both diseases. Twinrix Adult (with conventional and accelerated schedules) is available for the immunization of individuals aged 16 years or older in Europe and 18 years or older the USA. Twinrix Pediatric, with its three-dose schedule, and AmBirix, with its two-dose schedule, are licensed in Europe for ages 1-15 years. These vaccines offer a single injection for satisfactory protection against hepatitis A and B and an excellent safety and reactogenicity profile in comparison with monovalent vaccines. This article focuses on immunogenicity of the vaccines and proposes expert opinion and future directions in this field.

  5. Hepatic Diacylglycerol-Associated Protein Kinase Cε Translocation Links Hepatic Steatosis to Hepatic Insulin Resistance in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasper W. ter Horst

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic lipid accumulation has been implicated in the development of insulin resistance, but translational evidence in humans is limited. We investigated the relationship between liver fat and tissue-specific insulin sensitivity in 133 obese subjects. Although the presence of hepatic steatosis in obese subjects was associated with hepatic, adipose tissue, and peripheral insulin resistance, we found that intrahepatic triglycerides were not strictly sufficient or essential for hepatic insulin resistance. Thus, to examine the molecular mechanisms that link hepatic steatosis to hepatic insulin resistance, we comprehensively analyzed liver biopsies from a subset of 29 subjects. Here, hepatic cytosolic diacylglycerol content, but not hepatic ceramide content, was increased in subjects with hepatic insulin resistance. Moreover, cytosolic diacylglycerols were strongly associated with hepatic PKCε activation, as reflected by PKCε translocation to the plasma membrane. These results demonstrate the relevance of hepatic diacylglycerol-induced PKCε activation in the pathogenesis of NAFLD-associated hepatic insulin resistance in humans.

  6. One Family's Struggles with Hepatitis B

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... GETVAXED print ads go to GETVAXED.ORG cme Immunizations Hepatitis B One family's struggles with hepatitis B ... not possible without a visit to your doctor. Immunizations stop disease from spreading. Check with your family ...

  7. One Family's Struggles with Hepatitis B

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... kids infect kids labs links & resources milk thistle pediatric hepatitis report someone you know has hbv/hcv ... morrow scholarship links & resources listservs need more help? pediatric hepatitis report infection protection bioterrorism five second rule ...

  8. Parvovirus B19 Associated Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bihari, Chhagan; Rastogi, Archana; Saxena, Priyanka; Rangegowda, Devraj; Chowdhury, Ashok; Gupta, Nalini; Sarin, Shiv Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Parvovirus B19 infection can present with myriads of clinical diseases and syndromes; liver manifestations and hepatitis are examples of them. Parvovirus B19 hepatitis associated aplastic anemia and its coinfection with other hepatotropic viruses are relatively underrecognized, and there is sufficient evidence in the literature suggesting that B19 infections can cause a spectrum of liver diseases from elevation of transaminases to acute hepatitis to fulminant liver failure and even chronic hepatitis. It can also cause fatal macrophage activation syndrome and fibrosing cholestatic hepatitis. Parvovirus B19 is an erythrovirus that can only be replicate in pronormoblasts and hepatocytes, and other cells which have globosides and glycosphingolipids in their membrane can also be affected by direct virus injury due to nonstructural protein 1 persistence and indirectly by immune mediated injury. The virus infection is suspected in bone marrow aspiration in cases with sudden drop of hemoglobin and onset of transient aplastic anemia in immunosuppressed or immunocompetent patients and is confirmed either by IgM and IgG positive serology, PCR analysis, and in situ hybridization in biopsy specimens or by application of both. There is no specific treatment for parvovirus B19 related liver diseases, but triple therapy regimen may be effective consisting of immunoglobulin, dehydrohydrocortisone, and cyclosporine. PMID:24232179

  9. Immunological techniques in viral hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehermann, Barbara; Naoumov, Nikolai V

    2007-03-01

    The need to quantitate and monitor immune responses of large patient cohorts with standardized techniques is increasing due to the growing range of treatment options for hepatitis B and hepatitis C, the development of combination therapies, and candidate experimental vaccines for HCV. In addition, advances in immunological techniques have provided new tools for detailed phenotypic and functional analysis of cellular immune responses. At present, there is substantial variation in laboratory protocols, reagents, controls and analysis and presentation of results. Standardization of immunological assays would therefore allow better comparison of results amongst individual laboratories and patient cohorts. The EASL-sponsored and AASLD-endorsed Monothematic Conference on Clinical Immunology in Viral Hepatitis was held at the University College London, United Kingdom, Oct 7-8, 2006 to bring together investigators with research experience in clinical immunology of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections for in-depth discussion, critical evaluation and standardization of immunological assays. This report summarizes the information presented and discussed at the conference, but is not intended to represent a consensus statement. Our aim is to highlight topics and issues that were supported by general agreement and those that were controversial, as well as to provide suggestions for future work.

  10. Antiviral therapy for hepatitis B virus associated hepatic failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Ming Wang; Ying-Zi Tang

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains a major global health issue, and the prognosis of patients with HBV-associated fulminant hepatic failure is extremely poor. The application of antiviral therapies has led to signiifcant improvements in patient outcomes. This article aimed to review the current strategies in antiviral treatment of HBV-associated fulminant hepatic failure. DATA SOURCES: Literature search was conducted using PubMed on the related subjects. Part of the data was from the most recent work of the authors' laboratory. RESULTS: Hepatitis B immunoglobulin in prevention of recurrent HBV infection after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) has been proven effective. However, its cost is high, and signiifcant side effects have been found to induce viral mutations. Lamivudine has a potent suppression for HBV replication and an excellent safety proifle in decompensated cirrhotic patients, but its major drawback is the high rate of drug-resistance. Adefovir is effective for lamivudine-resistance strains in the post-OLT situation, and its drug-resistance rate is relatively low. Combination therapies such as hepatitis B immunoglobulin combined with lamivudine and lamivudine combined with adefovir have been widely adopted for prophylaxis against HBV recurrence of infection after OLT. Entecavir, telbivudine, tenofovir and other newer agents have been widely used in antiviral therapy. CONCLUSIONS: The prognosis of HBV-associated ful-minant hepatic failure is being transformed by developments in antiviral therapy. However, it should be noticed that HBV is controlled but never eliminated, and drug-resistance still remains a major issue. Hopefully, newer strategies may help to solve these problems.

  11. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and hepatic cirrhosis: Comparison with viral hepatitis-associated steatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haga, Yuki; Kanda, Tatsuo; Sasaki, Reina; Nakamura, Masato; Nakamoto, Shingo; Yokosuka, Osamu

    2015-12-14

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) including nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is globally increasing and has become a world-wide health problem. Chronic infection with hepatitis B virus or hepatitis C virus (HCV) is associated with hepatic steatosis. Viral hepatitis-associated hepatic steatosis is often caused by metabolic syndrome including obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus and/or dyslipidemia. It has been reported that HCV genotype 3 exerts direct metabolic effects that lead to hepatic steatosis. In this review, the differences between NAFLD/NASH and viral hepatitis-associated steatosis are discussed.

  12. Diagnosis and Management of Hepatic Encephalopathy in Fulminant Hepatic Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodali, Sudha; McGuire, Brendan M

    2015-08-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is associated with cerebral edema (CE), increased intracranial pressure (ICP), and subsequent neurologic complications; it is the most important cause of morbidity and mortality in fulminant hepatic failure. The goal of therapy should be early diagnosis and treatment of HE with measures to reduce CE. A combination of clinical examination and diagnostic modalities can aid in prompt diagnosis. ICP monitoring and transcranial Doppler help diagnose and monitor response to treatment. Transfer to a transplant center and intensive care unit admission with airway management and reduction of CE with hypertonic saline, mannitol, hypothermia, and sedation are recommended as a bridge to liver transplantation.

  13. Severe Acute Hepatitis B Treated with Entecavir

    OpenAIRE

    Giuseppe Vittorio Luigi De Socio; Alessio Sgrelli; Andrea Tosti; Franco Baldelli

    2011-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection constitutes a serious global health problem. Nowadays there are divergent data regarding the use of antiviral drugs to treat acute hepatitis B. We present here a case of a 62-year-old man affected by severe acute hepatitis B with progressive worsening of clinical and hepatic function. The patient was treated with entecavir without critical side effects. We observed rapid clinical and laboratory improvements and the disappearance of surface antigen (HBsAg). Th...

  14. Pediatric knowledge about acute viral hepatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Franca,Rita; Silva,Luciana; Melo, Maria Clotildes; Cavalcante,Suzy; Lima, Bruno; Rocha, Anita; Gomes, Cristiana; Franca, Mônica

    2004-01-01

    p.227-235 Knowledge about hepatotropic viruses is crucial for pediatricians because of the high prevalence of viral hepatitis during childhood. The multiplicity of hepatotropic viruses, the spectrum of acute and chronic infections, and the sequels of viral hepatitis result in a need for physicians to better understand the clinical and epidemiological context of patients with viral hepatitis, as well as the importance of prevention measures for hepatitis. A descriptive cross-sectional study...

  15. Institute of Medicine's Report on Viral Hepatitis

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-05-18

    In this podcast, Dr. John Ward, Director of CDC’s Division of Viral Hepatitis, discusses the 2010 report, Hepatitis and Liver Cancer: A National Strategy for Prevention and Control of Hepatitis B and C, from the Institute of Medicine.  Created: 5/18/2010 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 5/18/2010.

  16. Primary hepatic carcinosarcoma:a case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王细文; 梁平; 李洪艳

    2004-01-01

    @@ Primary hepatic carcinosarcoma is defined as a malignant hepatic tumour containing both carcinomatous and sarcomatous elements. Strictly, it should be distinguished from collision tumour and carcinoma with foci of spindle-shaped epithelial cells. Primary hepatic carcinosarcoma is rare, and less than 11 adequately documented cases have been reported. In this article, a case of primary hepatic carcinosarcoma was discussed as to its potential histogenesis.

  17. Hepatitis E in Europe: Diagnosis and Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a single-stranded, non-enveloped, positive-stranded RNA virus that can be classified into four genotypes with distinct geographical distributions. Several reservoirs and transmission routes have been identified. The clinical symptoms of acute hepatitis caused by the different genotypes cannot be distinguished from each other and are similar to those caused by other types of hepatitis. In developed countries, fulminant hepatitis can develop in patients with underlyin...

  18. Benzodiazepine receptor antagonists for hepatic encephalopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als-Nielsen, B; Gluud, L L; Gluud, C

    2004-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy may be associated with accumulation of substances that bind to a receptor-complex in the brain resulting in neural inhibition. Benzodiazepine receptor antagonists may have a beneficial effect on patients with hepatic encephalopathy.......Hepatic encephalopathy may be associated with accumulation of substances that bind to a receptor-complex in the brain resulting in neural inhibition. Benzodiazepine receptor antagonists may have a beneficial effect on patients with hepatic encephalopathy....

  19. Cost effectiveness of hepatitis A/B versus hepatitis B vaccination for US prison inmates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, R Jake; Rosenthal, Philip; Meyerhoff, Allen S

    2004-03-12

    Hepatitis B immunization is provided in many US prison systems. We examined the cost effectiveness of substituting bivalent hepatitis A/B vaccine in this setting, considering regional variation in hepatitis A risks and the potential for disease transmission by former prisoners. Where hepatitis A rates are >200, 100-200, and effectiveness would be US$ Prison-based hepatitis A/B immunization would meet accepted standards of cost effectiveness throughout the US.

  20. Direct acting antiviral therapy is curative for chronic hepatitis C/autoimmune hepatitis overlap syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Farhad; Sahebjam; Cristina; H; Hajdu; Esther; Nortey; Samuel; H; Sigal

    2016-01-01

    Autoimmune phenomena are common in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Management of chronic hepatitis C/autoimmune hepatitis syndrome has until recently been problematic due to the adverse effects of interferon on autoimmune processes and immunosuppression on viral replication. In this report we describe 3 patients with chronic hepatitis C/autoimmune hepatitis overlap syndrome who responded rapidly to direct acting antiviral therapy. The resolution of the autoimmune process supports a direct viral role in its pathophysiology.

  1. Hepatite C Hepatitis C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna Strauss

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Estima-se que cerca de 3% da população mundial esteja infectada pelo vírus da hepatite C. Todos os que receberam transfusão de sangue ou seus componentes e os usuários de drogas podem estar infectados. Procedimentos odontológicos, médicos, tatuagem ou acupuntura também constituem fatores de risco. A infecção se cronifica em até 85% dos indivíduos, com evolução assintomática durante anos ou décadas e apresentação clínica variada. Para o diagnóstico, a determinação do anti-VHC revela-se muito sensível e a confirmação se faz pela determinação do RNA-VHC no sangue; o estadiamento da doença e a avaliação da atividade inflamatória pela biópsia hepática. O tratamento objetiva deter a progressão da doença hepática através da inibição da replicação viral. Devido à baixa eficácia terapêutica aliada a importantes efeitos colaterais do interferon e da ribavirina, esses medicamentos encontram indicações e contra-indicações específicas. Vários fatores preditivos de resposta ao tratamento, principalmente a carga viral e o genótipo do VHC, mostram-se úteis na avaliação dos pacientes.It has been estimated that 3% of the world population is infected with the hepatitis C virus. Those who are blood product recipients or have been illicit drug users are at risk. Dental and medical procedures as well as tattooing and acupuncture are also risk factors. Chronic infection occurs in up to 85% of infected cases but they may remain without symptoms during years or even decades, and clinical presentation varies. Determination of anti-HCV in sera is a fairly sensitive tool for the diagnosis, and confirmation requires the identification of HCV-RNA. Staging of the liver disease as well as definition of its present activity can be graded by liver biopsy. The aim of treatment is to stop the progression of the hepatic disease by inhibiting viral replication. Due to the low therapeutic efficacy combined with important side

  2. Studies on Hepatitis B vaccination in neonates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. del Canho (Riwka)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractFrom 1982-1989, 705 infants born to HBsAg positive mothers entered the Dutch neonatal hepatitis B vaccination program and received passive-active hepatitis B immunization, according to 6 schedules, varying in time of onset vaccination, dose of hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBlg) and type

  3. Chinese medicinal herbs for chronic hepatitis B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, J; McIntosh, H; Lin, Haili

    2001-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis B is a serious health problem worldwide. Chinese medicinal herbs are widely used for treatment of chronic hepatitis B in China and many clinical trials have been conducted. This systematic review is to assess the efficacy and safety of Chinese medicinal herbs for chronic hepatitis...... B....

  4. Hepatitis E in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Hannah C; Boisson, Sophie; Ijaz, Samreen; Hewitt, Kirsten; Ngui, Siew Lin; Boxall, Elizabeth; Teo, Chong Gee; Morgan, Dilys

    2008-01-01

    In 2005, 329 cases of hepatitis E virus infection were confirmed in England and Wales; 33 were confirmed indigenous infections, and a further 67 were estimated to be indigenous infections. Hepatitis E should be considered in the investigation of patients with hepatitis even if they have no history of travel.

  5. Hepatitis Testing: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Clinical Chemistry) Hepatitis C: Information on Testing and Diagnosis (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) - PDF Hepatitis C: Why Baby Boomers Should Get Tested (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) - PDF Screening for Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Nonpregnant Adolescents and Adults (U.S. ...

  6. 78 FR 46247 - World Hepatitis Day, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-31

    ... disease that afflicts one in twelve people worldwide. Viral hepatitis is a major cause of liver cancer and... significantly improve with treatment, but because viral hepatitis can be present without symptoms for decades... treating viral hepatitis, and we renew our commitment to combat this disease in all its forms. Public...

  7. Drug Use and Viral Infections (HIV, Hepatitis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics Global Health Health Consequences of Drug Misuse Hepatitis (Viral) HIV/AIDS Mental Health Military Opioid Overdose Reversal ... Publications » DrugFacts » Drug Use and Viral Infections (HIV, Hepatitis) Drug Use and Viral Infections (HIV, Hepatitis) Email Facebook Twitter Revised March ...

  8. Lamivudine Treatment for Chronic Hepatitis B

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Honkoop (Pieter)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractThe hepatitis B virus (HBV) is one of the smallest human viruses known and belongs to the family of Hepadnaviridae; it was the first human hepatitis virus that could be characterized. Before the discovery of the virus two types of transmission of infectious hepatitis were distinguished o

  9. Studies on Hepatitis B vaccination in neonates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. del Canho (Riwka)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractFrom 1982-1989, 705 infants born to HBsAg positive mothers entered the Dutch neonatal hepatitis B vaccination program and received passive-active hepatitis B immunization, according to 6 schedules, varying in time of onset vaccination, dose of hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBlg) and type a

  10. Clinical application of hepatic CT perfusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang Zhong; Wen-Jing Wang; Jian-Rong Xu

    2009-01-01

    Complicated changes occur in hemodynamics of hepatic artery and vein, and portal vein under various kinds of pathologic status because of distinct double hepatic blood supply. This article reviews the clinical application of hepatic computed tomography perfusion in some liver diseases.

  11. Hepatitis A virus infection presenting with seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cam, Sebahat; Ertem, Deniz; Koroglu, Ozge Altun; Pehlivanoglu, Ender

    2005-07-01

    Hepatitis A infection rarely causes extrahepatic manifestations. Here we present a 5-year-old patient with an initial complaint of nuchal rigidity and convulsions during the course of hepatitis A infection. Because hepatitis A virus RNA was demonstrated in the cerebrospinal fluid, it was thought that convulsions might be related to this viral infection.

  12. Prevalence of hepatitis B virus among immunocompromised ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of hepatitis B virus among immunocompromised individuals attending Nnamdi ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... Hepatitis B is an infectious inflammatory illness of the liver caused by the hepatitis B ... Rwanda (3); Senegal (6); Sierra Leone (1); South Africa (96); South Sudan (1); Sudan (3) ...

  13. Update on Autoimmune Hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberal, Rodrigo; Vergani, Diego; Mieli-Vergani, Giorgina

    2015-03-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), a liver disorder affecting both children and adults, is characterized by inflammatory liver histology, elevated transaminase levels, circulating nonorganspecific autoantibodies, and increased levels of immunoglobulin G, in the absence of a known etiology. Two types of AIH are recognized according to seropositivity: smooth muscle antibody and/or antinuclear antibody define AIH type 1 and antibodies to liver-kidney microsome type 1 and/or liver cytosol type 1 define AIH type 2. AIH type 1 affects both adults and children, while AIH type 2 is mainly a paediatric disease, though it does occasionally affects young adults. AIH should be considered during the diagnostic workup of any patient with increased liver enzyme levels. AIH is exquisitely responsive to immunosuppressive treatment with prednisolone with or without azathioprine, with symptom free long-term survival for the majority of patients. For those who do not respond to standard treatment, or who are difficult-to-treat, mycophenolate mofetil and, in the absence of a response, calcineurin inhibitors should be tried in addition to steroids. The pathogenesis of AIH is not fully understood, although there is mounting evidence that genetic susceptibility, molecular mimicry and impaired immunoregulatory networks contribute to the initiation and perpetuation of the autoimmune attack. Liver damage is thought to be mediated primarily by CD4 T-cells, although recent studies support the involvement of diverse populations, including Th17 cells. A deeper understanding of the pathogenesis of AIH is likely to contribute to the development of novel treatments, such as the adoptive transfer of autologous expanded antigenspecific regulatory T-cells, which ultimately aim at restoring tolerance to liver-derived antigens.

  14. Viral hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francque Sven M

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is one of the most common malignant tumors in the world. The incidence of HCC varies considerably with the geographic area because of differences in the major causative factors. Chronic hepatitis B and C, mostly in the cirrhotic stage, are responsible for the great majority of cases of HCC worldwide. The geographic areas at the highest risk are South-East Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, here hepatitis B is highly endemic and is the main cause of HCC. In areas with an intermediate rate of HCC such as Southern Europe and Japan, hepatitis C is the predominant cause, whereas in low rate areas such as Northern Europe and the USA, HCC is often related to other factors as alcoholic liver disease. There is a rising incidence in HCC in developed countries during the last two decades, due to the increasing rate of hepatitis C infection and improvement of the clinical management of cirrhosis. Methods This article reviews the literature on hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The Medline search was carried out using these key words and articles were selected on epidemiology, risk factors, screening, and prevention of hepatocellular carcinoma. Results Screening of patients with advanced chronic hepatitis B and C with hepatic ultrasound and determination of serum alfa-fetoprotein may improve the detection of HCC, but further studies are needed whether screening improves clinical outcome. Hepatitis B and C viruses (HBV/HCV can be implicated in the development of HCC in an indirect way, through induction of chronic inflammation, or directly by means of viral proteins or, in the case of HBV, by creation of mutations by integration into the genome of the hepatocyte. Conclusion The most effective tool to prevent HCC is avoidance of the risk factors such as viral infection. For HBV, a very effective vaccine is available. Preliminary data from Taiwan indicate a protective effect of universal vaccination on the

  15. INFEKSI VIRUS HEPATITIS B DAN HEPATITIS C PADA PENDERITA HEPATITIS KRONIS DAN HEMODIALISIS DI JAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djoko Yuwono

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Virus Hepatitis C dan Hepatitis B merupakan penyebab hepatitis kronik aktif yang dapat berkembang menjadi hepatoselular karsinoma. Untuk mengetahui peranan kedua jenis virus tersebut sebagai penyebab hepatoselular karsinoma, telah dilakukan pemeriksaan HbsAg, anti-VHC dan RNA-VHC pada 17 penderita hepatitis kronis. 19 Pasien hemodialisis dan 198 donor darah PMI. Pemeriksaan HbsAg dilakukan dengan RPHA Cell: pemeriksaan anti-VHC dengan dipstik anti-VHC kit diagnotik produksi NTB Mataram, Lombok. Deteksi RNA-VHC dilakukan dengan teknik RT-PCR, menggunakan primer spesifik untuk daerah 5'NCR. Hasil pemeriksaan menunjukkan bahwa pada penderita hepatitis kronis ditemukan 5 orang (23,5% positif HbsAg dan 1 orang (5,8% anti-VHC. Pada penderita hemodialisis ditemukan 14 orang (73,6% positif anti-VHC, persentase anti-VHC meningkat sesuai dengan meningkatnya frekuensi hemodialisis. Pada donor darah PMI ditemukan 5 orang (2,2% positif HbsAg dan tidak satupun ditemukan anti-VHC positif.

  16. [Clinical practice guideline for diagnosis and treatment of chronic hepatitis virus hepatitis B. Grupo Colaborativo en Hepatitis B].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    This guide sets out the technical criteria for the diagnosis and treatment of chronic hepatitis secondary to viral hepatitis B. The guide intend to reduce the morbidity and mortality of this disease. The Guide give practical definitions to help understand the terminology, describe epidemiology, risk factors, and clinical aspects and the diagnosis of chronic hepatitis B. Finally the guide give recommendations for the management including special circumstances such as patients with cirrhosis, patients coinfected with HIV or coinfected with hepatitis C. The recommendations of the guide become the national guide for the management of chronic hepatitis B

  17. Characteristics of acute hepatitis C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitrović Nikola

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Acute hepatitis C most frequently develops after parenteral infection of hepatitis C virus. The disease often develops into chronic infection, although it can resolve spontaneously. Interferon alpha (INF-α is used in therapy, but still without precise treatment recommendations. Objective. The aim was to present characteristics of patients with acute hepatitis C and to assess effectiveness of using recombinant INF-α in therapy. Methods. Total of 55 patients with acute hepatitis C, hospitalized at the Clinic for Infectious Diseases in Belgrade from January 2005 to December 2012 were enrolled in this study. Forty-one patients were under follow-up over six months for evaluation of the development of the disease into a chronic infection and effectiveness of treatment with INF-α. Results. Eighty percent of patients were male of average age 29.6±8.6 years; in 61.8% patients intravenous drug abuse was determined as risk factor. Thirty patients (54.1% had no symptoms and 38.2% were icteric. Acute hepatitis C spontaneously resolved in 33.3% patients, while in the treated group 79.6% of patients completely recovered (p=0.006. Treatment success was 92.9% in the group of patients who started with treatment before the 45th day of disease, while in the patients who started treatment later the success rated 58.3% (p=0.037. Conclusion. Acute hepatitis C is most common in young male adults infected via injection drug abuse. The use of INF-α is effective in the treatment of the disease, and success of the treatment is more probable if treatment is started before the 45th day.

  18. Hepatitis C, stigma and cure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinho, Rui Tato; Barreira, David Pires

    2013-10-28

    The infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) is one of the most important global chronic viral infections worldwide. It is estimated to affect around 3% of the world population, about 170-200 million people. Great part of the infections are asymptomatic, the patient can be a chronic carrier for decades without knowing it. The most severe consequences of the chronic infection are liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, which appears in 20%-40% of the patients, leading to hepatic failure and death. The HCV was discovered 25 years ago in 1989, is a RNA virus and classified by the World Health Organization as an oncogenic one. Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the most important cancers, the fifth worldwide in terms of mortality. It has been increasing in the Ocidental world, mainly due to chronic hepatitis C. Hepatitis C is not only a liver disease and a cause of cirrhosis, but also a mental, psychological, familiar, and social disease. The stigma that the infected person sometimes carries is tremendous having multiple consequences. The main cause is lack of adequate information, even in the health professionals setting. But, besides the "drama" of being infected, health professionals, family, society and the infected patients, must be aware of the chance of real cure and total and definitive elimination of the virus. The treatment for hepatitis C has begun in the last 80's with a percentage of cure of 6%. Step by step the efficacy of the therapy for hepatitis C is rapidly increasing and nowadays with the very new medications, the so called Direct Antiviral Agents-DAAs of new generation, is around 80%-90%.

  19. Current Knowledge on Hepatitis E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Gracia, María Teresa; García, Mario; Suay, Beatriz; Mateos-Lindemann, María Luisa

    2015-06-28

    Although only a single serotype of hepatitis E virus (HEV), the causative agent of hepatitis E, has been identified, there is great genetic variation among the different HEV isolates reported. There are at least four major recognized genotypes of HEV: genotypes 1 and 2 are mainly restricted to humans and linked to epidemic outbreaks in nonindustrialized countries, whereas genotypes 3 and 4 are zoonotic in both developing and industrialized countries. Besides human strains, genotype 3 and 4 strains of HEV have been genetically characterized from swine, sika deer, mongooses, sheep, and rabbits. Currently, there are approximately 11,000 human and animal sequences of HEV available at the International Nucleotide Sequence Database Collaboration. HEV is the major cause of waterborne outbreaks of hepatitis in areas of poor sanitation. Additionally, it is responsible for sporadic cases of viral hepatitis in not only endemic but industrialized countries as well. Transmission of HEV occurs predominantly by the fecal-oral route, although parenteral and perinatal routes have been reported. HEV infection develops in most individuals as a self-limiting, acute, icteric hepatitis; with mortality rates around 1%. However, some affected individuals will develop fulminant hepatic failure, a serious condition that is frequently fatal without a liver transplant. This complication is particularly common when the infection occurs in pregnant women, where mortality rates rise dramatically to up to 25%. Among the preventive measures available to avoid HEV infection, two separate subunit vaccines containing recombinant truncated capsid proteins of HEV have been shown to be highly effective in the prevention of disease. One of them, HEV 239, was approved in China, and its commercialization by Innovax began in November 2012 under the name Hecolin(®).

  20. Insulin resistance and hepatitis C

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Manuel Romero-Gómez

    2006-01-01

    Insulin resistance is the major feature of the metabolic syndrome and depends on insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity. In chronic hepatitis C, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus are more often seen than in healthy controls or chronic hepatitis B patients.Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection promotes insulin resistance, mainly by increased TNF production together with enhancement of suppressor of cytokine (SOC-3); both events block PI3K and Akt phosphorylation. Two types of insulin resistance could be found in chronic hepatitis C patients: "viral" and "metabolic" insulin resistance. Insulin resistance in chronic hepatitis C is relevant because it promotes steatosis and fibrosis. The mechanisms by which insulin resistance promotes fibrosis progression include: (1) steatosis, (2) hyperleptinemia, (3) increased TNF production, (4) impaired expression of PPARy receptors. Lastly, insulin resistance has been found as a common denominator in patients difficult-to-treat like cirrhotics, overweight, HIV coinfected and Afro-American.Insulin resistance together with fibrosis and genotype has been found to be independently associated with impaired response rate to peginterferon plus ribavirin.Indeed, in genotype 1, the sustained response rate was twice (60%) in patients with HOMA ≤ 2 than patients with HOMA > 2. In experiments carried out on Huh-7cells transfected by full length HCVRNA, interferon alpha blocks HCV replication. However, when insulin (at doses of 128 μU/mL, similar that seen in the hyperinsulinemic state) was added to interferon, the ability to block HCV replication disappeared, and the PKR synthesis was abolished. In summary, hepatitis C promotes insulin resistance and insulin resistance induces interferon resistance,steatosis and fibrosis progression.

  1. Hepatic arterial buffer response fails to restore hepatic oxygenation after temporary liver dearterialization in canines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, R J; Ribeiro, E A; Poli de Figueiredo, L F; Cantos, O R; Rocha e Silva, M

    2005-12-01

    Hepatic artery thrombosis is a rare but extremely troublesome condition after liver transplantation. Recently, urgent arterial revascularization has been used as rescue therapy, leading to improved graft and patient survivals. Hepatic artery ligation produces a progressive reduction in portal vein blood flow. Theoretically, a hyperemic response may be expected following hepatic artery reperfusion (hepatic artery buffer response, HABR). In this study, we tested the hypothesis that HABR can maintain adequate liver oxygenation after temporary liver dearterialization. Seven dogs (19.7 +/- 1.2 kg) subjected to 60 minutes of hepatic artery occlusion were observed for 120 minutes thereafter. Systemic hemodynamics was evaluated through Swan-Ganz and arterial catheters, and splanchnic perfusion by portal vein and hepatic artery blood flows (PVBF and HABF) via an ultrasonic flowprobe. Liver enzymes (ALT and LDH) and systemic and hepatic oxygen delivery (DO2hepat) were calculated using standard formulae. Hepatic artery occlusion induced a progressive reduction in PVBF and DO2hepat. A complete restoration of HABF after hepatic artery declamping was observed; however, the DO2hepat (33.3 +/- 5.9 to 16.5 +/- 5.9 mL/min) did not return to the baseline levels. Temporary hepatic artery occlusion induced a progressive decrease in portal vein blood flow during ischemia, an effect that continued during the reperfusion period. The hepatic artery blood flow was promptly restored after declamping. However, HABR was not able to restore hepatic oxygen delivery to baseline levels during the reperfusion period.

  2. Hepatitis B prevalence in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, N; Hay, G; Cowan, S

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in Denmark is not clear. The primary aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of chronic HBV infection in Denmark. The capture–recapture method was used to estimate the total population diagnosed with chronic HBV infection......, and the capture–recapture estimate of the total population diagnosed with chronic hepatitis B was 7,112 (95% confidence interval (CI): 6,953–10,747). Only 17% of the identified patients attended recommended clinical care according to national guidelines. Including undiagnosed patients, the current population...

  3. Hepatitis B prevalence in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, N; Hay, G; Cowan, S;

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in Denmark is not clear. The primary aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of chronic HBV infection in Denmark. The capture–recapture method was used to estimate the total population diagnosed with chronic HBV infection......, and the capture–recapture estimate of the total population diagnosed with chronic hepatitis B was 7,112 (95% confidence interval (CI): 6,953–10,747). Only 17% of the identified patients attended recommended clinical care according to national guidelines. Including undiagnosed patients, the current population...

  4. Vascular Reconstruction in Hepatic Malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berumen, Jennifer; Hemming, Alan

    2016-04-01

    With surgery for hepatic malignancy, there are poor options for chemotherapy; many patients are deemed unresectable because of vascular involvement or location of tumors. Over the past few decades, advances in surgical technique have allowed resection of these tumors with vascular reconstruction to achieve negative margins and improve chances for survival. This article reviews those reconstruction techniques and outcomes in detail, including in situ perfusion and ex vivo liver surgery, and provides a discussion of implications and operative planning for patients with hepatic malignancy in order to provide surgeons with better understanding of these complicated operations.

  5. Ceftriaxone-induced toxic hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Erdal Peker; Eren Cagan; Murat Dogan

    2009-01-01

    Toxic hepatitis or drug-induced liver injury encompasses a spectrum of clinical disease ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to acute liver failure. The advantages of a long half-life, wide spectrum, high tissue penetration rate, and a good safety profile,make ceftriaxone, a third-generation cephalosporin,a frequent choice in the treatment of childhood infections. Previous studies have reported a few cases of high aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels, along with three cases ofhepatitis caused by ceftriaxone. Here, we report a case of drug-induced toxic hepatitis in a patient who was treated with ceftriaxone for acute tonsillitis.

  6. Hepatitis C: Issues in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Christine K; Jonas, Maureen M

    2015-12-01

    Hepatitis C infection is a global health problem. Most infected children have not been identified. Perinatal transmission is the most common mode of acquisition. Liver disease owing to chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection progresses slowly in individuals infected early in life. Serious complications rarely affect patients during childhood. Successful treatment of HCV in adults has improved and recommendations have changed. Treatment in children should be deferred until direct-acting antivirals and interferon-free regimens are available to this population. If treatment cannot be deferred, regimens including peginterferon and ribavirin can be given to children with compensated liver disease.

  7. Clinical and virological improvement of hepatitis B virus-related or hepatitis C virus-related chronic hepatitis with concomitant hepatitis A virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagnelli, Evangelista; Coppola, Nicola; Pisaturo, Mariantonietta; Pisapia, Raffaella; Onofrio, Mirella; Sagnelli, Caterina; Catuogno, Antonio; Scolastico, Carlo; Piccinino, Felice; Filippini, Pietro

    2006-06-01

    We evaluated the clinical and virological characteristics of hepatitis A virus infection in persons concomitantly infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV). We enrolled 21 patients with acute hepatitis A and chronic hepatitis with no sign of liver cirrhosis, 13 patients who were positive for hepatitis B surface antigen (case B group), 8 patients who were anti-HCV positive (case C group), and 21 patients with acute hepatitis A without a preexisting liver disease (control A group). Two control groups of patients with chronic hepatitis B (control B group) or C (control C group) were also chosen. All control groups were pair-matched by age and sex with the corresponding case group. Fulminant hepatitis A was never observed, and hepatitis A had a severe course in 1 patient in the case B group and in 1 patient in the control A group. Both patients recovered. On admission, HBV DNA was detected in 1 patient in the case B group (7.7%) and in 13 patients (50%) in the control B group; HCV RNA was found in no patient in the case C group and in 16 patients (81.2%) in the control C group. Of 9 patients in the case B group who were followed up for 6 months, 3 became negative for hepatitis B surface antigen and positive for hepatitis B surface antibody, 2 remained positive for hepatitis B surface antigen and negative for HBV DNA, and 4 became positive for HBV DNA with a low viral load [corrected] Of 6 patients in the case C group who were followed up for 6 months, 3 remained negative for HCV RNA, and 3 had persistently low viral loads. Concomitant hepatitis A was always self-limited, associated with a marked inhibition of HBV and HCV genomes, and possibly had a good prognosis for the underlying chronic hepatitis.

  8. Small hepatic veins Budd-Chiari syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggio, Oliviero; Marzano, Chiara; Papa, Alessia; Pasquale, Chiara; Gasperini, Maria Ludovica; Gigante, Antonietta; Valla, Dominique Charles; Plessier, Aurélie; Amoroso, Antonio

    2014-05-01

    Budd-Chiari syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by hepatic venous outflow obstruction at any level from the small hepatic veins to the atrio-caval junction, in the absence of heart failure or constrictive pericarditis. Various imaging modalities are available for investigating the gross hepatic vascular anatomy but there are rare forms of this disease where the obstruction is limited to the small intrahepatic veins, with normal appearance of the large hepatic veins at imaging. In this cases only a liver biopsy can demonstrate the presence of a small vessels outflow block. We report two cases of small hepatic veins Budd-Chiari syndrome.

  9. Current research of hepatic cirrhosis in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xi-Xian Yao; Shu-Lin Jiang; Dong-Mei Yao

    2005-01-01

    Hepatic cirrhosis is a common disease that poses a serious threat to public health, and is characterized by chronic,progressive and diffuse hepatic lesions preceded by hepaticfibrosis regardless of the exact etiologies. In recent years,considerable achievements have been made in China in research of the etiopathogenesis, diagnosis and especially the treatment of hepatic fibrosis, resulting in much improved prognosis of hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis. In this paper, the authors review the current status of research in hepatic fibrosis, cirrhosis and their major complications.

  10. Fibrin ring granulomas in hepatitis A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruel, M; Sevestre, H; Henry-Biabaud, E; Courouce, A M; Capron, J P; Erlinger, S

    1992-12-01

    Fibrin ring granuloma is characterized by a fibrinous ring surrounding a central fat vacuole. It has been found in the liver and bone marrow of patients with Q fever, and occasionally with visceral leishmaniasis, cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, Staphylococcus epidermidis infections, Hodgkin's lymphoma, and hypersensitivity to allopurinol. We describe a case of serologically confirmed viral hepatitis A with this lesion in the liver biopsy. A false positive anti-hepatitis A virus IgM result has been excluded. This is, to our knowledge, the second reported case of type A hepatitis with hepatic fibrin ring granulomas. It confirms that hepatitis A should be included in the differential diagnosis of this lesion.

  11. Hepatitis C Infection Among Hispanics in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Catherine A; Erlyana, Erlyana; Fisher, Dennis G; Reynolds, Grace L

    2015-01-01

    Hispanics in California are more likely to be infected with hepatitis C, and those infected have had their infection detected later. A total of 1,567 Hispanic and Caucasian individuals were tested for antibodies to hepatitis C from 2000 through 2013. Interviewers administered the Risk Behavior Assessment. Hepatitis C-infected Hispanics were incarcerated longer than hepatitis C-infected Caucasians, and they used marijuana less and illicit methadone more. They were more likely to use crack, heroin, speedballs, and to have been in methadone treatment. Hispanics need hepatitis C testing linked to methadone treatment and written information in Spanish and English.

  12. Extrahepatic manifestations of hepatitis E virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamar, Nassim; Marion, Olivier; Abravanel, Florence; Izopet, Jacques; Dalton, Harry R

    2016-04-01

    Hepatitis E virus can cause acute, fulminant and chronic hepatitis and has been associated with a range of extrahepatic manifestations. Guillain-Barré syndrome, neuralgic amyotrophy and encephalitis are the main neurological manifestations associated with acute and chronic hepatitis E virus infection. Renal injuries have been also reported, including membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis with or without cryoglobulinemia and membranous glomerulonephritis. Acute pancreatitis, haematological disorders and other autoimmune extrahepatic manifestations of hepatitis E virus, such as myocarditis and thyroiditis, have been also reported. In this comprehensive article, we review all published reports describing hepatitis E virus-associated extrahepatic manifestations.

  13. Hepatitis C Virus Genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayhan Azadmanesh

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionHepatitis C virus (HCV is an important cause of chronic liver disease. HCV causes 20% of acute hepatitis cases, 70% of all chronic hepatitis cases, 40% of all cases of liver cirrhosis, 60% of hepatocellular carcinomas, and 30% of liver transplants in Europe(1. It is also recognized as the leading cause of liver transplantation in the world(2. Only 20% of infected individuals will recover from this viral infection, while the rest become chronically infected(3. While the majority of chronically infected individuals never exhibit symptoms, approximately 10-30% of these patients will eventually develop cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma, both of which are associated with significant morbidity and mortality(4.More than 170 million people worldwide are chronically infected with HCV. According to WHO report in 2002, chronic liver diseases were responsible for 1.4 million deaths, including 796,000 due to cirrhosis and 616,000 due to primary liver cancer. At least 20% of these deaths are probably attributable to HCV infection- more than 280,000 deaths(5, 6. The prevalence of chronic HCV infection in general population varies greatly in different parts of the world, being estimated between 0.1 and 5%, with a peak prevalence of 20- 25% in Egypt. HCV prevalence seems to be less than 1% in Iran, which is much lower than most of the neighboring countries(7. HCV was the first virus discovered by molecular cloning method without the direct use of biologic or biophysical methods. This was accomplished by extracting, copying into cDNA, and cloning all the nucleic acid from the plasma of a chimpanzee infected with non- A, non-B hepatitis by contaminated factor XIII concentrate(8. The HCV genome is a positive-sense, singlestranded RNA genome approximately 10 kb long. It has marked similarities to those of members of the genera Pestivirus and Flavivirus. Different HCV isolates from around the world show substantial nucleotide sequence variability

  14. Psychopathology and Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Gama Marques

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Since Hippocrates that neuropsychiatric illness secondary to liver disease fascinates physicians, but only in the XIX century Marcel Nencki and Ivan Pavlov suggested the relation between high concentrations of ammonia and Hepatic Encephalopathy (HE. The reaction of ammonia and glutamate (origins glutamine, “the Trojan Horse of neurotoxicity of ammonia continues to be the main responsible for the neurologic lesions, recently confirmed by neurochemistry and neuroimagiology studies. Glutamine starts the inflammatory reaction at the central nervous sys- tem but other important actors seem to be manganese and the neurotransmitters systems of GABA and endocanabinoids. Nowadays there are three different etiologic big groups for HE: type A associated with acute liver failure; type B associated with portosystemic bypass; and type C associated with cirrhosis of the liver. The staging of HE is still based on classic West Haven system, but a latent Grade 0 was introduced (the so called minimal HE; remaining the aggra- vating HE from Grade 1 (subtle changes at clinical examination to Grade 4 (coma. In this work a bibliographic review was made on 30 of the most pertinent and recent papers, focusing in psychopathology, physiopathology, etiology and staging of this clinical entity transversal to Psychiatry and Gastroenterology. Alterations are described in vigility and conscience like temporal, spatial and personal disorientation. Attention, concentration and memory are impaired very early, on latent phase and can be accessed through neuropsychological tests. Mood oscillates between euphoric and depressive. Personality changes begin obviously and abruptly or in a subtle and insidious way. There can be changes in perception like visual hallucinations or even of acoustic-verbal. The thought disorders can be of delusional type, paranoid, systematized or not, but also monothematic ala Capgras Syndrome. Speech can be accelerated, slowed down or completely in

  15. Chronic urticaria following acute hepatitis A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Paul M; Kevat, Dev A S; McCarthy, James S; Woods, Marion L

    2012-09-18

    Urticaria has a documented association with the prodromal phases of hepatitis A, B and, although still contentious, likely hepatitis C. Despite the documented association there are few actual reported cases of urticaria occurring with hepatitis A infection and in all of the cases reported so far the urticaria preceded the diagnosis of hepatitis A and was acute rather than chronic. We describe a case of urticaria occurring following acute infection with hepatitis A, which persisted beyond 6 weeks and therefore was by definition chronic. Although chronic urticaria has been reported to be associated with other forms of viral hepatitis, to the best of our knowledge this has not been reported previously with hepatitis A.

  16. Acute hepatitis C: Prospects and challenges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    More than 170 million people worldwide have chronic hepatitis C. Acute hepatitis C is rarely diagnosed because it is commonly asymptomatic. Most infected patients are unaware of their condition until the symptoms of chronic infection manifest. Treatment of acute hepatitis C is something of a paradox because spontaneous resolution is possible and many patients do not have symptoms.However, several factors provide a rationale for treating patients who have acute hepatitis C. Compared with acute hepatitis C, chronic hepatitis C is associated with a worse prognosis, the need for more intensive treatment,longer treatment duration, and a decrease in successful treatment outcomes. Conversely, early intervention is associated with improved viral eradication, using a regimen that is better tolerated, less expensive, more convenient, and of shorter duration than the currently approved combination therapies for chronic hepatitis C.

  17. Does chronic hepatitis B infection affect the clinical course of acute hepatitis A?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Su Rin; Moh, In Ho; Jung, Sung Won; Kim, Jin Bae; Park, Sang Hoon; Kim, Hyoung Su; Jang, Myung Kuk; Lee, Myung Seok

    2013-01-01

    The impact of chronic hepatitis B on the clinical outcome of acute hepatitis A remains controversial. The aim of present study was to evaluate the clinical characteristics of acute hepatitis A in cases with underlying chronic hepatitis B compared to cases of acute hepatitis A alone. Data on 758 patients with acute hepatitis A admitted at two university-affiliated hospitals were reviewed. Patients were classified into three groups: group A, patients with both acute hepatitis A and underlying chronic hepatitis B (n = 27); group B, patients infected by acute hepatitis A alone whose sexes and ages were matched with patients in group A (n  = 54); and group C, patients with acute hepatitis A alone (n = 731). None of the demographic features of group A were significantly different from those of group B or C, except for the proportion of males and body weight, which differed from group C. When comparing to group B, clinical symptoms were more frequent, and higher total bilirubin and lower albumin levels were observed in group A. When comparing to group C, the albumin levels were lower in group A. There were no differences in the duration of hospital stay, occurrence of acute kidney injury, acute liver failure, prolonged cholestasis, or relapsing hepatitis. This study revealed that clinical symptoms and laboratory findings were less favorable for patients with acute hepatitis A and chronic hepatitis B compared to those with acute hepatitis A alone. However, there were no differences in fatal outcomes or serious complications.

  18. Drug-induced hepatic injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Henrik; Andreasen, P B

    1992-01-01

    during the last 2 years of the decade. Based on consumption data, the incidence of hepatic injury due to sulindac was estimated to be 18-fold higher than that due to ibuprofen. Paracetamol was reported to induce acute cytotoxic as well as cholestatic reactions in non-alcoholic subjects taking therapeutic...

  19. Hepatitis A Virus in Transplants

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-05-17

    Dr. Monique Foster, a CDC epidemiologist, discusses an unusual case of hepatitis A virus in a transplant patient.  Created: 5/17/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 5/17/2017.

  20. Studies on acute hepatic insufficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.H. de Groot (Gerrit Harmen)

    1984-01-01

    textabstractAcute hepatic failure (AHF) is one of the most dramatic situations that a clinical physician can encounter. It is also one of the most frustating since death is the result in a large majority of the cases, despite all efforts of the medical and nursing staffs. Although a wide variety of

  1. [Autoimmune hepatitis induced by isotretionine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman Rojas, Patricia; Gallegos Lopez, Roxana; Ciliotta Chehade, Alessandra; Scavino, Yolanda; Morales, Alejandro; Tagle, Martín

    2016-01-01

    We describe a case of a teenage patient with the diagnosis of drug induced autoimmune hepatitis. The patient is a 16 years old female, with the past medical history of Hashimoto’s hypothyroidism controlled with levothyroxine, who started treatment with Isotretionin (®Accutane) 20 mg q/12 hours for a total of 3 months for the treatment of severe acne. The physical examination was within normal limits and the results of the laboratory exams are: Baseline values of ALT 28 U/L, AST 28 U/L. Three months later: AST 756 U/L, ALT 1199U/L, alkaline phosphatase 114 U/L, with normal bilirrubin levels throughout the process. The serology studies were negative for all viral hepatitis; ANA titers were positive (1/160) and igG levels were also elevated. A liver biopsy was performed, and was compatible with the diagnosis of autoimmune hepatitis. Corticosteroid therapy was started with Prednisone 40 mg per day one week after stopping the treatment with isotretionin, observing an improvement in the laboratory values. We describe this case and review the world literature since there are no reported cases of Isotretinoin-induced autoimmune hepatitis.

  2. patients with acute Icteric hepatitis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    *S. O. Ola, J. A. Otegbayo, G. N. Odaibo, O.-D. Olaleye and O. I. Olubuyide .... in Nigerian adults patients with acute ictcric hepatitis an d healthy adult at the .... lent in the course to chronicity. .... Corwin AL, Dai TC, Due DD, Suu PI, Van NT et al.

  3. Clinical studies on inferior right hepatic veins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue Xing; Hong Li; Wei-Guo Liu

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Many small veins are called accessory, short hepatic veins in addition to the right, middle and left hepatic veins. The size of these veins varied from a pinhole to 1 cm; the size of inferior right hepatic veins (IRHVs) is thicker than that of short hepatic veins or more than 1 cm occasionally. Adults have a higher incidence rate of the IRHV. DATA SOURCES:A literature search of the PubMed database was conducted and research articles were reviewed. RESULTS:The size of IRHVs is related to the size of the right hepatic vein, i.e. the larger the diameter of the right hepatic vein, the smaller the diameter of the IRHVs, and vice versa. The IRHVs are divided into superior, medial and inferior groups, separately named the superior, medial and inferior right hepatic veins according to the position of the IRHV entering the inferior vena cava. The superior right hepatic vein mainly drains the superior part of segmentⅦ, and the medial right hepatic vein drains the middle part of segmentⅦ. A thicker IRHV mainly drains segmentⅥ and the inferior part of segmentⅦ and a thinner IRHV drains the inferior part of segmentⅤ. CONCLUSIONS:The clinical signiifcance of these studies on IRHVs is varied: (1) Hepatic caudate lobe resection could be introduced after study on the veins of that lobe. (2) It is very important to identify the draining region of the IRHV for guiding hepatic segmentectomy. The postero-inferior area of the right lobe can be preserved along with the hypertrophic IRHV even if the entire main right hepatic vein is resected during segmentectomy ofⅦ andⅧwith right hepatic vein resection for patients with primary liver cancer. (3) The ligation of the major hepatic vein for the treatment of juxtahepatic vein injury is recommended because of severe hemorrhagic shock and dififculty in

  4. HEPATIC STEATOSIS: AN AETIOHISTOPATHOLOGICAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gauri Shrikrishna Metkar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Fatty liver disease, i.e. hepatic steatosis defined as hepatic lipid accumulation greater than 5-10% of liver weight. 1-3 has become a common health problem in both developed and developing countries. Morphologically fatty liver is of two types: microvesicular and macrovesicular. Macrovesicular steatosis is a chronic condition associated with various risk factors like alcoholism, diabetes mellitus, obesity, etc. The aim of present study was to analyse various aetiological factors associated with macrovesicular hepatic steatosis and find its correlation with the grade of steatosis. METHODOLOGY This retrospective and prospective study was conducted in histopathology laboratory of a tertiary health care centre in Mangalore, Karnataka, from 2009 to 2014; 120 cases of liver biopsies and autopsy liver tissue of adults (≥18 years showing histologically confirmed macrovesicular steatosis in >10% hepatocytes were analysed for aetiology and grade of steatosis. RESULT Hepatic steatosis was observed mainly in middle aged (31-50 years males. ALD and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH were most common causes followed by infections like TB, HCV, HBV, HIV and other causes like CPC (Chronic Passive Congestion liver and drugs. Spearmen’s correlation coefficient was used to analyse correlation between aetiology and grade of steatosis. ALD and NASH were most common causes for severe steatosis. ALD and NASH were also common causes for mild-to-moderate grade of steatosis. Mainly moderate-to-severe steatosis was found in association with TB, HCV, HBV, HIV. CPC cases predominantly showed moderate steatosis. The correlation between aetiology and grade of steatosis was found to be statistically significant. Drug induced steatosis was mostly severe grade, but the number of cases were too less to consider it statistically significant. CONCLUSION Various causes like ALD, NASH, TB, HCV, HBV and HIV infections, CPC and rarely drugs should be considered in

  5. How to Treat Pain in the Hepatic Region Due to Chronic Hepatitis?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林宗广

    2004-01-01

    @@ Chronic viral hepatitis type B and C both have the symptoms of pain in the hepatic region, asthenia, poor appetite, abdominal fullness, among which pain in the hepatic region is the most commonly seen. According to the author's clinical experience, treatment based on accurate TCM differentiation can not only eliminate pain in the hepatic region but also restore the hepatic function at the same time. Differentiation includes analysis of the nature of the hepatic pain and the accompanying symptoms, and the treatment is aimed at the differentiated symptoms. The following are methods of treatment.

  6. Is autoimmune hepatitis a frequent finding among HCV patients with intense interface hepatitis?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rosilene; G; Badiani; Vitória; Becker; Renata; M; Perez; Carla; AL; Matos; Lara; B; Lemos; Valéria; P; Lanzoni; Luis; Eduardo; C; Andrade; Alessandra; Dellavance; Antonio; Eduardo; B; Silva; Maria; Lucia; G; Ferraz

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To evaluate the overlap of autoimmune hepatitis in hepatitis C virus(HCV)-infected patients with intense interface hepatitis.METHODS:Among 1759 patients with hepatitis C submitted to liver biopsy,92(5.2%) presented intense interface hepatitis.These patients were evaluated regarding the presence of antinuclear antibody(ANA),anti-smooth muscle antibody(SMA) and anti-liver/kidney microsomal antibody(LKM-1),levels of γ-globulin and histological findings related to autoimmune hepatitis(plasma cell infiltrate...

  7. Aetiopathogenesis of autoimmune hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Diego Vergani; Giorgina Mieli-Vergani

    2008-01-01

    The histological hallmark of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a dense portal mononuclear cell infiltrate that invades the surrounding parenchyma and comprises T and B lymphocytes,macrophages,and plasma cells.An unknown but powerful stimulus must be promoting the formation of this massive inflammatory cellular reaction that is likely to initiate and perpetuate liver damage.An autoimmune attack can follow different pathways to inflict damage on hepatocytes.Liver damage is likely to be orchestrated by CD4+T lymphocytes recognizing an autoantigenic liver peptide.To trigger an autoimmune response,the peptide must be embraced by an HLA class Ⅱ molecule and presented to naive CD4+T helper (Th0) cells by professional antigen presenting cells,with the co-stimulation of ligand-ligand fostering interaction between the two cells.Th0 cells become activated,differentiate into functional phenotypes according to the cytokines prevailing in the microenvironment and the nature of the antigen,and initiate a cascade of immune reactions determined by the cytokines produced by the activated T cells.Th1 cells,arising in the presence of the macrophage-derived interleukin (IL)-12,secrete mainly IL-2 and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ),which activate macrophages,enhance expression of HLA class Ⅰ (increasing liver cell vulnerability to a CD8+T cell cytotoxic attack),and induce expression of HLA class Ⅱ molecules on hepatocytes.Th2 cells,which differentiate from Th0 if the microenvironment is rich in IL-4,produce mainly IL-4,IL-10,and IL-13 which favour autoantibody production by B lymphocytes.Physiologically,Th1 and Th2 antagonize each other.Th17 cells,a recently described population,arise in the presence of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) and IL-6 and appear to have an important effector role in inflammation and autoimmunity.The process of autoantigen recognition is strictly controlled by regulatory mechanisms,such as those exerted by CD4+CD25+regulatory T cells,which derive from Th0

  8. Hepatitis C: What to Expect When Getting Tested

    Science.gov (United States)

    HEPATITIS C What to Expect When Getting Tested Getting tested for Hepatitis C • A blood test, called a Hepatitis C Antibody Test, is used to find out if someone has ever been infected with Hepatitis C. • The Hepatitis C Antibody Test, sometimes called ...

  9. Hepatic involvement in dengue Fever in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagadishkumar, Kalenahalli; Jain, Puja; Manjunath, Vaddambal G; Umesh, Lingappa

    2012-06-01

    Hepatic dysfunction is common in dengue infection and the degree of liver dysfunction in children varies from mild injury with elevation of transaminases to severe injury with jaundice. This study was undertaken to assess the spectrum of hepatic involvement in dengue infection. 110 children with serologically positive dengue fever aged between 2 months - 14 years were studied for their hepatic functions both clinically and biochemically after excluding malaria, enteric fever, Hepatitis A and Hepatitis B with relevant investigations. All cases were grouped into DF (Dengue fever), DHF (Dengue hemorrhagic fever) and DSS (Dengue shock syndrome) according to WHO criteria. The spectrum of hepatic manifestations included hepatomegaly (79%), hepatic tenderness (56%), jaundice (4.5%), raised levels of aspartate transaminase (AST)(93%), alanine transaminase (ALT)(78%), alkaline phosphatase (AP) (57%), prolonged prothrombin time (PT) (20%), reduced levels of serum albumin (66%) and abnormal abdomen ultrasound (65%). Hepatic dysfunction was observed more in DHF and DSS group compared to DF group. About 17.27% of children had >10 fold increase in the liver enzymes. There was no correlation between the degree of hepatic enlargement or hepatic tenderness with the abnormalities of liver functions. Any child with fever, jaundice and tender hepatomegaly in geographical areas where dengue is endemic, the diagnosis of dengue infection should be strongly considered.

  10. Experience with hepatitis A and B vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jeffrey P

    2005-10-01

    The lengthy history of efforts to understand the pathogenesis and means of preventing and controlling both hepatitis A and B is noteworthy for many exceptional scientific achievements. Among these are the development of vaccines to prevent the spread of infection through induction of active immunity to hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV). The first plasma-derived hepatitis B vaccine was licensed in the United States in 1981 and was replaced by recombinant hepatitis B vaccines in 1986 and 1989. Vaccines to prevent HAV infection were licensed in the United States in 1995 and 1996. Subsequently, combination vaccines that included both hepatitis A and B vaccine components, or the hepatitis B component in combination with other commonly administered vaccines, were licensed in the United States. Despite significant reductions in hepatitis-related morbidity and mortality that have resulted from widespread use of these vaccines, vaccine-preventable morbidity and mortality still occur. The purposes of this article are to review clinical trial and other experience with hepatitis A and B vaccines in healthy individuals as well as in those with chronic liver disease, infected with the human immunodeficiency virus, or requiring hemodialysis; describe the impact that these vaccines and national recommendations for vaccination have had on reducing the incidence of HAV and HBV infection; and recommend expansion of these recommendations to include universal vaccination of adults as a means of further reducing the burden of viral hepatitis.

  11. Hepatitis A: clinical manifestations and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Sook-Hyang; Lee, Hyo-Suk

    2010-01-01

    Due to improved living conditions and subsequent changes in hepatitis A epidemiology, the disease burden of hepatitis A is increasing in many regions. Recently, Korea has faced a large, community-wide outbreak of hepatitis A, which has prompted a vaccination program. The clinical spectrum of hepatitis A virus infection ranges from asymptomatic infection to fulminant hepatitis. Clinical manifestations depend on the age of the host: less than 30% of infected young children are symptomatic, while about 80% of infected adults manifest severe hepatitis with remarkably elevated serum aminotransferases. Fulminant hepatitis is rare, with a reported incidence from 0.015 to 0.5%. Atypical manifestations include relapsing hepatitis and prolonged cholestasis, and complicated cases with acute kidney injury have been reported. Extrahepatic manifestations, such as autoimmune hemolytic anemia, aplastic anemia, pure red cell aplasia, pleural or pericardial effusion, acute reactive arthritis, acute pancreatitis, acalculous cholecystitis, mononeuritis, and Guillain-Barré syndrome, have been rarely reported. Management of hepatitis A includes general supportive care, and critical decisions regarding liver transplantation await further studies on prognostic predictors. Fundamental management of hepatitis A is active vaccination. However, a vaccination program should be adapted to the regional situation, according to differing epidemiology and disease burden.

  12. 苦参碱联合阿苯达唑治疗小鼠继发性棘球蚴病效果观察%Effects of matrine combined with albendazole on the secondary echinococcosis in mouse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷祎隆; 聂蕾; 傅宣英; 王琪; 景涛

    2009-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of matrine alone and combined with albendazole on the secondary echinococcosis in mouse. Methods Mice infected with echinococcosis protoscolices were divided into 4 groups: matrine group, albendazole group, matrine combined with albendazole group and control group, every group were 10. The major criteria for evaluating the effects included a reduction rate of Echinococcus granulosus (E. granulosus) tissue wet weight, histopathological examination of the cysts by both light microscopy and electron-microscopy after 90 days of experiment. Results E. granulosus tissue wet weight of matrine group, albendazole group, matrine combined with albendazole group and control group were (0.32±0.12), (0.31±0.10), (0.05± 0.03), (1.16±0.43)g, respectively. The inhibition rates of cyst tissue wet weight in the groups treated by matrine alone and combined with albendazole were 72.4% ,95.7%, respectively. The efficacy of combined treatment was significantly higher than that of matrine(P < 0.05). The Ⅲ degree histopathologic damage rates of cysts in above 4 groups were 40.9%(9/22) ,43.5% (10/23) ,91.3% (21/23) ,9.5% (2/21), respectively. Compared with the control group, the Ⅲ degree histopathologic damage rates of cysts in other 3 groups were increased obviously(all P < 0.01), especially in the combined treatment group. Conclusions The experiment indicates that matrine has inhibitive effect on E. granulosus and that the combination of the two drugs has more potent effect on E. granulosus, suggesting that matrine can strengthen the effect of albendazole and that the two drugs have synergistic action on the therapy of echinococcosis.%目的 评价中药苦参碱单独及联合阿苯达唑使用治疗小鼠继发性棘球蚴病的效果.方法 将感染棘球蚴的昆明小鼠分为4组:苦参碱组、阿苯达唑组、联合用药组、对照组,每组10只.在对小鼠进行药物治疗90 d后,检测各组小鼠棘球蚴湿重、抑囊率,并利

  13. [Latest Treatment of Viral Hepatitis--Overcoming Hepatitis C and Reactivation of Hepatitis B].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yasuhito

    2016-02-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV), discovered as causative viruses of post-transfusion hepatitis, become persistent infections, leading to chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). For HCV, recent IFN-free direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapies have increased sustained virological response (SVR) rates and reduced adverse events. IFN-based therapies, still the standard of care in Asian countries, are influenced by IL28B genetic variants and the liver fibrosis stage, but the DAA combinations obscure the influence of these factors. These new therapies can eradicate HCV and prevent HCC development. On the other hand, it is difficult to eradicate HBV completely. Although HBV infection can be prevented by vaccination, reactivation of HBV following anti-cancer chemotherapy and immunosuppressive therapy is a well-known complication. HBV reactivation has been reported to be associated with anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab-containing chemotherapy and TNF-α inhibitor-containing immunosuppressive therapy in HBV-resolved patients. Our prospective observational study revealed that monthly monitoring of HBV DNA was useful for preventing HBV reactivation-related hepatitis among B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma patients with resolved HBV infection following rituximab-steroid-chemo, suggesting that preemptive therapy guided by serial HBV DNA monitoring should be recommended. Recently, highly sensitive HBsAg detection by Lumipulse HBsAg-HQ may be useful for several clinical applications. The sensitivity of this assay (5 mIU/mL) was approximately 10-fold higher than Abbott ARCHITECT, but still lower than HBV-DNA assays. The convenient HBsAg-HQ may be useful for detecting occult HBV infection and HBV reactivation in relatively low-risk groups except for those receiving rituximab-steroid-chemo. [

  14. Regulation of hepatic innate immunity by hepatitis C virus

    OpenAIRE

    Stacy M Horner; Gale, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a global public health problem involving chronic infection of the liver in over 170 million people. Chronic HCV causes liver disease and is linked with liver cancer. Viral innate immune evasion strategies and human genetic determinants underlie the transition of acute HCV infection to viral persistence and the support of chronic infection. Host genetic factors, such as sequence polymorphisms in IFNL3, a gene in the host interferon system, can influence both the outc...

  15. Cytokine Signatures Discriminate Highly Frequent Acute Hepatitis a Virus and Hepatitis E Virus Coinfections from Monoinfections in Mexican Pediatric Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Realpe-Quintero, Mauricio; Copado-Villagrana, Edgar Daniel; Trujillo-Ochoa, Jorge Luis; Alvarez, Angel Hilario; Panduro, Arturo; Fierro, Nora Alma

    2017-07-01

    The frequency of hepatitis A virus and hepatitis E virus infections and their cytokine profiles were analyzed in Mexican pediatric patients with acute hepatitis. A high frequency of coinfections was found. Significant overexpression of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-12, IL-13 and interferon-gamma during hepatitis A virus monoinfections and limited secretion of cytokines in hepatitis E virus infections were observed.

  16. Avian hepatitis E virus, vaccines and methods of protecting against avian hepatitis-splenomegaly syndrome and mammalian hepatitis E

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel isolated avian hepatitis E virus having a nucleotide sequence set forth in SEQ ID NO:1 or its complementary strand. The invention further concerns immunogenic compositions comprising this new virus or recombinant products such as the nucleic acid and vaccines that protect an avian or mammalian species from viral infection or hepatitis-splenomegaly syndrome caused by the hepatitis E virus. Also included in the scope of the invention is a method for prop...

  17. Insulin resistance, adipokine profile and hepatic expression of SOCS-3 gene in chronic hepatitis C

    OpenAIRE

    Wójcik, Kamila; Jabłonowska, Elżbieta; Omulecka, Aleksandra; Piekarska, Anna

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To analyze adipokine concentrations, insulin resistance and hepatic expression of suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS-3) in patients with chronic hepatitis C genotype 1 with normal body weight, glucose and lipid profile.

  18. Acute hepatitis due to dengue virus in a chronic hepatitis patient

    OpenAIRE

    Souza, L J; Coelho, J.M.C. de O.; Silva,E. J.; Abukater,M.; Almeida,F.C.R.; A. S. Fonte; L.A Souza

    2008-01-01

    We present a case of acute hepatitis caused by dengue virus, with a significant increase in aspartate transferase and alanine transferase levels in a chronic hepatitis patient attended at the Cane Sugar Planters Hospital of Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ.

  19. Recurrent paratyphoid fever A co-infected with hepatitis A reactivated chronic hepatitis B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanling; Xiong, Yujiao; Huang, Wenxiang; Jia, Bei

    2014-05-12

    We report here a case of recurrent paratyphoid fever A with hepatitis A co-infection in a patient with chronic hepatitis B. A 26-year-old male patient, who was a hepatitis B virus carrier, was co-infected with Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi A and hepatitis A virus. The recurrence of the paratyphoid fever may be ascribed to the coexistence of hepatitis B, a course of ceftriaxone plus levofloxacin that was too short and the insensitivity of paratyphoid fever A to levofloxacin. We find that an adequate course and dose of ceftriaxone is a better strategy for treating paratyphoid fever. Furthermore, the co-infection of paratyphoid fever with hepatitis A may stimulate cellular immunity and break immunotolerance. Thus, the administration of the anti-viral agent entecavir may greatly improve the prognosis of this patient with chronic hepatitis B, and the episodes of paratyphoid fever and hepatitis A infection prompt the use of timely antiviral therapy.

  20. Clinical characteristics of fulminant hepatitis in pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Mao Li; Lin Ma; Yue-Bo Yang; Zhong-Jie Shi; Shui-Sheng Zhou

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the clinical characteristics of fulminant hepatitis in pregnancy.METHODS: We compared and analyzed the etiology,clinical characteristics, and laboratory examinations of 25 cases of fulminant hepatitis in pregnancy and 30 cases of fulminant hepatitis not in pregnancy.RESULTS: HBV infection and chronic fulminant hepatitis were most common both in the pregnant and in the non-pregnant groups. Jaundice, digestive tract symptoms,increase of bilirubin and thrombinogen activity were the main manifestations. The incidence of hepatic encephalopathy (HE) and hepato-renal syndrome (HRS) was significantly different between the two groups. The incidence of preterm labor, dead fetus and neonatal asphyxia was high.CONCLUSION: Fulminant hepatitis is likely to occur in late pregnancy with more severe complications, which significantly influences maternity, perinatal fetus, and newborn.