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Sample records for ecdysone

  1. Ecdysone Control of Developmental Transitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rewitz, Kim; Yamanaka, Naoki; O'Connor, Michael B.

    2013-01-01

    The steroid hormone ecdysone is the central regulator of insect developmental transitions. Recent new advances in our understanding of ecdysone action have relied heavily on the application of Drosophila melanogaster molecular genetic tools to study insect metamorphosis. In this review, we focus...... on three major aspects of Drosophila ecdysone biology: (a) factors that regulate the timing of ecdysone release, (b) molecular basis of stage- and tissue-specific responses to ecdysone, and (c) feedback regulation and coordination of ecdysone signaling....

  2. Synthesis of labelled ecdysone precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haag, T.; Hetru, C.; Nakatani, Y.; Luu, B.; Meister, M.; Pichat, L.; Audinot, M.

    1985-01-01

    High specific activity tritiated 3β,14α-dihydroxy-5β-cholest-7-en-6-one, has been prepared using a precursor which permits rapid and easy labelling. This compound is converted to ecdysone under in vitro conditions by insect prothoracic glands, a well known site of ecdysone biosynthesis. (author)

  3. Ecdysone signaling underlies the pea aphid transgenerational wing polyphenism.

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    Vellichirammal, Neetha Nanoth; Gupta, Purba; Hall, Tannice A; Brisson, Jennifer A

    2017-02-07

    The wing polyphenism of pea aphids is a compelling laboratory model with which to study the molecular mechanisms underlying phenotypic plasticity. In this polyphenism, environmental stressors such as high aphid density cause asexual, viviparous adult female aphids to alter the developmental fate of their embryos from wingless to winged morphs. This polyphenism is transgenerational, in that the pea aphid mother experiences the environmental signals, but it is her offspring that are affected. Previous research suggested that the steroid hormone ecdysone may play a role in this polyphenism. Here, we analyzed ecdysone-related gene expression patterns and found that they were consistent with a down-regulation of the ecdysone pathway being involved in the production of winged offspring. We therefore predicted that reduced ecdysone signaling would result in more winged offspring. Experimental injections of ecdysone or its analog resulted in a decreased production of winged offspring. Conversely, interfering with ecdysone signaling using an ecdysone receptor antagonist or knocking down the ecdysone receptor gene with RNAi resulted in an increased production of winged offspring. Our results are therefore consistent with the idea that ecdysone plays a causative role in the regulation of the proportion of winged offspring produced in response to crowding in this polyphenism. Our results also show that an environmentally regulated maternal hormone can mediate phenotype production in the next generation, as well as provide significant insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying the functioning of transgenerational phenotypic plasticity.

  4. Ecdysone Agonist: New Insecticides with Novel Mode of Action

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    Y. Andi Trisyono

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Development of insect resistance to insecticide has been the major driving force for the development of new insecticides. Awareness and demand from public for more environmentally friendly insecticides have contributed in shifting the trend from using broad spectrum to selective insecticides. As a result, scientists have looked for new target sites beyond the nervous system. Insect growth regulators (IGRs are more selective insecticides than conventional insecticides, and ecdysone agonists are the newest IGRs being commercialized, e.g. tebufenozide, methoxyfenozide, and halofenozide. Ecdysone agonists bind to the ecdysteroid receptors, and they act similarly to the molting hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone. The binding provides larvae or nymphs with a signal to enter a premature and lethal molting cycle. In addition, the ecdysone agonists cause a reduction in the number of eggs laid by female insects. The ecdysone agonists are being developed as selective biorational insecticides. Tebufenozide and methoxyfenozide are used to control lepidopteran insect pests, whereas halofenozide is being used to control coleopteran insect pests. Their selectivity is due to differences in the binding affinity between these compounds to the receptors in insects from different orders. The selectivity of these compounds makes them candidates to be used in combinations with other control strategies to develop integrated pest management programs in agricultural ecosystems. Key words: new insecticides, selectivity, ecdysone agonists

  5. The Mechanisms of the Ecdysone Pulses that Cause Metamorphosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Morten Erik

    Maturation in both mammals and insects is caused by pulses of steroid hormones released from glands in response to a brain-derived signal. The timing of this developmental transition is secured by the integration of many developmental cues, such as size, external environment and nutritional...... of ecdysone biosynthesis, necessary for the generation of the temporally defined pulse prior to the metamorphosis. We found that ecdysone works back on the PG itself through its receptor, EcR, to regulate the expression of the transcription factor broad isoform Z4 (br-Z4), which in turn regulates...

  6. Ecdysone Induction of MsrA Protects Against Oxidative Stress in Drosophila

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    Roesijadi, Guri; Rezvankhah, Saeid; Binninger, David M.; Weissbach, Herbert

    2007-03-09

    The methionine sulfoxide reductases MsrA and MsrB reduce Met(O) to Met in epimer-specific fashion. In Drosophila, the major ecdysone induced protein is MsrA, which is regulated by the EcR-USP complex. We tested Kc cells for induction of MsrA, MsrB, EcR. and CAT by ecdysone and found that MsrA and the EcR were induced by ecdysone, but MsrB and CAT were not. When we tested for resistance to 20 mM H2O2 toxicity, viability of Kc cells was reduced threefold. After pretreatment with 0.2 μM ecdysone for 48 h, then exposed to H2O2, viability of Kc cells increased to 77% of controls. The EcR-deficient L57-3-11 knockout line was not responsive to ecdysone, and H2O2 resistance of both control and ecdysone-treated L57-3-11 cells was similar to that of the ecdysone-untreated Kc cells. These results show that hormonal regulation of MsrA is implicated in conferring protection against oxidative stress in the Drosophila model.

  7. Trypanosoma cruzi: effects of azadirachtin and ecdysone on the dynamic development in Rhodnius prolixus larvae.

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    Cortez, M R; Provençano, A; Silva, C E; Mello, C B; Zimmermann, L T; Schaub, G A; Garcia, E S; Azambuja, P; Gonzalez, M S

    2012-07-01

    The effects of azadirachtin and ecdysone on the Trypanosoma cruzi population in the Rhodnius prolixus gut were investigated. T. cruzi were rarely found in the gut compartments of azadirachtin-treated larvae. High parasite numbers were observed in the stomach of the control and ecdysone groups until 10 days after treatment and in the small intestine and rectum until 25 days after treatment. High percentages of round forms developed in the stomachs of all groups, whereas azadirachtin blocked the development of protozoan intermediate forms. This effect was counteracted by ecdysone therapy. In the small intestine and rectum, epimastigotes predominated for all groups, but more of their intermediates developed in the control and ecdysone groups. Azadirachtin supported the development of round forms and their intermediates into trypomastigotes. In the rectum, trypomastigotes did not develop in the azadirachtin group and developed much later after ecdysone therapy. The parallel between the effects of azadirachtin and ecdysone on the host and parasite development is discussed on the basis of the present results because ecdysone appears to act directly or indirectly in determining the synchronic development of T. cruzi forms from round to epimastigotes, but not metacyclic trypomastigotes, in the invertebrate vector. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Ecdysone-dependent and ecdysone-independent programmed cell death in the developing optic lobe of Drosophila.

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    Hara, Yusuke; Hirai, Keiichiro; Togane, Yu; Akagawa, Hiromi; Iwabuchi, Kikuo; Tsujimura, Hidenobu

    2013-02-01

    The adult optic lobe of Drosophila develops from the primordium during metamorphosis from mid-3rd larval stage to adult. Many cells die during development of the optic lobe with a peak of the number of dying cells at 24 h after puparium formation (h APF). Dying cells were observed in spatio-temporal specific clusters. Here, we analyzed the function of a component of the insect steroid hormone receptor, EcR, in this cell death. We examined expression patterns of two EcR isoforms, EcR-A and EcR-B1, in the optic lobe. Expression of each isoform altered during development in isoform-specific manner. EcR-B1 was not expressed in optic lobe neurons from 0 to 6h APF, but was expressed between 9 and 48 h APF and then disappeared by 60 h APF. In each cortex, its expression was stronger in older glia-ensheathed neurons than in younger ones. EcR-B1 was also expressed in some types of glia. EcR-A was expressed in optic lobe neurons and many types of glia from 0 to 60 h APF in a different pattern from EcR-B1. Then, we genetically analyzed EcR function in the optic lobe cell death. At 0 h APF, the optic lobe cell death was independent of any EcR isoforms. In contrast, EcR-B1 was required for most optic lobe cell death after 24 h APF. It was suggested that cell death cell-autonomously required EcR-B1 expressed after puparium formation. βFTZ-F1 was also involved in cell death in many dying-cell clusters, but not in some of them at 24 h APF. Altogether, the optic lobe cell death occurred in ecdysone-independent manner at prepupal stage and ecdysone-dependent manner after 24 h APF. The acquisition of ecdysone-dependence was not directly correlated with the initiation or increase of EcR-B1 expression. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Spook and Spookier code for stage-specific components of the ecdysone biosynthetic pathway in Diptera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ono, Hajime; Rewitz, Kim; Shinoda, Tetsu

    2006-01-01

    is eliminated in larvae carrying mutations in molting defective (mld), a gene encoding a nuclear zinc finger protein that is required for production of ecdysone during Drosophila larval development. Intriguingly, mld is not present in the Bombyx mori genome, and we have identified only one spook homolog in both...... Bombyx and Manduca that is expressed in both embryos and larva. These studies suggest an evolutionary split between Diptera and Lepidoptera in how the ecdysone biosynthetic pathway is regulated during development....

  10. Translational control by the DEAD Box RNA helicase belle regulates ecdysone-triggered transcriptional cascades.

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    Robert J Ihry

    Full Text Available Steroid hormones act, through their respective nuclear receptors, to regulate target gene expression. Despite their critical role in development, physiology, and disease, however, it is still unclear how these systemic cues are refined into tissue-specific responses. We identified a mutation in the evolutionarily conserved DEAD box RNA helicase belle/DDX3 that disrupts a subset of responses to the steroid hormone ecdysone during Drosophila melanogaster metamorphosis. We demonstrate that belle directly regulates translation of E74A, an ets transcription factor and critical component of the ecdysone-induced transcriptional cascade. Although E74A mRNA accumulates to abnormally high levels in belle mutant tissues, no E74A protein is detectable, resulting in misregulation of E74A-dependent ecdysone response genes. The accumulation of E74A mRNA in belle mutant salivary glands is a result of auto-regulation, fulfilling a prediction made by Ashburner nearly 40 years ago. In this model, Ashburner postulates that, in addition to regulating secondary response genes, protein products of primary response genes like E74A also inhibit their own ecdysone-induced transcription. Moreover, although ecdysone-triggered transcription of E74A appears to be ubiquitous during metamorphosis, belle-dependent translation of E74A mRNA is spatially restricted. These results demonstrate that translational control plays a critical, and previously unknown, role in refining transcriptional responses to the steroid hormone ecdysone.

  11. Warts signaling controls organ and body growth through regulation of ecdysone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Morten Erik; Nagy, Stanislav; Gerlach, Stephan Uwe

    2017-01-01

    Coordination of growth between individual organs and the whole body is essential during development to produce adults with appropriate size and proportions [1, 2]. How local organ-intrinsic signals and nutrient-dependent systemic factors are integrated to generate correctly proportioned organisms...... under different environmental conditions is poorly understood. In Drosophila, Hippo/Warts signaling functions intrinsically to regulate tissue growth and organ size [3, 4], whereas systemic growth is controlled via antagonistic interactions of the steroid hormone ecdysone and nutrient-dependent insulin....../insulin-like growth factor (IGF) (insulin) signaling [2, 5]. The interplay between insulin and ecdysone signaling regulates systemic growth and controls organismal size. Here, we show that Warts (Wts; LATS1/2) signaling regulates systemic growth in Drosophila by activating basal ecdysone production, which negatively...

  12. Cryptocephal, the Drosophila melanogaster ATF4, is a specific coactivator for ecdysone receptor isoform B2.

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    Sebastien A Gauthier

    Full Text Available The ecdysone receptor is a heterodimer of two nuclear receptors, the Ecdysone receptor (EcR and Ultraspiracle (USP. In Drosophila melanogaster, three EcR isoforms share common DNA and ligand-binding domains, but these proteins differ in their most N-terminal regions and, consequently, in the activation domains (AF1s contained therein. The transcriptional coactivators for these domains, which impart unique transcriptional regulatory properties to the EcR isoforms, are unknown. Activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4 is a basic-leucine zipper transcription factor that plays a central role in the stress response of mammals. Here we show that Cryptocephal (CRC, the Drosophila homolog of ATF4, is an ecdysone receptor coactivator that is specific for isoform B2. CRC interacts with EcR-B2 to promote ecdysone-dependent expression of ecdysis-triggering hormone (ETH, an essential regulator of insect molting behavior. We propose that this interaction explains some of the differences in transcriptional properties that are displayed by the EcR isoforms, and similar interactions may underlie the differential activities of other nuclear receptors with distinct AF1-coactivators.

  13. Induction of the early-late Ddc gene during Drosophila metamorphosis by the ecdysone receptor.

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    Chen, Li; Reece, Christian; O'Keefe, Sandra L; Hawryluk, Gregory W L; Engstrom, Monica M; Hodgetts, Ross B

    2002-06-01

    During Drosophila metamorphosis, the 'early-late' genes constitute a unique class regulated by the steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone. Their induction is comprised of both a primary and a secondary response to ecdysone. Previous work has suggested that the epidermal expression of the dopa decarboxylase gene (Ddc) is likely that of a typical early-late gene. Accumulation of the Ddc transcript is rapidly initiated in the absence of protein synthesis, which implies that the ecdysone receptor plays a direct role in induction. However, full Ddc expression requires the participation of one of the transcription factors encoded by the Broad-Complex. In this paper, we characterize an ecdysone response element (EcRE) that contributes to the primary response. Using gel mobility shift assays and transgenic assays, we identified a single functional EcRE, located at position -97 to -83 bp relative to the transcription initiation site. This is the first report of an EcRE associated with an early-late gene in Drosophila. Competition experiments indicated that the affinity of the Ddc EcRE for the ecdysone receptor complex was at least four-fold less than that of the canonical EcRE of the hsp27 gene. Using in vitro mutagenesis, we determined that the reduced affinity of the EcRE resided at two positions where the nucleotides differed from those found in the canonical sequence. The ecdysone receptor, acting through this EcRE, releases Ddc from a silencing mechanism, whose cis-acting domain we have mapped to the 5'-upstream region between -2067 and -1427 bp. Deletion of this repressive element resulted in precocious expression of Ddc in both epidermis and imaginal discs. Thus, epidermal Ddc induction at pupariation is under the control of an extended genomic region that contains both positive and negative regulatory elements. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd.

  14. Effects of irradiation of Bombyx mori larvae on the evolution of ecdysteroid titer in haemolymph and ecdysone metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulon, Madeleine; Feyereisen, Rene

    1977-01-01

    Second and third instar larvae of B. mori show a peak of ecdysteroids in the haemolymph towards the end of each instar. Second instar larvae which are X-ray treated at 0 h die at the third ecdysis. In these larvae, titer and metabolism of ecdysone is disturbed. Larvae X-ray treated at 24h in the second instar mostly become permanent larvae of the third instar, having a very low level of circulating ecdysteroids, which hardly metabolize injected ecdysone [fr

  15. Autocrine regulation of ecdysone synthesis by β3-octopamine receptor in the prothoracic gland is essential for Drosophila metamorphosis.

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    Ohhara, Yuya; Shimada-Niwa, Yuko; Niwa, Ryusuke; Kayashima, Yasunari; Hayashi, Yoshiki; Akagi, Kazutaka; Ueda, Hitoshi; Yamakawa-Kobayashi, Kimiko; Kobayashi, Satoru

    2015-02-03

    In Drosophila, pulsed production of the steroid hormone ecdysone plays a pivotal role in developmental transitions such as metamorphosis. Ecdysone production is regulated in the prothoracic gland (PG) by prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH) and insulin-like peptides (Ilps). Here, we show that monoaminergic autocrine regulation of ecdysone biosynthesis in the PG is essential for metamorphosis. PG-specific knockdown of a monoamine G protein-coupled receptor, β3-octopamine receptor (Octβ3R), resulted in arrested metamorphosis due to lack of ecdysone. Knockdown of tyramine biosynthesis genes expressed in the PG caused similar defects in ecdysone production and metamorphosis. Moreover, PTTH and Ilps signaling were impaired by Octβ3R knockdown in the PG, and activation of these signaling pathways rescued the defect in metamorphosis. Thus, monoaminergic autocrine signaling in the PG regulates ecdysone biogenesis in a coordinated fashion on activation by PTTH and Ilps. We propose that monoaminergic autocrine signaling acts downstream of a body size checkpoint that allows metamorphosis to occur when nutrients are sufficiently abundant.

  16. Drosophila arginine methyltransferase 1 (DART1) is an ecdysone receptor co-repressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Shuhei; Sawatsubashi, Shun; Ito, Saya; Kouzmenko, Alexander; Suzuki, Eriko; Zhao, Yue; Yamagata, Kaoru; Tanabe, Masahiko; Ueda, Takashi; Fujiyama, Sari; Murata, Takuya; Matsukawa, Hiroyuki; Takeyama, Ken-ichi; Yaegashi, Nobuo

    2008-01-01

    Histone arginine methylation is an epigenetic marker that regulates gene expression by defining the chromatin state. Arginine methyltransferases, therefore, serve as transcriptional co-regulators. However, unlike other transcriptional co-regulators, the physiological roles of arginine methyltransferases are poorly understood. Drosophila arginine methyltransferase 1 (DART1), the mammalian PRMT1 homologue, methylates the arginine residue of histone H4 (H4R3me2). Disruption of DART1 in Drosophila by imprecise P-element excision resulted in low viability during metamorphosis in the pupal stages. In the pupal stage, an ecdysone hormone signal is critical for developmental progression. DART1 interacted with the nuclear ecdysone receptor (EcR) in a ligand-dependent manner, and co-repressed EcR in intact flies. These findings suggest that DART1, a histone arginine methyltransferase, is a co-repressor of EcR that is indispensable for normal pupal development in the intact fly

  17. Ultrastructure of cuticle deposited inPlodia interpunctella wing discs after variousβ-ecdysone treatments in vitro.

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    Dutkowski, A B; Oberlander, H; Leach, C E

    1977-06-01

    Wing discs of the Indian meal moth may be cultured for extended periods in vitro. The discs produced a tanned cuticle after continuous incubation with β-ecdysone in medium conditioned with fat body or after a 24-h pulse incubation with β-ecdysone in plain medium. We investigated the ultrastructure of the cuticle deposited by such discs. We found that the treatment that produced the most complete cuticle in vitro was the 24-h pulse of hormone. We observed that cuticle formation in vitro was not "all-or-none." Depending on culture conditions, discs produced cuticulin only, complete epicuticle, epicuticle plus diffuse endocuticle, epicuticle plus lamellate endocuticle, or even multiple layers of cuticle. The ultrastructural evidence suggests that continuous incubation with β-ecdysone in plain medium does not always inhibit cuticle formationper se, but does prevent tanning of the partially formed cuticle.

  18. The transcriptional corepressor SMRTER influences both Notch and ecdysone signaling during Drosophila development

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    Bryan W. Heck

    2011-12-01

    SMRTER (SMRT-related and ecdysone receptor interacting factor is the Drosophila homologue of the vertebrate proteins SMRT and N-CoR, and forms with them a well-conserved family of transcriptional corepressors. Molecular characterization of SMRT-family proteins in cultured cells has implicated them in a wide range of transcriptional regulatory pathways. However, little is currently known about how this conserved class of transcriptional corepressors regulates the development of particular tissues via specific pathways. In this study, through our characterization of multiple Smrter (Smr mutant lines, mosaic analysis of a loss-of-function Smr allele, and studies of two independent Smr RNAi fly lines, we report that SMRTER is required for the development of both ovarian follicle cells and the wing. In these two tissues, SMRTER inhibits not only the ecdysone pathway, but also the Notch pathway. We differentiate SMRTER's influence on these two signaling pathways by showing that SMRTER inhibits the Notch pathway, but not the ecdysone pathway, in a spatiotemporally restricted manner. We further confirm the likely involvement of SMRTER in the Notch pathway by demonstrating a direct interaction between SMRTER and Suppressor of Hairless [Su(H], a DNA-binding transcription factor pivotal in the Notch pathway, and the colocalization of both proteins at many chromosomal regions in salivary glands. Based on our results, we propose that SMRTER regulates the Notch pathway through its association with Su(H, and that overcoming a SMRTER-mediated transcriptional repression barrier may represent a key mechanism used by the Notch pathway to control the precise timing of events and the formation of sharp boundaries between cells in multiple tissues during development.

  19. Ecdysone signaling regulates specification of neurons with a male-specific neurite in Drosophila

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    Binglong Zhang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Some mAL neurons in the male brain form the ipsilateral neurite (ILN[+] in a manner dependent on FruBM, a male-specific transcription factor. FruBM represses robo1 transcription, allowing the ILN to form. We found that the proportion of ILN[+]-mALs in all observed single cell clones dropped from ∼90% to ∼30% by changing the heat-shock timing for clone induction from 4-5 days after egg laying (AEL to 6-7 days AEL, suggesting that the ILN[+]-mALs are produced predominantly by young neuroblasts. Upon EcR-A knockdown, ILN[+]-mALs were produced at a high rate (∼60%, even when heat shocked at 6-7 days AEL, yet EcR-B1 knockdown reduced the proportion of ILN[+]-mALs to ∼30%. Immunoprecipitation assays in S2 cells demonstrated that EcR-A and EcR-B1 form a complex with FruBM. robo1 reporter transcription was repressed by FruBM and ecdysone counteracted FruBM. We suggest that ecdysone signaling modulates the FruBM action to produce an appropriate number of male-type neurons.

  20. rigor mortis encodes a novel nuclear receptor interacting protein required for ecdysone signaling during Drosophila larval development.

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    Gates, Julie; Lam, Geanette; Ortiz, José A; Losson, Régine; Thummel, Carl S

    2004-01-01

    Pulses of the steroid hormone ecdysone trigger the major developmental transitions in Drosophila, including molting and puparium formation. The ecdysone signal is transduced by the EcR/USP nuclear receptor heterodimer that binds to specific response elements in the genome and directly regulates target gene transcription. We describe a novel nuclear receptor interacting protein encoded by rigor mortis (rig) that is required for ecdysone responses during larval development. rig mutants display defects in molting, delayed larval development, larval lethality, duplicated mouth parts, and defects in puparium formation--phenotypes that resemble those seen in EcR, usp, E75A and betaFTZ-F1 mutants. Although the expression of these nuclear receptor genes is essentially normal in rig mutant larvae, the ecdysone-triggered switch in E74 isoform expression is defective. rig encodes a protein with multiple WD-40 repeats and an LXXLL motif, sequences that act as specific protein-protein interaction domains. Consistent with the presence of these elements and the lethal phenotypes of rig mutants, Rig protein interacts with several Drosophila nuclear receptors in GST pull-down experiments, including EcR, USP, DHR3, SVP and betaFTZ-F1. The ligand binding domain of betaFTZ-F1 is sufficient for this interaction, which can occur in an AF-2-independent manner. Antibody stains reveal that Rig protein is present in the brain and imaginal discs of second and third instar larvae, where it is restricted to the cytoplasm. In larval salivary gland and midgut cells, however, Rig shuttles between the cytoplasm and nucleus in a spatially and temporally regulated manner, at times that correlate with the major lethal phase of rig mutants and major switches in ecdysone-regulated gene expression. Taken together, these data indicate that rig exerts essential functions during larval development through gene-specific effects on ecdysone-regulated transcription, most likely as a cofactor for one or more

  1. Protective role of 20-OH ecdysone on lipid profile and tissue fatty acid changes in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

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    Naresh Kumar, Rajendran; Sundaram, Ramalingam; Shanthi, Palanivelu; Sachdanandam, Panchanatham

    2013-01-05

    Hyperlipidemia is an associated complication of diabetes mellitus. The association of hyperglycemia with an alteration of lipid parameters presents a major risk for cardiovascular complications in diabetes. The present study was designed to examine the antihyperlipidemic effect of 20-OH ecdysone on lipid profile and tissue fatty acid changes in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. The levels of blood glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, free fatty acids, phospholipids, low density lipoprotein, very low density lipoprotein, high density lipoprotein, lipoprotein lipase, lecithin cholesterol acyl transferase, 3-hydroxy 3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase and fatty acid composition were estimated in plasma, liver and kidneys of control and experimental groups of rats. Oral administration of 20-OH ecdysone at a dose of 5mg/kg bodyweight per day to STZ-induced diabetic rats for a period of 30 days resulted in a significant reduction in fasting blood glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, free fatty acids, phospholipids, low density lipoprotein, very low density lipoprotein, 3-hydroxy 3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase and elevation of high density lipoprotein, lipoprotein lipase and lecithin cholesterol acyl transferasein comparison with diabetic untreated rats. Moreover, administration of 20-OH ecdysone to diabetic rats also decreased the concentrations of fatty acids, viz., palmitic, stearic (16:1) and oleic acid (18:1), whereas linolenic (18:3) and arachidonic acid (20:4) were elevated. The antihyperlipidemic effect of 20-OH ecdysone was compared with glibenclamide a well-known antihyperglycemic drug. The result of the present study indicates that 20-OH ecdysone showed an antihyperlipidemic effect in addition to its antidiabetic effect in experimental diabetes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Development of an in vitro binding assay for ecdysone receptor of mysid shrimp (Americamysis bahia)

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    Yokota, Hirofumi, E-mail: h-yokota@mail.kobe-c.ac.jp [Department of Biosphere Sciences, School of Human Sciences, Kobe College 4-1, Okadayama, Nishinomiya-shi, Hyogo 662-8505 (Japan); Eguchi, Sayaka [Department of Biosphere Sciences, School of Human Sciences, Kobe College 4-1, Okadayama, Nishinomiya-shi, Hyogo 662-8505 (Japan); Nakai, Makoto [Hita Laboratory, Chemicals Evaluation and Research Institute (CERI), 3-822, Ishii-machi, Hita-shi, Oita 877-0061 (Japan)

    2011-10-15

    Highlights: We successfully performed cDNA cloning of EcR and USP of mysid shrimp. We then expressed the ligand-binding domains of the corresponding receptor peptides. The translated peptides could bind to ecdysone agonists as heterodimers. These results indicate that they are functional hormone receptors of mysid shrimp. - Abstract: A global effort has been made to establish screening and testing methods that can identify the effects of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) on invertebrates. The purpose of our study was to develop an in vitro receptor binding assay for ecdysone receptor (EcR) in mysid shrimp (Americamysis bahia). We cloned mysid shrimp EcR cDNA (2888 nucleotides) and ultraspiracle (USP) cDNA (2116 nucleotides), and determined that they encode predicted proteins of length 570 and 410 amino acids, respectively. The deduced amino acid sequences of these proteins shared 36-71% homology for EcR and 44-65% for USP with those of other arthropods. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that mysid shrimp EcR was classified into an independent cluster together with the EcRs of another mysid species, Neomysis integer and the cluster diverged early from those of the other taxonomic orders of crustaceans. We then expressed the ligand-binding domains (DEF regions) of mysid shrimp EcR (abEcRdef) and USP (abUSPdef) as glutathione S-transferase (GST)-fusion peptides in Escherichia coli. After purifying the fusion peptides by affinity chromatography and removing the GST labels, we subjected the peptides to a ligand-receptor binding assay. [{sup 3}H]-ponasterone A did not bind to abEcRdef or abUSPdef peptides alone but bound strongly to the abEcRdef/abUSPdef mixture with dissociation constant (K{sub d}) = 2.14 nM. Competitive binding assays showed that the IC{sub 50} values for ponasterone A, muristerone A, 20-hydroxyecdysone, and {alpha}-ecdysone were 1.2, 1.9, 35, and 1200 nM, respectively. In contrast, the IC{sub 50} values for two dibenzoylhydrazine ligands

  3. Early gene Broad complex plays a key role in regulating the immune response triggered by ecdysone in the Malpighian tubules of Drosophila melanogaster.

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    Verma, Puja; Tapadia, Madhu G

    2015-08-01

    In insects, humoral response to injury is accomplished by the production of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) which are secreted in the hemolymph to eliminate the pathogen. Drosophila Malpighian tubules (MTs), however, are unique immune organs that show constitutive expression of AMPs even in unchallenged conditions and the onset of immune response is developmental stage dependent. Earlier reports have shown ecdysone positively regulates immune response after pathogenic challenge however, a robust response requires prior potentiation by the hormone. Here we provide evidence to show that MTs do not require prior potentiation with ecdysone hormone for expression of AMPs and they respond to ecdysone very fast even without immune challenge, although the different AMPs Diptericin, Cecropin, Attacin, Drosocin show differential expression in response to ecdysone. We show that early gene Broad complex (BR-C) could be regulating the IMD pathway by activating Relish and physically interacting with it to activate AMPs expression. BR-C depletion from Malpighian tubules renders the flies susceptible to infection. We also show that in MTs ecdysone signaling is transduced by EcR-B1 and B2. In the absence of ecdysone signaling the IMD pathway associated genes are down regulated and activation and translocation of transcription factor Relish is also affected. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The P450 enzyme Shade mediates the hydroxylation of ecdysone to 20-hydroxyecdysone in the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Y; Liu, X-P; Wan, P-J; Shi, X-Q; Guo, W-C; Li, G-Q

    2014-10-01

    Ecdysone 20-monooxygenase (E20MO), a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (CYP314A1), catalyses the conversion of ecdysone (E) to 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E). We report here the cloning and characterization of the Halloween gene Shade (Shd) encoding E20MO in the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata. LdSHD has five conserved motifs typical of insect P450s, ie the Helix-C, Helix-I, Helix-K, PxxFxPE/DRF (PERF) and heme-binding motifs. LdShd was expressed in developing eggs, the first to fourth instars, wandering larvae, pupae and adults, with statistically significant fluctuations. Its mRNA was ubiquitously distributed in the head, thorax and abdomen. The recombinant LdSHD protein expressed in Spodoptera frugiperda 9 (Sf9) cells catalysed the conversion of E to 20E. Dietary introduction of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) of LdShd into the second instar larvae successfully knocked down the LdShd expression level, decreased the mRNA level of the ecdysone receptor (LdEcR) gene, caused larval lethality, delayed development and affected pupation. Moreover, ingestion of LdShd-dsRNA by the fourth instars also down-regulated LdShd and LdEcR expression, reduced the 20E titre, and negatively influenced pupation. Introduction of 20E and a nonsteroidal ecdysteroid agonist halofenozide into the LdShd-dsRNA-ingested second instars, and of halofenozide into the LdShd-dsRNA-ingested fourth instars almost completely relieved the negative effects on larval performance. Thus, LdSHD functions to regulate metamorphotic processes by converting E to 20E in a coleopteran insect species Le. decemlineata. © 2014 The Royal Entomological Society.

  5. The insect ecdysone receptor is a good potential target for RNAi-based pest control.

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    Yu, Rong; Xu, Xinping; Liang, Yongkang; Tian, Honggang; Pan, Zhanqing; Jin, Shouheng; Wang, Na; Zhang, Wenqing

    2014-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) has great potential for use in insect pest control. However, some significant challenges must be overcome before RNAi-based pest control can become a reality. One challenge is the proper selection of a good target gene for RNAi. Here, we report that the insect ecdysone receptor (EcR) is a good potential target for RNAi-based pest control in the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens, a serious insect pest of rice plants. We demonstrated that the use of a 360 bp fragment (NlEcR-c) that is common between NlEcR-A and NlEcR-B for feeding RNAi experiments significantly decreased the relative mRNA expression levels of NlEcR compared with those in the dsGFP control. Feeding RNAi also resulted in a significant reduction in the number of offspring per pair of N. lugens. Consequently, a transgenic rice line expressing NlEcR dsRNA was constructed by Agrobacterium- mediated transformation. The results of qRT-PCR showed that the total copy number of the target gene in all transgenic rice lines was 2. Northern blot analysis showed that the small RNA of the hairpin dsNlEcR-c was successfully expressed in the transgenic rice lines. After newly hatched nymphs of N. lugens fed on the transgenic rice lines, effective RNAi was observed. The NlEcR expression levels in all lines examined were decreased significantly compared with the control. In all lines, the survival rate of the nymphs was nearly 90%, and the average number of offspring per pair in the treated groups was significantly less than that observed in the control, with a decrease of 44.18-66.27%. These findings support an RNAi-based pest control strategy and are also important for the management of rice insect pests.

  6. Behavioral Sensitization to the Disinhibition Effect of Ethanol Requires the Dopamine/Ecdysone Receptor in Drosophila

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    Gissel P. Aranda

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Male flies under the influence of ethanol display disinhibited courtship, which is augmented with repeated ethanol exposures. We have previously shown that dopamine is important for this type of ethanol-induced behavioral sensitization but the underlying mechanism is unknown. Here we report that DopEcR, an insect G-protein coupled receptor that binds to dopamine and steroid hormone ecdysone, is a major receptor mediating courtship sensitization. Upon daily ethanol administration, dumb and damb mutant males defective in D1 (dDA1/DopR1 and D5 (DAMB/DopR2 dopamine receptors, respectively, showed normal courtship sensitization; however, the DopEcR-deficient der males exhibited greatly diminished sensitization. der mutant males nevertheless developed normal tolerance to the sedative effect of ethanol, indicating a selective function of DopEcR in chronic ethanol-associated behavioral plasticity. DopEcR plays a physiological role in behavioral sensitization since courtship sensitization in der males was reinstated when DopEcR expression was induced during adulthood but not during development. When examined for the DopEcR’s functional site, the der mutant’s sensitization phenotype was fully rescued by restored DopEcR expression in the mushroom body (MB αβ and γ neurons. Consistently, we observed DopEcR immunoreactivity in the MB calyx and lobes in the wild-type Canton-S brain, which was barely detectable in the der brain. Behavioral sensitization to the locomotor-stimulant effect has been serving as a model for ethanol abuse and addiction. This is the first report elucidating the mechanism underlying behavioral sensitization to another stimulant effect of ethanol.

  7. Ecdysone Receptor-based Singular Gene Switches for Regulated Transgene Expression in Cells and Adult Rodent Tissues

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    Seoghyun Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Controlled gene expression is an indispensable technique in biomedical research. Here, we report a convenient, straightforward, and reliable way to induce expression of a gene of interest with negligible background expression compared to the most widely used tetracycline (Tet-regulated system. Exploiting a Drosophila ecdysone receptor (EcR-based gene regulatory system, we generated nonviral and adenoviral singular vectors designated as pEUI(+ and pENTR-EUI, respectively, which contain all the required elements to guarantee regulated transgene expression (GAL4-miniVP16-EcR, termed GvEcR hereafter, and 10 tandem repeats of an upstream activation sequence promoter followed by a multiple cloning site. Through the transient and stable transfection of mammalian cell lines with reporter genes, we validated that tebufenozide, an ecdysone agonist, reversibly induced gene expression, in a dose- and time-dependent manner, with negligible background expression. In addition, we created an adenovirus derived from the pENTR-EUI vector that readily infected not only cultured cells but also rodent tissues and was sensitive to tebufenozide treatment for regulated transgene expression. These results suggest that EcR-based singular gene regulatory switches would be convenient tools for the induction of gene expression in cells and tissues in a tightly controlled fashion.

  8. Effects of both ecdysone and the acclimation to low temperature, on growth and metabolic rate of juvenile freshwater crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus (Decapoda, Parastacidae

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    Anouk Chaulet

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Growth, metabolic rate, and energy reserves of Cherax quadricarinatus (von Martens, 1868 juveniles were evaluated in crayfish acclimated for 16 weeks to either 25ºC (temperature near optimum or 20ºC (marginal for the species. Additionally, the modulating effect of ecdsyone on acclimation was studied. After 12 weeks of exposure, weight gain of both experimental groups acclimated to 25ºC (control: C25, and ecdysone treated: E25 was significantly higher than that of those groups acclimated to 20ºC (C20 and E20. A total compensation in metabolic rate was seen after acclimation from 25ºC to 20ºC; for both the control group and the group treated with ecdysone. A Q10value significantly higher was only observed in the group acclimated to 20ºC and treated with ecdysone. A reduction of glycogen reserves in both hepatopancreas and muscle, as well as a lower protein content in muscle, was seen in both groups acclimated to 20ºC. Correspondingly, glycemia was always higher in these groups. Increased lipid levels were seen in the hepatopancreas of animals acclimated to 20ºC, while a higher lipid level was also observed in muscle at 20ºC, but only in ecdysone-treated crayfish.

  9. Ariadne merione ecdysone receptor (AmEcR protein: An in silico approach for comparison of agonist and antagonist compounds

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    Chandran Sundaravadivelan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Ecdysteroid signal transduction plays a major role in insect metamorphosis, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E binds to the nuclear receptor composed of the ecdysone receptor ligand binding domine (EcR-LBD and triggers the developmental transitions. Ariadne merione ecdysone receptor (AmEcR cDNA was amplified and partially sequenced of about 553 bp, which encodes a polypeptide of 184 amino acids (aa. The theoretical molecular weight (MW, isoelectric point (pI and aliphatic index of the deduced AmEcR protein were predicted using BIOEDIT (v7.2.5 to be 21.192 kDa, 9.31 and 101.739 respectively. Identified ecdysone receptor gene of A. merione showed maximum similarity with Precis coenia gene. In this research, we have employed ligand-receptor engineering technique to screen a specific compound which plays antagonist role and assist to formulate an insect specific pesticide. The EcR protein 3D structure of AmEcR modeled using Schrödinger maestro and virtual screening was performed using 5554 molecules from Zinc database, where ZINC20031812 showed highest glide score of −6.257 and Etoxazole chosen on literature basis and showed best glide score −6.671. We have compared the antagonist with agonist (20E by molecular dynamics (MD simulation. Root Mean Square Deviation (RMSD value of agonist and antagonist indicates the binding were stable in water with a range of distance from 2.3 to 2.6 Å, 1.8 to 2.3 Å and 1.9 to 2.3 Å with a variation over the time scale of 1 ps. Since Etoxazole and ZINC20031812 are antagonists, computationally they were more stable than 20E. Keywords: Ariadne merione, 20 Hydroxyecdysone (20E, Etoxazole, Schrödinger

  10. Insulin and 20-hydroxyecdysone action in Bombyx mori: Glycogen content and expression pattern of insulin and ecdysone receptors in fat body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshan, Bela; Thounaojam, Bembem; Kh, Sanathoibi D

    2017-01-15

    Insulin and ecdysone signaling play a critical role on the growth and development of insects including Bombyx mori. Our previous study showed that Bombyx larvae reached critical weight for metamorphosis between day 3.5 and 4 of the fifth larval instar. The present study showed that the effect of insulin on the accumulation of glycogen in fat body of Bombyx larvae depends on the critical growth period. When larvae are in active growth period (before reaching critical weight), insulin caused increased accumulation of glycogen, while its treatment in larvae at terminal growth period (after critical period) resulted in an increased mobilization of glycogen. During terminal growth period, insulin and 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) showed an antagonistic effect on the accumulation of fat body glycogen in fed, food deprived and decapitated larvae as well as in isolated abdomens. Insulin treatment decreased the glycogen content, whereas, 20E increased it. Food deprivation and decapitation caused an increase in the transcript levels of insulin receptor (InR) and this increase in InR expression might be attributed to a decrease in synthesis/secretion of insulin-like peptides, as insulin treatment in these larvae showed a down-regulation in InR expression. However, insulin showed an up-regulation in InR in isolated abdomens and it suggests that in food deprived and decapitated larvae, the exogenous insulin may interact with some head and/or thoracic factors in modulating the expression of InR. Moreover, in fed larvae, insulin-mediated increase in InR expression indicates that its regulation by insulin-like peptides also depends on the nutritional status of the larvae. The treatment of 20E in fed larvae showed an antagonistic effect on the transcript levels since a down-regulation in InR expression was observed. 20E treatment also led to a decreased expression of InR in food deprived and decapitated larvae as well as in isolated abdomens. Insulin and 20E also modulated the

  11. Effects of Quinizarin and Five Synthesized Derivatives on Fifth Larval Instar Midgut Ecdysone 20-Monooxygenase Activity of the Tobacco Hornworm Manduca sexta

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    Christopher A. Drummond

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The plant allelochemical, quinizarin (1,4-dihydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone, and five anthraquinones that were synthesized from quinizarin, namely, 1,4-anthraquinone; 2-hydroxy-1,4-anthraquinone; 2-methoxy-1,4-anthraquinone; 9-hydroxy-1,4-anthraquinone; and 9-methoxy-1,4-anthraquinone, were assessed as to their effects on the essential, P450-dependent ecdysone 20-monooxygenase system of the insect model Manduca sexta (tobacco hornworm. This steroid hydroxylase converts the arthropod molting hormone, ecdysone, to the physiologically required 20-hydroxyecdysone form. M. sexta fifth larval instar midgut homogenates were incubated with increasing concentrations (10−8 to 10−3 M of each of the six anthraquinones followed by ecdysone 20-monooxygenase assessments using a radioenzymological assay. Four of the five anthraquinones exhibited I50’s of about 4×10-6 to 6×10-2 M. The most effective inhibitors were 2-methoxy-1,4-anthraquinone and 1,4-anthraquinone followed by 9-hydroxy-1,4 anthraquinone and 9-methoxy-1,4-anthraquinone. At lower concentrations the latter anthraquinone stimulated E20M activity. Quinizarin was less inhibitory and 2-hydroxy-1,4-anthraquinone was essentially without effect. Significantly, these studies make evident for the first time that anthraquinones can affect insect E20M activity, and thus insect endocrine regulation and development, and that a relationship between anthraquinone structure and effectiveness is apparent. These studies represent the first demonstrations of anthraquinones affecting any steroid hydroxylase system.

  12. Towards Coleoptera-specific high-throughput screening systems for compounds with ecdysone activity: development of EcR reporter assays using weevil (Anthonomus grandis)-derived cell lines and in silico analysis of ligand binding to A. grandis EcR ligand-binding pocket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soin, Thomas; Iga, Masatoshi; Swevers, Luc; Rougé, Pierre; Janssen, Colin R; Smagghe, Guy

    2009-08-01

    Molting in insects is regulated by ecdysteroids and juvenile hormones. Several synthetic non-steroidal ecdysone agonists are on the market as insecticides. These ecdysone agonists are dibenzoylhydrazine (DBH) analogue compounds that manifest their toxicity via interaction with the ecdysone receptor (EcR). Of the four commercial available ecdysone agonists, three (tebufenozide, methoxyfenozide and chromafenozide) are highly lepidopteran specific, one (halofenozide) is used to control coleopteran and lepidopteran insects in turf and ornamentals. However, compared to the very high binding affinity of these DBH analogues to lepidopteran EcRs, halofenozide has a low binding affinity for coleopteran EcRs. For the discovery of ecdysone agonists that target non-lepidopteran insect groups, efficient screening systems that are based on the activation of the EcR are needed. We report here the development and evaluation of two coleopteran-specific reporter-based screening systems to discover and evaluate ecdysone agonists. The screening systems are based on the cell lines BRL-AG-3A and BRL-AG-3C that are derived from the weevil Anthonomus grandis, which can be efficiently transduced with an EcR reporter cassette for evaluation of induction of reporter activity by ecdysone agonists. We also cloned the almost full length coding sequence of EcR expressed in the cell line BRL-AG-3C and used it to make an initial in silico 3D-model of its ligand-binding pocket docked with ponasterone A and tebufenozide.

  13. A novel role for ecdysone in Drosophila conditioned behavior: linking GPCR-mediated non-canonical steroid action to cAMP signaling in the adult brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishimoto, Hiroshi; Wang, Zhe; Rao, Yi; Wu, Chun-Fang; Kitamoto, Toshihiro

    2013-01-01

    The biological actions of steroid hormones are mediated primarily by their cognate nuclear receptors, which serve as steroid-dependent transcription factors. However, steroids can also execute their functions by modulating intracellular signaling cascades rapidly and independently of transcriptional regulation. Despite the potential significance of such "non-genomic" steroid actions, their biological roles and the underlying molecular mechanisms are not well understood, particularly with regard to their effects on behavioral regulation. The major steroid hormone in the fruit fly Drosophila is 20-hydroxy-ecdysone (20E), which plays a variety of pivotal roles during development via the nuclear ecdysone receptors. Here we report that DopEcR, a G-protein coupled receptor for ecdysteroids, is involved in activity- and experience-dependent plasticity of the adult central nervous system. Remarkably, a courtship memory defect in rutabaga (Ca²⁺/calmodulin-responsive adenylate cyclase) mutants was rescued by DopEcR overexpression or acute 20E feeding, whereas a memory defect in dunce (cAMP-specific phosphodiestrase) mutants was counteracted when a loss-of-function DopEcR mutation was introduced. A memory defect caused by suppressing dopamine synthesis was also restored through enhanced DopEcR-mediated ecdysone signaling, and rescue and phenocopy experiments revealed that the mushroom body (MB)--a brain region central to learning and memory in Drosophila--is critical for the DopEcR-dependent processing of courtship memory. Consistent with this finding, acute 20E feeding induced a rapid, DopEcR-dependent increase in cAMP levels in the MB. Our multidisciplinary approach demonstrates that DopEcR mediates the non-canonical actions of 20E and rapidly modulates adult conditioned behavior through cAMP signaling, which is universally important for neural plasticity. This study provides novel insights into non-genomic actions of steroids, and opens a new avenue for genetic

  14. A novel role for ecdysone in Drosophila conditioned behavior: linking GPCR-mediated non-canonical steroid action to cAMP signaling in the adult brain.

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    Hiroshi Ishimoto

    Full Text Available The biological actions of steroid hormones are mediated primarily by their cognate nuclear receptors, which serve as steroid-dependent transcription factors. However, steroids can also execute their functions by modulating intracellular signaling cascades rapidly and independently of transcriptional regulation. Despite the potential significance of such "non-genomic" steroid actions, their biological roles and the underlying molecular mechanisms are not well understood, particularly with regard to their effects on behavioral regulation. The major steroid hormone in the fruit fly Drosophila is 20-hydroxy-ecdysone (20E, which plays a variety of pivotal roles during development via the nuclear ecdysone receptors. Here we report that DopEcR, a G-protein coupled receptor for ecdysteroids, is involved in activity- and experience-dependent plasticity of the adult central nervous system. Remarkably, a courtship memory defect in rutabaga (Ca²⁺/calmodulin-responsive adenylate cyclase mutants was rescued by DopEcR overexpression or acute 20E feeding, whereas a memory defect in dunce (cAMP-specific phosphodiestrase mutants was counteracted when a loss-of-function DopEcR mutation was introduced. A memory defect caused by suppressing dopamine synthesis was also restored through enhanced DopEcR-mediated ecdysone signaling, and rescue and phenocopy experiments revealed that the mushroom body (MB--a brain region central to learning and memory in Drosophila--is critical for the DopEcR-dependent processing of courtship memory. Consistent with this finding, acute 20E feeding induced a rapid, DopEcR-dependent increase in cAMP levels in the MB. Our multidisciplinary approach demonstrates that DopEcR mediates the non-canonical actions of 20E and rapidly modulates adult conditioned behavior through cAMP signaling, which is universally important for neural plasticity. This study provides novel insights into non-genomic actions of steroids, and opens a new avenue for

  15. Ecdysone receptor (EcR) and ultraspiracle (USP) genes from the cyclopoid copepod Paracyclopina nana: Identification and expression in response to water accommodated fractions (WAFs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puthumana, Jayesh; Lee, Min-Chul; Han, Jeonghoon; Kim, Hui-Su; Hwang, Dae-Sik; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2017-02-01

    Ecdysteroid hormones are pivotal in the development, growth, and molting of arthropods, and the hormone pathway is triggered by binding ecdysteroid to a heterodimer of the two nuclear receptors; ecdysone receptors (EcR) and ultraspiracle (USP). We have characterized EcR and USP genes, and their 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) from the copepod Paracyclopina nana, and studied mRNA transcription levels in post-embryonic stages and in response to water accommodated fractions (WAFs) of crude oil. The open reading frames (ORF) of EcR and USP were 1470 and 1287bp that encoded 490 and 429 amino acids with molecular weight of 121.18 and 105.03kDa, respectively. Also, a well conserved DNA-binding domain (DBD) and ligand-binding domain (LBD) were identified which confirmed by phylogenetic analysis. Messenger RNA transcriptional levels of EcR and USP were developmental stage-specific in early post-embryonic stages (N3-4). However, an evoked expression of USP was observed throughout copepodid stage and in adult females. WAFs (40 and 80%) were acted as an ecdysone agonist in P. nana, and elicited the mRNA transcription levels in adults. Developmental stage-specific transcriptional activation of EcR and USP in response to WAFs was observed. USP gene was down-regulated in the nauplius in response to WAF, whereas up-regulation of USP was observed in the adults. This study represents the first data of molecular elucidation of EcR and USP genes and their regulatory elements from P. nana and the developmental stage specific expression in response to WAFs, which can be used as potential biomarkers for environmental stressors with ecotoxicological evaluations in copepods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Structural diversity and evolution of the N-terminal isoform-specific region of ecdysone receptor-A and -B1 isoforms in insects

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    Kubo Takeo

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ecdysone receptor (EcR regulates various cellular responses to ecdysteroids during insect development. Insects have multiple EcR isoforms with different N-terminal A/B domains that contain the isoform-specific activation function (AF-1 region. Although distinct physiologic functions of the EcR isoforms have been characterized in higher holometabolous insects, they remain unclear in basal direct-developing insects, in which only A isoform has been identified. To examine the structural basis of the EcR isoform-specific AF-1 regions, we performed a comprehensive structural comparison of the isoform-specific region of the EcR-A and -B1 isoforms in insects. Results The EcR isoforms were newly identified in 51 species of insects and non-insect arthropods, including direct-developing ametabolous and hemimetabolous insects. The comprehensive structural comparison revealed that the isoform-specific region of each EcR isoform contained evolutionally conserved microdomain structures and insect subgroup-specific structural modifications. The A isoform-specific region generally contained four conserved microdomains, including the SUMOylation motif and the nuclear localization signal, whereas the B1 isoform-specific region contained three conserved microdomains, including an acidic activator domain-like motif. In addition, the EcR-B1 isoform of holometabolous insects had a novel microdomain at the N-terminal end. Conclusions Given that the nuclear receptor AF-1 is involved in cofactor recruitment and transcriptional regulation, the microdomain structures identified in the isoform-specific A/B domains might function as signature motifs and/or as targets for cofactor proteins that play essential roles in the EcR isoform-specific AF-1 regions. Moreover, the novel microdomain in the isoform-specific region of the holometabolous insect EcR-B1 isoform suggests that the holometabolous insect EcR-B1 acquired additional transcriptional

  17. Accessory gland as a site for prothoracicotropic hormone controlled ecdysone synthesis in adult male insects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hentze, Julie Lilith; Møller, Morten Erik; Jørgensen, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Insect steroid hormones (ecdysteroids) are important for female reproduction in many insect species and are required for the initiation and coordination of vital developmental processes. Ecdysteroids are also important for adult male physiology and behavior, but their exact function and site of s...

  18. Autogeny induced by a nonsteroidal ecdysone agonist tebufenozide in the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gelbič, Ivan; Rozsypalová, Petra

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 2 (2012), s. 119-126 ISSN 0307-6962 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/08/1407 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : autogeny * histology * RH-5992 Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.417, year: 2012 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-3032.2011.00817.x/pdf

  19. Ecdysone receptor agonism leading to lethal molting disruption in arthropods: Review and adverse outcome pathway development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molting is a key biological process in growth, development, reproduction and survival in arthropods. Complex neuroendocrine pathways are involved in the regulation of molting and may potentially become targets of environmental endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs). For example, s...

  20. Adaptation of an ecdysone-based genetic switch for transgene expression in soybean seeds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Semenyuk, E.G.; Schmidt, M.A.; Beachy, R.N.; Moravec, Tomáš; Woodford-Thomas, T.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 6 (2010), s. 987-999 ISSN 0962-8819 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Inducible expression * Soybean * Seed-specific genes Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.569, year: 2010

  1. The Function and Evolution of the Halloween Genes; the Pathway to the Arthropod Molting Hormone. In Ecdysone, Structures and Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilbert, Lawrence; Rewitz, Kim

    2009-01-01

    , Coleoptera, Hymenoptera and other Diptera allowed the development of a phylogenetic scheme for this gene family and suggests that the Halloween genes and vertebrate steroidogenic P450s originated from common ancestors that were perhaps destined for steroidogenesis, and arose before the deuterostome...

  2. MicroRNA-281 regulates the expression of ecdysone receptor (EcR) isoform B in the silkworm, Bombyx mori

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundreds of Bombyx mori miRNAs had been identified in recent years, but their function in vivo remains poorly understood. The silkworm EcR gene (BmEcR) has three transcriptional isoforms, A, B1 and B2. Isoform sequences are different in the 3’UTR region of the gene, which is the case only in insects...

  3. A novel ecdysone receptor mediates steroid-regulated developmental events during the mid-third instar of Drosophila.

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    Benjamin F B Costantino

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The larval salivary gland of Drosophila melanogaster synthesizes and secretes glue glycoproteins that cement developing animals to a solid surface during metamorphosis. The steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E is an essential signaling molecule that modulates most of the physiological functions of the larval gland. At the end of larval development, it is known that 20E--signaling through a nuclear receptor heterodimer consisting of EcR and USP--induces the early and late puffing cascade of the polytene chromosomes and causes the exocytosis of stored glue granules into the lumen of the gland. It has also been reported that an earlier pulse of hormone induces the temporally and spatially specific transcriptional activation of the glue genes; however, the receptor responsible for triggering this response has not been characterized. Here we show that the coordinated expression of the glue genes midway through the third instar is mediated by 20E acting to induce genes of the Broad Complex (BRC through a receptor that is not an EcR/USP heterodimer. This result is novel because it demonstrates for the first time that at least some 20E-mediated, mid-larval, developmental responses are controlled by an uncharacterized receptor that does not contain an RXR-like component.

  4. Developmental regulation of ecdysone receptor (EcR and EcR-controlled gene expression during pharate-adult development of honeybees (Apis mellifera.

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    Tathyana Rachel Palo Mello

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Major developmental transitions in multicellular organisms are driven by steroid hormones. In insects, these, together with juvenile hormone (JH, control development, metamorphosis, reproduction and aging, and are also suggested to play an important role in caste differentiation of social insects. Here, we aimed to determine how EcR transcription and ecdysteroid titers are related during honeybee postembryonic development and what may actually be the role of EcR in caste development of this social insect. In addition, we expected that knocking-down EcR gene expression would give us information on the participation of the respective protein in regulating downstream targets of EcR. We found that in Apis mellifera females, EcR-A is the predominantly expressed variant in postembryonic development, while EcR-B transcript levels are higher in embryos, indicating an early developmental switch in EcR function. During larval and pupal stages, EcR-B expression levels are very low, while EcR-A transcripts are more variable and abundant in workers compared to queens. Strikingly, these transcript levels are opposite to the ecdysteroid titer profile. 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E application experiments revealed that low 20E levels induce EcR expression during development, whereas high ecdysteroid titers seem to be repressive. By means of RNAi-mediated knockdown (KD of both EcR transcript variants we detected the differential expression of 234 poly-A+ transcripts encoding genes such as CYPs, MRJPs and certain hormone response genes (Kr-h1 and ftz-f1. EcR-KD also promoted the differential expression of 70 miRNAs, including highly conserved ones (e.g. miR-133 and miR-375, as well honeybee-specific ones (e.g. miR-3745 and miR-3761. Our results put in evidence a broad spectrum of EcR-controlled gene expression during postembryonic development of honeybees, revealing new facets of EcR biology in this social insect.

  5. The GPCR membrane receptor, DopEcR, mediates the actions of both dopamine and ecdysone to control sex pheromone perception in an insect

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    Antoine eAbrieux

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Olfactory information mediating sexual behavior is crucial for reproduction in many animals, including insects. In male moths, the macroglomerular complex of the primary olfactory center, the antennal lobe (AL is specialized in the treatment of information on the female-emitted sex pheromone. Evidence is accumulating that modulation of behavioral pheromone responses occurs through neuronal plasticity via the action of hormones and/or catecholamines. We recently showed that a G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR, AipsDopEcR, with its homologue known in Drosophila for its double affinity to the main insect steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E, and dopamine (DA, present in the ALs, is involved in the behavioral response to pheromone in the moth, Agrotis ipsilon. Here we tested the role of AipsDopEcR as compared to nuclear 20E receptors in central pheromone processing combining receptor inhibition with intracellular recordings of AL neurons. We show that the sensitivity of AL neurons for the pheromone in males decreases strongly after AipsDopEcR-dsRNA injection but also after inhibition of nuclear 20E receptors. Moreover we tested the involvement of 20E and DA in the receptor-mediated behavioral modulation in wind tunnel experiments, using ligand applications and receptor inhibition treatments. We show that both ligands are necessary and act on AipsDopEcR-mediated behavior. Altogether these results indicate that the GPCR membrane receptor, AipsDopEcR, controls sex pheromone perception through the action of both 20E and DA in the central nervous system, probably in concert with 20E action through nuclear receptors.

  6. Identification, characterization and developmental expression of Halloween genes encoding P450 enzymes mediating ecdysone biosynthesis in the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rewitz, Kim; Rybczynski, Robert; Warren, James T.

    2006-01-01

    this work to the tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta, an established model for endocrinological and developmental studies. cDNA clones were obtained for three Manduca orthologs of CYP306A1 (phantom; phm, the 25-hydroxylase), CYP302A1 (disembodied; dib, the 22-hydroxylase) and CYP315A1 (shadow; sad, the 2...... in the developmentally varying steroidogenic capacities of the prothoracic glands during the fifth instar. The consistent expression of the Halloween genes confirms the importance of the prothoracic glands in pupal-adult development. These studies establish Manduca as an excellent model for examining the regulation...

  7. Formation of apolar ecdysteroid conjugates by ovaries of the house cricket Acheta domesticus in vitro.

    OpenAIRE

    Whiting, P; Dinan, L

    1988-01-01

    The newly laid eggs of the house cricket Acheta domesticus contain apolar ecdysteroid conjugates, which we have hypothesized to be ecdysone long-chain fatty acyl esters [Whiting & Dinan (1988) J. Insect Physiol., in the press]. The ovaries of mature adult female A. domesticus in vitro convert [3H]ecdysone into apolar conjugates identical with those found in newly laid eggs. Comparison of the radioactive metabolites produced on incubation of [3H]ecdysone with various organs of adult female A. ...

  8. Developmental checkpoints and feedback circuits time insect maturation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rewitz, Kim Furbo; Yamanaka, Naoki; O'Connor, Michael B.

    2013-01-01

    as external cues, to time production and release of ecdysone. Based on results discussed here, we suggest that developmental progression to adulthood is controlled by checkpoints that regulate the genetic timing program enabling it to adapt to different environmental conditions. These checkpoints utilize...... a number of signaling pathways to modulate ecdysone production in the prothoracic gland. Release of ecdysone activates an autonomous cascade of both feedforward and feedback signals that determine the duration of the ecdysone pulse at each developmental transitions. Conservation of the genetic mechanisms...... that coordinate the juvenile-adult transition suggests that insights from the fruit fly Drosophila will provide a framework for future investigation of developmental timing in metazoans....

  9. Visualization of ecdysteroid activity using a reporter gene in the crustacean, Daphnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asada, Miki; Kato, Yasuhiko; Matsuura, Tomoaki; Watanabe, Hajime

    2014-02-01

    Ecdysone is a hormone known to play a pivotal role in crustaceans and insects. In order to evaluate the ecdysone activities in the environment and within the organism, we have developed a biomonitoring Daphnia strain by introducing a reporter gene. In this study, the ecdysone response element was inserted in the upstream region of a reporter gene, and the DNA construct was injected into Daphnia eggs. The expression of the reporter gene was detected during the early embryonic development stage. In addition, when the eggs expressing the reporter gene were exposed to ecdysone, there was enhanced expression of the reporter gene at detectable levels, while the presence of an antagonist led to its downregulation. These results suggested that this system could be potentially developed for monitoring ecdysone activities in media. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A dual function for Deep orange in programmed autophagy in the Drosophila melanogaster fat body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindmo, Karine; Simonsen, Anne; Brech, Andreas; Finley, Kim; Rusten, Tor Erik; Stenmark, Harald

    2006-01-01

    Lysosomal degradation of cytoplasm by way of autophagy is essential for cellular amino acid homeostasis and for tissue remodeling. In insects such as Drosophila, autophagy is developmentally upregulated in the larval fat body prior to metamorphosis. Here, autophagy is induced by the hormone ecdysone through down-regulation of the autophagy-suppressive phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway. In yeast, Vps18 and other members of the HOPS complex have been found essential for autophagic degradation. In Drosophila, the Vps18 homologue Deep orange (Dor) has previously been shown to mediate fusion of multivesicular endosomes with lysosomes. A requirement of Dor for ecdysone-mediated chromosome puffing has also been reported. In the present report, we have tested the hypothesis that Dor may control programmed autophagy at the level of ecdysone signaling as well as by mediating autophagosome-to-lysosome fusion. We show that dor mutants are defective in programmed autophagy and provide evidence that autophagy is blocked at two levels. First, PI3K activity was not down-regulated correctly in dor larvae, which correlated with a decrease in ecdysone reporter activity. The down-regulation of PI3K activity was restored by feeding ecdysone to the mutant larvae. Second, neither exogenous ecdysone nor overexpression of PTEN, a silencer of PI3K signaling, restored fusion of autophagosomes with lysosomes in the fat body of dor mutants. These results indicate that Dor controls autophagy indirectly, via ecdysone signaling, as well as directly, via autolysosomal fusion

  11. Cloning, ligand-binding, and temporal expression of ecdysteroid receptors in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Baozhen

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae, is a devastating pest of cruciferous crops worldwide, and has developed resistance to a wide range of insecticides, including diacylhydrazine-based ecdysone agonists, a highly selective group of molt-accelerating biopesticides targeting the ecdysone receptors. Result In this study, we cloned and characterized the ecdysone receptors from P. xylostella, including the two isoforms of EcR and a USP. Sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis showed striking conservations among insect ecdysone receptors, especially between P. xylostella and other lepidopterans. The binding affinity of ecdysteroids to in vitro-translated receptor proteins indicated that PxEcRB isoform bound specifically to ponasterone A, and the binding affinity was enhanced by co-incubation with PxUSP (Kd =3.0±1.7 nM. In contrast, PxEcRA did not bind to ponasterone A, even in the presence of PxUSP. The expression of PxEcRB were consistently higher than that of PxEcRA across each and every developmental stage, while the pattern of PxUSP expression is more or less ubiquitous. Conclusions Target site insensitivity, in which the altered binding of insecticides (ecdysone agonists to their targets (ecdysone receptors leads to an adaptive response (resistance, is one of the underlying mechanisms of diacylhydrazine resistance. Given the distinct differences at expression level and the ligand-binding capacity, we hypothesis that PxEcRB is the ecdysone receptor that controls the remodeling events during metamorphosis. More importantly, PxEcRB is the potential target site which is modified in the ecdysone agonist-resistant P. xylostella.

  12. Cytogenetic analysis of the 2B1-2-2B9-10 region of the X chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster. V. Changes in the pattern of polypeptide synthesis in salivary glands caused by mutations located in the 2B5 puff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubrovskii, E.B.; Zhimulev, I.F.

    1986-01-01

    The authors have investigated the role of the 2B5 puff in the synthesis of ecdysone-inducible proteins. They showed that in mutants for the overlapping complementation complex (occ) located in the 2B5 puff the synthesis of these proteins is impaired: in mutants 1t336 and 1t366 to a lesser extent and in mutant t143 to a greater extent. Similarly to the deletion of the 2B5 puff, mutation t435 completely blocks the synthesis of ecdysone-inducible proteins. An increase in the dose of the 2B5 puff leads to an increase in the level of synthesis of two ecdysone-inducible polypeptides, for which evidence is available that they are encoded in the region of another ecdysone puff. The results obtained, together with the findings that the tissues of larvae mutant for the occ locus are not sensitive to the action of 20-hydroxy ecdysone and that the normal course of development of ecdysone-dependent puffing is impaired in the chromosomes of salivary glands of these mutants, suggest the presence of a key regulatory role of the 2B5 puff in metamorphosis

  13. Phytochemical Analysis of Pfaffia glomerata Inflorescences by LC-ESI-MS/MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele F. Felipe

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Pfaffia glomerata contains high levels of β-ecdysone, which has shown a range of beneficial pharmacological effects. The present study demonstrated that inflorescences of P. glomerata contain other important bioactive compounds in addition to β-ecdysone. The identification of compounds from inflorescences using liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS was performed for the first time. The eight compounds identified were β-ecdysone, flavonoid glycosides such as quercetin-3-O-glucoside, kaempferol-3-O-glucoside and kaempferol-3-O-(6-p-coumaroyl-glucoside, oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins such as ginsenoside Ro and chikusetsusaponin IV, in addition to oleanonic acid and gluconic acid. This study provided information on the phytochemicals contained in P. glomerata inflorescences revealing the potential application of this plant part as raw material for the phytotherapeutic and cosmetic industries.

  14. Dynamic feedback circuits function as a switch for shaping a maturation-inducing steroid pulse in Drosophila

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Morten Erik; Danielsen, Erik Thomas; Herder, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    . Remarkably, our study shows that the same well-defined genetic program that stimulates a systemic downstream response to ecdysone is also utilized upstream to set the duration and amplitude of the ecdysone pulse. Activation of this switch-like mechanism ensures a rapid, self-limiting PG response......Steroid hormones trigger the onset of sexual maturation in animals by initiating genetic response programs that are determined by steroid pulse frequency, amplitude and duration. Although steroid pulses coordinate growth and timing of maturation during development, the mechanisms generating...... of hormone synthesis, the two key parameters determining pulse shape (amplitude and duration). We show that ecdysone has a positive-feedback effect on the PG, rapidly amplifying its own synthesis to trigger pupariation as the onset of maturation. During the prepupal stage, a negative-feedback signal ensures...

  15. Metabolism of ecdysteroids during the vitellogenesis of the tick Ornithodoros moubata (Ixodoidea, Argasidae): Accumulation of apolar metabolites in the eggs

    OpenAIRE

    Connat, Jean-Louis; Diehl, Peter A.; Morici, M

    2008-01-01

    The fate of injected [3H]ecdysone ([3H]E) and 20-hydroxy-[3H]ecdysone ([3H]20E) has been investigated in the female tick Ornithodoros moubata (Murray, 1877; sensu Walton, 1962). When injected into fed mated vitellogenic females, [3H]E is converted into [3H]20E and two apolar classes of metabolites, AP1 and AP2. Injected [3H]20E is directly converted into AP1 and AP2. AP2 is incorporated into the ovaries in a high proportion and at the end of the vitellogenic cycle represents about 25% of the ...

  16. Role of elongator subunit Elp3 in Drosophila melanogaster larval development and immunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walker, Jane; Kwon, So Yeon; Badenhorst, Paul

    2011-01-01

    , larval growth is dramatically impaired, with progression to the third instar delayed for ~24 hr, and pupariation occurring only at day 14 after egg laying. Melanotic nodules appear after 4 days. Microarray analysis shows that stress response genes are induced and ecdysone-induced transcription factors...

  17. Use of Sindbis virus-mediated RNA interference to demonstrate a conserved role of Broad-Complex in insect metamorphosis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Uhlířová, Miroslava; Foy, B. D.; Beaty, B. J.; Olson, K. E.; Riddiford, L. M.; Jindra, Marek

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 100, č. 26 (2003), s. 15607-15612 ISSN 0027-8424 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA5007305 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5007907 Keywords : Green fluorescent protein-steroid-hormone ecdysone Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 10.272, year: 2003

  18. Comprehensive physiology and toxicology of ecdysogens – The metabolically activated porphyrin-ecdysteroid complexes in insects

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sláma, Karel; Zhylitskaya, H.

    181-182, March 31 (2016), s. 55-67 ISSN 1532-0456 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : ecdysone * 20-hydroxyecdysone (E20) * ecdysteroids (Ecds) Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.416, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1532045616300011

  19. A phosphoproteomics approach to elucidate neuropeptide signal transduction controlling insect metamorphosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rewitz, Kim F; Larsen, Martin R; Lobner-Olesen, Anders

    2009-01-01

    In insects, the neuropeptide prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH) stimulates production of ecdysone (E) in the prothoracic glands (PGs). E is the precursor of the principal steroid hormone, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), that is responsible for eliciting molting and metamorphosis. In this study, we used...

  20. On gonads and gadflies: the estrus angle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillier, Stephen G

    2017-06-01

    The first sex steroid to be crystallized was the vertebrate ovarian hormone, estrone - a less potent metabolite of 17β-estradiol, which in mammals stimulates the female urge to mate (estrus). The gadfly (Greek oistros ) lent its name to the process of estrus, as an insect that bites and torments in classical Greek mythology. With the purification and crystallization of a moult-inducing steroid (ecdysone) from insects, an interesting parallel emerged between mating and moulting in lower mammals and arthropods. Ecdysterone (potent ecdysone metabolite) has anabolic effects in mammalian muscle cells that can be blocked by selective estrogen receptor antagonists. Insects utilize ecdysteroids in similar ways that vertebrates use estrogens, including stimulation of oocyte growth and maturation. Ecdysteroids also modify precopulatory insect mating behaviour, further reinforcing the gonad-gadfly/mate-moult analogy. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  1. Role of ecdysteroids in the molting and reproductive cycles of the white shrimp, Penaeus vannamei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, S.M.

    1989-01-01

    The molt cycle was characterized in the white shrimp Penaeus vannamei based upon changes in the morphology of pleopod setae. These characters were used subsequently to determine changes in ecdysteroids and related biosynthetic events during the stages of the molting cycle and in relation to reproduction. Ecdysteroid titers were measured during the molting cycle. They increased during the premolt, decreased at ecdysis and remained minimal through the intermolt. 20-hydroxyecdysone (20-OHE) was the major ecdysteroid present during the premolt. Injection of [ 3 H]ecdysone resulted in label accumulation in the epidermis and hepatopancreas in the form of 20-OHE which was subsequently hydroxylated further to a polar metabolite. [ 3 H]ecdysone was not metabolized by the Y-organ, hemolymph, muscle or intestine. Eyestalk ablation elevated hemolymph ecdysteroid titers and reduced the duration of all molt stages. However, 20-OHE injection into intact animals caused a disproportionate reduction in the durations of only the intermolt and early premolt stages

  2. Effect of acute exposure to cadmium on the expression of heat-shock and hormone-nuclear receptor genes in the aquatic midge Chironomus riparius

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planello, R.; Martinez-Guitarte, J.L.; Morcillo, G.

    2010-01-01

    Cadmium is a widespread and highly toxic pollutant of particular ecotoxicological relevance for aquatic ecosystems where it accumulates. To identify biomarkers for ecotoxicity monitoring, the effect of cadmium on the expression of different genes related to the stress response as well as to the ecdysone hormone-signalling pathway was studied in the aquatic larvae of Chironomus riparius (Diptera, Chironomidae), a standard test organism in aquatic toxicology testing. Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) was used to evaluate the effects of acute and short-term cadmium exposures (10 mM CdCl 2 , 12 h and 24 h) on the expression of hsp70, hsc70, hsp90 and hsp40 genes, as well as on that of the ecdysone hormonal-receptor genes (EcR and usp). A significant 3-fold increase in the level of hsp70 gene transcripts was induced by the treatment, whereas neither the other stress genes tested (hsp90 and hsp40) nor the constitutive form of hsp70, hsc70, was affected in the larvae exposed to cadmium. These results show that hsp70 is differentially activated to other environmentally regulated heat-shock genes, and constitutes a biomarker of exposure to this toxic metal. In addition, we also found that cadmium is able to alter the expression of the ecdysone receptor gene (EcR), whose mRNA level is significantly increased whereas usp levels remained unaltered. This finding, evidenced for the first time in invertebrates, supports the view that cadmium has the ability to mimic the effect of the hormone by the activation of the ecdysone nuclear receptor, which may partly explain the endocrine disruption capability that has been previously suggested for this toxic metal. Our research adds to the growing evidence implicating heavy metals, and cadmium in particular, as potential endocrine disruptive agents and may have significant implications for ecological risk assessment of endocrine-disrupting compounds in invertebrates.

  3. Disruption of pupariation and eclosion behavior in the flesh fly, Sarcophaga bullata Parker (Diptera: Sarcophagidae), by venom form the ectoparasitic wasp Nasonia vitripennis (Walker) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rivers, D. B.; Žďárek, Jan; Denlinger, D. L.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 57, - (2004), s. 78-91 ISSN 0739-4462 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/01/0501 Grant - others:USDA-NRI(US) 98-35302-6659; USDA-NRICGP(US) 2001-1005 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : ectoparasitoid * ecdysone * fly development Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.173, year: 2004

  4. Induction of 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase in Arabidopsis thaliana seeds enhances seed dormancy

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-Andújar, Cristina; Ordiz, M. Isabel; Huang, Zhonglian; Nonogaki, Mariko; Beachy, Roger N.; Nonogaki, Hiroyuki

    2011-01-01

    Full understanding of mechanisms that control seed dormancy and germination remains elusive. Whereas it has been proposed that translational control plays a predominant role in germination, other studies suggest the importance of specific gene expression patterns in imbibed seeds. Transgenic plants were developed to permit conditional expression of a gene encoding 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase 6 (NCED6), a rate-limiting enzyme in abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis, using the ecdysone recept...

  5. The silkworm Bombyx mori cuticular protein CPR55 gene is regulated by the transcription factor βFTZ-F1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Saheb Ali

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The insect cuticle is composed of various proteins and formed during the moult under a complex biological process that depends on the cross talk between hormone levels and gene expression. In the present study, we aimed to clarify the ecdysone-dependent temporal regulation mechanisms of cuticular proteins expression and the underlying control of Bombyx mori metamorphosis. The expression of CPR55 was observed from the W3 early stage and peaked at pupation when the ecdysteroid titre declined. CPR55 was induced by the ecdysone pulse, and their expression peaked at 24 h after transfer to a hormone free medium. Transcripts of CPR55 were neither observed after the 20E pulse treatment in the presence of cycloheximide nor after the addition of 20E in V4 wing discs. We analysed the upstream region of the CPR55 gene using a transient reporter assay with a gene gun system which identified only one βFTZ-F1 binding site important for cis-acting elements for the transcription activation of the luciferase reporter gene by an ecdysone pulse. Site-directed mutagenesis of this element in the context of the 589-bp promoter fragment drastically decreased the reporter activity. The nuclear protein bound to βFTZ-F1 sites was identified by an electrophoretic mobility shift assay suggesting that CPR55 expression was regulated by βFTZ-F1 through the ecdysone pulse. The results confirmed that transcription factor, BmβFTZ-F1, binds to the cis-regulatory elements in the promoter of the gene coding for cuticle protein, CPR55, and regulates its expression during B. mori metamorphosis.

  6. Nitric oxide coordinates metabolism, growth, and development via the nuclear receptor E75

    OpenAIRE

    Cáceres, Lucía; Necakov, Aleksandar S.; Schwartz, Carol; Kimber, Sandra; Roberts, Ian J.H.; Krause, Henry M.

    2011-01-01

    Nitric oxide gas acts as a short-range signaling molecule in a vast array of important physiological processes, many of which include major changes in gene expression. How these genomic responses are induced, however, is poorly understood. Here, using genetic and chemical manipulations, we show that nitric oxide is produced in the Drosophila prothoracic gland, where it acts via the nuclear receptor ecdysone-induced protein 75 (E75), reversing its ability to interfere with its heterodimer part...

  7. Differentially expressed genes in the head of the 2nd instar pre-molting larvae of the nm2 mutant of the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pingyang Wang

    Full Text Available Molting is an important physiological process in the larval stage of Bombyx mori and is controlled by various hormones and peptides. The silkworm mutant that exhibits the phenotype of non-molting in the 2nd instar (nm2 is incapable of molting in the 2nd instar and dies after seven or more days. The ecdysone titer in the nm2 mutant is lower than that in the wildtype, and the mutant can be rescued by feeding with 20E and cholesterol. The results of positional cloning indicated that structural alteration of BmCPG10 is responsible for the phenotype of the nm2 mutant. To explore the possible relationship between BmCPG10 and the ecdysone titer as well as the genes affected by BmCPG10, digital gene expression (DGE profile analysis was conducted in the nm2 mutant, with the wildtype strain C603 serving as the control. The results revealed 1727 differentially expressed genes, among which 651 genes were upregulated and 1076 were downregulated in nm2. BLASTGO analysis showed that these differentially expressed genes were involved in various biological processes, cellular components and molecular functions. KEGG analysis indicated an enrichment of these differentially expressed genes in 240 pathways, including metabolic pathways, pancreatic secretion, protein digestion and absorption, fat digestion and absorption and glycerolipid metabolism. To verify the accuracy of the DGE results, quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR was performed, focusing on key genes in several related pathways, and the results were highly consistent with the DGE results. Our findings indicated significant differences in cuticular protein genes, ecdysone biosynthesis genes and ecdysone-related nuclear receptors genes, but no significant difference in juvenile hormone and chitin biosynthesis genes was detected. Our research findings lay the foundation for further research on the formation mechanism of the nm2 mutant.

  8. Insulin signaling pathways in lepidopteran steroidogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy eSmith

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Molting and metamorphosis are stimulated by the secretion of ecdysteroid hormones from the prothoracic glands. Insulin-like hormones have been found to enhance prothoracic gland activity, providing a mechanism to link molting to nutritional state. In silk moths (Bombyx mori, the prothoracic glands are directly stimulated by insulin and the insulin-like hormone bombyxin. Further, in Bombyx , the neuropeptide prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH appears to act at least in part through the insulin-signaling pathway. In the prothoracic glands of Manduca sexta, while insulin stimulates the phosphorylation of the insulin receptor and Akt, neither insulin nor bombyxin II stimulate ecdysone secretion. Involvement of the insulin-signaling pathway in Manduca prothoracic glands was explored using two inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K, LY294002 and wortmannin. PI3K inhibitors block the phosphorylation of Akt and 4EBP but have no effect on ecdysone secretion, or on the phosphorylation of the MAPkinase, ERK. Inhibitors that block phosphorylation of ERK, including the MEK inhibitor U0126, and high doses of the RSK inhibitor SL0101, effectively inhibit ecdysone secretion. The results highlight differences between the two lepidopteran insects most commonly used to directly study ecdysteroid secretion. In Bombyx, the PTTH and insulin-signaling pathways intersect; both insulin and PTTH enhance the phosphorylation of Akt and stimulate ecdysteroid secretion, and inhibition of PI3K reduces ecdysteroid secretion. By contrast, in Manduca, the action of PTTH is distinct from insulin. The results highlight species differences in the roles of translational regulators such as 4EBP, and members of the MAPkinase pathway such as ERK and RSK, in the effects of nutritionally-sensitive hormones such as insulin on ecdysone secretion and molting.

  9. Effect of acute exposure to cadmium on the expression of heat-shock and hormone-nuclear receptor genes in the aquatic midge Chironomus riparius

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Planello, R.; Martinez-Guitarte, J.L. [Grupo de Biologia y Toxicologia Ambiental, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, UNED, Senda del Rey 9, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Morcillo, G., E-mail: gmorcillo@ccia.uned.es [Grupo de Biologia y Toxicologia Ambiental, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, UNED, Senda del Rey 9, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-03-01

    Cadmium is a widespread and highly toxic pollutant of particular ecotoxicological relevance for aquatic ecosystems where it accumulates. To identify biomarkers for ecotoxicity monitoring, the effect of cadmium on the expression of different genes related to the stress response as well as to the ecdysone hormone-signalling pathway was studied in the aquatic larvae of Chironomus riparius (Diptera, Chironomidae), a standard test organism in aquatic toxicology testing. Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) was used to evaluate the effects of acute and short-term cadmium exposures (10 mM CdCl{sub 2}, 12 h and 24 h) on the expression of hsp70, hsc70, hsp90 and hsp40 genes, as well as on that of the ecdysone hormonal-receptor genes (EcR and usp). A significant 3-fold increase in the level of hsp70 gene transcripts was induced by the treatment, whereas neither the other stress genes tested (hsp90 and hsp40) nor the constitutive form of hsp70, hsc70, was affected in the larvae exposed to cadmium. These results show that hsp70 is differentially activated to other environmentally regulated heat-shock genes, and constitutes a biomarker of exposure to this toxic metal. In addition, we also found that cadmium is able to alter the expression of the ecdysone receptor gene (EcR), whose mRNA level is significantly increased whereas usp levels remained unaltered. This finding, evidenced for the first time in invertebrates, supports the view that cadmium has the ability to mimic the effect of the hormone by the activation of the ecdysone nuclear receptor, which may partly explain the endocrine disruption capability that has been previously suggested for this toxic metal. Our research adds to the growing evidence implicating heavy metals, and cadmium in particular, as potential endocrine disruptive agents and may have significant implications for ecological risk assessment of endocrine-disrupting compounds in invertebrates.

  10. Infrared spectroscopy-based metabolomic analysis of maize growing under different nitrogen nutrition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavlík, Milan; Pavlíková, D.; Vašíčková, Soňa

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 11 (2010), s. 533-540 ISSN 1214-1178 R&D Projects: GA MZe 1G58027; GA MŠk 2B06024 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511; CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : ammonium * ecdysone phosphate * CULTAN Subject RIV: GD - Fertilization, Irrigation, Soil Processing Impact factor: 1.076, year: 2010 www.agriculturejournals.cz/publishedArticle?journal=PSE&volume=56&firstPage=533

  11. The POU Factor Ventral Veins Lacking/Drifter Directs the Timing of Metamorphosis through Ecdysteroid and Juvenile Hormone Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaieb, Leila; Koyama, Takashi; Sarwar, Prioty; Mirth, Christen K.; Smith, Wendy A.; Suzuki, Yuichiro

    2014-01-01

    Although endocrine changes are known to modulate the timing of major developmental transitions, the genetic mechanisms underlying these changes remain poorly understood. In insects, two developmental hormones, juvenile hormone (JH) and ecdysteroids, are coordinated with each other to induce developmental changes associated with metamorphosis. However, the regulation underlying the coordination of JH and ecdysteroid synthesis remains elusive. Here, we examined the function of a homolog of the vertebrate POU domain protein, Ventral veins lacking (Vvl)/Drifter, in regulating both of these hormonal pathways in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Tenebrionidae). RNA interference-mediated silencing of vvl expression led to both precocious metamorphosis and inhibition of molting in the larva. Ectopic application of a JH analog on vvl knockdown larvae delayed the onset of metamorphosis and led to a prolonged larval stage, indicating that Vvl acts upstream of JH signaling. Accordingly, vvl knockdown also reduced the expression of a JH biosynthesis gene, JH acid methyltransferase 3 (jhamt3). In addition, ecdysone titer and the expression of the ecdysone response gene, hormone receptor 3 (HR3), were reduced in vvl knockdown larvae. The expression of the ecdysone biosynthesis gene phantom (phm) and spook (spo) were reduced in vvl knockdown larvae in the anterior and posterior halves, respectively, indicating that Vvl might influence ecdysone biosynthesis in both the prothoracic gland and additional endocrine sources. Injection of 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) into vvl knockdown larvae could restore the expression of HR3 although molting was never restored. These findings suggest that Vvl coordinates both JH and ecdysteroid biosynthesis as well as molting behavior to influence molting and the timing of metamorphosis. Thus, in both vertebrates and insects, POU factors modulate the production of major neuroendocrine regulators during sexual maturation. PMID:24945490

  12. The COP9 signalosome converts temporal hormone signaling to spatial restriction on neural competence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chun Huang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available During development, neural competence is conferred and maintained by integrating spatial and temporal regulations. The Drosophila sensory bristles that detect mechanical and chemical stimulations are arranged in stereotypical positions. The anterior wing margin (AWM is arrayed with neuron-innervated sensory bristles, while posterior wing margin (PWM bristles are non-innervated. We found that the COP9 signalosome (CSN suppresses the neural competence of non-innervated bristles at the PWM. In CSN mutants, PWM bristles are transformed into neuron-innervated, which is attributed to sustained expression of the neural-determining factor Senseless (Sens. The CSN suppresses Sens through repression of the ecdysone signaling target gene broad (br that encodes the BR-Z1 transcription factor to activate sens expression. Strikingly, CSN suppression of BR-Z1 is initiated at the prepupa-to-pupa transition, leading to Sens downregulation, and termination of the neural competence of PWM bristles. The role of ecdysone signaling to repress br after the prepupa-to-pupa transition is distinct from its conventional role in activation, and requires CSN deneddylating activity and multiple cullins, the major substrates of deneddylation. Several CSN subunits physically associate with ecdysone receptors to represses br at the transcriptional level. We propose a model in which nuclear hormone receptors cooperate with the deneddylation machinery to temporally shutdown downstream target gene expression, conferring a spatial restriction on neural competence at the PWM.

  13. Combgap Promotes Ovarian Niche Development and Chromatin Association of EcR-Binding Regions in BR-C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitrik, Anna; Popliker, Malka; Gancz, Dana; Mukamel, Zohar; Lifshitz, Aviezer; Schwartzman, Omer; Tanay, Amos; Gilboa, Lilach

    2016-11-01

    The development of niches for tissue-specific stem cells is an important aspect of stem cell biology. Determination of niche size and niche numbers during organogenesis involves precise control of gene expression. How this is achieved in the context of a complex chromatin landscape is largely unknown. Here we show that the nuclear protein Combgap (Cg) supports correct ovarian niche formation in Drosophila by controlling ecdysone-Receptor (EcR)- mediated transcription and long-range chromatin contacts in the broad locus (BR-C). Both cg and BR-C promote ovarian growth and the development of niches for germ line stem cells. BR-C levels were lower when Combgap was either reduced or over-expressed, indicating an intricate regulation of the BR-C locus by Combgap. Polytene chromosome stains showed that Cg co-localizes with EcR, the major regulator of BR-C, at the BR-C locus and that EcR binding to chromatin was sensitive to changes in Cg levels. Proximity ligation assay indicated that the two proteins could reside in the same complex. Finally, chromatin conformation analysis revealed that EcR-bound regions within BR-C, which span ~30 KBs, contacted each other. Significantly, these contacts were stabilized in an ecdysone- and Combgap-dependent manner. Together, these results highlight Combgap as a novel regulator of chromatin structure that promotes transcription of ecdysone target genes and ovarian niche formation.

  14. Modulation of gene expression by nutritional state and hormones in Bombyx larvae in relation to its growth period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thounaojam, Bembem; Keshan, Bela

    2017-11-01

    Insect growth and development are mainly regulated via synchronization of many extrinsic and intrinsic factors such as nutrition and hormones. Previously we have demonstrated that larval growth period influences the effect of insulin on the accumulation of glycogen in the fat body of Bombyx larvae. In the present study we demonstrate that Bombyx larvae at the terminal growth period (TGP, after critical weight) had a significantly greater increase in the expression level of Akt in the fat body than at the active growth period (AGP, before critical weight). The larvae at TGP also showed an increase in the expression level of ecdysone receptors (EcRB1 and USP1) and ecdysone-induced early genes (E75A and broad). The treatment of bovine insulin and methoprene to larvae at AGP induced the transcript levels of Akt, irrespective of the nutritional status of the larvae. However, in larvae at TGP, insulin repressed the transcript level of Akt. On contrary, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) induced the expression level of Akt in TGP larvae, but at feeding only. Insulin and 20E thus showed an antagonistic action on the Akt expression level in TGP larvae under feeding. The studies thus showed that larval growth period influences the expression level of Akt and ecdysone receptors in Bombyx. Further, the growth period and nutrition modulate the effect of exogenous hormones on Akt expression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Changes in the Gene Expression Profiles of the Hypopharyngeal Gland of Worker Honeybees in Association with Worker Behavior and Hormonal Factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayuki Ueno

    Full Text Available The hypopharyngeal glands (HPGs of worker honeybees undergo physiological changes along with the age-dependent role change from nursing to foraging: nurse bee HPGs secrete mainly major royal jelly proteins, whereas forager HPGs secrete mainly α-glucosidase III, which converts the sucrose in the nectar into glucose and fructose. We previously identified two other genes, Apis mellifera buffy (Ambuffy and Apis mellifera matrix metalloproteinase 1 (AmMMP1, with enriched expression in nurse bee and forager HPGs, respectively. In the present study, to clarify the molecular mechanisms that coordinate HPG physiology with worker behavior, we first analyzed whether Ambuffy, AmMMP1, mrjp2 (a gene encoding one of major royal jelly protein isoforms, and Hbg3 (a gene encoding α-glucosidase III expression, is associated with worker behavior in 'single-cohort colonies' where workers of almost the same age perform different tasks. Expression of these genes correlated with the worker's role, while controlling for age, indicating their regulation associated with the worker's behavior. Associated gene expression suggested the possible involvement of some hormonal factors in its regulation. We therefore examined the relationship between ecdysone- and juvenile hormone (JH-signaling, and the expression profiles of these 'indicator' genes (nurse bee HPG-selective genes: mrjp2 and Ambuffy, and forager HPG-selective genes: Hbg3 and AmMMP1. Expression of both ecdysone-regulated genes (ecdysone receptor, mushroom body large type Kenyon cell specific protein-1, and E74 and JH-regulated genes (Methoprene tolerant and Krüppel homolog 1 was higher in the forager HPGs than in the nurse bee HPGs, suggesting the possible roles of ecdysone- and JH-regulated genes in worker HPGs. Furthermore, 20-hydroxyecdysone-treatment repressed both nurse bee- and forager-selective gene expression, whereas methoprene-treatment enhanced the expression of forager-selective genes and repressed

  16. Obesogens beyond Vertebrates: Lipid Perturbation by Tributyltin in the Crustacean Daphnia magna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordão, Rita; Casas, Josefina; Fabrias, Gemma; Campos, Bruno; Piña, Benjamín; Lemos, Marco F.L.; Soares, Amadeu M.V.M.; Tauler, Romà

    2015-01-01

    Background The analysis of obesogenic effects in invertebrates is limited by our poor knowledge of the regulatory pathways of lipid metabolism. Recent data from the crustacean Daphnia magna points to three signaling hormonal pathways related to the molting and reproductive cycles [retinoic X receptor (RXR), juvenile hormone (JH), and ecdysone] as putative targets for exogenous obesogens. Objective The present study addresses the disruptive effects of the model obesogen tributyltin (TBT) on the lipid homeostasis in Daphnia during the molting and reproductive cycle, its genetic control, and health consequences of its disruption. Methods D. magna individuals were exposed to low and high levels of TBT. Reproductive effects were assessed by Life History analysis methods. Quantitative and qualitative changes in lipid droplets during molting and the reproductive cycle were studied using Nile red staining. Lipid composition and dynamics were analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Relative abundances of mRNA from different genes related to RXR, ecdysone, and JH signaling pathways were studied by qRT-PCR. Results and Conclusions TBT disrupted the dynamics of neutral lipids, impairing the transfer of triacylglycerols to eggs and hence promoting their accumulation in adult individuals. TBT’s disruptive effects translated into a lower fitness for offspring and adults. Co-regulation of gene transcripts suggests that TBT activates the ecdysone, JH, and RXR receptor signaling pathways, presumably through the already proposed interaction with RXR. These findings indicate the presence of obesogenic effects in a nonvertebrate species. Citation Jordão R, Casas J, Fabrias G, Campos B, Piña B, Lemos MF, Soares AM, Tauler R, Barata C. 2015. Obesogens beyond vertebrates: lipid perturbation by tributyltin in the crustacean Daphnia magna. Environ Health Perspect 123:813–819; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1409163 PMID

  17. Allele specific expression in worker reproduction genes in the bumblebee Bombus terrestris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harindra E. Amarasinghe

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Methylation has previously been associated with allele specific expression in ants. Recently, we found methylation is important in worker reproduction in the bumblebee Bombus terrestris. Here we searched for allele specific expression in twelve genes associated with worker reproduction in bees. We found allele specific expression in Ecdysone 20 monooxygenase and IMP-L2-like. Although we were unable to confirm a genetic or epigenetic cause for this allele specific expression, the expression patterns of the two genes match those predicted for imprinted genes.

  18. Elimination of C-6-hydrogen during the formation of ecdysteroids from cholesterol in Locusta migratoria ovaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, Y.; Hiramoto, M.; Kakinuma, K.; Ikekawa, N.

    1989-01-01

    Being administered to Locusta migratoria adult females, [6- 3 H, 4- 14 C]cholesterol was incorporated into ecdysone and 2-deoxyecdysone. The ratio of 3 H/ 14 C of the two ecdysteroids isolated from newly laid eggs revealed that C-6-hydrogen of cholesterol was eliminated during the conversion to ecdysteroids in the ovaries of the insects. Thus, a hypothetical mechanism involving migration of the C-6-hydrogen to the C-5 position in the formation of A/B cis junction turned out to be less likely

  19. Regulation of Pattern Formation and Gene Amplification During Drosophila Oogenesis by the miR-318 microRNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ge, Wanzhong; Deng, Qiannan; Guo, Ting

    2015-01-01

    Pattern formation during epithelial development requires the coordination of multiple signaling pathways. Here, we investigate the functions of an ovary-enriched miRNA, miR-318, in epithelial development during Drosophila oogenesis. miR-318 maternal loss-of-function mutants were female sterile...... and laid eggs with abnormal morphology. Removal of miR-318 disrupted the dorsal-anterior follicle cell patterning, resulting in abnormal dorsal appendages. miR-318 mutant females also produced thin and fragile eggshells, due to impaired chorion gene amplification. We provide evidence that the ecdysone......RNAs in maintaining cell fate and promoting the developmental transition in the female follicular epithelium....

  20. Characterization and expression patterns of let-7 microRNA in the silkworm (Bombyx mori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Kaili

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background lin-4 and let-7, the two founding members of heterochronic microRNA genes, are firstly confirmed in Caenorhabditis elegans to control the proper timing of developmental programs in a heterochronic pathway. let-7 has been thought to trigger the onset of adulthood across animal phyla. Ecdysone and Broad-Complex are required for the temporal expression of let-7 in Drosophila melanogaster. For a better understanding of the conservation and functions of let-7, we seek to explore how it is expressed in the silkworm (Bombyx mori. Results One member of let-7 family has been identified in silkworm computationally and experimentally. All known members of this family share the same nucleotides at ten positions within the mature sequences. Sequence logo and phylogenetic tree show that they are not only conserved but diversify to some extent among some species. The bmo-let-7 was very lowly expressed in ova harvested from newborn unmated female adult and in individuals from the first molt to the early third instar, highly expressed after the third molt, and the most abundant expression was observed after mounting, particularly after pupation. The expression levels were higher at the end of each instar and at the beginning of each molt than at other periods, coinciding with the pulse of ecdysone and BR-C as a whole. Using cultured ovary cell line, BmN-SWU1, we examined the effect of altered ecdysone levels on bmo-let-7 expression. The expression was also detected in various tissues of day 3 of the fifth instar and of from day 7 of the fifth to pupa, suggesting a wide distributing pattern with various signal intensities. Conclusion bmo-let-7 is stage- and tissue-specifically expressed in the silkworm. Although no signals were detected during embryonic development and first larval instar stages, the expression of bmo-let-7 was observed from the first molt, suggesting that it might also function at early larval stage of the silkworm. The

  1. Characterization and expression patterns of let-7 microRNA in the silkworm (Bombyx mori).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shiping; Xia, Qingyou; Zhao, Ping; Cheng, Tingcai; Hong, Kaili; Xiang, Zhonghuai

    2007-07-25

    lin-4 and let-7, the two founding members of heterochronic microRNA genes, are firstly confirmed in Caenorhabditis elegans to control the proper timing of developmental programs in a heterochronic pathway. let-7 has been thought to trigger the onset of adulthood across animal phyla. Ecdysone and Broad-Complex are required for the temporal expression of let-7 in Drosophila melanogaster. For a better understanding of the conservation and functions of let-7, we seek to explore how it is expressed in the silkworm (Bombyx mori). One member of let-7 family has been identified in silkworm computationally and experimentally. All known members of this family share the same nucleotides at ten positions within the mature sequences. Sequence logo and phylogenetic tree show that they are not only conserved but diversify to some extent among some species. The bmo-let-7 was very lowly expressed in ova harvested from newborn unmated female adult and in individuals from the first molt to the early third instar, highly expressed after the third molt, and the most abundant expression was observed after mounting, particularly after pupation. The expression levels were higher at the end of each instar and at the beginning of each molt than at other periods, coinciding with the pulse of ecdysone and BR-C as a whole. Using cultured ovary cell line, BmN-SWU1, we examined the effect of altered ecdysone levels on bmo-let-7 expression. The expression was also detected in various tissues of day 3 of the fifth instar and of from day 7 of the fifth to pupa, suggesting a wide distributing pattern with various signal intensities. bmo-let-7 is stage- and tissue-specifically expressed in the silkworm. Although no signals were detected during embryonic development and first larval instar stages, the expression of bmo-let-7 was observed from the first molt, suggesting that it might also function at early larval stage of the silkworm. The detailed expression profiles in the whole life cycle and

  2. The juvenile hormone signaling pathway in insect development

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jindra, Marek; Palli, S. R.; Riddiford, L. M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 58, 9 MAY (2013), s. 181-204 ISSN 0066-4170 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA500960906 Grant - others:Marie Curie Fellowship Award(CZ) 276569; National Science Foundation(US) IBN-0421856; National Institute of Health(US) GM070559-08; National Research Initiative(US) USDA-NIFA (2011-67013-30143) Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : ecdysone * Methoprene-tolerant * Krüppel-homolog Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 13.021, year: 2013

  3. The Insect Neuropeptide PTTH Activates Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Torso to Initiate Metamorphosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rewitz, Kim; Yamanaka, Naoki; Gilbert, Lawrence

    2009-01-01

    Holometabolous insects undergo complete metamorphosis to become sexually mature adults. Metamorphosis is initiated by brain-derived prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH), which stimulates the production of the molting hormone ecdysone via an incompletely defined signaling pathway. Here we demonstrate...... in the prothoracic gland (PG), and its loss phenocopies the removal of PTTH. The activation of Torso by PTTH stimulates extracellular signal–regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation, and the loss of ERK in the PG phenocopies the loss of PTTH and Torso. We conclude that PTTH initiates metamorphosis by activation...

  4. Nitric oxide coordinates metabolism, growth, and development via the nuclear receptor E75.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cáceres, Lucía; Necakov, Aleksandar S; Schwartz, Carol; Kimber, Sandra; Roberts, Ian J H; Krause, Henry M

    2011-07-15

    Nitric oxide gas acts as a short-range signaling molecule in a vast array of important physiological processes, many of which include major changes in gene expression. How these genomic responses are induced, however, is poorly understood. Here, using genetic and chemical manipulations, we show that nitric oxide is produced in the Drosophila prothoracic gland, where it acts via the nuclear receptor ecdysone-induced protein 75 (E75), reversing its ability to interfere with its heterodimer partner, Drosophila hormone receptor 3 (DHR3). Manipulation of these interactions leads to gross alterations in feeding behavior, fat deposition, and developmental timing. These neuroendocrine interactions and consequences appear to be conserved in vertebrates.

  5. DNA damage and transcriptional changes induced by tributyltin (TBT) after short in vivo exposures of Chironomus riparius (Diptera) larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Mónica; Martínez-Paz, Pedro; Ozáez, Irene; Martínez-Guitarte, José Luis; Morcillo, Gloria

    2013-08-01

    Tributyltin (TBT) is a widespread environmental contaminant in aquatic systems whose adverse effects in development and reproduction are related to its well-known endocrine-disrupting activity. In this work, the early molecular effects of TBT in Chironomus riparius (Diptera) were evaluated by analyzing its DNA damaging potential and the transcriptional response of different endocrine-related genes. Twenty-four-hour in vivo exposures of the aquatic larvae, at environmentally relevant doses of TBT, revealed genotoxic activity as shown by significant increases in DNA strand breaks quantified with the comet assay. TBT was also able to induce significant increases in transcripts from the ecdysone receptor gene (EcR), the ultraspiracle gene (usp) (insect ortholog of the retinoid X receptor), the estrogen-related receptor (ERR) gene and the E74 early ecdysone-inducible gene, as measured by real-time RT-PCR. In contrast, the expression of the vitellogenin (vg) gene remained unaltered, while the hsp70 gene appeared to be down-regulated. The ability of TBT to up-regulate hormonal target genes provides the first evidence, at genomic level, of its endocrine disruptive effects and also suggests a mechanism of action that mimics ecdysteroid hormones in insects. These data reveal for the first time the early genomic effects of TBT on an insect genome. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The molecular and physiological impact of bisphenol A in Sesamia nonagrioides (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontogiannatos, Dimitris; Swevers, Luc; Zakasis, Giannis; Kourti, Anna

    2015-03-01

    In the present study we investigated the potential relative effects of bisphenol A (BPA) and RH-5992 (tebufenozide) on the development and metamorphosis of the corn stalk borer, Sesamia nonagrioides (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). A number of morphological and molecular factors were examined in order to identify the toxic and the endocrine-relative action of these two chemicals. We observed that BPA, RH-5992 and the combination of BPA/RH-5992 caused a developmental delay by extending the transition period between larval and pupal instars. These chemicals also reduced adult emergence and caused molting malformations during development and metamorphosis. In the corn stalk borer, BPA exhibits ecdysteroid activities in a fashion similar to that of the ecdysone agonist RH-5992. These results suggest that exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of BPA during the early stages of the corn borer's life cycle can result in various disorders that may be a consequence of endocrine disruption. The molecular mechanism by which BPA interferes with the physiological processes was also investigated. A significant induction was observed in the expression levels of the ecdysone-induced genes SnEcR and SnUSP, after injection of BPA and RH-5992. Additionally, we found that BPA acts as a very weak agonist of ecdysteroids in Bombyx mori derived Bm5 cell lines. From these cellular and molecular assays, our results brought evidence that BPA, like RH-5992, interferes with the ecdysteroidal pathways of the lepidopteran insect species.

  7. HR38, an ortholog of NR4A family nuclear receptors, mediates 20-hydroxyecdysone regulation of carbohydrate metabolism during mosquito reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Dujuan; Zhang, Yang; Smykal, Vlastimil; Ling, Lin; Raikhel, Alexander S

    2018-05-01

    The Aedes aegypti mosquito is the principal vector for many dangerous human viral diseases. Carbohydrate metabolism (CM) is essential for supplying the energy necessary for host seeking, blood digestion and rapid egg development of this vector insect. The steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) and the ecdysone receptor (EcR) are important regulators of CM, coordinating it with female reproductive events. We report here that the NR4A nuclear receptor AHR38 plays a critical role in mediating these actions of 20E and EcR. AHR38 RNA interference (RNAi) depletion in female mosquitoes blocked the transcriptional activation of CM genes encoding phosphoglucomutase (PGM) and trehalose-6-phophate synthase (TPS); it caused an increase of glycogen accumulation and a decrease of the circulating sugar trehalose. This treatment also resulted in a dramatic reduction in fecundity. Considering that these phenotypes resulting from AHR38 RNAi depletion are similar to those of EcR RNAi, we investigated a possible connection between these transcription factors in CM regulation. EcR RNAi inhibits the AHR38 gene expression. Moreover, the 20E-induced EcR complex directly activates AHR38 by binding to the ecdysone response element (EcRE) in the upstream regulatory region of this gene. The present work has implicated AHR38 in the 20E-mediated control of CM and provided new insight into mechanisms of 20E regulation of metabolism during female mosquito reproduction. © 2018 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Role of Methoprene-tolerant (Met in adult morphogenesis and in adult ecdysis of Blattella germanica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus Lozano

    Full Text Available Juvenile Hormone (JH represses metamorphosis of young instars in insects. One of the main players in hormonal signalling is Methoprene-tolerant (Met, which plays the role of JH receptor. Using the Polyneopteran insect Blattella germanica as the model and RNAi for transcript depletion, we have confirmed that Met transduces the antimetamorphic signal of JH in young nymphs and plays a role in the last nymphal instar moult in this species. Previously, the function of Met as the JH receptor had been demonstrated in the Eumetabola clade, with experiments in Holometabola (in the beetle Tribolium castaneum and in their sister group Paraneoptera (in the bug Pyrrhocoris apterus. Our result shows that the function of Met as JH receptor is also conserved in the more basal Polyneoptera. The function of Met as JH transducer might thus predate the evolutionary innovation of metamorphosis. Moreover, expression of Met was also found in last nymphal instar of B. germanica, when JH is absent. Depletion of Met in this stage provoked deficiencies in wing growth and ecdysis problems in the imaginal moult. Down-regulation of the ecdysone-inducible gene E75A and Insulin-Like-Peptide 1 in these Met-depleted specimens suggest that Met is involved in the ecdysone and insulin signalling pathways in last nymphal instar, when JH is virtually absent.

  9. Two distinct mechanisms silence chinmo in Drosophila neuroblasts and neuroepithelial cells to limit their self-renewal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillard, Caroline; Narbonne-Reveau, Karine; Foppolo, Sophie; Lanet, Elodie; Maurange, Cédric

    2018-01-25

    Whether common principles regulate the self-renewing potential of neural stem cells (NSCs) throughout the developing central nervous system is still unclear. In the Drosophila ventral nerve cord and central brain, asymmetrically dividing NSCs, called neuroblasts (NBs), progress through a series of sequentially expressed transcription factors that limits self-renewal by silencing a genetic module involving the transcription factor Chinmo. Here, we find that Chinmo also promotes neuroepithelium growth in the optic lobe during early larval stages by boosting symmetric self-renewing divisions while preventing differentiation. Neuroepithelium differentiation in late larvae requires the transcriptional silencing of chinmo by ecdysone, the main steroid hormone, therefore allowing coordination of neural stem cell self-renewal with organismal growth. In contrast, chinmo silencing in NBs is post-transcriptional and does not require ecdysone. Thus, during Drosophila development, humoral cues or tissue-intrinsic temporal specification programs respectively limit self-renewal in different types of neural progenitors through the transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of the same transcription factor. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. INHIBITION OF FATTY ACID DESATURASES IN Drosophila melanogaster LARVAE BLOCKS FEEDING AND DEVELOPMENTAL PROGRESSION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yiwen; da Cruz, Tina Correia; Pulfemuller, Alicia; Grégoire, Stéphane; Ferveur, Jean-François; Moussian, Bernard

    2016-05-01

    Fatty acid desaturases are metabolic setscrews. To study their systemic impact on growth in Drosophila melanogaster, we inhibited fatty acid desaturases using the inhibitor CAY10566. As expected, the amount of desaturated lipids is reduced in larvae fed with CAY10566. These animals cease feeding soon after hatching, and their growth is strongly attenuated. A starvation program is not launched, but the expression of distinct metabolic genes is activated, possibly to mobilize storage material. Without attaining the normal size, inhibitor-fed larvae molt to the next stage indicating that the steroid hormone ecdysone triggers molting correctly. Nevertheless, after molting, expression of ecdysone-dependent regulators is not induced. While control larvae molt a second time, these larvae fail to do so and die after few days of straying. These effects are similar to those observed in experiments using larvae deficient for the fatty acid desaturase1 gene. Based on these data, we propose that the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids adjusts a sensor system that directs feeding behavior. We also hypothesize that loss of fatty acid desaturase activity leads to a block of the genetic program of development progression indirectly by switching on a metabolic compensation program. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. A biological timer in the fat body comprising Blimp-1, βFtz-f1 and Shade regulates pupation timing in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akagi, Kazutaka; Sarhan, Moustafa; Sultan, Abdel-Rahman S; Nishida, Haruka; Koie, Azusa; Nakayama, Takumi; Ueda, Hitoshi

    2016-07-01

    During the development of multicellular organisms, many events occur with precise timing. In Drosophila melanogaster, pupation occurs about 12 h after puparium formation and its timing is believed to be determined by the release of a steroid hormone, ecdysone (E), from the prothoracic gland. Here, we demonstrate that the ecdysone-20-monooxygenase Shade determines pupation timing by converting E to 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) in the fat body, which is the organ that senses nutritional status. The timing of shade expression is determined by its transcriptional activator βFtz-f1. The βftz-f1 gene is activated after a decline in the expression of its transcriptional repressor Blimp-1, which is temporally expressed around puparium formation in response to a high titer of 20E. The expression level and stability of Blimp-1 is critical for the precise timing of pupation. Thus, we propose that Blimp-1 molecules function like sand in an hourglass in this precise developmental timer system. Furthermore, our data suggest that a biological advantage results from both the use of a transcriptional repressor for time determination and the association of developmental timing with nutritional status of the organism. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  12. Signalling pathways involved in adult heart formation revealed by gene expression profiling in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Zeitouni

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Drosophila provides a powerful system for defining the complex genetic programs that drive organogenesis. Under control of the steroid hormone ecdysone, the adult heart in Drosophila forms during metamorphosis by a remodelling of the larval cardiac organ. Here, we evaluated the extent to which transcriptional signatures revealed by genomic approaches can provide new insights into the molecular pathways that underlie heart organogenesis. Whole-genome expression profiling at eight successive time-points covering adult heart formation revealed a highly dynamic temporal map of gene expression through 13 transcript clusters with distinct expression kinetics. A functional atlas of the transcriptome profile strikingly points to the genomic transcriptional response of the ecdysone cascade, and a sharp regulation of key components belonging to a few evolutionarily conserved signalling pathways. A reverse genetic analysis provided evidence that these specific signalling pathways are involved in discrete steps of adult heart formation. In particular, the Wnt signalling pathway is shown to participate in inflow tract and cardiomyocyte differentiation, while activation of the PDGF-VEGF pathway is required for cardiac valve formation. Thus, a detailed temporal map of gene expression can reveal signalling pathways responsible for specific developmental programs and provides here substantial grasp into heart formation.

  13. Comparative effects of butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) on the aquatic larvae of Chironomus riparius based on gene expression assays related to the endocrine system, the stress response and ribosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planelló, Rosario; Herrero, Oscar; Martínez-Guitarte, José Luis; Morcillo, Gloria

    2011-09-01

    In this work, the effects of butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), two of the most extensively used phthalates, were studied in Chironomus riparius under acute short-term treatments, to compare their relative toxicities and identify genes sensitive to exposure. The ecotoxicity of these phthalates was assessed by analysis of the alterations in gene expression profiles of selected inducible and constitutive genes related to the endocrine system, the cellular stress response and the ribosomal machinery. Fourth instar larvae, a model system in aquatic toxicology, were experimentally exposed to five increasing concentrations (0.01, 0.1, 1, 10, and 100mg/L) of DEHP and BBP for 24h. Gene expression was analysed by the changes in levels of transcripts, using RT-PCR techniques with specific gene probes. The exposures to DEHP or BBP were able to rapidly induce the hsp70 gene in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas the cognate form hsc70 was not altered by either of these chemicals. Transcription of ribosomal RNA as a measure of cell viability, quantified by the levels of ITS2, was not affected by DEHP, but was slightly, yet significantly, downregulated by BBP at the highest concentrations tested. Finally, as these phthalates are classified as endocrine disruptor chemicals (EDCs), their potential effect on the ecdysone endocrine system was studied by analysing the two genes, EcR and usp, of the heterodimeric ecdysone receptor complex. It was found that BBP provoked the overexpression of the EcR gene, with significant increases from exposures of 0.1mg/L and above, while DEHP significantly decreased the activity of this gene at the highest concentration. These data are relevant as they show for the first time the ability of phthalates to interfere with endocrine marker genes in invertebrates, demonstrating their potential capacity to alter the ecdysone signalling pathway. Overall, the study clearly shows a differential gene-toxin interaction

  14. Effects of in vivo exposure to UV filters (4-MBC, OMC, BP-3, 4-HB, OC, OD-PABA) on endocrine signaling genes in the insect Chironomus riparius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozáez, Irene; Martínez-Guitarte, José Luis; Morcillo, Gloria

    2013-07-01

    There is increasing evidence indicating that several UV filters might have endocrine disruptive effects. Numerous studies have evaluated hormonal effects in vertebrates, mainly reporting estrogenic and androgenic activities in mammals and fishes. There is only limited knowledge about potential endocrine activity in invertebrate hormonal systems. In this work, the effects on endocrine signaling genes of six frequently used UV filters were investigated in Chironomus riparius, a reference organism in aquatic toxicology. The UV filters studied were: octyl-p-methoxycinnamate (OMC) also called 2-ethylhexyl-4-methoxycinnamate (EHMC); 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4-MBC); benzophenone-3 (BP-3); 4-hidroxybenzophenone (4-HB); octocrylene (OC); and octyldimethyl-p-aminobenzoate (OD-PABA). After in vivo exposure at different dosages, expression levels of the genes coding for the ecdysone receptor (EcR), the ultraspiracle (usp, ortholog of the RXR) and the estrogen-related receptor (ERR) were quantified by Real Time PCR. The EcR gene was significantly upregulated by 4-MBC, OMC/EHMC and OD-PABA, with a dose-related response following 24h exposure. In contrast, the benzophenones, BP-3 and 4-HB, as well as OC did not alter this gene at the same exposure conditions. The transcription profiles of the usp and ERR genes were not significantly affected, except for BP-3 that inhibited the usp gene at the highest concentration. To our knowledge, this is the first experimental evidence in invertebrates of a direct effect of UV filters on endocrine-related genes, and is consistent with the known effects on vertebrate hormonal receptor genes. The capability of 4-MBC, OMC/EHMC and OD-PABA to stimulate the expression of the ecdysone receptor, a key transcription factor for the ecdysone-genomic response in arthropods, suggests the possibility of a broad and long-term effect on this hormonal pathway. These findings strengthen the need for further research about the ecotoxicological implications

  15. Vinclozolin alters the expression of hormonal and stress genes in the midge Chironomus riparius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquilino, Mónica; Sánchez-Argüello, Paloma; Martínez-Guitarte, José-Luis

    2016-05-01

    Vinclozolin is a fungicide used in agriculture that can reach aquatic ecosystems and affect the organisms living there. Its effects have been intensively studied in vertebrates, where it acts as an antiandrogen, but there is a lack of information about its mechanistic effects on invertebrates. In this work, we analyzed the response of genes related to the endocrine system, the stress response, and the detoxification mechanisms of Chironomus riparius fourth instar larvae after 24h and 48h exposures to 20 (69.9nM), 200 (699nM), and 2000μg/L (6.99μM) of Vinclozolin. Survival analysis showed that this compound has low toxicity, as it was not lethal for this organism at the concentrations used. However, this fungicide was shown to modify the transcriptional activity of the ecdysone response pathway genes EcR, E74, and Kr-h1 by increasing their mRNA levels. While no changes were observed in disembodied, a gene related with the ecdysone synthesis metabolic pathway, Cyp18A1, which is involved in the inactivation of the active form of ecdysone, was upregulated. Additionally, the expression of two genes related to other hormones, FOXO and MAPR, did not show any changes when Vinclozolin was present. The analysis of stress response genes showed significant changes in the mRNA levels of Hsp70, Hsp24, and Gp93, indicating that Vinclozolin activates the cellular stress mechanisms. Finally, the expressions of the genes Cyp4G and GstD3, which encode enzymes involved in phase I and phase II detoxification, respectively, were analyzed. It was found that their mRNA levels were altered by Vinclozolin, suggesting their involvement in the degradation of this compound. For the first time, these results show evidence that Vinclozolin can modulate gene expression, leading to possible significant endocrine alterations of the insect endocrine system. These results also offer new clues about the mode of action of this compound in invertebrates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  16. Differentially expressed regulatory genes in honey bee caste development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepperle, C.; Hartfelder, K.

    2001-03-01

    In the honey bee, an eminently fertile queen with up to 200 ovarioles per ovary monopolizes colony level reproduction. In contrast, worker bees have only few ovarioles and are essentially sterile. This phenotype divergence is a result of caste-specifically modulated juvenile hormone and ecdysteroid titers in larval development. In this study we employed a differential-display reverse transcription (DDRT)-PCR protocol to detect ecdysteroid-regulated gene expression during a critical phase of caste development. We identified a Ftz-F1 homolog and a Cut-like transcript. Ftz-F1 could be a putative element of the metamorphic ecdysone response cascade of bees, whereas Cut-like proteins are described as transcription factors involved in maintaining cellular differentiation states. The downregulation of both factors can be interpreted as steps in the metamorphic degradation of ovarioles in worker-bee ovaries.

  17. Fluorescence Imaging of Posterior Spiracles from Second and Third Instars of Forensically Important Chrysomya rufifacies (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Danielle; Miller, Amy L; Showman, Angelique; Tobita, Caitlyn; Shimoda, Lori M N; Sung, Carl; Stokes, Alexander J; Tomberlin, Jeffrey K; Carter, David O; Turner, Helen

    2016-11-01

    Entomological protocols for aging blowfly (Diptera: Calliphoridae) larvae to estimate the time of colonization (TOC) are commonly used to assist in death investigations. While the methodologies for analyzing fly larvae differ, most rely on light microscopy, genetic analysis, or, more rarely, electron microscopy. This pilot study sought to improve resolution of larval stage in the forensically important blowfly Chrysomya rufifacies using high-content fluorescence microscopy and biochemical measures of developmental marker proteins. We established fixation and mounting protocols, defined a set of measurable morphometric criteria and captured developmental transitions of 2nd instar to 3rd instar using both fluorescence microscopy and anti-ecdysone receptor Western blot analysis. The data show that these instars can be distinguished on the basis of robust, nonbleaching, autofluorescence of larval posterior spiracles. High-content imaging techniques using confocal microscopy, combined with morphometric and biochemical techniques, may therefore aid forensic entomologists in estimating TOC. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  18. Effects of precocene and azadirachtin in Rhodnius prolixus: some data on development and reproduction

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    Eloi S. Garcia

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available The results presented in this paper clearly indicate that precocene and azadirachtin are effective inhibitors of moulting and reproduction in the hemipteran Rhodnius prolixus. The time of application is important and only applications of these substances early in the intermoulting period cause their effects in nymphs. The inhibition of moulting is fully reversed by ecdysone therapy. Precocene and azadirachtin also affected drastically the oogenesis and egg deposition in this insect. Precocene-induced sterilization is reversed by application of juvenile hormone III. However, this hormone is unable to reverse the effect of azadirachtin on reproduction. Ecdysteroid titers in nymphs and adult females are decreased by these treatments. In vitro analysis suggest that precocene and azadirachtin may act directly on the prothoracic glands and ovaries producing ecdysteroids. Based on these and other findings the possible mode of action of these compounds on the development and reproduction of Rhodnius prolixus is discussed.

  19. Effects of azadirachtin on the development and mortality of Lutzomyia longipalpis larvae (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade Coelho, Claudia Alves; de Souza, Nataly Araújo; Feder, Maria Denise; da Silva, Carlos Eugênio; Garcia, Elói de Souza; Azambuja, Patricia; Gonzalez, Marcelo Salabert; Rangel, Elizabeth F

    2006-03-01

    The effects of azadirachtin A added to the standard diet on the development, mortality, and metamorphosis of Lutzomyia longipalpis Lutz & Neiva, 1912 were studied. Concentrations of 0.1, 1.0, and 10.0 microg of azadirachtin/mg of diet significantly increased larval mortality in comparison with nontreated insects. Concentrations 0.1 and 1.0 microg blocked the molt of larvae, which remained as third instars until the end of the experiment. The 10 microg/mg concentration resulted in greater molt inhibition. In this group, all insects stopped their development as second instars. Simultaneous addition of ecdysone (1 microg/mg) to the standard diet containing azadirachtin counteracted the effects of azadirachtin on mortality and inhibition of ecdysis. These results indicate that azadirachtin is a potent growth inhibitor of L. longipalpis.

  20. Fluorescence Imaging of Posterior Spiracles from Second and Third Instars of Forensically-important Chrysomya rufifacies (Diptera: Calliphoridae)*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Danielle; Miller, Amy L.; Showman, Angelique; Tobita, Caitlyn; Shimoda, Lori M.N.; Sung, Carl; Stokes, Alexander J.; Tomberlin, Jeffrey K.; Carter, David O.; Turner, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Entomological protocols for aging blow fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae) larvae to estimate the time of colonization (TOC) are commonly used to assist in death investigations. While the methodologies for analysing fly larvae differ, most rely on light microscopy, genetic analysis or, more rarely, electron microscopy. This pilot study sought to improve resolution of larval stage in the forensically-important blow fly Chrysomya rufifacies using high-content fluorescence microscopy and biochemical measures of developmental marker proteins. We established fixation and mounting protocols, defined a set of measurable morphometric criteria and captured developmental transitions of 2nd instar to 3rd instar using both fluorescence microscopy and anti-ecdysone receptor Western blot analysis. The data show that these instars can be distinguished on the basis of robust, non-bleaching, autofluorescence of larval posterior spiracles. High content imaging techniques using confocal microscopy, combined with morphometric and biochemical techniques, may therefore aid forensic entomologists in estimating TOC. PMID:27706817

  1. RNAi Screen in Drosophila melanogastor Identifies Regulators of Steroidogenesis and Developmental Maturation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Erik Thomas

    and duration required for juvenile-adult transition. This PhD project demonstrates the power of Drosophila genetics by taking an in vivo genome-wide RNAi screening approach to uncover genes required for the function of steroid producing tissue and developmental maturation. In total, 1909 genes were found...... to be required for the prothoracic gland function and affected the developmental timing for the juvenile-adult transition. Among the screen hits, we focused on an uncharacterized gene, sit (CG5278), which is highly expressed in the gland and is required for ecdysone production. Sit is a homolog of mammalian very...... flux of cholesterol uptake in the gland cells and affected the endosomal trafficking. Therefore this gene was suggested to be named stuck in traffic (sit). Sit’s role in cholesterol uptake was also supported by the observation that the developmental delayed phenotype from loss of sit expression...

  2. Stabilization of alanine substituted p53 protein at Ser15, Thr18, and Ser20 in response to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamauchi, Motohiro; Suzuki, Keiji; Kodama, Seiji; Watanabe, Masami

    2004-01-01

    Phosphorylation of p53 at Ser15, Thr18, and Ser20 has been thought to be important for p53 stabilization in response to ionizing radiation. In the present study, we examined the X-ray-induced stabilization of Ala-substituted p53 protein at Ser15, Thr18, and Ser20, whose gene expression was controlled under an ecdyson-inducible promoter. We found that all single-, double-, or triple-Ala-substituted p53 at Ser15, Yhr18, and Ser20 were accumulated in the nucleus similarly to wild-type p53 after X-irradiation. These results indicate that the phosphorylation of p53 at Ser15, Thr18, and Ser20 is not necessarily needed for p53 stabilization in response to ionizing radiation

  3. Selectivity of diacylhydrazine insecticides to the predatory bug Orius laevigatus: in vivo and modelling/docking experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amor, Fermín; Christiaens, Olivier; Bengochea, Paloma; Medina, Pilar; Rougé, Pierre; Viñuela, Elisa; Smagghe, Guy

    2012-12-01

    Knowledge of pesticide selectivity to natural enemies is necessary for a successful implementation of biological and chemical control methods in integrated pest management (IPM) programmes. Diacylhydrazine (DAH)-based ecdysone agonists, also known as moulting-accelerating compounds (MACs), are considered to be a selective group of insecticides, and their compatibility with predatory Heteroptera, which are used as biological control agents, is known. However, their molecular mode of action has not been explored in beneficial insects such as Orius laevigatus (Fieber) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae). In this project, in vivo toxicity assays demonstrated that the DAH-based RH-5849, tebufenozide and methoxyfenozide have no toxic effect against O. laevigatus. The ligand-binding domain (LBD) of the ecdysone receptor (EcR) of O. laevigatus was sequenced, and a homology protein model was constructed that confirmed a cavity structure with 12 α-helices, harbouring the natural insect moulting hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone. However, docking studies showed that a steric clash occurred for the DAH-based insecticides owing to a restricted extent of the ligand-binding cavity of the EcR of O. laevigatus. The insect toxicity assays demonstrated that MACs are selective for O. laevigatus. The modelling/docking experiments are indications that these pesticides do not bind with the LBD-EcR of O. laevigatus and support the supposition that they show no biological effects in the predatory bug. These data help in explaining the compatible use of MACs together with predatory bugs in IPM programmes. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. The Drosophila melanogaster Eip74EF-PA transcription factor directly binds the sciarid BhC4-1 promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Henrique Oliveira; Sanchez, Danilo Garcia; de Freitas Oliveira, Lucas; Kobarg, Jörg; Monesi, Nadia

    2017-11-01

    The DNA puff BhC4-1 gene of Bradysia hygida (Diptera, Sciaridae) is amplified and expressed in the salivary glands at the end of the last larval instar. Even though there are no BhC4-1 orthologs in Drosophila melanogaster, the mechanisms that regulate BhC4-1 gene expression in B. hygida are for the most part conserved in D. melanogaster. The BhC4-1 promoter contains a 129bp (-186/-58) cis-regulatory module (CRM) that drives developmentally regulated expression in transgenic salivary glands at the onset of metamorphosis. Both in the sciarid and in transgenic D. melanogaster, BhC4-1 gene expression is induced by the increase in ecdysone titers that triggers metamorphosis. Genetic interaction experiments revealed that in the absence of the Eip74EF-PA early gene isoform BhC4-1-lacZ levels of expression in the salivary gland are severely reduced. Here we show that the overexpression of the Eip74EF-PA transcription factor is sufficient to anticipate BhC4-1-lacZ expression in transgenic D. melanogaster. Through yeast one-hybrid assays we confirm that the Eip74EF-PA transcription factor directly binds to the 129 bp sciarid CRM. Together, these results contribute to the characterization of an insect CRM and indicate that the ecdysone gene regulatory network that promotes metamorphosis is conserved between D. melanogaster and the sciarid B. hygida. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. A genetic screen for modifiers of Drosophila caspase Dcp-1 reveals caspase involvement in autophagy and novel caspase-related genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahnn Joohong

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Caspases are cysteine proteases with essential functions in the apoptotic pathway; their proteolytic activity toward various substrates is associated with the morphological changes of cells. Recent reports have described non-apoptotic functions of caspases, including autophagy. In this report, we searched for novel modifiers of the phenotype of Dcp-1 gain-of-function (GF animals by screening promoter element- inserted Drosophila melanogaster lines (EP lines. Results We screened ~15,000 EP lines and identified 72 Dcp-1-interacting genes that were classified into 10 groups based on their functions and pathways: 4 apoptosis signaling genes, 10 autophagy genes, 5 insulin/IGF and TOR signaling pathway genes, 6 MAP kinase and JNK signaling pathway genes, 4 ecdysone signaling genes, 6 ubiquitination genes, 11 various developmental signaling genes, 12 transcription factors, 3 translation factors, and 11 other unclassified genes including 5 functionally undefined genes. Among them, insulin/IGF and TOR signaling pathway, MAP kinase and JNK signaling pathway, and ecdysone signaling are known to be involved in autophagy. Together with the identification of autophagy genes, the results of our screen suggest that autophagy counteracts Dcp-1-induced apoptosis. Consistent with this idea, we show that expression of eGFP-Atg5 rescued the eye phenotype caused by Dcp-1 GF. Paradoxically, we found that over-expression of full-length Dcp-1 induced autophagy, as Atg8b-GFP, an indicator of autophagy, was increased in the eye imaginal discs and in the S2 cell line. Taken together, these data suggest that autophagy suppresses Dcp-1-mediated apoptotic cell death, whereas Dcp-1 positively regulates autophagy, possibly through feedback regulation. Conclusions We identified a number of Dcp-1 modifiers that genetically interact with Dcp-1-induced cell death. Our results showing that Dcp-1 and autophagy-related genes influence each other will aid future

  6. Molecular determinants of juvenile hormone action as revealed by 3D QSAR analysis in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denisa Liszeková

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Postembryonic development, including metamorphosis, of many animals is under control of hormones. In Drosophila and other insects these developmental transitions are regulated by the coordinate action of two principal hormones, the steroid ecdysone and the sesquiterpenoid juvenile hormone (JH. While the mode of ecdysone action is relatively well understood, the molecular mode of JH action remains elusive. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To gain more insights into the molecular mechanism of JH action, we have tested the biological activity of 86 structurally diverse JH agonists in Drosophila melanogaster. The results were evaluated using 3D QSAR analyses involving CoMFA and CoMSIA procedures. Using this approach we have generated both computer-aided and species-specific pharmacophore fingerprints of JH and its agonists, which revealed that the most active compounds must possess an electronegative atom (oxygen or nitrogen at both ends of the molecule. When either of these electronegative atoms are replaced by carbon or the distance between them is shorter than 11.5 A or longer than 13.5 A, their biological activity is dramatically decreased. The presence of an electron-deficient moiety in the middle of the JH agonist is also essential for high activity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The information from 3D QSAR provides guidelines and mechanistic scope for identification of steric and electrostatic properties as well as donor and acceptor hydrogen-bonding that are important features of the ligand-binding cavity of a JH target protein. In order to refine the pharmacophore analysis and evaluate the outcomes of the CoMFA and CoMSIA study we used pseudoreceptor modeling software PrGen to generate a putative binding site surrogate that is composed of eight amino acid residues corresponding to the defined molecular interactions.

  7. Molecular mechanism underlying juvenile hormone-mediated repression of precocious larval-adult metamorphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayukawa, Takumi; Jouraku, Akiya; Ito, Yuka; Shinoda, Tetsuro

    2017-01-31

    Juvenile hormone (JH) represses precocious metamorphosis of larval to pupal and adult transitions in holometabolous insects. The early JH-inducible gene Krüppel homolog 1 (Kr-h1) plays a key role in the repression of metamorphosis as a mediator of JH action. Previous studies demonstrated that Kr-h1 inhibits precocious larval-pupal transition in immature larva via direct transcriptional repression of the pupal specifier Broad-Complex (BR-C). JH was recently reported to repress the adult specifier gene Ecdysone-induced protein 93F (E93); however, its mechanism of action remains unclear. Here, we found that JH suppressed ecdysone-inducible E93 expression in the epidermis of the silkworm Bombyx mori and in a B. mori cell line. Reporter assays in the cell line revealed that the JH-dependent suppression was mediated by Kr-h1. Genome-wide ChIP-seq analysis identified a consensus Kr-h1 binding site (KBS, 14 bp) located in the E93 promoter region, and EMSA confirmed that Kr-h1 directly binds to the KBS. Moreover, we identified a C-terminal conserved domain in Kr-h1 essential for the transcriptional repression of E93 Based on these results, we propose a mechanism in which JH-inducible Kr-h1 directly binds to the KBS site upstream of the E93 locus to repress its transcription in a cell-autonomous manner, thereby preventing larva from bypassing the pupal stage and progressing to precocious adult development. These findings help to elucidate the molecular mechanisms regulating the metamorphic genetic network, including the functional significance of Kr-h1, BR-C, and E93 in holometabolous insect metamorphosis.

  8. Tyrosine Metabolism in the Blowfly, Calliphora Erythrocephala; Metabolisme de la tyrosine dans la Calliphora Erythrocephala; Metabolizm tirozina u myasnoj mukhi, Calliphora Erythrocephala; Metabolismo de la tirosina en la mosca Calliphora Erythrocephala

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekeris, C. E. [Physiological Chemistry Institute, University of Munich, Munich (Germany)

    1963-09-15

    Sclerotization, i.e. the transfoimation of the soft, white larval cuticle into the hardened, dark puparium, is due to interaction of o-quinones with the cuticle proteins. Using radioactively labelled amino-acids, it has been shown that N-acetyldopamine is the immediate precursor of the sclerotizing quinones in Calliphora erythrocephala. The intermediate steps in the biosynthesis of N-acetyldopamine are hydroxylation of tyrosine to dopa, decarboxylation of dopa to dopamine and N-acetylation of dopamine to N-acetyldopamine. This metabolic pathway of tyrosine is followed only in the final-instar larvae; early third-instar larvae catabolize tyrosine by transamination to p-hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid and reduction to p-hydroxyphenyllactic and -propionic acid. The metabolic shift from transamination to hydroxylation and decarboxylation is brought about by the hormone of the prothoracic gland, ecdysone, and can be inhibited by ligation or destruction of the ring gland. Injection of ecdysone into the ligated animals leads within 10-14 h toactivationofthedopadecaiboxylase, presumably as the result of biosynthesis of enzyme protein. The action of the hormone is not a direct one on the biosynthetic mechanism, but indirect, the first action of the hormone being on the chromosomes (puffing phenomenon). The working hypothesis is that the hormone interacting with the genetic material leads to stimulation of the synthesis of specific (messenger-) RNA which is transferred to the cytoplasm and produces enzyme proteins. (author) [French] L'induration, c'est-a-dire la transformation de la cuticule larvaire, douce et blanche, en un puparium dur et sombre, est due a l'interaction d'ortho-quinones avec les proteines de la cuticule. Grace a l'emploi d'acides amines marques au moyen de substances radioactives, on a montre que la N-acetyl-dopamine est le precurseur immediat des quinones produisant l'induration dans la Calliphora erythrocephala. Les stades intermediaires de la biosynthese de

  9. Salt Stress Effects on Secondary Metabolites of Cotton in Relation to Gene Expression Responsible for Aphid Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Wang

    Full Text Available Many secondary metabolites have insecticidal efficacy against pests and may be affected by abiotic stress. However, little is known of how plants may respond to such stress as pertains the growth and development of pests. The objective of this study was to determine if and how salt stress on cotton plants affects the population dynamics of aphids. The NaCl treatment (50 mM, 100 mM, 150 mM and 200 mM increased contents of gossypol in cotton by 26.8-51.4%, flavonoids by 22.5-37.6% and tannic by 15.1-24.3% at 7-28 d after salt stress. Compared with non-stressed plants, the population of aphids on 150 and 200 mM NaCl stressed plants was reduced by 46.4 and 65.4% at 7d and by 97.3 and 100% at 14 days after infestation. Reductions in aphid population were possibly attributed to the elevated secondary metabolism under salt stress. A total of 796 clones for aphids transcriptome, 412 clones in the positive- library (TEST and 384 clones in the reverse-library (Ck, were obtained from subtracted cDNA libraries and sequenced. Gene ontology (GO functional classification and KEGG pathway analysis showed more genes related to fatty acid and lipid biosynthesis, and fewer genes related to carbohydrate metabolism, amino acid metabolism, energy metabolism and cell motility pathways in TEST than in Ck library, which might be the reason of aphids population reduction. A comparative analysis with qRT-PCR indicated high expression of transcripts CYP6A14, CYP6A13, CYP303A1, NADH dehydrogenase and fatty acid synthase in the TEST group. However, CYP307A1 and two ecdysone-induced protein genes were down regulated. The results indicate that genes of aphids related to growth and development can express at a higher level in reaction to the enhanced secondary metabolism in cotton under salinity stress. The expression of CYP307A1 was positively correlated with the population dynamics of aphids since it was involved in ecdysone synthesis.

  10. Transcriptome analysis of the painted lady butterfly, Vanessa cardui during wing color pattern development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connahs, Heidi; Rhen, Turk; Simmons, Rebecca B

    2016-03-31

    Butterfly wing color patterns are an important model system for understanding the evolution and development of morphological diversity and animal pigmentation. Wing color patterns develop from a complex network composed of highly conserved patterning genes and pigmentation pathways. Patterning genes are involved in regulating pigment synthesis however the temporal expression dynamics of these interacting networks is poorly understood. Here, we employ next generation sequencing to examine expression patterns of the gene network underlying wing development in the nymphalid butterfly, Vanessa cardui. We identified 9, 376 differentially expressed transcripts during wing color pattern development, including genes involved in patterning, pigmentation and gene regulation. Differential expression of these genes was highest at the pre-ommochrome stage compared to early pupal and late melanin stages. Overall, an increasing number of genes were down-regulated during the progression of wing development. We observed dynamic expression patterns of a large number of pigment genes from the ommochrome, melanin and also pteridine pathways, including contrasting patterns of expression for paralogs of the yellow gene family. Surprisingly, many patterning genes previously associated with butterfly pattern elements were not significantly up-regulated at any time during pupation, although many other transcription factors were differentially expressed. Several genes involved in Notch signaling were significantly up-regulated during the pre-ommochrome stage including slow border cells, bunched and pebbles; the function of these genes in the development of butterfly wings is currently unknown. Many genes involved in ecdysone signaling were also significantly up-regulated during early pupal and late melanin stages and exhibited opposing patterns of expression relative to the ecdysone receptor. Finally, a comparison across four butterfly transcriptomes revealed 28 transcripts common to all

  11. Sex-switching of the Drosophila brain by two antagonistic chromatin factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Hiroki; Sato, Kosei; Yamamoto, Daisuke

    2013-01-01

    In Drosophila melanogaster, the fruitless (fru) gene encoding BTB-Zn-finger transcription factors organizes male sexual behavior by controlling the development of sexually dimorphic neuronal circuitry. However, the molecular mechanism by which fru controls the sexual fate of neurons has been unknown. Our recent study represents a first step toward clarification of this mechanism. We have shown that: (1) Fru forms a complex with the transcriptional cofactor Bonus (Bon), which recruits either of two chromatin regulators, Histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) or Heterochromatin protein 1a (HP1a), to Fru-target sites; (2) the Fru-Bon complex has a masculinizing effect on single sexually-dimorphic neurons when it recruits HDAC1, whereas it has a demasculinizing effect when it recruits HP1a; (3) HDAC1 or HP1a thus recruited to Fru-target sites determines the sexual fate of single neurons in an all-or-none manner, as manipulations of HDAC1 or HP1a expression levels affect the proportion of male-typical neurons and female-typical neurons without producing neurons of intersexual characteristics. Here, we hypothesize that chromatin landscape changes induced by ecdysone surges direct the HDAC1- or HP1a-containing Fru complex to distinct targets, thereby allowing them to switch the neuronal sexual fate in the brain. PMID:23519136

  12. Temporal Coordination of Carbohydrate Metabolism during Mosquito Reproduction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Hou

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Hematophagous mosquitoes serve as vectors of multiple devastating human diseases, and many unique physiological features contribute to the incredible evolutionary success of these insects. These functions place high-energy demands on a reproducing female mosquito, and carbohydrate metabolism (CM must be synchronized with these needs. Functional analysis of metabolic gene profiling showed that major CM pathways, including glycolysis, glycogen and sugar metabolism, and citrate cycle, are dramatically repressed at post eclosion (PE stage in mosquito fat body followed by a sharply increase at post-blood meal (PBM stage, which were also verified by Real-time RT-PCR. Consistent to the change of transcript and protein level of CM genes, the level of glycogen, glucose and trehalose and other secondary metabolites are also periodically accumulated and degraded during the reproductive cycle respectively. Levels of triacylglycerols (TAG, which represent another important energy storage form in the mosquito fat body, followed a similar tendency. On the other hand, ATP, which is generated by catabolism of these secondary metabolites, showed an opposite trend. Additionally, we used RNA interference studies for the juvenile hormone and ecdysone receptors, Met and EcR, coupled with transcriptomics and metabolomics analyses to show that these hormone receptors function as major regulatory switches coordinating CM with the differing energy requirements of the female mosquito throughout its reproductive cycle. Our study demonstrates how, by metabolic reprogramming, a multicellular organism adapts to drastic and rapid functional changes.

  13. Honey bee foraging induces upregulation of early growth response protein 1, hormone receptor 38 and candidate downstream genes of the ecdysteroid signalling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, A S; Shah, A; Brockmann, A

    2018-02-01

    In honey bees, continuous foraging at an artificial feeder induced a sustained upregulation of the immediate early genes early growth response protein 1 (Egr-1) and hormone receptor 38 (Hr38). This gene expression response was accompanied by an upregulation of several Egr-1 candidate downstream genes: ecdysone receptor (EcR), dopamine/ecdysteroid receptor (DopEcR), dopamine decarboxylase and dopamine receptor 2. Hr38, EcR and DopEcR are components of the ecdysteroid signalling pathway, which is highly probably involved in learning and memory processes in honey bees and other insects. Time-trained foragers still showed an upregulation of Egr-1 when the feeder was presented at an earlier time of the day, suggesting that the genomic response is more dependent on the food reward than training time. However, presentation of the feeder at the training time without food was still capable of inducing a transient increase in Egr-1 expression. Thus, learnt feeder cues, or even training time, probably affect Egr-1 expression. In contrast, whole brain Egr-1 expression changes did not differ between dancing and nondancing foragers. On the basis of our results we propose that food reward induced continuous foraging ultimately elicits a genomic response involving Egr-1 and Hr38 and their downstream genes. Furthermore this genomic response is highly probably involved in foraging-related learning and memory responses. © 2017 The Royal Entomological Society.

  14. X-ray cone beam microtomography for quantitative assessment of tracheal and pharyngeal volumes of Rhodnius prolixus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Izabella Soares de

    2017-01-01

    In the past decade microcomputerized tomography imaging using synchrotron radiation has become a powerful technique to generate high resolution images of Rhodinus prolixus. Images of soft tissues (protocerebrum and muscles) and dense structures (pharynx, trachea and esophagus) of R. prolixus head have been obtained using synchrotron radiation microtomography in mono and polychromatic configuration, respectively. Advancements in conventional microtomography have increased the achievable resolution and contrast, making this relatively inexpensive and widely available technology potentially useful for studies of insect internal morphology. The main goal of this work was to provide a new set of high quality microtomographic images of R. prolixus achieved by means of a desktop X-ray microtomograph. It allows the three-dimensional visualization of important chitinized structures: pharynx and tracheae. Pharyngeal and tracheal volumes were quantitatively evaluated at different days (1, 4, 10, 15 and 20) after feeding. The results suggest that variation of average volumes could be attributed to insect hormone 20-hydroxy-ecdysone (20-OH-Ec) pulse at 11 days after feeding. Pharyngeal volumes decrease 3.80 times. On the other hand, tracheal volumes increase 1.78 times. Head total volume showed similar trends than trachea. (author)

  15. A feeding protocol for delivery of agents to assess development in Varroa mites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana R Cabrera

    Full Text Available A novel feeding protocol for delivery of bio-active agents to Varroa mites was developed by providing mites with honey bee larva hemolymph supplemented with cultured insect cells and selected materials delivered on a fibrous cotton substrate. Mites were starved, fed on treated hemolymph to deliver selected agents and then returned to bee larvae. Transcript levels of two reference genes, actin and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH, as well as for nine selected genes involved in reproductive processes showed that the starvation and feeding protocol periods did not pose a high level of stress to the mites as transcript levels remained comparable between phoretic mites and those completing the protocol. The feeding protocol was used to deliver molecules such as hormone analogs or plasmids. Mites fed with Tebufenozide, an ecdysone analog, had higher transcript levels of shade than untreated or solvent treated mites. In order to extend this feeding protocol, cultured insect cells were incorporated to a final ratio of 1 part cells and 2 parts hemolymph. Although supplementation with Bombyx mori Bm5 cells increased the amount of hemolymph consumed per mite, there was a significant decrease in the percentage of mites that fed and survived. On the other hand, Drosophila melanogaster S2 cells reduced significantly the percentage of mites that fed and survived as well as the amount of hemolymph consumed. The feeding protocol provides a dynamic platform with which to challenge the Varroa mite to establish efficacy of control agents for this devastating honey bee pest.

  16. Induction of 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase in Arabidopsis thaliana seeds enhances seed dormancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Andújar, Cristina; Ordiz, M Isabel; Huang, Zhonglian; Nonogaki, Mariko; Beachy, Roger N; Nonogaki, Hiroyuki

    2011-10-11

    Full understanding of mechanisms that control seed dormancy and germination remains elusive. Whereas it has been proposed that translational control plays a predominant role in germination, other studies suggest the importance of specific gene expression patterns in imbibed seeds. Transgenic plants were developed to permit conditional expression of a gene encoding 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase 6 (NCED6), a rate-limiting enzyme in abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis, using the ecdysone receptor-based plant gene switch system and the ligand methoxyfenozide. Induction of NCED6 during imbibition increased ABA levels more than 20-fold and was sufficient to prevent seed germination. Germination suppression was prevented by fluridone, an inhibitor of ABA biosynthesis. In another study, induction of the NCED6 gene in transgenic seeds of nondormant mutants tt3 and tt4 reestablished seed dormancy. Furthermore, inducing expression of NCED6 during seed development suppressed vivipary, precocious germination of developing seeds. These results indicate that expression of a hormone metabolism gene in seeds can be a sole determinant of dormancy. This study opens the possibility of developing a robust technology to suppress or promote seed germination through engineering pathways of hormone metabolism.

  17. Lethal and sublethal effects of methoxyphenozide on the development, survival and reproduction of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarate, N.; Diaz, O.; Martinez, A.M.; Figueroa, J.I.; Pineda, S.; Schneider, M.I.; Smagghe, G.; Vinuela, E.; Budia, F.

    2011-01-01

    The lethal and sublethal effects of the ecdysone agonist methoxyphenozide on the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), were investigated by feeding a methoxyphenozide-treated diet to fifth instars until pupation in doses corresponding to the LC 10 and LC 25 for the compound. Larval mortality reached 8% and 26% in the low and high concentration groups, respectively, on the seventh day of the experiment. A progressive larval mortality of 12% for the LC 10 and 60% for the LC 25 was observed before pupation. Treated larvae exhibited lower pupal weights, higher pupal mortality, presence of deformed pupae, and more deformed adults than untreated larvae. The incorporation of methoxyfenozide into the diet had a significant effect on the timing of larval development. The development period for males and females was about seven days longer than the controls for both concentrations tested. In contrast, the compound affected neither pupae nor adult longevity. Finally, S. frugiperda adults that resulted from fifth instars treated with methoxyfenozide were not affected in their mean cumulative number of eggs laid per female (fecundity), nor percentages of eggs hatched (fertility), or the sex ratio. Our results suggest that the combination of lethal and sublethal effects of methoxyfenozide may have important implications for the population dynamics of the fall armyworm. (author)

  18. Lethal and sublethal effects of methoxyphenozide on the development, survival and reproduction of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarate, N.; Diaz, O. [Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi (Mexico). Facultad de Agronomia; Martinez, A.M.; Figueroa, J.I.; Pineda, S., E-mail: spineda_us@yahoo.co [Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo, Tarimbaro, Michoacan (Mexico). Inst. de Investigaciones Agropecuarias y Forestales; Schneider, M.I. [National Council of Scientific and Technical Research (CEPAVE/CCT/CONICET), La Plata (Argentina). Centro de Estudios Parasitologicos y de Vectores. Centro Cientifico Tecnologico; Smagghe, G. [Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium). Faculty of Bioscience Engineering. Lab of Agrozoology; Vinuela, E.; Budia, F. [Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Agronomos, Madrid (Spain). Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Agronomos. Proteccion de Cultivos

    2011-01-15

    The lethal and sublethal effects of the ecdysone agonist methoxyphenozide on the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), were investigated by feeding a methoxyphenozide-treated diet to fifth instars until pupation in doses corresponding to the LC{sub 10} and LC{sub 25} for the compound. Larval mortality reached 8% and 26% in the low and high concentration groups, respectively, on the seventh day of the experiment. A progressive larval mortality of 12% for the LC{sub 10} and 60% for the LC{sub 25} was observed before pupation. Treated larvae exhibited lower pupal weights, higher pupal mortality, presence of deformed pupae, and more deformed adults than untreated larvae. The incorporation of methoxyfenozide into the diet had a significant effect on the timing of larval development. The development period for males and females was about seven days longer than the controls for both concentrations tested. In contrast, the compound affected neither pupae nor adult longevity. Finally, S. frugiperda adults that resulted from fifth instars treated with methoxyfenozide were not affected in their mean cumulative number of eggs laid per female (fecundity), nor percentages of eggs hatched (fertility), or the sex ratio. Our results suggest that the combination of lethal and sublethal effects of methoxyfenozide may have important implications for the population dynamics of the fall armyworm. (author)

  19. Org-1-dependent lineage reprogramming generates the ventral longitudinal musculature of the Drosophila heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaub, Christoph; März, Johannes; Reim, Ingolf; Frasch, Manfred

    2015-02-16

    Only few examples of transdifferentiation, which denotes the conversion of one differentiated cell type to another, are known to occur during normal development, and more often, it is associated with regeneration processes. With respect to muscles, dedifferentiation/redifferentiation processes have been documented during post-traumatic muscle regeneration in blastema of newts as well as during myocardial regeneration. As shown herein, the ventral longitudinal muscles of the adult Drosophila heart arise from specific larval alary muscles in a process that represents the first known example of syncytial muscle transdifferentiation via dedifferentiation into mononucleate myoblasts during normal development. We demonstrate that this unique process depends on the reinitiation of a transcriptional program previously employed for embryonic alary muscle development, in which the factors Org-1 (Drosophila Tbx1) and Tailup (Drosophila Islet1) are key components. During metamorphosis, the action of these factors is combined with cell-autonomous inputs from the ecdysone steroid and the Hox gene Ultrabithorax, which provide temporal and spatial specificity to the transdifferentiation events. Following muscle dedifferentiation, inductive cues, particularly from the remodeling heart tube, are required for the redifferentiation of myoblasts into ventral longitudinal muscles. Our results provide new insights into mechanisms of lineage commitment and cell-fate plasticity during development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Tebufenozide resistance is associated with sex-linked inheritance in Plutella xylostella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Guang-Chun; Han, Zhao-Jun

    2015-04-01

    The diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (L.), is a major pest of cruciferous crops. Tebufenozide, a novel nonsteroidal ecdysone agonist, exhibits good efficacy and has played an increasingly important role in the control of Lepidopteran pests in China. For its resistance management, the genetic basis of tebufenozide resistance was studied using a laboratory selected resistant strain of DBM (resistant ratio, RR = 268). A series of crosses with laboratory susceptible and resistant strains revealed that tebufenozide resistance in this pest was partially biased toward female heredity, with a large difference in RR for F1 (RR = 29) and rF1 progeny (RR = 147). The dominance calculated for these 2 cross progeny was -0.788 and 0.09, respectively. Further analysis showed that the susceptible male and female larvae were similar in their sensitivity to tebufenozide, but the resistant female larvae showed significantly higher resistance than the resistant male larvae. The heredity of tebufenozide resistance in DBM might be linked with the W sex chromosome, which suggested that DBM has the ability to develop high levels of resistance to tebufenozide. This is the first report of sex-linked inheritance of tebufenozide resistance in P. xylostella (L.). © 2013 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  1. Evaluation of the Susceptibility of the Pea Aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, to a Selection of Novel Biorational Insecticides using an Artificial Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Amin; Van Damme, Els J.M.; Smagghe, Guy

    2009-01-01

    An improved technique was developed to assay the toxicity of insecticides against aphids using an artificial diet. The susceptibility of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris) (Hemiptera: Aphidoidea) was determined for a selection of novel biorational insecticides, each representing a novel mode of action. Flonicamid, a novel systemic insecticide with selective activity as feeding blocker against sucking insects, showed high toxicity against first-instar A. pisum nymphs with an LC50 of 20.4 μg/ml after 24 h, and of 0.24 µg/ml after 72 h. The toxicity was compared with another feeding blocker, pymetrozine, and the neonicotinoid, imidacloprid. In addition, four insect growth regulators were tested. The chitin synthesis inhibitor flufenoxuron, the juvenile hormone analogue pyriproxyfen, and the azadirachtin compound Neem Azal-T/S showed strong effects and reduced the aphid population by 50% after 3 days of treatment at a concentration of 7–9 µg/ml. The ecdysone agonist tested, halofenozide, was less potent. In conclusion, the improved aphid feeding apparatus can be useful as a miniature screening device for insecticides against different aphid pests. The present study demonstrated rapid and strong toxicity of flonicamid, and other biorational insecticides towards A. pisum. PMID:20053120

  2. A novel immune-related gene HDD1 of silkworm Bombyx mori is involved in bacterial response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kui; Pan, Guangzhao; Zhao, Yuzu; Hao, Xiangwei; Li, Chongyang; Shen, Li; Zhang, Rui; Su, Jingjing; Cui, Hongjuan

    2017-08-01

    Insects have evolved an effective immune system to respond to various challenges. In this study, a novel immune-related gene, called BmHDD1, was first charactered in silkworm, Bombyx mori. BmHDD1 contained an ORF of 837bp and encoding a deduced protein of 278 amino acids. BmHDD1 was specifically expressed in hemocytes, and highly expressed at the molting and metamorphosis stages under normal physiological conditions. Our results suggested that BmHDD1 was mainly generated by hemocytes and secreted into hemolymph. Our results also showed that the expression level of BmHDD1 was significantly increased after 20E injection, which indicated that BmHDD1 might be regulated by ecdysone. More importantly, BmHDD1 was dramatically induced after injected with different types of PAMPs or bacteria, either in hemocytes or fat body. Those results suggested that BmHDD1 plays a role in developing and immunity system in silkworm, Bombyx mori. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Variations in ecdysteroid levels and cytochrome P450 expression during moult and reproduction in male shore crabs Carcinus maenas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Styrishave, B.; Rewitz, K.; Lund, T.

    2004-01-01

    and intermoult. In the testis, 20E and E were present at high levels except in Postmoult Stage A, where low levels were observed. PoA was never observed in the testis. Ecdysteroids were quantified in the red and green colour forms of late intermoult C-4 crabs. In both phenotypes, 20E was the dominating...... had significantly higher testicular E levels than red crabs. Ecdysteroid levels were negatively related to CYP330A1 and CYP4C39 gene expression. CYP330A1 and CYP4C39 mRNA levels were low during intermoult and premoult but high during postmoult. The results suggest that E and 20E are involved in both......Ecdysteroid levels were investigated by HPLC-MS over the moult cycle and in relation to reproduction in male shore crabs Carcinus maenas. Ecdysone (E), 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) and Ponasterone A (PoA) were quantified in the haemolymph, hepatopancreas and testis. Also, the expression of 2 recently...

  4. Essential role of grim-led programmed cell death for the establishment of corazonin-producing peptidergic nervous system during embryogenesis and metamorphosis in Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyunghee Lee

    2013-01-01

    In Drosophila melanogaster, combinatorial activities of four death genes, head involution defective (hid, reaper (rpr, grim, and sickle (skl, have been known to play crucial roles in the developmentally regulated programmed cell death (PCD of various tissues. However, different expression patterns of the death genes also suggest distinct functions played by each. During early metamorphosis, a great number of larval neurons unfit for adult life style are removed by PCD. Among them are eight pairs of corazonin-expressing larval peptidergic neurons in the ventral nerve cord (vCrz. To reveal death genes responsible for the PCD of vCrz neurons, we examined extant and recently available mutations as well as RNA interference that disrupt functions of single or multiple death genes. We found grim as a chief proapoptotic gene and skl and rpr as minor ones. The function of grim is also required for PCD of the mitotic sibling cells of the vCrz neuronal precursors (EW3-sib during embryonic neurogenesis. An intergenic region between grim and rpr, which, it has been suggested, may enhance expression of three death genes in embryonic neuroblasts, appears to play a role for the vCrz PCD, but not for the EW3-sib cell death. The death of vCrz neurons and EW3-sib is triggered by ecdysone and the Notch signaling pathway, respectively, suggesting distinct regulatory mechanisms of grim expression in a cell- and developmental stage-specific manner.

  5. Dolichol related intermediates involved in N-linked gloycoprotein synthesis in Drosophila Kc cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagami, H.; Chap, R.; Rivero, M.; Lennarz, W.J.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to study the regulation of the biosynthesis of dolichyl phosphate (Dol-P) in embryonic cells. Using embryonic Drosophila Kc cells which are known to lack the squalene-cholesterol branch of polyisoprenoid biosynthetic pathway, the authors labeled the cells in suspension culture for 4 hrs with [5- 3 H]mevalonic acid. After harvesting the cells, the incorporated radioactive lipids were extracted with CHCl 3 /CH 3 OH (2/1). Analysis of the extract by a combination of several methods consisting of ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, gel filtration on Fractogel TSK-HW 40, and silica gel thin layer chromatography revealed that the extract contained coenzyme Q, farnesol, dolichol (Dol), Dol-P, and dolichol-linked sugar (Dol-P-Sugar). In a pulse-chase experiment the metabolism of these intermediates was measured for various times up to 30 hrs. The amount of radioactivity in Dol slightly increased with the chase time, while that in Dol-P decreased. The amount of radioactive Dol-P-Sugar remained unchanged. These results suggest that the de novo end product in dolichol biosynthesis is Dol-P and that the level of Dol-P can be controlled by varying the rate of de novo biosynthesis and by dephosphorylation. The authors are now investigating the effect of ecdysone, the molting hormone, on the level of these intermediates and on incorporation of sugars into glycoproteins

  6. Strongyloides stercoralis Infection in Alcoholic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia C. A. Teixeira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The course of Strongyloides stercoralis infection is usually asymptomatic with a low discharge of rhabditoid larva in feces. However, the deleterious effects of alcohol consumption seem to enhance the susceptibility to infection, as shown by a fivefold higher strongyloidiasis frequency in alcoholics than in nonalcoholics. Moreover, the association between S. stercoralis infection and alcoholism presents a risk for hyperinfection and severe strongyloidiasis. There are several possible mechanisms for the disruption of the host-parasite equilibrium in ethanol-addicted patients with chronic strongyloidiasis. One explanation is that chronic ethanol intake stimulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis to produce excessive levels of endogenous cortisol, which in turn can lead to a deficiency in type 2 T helper cells (Th2 protective response, and also to mimic the parasite hormone ecdysone, which promotes the transformation of rhabditiform larvae to filariform larvae, leading to autoinfection. Therefore, when untreated, alcoholic patients are continuously infected by this autoinfection mechanism. Thus, the early diagnosis of strongyloidiasis and treatment can prevent serious forms of hyperinfection in ethanol abusers.

  7. Juvenile hormone reveals mosaic developmental programs in the metamorphosing optic lobe of Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn M. Riddiford

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The development of the adult optic lobe (OL of Drosophila melanogaster is directed by a wave of ingrowth of the photoreceptors over a 2-day period at the outset of metamorphosis, which is accompanied by the appearance of the pupal-specific transcription factor Broad-Z3 (Br-Z3 and expression of early drivers in OL neurons. During this time, there are pulses of ecdysteroids that time the metamorphic events. At the outset, the transient appearance of juvenile hormone (JH prevents precocious development of the OL caused by the ecdysteroid peak that initiates pupariation, but the artificial maintenance of JH after this time misdirects subsequent development. Axon ingrowth, Br-Z3 appearance and the expression of early drivers were unaffected, but aspects of later development such as the dendritic expansion of the lamina monopolar neurons and the expression of late drivers were suppressed. This effect of the exogenous JH mimic (JHM pyriproxifen is lost by 24 h after pupariation. Part of this effect of JHM is due to its suppression of the appearance of ecdysone receptor EcR-B1 that occurs after pupation and during early adult development.

  8. Dopamine is a key regulator in the signalling pathway underlying predator-induced defences in Daphnia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Linda C.; Leese, Florian; Laforsch, Christian; Tollrian, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    The waterflea Daphnia is a model to investigate the genetic basis of phenotypic plasticity resulting from one differentially expressed genome. Daphnia develops adaptive phenotypes (e.g. morphological defences) thwarting predators, based on chemical predator cue perception. To understand the genomic basis of phenotypic plasticity, the description of the precedent cellular and neuronal mechanisms is fundamental. However, key regulators remain unknown. All neuronal and endocrine stimulants were able to modulate but not induce defences, indicating a pathway of interlinked steps. A candidate able to link neuronal with endocrine responses is the multi-functional amine dopamine. We here tested its involvement in trait formation in Daphnia pulex and Daphnia longicephala using an induction assay composed of predator cues combined with dopaminergic and cholinergic stimulants. The mere application of both stimulants was sufficient to induce morphological defences. We determined dopamine localization in cells found in close association with the defensive trait. These cells serve as centres controlling divergent morphologies. As a mitogen and sclerotization agent, we anticipate that dopamine is involved in proliferation and structural formation of morphological defences. Furthermore, dopamine pathways appear to be interconnected with endocrine pathways, and control juvenile hormone and ecdysone levels. In conclusion, dopamine is suggested as a key regulator of phenotypic plasticity. PMID:26423840

  9. X-ray cone beam microtomography for quantitative assessment of tracheal and pharyngeal volumes of Rhodnius prolixus; Utilizacao da microtomografia computadorizada com feixe de raios-X conico para a determinacao quantitativa do volume da traqueia e faringe do Rhodnius prolixus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Izabella Soares de

    2017-07-01

    In the past decade microcomputerized tomography imaging using synchrotron radiation has become a powerful technique to generate high resolution images of Rhodinus prolixus. Images of soft tissues (protocerebrum and muscles) and dense structures (pharynx, trachea and esophagus) of R. prolixus head have been obtained using synchrotron radiation microtomography in mono and polychromatic configuration, respectively. Advancements in conventional microtomography have increased the achievable resolution and contrast, making this relatively inexpensive and widely available technology potentially useful for studies of insect internal morphology. The main goal of this work was to provide a new set of high quality microtomographic images of R. prolixus achieved by means of a desktop X-ray microtomograph. It allows the three-dimensional visualization of important chitinized structures: pharynx and tracheae. Pharyngeal and tracheal volumes were quantitatively evaluated at different days (1, 4, 10, 15 and 20) after feeding. The results suggest that variation of average volumes could be attributed to insect hormone 20-hydroxy-ecdysone (20-OH-Ec) pulse at 11 days after feeding. Pharyngeal volumes decrease 3.80 times. On the other hand, tracheal volumes increase 1.78 times. Head total volume showed similar trends than trachea. (author)

  10. Nanos-mediated repression of hid protects larval sensory neurons after a global switch in sensitivity to apoptotic signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhogal, Balpreet; Plaza-Jennings, Amara; Gavis, Elizabeth R

    2016-06-15

    Dendritic arbor morphology is a key determinant of neuronal function. Once established, dendrite branching patterns must be maintained as the animal develops to ensure receptive field coverage. The translational repressors Nanos (Nos) and Pumilio (Pum) are required to maintain dendrite growth and branching of Drosophila larval class IV dendritic arborization (da) neurons, but their specific regulatory role remains unknown. We show that Nos-Pum-mediated repression of the pro-apoptotic gene head involution defective (hid) is required to maintain a balance of dendritic growth and retraction in class IV da neurons and that upregulation of hid results in decreased branching because of an increase in caspase activity. The temporal requirement for nos correlates with an ecdysone-triggered switch in sensitivity to apoptotic stimuli that occurs during the mid-L3 transition. We find that hid is required during pupariation for caspase-dependent pruning of class IV da neurons and that Nos and Pum delay pruning. Together, these results suggest that Nos and Pum provide a crucial neuroprotective regulatory layer to ensure that neurons behave appropriately in response to developmental cues. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  11. Glue protein production can be triggered by steroid hormone signaling independent of the developmental program in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaieda, Yuya; Masuda, Ryota; Nishida, Ritsuo; Shimell, MaryJane; O'Connor, Michael B; Ono, Hajime

    2017-10-01

    Steroid hormones regulate life stage transitions, allowing animals to appropriately follow a developmental timeline. During insect development, the steroid hormone ecdysone is synthesized and released in a regulated manner by the prothoracic gland (PG) and then hydroxylated to the active molting hormone, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), in peripheral tissues. We manipulated ecdysteroid titers, through temporally controlled over-expression of the ecdysteroid-inactivating enzyme, CYP18A1, in the PG using the GeneSwitch-GAL4 system in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. We monitored expression of a 20E-inducible glue protein gene, Salivary gland secretion 3 (Sgs3), using a Sgs3:GFP fusion transgene. In wild type larvae, Sgs3-GFP expression is activated at the midpoint of the third larval instar stage in response to the rising endogenous level of 20E. By first knocking down endogenous 20E levels during larval development and then feeding 20E to these larvae at various stages, we found that Sgs3-GFP expression could be triggered at an inappropriate developmental stage after a certain time lag. This stage-precocious activation of Sgs3 required expression of the Broad-complex, similar to normal Sgs3 developmental regulation, and a small level of nutritional input. We suggest that these studies provide evidence for a tissue-autonomic regulatory system for a metamorphic event independent from the primary 20E driven developmental progression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The spliceosome-associated protein Mfap1 binds to VCP in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Rode

    Full Text Available Posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression contributes to many developmental transitions. Previously, we found that the AAA chaperone Valosin-Containing Protein (VCP regulates ecdysone-dependent dendrite pruning of Drosophila class IV dendritic arborization (c4da neurons via an effect on RNA metabolism. In a search for RNA binding proteins associated with VCP, we identified the spliceosome-associated protein Mfap1, a component of the tri-snRNP complex. Mfap1 is a nucleolar protein in neurons and its levels are regulated by VCP. Mfap1 binds to VCP and TDP-43, a disease-associated RNA-binding protein. via distinct regions in its N- and C-terminal halfs. Similar to vcp mutations, Mfap1 overexpression causes c4da neuron dendrite pruning defects and mislocalization of TDP-43 in these cells, but genetic analyses show that Mfap1 is not a crucial VCP target during dendrite pruning. Finally, rescue experiments with a lethal mfap1 mutant show that the VCP binding region is not essential for Mfap1 function, but may act to increase its stability or activity.

  13. Preparation of Single-cohort Colonies and Hormone Treatment of Worker Honeybees to Analyze Physiology Associated with Role and/or Endocrine System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Takayuki; Kawasaki, Kiyoshi; Kubo, Takeo

    2016-09-06

    Honeybee workers are engaged in various tasks related to maintaining colony activity. The tasks of the workers change according to their age (age-related division of labor). Young workers are engaged in nursing the brood (nurse bees), while older workers are engaged in foraging for nectar and pollen (foragers). The physiology of the workers changes in association with this role shift. For example, the main function of the hypopharyngeal glands (HPGs) changes from the secretion of major royal jelly proteins (MRJPs) to the secretion of carbohydrate-metabolizing enzymes. Because worker tasks change as the workers age in typical colonies, it is difficult to discriminate the physiological changes that occur with aging from those that occur with the role shift. To study the physiological changes in worker tissues, including the HPGs, in association with the role shift, it would be useful to manipulate the honeybee colony population by preparing single-cohort colonies in which workers of almost the same age perform different tasks. Here we describe a detailed protocol for preparing single-cohort colonies for this analysis. Six to eight days after single-cohort colony preparation, precocious foragers that perform foraging tasks earlier than usual appear in the colony. Representative results indicated role-associated changes in HPG gene expression, suggesting role-associated HPG function. In addition to manipulating the colony population, analysis of the endocrine system is important for investigating role-associated physiology. Here, we also describe a detailed protocol for treating workers with 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), an active form of ecdysone, and methoprene, a juvenile hormone analogue. The survival rate of treated bees was sufficient to examine gene expression in the HPGs. Gene expression changes were observed in response to 20E- and/or methoprene-treatment, suggesting that hormone treatments induce physiological changes of the HPGs. The protocol for hormone

  14. Induced overexpression of protein kinase D1 stimulates mitogenic signaling in human pancreatic carcinoma PANC-1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisfalvi, Krisztina; Hurd, Cliff; Guha, Sushovan; Rozengurt, Enrique

    2010-05-01

    Neurotensin (NT) stimulates protein kinase D1 (PKD1), extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal Kinase (JNK), and DNA synthesis in the human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell line PANC-1. To determine the effect of PKD1 overexpression on these biological responses, we generated inducible stable PANC-1 clones that express wild-type (WT) or kinase-dead (K618N) forms of PKD1 in response to the ecdysone analog ponasterone-A (PonA). NT potently stimulated c-Jun Ser(63) phosphorylation in both wild type and clonal derivatives of PANC-1 cells. PonA-induced expression of WT, but not K618N PKD1, rapidly blocked NT-mediated c-Jun Ser(63) phosphorylation either at the level of or upstream of MKK4, a dual-specificity kinase that leads to JNK activation. This is the first demonstration that PKD1 suppresses NT-induced JNK/cJun activation in PANC-1 cells. In contrast, PKD1 overexpression markedly increased the duration of NT-induced ERK activation in these cells. The reciprocal influence of PKD1 signaling on pro-mitogenicERK and pro-apopotic JNK/c-Jun pathways prompted us to examine whether PKD1 overexpression promotes DNA synthesis and proliferation of PANC-1 cells. Our results show that PKD1 overexpression increased DNA synthesis and cell numbers of PANC-1 cells cultured in regular dishes or in polyhydroxyethylmethacrylate [Poly-(HEMA)]-coated dishes to eliminate cell adhesion (anchorage-independent growth). Furthermore, PKD1 overexpression markedly enhanced DNA synthesis induced by NT (1-10 nM). These results indicate that PKD1 mediates mitogenic signaling in PANC-1 and suggests that this enzyme could be a novel target for the development of therapeutic drugs that restrict the proliferation of these cells.

  15. Ecdysteroids regulate the levels of Molt-Inhibiting Hormone (MIH expression in the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirinart Techa

    Full Text Available Arthropod molt is coordinated through the interplay between ecdysteroids and neuropeptide hormones. In crustaceans, changes in the activity of Y-organs during the molt cycle have been regulated by molt-inhibiting hormone (MIH and crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH. Little has been known of the mode of direct effects of ecdysteroids on the levels of MIH and CHH in the eyestalk ganglia during the molt cycle. This study focused on a putative feedback of ecdysteroids on the expression levels of MIH transcripts using in vitro incubation study with ecdysteroids and in vivo RNAi in the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus. Our results show a specific expression of ecdysone receptor (EcR in which EcR1 is the major isoform in eyestalk ganglia. The initial elevation of MIH expression at the early premolt stages is replicated by in vitro incubations of eyestalk ganglia with ecdysteroids that mimic the intrinsic conditions of D0 stage: the concentration (75 ng/ml and composition (ponasterone A and 20-hydroxyecdysone at a 3:1 (w:w ratio. Additionally, multiple injections of EcR1-dsRNA reduce MIH expression by 67%, compared to the controls. Our data provide evidence on a putative feedback mechanism of hormonal regulation during molting cycle, specifically how the molt cycle is repeated during the life cycle of crustaceans. The elevated concentrations of ecdysteroids at early premolt stage may act positively on the levels of MIH expression in the eyestalk ganglia. Subsequently, the increased MIH titers in the hemolymph at postmolt would inhibit the synthesis and release of ecdysteroids by Y-organs, resulting in re-setting the subsequent molt cycle.

  16. Ecdysteroids regulate the levels of Molt-Inhibiting Hormone (MIH) expression in the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Techa, Sirinart; Chung, J Sook

    2015-01-01

    Arthropod molt is coordinated through the interplay between ecdysteroids and neuropeptide hormones. In crustaceans, changes in the activity of Y-organs during the molt cycle have been regulated by molt-inhibiting hormone (MIH) and crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH). Little has been known of the mode of direct effects of ecdysteroids on the levels of MIH and CHH in the eyestalk ganglia during the molt cycle. This study focused on a putative feedback of ecdysteroids on the expression levels of MIH transcripts using in vitro incubation study with ecdysteroids and in vivo RNAi in the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus. Our results show a specific expression of ecdysone receptor (EcR) in which EcR1 is the major isoform in eyestalk ganglia. The initial elevation of MIH expression at the early premolt stages is replicated by in vitro incubations of eyestalk ganglia with ecdysteroids that mimic the intrinsic conditions of D0 stage: the concentration (75 ng/ml) and composition (ponasterone A and 20-hydroxyecdysone at a 3:1 (w:w) ratio). Additionally, multiple injections of EcR1-dsRNA reduce MIH expression by 67%, compared to the controls. Our data provide evidence on a putative feedback mechanism of hormonal regulation during molting cycle, specifically how the molt cycle is repeated during the life cycle of crustaceans. The elevated concentrations of ecdysteroids at early premolt stage may act positively on the levels of MIH expression in the eyestalk ganglia. Subsequently, the increased MIH titers in the hemolymph at postmolt would inhibit the synthesis and release of ecdysteroids by Y-organs, resulting in re-setting the subsequent molt cycle.

  17. The 20-hydroxyecdysone-induced signalling pathway in G2/M arrest of Plodia interpunctella imaginal wing cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siaussat, David; Bozzolan, Françoise; Porcheron, Patrick; Debernard, Stéphane

    2008-05-01

    The mechanisms involved in the control of cellular proliferation by the steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) in insects are not known. We dissected the 20E signalling pathway responsible for G2/M arrest of imaginal cells from the IAL-PID2 cells of the Indian meal moth Plodia interpunctella. We first used a 5'-3' RACE-based strategy to clone a 4479bp cDNA encoding a putative P. interpunctella HR3 transcription factor named PiHR3. The deduced amino acid sequence of PiHR3 was highly similar to those of HR3 proteins from other lepidopterans, e.g. Manduca sexta and Bombyx mori. Using double-stranded RNA-mediated interference (dsRNAi), we then succeeded in blocking the ability of 20E to induce the expression of PiEcR-B1, PiUSP-2 and PiHR3 genes that encode the P. interpunctella ecdysone receptor B1-isoform, Ultraspiracle-2 isoform, the insect homologue of the vertebrate retinoid X receptor, and the HR3 transcription factor. We showed that inhibiting the 20E induction of PiEcR-B1, PiUSP-2 and PiHR3 mRNAs prevented the decreased expression of B cyclin and consequently the G2/M arrest of IAL-PID2 cells. Using this functional approach, we revealed the participation of EcR, USP and HR3 in a 20E signalling pathway that controls the proliferation of imaginal cells by regulating the expression of B cyclin.

  18. Nuclear receptors HR96 and ultraspiracle from the fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda), developmental expression and induction by xenobiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraudo, Maeva; Audant, Pascaline; Feyereisen, René; Le Goff, Gaëlle

    2013-05-01

    The fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda is a major polyphagous pest in agriculture and little is known on how this insect can adapt to the diverse and potentially toxic plant allelochemicals that they ingest or to insecticides. To investigate the involvement of nuclear receptors in the response of S. frugiperda to its chemical environment, we cloned SfHR96, a nuclear receptor orthologous to the mammalian xenobiotic receptors, pregnane X receptor (PXR) and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR). We also cloned ultraspiracle (USP), the ortholog of retinoid X receptor (RXR) that serves as partner of dimerization of PXR and CAR. Cloning of SfUSP revealed the presence of two isoforms, SfUSP-1 and SfUSP-2 in this species, that differ in their N-terminal region. The expression of these receptors as well as the ecdysone receptor was studied during specific steps of development in different tissues. SfHR96 was constitutively expressed in larval midgut, fat body and Malpighian tubules throughout the last two instars and pupal stage, as well as in Sf9 cells. EcR and SfUSP-2 showed peaks of expression before larval moults and during metamorphosis, whereas SfUSP-1 was mainly expressed in the pre-pupal stage. Receptor induction was followed after exposure of larvae or cells to 11 chemical compounds. SfHR96 was not inducible by the tested compounds. EcR was significantly induced by the 20-hydroxyecdysone agonist, methoxyfenozide, and SfUSP showed an increase expression when exposed to the juvenile hormone analog, methoprene. The cloning of these nuclear receptors is a first step in understanding the important capacities of adaptation of this insect pest. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Organic solvents impair life-traits and biomarkers in the New Zealand mudsnail Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Gray) at concentrations below OECD recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecomte, V.; Noury, P.; Tutundjian, R.; Buronfosse, T.; Garric, J.; Gust, M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Acetone (20 μl l −1 ) accelerates embryonic development in Potamopyrgus antipodarum. •Ethanol (20 μl l −1 ) decreases growth in juvenile mudsnails. •Acetone, ethanol, methanol and DMSO increase E2 levels in snails. •Carrier solvents impair gene expression. •DMSO is to be preferred. -- Abstract: Potamopyrgus antipodarum is a gastropod mollusk proposed for use in the development of reproduction tests within the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Numerous chemicals, including endocrine disrupters, are relatively water-insoluble, and water-miscible solvents are currently used for testing them. OECD recommends a maximum concentration of 100 μl l −1 . As several studies highlighted effects of lower concentrations of solvents, this study assessed the effects of 20 μl l −1 acetone, ethanol, methanol and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) on juvenile and adult snails during 42 days. Ethanol decreased juvenile growth, while acetone increased the rate of embryonic development. All solvents increased estradiol-like levels in adult snails. DMSO only increased mRNA expression of vitellogenin-like gene, while acetone, ethanol and methanol decreased mRNA expression of three nuclear receptor (estrogen receptor-like, ecdysone-induced protein and chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription factor) genes as well as of genes encoding proteins involved in genomic (prohibitin-2) and non-genomic (striatin) pathways of estrogens activity in vertebrates. This study highlights the confounding effects of low concentrations of solvents and recommends avoiding their use. Where solvent use is inevitable, their concentrations and type should be investigated for suitability for the measured endpoints prior to use in chemical testing strategies

  20. Sequential sampling and biorational chemistries for management of lepidopteran pests of vegetable amaranth in the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke-Harris, Dionne; Fleischer, Shelby J

    2003-06-01

    Although vegetable amaranth, Amaranthus viridis L. and A. dubius Mart. ex Thell., production and economic importance is increasing in diversified peri-urban farms in Jamaica, lepidopteran herbivory is common even during weekly pyrethroid applications. We developed and validated a sampling plan, and investigated insecticides with new modes of action, for a complex of five species (Pyralidae: Spoladea recurvalis (F.), Herpetogramma bipunctalis (F.), Noctuidae: Spodoptera exigua (Hubner), S. frugiperda (J. E. Smith), and S. eridania Stoll). Significant within-plant variation occurred with H. bipunctalis, and a six-leaf sample unit including leaves from the inner and outer whorl was selected to sample all species. Larval counts best fit a negative binomial distribution. We developed a sequential sampling plan using a threshold of one larva per sample unit and the fitted distribution with a k(c) of 0.645. When compared with a fixed plan of 25 plants, sequential sampling recommended the same management decision on 87.5%, additional samples on 9.4%, and gave inaccurate recommendations on 3.1% of 32 farms, while reducing sample size by 46%. Insecticide frequency was reduced 33-60% when management decisions were based on sampled data compared with grower-standards, with no effect on crop damage. Damage remained high or variable (10-46%) with pyrethroid applications. Lepidopteran control was dramatically improved with ecdysone agonists (tebufenozide) or microbial metabolites (spinosyns and emamectin benzoate). This work facilitates resistance management efforts concurrent with the introduction of newer modes of action for lepidopteran control in leafy vegetable production in the Caribbean.

  1. UV filters induce transcriptional changes of different hormonal receptors in Chironomus riparius embryos and larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozáez, Irene; Aquilino, Mónica; Morcillo, Gloria; Martínez-Guitarte, José-Luis

    2016-07-01

    Organic ultraviolet (UV) filters are emerging contaminants that are ubiquitous in fresh and marine aquatic systems due to their extensive use in cosmetics, plastics, paints, textiles, and many other industrial products. The estrogenic effects of organic UV filters have been long demonstrated in vertebrates, and other hormonal activities may be altered, according to more recent reports. The impact of UV filters on the endocrine system of invertebrates is largely unknown. We have previously reported that some UV filters may affect ecdysone-related genes in the aquatic insect Chironomus riparius, an ecotoxicologically important model organism. To further analyze other possible effects on endocrine pathways, we first characterized four pivotal genes related with hormonal pathways in insects; thereafter, these genes were assessed for alterations in transcriptional activity after exposure to 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4MBC) or benzophenone-3 (BP-3), two extensively used sunscreens. We found that both chemicals disturbed the expression of all four genes analyzed: hormonal receptor 38 (HR38), methoprene-tolerant (Met), membrane-associate progesterone receptor (MAPR) and insulin-like receptor (INSR), measured by changes in mRNA levels by real-time PCR. An upregulatory effect at the genomic level was detected in different developmental stages. Interestingly, embryos appeared to be more sensitive to the action of the UV filters than larvae. Our results suggest that the risk of disruption through different endocrine routes is not negligible, considering the significant effects of UV filters on key hormonal receptor and regulatory genes. Further effort is needed to develop environmental risk assessment studies on these pollutants, particularly for aquatic invertebrate model organisms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene family of Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hai-Yan; Mita, Kazuei; Zhao, Xia; Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Moriyama, Minoru; Wang, Huabin; Iwanaga, Masashi; Kawasaki, Hideki

    2017-04-15

    We previously reported regarding an ecdysone-inducible angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene. We found another four ACE genes in the Bombyx genome. The present study was undertaken to clarify the evolutionally changed function of the ACE of Bombyx mori. Core regions of deduced amino acid sequences of ACE genes were compared with those of other insect ACE genes. Five Bombyx genes have the conserved Zn 2+ -binding-site motif (HEXXH); however, BmAcer4 has only one and BmAcer3 has no catalytic ligand. BmAcer1 and BmAcer2 were expressed in several organs. BmAcer3 was expressed in testes, and BmAcer4 and BmAcer5 were expressed in compound eyes; however, the transcription levels of these three genes were very low. Quantitative RT-PCR and Western analysis were conducted to determine the tissue distribution and developmental expression of BmAcer1and BmAcer2. Transcripts of BmAcer1 and BmAcer2 were found in the reproductive organs during the larval and pupal stages. BmAcer1 was dominant in fat bodies during the feeding stage and showed high expression in the epidermis, wing discs, and pupal wing tissues after the wandering stage. Its expression patterns in epidermis, wing discs, and wing tissues resembled the hemolymph ecdysteroid titer in the larval and pupal stages. Acer1 was observed in the hemolymph at all stages, appearing to be the source of it are fat bodies, wings, and epidermis, and functioning after being secreted into the hemolymph. BmAcer2 was abundant in the midgut during the feeding stage and after the wandering stage and in silk glands after the pupal stage. We conclude that the evolution of BmAcer occurred through duplication, and, thereafter, functional diversification developed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Protein tyrosine phosphatase encoded in Cotesia plutellae bracovirus suppresses a larva-to-pupa metamorphosis of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jiwan; Hepat, Rahul; Lee, Daeweon; Kim, Yonggyun

    2013-09-01

    Parasitization by an endoparasitoid wasp, Cotesia plutellae, inhibits a larva-to-pupa metamorphosis of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella. This study tested an inhibitory effect of C. plutellae bracovirus (CpBV) on the metamorphosis of P. xylostella. Parasitized P. xylostella exhibited significantly reduced prothoracic gland (PTG) development at the last instar compared to nonparasitized larvae. Expression of the ecdysone receptor (EcR) was markedly suppressed during the last instar larvae parasitized by C. plutellae. By contrast, expression of the insulin receptor (InR) significantly increased in the parasitized larvae. Microinjection of CpBV significantly inhibited the larva-to-pupa metamorphosis of nonparasitized larvae in a dose-dependent manner. Injection of CpBV also inhibited the expression of the EcR and increased the expression of the InR. Individual CpBV segments were transiently expressed in its encoded genes in nonparasitized larvae and screened to determine antimetamorphic viral gene(s). Out of 21 CpBV segments, two viral segments (CpBV-S22 and CpBV-S27) were proved to inhibit larva-to-pupa metamorphosis by transient expression assay. RNA interference of each gene encoded in the viral segments was applied to determine antimetamorphic gene(s). Protein tyrosine phosphatase, early expressed gene, and four hypothetical genes were selected to be associated with the antimetamorphic activity of CpBV. These results suggest that antimetamorphosis of P. xylostella parasitized by C. plutellae is induced by inhibiting PTG development and subsequent ecdysteroid signaling with viral factors of CpBV. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Transposable elements are enriched within or in close proximity to xenobiotic-metabolizing cytochrome P450 genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xianchun

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transposons, i.e. transposable elements (TEs, are the major internal spontaneous mutation agents for the variability of eukaryotic genomes. To address the general issue of whether transposons mediate genomic changes in environment-adaptation genes, we scanned two alleles per each of the six xenobiotic-metabolizing Helicoverpa zea cytochrome P450 loci, including CYP6B8, CYP6B27, CYP321A1, CYP321A2, CYP9A12v3 and CYP9A14, for the presence of transposon insertions by genome walking and sequence analysis. We also scanned thirteen Drosophila melanogaster P450s genes for TE insertions by in silico mapping and literature search. Results Twelve novel transposons, including LINEs (long interspersed nuclear elements, SINEs (short interspersed nuclear elements, MITEs (miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements, one full-length transib-like transposon, and one full-length Tcl-like DNA transpson, are identified from the alleles of the six H. zea P450 genes. The twelve transposons are inserted into the 5'flanking region, 3'flanking region, exon, or intron of the six environment-adaptation P450 genes. In D. melanogaster, seven out of the eight Drosophila P450s (CYP4E2, CYP6A2, CYP6A8, CYP6A9, CYP6G1, CYP6W1, CYP12A4, CYP12D1 implicated in insecticide resistance are associated with a variety of transposons. By contrast, all the five Drosophila P450s (CYP302A1, CYP306A1, CYP307A1, CYP314A1 and CYP315A1 involved in ecdysone biosynthesis and developmental regulation are free of TE insertions. Conclusion These results indicate that TEs are selectively retained within or in close proximity to xenobiotic-metabolizing P450 genes.

  5. Ultraviolet filters differentially impact the expression of key endocrine and stress genes in embryos and larvae of Chironomus riparius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozáez, Irene; Morcillo, Gloria; Martínez-Guitarte, José-Luis

    2016-07-01

    Several organic UV filters have hormonal activity in vertebrates, as demonstrated in fishes, rodents and human cells. Despite the accumulation of filter contaminants in aquatic systems, research on their effects on the endocrine systems of freshwaters invertebrates is scarce. In this work, the effects of five frequently used UV filters were investigated in embryos and larvae of Chironomus riparius, which is a reference organism in ecotoxicology. LC50 values for larvae as well as the percentage of eclosion of eggs were determined following exposures to: octyl-p-methoxycinnamate (OMC) also known as 2-ethylhexyl-4-methoxycinnamate (EHMC); 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4MBC); 4-hydroxybenzophenone (4HB); octocrylene (OC); and octyldimethyl-p-aminobenzoate (OD-PABA). To assess sublethal effects, expression levels of the genes coding for the ecdysone receptor (EcR) and heat shock protein HSP70 were investigated as biomarkers for endocrine and stress effects at the cellular level. Life-stage-dependent sensitivity was found. In embryos, all of the UV filters provoked a significant overexpression of EcR at 24h after exposure. OC, 4MBC and OD-PABA also triggered transcriptional activation of the hsp70 stress gene in embryos. In contrast, in larvae, only 4MBC and OMC/EHMC increased EcR and hsp70 mRNA levels and OD-PABA upregulated only the EcR gene. These results revealed that embryos are particularly sensitive to UV filters, which affect endocrine regulation during development. Most UV filters also triggered the cellular stress response, and thus exhibit proteotoxic effects. The differences observed between embryos and larvae and the higher sensitivity of embryos highlight the importance of considering different life stages when evaluating the environmental risks of pollutants, particularly when analyzing endocrine effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Organic solvents impair life-traits and biomarkers in the New Zealand mudsnail Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Gray) at concentrations below OECD recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lecomte, V.; Noury, P.; Tutundjian, R. [Irstea, UR MAEP, Laboratoire d’écotoxicologie, 5 rue de la Doua, CS70077, 69626 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Buronfosse, T. [VetAgro-Sup, Campus vétérinaire, Endocrinology Laboratory, 69280 Marcy l’Etoile (France); Garric, J. [Irstea, UR MAEP, Laboratoire d’écotoxicologie, 5 rue de la Doua, CS70077, 69626 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Gust, M., E-mail: marion.gust@irstea.fr [Irstea, UR MAEP, Laboratoire d’écotoxicologie, 5 rue de la Doua, CS70077, 69626 Villeurbanne Cedex (France)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: •Acetone (20 μl l{sup −1}) accelerates embryonic development in Potamopyrgus antipodarum. •Ethanol (20 μl l{sup −1}) decreases growth in juvenile mudsnails. •Acetone, ethanol, methanol and DMSO increase E2 levels in snails. •Carrier solvents impair gene expression. •DMSO is to be preferred. -- Abstract: Potamopyrgus antipodarum is a gastropod mollusk proposed for use in the development of reproduction tests within the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Numerous chemicals, including endocrine disrupters, are relatively water-insoluble, and water-miscible solvents are currently used for testing them. OECD recommends a maximum concentration of 100 μl l{sup −1}. As several studies highlighted effects of lower concentrations of solvents, this study assessed the effects of 20 μl l{sup −1} acetone, ethanol, methanol and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) on juvenile and adult snails during 42 days. Ethanol decreased juvenile growth, while acetone increased the rate of embryonic development. All solvents increased estradiol-like levels in adult snails. DMSO only increased mRNA expression of vitellogenin-like gene, while acetone, ethanol and methanol decreased mRNA expression of three nuclear receptor (estrogen receptor-like, ecdysone-induced protein and chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription factor) genes as well as of genes encoding proteins involved in genomic (prohibitin-2) and non-genomic (striatin) pathways of estrogens activity in vertebrates. This study highlights the confounding effects of low concentrations of solvents and recommends avoiding their use. Where solvent use is inevitable, their concentrations and type should be investigated for suitability for the measured endpoints prior to use in chemical testing strategies.

  7. Multigenerational effects of 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4-MBC) on the survival, development and reproduction of the marine copepod Tigriopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Leyun; Li, Xiaolin; Hong, Haizheng; Shi, Dalin

    2018-01-01

    One of the most widely used organic UV filters, 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4-MBC), is present at high concentrations in offshore waters. The marine copepod Tigriopus japonicus was exposed to different concentrations of 4-MBC (i.e., 0, 0.5, 1, 5 and 10μgL -1 ) for 4 consecutive generations (F0-F3) to evaluate the impact of 4-MBC on marine ecosystems. The results showed that in the F0 generation, 4-MBC caused significant lethal toxicity in T. japonicas at concentrations of 5 and 10μgL -1 and the nauplii were more sensitive to 4-MBC toxicity than the adults. However in the F1-F3 generations, 4-MBC exposure did not affect the survival rate. The hatching rate and the developmental duration from the nauplii to the copepodite (N-C) and from the nauplii to adult (N-A) decreased significantly in the F1-F2 generations and in the F2-F3 generations, respectively, even at the lowest exposure concentration (0.5μgL -1 ). In the subsequent two generations (i.e., the F4-F5 generations) of recovery exposure in clean seawater, the growth rates of the original 4-MBC exposure groups were still faster than the control in both the N-C and N-A stages, suggesting possible transgenerational genetic and/or epigenetic changes upon chronic 4-MBC exposure. The expression of the ecdysone receptor gene was up-regulated by 4-MBC, which was consistent with the decrease of the N-C/N-A duration. In addition, 4-MBC may induce oxidative stress and trigger apoptosis in T. japonicas, resulting in developmental, reproductive and even lethal toxicity. A preliminary risk assessment suggested that under environmentally realistic concentrations, 4-MBC had significant potential to pose a threat to marine crustaceans and marine ecosystems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Genome-wide identification of nuclear receptor (NR) superfamily genes in the copepod Tigriopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Dae-Sik; Lee, Bo-Young; Kim, Hui-Su; Lee, Min Chul; Kyung, Do-Hyun; Om, Ae-Son; Rhee, Jae-Sung; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2014-11-18

    Nuclear receptors (NRs) are a large superfamily of proteins defined by a DNA-binding domain (DBD) and a ligand-binding domain (LBD). They function as transcriptional regulators to control expression of genes involved in development, homeostasis, and metabolism. The number of NRs differs from species to species, because of gene duplications and/or lineage-specific gene losses during metazoan evolution. Many NRs in arthropods interact with the ecdysteroid hormone and are involved in ecdysone-mediated signaling in arthropods. The nuclear receptor superfamily complement has been reported in several arthropods, including crustaceans, but not in copepods. We identified the entire NR repertoire of the copepod Tigriopus japonicus, which is an important marine model species for ecotoxicology and environmental genomics. Using whole genome and transcriptome sequences, we identified a total of 31 nuclear receptors in the genome of T. japonicus. Nomenclature of the nuclear receptors was determined based on the sequence similarities of the DNA-binding domain (DBD) and ligand-binding domain (LBD). The 7 subfamilies of NRs separate into five major clades (subfamilies NR1, NR2, NR3, NR4, and NR5/6). Although the repertoire of NR members in, T. japonicus was similar to that reported for other arthropods, there was an expansion of the NR1 subfamily in Tigriopus japonicus. The twelve unique nuclear receptors identified in T. japonicus are members of NR1L. This expansion may be a unique lineage-specific feature of crustaceans. Interestingly, E78 and HR83, which are present in other arthropods, were absent from the genomes of T. japonicus and two congeneric copepod species (T. japonicus and Tigriopus californicus), suggesting copepod lineage-specific gene loss. We identified all NR receptors present in the copepod, T. japonicus. Knowledge of the copepod nuclear receptor repertoire will contribute to a better understanding of copepod- and crustacean-specific NR evolution.

  9. Genomic sequence around butterfly wing development genes: annotation and comparative analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inês C Conceição

    conservation of non-coding sequence around the genes wingless and Ecdysone receptor, both involved in multiple developmental processes including wing pattern formation.

  10. Effects of a new molt-inducing insecticide, tebufenozide, on zooplankton communities in lake enclosures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreutzweiser, D P; Thomas, D R

    1995-10-01

    : A potent ecdysone agonist, tebufenozide, has recently been developed as a molt-inducing insecticide to control defoliating lepidopterans. As part of continuing research efforts to assess the effectiveness and environmental safety of this material for insect pest management in Canadian forests, tebufenozide (RH-5992-2F) was applied to large lake enclosures and the effects on zooplankton communities were evaluated. There were significant treatment effects at all test concentrations (0.07-0.66 mg L(-1) tebufenozide). Concentration-dependent reductions in the abundance of cladocerans indicated that there were direct toxic effects of tebufenozide on this group of macrozooplankton. There were no indications of direct toxic effects on copepods. Significant increases in abundance of rotifers in treated enclosures at the three higher test concentrations were coincident with reductions in cladocerans and indicated secondary effects of the insecticide on the abundance of microzooplankton. There were no significant differences among treated and control enclosures in chlorophyll a concentrations, indicating that tebufenozide did not have direct effects on phytoplankton biomass, nor did the alterations in the zooplankton communities of treated enclosures have measurable secondary effects on phytoplankton biomass. Daytime dissolved oxygen concentrations were significantly higher in treated enclosures than in controls, indicating that the perturbation to biotic communities of some treated enclosures was sufficient to induce measurable changes in system-level functional attributes. Recovery of zooplankton communities in the enclosures occurred within 1-2 months at 0.07 and 0.13 mg l(-1) and by the following summer (12-13 months) at 0.33 and 0.66 mg l(-1).

  11. Effects of juvenile hormone analogue on ecdysis prevention induced by precocene in Rhodnius prolixus (Hemiptera: Reduviidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia de Azambuja

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available Precocene II, added to the meal of fourth-instar larvae of Rhodnius prolixus (25 mug/ml of blood, induced an in crease in the duration of the molting cycle. This effect was related to the decrease of both the nuclear area of the prothoracic gland cells and the mitotic activity in epidermal cellS. juvenile hormone analogue applied topically (60 mug/insect together with Precocene II treatment avoided atrophy of the prothoracic glands and induced a higher number of epidermal mitosis accelerating the time of subsequent ecdysis. A possible relationship between juvenile hormone and production of ecdysone is discussed.Adicionado ao sangue alimentar na dose de 25 mug/ml o precoceno II causou um aumento no período de intermuda em ninfas de 4o. estadio de Rhodnius prolixus. Este atraso da muda foi relacionado com a diminuição da área dos núcleos das celulas das glandulas protoracicas e com a queda da atividade mitotica das células da epiderme do inseto. Um análogo de hormônio juvenil aplicado topicamente (60 mug/inseto junto com o tratamento oral com precoceno II preveniu a atrofia das glândulas protorácicas e induziu um aumento no número de mitoses nas células da epiderme, diminuindo o período de intermuda nestes insetos.A possivel relação entre a ação do hormônio juvenil e a producao de ecdisona pelas glândulas protorácicas e discutida.

  12. [Articulata and Ecdysozoa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova-Kazas, O M

    2015-01-01

    Science has accumulated to date such amounts of valuable and diverse information that no scientists can be encyclopedists (like those of the 17th and 18th centuries). Now every scientist is usually well informed only in one particular area and often needs consultations of other specialists. The current situation in biology is similar. In addition to evolutionary morphology, which represents fundamentals of zoology, there is a new, clearly cutting-edge and progressive area of studies, molecular genetics, which has already revealed many important general biological patterns. But the conclusions that follow from examining natural phenomena from this new point of view using new methods sometimes prove to be at odds with conventional notions. Considerable controversies have emerged on the phylogenetic position of the type Arthropoda. The peculiar features of the general body plan and the type of development of these animals seem to give evidence that they evolved from Annelida, with which they are often combined under the name Articulata. But attempts have been made to replace this concept by the idea that the clade Ecdysozoa, which includes Arthropods as well as such animals with low levels of organization as Nematoda and Priapulida, emerged early in the evolution of Bilateria. The main reason for combining the said animals in this clade is the fact that they have molts regulated with ecdysone; this point of view is supported by molecular genetic arguments. Although in this review this controversial problem is considered from the morphological point of view, the main purpose of the review is to emphasize the need to establish mutual understanding.between morphologists and molecular biologists and carefully find out the causes of the existing disagreements. Rather than ideological opponents, the two areas of science should be allies helping each other to solve complicated problems.

  13. Mammalian ECD Protein Is a Novel Negative Regulator of the PERK Arm of the Unfolded Protein Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olou, Appolinaire A; Sarkar, Aniruddha; Bele, Aditya; Gurumurthy, C B; Mir, Riyaz A; Ammons, Shalis A; Mirza, Sameer; Saleem, Irfana; Urano, Fumihiko; Band, Hamid; Band, Vimla

    2017-09-15

    Mammalian Ecdysoneless (ECD) is a highly conserved ortholog of the Drosophila Ecd gene product whose mutations impair the synthesis of Ecdysone and produce cell-autonomous survival defects, but the mechanisms by which ECD functions are largely unknown. Here we present evidence that ECD regulates the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response. ER stress induction led to a reduced ECD protein level, but this effect was not seen in PKR-like ER kinase knockout (PERK-KO) or phosphodeficient eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α (eIF2α) mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs); moreover, ECD mRNA levels were increased, suggesting impaired ECD translation as the mechanism for reduced protein levels. ECD colocalizes and coimmunoprecipitates with PERK and GRP78. ECD depletion increased the levels of both phospho-PERK (p-PERK) and p-eIF2α, and these effects were enhanced upon ER stress induction. Reciprocally, overexpression of ECD led to marked decreases in p-PERK, p-eIF2α, and ATF4 levels but robust increases in GRP78 protein levels. However, GRP78 mRNA levels were unchanged, suggesting a posttranscriptional event. Knockdown of GRP78 reversed the attenuating effect of ECD overexpression on PERK signaling. Significantly, overexpression of ECD provided a survival advantage to cells upon ER stress induction. Taken together, our data demonstrate that ECD promotes survival upon ER stress by increasing GRP78 protein levels to enhance the adaptive folding protein in the ER to attenuate PERK signaling. Copyright © 2017 Olou et al.

  14. Cryptochromes and Hormone Signal Transduction under Near-Zero Magnetic Fields: New Clues to Magnetic Field Effects in a Rice Planthopper.

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    Gui-Jun Wan

    Full Text Available Although there are considerable reports of magnetic field effects (MFE on organisms, very little is known so far about the MFE-related signal transduction pathways. Here we establish a manipulative near-zero magnetic field (NZMF to investigate the potential signal transduction pathways involved in MFE. We show that exposure of migratory white-backed planthopper, Sogatella furcifera, to the NZMF results in delayed egg and nymphal development, increased frequency of brachypterous females, and reduced longevity of macropterous female adults. To understand the changes in gene expression underlying these phenotypes, we examined the temporal patterns of gene expression of (i CRY1 and CRY2 as putative magnetosensors, (ii JHAMT, FAMeT and JHEH in the juvenile hormone pathway, (iii CYP307A1 in the ecdysone pathway, and (iv reproduction-related Vitellogenin (Vg. The significantly altered gene expression of CRY1 and CRY2 under the NZMF suggest their developmental stage-specific patterns and potential upstream location in magnetic response. Gene expression patterns of JHAMT, JHEH and CYP307A1 were consistent with the NZMF-triggered delay in nymphal development, higher proportion of brachypterous female adults, and the shortened longevity of macropterous female adults, which show feasible links between hormone signal transduction and phenotypic MFE. By conducting manipulative NZMF experiments, our study suggests an important role of the geomagnetic field (GMF in modulating development and physiology of insects, provides new insights into the complexity of MFE-magnetosensitivity interactions, and represents an initial but crucial step forward in understanding the molecular basis of cryptochromes and hormone signal transduction involved in MFE.

  15. Scavenger receptors mediate the role of SUMO and Ftz-f1 in Drosophila steroidogenesis.

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    Ana Talamillo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available SUMOylation participates in ecdysteroid biosynthesis at the onset of metamorphosis in Drosophila melanogaster. Silencing the Drosophila SUMO homologue smt3 in the prothoracic gland leads to reduced lipid content, low ecdysone titers, and a block in the larval-pupal transition. Here we show that the SR-BI family of Scavenger Receptors mediates SUMO functions. Reduced levels of Snmp1 compromise lipid uptake in the prothoracic gland. In addition, overexpression of Snmp1 is able to recover lipid droplet levels in the smt3 knockdown prothoracic gland cells. Snmp1 expression depends on Ftz-f1 (an NR5A-type orphan nuclear receptor, the expression of which, in turn, depends on SUMO. Furthermore, we show by in vitro and in vivo experiments that Ftz-f1 is SUMOylated. RNAi-mediated knockdown of ftz-f1 phenocopies that of smt3 at the larval to pupal transition, thus Ftz-f1 is an interesting candidate to mediate some of the functions of SUMO at the onset of metamorphosis. Additionally, we demonstrate that the role of SUMOylation, Ftz-f1, and the Scavenger Receptors in lipid capture and mobilization is conserved in other steroidogenic tissues such as the follicle cells of the ovary. smt3 knockdown, as well as ftz-f1 or Scavenger knockdown, depleted the lipid content of the follicle cells, which could be rescued by Snmp1 overexpression. Therefore, our data provide new insights into the regulation of metamorphosis via lipid homeostasis, showing that Drosophila Smt3, Ftz-f1, and SR-BIs are part of a general mechanism for uptake of lipids such as cholesterol, required during development in steroidogenic tissues.

  16. RNAi-mediated knockdown of SPOOK reduces ecdysteroid titers and causes precocious metamorphosis in the desert locust Schistocerca gregaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugahara, Ryohei; Tanaka, Seiji; Shiotsuki, Takahiro

    2017-09-01

    The Halloween gene SPOOK (SPO) is involved in the production of the active metabolite of ecdysteroid, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), in insects. A previous study showed that RNAi-mediated knockdown of SPO in Schistocerca gregaria last instar nymphs markedly reduced the hemolymph 20E titer, but did not affect metamorphosis. In the present study, the effects of SPO interference on development were re-examined in this locust. Injections of SPO double-stranded RNA (dsSPO) into nymphs at mid and late instars significantly delayed nymphal development and interfered with molting. The 20E levels of dsSPO-treated nymphs were generally low, with a delayed, small peak, suggesting that disturbance of the 20E levels caused the above developmental abnormalities. A small proportion of the dsSPO-injected nymphs metamorphosed precociously, producing adults and adultoids. Precocious adults were characterized by small body size, short wings with abbreviated venation, and normal reproductive activity. Fourth instar nymphs that precociously metamorphosed at the following instar exhibited temporal expression patterns of ecdysone-induced protein 93F and the juvenile hormone (JH) early-inducible gene Krüppel homolog 1 similar to those observed at the last instar in normal nymphs. Adultoids displayed mating behavior and adultoid females developed eggs, but never laid eggs. JH injection around the expected time of the 20E peak in the dsSPO-injected nymphs completely inhibited the appearance of adultoids, suggesting that appearance of adultoids might be due to a reduced titer of JH rather than of 20E. These results suggest that SPO plays an important role in controlling morphogenesis, metamorphosis, and reproduction in S. gregaria. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. 20-hydroxyecdysone enhances the expression of the chitinase 5 via Broad-Complex Zinc-Finger 4 during metamorphosis in silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X; Zheng, S

    2017-04-01

    Insect chitinases are hydrolytic enzymes required for the degradation of chitin. They are essential for insect moulting and metamorphosis. In this study, the regulation mechanism of a chitinase gene, Bombyx mori chitinase 5 (BmCHT5), was studied. Quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis showed that BmCHT5 was up-regulated during the larval-larval and larval-pupa transitions and notably induced by 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E). Analysis of the BmCHT5 promoter revealed the presence of one Bombyx mori Broad-Complex Zinc-Finger Isoform 4 (BR-C Z4), two BR-C Z2 and two ecdysone-induced protein 74A (E74A) cis-regulatory elements (CREs) that are related to 20E. qRT-PCR showed that the expression of both BmBR-C Z4 and BmBR-C Z2 during metamorphosis, and when induced by 20E, was anastomotic with the variations in BmCHT5 mRNA level. In contrast, BmE74A did not follow this trend. An electrophoretic mobility shift assay did not retrieve a binding partner for the two BR-C Z2 CREs in the BmN cell line nuclear extract, whereas BR-C Z4 CRE specifically bound to BmBR-C Z4. Besides, luciferase activity analysis confirmed that BmBR-C Z4 could enhance the activity of the BmCHT5 promoter with BR-C Z4 CRE and could not enhance the promoter activity by mutating BR-C Z4 CRE. Taken together, these data suggest that the transcription factor BmBR-C Z4 enhances the expression of BmCHT5 during metamorphosis. © 2016 The Royal Entomological Society.

  18. Expression of matrix metalloproteinase genes during basement membrane degradation in the metamorphosis of Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Hideki; Manickam, Asaithambi; Shahin, Rima; Ote, Manabu; Iwanaga, Masashi

    2018-01-05

    The present study was conducted to clarify the involvement of the basement membrane (BM) in insect metamorphosis through analysis of the expression profile of two types of metalloproteinase (MMP and ADAMTS) genes in several organs, their ecdysone involvement, and the histological change of BM. BM was observed around wing sac and in the wing cavity and around fat bodies at the W0 stage but disappeared after the W3 stage, and wing discs evaginated and fat body cells scattered after the W3 stage. The disappearance of the BM of midgut and silk glands was not observed after the W3 stage, but degenerated epithelium cells in the midgut and shrunken cells in the silk gland were observed after the W3 stage. BmMMP1 showed a peak at P0 in the wing discs, fat bodies, midgut, and silk gland. BmMMP2 showed a broad peak around pupation in the wing discs, fat bodies, midgut, and silk gland. BmADAMTS-1 showed enhanced expression at W2 in the wing discs, fat bodies, midgut, and hemocyte, while BmADAMTS-L showed enhanced expression at W3 in the fat bodies, midgut, silk gland, and hemocyte. After pupation, they showed a different expression in different organs. All of four genes were induced by 20-hydroxyecdysone in wing discs in vitro. The present results suggested the involvement of MMPs and ADAMTS in the BM digestion and the morphogenesis of organs during Bombyx metamorphosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Hormonal regulation and developmental role of Krüppel homolog 1, a repressor of metamorphosis, in the silkworm Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayukawa, Takumi; Murata, Mika; Kobayashi, Isao; Muramatsu, Daisuke; Okada, Chieko; Uchino, Keiro; Sezutsu, Hideki; Kiuchi, Makoto; Tamura, Toshiki; Hiruma, Kiyoshi; Ishikawa, Yukio; Shinoda, Tetsuro

    2014-04-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) has an ability to repress the precocious metamorphosis of insects during their larval development. Krüppel homolog 1 (Kr-h1) is an early JH-inducible gene that mediates this action of JH; however, the fine hormonal regulation of Kr-h1 and the molecular mechanism underlying its antimetamorphic effect are little understood. In this study, we attempted to elucidate the hormonal regulation and developmental role of Kr-h1. We found that the expression of Kr-h1 in the epidermis of penultimate-instar larvae of the silkworm Bombyx mori was induced by JH secreted by the corpora allata (CA), whereas the CA were not involved in the transient induction of Kr-h1 at the prepupal stage. Tissue culture experiments suggested that the transient peak of Kr-h1 at the prepupal stage is likely to be induced cooperatively by JH derived from gland(s) other than the CA and the prepupal surge of ecdysteroid, although involvement of unknown factor(s) could not be ruled out. To elucidate the developmental role of Kr-h1, we generated transgenic silkworms overexpressing Kr-h1. The transgenic silkworms grew normally until the spinning stage, but their development was arrested at the prepupal stage. The transgenic silkworms from which the CA were removed in the penultimate instar did not undergo precocious pupation or larval-larval molt but fell into prepupal arrest. This result demonstrated that Kr-h1 is indeed involved in the repression of metamorphosis but that Kr-h1 alone is incapable of implementing normal larval molt. Moreover, the expression profiles and hormonal responses of early ecdysone-inducible genes (E74, E75, and Broad) in transgenic silkworms suggested that Kr-h1 is not involved in the JH-dependent modulation of these genes, which is associated with the control of metamorphosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Survival strategies of freshwater insects in cold environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria LENCIONI

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available At high latitudes and altitudes, ice formation is a major variable affecting survival of freshwater fauna and hence the abundance and composition of invertebrate communities. Freezing, but also desiccation and anoxia, are lethal threats to all life stages of aquatic insects, from the eggs to the adults. During cold periods, the aquatic stages commonly remain in or move to a portion of the water body that will not freeze or dry (e.g., deep waters of lakes, springs and hyporheic zone where they can remain active. Less frequently they migrate to habitats that will freeze at the onset of winter. Insects have developed a complex of strategies to survive at their physiological temperature minimum, comprising (a morphological (melanism, reduction in size, hairiness/pubescence, brachyptery and aptery, (b behavioural (basking in the sun, changes in feeding and mating habit, parthenogenesis, polyploidy, ovoviviparity, habitat selection and cocoon building, (c ecological (extension of development to several years by quiescence or diapause and reduction of the number of generations per year, (d physiological and biochemical (freezing tolerance and freezing avoidance adaptations. Most species develop a combination of these survival strategies that can be different in the aquatic and terrestrial phase. Freezing avoidance and freezing tolerance may be accompanied by diapause. Both cold hardiness and diapause manifest during the unfavourable season and: (i involve storage of food resources (commonly glycogen and lipids; (ii are under hormonal control (ecdysone and juvenile hormone; (iii involve a depression or suppression of the oxidative metabolism with mitochondrial degradation. However, where the growing season is reduced to a few weeks, insects may develop cold hardiness without entering diapause, maintaining in the haemolymph a high concentration of Thermal Hysteris Proteins (THPs for the entire year and a slow but continuous growth. A synthesis of

  1. The BPA-substitute bisphenol S alters the transcription of genes related to endocrine, stress response and biotransformation pathways in the aquatic midge Chironomus riparius (Diptera, Chironomidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Óscar Herrero

    Full Text Available Bisphenol S (BPS is an industrial alternative to the endocrine disruptor bisphenol A (BPA, and can be found in many products labeled "BPA-free". Its use has grown in recent years, and presently it is considered a ubiquitous emerging pollutant. To date there is a lack of information on the effects of BPS on invertebrates, although they represent more than 95% of known species in the animal kingdom and are crucial for the structure and proper function of ecosystems. In this study, real-time RT-PCR was used to determine the early detrimental effects of BPS on the transcriptional rate of genes in the model species Chironomus riparius, specifically those related to the ecdysone pathway (EcR, ERR, E74, Vtg, cyp18a1 crucial for insect development and metamorphosis, stress and biotransformation mechanisms (hsp70, hsp40, cyp4g, GPx, GSTd3 that regulate adaptive responses and determine survival, and ribosome biogenesis (its2, rpL4, rpL13 which is essential for protein synthesis and homeostasis. While 24-hour exposure to 0.5, 5, 50, and 500 μg/L BPS had no effect on larval survival, almost all the studied genes were upregulated following a non-monotonic dose-response curve. Genes with the greatest increases in transcriptional activity (fold change relative to control were EcR (3.8, ERR (2, E74 (2.4, cyp18a1 (2.5, hsp70 (1.7, hsp40 (2.5, cyp4g (6.4, GPx (1.8, and GST (2.1, while others including Vtg, GAPDH, and selected ribosomal genes remained stable. We also measured the transcriptional activity of these genes 24 hours after BPS withdrawal and a general downregulation compared to controls was observed, though not significant in most cases. Our findings showed that BPS exposure altered the transcriptional profile of these genes, which may have consequences for the hormone system and several metabolic pathways. Although further research is needed to elucidate its mode of action, these results raise new concerns about the safety of BPA alternatives.

  2. Nuclear import of transcription factor BR-C is mediated by its interaction with RACK1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Daojun; Qian, Wenliang; Wang, Yonghu; Meng, Meng; Wei, Ling; Li, Zhiqing; Kang, Lixia; Peng, Jian; Xia, Qingyou

    2014-01-01

    The transcription factor Broad Complex (BR-C) is an early ecdysone response gene in insects and contains two types of domains: two zinc finger domains for the activation of gene transcription and a Bric-a-brac/Tramtrack/Broad complex (BTB) domain for protein-protein interaction. Although the mechanism of zinc finger-mediated gene transcription is well studied, the partners interacting with the BTB domain of BR-C has not been elucidated until now. Here, we performed a yeast two-hybrid screen using the BTB domain of silkworm BR-C as bait and identified the receptor for activated C-kinase 1 (RACK1), a scaffolding/anchoring protein, as the novel partner capable of interacting with BR-C. The interaction between BR-C and RACK1 was further confirmed by far-western blotting and pull-down assays. Importantly, the disruption of this interaction, via RNAi against the endogenous RACK1 gene or deletion of the BTB domain, abolished the nuclear import of BR-C in BmN4 cells. In addition, RNAi against the endogenous PKC gene as well as phosphorylation-deficient mutation of the predicted PKC phosphorylation sites at either Ser373 or Thr406 in BR-C phenocopied RACK1 RNAi and altered the nuclear localization of BR-C. However, when BTB domain was deleted, phosphorylation mimics of either Ser373 or Thr406 had no effect on the nuclear import of BR-C. Moreover, mutating the PKC phosphorylation sites at Ser373 and Thr406 or deleting the BTB domain significantly decreased the transcriptional activation of a BR-C target gene. Given that RACK1 is necessary for recruiting PKC to close and phosphorylate target proteins, we suggest that the PKC-mediated phosphorylation and nuclear import of BR-C is determined by its interaction with RACK1. This novel finding will be helpful for further deciphering the mechanism underlying the role of BR-C proteins during insect development.

  3. The BPA-substitute bisphenol S alters the transcription of genes related to endocrine, stress response and biotransformation pathways in the aquatic midge Chironomus riparius (Diptera, Chironomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, Óscar; Aquilino, Mónica; Sánchez-Argüello, Paloma; Planelló, Rosario

    2018-01-01

    Bisphenol S (BPS) is an industrial alternative to the endocrine disruptor bisphenol A (BPA), and can be found in many products labeled "BPA-free". Its use has grown in recent years, and presently it is considered a ubiquitous emerging pollutant. To date there is a lack of information on the effects of BPS on invertebrates, although they represent more than 95% of known species in the animal kingdom and are crucial for the structure and proper function of ecosystems. In this study, real-time RT-PCR was used to determine the early detrimental effects of BPS on the transcriptional rate of genes in the model species Chironomus riparius, specifically those related to the ecdysone pathway (EcR, ERR, E74, Vtg, cyp18a1) crucial for insect development and metamorphosis, stress and biotransformation mechanisms (hsp70, hsp40, cyp4g, GPx, GSTd3) that regulate adaptive responses and determine survival, and ribosome biogenesis (its2, rpL4, rpL13) which is essential for protein synthesis and homeostasis. While 24-hour exposure to 0.5, 5, 50, and 500 μg/L BPS had no effect on larval survival, almost all the studied genes were upregulated following a non-monotonic dose-response curve. Genes with the greatest increases in transcriptional activity (fold change relative to control) were EcR (3.8), ERR (2), E74 (2.4), cyp18a1 (2.5), hsp70 (1.7), hsp40 (2.5), cyp4g (6.4), GPx (1.8), and GST (2.1), while others including Vtg, GAPDH, and selected ribosomal genes remained stable. We also measured the transcriptional activity of these genes 24 hours after BPS withdrawal and a general downregulation compared to controls was observed, though not significant in most cases. Our findings showed that BPS exposure altered the transcriptional profile of these genes, which may have consequences for the hormone system and several metabolic pathways. Although further research is needed to elucidate its mode of action, these results raise new concerns about the safety of BPA alternatives.

  4. Effects of insect growth regulators on the nontarget soil arthropod Folsomia candida (Collembola).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campiche, S; Becker-van Slooten, K; Ridreau, C; Tarradellas, J

    2006-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of several insect growth regulators (IGRs) on the nontarget soil arthropod Folsomia candida (Collembola). The survival and reproduction rates of F. candida were evaluated after 28 days of exposure to six IGRs (methoprene, fenoxycarb, precocene II, tebufenozide, hexaflumuron and teflubenzuron) and to one herbicide (diuron) in artificial soil. The differences in the sensitivity of F. candida to these different substances are high. The chitin synthesis inhibitors teflubenzuron and hexaflumuron were the most toxic compounds with an EC50 of 0.05 mg/kg (dry weight) for teflubenzuron and an EC50 of 0.6mg/kg for hexaflumuron. Teflubenzuron is toxic for F. candida at concentrations that are probably close to environmental levels of this insecticide. Inhibition of reproduction is strongly related to adult survival for the juvenile hormone agonist methoprene and for the antijuvenile hormone precocene II, with an EC50 of 173 mg/kg and a LC50 of 178mg/kg for methoprene and an EC50 of 15 mg/kg and a LC50 of 26 mg/kg for precocene II. Fenoxycarb, another juvenile hormone analog, showed a dose-response curve for mortality different from that of methoprene; at concentrations such as 3052 mg/kg no effect on adult survival was observed. However, the EC50 value of 113mg/kg is of the same order of magnitude as that obtained for methoprene. A test with compressed soil contaminated with fenoxycarb was conducted to observe parameters such as numbers of eggs laid and juveniles hatched. No differences were observed between these two endpoints for fenoxycarb. An EC50 of 109 mg/kg was obtained for the ecdysone agonist tebufenozide. The herbicide diuron showed a relatively high toxicity for F. candida with an EC50 of 20 mg/kg. Our results show that some of the tested IGRs can have effects on Collembola at environmentally relevant concentrations (toxicity/exposure ratios diuron).

  5. A burst of ABC genes in the genome of the polyphagous spider mite Tetranychus urticae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermauw, Wannes; Osborne, Edward John; Clark, Richard M; Grbić, Miodrag; Tirry, Luc; Van Leeuwen, Thomas

    2013-05-10

    The ABC (ATP-binding cassette) gene superfamily is widespread across all living species. The majority of ABC genes encode ABC transporters, which are membrane-spanning proteins capable of transferring substrates across biological membranes by hydrolyzing ATP. Although ABC transporters have often been associated with resistance to drugs and toxic compounds, within the Arthropoda ABC gene families have only been characterized in detail in several insects and a crustacean. In this study, we report a genome-wide survey and expression analysis of the ABC gene superfamily in the spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, a chelicerate ~ 450 million years diverged from other Arthropod lineages. T. urticae is a major agricultural pest, and is among of the most polyphagous arthropod herbivores known. The species resists a staggering array of toxic plant secondary metabolites, and has developed resistance to all major classes of pesticides in use for its control. We identified 103 ABC genes in the T. urticae genome, the highest number discovered in a metazoan species to date. Within the T. urticae ABC gene set, all members of the eight currently described subfamilies (A to H) were detected. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that the high number of ABC genes in T. urticae is due primarily to lineage-specific expansions of ABC genes within the ABCC, ABCG and ABCH subfamilies. In particular, the ABCC subfamily harbors the highest number of T. urticae ABC genes (39). In a comparative genomic analysis, we found clear orthologous relationships between a subset of T. urticae ABC proteins and ABC proteins in both vertebrates and invertebrates known to be involved in fundamental cellular processes. These included members of the ABCB-half transporters, and the ABCD, ABCE and ABCF families. Furthermore, one-to-one orthologues could be distinguished between T. urticae proteins and human ABCC10, ABCG5 and ABCG8, the Drosophila melanogaster sulfonylurea receptor and ecdysone-regulated transporter E

  6. Nuclear import of transcription factor BR-C is mediated by its interaction with RACK1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daojun Cheng

    Full Text Available The transcription factor Broad Complex (BR-C is an early ecdysone response gene in insects and contains two types of domains: two zinc finger domains for the activation of gene transcription and a Bric-a-brac/Tramtrack/Broad complex (BTB domain for protein-protein interaction. Although the mechanism of zinc finger-mediated gene transcription is well studied, the partners interacting with the BTB domain of BR-C has not been elucidated until now. Here, we performed a yeast two-hybrid screen using the BTB domain of silkworm BR-C as bait and identified the receptor for activated C-kinase 1 (RACK1, a scaffolding/anchoring protein, as the novel partner capable of interacting with BR-C. The interaction between BR-C and RACK1 was further confirmed by far-western blotting and pull-down assays. Importantly, the disruption of this interaction, via RNAi against the endogenous RACK1 gene or deletion of the BTB domain, abolished the nuclear import of BR-C in BmN4 cells. In addition, RNAi against the endogenous PKC gene as well as phosphorylation-deficient mutation of the predicted PKC phosphorylation sites at either Ser373 or Thr406 in BR-C phenocopied RACK1 RNAi and altered the nuclear localization of BR-C. However, when BTB domain was deleted, phosphorylation mimics of either Ser373 or Thr406 had no effect on the nuclear import of BR-C. Moreover, mutating the PKC phosphorylation sites at Ser373 and Thr406 or deleting the BTB domain significantly decreased the transcriptional activation of a BR-C target gene. Given that RACK1 is necessary for recruiting PKC to close and phosphorylate target proteins, we suggest that the PKC-mediated phosphorylation and nuclear import of BR-C is determined by its interaction with RACK1. This novel finding will be helpful for further deciphering the mechanism underlying the role of BR-C proteins during insect development.

  7. The effects of binary UV filter mixtures on the midge Chironomus riparius

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozáez, Irene; Morcillo, Gloria; Martínez-Guitarte, José-Luis

    2016-01-01

    Organic ultraviolet (UV) filters are used in a wide variety of products, including cosmetics, to prevent damage from UV light in tissues and industrial materials. Their extensive use has raised concerns about potential adverse effects in human health and aquatic ecosystems that accumulate these pollutants. To increase sun radiation protection, UV filters are commonly used in mixtures. Here, we studied the toxicity of binary mixtures of 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4MBC), octyl-methoxycinnamate (OMC), and benzophenone-3 (BP-3), by evaluating the larval mortality of Chironomus riparius. Also molecular endpoints have been analyzed, including alterations in the expression levels of a gene related with the endocrine system (EcR, ecdysone receptor) and a gene related with the stress response (hsp70, heat shock protein 70). The results showed that the mortality caused by binary mixtures was similar to that observed for each compound alone; however, some differences in LC50 were observed between groups. Gene expression analysis showed that EcR mRNA levels increased in the presence of 0.1 mg/L 4MBC but returned to normal levels after exposure to mixtures of 4MBC with 0.1, 1, and 10 mg/L of BP-3 or OMC. In contrast, the hsp70 mRNA levels increased after exposure to the combinations tested of 4MBC and BP-3 or OMC mixtures. These data suggest that 4MBC, BP-3, and OMC may have antagonist effects on EcR gene transcription and a synergistic effect on hsp70 gene activation. This is the first experimental study to show the complex patterned effects of UV filter mixtures on invertebrates. The data suggest that the interactions within these chemicals mixtures are complex and show diverse effects on various endpoints. - Highlights: • Chironomus riparius is sensitive to UV filter binary mixtures. • UV filters binary mixtures show antagonism on survival of 4th instar larvae. • BP-3 and OMC antagonize the stimulatory effect of 4MBC on EcR gene. • 4MBC, OMC, and BP-3 induce hsp70

  8. The effects of binary UV filter mixtures on the midge Chironomus riparius

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozáez, Irene; Morcillo, Gloria; Martínez-Guitarte, José-Luis, E-mail: jlmartinez@ccia.uned.es

    2016-06-15

    Organic ultraviolet (UV) filters are used in a wide variety of products, including cosmetics, to prevent damage from UV light in tissues and industrial materials. Their extensive use has raised concerns about potential adverse effects in human health and aquatic ecosystems that accumulate these pollutants. To increase sun radiation protection, UV filters are commonly used in mixtures. Here, we studied the toxicity of binary mixtures of 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4MBC), octyl-methoxycinnamate (OMC), and benzophenone-3 (BP-3), by evaluating the larval mortality of Chironomus riparius. Also molecular endpoints have been analyzed, including alterations in the expression levels of a gene related with the endocrine system (EcR, ecdysone receptor) and a gene related with the stress response (hsp70, heat shock protein 70). The results showed that the mortality caused by binary mixtures was similar to that observed for each compound alone; however, some differences in LC50 were observed between groups. Gene expression analysis showed that EcR mRNA levels increased in the presence of 0.1 mg/L 4MBC but returned to normal levels after exposure to mixtures of 4MBC with 0.1, 1, and 10 mg/L of BP-3 or OMC. In contrast, the hsp70 mRNA levels increased after exposure to the combinations tested of 4MBC and BP-3 or OMC mixtures. These data suggest that 4MBC, BP-3, and OMC may have antagonist effects on EcR gene transcription and a synergistic effect on hsp70 gene activation. This is the first experimental study to show the complex patterned effects of UV filter mixtures on invertebrates. The data suggest that the interactions within these chemicals mixtures are complex and show diverse effects on various endpoints. - Highlights: • Chironomus riparius is sensitive to UV filter binary mixtures. • UV filters binary mixtures show antagonism on survival of 4th instar larvae. • BP-3 and OMC antagonize the stimulatory effect of 4MBC on EcR gene. • 4MBC, OMC, and BP-3 induce hsp70

  9. N-acetyltransferase (nat) is a critical conjunct of photoperiodism between the circadian system and endocrine axis in Antheraea pernyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Ahmed A M; Wang, Qiushi; Bembenek, Jadwiga; Ichihara, Naoyuki; Hiragaki, Susumu; Suzuki, Takeshi; Takeda, Makio

    2014-01-01

    Since its discovery in 1923, the biology of photoperiodism remains a mystery in many ways. We sought the link connecting the circadian system to an endocrine switch, using Antheraea pernyi. PER-, CLK- and CYC-ir were co-expressed in two pairs of dorsolateral neurons of the protocerebrum, suggesting that these are the circadian neurons that also express melatonin-, NAT- and HIOMT-ir. The results suggest that a melatonin pathway is present in the circadian neurons. Melatonin receptor (MT2 or MEL-1B-R)-ir in PTTH-ir neurons juxtaposing clock neurons suggests that melatonin gates PTTH release. RIA showed a melatonin rhythm with a peak four hours after lights off in adult brain both under LD16:8 (LD) and LD12:12 (SD), and both the peak and the baseline levels were higher under LD than SD, suggesting a photoperiodic influence. When pupae in diapause were exposed to 10 cycles of LD, or stored at 4 °C for 4 months under constant darkness, an increase of NAT activity was observed when PTTH released ecdysone. DNA sequence upstream of nat contained E-boxes to which CYC/CLK could bind, and nat transcription was turned off by clk or cyc dsRNA. dsRNA(NAT) caused dysfunction of photoperiodism. dsRNA(PER) upregulated nat transcription as anticipated, based on findings in the Drosophila melanogaster circadian system. Transcription of nat, cyc and clk peaked at ZT12. RIA showed that dsRNA(NAT) decreased melatonin while dsRNA(PER) increased melatonin. Thus nat, a clock controlled gene, is the critical link between the circadian clock and endocrine switch. MT-binding may release PTTH, resulting in termination of diapause. This study thus examined all of the basic functional units from the clock: a photoperiodic counter as an accumulator of mRNA(NAT), to endocrine switch for photoperiodism in A. pernyi showing this system is self-complete without additional device especially for photoperiodism.