Oct 5, 2009 ... This study investigates the antioxidant activity of Echinacea Purpurea L. (EP) extracts and its impact on cell viability. The polysaccharides content of EP was 159.8 ± 12.4 mg/g dry weight (DW), with extracts obtained by applying 55% ethanol at 55°C containing 11.0 ±1.0 mg gallic acid equivalent/g DW of ...
This study investigates the antioxidant activity of Echinacea Purpurea L. (EP) extracts and its impact on cell viability. The polysaccharides content of EP was 159.8 ± 12.4 mg/g dry weight (DW), with extracts obtained by applying 55% ethanol at 55°C containing 11.0 ±1.0 mg gallic acid equivalent/g DW of total phenolic ...
In this research, an attempt was made to investigate the effect of using an immune stimulator Echinacea purpurea on antibody production against ... the immune system including, activate phagocytosis. (Bauer et al., 1989), fibroblasts stimulator .... infections especially E. coli, have an important role in reducing mortality rate.
The phytotherapy should be understood as being integrated into the rational pharmacotherapy. The modern phytotherapy tries hard to proof effects with pharmacological and clinical studies. The task force E of the federal bureau of health of Germany has made a statement regarding this problem. This article reviews only controlled clinical trials about the application of extracts of echinacea purpura or echinacea pallida.
Full Text Available Echinacea purpurea is an herbaceous perennial plant as members of the Asteraceae family. It is one the important medicinal plant in pharmacy industrial. Active substances of Echinaceae are amplifier of body's immune system and antivirus. Echinacea is not native to Iran. The phytochemical traits of medicinal plants depend on ecological conditions involving growing areas, climate conditions; various grow stages and genetic modifications. The aim of this study was the evaluation of cichoric acid of E. purpurea extract in different ecological conditions in Semnan, Iran. Dormancy in seeds was broken by treating them with strafication in 4 °C for 48 h, was grown in nursery beds for autumn and early winter and transfered to four areas with different ecological conditions in late winter. Chashm, Ahuvan, Semnan and Foladmahale were chosen for this experiment. The spacing of plantlet was about 25 × 45 cm in the field. After 2- 3 months, aerial parts of the plants collected in all areas and extract samples were prepared and characterized using high- performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. The components of a basic HPLC system were shown significant values of the cichoric acid in plants under four habitats. The level of cichoric acid in one condition was more than standards level that reported in another references. In addition, ecological diversities have significant impacts the quantity of cichoric acid in E. purpurea.
Haron, Mona H; Tyler, Heather L; Pugh, Nirmal D; Moraes, Rita M; Maddox, Victor L; Jackson, Colin R; Pasco, David S
Evidence supports the theory that bacterial communities colonizing Echinacea purpurea contribute to the innate immune enhancing activity of this botanical. Previously, we reported that only about half of the variation in in vitro monocyte stimulating activity exhibited by E. purpurea extracts could be accounted for by total bacterial load within the plant material. In the current study, we test the hypothesis that the type of bacteria, in addition to bacterial load, is necessary to fully account for extract activity. Bacterial community composition within commercial and freshly harvested (wild and cultivated) E. purpurea aerial samples was determined using high-throughput 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Bacterial isolates representing 38 different taxa identified to be present within E. purpurea were acquired, and the activity exhibited by the extracts of these isolates varied by over 8000-fold. Members of the Proteobacteria exhibited the highest potency for in vitro macrophage activation and were the most predominant taxa. Furthermore, the mean activity exhibited by the Echinacea extracts could be solely accounted for by the activities and prevalence of Proteobacteria members comprising the plant-associated bacterial community. The efficacy of E. purpurea material for use against respiratory infections may be determined by the Proteobacterial community composition of this plant, since ingestion of bacteria (probiotics) is reported to have a protective effect against this health condition. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Evidence supports the theory that bacterial communities colonizing Echinacea purpurea contribute to the innate immune enhancing activity of this botanical. Previously we reported that only about half of the variation in in vitro monocyte stimulating activity exhibited by E. purpurea extracts could ...
Full Text Available The effect of aqueous extract of Echinacea purpurea roots on the murine antibody response to Bothrops asper snake venom in vivo was studied. Three groups were used. Group #1, baseline control, was treated with snake venom plus PBS. Group #2 was treated with snake venom plus sodium alginate as adjuvant (routine method used at Instituto Clodomiro Picado, and group #3 or experimental group, was treated with snake venom plus aqueous extract of E. purpurea root as adjuvant. In all groups, the first inoculation was done with Freund’s complete adjuvant (FCA. By the time of the second bleeding, mice in group #3 showed a remarkable increment in the level of anti-venom antibodies compared with those in groups #1 or #2. In vitro immune cell proliferation as a response to aqueous extract of E. purpurea root was studied using human lymphocytes activated with different lectins (Con A, PHA and PWM. In all cases, increase in percentage of lymphoproliferation was greater when E. purpurea root extract was used in addition to individual lectins. Rev. Biol. Trop. 55 (1: 113-119. Epub 2007 March. 31.Se estudió in vivo, el efecto del extracto acuoso de las raíces de Echinacea purpurea en la respuesta de los anticuerpos murinos al veneno de la serpiente Bothrops asper. El grupo 1 control, fue tratado con el veneno y PBS. El grupo 2 con veneno y alginato de sodio (método utilizado en el Instituto Clodomiro Picado, y el grupo 3 o experimental, con veneno y extracto acuoso de las raíces de E. purpurea. En todos los grupos, la primera inmunización fue hecha con FCA (Freund’s Complete Adjuvant. En las muestras correspondientes a la segunda sangría, los ratones del grupo 3 mostraron un marcado incremento en el nivel de anticuerpos, en comparación con los ratones de los otros grupos. También se determinó la proliferación de células inmunes in vitro, como respuesta al extracto acuoso de la raíz de E. purpurea, utilizando linfocitos humanos activados con
Chaves, Fernando; Chacón, Mauricio; Badilla, Beatriz; Arévalo, Carolina
The effect of aqueous extract of Echinacea purpurea roots on the murine antibody response to Bothrops asper snake venom in vivo was studied. Three groups were used. Group #1, baseline control, was treated with snake venom plus PBS. Group #2 was treated with snake venom plus sodium alginate as adjuvant (routine method used at Instituto Clodomiro Picado), and group #3 or experimental group, was treated with snake venom plus aqueous extract ofE. purpurea root as adjuvant. In all groups, the first inoculation was done with Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA). By the time of the second bleeding, mice in group #3 showed a remarkable increment in the level of anti-venom antibodies compared with those in groups #1 or #2. In vitro immune cell proliferation as a response to aqueous extract of E. purpurea root was studied using human lymphocytes activated with different lectins (Con A, PHA and PWM). In all cases, increase in percentage of lymphoproliferation was greater when E. purpurea root extract was used in addition to individual lectins.
Hossein Najafzadeh Varzi
Full Text Available Objective(s There are some reports that the teratogenic effects of cyclophosphamide (CPA can be prevented by application of antioxidant drugs and stimulation of the maternal immune system. Echinacea purpurea extract is antioxidative and immunomodulator drug. Mesna (Sodium 2-mercaptoethane sulfonate is used for decreasing side effects of CPA, especially hemorrhagic cystitis. In this study, we compared the prophylactic effects of mesna and Echinacea extract on teratogenic effects of CPA. Materials and Methods This study was performed on 32 pregnant rats that were divided into 4 groups. The first group (control group received normal saline and the other groups received CPA (15 mg/kg intraperitoneally on 13th day of gestation. Mesna and E. purpurea extracts were administrated at doses of 100 and 400 mg/kg by IP injection, respectively, along with it and 12 hr later, after CPA injection. Rats were dissected on day 20 of gestation, embryos harvested and after determination of gross malformations they were stained by Alizarin red-Alcian blue method. ResultsCleft palate incidence was 38.46, 30.77 and 14.28% in fetuses of rats that received only CPA, CPA with mesna and CPA with Echinacea extract, respectively. In addition, skeletal anomalies incidence including limbs, vertebra, sternum, and scapula defects were decreased by Echinacea extract.ConclusionE. purpurea has significant effect on preventing CPA-induced malformations and better prophylactic effect than mesna on cases like CPA-induced cleft palate.
PIMENOV N.V.; PAVLOVA A.V.; ZHIGALOVA E.E.
Application of Echinacea purpurea preparation both with Florfenicol resulted positively on the morphological level with immunoprotective effect. Positive dynamics is acknowledged by full morphogenesis of thymus bodies during both studied experiment periods and absence of accidental involution signs that manifest at maximum in chickens’ thymuses of the second group.
Simon Angelo Cichello
Full Text Available Echinacea is used for its immunostimulating properties and may have a role in modulating adverse immune effects of chemotherapy (i.e., use of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU; fluorouracil and its immunosuppressive effect. Patients may seek herbal remedies such as Echinacea (Echinacea angustifolia and Echinacea purpurea for immune stimulation. Echinacea extracts have been prescribed to supplement cancer chemotherapy for their immune-supportive effects; however, the extracts may also influence tumourgenesis. Our study aimed to determine the proliferative effect of the ethanolic blend of E. angustifolia and E. purpurea on various cancer cervical and bile duct cell lines, including HELA and QBC-939. Various cancer cells (HeLa and QBC-939 and human vein epithelial cells (HUVEC were treated with the Echinacea blend sample that was evaporated and reconstituted in Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO. As the extract concentration of Echinacea was increased from 12.5 μg/mL to 25 μg/mL, there was an increase in cell inhibition up to 100%, which then reduced to 90% over the next three concentrations, 50 μg/mL, 100 μg/mL, and 200 μg/mL, in HeLa cells; further inhibitory effects were observed in QBC-939 cells, from 9% inhibition at a concentration of 25 μg/mL up to 37.96% inhibition at 100 μg/mL concentration. Moreover, this is the first study to report the growth-promoting effects of this Echinacea blend in HUVEC, up to 800% at a dose concentration of 200 μg/mL. Previous studies have suggested that chicoric acid of Echinacea spp. is responsible for the increased cell growth. The results of this study show that the hydroethanolic extract of Echinacea herbal medicine promotes the growth of HeLa cells and QBC-939 cancer cell proliferation, and may interfere with cancer treatment (i.e., chemotherapy drugs such as 5-fluorouracil and Cisplatin (DDP. However, the Echinacea blend shows potential in neurodegenerative diseases with growth-promoting effects in HUVEC
Cichello, Simon Angelo; Yao, Qian; He, Xiao Qiong
Echinacea is used for its immunostimulating properties and may have a role in modulating adverse immune effects of chemotherapy (i.e., use of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU); fluorouracil and its immunosuppressive effect). Patients may seek herbal remedies such as Echinacea (Echinacea angustifolia and Echinacea purpurea) for immune stimulation. Echinacea extracts have been prescribed to supplement cancer chemotherapy for their immune-supportive effects; however, the extracts may also influence tumourgenesis. Our study aimed to determine the proliferative effect of the ethanolic blend of E. angustifolia and E. purpurea on various cancer cervical and bile duct cell lines, including HELA and QBC-939. Various cancer cells (HeLa and QBC-939) and human vein epithelial cells (HUVEC) were treated with the Echinacea blend sample that was evaporated and reconstituted in Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). As the extract concentration of Echinacea was increased from 12.5 μg/mL to 25 μg/mL, there was an increase in cell inhibition up to 100%, which then reduced to 90% over the next three concentrations, 50 μg/mL, 100 μg/mL, and 200 μg/mL, in HeLa cells; further inhibitory effects were observed in QBC-939 cells, from 9% inhibition at a concentration of 25 μg/mL up to 37.96% inhibition at 100 μg/mL concentration. Moreover, this is the first study to report the growth-promoting effects of this Echinacea blend in HUVEC, up to 800% at a dose concentration of 200 μg/mL. Previous studies have suggested that chicoric acid of Echinacea spp. is responsible for the increased cell growth. The results of this study show that the hydroethanolic extract of Echinacea herbal medicine promotes the growth of HeLa cells and QBC-939 cancer cell proliferation, and may interfere with cancer treatment (i.e., chemotherapy drugs such as 5-fluorouracil and Cisplatin (DDP)). However, the Echinacea blend shows potential in neurodegenerative diseases with growth-promoting effects in HUVEC. Further animal
Nowadays green synthesis of metal nanoparticles is a developing area of research. In this study, titanium dioxide nanoparticles were biosynthesized using an aqueous solution of Echinacea purpurea herba extract as a bioreductant. This is novel and interesting method for synthesis of TiO2 nanoparticles. The prepared titanium dioxide nanoparticles were characterized using ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy (UV-VIS), transmission electron microscopy (SEM), total reflection X-Ray fluorescence analys...
Leon Sorin MUNTEAN; Alexandru SALONTAI; Constantin BOTEZ; Mircea TAMAS; Solovastru CERNEA; Gavrila MORAR; Felicia VAIDA
In the second year of vegetation, after emergence, Echinacea pallida Nutt. and Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench, form a leaf rosette and the first floral shoots appear in June. Plant vigour is significantly higher in Echinacea purpurea than in E. pallida, saved for roots. E. pallida is tetraploid, 2n=4x=44 chromosomes, of small size, between 5,87 and 3,04 microns, relatively easy to individualize by their shape and size.
Full Text Available Purpose. Definition fish productivity of the experimental ponds, fixed set of chemical parameters, that are specific to the environmental condition of water, which is the process of growing fish in a certain relation to it, and the level of accumulation of heavy metals in different organs and tissues of carp. Methodology. The ponds was three breed groups one-years carp average weight 39,7 g (hybrid of carp and wild carp, crossbreed frames carp, lyubin scaly carp with planting density 1000 ind./ha. Control group of carp was fed extruded feed containing 20 % protein, and research group ― the same feed, which was added in the manufacturing process, chopped dried Echinacea purpurea in the amount of 1 %. The duration of the experiment was 86 days. Definition of hydro-chemical parameters was performed by standard methods in analytical chemistry. Quantitative determination of the concentration of heavy metals in water and the organs and tissues of fish was performed by direct absorption solution in propane-butane air flames using absorption spectrophotometer C-115-M1. Findings. It was reviewed ecological status of water bodies. Found that when used in feeding carp Echinacea purpurea increased fish productivity, reduced cost of feed for growing. Chemical composition of experimental ponds water, while virtually unchanged. The comparative characteristics of heavy metals in organs and tissues carp in this part of the diet. Originality. At first time investigated the influence of Echinacea purpurea by adding it to feed on fish productivity, accumulation and distribution of heavy metals in organs and tissues of carp. Practical value. Fish productivity in the experimental ponds was higher by 20,4 % relative to control. Costs of feed per pound of gain decreased by 13,3 % when was used in fish feeding chopped dried Echinacea purpurea. Almost all metals accumulated in the organs and tissues of experimental groups of carp in a somewhat lesser extent.
Segvic Klaric, M.; Kosalec, I.; Vladimir-Knezevic, S.; Blazekovic, B.; Milic, M.; Kopjar, N.
Ultraviolet (UV) radiation has many negative effects on human skin, including acute and chronic inflammation and oxidative stress which might cause DNA damage leading to skin photoaging and photocarcinogenesis. It was suggested that intake of phenolic acids, which are active components of some medicinal plants, might reduce DNA damage caused by UV radiation. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to check wheather the pretreatment of human peripheral blood lymphocytes with lyophilisate of Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench (EH) extract (1 and 10 mg/mL) could reduce or prevent primary DNA damage induced by UVC radiation (253.7 nm) in laboratory conditions. Primary DNA damage was studied using the alkaline comet assay on isolated human blood lymphocytes. Plant extract used in this experiment contains phenolic acids (3.47 %), flavonoids (0.13 %), tannins (0.86 %) and proanthocyanidins (0.26 %). HPLC analysis showed that lyophilisate of EH extract contains 3.65 % of chicoric acid. Exposure of lymphocytes to UV radiation (30 and 60 min) caused a significant increase in the level of primary DNA damage (P < 0.001). Pretreatment of cells with both concentrations of EH was not genotoxic, and successfully protected the cells against the effects of UV radiation (30 min). Both concentrations of EH significantly reduced comet tail length after 60 min of UV radiation, while only pre-treatment with 1 mg/mL significantly reduced the values of tail intensity and tail moment (P < 0.001). Positive results obtained in this study speak in favour of continuing the research on effectiveness of Echinacea purpurea preparations and their potential application in developing cosmetic products for skin protection. (author)
Kosalec, I.; Segvic Klaric, M.; Kopjar, N.; Milic, M.
Exposure of skin to ultraviolet (UV) radiation might provoke acute and chronic inflammation and oxidative stress which might cause DNA damage leading to skin photoaging and photocarcinogenesis. Previously we showed that Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench (EH) extract, rich in phenolic acids, has protective effect on human blood lymphocytes exposed to UVC radiation. In this study we checked whether the pre-treatment of human keratinocyte HaCaT cells with lyophilisate of EH (1 and 10 mg/mL) could reduce or prevent primary DNA damage induced by UVC radiation (253.7 nm) in laboratory conditions. Prior to that experiment we examined cell viability using MTT test upon exposure to EH and UVC (30 and 60 min) alone and in combination. Primary DNA damage in HaCaT cells was studied using the alkaline comet assay. Exposure of cells to EH and UVC alone or EH in combination with UV radiation did not reduce cell viability. Opposite to that UV radiation (30 and 60 min) caused a significant increase in the level of primary DNA damage (P < 0.001). Pre-treatment of cells with both concentrations of EH was not genotoxic to HaCaT cells. Only concentration of 1 mg/mL EH successfully protected the cells against the effects of 30 min exposure to UVC radiation. Positive results obtained in this study speak in favour of continuing the research on effectiveness of Echinacea purpurea preparations and their potential application in developing cosmetic products for skin protection.(author)
Christensen, Kathrine B; Petersen, Rasmus K; Petersen, Sidsel
Thiazolidinediones are insulin sensitizing drugs that target the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma. An n-hexane extract of the flowers of Echinacea purpurea was found to activate PPARgamma without stimulating adipocyte differentiation. Bioassay-guided fractionations yielded ...... differentiation. Compound 5 was further shown to increase insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. The data suggest that flowers of E. purpurea contain compounds with potential to manage insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes.......Thiazolidinediones are insulin sensitizing drugs that target the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma. An n-hexane extract of the flowers of Echinacea purpurea was found to activate PPARgamma without stimulating adipocyte differentiation. Bioassay-guided fractionations yielded...
Full Text Available The process of angiogenesis and control of blood vessels sprouting are fundamental to human health, as they play key roles in many physiological and pathological conditions. Intake of different pharmaceuticals with antiangiogenic activity by pregnant women may lead to severe developmental disturbances as it was described in case of thalidomide. It may also cause immunomodulatory effects as it was shown for antibiotics, theobromine, caffeic acid or catechins on the pregnant mice model. At present, Echinacea purpurea-based phytoceuticals are among the most popular herbals in the marketplace. Many compounds of Echinacea extracts (polysaccharides, alkamides, polyphenols, glycoproteins exert immunomodulatory, anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activity. Echinacea is one of the most powerful and effective remedies against many kinds of bacterial and viral infections. In previous studies we shown significant inhibitory effect of the Echinacea purpurea based remedy on tumour angiogenic activity using cutaneous angiogenesis test, and an inhibitory effect on L-1 sarcoma growth was observed . The aim of the present study was to establish whether pharmaceuticals containing alcoholic extracts of Echinacea purpurea given to pregnant mice influence angiogenic activity and tissue VEGF and bFGF production of their fetuses. We showed that angiogenic activity of tissue homogenates was increased in Esberitox group and diminished in case of Immunal forte as compared to standard diet group. In case of Echinapur group we did not find significant differences in angiogenic activity. VEGF and bFGF concentration were lower in all groups compared to the control. In the case of Echinapur and Esberitox number of fetuses in one litter were slightly lower as compared to control group, but the difference is on the border of statistical significance. In conclusion, there is some possibility that pharmaceuticals containing Echinacea purpurea might influence fetal development in
Full Text Available Echinacea purpurea (L. Moench, a member of the Asteraceae family, is a plant rich in flavonoids, essential oils, phenolic compounds, saponins, polysaccharides and glycoproteins. The aim of the study was to evaluate the protein content in dried roots of Echinacea purpurea (L. Moench after homogenization of roots with liquid nitrogen, extraction in 0.01 mol L-1 phosphate-buffered saline (PBS and purification followed by fractionation of proteins using gel filtration chromatography. Total concentration of proteins was measured using the Bradford method, and evaluation of the molecular mass of proteins was accomplished by applying the SDS-PAGE gel electrophoresis. The Bradford assay revealed that the highest concentration of proteins in fractions collected after gel filtration chomatography was 4.66–6.07 mg mL-1. Glycoproteins, alkamides and polysaccharides in roots of Echinacea purpurea (L. Moench are chemical compounds that are responsible for their immunomodulatory properties. However, information about the difference of protein contents in fresh and dried roots of E. purpurea is insufficient.
Thomsen, Maria O; Fretté, Xavier C; Christensen, Kathrine B; Christensen, Lars P; Grevsen, Kai
Roots of Echinacea purpurea and Echinacea pallida cultivated for 4 years in a North European climate were analyzed for seasonal variations in the concentrations of lipophilic constituents (alkamides, ketoalkenes, and ketoalkynes) and phenolic acids by harvesting five times during 1 year to establish the optimal time for harvest. A total of 16 alkamides, three ketoalkenes, two ketoalkynes, and four phenolic acids (echinacoside, cichoric acid, caftaric acid, and chlorogenic acid) were identified in aqueous ethanolic (70%) extracts by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and quantified by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The major alkamides in the roots of E. purpurea were at their lowest concentration in the middle of autumn and early winter, and the total concentration of lipophilic compounds in E. pallida showed the same pattern. Moreover, all of the major phenolic acids in E. purpurea were at their highest concentrations in spring. The optimal harvest time in spring is in contrast to normal growing guidelines; hence, this specific information of seasonal variations in the concentrations of lipophilic and phenolic compounds in E. purpurea and E. pallida is valuable for research, farmers, and producers of medicinal preparations.
Barnes, Joanne; Anderson, Linda A; Gibbons, Simon; Phillipson, J David
This paper reviews the chemistry, pharmacology and clinical properties of Echinacea species used medicinally. The Echinacea species Echinacea angustifolia, Echinacea pallida and Echinacea purpurea have a long history of medicinal use for a variety of conditions, particularly infections, and today echinacea products are among the best-selling herbal preparations in several developed countries. Modern interest in echinacea is focused on its immunomodulatory effects, particularly in the prevention and treatment of upper respiratory tract infections. The chemistry of Echinacea species is well documented, and several groups of constituents, including alkamides and caffeic acid derivatives, are considered important for activity. There are, however, differences in the constituent profile of the three species. Commercial echinacea samples and marketed echinacea products may contain one or more of the three species, and analysis of samples of raw material and products has shown that some do not meet recognized standards for pharmaceutical quality. Evidence from preclinical studies supports some of the traditional and modern uses for echinacea, particularly the reputed immunostimulant (or immunomodulatory) properties. Several, but not all, clinical trials of echinacea preparations have reported effects superior to those of placebo in the prevention and treatment of upper respiratory tract infections. However, evidence of efficacy is not definitive as studies have included different patient groups and tested various different preparations and dosage regimens of echinacea. On the basis of the available limited safety data, echinacea appears to be well tolerated. However, further investigation and surveillance are required to establish the safety profiles of different echinacea preparations. Safety issues include the possibility of allergic reactions, the use of echinacea by patients with autoimmune diseases and the potential for echinacea preparations to interact with
Mishima, Satoshi; Maruyama, Hiroe; Saito, Kiyoto; Yamashita, Takenori; Gu, Yeunhwa; Inoue, Makoto; Ishida, Torao
We studied the protective effects of Echinacea purpurea against radiation by evaluating changes in the peripheral blood cell count and peripheral blood antioxidant activity. E. purpurea administration had a suppressive effect on radiation-induced leukopenia, especially on lymphocytes and monocytes, and resulted in a faster recovery of blood cell counts. Mouse peripheral blood antioxidant activity was increased by E. purpurea, and a relationship between the suppressive effect on radiation-induced leukopenia and the antioxidant effect was suggested. Furthermore, we reviewed the evidence of augmentation of found in this study humoral immunity. The effect of immune activation by E. purpurea were investigated by measuring total immunoglobulin (IgG, IgM). The radioprotective effects of immune activation by E. purpurea were investigated by measuring T lymphocyte subsets in the peripheral blood of mice following whole-body irradiation. E. purpurea activates macrophages to stimulate IFN-γ production in association with the secondary activation of T lymphocytes, resulting in a decrease in IgG and IgM production. Cytokines released from macrophages in mouse peripheral blood after E. purpurea administration activated helper T cells to proliferate. In addition, it is reported that activated macrophages in association with the secondary T lymphocyte activation increases IFN-γ production and stimulates proliferation of cytotoxic T cells and suppressor T cells. We think that CD 4 and CD 8 subsets were more immunologically enhanced by E. purpurea than helper T cells and suppressor T cell these results reflect activation. In addition, we think that these results reflect cell-mediated immune responses. (author)
Hu, C; Kitts, D D
Methanol extracts of freeze-dried Echinacea (E. angustifolia, E. pallida, and E. purpurea) roots were examined for free radical scavenging capacities and antioxidant activities. Root extracts of E. angustifolia, E. pallida, and E. purpurea were capable of scavenging hydroxyl radical. Similar scavenging activities for each variety were found for both 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical and ABTS radical. Meanwhile, antioxidant activities of all three varieties of Echinacea were found to delay the formation of conjugated diene hydroperoxide induced by the thermal decomposition of 2, 2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride and extend the lag phase of peroxidation of soybean liposomes. Echinacea root extracts suppressed the oxidation of human low-density lipoprotein, as evaluated by reduced agarose electrophoretic mobility following oxidative modification by Cu(2+). The mechanisms of antioxidant activity of extracts derived from Echinacea roots included free radical scavenging and transition metal chelating.
Worden Katherine A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Recurrent otitis media is a common problem in young children. Echinacea and osteopathic manipulative treatment have been proposed as preventive measures, but have been inadequately studied. This study was designed to assess the efficacy of Echinacea purpurea and/or osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT for prevention of acute otitis media in otitis-prone children. Methods A randomized, placebo-controlled, two-by-two factorial trial with 6-month follow-up, conducted 1999 – 2002 in Tucson, Arizona. Patients were aged 12–60 months with recurrent otitis media, defined as three or more separate episodes of acute otitis media within six months, or at least four episodes in one year. Ninety children (44% white non-Hispanic, 39% Hispanic, 57% male were enrolled, of which 84 had follow-up for at least 3 months. Children were randomly assigned to one of four protocol groups: double placebo, echinacea plus sham OMT, true OMT (including cranial manipulation plus placebo echinacea, or true echinacea plus OMT. An alcohol extract of Echinacea purpurea roots and seeds (or placebo was administered for 10 days at the first sign of each common cold. Five OMT visits (or sham treatments were offered over 3 months. Results No interaction was found between echinacea and OMT. Echinacea was associated with a borderline increased risk of having at least one episode of acute otitis media during 6-month follow-up compared to placebo (65% versus 41%; relative risk, 1.59, 95% CI 1.04, 2.42. OMT did not significantly affect risk compared to sham (44% versus 61%; relative risk, 0.72, 95% CI 0.48, 1.10. Conclusion In otitis-prone young children, treating colds with this form of echinacea does not decrease the risk of acute otitis media, and may in fact increase risk. A regimen of up to five osteopathic manipulative treatments does not significantly decrease the risk of acute otitis media. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00010465
Chiellini, Carolina; Maida, Isabel; Emiliani, Giovanni; Mengoni, Alessio; Mocali, Stefano; Fabiani, Arturo; Biffi, Sauro; Maggini, Valentina; Gori, Luigi; Vannacci, Alfredo; Gallo, Eugenia; Firenzuoli, Fabio; Fani, Renato
In this work we analyzed the composition and structure of cultivable bacterial communities isolated from the stem/leaf and root compartments of two medicinal plants, Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench and Echinacea angustifolia (DC.) Hell, grown in the same soil, as well as the bacterial community from their rhizospheric soils. Molecular PCR-based techniques were applied to cultivable bacteria isolated from the three compartments of the two plants. The results showed that the two plants and their respective compartments were characterized by different communities, indicating a low degree of strain sharing and a strong selective pressure within plant tissues. Pseudomonas was the most highly represented genus, together with Actinobacteria and Bacillus spp. The presence of distinct bacterial communities in different plant species and among compartments of the same plant species could account for the differences in the medicinal properties of the two plants. Copyright© by the Spanish Society for Microbiology and Institute for Catalan Studies.
Echinacea is one of the top ten selling medicinal herbs in Europe and United States. Commercially available formulations may contain different plant parts of three species (Echinacea purpurea, E. pallida, and E. angustifolia). Our study evaluates the diversity of microbial community associated with ...
Recently, we reported fresh basil (Ocimum basilicum) leaves contain chicoric acid, which is the principal phenolic compound in Echinacea purpurea and purportedly an active ingredient in dietary supplements derived from E. purpurea. Here we present the results from a study evaluating chicoric acid co...
Chen, Qiu-Ling; Wang, Lei; Feng, Feng
To study the chemical constituents of the aerial part of Echinacea purpurea. The compounds were separated and purified by repeatedly silica gel, ODS, D101 macroporous resin, MCI, Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography and recrystallization. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of physiochemical properties and spectral analysis. Sixteen compounds were isolated and identified as (2S)-1-O-octacosanoyl glycerol (1), (5R,6S)-6-hydroxy-6-((E)-3-hydroxybut-1-enyl)-1,1, 5-trimethylcyclohexanone (2), (3S, 6E, 10R)-3, 10, 11-trihydroxy-3, 7, 11-trimethyl-dodeca-1, 6-diene (3), negunfurol (4), schensianol A (5), ent-4 (15) -eudesmene-1beta, 6alpha-diol (6), (E) -5-hydroxy-N-isobutylpentadec-2-enamide (7), syringaresinol (8), quercetin (9), ethyl laurate (10), ethyl caffeate (11), ferulic acid (12), alpha-spinasterol (13), stigmasterol (14), beta-daucosterol (15), octacosanoic acid (16). Compound 1 - 5 are isolated from the Asteraceae for the first time, compound 6 ,7, 9, 10, 12 are isolated from genus of Echinacea for the first time, compound 15, 16 are isolated from this plant for the first time.
Kaur, Amninder; Oberhofer, Martina; Juzumaite, Monika; Raja, Huzefa A.; Gulledge, Travis V.; Kao, Diana; Faeth, Stanley H.; Laster, Scott M.; Oberlies, Nicholas H.
Botanical extracts of Echinacea purpurea have been widely used for the treatment of upper respiratory infections. We sought to chemically examine fungal endophytes inhabiting E. purpurea, and to identify compounds produced by these endophytes with in vitro cytokine-suppressive activity. Twelve isolates from surface sterilized seeds of E. purpurea were subjected to fractionation and major components were isolated. Sixteen secondary metabolites belonging to different structural classes were identified from these isolates based on NMR and mass spectrometry data. The compounds were tested for their influence on cytokine secretion by murine macrophage-type cells. Alternariol (1), O-prenylporriolide (4), porritoxin (10) β-zearalenol (13), and (S)-zearalenone (14) inhibited production of TNF-α from RAW 264.7 macrophages stimulated with LPS in the absence of any significant cytotoxicity. This is the first report of a cytokine-suppressive effect for 4. The results of this study are particularly interesting given that they show the presence of compounds with cytokine-suppressive activity in endophytes from a botanical used to treat inflammation. Future investigations into the role of fungal endophytes in the biological activity of E. purpurea dietary supplements may be warranted. PMID:28479944
Mølgaard, Per; Johnsen, Søren; Christensen, Peter
A reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method has been developed to determine caffeic acid derivatives, for example, cichoric acid, and alkamides in plant parts and herbal products of Echinacea purpurea. The method consists of an extraction procedure whereby the hydrophili...... of international herbal products available on the Danish market show surprisingly variable quality, not necessarily reflecting the product information given on the labels....
Nowadays green synthesis of metal nanoparticles is a developing area of research. In this study, titanium dioxide nanoparticles were biosynthesized using an aqueous solution of Echinacea purpurea herba extract as a bioreductant. This is novel and interesting method for synthesis of TiO 2 nanoparticles. The prepared titanium dioxide nanoparticles were characterized using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-VIS), transmission electron microscopy (SEM), total reflection X-Ray fluorescence analysis (TXRF) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) . The size of TiO 2 nanoparticles was found to be in the range of 120 nm. Moreover, the alkaline reaction of the solution (pH = 8) resulted in the increase in absorbance (280 nm), which facilitates the growth of the number of TiO 2 nanoparticles in the studied solution. Also, synthesis of TiO 2 nanoparticles using green resources like Echinacea purpurea herba is a better alternative to chemical synthesis, since this green synthesis is pollutant-free and eco-friendly.
Senchina, David S; Martin, Aisha E; Buss, Janice E; Kohut, Marian L
Type I interferons are a class of cytokines synthesized by leukocytes such as macrophages that limit viral replication. We hypothesized that one mechanism whereby Echinacea spp. extracts may enhance immunity is through modulating interferon-associated macrophage pathways. We used herpes simplex viral infection in the murine macrophage cell line RAW264.7 and monitored virus-induced cell death, interferon secretion, and two intracellular proteins that indicate activation of interferon pathways. Cells were incubated with control media or extracts from four different species (E. angustifolia, E. purpurea, E. tennesseensis, E. pallida). Cells incubated with extracts prior to infection showed very modest enhancement of viability, and no increase in the secretion of interferons alpha or beta as compared to control cells. Virus-infected macrophages treated with extracts from E. purpurea showed a small (Echinacea spp. extracts are likely not mediated through large inductions of Type I interferon, but may involve iNOS. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Laasonen, Magali; Wennberg, Tero; Harmia-Pulkkinen, Tuulikki; Vuorela, Heikki
A reversed-phase HPLC method was developed using a computer simulation program for the identification of dried roots of Echinacea purpurea, E. angustifolia, E. pallida and Parthenium integrifolium. Hydrophilic and lipophilic compounds were analysed simultaneously leading to a two-fold decrease in analysis time compared to traditional HPLC methods.
Laasonen, Magali; Harmia-Pulkkinen, Tuulikki; Simard, Christine L; Michiels, Erik; Räsänen, Markku; Vuorela, Heikki
Near-infrared (NIR) reflectance spectroscopy was used to develop a fast identification method for Echinacea purpurea dried milled roots. Method development was carried out using a PLS (partial least-squares) algorithm and pretreatment options. The aim of this qualitative analysis was to confirm the identity of E. purpurea and to detect the presence of fraud, i.e., samples adulterated or substituted by Echinacea angustifolia, Echinacea pallida, or Parthenium integrifolium. Specificity was demonstrated by testing a validation set against the method. A total of 10% of the E. purpurea batches (true samples) and 0% of the false samples from that validation set were misidentified by the method. The misidentification was due to the difference in particle size distribution of one E. purpurea batch compared to that of the other samples. Adulterated E. purpurea samples can be detected at a minimum of 10% of adulteration. This study demonstrates that NIR spectroscopy is a good tool for the fast identification of E. purpurea roots if the samples are milled using the same procedure as for the calibration samples. The method is robust with respect to the origin of the samples and can be used routinely by the pharmaceutical industry or herbal suppliers to avoid mislabeling errors or adulteration.
Classen, B; Csávás, M; Borbás, A; Dingermann, T; Zündorf, I
Pressed juices of the aerial parts of Echinacea purpurea are used as non-specific immunostimulants, and arabinogalactan-proteins (AGPs) have been shown to be part of the active principle. Monoclonal antibodies against an AGP from pressed juice of Echinacea purpurea with complement-stimulating activity have been established by means of hybridoma techniques. To test the specificity of the antibodies, several other arabinogalactan-proteins from suspension cultures of Echinacea purpurea, the roots of Echinacea pallida, the aerial parts of Rudbeckia hirta, the roots of Baptisia tinctoria and gum arabic as well as an arabinogalactan from larch wood were tested in a competitive ELISA for cross reactivities. Chemical modifications at the periphery of the AGP molecules either by reduction of uronic acids or by dearabinosylation had no influence on the reactivity of the molecules towards the antibodies. For further characterization of the epitope, different Ara-Gal-oligosaccharides were used as antigens. A hexasaccharide consisting of a backbone of four molecules of 6-linked beta- D-Gal p, the second and the fourth of them branched at O-2 to an alpha- L-Ara f residue showed weak but reproducible cross reactivity, indicating that the antibodies may be at least in part directed to the carbohydrate moiety of the AGP. Testing of anti-AGP antibodies JIM 8 and LM 2 revealed good reactivity of LM 2 with the Echinacea AGP, whereas Jim 8 showed only very weak interaction.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Influenza virus (IV infections are a major threat to human welfare and animal health worldwide. Anti-viral therapy includes vaccines and a few anti-viral drugs. However vaccines are not always available in time, as demonstrated by the emergence of the new 2009 H1N1-type pandemic strain of swine origin (S-OIV in April 2009, and the acquisition of resistance to neuraminidase inhibitors such as Tamiflu® (oseltamivir is a potential problem. Therefore the prospects for the control of IV by existing anti-viral drugs are limited. As an alternative approach to the common anti-virals we studied in more detail a commercial standardized extract of the widely used herb Echinacea purpurea (Echinaforce®, EF in order to elucidate the nature of its anti-IV activity. Results Human H1N1-type IV, highly pathogenic avian IV (HPAIV of the H5- and H7-types, as well as swine origin IV (S-OIV, H1N1, were all inactivated in cell culture assays by the EF preparation at concentrations ranging from the recommended dose for oral consumption to several orders of magnitude lower. Detailed studies with the H5N1 HPAIV strain indicated that direct contact between EF and virus was required, prior to infection, in order to obtain maximum inhibition in virus replication. Hemagglutination assays showed that the extract inhibited the receptor binding activity of the virus, suggesting that the extract interferes with the viral entry into cells. In sequential passage studies under treatment in cell culture with the H5N1 virus no EF-resistant variants emerged, in contrast to Tamiflu®, which produced resistant viruses upon passaging. Furthermore, the Tamiflu®-resistant virus was just as susceptible to EF as the wild type virus. Conclusion As a result of these investigations, we believe that this standard Echinacea preparation, used at the recommended dose for oral consumption, could be a useful, readily available and affordable addition to existing control options
Dalby-Brown, Lea; Barsett, Hilde; Landbo, Anne-Katrine R; Meyer, Anne S; Mølgaard, Per
Preparations of Echinacea are widely used as alternative remedies to prevent the common cold and infections in the upper respiratory tract. After extraction, fractionation, and isolation, the antioxidant activity of three extracts, one alkamide fraction, four polysaccharide-containing fractions, and three caffeic acid derivatives from Echinacea purpurea root was evaluated by measuring their inhibition of in vitro Cu(II)-catalyzed oxidation of human low-density lipoprotein (LDL). The antioxidant activities of the isolated caffeic acid derivatives were compared to those of echinacoside, caffeic acid, and rosmarinic acid for reference. The order of antioxidant activity of the tested substances was cichoric acid > echinacoside > or = derivative II > or = caffeic acid > or = rosmarinic acid > derivative I. Among the extracts the 80% aqueous ethanolic extract exhibited a 10 times longer lag phase prolongation (LPP) than the 50% ethanolic extract, which in turn exhibited a longer LPP than the water extract. Following ion-exchange chromatography of the water extract, the majority of its antioxidant activity was found in the latest eluted fraction (H2O-acidic 3). The antioxidant activity of the tested Echinacea extracts, fractions, and isolated compounds was dose dependent. Synergistic antioxidant effects of Echinacea constituents were found when cichoric acid (major caffeic acid derivative in E. purpurea) or echinacoside (major caffeic acid derivative in Echinacea pallida and Echinacea angustifolia) were combined with a natural mixture of alkamides and/or a water extract containing the high molecular weight compounds. This contributes to the hypothesis that the physiologically beneficial effects of Echinacea are exerted by the multitude of constituents present in the preparations.
Kmitienė, Giedrė; Ragažinskienė, Ona
Straipsnyje pateikiami Echinacea pallida (Nutt.) Nutt ir Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench antžeminės dalies stiebo ir lapo lapalakščio viršutinės bei apatinės dalies organų anatominės sandaros tyrimų rezultatai. Tyrimai atlikti 2006–2009 metais Vidurio Lietuvoje, Kaune, VDU Kauno botanikos sodo Vaistinių augalų mokslo sektoriaus Vaistinių augalų kolekcijoje ir 400 m2 bandymų plote bei Vilniaus pedagoginio universiteto Gamtos mokslų fakulteto Botanikos katedroje. Ištyrus šių dviejų rūšių augalų ...
Bauer, V R; Jurcic, K; Puhlmann, J; Wagner, H
Ethanolic extracts of Echinacea purpurea, E. pallida and E. angustifolia roots were examined for immunological activity in the carbon clearance test with mice and in the granulocyte test. In the in vivo experiment all extracts, administered orally, were found to enhance phagocytosis significantly. These results correlate with the stimulation of phagocytosis in the in vitro granulocyte test. The lipophilic fractions of the extracts appeared to be more active than the polar fractions. All extracts were analyzed by HPLC in order to correlate the chemical constituents with the immunological activities.
Zhai, Zili; Liu, Yi; Wu, Lankun; Senchina, David S.; Wurtele, Eve S.; Murphy, Patricia A.; Kohut, Marian L.; Cunnick, Joan E.
Echinacea preparations are commonly used as nonspecific immunomodulatory agents. Alcohol extracts from three widely used Echinacea species, Echinacea angustifolia, Echinacea pallida, and Echinacea purpurea, were investigated for immunomodulating properties. The three Echinacea species demonstrated a broad difference in concentrations of individual lipophilic amides and hydrophilic caffeic acid derivatives. Mice were gavaged once a day (for 7 days) with one of the Echinacea extracts (130 mg/kg...
Chicca, A; Adinolfi, B; Martinotti, E; Fogli, S; Breschi, M C; Pellati, F; Benvenuti, S; Nieri, P
Echinacea is one of the most widely used alternative medicine in the world. Intake of Echinacea preparations is common among patients with advanced malignancies enrolled onto phase I chemotherapy trials; however, to our knowledge, no data are available regarding the possible direct effect of Echinacea species on human cancer cells. The purpose of the present study was to investigate potential in vitro cytotoxic and pro-apoptotic properties of hexanic root extract of the three medicinal Echinacea (Asteraceae) species (Echinacea pallida (Nutt.) Nutt., Echinacea angustifolia DC. var. angustifolia, Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench.) on the human pancreatic cancer MIA PaCa-2 and colon cancer COLO320 cell lines. We demonstrated, for the first time, that all the three species reduced cell viability in a concentration- and time-dependent manner; Echinacea pallida was the most active species with IC(50)s of 46.41+/-0.87 and 10.55+/-0.70 microg/ml in MIA PaCa-2 and COLO320 cells, respectively. Echinacea pallida extract was able to induce apoptosis by increasing significantly caspase 3/7 activity and promoting nuclear DNA fragmentation. These results represent the starting point to establish viable scientific evidence on the possible role of Echinacea species in medical oncology.
Jiang, Weizhen; Li, Qingling; Chen, Xiaolu; Ren, Yi; Chen, Rong; Wu, Hong; Yang, Yuesheng
Aneuploid ermpglasm is an important resource for genetic studies and identification of individual chromosomes in the cells of the aneuploid is an important step. The karyotype has already been established for purple coneflower ( Echinacea purpurea L.), but due to the high similarity in the morphology of several pairs of chromosomes in this species, it cannot be used to identify individual chromosomes in its own complement. The objectives of this study are to develop and evaluate the Giemsa C-banding technique for the purpose of identifying the individual chromosomes in Echinacea purpurea . The established karyotype with C-bands showed that all the 11 pairs of chromosomes possessed centromeric bands. Telomeric bands appeared most frequently in almost all the chromosomes with only two exceptions, the short arm of the chromosome 9 and the long arm of the chromosome 10. Intercalary bands were found mainly in the long arm of some chromosomes with only two exceptions, the chromosomes 1 and 2 that had intercalary bands on both arms. The chromosome 4 was the only chromosome where intercalary bands were absent. Chromosomes in E. purpurea could be stained with Giemsa to bear C-bands. By classifying the chromosomes into groups and judging the C-bands, each chromosome could be identified. The methods established in this study might be used for the identification of chromosome constitution in aneuploid E. purpurea created in a breeding program.
The concentrations of caffeic acid derivatives within Lamiaceae and Echinacea (herb, spice, tea, and dietary supplement forms) readily available in the U.S. marketplace (n=72) were determined. After the first identification of chicoric acid in Ocimum basilicum (basil), the extent to which chicoric a...
Loaiza, Jorge; Valverde, Roberto; Rodriguez, Gerardo; Molina, Jorge
Free phenylpropanoids (chlorogenic and cichoric acids), and glycosidic (echinecoside), as well as the alkamides, present in root extracts of the medicinal plants Echinacea purpurea and E. angustifolia produced in 3 different locations of Costa Rica (Los Santos at 1650 masl, Santa Barbara de Heredia at 1250 masl and Ojo de Agua at 850 masl) were quantified. Results showed a decrease on secondary metabolites associated to an altitude reduction of the growing zone. Concentration of free phenylpropanoids and the echinecoside (synthesized exclusively for E. angustifolia) produced in Costa Rica was 100 and 34% higher than the concentration reported for a standard sample from U.S.A. Alkamides concentration ranged from 0.89-2.31%, as compared to 0.004-0.36% reported from U.S.A. The alkamides produced in Costa Rica were similar in the 3 growing zones. In addition, 2 of them showed different isomerism than the ones reported in samples from U.S.A. These results indicate that in tropical conditions not only is it possible to produce Echinacea, but also that the amount of metabolites is higher than those produced in the Echinacea's origin areas. The presence of compounds with different isomerism could provide an alternative use for those metabolites. (author) [es
Perri, Daniel; Dugoua, Jean-Jacques; Mills, Edward; Koren, Gideon
There is a lack of basic knowledge on the part of both clinicians and patients as to the indications for use and safety of herbal medicines used in pregnancy and lactation. This is one article in a series that systematically reviews the evidence for commonly used herbs during pregnancy and lactation. To systematically review the literature for evidence on the use, safety, and pharmacology of echinacea focusing on issues pertaining to pregnancy and lactation. We searched 7 electronic databases and compiled data according to the grade of evidence found. There is good scientific evidence from a prospective cohort study that oral consumption of echinacea during the first trimester does not increase the risk for major malformations. Low-level evidence based on expert opinion shows that oral consumption of echinacea in recommended doses is safe for use during pregnancy and lactation. Echinacea is non-teratogenic when used during pregnancy. Caution with using Echinacea during lactation until further high quality human studies can determine its safety.
Full Text Available Hepatitis B, a common infectious disease of liver, is transmitted by blood and body fluids like semen and vaginal fluid that carry hepatitis B virus (HBV. In chronic infection, medical care is required to decrease possibility of cirrhosis and liver cancer. In the present report, the hepatoprotective effect of an Echinacea purpurea preparation (Echiherb® has been described in a patient who suffered from HBV infection. The levels of both enzymes of aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT decreased to their normal level after 6 weeks of treatment. Therefore, this report may provide a new perspective for protection of liver in patients with HBV infection along with other diseases which damage liver cells using E. purpurea preparations.
Exposure of mammals to ionizing radiations induces injury to different organs, which cause changes in the structure and function of cellular components, resulting in tissue damage and death. The present study has been carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of Echinacea Purpurea (E. purpurea) as a protective and therapeutic agent against radiation hazards. E. Purpurea was administered daily to male albino rats by oral gavages at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight during 4 weeks either pre or post- whole body gamma-irradiation with 3 Gy. Pre-treated animals were sacrificed three days post-irradiation and post-treated animals were sacrificed three days post the last dose of E Purpurea. The results showed that γ-irradiation provoked a significant decrease of superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activities and glutathione (GSH) content concomitant with a significant increase of thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARS) level in the liver and testis. Oxidative stress in both tissues was associated with histopathological changes. Examination of sections in the liver of irradiated rats through light microscope (x400) showed swelling of some liver cells with marked vacuolation of their cytoplasm, necrotic cells with pyknotic or karyolytic nuclei and dilated blood sinusoids. In the testis, destructed and degenerated seminiferous tubules, and degenerated and ruptured interstitial cells. Supplementation of rats with E. Purpurea either pre- or post-irradiation has significantly modulated γ-irradiation induced injury to both tissues. Moreover, significant improvement was recorded in serum glucose, lipid profile, and testosterone levels, and transaminases activity. However, administration of E. Purpurea before irradiation was more efficient in reducing radiation damage than after irradiation, which could be attributed to its antioxidant and free radical scavenging properties.
The endophytic fungal community associated with the wild ethnomedicinal North American plant Echinacea purpurea was investigated as well as its potential for providing antifungal compounds against plant pathogenic fungi. A total of 233 endophytic fungal isolates were obtained and classified into 42 ...
Carvalho, Camila R; Wedge, David E; Cantrell, Charles L; Silva-Hughes, Alice F; Pan, Zhiqiang; Moraes, Rita M; Madoxx, Victor L; Rosa, Luiz H
The endophytic fungal community associated with the ethnomedicinal plant Echinacea purpurea was investigated as well as its potential for providing antifungal compounds against plant pathogenic fungi. A total of 233 endophytic fungal isolates were obtained and classified into 42 different taxa of 16 genera, of which Alternaria alternata, Colletotrichum dematium, and Stagonosporopsis sp. 2 are the most frequent colonizers. The extracts of 29 endophytic fungi displayed activities against important phytopathogenic fungi. Eight antifungal extracts were selected for chemical analysis. Forty fatty acids were identified by gas chromatography-flame-ionization detection (GC-FID) analysis. The compounds (-)-5-methylmellein and (-)-(3R)-8-hydroxy-6-methoxy-3,5-dimethyl-3,4-dihydroisocoumarin were isolated from Biscogniauxia mediterraneaEPU38CA crude extract. (-)-5-Methylmellein showed weak activity against Phomopsis obscurans, P. viticola, and Fusarium oxysporum, and caused growth stimulation of C. fragariae, C. acutatum, C. gloeosporioides, and Botrytis cinerea. (-)-(3R)-8-Hydroxy-6-methoxy-3,5-dimethyl-3,4-dihydroisocoumarin appeared slightly more active in the microtiter environment than 5-methylmellein. Our results indicate that E. purpurea lives symbiotically with different endophytic fungi, which are able to produce bioactive fatty acids and aromatic compounds active against important phytopathogenic fungi. The detection of the different fatty acids and aromatic compounds produced by the endophytic community associated with wild E. purpurea suggests that it may have intrinsic mutualistic resistance against phytopathogen attacks in its natural environment. © 2016 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zürich.
A rapid, simple, and reliable flow-injection mass spectrometric (FIMS) method was developed to discriminate two major Echinacea species (E. purpurea and E. angustifolia) samples. Fifty-eight Echinacea samples collected from United States were analyzed using FIMS. Principle component analysis (PCA) a...
Mihai Radu POP
Full Text Available Merging aesthetics with utility, some medicinal plants can benefit both of a high production and decoration potential. This calls for diversification of improvement directions of the species. Through this article we suggest one of these species, Echinacea purpurea (L. Moench. This is considered to be important at this time, acquisition of new biological forms - varieties in this species, which show multiple attributes utility based on key biological characteristics, agronomic, physiological, biochemical and agrochemical (medicinal, decorative, culinary etc.. To achieve this goal, studies were undertaken, given in this article, which is the starting point for selecting characters representative for our targets.The results presented in this study reveal a pronounced genetic polymorphism showing the selection operation can use the original material for a quantitative and qualitative differentiation of valuable genotypes that could be approved.
Carbon nanotube reinforced hollow fiber solid/liquid phase microextraction: a novel extraction technique for the measurement of caffeic acid in Echinacea purpurea herbal extracts combined with high-performance liquid chromatography.
Es'haghi, Zarrin; Golsefidi, Mazyar Ahmadi; Saify, Ali; Tanha, Ali Akbar; Rezaeifar, Zohre; Alian-Nezhadi, Zahra
A new design of hollow fiber solid-liquid phase microextraction (HF-SLPME) was developed for the determination of caffeic acid in medicinal plants samples as Echinacea purpure. The membrane extraction with sorbent interface used in this research is a three-phase supported liquid membrane consisting of an aqueous (donor phase), organic solvent/nano sorbent (membrane) and aqueous (acceptor phase) system operated in direct immersion sampling mode. The multi-walled carbon nanotube dispersed in the organic solvent is held in the pores of a porous membrane supported by capillary forces and sonification. It is in contact with two aqueous phases: the donor phase, which is the aqueous sample, and the acceptor phase, usually an aqueous buffer. All microextraction experiments were supported using an Accurel Q3/2 polypropylene hollow fiber membrane (600 microm I.D., 200 microm wall thicknesses, and 0.2 microm pore size). The experimental setup is very simple and highly affordable. The hollow fiber is disposable, so single use of the fiber reduces the risk of cross-contamination and carry-over problems. The proposed method allows the very effective and enriched recuperation of an acidic analyte into one single extract. In order to obtain high enrichment and extraction efficiency of the analyte using this novel technique, the main parameters were optimized. Under the optimized extraction conditions, the method showed good linearity (0.0001-50 microg/L), repeatability, low limits of detection (0.00005 microg/L) and excellent enrichment (EF=2108). Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Orhan, I; Senol, F S; Gülpinar, A R; Kartal, M; Sekeroglu, N; Deveci, M; Kan, Y; Sener, B
The dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, ethanol, and aqueous extracts of Cyclotrichium niveum (CN) and Thymus praecox subsp. caucasicus var. caucasicus (TP), Echinacea purpurea (EPU), and E. pallida (EPA) along with the essential oils of CN and TP were assessed for their anti-acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and antioxidant activities. AChE inhibition was estimated using spectrophotometric method of Ellman. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and ferrous ion-chelating power tests. Ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) of CN and TP were also tested. CN essential oil was found to contain isomenthone (56.21%) and pulegone (19.76%). The ethyl acetate (83.11-87.98%) and dichloromethane (73.45-84.02%) extracts of CN showed the highest AChE inhibition. The ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts of TP exerted significant DPPH scavenger effect. The water extracts of CN and TP and the chloroform extract of the aerial parts of EPU displayed the highest ferrous ion-chelating effect. The leaf and flower essential oils of TP had the best FRAP.
Binns, S E; Hudson, J; Merali, S; Arnason, J T
Extracts of 8 taxa of the genus Echinacea were found to have antiviral activity against Herpes simplex (HSV) virus Type I in vitro when exposed to visible and UV-A light. n-Hexane extracts of roots containing alkenes and amides were more active in general than ethyl acetate extracts containing caffeic acids. The most potent inhibitors of HSV were E. pallida var. sanguinea crude (70 % ethanol) inflorescence extract (MIC = 0.026 mg/mL), cichoric acid (MIC = 0.045 mg/mL) and Echinacea purpurea n-hexane root extract (MIC = 0.12 mg/mL).
Speroni, E; Govoni, P; Guizzardi, S; Renzulli, C; Guerra, M C
Among the different species belonging to the Echinacea family, largely used in traditional medicine, Echinacea pallida, Echinacea purpurea and Echinacea angustifolia were investigated. These different species, due to their difficult identification, were commonly confused in the past and probably used indifferently for the same therapeutic purposes. In fact, the three species have in common, some pharmacological activities, based on the presence of active compounds that act additively and synergistically. Nevertheless, the composition of each species has slight variation in the amount of each active component. In particular, echinacoside, a caffeoyl derivative, is present in E. pallida and only in traces in E. angustifolia. It seems to have protective effects on skin connective tissue and to enhance wound healing. The anti-inflammatory and wound healing activities of echinacoside, compared with the ones of the total root extract of E. pallida and E. angustifolia, were examined in rats, after topical application. The tissues of the treated animals were evaluated after 24, 48 and 72 h treatment and excised for histological observation at the end of the experiment. Results confirm the good anti-inflammatory and wound healing properties of E. pallida and of its constituent echinacoside, with respect to E. purpurea and control. This activity probably resides in the antihyaluronidase activity of echinacoside.
Mengoni, Alessio; Maida, Isabel; Chiellini, Carolina; Emiliani, Giovanni; Mocali, Stefano; Fabiani, Arturo; Fondi, Marco; Firenzuoli, Fabio; Fani, Renato
Recent findings have shown that antibiotic resistance is widespread in multiple environments and multicellular organisms, as plants, harboring rich and complex bacterial communities, could be hot spot for emergence of antibiotic resistances as a response to bioactive molecules production by members of the same community. Here, we investigated a panel of 137 bacterial isolates present in different organs of the medicinal plant Echinacea purpurea, aiming to evaluate if different plant organs harbor strains with different antibiotic resistance profiles, implying then the presence of different biological interactions in the communities inhabiting different plant organs. Data obtained showed a large antibiotic resistance variability among strains, which was strongly related to the different plant organs (26% of total variance, P antibiotic resistance pattern was present also when a single genus (Pseudomonas), ubiquitous in all organs, was analyzed and no correlation of antibiotic resistance pattern with genomic relatedness among strains was found. In conclusion, we speculate that antibiotic resistance patterns are tightly linked to the type of plant organ under investigation, suggesting the presence of differential forms of biological interaction in stem/leaves, roots and rhizosphere. Copyright © 2014 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Se estudió la producción de la planta medicinal Echinacea purpurea en 3 localida- des de Costa Rica: Los Santos, a 1650 msnm, temperatura máxima de 26,5°C y mínima de 15,5°C, precipitación promedio de 2635 mm año -1, y suelos franco-arcillo-arenosos de alta fertilidad; Santa Bárbara, a 1250 msnm,temperatura máxima de 27,4°C y mínima de 16,9°C, precipitación promedio de 2924 mm año -1, y suelos francos de fertilidad media; y, Ojo de Agua a 850 msnm, temperatura máxima de 29,1°C y mínima de 19,1°C, precipitación promedio de 2302 mm año -1, y suelos franco-arenosos de fertilidad baja. La mayor cantidad de follaje y raíz se produjo en la zona de Los Santos, seguida por Santa Bárbara y Ojo de Agua, respectivamente. Aun cuando en la zona de Los Santos la densidad de siembra fue solo de 112500 plantas ha-1 comparada con 243000 plantas ha-1 en las otras 2 localidades; parece que las condiciones climáticas prevalecientes a la altura de Los Santos, así como las prácticas culturales utilizadas, favorecieron no sólo la producción de materia seca sino también la acumulación de los metabolitos secundarios de interés. El ingreso económico neto obtenido en la zona de Los Santos fue 47 y 59% mayor que en Santa Bárbara y Ojo de Agua, respectivamente.
Full Text Available Background: Purple coneflower (Echinaceae purpurea L. is a perennial herbaceous with astringent properties, disinfectant, antimicrobial and anti intoxication activity. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of shoot essential oil of purple coneflower against some microorganisms including gram positive, gram negative bacteria, filamentous fungi and yeasts. Material and Methods: In this experimental and laboratory investigation, plant samples were collected in full blooming stage. Shoot essential oil was extracted by hydro-distillation technique using Clevenger apparatus. The chemical constitutes of this oil was analyzed by GC and GC/MS method. Anti microbial properties of the essential oil were determined using micro broth dilution and well disk diffusion methods. At the end, data were analyzed by the SPSS version 15 software, using the T-test and Duncan s' test. Results: Twenty nine components were identified by GC and GC/MS in the essential oil of purple coneflower representing 96.21% of total oil. The major components were Germacrene D (53.30%, -Cymene (9.78%, β-Caryophyllene (7.52%, α-Humulene (5.22%, β-Bisabolene (4.43% and α-Pinene (4.23%, respectively. This oil exhibited strong antifungal activity against filamentous fungi and yeast with average of inhibition zone (AIZ 39.63. Microorganisms differ in their resistance to purple coneflower oil. All of the bacteria including gram positive and gram negative bacteria are more resistant than fungi and gram negative bacteria are more resistant than gram positive bacteria. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhimurium were more resistant than others. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that coneflower essential oil with significant antimicrobial effects and can be used instead of synthetic antibiotics that microbial resistance towards them is increasing.
Echinacea-containing drugs have to be classified according to the used plant species (Echinacea purpurea, E. pallida or E. angustifolia), the processed part of the plant (root, upper parts or whole plant), and the mode of processing. Significant pharmacological effects have been found in vitro and in vivo for the expressed juice of the upper parts of E. purpurea and for alcoholic extracts of the roots of E. pallida, E. angustifolia and E. purpurea. The activity is mainly directed towards the nonspecific cellular immune system. Several active constituents are discussed: polysaccharides, glycoproteins, caffeic acid derivatives (cichoric acid) and alkamides.
WIST, TYLER J.; DAVIS, ARTHUR R.
• Background and Aims In spite of the impressive species diversity in the Asteraceae and their widespread appeal to many generalist pollinators, floral-nectary ultrastructure in the family has rarely been investigated. To redress this, a study using Echinacea purpurea, a plant of horticultural and nutraceutical value, was undertaken. Nectar secretion of disc florets was compared with floral nectary ultrastructure taking into account nectar's potential impact upon the reproductive success of this outcrossing species. • Methods Micropipette collections of nectar in conjunction with refractometry were used to determine the volume and nectar-sugar quantities of disc florets throughout their phenology, from commencement of its production to cessation of secretion. Light, scanning-electron and transmission-electron microscopy were utilized to examine morphology, anatomy and ultrastructure of nectaries of the disc florets. • Key Results Florets were protandrous with nectar being secreted from anthesis until the third day of the pistillate phase. Nectar production per floret peaked on the first day of stigma receptivity, making the two innermost whorls of open florets most attractive to foraging visitors. Modified stomata were situated along the apical rim of the collar-like nectary, which surrounds the style base and sits on top of the inferior ovary. The floral nectary was supplied by phloem only, and both sieve elements and companion cells were found adjacent to the epidermis; the latter participated in the origin of some of the precursor cells that yielded these specialized cells of phloem. Companion cells possessed wall ingrowths (transfer cells). Lobed nuclei were a key feature of secretory parenchyma cells. • Conclusions The abundance of mitochondria suggests an eccrine mechanism of secretion, although dictyosomal vesicles may contribute to a granulocrine process. Phloem sap evidently is the main contributor of nectar carbohydrates. From the sieve elements
Zhai, Zili; Haney, Devon; Wu, Lankun; Solco, Avery; Murphy, Patricia A; Wurtele, Eve S; Kohut, Marian L; Cunnick, Joan E
It has been suggested that Echinacea has anti-inflammatory activity in vivo. Nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and interleukin-1beta are important mediators in the inflammatory response. The effect of alcohol extracts of E. angustifolia (EA), E. pallida (EPA) and E. purpurea (EP) on the production of these inflammatory mediators in both LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages in vitro and murine peritoneal exudate cells (PECs) in vivo were investigated. As macrophages produce these inflammatory mediators in response to pathogenic infection, parallel cultures of macrophages were studied for phagocytosis and intracellular killing of Salmonella enterica. EPA and EP in vitro inhibited NO production and TNF-α release in a dose-dependent manner. RAW 264.7 cells treated with EA or EP showed decreased killing over 24 h, although EA enhanced bacterial phagocytosis. Upon bacterial infection, RAW 264.7 cells produce high levels of NO; however, an Echinacea-mediated decrease in NO production was observed. Echinacea alcohol extracts administered orally at 130 mg/kg per day for seven days had a weak effect on NO production and phagocytosis by LPS-stimulated PECs. The results indicated that all Echinacea species significantly decreased inflammatory mediators in vitro, however, only EA and EP reduced bacterial killing. Oral administration of Echinacea alcohol extracts did not adversely affect the development and anti-bacterial function of inflammatory PECs in vivo, however, NO production was decreased during bacterial infection of PECs.
Jones, Maxwell P A; Cao, Jin; O'Brien, Rob; Murch, Susan J; Saxena, Praveen K
The biochemical mechanisms underlying thidiazuron (TDZ)-induced regeneration in plant cells have not been clearly elucidated. Exposure of leaf explants of Echinacea purpurea to a medium containing TDZ results in undifferentiated cell proliferation and differentiated growth as mixed shoot organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis. The current studies were undertaken to determine the potential roles of auxin, indoleamines, and ion signaling in the dedifferentiation and redifferentiation of plant cells. E. purpurea leaf explants were found to contain auxin and the related indoleamine neurotransmitters, melatonin, and serotonin. The levels of these endogenous indoleamines were increased by exposure to TDZ associated with the induction of regeneration. The auxin-transport inhibitor 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid and auxin action inhibitor, p-chlorophenoxyisobutyric acid decreased the TDZ-induced regeneration but increased concentrations of endogenous serotonin and melatonin. As well, inhibitors of calcium and sodium transport significantly reduced TDZ-induced morphogenesis while increasing endogenous indoleamine content. These data indicate that TDZ-induced regeneration is the manifestation of a metabolic cascade that includes an initial signaling event, accumulation, and transport of endogenous plant signals such as auxin and melatonin, a system of secondary messengers, and a concurrent stress response.
Antioxidant capacity changes and phenolic profile of Echinacea purpurea, nettle (Urtica dioica L.), and dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) after application of polyamine and phenolic biosynthesis regulators.
Hudec, Jozef; Burdová, Mária; Kobida, L'ubomír; Komora, Ladislav; Macho, Vendelín; Kogan, Grigorij; Turianica, Ivan; Kochanová, Radka; Lozek, Otto; Habán, Miroslav; Chlebo, Peter
The changes of the antioxidant (AOA) and antiradical activities (ARA) and the total contents of phenolics, anthocyanins, flavonols, and hydroxybenzoic acid in roots and different aerial sections of Echinacea purpurea, nettle, and dandelion, after treatment with ornithine decarboxylase inhibitor, a polyamine inhibitor (O-phosphoethanolamine, KF), and a phenol biosynthesis stimulator (carboxymethyl chitin glucan, CCHG) were analyzed spectrophotometrically; hydroxycinnamic acids content was analyzed by RP-HPLC with UV detection. Both regulators increased the AOA measured as inhibition of peroxidation (IP) in all herb sections, with the exception of Echinacea stems after treatment with KF. In root tissues IP was dramatically elevated mainly after CCHG application: 8.5-fold in Echinacea, 4.14-fold in nettle, and 2.08-fold in dandelion. ARA decrease of Echinacea leaves treated with regulators was in direct relation only with cichoric acid and caftaric acid contents. Both regulators uphold the formation of cinnamic acid conjugates, the most expressive being that of cichoric acid after treatment with CCHG in Echinacea roots from 2.71 to 20.92 mg g(-1). There was a strong relationship between increase of the total phenolics in all sections of Echinacea, as well as in the studied sections of dandelion, and the anthocyanin content.
Salem M.A. Salem
Full Text Available Our study aimed to investigate the effect of Echinacea purpurea (E root extract supplementation on the immune response and antioxidant status of growing New Zealand White rabbits. The study started with twenty pregnant does divided into two groups (10 each: the control (MC group and the E-treated (MT group. Twenty pups obtained from both the MC and MT does were divided into four sub-groups (n=10 each: (i PCMC (control pups from control mothers, (ii PTMC (E-treated pups from control mothers, (iii PCMT (control pups from E-treated mothers, and (iv PTMT (E-treated pups from E-treated mothers. Treatment with Echinacea showed, at the end of the fattening period, as compared to the control, a reduction in the mortality rate in the PTMC and PTMT groups and significantly increased body weight and red blood cells; the percentage of packed cell volume increased significantly in the PTMT group at the end of the experiment as compared to the PCMC group. The white blood cell count and particularly the percentage of lymphocytes increased (P<0.05 in the PTMC and PTMT groups while the percentage of neutrophils decreased (P<0.05. Plasma total protein (TP, serum total IgG, serum glutathione and nitric oxide increased (P<0.05 while the serum albumin/globulin ratio and malondialdehyde (MDA decreased (P<0.05 in the PTMC and PTMT groups. Our results suggest that Echinacea purpurea extract supplementation to pregnant and weaned rabbits might enhance the immune function and increase the activities of the antioxidant defence system in addition to the reduction of mortality rate after weaning, which is a strategy to improve growth performance and animal health when fattening rabbits for production.
Full Text Available Haploid, diploid and tetraploid shoots of Echinacea purpurea L. sharing the same genome were cultured in medium and their rooting response to the composition of the culture medium was investigated. It was found that in medium without growth regulators, haploid shoots could initiate roots quite efficiently with the shortest time required for the emergence of roots and with the highest rooting rate; the response of the diploids was similar to that of the haploids and largely different from that of the tetraploids. The tetraploids obviously required longer time for the initiation of roots and had the lowest rooting rate. Supplementing the medium with 0.05 and 0.15 mg/L naphthaleneacetic acid or 0.1 and 0.3 mg/L indole-3-butyric acid (IBA had little positive effect on the rooting of diploid shoots and, in some cases, had even negative effect on the rooting of haploid shoots, but enhanced effectively the rooting of the tetraploid shoots. By supplementing the medium with 0.3 mg/L IBA, the time required for the emergence of roots from the tetraploid shoots was shortened and the rooting rate was increased largely. As a result, healthy tetraploid plantlets with fully developed root system could be efficiently propagated.
... Purple coneflower). Dried roots of Echinacea angustifolia and Echinacea pallida are also used. The type of active ingredients ... 14651858.CD000530.pub2. Natural Standard (Ed). Herbs & Supplements – Echinacea (E. angustifolia DC, E. pallida, E. purpurea). Nature Medicine Quality Standard. [Retrieved on ...
Pietta, P; Mauri, P; Bauer, R
The distribution pattern of caffeic acid derivatives in Echinacea species is complex, and problems with the identity of each drug have been recognized. Micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) has been applied to define the fingerprints of Echinacea angustifolia, Echinacea pallida, and Echinacea purpurea, and their mixtures. The results obtained evidence that MEKC is a valuable tool for the characterization of these drugs.
Qiang, Zhiyi; Hauck, Cathy; McCoy, Joe-Ann; Widrlechner, Mark P.; Reddy, Manju B.; Murphy, Patricia A.; Hendrich, Suzanne
The use of Echinacea as a medicinal herb is prominent in the United States, and many studies have assessed the effectiveness of Echinacea as an immunomodulator. We hypothesized that Bauer alkamides 8, 10 and 11 and ketone 24 were absorbed similarly either as pure compounds or from Echinacea sanguinea and Echinacea pallida ethanol extracts, and that these Echinacea extracts could inhibit P-glycoprotein transporter (P-gp) in Caco-2 human intestinal epithelial cells. Using HPLC analysis, the per...
This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of Nigella sativa (NS) powder and Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench extract (EP) on performance and some blood biochemical and haematological parameters in broiler chickens. A total of 144, one day-old broiler chickens (Ross 308) were divided into three treatment ...
Isbaniah, F; Wiyono, W H; Yunus, F; Setiawati, A; Totzke, U; Verbruggen, M A
Upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) frequently cause exacerbations of chronic-obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Stimulation of the innate immune system may provide an early defence against such infections. The objective of this study was to determine whether Echinacea purpurea (EP) along with micronutrients may alleviate COPD exacerbations caused by acute URTI. This was a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial in COPD patients with acute URTI. Patients were given ciprofloxacin for 7 days and additionally one tablet per day of EP, of EP along with zinc, selenium and ascorbic acid (EP+), or of placebo until day 14. Serum levels of TNF α and interleukins 1β, 6 and 10 were measured before and after treatment. Until week 4 post-end of treatment, all patients had to daily report on COPD symptoms in diaries. In total, 108 mostly male patients with a mean age of 65·8 years (40-81 years) were enrolled. Patients of the three treatment arms did not vary significantly in baseline characteristics. EP+, but not EP resulted in significantly less severe and shorter exacerbation episodes following URTI as compared with placebo suggesting a synergistic effect of Echinacea and micronutrients. Large variations in biomarkers in-between and within groups were unrelated to treatment. Study medication was safe and well tolerated with overall 15 adverse events one of which was serious. Among those, sleeping disorders were most frequent and likely related to the underlying disease. The combination of EP, zinc, selenium and vitamin C may alleviate exacerbation symptoms caused by URTI in COPD. Further studies are warranted to investigate the interactions among Echinacea, zinc, selenium and vitamin C. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Leon Sorin MUNTEAN; Dan VARBAN; Sorin MUNTEAN; Mircea TAMAS; Rodica VARBAN
Echinacea species come from North America. Preparations of Echinacea pallida Nutt. and Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench are used in healing many diseases owing to their immunostimulative, antivirus and bacteria, scarifying and anti-inflammatory properties. Echinacea pallida Nutt. displays tap root, linear spear-shaped leaves. Seedling plantation with both species is performed in May and spacing of 50 cm between rows and 30 cm between plants per row. Harvest takes place in the 2-nd year of flowe...
Birt, Diane F; Widrlechner, Mark P; LaLone, Carlie A; Wu, Lankun; Bae, Jaehoon; Solco, Avery KS; Kraus, George A; Murphy, Patricia A; Wurtele, Eve S; Leng, Qiang; Hebert, Steven C; Maury, Wendy J; Price, Jason P
Ongoing studies have developed strategies for identifying key bio-active compounds and chemical profiles in Echinacea with the goal of improving its human health benefits. Antiviral and antiinflammatory–antipain assays have targeted various classes of chemicals responsible for these activities. Analysis of polar fractions of E. purpurea extracts showed the presence of antiviral activity, with evidence suggesting that polyphenolic compounds other than the known HIV inhibitor, cichoric acid, may be involved. Antiinflammatory activity differed by species, with E. sanguinea having the greatest activity and E. angustifolia, E. pallida, and E. simulata having somewhat less. Fractionation and studies with pure compounds indicate that this activity is explained, at least in part, by the alkamide constituents. Ethanol extracts from Echinacea roots had potent activity as novel agonists of TRPV1, a mammalian pain receptor reported as an integrator of inflammatory pain and hyperalgesia and a prime therapeutic target for analgesic and antiinflammatory drugs. One fraction from E. purpurea ethanol extract was bioactive in this system. Interestingly, the antiinflammatory compounds identified to inhibit prostaglandin E2 production differed from those involved in TRPV1 receptor activation. PMID:18258644
Birt, Diane F; Widrlechner, Mark P; Lalone, Carlie A; Wu, Lankun; Bae, Jaehoon; Solco, Avery Ks; Kraus, George A; Murphy, Patricia A; Wurtele, Eve S; Leng, Qiang; Hebert, Steven C; Maury, Wendy J; Price, Jason P
Ongoing studies have developed strategies for identifying key bioactive compounds and chemical profiles in Echinacea with the goal of improving its human health benefits. Antiviral and antiinflammatory-antipain assays have targeted various classes of chemicals responsible for these activities. Analysis of polar fractions of E. purpurea extracts showed the presence of antiviral activity, with evidence suggesting that polyphenolic compounds other than the known HIV inhibitor, cichoric acid, may be involved. Antiinflammatory activity differed by species, with E. sanguinea having the greatest activity and E. angustifolia, E. pallida, and E. simulata having somewhat less. Fractionation and studies with pure compounds indicate that this activity is explained, at least in part, by the alkamide constituents. Ethanol extracts from Echinacea roots had potent activity as novel agonists of TRPV1, a mammalian pain receptor reported as an integrator of inflammatory pain and hyperalgesia and a prime therapeutic target for analgesic and antiinflammatory drugs. One fraction from E. purpurea ethanol extract was bioactive in this system. Interestingly, the antiinflammatory compounds identified to inhibit prostaglandin E(2) production differed from those involved in TRPV1 receptor activation.
Schneider, Sven; Reichling, Jürgen; Stintzing, Florian C; Messerschmidt, Silke; Meyer, Ulrich; Schnitzler, Paul
Hydroalcoholic extracts and pressed juice from Echinacea pallida were phytochemically characterised by HPLC-MS analyses. Ferulic and caffeic acid derivatives were identified as major constituents. All tested extracts and pressed juice from Echinacea pallida exhibited a low cytotoxic activity on monkey kidney cells in vitro. The inhibitory activity of Echinacea against herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (HSV-1, HSV-2) was analysed with plaque reduction assays. All hydroalcoholic extracts exhibited high levels of antiviral activity against both types of herpesvirus in a dose-dependent manner. Plaque formation was significantly reduced by more than 99 % or completely absent. Pressed juice from E. pallida revealed the highest antiviral activity against HSV-1 and HSV-2 when compared to hydroalcoholic Echinacea extracts and even highly diluted Echinacea pressed juice still inhibited viral infectivity. Hydroalcoholic extracts were quite active against herpetic infection when HSV-1 or HSV-2 were pretreated with the extracts. In contrast, Echinacea pressed juice revealed antiviral activity during all phases of the viral replication cycle. Additionally, Echinacea pressed juice demonstrated protection of cells against viral infection. In conclusion, hydroalcoholic E. pallida extracts interfere with free herpesvirus but pressed juice is able to interact with herpesvirus inside and outside the cell as well as to protect cells against viral infection, probably by interfering with virus attachment. Hydroalcoholic extracts and pressed juice from E. pallida demonstrated high selectivity indices, a necessary prerequisite for a potential topical treatment of herpetic infections. Different types of Echinacea preparations, such as commercial tinctures, tablets, and teas, are expected to offer different antiviral profiles. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart-New York.
Miliauskas, G.; Venskutonis, R.P.; Beek, van T.A.
Extracts of 12 medicinal and aromatic plants were investigated for their radical scavenging activity using DPPH and ABTS assays: Salvia sclarea, Salvia glutinosa, Salvia pratensis, Lavandula angustifolia, Calendula officinalis, Matricaria recutita, Echinacea purpurea, Rhaponticum carthamoides,
Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the acute and subacute toxicity of 50% ethanolic extract of Tephrosia purpurea (T. purpurea in rodents. Methods: The acute toxicity test was conducted in Swiss albino mice. The extract of T. purpurea was administrated in single doses of 50, 300 and 2000 mg/ kg and observed for behavioral changes and mortality, if any. In subacute toxicity study, Wistar rats of either sex were administered two doses of T. purpurea i.e., 200 and 400 mg/kg (One-tenth and one-fifth of the maximum tolerated dose, p.o. for 4 weeks. During 28 days of treatment, rats were observed weekly for any change in their body weight, food and water intake. At the end of 28 days, rats were sacrificed for hematological, biochemical and histopathology study. Results: In the acute toxicity study, T. purpurea was found to be well tolerated upto 2 000 mg/kg, produced neither mortality nor changes in behavior in mice. In subacute toxicity study, T. purpurea at dose level of 200 and 400 mg/kg did not produce any significant difference in their body weight, food and water intake when compared to vehicle treated rats. It also showed no significant alteration in hematological and biochemical parameters in experimental groups of rats apart from a decrease in aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase and alkaline phosphate content at the dose of 400 mg/kg. Histopathological study revealed normal architecture of kidney and liver of T. purpurea treated rats. Conclusions: These results demonstrated that there is a wide margin of safety for the therapeutic use of T. purpurea and further corroborated the traditional use of this extract as an anti hepatocarcinogenic agent
Islam, Jamal; Carter, Ramona
The significant burden of upper respiratory tract infection in adults and children, coupled with a lack of specific treatment options, invites the use of alternative therapies. Echinacea is an herb widely used for the prevention or treatment of upper respiratory tract infection. This review article examines the mechanism of action, dose, and types of Echinacea used for these purposes. The principal mode of action of Echinacea is through immunostimulation. Most Echinacea studies were done in Germany, but their results are difficult to interpret because of variability of experimental parameters. Types of Echinacea commonly used are Echinacea purpurea, E pallida, and E angustifolia. Both the plant's upper parts and roots are used. For oral administration, tablets, extracts, fresh pressed juice, teas, and tinctures have been used. Though studies show a beneficial effect, clear conclusions and recommendations of Echinacea use cannot be made due to a lack of standard product, variability in dose, and variability in outcome measures. Therefore, well-designed studies with consistent standardized measures are required.
In comparison with other medicinal plants, the history of use of Echinacea is relatively short. The plant originates from North America and was employed by the indigenous Indians. The first archaeological evidence dates from the 18th century. Included in the name Echinacea or purple coneflower are several species of the Asteraceae family: Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench, Echinacea angustifolia DC. and Echinacea pallida (Nutt.) Nutt. Information about the use of the plant from traditional healers ranges from external application for wounds, burns and insect bites to the chewing of roots for toothache and throat infections, and internal application for pain, coughs, stomach cramps and snake bites. The interest of white settlers was also drawn to this medicinal plant. The first Echinacea preparation, known as Meyers Blood Purifier, arrived on the market around 1880, with rheumatism, neuralgia and rattlesnake bites as indications. At the beginning of the 20th century, Echinacea was the most frequently used plant preparation in the USA. Commercial cultivation was started in Germany around 1939. The introduction and cultivation of Echinacea in Switzerland by A. Vogel was around 1950. Chemists and pharmacologists became interested in Echinacea and many constituents are now known, such as polysaccharides, echinacoside, cichoric acid, ketoalkenes and alkylamides. The extracts exhibit immunostimulant properties and are mainly used in the prophylaxis and therapy of colds, flu and septic complaints. Although there are over 400 publications concerning the plant and dozens of preparations of Echinacea n the market, the true identity of the active principles still remains open. Copyright 2003 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg
Full Text Available To quantify the response of some morpho-physiological traits of Echinacea purpurea to thr application of zinc sulfate and ascorbic acid under water deficit, an experiment was carried out in split plot factorial based on RCBD with three replications at the Agricultural Research Station of Islamic Azad University, Tabriz Branch in 2011-12. Experimental factors consisted of water stress as the main factor with three levels (irrigation after70mm evaporation, irrigation after120mm evaporation and irrigation after 170mm evaporation from class A pan, Secondary factor consisted of: application of microelement with two levels (control and application of zinc sulfate 0.005 concentration and ascorbic acid with four levels (not application, application of 50 mg/l of ascorbic acid, application of 100 mg/l of ascorbic acid and application of 150 mg/l of ascorbic acid. The results showed that the effect of water deficit on purple coneflower caused significant differences in diameter of stem, number of flowering branch, stomata density, zinc concentration of aerial parts plant, fresh weight, relative water content of leaf, LAI, proline concentration, crop growth rate, relative growth rate and net assimilation rate. Comparison of means for water deficits between the different levels of drought stress showed that the maximum LAI, with 2.85, belonged to control. Comparison of means for interaction effects between drought stress and application of zinc sulfate revealed that the maximum proline concentration belonged to spraying plants with zinc sulfate at irrigation after 170mm evaporation from class A pan with 10.16 mg/g.fw. Minimum proline concentration was due to without applying zinc sulfate in complete irrigation (control with 0.08 mg/g.fw. Maximum crop growth rate with 6.77 g/m2.day was was related to control and the minimum, with 4.16 g/m2.day, to irrigation after 170mm. Maximum relative crop growth rate, with 0.19 g/m2.day, belonged to control and the
Zhai, Zili; Liu, Yi; Wu, Lankun; Senchina, David S; Wurtele, Eve S; Murphy, Patricia A; Kohut, Marian L; Cunnick, Joan E
Echinacea preparations are commonly used as nonspecific immunomodulatory agents. Alcohol extracts from three widely used Echinacea species, Echinacea angustifolia, Echinacea pallida, and Echinacea purpurea, were investigated for immunomodulating properties. The three Echinacea species demonstrated a broad difference in concentrations of individual lipophilic amides and hydrophilic caffeic acid derivatives. Mice were gavaged once a day (for 7 days) with one of the Echinacea extracts (130 mg/kg) or vehicle and immunized with sheep red blood cells (sRBC) 4 days prior to collection of immune cells for multiple immunological assays. The three herb extracts induced similar, but differential, changes in the percentage of immune cell populations and their biological functions, including increased percentages of CD49+ and CD19+ lymphocytes in spleen and natural killer cell cytotoxicity. Antibody response to sRBC was significantly increased equally by extracts of all three Echinacea species. Concanavalin A-stimulated splenocytes from E. angustifolia- and E. pallida-treated mice demonstrated significantly higher T cell proliferation. In addition, the Echinacea treatment significantly altered the cytokine production by mitogen-stimulated splenic cells. The three herbal extracts significantly increased interferon-alpha production, but inhibited the release of tumor necrosis factor-gamma and interleukin (IL)-1beta. Only E. angustifolia- and E. pallida-treated mice demonstrated significantly higher production of IL-4 and increased IL-10 production. Taken together, these findings demonstrated that Echinacea is a wide-spectrum immunomodulator that modulates both innate and adaptive immune responses. In particular, E. angustifolia or E. pallida may have more anti-inflammatory potential.
Zhang, Ying-Tao; Wang, Hong; Liu, Wen-Zhi; Tong, Wei; Yang, Yan-Fang; Ai, Tie-Min
Echinacea is a most famous "immune herb" in western countries, and continues to be the best selling herb for many years. For the last five years, our research group has cooperated with Institute of Medicinal Plants in Huairou District of Beijing, carrying out studies on Echinacea purpurea, which involved botany, cultivation, pharmacognosy, phytochemistry, quality control, pharmacology and toxicology of the species. Two other species introduced from Canada, Echinacea angustifolia and Echinacea pallida, were also included in the taxonomic, cultivated and pharmacognostic studies. The results acquired have opened up the path to introduce Echinacea species into Traditional Chinese Medicine, thus established the possibility of developing more promising drugs from them.
Zhai, Zili; Haney, Devon M; Wu, Lankun; Solco, Avery K; Murphy, Patricia A; Wurtele, Eve S; Kohut, Marian L; Cunnick, Joan E
Healing of open skin wounds begins with an inflammatory response. Restraint stress has been well documented to delay wound closure, partially via glucocorticoid (GC)-mediated immunosuppression of inflammation. Echinacea, a popular herbal immunomodulator, is purported to be beneficial for wound healing. To test the hypothesis, an alcohol extract of E. pallida was administrated orally to mice for 3 days prior to, and 4 days post wounding with a dermal biopsy on the dorsum. Concomitantly, mice were exposed to 3 cycles of daily restraint stress prior to, and 4 cycles post wounding. Echinacea accelerated wound closure in the stressed mice, but had no apparent wound healing effect for the non-stressed mice when compared to their respective controls. To test if the positive healing effect is through modulation of GC release, plasma corticosterone concentrations were measured in unwounded mice treated with restraint stress and the herbal extract for 4 days. Plasma GC in restraint stressed mice gavaged with Echinacea was not different from mice treated with restraint only, but was increased compared to the vehicle control. This data suggests that the improved wound healing effect of Echinacea in stressed mice is not mediated through modulation of GC signaling.
Nile, Shivraj H; Khobragade, Chandrahasy N
The methanolic extract of Tephrosia purpurea (Leguminosae) shoots was evaluated in-vitro for its anti-inflammatory and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity. Anti-inflammatory activity was measured by the Diene-conjugate, HET-CAM and beta-glucuronidase methods. The enzyme inhibitory activity was tested against isolated cow milk xanthine oxidase. The average anti-inflammatory activity of T. purpurea shoot extract in the concentration range of 1-2 microg/mL in the reacting system revealed significant anti-inflammatory activities, which, as recorded by the Diene-conjugate, HET-CAM and beta-glucuronidase assay methods, were 45.4, 10.5, and 70.5%, respectively. Screening of the xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of the extract in terms of kinetic parameters revealed a mixed type of inhibition, wherein the Km and Vmax values in the presence of 25 to 100 microg/mL shoot extract was 0.20 mM/mL and 0.035, 0.026, 0.023 and 0.020 microg/min, while, for the positive control, the Km and Vmax values were 0.21 mM/mL and 0.043 microg/min, respectively. These findings suggest that T. purpurea shoot extract may possess constituents with good medicinal properties that could be exploited to treat the diseases associated with oxidative stress, xanthine oxidase enzyme activity and inflammation.
Vaverková, S; Hollá, M; Tekel, J; Mistríková, I; Vozár, I
The paper examined the effect of production-technological conditions in relation to the ontogenetic stage of plants in three different species of the genus Echinacea Moench., comparing the species Echinacea purpurea, Echinacea atrorubens, and Echinacea pallida. It also examined the differences in the content of essential oil in different plant organs and evaluated the representation of individual components in the essential oils of the species under study at the stage of the optimal maturity for collection.
Senchina, David S; Strauch, Jennifer H; Hoffmann, Griffin B; Shah, Nisarg B; Laflen, Brad K; Dumke, Breanna L; Dao, Chinh T; Dias, Amila S; Perera, M Ann
Echinacea preparations are consumed for the prevention or treatment of upper respiratory infections. The objective of this study was to provide the first data regarding the in vitro immunomodulatory properties of the American federally endangered species Echinacea laevigata (Asteraceae). Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells were cultured with root tinctures from E. laevigata, E. angustifolia, E. pallida, and E. purpurea. Cytokine production (tumor necrosis factor [TNF], interleukin [IL]-2, IL-10) and mononuclear cell proliferation were measured. High-performance liquid chromatography was used to assay levels of known bioactive compounds from all extracts tested to statistically determine whether there were relationships between extract phytochemical content and observed immune effects. E. laevigata extract was most similar to E. pallida extract and able to augment IL-10 and mononuclear cell proliferation, but not TNF or IL-2. Echinacoside, a caffeic acid derivative, correlated most strongly with results. This species may deserve continued investigation in both experimental and therapeutic contexts.
Qiang, Zhiyi; Hauck, Cathy; McCoy, Joe-Ann; Widrlechner, Mark P; Reddy, Manju B; Murphy, Patricia A; Hendrich, Suzanne
The use of Echinacea as a medicinal herb is prominent in the United States, and many studies have assessed the effectiveness of Echinacea as an immunomodulator. We hypothesized that Bauer alkamides 8, 10, and 11 and ketone 24 were absorbed similarly either as pure compounds or from Echinacea sanguinea and Echinacea pallida ethanol extracts, and that these Echinacea extracts could inhibit the P-glycoprotein transporter in Caco-2 human intestinal epithelial cells. Using HPLC analysis, the permeation rate of Bauer alkamides by passive diffusion across Caco-2 cells corresponded with compound hydrophilicity (alkamide 8 > 10 > 11), independent of the plant extract matrix. Both Echinacea ethanol extracts stimulated apparent glucuronidation and basolateral efflux of glucuronides of alkamides 8 and 10 but not alkamide 11. Bauer ketone 24 was totally metabolized to more hydrophilic metabolites when administered as a single compound, but was also glucuronidated when present in Echinacea extracts. Bauer alkamides 8, 10, and 11 (175-230 µM) and ethanol extracts of E. sanguinea (1 mg/mL, containing ~ 90 µM total alkamides) and E. pallida (5 mg/mL, containing 285 µM total alkamides) decreased the efflux of the P-glycoprotein transporter probe calcein-AM from Caco-2 cells. These results suggest that other constituents in these Echinacea extracts facilitated the metabolism and efflux of alkamides and ketones, which might improve therapeutic benefits. Alkamides and Echinacea extracts might be useful in potentiating some chemotherapeutics, which are substrates for the P-glycoprotein transporter. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Senchina, David S; Flagel, Lex E; Wendel, Jonathan F; Kohut, Marian L
The purpose of the present investigation was to compare similarities and differences in immune response among Echinacea species, which are commonly used to treat upper respiratory infections. The investigation involved two components: acquisition of immunomodulatory data reported here for the first time, and combined phenetic analysis of these data along with previous reports. Experimental data were obtained by stimulating human PBMC in vitro with extracts from Echinacea spp. and assaying production of three cytokines (interleukin-1β [IL-1β], interleukin-2 [IL-2], and tumor necrosis factor-α [TNF-α]). Phenetic analyses were employed to compare responses across the entire data set, including UPGMA (Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean) and neighbor-joining methods. In the immune experiments conducted for this investigation, E. angustifolia, E. paradoxa, E. purpurea, E. simulata, and E. tennesseensis extracts significantly augmented IL-1 β and TNF-α production, whereas no extracts significantly modulated IL-2. All phenetic methods produced similar dendrograms, revealing two species pairs (E. angustifolia + E. simulata and E. pallida + E.sanguinea) where both species cluster tightly and have similar immune-response profiles. These two species-pairs are maximally dissimilar from each other. The remaining species (E. paradoxa, E. purpurea, and E. tennesseensis) occupy intermediate positions in the dendrogram. Our results suggest that Echinacea spp. act heterogeneously on immune function. The utility of these data for science and industry is discussed.
Frédérich, Michel; Jansen, Céline; de Tullio, Pascal; Tits, Monique; Demoulin, Vincent; Angenot, Luc
The genus Echinacea (Asteraceae) comprises about 10 species originally distributed in North America. Three species are very well known as they are used worldwide as medicinal plants: Echinacea purpurea, E. pallida, E. angustifolia. To discriminate between these three Echinacea species and E. simulata by (1)H NMR-based metabolomics. (1)H NMR and multivariate analysis techniques were applied to diverse Echinacea plants including roots and aerial parts, authentic plants, commercial plants and commercial dry extracts. Using the (1)H NMR metabolomics, it was possible, without previous evaporation or separation steps, to obtain a metabolic fingerprint to distinguish between species. A clear distinction between the three pharmaceutical species was possible and some useful metabolites were identified. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Cynthia Layse Ferreira de Almeida
Full Text Available Spondias purpurea is used in folk medicine to treat diarrhea and diuresis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the phytochemical profile and antioxidant and antiulcer activities of the hexane extract of the leaves of S. purpurea (SpHE. Phytochemical profile was evaluated via thin layer chromatography (TLC and HPLC. SpHE was screened for antioxidant activities using DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, and phosphomolybdenum assays. To determine its antiulcer properties, animals were pretreated with injured control, lansoprazole, ranitidine, carbenoxolone, or SpHE (12.5, 25, and 50 mg/kg and were screened; acute ulcers were induced by HCl/ethanol, absolute ethanol, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID. TLC revealed the presence of flavonoids, whereas HPLC analysis showed the presence of caffeic acid and epigallocatechin. The phenolic compounds and in vitro assays showed antioxidant activity. After gastric ulcer induction by using HCl/ethanol, SpHE reduced the area of ulcerative lesions by 82, 91, and 88%, respectively. In ethanol, SpHE reduced the area of ulcerative lesions by 77, 93, and 92%, respectively. In the NSAID, the percentages of protection were 70, 76, and 78%, respectively. SpHE promoted the minimization of ulcers, increased the levels of reduced glutathione, and decreased tumor necrosis factor. S. purpurea has antioxidant and antiulcer properties.
Perry, N B; Burgess, E J; Glennie, V L
A proposed standard extraction and HPLC analysis method has been used to measure typical levels of various phenolic compounds in the medicinally used Echinacea species. Chicoric acid was the main phenolic in E. purpurea roots (mean 2.27% summer, 1.68% autumn) and tops (2.02% summer, 0.52% autumn), and echinacoside was the main phenolic in E. angustifolia (1.04%) and E. pallida roots (0.34%). Caftaric acid was the other main phenolic compound in E. purpurea roots (0.40% summer, 0.35% autumn) and tops (0.82% summer, 0.18% autumn), and cynarin was a characteristic component of E. angustifolia roots (0.12%). Enzymatic browning during extraction could reduce the measured levels of phenolic compounds by >50%. Colorimetric analyses for total phenolics correlated well with the HPLC results for E. purpurea and E. angustifolia, but the colorimetric method gave higher values.
Pellati, Federica; Benvenuti, Stefania; Magro, Lara; Melegari, Michele; Soragni, Fabrizia
The aim of this study was to set up and validate an RP-LC method with DAD-detection to quantify caffeic acid derivatives in various Echinacea spp. Samples were extracted with 80% methanol. The analyses were carried out on a Lichrospher RP-18 column (125 mm x 4 mm i.d., 5 microm), with a mobile phase gradient, which increases the acetonitrile level in a phosphoric acid solution (0.1%). The flow rate was 1.5 ml/min. Detection was set at 330 nm. This method allowed the identification and quantification of caftaric acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, cynarin, echinacoside and cichoric acid in Echinacea roots and derivatives. The total phenolic content was 10.49 mg/g for E. angustifolia, 17.83 mg/g for E. pallida and 23.23 mg/g for E. purpurea. Among Echinacea commercial herbal medicines, a certain variability in the concentrations of phenolic compounds was observed. The radical scavenging activity of Echinacea methanolic extracts was evaluated in vitro with a spectrophotometric method based on the reduction of an alcoholic 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH*) radical solution at 517 nm in the presence of a hydrogen donating antioxidant. As for pure compounds, echinacoside had the highest capacity to quench DPPH* radicals (EC50 = 6.6 microM), while caftaric acid had the lowest (EC50 = 20.5 microM). The average EC50 values for E. purpurea, E. pallida and E. angustifolia were 134, 167 and 231 microg/ml, respectively. The radical scavenging activity of Echinacea root extracts reflected their phenolic composition. The results indicate that Echinacea roots and derivatives are a good source of natural antioxidants and could be used to prevent free-radical-induced deleterious effects.
Full Text Available Echinacea species are popularly included in various formulations to treat upper respiratory tract infections. These products are of commercial importance, with a collective sales figure of $132 million in 2009. Due to their close taxonomic alliance it is difficult to distinguish between the three Echinacea species and incidences of incorrectly labeled commercial products have been reported. The potential of hyperspectral imaging as a rapid quality control method for raw material and products containing Echinacea species was investigated. Hyperspectral images of root and leaf material of authentic Echinacea species (E. angustifolia, E. pallida and E. purpurea were acquired using a sisuChema shortwave infrared (SWIR hyperspectral pushbroom imaging system with a spectral range of 920–2514 nm. Principal component analysis (PCA plots showed a clear distinction between the root and leaf samples of the three Echinacea species and further differentiated the roots of different species. A classification model with a high coefficient of determination was constructed to predict the identity of the species included in commercial products. The majority of products (12 out of 20 were convincingly predicted as containing E. purpurea, E. angustifolia or both. The use of ultra performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS in the differentiation of the species presented a challenge due to chemical similarities between the solvent extracts. The results show that hyperspectral imaging is an objective and non-destructive quality control method for authenticating raw material.
Sandasi, Maxleene; Vermaak, Iize; Chen, Weiyang; Viljoen, Alvaro M
Echinacea species are popularly included in various formulations to treat upper respiratory tract infections. These products are of commercial importance, with a collective sales figure of $132 million in 2009. Due to their close taxonomic alliance it is difficult to distinguish between the three Echinacea species and incidences of incorrectly labeled commercial products have been reported. The potential of hyperspectral imaging as a rapid quality control method for raw material and products containing Echinacea species was investigated. Hyperspectral images of root and leaf material of authentic Echinacea species (E. angustifolia, E. pallida and E. purpurea) were acquired using a sisuChema shortwave infrared (SWIR) hyperspectral pushbroom imaging system with a spectral range of 920-2514 nm. Principal component analysis (PCA) plots showed a clear distinction between the root and leaf samples of the three Echinacea species and further differentiated the roots of different species. A classification model with a high coefficient of determination was constructed to predict the identity of the species included in commercial products. The majority of products (12 out of 20) were convincingly predicted as containing E. purpurea, E. angustifolia or both. The use of ultra performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) in the differentiation of the species presented a challenge due to chemical similarities between the solvent extracts. The results show that hyperspectral imaging is an objective and non-destructive quality control method for authenticating raw material.
McCann, Dustin A; Solco, Avery; Liu, Yi; Macaluso, Filippo; Murphy, Patricia A; Kohut, Marian L; Senchina, David S
Echinacea spp. phytomedicines are popular for treating upper respiratory infections. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the immunomodulatory properties of Echinacea tinctures from seven species after being stored at -20 degrees C for 2 years. Two experimental techniques were employed using human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). In the first set of experiments, PBMCs were stimulated in vitro with tinctures alone and assayed for proliferation and production of interleukin-10 (IL-10), IL-12, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). In the second set of experiments, subjects were immunized with influenza vaccine. PBMCs from vaccinated individuals were stimulated in vitro with Echinacea tinctures and influenza virus; cytokine production (IL-2, IL-10, and interferon-gamma [IFN-gamma]) was compared prevaccination and postvaccination. In the first experiments, (1) tinctures from E. angustifolia, E. pallida, E. paradoxa, and E. tennesseensis stimulated proliferation and tended to increase IL-10, (2) E. sanguinea and E. simulata stimulated only proliferation, (3) E. purpurea stimulated only IL-10, and (4) none of the extracts influenced IL-12 or TNF-alpha. In the second experiments, (1) tinctures from E. pallida, E. paradoxa, E. sanguinea, and E. simulata diminished influenza-specific IL-2, and (2) none of the extracts influenced influenza-specific IL-10 or IFN-gamma. For in vitro models using Echinacea, immune response may vary based on stimulus (Echinacea alone vs. Echinacea + recall stimulation with virus).
Greene, Leasa A; Isaac, Issa; Gray, Dean E; Schwartz, Sarah A
Several species in the genus Echinacea are beneficial herbs popularly used for many ailments. The most popular Echinacea species for cultivation, wild collection, and herbal products include E. purpurea (L.) Moench, E. pallida (Nutt.) Nutt., and E. angustifolia (DC). Product adulteration is a key concern for the natural products industry, where botanical misidentification and introduction of other botanical and nonbotanical contaminants exist throughout the formulation and production process. Therefore, rapid and cost-effective methods that can be used to monitor these materials for complex product purity and consistency are of benefit to consumers and producers. The objective of this continuing research was to develop automated, high-throughput processing methods that, teamed with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) analysis, differentiate Echinacea species by their mass profiles. Small molecules, peptide, and proteins from aerial parts (leaf/stem/flowers), seeds, and roots from E. purpurea and E. angustifolia; seeds and roots from E. pallida; and off-the-shelf Echinacea supplements were extracted and analyzed by MS using methods developed on the ProPrep liquid handling system (Genomic Solutions). Analysis of these samples highlighted key MS signal patterns from both small molecules and proteins that characterized the individual Echinacea materials analyzed. Based on analysis of pure Echinacea samples, off-the-shelf products containing Echinacea could then be evaluated in a streamlined process. Corresponding analysis of dietary supplements was used to monitor for product composition, including Echinacea species and plant materials used. These results highlight the potential for streamlined, automated approaches for agricultural species differentiation and botanical product evaluation.
Hou, Chia-Chung; Chen, Chun-Houh; Yang, Ning-Sun; Chen, Yi-Ping; Lo, Chiu-Ping; Wang, Sheng-Yang; Tien, Yin-Jing; Tsai, Pi-Wen; Shyur, Lie-Fen
Echinacea preparations were the top-selling herbal supplements or medicines in the past decade; however, there is still frequent misidentification or substitution of the Echinacea plant species in the commercial Echinacea products with not well chemically defined compositions in a specific preparation. In this report, a comparative metabolomics study, integrating supercritical fluid extraction, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and data mining, demonstrates that the three most used medicinal Echinacea species, Echinacea purpurea, E. pallida, and E. angustifolia, can be easily classified by the distribution and relative content of metabolites. A mitogen-induced murine skin inflammation study suggested that alkamides were the active anti-inflammatory components present in Echinacea plants. Mixed alkamides and the major component, dodeca-2E,4E,8Z,10Z(E)-tetraenoic acid isobutylamides, were then isolated from E. purpurea root extracts for further bioactivity elucidation. In macrophages, the alkamides significantly inhibited cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) activity and the lipopolysaccharide-induced expression of COX-2, inducible nitric oxide synthase and specific cytokines or chemokines [i.e., TNF-α, interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-6, MCP-1, MIP-1β] but elevated heme oxygenase-1 protein expression. Cichoric acid, however, exhibited little or no effect. The results of high-performance liquid chromatography/electron spray ionization/mass spectrometry metabolite profiling of alkamides and phenolic compounds in E. purpurea roots showed that specific phytocompound (i.e., alkamides, cichoric acid and rutin) contents were subject to change under certain post-harvest or abiotic treatment. This study provides new insight in using the emerging metabolomics approach coupled with bioactivity assays for medicinal/nutritional plant species classification, quality control and the identification of novel botanical agents for inflammatory disorders. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights
Peek, H.W.; Halkes, S.B.A.; Tomassen, M.M.M.; Mes, J.J.; Landman, W.J.M.
Five phytochemicals/extracts (an extract from Echinacea purpurea, a ß-glucan-rich extract from Shiitake, betaine [Betain™], curcumin from Curcuma longa [turmeric] powder, carvacrol and also a recombinant fungal immunomodulatory protein [FIP] from Ganoderma lucidum) cloned and expressed in
Zhai, Zili; Solco, Avery; Wu, Lankun; Wurtele, Eve S; Kohut, Marian L; Murphy, Patricia A; Cunnick, Joan E
The genus Echinacea is a popular herbal immunomodulator. Recent reports indicate that Echinacea products inhibit nitric oxide (NO) production in activated macrophages. In the present study we determined the inhibitory effects of alcohol extracts and individual fractions of alcohol extracts of Echinacea on NO production, and explored the mechanism underlying the pharmacological anti-inflammatory activity. Alcohol extracts of three medicinal Echinacea species, Echinacea angustifolia, Echinacea pallida and Echinacea purpurea, were prepared using Soxhlet apparatus and fractionated using HPLC. NO production by LPS activated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells was measured using a Griess reagent and iNOS detected using immunoblotting. In addition, effects on arginase activity were measured in RAW 264.7 cells stimulated with 8-bromo-cAMP +/- LPS. Alcohol extracts of all three Echinacea species significantly inhibited NO production by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated the RAW 264.7 macrophage cell line; among them Echinacea pallida was the most active. The Echinacea-mediated decrease in NO production was unlikely due to a direct scavenging of NO because the extracts did not directly inhibit NO released from an NO donor, sodium nitroprusside. An immunoblotting assay demonstrated that the extract of Echinacea pallida inhibited inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) protein expression in LPS-treated macrophages. The enzymes iNOS and arginase metabolize a common substrate, l-arginine, but produce distinct biological effects. While iNOS is involved in inflammatory response and host defense, arginase participates actively in anti-inflammatory activation. Arginase activity of RAW 264.7 cells stimulated with 8-bromo-cAMP was significantly increased by alcohol extracts of all three Echinacea species. The polar fraction containing caffeic acid derivatives enhanced arginase activity, while the lipophilic fraction containing alkamides exhibited a potential of inhibiting NO production and i
McCann, Dustin A.; Solco, Avery; Liu, Yi; Macaluso, Filippo; Murphy, Patricia A.; Kohut, Marian L.; Senchina, David S.
Echinacea spp. phytomedicines are popular for treating upper respiratory infections. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the immunomodulatory properties of Echinacea tinctures from seven species after being stored at −20°C for 2 years. Two experimental techniques were employed using human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). In the first set of experiments, PBMCs were stimulated in vitro with tinctures alone and assayed for proliferation and production of interleukin-10 (IL-10), IL-12, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). In the second set of experiments, subjects were immunized with influenza vaccine. PBMCs from vaccinated individuals were stimulated in vitro with Echinacea tinctures and influenza virus; cytokine production (IL-2, IL-10, and interferon-γ [IFN-γ]) was compared prevaccination and postvaccination. In the first experiments, (1) tinctures from E. angustifolia, E. pallida, E. paradoxa, and E. tennesseensis stimulated proliferation and tended to increase IL-10, (2) E. sanguinea and E. simulata stimulated only proliferation, (3) E. purpurea stimulated only IL-10, and (4) none of the extracts influenced IL-12 or TNF-α. In the second experiments, (1) tinctures from E. pallida, E. paradoxa, E. sanguinea, and E. simulata diminished influenza-specific IL-2, and (2) none of the extracts influenced influenza-specific IL-10 or IFN-γ. For in vitro models using Echinacea, immune response may vary based on stimulus (Echinacea alone vs. Echinacea + recall stimulation with virus). PMID:17523874
Ajitha, B.; Ashok Kumar Reddy, Y.; Reddy, P. Sreedhara
In this paper we report the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) using Tephrosia purpurea leaf extract. The biomolecules present in the leaf extract are responsible for the formation of Ag NPs and they found to play dual role of both reducing as well as capping agents. The high crystallinity of Ag NPs is evident from bright circular spot array of SAED pattern and diffraction peaks in XRD profile. The synthesized Ag NPs are found to be nearly spherical ones with size approximately ∼20 nm. FTIR spectrum evidences the presence of different functional groups of biomolecules participated in encapsulating Ag NPs and the possible mechanism of Ag NPs formation was also suggested. Appearance of yellow color and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peak at 425 nm confirms the Ag NPs formation. PL spectra showed decrement in luminescence intensity at higher excitation wavelengths. Antimicrobial activity of Ag NPs showed better inhibitory activity towards Pseudomonas spp. and Penicillium spp. compared to other test pathogens using standard Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion assay.
Osowski, S; Rostock, M; Bartsch, H H; Massing, U
Cichoric acid and Dodeca 2E, 4E, 8Z, 10E/Z-tetraenoic acid isobutylamide (alkamides 8, 9) are described as immunomodulating active components of Echinacea. We quantified both substances in 25 Echinacea-containing remedies customary in trade. Concerning both active components, we found highly concentrated remedies as well as remedies without any detectable cichoric acid or alkamides. The concentration of both active components varied extremely depending on the type of remedy (homeopathic mother tincture, pressed juice, tablets, spagyric tincture), on the Echinacea-species (Echinacea angustifolia, Echinacea pallida, Echinacea purpurea) and on the part of the plant (root, herb, whole plant). Moreover, we found large differences between comparable drugs of different manufacturers and between different charges of the same remedy. We recommend that preclinical and clinical studies with Echinacea-containing drugs should always include the quantification of the potentially active components. We are convinced, that in the long term this will help to clarify how the different active components contribute to the immunomodulating effect of Echinacea.
Bauer, R; Remiger, P
HPLC and TLC methods are presented for the analysis of the alkamides in ECHINACEA PURPUREA, E. ANGUSTIFOLIA, and E. PALLIDA. The roots of E. PURPUREA and E. ANGUSTIFOLIA contain different structural types of alkamides, while the roots of E. PALLIDA were almost void of amides. In contrast, the aerial parts of the three ECHINACEA species yielded very similar alkamide patterns. The methods are suitable for the analytical characterization and standardization of the three species.
Vaverková, S; Mikulásová, M; Habán, M; Tekel', J; Hollá, M; Otepka, P
Variability of the essential oil from three sorts of Echinacea MOENCH genus during ontogenesis The content and quality of the essential oil in relation to the main ontogenetic stages of plants were studied in three various sorts of Echinacea genus. The comparison included Echinacea purpurea, Echinacea atrorubens, and Echinacea pallida. The differences in the content of the oil in different parts of plants and the abundance of individual oil constituents in oils from the sorts under study at the optimum stage of ripeness for harvest were evaluated as well.
Egger, Michael; Pellett, Patrina; Nickl, Kathrin; Geiger, Sarah; Graetz, Stephanie; Seifert, Roland; Heilmann, Jörg; König, Burkhard
Despite its popularity and widespread use, the efficacy of Echinacea products remains unclear and controversial. Among the various compounds isolated from Echinacea, ketoalkenes and ketoalkenynes exclusively found in the pale purple coneflower (E. pallida) are major components of the extracts. In contrast to E. purpurea alkamides, these compounds have not been synthesized and studied for immunostimulatory effects. We present a practical and useful synthetic approach to the ketoalkenes using palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions and the pharmaceutical results at the human cannabinoid receptors. The synthetic route developed provides overall good yields for the ketoalkenes and is applicable to other natural products with similar 1,4-diene motifs. No significant activity was observed at either receptor, indicating that the ketoalkenes from E. pallida are not responsible for immunomodulatory effects mediated via the cannabinergic system. However, newly synthesized non-natural analogues showed micro-molar potency at both cannabinoid receptors.
Senchina, David S; McCann, Dustin A; Asp, Jessica M; Johnson, Jack A; Cunnick, Joan E; Kaiser, Mark S; Kohut, Marian L
Phytomedicinal preparations from members of the genus Echinacea are popular worldwide and frequently used to treat upper respiratory infections. With the increasing popularity of herbal medicines, many people are making their own Echinacea extracts at home and storing them at refrigerator (4 degrees C) temperatures. We tested the hypothesis that Echinacea extracts made using homemade methods change in immunomodulatory efficacy with storage at 4 degrees C over a 4-day period. Three extract types (50% ethanol tincture, cold water infusion, hot water infusion) from 5 different species (Echinacea angustifolia, E. pallida, E. purpurea, E. sanguinea, E. tennesseensis) were prepared. Four in vitro immune assays (monocyte secretion of TNF-alpha, IL-10, and IL-12; and peripheral blood mononuclear cell proliferation) using human blood were used to test extract efficacy at Days 1 and 4 post-extraction. Two statistical analyses, traditional ANOVA and several statistical models that account for endotoxin effects, were used. Endotoxin was found to significantly impact immune outcomes only in 4-day old cold water infusions and not in all assays. Extracts showed the greatest stimulation in TNF-alpha assays. By extract type, 50% ethanol tinctures produced the most immune stimulation. By species, extracts from E. angustifolia extracts were the most efficacious in our assays; extracts from E. sanguinea showed the least activity overall. Taken together, these results suggest that: (1) homemade Echinacea extracts are efficacious in modulating immune cell activity in vitro but that their properties change with time during storage at 4 degrees C; and (2) endotoxin effects from extracts may be important considerations in the analysis of immunobiological data.
Senchina, David S; Wu, Lankun; Flinn, Gina N; Konopka, Del N; McCoy, Joe-Ann; Widrlechner, Mark P; Widrelechner, Mark P; Wurtele, Eve Syrkin; Kohut, Marian L
Alcohol tinctures prepared from aged Echinacea roots are typically taken for preventing or treating upper respiratory infections, as they are purported to stimulate immunity in this context. The effects of long-term (> 1 year) dry storage on the capabilities of Echinacea spp. roots from mature individuals to modulate cytokine production are unknown. Using an older human adult model of influenza vaccination, we collected peripheral blood mononuclear cells from subjects 6 months post-vaccination and stimulated them in vitro with the two Type A influenza viruses contained in the trivalent 2004-2005 vaccine with a 50 % alcohol tincture prepared from the roots of one of seven Echinacea species: E. angustifolia, E. pallida, E. paradoxa, E. purpurea, E. sanguinea, E. simulata, and E. tennesseensis. Before being processed into extracts, all roots had been stored under dry conditions for sixteen months. Cells were cultured for 48 hours; following incubation, supernatants were collected and assayed for interleukin-2, interleukin-10, and interferon-gamma production, cytokines important in the immune response to viral infection. Four species ( E. angustifolia, E. purpurea, E. simulata, E. tennesseensis) augmented IL-10 production, diminished IL-2 production, and had no effect on IFN-gamma production. Echinacea pallida suppressed production of all cytokines; E. paradoxa and E. sanguinea behaved similarly, although to a lesser extent. The results from these in vitro bioactivity assays indicate that dried Echinacea roots stored for sixteen months maintain cytokine-modulating capacities. Our data support and extend previous research and indicate that tinctures from different Echinacea species have different patterns of immune modulation; further, they indicate that certain species may be efficacious in the immune response to viral infection.
Freeman, Camille; Spelman, Kevin
Accurate information concerning drug-herb interactions is vital for both healthcare providers and patients. Unfortunately, many of the reviews on drug-herb interactions contain overstated or inaccurate information. To provide accurate information on drug-herb interactions healthcare providers must account for product verification, dosage, medicinal plant species, and plant part used. This critical review assessed the occurrence of drug interactions with one of the top selling botanical remedies, echinacea including Echinacea angustifolia, E. pallida, and E. purpurea. Only eight papers containing primary data relating to drug interactions were identified. Herbal remedies made from E. purpurea appear to have a low potential to generate cytochrome P450 (CYP 450) drug-herb interactions including CYP 450 1A2 (CYP1A2) and CYP 450 3A4 (CYP3A4). Currently there are no verifiable reports of drug-herb interactions with any echinacea product. However, further pharmacokinetic testing is necessary before conclusive statements can be made about echinacea drug-herb interactions. Given our findings, the estimated risk of taking echinacea products (1 in 100,000), the number of echinacea doses consumed yearly (> 10 million), the number of adverse events (< 100) and that the majority of use is short term, E. purpurea products (roots and/or aerial parts) do not appear to be a risk to consumers.
Adinolfi, Barbara; Chicca, Andrea; Martinotti, Enrica; Breschi, Maria C; Nieri, Paola
In our previous study, RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA) analysis revealed species-specific markers for three medicinal Echinacea species (Asteraceae): E. angustifolia DC., E. pallida (Nutt.) Nutt. and E. purpurea (L.) Moench. In the present work, we have converted a RAPD marker (750 bp) for E. purpurea into a SCAR (Sequence Characterized Amplified Region) marker. SCAR-PCR, in fact, revealed the expected amplicon (330 bp) only in E. purpurea and not in the other two species, giving further evidence for differences in medicinal Echinacea spp. genome and confirming a greater similarity between E. pallida and angustifolia.
Pellati, Federica; Benvenuti, Stefania; Melegari, Michele; Lasseigne, Todd
A fast and reliable HPLC method for the determination of caffeic acid derivatives (caftaric acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, cynarin, echinacoside and cichoric acid) in various species of the genus Echinacea has been developed. Extraction of root samples by magnetic stirring with 80% methanol aqueous solution at room temperature allowed the complete recovery of all compounds of interest. Root extracts were analysed on a reversed-phase column with gradient elution and photodiode array detection. Caffeic acid derivatives showed differential qualitative and quantitative distributions in Echinacea species. The total amount of phenolic compounds ranged from 33.95 to 0.32 mg/g. The highest contents of caffeic acid derivatives were found in E. paradoxa var. paradoxa, E. paradoxa var. neglecta and E. purpurea, followed by E. angustifolia var. angustifolia, E. simulata, E. pallida and E. laevigata, whilst E. tennesseensis, E. sanguinea and E. atrorubens had low amounts of phenolic compounds. The radical scavenging activities of methanolic extracts of roots of Echinacea species was evaluated in vitro using the DPPH* radical scavenging method. The EC50 values of the samples ranged from 122 to 1223 microg/mL. The radical scavenging activities of the root extracts were correlated with the content of phenolic compounds, with a correlation coefficient (r2) of 0.923.
The effect and safety of highly standardized Ginger (Zingiber officinale) and Echinacea (Echinacea angustifolia) extract supplementation on inflammation and chronic pain in NSAIDs poor responders. A pilot study in subjects with knee arthrosis.
Rondanelli, Mariangela; Riva, Antonella; Morazzoni, Paolo; Allegrini, Pietro; Faliva, Milena Anna; Naso, Maurizio; Miccono, Alessandra; Peroni, Gabriella; Degli Agosti, Irene; Perna, Simone
The study aimed to evaluate the effect of Zingiber officinale and Echinacea angustifolia extract supplementation (25 mg of ginger and 5 mg of Echinacea) for 30 days on inflammation and chronic pain in knee osteoarthritis (OA). Consecutive nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory-drugs (NSAIDs) poor responders with chronic inflammation and pain due to knee arthrosis were assessed (15 subjects, age: 67.2 ± 7.9, body mass index: 30.6 ± 7.1, men/women:2/13). The primary endpoint was to determine pain improvement from baseline to Day 30 by Tegner Lysholm Knee Scoring. The secondary endpoints were the assessment of Visual Analog Scale for Pain, health-related quality of life, by the ShortForm36 (SF-36), anthropometric parameters, hydration. After supplementation, a significant improvement of 12.27 points was observed for Lysholm scale score (p < 0.05), SF-36 (p < 0.05), and a decrease in -0.52 cm in knee circumference (left) (p < 0.01). This pilot study provides feasibility and safety data for the use of highly standardised ginger and Echinacea extract supplementation in people with knee OA.
Full Text Available The role of oxidative stress in the development of diabetes mellitus and its vascular complications are extensively studied. Hyperglycaemia causes oxidative damage by generation of reactive oxygen species and results in the development of complications. The present study was undertaken with the objective of exploring the anti-hyperglycaemic potential of phenolic compounds enriched semipurified extract of Bauhinia purpurea bark in streptozotocin induced (STZ diabetic rats for four weeks and to study oxidative stress and antioxidant status. Rats were rendered diabetic by single injection of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg body wt, ip. At the end of the treatment period, the level of blood glucose, serum biochemical markers, serum cholesterol levels and liver malondialdehyde, tissue antioxidant levels were measured. A marked rise was observed in the levels of fasting blood glucose, cholesterol, lipid peroxidative products and a significant decrease in tissue antioxidants (reduced glutathione levels in STZ treated rats. Oral administration of two semi purified extracts B1 and B2 (100 and 50 mg/kg body wt each, p.o decreased fasting blood glucose levels of STZ-treated diabetic rats significantly (P < 0.01, when compared with control rats. In addition, the extracts showed favorable effect (P < 0.01 on the reduced tissues antioxidants level, liver glycogen level, cholesterol level, with significant (P < 0.01 reduction of elevated lipid peroxidation products. Our study showed the antioxidant effect of phenolic compounds enriched semipurified extracts of B. purpurea in STZ induced experimental diabetes. The results also suggested that this polyphenolics rich extract could be potentially useful for hyperglycaemia treatment to correct the diabetic state.
Russi, Luigi; Moretti, Chiaraluce; Raggi, Lorenzo; Albertini, Emidio; Falistocco, Egizia
The rising interest in medicinal plants has brought several species of the genus Echinacea to the attention of many scientists. Echinacea angustifolia, E. pallida, and E. purpurea are the most important for their immunological properties, well known and widely used by the native Americans. The three species are easily distinguishable on the basis of their morphological characteristics, but it would be difficult, if not impossible, to distinguish them in commercial preparations of ground, dry plant parts of E. purpurea (the most valuable species for chemotherapeutic properties) mixed with the other two species. Species-specific molecular markers could be useful to address this issue. In the present work, using fresh material collected from cultivated Echinacea spp., AFLP analysis was used to discriminate the three species and to detect species-specific DNA fragments. By using 14 primer combinations it was possible to detect a total of 994 fragments, of which 565 were polymorphic. Overall, 89 fragments were unique to E. purpurea, 32 to E. angustifolia, and 26 to E. pallida. E+CAC/M+AAT or E+CAC/M+AGC alone provided 13, 9, and 4 or 7, 5, and 5 specific fragments for E. purpurea, E. angustifolia, and E. pallida, respectively. A validation trial to confirm the results was carried out on bulked samples of 23 accessions covering most of the genetic diversity of the three species. The results are discussed in terms of practical applications in the field of popular medicine, detecting frauds, and implications for the genus Echinacea.
Dec 19, 2011 ... groups were fed basal diets and received water without any supplementation. Birds in treatment ... Key words: Nigella sativa, Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench, performance, serum biochemistry, blood hematology, broiler. ..... sativa) seeds on egg production and quality in white Leghorn layers. J. Anim.
Li, Wenkui; Sun, Yongkai; Fitzloff, John F; van Breemen, Richard B
In response to concerns that commercial dietary supplements containing Ginkgo biloba (ginkgo) and Echinacea purpurea, Echinacea angustifolia, or Echinacea pallida (echinacea) might be contaminated with colchicine, a highly selective and sensitive assay was developed for colchicine that is based on high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS). The method utilizes reversed-phase HPLC separation of compounds in a methanolic extract of the dietary supplement or botanical sample followed by positive ion electrospray ionization with collision-induced dissociation and multiple reaction monitoring of three characteristic fragmentation pathways of the protonated molecule of colchicine, m/z 400 --> 358, 400 --> 326, and 400 --> 310. The minimal detectable concentration of colchicine using this assay was 10 pg on-column, which is equivalent to 20 ppb colchicine in a 0.5 g ginkgo leaf sample. The method was validated by analyzing 0.5 g samples spiked with colchicine and determining the recovery. A total of 26 commercial ginkgo and echinacea dietary supplements were purchased from pharmacies in Chicago, IL, and analyzed for colchicine. In contrast to a recent report, no colchicine was detected in any of the samples. In addition, authenticated ginkgo leaves were collected, assayed, and found to contain no colchicine, which is consistent with the botanical literature. On the basis of the results obtained using this new LC-MS-MS assay, which is more sensitive and more selective than previously published methods for colchicine, we find no cause for concern regarding colchicine contamination of ginkgo or echinacea dietary supplements.
Tacchini, Massimo; Spagnoletti, Antonella; Brighenti, Virginia; Prencipe, Francesco Pio; Benvenuti, Stefania; Sacchetti, Gianni; Pellati, Federica
The genus Echinacea (Asteraceae) includes species traditionally used in phytotherapy. Among them, Echinacea pallida (Nutt.) Nutt. root extracts are characterized by a representative antiproliferative activity, due to the presence of acetylenic compounds. In this study, supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) was applied and compared with conventional Soxhlet extraction (SE) in order to obtain a bioactive extract highly rich in polyacetylenes and polyenes from E. pallida roots. The composition of the extracts was monitored by means of HPLC-UV/DAD and HPLC-ESI-MS n by using an Ascentis Express C 18 column (150mm×3.0mm I.D., 2.7μm, Supelco, Bellefonte, PA, USA) with a mobile phase composed of (A) water and (B) acetonitrile, under gradient elution. By keeping SFE time at the threshold of 1h (15min static and 45min dynamic for 1 cycle) with the oven temperature set at 40-45°C and 90bar of pressure, an overall extraction yield of 1.18-1.21% (w/w) was obtained, with a high selectivity for not oxidized lipophilic compounds. The biological activity of the extracts was evaluated against human non-small lung A549 and breast carcinoma MCF-7 cancer cell lines. The cytotoxic effect of the SFE extract was more pronounced towards the MCF-7 than the A549 cancer cells, with IC 50 values ranging from 21.01±2.89 to 31.11±2.l4μg/mL; cell viability was affected mainly between 24 and 48h of exposure. The results show the possibility of a new "green" approach to obtain extracts highly rich in genuine polyacetylenes and polyenes from E. pallida roots. The bioactivity evaluation confirmed the cytotoxicity of E. pallida extracts against the considered cancer cell lines, especially against MCF-7 cells, thus suggesting to represent a valuable tool for applicative purposes in cancer prevention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
The use of Echinacea as a medicinal herb is prominent in the United States, and many studies have assessed the effectiveness of Echinacea as an immunomodulator. We hypothesized that Bauer alkamides 8, 10 and 11 and ketone 24 were absorbed similarly either as pure compounds or from Echinacea sanguin...
LaLone, Carlie A; Rizshsky, Ludmila; Hammer, Kimberly D P; Wu, Lankun; Solco, Avery K S; Yum, Manyu; Nikolau, Basil J; Wurtele, Eve S; Murphy, Patricia A; Kim, Meehye; Birt, Diane F
Because of the popularity of Echinacea as a dietary supplement, researchers have been actively investigating which Echinacea constituent or groups of constituents are necessary for immune-modulating bioactivities. Our prior studies indicate that alkylamides may play an important role in the inhibition of prostaglandin E2 (PGE(2)) production. High-performance liquid chromatography fractionation, employed to elucidate interacting anti-inflammatory constituents from ethanol extracts of Echinacea purpurea, Echinacea angustifolia, Echinacea pallida, and Echinacea tennesseensis, identified fractions containing alkylamides and ketones as key anti-inflammatory contributors using lipopolysaccharide-induced PGE(2) production in RAW264.7 mouse macrophage cells. Nitric oxide (NO) production and parallel cytotoxicity screens were also employed to substantiate an anti-inflammatory response. E. pallida showed significant inhibition of PGE(2) with a first round fraction, containing gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) peaks for Bauer ketones 20, 21, 22, 23, and 24, with 23 and 24 identified as significant contributors to this PGE(2) inhibition. Chemically synthesized Bauer ketones 21 and 23 at 1 microM each significantly inhibited both PGE(2) and NO production. Three rounds of fractionation were produced from an E. angustifolia extract. GC-MS analysis identified the presence of Bauer ketone 23 in third round fraction 3D32 and Bauer alkylamide 11 making up 96% of third round fraction 3E40. Synthetic Bauer ketone 23 inhibited PGE(2) production to 83% of control, and synthetic Bauer alkylamide 11 significantly inhibited PGE(2) and NO production at the endogenous concentrations determined to be present in their respective fraction; thus, each constituent partially explained the in vitro anti-inflammatory activity of their respective fraction. From this study, two key contributors to the anti-inflammatory properties of E. angustifolia were identified as Bauer alkylamide 11 and
Melchart, D; Linde, K; Worku, F; Sarkady, L; Holzmann, M; Jurcic, K; Wagner, H
This article describes and discusses five placebo-controlled randomized studies investigating the immunomodulatory activity of preparations containing extracts of Echinacea in healthy volunteers. A total of 134 (18 female and 116 male) healthy volunteers between 18 and 40 years of age were studied. Two studies tested intravenous homeopathic complex preparations containing Echinacea angustifolia D1 (study 1) and D4 (study 5). Two studies (2 and 3a) tested oral alcoholic extracts of roots of E. purpurea, one study an extract of E. pallida roots (study 3b), and one study an extract of E. purpurea herb (study 4). Test and placebo preparations were applied for four (study 5) or five (studies 1-4) consecutive days. The primary outcome measure for immunomodulatory activity was the relative phagocytic activity of polymorphonuclear neutrophil granulocytes (PNG), measured in studies 1 and 2 with a microscopic method and in studies 3, 4, and 5 with two different cytometric methods. The secondary outcome measure was the number of leukocytes in peripheral venous blood. Safety was assessed by a screening program of blood and other objective parameters as well as by documentation of all subjective side effects. In studies 1 and 2 the phagocytic activity of PNG was significantly enhanced compared with placebo [maximal stimulation 22.7% (95% confidence interval 17.5-27.9%) and 54.0% (8.4-99.6%), respectively], while in the other studies no significant effects were observed. Analysis of intragroup differences revealed significant changes in phagocytic activity during the observation periods in five test and three control groups. Leukocyte number was not influenced significantly in any study. Side effects due to the test preparations could not be detected. Our studies provide evidence for immunomodulatory activity of the homeopathic combination tested in study 1 and the E. purpureae radix extract tested in study 2. The negative results of the other three studies are difficult to
Modarai, Maryam; Yang, Min; Suter, Andy; Kortenkamp, Andreas; Heinrich, Michael
ECHINACEA is a popular and widely used herbal medicinal product and consequently, studies of its interactions with conventional drugs are of particular importance. We have shown that ECHINACEA preparations and some common alkylamides weakly inhibit several cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoforms, with considerable variation in potency. We now report a detailed analysis of six commercial ECHINACEA liquid preparations, with emphasis on the metabolomic characterisation of the ECHINACEA compounds responsible for inhibiting CYP3A4. We separated each preparation into its ethanol- and water-soluble components, and then used (1)H-NMR together with multivariate data analysis and partial least square regression analysis to investigate the nature of the compounds responsible for CYP3A4 inhibition. The results implicated alkylamides in the CYP3A4 inhibitory activity of ECHINACEA. One of the commercial preparations (Echinaforce(R)) was further fractionated using solid phase extraction. Analysis by (1)H-NMR and mass spectroscopy (LC/MS, tandem MS, accurate mass) identified dodeca-2 E,4 E,8 Z,10 E/Z-tetraenoic acid (alkylamide 1) and a new compound (putative molecular formula C (18)H (36) NO (+)) as major components of the inhibitory fractions. In addition, the alkylamide content of all six preparations was determined by reverse phase HPLC. Levels of alkylamides 1 and 3 (undeca-2 E,4 E/ Z-diene-8,10-diynoic acid isobutylamide), correlated well with CYP3A4 inhibition. The acetylene tetradeca-8 Z-ene-11,13-diyn-2-one was shown to be present in the E. PURPUREA as well as the E. PALLIDA extracts. E. PURPUREA unlike E. PALLIDA was thought to not contain significant amounts of acetylenes. Our results directly confirm the role of alkylamides in the inhibition of CYP3A4 by ECHINACEA and uncovered a new compound which may also be involved. Extensive differences in the composition of the commercially available preparations were found. This will inevitably impact on the product efficacy, safety and
Romiti, Nadia; Pellati, Federica; Nieri, Paola; Benvenuti, Stefania; Adinolfi, Barbara; Chieli, Elisabetta
The N-hexane root extracts from Echinacea pallida, Echinacea angustifolia and Echinacea purpurea were evaluated for inhibition of the multidrug transporter P-glycoprotein (Pgp) activity, the product of the ABCB1 gene, involved in cancer multidrug resistance (MDR) and in herb-drug or drug-drug interactions. The biological assay was performed using the human proximal tubule HK-2 cell line that constitutively expresses ABCB1. The N-hexane extracts of all three species reduced the efflux of the Pgp probe calcein-AM from HK-2 cells two-fold in a concentration-dependent manner, and E. pallida was found to be the most active species. For the first time, two polyacetylenes and three polyenes, isolated from the N-hexane extract of E. pallida roots by a bioassay-guided fractionation, were found to be able to reduce Pgp activity. Pentadeca-(8 Z,13 Z)-dien-11-yn-2-one was the most efficient compound, being able to decrease the calcein-AM efflux about three-fold with respect to the control at 30 microg/mL.
Abbas, M.M.; Mahmoud, A.H.; Sharoud, M.N.M.
Nowadays, herbal remedy is becoming as the spotlight which capture the public attention. Echinacea is marketed as a dietary supplement to promote the immune system and it is currently one of the best-selling herbs according to the Nutrition Business Journal, and is touted as a favourite botanical remedy among herbal and alternative medicine experts. The goal of this study is to evaluate the effect of oral application of a commercially available Echinacea preparation on the immune system in Egyptian male and female volunteers. For this purpose, 25 healthy male and female adults, 23-45 years, will receive Echinacea preparation. The total daily dose 125 mg for consecutive 10 days. Blood was withdrawn to assess some immune markers just before beginning the study and after completing the course of medication. The herb extract induced a significant increase in IgG level and the percentage of immune cell populations, including CD4 and CD8 in both male and female volunteers. Also, there is a significant increase in CD4/CD8 ratio. In addition, there is a significant increase in the total leucocyte. In regard to the differential leucocyte, the Echinacea preparation significantly increased the lymphocytes in peripheral blood. For other leucocyte subpopulations (neutrophil, monocyte, eosinophil and basophil), no significant difference was observed after Echinacea treatment. The erythrocytic counts, the haemoglobin concentration and the haematocrit were in significantly increased in male but insignificantly in female. No remarkable change was noted in the platelets count after the treatment of Echinacea. These findings demonstrated that the plant Echinacea have immune-enhancing properties in male and female Egyptian volunteers
Li, Qin; Chu, Chu; Tan, Zhenfeng; Wang, Yaqiong; Wei, Jiafu; Li, Ping; Zhao, Zhongzhen
To make microscopic identification research of three Echinacea-species roots recorded in the United States Pharmacopeia. The root transverse section and powder of E. angustifolia, E. pallida, and E. purpurea were observed. The main microscopic features were photographed. The main microscopic features of transverse section and powder in three Echinacea-species roots are basically similar, except for some diagnostic differences. The results provide reliable reference for the authentication of raw materials of western herbal studies.
Sloley, B D; Urichuk, L J; Tywin, C; Coutts, R T; Pang, P K; Shan, J J
Alcoholic extracts of the roots and leaves of three Echinacea species (E. purpurea, E. angustifolia and E. pallida) were analysed for the presence of characteristic chemicals by HPLC directly coupled to ultraviolet absorbance and electrospray mass spectrometric detectors. The method permitted rapid characterization and tentative identification of a large number of caffeoyl conjugates and alkamides in all the samples investigated. The roots of the three species differed markedly in their contents of characteristic compounds. Cichoric acid and verbascoside predominated in extracts of E. purpurea root whereas cynarine and dodeca-2E,4E,8Z,10Z/E-tetraenoic acid isobutylamide were the major chemicals characteristic of E. angustifolia root extracts. Echinacoside and 6-O-caffeoylechinacoside predominated in extracts of E. pallida roots. Characteristic alkamides were also examined by electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) and these compounds provided characteristic fragmentation patterns. Extracts of the roots and leaves of all three species were found to have antioxidant properties in a free radical scavenging assay and in a lipid peroxidation assay.
Schulthess, B H; Giger, E; Baumann, T W
The achenes (fruits) of the therapeutically used Echinacea species E. purpurea, E. angustifolia, and E. pallida can be differentiated structurally (shape, anatomy) as well as phytochemically (essential oil components, alkamides). During germination in all three species dodeca-2E, 4E, 8Z, 10E(10Z)-tetraenoic acid isobutylamide (8/9) is mainly formed. Besides this a number of alkamides typical for the root of E. purpurea are synthesized in moderate amounts. Also, alkene derivatives of isovalerianic acid are produced. It is an interesting fact that neither 2-monoene alkalmides nor polyacetylenes could be detected during achene germination.
Wolf, H T; Zündorf, I; Winckler, T; Bauer, R; Dingermann, T
In this report we describe the discrimination of all three pharmaceutically relevant Echinacea species by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. Genomic DNA prepared from either fresh root material or dried roots was probed in polymerase chain reactions (PCR) using several arbitrary primers. Distinct banding patterns were obtained for E. purpurea, E. angustifolia var. angustifolia, and E. pallida, respectively. Individual Echinacea drugs could be identified within mixtures containing variable amounts of individual drugs. We propose to use RAPD analysis as a rapid and reliable test for proving the identity of Echinacea root drugs.
Classen, B; Thude, S; Blaschek, W; Wack, M; Bodinet, C
The influences of different arabinogalactan-proteins (AGPs) on proliferation and IgM-production of mouse lymphocytes as well as nitrite- and IL6-production of mouse macrophages were investigated in vitro. AGPs have been isolated and purified from roots of Baptisia tinctoria and Echinacea pallida and suspension culture of Echinacea purpurea. Comparing the AGPs, there are differences with regard to fine structure as well as to activities. AGPs from roots of B. tinctoria and E. pallida show high activity in all test systems. AGP from cell culture of E. purpurea shows no influence on proliferation of mouse lymphocytes, only weak influence on the IgM-production of mouse lymphocytes and weak stimulation of nitrite- and IL6-production in alveolar mouse macrophage culture.
Kapteyn, J.; Goldsbrough, B.; Simon, E.
The genus Echinacea is comprised of nine species, which are perennial herbs indigenous to North America and which have been traditionally used as medicinal plants for centuries. Three Echinacea species, E. angustifolia, E. purpurea, and E. pallida, are currently being traded internationally in the natural products market. Echinacea products constitute a significant portion of this growing, multi-billion dollar industry. The increasing popularity of Echinacea products has led to the expansion of wildcrafting and commercial cultivation to meet the growing demand for plant material. Echinacea is considered of value as a nonspecific immune stimulant, and claims of its efficacy have been tentatively supported by both laboratory and clinical studies. This study used random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers to determine the genetic relationships of the three Echinacea species of commercial interest, to evaluate the level of diversity present within germplasm of each of the three species, and to compare accessions of each species available from different sources. A total of 101 RAPD markers were generated for the 76 individuals of four species included in the analysis. NTSYS-pc was used to evaluate the genetic relationships of the three species and to determine the general level of overall diversity. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) was performed using pruned marker sets corrected for the dominant nature of RAPD markers. AMOVA revealed that most of the variation occurred within accessions of the same species, though some accessions of both E. pallida and E. angustifolia were found to be significantly different from other accessions of the same species.
Assessment of effect of ethanolic extract of Tephrosia purpurea (L. Pers., Fabaceae, activity on lithium-pilocarpine induced Status epilepticus and oxidative stress in Wistar rats Avaliação do efeito do extrato etanólico da Tephrosia purpurea (L. Pers., Fabaceae, sobre o status epilepticus induzido por lítio-pilocarpina e estresse oxidativo, em ratos Wistar
Full Text Available Tephrosia purpurea (L. Pers., Fabaceae, is claimed to be of use in the control and treatment of a variety of epileptic disorders in Indian system of medicine. The present study plans to systematically evaluate T. purpurea and to verify this claim. Status epilepticus was induced in male albino rats of Wistar strain by administration of pilocarpine (30 mg/kg, i.p. 24 h after lithium chloride (3 mEq/kg, i.p.. Different doses of the extract of T. purpurea were administered orally one hour before the injection of pilocarpine. The severity of status epilepticus was observed and recorded every 15 min till 90 min and thereafter every 30 min till 180 min, using the scoring system. The in vivo lipid peroxidation of rat brain tissue was measured. The in vitro NO free radical scavenging activity of plant extract was assessed. The interaction between plant extract and 2-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH was also observed for in vitro free radical scavenging activity. The severity of status epilepticus was reduced with the administration of ethanolic extract of T. purpurea. Ethanolic extract of the plant exhibited both in vivo and in vitro antioxidant activity. The ethanolic extract of T. purpurea was found to be useful to control lithium-pilocarpine induced status epilepticus in albino rats of Wistar strain.Tephrosia purpurea (L. Pers., Fabaceae, é conhecida pelo seu uso no controle e tratamento de uma variedade de distúrbios epilépticos no sistema indiano de medicina. O presente estudo pretende avaliar de forma sistemática T. purpurea e verificar essa alegação. Status epilepticus foi induzido em ratos albinos machos da linhagem Wistar pela administração de pilocarpina (30 mg/kg, i.p. 24 h após o cloreto de lítio (3 mEq/kg, i.p.. Diferentes doses do extrato de T. purpurea foram administrados por via oral uma hora antes da injeção de pilocarpina. A gravidade do status epilepticus foi observada e registrada a cada 15 min até 90 min e
Binns, Shannon E; Livesey, John F; Arnason, John T; Baum, Bernard R
Quantitative phytochemical variation was determined from roots and inflorescences of native plant populations in the genus Echinacea. Specimens were collected in situ throughout the natural range of each putative taxon and transplanted to greenhouse cultivation. Ethanolic extracts from individual plants were separated by reversed-phase HPLC to quantify the alkamides, polyenes/ynes, and phenolics, and then grouped by age and taxonomically, according to a recent morphometric taxonomic revision of the genus. Canonical discriminant analysis revealed that cichoric acid, the diene alkamides 1-3 and 7, and ketoalkene 24 were the best taxonomic markers. Mean content for each of 26 phytochemicals revealed useful agronomic information, such as those varieties and organs with the highest accumulations, as well as the optimal age and growth conditions for each variety. The highest amounts of cichoric acid were measured from the older, wild inflorescences of E. pallida var.sanguinea, whereas the highest quantities of the alkamides 1-3 and 7 were present in roots of wild and transplanted E. purpurea. Baseline phytochemical data and chromatographic profiles for all types of wild Echinacea may be used for protection of wild stands, germplasm identification, and crop improvement.
Ardjomand-Woelkart, Karin; Bauer, Rudolf
Echinacea purpurea, Echinacea angustifoli and Echinacea pallida are frequently used as medicinal plants. Besides asking for evidence on their efficacy, there is an increasing interest for safety data. This review systematically presents the available literature on drug interactions, contraindications, adverse events, duration of use, and safety of use in pregnant and nursing women, and assesses the safety profile of corresponding Echinacea preparations. It is noteworthy that all safety data reported are as product specific as the pharmacological or efficacy data are. In pharmacokinetic herb-drug interaction studies performed in vivo, no significant inhibitions of human CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 isoforms have been found after the administration of standardized E. purpurea preparations. However, contradictory results exist in studies using liver microsomes. Adverse events reported during clinical trials following administration of Echinacea spp. mono-preparations were generally mild and mostly without causality. Due to published long term studies with continuous ingestion of different Echinacea preparations up to 6 month with no reported toxicological concerns, Echinacea can be recommended also for long-term use. Moreover, the contraindications in cases of autoimmune diseases and immune-suppression are questionable, since lipophilic Echinacea preparations containing alkamides suppress cellular immune responses, and beneficial effects in autoimmunity were reported. The same applies for the use during pregnancy. Although there has been some impact reported on embryonic angiogenesis in mice, no association with an increased risk for major or minor malformations during organogenesis was found in a literature review. Altogether, the different evaluated Echinacea preparations are well-tolerated herbal medicines in the management in children and adults alike. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Full Text Available The methanol extract of Echinaceae angustifolia DC was tested for acute toxicity (LD50 using Swiss Albino Mice and was screened for cytotoxicity assay using Artemia salina larvae. The results showed that the plant was toxic to the mice at even a low concentration and caused death at a concentration of 500mg/Kg body weight of the live mice. The LD50 was found to be 1,224.74mg/Kg. The result of the cytotoxicity showed that the extract was toxic to the naupli with an LC50and LC90 values of 125.89μg/mL and 794.33μg/mL.
Huntley, Alyson L; Thompson Coon, Joanna; Ernst, Edzard
Echinacea spp. are native to North America and were traditionally used by the Indian tribes for a variety of ailments, including mouth sores, colds and snake-bites. The three most commonly used Echinacea spp. are E. angustifolia, E. pallida and E. purpurea. Systematic literature searches were conducted in six electronic databases and the reference lists of all of the papers located were checked for further relevant publications. Information was also sought from the spontaneous reporting programmes of the WHO and national drug safety bodies. Twenty-three manufacturers of echinacea were contacted and asked for data held on file. Finally our own departmental files were searched. No language restrictions were imposed. Combination products and homeopathic preparations were excluded. Data from clinical studies and spontaneous reporting programmes suggest that adverse events with echinacea are not commonly reported. Gastrointestinal upsets and rashes occur most frequently. However, in rare cases, echinacea can be associated with allergic reactions that may be severe. Although there is a large amount of data that investigates the efficacy of echinacea, safety issues and the monitoring of adverse events have not been focused on. Short-term use of echinacea is associated with a relatively good safety profile, with a slight risk of transient, reversible, adverse events. The association of echinacea with allergic reactions is supported by the present evaluation. While these reactions are likely to be rare, patients with allergy or asthma should carefully consider their use of echinacea. The use of echinacea products during pregnancy and lactation would appear to be ill-advised in light of the paucity of data in this area.
Pillai, Segaran; Pillai, Christine; Mitscher, Lester A; Cooper, Raymond
When directly exposed to various echinacea fractions, human leukocytes ex vivo are strongly stimulated to proliferate and to produce immunostimulation and inflammatory cytokines. A comparison of fractions containing lipoidal small molecules and high-molecular-weight water-soluble polysaccharides indicates that the latter are substantially more potent as immunostimulants. Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench, E. angustifolia DC, and E. pallida (Nutt.), Nutt. extracts, and each plant part contain significantly potent constituents. Flow cytometric techniques were utilized. This study was undertaken to determine whether flow cytometry could measure immunostimulant activity present in echinacea and, if so, which species produced more activity, which plant part was the most active, and whether the organic soluble or the aqueous extractables were more active. Ex vivo human clinical material was employed. Echinacea extracts were analyzed using flow cytometric techniques. The immunostimulation assays were measured in triplicate. Samples dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) were added to 200 microL of heparinized blood mixed with 50 muL of phosphate buffer, vortexed, and incubated to allow adequate time for immune-cell stimulation. Fifty (50) microL of the stimulated blood samples were added to each of a reagent cocktail consisting of 20 microL of CD4FITC/CD69PE/CD3PerCP expressed on the helper/inducer T-lymphocyte subset; CD8FITC/CD69/PE/ CD3PerCP expressed on the human suppresser/cytotoxic T-lymphocytes and on a subset of natural killer lymphocytes; CD19FITC/CD69PE/CD45PerCP expressed on B-lymphocytes; or CD56FITC/CD69PE/CD45PerCP expressed on NK lymphocytes. Four hundred and fifty (450) microL of 1 X FACS lysing solution was added and incubated in the dark (rt, 30 minutes) and then subjected to flow cytometric analysis. All reported readings are the average of several determinations. Positive controls consisted of phorbol myristyl acetate (PMA) (50 ng/mL), phytohemagglutinin
Morrison, Steven A; Li, Haoxin; Webster, Duncan; Johnson, John A; Gray, Christopher A
The purple pitcher plant, Sarracenia purpurea, is a medicinal plant used by the Canadian First Nations to treat a wide variety of illnesses. The Mi'kmaq and Wolastoqiyik (Maliseet) peoples of Eastern Canada have traditionally used infusions of S. purpurea for the treatment of tuberculosis-like symptoms. Previous investigations have shown methanolic extracts of S. purpurea to possess antimycobacterial activity. To isolate and identify antimycobacterial constituents from S. purpurea. Methanolic extracts of S. purpurea were subjected to bioassay guided fractionation using the microplate resazurin assay (MRA) to assess inhibitory activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain H37Ra. The antimycobacterial constituents were identified by NMR, MS and polarimetry. The triterpenes betulinaldehyde, β-sitosterol, betulinic acid, and ursolic acid were isolated from S. purpurea. Betulinaldehyde, betulinic acid, and ursolic acid exhibited MICs of 450, 950, and 450μM and IC50s of 98, 169, and 93μM against M. tuberculosis H37Ra respectively whilst β-sitosterol was inactive (MIC and IC50 of >1000μM). Betulinaldehyde, betulinic acid, and ursolic acid were identified as the principal constituents responsible for the antimycobacterial activity of S. purpurea. This work is consistent with the ethnopharmacological use of S. purpurea by Canadian First Nations as a treatment against infectious diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nieri, P; Adinolfi, B; Morelli, I; Breschi, M C; Simoni, G; Martinotti, E
The three medicinal species of the Echinacea genus, E. angustifolia DC., E. pallida (Nutt.) Nutt. and E. purpurea (L.) Moench were distinguished using the RAPD (random amplified polymorphic DNA) technique. Species-specific markers were identified from amplicons obtained with four of the twenty 10-mer primers contained in the Operon RAPD kit A. In particular, one marker was identified for E. angustifolia (OPA 20, 1800 pb) and E. pallida (OPA 10, 600 pb) and three markers for E. purpurea (OPA 11 : 1250 pb; OPA 17 : 750, 1800 pb). Genetic distance analysis indicated a high degree of difference among the three species with a relative lower difference between E. angustifolia and E. pallida.
Olarte, Alexandra; Mantri, Nitin; Nugent, Gregory; Pang, Edwin C. K.
Echinacea, native to the Canadian prairies and the prairie states of the United States, has a long tradition as a folk medicine for the Native Americans. Currently, Echinacea are among the top 10 selling herbal medicines in the U.S. and Europe, due to increasing popularity for the treatment of common cold and ability to stimulate the immune system. However, the genetic relationship within the species of this genus is unclear, making the authentication of the species used for the medicinal industry more difficult. We report the construction of a novel Subtracted Diversity Array (SDA) for Echinacea species and demonstrate the potential of this array for isolating highly polymorphic sequences. In order to selectively isolate Echinacea-specific sequences, a Suppression Subtractive Hybridization (SSH) was performed between a pool of twenty-four Echinacea genotypes and a pool of other angiosperms and non-angiosperms. A total of 283 subtracted genomic DNA (gDNA) fragments were amplified and arrayed. Twenty-seven Echinacea genotypes including four that were not used in the array construction could be successfully discriminated. Interestingly, unknown samples of E. paradoxa and E. purpurea could be unambiguously identified from the cluster analysis. Furthermore, this Echinacea-specific SDA was also able to isolate highly polymorphic retrotransposon sequences. Five out of the eleven most discriminatory features matched to known retrotransposons. This is the first time retrotransposon sequences have been used to fingerprint Echinacea, highlighting the potential of retrotransposons as based molecular markers useful for fingerprinting and studying diversity patterns in Echinacea. PMID:23940565
Full Text Available Echinacea, native to the Canadian prairies and the prairie states of the United States, has a long tradition as a folk medicine for the Native Americans. Currently, Echinacea are among the top 10 selling herbal medicines in the U.S. and Europe, due to increasing popularity for the treatment of common cold and ability to stimulate the immune system. However, the genetic relationship within the species of this genus is unclear, making the authentication of the species used for the medicinal industry more difficult. We report the construction of a novel Subtracted Diversity Array (SDA for Echinacea species and demonstrate the potential of this array for isolating highly polymorphic sequences. In order to selectively isolate Echinacea-specific sequences, a Suppression Subtractive Hybridization (SSH was performed between a pool of twenty-four Echinacea genotypes and a pool of other angiosperms and non-angiosperms. A total of 283 subtracted genomic DNA (gDNA fragments were amplified and arrayed. Twenty-seven Echinacea genotypes including four that were not used in the array construction could be successfully discriminated. Interestingly, unknown samples of E. paradoxa and E. purpurea could be unambiguously identified from the cluster analysis. Furthermore, this Echinacea-specific SDA was also able to isolate highly polymorphic retrotransposon sequences. Five out of the eleven most discriminatory features matched to known retrotransposons. This is the first time retrotransposon sequences have been used to fingerprint Echinacea, highlighting the potential of retrotransposons as based molecular markers useful for fingerprinting and studying diversity patterns in Echinacea.
Brown, Paula N; Chan, Michael; Betz, Joseph M
Three species of Echinacea (Echinacea purpurea, Echinacea angustifolia, and Echinacea pallida) are commonly used for medicinal purposes. The phenolic compounds caftaric acid, cichoric acid, echinacoside, cynarin, and chlorogenic acid are among the phytochemical constituents that may be responsible for the purported beneficial effects of the herb. Although methods for the analysis for these compounds have been published, documentation of their validity was inadequate as the accuracy and precision for the detection and quantification of these phenolics was not systematically determined and/or reported. To address this issue, the high-performance liquid chromatography method, originally developed by the Institute for Nutraceutical Advancement (INA), was reviewed, optimized, and validated for the detection and quantification of these phenolic compounds in Echinacea roots and aerial parts.
shieh cho han
improve animal growth, carcass quality, multiplication, nutritional ... the feedstuff industry and animal nutrition, biotechnology can increase the ..... Growth performance, intestinal microflora populations and serum cholesterol of broilers fed diets containing Lactobacillus cultures. Poult. Sci. 77(9):1259-1265. Lee TT, Ciou JY, ...
Murthy, Hosakatte Niranjana; Kim, Yun-Soo; Park, So-Young; Paek, Kee-Yoeup
Caffeic acid derivatives (CADs) are a group of bioactive compounds which are produced in Echinacea species especially Echinacea purpurea, Echinacea angustifolia, and Echinacea pallida. Echinacea is a popular herbal medicine used in the treatment of common cold and it is also a prominent dietary supplement used throughout the world. Caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid (5-O-caffeoylquinic acid), caftaric acid (2-O-caffeoyltartaric acid), cichoric acid (2, 3-O-dicaffeoyltartaric acid), cynarin, and echinacoside are some of the important CADs which have varied pharmacological activities. The concentrations of these bioactive compounds are species specific and also they vary considerably with the cultivated Echinacea species due to geographical location, stage of development, time of harvest, and growth conditions. Due to these reasons, plant cell and organ cultures have become attractive alternative for the production of biomass and caffeic acid derivatives. Adventitious and hairy roots have been induced in E. pupurea and E. angustifolia, and suspension cultures have been established from flask to bioreactor scale for the production of biomass and CADs. Tremendous progress has been made in this area; various bioprocess methods and strategies have been developed for constant high-quality productivity of biomass and secondary products. This review is aimed to discuss biotechnological methods and approaches employed for the sustainable production of CADs.
Romero, Fredy R; Delate, Kathleen; Hannapel, David J
Organic production of one of the most popular botanical supplements, Echinacea, continues to expand in the U.S. Echinacea seeds typically show a high degree of dormancy that can be broken by ethephon or gibberelic acid (GA), but these methods are currently disallowed in organic production. In order to determine the efficacy of non-chemical seed treatments, we evaluated the effect of varying seed source and supplying light, with and without cold-moist stratification, on seed germination of the three most important medicinal species of Echinacea, E. angustifolia DC, E. purpurea (L) Moench, and E. pallida (Nutt.) Nutt. Treatments included cold-moist stratification under 24 h light, 24 h dark, and 16/8 h light/dark to break seed dormancy. We found that germination was greater in the E. purpurea and E. pallida seeds from a commercial organic seed source compared to a public germplasm source. When seeds were not cold-moist stratified, 16-24 h light increased germination in E. angustifolia only. Echinacea angustifolia, E. purpurea, and E. pallida seeds that were cold-moist stratified under 16-24 h of light for 4 wk had a significantly greater percentage and rate of germination compared to seeds germinated in the dark. Therefore, cold-moist stratification under light conditions is recommended as a method to break seed dormancy and increase germination rates in organic production of Echinacea.
Zhang, Xiaozhu; Rizshsky, Ludmila; Hauck, Catherine; Qu, Luping; Widrlechner, Mark P; Nikolau, Basil J; Murphy, Patricia A; Birt, Diane F
Among the nine Echinacea species, E. purpurea, E. angustifolia and E. pallida, have been widely used to treat the common cold, flu and other infections. In this study, ethanol extracts of these three Echinacea species and E. paradoxa, including its typical variety, E. paradoxa var. paradoxa, were screened in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophage cells to assess potential anti-inflammatory activity. E. paradoxa var. paradoxa, rich in polyenes/polyacetylenes, was an especially efficient inhibitor of LPS-induced production of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) by 46%, 32%, 53% and 26%, respectively, when tested at 20 μg/ml in comparison to DMSO control. By bioactivity-guided fractionation, pentadeca-8Z-ene-11, 13-diyn-2-one (Bauer ketone 23) and pentadeca-8Z, 13Z-dien-11-yn-2-one (Bauer ketone 24) from E. paradoxa var. paradoxa were found primarily responsible for inhibitory effects on NO and PGE2 production. Moreover, Bauer ketone 24 was the major contributor to inhibition of inflammatory cytokine production in LPS-induced mouse macrophage cells. These results provide a rationale for exploring the medicinal effects of the Bauer ketone-rich taxon, E. paradoxa var. paradoxa, and confirm the anti-inflammatory properties of Bauer ketones 23 and 24. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
С. В. Поспєлов
Full Text Available Purpose. To study morphometric parameters of fruits (cypselae of purple coneflower (Echinacea purpurea (L. Moench of ‘Zirka Mykoly Vavylova’ cultivar and pale coneflower (Echinacea pallida (Nutt. Nutt of ‘Krasunia Prerii’ cultivar and determine the impact of agro-meteorological factors on their performance according to long-term data. Methods. Laboratory, Mathematics and Statistics. Results. It was found that the parameters of cypselae and its weight in various types of coneflowers varied considerably from year to year. In this context the indicators of cypselae width and thickness had a larger variability as compared with the length. Mean length of Echinacea purpurea ranged from 4,57 to 6,16 mm, width – 2,30–2,97 mm, thickness – 1,74–2,28 mm. Weight of a cypselae made up 4,40–6,50 mg. Length of a fruit of Echinacea pallida was 4,57–5,74 mm, width – 2,51–3,18 mm, thickness – 1,76–2,37 mm, and a fruit weight varied from 5,65 to 7,70 mg. The correlation analysis revealed reliable connection of agro-climatic parameters and the parameters of the fruit. Conclusions. Using long-term data, the morphology of cypselaes of two Echinacea species introduced to Ukraine were studied, their basic parameters and the variability of indicators, connection with agro-climatic factors that is necessary to consider in crop growing for seeds .
Bulfon, Chiara; Galeotti, Marco; Volpatti, Donatella
The present study was designed to investigate the immunomodulatory effects of Aloe vera, Curcuma longa, Echinacea purpurea, Lavandula officinalis, Origanum vulgare, Panax ginseng, and Rheum officinale extracts on leukocytes purified from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) head kidney. The cells were cultured in a medium containing increasing doses of extracts; afterwards, they were tested for reactive oxygen species production after stimulation with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and proliferation in the presence or absence of phytohemagglutinin from Phaseolus vulgaris (PHA-P). After a 2-h exposure, the extracts of L. officinalis, O. vulgare, and R. officinale strongly reduced the oxidative burst activity of PMA-stimulated leukocytes, in a dose-dependent manner (P ≤ 0.05). A. vera, C. longa, E. purpurea, and P. ginseng extracts reduced this response with lower efficacy and especially at lower concentrations. On the contrary, the highest concentration of ginseng extract stimulated the respiratory burst of leukocytes compared to untreated control cells. After a 72-h exposure, the extracts of L. officinalis, R. officinale, C. longa, E. purpurea, and P. ginseng had a clear dose-dependent stimulatory effect on leukocyte proliferation (P ≤ 0.05). The results suggest that these medicinal plants can be considered as reliable sources of new antioxidants or immunostimulants to be used in aquaculture.
Поспелов, Сергей Викторович
For the first time research of dynamics of lectins activity of pale purple coneflower (Echinacea pallida (Nutt.) Nutt) in ontogenesis. It has been established that on the first year of vegetation the highest level of phytolectins observed in herbs at the second part of vegetation (14,0–16,0 point). In the roots with rhizomes lectins were appears only at the end of vegetation (up to 2,0 point). In the second year in the genesic period some high activity was observed of leave’s extracts at the ...
Chen, Ying; Fu, Tong; Tao, Tao; Yang, Jinghua; Chang, Yung; Wang, Meihua; Kim, Linda; Qu, Luping; Cassady, John; Scalzo, Ric; Wang, Xiping
Chemical investigation of the roots of Echinacea angustifolia, E. purpurea, and E. pallida yielded two new alkamides, identified by analysis of spectroscopic data and comparison with reported alkamides. The new compounds were dodeca-2Z,4E,10Z-trien-8-ynoic acid isobutylamide (1) from E. angustifolia and dodeca-2Z,4E-diene-8,10-diynoic acid isobutylamide (2) from E. purpurea and E. pallida. These two components, as well as previously identified alkamides, exerted inhibition on LPS-mediated activation of a murine macrophage line, RAW264.7. These data suggest that these alkamides may have anti-inflammatory activity. The cytotoxicity of these alkamides using MTT assays was also investigated.
Mazza, G; Cottrell, T
The headspace volatile components of roots, stems, leaves, and flowers of Echinacea angustifolia,E. pallida, and E. purpurea were analyzed by capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Over 70 compounds were identified in the samples. All plant tissues, irrespective of the species, contain acetaldehyde, dimethyl sulfide, camphene, hexanal, beta-pinene, and limonene. The main headspace constituents of the aerial parts of the plant are beta-myrcene, alpha-pinene, limonene, camphene, beta-pinene, trans-ocimene, 3-hexen-1-ol, and 2-methyl-4-pentenal. The major headspace components of root tissue are alpha-phellandrene (present only in the roots of E. purpurea and E.angustifolia), dimethyl sulfide, 2-methylbutanal, 3-methylbutanal, 2-methylpropanal, acetaldehyde, camphene, 2-propanal, and limonene. Aldehydes, particularly butanals and propanals, make up 41-57% of the headspace of root tissue, 19-29% of the headspace of the leaf tissue, and only 6-14% of the headspace of flower and stem tissues. Terpenoids including alpha- and beta-pinene, beta-myrcene, ocimene, limonene, camphene, and terpinene make up 81-91% of the headspace of flowers and stems, 46-58% of the headspace of the leaf tissue, and only 6-21% of the roots. Of the 70 compounds identified, >50 are reported in Echinacea for the first time.
Schicke, B; Hagels, H; Freudenstein, J; Wätzig, H
In this work a fast, simple and sensitive qualitative TLC method was developed to identify Echinaceae pallidae radix and to distinguish this drug from similar ones. The TLC method is based on the lipophilic compounds of E. pallida. Three mobile phases provided good separation, e.g. toluene/ethylacetate 7 + 3 (v/v). A marker substance was found which shows a blue fluorescence at an excitation wavelength of 366 nm after detection with a spray agent containing 95 volume parts ethanol 96%, 5 parts trifluoroacetic acid 99% and zinc ions in 0.15 molar concentration. After spraying the chromatogram was heated at 110 degrees C for 7 min. This method is superior to HPLC methods to characterise mixtures of Echinacea extracts in terms of selectivity due to this post-chromatographic derivatisation and subsequent fluorescence detection.
Agatonovic-Kustrin, S; Loescher, Christine M; Singh, Ragini
Echinacea preparations are among the most popular herbal remedies worldwide. Although it is generally assigned immune enhancement activities, the effectiveness of Echinacea is highly dependent on the Echinacea species, part of the plant used, the age of the plant, its location and the method of extraction. The aim of this study was to investigate the capacity of an artificial neural network (ANN) to analyse thin-layer chromatography (TLC) chromatograms as fingerprint patterns for quantitative estimation of three phenylpropanoid markers (chicoric acid, chlorogenic acid and echinacoside) in commercial Echinacea products. By applying samples with different weight ratios of marker compounds to the system, a database of chromatograms was constructed. One hundred and one signal intensities in each of the TLC chromatograms were correlated to the amounts of applied echinacoside, chlorogenic acid and chicoric acid using an ANN. The developed ANN correlation was used to quantify the amounts of three marker compounds in Echinacea commercial formulations. The minimum quantifiable level of 63, 154 and 98 ng and the limit of detection of 19, 46 and 29 ng were established for echinacoside, chlorogenic acid and chicoric acid respectively. A novel method for quality control of herbal products, based on TLC separation, high-resolution digital plate imaging and ANN data analysis has been developed. The method proposed can be adopted for routine evaluation of the phytochemical variability in Echinacea formulations available in the market. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Wu, Chun-Hua; Huang, Tao; Cui, Xi-Hua; Paek, Keeyoeup
To investigate the effect of auxins 2,4-D,IAA,IBA,NAA on induction of adventitious roots as well as that of IBA concentrations on the growth of adventitious roots and the accumulation of caffeic acid derivatives, with test-tube seedling leaves Echinacea pallida as the explant, and cultivate adventitious roots in bioreactors. 1.0 mg x L(-1) IBA was found the best for the induction of adventitious roots, with the numer of induced adventitious roots up to 22. 5 in each culture dish. Among different concentrations for suspension cultivation of IBA tested, 1.0 mg x L(-1) IBA was found the most suitable for the growth of adventitious roots and the accumulation of caffeic acid derivatives. In a 5 L balloon type bubble bioreactor, 8.98 g x L(-1) dry weight was achieved after one month, which was 2.05 times of 4.38 g x L(-1) dry weight cultivated in a triangular flask. The content of echinacoside cultivated in a bioreactor was 14.08 mg x g(-1) DW, which was 2.4 times of cultivated roots. The contents of chlorogenic acid, chicoric acid and total caffeic acid derivatives were 4.0-25.6 times of ultivated roots. The study can provide high-quality biomedical drugs containing such caffeic acid derivatives as echinacoside for mass production of Echinacea purpurea medicines.
Ceratobasidium cornigerum [EU273525] Ceratobasidium sp. UM01 Ceratobasidium sp. [AB286937] Ceratobasidium sp. [AF354094] Trametes versicolor [AF042324] 97...GQ365156] Fusarium sp. UM16 Trametes versicolor [AF042324] 58 45 0.1 (b) Scytalidium lignicola [FJ914697] Phoma herbarum [EU715683...Colletotrichum gloeosporioides [AJ301979] Glomerella sp. UM90 Trametes versicolor [AF042324] 94 44 95 0.1 (d) Colletotrichum sp. [AB443952
Binns, S E; Inparajah, I; Baum, B R; Arnason, J T
Methyl jasmonate (MJ), a naturally-occurring plant cellular signal molecule, was found to induce production of lipophilic secondary metabolites in Echinacea pallida seedlings. Seedling aerial parts were sprayed with 100 ppm MJ, and roots were harvested and extracted 24 h later. Lipophilic root extracts, separated by HPLC, revealed significant increases (P< 0.05) in six alkamides or related ketoalkene/ynes produced by 34 day-old plants and in seven compounds produced by 58 day-old plants.
... supplements and most medications is low. Keep in Mind Tell all your health care providers about any ... Privacy and Policies Accessibility en Español FOIA Site Map Contact Us U.S. Department of Health & Human Services , ...
Full Text Available Objective. To identify whether a standardised Echinacea formulation is effective in the prevention of respiratory and other symptoms associated with long-haul flights. Methods. 175 adults participated in a randomised, double-blind placebo-controlled trial travelling back from Australia to America, Europe, or Africa for a period of 1–5 weeks on commercial flights via economy class. Participants took Echinacea (root extract, standardised to 4.4 mg alkylamides or placebo tablets. Participants were surveyed before, immediately after travel, and at 4 weeks after travel regarding upper respiratory symptoms and travel-related quality of life. Results. Respiratory symptoms for both groups increased significantly during travel (P<0.0005. However, the Echinacea group had borderline significantly lower respiratory symptom scores compared to placebo (P=0.05 during travel. Conclusions. Supplementation with standardised Echinacea tablets, if taken before and during travel, may have preventive effects against the development of respiratory symptoms during travel involving long-haul flights.
LaLone, Carlie A.; Hammer, Kimberly D. P.; Wu, Lankun; Bae, Jaehoon; Leyva, Norma; Liu, Yi; Solco, Avery K. S.; Kraus, George A.; Murphy, Patricia A.; Wurtele, Eve S.; kim, Ok-Kyung; Seo, Kwon; Widrlechner, Mark P.; Birt, Diane F.
Inhibition of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 mouse macrophage cells was assessed with an enzyme immunoassay following treatments with Echinacea extracts or synthesized alkamides. Results indicated that ethanol extracts diluted in media to a concentration of 15 μg/mL from E. angustifolia, E. pallida, E. simulata, and E. sanguinea significantly inhibited PGE2 production. In further studies, PGE2 production was significantly reduced by all synthesized alkamides assayed at 50 μM, by Bauer alkamides 8, 12A analogue, and 14, Chen alkamide 2, and Chen alkamide 2 analogue at 25 μM and by Bauer alkamide 14 at 10 μM. Cytotoxicity did not play a role in the noted reduction of PGE2 production in either the Echinacea extracts or synthesized alkamides. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis identified individual alkamides present at concentrations below 2.8 μM in the extracts from the six Echinacea species (15 μg/mL crude extract). Because active extracts contained Echinacea in a synergistic or additive manner. PMID:17696440
LaLone, Carlie A; Hammer, Kimberly D P; Wu, Lankun; Bae, Jaehoon; Leyva, Norma; Liu, Yi; Solco, Avery K S; Kraus, George A; Murphy, Patricia A; Wurtele, Eve S; Kim, Ok-Kyung; Seo, Kwon Ii; Widrlechner, Mark P; Birt, Diane F
Inhibition of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) production in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 mouse macrophage cells was assessed with an enzyme immunoassay following treatments with Echinacea extracts or synthesized alkamides. Results indicated that ethanol extracts diluted in media to a concentration of 15 microg/mL from E. angustifolia, E. pallida, E. simulata, and E. sanguinea significantly inhibited PGE2 production. In further studies, PGE2 production was significantly reduced by all synthesized alkamides assayed at 50 microM, by Bauer alkamides 8, 12A analogue, and 14, Chen alkamide 2, and Chen alkamide 2 analogue at 25 microM and by Bauer alkamide 14 at 10 microM. Cytotoxicity did not play a role in the noted reduction of PGE2 production in either the Echinacea extracts or synthesized alkamides. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis identified individual alkamides present at concentrations below 2.8 microM in the extracts from the six Echinacea species (15 microg/mL crude extract). Because active extracts contained Echinacea in a synergistic or additive manner.
Full Text Available Objective: Martynia annua L. (M. annua, (Martyniaccae has been traditionally used in the treatment of epilepsy, sore throat and inflammatory disorders. The leaf paste is used topically on Tuberculosis of the lymphatic glands and wounds of domestic animals. Tephrosia purpurea (T. purpurea, (Fabaceae has been used traditionally as a remedy for asthma, gonorrhea, rheumatism and ulcers. This study aimed to evaluate the potential wound healing effects of different fractions ofethanol extract of M. annua leaves and aerial parts of T. purpurea. Materials and Methods: Methanol fraction of M. annua (MAF-C and ethyl acetate fraction of T. purpurea (TPF-A were evaluated for healing potential in dead-space and burn wound models. An ointment (5% w/w of MAF-C and TPF-A, pongamol (0.2 and 0.5% w/w and luteolin (0.2 and 0.5% w/w was applied topically twice a day. The effects were compared with Povidone Iodine ointment with respect to protein, collagen content, enzymatic assay and histopathological finding of granuloma tissues. Results: Ethanol extracts of M. annua and T. purpureawere exhibited total flavonoid contents of 126.2 ± 4.69 and 171.6 ± 6.38 mg (quercetin equivalent, respectively. HPLC fingerprinting confirmed the presence of luteolin in M. annua and quercetin in T. purpurea. TPF-A and MAF-C ointments (5% w/w significantly increases the hydroxyproline and protein contents. Luteolin and pongamol ointments were also found to be effective in both wound models. Conclusion: Our findings suggested that 5% w/w ointment of TPF-A and MAF-C fractions were more effective than isolated flavonoids in wound healing which may be due to synergistic interactions between the flavonoids and other constituents.
Full Text Available A major safety concern with the use of herbal medicinal products (HMP is their interactions with conventional medicines, which are often mediated via the cytochrome P450 (CYP system. Echinacea is a widely used over-the-counter HMP, with proven immunomodulatory properties. Its increasing use makes research into its safety an urgent concern. Previously, we showed that Echinacea extracts and its alkylamides (thought to be important for Echinacea's immunomodulatory activity mildly inhibit the enzymatic activity of the main drug metabolising CYP isoforms, but to this date, there is insufficient work on its ability to alter CYP expression levels. We now report for the first time the effect of a commercial Echinacea extract (Echinaforce and four Echinacea alkylamides on the transcription of the major drug metabolizing enzyme CYP3A4. HepG2 cells were exposed for 96 h to clinically relevant concentrations of Echinaforce (22, 11.6 and 1.16 μg mL−1 or the alkylamides (1.62 and 44 nM. CYP3A4 mRNA levels were quantified using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Neither Echinaforce nor the alkylamides produced any significant changes in the steady-state CYP3A4 mRNA levels, under these conditions. In contrast, treatment with 50 μM rifampicin resulted in a 3.8-fold up-regulation over the vehicle control. We conclude that Echinaforce is unlikely to affect CYP3A4 transcriptional levels, even at concentrations which can inhibit the enzymatic activity of CYP3A4. Overall, our data provides further evidence for the lack of interactions between Echinacea and conventional drugs.
Peek, H W; Halkes, S B A; Tomassen, M M M; Mes, J J; Landman, W J M
Five phytochemicals/extracts (an extract from Echinacea purpurea, a β-glucan-rich extract from Shiitake, betaine [Betain™], curcumin from Curcuma longa [turmeric] powder, carvacrol and also a recombinant fungal immunomodulatory protein [FIP] from Ganoderma lucidum) cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli were investigated for their anticolibacillosis potential in three chicken experiments, which were conducted in floor pens. Birds that were inoculated with E. coli intratracheally were treated with the phytochemicals/extracts or the FIP and compared with doxycycline-medicated and non-medicated infected broilers. Non-medicated and non-infected birds were used as negative controls. Mortality, colibacillosis lesions and body weight gains were used as parameters. Considering the sum of dead birds and chickens with generalized colibacillosis per group, there was no significant difference between the positive control groups and birds treated with phytochemicals/extracts or the FIP. In contrast, doxycycline-treated birds showed significantly lower mortality and generalized colibacillosis. Moreover, none of the phytochemicals/extracts and the FIP improved recovery from colibacillosis lesions, while all doxycycline-treated broilers recovered completely. The negative control birds and doxycycline-treated groups consistently showed the highest weight gains. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of reisolates showed that they were genetically indistinguishable from the inoculation strain. In conclusion, none of the tested phytochemicals/extracts and the FIP significantly reduced the E. coli-induced mortality and generalized colibacillosis, and nor did they improve recovery from colibacillosis lesions.
Full Text Available The investigation of ultradiluted (homeopathic drugs is extremely interesting and challenging, and from that point of view this study shows novelty. A study of in vivo changes in heart rate of the Indian Bufo melanostictus caused by commercially available serially ultra-diluted and agitated extract of Digitalis purpurea has been tried in order to understand their pharmacological role. RR interval (of ECG was compared after intraperitoneal administration of serially diluted and agitated Digitalis purpurea extract, diluent rectified spirit, and Digoxin in anesthetized animals. The study revealed statistically significant changes in the heart rate after application of these drugs except in case of Digoxin and the 200th serial dilution of Digitalis purpurea. The duration of RR intervals after application of the drugs was corroborative of the effect of Digoxin and Digitalis purpurea extract up to 30th dilution. Emission spectra were obtained for the experimental ultra-diluted Digitalis purpurea extract and Digoxin to identify and characterize them. The observed RR pattern and emission spectra show an association. The quality assessment of the commercial ultra-diluted organic drugs obtained from natural products may be initiated by monitoring in vivo studies on animal models.
Qu, Luping; Wang, Xiping; Hood, Eatherley; Scalzo, Richard
Seeds from five lots each of Echinacea angustifolia DC, and E. pallida (Nutt.) Nutt. were germinated in a growth chamber in light (40 μmol·m(-2)· s(-1)) or darkness at 25 °C for 16 to 20 d after soaking in 1 mM ethephon or water for 10 min, or moist stratification at 4 - 6 °C for two weeks. Either light or ethephon promoted seed germination of E. angustifolia and E. pallida, in comparison with darkness in nine of ten lots. Ethephon in the dark had similar or greater germination percentages than water with light. Ethephon with light improved germination in three of ten lots compared with ethephon in the dark. The effect of cold, moist stratification in comparison with darkness varied by seed lot. Five lots of E. purpurea (L.) Moench were tested; however, no treatment differences were measured. The finding that ethethon promoted E. angustifolia and E. pallida seed germination in darkness could be useful in the cultivation of these two species. Chemical name used: 2-chloroethylphosphonic acid (ethephon).
Tilvi, S.; Parameswaran, P.S.; Naik, C.G.
The sponge Psammaplysilla purpurea (Order: Verongidae, Family: Aplysinellidae) is a well known source for several bromotyrosine alkaloids of unique structural features and exhibiting promising biological activities such as cytotoxicity...
Full Text Available E00764 Echinacea Medicinal herb Caffeic acid derivatives, Echinacoside [CPD:C10450... Isobutyramide, Essential ... oil, Pyrrolizidine alkaloid Echinacea angustifolia [TAX:308558], Echinacea pallida [TAX:53749], Echina...cea purpurea [TAX:53751] ... Asteraceae Echinacea aerial part a
El-Houri, Rime Bahij; Kotowska, Dorota; Wolber, Gerhard
. Two novel isomeric dodeca-2E,4E,8Z,10E/Z-tetraenoic acid 2-methylbutylamides together with two known C12-alkamides and -linolenic acid were isolated from active fractions. The compounds were found to activate PPARγ but only the isomeric alkamides were able to increase basal and insulin-dependent GU...... in adipocytes in a dose dependent manner. Docking studies were performed to determine possible binding modes of the novel isomeric C12-alkamides and the potential contacts within the PPARγ ligand binding domain. The weak activation of PPARγ by the novel isomeric C12-alkamides as well as the results of docking...... mode of the novel isomeric C12-alkamides suggests that these compounds exhibit characteristics of a PPARγ partial agonist indicating that they may represent a chemical scaffold for the development of novel compounds with insulin sensitizing potential. Partial PPARγ agonists are believed not to promote...
Chicca, A; Pellati, F; Adinolfi, B; Matthias, A; Massarelli, I; Benvenuti, S; Martinotti, E; Bianucci, A M; Bone, K; Lehmann, R; Nieri, P
The n-hexane extracts of the roots of three medicinally used Echinacea species exhibited cytotoxic activity on human cancer cell lines, with Echinacea pallida found to be the most cytotoxic. Acetylenes are present in E. pallida lipophilic extracts but essentially absent in extracts from the other two species. In the present study, the cytotoxic effects of five compounds, two polyacetylenes (namely, 8-hydroxy-pentadeca-(9E)-ene-11,13-diyn-2-one (1) and pentadeca-(9E)-ene-11,13-diyne-2,8-dione (3)) and three polyenes (namely, 8-hydroxy-pentadeca-(9E,13Z)-dien-11-yn-2-one (2), pentadeca-(9E,13Z)-dien-11-yne-2,8-dione (4) and pentadeca-(8Z,13Z)-dien-11-yn-2-one (5)), isolated from the n-hexane extract of E. pallida roots by bioassay-guided fractionation, were investigated and the potential bioavailability of these compounds in the extract was studied. Cytotoxic effects were assessed on human pancreatic MIA PaCa-2 and colonic COLO320 cancer cell lines. Cell viability was evaluated by the WST-1 assay and apoptotic cell death by the cytosolic internucleosomal DNA enrichment and the caspase 3/7 activity tests. Caco-2 cell monolayers were used to assess the potential bioavailability of the acetylenes. The five compounds exhibited concentration-dependent cytotoxicity in both cell types, with a greater potency in the colonic cancer cells. Apoptotic cell death was found to be involved in the cytotoxic effect of the most active, compound 5. Compounds 2 and 5 were found to cross the Caco-2 monolayer with apparent permeabilities above 10 x 10(-6) cm s(-1). Compounds isolated from n-hexane extracts of E. pallida roots have a direct cytotoxicity on cancer cells and good potential for absorption in humans when taken orally.
Full Text Available Stipa purpurea is the representative type of alpine grassland in Tibet and the surviving and development material for herdsmen. This paper takes Shenzha County as the research area. Based on the analysis of typical hyperspectral variables sensitive to chlorophyll content of Stipa purpurea, 10 spectral variables with significant correlation with chlorophyll were extracted. The estimation model of chlorophyll was established. The photosynthetic pigment contents in the Shenzha area were calculated by using HJ-1A remote sensing images. The results show that (1 there are significant correlations between chlorophyll content and spectral variables; in particular, the coefficient of Chlb in Stipa purpurea with RVI is the largest (0.728; (2 10 variables are correlated with chlorophyll, and the order of correlation is Chlb > Chla > Chls; (3 for the estimation of Chla, the EVI is the best variable. RVI, NDVI, and VI2 are suitable for Chlb; RVI and NDVI are also suitable for the estimation of Chls; (4 the mean estimated content of Chla in Stipa bungeana is about 4.88 times that of Chlb, while Cars is slightly more than Chlb; (5 the distribution of Chla is opposite to Chlb and Chls content in water area.
K. S. Jyothi
Full Text Available Objective: Dental caries, periodontitis and other mucosal diseases are caused by a complex community of microorganisms. This study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial properties of saponins of four important oil yielding medicinal plant extracts on selected oral pathogens that are involved in such diseases.Materials and Methods: Saponins were extracted from Bauhinia purpurea, Madhuca longifolia, Celastrus paniculatus and Semecarpus anacardium and purified. Antimicrobial properties of these saponins against Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus salivarius, Staphylococcus aureus and Lactobacillus acidophilus were determined using well diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC was determined as the lowest concentration of saponins inhibiting bacterial growth after 14 h of incubation at 37°C. The bactericidal activity was evaluated using the viable cell count method.Results: The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC of Madhuca longifolia saponin on Streptococcus mutans MTCC 890, Streptococcus mitis and Staphylococcus aureus was 18.3 ± 0.15/34.4 ± 0.24 µg/ml, 19.0 ± 0.05/32.2 ± 0.0 µg/ml and 21.2 ± 0.35/39.0 ± 0.30 µg/ml, respectively and Bauhinia purpurea saponin on Streptococcus mutans MTCC 890, Staphylococcus aureus and Lactobacillus acidophilus was 26.4 ± 0.20/43.0 ± 0.40 µg/ml, 29.0 ± 0.30/39.6 ± 0.12 µg/ml and 20.2 ± 0.05/36.8 ± 0.23 µg/ml, respectively.Conclusion: The strong antimicrobial activity of Madhuca longifolia and Bauhinia purpurea may be due to the presence of complex triterpenoid saponins, oleanane type triterpenoid glycosides or atypical pentacyclic triterpenoid saponin. Hence, these extracted saponins may be used in food and oral products to prevent and control oral diseases.
Tudzynski, P; Hölter, K; Correia, T; Arntz, C; Grammel, N; Keller, U
A gene (cpd1) coding for the dimethylallyltryptophan synthase (DMATS) that catalyzes the first specific step in the biosynthesis of ergot alkaloids, was cloned from a strain of Claviceps purpurea that produces alkaloids in axenic culture. The derived gene product (CPD1) shows only 70% similarity to the corresponding gene previously isolated from Claviceps strain ATCC 26245, which is likely to be an isolate of C. fusiformis. Therefore, the related cpd1 most probably represents the first C. purpurea gene coding for an enzymatic step of the alkaloid biosynthetic pathway to be cloned. Analysis of the 3'-flanking region of cpd1 revealed a second, closely linked ergot alkaloid biosynthetic gene named cpps1, which codes for a 356-kDa polypeptide showing significant similarity to fungal modular peptide synthetases. The protein contains three amino acid-activating modules, and in the second module a sequence is found which matches that of an internal peptide (17 amino acids in length) obtained from a tryptic digest of lysergyl peptide synthetase 1 (LPS1) of C. purpurea, thus confirming that cpps1 encodes LPS1. LPS1 activates the three amino acids of the peptide portion of ergot peptide alkaloids during D-lysergyl peptide assembly. Chromosome walking revealed the presence of additional genes upstream of cpd1 which are probably also involved in ergot alkaloid biosynthesis: cpox1 probably codes for an FAD-dependent oxidoreductase (which could represent the chanoclavine cyclase), and a second putative oxidoreductase gene, cpox2, is closely linked to it in inverse orientation. RT-PCR experiments confirm that all four genes are expressed under conditions of peptide alkaloid biosynthesis. These results strongly suggest that at least some genes of ergot alkaloid biosynthesis in C. purpurea are clustered, opening the way for a detailed molecular genetic analysis of the pathway.
Villa-Hernández, Juan Manuel; Mendoza-Cardoso, Gabriela; Mendoza-Espinoza, José Alberto; Vela-Hinojosa, Cristián; Díaz de León-Sánchez, Fernando; Rivera-Cabrera, Fernando; Alia-Tejacal, Irán; Pérez-Flores, Laura J
Spondias purpurea L. is a fruit native to Mexico, however, it is found as far away as Brazil. It possesses a high commercial potential owing to its sensorial and nutritional qualities and its low cost of production. There exists a variety of ecotypes that have not been characterized and their adequate selection process, according to their strongest functional characteristics, will allow the establishment of improvement programs for this genetic resource. The object of this study was the chemical characterization and the determination of the in vitro and in vivo antioxidant capacity of 7 Spondias purpurea L. ecotypes. Differences were observed in the antioxidant capacity and the content of functional compounds among all the ecotypes analyzed. A high total phenolic content and a low flavonoid and carotenoid content were found, both in the epicarp and in the pulp. In each ecotype, the hydrophilic phase presented up to 40 times greater antioxidant capacity compared to the lipophilic phase. The hydrophilic phase of the epicarp of "Costeña Tierra Colorada" had the greatest antioxidant capacity and highest total phenolic content, whereas "Jocote" presented the lowest antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content. A positive correlation was observed between phenol levels and the antioxidant capacity in the epicarp. Regarding antioxidant activity in vivo, it was observed that in all analyzed concentrations of hydrophilic extracts of the epicarp of "Costeña Tierra Colorada" and in the highest "Jocote" concentrations, they provided thermo-protection against heat stress as well as a general well-being to the worm as evidenced by their high mobility. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.
Schumann, B; Erge, D; Maier, W; Gröger, D
A new strain of Claviceps was isolated from a blokked mutant of Claviceps purpurea. This strain accumulates substantial amounts of clavine alkaloids (2 g/l). The alkaloid fraction is composed of chanoclavine-I ( approximately 10%) and a mixture of agroclavine/elymoclavine (90%). Most suitable for alkaloid production in submerged culture is an ammoncitrate/sucrose medium. The genealogy of the new strain, designated Pepty 695/ch-I is the following one: Pepty 695/S (ergotoxine producer) --> Pepty 695/ch (secoergoline producer) --> Pepty 695/ch-I (tetracyclic clavine producer).
Wu, Lankun; Dixon, Philip M; Nikolau, Basil J; Kraus, George A; Widrlechner, Mark P; Wurtele, Eve Syrkin
The genus Echinacea is used as an herbal medicine to treat a variety of ailments. To better understand its potential chemical variation, 40 Echinacea accessions encompassing broad geographical and morphological diversity were evaluated under controlled conditions. Metabolites of roots from these accessions were analyzed by HPLC-photo diode array (HPLC-PDA), GC-MS, and multivariate statistical methods. In total, 43 lipophilic metabolites, including 24 unknown compounds, were detected. Weighted principal component analysis (WPCA) and clustering analysis of the levels of these metabolites across Echinacea accessions, based on Canberra distances, allowed us to test two alternative taxonomic treatments of the genus, with the further goal of facilitating accession identification. A widely used system developed by McGregor based primarily on morphological features was more congruent with the dendrogram generated from the lipophilic metabolite data than the system more recently developed by Binns et al. Our data support the hypothesis that Echinacea pallida is a diverse allopolyploid, incorporating the genomes of Echinacea simulata and another taxon, possibly Echinacea sanguinea. Finally, most recognized taxa of Echinacea can be identified by their distinct lipophilic metabolite fingerprints.
Sandhya, S.; Ventaka, Ramana K.; Vinod, K.R
Wild Indigo or Purple Tephrosia or fish poison occurs throughout the Indian subcontinent. It is widely used in the treatment of inflammation, diabetes, rheumatism, asthma, diarrhoea and many other ailments. But so far the pharmacognostic standardization has not been reported for its proper identification. Hence the present study is a pharmacognosy work carried out for the root part. This may help in the identification of the plant species. A thin transverse section, powder microscopy, measurement of the dimensions of cell structures, fluorescence analysis and physico chemical parameters were conducted for the root. From the TS, the secondary xylem fibres and vessels were found to be the tissues of diagnostic importance. The xylem vessels were of two types: narrow and long; broad and short. The important characters in the powdered microscopy were vessel elements, fibres and xylem parenchyma cells. The different fluorescent light shades were obtained under short and long UV light for both powder as well as the extracts of the root. The proximate analysis values were also obtained in a satisfactory way. Combining all these data a suitable root profile for plant can be constructed which may help in the identification of quality of the plant part. PMID:22557415
Valentyna O. Menshova
Full Text Available The comparative morphological characteristics of leaves of the genus Echinacea representatives (E. pallida (Nutt. Nutt and E. tennesseensis (Beadle Small introduced in the O.V. Fomin Botanical Garden are given. The established morphological features allow determining the adaptive capacities of species of the genus Echinacea ex situ. Despite of taxonomical belonging, the leaves of basal formation are most developed. Studied features could be applied during the implementation of these plants in pharmaceutical industry. Also these features could be useful during further investigations of adaptive possibilities of Echinacea species in ex situ conditions.
Full Text Available The first synthesis of a series of ketones naturally occurring in E. pallida is described. The natural distribution of these ketones among different Echinacea species is also reported.
Podlipaeva, Iu I; Ful'da, S; Gudkov, A V
Heat shock proteins have been revealed for the first time by the methods of Western blotting using alkaline phosphatase and ECL in the cells of Porphyra purpurea from Kattegat area of the Baltic Sea in normal and experimental stress conditions. It was demonstrated with application of monoclonal anti-Hsp70 antibodies that a slight band about 70 kDa is present constitutively at the film; additionally the polypeptide of about 40 kDa ("Hsp40") has been detected. After heat shock at 28 degrees C during 1 hr significant "expenditure" of Hsp70 was observed, as well as the pronounced induction of "Hsp40"; the induction was expressed especially strongly in 24 hr after the stress application.
Bauer, R; Khan, I A; Wagner, H
The roots of ECHINACEA PALLIDA are characterized by TLC and HPLC fingerprints of the polyacetylenes, polyenes, and the caffeic acid derivatives. The fingerprints can also be used for the differentiation between E. PALLIDA and E. ANGUSTIFOLIA root extracts. The main constituents of E. PALLIDA roots are tetradeca-8 Z-ene-11,13-diyn-2-one ( 2), pentadeca-8 Z-ene-11,13-diyn-2-one ( 3), pentadeca-8 Z,13 Z-dien-11-yn-2-one ( 4), pentadeca-8 Z,11 Z,13 E-trien-2-one ( 5), pentadeca-8 Z,11 E,13 Z-trien-2-one ( 6), pentadeca-8 Z,11 Z-dien-2-one ( 7), and echinacoside ( 13). E. ANGUSTIFOLIA is usually void of these polyacetylenes and polyenes and is characterized by isobutylamides, echinacoside, and cynarine. The polyacetylenes of E. PALLIDA are very susceptible to autoxidation to the 8-hydroxy-9-ene derivatives. Thus, the chemical composition of the roots depends on the storage conditions.
Pellati, Federica; Calò, Samuele; Benvenuti, Stefania; Adinolfi, Barbara; Nieri, Paola; Melegari, Michele
Bioassay-guided fractionation of n-hexane extracts of Echinacea pallida (Asteraceae) roots led to the isolation and structure elucidation of two polyacetylenes (1, 3) and three polyenes (2, 4, 5). Two are known hydroxylated compounds, namely 8-hydroxy-pentadeca-(9E)-ene-11,13-diyn-2-one (1) and 8-hydroxy-pentadeca-(9E,13Z)-dien-11-yn-2-one (2). Two dicarbonylic constituents, namely pentadeca-(9E)-ene-11,13-diyne-2,8-dione (3) and pentadeca-(9E,13Z)-dien-11-yne-2,8-dione (4), were isolated and characterized for the first time. Furthermore, the structure elucidation of pentadeca-(8Z,13Z)-dien-11-yn-2-one (5) is described. The structure of the compounds isolated was determined on the basis of UV, IR, NMR (including 1D and 2D NMR experiments, such as 1H-1H gCOSY, gHSQC-DEPT, gHMBC, gNOESY) and MS spectroscopic data. The cytotoxic activity of the isolated constituents against MIA PaCa-2 human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells was evaluated in the concentration range 1-100 microg/ml. Results show that the hydroxylated compounds (1, 2) have low cytotoxicity, while the more hydrophobic polyacetylenes (3) and polyenes (4, 5) displayed moderate activity.
Full Text Available We investigated the effects of various concentrations of diethyl aminoethyl hexanoate (DA-6 on the regeneration and growth of adventitious buds in in vitro purple coneflower cultures. Among the 3 types of explants tested, leaf explants required higher concentrations of DA-6 than petiole and root explants in order to obtain high regeneration rates, while root explants required the lowest concentration of DA-6. Additionally, explants with higher ploidy levels were more sensitive to the addition of DA-6, while explants with lower ploidy levels required higher concentrations of DA-6 to achieve its maximal regeneration rate. Interestingly, the application of a concentration that was conducive to the regeneration of explants with lower ploidy levels was inhibitory to the regeneration of explants with higher ploidy levels. Moreover, during the growth of regenerated buds, DA-6 application significantly improved plant height and weight, root weight, root thickness, root number, primary root length, total root length, and root/top ratio. Differences in the responses of explants to supplementation with DA-6 were also observed among explants with different ploidy levels, with buds having lower ploidy levels responding to lower concentrations of DA-6. Taken together, the results of the present experiments showed that proper application of DA-6 could increase in vitro culture efficiency in purple coneflower.
Patil, Jitendra Gopichand; Ahire, Mahendra Laxman; Nitnaware, Kirti Manik; Panda, Sayantan; Bhatt, Vijay P; Kishor, Polavarapu B Kavi; Nikam, Tukaram Dayaram
Digitalis purpurea L. (Scrophulariaceae; Foxglove) is a source of cardiotonic glycosides such as digitoxin and digoxin which are commercially applied in the treatment to strengthen cardiac diffusion and to regulate heart rhythm. This investigation deals with in vitro propagation and elicited production of cardiotonic glycosides digitoxin and digoxin in shoot cultures of D. purpurea L. In vitro germinated seedlings were used as a primary source of explants. Multiple shoot formation was achieved for three explant types (nodal, internodal, and leaf) cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium with several treatments of cytokinins (6-benzyladenine-BA; kinetin-Kin; and thidiazuron-TDZ) and auxins (indole-3-acetic acid-IAA; α-naphthaleneacetic acid-NAA; and 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid-2,4-D). Maximum multiple shoots (12.7 ± 0.6) were produced from nodal explants on MS + 7.5 μM BA. Shoots were rooted in vitro on MS containing 15 μM IAA. Rooted plantlets were successfully acclimatized. To further maintain the multiple shoot induction, mother tissue was cut into four equal parts and repeatedly sub-cultured on fresh shoot induction liquid medium after each harvest. On adaptation of this strategy, an average of 18 shoots per explant could be produced. This strategy was applied for the production of biomass and glycosides digitoxin and digoxin in shoot cultures on MS medium supplemented with 7.5 μM BA and several treatments with plant growth regulators, incubation period, abiotic (salicylic acid, mannitol, sorbitol, PEG-6000, NaCl, and KCl), biotic (Aspergillus niger, Helminthosporium sp., Alternaria sp., chitin, and yeast extract) elicitors, and precursors (progesterone, cholesterol, and squalene). The treatment of KCl, mycelial mass of Helminthosporium sp., and progesterone were highly effective for the production of cardenolides. In the presence of progesterone (200 to 300 mg/l), digitoxin and digoxin accumulation was enhanced by 9.1- and 11.9-folds
Lata, Hemant; De Andrade, Zita; Schaneberg, Brian; Bedir, Ebru; Khan, Ikhlas; Moraes, Rita
In an attempt to induce positive effects on the acclimatization of in vitro propagated Echinacea pallida, four arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, Glomus mosseae, Gigaspora ramisporophora, Scutellospora fulgida and Entrophospora colombiana were selected to aid the soil adaptation process. Fungal inocula affected the survival of E. pallida plantlets ranging from 83 % to 92 %, depending on the AM species and also contrasting with 58 % survival of the non-inoculated plantlets. Growth and development were faster in mycorrhizal treated plantlets than in non-treated ones, especially among those treated with Glomus mossae and Scutellospora fulgida. The presence of well-formed arbuscules and vesicles in Echinacea infested roots was confirmed by microscopic examinations in addition to 90 % success in the survival rate of vigorous plants indicated that mycorrhization is a valuable tool to overcome Echinacea acclimatization shock.
Baldé, Aladje; Neves, Dina; García-Breijo, Francisco J; Pais, Maria Salomé; Cravador, Alfredo
Phlomis plants are a source of biological active substances with potential applications in the control of phytopathogens. Phlomis purpurea (Lamiaceae) is autochthonous of southern Iberian Peninsula and Morocco and was found to be resistant to Phytophthora cinnamomi. Phlomis purpurea has revealed antagonistic effect in the rhizosphere of Quercus suber and Q. ilex against P. cinnamomi. Phlomis purpurea roots produce bioactive compounds exhibiting antitumor and anti-Phytophthora activities with potential to protect susceptible plants. Although these important capacities of P. purpurea have been demonstrated, there is no transcriptomic or genomic information available in public databases that could bring insights on the genes underlying this anti-oomycete activity. Using Illumina technology we obtained a de novo assembly of P. purpurea transcriptome and differential transcript abundance to identify putative defence related genes in challenged versus non-challenged plants. A total of 1,272,600,000 reads from 18 cDNA libraries were merged and assembled into 215,739 transcript contigs. BLASTX alignment to Nr NCBI database identified 124,386 unique annotated transcripts (57.7%) with significant hits. Functional annotation identified 83,550 out of 124,386 unique transcripts, which were mapped to 141 pathways. 39% of unigenes were assigned GO terms. Their functions cover biological processes, cellular component and molecular functions. Genes associated with response to stimuli, cellular and primary metabolic processes, catalytic and transporter functions were among those identified. Differential transcript abundance analysis using DESeq revealed significant differences among libraries depending on post-challenge times. Comparative cyto-histological studies of P. purpurea roots challenged with P. cinnamomi zoospores and controls revealed specific morphological features (exodermal strips and epi-cuticular layer), that may provide a constitutive efficient barrier against
Full Text Available Arsenic (As is a toxic element for plants and one of the most common anthropogenic pollutants found at contaminated sites. Despite its severe effects on plant metabolism, several species can accumulate substantial amounts of arsenic and endure the associated stress. However, the genetic mechanisms involved in arsenic tolerance remains obscure in many model plant species used for land decontamination (phytoremediation, including willows. The present study assesses the potential of Salix purpurea cv. ‘Fish Creek’ for arsenic phytoextraction and reveals the genetic responses behind arsenic tolerance, phytoextraction and metabolism. Four weeks of hydroponic exposure to 0, 5, 30 and 100 mg/L revealed that plants were able to tolerate up to 5 mg/L arsenic. Concentrations of 0 and 5 mg/L of arsenic treatment were then used to compare alterations in gene expression of roots, stems and leaves using RNA sequencing. Differential gene expression revealed transcripts encoding proteins putatively involved in entry of arsenic into the roots, storage in vacuoles and potential transport through the plant as well as primary and secondary (indirect toxicity tolerance mechanisms. A major role for tannin as a compound used to relieve cellular toxicity is implicated as well as unexpected expression of the cadmium transporter CAX2, providing a potential means for internal arsenic mobility. These insights into the underpinning genetics of a successful phytoremediating species present novel opportunities for selection of dedicated arsenic tolerant crops as well as the potential to integrate such tolerances into a wider Salix ideotype alongside traits including biomass yield, biomass quality, low agricultural inputs and phytochemical production.
Çelik, Sadiye Ayşe; Kan, Yüksel
This study was carried out in the ecologicalconditions of Konya in 2013 and 2014 at Selcuk University Faculty ofAgriculture, The Farm of Medicinal Plants. Mineral compositions (Na, K, Ca, P,Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn Al, Cd, Co, Ni, Cr, Mo and Pb) were examined in five differentspecies of Echinacea. The analyses of mineral compositions in Echinacea species were determined usingNMKL 161 method and A Perkin-Elmer Optima 2000 inductively coupledplasma–optical emission spectrophotometer (ICP–OES) was used to...
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Some Annonaceae seeds are known to exhibit dormancy mechanisms ranging from possible seed coat impermeability to physiological dormancy. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of gibberellin (GA GA3 and GA4+7 + benzyladenine (GA4+7 + BA application in seeds of Annona macroprophyllata Donn. Sm (papausa and Annona purpurea Moc. & Sessé ex Dunal (chincuya. The experiment was performed by the application of GA3 and GA4+7 + BA on seeds in concentrations of 0, 200, 400, 500, 600, 800 and 1000 mg L-1. The regulators broke the dormancy of both species. However, application of the GA4+7 + BA mixture had more significant results, with greater increases in germination in A. macroprophyllata than in A. purpurea. Treatments that promoted the highest germinations were GA4+7 + BA at a concentration of 200 mg L-1 for A. macroprophyllata (77% and 200 mg L-1 of GA4+7 + BA and 500 mg L-1 of GA3 for A. purpurea (30% and 29%, respectively. Rate index, mean time and frequency of germination were distinct for both species and both treatments. Although both GA3 and GA4+7 + BA promote germination, the GA4+7 + BA mixture was more effective than GA3 to overcoming seed dormancy of both species, A. purpurea has a harder dormancy than A. macroprophyllata
Butler, M D; Alderman, S C; Hammond, P C; Berry, R E
Insects in Kentucky bluegrass seed production fields in Oregon, Idaho, and Washington were sampled just before harvest and their association with ergot conidia of Claviceps purpurea Fr. (Tul.) was evaluated during 1996-1998. A diversity of insects was observed at all three locations. The most abundant beneficial insects collected with sweep nets were Nysium spp., Nabis spp., ichneumonid wasps, and Hippodamia spp. The cranberry girdler, Chrysoteuchia topiaria (Zeller), was the only important pest on grass seed collected by sweep net. Numbers of aphids such as Sitobion avenae (F.), cicadellids and thrips such as Anaphothrips spp. and Aptinothrips spp. that were collected with all aphid sampler were below economic thresholds. Other insect groups occurred in low numbers. Noctuid moths collected in universal blacklight traps included nine species of cutworms and armyworms. Protogrotis obscura (B. & McD.) was the most common cutworm species and was present in all fields. The moth Chortodes rufostrigata (Pack.) previously reported only from wet meadows in northeast and south central Oregon was found in Kentucky bluegrass fields in central Oregon, suggesting that irrigated Kentucky bluegrass seed production fields may simulate a montane meadow habitat. Conidia of C. purpurea were found on a diversity of insects, including moths, flies, leafhoppers, and thrips. Up to 100% of moths and 75% of flies collected from some fields carried conidia of C. purpurea. No correlation between ergot honeydew present in a field and number of insects with conidia of C. purpurea was detected.
Purple threeawn (Aristida purpurea Nutt.) is a native perennial bunchgrass with limited forage value that dominates sites with disturbed soils and persists with continued severe grazing. Fire and nitrogen addition have been used to reduce threeawn and may increase grazing utilization of threeawn by...
It is concluded that root and leaf of this Echinacea species contain volatile oils which varied in their yield and chemical compositions. The essential root oil is non-toxic orally and it demonstrated significant anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities in laboratory animals.
Bauer, R; Foster, S
The constituents of the roots of Echinacea simulata and E. paradoxa were examined by HPLC. The major lipophilic and hydrophilic compounds could be identified. E. paradoxa contained several ketoalkenynes and proved to have almost identical constituents as E. pallida. E. simulata contained alkamides as found in E. angustifolia and in addition ketoalkenynes as in E. pallida. Echinacoside was found in both species.
Sep 19, 2011 ... immune response. The significant increase in lymphocytes might also indicate the specific and non- specific immune stimulant role of E. purpurea. Bauer .... extract from root significantly increased in vivo the number of leucocytes and lymphocytes. It is reported that Echinacea activates rat immune system.
Purple threeawn (Aristida purpurea Nutt. varieties) is a native grass capable of increasing on rangelands, forming near monocultures, and creating a stable state. Productive rangelands throughout the Great Plains and Intermountain West have experienced increases in purple threeawn abundance, reduci...
A. K. Brahmachari
Full Text Available The present work was undertaken to study the comparative phytochemical profiles and hypoglycemic effects of Bauhinia purpurea Linn. Barks (BPBE and leaves ethanolic extracts (BPLE in albino wistar rats to validate their ethno medical use in hyperglycemia as well as to explore the better option. Phytochemicals in ethanolic extracts were analyzed by standard natural product chemistry methods. Diabetes was developed in rats by single intraperitoneal injection of Streptozotocin @ 60mg/ Kg bw. Diabetic albino wister rats (n=3 of either sex (150-200gm bw were orally fed with the extracts once daily for 4 weeks. Glibenclamide @ 0.5mg/Kg bw was used as a positive control for comparison. Fasting blood glucose level at 0, 14th and 28th day and hemoglobin and glycosylated hemoglobin on 28th day of experiment were analyzed. Our results show that the extracts contain alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, terpenoids, tannins and phenolics. Rats treated with plant extracts show better glucose modulation, decreased hemoglobin glycosylation and improved hemoglobin concentration as compared to diabetic control. The hypoglycemic effect of only BPBE at 420 mgkg-1 on 14th and 28th day is comparable to that of standard drug glibenclamide (P>0.01. The bark extract has been observed to be more potent hypoglycemic agent than leave extract.
Correia, Telmo; Grammel, Nicolas; Ortel, Ingo; Keller, Ullrich; Tudzynski, Paul
Claviceps purpurea produces the pharmacological important ergopeptines, a class of cyclol-structured alkaloid peptides containing D-lysergic acid. These compounds are assembled from D-lysergic acid and three different amino acids by the nonribosomal peptide synthetase enzymes LPS1 and LPS2. Cloning of alkaloid biosynthesis genes from C. purpurea has revealed a gene cluster including two NRPS genes, cpps 1 and cpps 2. Protein sequence data had assigned earlier cpps1 to encode the trimodular LPS1 assembling the tripeptide portion of ergopeptines. Here, we show by transcriptional analysis, targeted inactivation, analysis of disruption mutants, and heterologous expression that cpps 2 encodes the monomodular LPS2 responsible for D-lysergic acid activation and incorporation into the ergopeptine backbone. The presence of two distinct NRPS subunits catalyzing formation of ergot peptides is the first example of a fungal NRPS system consisting of different NRPS subunits.
Fisher, Alison J.
In 2000, three subspecific groupings within the fungal pathogen Claviceps purpurea (Fr.) Tul were discovered. These groups are habitat specialized, where group 1 (G1) is found on terrestrial grasses, G2 is found in freshwater environments and G3 is found in salt marsh habitats. An intraspecific comparison of 43 G3 isolates, seven G1 isolates, and two G2 isolates using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis support the recognition of ...
Ma, Baibing; Sun, Jian
The ecosystems across Tibetan Plateau are changing rapidly under the influence of climate warming, which has caused substantial changes in spatial and temporal environmental patterns. Stipa purpurea, as a dominant herbsage resource in alpine steppe, has a great influence on animal husbandry in the Tibetan Plateau. Global warming has been forecasted to continue in the future (2050s, 2070s), questioning the future distribution of S. purpurea and its response to climate change. The maximum entropy (MaxEnt) modeling, due to its multiple advantages (e.g. uses presence-only data, performs well with incomplete data, and requires small sample sizes and gaps), has been used to understand species environment relationships and predict species distributions across locations that have not been sampled. Annual mean temperature, annual precipitation, temperature seasonality, altitude, and precipitation during the driest month, significantly affected the distribution of S. purpurea. Only 0.70% of the Tibetan Plateau area included a very highly suitable habitat (habitat suitability [HS] = 0.8-1.0). Highly suitable habitat (HS = 0.6-0.8), moderately suitable habitat (HS = 0.4-0.6), and unsuitable habitat (HS = 0.2-0.4) occupied 6.20, 14.30 and 22.40% of the Tibetan Plateau area, respectively, and the majority (56.40%) of the Tibetan Plateau area constituted a highly unsuitable habitat (HS = 0-0.2). In addition, the response curves of species ecological suitability simulated by generalized additive model nearly corresponded with the response curves generated by the MaxEnt model. At a temporal scale, the habitat suitability of S. purpurea tends to increase from the 1990s to 2050s, but decline from the 2050s to 2070s. At a spatial scale, the future distribution of S. purpurea will not exhibit sweeping changes and will remain in the central and southeastern regions of the Tibetan Plateau. These results benefit the local animal husbandry and provide evidence for establishing
Hu, Zhong-jun; Zhang, Yi-li; Yu, Hai-bin
The impact of climate change on species distribution is a hot issue in biogeography research. This study utilized the constructive species Stipa purpurea as the research object, which was widely distributed in alpine meadow of the Tibetan Plateau, investigated its distribution in the Tibetan Plateau through the field survey and herbarium search, and used MaxEnt model to simulate its historical, current and future distribution trends to analyze its distribution pattern in each historical period and explore the cause of species distribution changes. Research results showed that diversity of Stipa species in alpine grassland of the Tibetan Plateau was high, its main distribution area was the hinterland of the Tibetan Plateau and areas along the Himalaya, and its distribution was strongly affected by precipitation of warmest quarter, precipitation of wettest quarter and annual precipitation. According to the distribution pattern of S. purpurea in the Last Glacial Maximum, and geographical and geological features of the Tibetan Plateau, this paper proposed that: North Tibet core area of South Qiangtang and Ali region of west Himalaya mountainous area were the core area of the potential distribution for S. purpurea, since these regions could provide more suitable habitats for S. purpurea than other regions and be the refugia where the current S. purpurea was migrated and differentiated from. The presence of refugia may contribute to the understanding of related issues of the alpine plants' origin and differentiation in the Tibetan Plateau.
Tilvi, S.; Rodrigues, C.; Naik, C.G.; Parameswaran, P.S.; Wahidullah, S.
Institute of Oceanography, August C, D, data. aur and Salmonella activities. Chemical modification occurs both in the side dry weight) was extracted with Methanol (1 L!3) and new compounds was determined based on extensive 1D and established as –NMe at N-9.... In our earlier communication we reported the isolation of known compounds 16-Debromoa- plysamine-4 9,16 and Purpuramine I. 13,16 The present paper deals with the isolation, structures and in vitro bioactivity of bromotyrosine metabolites Purpurealidin A...
Full Text Available Orchis purpurea Huds. is protected species both in the Czech Republic and Poland. In 2014 a new locality was found in Kojkovice (district Třinec in the Cieszyn Foothils near border with Poland. The only one blooming individual was observed in 2014 and 2015 but it was accompanied by other 6 orchid species, that were much more abundant, as: Orchis pallens, Orchis mascula subsp. signifera, Listera ovata, Platanthera bifolia, Cephalanthera damasonium, Neottia nidus-avis. The Kojkovice forest deserves to be protected area due to abundant occurrence of many orchids.
Erge, D; Schumann, B; Gröger, D
L-Tryptophan did not exert any influence on peptide alkaloid formation in an ergotamine and in an ergosine-accumulating C. purpurea strain. A different picture was observed in a series of related C. purpurea strains. Tryptophan showed a slight stimulatory effect on the ergotoxine producer Pepty 695/S. A blocked mutant of it, designated as Pepty 695/ch which was able to accumulate secoclavines gave similar results. In a high-yielding elymoclavine strain Pepty 695/e, the progeny of the former one, tryptophan up to a concentration of 25 mM stimulated remarkably clavine biosynthesis. Furthermore, tryptophan could overcome the block of synthesis by inorganic phosphate. Increased specific activities of chanoclavine cyclase but not DMAT synthetase were observed in cultures of strain Pepty 695/e supplemented with tryptophan. 5-Methyltryptophan and bioisosteres of tryptophan were ineffective in alkaloid stimulation. These results are compared with those obtained with the grass ergot strain SD 58 and discussed with the relation to other induction phenomena.
Polatoğlu, Kaan; Servi, Hüseyin; Özçınar, Özge; Nalbantsoy, Ayşe; Gücel, Salih
There are very few reports on the phytochemistry of the Arabis L. (Brassicaceae) species in the literature. Here we present essential oil composition of aerial parts of two endemic Arabis species from Cyprus. The essential oils of Arabis purpurea Sm. and Arabis cypria Holmboe afforded very low oil yields (essential oil of A. purpurea that represent 82.75 ± 0.21 % (n = 3) of the oil. The major components of the oil were nonacosane 16.18 ± 0.13 %, heptacosane 14.91 ± 0.17 %, hexahydrofarnesyl acetone 12.44 ± 0.10 % and phytol 7.36 ± 0.10 % (n = 3). Forty three compounds were identified in the essential oil of A. cypria which represent 81.28 ± 1.55 % (n = 3) of the oil. The major components of the oil were nonacosane 20.25 ± 0.47 %, heptacosane 9.13 ± 1.88 %, hexahydrofarnesyl acetone 9.03 ± 0.44 % and 1-tetradecanol 4.38 ± 2.60 % (n = 3). To the best of our knowledge this is the first report on the essential oil compositions of these species.
Claviceps purpurea, the causal agent of ergot of perennial ryegrass seed crops, overwinters as sclerotia in the soil and releases airborne ascospores in the spring that infect flower ovaries and replace seed with sclerotia. Burkard spore traps were used to quantify the dispersal phenology and concen...
Luo, Ze-Ping; Lin, Hai-Yan; Ding, Wen-Bing; He, Hua-Liang
Sixty-one endophytic fungus strains with different colony morphologies were isolated from the leaves, stems and roots of Tephrosia purpurea with colonization rates of 66.95%, 37.50%, and 26.92%, respectively. Based on internal transcribed spacer sequence analysis, 61 isolates were classified into 16 genera belonging to 3 classes under the phylum Ascomycota. Of the 61 isolates, 6 (9.84%) exhibited antifungal activity against one or more indicator plant pathogenic fungi according to the dual culture test. Isolate TPL25 had the broadest antifungal spectrum of activity, and isolate TPL35 was active against 5 plant pathogenic fungi. Furthermore, culture filtrates of TPL25 and TPL35 exhibited greater than 80% growth inhibition against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. We conclude that the endophytic fungal strains TPL25 and TPL35 are promising sources of bioactive compounds. PMID:26839503
Pellati, Federica; Calò, Samuele; Benvenuti, Stefania
In this study, a RP-HPLC method for the analysis of polyacetylenes and polyenes in Echinacea pallida roots and phytopharmaceuticals was developed. The reference compounds used for quantification were isolated from the plant material and their structures were determined on the basis of the analysis of UV, IR, NMR and MS data. The complete structure elucidation of three compounds, namely 8-hydroxy-tetradec-(9E)-ene-11,13-diyn-2-one (1), tetradec-(8Z)-ene-11,13-diyn-2-one (6) and pentadec-(8Z)-en-2-one (9) is described. In the analysis of the n-hexane extracts of E. pallida roots, the comparison between conventional and monolithic columns showed that the elution order in both cases is identical and the selectivity is equivalent. However, the retention times achieved by the monolithic column are shorter, resulting in a faster separation (20 min). Therefore, the analyses were carried out on a Chromolith Performance RP-18e (100 mm x 4.6 mm i.d.), with a gradient mobile phase composed by H(2)O and ACN at the flow rate of 2 mL/min. The column was thermostatted at 20 degrees C. The photodiode array detector monitored the eluent at 210 nm. The validation procedure confirmed that this technique affords reliable analysis of these components and is appropriate for the quality control of complex matrices, such as E. pallida roots and phytopharmaceuticals.
Jennifer L. Ison
Full Text Available Premise of the study: Microsatellite loci for the native prairie perennial Echinacea angustifolia were developed and evaluated for future use in population structure and paternity studies. Methods and Results: A total of 50 trinucleotide microsatellite regions were identified though an enrichment protocol that prescreens for microsatellite repeats before ligating into a vector. Of these, 11 loci were polymorphic and in Hardy—Weinberg equilibrium in three populations with varying numbers of plants. The loci had between three and 14 alleles and collectively provided high paternity exclusion probabilities. Conclusions: These sets of microsatellite primers will provide researchers and land managers with valuable information on the population genetic structure and gene flow between fragmented prairie populations.
Chicca, Andrea; Adinolfi, Barbara; Pellati, Federica; Orlandini, Giulia; Benvenuti, Stefania; Nieri, Paola
In the present study, a further investigation of the cytotoxic activity of an acetylenic constituent of Echinacea pallida roots, namely, pentadeca-(8 Z,13 Z)-dien-11-yn-2-one, was performed, revealing a concentration-dependent cytotoxicity on several human cancer cell lines, including leukemia (Jurkat and HL-60), breast carcinoma (MCF-7), and melanoma (MeWo) cells. As part of its mechanism of action, the ability of this constituent to arrest the cell cycle in the G1 phase was demonstrated on HL-60 cells. Furthermore, a stability test of the target compound over 72 h was carried out, indicating that the cytotoxic activity can be attributed mainly to the genuine, not oxidized, molecule. (c) Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart . New York.
Morandi, Stefania; Pellati, Federica; Ori, Claudia; Adinolfi, Barbara; Nieri, Paola; Benvenuti, Stefania; Prati, Fabio
The isolation and structure characterization of a dienone from the roots of Echinacea pallida, namely (8Z,11Z)-pentadeca-8,11-dien-2-one, are described here. To assess the configuration of this secondary metabolite, the stereoselective total synthesis of the two isomeric forms, (8Z,11Z)- and (8Z,11E)-pentadeca-8,11-dien-2-one, was undertaken and the structure elucidation of the natural compound was unambiguously carried out. The cytotoxic activity of both isomers was also evaluated on a human T cell leukaemia cancer line (Jurkat cells). The results indicated that these compounds exert a dose-dependent cytotoxicity with a medium-level potency on the tested cell line.
Full Text Available Jahnula purpurea J.Fourn., Raja & Shearer, a new species in the Jahnulales (Dothideomycetes collected from submerged wood in a freshwater river in Martinique Island, Lesser Antilles, is described and illustrated. The characteristic features of the new species are: globose to subglobose, brownish black ascomata with broad, golden brown, subtending hyphae which stain the underlying wood purple; a peridial wall composed of large pseudoparenchymatic cells, which are textura angularis to prismatica in surface view; sparsely septate pseudoparaphyses embedded in a gel matrix; clavate to obclavate asci with a short pedicel; brown, one-septate, ellipsoidal, rough-walled ascospores without a gelatinous sheath or appendages. Unfortunately, because limited material was available from the type collection, we were unable to obtain molecular data. Jahnula purpurea is distinct from all previously described species of Jahnula in its ability to stain the wood purple and in a combination of ascomal, ascus, and ascospore size and morphology.
Schulz, Hartwig; Pfeffer, Sven; Quilitzsch, Rolf; Steuer, Boris; Reif, Klaus
NIR reflection and ATR-IR spectroscopy methods are developed to determine the echinacoside content in roots of Echinacea angustifolia and Echinacea pallida. Based on the recorded spectra and the HPLC reference data, chemometrical analyses are performed using a partial least squares (PLS) algorithm. Generally, good calibration statistics are obtained for the prediction of the echinacoside content presenting comparatively high coefficients of determination (R(2)) and low root mean standard errors of cross validation (RMSECV). It is demonstrated that optimal predictions are possible when using a dispersive spectrometer covering the spectral range from 1,100 to 2,500 nm. In contrast to the time-consuming HPLC method, the described non-destructive measurements allow us to predict the echinacoside content already after an analysis time of approx. one minute. Both spectroscopic techniques presented in this paper are shown to be useful in agricultural practice as well as in the phytopharmaceutical industry.
Haarmann, Thomas; Machado, Caroline; Lübbe, Yvonne; Correia, Telmo; Schardl, Christopher L; Panaccione, Daniel G; Tudzynski, Paul
The genomic region of Claviceps purpurea strain P1 containing the ergot alkaloid gene cluster [Tudzynski, P., Hölter, K., Correia, T., Arntz, C., Grammel, N., Keller, U., 1999. Evidence for an ergot alkaloid gene cluster in Claviceps purpurea. Mol. Gen. Genet. 261, 133-141] was explored by chromosome walking, and additional genes probably involved in the ergot alkaloid biosynthesis have been identified. The putative cluster sequence (extending over 68.5kb) contains 4 different nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) genes and several putative oxidases. Northern analysis showed that most of the genes were co-regulated (repressed by high phosphate), and identified probable flanking genes by lack of co-regulation. Comparison of the cluster sequences of strain P1, an ergotamine producer, with that of strain ECC93, an ergocristine producer, showed high conservation of most of the cluster genes, but significant variation in the NRPS modules, strongly suggesting that evolution of these chemical races of C. purpurea is determined by evolution of NRPS module specificity.
Qu, Luping; Widrlechner, Mark P
Strong seed dormancy has been an obstacle for field production of Echinacea species. Previous research on overcoming Echinacea seed dormancy has been extensive and focused on treatment methods, which involve time and expense, and are incompatible with organic production if synthetic chemicals are used. We have attempted to genetically reduce seed dormancy through selection and breeding in Echinacea, by using E. pallida as a model species. Three accessions were used in this study. Nine parent plants of each accession selected from early, in-dark germinated seeds (in-dark plants) or from late, in-light seeds (in-light plants) were planted and grouped by accession and germination treatment method for seed production through a polycross method. Germination tests indicated that these in-dark plants produced seed (in-dark seed) with significantly reduced seed dormancy when tested under light or dark conditions in comparison to the seed of the in-light plants (in-light seed). Among the three accessions, the in-dark seed germinated at much higher rates than did the in-light seed, more than 2× at 25°C under light and up to an 83× increase in darkness, and up to an 8× increase over the corresponding parental seed lots under comparable germination conditions. In addition to these increases in germination, the in-dark seed showed early and synchronized germination as compared to the in-light seed. Since these results were achieved through only one cycle of selection and breeding, they strongly suggest that we have developed a very effective method for modifying seed dormancy in Echinacea.
Effect of oral administration of freshly pressed juice of Echinacea purpurea on the number of various subpopulations of B- and T-lymphocytes in healthy volunteers: results of a double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over study
Schwarz, Evelyn; Parlesak, Alexandr; Henneicke-von-Zeppelin, H. H.
determined by using Flow-cytometry. RESULTS: After 1 week of treatment with verum the mean value of the total number of lymphocytes decreased slightly (-6%, p = 0.033) compared to the initial value. Treatment for 1 and 2 weeks with EPP had only minor effects on two of the 12 subtypes of lymphocytes...
Tilley, B C; Meyertons, J L; Lechevalier, M P
A temperate actinophage was isolated from soil using the gentamicin-producing microorganism, Micromonospora purpurea ATCC 15835 as host. The characterization of the phage represents the initial step in its development as a cloning vector. The phage isolated, MPphiWR-1, formed red- to purple-pigmented turbid plaques. Cells isolated from these plaques were resistant to superinfection with lytic mutants of MPphiWR-1. Southern blots of genomic DNA from a resistant culture showed that MPphiWR-1 integrated into the host genome. The phage was UV- or Mitomycin C-inducible. The integration, resistance to superinfection and inducibility indicated a lysogenic relationship with the host. Using MPphiE-RCPM, a lytic derivative, the phage host range was demonstrated to include members of three genera: one species each of Ampullariella and Catellatospora, and 12 species of Micromonospora. The phage belonged to Ackerman's B1 morphotype having an isometric head and a flexible noncontractile tail. The density of the phage was 1.525 g/cc. Restriction site mapping demonstrated that the phage DNA was 57.9 kb long and had cohesive ends. Using EDTA enrichment, viable mutants with deletions of at least 3.5 kb were isolated and mapped. Phage adsorption, sensitivities and plating efficiency were investigated. Non-liposome PEG-mediated transfection was demonstrated.
Taylor K Paisie
Full Text Available The aquatic communities found within the water filled leaves of the pitcher plant, Sarracenia purpurea, have a simple trophic structure providing an ideal system to study microscale interactions between protozoan predators and their bacterial prey. In this study, replicate communities were maintained with and without the presence of the bactivorous protozoan, Colpoda steinii, to determine the effects of grazing on microbial communities. Changes in microbial (Archaea and Bacteria community structure were assessed using iTag sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. The microbial communities were similar with and without the protozoan predator, with>1000 species. Of these species, Archaea were negligible, with Bacteria comprising 99.99% of the microbial community. The Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were the most dominant phyla. The addition of a protozoan predator did not have a significant effect on microbial evenness nor richness. However, the presence of the protozoan did cause a significant shift in the relative abundances of a number of bacterial species. This suggested that bactivorous protozoan may target specific bacterial species and/or that certain bacterial species have innate mechanisms by which they evade predators. These findings help to elucidate the effect that trophic structure perturbations have on predator prey interactions in microbial systems.
Antoine P Pagé
Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to uncover Salix purpurea-microbe xenobiotic degradation systems that could be harnessed in rhizoremediation, and to identify microorganisms that are likely involved in these partnerships. To do so, we tested S. purpurea's ability to stimulate the expression of 10 marker microbial oxygenase genes in a soil contaminated with hydrocarbons. In what appeared to be a detoxification rhizosphere effect, transcripts encoding for alkane 1-monooxygenases, cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, laccase/polyphenol oxidases, and biphenyl 2,3-dioxygenase small subunits were significantly more abundant in the vicinity of the plant's roots than in bulk soil. This gene expression induction is consistent with willows' known rhizoremediation capabilities, and suggests the existence of S. purpurea-microbe systems that target many organic contaminants of interest (i.e. C4-C16 alkanes, fluoranthene, anthracene, benzo(apyrene, biphenyl, polychlorinated biphenyls. An enhanced expression of the 4 genes was also observed within the bacterial orders Actinomycetales, Rhodospirillales, Burkholderiales, Alteromonadales, Solirubrobacterales, Caulobacterales, and Rhizobiales, which suggest that members of these taxa are active participants in the exposed partnerships. Although the expression of the other 6 marker genes did not appear to be stimulated by the plant at the community level, signs of additional systems that rest on their expression by members of the orders Solirubrobacterales, Sphingomonadales, Actinomycetales, and Sphingobacteriales were observed. Our study presents the first transcriptomics-based identification of microbes whose xenobiotic degradation activity in soil appears stimulated by a plant. It paints a portrait that contrasts with the current views on these consortia's composition, and opens the door for the development of laboratory test models geared towards the identification of root exudate characteristics that limit the
Ison, Jennifer L; Wagenius, Stuart; Reitz, Diedre; Ashley, Mary V
Although spatial distance is considered the primary factor in determining plant mating patterns, flowering time and synchrony are also likely to be important. We quantified the relationships of both distance and flowering phenology to the probability of mating between individual plants. In an experimental plot, we followed daily flowering phenology in Echinacea angustifolia, a self-incompatible perennial pollinated by solitary bees. We assigned paternity to 832 of 927 seedlings from 37 maternal plants using 11 microsatellite loci. Potential pollen donors included the experiment plot's 202 flowering plants and a nearby plot's 19 flowering plants. For each maternal plant sampled, we examined the pollen pool by quantifying correlated paternity and the effective number of pollen donors. Significantly more pollinations occurred between neighboring and synchronous plants than expected under random mating, with distance being more important than flowering synchrony. The distance pollen moved varied over the course of the season, with late flowering plants mating with more distant plants compared to early or peak flowering plants. All maternal plants had a diverse set of mates (mean number of effective pollen donors = 23.7), and the composition of the pollen pools overlapped little between maternal plants. Both distance and flowering synchrony influenced pollination patterns in E. angustifolia. Our results suggest that pollen movement between incompatible mates and flowering asynchrony could be contributing to the reduced seed set observed in small E. angustifolia remnants. However, we also found that individual plants receive pollen from a diverse group of pollen donors.
Blanca C Ramírez Hernández
Full Text Available Describimos las características de los agroecosistemas y rasgos morfológicos, físicos y químicos relacionados con la calidad de los frutos de la guayaba, Spondias purpurea L., que se producen en poblaciones silvestres y cultivadas en el centro-occidente de México. Spondias purpurea se desarrolla en suelos rocosos, poco profundos e infértiles, poco aptos para la agricultura tradicional. En los frutos se registró el peso, longitud axial y radial, pH, sólidos solubles totales (SST, azúcares reductores, proteínas y contenido de minerales. El peso promedio de frutos en las variedades cultivadas (20 g resultó superior al de las silvestres (16 g. Las variedades cultivadas registraron en promedio los valores más altos de pH, SST, azúcares reductores y contenido de proteínas (3.3, 12.15º Brix, 0.38 g/100 g y 1.18 g/100 g, respectivamente que las silvestres (3.0, 8.31º Brix, 0.24 g/100 g y 0.14 g/100 g, respectivamente. La productividad de la especie es aceptable (de 0.15 ton ha-1 a 5.0 ton ha-1 dado que requiere de un mínimo de manejo agronómico. Esta especie tiene un contenido nutrimental comparable al de las especies frutales más importantes; además, produce frutos frescos durante los meses secos de la primavera por lo que S. purpurea es fuente de agua y alimento para la fauna silvestre y doméstica. Estas características resaltan su importancia agronómica y ecológica para los ambientes tropicales y subtropicales en donde puede ser utilizada en programas de reforestación por su capacidad para desarrollarse en suelos rocosos infértiles, y en agroecosistemas en los que se practica agricultura de subsistencia. De hecho, el cultivo de S. purpurea puede ayudar a convertir suelos marginales en productivos.Production systems of Spondias purpurea (Anacardiaceae in Central West México. Morphological, physical and chemical traits related with fruit quality characteristics of Spondias purpurea L. agroecosystems were studied in Central
Mateus, Maria C; Neves, Dina; Dacunha, Bruno; Laczko, Endre; Maia, Cristiana; Teixeira, Rúben; Cravador, Alfredo
To investigate bioactive compounds potentially involved in the biotic interactions exhibited by Phlomis purpurea (Lamiaceae) in rhizospheres infested with Phytophthora cinnamomi, the plant rhizome was chemically analysed. The nortriterpenoid (17S)-2α,3α,11α,23,24-pentahydroxy-19(18 → 17)-abeo-28-norolean-12-en-18-one, was isolated and its structure was elucidated by comprehensive spectroscopic analysis, chiefly using 2D NMR experiments, and X-ray analysis. It was shown to be exuded by roots and to exhibit anti-Phytophthora and antitumor activities. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Tran, Phuong M; Dahl, John L
Several fast- to intermediate-growing, acid-fast, scotochromogenic bacteria were isolated from Sarracenia purpurea pitcher waters in Minnesota sphagnum peat bogs. Two strains (DL734T and DL739T) were among these isolates. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequences, the phylogenetic positions of both strains is in the genus Mycobacterium with no obvious relation to any characterized type strains of mycobacteria. Phenotypic characterization revealed that neither strain was similar to the type strains of known species of the genus Mycobacterium in the collective properties of growth, pigmentation or fatty acid composition. Strain DL734T grew at temperatures between 28 and 32 °C, was positive for 3-day arylsulfatase production, and was negative for Tween 80 hydrolysis, urease and nitrate reduction. Strain DL739T grew at temperatures between 28 and 37 °C, and was positive for Tween 80 hydrolysis, urea, nitrate reduction and 3-day arylsulfatase production. Both strains were catalase-negative while only DL739T grew with 5 % NaCl. Fatty acid methyl ester profiles were unique for each strain. DL739T showed an ability to survive at 8 °C with little to no cellular replication and is thus considered to be psychrotolerant. Therefore, strains DL734T and DL739T represent two novel species of the genus Mycobacterium with the proposed names Mycobacterium sarraceniae sp. nov. and Mycobacterium helvum sp. nov., respectively. The type strains are DL734T (=JCM 30395T=NCCB 100519T) and DL739T (=JCM 30396T=NCCB 100520T), respectively.
Full Text Available The population growth and the comfort generated by progress have greatly contributed with the increase in the air pollution, making the air in several urban centers polluted by substances that are harmful to human being. This study characterized the air quality in the city of Taubaté, Vale do Paraíba-SP using biomonitoring with Tradescantia pallida (Rose D. R. Hunt purpurea Boom (Commelinaceae. The study was developed in a period of 10 months (September/2010 to June/2011 in five locations (Rodovia Presidente Dutra – heavy vehicle traffic; Estiva – residential area; Parque Aeroporto – industrial area; Campus Bom Conselho – area in the city with heavy vehicle traffic and Agronomy – rural area. Samples were collected on a weekly basis from young inflorescences of exposed plants. After the inflorescences were collected, they were fixed in an absolute ethanol-glacial acetic acid (3:1 solution for 24 h, transferred to ethanol 70% solution and maintained under refrigeration. They were submitted to coloration with acetic carmine and the number of micronucleus was quantified in approximately 300 tetrads for each inflorescence, and slides were prepared with 10 inflorescences/week for each point of study. The average and standard deviations were: Dutra (2.24 ± 1.58, Estiva (2.07 ± 1.33, Parque Aeroporto (1.47 ± 1.05, Bom Conselho (1.42 ± 0.90 and Agronomy (0.82 ± 0.80. Although Taubaté area is a region experiencing urban growth, the data revealed that the air in the city has good quality. Maintaining this balance is very important, requires effort and periodic measurements, and, for this, biomonitoring is a fast, cheap and effective method.
Butler, L H; Hay, F R; Ellis, R H; Smith, R D; Murray, T B
Most priming studies have been conducted on commercial seed lots of unspecified uniformity and maturity, and subsequent seed longevity has been reported to both increase and decrease. Here a seed lot of Digitalis purpurea L. with relatively uniform maturity and known history was used to analyse the effects of priming on seed longevity in air-dry storage. Seeds collected close to natural dispersal and dried at 15% relative humidity (RH), 15 degrees C, were placed into experimental storage (60% RH, 45 degrees C) for 14 or 28 d, primed for 48 h at 0, -1, -2, -5, -10 or -15 MPa, re-equilibrated (47% RH, 20 degrees C) and then returned to storage. Further seed samples were primed for 2 or 48 h at -1 MPa and either dried at 15% RH, 15 degrees C or immediately re-equilibrated for experimental storage. Finally, some seeds were given up to three cycles of experimental storage and priming (48 h at -1 MPa). Priming at -1 MPa had a variable effect on subsequent survival during experimental storage. The shortest lived seeds in the control population showed slightly increased life spans; the longer lived seeds showed reduced life spans. In contrast, seeds first stored for 14 or 28 d before priming had substantially increased life spans. The increase tended to be greatest in the shortest lived fraction of the seed population. Both the period of rehydration and the subsequent drying conditions had significant effects on longevity. Interrupting air-dry storage with additional cycles of priming also increased longevity. The extent of prior deterioration and the post-priming desiccation environment affect the benefits of priming to the subsequent survival of mature seeds. Rehydration-dehydration treatments may have potential as an adjunct or alternative to the regeneration of seed accessions maintained in gene banks for plant biodiversity conservation or plant breeding.
Full Text Available Background: Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM is a rare demyelinating disease of the central nervous system, commonly attributed to infections or vaccinations. Toxic or allergenic compounds can also trigger a response in the immune system and may cause demyelination. We present a case with ADEM after using oral herbal medications. Case Report: A 25 year-old male developed bilateral central facial palsy and severe quadriparesis after taking herbal drugs (containing echinacea and many other herbal ingredients for two weeks. He had used the extract to increase his potency and reproductivity. He had no past history of recent immunization or viral infection. The clinical findings, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF analysis and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI were compatible with ADEM. The neurological findings were improved after seven doses of pulse methylprednisolone treatment. To our knowledge, this is the third report in the literature that links herbal therapy and demyelinating disease. Conclusion: Most of the ADEM cases related to herbal therapy in the literature similarly used echinacea. It is our opinion that other ingredients of the herbal extract used by our case, besides echinacea, could have the potential to cause a trigger in the immune system. Further studies are needed to clarify the immunological effects of different kinds of herbal compounds, as well as the effects of different parts of the plants and the results of various dosages. Moreover, ingredients should also be tested for toxicity, adverse effects and drug interactions.
Chen, Chih-Tai; Wang, Zhi-Hong; Hsu, Cheng-Chin; Lin, Hui-Hsuan; Chen, Jing-Hsien
The present study was designed to explore whether yam could protect the heart from doxorubicin (DOX)-induced oxidative stress leading to cardiotoxicity in vivo. In this study, the protective effects of water and ethanol extracts of three varieties of yam, including water extracts of Dioscorea japonica Thunb., ethanol extracts of D. japonica Thunb., water extracts of Dioscorea alata, ethanol extracts of D. alata, water extracts of Dioscorea purpurea, and ethanol extracts of D. purpurea, against DOX-induced cardiotoxicity in experimental mice were evaluated. DOX treatment led to significant decreases in the ratio of heart weight to body weight and heart rate, and increases in blood pressure and the serum level of lactate dehydrogenase, a marker of cardiotoxicity, were recovered by yam extracts, especially in water extracts of D. alata. Yam extracts also decreased the cardiac levels of thiobarbituric acid relative substances, reactive oxygen species, and inflammatory factors, as well as the expression of nuclear factor kappa B, while ethanol extracts of D. japonica Thunb. and D. purpurea were shown to be more potent. Moreover, yam extracts had a role in increasing the activities of glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase, thus improving the DOX-induced alterations in oxidative status in the heart tissue of DOX-treated mice. All ethanol extracts of yam exhibited their antiapoptotic abilities on caspase-3 activation and mitochondrial dysfunction, and ethanol extracts of D. alata still exerted a superior effect. Based on these findings, it can be concluded that yam has significant cardioprotective properties against DOX-induced damage via its multiple effects on antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, or antiapoptotic activities. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Eken, C.; Pažoutová, Sylvie; Honzátko, Aleš; Yildiz, S.
Roč. 88, č. 1 (2006), s. 121-125 ISSN 1125-4653 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : ergot * c. purpurea * erzurum Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.783, year: 2006
Thude, Sebastian; Classen, Birgit
This investigation shows structural features of two macromolecules from roots of Echinacea pallida (Nutt.) Nutt: an arabinogalactan-protein (AGP) and an arabinan. The arabinogalactan-protein was precipitated with beta-glucosyl Yariv reagent from a high molecular weight fraction. Investigations of the neutral sugar composition revealed Gal (52.1% w/w) and Ara (38.2% w/w) in a ratio of 1.4:1, accompanied by Glc (6.9% w/w) and Rha (2.8% w/w). The content of uronic acids was 6.2%. Mild acid hydrolysis detects Ara and Glc being located at the periphery of the molecule. Linkage analyses and NMR spectroscopy revealed a backbone of the polysaccharide mainly consisting of 3-linked and 3,6-linked Galp-residues. Side chains are composed of 3,6-linked or 6-linked Galp terminating in 5-linked Araf, terminal Araf, Glcp and GlcAp. The protein part (3.9% w/w) of the AGP is rich in Hyp, Ser, Ala, Thr, Glu, Asp and Gly. The amount of Hyp was determined by a colorimetric method and found to be (0.65% (w/w) of the AGP, which is in good agreement with the result obtained by amino acid hydrolysis (0.67% w/w). The arabinan was isolated from the supernatant of the Yariv precipitation on the basis of solubility in EtOH (80%). It mainly consists of Ara (85.8%). Linkage analyses and NMR spectroscopy indicate a highly branched molecule, consisting of 3,5-linked, 5-linked and terminal Araf-residues in equal amounts.
Holzapfel, G.; Weihs, P.; Stockreiter, L.; Hoffmann, E.
densities in terms of Leaf Area Index (LAI) and the corresponding incident solar radiation energy reaching a shaded water surface (Global Site Factor). Responding to these questions a two year old natural stand of Salix purpurea was monitored. The growth of riparian vegetation and the correlation to solar transmission during different phenological phases are measured periodically with radiation sensors. LAI is investigated using hemispherical photographs. Analysis is done with the software Hemiview and Gap Light Analyser (GLA). Results show discrepancies between analysis with the software programs and measurements. Altogether, the variability and the trends of both are similar: the same daily and annual changes can be seen.
Because use of herbal remedies is increasing, a risk-benefit profile of commonly used herbs is needed. This article provides a clinically oriented overview of the efficacy and safety of ginkgo, St. John's wort, ginseng, echinacea, saw palmetto, and kava. Wherever possible, assessments are based on systematic reviews of randomized clinical trials. Encouraging data support the efficacy of some of these popular herbal medicinal products, and the potential for doing good seems greater than that for doing harm. The published evidence suggests that ginkgo is of questionable use for memory loss and tinnitus but has some effect on dementia and intermittent claudication. St. John's wort is efficacious for mild to moderate depression, but serious concerns exist about its interactions with several conventional drugs. Well-conducted clinical trials do not support the efficacy of ginseng to treat any condition. Echinacea may be helpful in the treatment or prevention of upper respiratory tract infections, but trial data are not fully convincing. Saw palmetto has been shown in short-term trials to be efficacious in reducing the symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Kava is an efficacious short-term treatment for anxiety. None of these herbal medicines is free of adverse effects. Because the evidence is incomplete, risk-benefit assessments are not completely reliable, and much knowledge is still lacking.
Ilha Marcia R. S.
Full Text Available Descrevem-se três surtos de síndrome distérmica (hipertermia associada à intoxicação por Claviceps purpurea, em bovinos de leite durante o verão de 1999-2000, em três estabelecimentos do Rio Grande do Sul. De um total de 66 bovinos que ingeriram a ração contaminada com o fungo, 37 (56% adoeceram até 3 meses após a introdução da ração contaminada. Os principais sinais clínicos foram temperatura retal elevada, pêlos compridos, longos e sem brilho, salivação intensa, respiração ofegante, com a boca aberta e, em alguns casos, com a língua para fora da cavidade oral. Os animais acometidos procuravam sombra ou permaneciam dentro d'água. Houve diminuição de 10 a 30% no consumo de alimentos e perda de peso. A redução na produção de leite foi de 30 a 50%. Os sinais clínicos se intensificavam durante o dia e eram diretamente proporcionais à elevação da temperatura ambiental. Os achados de necropsia em um bovino que foi eutanasiado, incluíram leve enfisema pulmonar, principalmente na região dorsal dos lobos pulmonares diafragmáticos. Histologicamente havia moderada hipertrofia da musculatura lisa dos bronquíolos e ruptura de septos alveolares formando cotos alveolares em clava. Nos três estabelecimentos onde ocorreram os surtos, escleródios de C. purpurea foram observados nas amostras de ração fornecida aos bovinos. Os animais afetados recuperaram-se após aproximadamente 60 dias da retirada da ração contaminada. O diagnóstico baseou-se em dados epidemiológicos, sinais clínicos, na presença de escleródios de C. purpurea na ração fornecida aos animais, nos achados de necropsia e na histopatologia. A patogenia e o quadro clínico-patológico observados são discutidos e comparados com outros relatos dessa enfermidade.
Simultaneous metabolite fingerprinting of hydrophilic and lipophilic compounds in Echinacea pallida by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry detection.
Pellati, Federica; Orlandini, Giulia; Benvenuti, Stefania
In this study, a detailed phytochemical characterization of Echinacea pallida (Nutt.) Nutt. root extracts and dietary supplements was carried out for the first time by developing advanced chromatographic techniques, based on HPLC with diode array (DAD) and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) detection (with ion trap and triple quadrupole mass analyzers), for the simultaneous analysis of hydrophilic and lipophilic secondary metabolites. The HPLC analyses were carried out on an Ascentis C(18) column (250 mm × 4.6 mm I.D., 5 μm), with a mobile phase composed by H(2)O and ACN both containing 0.1% formic acid, under gradient elution. The UV spectra, in combination with MS and MS/MS data, allowed the identification of fourteen compounds, including caffeic acid derivatives, polyacetylenes and polyenes, in the analyzed samples. MS and MS/MS data were discussed in detail and the typical fragmentation patterns of each class of secondary metabolites were identified. For the first time, a hydroperoxide intermediate was characterized as an oxidation product of one of E. pallida monocarbonylic acetylenes, providing a confirmation of the mechanism that leads to the generation of hydroxylated derivatives. The HPLC method was fully validated in agreement with ICH guidelines and then applied to real samples. The quantitative analysis indicated that there was a great variability in the amount of the active compounds in the dietary supplements containing E. pallida root extracts: the content of total caffeic acid derivatives ranged from 2.31 to 11.45 mg/g and the amount of total polyacetylenes and polyenes from 6.38 to 30.54 mg/g. In the analyzed samples, the most abundant caffeic acid derivative was found to be echinacoside. Regarding polyacetylenes and polyenes, the most representative compounds were found to be tetradec-(8Z)-ene-11,13-diyn-2-one, pentedeca-(8Z,11Z)-dien-2-one and pentadec-(8Z)-en-2-one. The developed method can be considered suitable for metabolite
Oscar J Rocha
Full Text Available Se describe un episodio de fructificación en masa en una población de Peltogyne purpurea de la Península de Osa, Costa Rica. En febrero y marzo de 2000, la mayor parte de los árboles de esta especie tuvo una gran cosecha de frutos. En los años anteriores, desde 1995, ninguno o muy pocos árboles produjeron frutos y la producción por árbol fue escasa. La cosecha del año 2000 fue masiva y todos los árboles examinados produjeron frutos abundantes. Este patrón reproductivo podría producir extinciones locales si la extracción maderera no lo toma en cuenta
Rocha, Oscar J; Vílchez, Braulio; Anchetta, Ana L Araya
The existence of mast fruiting has not been well documented in the Neotropics. The occurrence of a mast fruiting episode in the population of the tree Peltogyne purpurea in the Osa Peninsula of Costa Rica is described. In February and March of 2000 most of the trees of this species produced a large fruit crop, compared with 1995-1999, when the number of fruit producing trees was very low or zero and those that did bear fruit, did so at a low intensity. In contrast, the fruit crop of 2000 was massive, all trees examined produced fruits and the intensity of fruiting was maximal. There is not enough information on the event for a hypothesis to be formed because the climatic or biological cues that triggered this sporadic flowering are unknown and there is no meteorological data available for this area. Populations with this mode of reproduction may experience local extinction bacause of logging operations.
Claudia R. de Rainho
Full Text Available N-nitroso compounds, such as N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA, can be formed by the reaction of secundary amines with nitrosating agents, and are suspected to be involved in tumors in humans. NDEA has been considered a weak carcinogen in genotoxic assays probably due to the inefficient nitrosamine activation system that is used and/or to the efficient repair system. In this work, we evaluated the sensibility of Allium cepa L. root tips and Tradescantia stamen hair mutation assay (Trad-SH using Tradescantia pallida var. purpurea for NDEA (0.1; 0.5; 5 and 25mM genotoxicity and mutagenicity induction. Allium cepa L. was treated with different NDEA concentrations for 3h, for 3 consecutive days, including negative control (distilled water and positive control maleic hydrazide (MH 30mg/mL. After treatment, the roots were hydrolyzed, squashed, and the mitotic index (MI and cytological abnormalities were scored. The results revealed a cytostatic effect of NDEA (0.5 and 5mM, showing a significant reduction in the MI. Chromosome stickiness suggests a NDEA toxic effect. T. pallida purpurea did not respond to mutagens with a dose-dependent pattern. In conclusion, our study indicates that the root tips of Allium cepa L. have sensibility to detect NDEA genotoxicity, but not for Trad-SH test.Nitrocompostos, como N-nitrosodietilamina (NDEA, podem ser formados pela reação entre uma amina secundária e agentes nitrosantes e são suspeitos de estarem envolvidos na formação de tumores em humanos. NDEA é considerada um carcinógeno fraco e ensaios genotóxicos provavelente pela utilização de um sistema de ativação ineficiente e/ou pela utilização de um eficiente sistema de reparo. Neste trabalho, nós avaliamos a sensibilidade de ensaios com Alliu cepa L. e Tradescantia pallida var. purpurea (Trad-SH à genotoxicidade e mutagenicidade induzidas por diferentes concentrações de NDEA (0,1; 0,5; 5 e 25mM por 3h, por 3 dias consecutivos, incluindo controle
Claviceps purpurea expressing polygalacturonases escaping PGIP inhibition fully infects PvPGIP2 wheat transgenic plants but its infection is delayed in wheat transgenic plants with increased level of pectin methyl esterification.
Volpi, Chiara; Raiola, Alessandro; Janni, Michela; Gordon, Anna; O'Sullivan, Donal M; Favaron, Francesco; D'Ovidio, Renato
Claviceps purpurea is a biotrophic fungal pathogen of grasses causing the ergot disease. The infection process of C. purpurea on rye flowers is accompanied by pectin degradation and polygalacturonase (PG) activity represents a pathogenicity factor. Wheat is also infected by C. purpurea and we tested whether the presence of polygalacturonase inhibiting protein (PGIP) can affect pathogen infection and ergot disease development. Wheat transgenic plants expressing the bean PvPGIP2 did not show a clear reduction of disease symptoms when infected with C. purpurea. To ascertain the possible cause underlying this lack of improved resistance of PvPGIP2 plants, we expressed both polygalacturonases present in the C. purpurea genome, cppg1 and cppg2 in Pichia pastoris. In vitro assays using the heterologous expressed PGs and PvPGIP2 showed that neither PG is inhibited by this inhibitor. To further investigate the role of PG in the C. purpurea/wheat system, we demonstrated that the activity of both PGs of C. purpurea is reduced on highly methyl esterified pectin. Finally, we showed that this reduction in PG activity is relevant in planta, by inoculating with C. purpurea transgenic wheat plants overexpressing a pectin methyl esterase inhibitor (PMEI) and showing a high degree of pectin methyl esterification. We observed reduced disease symptoms in the transgenic line compared with null controls. Together, these results highlight the importance of pectin degradation for ergot disease development in wheat and sustain the notion that inhibition of pectin degradation may represent a possible route to control of ergot in cereals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Oscar J Rocha
Full Text Available Se describe un episodio de fructificación en masa en una población de Peltogyne purpurea de la Península de Osa, Costa Rica. En febrero y marzo de 2000, la mayor parte de los árboles de esta especie tuvo una gran cosecha de frutos. En los años anteriores, desde 1995, ninguno o muy pocos árboles produjeron frutos y la producción por árbol fue escasa. La cosecha del año 2000 fue masiva y todos los árboles examinados produjeron frutos abundantes. Este patrón reproductivo podría producir extinciones locales si la extracción maderera no lo toma en cuentaThe existence of mast fruiting has not been well documented in the Neotropics. The occurrence of a mast fruiting episode in the population of the tree Peltogyne purpurea in the Osa Peninsula of Costa Rica is described. In February and March of 2000 most of the trees of this species produced a large fruit crop, compared with 1995-1999, when the number of fruit producing trees was very low or zero and those that did bear fruit, did so at a low intensity. In contrast, the fruit crop of 2000 was massive, all trees examined produced fruits and the intensity of fruiting was maximal. There is not enough information on the event for a hypothesis to be formed because the climatic or biological cues that triggered this sporadic flowering are unknown and there is no meteorological data available for this area. Populations with this mode of reproduction may experience local extinction bacause of logging operations. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54 (4: 1151-1155. Epub 2006 Dec. 15
Jim D Karagatzides
Full Text Available Despite the large stocks of organic nitrogen in soil, nitrogen availability limits plant growth in many terrestrial ecosystems because most plants take up only inorganic nitrogen, not organic nitrogen. Although some vascular plants can assimilate organic nitrogen directly, only recently has organic nitrogen been found to contribute significantly to the nutrient budget of any plant. Carnivorous plants grow in extremely nutrient-poor environments and carnivory has evolved in these plants as an alternative pathway for obtaining nutrients. We tested if the carnivorous pitcher plant Sarracenia purpurea could directly take up intact amino acids in the field and compared uptake of organic and inorganic forms of nitrogen across a gradient of nitrogen deposition. We hypothesized that the contribution of organic nitrogen to the nitrogen budget of the pitcher plant would decline with increasing nitrogen deposition.At sites in Canada (low nitrogen deposition and the United States (high nitrogen deposition, individual pitchers were fed two amino acids, glycine and phenylalanine, and inorganic nitrogen (as ammonium nitrate, individually and in mixture. Plants took up intact amino acids. Acquisition of each form of nitrogen provided in isolation exceeded uptake of the same form in mixture. At the high deposition site, uptake of organic nitrogen was higher than uptake of inorganic nitrogen. At the low deposition site, uptake of all three forms of nitrogen was similar. Completeness of the associated detritus-based food web that inhabits pitcher-plant leaves and breaks down captured prey had no effect on nitrogen uptake.By taking up intact amino acids, Sarracenia purpurea can short-circuit the inorganic nitrogen cycle, thus minimizing potential bottlenecks in nitrogen availability that result from the plant's reliance for nitrogen mineralization on a seasonally reconstructed food web operating on infrequent and irregular prey capture.
Luis E. Rojas
Full Text Available The extraction methods of genomic DNA are usually laborious and hazardous to human health and the environment by the use of organic solvents (chloroform and phenol. In this work a protocol for in situ extraction of genomic DNA by alkaline lysis is validated. It was used in order to amplify regions of DNA in four species of plants and fungi by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. From plant material of Saccharum officinarum L., Carica papaya L. and Digitalis purpurea L. it was possible to extend different regions of the genome through PCR. Furthermore, it was possible to amplify a fragment of avr-4 gene DNA purified from lyophilized mycelium of Mycosphaerella fijiensis. Additionally, it was possible to amplify the region ap24 transgene inserted into the genome of banana cv. `Grande naine' (Musa AAA. Key words: alkaline lysis, Carica papaya L., Digitalis purpurea L., Musa, Saccharum officinarum L.
Full Text Available Background: Providing intubated patients admitted to the intensive care units with oral healthcare is one of the main tasks of nurses in order to prevent Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia (VAP. This study aimed at comparing the effects of two mouthwash solutions (echinacea and chlorhexidine on the oral microbial flora of patients hospitalized in the intensive care units. Materials and Methods: In this clinical trial, 70 patients aged between18 and 65 years undergoing tracheal intubation through the mouth in three hospitals in Arak, were selected using simple random sampling and were randomly divided into two groups: the intervention group and the control group. The oral health checklist was used to collect the data (before and after the intervention. The samples were obtained from the orally intubated patients and were then cultured in selective media. Afterwards, the aerobic microbial growth was investigated in all culture media. The data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results: The microbial flora in the echinacea group significantly decreased after the intervention (p < 0.0001 and it was also the case withmicrobial flora of the patients in the chlorhexidine group (p < 0.001. After 4 days, the oral microbial flora of the patients in the intervention group was lower than that of the patients in the control group (p < 0.001. Conclusions: The results showed that the echinacea solution was more effective in decreasing the oral microbial flora of patients in the intensive care unit. Given the benefits of the components of the herb Echinacea, it can be suggested as a viable alternative to chlorhexidine.
Grube, Sabrina; Schönling, Jutta; Prange, Alexander
This article describes the development of a triplex real-time PCR system for the simultaneous detection of three major plant-pathogenic mold genera (Alternaria spp., Fusarium spp. and the species Claviceps purpurea). The designed genus-specific primer-probe systems were validated for sensitivity, specificity and amplification in the presence of background DNA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Zitkevicius, Virgilijus; Savickiene, Nijole; Abdrachmanovas, Olegas; Ryselis, Stanislovas; Masteiková, Rūta; Chalupova, Zuzana; Dagilyte, Audrone; Baranauskas, Algirdas
Heavy metals (lead, cadmium) are possible dashes which quantity is defined by the limiting acceptable contents. Different drugs preparations: infusions, decoctions, tinctures, extracts, etc. are produced using medicinal plants. The objective of this research was to study the impurities of heavy metals (lead, cadmium) in medicinal plants and some drug preparations. We investigated liquid extracts of fruits Crataegus monogyna Jacq. and herbs of Echinacea purpurea Moench., tinctures--of herbs Leonurus cardiaca L. The raw materials were imported from Poland. Investigations were carried out in cooperation with the Laboratory of Antropogenic Factors of the Institute for Biomedical Research. Amounts of lead and cadmium were established after "dry" mineralisation using "Perkin-Elmer Zeeman/3030" model electrothermic atomic absorption spectrophotometer (ETG AAS/Zeeman). It was established that lead is absorbed most efficiently after estimation of absorption capacity of cellular fibers. About 10.73% of lead crosses tinctures and extracts, better cadmium--49.63%. Herbs of Leonurus cardiaca L. are the best in holding back lead and cadmium. About 14.5% of lead and cadmium crosses the tincture of herbs Leonurus cardiaca L. We estimated the factors of heavy metals (lead, cadmium) in the liquid extracts of Crataegus monogyna Jacq. and Echinacea purpurea Moench., tincture of Leonurus cardiaca L. after investigations of heavy metals (lead, cadmium) in drugs and preparations of it. The amounts of heavy metals (lead, cadmium) don't exceed the allowable norms in fruits of Crataegus monogyna Jacq., herbs of Leonurus cardiaca L. and Echinacea purpurea Moench. after estimation of lead and cadmium extraction factors, the maximum of acceptable daily intake and the quantity of drugs consumption in day.
Gupta, R. C.
Two kinds of ‘shapunkha’, the ‘Shvet’ (white) and ‘Rakta’ (red) are described in some of the Ayurvedic texts and the former is reported therapeutically more effective. Some of the Ayurvedic physicians use T. villosa Pers. as ‘Shvet sharpunkha’ due to its persistently villous silky white parts. While others have advocated white colour of flowers as main feature for distinguishing “Shvet sharpunkha’. A white flowered form of Tephrosia purpurea which is found in association with red or purple flowered ones is reported by us as T. purpurea (Linn.) Pers. Form albiflora S. R. Paul et R. C. Gupta. In the present work, however, detailed comparative pharmacognosy of all vegetable parts of T. villosa and T. purpurea f. albiflora have been carried out. Also the study reveals that two species exhibit great similarity in their macro – an microscopical feature. PMID:22557616
Full Text Available Estimating the potential of species to cope with rapid environmental climatic modifications is of vital importance for determining their future viability and conservation. The variation between existing populations along a climatic gradient may predict how a species will respond to future climate change. Stipa purpurea is a dominant grass species in the alpine steppe and meadow of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP. Ecological niche modelling was applied to S. purpurea, and its distribution was found to be most strongly correlated with the annual precipitation and the mean temperature of the warmest quarter. We established a north-to-south transect over 2000 km long on the QTP reflecting the gradients of temperature and precipitation, and then we estimated the morphological by sampling fruited tussocks and genetic divergence by using 11 microsatellite markers between 20 populations along the transect. Reproductive traits (the number of seeds and reproductive shoots, the reproductive-vegetative growth ratio and the length of roots in the S. purpurea populations varied significantly with climate variables. S. purpurea has high genetic diversity (He = 0.585, a large effective population size (Ne >1,000, and a considerable level of gene flow between populations. The S. purpurea populations have a mosaic genetic structure: some distant populations (over 1000 km apart clustered genetically, whereas closer populations (< 100 km apart had diverged significantly, suggesting local adaptation. Asymmetrical long-distance inter-population gene flow occurs along the sampling transect and might be mediated by seed dispersal via migratory herbivores, such as the chiru (Pantholops hodgsonii. These findings suggest that population performance variation and gene flow both facilitate the response of S. purpurea to climate change.
Huertas, David; Grimalt, Joan O; Jover, Lluís; Sanpera, Carola; Ruiz, Xavier
Eggs of Purple Heron (Ardea purpurea) were collected from three sampled sites inside the Ebro River basin in years 2006 and 2007. These sites were located besides (Flix), upstream (Aiguabarreig) and downstream (Delta) a chlor-alkali plant. Organochlorine compounds (OCs) such as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), polychlorostyrenes (PCSs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), pentachlorobenzene (PeCB) and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) were analysed to assess what are the accumulation patterns of these compounds in aquatic migratory birds breeding in the area of influence of the emissions from this industrial installation. Comparison of the egg concentrations between the three sites show higher concentrations of compounds manufactured in the past in the factory (PCBs, p,p'-DDT) or by-products of OC synthesis (HCB, PeCB and PCSs) in Flix than in Aiguabarreig reflecting a clear influence from the emissions of the chlor-alkali plant. The eggs collected in the Ebro Delta showed higher concentrations of total DDTs (mainly p,p'-DDE) than in the reference site (Aiguabarreig) which could reflect past applications of this insecticide in the area for agriculture. In contrast, HCHs were found in higher concentrations in the Delta and Aiguabarreig than in the Flix Reservoir. These compounds have been used as insecticides in agriculture and were not manufactured in the chlor-alkali plant. The present results show that despite Purple Herons are migratory birds, the food web transfer of OCs during the breeding season is sufficient for the accumulation of these compounds in the eggs, leading to statistically significant concentration differences between sites. These differences are consistent with the emissions of these pollutants from industrial or agricultural sources to the aquatic environments. Some of the p,p'-DDE concentrations observed in the area nearby the chlor-alkali plant are above the threshold effects for reproductive impairment. Copyright © 2015
Qu, G; de Varennes, A
We used hydrophilic polymers from diapers to aid the establishment of an indigenous plant (Spergularia purpurea (Persoon) G. Don fil.) in a soil from a pyrite mine. Lysimeters were filled with the mine soil with no amendment (control), with a polyacrylate polymer, with a polymer removed from diapers, and with shredded diapers. The establishment of a plant cover was faster in soil amended with polymer from diapers, and 85 days after sowing the soil was completely covered in all treatments except control. The concentrations of trace elements in plant shoots decreased in amended soil. The activities of soil acid phosphatase, beta-glucosidase, protease and cellulase were greatest in soil amended with the polyacrylate polymer or with polymer removed from diapers, while the application of shredded diapers leads to values that were in general intermediate between these treatments and unamended control. Basal- and substrate-induced respirations, and dehydrogenase were greatest in soil amended with polymers, but the presence of a plastic film and fibrous materials from shredded diapers prevented any improvement in these parameters compared with unamended soil. In the second experiment, we evaluated the risk of downward movement of polymers in columns of a sandy soil. Polymer from diapers, with or without Cu, was placed at a 10 cm-depth. Five leaching cycles with artificial rain took place and leachates were analyzed for organic matter and Cu. At the end of the experiment, the soil columns were sliced and each layer was analyzed separately. Some repacking of soil and polymer particles took place, but there was no indication that polymers moved to any great depth in soil columns. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Disturbances of the thyroid status may be negatively reflected on the biological processes underlying orthodontic tooth movement. Research object – in experiment to estimate efficacy of application of drug complex with osteotropic and immunomodulating action in orthodontic moving of teeth (ОМT on the background of euthyroid goiter. In 75 rats of Vistar line of gregarious breeding (females, 5 months, 210±28 g experimental goiter was modeled by injection of 1% perchlorate potassium solution with drinking water within 20 days. Intragastric solution of potassium Iodidum (PI in the dose of 20 mkg/kg was introduced to rats of the 3rd, 4th and 5th groups from the 22nd day. Intragastrically drug «Echinacea compositum C» was introduced to animals of the 3rd and 5th groups from the 22nd day during 5 days. OMT was reproduced on the 29th day from the beginning of experiment. On the background of PI injection, teraflex in a dose on glucosaminglican of 750 mg/kg was introduced to the rats of the 4th and 5th groups. A mandible for calculation of carious cavities and definition of atrophy degree of an alveolar process, and the maxilla – for definition of alkaline activity, acidic phosphatase, elastase and general proteolytic activity (GPA, pulp of incisors – for phosphatases definition of activity were isolated. Echinacea compositum, potassium Iodidum and teraflex in the idea of monotherapy caused some positive influence on phosphatases of an alveolar bone. To completely prevent disturbances of activity of bone phosphatases and proteinases was possibly only at application of a full complex: PІ – throughout all treatment, echinacea compositum C – before fixation of closing springs, teraflex – after fixation. Thus, stage-by-stage use of drugs – potassium Iodidum, «Echinacea compositum C» and Teraflex promoted to normalization of activity of alkaline and acidic phosphatase in pulp and bone tissue of alveolar process, and rendered protective
Full Text Available Seslerio uliginosae-Scorzoneretum purpureae is the only xerothermic community of the Festuco-Brometea class, where a rare species known as Sesleria uliginosa occurs in Poland. A couple of sites hosting this association in the Nida Basin were described in the 1920s and 1950s. All these stands are now situated in the areas designated as xerothermic nature reserves. The study aimed at describing the present-day characteristics of this rare association, the most likely being endemic in Poland, as well as the changes that have occurred in it. The species diversity and the contribution of xerothermic plants have decreased significantly in terms of their number and cover coefficient. Some of the diagnostic species of the association have become extremely rare. Sesleria uliginosa is the only one without visible changes in their dominant position in the community. Mosses, that have played a significant role before, were among the vanished species. At the same time, an increase in number and cover of mesophilous meadows species was observed. Mesophilous grasses belong to the group of species growing in significance in the phytocoenoses. The observed changes in species composition were reflected in a statistically significant increase of nitrogen indicator value. The slow process of succession observed in the Seslerio-Scorzoneretum purpureae could be attributed to the lack of appropriate land use, e.g. mowing and grazing that have been ceased in the nature reserves.
Full Text Available The recent appreciation of phytotherapy is related to the evidence of efficacy of herbal medicines, as well as to the continuous improvement of scientific and clinical knowledge of their effects. Unfortunately among herbal medicine it is frequent to find products that are neither registered nor controlled by regulatory bodies, with a lack of proofs regarding their constituents and quality.Phytotherapy can find its role among medical therapies only if each medication is standardised and controlled according to the requirements of an official Pharmacopoeia, and produced on the basis of Good Manufacturing Practices similar to those used in pharmaceutical companies. This is even more important in paediatric age, also because often parents administer herbal medications to their children, without asking the physician or the pharmacist for advice, being convinced that “natural products” are always safe and do not have adverse events or interactions. The evaluation of these products, ensuring their safety and efficacy through registration and regulation,is an important challenge. To improve an evidence-based and safe use, herbal medicines should be titrated, standardised and labelled. Clinical applications, pharmacology, dosage, possible contraindications and precautions (i.e. during pregnancy, breastfeeding and paediatric age, and potential adverse reactions should be clearly described and codified, for example in the officialPharmacopeia and in the various Monographs (ESCOP, The European Scientific Cooperative On Phytotherapy, and WHO, World Health Organization.The purpose of this article is to provide a review on the safety and efficacy of some medicinal plants widely used in the paediatric age: echinacea, cranberry, and chamomile. The final aim is to help to use herbal medicine on the basis of the criteria of the Evidence Based Medicine.
The invasive ergot Claviceps purpurea var. spartinae recently established in the European Wadden Sea on common cord grass is genetically homogeneous and the sclerotia contain high amounts of ergot alkaloids
Boestfleisch, Ch.; Drotleff, A.M.; Ternes, W.; Nehring, S.; Pažoutová, Sylvie; Papenbrock, J.
Roč. 141, č. 3 (2015), s. 445-461 ISSN 0929-1873 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) * Claviceps purpurea var . spartinae * Epimers Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.494, year: 2015
Methods were developed using flow injection mass spectrometry (FIMS) and chemometrics for the comparison of spectral similarities and differences of 3 botanical ingredients and their supplements: Echinacea purpurea aerial samples and solid and liquid supplements, E. purpurea root samples and solid s...
Élder Antonio Sousa Paiva
Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the effects of five different light intensities on the anatomical structure and on the pigment contents in leaves of Tradescantia pallida cv. purpurea. Once light intensity became lower, the thickness of leaf lamina and mesophyll were reduced. Adjustments in light-harvesting antenna size were observed: an increase in chlorophyll a + b/carotenoids ratio at low-light growth conditions. There was a strong positive linear correlation between the light intensity values and anthocyanin contents. Hence, T. pallida cv. purpurea acclimation to distinct environmental conditions might be related to its capacity of altering structurally and physiologically its phenotype.As espécies de Tradescantia colonizam uma ampla faixa de ambientes, desde aqueles completamente expostos a luz até aqueles caracteristicamente sombreados. Suas estratégias adaptativas e eficiência como invasoras de culturas estão provavelmente associadas a sua adaptação a intensidades luminosas distintas. Este trabalho mostra os efeitos de cinco diferentes intensidades luminosas na estrutura anatômica e no teor de pigmentos em folhas de Tradescantia pallida. As espessuras da lâmina foliar e do mesofilo foram alteradas, tornando-se mais delgadas à medida que a intensidade luminosa diminuiu. Observou-se um ajuste nos pigmentos fotossintéticos caracterizado por aumentos na razão clorofilas/carotenóides sob condições de baixa intensidade luminosa. Houve uma forte correlação linear positiva entre os valores de intensidade luminosa e teores de antocianinas. Deste modo, pode-se concluir que a aclimatação da espécie aos diferentes habitats está relacionada a alterações estruturais e fotossintéticas.
Butler, L H; Hay, F R; Ellis, R H; Smith, R D
Seed quality may be compromised if seeds are harvested before natural dispersal (shedding). It has been shown previously that slow or delayed drying can increase potential quality compared with immediate rapid drying. This study set out to investigate whether or not there is a critical moisture content, below which drying terminates maturation events for seeds harvested after mass maturity but before dispersal. Seeds of foxglove (Digitalis purpurea) in the post-abscission pre-dispersal phase were held at between 15 and 95 % RH for 4 or 8 d, with or without re-hydration to 95 % RH for a further 4 d, before drying to equilibrium at 15 % RH. In addition, dry seeds were primed for 48 h at -1 MPa. Subsequent seed longevity was assessed at 60 % RH and 45 degrees C. Rate of germination and longevity were improved by holding seeds at a wide range of humidities after harvest. Longevity was further improved by re-hydration at 95 % RH. Priming improved the longevity of the seeds dried immediately after harvest, but not of those first held at 95 % RH for 8 d prior to drying. Maturation continued ex planta in these post-abscission, pre-dispersal seeds of D. purpurea dried at 15-80 % RH at a rate correlated positively with RH (cf. ageing of mature seeds). Subsequent re-hydration at 95 % RH enabled a further improvement in quality. Priming seeds initially stored air-dry for 3 months also allowed maturation events to resume. However, once individual seeds within the population had reached maximum longevity, priming had a negative impact on their subsequent survival.
M. B. B. Cassanego
Full Text Available Abstract The present study evaluated the genotoxic effects of the atmospheric air on Tradescantia pallida var. purpurea in urban areas with different intensities of vehicular traffic and in riparian forest fragments in the Sinos River Basin (Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, considering the influence of climatic conditions prevailing in these environments. Bimonthly, from May 2012 to March 2013, cuttings with flower buds were exposed for 8 h in urban and riparian forest environments in the municipalities of Caraá, Taquara and Campo Bom in the upper, middle and lower sections, respectively, of the Sinos River Basin. Simultaneously, negative controls were made and climatic data were recorded. Micronuclei (MCN frequencies were determined in young tetrads of pollen mother cells and expressed as MCN/100 tetrads. Significantly higher MCN frequencies were observed in buds exposed in urban and riparian forest environments in Taquara (up to 7.23 and 4.80, respectively and Campo Bom (up to 4.90 and 4.23, respectively than in buds exposed in Caraá (up to 2.90 and 2.50, respectively, in the majority of samplings, and in relation to the negative control (up to 1.93 in all months. Over the course of the period monitored, there were significant variations in MCN frequencies at all sampling points, with the exception of the urban environment in Caraá. For the urban environments, relation between the MCN frequency, vehicular traffic and mean temperature was observed. For the riparian forest fragments, there was no association between MCN frequency and climatic factors. Tradescantia pallida var. purpurea can be considered a useful tool to point out areas with increased atmospheric pollution, since the exposure of plants under severe climatic conditions is avoided to minimize their negative influence on the formation of micronuclei.
Bosila, H.A.; Lila, M.; Ahmed, T.E.S.
Digitalis purpurea L seeds treated with gamma ray, (G) 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5 KR, and electric current (E), 0, 100, 150, 200 mA, then planted in splite-splite plot design for 3 replicates (R) and 2 successive seasons, in sandy soil irrigated with brackish water (900ppm) through surface drip irrigation system (SDI).The formed plants were foliar sprayed with manganese (M),0,3ppm-The formed Phytoalexin (PA) was bioassayed and chemically quantified.M3ppm could induce sistemic resistance (ISR) which initiate to farm 0.064, 0.070 mg PA 100mg fresh leaves. The formed PA exhibited PA-glycosidal structure wherefore, achieve therapeutic potency. (G) depress significantlly PA 73-91% of control while (E) activated (PA) significantly 134-154% of control. At (GE) interaction, such (G) dose PA increased significantlly by increasing (E) dose up to E200mA. Hence (E) efface a serious depression of (G). At (GEM) interaction, (G) 2.5, 5, 7.5 KR EO mA, M3ppm the formed. (PA) were; 91, 75, 63 were increased significantlly by increasing (E) dose up to E200mA M3ppm 128, 119, 109 – 129, 117, 107% of control for first and second season, respectively. Therefore, M elicitor application, in GEM combination, could be considered as a novel strategy for biological control and plant protection, from economic and environmental benefit point of view. It would occur by decreasing the cost of fungicides, bactericides and pesticides in Digitalis purpurea L biomass production, grown in extended agriculture area.
Full Text Available The Trad-MCN bioassay was used to investigate the genotoxicity on Tradescantia pallida var. purpurea plants exposed to variations in the environmental conditions in urban and rural sites in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre, southern Brazil, over a one-year period. In spring 2009 and in summer, autumn and winter 2010, potted plants of T. pallida var. purpurea were exposed at two sites with different characteristics: the urban area of the municipality of Estância Velha, with leather and footwear industrial activity, and a Site of Special Environmental Interest in the rural area of the municipality of Novo Hamburgo. Other plants comprised the control group and were kept indoors. Frequencies of micronuclei (MCN were determined in early tetrads of pollen mother cells and expressed as MCN/100 tetrads. Climate data were also registered during the experiment. MCN frequencies in the urban area were significantly higher (up to 8.13 than those found in the rural area (up to 1.26 and in the control group (up to 1.10, which did not differ statistically from each other over the year. The higher MCN frequencies observed in the urban site can be attributed to air pollution, but also may have been influenced by microclimatic and daily thermal variation differences between sites. Higher temperatures recorded in spring and summer may have influenced MCN frequencies observed in the urban site. No clear relation was observed between rainfall and MCN frequencies. Similar and high relative humidity percentages were registered over the period of the study. Considering that the bioindicator plant presents an integrated response to abiotic factors such as pollutants and weather conditions, it can be used as an additional tool that can point to synergistic effects of environmental variables on organisms.
Luis E. Rojas; Maritza Reyes; Naivy Pérez-Alonso; María I. Olóriz; Laisyn Posada-Pérez; Bárbara Ocaña; Orelvis Portal; Borys Chong-Pérez; Jorge L. Pérez Pérez
The extraction methods of genomic DNA are usually laborious and hazardous to human health and the environment by the use of organic solvents (chloroform and phenol). In this work a protocol for in situ extraction of genomic DNA by alkaline lysis is validated. It was used in order to amplify regions of DNA in four species of plants and fungi by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). From plant material of Saccharum officinarum L., Carica papaya L. and Digitalis purpurea L. it was possible to extend ...
Full Text Available Looking for alternatives to pesticides for Hypothenemus hampei control, the objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of aqueous and ethanolic plant extracts of Moringa oleifera (Moringa and Tephrosia purpurea (tephrosia (seeds, leaves and roots and Melia azedarach (cinnamon, Nerium oleander (oleander and Azadirachta indica (neem (leaves only, on mortality and repellency of H. hampei and its compatibility with Beauveria bassiana, an important natural enemy of this pest. To assess the mortality, coffee leaves (Coffea arabica L were treated by immersion in a solution of endosulfan and plant extracts at a concentration of 10% and then offered to adults of H. hampei. The repellency was evaluated in multiple-choice tests and in no-choice tests among coffee fruit treated and untreated The compatibility between extracts and Beauveria bassiana (CG 452 was analyzed by quantifying germination, colony forming units, growth and yield / productivity of conidia. The highest mortalities were observed when leaves were treated with ethanolic extract of T. purpurea (leaves which did not differ from endosulfan, and aqueous and ethanolic extracts from M. oleifera seeds . In free-choice tests, all the ethanolic extracts showed repellent action, being higher for M. oleifera (root and T. purpurea (seed. The aqueous extracts of M. oleifera (leaves and seeds and N. oleander (leaves showed the highest repellency. In no-choice tests the highest repellency level was for coffee fruits treated with A. indica (leaves. The ethanolic extract of M. oleifera leaves negatively affected B. bassiana germination. These studies showed the potential of these plant extracts for use in the field as an alternative to chemical control, once they are also selective for B. bassiana. Visando alternativas ao uso de agrotóxicos no controle de Hypothenemus hampei, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o potencial de extratos vegetais aquosos e etanólicos de Moringa oleifera
To review which herbs are most commonly used as complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for treatment of asthma, allergy, and immunologic conditions. A review of the literature was performed using the PubMed and OVID databases searching the keywords asthma, allergy, and CAM to identify studies published between 1980 and 2003 that focused on Echinacea (Echinacea augustifolia, Echinacea pallida, and Echinacea purpurea); garlic (Allium); angelica; chamomile; ephedra; gingko; grape seed extract; licorice root (Glycyrrhiza); St. John's wort (Hypericum); kava kava (Piper); peppermint oil and leaf (Mentha); stinging nettle (Urtica); and ginseng (Panax) published in the English and German literature. Studies included in vitro and in vivo clinical trials and case reports selected according to the expert opinion of the author. Echinacea is one of the most common herbs used to treat symptoms of the "common cold" or upper respiratory tract allergies. Although no common drug interactions have been reported, there is a risk of hepatotoxicity, exacerbation of allergies and asthma, and anaphylactic reactions. Garlic is primarily used for cardiovascular health and relief of cough, colds, and rhinitis. Adverse effects commonly include gastrointestinal disturbances, change in body odor through the sweat and breath, and rarely allergic reactions or hypoglycemia. Other CAM agents, including angelica, German chamomile flower, ephedra, gingko, grape seed extract, licorice root, St. John's wort, kava kava rhizome, peppermint, stinging nettle, and ginseng, are also associated with significant adverse effects. The specialty of allergy and immunology has seen the second largest increase in the popularity of CAM (second only to practitioners who treat lower back pain). Almost all of the CAM interventions have displayed adverse effects, usually in the form of a hypersensitivity reaction. Allergists and clinical immunologists need to become more knowledgeable about CAM so that they can
Efecto del método de secado en la longevidad y la calidad de las semillas de Bauhinia purpurea.: I. Almacenamiento en Condiciones Ambientales Effect of the drying method on the longevity and quality of seeds from Bauhinia purpurea.: I. Storage under ambient conditions
Full Text Available Se realizó un experimento con el objetivo de determinar la influencia combinada de diferentes métodos de secado, las condiciones de almacenamiento al ambiente y la edad fisiológica de las semillas de B. purpurea, en la capacidad germinativa y en la calidad de estas. Los tratamientos para el secado fueron: A en las legumbres, B artificial, y C al sol. Se determinó el porcentaje de viabilidad y de germinación, así como el contenido de humedad (CH, con una frecuencia mensual durante un año de almacenamiento; además se registró la temperatura y la humedad relativa (máxima y mínima durante el período evaluado. En el procesamiento de la información se utilizaron análisis multivariados (GLM y Factorial. En los tratamientos A y C se observaron semejanzas en cuanto a la viabilidad y la germinación, aunque las semillas alcanzaron la muerte fisiológica a los siete y nueve meses de permanencia en el almacén, respectivamente. El secado de las semillas con silicagel mostró que la pérdida de la capacidad germinativa siguió un modelo polinomial cúbico, con una marcada tendencia a la linealidad, y al finalizar el estudio fue de 70%. Las diferencias entre el CH de las semillas secadas artificialmente (B y al sol (C permitieron confirmar que la longevidad en B fue dos a cuatro veces mayor que en C. Los factores más influyentes en el ritmo de pérdida de la calidad de las semillas B. purpurea almacenadas al ambiente fueron el contenido de humedad y la edad.A trial was carried out with the objective of determining the combined influence of different drying methods, the storage under ambient conditions and the physiological age of the seeds from B. purpurea, on their germination capacity and quality. The treatments for drying were: A in the pods, B artificial and C under sunlight. The percentage of viability and germination, as well as the moisture content (MC, were determined, with a monthly frequency during a year of storage; in addition the
Zhang, Xiaohui; Liu, Tongjin; Li, Xixiang; Duan, Mengmeng; Wang, Jinglei; Qiu, Yang; Wang, Haiping; Song, Jiangping; Shen, Di
Brassica oleracea and B. rapa are two important vegetable crops. Both are composed of dozens of subspecies encompassing hundreds of varieties and cultivars. Synthetic B. napus with these two plants has been used extensively as a research model for the investigation of allopolyploid evolution. However, the mechanism underlying the explosive evolution of hundreds of varieties of B. oleracea and B. rapa within a short period is poorly understood. In the present study, interspecific hybridization between B. oleracea var. alboglabra and B. rapa var. purpurea was performed. The backcross progeny displayed extensive morphological variation, including some individuals that phenocopied subspecies other than their progenitors. Numerous interesting novel phenotypes and mutants were identified among the backcross progeny. The chromosomal recombination between the A and C genomes and the chromosomal asymmetric segregation were revealed using Simple Sequence Repeats (SSR) markers. These findings provide direct evidence in support of the hypothesis that interspecific hybridization and backcrossing have played roles in the evolution of the vast variety of vegetables among these species and suggest that combination of interspecific hybridization and backcrossing may facilitate the development of new mutants and novel phenotypes for both basic research and the breeding of new vegetable crops.
Konstantinos A Aliferis
Full Text Available The root system of most terrestrial plants form symbiotic interfaces with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF, which are important for nutrient cycling and ecosystem sustainability. The elucidation of the undergoing changes in plants’ metabolism during symbiosis is essential for understanding nutrient acquisition and for alleviation of soil stresses caused by environmental cues. Within this context, we have undertaken the task of recording the fluctuation of willow (Salix purpurea L. leaf metabolome in response to AMF inoculation. The development of an advanced metabolomics/bioinformatics protocol employing mass spectrometry (MS and 1H NMR analyzers combined with the in-house-built metabolite library for willow (http://willowmetabolib.research.mcgill.ca/index.html are key components of the research. Analyses revealed that AMF inoculation of willow causes up-regulation of various biosynthetic pathways, among others, those of flavonoid, isoflavonoid, phenylpropanoid, and the chlorophyll and porphyrin pathways, which have well-established roles in plant physiology and are related to resistance against environmental stresses. The recorded fluctuation in the willow leaf metabolism is very likely to provide AMF-inoculated willows with a significant advantage compared to non-inoculated ones when they are exposed to stresses such as, high levels of soil pollutants. The discovered biomarkers of willow response to AMF inoculation and corresponding pathways could be exploited in biomarker-assisted selection of willow cultivars with superior phytoremediation capacity or genetic engineering programs.
Arshadi, M; Foroughifard, S; Etemad Gholtash, J; Abbaspourrad, A
The synthesis and characterization of nanoscale zerovalent iron particles (NZVI) supported on Spondias purpurea seed waste (S-NaOH-NZVI) was performed for the adsorption of phosphate (P) ions from waste waters. The effects of various parameters, such as contact time, pH, concentration, reusability and temperature were studied. The adsorption of phosphate ions has been studied in terms of pseudo-first- and -second-order kinetics, and the Freundlich, and Langmuir isotherms models have also been used to the equilibrium adsorption data. The adsorption kinetics followed the mechanism of the pseudo-second-order equation. The thermodynamic parameters (ΔG, ΔH and ΔS) indicated that the adsorption of phosphate ions were feasible, spontaneous and endothermic at 25-80 °C. No significant loss of activity was observed; confirming that the S-NaOH-NZVI has high stability during the adsorption process even after 12th runs. The suggested adsorbent in this paper was also implemented to remove P from the Persian Gulf water. XRD, FTIR and EDX analysis indicated the presence of Fe3 (PO4)2⋅8H2O (vivianite) on the S-NaOH-NZVI@P surface. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Whitman, Richard L.; Byers, Stacey E.; Shively, Dawn A.; Ferguson, Donna M.; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara N.
Sarracenia purpurea L., a carnivorous bog plant (also known as the pitcher plant), represents an excellent model of a well-defined, self-contained ecosystem; the individual pitchers of the plant serve as a microhabitat for a variety of micro- and macro-organisms. Previously, fecal indicator bacteria (Escherichia coli and enterococci) were shown as incidental contaminants in pitcher fluid; however, whether their occurrence in pitcher fluid is incidental or common has not been established. The purpose of this study was to investigate the occurrence, distribution, and growth potential of E. coli and enterococci in pitcher plant fluid from a protected bog in northwest Indiana. Escherichia coli and enterococci were recovered in pitcher fluids (n = 43 plants), with mean densities (log CFU mL-1) of 1.28 ± 0.23 and 1.97 ± 0.27, respectively. In vitro experiments showed that E. coli growth in fluid not containing insects or indigenous organisms was directly proportional to the fluid concentration (growth was 10-fold in 24 h in 100% fluid); however, in the presence of other indigenous organisms, E. coli and enterococci were only sustained for 5 days at 26 Â°C. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis showed that the plant Enterococcus faecalis isolates were genetically distinct from the human isolates; identical PFGE patterns were observed among plant isolates that fell into one of six clonal groups. These findings suggest that (i) E. coli and enterococci occurrence in pitcher plants is rather common in the bog studied, although their originating source is unclear, and (ii) the pitcher fluid contains adequate nutrients, especially carbon and energy sources, to promote the growth of indicator bacteria; however, under natural conditions, the biotic factors (e.g., competition for nutrients) may restrict their growth.
Derbalah, Aly S
In an attempt to find alternative control methods for stored products insects, extracts of seven plant species (Cassia senna, Caesalpinia gilliesii, Thespesia populnea var. acutiloba, Chrysanthemum frutescens, Euonymus japonicus, Bauhinia purpurea, and Cassia fistula) were evaluated under laboratory conditions for their ability to protect wheat (Triticum spp.) grains against Trogoderma granarium insect. Moreover, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis was carried to identify the chemical components of the most effective plant extract against T. granarium. Furthermore, the safety of the most effective plant extract was evaluated with respect to biochemical and histological changes in treated rats relative to control. The results revealed that, the tested botanical extracts showed high efficiency against T. granarium with respect to mortality and progeny of the adults. C. senna was the most effective botanical extract against T. granarium. The GC-MS analysis of the most effective plant extract showed the presence of different bioactive compounds that is known by its insecticidal activity. The most effective plant extract showed no toxicity on treated rats relative to control with respect to biochemical and histological changes. The results suggest the ability of using these plant extracts for wheat grains protection as a safe alternative to insecticides.
Aly S. Derbalah
Full Text Available In an attempt to find alternative control methods for stored products insects, extracts of seven plant species (Cassia senna, Caesalpinia gilliesii, Thespesia populnea var. acutiloba, Chrysanthemum frutescens, Euonymus japonicus, Bauhinia purpurea, and Cassia fistula were evaluated under laboratory conditions for their ability to protect wheat (Triticum spp. grains against Trogoderma granarium insect. Moreover, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS analysis was carried to identify the chemical components of the most effective plant extract against T. granarium. Furthermore, the safety of the most effective plant extract was evaluated with respect to biochemical and histological changes in treated rats relative to control. The results revealed that, the tested botanical extracts showed high efficiency against T. granarium with respect to mortality and progeny of the adults. C. senna was the most effective botanical extract against T. granarium. The GC-MS analysis of the most effective plant extract showed the presence of different bioactive compounds that is known by its insecticidal activity. The most effective plant extract showed no toxicity on treated rats relative to control with respect to biochemical and histological changes. The results suggest the ability of using these plant extracts for wheat grains protection as a safe alternative to insecticides.
Wang, Y; Jin, L; Ominski, K H; He, M; Xu, Z; Krause, D O; Acharya, S N; Wittenberg, K M; Liu, X L; Stanford, K; McAllister, T A
Tannins from forages grown (n = 10) on the Canadian prairie, as well as from Quebracho, Rhus semialata, and brown seaweed (Ascophyllum nodosum), were screened for anti-Escherichia coli O157:H7 activity against E. coli O157:H7 strain 3081 at a concentration of 400 μg/ml for each tannin type, except for brown seaweed, which was at 50 μg/ml. Growth of the bacteria was assessed by measuring the optical density at 600 nm over 24 h. Tannin from seaweed at a concentration of 50 μg/ml inhibited growth of strain 3081. Among the terrestrial forages, only condensed tannins (CT) from purple prairie clover (Dalea purpurea Vent; PPC) increased (P < 0.05) the lag time and reduced (P < 0.05) the growth rate of E. coli O157:H7. The anti-E. coli O157:H7 activity of PPC CT was further assessed by culturing E. coli strain ATCC 25922 and eight strains of E. coli O157:H7 with PPC CT at 0, 25, 50, 100, or 200 μg/ml. Selected strains were enumerated after 0, 6, and 24 h of incubation, and fatty acid composition was determined after 24 h of incubation. E. coli strain 25922 was cultured with 0, 50, or 200 μg of CT per ml and harvested during the exponential growth phase for examination by transmission electron microscopy. Increasing CT concentration linearly increased (P < 0.001) the lag times of seven strains and linearly reduced (P < 0.001) the growth rates of eight E. coli O157:H7 strains. Proportions of unsaturated fatty acids in the total fatty acids were decreased (P < 0.01) by CT at 50 μg/ml. Transmission electron microscopy showed that CT disrupted the outer membrane structure. Anti-E. coli O157:H7 activity of PPC CT at levels of up to 200 μg/ml was bacteriostatic rather than bactericidal, and the mechanism of anti-E. coli activity may involve alteration in the fatty acid composition and disruption of the outer membrane of the cell.
Efecto del método de secado en la longevidad y calidad de las semillas de Bauhinia purpurea.: II. Almacenamiento en cámara fría Effect of drying method on the longevity and quality of seeds from Bauhinia purpurea.: II. Storage in cold-storage room
Full Text Available Se estudió la influencia combinada de los métodos de secado, las condiciones de almacenamiento y la edad fisiológica de las semillas de Bauhinia purpurea, en su capacidad germinativa y calidad. Los tratamientos para el secado fueron: A en las legumbres; B artificial; y C al sol. Se determinó el contenido de humedad (CH, la germinación y la viabilidad de las semillas durante los 12 meses de almacenamiento en cámara fría. Para el procesamiento de la información se emplearon análisis multivariados. En A el mayor valor de la capacidad germinativa (98,67% se observó en la primera evaluación, al igual que en B (100%, donde las diferencias entre los meses fueron mínimas en todo el estudio. En C la capacidad germinativa fue de 79,33% a los 12 meses, lo que representó un aumento cuantitativo de la longevidad de las semillas con respecto a A. El proceso germinativo en A, entre 0 y 9 meses de almacenamiento, se completó a los 9 días de iniciada la prueba, mientras que en el resto de las evaluaciones ocurrió a los 6 días. Entre las simientes de B y C se observó un comportamiento semejante, con la diferencia de que el potencial germinativo se logró expresar a los 6 días en B a 0 y 2 meses; en C a 0, 1, 2 y 11 meses; mientras que en B la germinación se inició a los 6 días para 9 y 10 meses. Se concluye que a las semillas de bauhinia se les puede aplicar los tratamientos ensayados en este trabajo, aunque los mejores resultados se obtuvieron al utilizar silicagel (B.The combined influence of different drying methods, the storage conditions and the physiological age of seeds from Bauhinia purpurea, on their germinative capacity and quality was determined. The treatments for drying were: A in the pods; B artificial; and C under sunlight. The moisture content (MC, germination and viability of the seeds were determined during the 12 months of storage in the cold-storage room. For the information processing multivariate analyses were used. In
Potency of Gamma ray, Electric Current and Elicitor Application, as a Novel Practical Technique, to Improve Biomass Production and Glycoside Quality for Digitalis purpurea L. Grown in Sandy Soil Irrigated with Brackish Water
Bosila, H.A.; Afifi, L.M.A.; Ahmed, T.E.S.
Digitalis purpurea L seeds were treated before sowing with gamma ray (G:0, 2.5, 5, 7.5 KR, and electric current (E:O, 100, 150, 200 mA) then grown in sandy soil irrigated with brackish water (900 ppm) , in splite-splite plot design for 3 replicat (R) at two subsequent seasons , through surface drip irrigation system. Plants at 4- month old and monthly until before flowering were foliar sprayed with MnSO 4 as abiotic elicitor (M :O, 3 ppm). Biomass/ Feddan, percentage of total glycosides and percentage of bioactive glycosides, digitoxin and gitoxin were quantitated. Statistical analysis for the obtained data revealed that G, E and M achieved significant in biomass yield and its quality traits. Moreover, interactions ; GE, GM, EM and GEM achieved synergistic and significant increment for this traits. At such G dose the trait was increased by increasing E dose and M concentration. Hence, G 2.5, 5,7.5 KR E200 mA M3 ppm achieved significant increment, as percent over that of control, in biomass production / Feddan by 22, 29, 32%, total glycoside by 27, 40, 30%, digitoxin 27, 40, 30% for both first and second seasons, respectively. Whereas, increment for gitoxin were 27, 41, 30% at first season and 26, 38, 30% at second season, respectively. Overall, these finding strongly confirm the reliability of GEM as a novel practical technique for overproduction biomass/Fed. and quality improvement bioactive cardiac glycosides, digitoxin and gitoxin in Digitalis purpurea L.
Results showed that protein extractability was dependent on pH, type of salt, salt concentrations and extraction time. Salts extracted more proteins from the moringa seed flour than water. Maximum extraction of protein was. 85.06% and 84.72% with 0.5 M CaCl and 0.75 M NaCl respectively. On varying the pH, maximum ...
Nielsen, Mathilde Maagaard; Oestergaard, Jeanett; Johansen, Marianne
Objectives. To develop and validate an Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS) scale for vacuum extraction. Design. Two part study design: Primarily, development of a procedure-specific checklist for vacuum extraction. Hereafter, validationof the developed OSATS scale for vacuum...... with daily work in the obstetric field were tested. Methods. The Delphi method was used for development of the scale. In a simulated vacuum extraction scenario first-year residents and obstetric chief physicians were rated using the developed OSATS scale for vacuum extraction to test construct validity...... scale for vacuum extraction is a reliable test for differentiating between competence levels in a simulated setting....
Stary, J.; Kyrs, M.; Navratil, J.; Havelka, S.; Hala, J.
Definitions of the basic terms and of relations are given and the knowledge is described of the possibilities of the extraction of elements, oxides, covalent-bound halogenides and heteropolyacids. Greatest attention is devoted to the detailed analysis of the extraction of chelates and ion associates using diverse agents. For both types of compounds detailed conditions are given of the separation and the effects of the individual factors are listed. Attention is also devoted to extractions using mixtures of organic agents, the synergic effects thereof, and to extractions in non-aqueous solvents. The effects of radiation on extraction and the main types of apparatus used for extractions carried out in the laboratory are described. (L.K.)
Temperatura óptima de germinación y patrones de imbibición de las semillas de Albizia lebbeck, Gliricidia sepium y Bauhinia purpurea Optimum germination temperature and imbibition patterns of the seeds from Albizia lebbeck, Gliricidia sepium and Bauhinia purpurea
Full Text Available Se utilizaron semillas frescas y envejecidas de las plantas arbóreas Albizia lebbeck, Gliricidia sepium y Bauhinia purpurea, procedentes de la Estación Experimental de Pastos y Forrajes «Indio Hatuey», Matanzas, Cuba. Se diseñó un experimento de clasificación simple y cinco réplicas para la respuesta germinativa a diferentes temperaturas del sustrato (constante a 25ºC y tres alternas: 25/30ºC, 25/35ºC y 25/40ºC. Antes de la siembra las semillas de A. lebbeck se escarificaron (agua a 80ºC/2'. Para el patrón de imbibición las semillas se colocaron sobre papel de filtro humedecido con agua destilada, según la temperatura óptima de germinación, en luz blanca fluorescente y en diferentes tiempos de imbibición. En las semillas frescas de todas las especies los mayores porcentajes de germinación final se obtuvieron a temperatura alterna de 25/35ºC y en las envejecidas a 25/30ºC. Con respecto al patrón de imbibición, todas siguieron un patrón trifásico de absorción de agua. Las semillas frescas y envejecidas de G.. sepium presentaron un patrón de imbibición muy similar; sin embargo, las semillas frescas de las otras especies tuvieron una mayor velocidad de hidratación que las envejecidas y, por consiguiente, alcanzaron el comienzo de la fase III del patrón de imbibición (i.e., germinación visible más rápidamente. Se concluye que el rango de temperatura óptima para la germinación de las semillas envejecidas fue de 25/30ºC y para las frescas fue de 25/35ºC y ambas presentaron un patrón trifásico de absorción de agua cuando la siembra se realizó en la temperatura óptima de germinación.Fresh and aged seeds of the trees Albizia lebbeck, Gliricidia sepium and Bauhinia purpurea from the Experimental Station of Pastures and Forages «Indio Hatuey», Matanzas, Cuba, were used. A simple classification experiment and five replications were designed for the germinative response to different temperatures of the
Recently, we reported the presence of chicoric acid in basil leaves (confirmed by co-chromatography with purchased standard). Chicoric acid being the chief phenolic of the Echinacea purpurea plant which is popularly consumed as a dietary supplement. For this study, basil products commonly purchased ...
Fránová, Jana; Přibylová, Jaroslava; Petrzik, Karel
Roč. 123, č. 1 (2009), s. 85-90 ISSN 0929-1873 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) 1QS500510558 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : Echinacea purpurea * electron microscopy * PCR/RFLP * phytoplasma characterization * sequencing Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.931, year: 2009
The objective of the present study was to compare short and long term application of Echinacea purpurea root powder on growth performance and immunity response of broiler chicks. Three replicate trials involving a total of 600 day-old Ross chicks were used in this study. In each trial, a total of 200 chicks were randomly ...
Krimpen, van M.M.; Binnendijk, G.P.; Borgsteede, F.H.M.; Gaasenbeek, C.P.H.
Er is een experiment uitgevoerd om het preventieve effect te testen van een aantal kruiden (Thymus vulgaris, Melissa officinalis, Echinacea purpurea and/or Camellia sinensis) op een milde besmetting van Ascaris suum bij vleesvarkens. Resultaten worden in dit rapport besproken
Full Text Available In the present paper are represented morphological studies on determination of weight of 1000 achenes, and sieve analysis of fruits of some plants from Asteraceae family (Arctium lappa L., Leuzea carthamoides (Willd. D.C, Inula helenium L., Echinacea purpurea Moench., Calendula officinalis L.. Lipid, alcohol-soluble and water-soluble complexes in fruits of C. officinalis were studied.
Fránová, Jana; Špak, Josef; Šimková, Marie
Roč. 136, č. 1 (2013), s. 7-12 ISSN 0929-1873 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LD12074 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Echinacea purpurea * PCR/RFLP * sequencing Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.707, year: 2013
Kužel, S.; Vydra, J.; Tříska, Jan; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Hrubý, Martin; Cígler, P.
Roč. 57, č. 17 (2009), s. 7907-7911 ISSN 0021-8561 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520; CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : elicitation * medical plant * Echinacea purpurea * secondary metabolite * foliar application * phenolics Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.469, year: 2009
Huang, Chuixiu; Chen, Zhiliang; Gjelstad, Astrid
Electromembrane extraction (EME) was inspired by solid-phase microextraction and developed from hollow fiber liquid-phase microextraction in 2006 by applying an electric field over the supported liquid membrane (SLM). EME provides rapid extraction, efficient sample clean-up and selectivity based ...
Izzo, A A; Ernst, E
Despite the widespread use of herbal medicines, documented herb-drug interactions are sparse. We have reviewed the literature to determine the possible interactions between the seven top-selling herbal medicines (ginkgo, St John's wort, ginseng, garlic, echinacea, saw palmetto and kava) and prescribed drugs. Literature searches were performed using the following databases: Medline (via Pubmed), Cochrane Library, Embase and phytobase (all from their inception to July 2000). All data relating to herb-drug interactions were included regardless of whether they were based on case reports, case series, clinical trials or other types of investigation in humans. In vitro experiments were excluded. Data were extracted by the first author and validated by the second author. 41 case reports or case series and 17 clinical trials were identified. The results indicate that St John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) lowers blood concentrations of cyclosporin, amitriptyline, digoxin, indinavir, warfarin, phenprocoumon and theophylline; furthermore it causes intermenstrual bleeding, delirium or mild serotonin syndrome, respectively, when used concomitantly with oral contraceptives (ethinylestradiol/desogestrel), loperamide or selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors (sertaline, paroxetine, nefazodone). Ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba) interactions include bleeding when combined with warfarin, raised blood pressure when combined with a thiazide diuretic and coma when combined with trazodone. Ginseng (Panax ginseng) lowers blood concentrations of alcohol and warfarin, and induces mania if used concomitantly with phenelzine. Garlic (Allium sativum) changes pharmacokinetic variables of paracetamol, decreases blood concentrations of warfarin and produces hypoglycaemia when taken with chlorpropamide. Kava (Piper methysticum) increases 'off' periods in Parkinson patients taking levodopa and can cause a semicomatose state when given concomitantly with alprazolam. No interactions were found for echinacea
Ghaffar, Ammara; Tahir, Mohammad; Lone, Khalid Pervez; Faisal, Bushra; Latif, Waqas
Gentamicin is an aminoglycoside isolated from Micromonospora purpurea known for its nephrotoxicity. Ficus carica L is known to treat many ailments. This study was designed to investigate the effects of Ficus carica L. (Anjir) leaf extract on renal oxidative stress induced by gentamicin in albino mice. In this laboratory based experimental study 30 mice were divided into three groups, containing 10 mice each. Group A being the control; groups B and C were experimental and treated with gentamicin 200 mg/kg/day intraperitoneally and, Ficus carica L. leaf extract 400 mg/kg/day orally with gentamicin 200 mg/kg/day intraperitoneally respectively for a period of 8 days. Blood samples were taken 24 hours after completion of the experimental period by cardiac puncture under anesthesia and kidneys of each mouse were taken out for microscopic examination. Gentamicin treatment increased serum urea and creatinine levels (group B). Ficus carica L. leaf extract treated animals showed significant reduction in biochemical markers of kidney functions in group C. The histopathological examination of group A showed normal renal structure which was deranged in group B treated with only gentamicin, whereas, group C exhibited marked improvement in histological structure. Ficus carica L. leaf extract is effective in preventing gentamicin induced functional and structural changes in kidney of albino mice.
Dietzenbacher, Erik; Lahr, Michael L.
In this paper, we generalize hypothetical extraction techniques. We suggest that the effect of certain economic phenomena can be measured by removing them from an input-output (I-O) table and by rebalancing the set of I-O accounts. The difference between the two sets of accounts yields the
Full Text Available Coffee and willow are known as valuable sources of biologically active phytochemicals such as chlorogenic acid, caffeine, and salicin. The aim of the study was to determine the interactions between the active compounds contained in water extracts from coffee and bark of willow (Salix purpurea and Salix myrsinifolia. Raw materials and their mixtures were characterized by multidirectional antioxidant activities; however, bioactive constituents interacted with each other. Synergism was observed for ability of inhibition of lipid peroxidation and reducing power, whereas compounds able to scavenge ABTS radical cation acted antagonistically. Additionally, phytochemicals from willow bark possessed hydrophilic character and thermostability which justifies their potential use as an ingredient in coffee beverages. Proposed mixtures may be used in the prophylaxis or treatment of some civilization diseases linked with oxidative stress. Most importantly, strong synergism observed for phytochemicals able to prevent lipids against oxidation may suggest protective effect for cell membrane phospholipids. Obtained results indicate that extracts from bark tested Salix genotypes as an ingredient in coffee beverages can provide health promoting benefits to the consumers; however, this issue requires further study.
Zahra Tofighi, Mohsen Amini, Mahzad Shirzadi, Hamideh Mirhabibi, Negar Ghazi Saeedi, Narguess Yassa
Full Text Available Background: The suspension culture of Vigna radiata was selected for biotransformation of hydroquinone to its β-D-glucoside form (arbutin as an important therapeutic and cosmetic compound. Methods: The biotransformation efficiency of a Vigna radiata cell culture in addition to different concentrations of hydroquinone (6-20 mg/100 ml was investigated after 24 hours in comparison to an Echinacea purpurea cell culture and attempts were made to increase the efficacy of the process by adding elicitors. Results: Arbutin was accumulated in cells and found in the media only in insignificant amounts. The arbutin content of the biomass extracts of V. radiata and E. purpurea was different, ranging from 0.78 to 1.89% and 2.00 to 3.55% of dry weight, respectively. V. radiata demonstrated a bioconversion efficiency of 55.82% after adding 8 mg/100 ml precursor, which was comparable with result of 69.53% for E. purpurea cells after adding 10 mg/100 ml hydroquinone (P>0.05. In both cultures, adding hydroquinone in two portions with a 24-hour interval increased the biotransformation efficiency. Different concentrations of methyl jasmonate (25, 50, and 100 µM and chitosan (50 and 100 µg/ml as elicitors increased the bio-efficiency percentage of the V. radiata culture in comparison with the flask containing only hydroquinone. Conclusion: This is the first report of the biotransformation possibility of V. radiata cultures. It was observed the bioconversion capacity increased by adding hydroquinone in two portions, which was comparable to adding an elicitor.
Resprout and survival of willows (Salix purpurea and S. incana), Poplars (Populus nigra) and Tamaris (Tamarix gallica) cuttings in marly gullies with Southern aspect in a mountainous and Mediterranean climate (Southern Alps, France)
Rey, Freddy; Labonne, Sophie; Dangla, Laure; Lavandier, Géraud
In the Southern French Alps under a mountainous and Mediterranean climate, a current strategy of bioengineering is developed for trapping sediment in marly gullies with surface area less than 1 ha. It is based on the use of structures in the form of brush layers and brush mats of cuttings on deadwood microdams. Purple and white Willows (Salix purpurea and S. incana) are recommended here as they proved their efficiency to resprout and survive in such environment. However, these species installed in Southern gullies did not survive in previous experiments, due to the too harsh conditions of solar radiation and drought. We thus decided to test other species, namely black Poplar (Populus nigra) and Tamaris (Tamarix gallica), which proved their resistance to drought conditions in other experiments. To this view, bioengineering structures have been built in 2010 in eroded marly gullies in the Roubines and Fontaugier catchments (Southern Alps, France). We tested two installation modalities: one in spring and a second in autumn. Seventy-eight bioengineering structures (50 in spring and 28 in autumn), among which 32 made with Poplar cuttings and 28 with Tamaris cuttings, as well as 11 structures with purple Willow and 7 with white Willow as controls, were built in 6 experimental gullies. After 3 observation years for each modality (2010 to 2012, and 2011 to 2013, respectively), results first revealed that Willow species succeeded in surviving in gullies in Southern aspect (76 % for the cuttings installed in spring and 52 % for those installed in autumn), which is in contradiction with previous results. Second, Poplar showed a good ability to survive (62 % for the cuttings installed in spring and 33 % for those installed in autumn). Tamaris obtained the worst score with 26 % and 38 % of survival for the cuttings installed in spring and autumn, respectively. Globally, excepted for Tamaris, survival rates were better for the cuttings installed in spring. The bioengineering
Jul 1, 2011 ... yahoo.com or firstname.lastname@example.org; email@example.com. Tel: +6010-3800293 or +604-6533962. Fax: +604-6565125. significance for a complete range of biological activities, which ranges from antibiotic to anticancerous. Bauhinia purpurea is a shrub or small tree of Fabaceae family. It is found in most ...
Full Text Available Elena Pomari, Bruno Stefanon, Monica Colitti Department of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, University of Udine, Udine, Italy Background: Arctium lappa (AL, Camellia sinensis (CS, Echinacea angustifolia, Eleutherococcus senticosus, Panax ginseng (PG, and Vaccinium myrtillus (VM are plants traditionally used in many herbal formulations for the treatment of various conditions. Although they are well known and already studied for their anti-inflammatory properties, their effects on H2O2-stimulated macrophages are a novel area of study. Materials and methods: Cell viability was tested after treatment with increasing doses of H2O2 and/or plant extracts at different times of incubation to identify the optimal experimental conditions. The messenger (mRNA expression of TNFα, COX2, IL1β, NFκB1, NFκB2, NOS2, NFE2L2, and PPARγ was analyzed in macrophages under H2O2 stimulation. The same genes were also quantified after plant extract treatment on cells pre-stimulated with H2O2. Results: A noncytotoxic dose (200 µM of H2O2 induced active mRNA expression of COX2, IL1β, NFE2L2, NFκB1, NFκB2, NOS2, and TNFα, while PPARγ was depressed. The expression of all genes tested was significantly (P<0.001 regulated by plant extracts after pre-stimulation with H2O2. COX2 was downregulated by AL, PG, and VM. All extracts depressed IL1β expression, but upregulated NFE2L2. NFκB1, NFκB2, and TNFα were downregulated by AL, CS, PG, and VM. NOS2 was inhibited by CS, PG, and VM. PPARγ was decreased only after treatment with E. angustifolia and E. senticosus. Conclusion: The results of the present study indicate that the stimulation of H2O2 on RAW267.4 cells induced the transcription of proinflammatory mediators, showing that this could be an applicable system by which to activate macrophages. Plant extracts from AL, CS, PG, and VM possess in vitro anti-inflammatory activity on H2O2-stimulated macrophages by modulating key inflammation mediators. Further in
Pomari, Elena; Stefanon, Bruno; Colitti, Monica
Background Arctium lappa (AL), Camellia sinensis (CS), Echinacea angustifolia, Eleutherococcus senticosus, Panax ginseng (PG), and Vaccinium myrtillus (VM) are plants traditionally used in many herbal formulations for the treatment of various conditions. Although they are well known and already studied for their anti-inflammatory properties, their effects on H2O2-stimulated macrophages are a novel area of study. Materials and methods Cell viability was tested after treatment with increasing doses of H2O2 and/or plant extracts at different times of incubation to identify the optimal experimental conditions. The messenger (m)RNA expression of TNFα, COX2, IL1β, NFκB1, NFκB2, NOS2, NFE2L2, and PPARγ was analyzed in macrophages under H2O2 stimulation. The same genes were also quantified after plant extract treatment on cells pre-stimulated with H2O2. Results A noncytotoxic dose (200 μM) of H2O2 induced active mRNA expression of COX2, IL1β, NFE2L2, NFκB1, NFκB2, NOS2, and TNFα, while PPARγ was depressed. The expression of all genes tested was significantly (P<0.001) regulated by plant extracts after pre-stimulation with H2O2. COX2 was downregulated by AL, PG, and VM. All extracts depressed IL1β expression, but upregulated NFE2L2. NFκB1, NFκB2, and TNFα were downregulated by AL, CS, PG, and VM. NOS2 was inhibited by CS, PG, and VM. PPARγ was decreased only after treatment with E. angustifolia and E. senticosus. Conclusion The results of the present study indicate that the stimulation of H2O2 on RAW267.4 cells induced the transcription of proinflammatory mediators, showing that this could be an applicable system by which to activate macrophages. Plant extracts from AL, CS, PG, and VM possess in vitro anti-inflammatory activity on H2O2-stimulated macrophages by modulating key inflammation mediators. Further in vitro and in vivo investigation into molecular mechanisms modulated by herbal extracts should be undertaken to shed light on the development of novel
Pažoutová, Sylvie; Pešicová, Kamila; Chudíčková, Milada; Šrůtka, P.; Kolařík, Miroslav
Roč. 119, č. 1 (2015), s. 7-26 ISSN 1878-6146 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-00788S Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : C. arundinis * C. humidiphila * C. microcephala Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.244, year: 2015
Snowden, Rebecca; Harrington, Heather; Morrill, Kira; Jeane, LaDeana; Garrity, Joan; Orian, Michael; Lopez, Eric; Rezaie, Saman; Hassberger, Kelly; Familoni, Damilola; Moore, Jessica; Virdee, Kulveen; Albornoz-Sanchez, Leah; Walker, Michael; Cavins, Jami; Russell, Tonyelle; Guse, Emily; Reker, Mary; Tschudy, Onyria; Wolf, Jeremy; True, Teresa; Ukaegbu, Oluchi; Ahaghotu, Ezenwanyi; Jones, Ana; Polanco, Sara; Rochon, Yvan; Waters, Robert; Langland, Jeffrey
Resurgences of Staphylococcus aureus infection continue globally, with antibiotic resistance increasing dramatically, making these infections more difficult to treat. S. aureus epidemics impose public health threats, and economic burdens on health care costs worldwide, presenting challenges modern medicine struggles to control. In order to answer today's call for effective treatments against S. aureus, we evaluated and compared various botanical extracts that have historically been suggested as useful for their antimicrobial properties against S. aureus. Briefly, S. aureus cultures were treated with selected botanical extracts and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) determined. In addition, to obtain more quantitative measures on bacterial growth, 24-hour growth studies were done to examine the temporal activity and stability of various botanicals on bacterial replication. The antimicrobial activity observed for the botanical extracts used in this comparative evaluation of efficacy included both bacteriostatic and bacteriocidal activity against S. aureus. Highly effective botanicals including Salvia officinalis, Eucalyptus globulus, Coleus forskohlii, Coptis chinensis, Turnera diffusa, and Larrea tridentata exhibited MIC values ranging from 60 to 300 μg/mL and a 10(6)-fold reduction in bacterial replication. Arctostaphylos uva-ursi and Allium sativum were slightly less effective, exhibiting MIC values ranging from 90 to 400 μg/mL and a 10(5)-fold reduction, while Anemopsis californica gave MIC value of 360 μg/mL and a 10(4)-fold reduction in bacterial replication. Many botanicals, especially at lower doses, had an initial inhibitory effect followed by a recovery in bacterial replication. Such botanicals included E. globulus, C. chinensis, T. diffusa, A. californica, and Berberis vulgaris. Our data demonstrate that S. officinalis, E. globulus, C. forskohlii, A. uva-ursi, C. chinensis, T. diffusa, A. californica, A. sativum, and L. tridentata all show
Lemmond, Tracy D; Hanley, William G; Guensche, Joseph Wendell; Perry, Nathan C; Nitao, John J; Kidwell, Paul Brandon; Boakye, Kofi Agyeman; Glaser, Ron E; Prenger, Ryan James
An information extraction system and methods of operating the system are provided. In particular, an information extraction system for performing meta-extraction of named entities of people, organizations, and locations as well as relationships and events from text documents are described herein.
Huang, Chuixiu; Gjelstad, Astrid; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig
trifluoroacetate, and leu-enkephalin were extracted from 600 μL of 25 mM phosphate buffer (pH 3.5), through a supported liquid membrane (SLM) containing di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phosphate (DEHP) dissolved in an organic solvent, and into 600 μL of an acidified aqueous acceptor solution using a thin flat membrane-based EME......This fundamental work illustrates for the first time the possibility of exhaustive extraction of peptides using electromembrane extraction (EME) under low system-current conditions (... device. Mass transfer of peptides across the SLM was enhanced by complex formation with the negatively charged DEHP. The composition of the SLM and the extraction voltage were important factors influencing recoveries and current with the EME system. 1-nonanol diluted with 2-decanone (1:1 v/v) containing...
... CorrectlyPain Relievers: Understanding Your OTC OptionsAntacids and Acid Reducers: OTC Relief for Heartburn and Acid RefluxOTC Cough ... Loss and Diet Plans Nutrients and Nutritional Info Sugar and Sugar Substitutes Exercise and Fitness Exercise Basics ...
Full Text Available Deficiencies of mineral elements in human nutrition could be surpassed by crop fortification. One of the prevalent measures of fortification is foliar fertilization. The aim of this study was to determine the content and availability of the mineral nutrients Mg, Fe and Zn, together with phytate, as an anti-nutritive factor, and β-carotene as a promoter of mineral nutrient availability in grain of two soybean cultivars (Nena and Laura treated with different non-standard foliar fertilizers (mainly based on plant extracts. Generally, a negative correlation between Fe and phytate indicated that factors which decrease phytate and increase β-carotene could be primarily responsible for Fe utilization by humans and animals. Zlatno inje (based on manure had the highest impact on increasing the grain yield and decreasing the ratios between phytate and mineral elements in Nena grain, while for Laura, it was generally Zircon (based on an extract of Echinacea purpurea L, increasing also availability of mineral elements.
Saluk-Juszczak, Joanna; Pawlaczyk, Izabela; Olas, Beata; Kołodziejczyk, Joanna; Ponczek, Michal; Nowak, Pawel; Tsirigotis-Wołoszczak, Marta; Wachowicz, Barbara; Gancarz, Roman
Lots of plants belonging to Asteraceae family are very popular in folk medicine in Poland. These plants are also known as being rich in acidic polysaccharides, due to the presence of hexuronic acids or its derivatives. Our preliminary experiments have shown that the extract from Conyza canadensis L. possesses various biological activity, including antiplatelet, antiocoagulant and antioxidant properties. The aim of our study was to assess if macromolecular glycoconjugates from selected herbal plants of Asteraceae family: Achillea millefolium L., Arnica montana L., Echinacea purpurea L., Solidago virgaurea L., Chamomilla recutita (L.) Rauschert., and Conyza canadensis L. protect platelet proteins against nitrative and oxidative damage induced by peroxynitrite, which is responsible for oxidative/nitrative modifications of platelet proteins: the formation of 3-nitrotyrosine and carbonyl groups. These modifications may lead to changes of blood platelet functions and can have pathological consequences. The role of these different medicinal plants in the defence against oxidative/nitrative stress in human platelets is still unknown, therefore the oxidative damage to platelet proteins induced by peroxynitrite and protectory effects of tested conjugates by the estimation of carbonyl group level and nitrotyrosine formation (a marker of protein nitration) were studied in vitro. The antioxidative properties of the polyphenolic-polysaccharide conjugates from selected tested medicinal plants were also compared with the action of a well characterized antioxidative commercial polyphenol - resveratrol (3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene). The obtained results demonstrate that the compounds from herbal plants: A. millefolium, A. montana, E. purpurea, C. recutita, S. virgaurea, possess antioxidative properties and protect platelet proteins against peroxynitrite toxicity in vitro, similar to the glycoconjugates from C. canadensis. However, in the comparative studies, the polyphenolic
Gaunt, Andrew James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Olson, Angela Christine [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kozimor, Stosh Anthony [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Cross, Justin Neil [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Batista, Enrique Ricardo [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Macor, Joe [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Peterman, Dean R. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Grimes, Travis [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)
This project aims to provide an electronic structure-to-function understanding of extractants for actinide selective separation processes. The research entails a multi-disciplinary approach that integrates chemical syntheses, structural determination, K-edge X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS), and Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations. In FY15, the project reached the final stage of testing the extraction performance of a new ligand design and preparing an americium-extractant complex for analysis.
Loucif Seiad L.
Full Text Available The aim of the study is to investigate the influence of certain parameters on efficiency of the extraction of polyphenols from an Algerian tree (Pinus Halepensis Mill. Extraction was conducted in a stirred closed extractor. Our study was conducted to optimize the extraction conditions for total phenolic contents (TPC using Folin Ciocalteu method. A response surface methodology (RSM was launched to investigate the influence of process variables on extraction followed by a composite design (CD approach. The statistical analysis revealed that the optimized conditions were for a temperature of 45°C and for the smallest particles.
Purpose: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the activity of 50 % hydroalcohol flower extract of. Nerium oleander Linn. on the central nervous system (CNS) of mice. Methods: The effect of the 50 % hydroalcohol extract of N. oleander flowers at dosage levels of 100 and 200 mg/kg p.o. on the locomotor activity of mice ...
A method for producing a plant extract comprises incubating a plant material with an enzyme composition comprising a lipolytic enzyme.......A method for producing a plant extract comprises incubating a plant material with an enzyme composition comprising a lipolytic enzyme....
ABSTRACT. The current study is aimed at investigating the antidiabetic activity of the leaves of Acanthospermum hispidum, a medicinal plant traditionally used to treat diabetes mellitus in NorthWestern Nigeria. Material from the plant was extracted using water. (guided by the traditional mode of extraction) and the ...
Purpose: To evaluate the larvicidal, nematicidal, antifeedant, and antifungal effects of 10 solvent extracts of Mentha spicata root. Methods: Ten solvent extracts were investigated for their total flavonoid and phenolic content and screened for larvicidal, nematicidal, antifeedant, and antifungal activities. The total phenolic ...
Payán, María D Ramos; Li, Bin; Petersen, Nickolaj J.
The present work has for the first time described nano-electromembrane extraction (nano-EME). In nano-EME, five basic drugs substances were extracted as model analytes from 200 μL acidified sample solution, through a supported liquid membrane (SLM) of 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether (NPOE......), and into approximately 8 nL phosphate buffer (pH 2.7) as acceptor phase. The driving force for the extraction was an electrical potential sustained over the SLM. The acceptor phase was located inside a fused silica capillary, and this capillary was also used for the final analysis of the acceptor phase by capillary...... as extraction selectivity. Compared with conventional EME, the acceptor phase volume in nano-EME was down-scaled by a factor of more than 1000. This resulted in a very high enrichment capacity. With loperamide as an example, an enrichment factor exceeding 500 was obtained in only 5 min of extraction...
Maybury, Mark T
The advent of increasingly large consumer collections of audio (e.g., iTunes), imagery (e.g., Flickr), and video (e.g., YouTube) is driving a need not only for multimedia retrieval but also information extraction from and across media. Furthermore, industrial and government collections fuel requirements for stock media access, media preservation, broadcast news retrieval, identity management, and video surveillance. While significant advances have been made in language processing for information extraction from unstructured multilingual text and extraction of objects from imagery and vid
Zaoul, B.; Attou, M.; Azzouz, A.
This work consists in a bibliographic review dealing with phosphorus and organophosphorus compounds chemistry and especially with the main extracting agents used in uranium ore treatment. In this context, a special interest is devoted to TBP, D 2 EHPA and TOPO. The content of this work is based on a large bibliography including cca. One hundred references related to many aspects concerning as well the nomenclature, the classification and the chemical structures of the organophosphorus compounds as synthesis methods, purification and analysis of the main extracting agents used in uranium extraction
Shigematsu, T.; Kudo, K.
A study of the substoichiometric extraction of phosphorus is described. Phosphorus was extracted in the form of ternary compounds such as ammonium phosphomolybdate, 8-hydroxyquinolinium phosphomolybdate, tetraphenylarsonium phosphomolybdate and tri-n-octylamine phosphomolybdate. Consequently, phosphorus was extracted substoichiometrically by the addition of a substoichiometric amount of molybdenum for the four phosphomolybdate compounds. On the other hand, phosphorus could be separated substoichiometrically with a substoichiometric amount of tetraphenylarsonium chloride or tri-n-octylamine. Stoichiometric ratios of these ternary compounds obtained substoichiometrically were 1:12:3 for phosphorus, molybdenum and organic reagent. The applicability of these compounds to phosphorus determination is also discussed. (author)
Extraction chromatography of actinides in the oxidation state from 2 to 6 is reviewed. Data on using neutral (tbp), basic (substituted ammonium salts) and acidic [di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phosphoric acid (D2EHPA)] extracting agents ketones, esters, alcohols and β-diketones in this method are given. Using the example of actinide separation using D2EHPA, discussed are factors influencing the efficiency of their chromatography separation (nature and particle size of the carrier materials, extracting agents amount on the carrier, temperature and elution rate)
Full Text Available The different methods of mentha extraction, such as steam distillation, extraction by methylene chloride (Soxhlet extraction and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE by carbon dioxide (CO J were investigated. SFE by CO, was performed at pressure of 100 bar and temperature of40°C. The extraction yield, as well as qualitative and quantitative composition of obtained extracts, determined by GC-MS method, were compared.
... R S T U V W X Y Z Grape Seed Extract Share: On This Page Background How ... Foster This fact sheet provides basic information about grape seed extract—common names, usefulness and safety, and ...
Problems and work of other institutes in the field of uranium extraction from sea water are presented. UEB developments, UEB processes, and work done to realize the UEB concept are discussed. (HK) [de
This chapter gives an introduction to low-energy beam transport systems, and discusses the typically used magnetostatic elements (solenoid, dipoles and quadrupoles) and electrostatic elements (einzel lens, dipoles and quadrupoles). The ion beam emittance, beam space-charge effects and the physics of ion source extraction are introduced. Typical computer codes for analysing and designing ion optical systems are mentioned, and the trajectory tracking method most often used for extraction simulations is described in more detail.
Cashion, J.D.; Brown, L.J. [Monash University, Physics Department (Australia)
Several examples are examined in which Moessbauer spectroscopic analysis of gold mineral samples, treated concentrates and extracted species has provided information not obtainable by competing techniques. Descriptions are given of current work on bacterial oxidation of pyritic ores and on the adsorbed species from gold extracted from cyanide and chloride solutions onto activated carbon and polyurethane foams. The potential benefits for the gold mining industry from Moessbauer studies and some limitations on the use of the technique are also discussed.
Horwitz, E. Philip; Dietz, Mark L.
A method and apparatus for extracting strontium and technetium values from biological, industrial and environmental sample solutions using a chromatographic column is described. An extractant medium for the column is prepared by generating a solution of a diluent containing a Crown ether and dispersing the solution on a resin substrate material. The sample solution is highly acidic and is introduced directed to the chromatographic column and strontium or technetium is eluted using deionized water.
Full Text Available The aim of this work was to to investigate the suitability of various types of extractants for extraction of acid phosphomonoesterase from soil using various types of extractants. Succinate-borate buffer of pH 4.8 or 0.1 M K2SO4 were the most efficient to extract this enzyme compared to 0.1 M glutamic acid or 0.005 M salicylic acid. Extraction using 0.1 M glutamic acid gave significantly (P<0.05 lowest extraction yield. The following extracts were obtained: clear K2SO4 and glutamic acid extracts, succinate-borate buffer extracts were of slight coloration, and in some cases, rose-colored extracts of salicylic acid. The results of this work are in accordance with low extraction yields of phosphomonoesterase reported in other studies.
Chapman, L.; Finley, D.A.; Harrison, M.; Merz, W.; Batavia, IL)
Extraction in the Fermilab Tevatron is controlled by a multi-processor Multibus microcomputer system called QXR (Quad eXtraction Regulator). QXR monitors several analog beam signals and controls three sets of power supplies: the ''bucker'' and ''pulse'' magnets at a rate of 5760 Hz, and the ''QXR'' magnets at 720 Hz. QXR supports multiple slow spills (up to a total of 35 seconds) with multiple fast pulses intermixed. It linearizes the slow spill and bucks out the high frequency components. Fast extraction is done by outputting a variable pulse waveform. Closed loop learning techniques are used to improve performance from cycle to cycle for both slow and fast extraction. The system is connected to the Tevatron clock system so that it can track the machine cycle. QXR is also connected to the rest of the Fermilab control system, ACNET. Through ACNET, human operators and central computers can monitor and control extraction through communications with QXR. The controls hardware and software both employ some standard and some specialized components. This paper gives an overview of QXR as a control system; another paper (1) summarizes performance
Jozilene Fernandes Farias dos Santos
Full Text Available Isoflavones are found in leguminous species and are used as phytoestrogens widely used by industry for its beneficial effects as estrogens mimicked, antioxidant action and anti-cancer activity. The identification and quantification of isoflavones in plants is a need due to the high demand of industry. Several methods are used for its extraction, using organic solvents (methanol, ethanol and acetonitrile. Samples from five legumes species from Instituto de Zootecnia (IZ, Forage Gene Bank were tested. All seeds received a hydrothermic treatment immersed in pure water at 50°C for 12 hours. Seeds were then oven-dryed. In this work we tested the extraction using only the hydrothermic treatment and hyfrothermic treatment allied to methanol extaction protocol. Seeds were grinded and half of the samples were ressuspended in PBS (phosphate Buffer and the other half were submited to 4 mL of methanol and 1% of acetic acid, soaked for 5 hours, shaked every 15 minutes, at room temperature. The five legume species that we quantify isoflavones by enzyme immunoassay (EIA were: Calopogonium mucunoides, Bauhinia sp., Cajanus cajan, Galactia martii, Leucaena leucocephala. The extraction procedure is a recomendation of AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemists for isoflavone quantification. Ours results show an increase of extraction using methanol 80% plus acetic acid 1% and was obtained using solvent extraction in comparison to hydrothermic procedure alone (figure 1.
Chapman, L.; Finley, D.A.; Harrison, M.; Merz, W.
Extraction in the Fermilab Tevatron is controlled by a multi-processor Multibus microcomputer system called QXR (Quad eXtraction Regulator). QXR monitors several analog beam signals and controls three sets of power supplies: the ''bucker'' and ''pulse'' magnets at a rate of 5760 Hz, and the ''QXR'' magnets at 720 Hz. QXR supports multiple slow spills (up to a total of 35 seconds) with multiple fast pulses intermixed. It linearizes the slow spill and bucks out the high frequency components. Fast extraction is done by outputting a variable pulse waveform. Closed loop learning techniques are used to improve performance from cycle to cycle for both slow and fast extraction. The system is connected to the Tevatron clock system so that it can track the machine cycle. QXR is also connected to the rest of the Fermilab control system, ACNET. Through ACNET, human operators and central computers can monitor and control extraction through communications with QXR. The controls hardware and software both employ some standard and some specialized components. This paper gives an overview of QXR as a control system; another paper summarizes performance
Purpose: To investigate the influence of extraction conditions assisted by ultrasound on the quality of extracts obtained from Mesembryanthemum edule shoots. Methods: The extraction procedure was carried out in an ultrasonic bath. The effect of two solvents (methanol and ethanol) and two extraction times (5 and 10 min) ...
Claus, J.; Foelsche, H.
The design specifications for ISABELLE, a superconducting proton storage ring facility under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory call for circulating beam intensities of up to 6 x 10 14 protons at 400 GeV energy in each ring. The energy stored in the beam is 41 Megajoules, an order of magnitude more than what has been dealt with in the past. This beam energy cannot be safely disposed of within the confines of the ISABELLE lattice if damage to the dump or quenching of the superconducting magnets is to be avoided. Therefore the full intensity beam must be extracted from the storage rings under all circumstances of emergency or routine beam disposal. Beam losses in excess of 10 -3 of the full beam can jeoardize the extraction components and lead to magnet quenching as well. In this note a conceptual design of the extraction system is summarized and the major constraints which lead to the parameters chosen are discussed
Vera M. F. Vargas
Full Text Available Aqueous extracts of seven species used in Brazilian popular medicine (Achyrocline satureoides, Iodina rhombifolia, Desmodium incanum, Baccharis anomala, Tibouchina asperior, Luehea divaricata, Maytenus ilicifolia were screened to the presence of mutagenic activity in the Ames test (Salmonella/microsome. Positive results were obtained for A. satureoides, B anomala and L. divaricata with microsomal activation. As shown elsewhere (Vargas et al., 1990 the metabolites of A. satureoides extract also show the capacity to induce prophage and/or SOS response in microscreen phage induction assay and SOS spot chromotest.
Araujo Figueiredo, C. de
The recovery of uranium from phosphoric liquor by two extraction process is studied. First, uranium is reduced to tetravalent condition and is extracted by dioctypyrophosphoric acid. The re-extraction is made by concentrated phosphoric acid with an oxidizing agent. The re-extract is submitted to the second process and uranium is extracted by di-ethylhexilphosphoric acid and trioctylphosphine oxide. (M.A.C.) [pt
phytochemical screening indicated the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids and tannins in either ethanol extract, fraction(s) or both. This indicates that the Carica papaya has the potential for the production of drugs against organisms causing urinary tract infections. Keywords: Sensitivity, Clinical isolates, Urinary tract, ...
Dec 2, 2013 ... Plant sample was extracted using methanol and water. Qualitative phytochemical screening revealed the ... low incidences of adverse reactions compared to modern conventional drugs (Ogu et al.; 2012). .... McFarland) bacterial and fungal cell suspended was inoculated into well dried sterile Nutrient agar ...
Koske, P.H.; Ohlrogge, K.; Denzinger, H.
Besides basic considerations about the problem of Uranium extraction from seawater system studies on process engineering and marine technology approaches are presented. In addition the present and future developments in the Federal Republic of Germany are discussed in somewhat more detail. (orig.) [de
SPS long straight section (LSS) with a series of 5 septum tanks for slow extraction (view in the direction of the proton beam). There are 2 of these: in LSS2, towards the N-Area; in LSS6 towards the W-Area. See also Annual Report 1975, p.175.
One of the 3-m long electrostatics septa. The septum itself consists of 0.15 mm thick molybdenum wires with a 1.5 mm pitch. Each of the two SPS extraction systems will contain four of these electrostatic septa.
Antiprotons, decelerated in LEAR to a momentum of 100 MeV/c (kinetic energy of 5.3 MeV), were delivered to the experiments in an "Ultra-Slow Extraction", dispensing some 1E9 antiprotons over times counted in hours. Beam-splitters and a multitude of beam-lines allowed several users to be supplied simultaneously.
This paper addresses the problem of cleaning actinides from geomedia. In the past actinides were often released to the ground because of their tendency to bind tightly to forms of geomedia, and in addition spills have occurred over time. To remediate these areas involves finding ways to either guarantee the retention of the actinides in the geomedia, or finding ways to extract them and leave the soils clean. One possible way to clean soils is to wash them, which in order to extract actinides means the use of ligands which bind competitively with actinides in the presence of soil fractions. An array of organic ligands is known which bind with actinides, but the larger problem of handling these ligands in a manner which allows concentration of the actinides is still open. The author addresses work to bind such ligands to different types of matrices which can then be used in packed extraction columns to remove actindes from flow streams, and finally concentrated, by using minimal volume backflushing to extract the actinides from the column
Feyisa, Gudina Legese; Meilby, Henrik; Fensholt, Rasmus
of various sorts of environmental noise and at the same time offers a stable threshold value. Thus we introduced a new Automated Water Extraction Index (AWEI) improving classification accuracy in areas that include shadow and dark surfaces that other classification methods often fail to classify correctly...
Ivanova, Natalia V; Kuzmina, Maria L; Braukmann, Thomas W A; Borisenko, Alex V; Zakharov, Evgeny V
DNA-based testing has been gaining acceptance as a tool for authentication of a wide range of food products; however, its applicability for testing of herbal supplements remains contentious. We utilized Sanger and Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) for taxonomic authentication of fifteen herbal supplements representing three different producers from five medicinal plants: Echinacea purpurea, Valeriana officinalis, Ginkgo biloba, Hypericum perforatum and Trigonella foenum-graecum. Experimental design included three modifications of DNA extraction, two lysate dilutions, Internal Amplification Control, and multiple negative controls to exclude background contamination. Ginkgo supplements were also analyzed using HPLC-MS for the presence of active medicinal components. All supplements yielded DNA from multiple species, rendering Sanger sequencing results for rbcL and ITS2 regions either uninterpretable or non-reproducible between the experimental replicates. Overall, DNA from the manufacturer-listed medicinal plants was successfully detected in seven out of eight dry herb form supplements; however, low or poor DNA recovery due to degradation was observed in most plant extracts (none detected by Sanger; three out of seven-by NGS). NGS also revealed a diverse community of fungi, known to be associated with live plant material and/or the fermentation process used in the production of plant extracts. HPLC-MS testing demonstrated that Ginkgo supplements with degraded DNA contained ten key medicinal components. Quality control of herbal supplements should utilize a synergetic approach targeting both DNA and bioactive components, especially for standardized extracts with degraded DNA. The NGS workflow developed in this study enables reliable detection of plant and fungal DNA and can be utilized by manufacturers for quality assurance of raw plant materials, contamination control during the production process, and the final product. Interpretation of results should involve an
Natalia V Ivanova
Full Text Available DNA-based testing has been gaining acceptance as a tool for authentication of a wide range of food products; however, its applicability for testing of herbal supplements remains contentious.We utilized Sanger and Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS for taxonomic authentication of fifteen herbal supplements representing three different producers from five medicinal plants: Echinacea purpurea, Valeriana officinalis, Ginkgo biloba, Hypericum perforatum and Trigonella foenum-graecum. Experimental design included three modifications of DNA extraction, two lysate dilutions, Internal Amplification Control, and multiple negative controls to exclude background contamination. Ginkgo supplements were also analyzed using HPLC-MS for the presence of active medicinal components.All supplements yielded DNA from multiple species, rendering Sanger sequencing results for rbcL and ITS2 regions either uninterpretable or non-reproducible between the experimental replicates. Overall, DNA from the manufacturer-listed medicinal plants was successfully detected in seven out of eight dry herb form supplements; however, low or poor DNA recovery due to degradation was observed in most plant extracts (none detected by Sanger; three out of seven-by NGS. NGS also revealed a diverse community of fungi, known to be associated with live plant material and/or the fermentation process used in the production of plant extracts. HPLC-MS testing demonstrated that Ginkgo supplements with degraded DNA contained ten key medicinal components.Quality control of herbal supplements should utilize a synergetic approach targeting both DNA and bioactive components, especially for standardized extracts with degraded DNA. The NGS workflow developed in this study enables reliable detection of plant and fungal DNA and can be utilized by manufacturers for quality assurance of raw plant materials, contamination control during the production process, and the final product. Interpretation of results should
Carlson, Kurt C [Nashville, TN; Langer, Roger L [Hudson, WI
A wet-laid, porous solid phase extraction sheet material that contains both active particles and binder and that possesses excellent wet strength is described. The binder is present in a relatively small amount while the particles are present in a relatively large amount. The sheet material is sufficiently strong and flexible so as to be pleatable so that, for example, it can be used in a cartridge device.
Detailed technical information derived from patents issued since 1975 on extractive metallurgy is presented. In part one, concerning copper, the major areas covered are: smelting and roasting; acid leaching; ammonia leach processes; cuprous chloride and ferric chloride; and recovery of copper values from solution. Part two covers other metals, including: nickel and cobalt; ocean floor nodules; lead, zinc, molybdenum and manganese; precious metals; and uranium titanium, tantalum, rhenium, gallium, and other metals
James, G.S.; Davidson, R.J.
A process for extracting gold and uranium from an ore containing them both comprising the steps of pulping the finely comminuted ore with a suitable cyanide solution at an alkaline pH, acidifying the pulp for uranium dissolution, adding carbon activated for gold recovery to the pulp at a suitable stage, separating the loaded activated carbon from the pulp, and recovering gold from the activated carbon and uranium from solution
Middleton, P.; Smith, J.R.
In pulsed columns for use in solvent extraction processes, e.g. the reprocessing of nuclear fuel, the horizontal perforated plates inside the column are separated by interplate spacers manufactured from metallic neutron absorbing material. The spacer may be in the form of a spiral or concentric circles separated by radial limbs, or may be of egg-box construction. Suitable neutron absorbing materials include stainless steel containing boron or gadolinium, hafnium metal or alloys of hafnium. (UK)
Baydoun, S.; Al-Oudat, M.; Al-Achkar, W.
Several studies show that the extracts of some plants, namely containing vitamins or sulfide components, have radioprotection properties against the effects of ionizing radiation. In Syria, many of hates plants are available. This experiment was conducted in order to test the ability of ten different plants to protect against the radiation damages. These plants are Daucus carota L., Brassica oleracea L, Aloe vera L., Opuntia ficus-indica, Allium cepa L., Capsicum annuum L., Scilla maritima L., Allium sativum L., Rubus sanctus L. and Rosa canina L.Their effects on the protection of E. Coli growth after the exposure to L.D 50 of gamma radiation (100 Gy) were investigated . Two concentrations to each plant extract were tested, both were than 1%. Our results are indicating that the protection depend on plant. The radioprotection factors were ranged between 1.42 to 2.39. The best results were obtained by using the extract of Allium sativum L. (2.01), Opuntia ficus-indica (2.14) and Capsiucum annuum L. (2.39). (author) 16 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs
Baydoun, S.; Al-Oudat, M.; Al-Achkar, W.
Several studies show that the extracts of some plants, namely containing vitamins or sulfide components, have radioprotection properties against the effects of ionizing radiation. In Syria, many of hates plants are available. This experiment was conducted in order to test the ability of ten different plants to protect against the radiation damages. These plants are Daucus carota L., Brassica oleracea L, Aloe vera L., Opuntia ficus-indica, Allium cepa L., Capsicum annuum L., Scilla maritima L., Allium sativum L., Rubus sanctus L. and Rosa canina L.Their effects on the protection of E. Coli growth after the exposure to L.D 50 of gamma radiation (100 Gy) were investigated . Two concentrations to each plant extract were tested, both were than 1%. Our results are indicating that the protection depend on plant. The radioprotection factors were ranged between 1.42 to 2.39. The best results were obtained by using the extract of Allium sativum L. (2.01), Opuntia ficus-indica (2.14) and Capsiucum annuum L. (2.39). (author)
Edward Burke; Norm Slavik; Tony Bonura; Dennis Connelly; Tom Faris; Arnie Nebelsick; Brent Stuart; Sam Williams; Alex C. Wiedenhoeft
Color, odor, and natural durability of heartwood are characteristics imparted by a class of chemicals in wood known collectively extractives. Wood is converted by the tree from sapwood to heartwood by the deposition of extractives, typically many years after the growth ring undergoing this change was formed by the tree. Extractives are thus not a part of the wood...
Crane, R. B.; Crimmins, T.; Reyer, J. F.
A method is presented for feature extraction of multispectral scanner data. Non-training data is used to demonstrate the reduction in processing time that can be obtained by using feature extraction rather than feature selection.
Hellegers, P.J.G.J.; Zilberman, D.; Ierland, van E.C.
Agricultural shallow groundwater extraction can result in desiccation of neighbouring nature reserves and degradation of groundwater quality in the Netherlands, whereas both externalities are often not considered when agricultural groundwater extraction patterns are being determined. A model is
Resonant slow extraction at the SSC will permit fixed-target operation. Stochastic extraction appears to be a promising technique for achieving spill times of the order of 1000 s. However, systematic sextupole error fields in the SSC dipoles must be reduced a factor of twenty from the design values; otherwise the extraction process will be perturbed or suppressed. In addition, good regulation of the SSC power supplies is essential for smooth extraction over the spill period. 10 refs., 1 fig
Full Text Available Marine bioactive substances extracted from seaweed are currently used in food, animal feed, as a raw material in the industry and have therapeutic applications. Most of the products based on marine algae are extracted from Brown algae Ascophyllum nodosum. The use of extracts of seaweed in agriculture is beneficial because the amount of chemical fertilizers and obtaining organic yield.
Shen, Warren H.
This dissertation studies information extraction (IE), the problem of extracting structured information from unstructured data. Example IE tasks include extracting person names from news articles, product information from e-commerce Web pages, street addresses from emails, and names of emerging music bands from blogs. IE is all increasingly…
A. A. Boyko
Full Text Available One of the most common nematodes of ruminants is Strongyloides papillosus (Wedl, 1856. Disease caused by these parasites brings economic losses to livestock operations. Therefore it is necessary to control their numbers. The eggs and three larval stages of S. papillosus live in the environment, while the fourth, fifth and mature individuals live in host organisms. Control of these parasites is necessary at all stages of development, including the free-living stage. An experiment on changes in the number strongiloids under the influence of environmental factors was carried out using aqueous extracts of medicinal plants. In the laboratory experiment we researched the effect on the survival of invasive and noninvasive types of S. papillosus larvae of 24 hours exposure at different doses to Artemisia absinthium Linnaeus, 1753, Artemisia annua Linnaeus, 1753, Echinacea purpurea (Linnaeus, 1753 Moench, 1794, Matricaria chamomilla Linnaeus, 1753, Tanacetum vulgare Linnaeus, 1753, Salvia sclarea Linnaeus, 1753, Levisticum officinale W.D.J. Koch, 1824, Petroselinum crispum (Miller, 1768 Nyman ex A.W. Hill, 1925. The death of 50% of S. papillosus invasive larvae was registered at 464 ± 192 mg/l concentration of aqueous extract of S. sclarea inflorescences. The greatest effect up-on the non-invasive larvae was caused by aqueous extracts of inflorescences of S. sclarea, M. chamomilla and seeds of P. crispum: at concentrations of 327 ± 186, 384 ± 155 and 935 ± 218 mg/l, respectively, 50% of non-invasive larvae died. According to the results of the research, we suggest further study of the nematocidal activity of combinations, contained in the aboveground parts, of clary sage (S. sclarea, camomile (M. chamomilla and seeds of parsley (P. crispum, and also experimental usage of these species in the fodder compound for cattle, sheep, goats and pigs on experimental farms.
Barreiro, A.J.; Hollemann, R.A.; Lyon, W.L.; Randell, C.C.
The invented method to clean the commercial wet-method phosphoric acid - as pretreatment stage in the recovery of uranium - can be carried out at low capital and operational costs and requires little maintenance. In order to recover 0.2 g uranium which are contained in 1 litre of phosphoric acid solution obtained from the wet process, the solution is firstly largely cleared and cleaned. A cleaning agent, essentially of hydrocarbon with a boiling point between 150 and 300 0 C, reacts with the remaining slurry-forming impurities in the acid and enables these to be separated off in a solvent-extraction mixer separator with the slurry. Kerosine is used as cleaning agent in wet-process phosphoric acid with humus impurities. The same process can also be used with oxidation or reduction extraction separation methods to obtain uranium from industrial crude wet phosphoric acid solutions. Comparing a flow sheet each of a known method of separating uranium and the new one as according to the invention, one can see the attained simplification and probable cost reduction. (RW) [de
Full Text Available Five cultivars of hop were extracted by the method of supercritical fluid extraction using carbon dioxide (SFE–CO2 as extractant. The extraction (50 g of hop sample using a CO2 flow rate of 97.725 L/h was done in the two steps: 1. extraction at 150 bar and 40°C for 2.5 h (sample of series A was obtained and, after that, the same sample of hop was extracted in the second step: 2. extraction at 300 bar and 40 °C for 2.5 h (sample of series B was obtained. The Magnum cultivar was chosen for the investigation of the extraction kinetics. For the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the obtained hop extracts, the GC-MS method was used. Two of four themost common compounds of hop aroma (a-humulene and b-caryophyllene were detected in samples of series A. In addition, isomerized a-acids and a high content of b-acids were detected. The a-acids content in the samples of series B was the highest in the extract of the Magnum cultivar (it is a bitter variety of hop. The low contents of a-acids in all the other hop samples resulted in extracts with low a-acids content, i.e., that contents were under the prescribed a-acids content.
Oxygen, whether used as part of rocket bipropellant or for astronaut life support, is a key consumable for space exploration and commercialization. In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) has been proposed many times as a method for making space exploration more cost effective and sustainable. On planetary and asteroid surfaces the presence of minerals in the regolith that contain oxygen is very common, making them a potential oxygen resource. The majority of research and development for oxygen extraction from minerals has been for lunar regolith although this work would generally be applicable to regolith at other locations in space. This presentation will briefly survey the major methods investigated for oxygen extraction from regolith with a focus on the current status of those methods and possible future development pathways. The major oxygen production methods are (1) extraction from lunar ilmenite (FeTiO3) with either hydrogen or carbon monoxide, (2) carbothermal reduction of iron oxides and silicates with methane, and (3) molten regolith electrolysis (MRE) of silicates. Methods (1) and (2) have also been investigated in a two-step process using CO reduction and carbon deposition followed by carbothermal reduction. All three processes have byproducts that could also be used as resources. Hydrogen or carbon monoxide reduction produce iron metal in small amounts that could potentially be used as construction material. Carbothermal reduction also makes iron metal along with silicon metal and a glass with possible applications. MRE produces iron, silicon, aluminum, titanium, and glass, with higher silicon yields than carbothermal reduction. On Mars and possibly on some moons and asteroids, water is present in the form of mineral hydrates, hydroxyl (-OH) groups on minerals, andor water adsorbed on mineral surfaces. Heating of the minerals can liberate the water which can be electrolyzed to provide a source of oxygen as well. The chemistry of these processes, some key
... the influence of alcohol concentration (50, 70 and 90 % v/v), extraction time (2, 6 and 10 h), and particle size of the herbal drug (0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 mm) on the pH, dry residue and myrsinoic acid B (MAB) content of hydroalcoholic extracts by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. Results: For the extracts, ...
Peterman, Dean R [Idaho Falls, ID; Klaehn, John R [Idaho Falls, ID; Harrup, Mason K [Idaho Falls, ID; Tillotson, Richard D [Moore, ID; Law, Jack D [Pocatello, ID
Methods of separating actinides from lanthanides are disclosed. A regio-specific/stereo-specific dithiophosphinic acid having organic moieties is provided in an organic solvent that is then contacted with an acidic medium containing an actinide and a lanthanide. The method can extend to separating actinides from one another. Actinides are extracted as a complex with the dithiophosphinic acid. Separation compositions include an aqueous phase, an organic phase, dithiophosphinic acid, and at least one actinide. The compositions may include additional actinides and/or lanthanides. A method of producing a dithiophosphinic acid comprising at least two organic moieties selected from aromatics and alkyls, each moiety having at least one functional group is also disclosed. A source of sulfur is reacted with a halophosphine. An ammonium salt of the dithiophosphinic acid product is precipitated out of the reaction mixture. The precipitated salt is dissolved in ether. The ether is removed to yield the dithiophosphinic acid.
Josa, J.M.; Merino, J.L.
The Nuclear Fusion National Program depends on lithium supplies. Extractive metallurgy development is subordinate to the localization and evaluation of ore resources. Nowadays lithium raw materials usable with present technology consist of pegmatite ore and brine. The Instituto Geologico y Minero Espanol (IGME) found lepidolite, ambligonite and spodrimene in pegmatite ores in different areas of Spain. However, an evaluation of resources has not been made. Different Spanish surface and underground brines are to be sampled and analyzed. If none of these contain significant levels of lithium, the Junta de Energia Nuclear (JEN) will try an agreement with IGME for ENUSA (Empresa Nacional del Uranio, S.A.) to explore pegmatite-ore bodies from different locations. Different work stages, laboratory tests, pilots plants tests and commercial plant, are foreseen, if the deposits are found. (author)
In 1983 the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD/NEA) and the IAEA jointly published a book on Uranium Extraction Technology. A primary objective of this report was to document the significant technological developments that took place during the 1970s. The purpose of this present publication is to update and expand the original book. It includes background information about the principle of the unit operations used in uranium ore processing and summarizes the current state of the art. The publication also seeks to preserve the technology and the operating 'know-how' developed over the past ten years. This publication is one of a series of Technical Reports on uranium ore processing that have been prepared by the Division of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Management at the IAEA. A complete list of these reports is included as an addendum. Refs, figs and tabs
Full Text Available It is well known that growth and morphogenesis of plant tissue cultures can be improved by small amounts of some organic compounds. Heterocyclic compounds such as chromanones and thiazoles derivatives, valuable because of their potential biological activities, have also been reported as pesticides, herbicides and plant-growth regulators. In the present study, different concentrations of chromanones and thiazoles derivatives were employed to evaluate their effects on plantlets growth of Ocimum basilicum L. and Echinacea purpurea L. The studied compounds were proved to be growth inhibitors at high concentrations. A growth stimulation effect was registered at low concentration.
Paranich, A.V.; Pochernyaeva, V.F.; Dubinskaya, G.M.; Mishchinko, V.P.; Mironova, N.G.; Gugalo, V.P.; Nazarets, V.V.
In experiments with mature Wistar male rats under irradiation by dose of 5 Gy the effect of emoxypine, citomedine and echinacea purpurea on the content of liposoluble vitamin A, carotene, vitamin E and its metabolites (quinone and oxidized tocopherol) in blood plasma, spleen, liver and testes was studied. It was shown the drugs under study mobilized the internal reserves of these vitamins and promoted effective functioning of vitamin E redox system. Mechanisms of their action are different. The drugs might be used as radioprotectors, but they exhaust the reserves of the liposoluble vitamins. Therefore they should be used in a combination with vitamin preparations
Araujo Figueiredo, C. de
Uranium is recovered from the phosphoric liquor produced from the concentrate obtained from phosphorus-uraniferous mineral from Itataia mines (CE, Brazil). The proposed process consists of two extraction cycles. In the first one, uranium is reduced to its tetravalent state and then extracted by dioctylpyrophosphoric acid, diluted in Kerosene. Re-extraction is carried out with concentrated phosphoric acid containing an oxidising agent to convert uranium to its hexavalent state. This extract (from the first cycle) is submitted to the second cycle where uranium is extracted with DEPA-TOPO (di-2-hexylphosphoric acid/tri-n-octyl phosphine oxide) in Kerosene. The extract is then washed and uranium is backextracted and precipitated as commercial concentrate. The organic phase is recovered. Results from discontinuous tests were satisfactory, enabling to establish operational conditions for the performance of a continuous test in a micro-pilot plant. (Author) [pt
Gaikwad, R.H.; Jayaram, R.V.
Tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) was first used as an extractant in 1944, during Manhattan project for the separation of actinides and further explored by Warf in 1949 for the extraction of Ce(IV) from aqueous nitric acid. TBP was further used as an extractant in the Plutonium Uranium Recovery by Extraction (PUREX) process. To meet the stringent requirements of the nuclear industry TBP has been extensively investigated. In spite of its wide applicability, TBP suffers from various disadvantages such as high aqueous solubility, third phase formation, chemical and radiation degradation leading to the formation of undesired products. It also suffers from incomplete decontamination of the actinides from fission products. Various attempts have been made to overcome the problems associated with TBP by way of using higher homologues of TBP such as Tri-iso amyl phosphate (TiAP), Tri-secondary butyl phosphate (TsBP), Tri amyl phosphate (TAP). It was found that in some cases the results were considerably better than those obtained with TBP for uranium/thorium extraction. The extraction of nitric acid by TBP and its higher homologues which are symmetrical are well documented. However, no solvent has emerged clearly superior than TBP. Here in we report the extraction of nitric acid with neutral unsymmetrical phosphates and study them as extractants for the extraction of nitric acid. Dibutyl secbutyl phosphate, dibutyl pentyl phosphate and dibutyl heptyl phosphate were synthesised for this purpose and the extraction of nitric acid was studied in n-dodecane. The results indicate that the substitution of one of the alkyl groups of the symmetrical phosphate adjacent to the phosphoryl (P=O) group of the phosphate does not have any pronounced effect on the extraction capacity of nitric acid. (author)
Gjelstad, Astrid; Rasmussen, Knut Einar; Parmer, Marthe Petrine
This paper reports development of a new approach towards analytical liquid-liquid-liquid membrane extraction termed parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction. A donor plate and acceptor plate create a sandwich, in which each sample (human plasma) and acceptor solution is separated by an arti...... by an artificial liquid membrane. Parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction is a modification of hollow-fiber liquid-phase microextraction, where the hollow fibers are replaced by flat membranes in a 96-well plate format....
P. N. Savvin
Full Text Available Anthocyanins red pigments that give color a wide range of fruits, berries and flowers. In the food industry it is widely known as a dye a food additive E163. To extract from natural vegetable raw materials traditionally used ethanol or acidified water, but in same technologies it’s unacceptable. In order to expand the use of anthocyanins as colorants and antioxidants were explored extracting pigments alcohols with different structures of the carbon skeleton, and the position and number of hydroxyl groups. For the isolation anthocyanins raw materials were extracted sequentially twice with t = 60 C for 1.5 hours. The evaluation was performed using extracts of classical spectrophotometric methods and modern express chromaticity. Color black currant extracts depends on the length of the carbon skeleton and position of the hydroxyl group, with the alcohols of normal structure have higher alcohols compared to the isomeric structure of the optical density and index of the red color component. This is due to the different ability to form hydrogen bonds when allocating anthocyanins and other intermolecular interactions. During storage blackcurrant extracts are significant structural changes recoverable pigments, which leads to a significant change in color. In this variation, the stronger the higher the length of the carbon skeleton and branched molecules extractant. Extraction polyols (ethyleneglycol, glycerol are less effective than the corresponding monohydric alcohols. However these extracts saved significantly higher because of their reducing ability at interacting with polyphenolic compounds.
Demonstration of a passive vapor extraction remediation system is planned for sites in the 200 West Area used in the past for the disposal of waste liquids containing carbon tetrachloride. The passive vapor extraction units will consist of a 4-in.-diameter pipe, a check valve, a canister filled with granular activated carbon, and a wind turbine. The check valve will prevent inflow of air that otherwise would dilute the soil gas and make its subsequent extraction less efficient. The granular activated carbon is used to adsorb the carbon tetrachloride from the air. The wind turbine enhances extraction rates on windy days. Passive vapor extraction units will be designed and operated to meet all applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements. Based on a cost analysis, passive vapor extraction was found to be a cost-effective method for remediation of soils containing lower concentrations of volatile contaminants. Passive vapor extraction used on wells that average 10-stdft 3 /min air flow rates was found to be more cost effective than active vapor extraction for concentrations below 500 parts per million by volume (ppm) of carbon tetrachloride. For wells that average 5-stdft 3 /min air flow rates, passive vapor extraction is more cost effective below 100 ppm
Full Text Available A method of extraction of natural products has been developed. Compared with existing methods, the new technique is rapid, more efficient and consumes less solvent. Extraction of alkaloids from natural products such as Hyoscyamus muticus, Datura stramonium and Ruta graveolens consists of the use of a sonicated solution containing a surfactant as extracting agent. The alkaloids are precipitated by Mayer reagent, dissolved in an alkaline solution, and then extracted with chloroform. This article compares the results obtained with other methods showing clearly the advantages of the new method.
Chem. 9: 63-69. Freire CSR, Pinto PCR, Santiago AS,. Silvestre AJD, Evtuquin DV and Neto. CP 2006a Comparative study of lipophilic extractives of hardwoods and corresponding ECF bleached kraft pulps. BioResources. 1: 3-17. Freire CSR, Silvestre AJD and Neto CP. 2005. Lipophilic extractives in. Eucalyptus globulus.
Lipophilic wood extractives composition is currently a big concern of pulp and paper industries as well as for the environmentalists due to their negative impacts on the quality of pulp and the environment. Because of the shortcomings of different extraction procedures using volatile organic solvents in capturing residual ...
Garde, J A; Catalá, R; Gavara, R
Maximal potential migration of six antioxidants (AO) from five polypropylene (PP) formulations was determined by two supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) procedures, both of which contained static and dynamic steps. All analytical conditions affecting the extraction were studied and optimized using Irgafos 168 as standard. SFE was more efficient as temperature and fluid density increased. During the static step in which the samples were exposed to the fluid without flux, the introduction of hexane and methanol as fluid modifiers significantly improved the extraction. Hexane appears to facilitate polymer swelling while methanol solvates the antioxidants. In the dynamic step (in which the extraction actually occurs) time is the key parameter. Extraction for 90 min results in an efficiency of around 75%. The introduction of modifiers during this step (by an HPLC-SFE procedure) did not produce any significant improvement. When SFE was carried out on all samples, extraction efficiency was around 75% except for Irganox 1010 and Hostanox O3. The large molecular volume of these antioxidants may be responsible for the considerable reduction of extraction efficiency. Particle size and shape of polymer sample were also important. The greater the surface to volume ratio the greater the extraction efficiency.
Manjón, José V.; Eskildsen, Simon F.; Coupé, Pierrick; Romero, José E.; Collins, D. Louis; Robles, Montserrat
Automatic and accurate methods to estimate normalized regional brain volumes from MRI data are valuable tools which may help to obtain an objective diagnosis and followup of many neurological diseases. To estimate such regional brain volumes, the intracranial cavity volume (ICV) is often used for normalization. However, the high variability of brain shape and size due to normal intersubject variability, normal changes occurring over the lifespan, and abnormal changes due to disease makes the ICV estimation problem challenging. In this paper, we present a new approach to perform ICV extraction based on the use of a library of prelabeled brain images to capture the large variability of brain shapes. To this end, an improved nonlocal label fusion scheme based on BEaST technique is proposed to increase the accuracy of the ICV estimation. The proposed method is compared with recent state-of-the-art methods and the results demonstrate an improved performance both in terms of accuracy and reproducibility while maintaining a reduced computational burden. PMID:25328511
José V. Manjón
Full Text Available Automatic and accurate methods to estimate normalized regional brain volumes from MRI data are valuable tools which may help to obtain an objective diagnosis and followup of many neurological diseases. To estimate such regional brain volumes, the intracranial cavity volume (ICV is often used for normalization. However, the high variability of brain shape and size due to normal intersubject variability, normal changes occurring over the lifespan, and abnormal changes due to disease makes the ICV estimation problem challenging. In this paper, we present a new approach to perform ICV extraction based on the use of a library of prelabeled brain images to capture the large variability of brain shapes. To this end, an improved nonlocal label fusion scheme based on BEaST technique is proposed to increase the accuracy of the ICV estimation. The proposed method is compared with recent state-of-the-art methods and the results demonstrate an improved performance both in terms of accuracy and reproducibility while maintaining a reduced computational burden.
Rosa Sharon Suhono
Full Text Available Background: Many researches were done to find natural materials that may increase and promote bone healing processes after trauma and surgery. One of natural material that had been studied was soybean extract which contains phytoestrogen, a non-steroidal compounds found in plants that may binds to estrogen receptors and have estrogen-like activity. Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of soybean extract feeding on the number of osteoblast cells in alveolar bone socket after mandibular tooth extraction. Methods: This study was studied on male Rattus norvegicus strain Wistar. Seventeen rats divided into three groups were used in this study. Group 1 fed with carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC solution 0,2% for seven days, and the left mandibular central incisivus was extracted; group 2 fed with soybean extract for seven days and the left mandibular central incisives was extracted; group 3 received the left mandibular central incisives extraction followed by soybean extract feeding for seven days after the extraction. All groups were sacrificed on the seventh day post-extraction, and the alveolar bone sockets were taken for histopathological observation. The tissues were processed and stained using hematoxylin and eosin to identify the amount of osteoblast cells. The number of osteoblast cells was counted using an Image Tool program. The data was analyzed statistically using the One-Way ANOVA test. Results: Significant differences were found on the number of osteoblast cells in alveolar bone after tooth extraction between groups. Group 2 (fed with soybean extract is higher than group 1 (fed with CMC and group 3 (fed with soybean extract after extraction. Conclusion: Soybean extract feeding that given for seven days pre-tooth extraction can increase the number of osteoblast cells compared with the group that were not given soybean extract feeding and also with the group that were given soybean extract feeding for seven days post
Pažoutová, Sylvie; Raybould, A. F.; Honzátko, Aleš; Kolínská, Renáta
Roč. 106, č. 2 (2002), s. 210-214 ISSN 0953-7562 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/99/0517 Keywords : chemotypes * based * alkaloids Subject RIV: ee - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.306, year: 2002
Jul 17, 2012 ... results were then fit to the quadratic model by adding the data from the second design. In the quadratic equations for each variable (Table 3), the p value exhibited a fit to a second-order model. These models aid in predicting how response will vary as a function of the values assigned each variable (X1, X2) ...
Van Der Linde, E.J.; Pešicová, Kamila; Pažoutová, Sylvie; Stodůlková, Eva; Flieger, Miroslav; Kolařík, Miroslav
Roč. 120, č. 8 (2016), s. 917-930 ISSN 1878-6146 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-00788S; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Alkaloids * Cyperaceae * Phylogeny Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.184, year: 2016
Rusu, M A; Tamas, M; Puica, C; Roman, Ioana; Sabadas, Mihaela
The effect of ten phytotherapeutic products on CCl(4) intoxicated liver in albino male Wistar rats was investigated. Biochemical parameters, including serum transaminase activity (GPT and GOT), histoenzymological measurements (lactate dehydrogenase, LDH; succinate dehydrogenase, SDH, cytochromoxidase, CyOx; Mg(2+)-dependent adenosine triphosphatase, ATP-ase) and histochemical (Sudan black) and histological examinations (haematoxylin-eosin staining) of the liver were investigated. Some positive effects such as the reduction of hepatocytolysis and steatosis, and a return to normal values of the activity of some enzymes in the following plants: Chrysanthemum balsamita, Echinacea pallida, Calendula officinalis and Corylus avelana were obtained. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Bajopas Volume 7 Number 1 June, 2014. Table 7: Antibacterial Activity of Leaf Extracts of Acacia nilotica. Key: PER = Perfloxacin, REC = Recophin, 0 = No Activity. Diameter of Zones of Inhibition (mm)/ Extracts Concentration (µg/disc). Bacterial. Isolates. Ethanol. Methanol. Chloroform. Petroleum. Ether. Chloroform. Water.
In an extraction process for extracting values from a first stream into a substantially immiscible second stream using a multi-compartmental rotary contactor, unwanted solids formed in the contactor and discharged at least partly with the the first stream are separated and re-entered into the contactor intermediate the points at which the streams are discharged. (author)
A pair of prototype septum magnets for the extraction systems of the SPS. Each of the two extraction systems will contain eighteen of these septum magnets (eight with a 4 mm septum and ten with a 16 mm septum) mounted in pairs in nine vacuum tanks.
Pantera, Eugene A., Jr.; Schuster, George S.
At present, there is no specific recommendation for sterilization of extracted human teeth used in dental technique courses. The purpose of this study was to determine whether autoclaving would be effective in the sterilization of extracted teeth without compromising the characteristics that make their use in clinical simulations desirable. (MLW)
Seip, Knut Fredrik; Jensen, Henrik; Kieu, Thanh Elisabeth
Electromembrane extraction (EME) was performed on samples containing substantial amounts of NaCl to investigate how the presence of salts affected the recovery, repeatability, and membrane current in the extraction system. A group of 17 non-polar basic drugs with various physical chemical...
A study has been carried out for the extraction of uranium from phosphoric acid produced in Algeria. First of all, the Algerian phosphoric acid produced in Algeria by SONATRACH has been characterised. This study helped us to synthesize a phosphoric acid that enabled us to pass from laboratory tests to pilot scale tests. We have then examined extraction and stripping parameters: diluent, DZEPHA/TOPO ratio and oxidising agent. The laboratory experiments enabled us to set the optimum condition for the choice of diluent, extractant concentration, ratio of the synergic mixture, oxidant concentration, redox potential. The equilibrium isotherms lead to the determination of the number of theoretical stages for the uranium extraction and stripping of uranium, then the extraction from phosphoric acid has been verified on a pilot scale (using a mixer-settler)
The main design goals for beam injection are explained and special problems related to a central region with internal ion source are considered. The principle of a PIG source is addressed. The issue of vertical focusing in the cyclotron centre is briefly discussed. Several examples of numerical simulations are given. Different ways of (axial) injection are briefly outlined. A proposal for a magnetostatic axial inflector is given. Different solutions for beam extraction are treated. These include the internal target, extraction by stripping, resonant extraction using a deflector and self-extraction. The different ways of creating a turn-separation are explained. The purpose of different types of extraction devices such as harmonic coils, deflectors and gradient corrector channels are outlined. Several illustrations are given in the form of photographs and drawings.
Simultaneous extraction of copper and indium with chelate extractants (LIX84 and D2E11PA) was described. Stechiometry of metal-organic complexes examined using the method of equimolar ratios resulted in CuR 2 and InR 3 forms of hydrophobic extracting species. A linear correlation was obtained between logarithm of distribution coefficients and chelate agents and pH, respectively. Selectivity is generally higher with higher concentrations of chelate agents in the organic phase, and is decreased with increase of concentration of hydrogen ions in feeding phase. (Original)
Starshov, M.; Starshov, I.
The work performed in the field of natural bitumen extraction is aimed at maximum separation of organic phase. On treating bituminous rocks with solvents, the associated metals are extracted together with the organic phase and may further exert a negative effect on refining of natural bitumen. the authors propose a simplified two stage technique for the extraction of bitumen which enables to utilize V and Ni contained in the concentrate of the second stage extraction (Table). At the first stage, negative bitumen is extracted with the summary content of metals not exceeding 0.005%. This allows to avoid de metallization of native bitumen and subject it to treatment by catalytic cracking. during this stage gasoline and kerosene fractions, different oil distillates and condensates can be used as solvents. at the second stage, aromatic and halo id compounds bearing wastes and by-products, i.e. cheap and non deficient reagents, serve as solvents. The technology was tested under laboratory conditions using Tatar bituminous sands. It is also possible to use one solvent only, however, on condition that at first the oil product with the summary metal content below 0.005%, and then the remaining product is extracted. The proposed technology has proved so universal that it can be applied to refining any type of raw material to be found in the territory of the Tatar republic, using surface extraction complexes. (author). 9 refs., tab
Full Text Available Abstract The influences of extractants concentrations and solvent polarity on the efficiency of pantothenic acid separation by synergic extraction with tri-n-octylamine (TOA and di(2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid (D2EHPA mixture have been analyzed. The results indicated the formation of an interfacial compound which includes one molecule of pantothenic acid and one of D2EHPA, its hydrophobicity being increased by solvation with additional TOA molecules. For solvents with lower dielectric constants, n-heptane and n-butyl acetate, the number of amine molecules participating in the interfacial complex formation was controlled by solvent polarity and D2EHPA concentration, decreasing with the increase of these two parameters. For dichloromethane, the chemical structure of the extracted compound remained the same regardless of D2EHPA concentration. The most important synergic effect corresponded to the extractant mixture dissolved in n-heptane, at low D2EHPA concentration in the organic phase (5 g/l.
Basuki, K.T.; Sudibyo, R.; Bambang EHB; Muhadi, A.W.
To increase the effectiveness of extraction process with so for to occur, it was tried the extraction with a couple of extraction and stripping process. This couple process was called liquid membrane emulsion. As membrane was used mix surfactant (Span-80), tributylphosphate in kerosene, natrium carbonate, while as a feeder was uranium solution with 500 concentration ppm in 0.5 - 3 M nitrate acid. In this experiment the variable investigated were % surfactant (1 - 5 %), rotary speed for membrane making (2,500 - 10.000 rpm). The optimal condition result of experiment were 5 % surfactant, 3 M nitrate acid, rotary speed 10.000 rpm and (Kd eksU ) 57 %, and (Kd strippU ) 87 %, Kd eksU at liquid-liquid extraction is 44 %. (author)
This study addresses the problem of randomization of subjects with respect to an irreversible aspect of treatment strategy, namely, the extraction of teeth. The investigation includes both prospective and retrospective components. The data presented focus on clinician decision-making. Of the 1321 potential subjects for whom records were taken, 250 met the inclusion criteria. Of these subjects, 82 declined to participate and 20 were dropped because of difficulty in obtaining five independent evaluations of their records within a reasonable time frame. Thus, the final sample contained 148 subjects. Approximately one-third of the subjects in the sample are adult, somewhat more than half are female, and Class I malocclusions outnumber Class II malocclusions by a count of 95 to 53. Patterns of agreement and disagreement among five clinicians include: a) agreement/disagreement on the primary decision whether or not to extract: the data reveal a strong tendency towards consensus among the clinicians; b) agreement/disagreement on extraction pattern in patients in whom the clinician believes that extraction is indicated: the clinicians tended strongly to agree on extraction pattern; c) agreement/disagreement on the need for adjunctive orthognathic surgery: decisions favoring surgery were more common and more 'definite' than 'probable' in the adult cohort than in the adolescent cohort but this tendency was not as strong as had been anticipated; d) agreement/disagreement concerning Angle classification: disagreements were more common than had been anticipated; and e) differences among the individual clinicians as to their ratios of extraction/non-extraction decisions: overall, clinicians opted for extraction less frequently in the adolescent cohort than in the adult cohort (55 vs. 66%). Because the data are drawn from actual clinical experience, the conclusions involve a number of assumptions and their generalizability should be evaluated.
The separation of plutonium from aqueous inorganic acid solutions by the use of a water immiscible organic extractant liquid is described. The plutonium must be in the oxidized state, and the solvents covered by the patent include nitromethane, nitroethane, nitropropane, and nitrobenzene. The use of a salting out agents such as ammonium nitrate in the case of an aqueous nitric acid solution is advantageous. After contacting the aqueous solution with the organic extractant, the resulting extract and raffinate phases are separated. The plutonium may be recovered by any suitable method.
Ginisty, C.; Bathellier, A.
The process developed is an improvement of the process using the synergetic mixture HD2 EHP/TOPO for uranium VI extraction. Better performances are obtained by introduction of oxygen in alkyl radicals of organophosphorus extractants by etheroxide functions. For industrial use the synergetic mixture di-n-hexyl octoxy methyl phosphine/hydrogeno-bis-di-1,3 butoxy-2-propyl phosphate is selected. Extraction coefficient is 3 times better than with the HD2 EHP/TOPO system. The complete process in one cycle was tested in a pilot plant with a flow rate of 60 l/h in phosphoric acid [fr
... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vanilla extract. 169.175 Section 169.175 Food and... § 169.175 Vanilla extract. (a) Vanilla extract is the solution in aqueous ethyl alcohol of the sapid and odorous principles extractable from vanilla beans. In vanilla extract the content of ethyl alcohol is not...
Preliminary phytochemical studies of the plant extracts reveals that Richardia brasiliensis water extract contains mainly tannin while its ethanol extract possess antraquinone, flavonoid, pholbatannin, saponins and steroids. The water extract of Brachystegia eurycoma has tannin mainly while its ethanol extract has flavonoid ...
Lee, K Paul
It is suggested that lingually-positioned lower lateral incisors in young children are anatomically correct and not a symptom of crowding. Primary canines with intact periodontal attachments have an important role to play as proprioceptors to encourage growth of the alveolar arch. Extractions of primary cuspids would deprive the alveolus of important growth stimuli. Clinical evidence suggests that serial extraction is counter-productive. The early extraction of primary cuspids will invariably result in crowding of the permanent cuspids. It is a common belief that serial extraction corrects the crowding of lower incisors but the procedure is not evidence based. In reality, the problem is maintained and the 'crowding' shifts to involve the permanent cuspids. Let us not forget the most basic canon of the health profession which is 'first do no harm, and if it is not broken, do not try to fix it'.
The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is a second generation pulsed neutron source (1.5 MW) and is presently in the sixth year of a seven-year construction cycle at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The operation of the facility will begin in 2006. The most stringent requirement for the SNS accelerator complex is to allow hands-on maintenance. Operational experiences show that the most losses occur in the injection and extraction. SNS accumulator ring injection and extraction has been design with grate care to reduce uncontrolled losses. Injection systems consist of fast programmable kicker magnets and DC dump magnets to paint the beam in transverse phase space. Extraction systems consist of fast kicker magnets and a Lamberton magnet to extract beam in single turn. Paper will discuss design, construction and testing of these devices.
Which way does the current flow ? This intriguing object is the coil for the LEAR extraction septum. There were two septa, first a thin one, then this one, not so thin, somewhat on the borderline between septum and bending magnet.
This issue paper identifies issues and summarizes experiences with soil vapor extraction (SVE) as a remedy for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in soils. The issues presented here reflect discussions with over 30 Remedial Project Managers (RPMs)...
Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) MRDSVT is an extract from the Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS) covering the State of Vermont only. MRDS database contains the records provided...
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data extraction tool contains the non confidential identities of chemical substances submitted under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA). TSCA was enacted...
Galloway, Devin L.
Subsidence induced by underground extraction is a class of human-induced (anthropogenic) land subsidence that principally is caused by the withdrawal of subsurface fluids (groundwater, oil, and gas) or by the underground mining of coal and other minerals.
Harvey, W. A; Cochran, Steven D; McKeown, David M
.... It also supports direct extraction of 3D information along the path of the road. Determination of road elevation has significant implications for reducing cost and time in applications requiring cartographic features with full 3D attribution...
Venkatesan, M.; Gopalakrishnan, V.; Ramanujam, A.; Nadkarni, M.N.
An extractive spectrophotometric method has been standardized for the analysis of 0.2 to 1.6 milligrams of thorium present in nitric acid solutions. The method involves the extraction of thorium from nitric acid solutions into 0.5 M thenoyl trifluoro acetone (HTTA) in benzene and its direct estimation from the organic extract by spectrophotometry as Thoron colour complex. In this method, interference due to iron upto 5 milligrams can be suppressed by adding ascorbic acid in the ratio of 1:2 prior to HTTA extraction. Uranium(VI) does not interefere even when present in 2000 times the amount of thorium. Plutonium and cerium do not interfere at one milligram level whereas zirconium interferes in this method. The overall error variation and precision of this method has been determined to be +- 3.5%. (author)
stop at the surface extraction of events, as is the case for many existing bio -event extraction tasks. With a general deep language...We describe below several extensions to the gen- eral TRIPS system to better handle the text char - acteristics of the biomedical literature. 3.1. Genre...lexical entries with appropriate syntactic templates and semantic re- strictions to distinguish the everyday and bio - logical senses of the words. 3.4
Full Text Available Introduction: In times of worsening civilization diseases the interest in natural healing substances is on the increase. To reduce unwanted side effects of many synthetic drugs, it is reasonable to introduce to the daily diet foods rich in natural compounds of plant origin that are beneficial for health. The purpose of the study was to determine the biological activity and stability of selected ethanol extracts of the fruit of chokeberry, blackcurrant, hawthorn, rosehip, quince and Japanese quince as potential nutraceuticals.Materials and methods: Antioxidant activity of the extracts was determined in relation to model phospholipid membranes (IC50 PC. Antiradical activity was determined in a test with the DPPH• radical (IC50 DPPH. Also the inhibition of enzymatic (1-LOX oxidation of linoleic acid was determined at the beginning of the period of storage of the extracts at room temperature and after 12 months. Results: After 12 months of storage the highest antioxidant stability was shown by blackcurrant extract (1.5% increase in IC50 PC, the highest antiradical stability by quince extract (1.0% reduction in IC50 DPPH, and the highest stability of 1-LOX enzyme inhibition by chokeberry extract (6.3% reduction in inhibition at a concentration of 8 μg∙ml-1. Japanese quince extract showed the strongest regenerating properties with respect to oxidized phospholipid membranes and the highest ability to eliminate the free radical DPPH•. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the ethanol extracts of the fruits (in particular blackcurrant, chokeberry and Japanese quince are a potential source of dietary supplements of expected effectiveness in preventive treatment.
Patel, Iti; Bielicki, Jeffrey; Buscheck, Thomas
Geothermal heat, though renewable, can be depleted over time if the rate of heat extraction exceeds the natural rate of renewal. As such, the sustainability of a geothermal resource is typically viewed as preserving the energy of the reservoir by weighing heat extraction against renewability. But heat that is extracted from a geothermal reservoir is used to provide a service to society and an economic gain to the provider of that service. For heat extraction used for market commodities, sustainability entails balancing the rate at which the reservoir temperature renews with the rate at which heat is extracted and converted into economic profit. We present a model for managing geothermal resources that combines simulations of geothermal reservoir performance with natural resource economics in order to develop optimal heat mining strategies. Similar optimal control approaches have been developed for managing other renewable resources, like fisheries and forests. We used the Non-isothermal Unsaturated-saturated Flow and Transport (NUFT) model to simulate the performance of a sedimentary geothermal reservoir under a variety of geologic and operational situations. The results of NUFT are integrated into the optimization model to determine the extraction path over time that maximizes the net present profit given the performance of the geothermal resource. Results suggest that the discount rate that is used to calculate the net present value of economic gain is a major determinant of the optimal extraction path, particularly for shallower and cooler reservoirs, where the regeneration of energy due to the natural geothermal heat flux is a smaller percentage of the amount of energy that is extracted from the reservoir.
Hoffman, J.M.; Patterson, E.L.; Tisone, G.C.; Moreno, J.B.
Energy extraction experiments are reported for the Phoenix I amplifier driven by a discharge-initiated oscillator-preamplifier system operating on mixtures of either SF 6 -HI or SF 6 -C 2 H 6 and an electron-beam-initiated intermediate amplifer (lambda-3) fueled with H 2 and F 2 mixtures. When the oscillator-preamplifier system operated with mixtures of SF 6 -HI the input spectrum to the Phoenix I amplifier contained approx. 28 P-branch vibrational-rotational lines which were almost identical to the input spectrum from the H 2 -F 2 fueled oscillator. In this case the energy extraction measurements were essentially the same as the results obtained with the spectrum produced using H 2 and F 2 mixtures. For an input intensity of 10 7 W/cm 2 , 170 J were extracted from the amplifier. With the SF 6 -C 2 H 6 spectrum, extraction was only obtained from the first three excited vibrational levels. This result indicates that most of the energy in the amplifier could be extracted on the first three excited vibrational levels. It is shown that the extraction results can be fit with a simple two level model. The radius of curvature of the beam was estimated using a lateral shearing interferometer. It was found that the Phoenix I amplifier altered the radius of curvature
... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Stabilizers § 182.7255 Chondrus extract. (a) Product. Chondrus extract (carrageenin). (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...
Comprehensive comparison of classic Soxhlet extraction with Soxtec extraction, ultrasonication extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, microwave assisted extraction and accelerated solvent extraction for the determination of polychlorinated biphenyls in soil.
Sporring, Sune; Bøwadt, Søren; Svensmark, Bo; Björklund, Erland
This paper compares the extraction effectiveness of six different commonly applied extraction techniques for the determination of PCBs in soil. The techniques included are Soxhlet, Soxtec, ultrasonication extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, microwave-assisted extraction and accelerated solvent extraction. For none of the techniques were the extraction conditions optimized, but instead the extraction parameters were based on the experience from previous successful investigation published by a number of research groups worldwide. In general, all extraction techniques were capable of producing accurate data for one native PCB contaminated soil diluted with another soil sample to obtain two concentration levels. It could therefore be concluded that any of the investigated techniques can be used with success if the extraction conditions applied are chosen wisely.
Rodrigues, Delane da C.; Cunha, Arcelina P.; Oliveira, Williara Q. de; Gallao, Maria Izabel; Azeredo, Henriette M. C de
Different seeds are rich in polysaccharides, which are widely used in research and in industry. The objective was to extract galactomannan from mesquite seeds (Prosopis juliflora) and evaluate their chemical properties for future application in edible films. To test the feasibility of using the polysaccharide, the yield was obtained and the material analyzed by Thermal Analysis (TGA-Thermogravimetric Analysis and Calorimetry Differential Scanning-DSC), Spectroscopy Infrared Region Fourier Transform (FTIR) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR). According to the results, the galactomannan was equivalent with the polysaccharides extracted from other sources except for the low yield (6.6%). (author)
Levine, C.A.; Skiens, W.E.; Moore, G.R.
A process for providing superior solvent extractants for metal recovery processes is given wherein the extractant comprises an alkyl pyrophosphoric acid ester dissolved in an organic solvent diluent. Finely divided solid P/sub 2/O/ sub 5/ is slurried in an organic solvent-diluent selected from organic solvents such as kerosene, benzene, chlorobenzene, toluene, etc. An alcohol selected from the higher alcohols having 4 to 17 carbon atoms. e.g.. hexanol-1. heptanol-3, octanol-1. 2.6-dimethyl-heptanol-4, and decanol-1, is rapidly added to the P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ slurry in the amount of about 2 moles of alcohol to 1 mole of P/sub 2/ O/sub 5/. The temperature is maintained below about 110 deg C during the course of the P/sub 2/O/sub 5/-alcohol reaction. An alkyl pyrophosphate extractant compound is formed as a consequence of the reaction process. The alkyl pyrophosphate solvent-diluent extractant phase is useful in solvent extraction metal recovery processes.
Cassiano Spaziani Pereira
Full Text Available Propolis has been ground in various areas of science, but its application in agriculture, is a recent and almost unknown subject. In agronomy work mainly seek to explore the antibiotic and antifungal properties of propolis, but other uses have been proposed, such as plant nutrition, pest control (such as mites and even reducing water stress in plants. Despite numerous utilities proven and proposals, there are many questions, particularly for the preparation of the extract, most appropriate chemical composition for a particular use, application forms, crude propolis extract in percentages, dose minimum efficiency, efficiency, etc. Given the above, the purpose of this literature review is to present the origin and chemical composition of propolis, making methodology of propolis extract, more effective dose in the control of fungi, plant pathogenic bacteria and reduce water stress. During the study, it can be seen that the difference in propolis composition occurs mainly due to the variability of vegetable composition in the vicinity of the hive, the bees forage and chemical composition is quite complex and variable in terms of both concentration and chemicals gifts. In the extraction, there are still many gaps to be studied, including the best way to obtain the extract, with questions about the best puller, with lack of consensus in the literature. On the efficiency of this technology, there are numerous studies with promising results, which allow implementation of technology in the field and these jobs concentrated in coffee crops, beans, cucumber and tomato.
Kraus, George A; Bae, Jaehoon; Schuster, Jessica
In order to provide an authentic standard and to generate pure material for biological testing, an efficient synthetic route to 1 was developed. This represents the first total synthesis of a major bioactive diynone from E. pallida.
Kraus*, George A.; Bae, Jaehoon; Schuster, Jessica
In order to provide an authentic standard and to generate pure material for biological testing, an efficient synthetic route to 1 was developed. This represents the first total synthesis of a major bioactive diynone from E. pallida.
Ahmad, Mahmoud Al
The monitoring and early detection of abnormalities or variations in the cardiac cycle functionality are very critical practices and have significant impact on the prevention of heart diseases and their associated complications. Currently, in the field of biomedical engineering, there is a growing need for devices capable of measuring and monitoring a wide range of cardiac cycle parameters continuously, effectively and on a real-time basis using easily accessible and reusable probes. In this paper, the revolutionary generation and extraction of the corresponding ECG signal using a piezoelectric transducer as alternative for the ECG will be discussed. The piezoelectric transducer pick up the vibrations from the heart beats and convert them into electrical output signals. To this end, piezoelectric and signal processing techniques were employed to extract the ECG corresponding signal from the piezoelectric output voltage signal. The measured electrode based and the extracted piezoelectric based ECG traces are well corroborated. Their peaks amplitudes and locations are well aligned with each other.
Feb 22, 2010 ... changes in liver tissues were related in a dose-dependent manner to methanol extract of aerial parts. Phytolacca americana concentrations. Doses of 50, 100 mg/kg caused significant (P < 0.05) histo- pathological changes. Keywords: Phytolacca americana, Liver perfusion, Kerbs-Henseleit buffer, ...
Ascari, Matthew [Lockheed Martin Corporation, Bethesda, MD (United States)
The Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization (OTEEV) project focuses on assessing the Maximum Practicably Extractable Energy (MPEE) from the world’s ocean thermal resources. MPEE is defined as being sustainable and technically feasible, given today’s state-of-the-art ocean energy technology. Under this project the OTEEV team developed a comprehensive Geospatial Information System (GIS) dataset and software tool, and used the tool to provide a meaningful assessment of MPEE from the global and domestic U.S. ocean thermal resources.
Wada, Yukio; Morimoto, Kyoichi.
The present invention concerns a device for separating neptunium and plutonium from highly radioactive liquid wastes, in which valance control by irradiation of UV rays and extraction operation by using an organic solvent can be conducted simultaneously in the same reaction vessel. Namely, a step of irradiating UV rays to the liquid in the reaction vessel to control the valence of predetermined materials and a step of separating the materials by conducting solvent-extraction while stirring with a solvent are conducted simultaneously or successively. Then, facilities for the separation method can be reduced and the operation steps can be simplified. (N.H.)
Muschaweck, Julius; Wiesmann, Christopher
`External quantum efficiency', that is, the number of photons generated per electron passing through the p-n junction of an LED is probably the most important number to quantify the performance of an LED chip. Although advances in epitaxy have increased the fraction of radiative recombination to extremely high values, the extraction of the precious photons that are trapped in a high refractive index crystal is still tricky. In this brief tutorial, we look at the physics of light extraction both from a geometrical optics/thermodynamic and a wave optics point of view, discussing both random and deterministic surface structures.
Quan Aiguo; Li Yu; Li Congkui; Ouyang Jiangong
The stope leaching is an effective way to extract uranium from hard rock deposit. On the basis of test results of uranium extracting by stope leaching at ore body number 30 in deposit 101 with combination of technological features of stope leaching, the analysis and comprehensive summary are emphasized on three key techniques-ore stacking in-place after blasting in stope, sprinkling of lixiviant and uranium recovery as well. These techniques will play an active role in developing stope leaching in China
Xu, Yong-Quan; Ji, Wei-Bin; Yu, Peigen; Chen, Jian-Xin; Wang, Fang; Yin, Jun-Feng
The physicochemical properties of tea extracts are significantly affected by the extraction method. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of static and dynamic extractions on the concentrations of chemical components and taste quality of green tea extracts. Our results show that extraction of chemical components using static extraction follows a pseudo-second-order reaction, while that of dynamic extraction follows a first-order reaction. The concentrations of the solids, polyphenols, and free amino acids in green tea extract prepared by dynamic extraction were much higher, although the overall yields were not significantly different between the two extraction methods. Green tea extracts obtained via dynamic extraction were of lower bitterness and astringency, as well and higher intensities of umami and overall acceptability. These results suggest that dynamic extraction is more suitable for the processing of green tea concentrate because of the higher concentration of green tea extract. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bauduin, Pierre; Bauer, Caroline; Bance, Amelie; Gassin, Gaelle; Diat, Olivier; Zemb, Thomas
Solvent extraction is based on aqueous phase/oil/extractant systems with the extractant being exclusively soluble in oil and which perform the extraction of ions (or salts) from the aqueous phase. The present contribution aims at investigating solvent extraction systems using a classical approach in surfactant science. The discussion is based on the description of the phase diagrams topology and on molecular geometrical considerations. A thermodynamic model was developed by considering the packing constraints of extractant molecules in the film forming extractant reverse micelles present in oil. It enabled the prediction of water solubility in the reverse micelles as well as the size of the micelles obtained experimentally. (authors)
Determination of hexabromocyclododecane diastereoisomers in Sargassum fusiforme and comparison of the extraction efficiency of ultrasonication, microwave-assisted extraction, Soxhlet extraction and pressurised liquid extraction.
Han, Chao; Chen, Xiaomei; Xie, Wen; Zhu, Zhenou; Liu, Cuiping; Chen, Fan; Shen, Yan
The concentrations of hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCD) in Sargassum fusiforme, the common Chinese edible seaweed, were investigated by LC-MS/MS. For the recovery of HBCD, the efficiency levels of ultrasonic-assisted extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, Soxhlet extraction and pressurised liquid extraction were compared under different conditions. Pressurised liquid extraction and ultrasonic-assisted extraction resulted in complete extraction of HBCD (92.7-102.5% recovery). Microwave-assisted extraction and Soxhlet extraction, on the other hand, offered relatively low extraction recoveries (82.1-90.6%). The instrumental LODs on columns in this study were 1.0, 0.3 and 0.7 ng/g for α-HBCD, β-HBCD and γ-HBCD, respectively. Because of its accuracy, this straightforward method is particularly suitable for routine HBCD analysis.
Stangegaard, Michael; Ferrero, Laura; Børsting, Claus
Extraction of DNA using magnetic bead based techniques on automated DNA extraction instruments provides a fast, reliable and reproducible method for DNA extraction from various matrices. However, the yield of extracted DNA from FTA-cards is typically low. Here, we demonstrate that it is possible...... to repeatedly extract DNA from the processed FTA-disk. The method increases the yield from the nanogram range to the microgram range....
The paper presents an overview of methods for extracting useful information from digital images. It covers various approaches that utilized different properties of images, like intensity distribution, spatial frequencies content and several others. A few case studies including isotropic...... and heterogeneous, congruent and non-congruent images are used to illustrate how the described methods work and to compare some of them...
B. S. Chandravanshi
ketone (MIBK) extractable yellow nickel(II)-methyldithiocarbamate complex at 380 nm through the reaction with carbon disulfide and ... health due to direct exposure or through residues in the food and drinking water . Carbaryl ... methylamine and its subsequent reaction with carbon disulfide and nickel(II) acetate to form.
Qureshi, Pir Abdul Rasool; Memon, Nasrullah
We present a statistical model for content extraction from HTML documents. The model operates on Document Object Model (DOM) tree of the corresponding HTML document. It evaluates each tree node and associated statistical features to predict significance of the node towards overall content of the ...... also describe the significance of the model in the domain of counterterrorism and open source intelligence....
Karst, Søren Michael; Nielsen, Per Halkjær; Albertsen, Mads
Talk regarding pitfalls in DNA extraction and 16S amplicon primer choice when performing community analysis of complex microbial communities. The talk was a part of Workshop 2 "Principles, Potential, and Limitations of Novel Molecular Methods in Water Engineering; from Amplicon Sequencing to -omi...
Sirbu, Dorinela; Secui, Ana; Dascalu, Mihai; Crossley, Scott; Ruseti, Stefan; Trausan-Matu, Stefan
Opinion mining and sentiment analysis are a trending research domain in Natural Language Processing focused on automatically extracting subjective information, feelings, opinions, ideas or emotions from texts. Our study is centered on identifying sentiments and opinions, as well as other latent
Katoh, Shunsaku; Sugasaka, Kazuhiko
70 % of the earth surface is covered by sea, and the total quantity of seawater is 1.4 x 10 18 m 3 . More than 70 elements are contained in seawater, but only salt, magnesium, gypsum and bromine with relatively high concentration have been utilized so far. The uranium concentration in seawater is as low as 3 ppb, but as the total amount, 4 billion tons are dissolved in seawater. The estimated uranium deposit on land which can be mined at the cost below $130/kg is 2.6 million tons, and its depletion may come by the end of this century. Only ion exchange method is usable as the economically feasible method of extracting uranium from natural water, and the enrichment factor must be more than 10 5 . FThe research on uranium extraction from water performed so far is reviewed. In the Government Industrial Research Institute, Shikoku, it was found that the compound adsorbent of titanium-activated carbon was excellent for the purpose, and by this method, it successfully extracted 0.7 g of uranium from seawater in 1978. The adsorption method is considered to be most easily realizable in view of the rate of recovery of uranium, easy handling, the stability in seawater and so on. The present status and future prospect of the research on uranium extraction from seawater are reported. (Kako, I.)
Malmary, G.; And Others
As part of a project focusing on techniques in industrial chemistry, students carry out experiments on separating copper from cobalt in chloride-containing aqueous solution by liquid extraction with triisoctylamine solvent and search the literature on the separation process of these metals. These experiments and the literature research are…
Karst, Søren Michael; Nielsen, Per Halkjær; Albertsen, Mads
Talk regarding pitfalls in DNA extraction and 16S amplicon primer choice when performing community analysis of complex microbial communities. The talk was a part of Workshop 2 "Principles, Potential, and Limitations of Novel Molecular Methods in Water Engineering; from Amplicon Sequencing to -omics...
Hyde, E.K.; Katzin, L.I.; Wolf, M.J.
A process is described for separating protactinium from thorium present together as the nitrates in a 0.1 to 10 N nitric acid solution. The separation is carried out by extraction with an aliphatic alcohol, ketone, and/or ester having at least six carbon atoms, such as n-amyl acetate, 2-ethyl hexanol, and diisopropyl ketone.
B.A.M. Ben Schouten; Paul M. de Zeeuw
Fast and successful searching for an object in a multimedia database is a highly desirable functionality. Several approaches to content based retrieval for multimedia databases can be found in the literature [9,10,12,14,17]. The approach we consider is feature extraction. A feature can be seen as a
B.A.M. Schouten (Ben); P.M. de Zeeuw (Paul)
htmlabstractFast and successful searching for an object in a multimedia database is a highly desirable functionality. Several approaches to content based retrieval for multimedia databases can be found in the literature [9,10,12,14,17]. The approach we consider is feature extraction. A feature can
Extracts of several British butterfly species were tested and shown to possess powerful bactericidal activity against the gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). The active compounds were identified as hydroxylated pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) related to loline with nitrogen at C-...
spermatogenic activity similar to that of the whole plant which was shown previously to inhibit spermatogenesis. Methods: T. officinale aqueous extract was prepared by soaking 100 g of dried materials in 1 L distilled water for two days at 45 oC. Fifty adult ...
Uranium is extracted from underground deposits by passing an aqueous oxidizing solution of carbon dioxide over the ore in the presence of calcium ions. Complex uranium carbonate or bicarbonate ions are formed which enter the solution. The solution is forced to the surface and the uranium removed from it
Анастасія Миколаївна Берестяна
Full Text Available Досліджено динаміку зменшення вмісту антоціанів у процесі старіння пелюсток Ipomoea purpurea, яка характеризує швидкість деградаційних процесів у клітині. Проаналізовано вплив різних доз УФ-В-опромінення на швидкість вікової деградації антоціанів. Показано, що в межах дослідженого діапазону, УФ-опромінення тільки одна доза - 12,6 кДж/м2 сприяла уповільненню темпів розпаду антоціанів. Обговорено вірогідні механізми, що пов`язують старіння і деградацію пігментів.
Pafilis, Evangelos; Buttigieg, Pier Luigi; Ferrell, Barbra
The microbial and molecular ecology research communities have made substantial progress on developing standards for annotating samples with environment metadata. However, sample manual annotation is a highly labor intensive process and requires familiarity with the terminologies used. We have...
Full Text Available After near 70 years of practical usage, solvent extraction is a perfectly mastered technique of separation, widely used on an industrial scale for the separation of metals mainly from raw materials. However, currently, in the era of depleting natural resources and increasingly less accessible deposits, environmental restrictions, etc., an increasing interest, both from social and economical constrains, is being directed at the extraction of metals from the secondary sources (such as batteries, electronic scrap. In many cases, solvent extraction, due to its operational characteristics, can be considered as the Best Available Technology for the purpose of separating multielemental metal solutions. This paper provides a brief overview of past achievements and present scenario of solvent extraction investigations and developments, describing some recently commissioned solvent extraction plants, whereas the Skorpion Zinc plant (Namibia for zinc extraction from raw materials and caesium removal from radioactive High Level Wastes (HLWs are told over in detail as case studies. The paper also presents some proposals for the use of liquid-liquid extraction to separate metal ions from secondary sources (e.g. cobalt from industrial waste streams. The review highlights the emerging use of ionic liquids as new extractants for metals, providing an insight into this exciting research field. Despite its detractors, solvent extraction has entered in force into XXI century as a leading separation technology for metals.Después de casi 70 años de uso práctico, la extracción líquido-líquido o extracción con disolventes es una técnica de separación muy evolucionada, utilizándose a escala industrial en el beneficio de metales obtenidos de diversas materias primas. Sin embargo, con el agotamiento de los recursos naturales y el aumento de depósitos minerales de más difícil acceso, restricciones medio ambientales, etc., ha aumentado el interés, tanto desde
El - nadi, Y.A.M.
A recent possible route for treatment of small amounts of neutron irradiated uranium from alkaline medium was addressed. This have some advantages related to the isolation of many troublesome fission products which forms insoluble carbonates or hydroxides upon alkaline carbonate dissolution of uranium oxide. In alkaline solution containing sodium carbonate and hydroxide, hexavalent uranium is expected to be dissolved in solution whereby most of the fission products transition elements exemplified by zirconium and niobium as well as trivalent lanthanides and actinides will be precipitated. Therefore, in this medium the solution will contain mainly alkali and alkaline earth metal such as Cs + and Sr 2+ and anionic fission products such as pertechnetates and antimonates, Which can be easily separted from uranium. Therefore, The present thesis is directed to investigate the following; 1 - solubility of uranium oxide in alkaline medium consists of sodium carbonate and sodium hydroxide in presence of oxidizing agent. 2 - Extraction of uranium from the aforementioned alkaline medium by immiscible organic diluent containing different amine extractants. 3 - Extraction behaviour of uranium by the macroporous anion exchanger, amberlite IRA - 410, from alkaline solution
Zulhaimi, H. I.; Rosli, I. R.; Kasim, K. F.; Akmal, H. Muhammad; Nuradibah, M. A.; Sam, S. T.
In recent year, bioactive compound in plant has become a limelight in the food and pharmaceutical market, leading to research interest to implement effective technologies for extracting bioactive substance. Therefore, this study is focusing on extraction of Averrhoabilimbi by different extraction technique namely, maceration and ultrasound-assisted extraction. Fewplant partsof Averrhoabilimbiweretaken as extraction samples which are fruits, leaves and twig. Different solvents such as methanol, ethanol and distilled water were utilized in the process. Fruit extractsresult in highest extraction yield compared to other plant parts. Ethanol and distilled water have significant role compared to methanol in all parts and both extraction technique. The result also shows that ultrasound-assisted extraction gave comparable result with maceration. Besides, the shorter period on extraction process gives useful in term of implementation to industries.
Andrade, Sania M.B. de; Ladchumananandasivam, Rasiah
The biopolymers are materials made from renewable sources such as soybean, corn, cane sugar, cellulose and chitin. Chitin is the most abundant biopolymer found in nature, after cellulose. The chemical structure of chitin is distinguished by the hydroxyl group, of structure from cellulose, located at position C-2, which in the chitin is replaced by acetamine group. The objective of this study was to develop the chitin from exoskeletons of Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp, which are discarded as waste, causing pollutions, environmental problems and thus obtain better utilization of these raw materials. It also, show the extraction process and deacetylation of chitosan. The extraction of chitin followed steps of demineralization, desproteinization and deodorization. Chitin and chitosan were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the thermals properties were analyzed by thermogravimetry (TG/DTG). (author)
Azuola, Rocio; Vargas, Pedro
Different compounds present in vegetables with functional or technological properties, have gained great importance in food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic markets. Efficient methods, economical and environment friendly are sought for the extraction of these substances. A literature review has been performanced of recent publications on different extraction methods and their comparison to the ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE) to assess their effectiveness and industrial viability. The ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE) has been found to be more efficient than traditional mining methods, and cheaper and easier than non-traditional extraction methods such as microwave-assisted extraction, so it checks its industrial viability. (author) [es
Al-Saati, Najla; Abdul-Jaleel, Raghda
Requirements traceability is an essential step in ensuring the quality of software during the early stages of its development life cycle. Requirements tracing usually consists of document parsing, candidate link generation and evaluation and traceability analysis. This paper demonstrates the applicability of Statistical Term Extraction metrics to generate candidate links. It is applied and validated using two data sets and four types of filters two for each data set, 0.2 and 0.25 for MODIS, 0...
The extraction system for the N-Area is located in LSS2 (another one for the W-Area, now abandoned, was in LSS6). The electrostatic septum consists of 4 parts, each 3 m long. It is made of W-wires, 0.12 mm thick. The nominal electric field is 100 kV/cm. See also Annual Report 1975, p.175.
Gambogi, Joseph (USGS, Reston, VA); Gerdemann, Stephen J.
In 1998, approximately 57,000 tons of titanium metal was consumed in the form of mill products (1). Only about 5% of the 4 million tons of titanium minerals consumed each year is used to produce titanium metal, with the remainder primarily used to produce titanium dioxide pigment. Titanium metal production is primarily based on the direct chlorination of rutile to produce titanium tetrachloride, which is then reduced to metal using the Kroll magnesium reduction process. The use of titanium is tied to its high strength-to-weight ratio and corrosion resistance. Aerospace is the largest application for titanium. In this paper, we discuss all aspects of the titanium industry from ore deposits through extraction to present and future applications. The methods of both primary (mining of ore, extraction, and purification) and secondary (forming and machining) operations will be analyzed. The chemical and physical properties of titanium metal will be briefly examined. Present and future applications for titanium will be discussed. Finally, the economics of titanium metal production also are analyzed as well as the advantages and disadvantages of various alternative extraction methods.
Fearnside, P.M (National Institute for Research in the Amazon, Manaus-Amazonas (Brazil))
In 1985 an opportunity arose for maintaining tracts of Amazonian forest under sustainable use. Brazil's National Council of Rubber Tappers and the Rural Worker's Union proposed the creation of a set of reserves of a new type, called extractive reserves. The first six are being established in one of the Brazilian states most threatened by deforestatation. The creation of extractive reserves grants legal protection to forest land traditionally used by rubber tappers, Brazil-nut gatherers, and other extractivists. The term extrativismo (extractivism) in Brazil refers to removing nontimber forest products, such as latex, resins, and nuts, without felling the trees. Approximately 30 products are collected for commercial sale. Many more types of forest materials are gathered, for example as food and medicines, for the extractivists' own use. The reserve proposal is attractive for several reasons related to social problems. It allows the rubber tappers to continue their livelihood rather than be expelled by deforestation. However, it is unlikely that sufficient land will be set aside as extractive reserves to employ all the tappers. Displaced rubber tappers already swell the ranks of urban slum dwellers in Brazil's Amazonian cities, and they have become refugees to continue their profession in the forests of neighboring countries, such as Bolivia.
Christopher A. Wada
Full Text Available With climate change exacerbating over-exploitation, groundwater scarcity looms as an increasingly critical issue worldwide. Minimizing the adverse effects of scarcity requires optimal as well as sustainable patterns of groundwater management. We review the many sustainable paths for groundwater extraction from a coastal aquifer and show how to find the particular sustainable path that is welfare maximizing. In some cases the optimal path converges to the maximum sustainable yield. For sufficiently convex extraction costs, the extraction path converges to an internal steady state above the level of maximum sustainable yield. We describe the challenges facing groundwater managers faced with multiple aquifers, the prospect of using recycled water, and the interdependence with watershed management. The integrated water management thus described results in less water scarcity and higher total welfare gains from groundwater use. The framework also can be applied to climate-change specifications about the frequency, duration, and intensity of precipitation by comparing before and after optimal management. For the case of South Oahu in Hawaii, the prospect of climate change increases the gains of integrated groundwater management.
Garib, Daniela Gamba; Bressane, Larissa Borges; Janson, Guilherme; Gribel, Bruno Frazão
The objectives of this study were to evaluate the prevalence and long-term behavior of extraction space reopening in patients with Class I malocclusion and to identify some associated factors. A sample of 43 patients met the inclusion criteria. Dental casts at the onset of treatment, after treatment, and 1 and 5 years after debonding were used. Initial and final cephalometric radiographs were used to measure the amount of incisor retraction. Cochran tests were used to compare the numbers of open and closed extraction spaces after treatment and at 1 and 5 years after debonding (P space reopening with t tests. Of the sample, 30.23% had extraction space reopening. The frequency of open spaces significantly increased between the final and the 1-year posttreatment dental casts and decreased between the casts at 1 and 5 years posttreatment. Patients with space reopening had less initial anterior crowding and greater amounts of mandibular incisor retraction during treatment. There was a high prevalence of space reopening 1 year after treatment. However, these spaces tended to decrease by 5 years after treatment. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Drábková, Lenka Záveská
With the expansion of molecular techniques, the historical collections have become widely used. Studying plant DNA using modern molecular techniques such as DNA sequencing plays an important role in understanding evolutionary relationships, identification through DNA barcoding, conservation status, and many other aspects of plant biology. Enormous herbarium collections are an important source of material especially for specimens from areas difficult to access or from taxa that are now extinct. The ability to utilize these specimens greatly enhances the research. However, the process of extracting DNA from herbarium specimens is often fraught with difficulty related to such variables as plant chemistry, drying method of the specimen, and chemical treatment of the specimen. Although many methods have been developed for extraction of DNA from herbarium specimens, the most frequently used are modified CTAB and DNeasy Plant Mini Kit protocols. Nine selected protocols in this chapter have been successfully used for high-quality DNA extraction from different kinds of plant herbarium tissues. These methods differ primarily with respect to their requirements for input material (from algae to vascular plants), type of the plant tissue (leaves with incrustations, sclerenchyma strands, mucilaginous tissues, needles, seeds), and further possible applications (PCR-based methods or microsatellites, AFLP).
Extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and organochlorine pesticides from soils: a comparison between Soxhlet extraction, microwave-assisted extraction and accelerated solvent extraction techniques.
Wang, Wentao; Meng, Bingjun; Lu, Xiaoxia; Liu, Yu; Tao, Shu
The methods of simultaneous extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) from soils using Soxhlet extraction, microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) were established, and the extraction efficiencies using the three methods were systemically compared from procedural blank, limits of detection and quantification, method recovery and reproducibility, method chromatogram and other factors. In addition, soils with different total organic carbon contents were used to test the extraction efficiencies of the three methods. The results showed that the values obtained in this study were comparable with the values reported by other studies. In some respects such as method recovery and reproducibility, there were no significant differences among the three methods for the extraction of PAHs and OCPs. In some respects such as procedural blank and limits of detection and quantification, there were significant differences among the three methods. Overall, ASE had the best extraction efficiency compared to MAE and Soxhlet extraction, and the extraction efficiencies of MAE and Soxhlet extraction were comparable to each other depending on the property such as TOC content of the studied soil. Considering other factors such as solvent consumption and extraction time, ASE and MAE are preferable to Soxhlet extraction.
Guertler, Patrick; Eicheldinger, Adelina; Muschler, Paul; Goerlich, Ottmar; Busch, Ulrich
In recent years, honey has become subject of DNA analysis due to potential risks evoked by microorganisms, allergens or genetically modified organisms. However, so far, only a few DNA extraction procedures are available, mostly time-consuming and laborious. Therefore, we developed an automated DNA extraction method from pollen in honey based on a CTAB buffer-based DNA extraction using the Maxwell 16 instrument and the Maxwell 16 FFS Nucleic Acid Extraction System, Custom-Kit. We altered several components and extraction parameters and compared the optimised method with a manual CTAB buffer-based DNA isolation method. The automated DNA extraction was faster and resulted in higher DNA yield and sufficient DNA purity. Real-time PCR results obtained after automated DNA extraction are comparable to results after manual DNA extraction. No PCR inhibition was observed. The applicability of this method was further successfully confirmed by analysis of different routine honey samples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
McLernon, Brian; Kushmerick, Nicholas
.... We present TPLEX, a semi-supervised learning algorithm for information extraction that can acquire extraction patterns from a small amount of labelled text in conjunction with a large amount of unlabelled text...
Full Text Available Decision to extract or not and the type of tooth must be analyzed carefully in orthodontic treatment. Preferable tooth to be extracted was the tooth with large caries or restoration. Usually the type of tooth to be extracted was second molar (if the third molar appears, incisor, first molar, and combination of several teeth. Orthodontic treatment with molar extraction is more difficult to treat and the result is usually compromise. There are several considerations in extracting first molar such as tooth with large caries or restoration, hypoplasia, periapical disease, large discrepancy, high maxilla-mandibular plane angle, and cases with anterior open bite. Nowadays, orthodontic cases with molar extraction do not prolong the treatment time compared to premolar extraction case, but the anchorage system must be considered carefully. The present case was treated with extraction of first molar to solve anterior crowding with maximum anchorage at the upper jaw and using Nance Holding Appliance.
Mastin, G.A.; Ghiglia, D.C.
Two basic techniques for extracting interferogram contours have been discussed. The first is a global contour extracton technique based on the fast Fourier transform. The second extracts individual contours with a thinning algorithm using logical neighborhood transformations
Ray, Eric S.; Varela, Jose G.
Data from the Orion and several other test programs have been used to reconstruct inflation parameters for 28 ft Do extraction parachutes as well as the parent aircraft pitch response during extraction. The inflation force generated by extraction parachutes is recorded directly during tow tests but is usually inferred from the payload accelerometer during Low Velocity Airdrop Delivery (LVAD) flight test extractions. Inflation parameters are dependent on the type of parent aircraft, number of canopies, and standard vs. high altitude extraction conditions. For standard altitudes, single canopy inflations are modeled as infinite mass, but the non-symmetric inflations in a cluster are modeled as finite mass. High altitude extractions have necessitated reefing the extraction parachutes, which are best modeled as infinite mass for those conditions. Distributions of aircraft pitch profiles and inflation parameters have been generated for use in Monte Carlo simulations of payload extractions.
Dominiak, Malgorzata Maria
for their abilities to predict of pectin yields and assess pectin traits during the pectin extraction process. Using crude lime peel extracts, both FTIR and carbohydrate microarray analysis showed predictive and descriptive abilities with respect to acid and enzymatically extracted pectins. Furthermore, FTIR...... determined the optimal extraction time for both the enzymatic and acidic extraction processes. The combined results suggested major differences in the crude pectin extract traits of enzymatically vs. acidically extracted pectin with respect to the degree of esterification, purity, and abundance......The classical (current) extraction of pectin is based on an acid-catalyzed process, using nitric, hydrochloric or sulphuric acid. The reaction takes place at low pH and high temperatures for several hours. The main disadvantage of this technology, and one which raises environmental concerns...
Hu Ng; Hau-Lee Ton; Wooi-Haw Tan; Timothy Tzen-Vun Yap; Pei-Fen Chong; Junaidi Abdullah
This paper presents a human identification system based on automatically extracted gait features. The proposed approach consists of three parts: extraction of human gait features from enhanced human silhouette, smoothing process on extracted gait features and classification by three classification techniques: fuzzy k- nearest neighbour, linear discriminate analysis and linear support vector machine. The gait features extracted are height, width, crotch height, step-size of the human silhouett...
Campagna, María Noel; Ratti, María Soledad; Sciara, Mariela; García Vescovi, Eleonora; Gattuso, Martha; Martínez, María Laura
Infusions of leaf and bark of Castela coccinea Griseb. (Simaroubaceae) were traditionally used against dysentery. In this work, anti-bacterial and antioxidant activity were studied in C. coccinea extracts. The higest DPPH scavenging activity was detected in ethanolic leaf extracts with an IC50= 0.015 mg/ml. Bark ethanolic extracts showed inhibition of lipoperoxidation and free radical scavenging. However, a previous work evidenced that this extract is toxic at a concentration needed ...
Complete data are presented for the extraction of tritium from neutron irradiated lithium aluminate pellets. Two methods were used: (a) thermal/vacuum extraction at temperatures up to 980 0 C and (b) dissolution of the pellets in sodium tetraborate at 850 0 C followed by vacuum extraction. Approximately 1 percent of the tritium was in a noncondensable (at -195 0 C and 10 -3 torr) form. Extraction efficiency was greater than 95 percent
Yunker, W [ed.
Complete data are presented for the extraction of tritium from neutron irradiated lithium aluminate pellets. Two methods were used: (a) thermal/vacuum extraction at temperatures up to 980/sup 0/C and (b) dissolution of the pellets in sodium tetraborate at 850/sup 0/C followed by vacuum extraction. Approximately 1 percent of the tritium was in a noncondensable (at -195/sup 0/C and 10/sup -3/ torr) form. Extraction efficiency was greater than 95 percent.
Laskorin, B.N.; Golynko, Z.Sh.
The process of uranium extraction from gold-uranium ores in the South Africa is considered. Flowsheets of reprocessing gold-uranium conglomerates, pile processing and uranium extraction from the ores are presented. Continuous counter flow ion-exchange process of uranium extraction using strong-active or weak-active resins is noted to be the most perspective and economical one. The ion-exchange uranium separation with the succeeding extraction is also the perspective one.
A process is presented for the recovery of uranium from aqueous mineral acidic solutions by solvent extraction. The extractant is a synmmetrical dialkyl pyrophosphate in which the alkyl substituents have a chain length of from 4 to 17 carbon atoms. Mentioned as a preferred extractant is dioctyl pyrophosphate. The uranium is precipitated irom the organic extractant phase with an agent such as HF, fluoride salts. alcohol, or ammonia.
Hazlina Ahmad Hassali; Azfar Hanif Abd Aziz; Rosniza Razali
Accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) is one of the novel techniques that have been developed for the extraction of phytochemicals from plants in order to shorten the extraction time, decrease the solvent consumption, increase the extraction yield and enhance the quality of extracts. This technique combines elevated temperatures and pressure with liquid solvents. This paper gives a brief overview of accelerated solvent extraction technique for sample preparation and its application to the extraction of natural products. Through practical examples, the effects of operational parameters such as temperature, volume of solvent used, extraction time and extraction yields on the performance of ASE are discussed. It is demonstrated that ASE technique allows reduced solvent consumption and shorter extraction time, while the extraction yields are even higher than those obtained with conventional methods. (author)
The aim of these studies is to establish a link between the different organizations of diamide extractants (used in the DIAMEX process) and their extracting properties. The effects of the key parameters leading the liquid-liquid extraction (concentration of extractant, nature of solute, activity of the aqueous phase, nature of the diluent and temperature) are studied: 1) at the supramolecular scale, with the characterization of the extractant organizations by vapor-pressure osmometry (VPO) and small angle neutron and X-ray scattering (SANS/SAXS) experiments; 2) at the molecular scale, with the quantification of the extracted solutes (water, nitric acid, metal nitrate) and the determination of extracted complexes stoichiometries by electro-spray mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) experiments. The DMDOHEMA molecule acts as a classical surfactant and forms aggregates of the reverse micelle type. Taking into account the established supramolecular diagrams, a quantitative link between the extractants structures and their extracting properties has been brought to light. To model the europium nitrate extraction, two approaches have been developed: - an approach based on mass action laws. Extractions equilibria have been proposed taking into account the supramolecular speciation; - an innovative approach considering the extracted ions as adsorbed on a specific surface of the extractant molecule which depends on the extractant organization state. The ion extraction can be considered as a sum of isotherms corresponding to the different states of organization. This approach allows to compare the extraction efficiency of an extracting molecule as a function of its organization state. (author)
Nosochkov, Y.; Raubenheimer, T. O.; Thompson, K.; Woods, M.
The two main functions of the NLC extraction line include: 1) transmission of the outgoing disrupted beam and secondary particles to the dump with minimal losses; and 2) beam diagnostics and control. In this report, we describe the extraction line optics, present the results of tracking studies, and discuss the extraction line instrumentation.
Surfactant enhanced non-classical extractions are presented and discussed. They include micellar enhanced ultrafiltration and cloud point extraction. The ideas of the processes are given and the main features are presented. They are compared to the classical solvent extraction. The fundamental of micellar solutions and their solubilization abilities are also discussed. (author)
Hepatoprotective Effects of Ethanol Extract of Caesalpiniabonduc against Carbon .... The ethanol extract was filtered using a Buchner funnel and. Whatman No.1 filter paper.Dried ethanol extracts were obtained after removing the solvent by evaporation under .... catalyzes the conversion of aspartate and glutamate to.
Petersen, Nickolaj Jacob; Jensen, Henrik; Hansen, Steen Honore
This paper presents the first downscaling of electro membrane extraction (EME) to a chip format. The voltage-controlled extraction for sample preparation on microfluidic devices has several advantages such as selective extraction removing the high ionic strength of biological samples, preconcentr...
Determining efficient extraction procedure of phytochemicals from the fruit paste of Ziziphus abyssinica and Tamarindus indica . ... Methodology and results: The methods used included cold and soxhlet extraction using methanol as the solvent and hot extraction using distilled water. To determine the efficiency in which ...
The in vitro antimicrobial activity of the hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of the leaf of Tithonia diversifolia, and one sesquiterpene lactone 1 isolated from the ethyl acetate extract was studied. Of the fourteen strains of bacteria used, the ethyl acetate extract was the most active, showing inhibitory activity against ...
COMPARISONS OF SOXHLET EXTRACTION, PRESSURIZED LIQUID EXTRACTION, SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION, AND SUBCRITICAL WATER EXTRACTION FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SOLIDS: RECOVERY, SELECTIVITY, AND EFFECTS ON SAMPLE MATRIX. (R825394)
Extractions of a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated soil from a former manufactured gas plant site were performed with a Soxhlet apparatus (18 h), by pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) (50 min at 100°C), supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) (1 h at 150°...
Edson, Suni M; McMahon, Timothy P
Acquisition of DNA from skeletal remains can be a delicate process. With the advent of improved extraction buffers that provide complete demineralization of the osseous materials, extraction of total genomic DNA from nearly any skeletal element is possible. This chapter describes both traditional organic and more newly developed inorganic extraction methods for fresh and dried skeletal remains.
... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Annatto extract. 73.1030 Section 73.1030 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1030 Annatto extract. (a) Identity and specifications. (1) The color additive annatto extract shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of...
Surfactant and micelles are increasingly utilized in analytical methods mainly in extraction and preconcentration procedures. CPE (in comparison with other liquid–liquid extraction) exhibits good environmentally friendly properties. The small volumes of extracted solvents or surfactants instead of toxic organic solvents made ...
Stangegaard, Michael; Hjort, Benjamin Benn; Nøhr Hansen, Thomas
Presence of PCR inhibitors in extracted DNA may interfere with the subsequent quantification and short tandem repeat (STR) reactions used in forensic genetic DNA typing. We have compared three automated DNA extraction methods based on magnetic beads with a manual method with the aim of reducing...... the amount of PCR inhibitors in the DNA extracts and increasing the proportion of reportable DNA profiles....
This review on extraction chromatography of actinides emphasizes the important usage of neutral (Tributylphosphate), basic (substituted ammonium salts), and acidic (HDEHP) extractants, and their application to separations of actinides in the di-to hexavalent oxidation state. Furthermore, the actinide extraction by ketones, ethers, alcohols and β-diketones is discussed
de Boer, V.; van Someren, M.; Wielinga, B.J.
In this work we present an automatic method for the extraction of time periods related to ontological concepts from the Web. The method consists of two parts: an Information Extraction phase and a Semantic Representation phase. In the Information Extraction phase, temporal information about events
Both the high energy physics program and ISA injection require an improved fast extraction system from the AGS. The proposed new system consists of a fast kicker at H5 and an ejector magnet at H10. The H5 kicker is capable of producing 1.2 mrad deflection and rising up to 99% strength in 150 nsec with flat top ripple within +- 1%. It is found that the focusing strengths and positions of UQ3-UQ7 have to be modified to achieve an achromatic condition at the end of 8 0 -bend. Also, the conceptual design of the H5 magnet and the pulser system are discussed
Kongolo, K.; Mwema, M.D. [University of Lubumbashi, Zaire, Gecamines Metallurgical Research Centre, Likasi, Zaire, c/o Gecamines Brussels (Belgium)
Moessbauer spectroscopy has been successfully used in investigation of the gold compounds present in ores and the gold species which occur during the process metallurgy of this metal. This paper is a survey of the basic recovery methods and techniques used in extractive metallurgy of gold. Process fundamentals on mineral processing, ore leaching, zinc dust cementation, adsorption on activated carbon, electrowinning and refining are examined. The recovery of gold as a by-product of the copper industry is also described. Alternative processing methods are indicated in order to shed light on new interesting research topics where Moessbauer spectroscopy could be applied.
Kongolo, K.; Mwema, M.D.
Moessbauer spectroscopy has been successfully used in investigation of the gold compounds present in ores and the gold species which occur during the process metallurgy of this metal. This paper is a survey of the basic recovery methods and techniques used in extractive metallurgy of gold. Process fundamentals on mineral processing, ore leaching, zinc dust cementation, adsorption on activated carbon, electrowinning and refining are examined. The recovery of gold as a by-product of the copper industry is also described. Alternative processing methods are indicated in order to shed light on new interesting research topics where Moessbauer spectroscopy could be applied
Qureshi, Pir Abdul Rasool; Memon, Nasrullah
We present a hybrid model for content extraction from HTML documents. The model operates on Document Object Model (DOM) tree of the corresponding HTML document. It evaluates each tree node and associated statistical features like link density and text distribution across the node to predict...... hybrid model is derived from two different models, i.e., one is based on statistical features and other on formatting characteristics and achieved the best accuracy. We describe the validity of model with the help of experiments conducted on the standard data sets. The results revealed that the proposed...
Liu, Rui; Sun, Wei; Liu, Chun-Zhao
Recently, cichoric acid production from hairy roots of Echinacea purpurea was significantly improved by ultrasound stimulation in an airlift bioreactor. In this article, the possible mechanism on ultrasound-intensified hairy root culture of E. purpurea in the bioreactor was elucidated with the help of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation, membrane permeability detection, dissolved oxygen concentration detection, confocal laser-scanning microscopy (LSM) observation, and phenylalanine ammonium lyase (PAL) activity analysis. The CFD model developed in Part I was used to simulate the hydrodynamics and oxygen mass transfer in hairy root bioreactor culture stimulated by ultrasound. A dynamic mesh model combined with a changing Schmidt number method was used for the simulation of the ultrasound field. Simulation results and experimental data illustrated that ultrasound intensified oxygen mass transfer in the hairy root clump, which subsequently stimulated root growth and cichoric acid biosynthesis. Ultrasound increased the hairy root membrane permeability, and a high root membrane permeability of 0.359 h(-1) was observed at the bottom region in the bioreactor. LSM observation showed that the change in the membrane permeability recovered to normal in the further culture after ultrasound stimulation. PAL activity in the hairy roots was stimulated by ultrasound increase and was correlated well to cichoric acid accumulation in the hairy roots of E. purpurea. Copyright © 2011 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE).
Poiată, Antonia; Tuchiluş, Cristina; Ivănescu, Bianca; Ionescu, A; Lazăr, M I
The antimicrobial activities of ethanol, methanol and hexane extracts from Artemisia absinthium, Artemisia annua and Artemisia vulgaris were studied. Plant extracts were tested against five Gram-positive bacteria, two Gram-negative bacteria and one fungal strain. The results indicated that Artemisia annua alcoholic extracts are more effective against tested microorganisms. However, all plants extracts have moderate or no activity against Gram-negative bacteria. The obtained results confirm the justification of extracts of Artemisia species use in traditional medicine as treatment for microbial infections.
The extraction of copper and uranium by liquid membranes is presented. The recovery of uranium from wet process phosphoric acid is described. The development of this process has progressed through three stages, firstly the chemistry of uranium extraction as it pertains to liquid membrane systems. This was followed by continuous extraction tests on fresh black acid and on aged acid. Results on a 1 litre/minute pilot plant demonstrated that the process could be operated with a minimum of feed pretreatment and about 90% of uranium could be extracted. The extraction of copper from copper leach liquors is also described. (U.K.)
LeMoigne-Stewart, Jacqueline J. (Inventor); Troglio, Giulia (Inventor); Benediktsson, Jon A. (Inventor); Serpico, Sebastiano B. (Inventor); Moser, Gabriele (Inventor)
A method for the extraction of Lunar data and/or planetary features is provided. The feature extraction method can include one or more image processing techniques, including, but not limited to, a watershed segmentation and/or the generalized Hough Transform. According to some embodiments, the feature extraction method can include extracting features, such as, small rocks. According to some embodiments, small rocks can be extracted by applying a watershed segmentation algorithm to the Canny gradient. According to some embodiments, applying a watershed segmentation algorithm to the Canny gradient can allow regions that appear as close contours in the gradient to be segmented.
Lee, Chulhee; Landgrebe, David A.
We propose a new feature extraction method for neural networks. The method is based on the recently published decision boundary feature extraction algorithm. It has been shown that all the necessary features for classification can be extracted from the decision boundary. To apply the decision boundary feature extraction method, we first define the decision boundary in neural networks. Next, we propose a procedure for extracting all the necessary features for classification from the decision boundary. The proposed algorithm preserves the characteristics of neural networks, which can define arbitrary decision boundary. Experiments show promising results.
... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 937.702 Section 937.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of Other...
... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 947.702 Section 947.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... other minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of...
... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 912.702 Section 912.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of Other...
... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 933.702 Section 933.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... other minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of...
... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 905.702 Section 905.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... other minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of...
... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 942.702 Section 942.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of Other...
... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 939.702 Section 939.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... other minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of...
... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 921.702 Section 921.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... other minerals. Part 702 of the chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of...
... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 910.702 Section 910.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of Other...
... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 922.702 Section 922.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of Other...
... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 941.702 Section 941.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... other minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of...
... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 903.702 Section 903.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of Other...
... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 750.21 Section 750.21 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND... RECLAMATION OPERATIONS ON INDIAN LANDS § 750.21 Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals...
Zhang, Lu; Qi, Shi-Chao; Norinaga, Koyo
Coking coal from Xinyu of Shanxi Province is extracted under elevated temperature and pressure via Accelerated Solvent and Soxhlet Extraction. Analyzing their GC/MS results, we explore the two extraction methods’ impact on the dissolution behavior of small molecules in coal and investigate the mechanism of the extraction.
Full Text Available In the Internet world, the amount of information available reaches very high quotas. In order to find specific information, some tools were created that automatically scroll through the existing web pages and update their databases with the latest information on the Internet. In order to systematize the search and achieve a result in a concrete form, another step is needed for processing the information returned by the search engine and generating the response in a more organized form. Centralizing events of a certain type is useful first of all for creating a news service. Through this system we are pursuing a knowledge - events from the Internet documents - extraction system. The system will recognize events of a certain type (weather, sports, politics, text data mining, etc. depending on how it will be trained (the concept it has in the dictionary. These events can be provided to the user, or it can also extract the context in which the event occurred, to indicate the initial form in which the event was embedded.
Yuan, Yuan; Shih, F. Y.; Jing, J.; Wang, H.
This paper presents a new method to extract and characterize solar filaments from H-alpha full-disk images produced by Big Bear Solar Observatory. A cascading Hough Transform method is designed to identify solar disk center location and radius. Solar disks are segmented from the background, and unbalanced illumination on the surface of solar disks is removed using polynomial surface fitting. And then a localized adaptive thresholding is employed to extract solar filament candidates. After the removal of small solar filament candidates, the remaining larger candidates are used as the seeds of region growing. The procedure of region growing not only connects broken filaments but also generate complete shape for each filament. Mathematical morphology thinning is adopted to produce the skeleton of each filament, and graph theory is used to prune branches and barbs to get the main skeleton. The length and the location of the main skeleton is characterized. The proposed method can help scientists and researches study the evolution of solar filament, for instance, to detect solar filament eruption. The presented method has already been used by Space Weather Research Lab of New Jersey Institute of Technology (http://swrl.njit.edu) to generate the solar filament online catalog using H-alpha full-disk images of Global H-alpha Network (http://swrl.njit.edu/ghn_web/).
Andrade, Paula B; Barbosa, Mariana; Matos, Rui Pedro; Lopes, Graciliana; Vinholes, Juliana; Mouga, Teresa; Valentão, Patrícia
Bioactive compounds present in ethanolic extracts from 18 macroalgae of the Portuguese coast were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), leading to the characterization of 14 compounds: proline, phloroglucinol, mannitol, 8 fatty acids and 3 sterols. A dose-dependent response against enzymes with biological significance (α-glucosidase, acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase) and free radicals (DPPH, nitric oxide, superoxide and hydroxyl) was found, Phaeophyta being the most promising group. A PCA analysis was performed and allowed the establishment of a correlation between the algae chemical composition and the biological activity. Cystoseira tamariscifolia (Hudson) Papenfuss, Cystoseira nodicaulis (Withering) M. Roberts, Cystoseira usneoides (Linnaeus) M. Roberts and Fucus spiralis Linnaeus are among the most active species, which is in accordance with their higher contents in phloroglucinol, mannitol, oleic, arachidonic and eicosapentaenoic acids, and fucosterol. The results point to the potential interest of the use of Phaeophyta species as food additives, due to their potent antiradical activities, and especially highlights the importance of F. spiralis in the food chain of Mediterranean countries. Moreover, the incorporation of the extracts of these species in food products, nutraceutical and pharmaceutical preparations for human health should also be instigated, since they can suppress hyperglycemia and inhibit cholinesterases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fagundes, Tadeu; Yaghoobian, Neda; Kumar, Rajan; Ordonez, Juan
Due to the depletion of energy resources and the environmental impact of pollution and unsustainable energy resources, energy consumption has become one of the main concerns in our rapidly growing world. Natural ventilation, a traditional method to remove anthropogenic and solar heat gains, proved to be a cost-effective, alternative method to mechanical ventilation. However, while natural ventilation is simple in theory, its detailed design can be a challenge, particularly for wind-driven ventilation, which its performance highly involves the buildings' form, surrounding topography, turbulent flow characteristics, and climate. One of the main challenges with wind-driven natural ventilation schemes is due to the turbulent and unpredictable nature of the wind around the building that impose complex pressure loads on the structure. In practice, these challenges have resulted in founding the natural ventilation mainly on buoyancy (rather than the wind), as the primary force. This study is the initial step for investigating the physical principals of wind extraction over building walls and investigating strategies to reduce the dependence of the wind extraction on the incoming flow characteristics and the target building form.
Dong, Wen-hong; Liu, Ben
To study the feasibility of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) for arctiin from the fruits of Arctium lappa. The extracts were analyzed by HPLC, optimum extraction conditions were studied by orthogonal tests. The optimal extraction conditions were: pressure 40 MPa, temperature 70 degrees C, using methanol as modifier carrier at the rate of 0.55 mL x min(-1), static extraction time 5 min, dynamic extraction 30 min, flow rate of CO2 2 L x min(-1). SFE has the superiority of adjustable polarity, and has the ability of extracting arctiin.
Grote, M.; Hueppe, U.; Kettrup, A.
The extraction properties of ion-pairs composed of quaternary ammonium cations and a sulphonated formazan were compared with those of an unsulphonated formazan, for various solvent media. In dichloromethane the combined system behaves as a 'coloured anion-exchanger', with displacement of the sulphonated formazan, whereas in toluene Pd(II) and Ag(I) are extracted as the metal formazan chelates from aqueous medium. The rates of extraction are remarkably higher than with the simple extractants. Because of the higher stability only the simple chelating extraction systems afford satisfactory separation of Pd(II) from excess of Pt(IV) and of Ag(I) from Cu(II). The extracted metals can be stripped and the extractant regenerated. (author)
The inhibitive action of the mucilage extracted from the modified stems of prickly pears, toward acid corrosion of aluminum, is tested using weight loss, thermometry, hydrogen evolution and polarization techniques. It was found that the extract acts as a good corrosion inhibitor for aluminum corrosion in 2.0 M HCl solution. The inhibition action of the extract was discussed in view of Langmuir adsorption isotherm. It was found that the adsorption of the extract on aluminum surface is a spontaneous process. The inhibition efficiency (IE) increases as the extract concentration is increased. The effect of temperature on the IE was studied. It was found that the presence of extract increases the activation energy of the corrosion reaction. Moreover, the thermodynamic parameters of the adsorption process were calculated. It was found also that the Opuntia extract provides a good protection to aluminum against pitting corrosion in chloride ion containing solutions.
Watanabe, Jun; Oki, Tomoyuki; Takebayashi, Jun; Takano-Ishikawa, Yuko
The efficient extraction of antioxidants from food samples is necessary in order to accurately measure their antioxidant capacities. α-Tocopherol and gallic acid were spiked into samples of 5 lyophilized and pulverized vegetables and fruits (onion, cabbage, Satsuma mandarin orange, pumpkin, and spinach). The lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidants in the samples were sequentially extracted with a mixed solvent of n-hexane and dichloromethane, and then with acetic acid-acidified aqueous methanol. Duplicate samples were extracted: one set was extracted using an automated pressurized liquid extraction apparatus, and the other set was extracted manually. Spiked α-tocopherol and gallic acid were recovered almost quantitatively in the extracted lipophilic and hydrophilic fractions, respectively, especially when pressurized liquid extraction was used. The expected increase in lipophilic oxygen radical absorbance capacity (L-ORAC) due to spiking with α-tocopherol, and the expected increase in 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activities and total polyphenol content due to spiking with gallic acid, were all recovered in high yield. Relatively low recoveries, as reflected in the hydrophilic ORAC (H-ORAC) value, were obtained following spiking with gallic acid, suggesting an interaction between gallic acid and endogenous antioxidants. The H-ORAC values of gallic acid-spiked samples were almost the same as those of postadded (spiked) samples. These results clearly indicate that lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidants are effectively extracted from lyophilized food, especially when pressurized liquid extraction is used. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®